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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
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Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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chemical engineering education


VOLUME XV


NUMBER 4


FALL 1981


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE


Reeatc hac on ...

CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS .. Abbott

CATALYSIS/CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING But, Kung

PARAMETRIC PUMPING Chen, Kerobo, Holliln, Huang

MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS/COMPUTER SIMULATION Gubbins, Street

COAL LIQUEFACTION AND DESULFURIZATION
Guin, Liu, Curtis, Tarrar, Williams


OIL SHALE TAR REACTIONS


Coamaej in ...

KINETICS AND CATALYSIS .

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

UNDERGROUND PROCESSING

POLYMER PROCESSING .

SEPARATION PROCESSES .
HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS


SThomson



S Bartholomew

. Hauler

. Miller

. Soong

W nk

. Wolf


THE DOLPHIN PROBLEM Levenspiel
HEAT EXCHANGER: THE AGONY AND THE ECSTASY Barrar
ARIS REVIEWS OMNIBOOK




egCC
achoa/wea d < and fth ank....








3M COMPANY








CHEMICAL BIGINENG EDUCATION
iha d onationbaw o id












A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS

As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school. In this issue CEE attempts to
assist you in finding answers to them and reports on a survey of industrial needs for Ph.D.'s.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in
your growth toward confidence, independence,
and maturity.

Is there a need for Ph.D.'s in ChE?
Yes, definitely. A survey conducted by CEE of
ten leading companies indicated that while during
1980-81 they had combined needs for 220 chemi-
cal engineering Ph.D.'s, they were only able to
hire 143. Most companies also indicated that their
1981-82 needs will be as great. In addition, it is
well known that there has been for several years
a great need for additional professors in chemical
engineering departments-a position for which
a Ph.D. is required.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in pre-
vious years. If your department chairman or pro-
fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge.

What is the nature of graduate research?
In an effort to acquaint you with some of the


areas of research in chemical engineering, we are
also publishing articles on the research of certain
faculty members. These articles, as well as those
on course work, are only intended to provide
examples of graduate research and course work.
The professors who have written them are by
no means the only authorities in those fields, nor
are their departments the only departments which
emphasize that area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden him-
self by doing graduate work at an institution
other than the one from which he receives his
bachelor's degree. Fortunately there are many fine
chemical engineering departments and each of
these has its own "personality" with special em-
phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in
choosing a graduate school you might first con-
sider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If
you have a specific research project in mind, you
might want to attend a university which empha-
sizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if
you are unsure of your field of research, you might
consider a department that has a large faculty
with widely diversified interests so as to ensure
for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department
with a small enrollment of graduate students. In
any case, we suggest that you begin by writing
the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue.
You will probably also wish to seek advice from
members of the faculty at your own school.
But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.
Sincerely,
RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


FALL 1981







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While this organization encompasses the full
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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Editorial & Business Assistant:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Past Chairman:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Ralph W. Pike
Louisiana State University
James Fair
University of Texas
Gary Poehlezn
Georgia Tech
CENTRAL:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Lowell B. Koppel
Purdue University
WEST:
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
William B. Krantz
University of Colorado
C. Judson King
University of California Berkeley
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
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NORTHWEST:
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University of Washington
CANADA:
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McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education


VOLUME XV


NUMBER 4


FALL 1981


RESEARCH ON
156 Classical Thermodynamics, Michael M. Abbott
160 Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering,
John B. Butt, Harold H. Kung
166 Parametric Pumping, H. T. Chen, C. O. Kerobo,
H. C. Hollein, C. R. Huang
172 Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer
Simulation, Keith E. Gubbins, William B. Street
178 Coal Liquefaction and Desulfurization, J. A. Guin,
Y. A. Liu, C. W. Curtis, A. R. Tarrar,
D. C. Williams
184 Oil Shale Char Reactions, William J. Thomson

COURSES IN
188 Kinetics and Catalysis, C. A. Bartholomew
192 Chemical Engineering Analysis, John C. Hassler
198 Underground Processing, Clarence A. Miller
204 Polymer Processing, David S. Soong
208 Separation Processes, Phillip C. Wankat
214 Heterogeneous Catalysis, Eduardo E. Wolf

DEPARTMENTS
220 Class and Home Problems
The Dolphin Problem, Octave Levenspiel

153 Editorial
171, 222 In Memoriam
Hung Tsung Chen, Herbert E. Schweyer
197 Positions Available
207 Stirred Pots Ellen Barrar
222 Index
186,219 Book Reviews


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright ) 1981 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


FALL 1981












CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS

CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS


MICHAEL M. ABBOTT
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY 12181

RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING thermo-
dynamics is often inspired by the practical
importance of vapor/liquid equilibrium (VLE).
This is certainly true at Rensselaer, where we
specialize in VLE data collection and correlation
for systems at low to moderate pressures. Since
experiment is necessarily conditioned by theory,
we first consider the relevant thermodynamic equa-
tions.

LOW-PRESSURE VLE AND
EXCESS FUNCTIONS
As shown in numerous textbooks, VLE in a
system of uniform T and P requires uniformity of
A
the component fugacity fi of each distributed
species:
A A
f I = fv (1)

This notorious equation, while suitably general, is
not especially useful as it stands. In particular,
one wishes to display explicitly the compositions
x, and yi of the phases. We do this by definition,
through one or the other of two secondary quanti-
A
ties: the component fugacity coefficient i1, or the
activity coefficient yi.
The conventional description of low-pressure
VLE treats the liquid phase through activity co-
efficients, and the vapor phase through fugacity
coefficients. Introducing these quantities, we re-
write Eq. (1) as
A
xiyif = yi4ip (2)
Here, fi is the standard-state fugacity of species


Our research program ... initiated
by H. C. Van Ness, is an effort of
some 25 years' standing.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


i as a liquid, and all quantities are evaluated at
the system T and P. The fugacity coefficients are
determined from an equation of state for the
vapor phase, and the activity coefficients are de-
rived from an expression for the excess Gibbs
function GE for the liquid mixtures. For obvious
reasons, we describe formulations based on Eq.
(2) as "gamma/phi" approaches. ["Gamma/
gamma" and "phi/phi" approaches are also used
for two-phase equilibria, the former for liquid/
liquid equilibria (LLE), and the latter for VLE
at high pressures.]
Equation (2) applies for both subcritical and
supercritical species, provided that appropriate
interpretations are put on yi and fi. When all
species in a system are subcritical, the state of
pure liquid is accessible for all i, and it is conven-
tional to eliminate each fi in favor of the vapor/
liquid saturation pressure Pisat of pure i. More-
over, convenience dictates the referral of each
activity coefficient to a fixed reference tempera-
ture T+ and pressure P+. Consistent with these re-
quirements, we may write Eq. (2) in the equiva-
lent form [1]


Xiy 1P sat = ylQIiP


(3a)


where the correction factor Di (a quantity of
order unity) is defined as


A
0i


Here, function Ii depends on liquid properties
only, specifically, on the molar volume of pure i,
and on the partial molar excess functions Hi and
ViE.
Equations (3) find two distinct but comple-
mentary uses: in the reduction of VLE data, the
goal of which is to provide correlations for GE, and
in the computation of VLE, which requires the
availability of appropriate numerical expressions
for GE. In either case, the connection between the
activity coefficient and the excess Gibbs function is
made through the partial-property relationship

yi = exp(GiE/RT) (4)


(3b)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Equation (4) in effect establishes the composition
dependence of GE through reduction of VLE data;
the T and P dependencies are related to HE (the
"heat of mixing") and VE (the "volume change
of mixing") :

HE = GET G (5)
aT
aGE
VE- G (6)
zP
In principle, the T dependence of GE can be de-
termined by analysis of isothermal VLE data
taken at several different temperatures; in
practice, it is far more easily established through
Eq. (5), by use of a single set of isothermal VLE
data and one or more directly measured sets of
data for HE. The volume change of mixing is small
for liquids at low pressure levels and is easily
measured; the correspondingly small effect of P
on GE is always determined through Eq. (6).

DATA COLLECTION AND REDUCTION
O UR RESEARCH PROGRAM IN thermodynamics,
initiated by H. C. Van Ness, is an effort of
some 25 years' standing. The thermodynamics is
"classical," and largely centers on the exploitation
of Eqs. (3) through (5) ; that is, on the measure-
ment, reduction, and correlation of low-pressure
VLE data and of the excess functions, particularly
GE and HE. The immediate goals of our research
are severalfold:
To derive and expose the classical thermodynamic
theory relating measurable variables to functions
of practical interest.
To develop the tools (equations of state and ex-
pressions for the excess functions) required for
implementation of technical thermodynamic calcula-
tions.
To devise experimental methods that are as accurate,
quick, and "technique-proof" as possible, and to
demonstrate their feasibility.
To produce high-quality data suitable for formula-
tion and testing of theories of solutions.
We regard the last two items as particularly sig-
nificant, and consider them in the following para-
graphs.
Apart from a few special techniques, VLE
data at low pressures (ca. 1 bar or less) are mainly
collected on one of two types of apparatus: dy-
namic circulation stills, and static equilibrium
cells. Because of their simple construction and
ease of operation, we favor the use of static cells.
By this technique, a liquid mixture is charged to


Michael M. Abbott is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
at R.P.I., where he has worked since 1969. Prior to that, he was
employed by Esso Research and Engineering. In his research, he
collaborates with H. C. Van Ness on work described in this paper.
His teaching interests are mainly in the thermal sciences and in chemi-
cal process design.

an evacuated cell immersed in a constant-tempera-
ture bath. Equilibration of the phases is brought
about by stirring, and the equilibrium pressure
is read from a high-precision gauge. In an older
design [2], we determined liquid compositions
gravimetrically; with our present equipment [3],
liquids are metered into the cell with calibrated
piston-injectors.
There are two potential problems associated
with static cells: possible errors in measured
pressures because of incomplete degassing of the
liquids before charging, and errors arising from
disturbance of the equilibrium state on withdraw-
ing vapor samples for analysis. We have solved the
first problem by a novel distillation technique
[4]. The second problem is in fact avoidable be-
cause, if an accurate equation of state is available
for the vapor phase (the usual case for low-
pressure VLE), then the vapor compositions
actually represent redundant information. Thus
we measure only P and x, and reduce the data
either by integration of the coexistence equation
[2, 5], or by applying a technique known as
Barker's method [6, 7]. Barker's method presumes
the availability of an expression for GE of sufficient
flexibility to represent the P-x data to within their
precision, and of an efficient computer program
for nonlinear regression. We have built up a
library of such equations and programs, and re-
duction of our VLE data is now normally straight-
forward: we can collect and correlate (via an ex-
pression for GE) VLE data for a binary system
in two to three days, an exercise that at one time
constituted half the effort for a Master's degree.


FALL 1981










It was once hoped ... that thermodynamic
properties of mixtures could somehow be estimated
from properties of the constituent pure species.
This hope has been abandoned and replaced
with a more realistic goal.


Next to GE, the liquid-phase excess function
of major interest is HE, for, by Eq. (5), it es-
tablishes the often significant effect of T on GE, and
is an indispensable tool for computation of isobaric
VLE from isothermal VLE measurements [1].
Moreover, knowing both GE and HE, one can com-
pute the excess entropy and the entropy change of
mixing, quantities of importance to solution
theorists:
SE = (HE GE/T (7)
AS = SE RZxiln xi (8)
We measure HE by isothermal dilution calori-
metry, a technique in which amounts of a com-
ponent (or solution) are successively injected into
a vessel containing another component (or solu-
tion), sufficient amounts of heat being added or
extracted in the meantime so as to keep the
contents of the vessel at constant temperature.
The quantitative transfer of heat under these
conditions is an extremely exacting task, subject
to some fairly subtle sources of error, and the
measurement of heats of mixing is thus inherently
more difficult than the taking of isothermal VLE
data. On the other hand, the reduction of the
calorimetric data is trivial-unlike the reduction
of VLE data-because the quantity measured is
directly related to the quantity sought.
Our dilution calorimeters have gone through
several stages of development. The prototype de-
vice of Mrazek and Van Ness [8] demonstrated
the suitability of the technique for producing
high-quality data on endothermic systems, quickly
and with a minimum of effort. The second- and
third-generation designs [9, 10], which followed
closely upon one another, incorporated (then)
state-of-the-art electronics and circuitry, and ac-
commodated exothermic as well as endothermic
systems. These devices have been widely copied
and are thus, directly or indirectly, the source
of many of the world's published heat-of-mixing
data. Inevitably, the most recent electronics revo-
lution has caught up with us, and we recently
[11] constructed and tested a fourth-generation
calorimeter, incorporating the latest in solid-state


microcircuitry. A photograph of the new device
is shown in Figure 1.
As already noted, thermodynamics at R. P. I.
is of the classical variety, directed mainly at the
measurement and empirical description of macro-
scopic properties of solutions. We endeavor, how-
ever, to keep abreast of developments in molecular
thermodynamics, and the tone of our experimental
program reflects and complements trends in this
area. It was once hoped, for example, that thermo-
dynamic properties of mixtures could somehow be
estimated from properties of the constituent pure



I zI


FIGURE 1. The fourth-generation heat-of-mixing calori-
meter.
species. This hope has been abandoned and re-
placed by a more realistic goal: that of predicting
properties of multicomponent mixtures from those
of the constituent binaries, either through models
for GE based on the "local composition" concept
[12, 13, 14], or by "group contribution" techniques
[15, 16]. For such approaches, binary data form the
data base, but multicomponent data are required
for testing and fine-tuning the correlations. The
simplest multicomponent system contains three
chemical species, and thus for the past eight years
we have conducted a program of collecting precise
VLE and HE data for ternary systems and their
constituent binaries. This program is still in pro-
gress. O

REFERENCES
1. Van Ness, H. C., and M. M. Abbott, "Classical
Thermodynamics of Nonelectrolyte Solutions, With
Applications to Phase Equilibria," Ch. 6, McGraw-
Hill, New York (1982).
2. Ljunglin, J. J., and H. C. Van Ness, Chem. Eng. Sci.,
Continued on page 217.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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Research on


CATALYSIS AND

CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING


JOHN B. BUTT AND HAROLD H. KUNG
Northwestern University
Evanston, IL 60201

C ATALYSIS IS A KEY PROCESS in a large share of
the chemical industry and in an even larger
share of the petroleum industry. In addition, im-
portant applications of catalysis are found in en-
vironmental areas, in the pharmaceutical industry,
and in agriculture via fertilizers. Since most
chemical reactions which proceed merely upon
mixing and heating must already have been dis-
covered, the technological importance of catalysis
can only increase with time. Both homogeneous
and heterogeneous catalysis are involved in techno-
logically important processes and it is unlikely
that this situation will change. Each type of
catalysis has its advantages; however, hetero-
geneous catalysis is particularly advantageous in
the important case of large volume operations.
Research in catalysis encompasses a wide
variety of aspects. One is concerned with the basic
chemistry of the catalyst and of the catalytic re-
action, with the kinetics of the reaction, with its
mechanism and the nature of the adsorbed species
which are intermediates in the mechanism, and the
exact structure of the solid catalyst. One is also
concerned with the catalytic reaction engineering
associated with transport effects, reactor design,
catalyst design, and other factors of importance
in technological application. At the other end of
the scale, the relatively new area of surface
chemical physics, which is concerned with the
nature of single crystal surfaces, their interaction
with molecules from the gas phase, and now in-
creasingly with the reactions of adsorbed species
at single crystal planes, is making an ever increas-
ing contribution to the understanding of hetero-
geneous catalysis.
An important result of these very different
aspects of heterogeneous catalysis is that it has
now necessarily become an interdisciplinary area
of research. It is not easy for one person to master

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


John Butt received his B.S. from Clemson University and D.Eng
from Yale. He is a recipient of the Colburn and Professional Progress
Awards from AIChE, and currently is Walter P. Murphy Professor of
Chemical Engineering at Northwestern. (L)
H. Kung received his B.S. from the University of Wisconsin,
Madison, and his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. After a brief stay
at the DuPont Chemical Company as a research scientist, he joined the
Chemical Engineering Department of Northwestern in 1976 where
he is currently associate professor. (R)


the techniques of proper measurement of catalytic
kinetics, methodology of isotopic tracer studies,
handling the rather complicated organic molecules
involved in many catalytic processes, knowledge of
coordination chemistry and organometallic chemis-
try needed to understand reactions at the surfaces
of catalysts, the many techniques of physical
characterization, the methods and interpretation
of electron spectroscopies-and at the same time
be able to master the theory of diffusion and re-
action and be expert in reactor design. Thus while
a very central component of catalysis research at
Northwestern is located in the Chemical Engineer-
ing Department, it will be seen below that sub-
stantial interactions with two other departments
(Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineer-
ing) are involved in the overall program.

CATALYSIS LAB FACILITIES
CURRENTLY IN OUR DEPARTMENT, the effort in
catalysis research involves three post-doctoral
fellows, fifteen Ph.D. students, and four M.S.
students. These students are engaged in over ten


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








different projects which include studies on
different types of catalysts, as well as studies on
various types of reactions such as hydrogenation,
hydrogenolysis, isomerization, Fischer-Tropsch
synthesis, methanol synthesis, selective oxidation,
total oxidation, and deactivation. In most of the
projects, the objective is to search for funda-
mental chemical principles that govern the cata-
lytic reaction. One particular emphasis being
pursued is to relate the morphology and the com-
position of a catalyst to the kinetics and the
product selectivity of various reactions as well as
to the poisoning resistance characteristics. In
order to accomplish the above objective, it is
necessary to fully characterize the catalysts
chemically and physically. Chemical characteriza-
tion involves the study of reduction, oxidation, and
carefully chosen catalytic probe reactions. Physi-
cal characterization involves measurements of bulk
and surface morphology and composition. There-
fore, as stated above, we attack this combined
material and chemical science problem by ap-
propriate collaboration with faculty in the Ma-
terials Science and Engineering and Chemistry
Departments. Another feature is that we recog-
nize the importance and need to characterize the
catalysts under practical reaction conditions. Thus
as far as possible, spectroscopies capable of in situ
measurements are used. Currently these include
primarily x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectro-
scopy. Finally, whenever appropriate, the re-
actions are conducted at elevated pressures.
In other cases where in situ spectroscopic
measurements cannot be conveniently performed,
the catalysts are routinely characterized by various
techniques such as BET surface area measure-
ments, selective chemisorption, temperature pro-
grammed reduction, temperature programmed de-
sorption, and x-ray diffraction. Whenever ap-
propriate, they are also studied with M6ssbauer
spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low
energy electron diffraction, and transmission
electron microscopy. While a large number of these
techniques are available in our Department and
many are dedicated to the projects involved, we
also make heavy use of the Materials Science
facilities of the Northwestern Materials Research
Center, and the analytical facility of the Chemis-
try Department. The three Materials Science
facilities most often used are the x-ray facility,
the M6ssbauer facility, and the electron micro-
scopy facility. The x-ray facility houses more than
ten x-ray diffractometers all of which are slaved


to microcomputers. For high intensity measure-
ments there are two rotating anode x-ray sources,
and we have also made use of the Cornell syn-
chrotron center in recent research. In addition to
obtaining the detailed structural information on
metallic catalysts that will be discussed later, the
x-ray facility is routinely used for particle size
determination, single crystal alignment, and struc-
tural identification from diffraction patterns. The
Mossbauer facility is used primarily to character-
ize supported iron, iron alloy, iron carbide and
nitride catalysts. It houses two spectrometers. The
electron microscope facility is used primarily to
characterize supported metal and supported oxide
catalysts by transmission electron microscopy both
in the bright field and the dark field modes.
The Chemistry analytical facilities are being
used currently mostly for the analytical aspects of
catalyst preparation. It houses a wide variety of
spectrometers such as infrared, Fourier trans-
formed infrared, UV-visible, NMR, GC-MS and

An important result of these very
different aspects of heterogeneous catalysis
is that it has now necessarily become an
interdisciplinary area of research.

other spectrometers, as well as a carbon-hydrogen-
nitrogen analysis service; of these, the FTIR is
currently of most use in our catalysis projects. A
C13 high field NMR will be available soon. The
technique of magic angle spinning will permit its
use on solid catalysts, so useful NMR techniques
will become possible.
The Chemical Engineering Department has
two ultra high vacuum chambers for modern
surface analyses. Each chamber is equipped with
a low energy electron diffractometer for the de-
termination of surface atomic crystallography, an
Auger electron spectrometer for surface composi-
tion determination, and a quadrupole mass spectro-
meter for reaction studies; these are dedicated
pieces of equipment. When needed, x-ray and ultra-
violet photoelectron spectrometers (XPS and
UPS) are also available in the Materials Science
surface facility.
The chemical characterizations that we use the
most are adsorption/desorption, reduction and re-
action measurements. Reaction product determina-
tion is often performed by gas chromatography
and mass spectrometry. As far as possible,
routine analyses of the products are performed
by microcomputers. An Apple II Plus and a NU


FALL 1981









Most of the current work is associated with various problems related
to catalyst deactivation, primarily by the mechanism of poisoning-so much so that
Jim Carberry has suggested we dub ourselves the L. Borgia Laboratory of Catalyst Decay


Micro 80 computer are connected to the mass
spectrometers, and recording integrators are used
with gas chromatographs. In the near future, we
expect to see a large increase in the use of micro-
computers to automate data acquisition and pro-
cessing.
When stating the general objective in catalysis
research earlier, we emphasized the need to use
various techniques in materials and chemical
characterization. It is natural then that our re-
search would benefit from scientific exchange and
collaboration with experts in the Materials
Science and Chemistry disciplines. Indeed cross-
disciplinary collaborative research has been a
unique and fruitful experience at Northwestern.
In the past six or seven years, there have been
four extensive projects that involve direct partici-
pation from faculty and students in Chemistry
and/or Materials Sciences. Three of these will be
discussed in greater detail later. In addition to
these formal collaborations, there are countless in-
formal discussions and consultations. For example,
neither of us has formal training in the area of
ultra high vacuum surface science. Thus when
we set up the surface analytical tools, the task
was made much easier when Professor Peter Stair
of Chemistry and Professor Yip-Wa Chung of
Materials Sciences offered to share their wisdom
and experience.

CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING

CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING has had a
rather long history in our department and
names of faculty both past and present who have
contributed research in this area include J. S.
Dranoff, H. M. Hulburt, Y. G. Kim, J. M. Smith,
and G. Thodos. Over the years this work has en-
compassed a wide variety of interests including
kinetic studies, pore diffusion problems, catalytic
reactor design and analysis, photocatalytic re-
actions, and catalyst deactivation. Most of the
current work is associated with various problems
related to catalyst deactivation, primarily by the
mechanism of poisoning-so much so that Jim
Carberry has suggested we dub ourselves the L.
Borgia Laboratory of Catalyst Decay.
Many of the techniques and approaches that


we have mentioned in the previous section carry
over directly to the work in catalyst deactivation.
To this we may add one special type of "spectro-
scopy": the fixed bed reactor or single catalyst
particle undergoing catalyst decay. Our particular
interests have been in how catalyst poisoning or
coke formation influences the dynamics of parti-
cles or reactors. These effects manifest themselves
in two ways; first, the existence of deactivation
itself means that our familiar steady-state
problems become unsteady-state ones (with vastly
differing time scales) and, second, the dynamics
of partially deactivated systems to perturbations
in concentration or temperature are different from
those of undeactivated systems.
Another aspect that is somewhat unique to
these "spectroscopies" is the fact that they are
completely tied in with the measurement of
gradients. Thus, rather than gradientless reactors,
we have "grandientfull" ones, and much of our
work has dealt with the reconciliation of theoreti-
cal models of varying degrees of complexity to ex-
perimental data on the motion of thermal waves
within fixed bed reactors or individual catalyst
particles.
Some of our more recent work on poisoning
has a clear interrelation with the catalysis
studies of supported metals. In that work (de-
scribed in more detail below) a major interest is
in the relationship between the morphology of a
supported metal crystallite, in particular size, and
its catalytic properties. It has been shown that for
certain reactions the specific activity of an in-
dividual metal atom depends upon the size of the
crystallite in which it is found; in such instances
the reaction is termed "structure sensitive." It
stands to reason that it is possible that the poison-
ing of such metal crystallites could also be struc-
ture sensitive, and if so, one might use some good
catalytic reaction engineering to try to tailor the
catalyst for maximum resistance to poisoning.
Systems such as carbon monoxide on platinum are
being investigated in this work and, since there
is a considerable amount of information available
from surface chemical physics studies on such
systems, the additional hope is that we can effect
some bridging of results from the two types of
experiments.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









OUR CLUB: THE CATALYSIS, ENGINEERING AND
SURFACE SCIENCE SEMINAR

T HE INTENSE INTEREST IN catalysis and catalytic
reaction engineering, and the extensive in-
volvement among various faculty in different de-
partments result in a core group of over thirty-
five graduate students working in these areas.
This large number of students enables us to have
a weekly seminar group. The participants in the
seminars are both graduate students and faculty,
and topics span a wide range from surface chemi-
cal physics calculations and measurements to
surface organometallic chemistry, to reaction
kinetics and mechanisms, and to catalyst deactiva-
tion engineering. The students are therefore being
exposed to a broad view. Visitors often inject new
ideas and approaches also.
While we enjoy and benefit from the collabora-
tive atmosphere among people in various disci-
plines, graduate students in our department also
receive a coordinated introduction to catalysis re-
search through a series of courses. Currently,
there are three courses on this subject in our de-
partment. One course surveys the various spectro-
scopic methods currently used in catalysis; one
surveys the modern theory and current research;
one surveys the industrial and processing aspects
of catalysis. In addition, students commonly take
courses in advanced kinetics, x-ray diffraction,
electron microscopy and others. In the reaction
engineering area, in addition to an entry level
graduate course in kinetics and reactor design, an
advanced reactor course is offered covering gas-
liquid, multiphase, chromatographic, and fluidized
bed design and analysis. In recent years we have
also been offering a course on reactor stability in
alternate years. Our modest goal in both catalysis
and reaction engineering is to make our students
as broadly-based and as knowledgeable as possible.

SOME EXAMPLES

T HUS FAR WE HAVE HIGHLIGHTED the special
features of our research efforts in general
terms. Now we discuss as examples three projects
to illustrate in detail some of these features.

Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis
The catalytic production of higher hydro-
carbons from CO and H2 is known as the Fischer-
Tropsch process. The possible change of the source
of raw material from crude oil to other fossil fuel


has renewed interest in the study of this process.
We are studying this on iron, promoted iron, and
iron alloy catalysts to determine how the proper-
ties of iron and the chemical nature of the catalysts
are being affected by the alloying agents and
promoters, and what their relationship is to the
activity and product selectivity. One of us (JBB)
in collaboration with Professor L. Schwartz in
Materials Science (who provides expertise in
Mbssbauer spectroscopy and electron microscopy)
began this project by studying supported iron
catalysts. Starting with a calcined supported iron
oxide, the reduction of the oxide to metal can be

1.002

.J r^-^A-r


.986
.978


.970

.994
.986
.978

S.970

1.002
3 .994

.986
.978
.970
1.000
.996


.992


.988 [
.984

-9 -6 -3 0 3 6 9
VELOCITY (r/sec)

FIGURE 1. Identification of oxidation-reduction for a
5% (wt) Fe/SiO2 catalyst via Mossbauer
spectroscopy. (a) calcined sample, (b) re,
duced in H2 for 12 h, (c) Spectrum of (b)
after exposure to 02 at room temperature,
(d) Reduced in H2 at 425 oC for 24 h in a
differential reactor.


FALL 1981










1.000

.992
.984
.976

.968

1.000
.992
.984
.976
.968


1.000
.996


.992 VU
.988
.984

-9 -6 -3 0 3 .6 9
VELOCITY (mm/sec)
FIGURE 2. Identification of the carburization of a 5%
(wt) Fe/SiO2 catalyst via Mossbauer spectro-
scopy. (a) Carburized by 1:3 CO in H2 at
250 C for 6 h, (b) Spectrum of (a) at liquid
N2 temperature, (c) Carburized by 1:3 CO
in H2 at 255 C for 1.5 h in a differential
reactor.

easily monitored by M6ssbauer spectroscopy (Fig.
1). However the reduced metal is not very active
for the FT reaction. Instead, the activity slowly in-
creases with time on stream. Simultaneously the
M6ssbauer pattern slowly converts into one
characteristic of iron carbide (Fig. 2), which is
then the active phase. The reduction behavior of
the iron oxides is found to depend on the mode of
preparation. While attempting to interpret this
by the different crystallite sizes, we discovered
that x-ray line broadening and Mossbauer adsorp-
tion analysis gave misleading results on the
crystallite sizes of the iron particles on the support.
What happened was that both of these techniques
give sizes of the crystallites that are atomically
well ordered. Yet they cannot distinguish whether
these crystallites are physically separated from


each other, or clumped together to form a big
cluster. Transmission electron microscopy which
sees crystallites directly can easily distinguish
these possibilities. Indeed depending on the de-
tails in the catalyst pretreatment, different de-
grees of clustering can be obtained.
The type of information obtained for the
supported iron catalyst can likewise be obtained
for the promoted and alloyed catalysts. Coupling
Missbauer, kinetics and reduction measurements,
we found that some promoters affect the carbiding
of the catalysts, some affect the activity and se-
lectivity, while some affect stability of the cata-
lysts. Thus much richer information has been
obtained using this multi-technique approach
than would be possible with only some of these
techniques. It is clear that both the students in-
volved and the scientific understanding benefit
from the collaborative effort.


Supported Noble Metal Catalysis

Noble metal catalysts highly dispersed on an
inert support have long been a subject of research.
However, only recently have there been developed
techniques that permit us physically to probe
these metal clusters of only a small number of
atoms. Analysis of diffuse x-ray scattering now
can provide information on the average size, the
size distribution, the degree of perfection, and
crystallographic orientation of these crystallites.
This makes possible a very meaningful study that
involves a careful, well documented preparation
of these catalysts, x-ray characterization, and
chemical characterization by chemisorption,
deuterium isotope exchange reaction, hydrogena-
tion, isomerization and hydrogenolysis reactions.
This extensive program involves the participation
of three faculty: John Butt, R. L. Burwell, Jr. of
Chemistry, and J. B. Cohen of Materials Sciences.
An interesting result of this work is that it has
been found that the small noble metal crystallites
are crystallographically perfect down to as small
as two nanometers in diameter. Furthermore the
activity and selectivity in the test reactions vary
by less than a factor of five when the metal
crystallite sizes change from less than two nano-
meters to over fifteen nanometers. Pretreatment
conditions have a much more profound effect than
particle size alone.
Another study that was made possible by this
collaboration was the in situ x-ray characteriza-
tion of supported Pd catalysts. Fig. 3 shows some


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION-








of the findings in which a Pd/SiOz catalyst was
being exposed to a reaction mixture of hydrogen
and methylcyclopropane. If the starting catalyst
was Pd, the reaction mixture results in the forma-
tion of a mixture Pd metal and Pd hydride at
steady state. If the starting catalyst was Pd
hydride, the steady state of the catalyst was also
a mixture of Pd metal and hydride but of a
different proportion. We think this is the first
report of multiple steady states of a working
catalyst obtained by direct observation.

Mixed Oxide Catalysis
Almost all commercial oxide catalysts are
multicomponent, and it is of interest to understand
how these different components affect each other
catalytically. In particular, some of these com-
ponents in industrial catalysts are added as
promoters and their functions are not fully under-
stood. Our effort in this area has been to elucidate



DIFFRACTrION PEAK,
P STARTING CATALYST 100% Pd
Pd



AFTER 16:1::MCP:H2, 00C,10 MIN
70% Pd, 30% PdHg.7


PdHO,7


DIFFRACTION PEAK
S TARTING CATALYST 10% Pd, 90% PdH0.7






AFTER 16:1::MCP:H2, 0, 6 AND 13 MIN
107, pd, 90% PdHO.7
Pd

TWO THETA ANGLE
FIGURE 3. The multiple steady states of a Pd/Si02
catalyst in the hydrogenolysis of methyl-
cyclopropane at 0 C. (a) Starting with
100% Pd, steady state catalyst is 70%
metal, 30% hydride, (b) Starting with 10%
metal and 90% hydride, steady state
catalyst is unchanged.


One is also concerned with the
catalytic reaction engineering associated with
transport effects, reactor design, catalyst design ...

the effect of these promoters on bulk structural
stabilization, reducibility, and activity and se-
lectivity. The catalytic system being investigated
is the selective oxidative dehydrogenation of
butene to butadiene over ferrite catalysts promoted
by zinc and/or chromium. To achieve our objec-
tive, the surface and the bulk of the catalysts
must be well characterized. This would involve in
addition to catalytic measurements, measurements
of surface composition, bulk structure, reduction
behavior and chemisorption. H. Kung, in col-
laboration with Professor Y. W. Chung of Ma-
terials Science and Professor P. Stair of Chemis-
try, has measured quantitatively the surface
density of iron even though the samples are
electrically insulating. Temperature programmed
reduction and reaction further suggest that the
reducibility of the oxide greatly affects the se-
lectivity of the reaction. In particular, the carbon
dioxide production is reduced on catalysts more re-
sistant to reduction. These and other observations
allow us to conclude that the Zn and Cr additives
act as structural promoters by stabilizing the bulk
against reduction and structural transformation.
They also stabilize-the surface against reduction
which leads to enhanced selectivity. Finally, they
affect the active sites through long range
electronic interaction which results in enhanced
activity by lowering the activation energy of the
reaction.

Concluding Statement

T HE EXAMPLES ABOVE SERVE TO illustrate the
emphasis and the approach in most of our
catalytic research effort. To reiterate, we aim at
fundamental understanding of catalytic reactions
through detailed studies of the solid and the re-
action. A very special feature is that we try to
involve workers in other disciplines who bring in
a wide spectrum of expertise. This allows us to
make use of the fullest potential of many physical
and chemical techniques in a manner that would
be impossible for a single worker. Thus the re-
search problem can be more satisfactorily solved.
The collaboration also benefits the graduate
students by broadening their experience and
knowledge. We might add that the same state-
ment pertains to the faculty. 5


FALL 1981










Redea4ch on


PARAMETRIC PUMPING


H. T. CHEN (deceased), C. O. KEROBO,
H. C. HOLLEIN and C. R. HUANG
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Newark, NY 07102

PARAMETRIC PUMPING IS A new separation
technique that should rightfully take its place
alongside other chemical engineering unit opera-
tions. Parametric pumping is a cyclic separation
process characterized by flow reversal coupled to
a change in a thermodynamic variable. The
change in the intensive variable induces separa-
tion of the components of a fluid mixture in a two-
phase system consisting of one mobile and one
immobile phase (gas-solid, liquid-solid, or liquid-
liquid). The oscillating direction of fluid flow
enhances the separation normally achieved in ad-
sorption-desorption or liquid-liquid extraction pro-
cesses. Parametric pumping has received con-
siderable attention in recent years.
Parapumping represents a new development
in separation science, both because of its novelty
and because of its adaptability to techniques
commonly used in the separation of fluid mix-
tures, i.e., adsorption, extraction, affinity chroma-
tography, and ion-exchange chromatography. The
adaptation can be made in principle to any system
where alteration of an applicable intensive vari-
able, such as temperature, pressure, pH, ionic
strength, or electric field, results in a differential
shift in the distribution of solutes between the
mobile and immobile phases.
The new separation technique has the follow-
ing features:

1) Batch chromatographic separations can be made
semi-continuous or continuous; continuous opera-


A similar process which utilizes
cyclic variation of an intensive variable,
but no change in flow direction, called "cycling
zone adsorption," was developed by
Pigford and co-workers.


tion minimizes processing time (thereby reducing
degradation of sensitive substances like proteins)
and maximizes production rate.
2) The semi-continuous or continuous process, when
optimized, has a high separation capability, and
the solutes can be concentrated to certain desired
levels by setting the relative volumes of the ap-
propriate product streams.
3) No regeneration chemicals are needed to clean the
adsorbent, so chemical contamination of the
product streams is eliminated.
The late Wilhelm and co-workers [1] invented
the batch parapump and introduced a semi-
continuous parapumping process in 1966. Since
that time, a pre-existing industrial process, known
as "pressure swing adsorption," has been identi-
fied as operating on the parametric-pumping
principle [2, 3]. A similar process which utilizes
cyclic variation of an intensive variable, but no
change in flow direction, called "cycling zone ad-
sorption," was developed by Pigford and co-work-
ers in 1969 [4]. A number of review papers are
available: Sweed, 1971 and 1972 [5, 6]; Wankat,
1974 and 1978 [7, 8]; Rice, 1976 [9]; and Chen,
1979 [10]. We intend to concentrate this discussion
on the parametric pumping research work done in
our laboratories.

PARAPUMPING RESEARCH AT N.J.I.T.
A N EXTENSIVE AMOUNT OF work has been done
by Chen and co-workers using temperature and
pH as the intensive variables for parametric
pumping separations. Other intensive variables
under investigation are pressure, ionic strength,
and electric field. The overall objective of these
research projects is to demonstrate that para-
metric pumping is a feasible process for the sepa-
ration of fluid mixtures commonly found in life
sciences, and in chemical and pharmaceutical
industries. The research is oriented towards the
development of sound experimental programs and
suitable mathematical models for design, scale-up,
and optimization of the processes. Following is a
brief review of these research projects.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




















Hung-Tsung Chen was Professor of Chemical Engineering and
Assistant Chairman of the Graduate Program. He taught at N.J.I.T.
from 1966 until his death in 1981. He received his B.S. degree from
National Taiwan University in 1958 and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
from the Polytechnic Institute of New York in 1962 and 1964. He
was the author of a number of publications in the fields of para-
metric pumping and photopolymerization reactor design, and held
grants from the National Science Foundation for fundamental research
in these areas. (L)
Charles Kerobo has been a Research Associate at N.J.I.T. in the
field of parametric pumping since 1975. He received his B.S.Ch.E. and
M.S.Ch.E. degrees from N.J.I.T. in 1976 and 1979, respectively. He is
currently a Ph.D. candidate, and his parametric pumping research ex-
perience includes pressure-, pH-, and temperature-driven parapump
systems. (LC)


Helen Hollein has been an Adjunct Professor at N.J.I.T. since
1978. She received her B.S.Ch.E. degree from the University of South
Carolina in 1965, and worked for Exxon Research and Engineering
Company following graduation. She earned her M.S. degree at
N.J.I.T. in 1979 and is currently a Ph.D. candidate working on protein
separations via parametric pumping. (RC)
Ching-Rong Huang came to N.J.I.T. in 1966 and is currently Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering and Assistant Chairman for the
Graduate Program of the Department. He received his chemical engi-
neering degrees from National Taiwan University (B.S., 1954), Massa-
chusetts Institute of Technology (M.S., 1958), and the University of
Michigan (Ph.D., 1966). He also earned an M.S. in mathematics at the
University of Michigan in 1965. His research interests are in the areas
of rheology, transport phenomena, and mathematical modeling. (R)


THERMAL PARAMETRIC PUMPING
Chen and Hill [11] introduced the first com-
pletely continuous parametric pumping process in
1971. Five different versions of the thermal para-
pump (two continuous, two semi-continuous, and
the batch pump) were analyzed in terms of the
equilibrium theory and the appropriate mass
transport equations. The mathematical model
indicates that, under certain operating conditions,
the batch pump and pumps with feed at the en-
riched end have the capacity for complete removal
of a solute from one product fraction and for
arbitrarily large enrichment of that solute in the
other fraction. Separation factors and enrichment
are modest for pumps with feed at the depleted
end. Experimental verifications of these models
for the system toluene-n-heptane on silica gel have
been subsequently presented [12, 13, 14].
Continuous thermal parametric pumping was
extended to the separation of multicomponent mix-
tures. The model system used was toluene, aniline,
and n-heptane on silica gel [15]. A simple method
for predicting multicomponent separations was
developed. This method invokes the assumption
that a multicomponent mixture contains a series
of pseudo-binary systems. Each binary system
consists of one solute (toluene or aniline) plus
the common inert solvent (n-heptane). Experi-
mental data agreed reasonably well with the


analytical predictions.
The multicomponent system, glucose-fructose-
water on a cation exchanger (Bio-Rad AG50W-X4,
calcium form) was also studied [16]. Agreement
between experiment and theory was roughly
equivalent to that obtained above. Earlier studies
on the glucose-fructose-water system used fuller's
earth (LVM 16-30 Mesh) and activated carbon
as the adsorbent [17, 18].
Mathematical expressions for determining
optimal performance of equilibrium pumps were
derived, based on the separation of NaNOa from
water via an ion-retardation resin [19]. Emphasis
was placed on the operating conditions necessary
for achieving high separation factors with maxi-
mum yield.
The performance of non-equilibrium continu-
ous pumps for the case of NaCI separation from
water via an ion-retardation resin was also studied
[20]. The criterion for approach to equilibrium
operation was established for the cases where
large separations were deemed possible.
A scale-up of the continuous thermal para-
pumping system was made and the design equa-
tions were developed [21]. Proposals were out-
lined for the construction and operation of the
parapump assembly; the auxiliary equipment and
the instrumentation were also outlined. The com-
mercial parapump assumes the configuration of


FALL 1981









Parametric pumping is
a cyclic separation process characterized
by flow reversal coupled to a change
in a thermodynamic variable.


multiple parallel tubes in a heat exchanger shell;
this design facilitates direct thermal mode opera-
tion. The energy requirements were shown to be
of the same order of magnitude as that for distilla-
tion.
All of the thermal processes investigated by
Chen and co-workers were operated in the so-
called direct mode, i.e., the intensive variable is
applied instantaneously over the entire bed. This
is the more common method of operation for
thermal parametric pumping [7, 8]. Rice and Foo
[22] have recently carried out a direct-mode pro-
cess for the continuous desalination of water,
using a dual-column system.

pH PARAMETRIC PUMPING

PARAMETRIC PUMPING PROCESSES which are
based on pH variation are usually operated in
the so-called recuperative mode, i.e., the intensive
variable is set at a different level in the streams
entering either end of the bed. In this mode, the
pH change moves across the bed as the entering
streams penetrate the chromatographic column.
Sabadell and Sweed [23] developed pH para-
metric pumping in 1970 for the separation of
aqueous solutions of K+ and Na+ on a cation ex-
change resin. In 1975, Shaffer and Hamrin [24] re-
ported a pH parapumping process for trypsin re-
moval from an enzyme mixture (a -chymotrypsin
plus trypsin) using a Sepharose type ion ex-
changer. Since then, Chen and co-workers have
researched protein separations via pH parametric
pumping, with emphasis on maximum separation
and continuous operation.
A semi-continuous pH parametric pump was
experimentally investigated using the model
system of the two arbitrarily mixed proteins,
human serum albumin and human hemoglobin in
aqueous solution on Sephadex cation exchanger
[25, 26]. These two proteins have different iso-
electric points, and the processes developed for
the model system may be applied to any mixture
of proteins having different isoelectric points.
Proteins carry a net positive charge and will ad-
sorb on a cation exchanger at pH's below their
isoelectric points; proteins carry a net negative


charge at pH's above their isoelectric points. The
semi-continuous pump, which had a center feed
between an enriching column and a stripping
column, was operated batchwise during upflow and
continuously during downflow. Two pH levels were
imposed periodically on the system. Various
factors affecting the separation were examined,
including pH levels and ionic strength of the
protein solutions, reservoir displacement, and
product flow rate. Hemoglobin was stripped from
the top stream and enriched in the bottom stream;
the separation factor for hemoglobin reached a
limit of six in the best run. The albumin con-
centration remains unchanged in this process,
but removal of hemoglobin from the top stream
leaves the top product relatively richer (by weight
fraction) in albumin.
A "continuous" pH parametric pump was used
to separate the model system hemoglobin-
albumin on CM Sepharose cation exchanger [27].
This pump configuration had protein feed solu-
tions at low pH and at high pH (relative to the
isoelectric point of hemoglobin) introduced re-
spectively to the bottom and top of a chroma-
tographic column. It was shown that increasing
the volume of the top product to some optimum
level relative to the volume of the bottom product
gave the pump the capacity for large enrichment
of hemoglobin in the bottom product stream. Note
that this system is currently considered to be
"semi-continuous," because each cycle contains
two stages where product is not withdrawn. A
completely continuous parapumping process for
protein separations is being developed.
A mathematical model with finite mass trans-
fer was developed for the model system hemo-
globin-albumin on CM Sepharose [28]. This model
agrees quite well with the experimental data.
Various factors affecting the separation were
examined, including the addition of recycle stages
to the one-column process.
An equilibrium theory was used in a theo-
retical analysis of the batch single-column and
multi-column pH parametric pump [29]. Simple
grapl ical procedures for predicting separation
showed that a parapump consisting of a series of
columns packed alternately with cation and anion
exchangers is capable of yielding very high
separation factors. Experimental results, based on
a comparison of albumin enrichment in one-column
and two-column systems packed with CM and
DEAE Sepharose, were shown to support the
theory.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Fractionation of multicomponent protein mix-
tures by multi-column pH parametric pumping
was investigated theoretically and experiment-
ally [30]. The parapump consists of a series of
chromatographic columns packed alternately with
cation and anion exchangers. Separation of a mix-
ture of n proteins requires a parametric pumping
system consisting of n columns and n+2 reser-
voirs. Various methods of operation of the para-
pump were discussed. Preliminary experimental
data was shown in this paper for the two-column
batch separation of the model system hemoglobin-
albumin on CM and DEAE Sepharose, and this
data was in qualitative agreement with the calcu-
lated results. Optimization of the batch two-
column system has been recently completed and
separation factors as large as twenty-five were
obtained for the mixture [31]. The semicontinuous
multicolumn data is being currently obtained.

PRESSURE PARAMETRIC PUMPING
P PRELIMINARY WORK HAS BEEN done on the
separation of gas mixtures. An equilibrium
plug-flow model for the batch isothermal system
(propane-argon on activated carbon) was studied
using pressure swing adsorption [32]. Effects of
temperature, pressure, and concentration were
investigated. A continuous pressure parapump
was studied for the model system carbon dioxide-
helium on silica gel [33]. The experimental results
were analyzed by means of an equilibrium theory,
and the various operating parameters necessary
for the complete removal of the solute (CO2) were
investigated.
The continuous process was extended to the
separation of a ternary mixture, propylene-
carbon dioxide-helium on silica gel [34]. Various
performance characteristics were examined.
Using the same model system, an experimental
and theoretical study was done based on a non-
equilibrium theory and linear adsorption iso-
therms [35]. A comparison was made for the
binary and ternary gas mixtures, and the condi-
tions necessary for the separation of the multi-
component mixtures were established.

SCOPE OF CURRENT RESEARCH

E EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ARE currently in pro-
gress on two pressure swing systems: one for
the removal of organic from hydrogen streams
and one for the separation of hydrogen isotopes.
Although pressure swing adsorption is a common


industrial process, fundamental studies are limited
in the open literature [36]. The separation of
hydrogen isotopes on vanadium hydride was re-
cently reported by Wong, Hill and Chan [37].
The purification of the enzyme (alkaline phos-
phatese) by parametric pumping with pH and
ionic strength has been investigated using a semi-
continuous process [38]. Alkaline phosphatese, ex-
tracted from the human placenta, contains some
undesired proteins which have isoelectric points
approximately equal to that of the enzyme; hence,
the additional intensive variable (ionic strength)
is required. This new process is the first one re-
ported which uses ionic strength as the intensive
variable for parametric pumping. Comparison of
enzyme purification by parametric pumping and
cycling zone adsorption shows that the former


A new semi-continuous parapumping
process based on cyclic variation of pH
and electric field has been shown to be
capable of splitting two proteins
in a mixture from each other...


process has a higher purification factor and larger
% enzyme activity recovered, while the latter
process has a higher rate of production. Optimiza-
tion studies on the enzyme system indicate that
a parapump operation with the proper combina-
tion of the two intensive variables, pH and ionic
strength, is superior to a parapump system based
on only pH or ionic strength [39]. A comparison
of the purification of alkaline phosphatese via
parametric pumping to the purification which can
be obtained via a conventional process, such as
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is nearly com-
pleted.
A new semi-continuous parapumping process
based on cyclic variation of pH and electric field
has been shown to be capable of splitting two
proteins in a mixture from each other, using a
single-column set-up [40]. The same model system
was used as in previous protein separation studies,
i.e., hemoglobin and albumin in aqueous solution
on CM Sepharose cation exchanger. The separation
obtained in the single-column, semi-continuous
pH parametric pumping process is enhanced by
inducing an electric field across the chromato-
graphic column during certain stages of the pro-
cess. Separation factors as high as 120 are re-
ported for the mixture. Mathematical analysis of
this system is currently underway. Separation, re-


FALL 1981








cover and production rate for this system will
be compared to the multicolumn pH system, when
the semi-continuous multicolumn data is available.
Other researchers have shown electrochemical
parapumping to be potentially useful for desali-
nation of water [41, 42].
Separation of protein mixtures by multi-
affinity chromatography combined with cyclic
operation is being investigated [43]. The system
consists of a series of columns packed alternately
with anion and cation exchangers (Sephadex
(G150) and Sepharose (4B)). Two cyclic methods
are being considered: semi-continuous parametric
pumping and continuous simulated moving bed
operation. This process is being adapted for the
separation of lectine mixtures, such as Convalin
A and Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I.
A staged sequence multicolumn cyclic process
is being developed for the separation of liquid
mixtures. This continuous process eliminates the
mixed reservoirs normally used in parametric
pumping. (Note that reservoir mixing tends to
reduce separation [22].) Separation of a mixture
of n solutes by the direct-mode of operation re-
quires a set-up with n+1 columns and n driving
forces. The feed and product ports are fixed in
the staged sequence process, but different com-
ponents can be directed to exit from specified
ports by synchronizing the feed and product
positions with the appropriate intensive variable.
Preliminary experimental results for semi-
continuous operation in a one-column system are
being extended to the continuous multicolumn
system. A mathematical model which fits the one-
column data is being modified to predict the
continuous separation.
From the discussion of active research areas,
it is evident that parametric pumping is a very
useful and versatile process in separation tech-
nology. It is our belief that commercialization of
some of these parapumping systems would be
economically feasible.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Portions of this research were supported by
the National Science Foundation under Grants
ENG 77-04129 and CPE 79-10540. O


POSTSCRIPT
This article was initiated by Dr. Chen at the
request of CEE, prior to the tragic automobile


accident which ended his life on April 21, 1981,
and completed by his co-workers in his memory.

REFERENCES
1. Wilhelm, R. H., A. W. Rice and A. R. Bendelius, Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fund., 5, 141 (1966).
2. Skarstrom, C. W., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 72, 75
(1959).
3. Shendalman, L. H. and J. E. Mitchell, Chem. Eng.
Sci., 27, 1449 (1972).
4. Pigford, R. L., B. Baker III and D. E. Blum, Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fund., 8, 848 (1969).
5. Sweed, N. H., in E. S. Perry and C. J. Von Oss
(Eds.), "Progress in Separation and Purification,"
Vol. 4, Wiley (Interscience), New York (1971).
6. Sweed, N. H., in N. Li. (Ed.), "Recent Developments
in Separation Science," Vol. 1, Chemical Rubber Co.,
Cleveland (1972).
7. Wankat, P. C., Separation Science, 9, 85 (1974).
8. Wankat, P. C., in A. E. Rodrigues (Ed.), "Proceed-
ings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on
Percolation Processes," Espinho, Portugal (July,
1968).
9. Rice, R. G., Sep. Purif. Methods, 5, 139 (1976).
10. Chen, H. T., in P. A. Schweitzer (Ed.), "Handbook
of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers,"
McGraw-Hill, New York (1979).
11. Chen, H. T. and F. B. Hill, Separation Science, 6,
411 (1971).
12. Chen, H. T., J. L. Rak, J. D. Stokes and F. B. Hill,
AIChE Journal, 19, 356 (1972).
13. Chen, H. T., E. H. Reiss, J. D. Stokes and F. B. Hill,
AIChE Journal, 19, 589 (1973).
14. Chen, H. T., J. A. Park and J. L. Rak, Separation
Science, 9, 35 (1974).
15. Chen, H. T., W. W. Lin, J. D. Stokes and W. R.
Fabrisiak, AIChE Journal, 20, 306 (1974).
16. Chen, H. T. and V. J. D'Emidio, AIChE Journal, 21,
813 (1975).
17. Chen, H. T., J. Jaferi and J. D. Stokes, paper 9e pre-
sented at 73rd AIChE National Meeting, Minneapolis,
MN (August, 1972).
18. Ahmed, Z. M., paper F2-2 AIChE-GVC joint meeting,
Vol. IV of preprints, Munich, Germany (September,
1974).
19. Chen, H. T. and J. A. Manganaro, AIChE Journal,
20, 1020 (1974).
20. Chen, H. T., A. K. Rastogi, C. Y. Kim and J. L. Rak,
Separation Science, 11, 335 (1976).
21. Stokes, J. D. and H. T. Chen, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process
Des. Dev., 18, 147 (1979).
22. Rice, R. G. and S. C. Foo, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 20,
150 (1981).
23. Sabadell, J. E. and N. H. Sweed, Separation Science,
5, 171 (1970).
24. Shaffer, A. G. and C. E. Hamrin, AIChE Journal,
21, 782 (1975).
25. Chen, H. T., D. I. Cho, J. Dell'Osso and P. Falcon,
paper 34b presented at 82nd AIChE National Meet-
ing, Atlantic City, NJ (August, 1976).
26. Chen, H. T., T. K. Hsieh, H. C. Lee and F. B. Hill,
AIChE Journal, 23, 695 (1977).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









27. Chen, H. T., Y. W. Wong and S. Wu, AIChE Journal,
25, 320 (1979).
28. Chen, H. T., W. T. Yang, C. M. Wu, C. O. Kerobo and
V. Jajalla, Separat. Sci. and Tech., 16, 43 (1981).
29. Chen, H. T., U. Pancharoen, W. T. Yang, C. O. Kerobo
and R. J. Parisi, Separat. Sci. and Tech., a5, 1377
(1980).
30. Chen, H. T., W. T. Yang, U. Pancharoen and R. J.
Parisi, AIChE Journal, 26, 839 (1980).
31. Chen, H. T., D. Hanesian and A. Allentuch, "Separa-
tion and Purification of Proteins via Continuous Para-
metric Pumping," N. S. F. Report (March 25, 1981).
32. Lopez, J. G., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Institute of
Technology (1973).
33. Weingartner, P. F., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Insti-
tute of Technology (1973).
34. Belsky, S. E., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Institute of
Technology (1977).
35. Rastogi, A. K., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Institute of


Technology (1977).
36. Chan, Y. N. I., F. B. Hill and Y. W. Wong, Chem.
Eng. Sci., 86, 243 (1981).
37. Wong, Y. W., F. B. Hill and Y. N. I. Chan, Separat.
Sci. and Tech., 15, 423 (1980).
38. Chen, H. T., Z. M. Ahmed and V. Rollan, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Fund., 20, 171 (1981).
39. Ahmed, Z. M., Ph.D. Dissertation, New Jersey Insti-
tute of Technology (1981).
40. Chen, H. T., H. C. Hollein and H. C. Ma, paper to
be presented at 2nd World Congress of Chemical
Engineering, Montreal (October, 1981).
41. Thompson, D. W. and D. Bass, Canadian J. Chem.
Engr., 52, 345 (1974).
42. Oren, Y. and A. Soffer, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125,
869 (1978).
43. Chen, H. T., J. F. Chao, J. J. Huang and C. R. Huang,
paper to be presented at AIChE New Orleans Meet-
ing (November, 1981).


9#t Memo&ia#K

HUNG TSUNG CHEN
Hung Tsung Chen was killed in an auto acci-
dent on April 21, 1981. His numerous students,
faculty colleagues, and members of the New Jersey
Institute of Technology community will miss him
a great deal. The work he did in the area of para-
metric pumping and polymer engineering was
exemplary and he is irreplaceable. We all extend
our sympathies to his wife Vera, his son, Andrew,
and his daughter, Carol.
Dr. Chen was born in Taiwan, Republic of
China, on August 23, 1935. He attended the
National Taiwan University and obtained his BS
degree in chemical engineering in 1958. He came
to the United States and received both the MS
(1962) and PhD (1964) in chemical engineering
from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He worked
under the supervision of Dr. Othmer.
Following his graduate studies he worked for
FMC Corporation. In 1966, he joined the faculty
of the Department of Chemical Engineering and
Chemistry at New Jersey Institute of Technology
where he worked until his untimely death. Dr.
Chen was a Full Professor and Assistant Chair-
man of the Graduate Program. He has served as a
consultant for numerous companies including
Bookhaven National Laboratory. He was an ex-
cellent undergraduate and graduate teacher and
was highly admired by his students. He worked in
the area of parametric pumping and had developed
into one of the leading international authorities on


the subject. He had more than 20 graduate
students working with him in this area and poly-
merization reactor technology. Dr. Chen, a prolific
publisher, had more than 40 publications. He also
contributed to Handbook of Separation Techniques
for Chemical Engineers. One publication in the
AIChE Journal was accepted without any revision
needed. The Editor called this a "first."
He served the department and Institute on
many committees. He was an active member of
AIChE, Sigma Xi, Omega Chi Epsilon and was a
registered professional engineer.
Dr. Chen was an invited speaker at the Gordon
Conference (1980), had numerous NSF grants,
was named "Outstanding Educator of America,"
was listed in Who's Who in the East, American
Men of Science, Community Leaders and Note-
worthy Americans, Directory of International
Biography, and Men of Achievement.
On May 28, 1981, at our Institute's Centennial
Year Commencement exercise, Dr. Chen received
(posthumously) the first Harlan J. Perlis Award
for Excellence in Research given by our Institute.
The award was received by his wife, Vera, with a
standing ovation.
Dr. Chen can never be forgotten. He is irre-
placeable and future generations of chemical en-
gineering students have been deprived of his atten-
tion by our great loss. Dr. Chen will always be
with us, and will represent a standard of high
achievement and excellence. He will be missed
very much by our chemical engineering profession.

Deran Hanesian
Angelo Perna


FALL 1981










ReeaiAc on


MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS

AND COMPUTER SIMULATION


KEITH E. GUBBINS
WILLIAM B. STREET
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853

T HE FOUNDATIONS OF MOLECULAR thermo-
dynamics were laid about 100 years ago by
J. D. van der Waals working in Amsterdam and
J. Willard Gibbs at Yale University. The first
realistic equation of state, and also the principle
of corresponding states, were proposed by van der
Waals, and led to a flourishing Dutch school of
thermodynamics (Roozeboom, Schreinemakers,
Buchner, Kuenen, and others) and extensive
studies of binary phase equilibria. Gibbs intro-
duced the phase rule and provided the basis for
all modern work on both classical chemical thermo-
dynamics and statistical mechanics.
From its beginnings chemical engineering has
included classical thermodynamics as an important
branch of the subject. Classical thermodynamics
tells us how to carry out calculations given the
necessary property data, but tells us nothing
about how to predict the data needed for design
or operation of chemical processes. For this we
must turn to statistical mechanics, the science
that connects the properties of interest to the
underlying intermolecular forces. Over the past
25 years chemical engineers have increasingly
used statistical mechanics as a starting point for
predictive techniques and correlations. Notable
successes that have been thoroughly integrated
into industrial use include the calculations of heats
and free energies of formation of gases and


The three approaches of
experiment, theory, and computer simulation
are complementary and are most powerful
when combined in a comprehensive
study of particular liquids
and liquid mixtures.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


solids [1], the virial equation of state for com-
pressed gases [2], and a variety of corresponding
states methods [2, 3]. Among the more difficult
problems have been the prediction of thermo-
dynamic and interfacial properties of liquids.
Some chemical engineering problems of current
interest that call for further research on liquid
properties include:
* The need for experimental studies and prediction
methods for new fuel technologies, including coal
liquefaction and gasification, the conversion of methanol
to gasoline, hydrogen-energy technology, processing
liquefied natural and synthetic gas, and the production
of ethanol. Existing prediction methods were developed
for hydrocarbon mixtures, and often fail for synthetic
fuels.
* Prediction of solvent effects on reaction rates and
equilibrium yields.
* The design of high pressure separations equipment
and multiphase reactors.
* The role of surface properties (surface tension,
molecular alignment, diffusion rates, etc.) in the use
of surfactants in modifying emulsions and oil recovery,
interfacial transfer rates in extraction equipment,
nucleation, lubrication, liquid-phase reactions at a solid
surface, adsorption and chromatography, crystalliza-
tion, and the design of artificial organs for the body.
The most significant advances that have oc-
curred in molecular thermodynamics of liquids in
the past decade have been: (a) the development
of new prediction methods for polar (and other)
liquids of industrial interest, based on perturba-
tion theory, (b) the rapid development of com-
puter simulation techniques for such liquids, in
which the properties of precisely defined model
fluids are evaluated by using the computer to
calculate molecular motions and configurations,
(c) experimental studies of phase equilibria and
critical phenomena in highly nonideal mixtures
over wide ranges of pressure and temperature, and
(d) the study of interfacial properties by both
theory and simulation. The three approaches of
experiment, theory, and computer simulation are
complementary (Figure 1) and are most powerful
when combined in a comprehensive study of par-
ticular liquids and liquid mixtures. A program


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








combining these three methods was initiated in
the School of Chemical Engineering at Cornell
University in 1977.


EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF FLUIDS

E EXPERIMENTAL THERMODYNAMICS AT Cornell
currently includes measurements of phase
equilibria, PVT properties, and heats of mixing.
The phase equilibria and PVT studies are carried
out over wide ranges of pressure and temperature
(0-10,000 atm, 70-500K) to provide extensive
data for testing and refining the predictions of
theories based in molecular physics and statistical
mechanics. Mixtures for study are chosen mainly
on the basis of the types of molecules (spherical,
diatomic, triatomic, etc.) and intermolecular forces
(dipolar, quadrupolar, hydrogen-bonded, etc.) to
provide examples of several classes of industrially
important mixtures. Recent phase equilibrium ex-
periments for binary mixtures include: simple
nonpolar systems, such as krypton/xenon, kryp-
ton/methane, and krypton/ethane; systems con-
taining polar liquids such as carbon dioxide/
dimethyl ether [4] and methanol/dimethyl ether;
and a family of hydrogen binary mixtures includ-
ing hydrogen/nitrogen [5], hydrogen/methane [6],
hydrogen/carbon monixide [7], and hydrogen/
carbon dioxide [8]. The hydrogen/X phase dia-
grams have been studied at pressures up to about
1500 atm. Together with earlier studies of helium/
X and neon/X systems carried out at pressures
as high as 10,000 atm [5], they provide a compre-
hensive picture of fluid phase behavior in binary
systems in which one pure component is a highly
supercritical gas and the other a liquid.
The experimental apparatus used in this work
includes a vapor-recirculating equilibrium system,
in which the vapor phase is continuously recircu-


TEST OF
MODEL,


TEST OF
\THEORY


I TEST of MODETHEORY
EXPERIMENT TEST TEORMY THEORY

FIGURE 1. Three methods of studying properties, and
the interaction between them. 'Model'
refers to the intermolecular force law.


Keith E. Gubbins is currently the Thomas R. Briggs Professor of
Engineering at Cornell University. He received his B.S. and Ph.D.
degrees at the University of London, and was on the staff at the
University of Florida from 1962-1976, when he moved to Cornell. He
has held visiting appointments at Imperial College, London, Oxford
University, the University of Kent, and the University of Guelph,
and has coauthored two books, Applied Statistical Mechanics (Reed
and Gubbins) and Theory of Molecular Liquids (Gray and Gubbins-
to appear in 1982). (L)
William B. Street is Professor of Chemical Engineering at Cornell
University, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1978.
He received a B.S. degree from West Point and a Ph.D. in mechanical
engineering from the University of Michigan. He spent 23 years in
the Army, mainly at West Point where he was the founder and first
Director of the Science Research Laboratory. His research interests
are in experimental thermodynamics of fluids and computer simulation
studies of molecular liquids. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellow-
ship in 1974. (R)


lated through a closed loop of high pressure tubing
by means of a magnetically operated pump, and
bubbled through the liquid phase [4, 5]. After
equilibrium is established at fixed P and T, samples
of the two phases are withdrawn through stainless
steel capillary lines and analyzed by means of a
thermal conductivity detector or gas chromato-
graph.
Recent experiments have shown that there are
continuous transitions at high pressures between
phase separations of the gas-liquid, liquid-liquid,
and so-called "gas-gas" types [9, 10]. An example
of such a high pressure phase diagram produced
by our experiments is shown in Figure 2. These
diagrams are often found in mixtures of highly
dissimilar molecules, in which the critical tempera-
tures of the pure components are far apart.
Examples include He/CH4 [11], He-Xe [12], and
He-C02 [13]; experimental data for the He/CH,
system, for example, cover temperatures from 95
to 290 K, and pressures to 10,000 atm. A gaseous
mixture of 75 mole % helium in methane, com-
pressed isothermally at 20C, separates into two


FALL 1981








fluid phases at about 8000 atm; at 10,000 atm the
light phase contains about 95% helium and the
dense! phase about 45% helium. (A temperature


FIGURE 2. Schematic three-dimensional phase dia-
gram for a binary system that exhibits gas-
gas equilibrium. Lines AC and AD, in the
near P-T face of the diagram, are the vapor
pressure and melting curves of the pure
heavy component. The critical temperature
of the light component lies well below the
triple point A, out of the range of the
diagram. The planes T, T, are isotherms
and P1 P2 are isobars, in which the
shaded areas are regions of phase separa-
tion. The curved boundaries of these areas
are lines cut by planes of constant T or P
in the pairs of surfaces that describe the
equilibrium between two phases. The mix-
ture critical line, CC', begins at the critical
point, C, of the pure heavy component,
and rises to higher temperature at higher
pressures. Thus isotherms T2 and T3 repre-
sent phase separations at temperatures
above the critical temperatures of both pure
components-the phenomenon commonly
known as gas-gas equilibrium. The shaded
surface AFGBEA describes a region of
equilibrium between three phases: a solid
phase represented by AE, a liquid phase
AB, and gas phase AFG. At low pressures
this region terminates in the triple point,
A, of the pure heavy component.


of 20C corresponds roughly to T, in Figure 2).
Accurate prediction of thermo-physical properties
under these extreme conditions poses a severe test
for any prediction method.

THEORY OF LIQUID MIXTURES

T HE METHODS CURRENTLY USED BY chemical
engineers to predict liquid properties are
based largely on theories developed before 1970;
these theories assume the molecules are roughly
spherical and interact rather weakly. They are
satisfactory for near-ideal solutions, but perform
poorly for mixtures involving polar or super-
critical fluids, or when liquid-liquid immiscibility
occurs [14].
Since 1972 interest has turned to theories for
liquids composed of nonspherical molecules, in
which the intermolecular forces are strongly
orientation-dependent, and include long-range
(e.g. dispersion, electrostatic) and short-range
(repulsion, hydrogen-bond, etc.) contributions. At
the present stage of development the theory is
capable of predicting the thermodynamics of fluids
of fairly small polar and quadrupolar molecules,
such as HC1, C02, HO0, lower molecular weight
alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc. The most successful
approach for thermodynamic properties is pertur-
bation theory, in which the properties of the fluid
of interest are related to those of a reference fluid
with simpler intermolecular forces. The properties
of the two fluids are connected via an expansion
in powers of the perturbing force or potential.
For the Helmholtz free energy A, for example,
we have
A = Ao + A, + A2 + As +...
where Ao is the reference fluid free energy, Ai is
the first order perturbation term, and so on. Ex-
pressions for the perturbation terms involve
reference fluid properties, and are obtained from
the expressions of statistical mechanics. Recent
advances in such theoretical equations of state
have come from the improved understanding of
suitable reference fluids, and from the use of
standard mathematical methods (e.g. Pad6 ap-
proximants) to accelerate series convergence. Such
perturbation expansions are more powerful than
the traditional corresponding states methods, since
they can be applied to mixtures of constituents
that obey different intermolecular force laws (e.g.
hydrocarbons with alcohols, as occurs often in
coal-derived synthetic fuels). In the most widely
studied form of the theory, the reference fluid is


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Classical thermodynamics tells us how to carry out calculations given
the necessary property data but tells us nothing about how to predict the data needed for
design or operation of chemical processes. For this we must turn to statistical mechanics, the
science that connects the properties of interest to the underlying intermolecular forces.


taken to be one of spherical or near spherical
molecules, and the perturbation terms then ac-
count for the nonspherical force contributions due
to dipoles, nonspherical shape, etc. [15]. This
method is superior to the existing chemical engi-
neering prediction methods for mixtures that
involve polar liquids or are otherwise highly non-
ideal [6, 15-21]. A comparison of theory and ex-
periment is shown in Figure 3 for H2/CH4 [6], a
highly nonideal system with a three-dimensional
PTx phase diagram of the form shown in Figure
2. In this case H2 is supercritical, and quantum
effects are important.
Much remains to be done to develop these
methods for hydrogen-bonded liquids, dilute solu-
tions, liquid-liquid immiscible systems, synthetic
fuel mixtures, supercritical extraction, etc. The
further development of theoretical equations of
state will be aided by combining theoretical work
with computer simulation studies and experimen-
tation.

COMPUTER SIMULATION
IN COMPUTER SIMULATION THE fluid is repre-
sented by a small sample containing a hundred
to a few thousand molecules [22]. The equation de-
scribing the intermolecular forces is precisely
specified, and surface effects are minimized by the
use of periodic boundary conditions, in which the
basic cell containing the sample is surrounded by
replicas of itself. Such small samples have been
found to faithfully represent macroscopic systems
except for fluids with quantum effects or near criti-
cal points. Two simulation procedures have been
used-the Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular
dynamics (MD) techniques, both introduced in the
1950's. In the MC method the many-dimensional
integrals that arise in statistical mechanics are
evaluated by sampling using random numbers. In
the MD method the Newtonian equations of
motion are solved numerically for each molecule in
the sample, keeping the system energy, volume and
number of molecules fixed. The molecular motions
are followed for a period of the order of 10-9 sec.,
and averages over these motions are then taken
to obtain the thermodynamics, diffusion co-


efficient, molecular distributions, etc. MD has the
advantage that transport properties can be studied,
whereas in MC calculations only the equilibrium
properties are obtained. However in MC the
energy and volume need not be kept constant; this
is an advantage in many applications of interest
to chemical engineers, e.g. the study of phase
equilibria.
At Cornell these studies are carried out on a
dedicated PDP 11/70 computer, and on a Floating
Point Systems array processor. Research problems
in this area include:

* Studies of activity coefficients in liquid mixtures
containing polar and supercritical components, and the
development of better equations to describe them.
* Studies of gases dissolved in liquids and systems used
in supercritical extraction (solids or liquids dissolved in
compressed gases). A recent result for such a study of
the Henry's constant in simple liquid mixtures [23] is
shown in Figure 4.
* Development of computer graphics techniques for the
display of molecular motions and orientation in liquid
mixtures and at surfaces, and for displaying three
dimensional phase diagrams and projections of these.


1000


800


* 600


400


200


0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0


FIGURE 3. VLE for H2/CH, at 100K from experiment
(points), perturbation theory (solid line) and
Redlich-Kwong equation (dashed line)
[from ref. 6].


FALL 1981


I!

i a


0

0
r

0
/



to

-


I I I








* Nucleation studies, where nucleation rates are
controlled by poorly understood surface effects.
* Molecular diffusion and orientation at gas-liquid, liquid-
liquid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces.
* Behavior of surfactants at interfaces.
* Droplet properties-surface tension, diffusion, etc.

SURFACE PROPERTIES

T HE INTERFACE BETWEEN TWO phases is an in-
homogeneous layer that is usually only two
or three molecules thick. The interfacial proper-
ties (diffusion rates, molecular orientation,
surface tension, pressure tensor, adsorption, etc.)
play a crucial and often poorly understood role
in many chemical engineering processes-in
separations, oil recovery, heterogeneous reactions,
etc. Because of the thinness of the interface, ex-
perimental studies are fraught with difficulty.
Relatively sophisticated particle beam scattering
experiments can be carried out on solid surfaces,
but cannot be used for liquid surfaces because
they require a vacuum above the liquid. Computer
simulation and theoretical studies therefore play
a particularly important role [24, 25]. The first
simulations of gas-liquid interfaces were carried
out in the mid-1970's, and are now being extended
to solid-liquid interfaces and polar liquids. In addi-
tion to the perturbation theory approach described

5.



o % Vca Vcb


.S -5 -
-s-s


-10 -


0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
(Tca/Tcb)'2
FIGURE 4. The Henry constant K, for solute a in solvent
b as a function of (Tea/Teb) for a mixture of
simple spherical molecules from MC simula-
tion (points, solid line) and two current
theories (dashed line = expansion about
pure solvent, dotted line = Mansoori-
Leland approximation). Here T, V, are criti-
cal temperature and volume, v is molar
volume of solvent (from ref. 23).


A great variety of surface effects
of practical interest remain to be studied ...


above for bulk liquids, an alternative approach
known as integral equation theory seems promis-
ing for surface properties. A great variety of
surface effects of practical interest remain to be
studied, some of which have been listed under
computer simulation above. Others include the de-
velopment of predictive methods for calculating
surface tensions, adsorption at interfaces, dif-
fusion rates across and through the surface
layer, and nucleation rates.

CONCLUSION
AFTER A PERIOD OF CONSOLIDATION in the 1960's,
molecular thermodynamics has in the last six
or seven years entered a period in which there
have been dramatic developments in both experi-
mental studies of phase behavior, and in the
techniques of theory and simulation. In parallel
with these developments, chemical engineers have
been faced with challenging thermodynamics
problems in new processes for synthetic fuels, oil
recovery, and new separations techniques. The
most profitable line of approach will involve care-
fully planned studies that combine the techniques
of experiment, theory and simulation. E

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is a pleasure to thank the National Science
Foundation, the Gas Research Institute, and the
Donors of the Petroleum Research Fund of the
American Chemical Society for continued support
of this research. We thank Katherine Shing for
permission to reproduce Figure 4.

REFERENCES
1. JANAF Thermochemical Tables, Nat. Stand. Ref.
Data Series, Nat. Bur. Stand. 37, U.S. Department
of Commerce (1971); F. D. Rossini et al., "Selected
Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties," Nat.
Bur. Stand. Circular 500 (1952).
2. T. M. Reed and K. E. Gubbins, "Applied Statistical
Mechanics," McGraw-Hill, New York (1973), Chap.
7, 11; J. M. Prausnitz, "Molecular Thermodynamics
of Fluid Phase Equilibria," Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs (1969), Chap. 4, 5.
3. R. C. Reid, J. M. Prausnitz and T. K. Sherwood, "The
Properties of Gases and Liquids," 3rd edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York (1977), particularly Chap.
Continued on page 197.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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COAL LIQUEFACTION AND DESULFURIZATION


J. A. GUIN, Y. A. LIU, C. W. CURTIS,
A. R. TARRER AND D. C. WILLIAMS
Auburn University
Auburn, AL 36849

A LABAMA IS A SIGNIFICANT producer of coal in
the United States, particularly in the Gulf
province. There are large reserves of coal in Ala-
bama; 35 billion tons lie in the northern and
central counties, enough for hundreds of years at
our present rate of production. Lignite deposits
in southern Alabama counties await the technology
to properly realize their value. Thus, a strong
recommendation of a statewide conference on
"Energy and the Future of Alabama" sponsored
by Auburn University in 1972 was for "research,
development and technical liaison in the areas of
coal production, coal processing and coal usage."
Auburn University acted upon this recommenda-
tion, and with major support from the National
Science Foundation (NSF), established the Au-
burn Coal Conversion Research Laboratory in
the Department of Chemical Engineering in 1973.
Subsequently, with additional support from NSF
in 1975, Auburn University established a Coal
Preparation Research Laboratory. Since their
initiation, the Auburn Coal Research Laboratories
have been heavily involved in the graduate train-
ing of selected M.S. and Ph.D. students in the areas
of coal conversion and utilization. A major thrust
of the recent and ongoing research has been
placed on coal liquefaction and desulfurization.
The program is presently the largest university-
based coal research program in the Southeastern
region, and current support for the program is at
a level of about $450,000 annually. Recent and
current sponsors of the program, summarized in
Table 1, have included many industrial organiza-
tions. Of particular significance is the fact that
the Southern Company Services, Inc., which is
widely recognized in the area of coal conversion
technology and applications of coal-derived fuels,
has continued since 1973 to actively support many

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


The program is presently the
largest university-based coal research
program in the Southeastern region, and current
support is ... about $450,000 annually.


aspects of the Auburn coal liquefaction research
program. It has made available its resources and
facilities at the 6 tons/day solvent-refined-coal
(SRC) pilot plant located at Wilsonville, Alabama
(90 miles from Auburn) for support of the super-
vised internship and hands-on research training of
the Auburn program. The largest utility coal user
in the Northeast, the New England Electric
System, has also actively participated in the Au-
burn coal desulfurization research since 1978.

COAL RESEARCH FACULTY AND FACILITIES
The Auburn coal liquefaction research program
is presently being directed by a number of
chemical engineering faculty, including Drs. J. A.
Guin, A. R. Tarrer, C. W. Curtis and D. C.
Williams. These individuals have had extensive
coal liquefaction research experience, particularly
related to the aspects of transport phenomena,
reaction engineering, analytical chemistry, applied

TABLE 1
Recent Sponsors of the Auburn Coal Research Program
Disposable catalysts for coal liquefaction:
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Corrosion by coal liquids: Catalytic, Inc.
Catalyst deactivation in coal liquefaction:
Cities Service Research and Development
Two-stage coal liquefaction: Electric Power Research
Institute
Visual reactor studies of coal dissolution:
Gulf Research and Development Company
Magnetofluidized beds and coal desulfurization:
New England Power Service Company
Magnetic beneficiation of coal: Union Carbide Corporation
Graduate training in coal conversion and utilization:
U.S. Department of Education
Solvent refining of coal: U.S. Department of Energy
Dry coal desulfurization: U.S. Department of Energy


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









catalysis and separation processes. Both Drs.
Guin and Tarrer have served as project managers
for the Fossil Energy Program of the U. S. De-
partment of Energy, providing the Auburn Labo-
ratories with unique and practical insights to the
ongoing coal conversion research in the country.
In addition, Dr. S. C. Worley of the Department
of Chemistry and Dr. B. Tatarchuk, a new chemi-
cal engineering faculty in the Fall, 1981, are di-
recting fundamental research related to catalysis
in coal liquefaction; and Dr. R. B. Cook of the
Department of Geology is directing the geological
aspects of coal conversion processes. The Auburn
coal desulfurization research program is currently
being directed by Dr. Y. A. Liu, a chemical engi-
neering faculty member.
During the past few years, the Auburn coal
research faculty has become nationally and inter-
nationally recognized for its research as well as
its scholastic and professional contributions re-
lated to coal liquefaction and desulfurization, and
magnetic separation applied to coal preparation.
The research results obtained in the last few years
have been widely publicized through publication
of three books, two patents, and over 150 articles,
presentations and seminars. Further, the Auburn
Laboratories have organized and chaired two
international conferences on coal desulfurization
and magnetic separation (B8, B9), and one
national conference on the future of coal. A list of


Y. A. Liu received his B.S. from National Taiwan University, M.S.
from Tufts University and Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1974. He
is presently an alumni associate professor of Chemical Engineering at
Auburn University. (L)
James A. Guin is a professor of chemical engineering at Auburn
University. He received his B.S. and M.S. from the University of
Alabama and Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. His re-
search interests include coal liquefaction, reactor design, and catalytic
upgrading of coal liquids. (LC)
Authur R. Tarrer is an associate professor of chemical engineering
at Auburn University. He received his B.S. from Auburn University and
M.S. and Ph.D. from Purdue University. His research interests include


selected recent publications and theses from the
Auburn coal research program is given at the end
of this article.
Laboratories containing approximately 4000
ft2 in the Department of Chemical Engineering
have been equipped for coal conversion and
utilization studies. Complete laboratory facilities
for high-pressure coal conversion, coal crushing
and grinding, instrumental analysis, wet chemical
analysis and coal preparation research are avail-
able. Complete analytical equipment for standard
analyses of coal and coal-derived products is also
available in the laboratories. In addition,
specialized research equipment such as a Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer, an X-ray
Fluorescence Spectrometer, a CHONS analyzer
and a superconducting high-intensity magnetic
separator are available in the laboratories.

COAL LIQUEFACTION RESEARCH
Chemistry and Technology of Coal Liquefaction
In order to better appreciate the research
being conducted in coal liquefaction, a brief look
at coal liquefaction chemistry and technology
is desirable. Coal may be viewed as a large,
organic, amorphous, polymeric-like structure
consisting of condensed polynuclear aromatic
systems coupled by methylene-bridge groups, or
heteroatom linkages such as ether or sulfide















coal liquefaction, solids/liquid separation, process dynamics and
control, and catalysis. (C)
Christine W. Curtis is a research associate in chemical engineering
at Auburn University. She received her B.S. from Mercer University and
M.S. and Ph.D. from Florida State University. Her research interests
include coal liquefaction, catalytic upgrading and analysis of coal
liquids. (RC)
Dennis C. Williams is an assistant professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Auburn University. He received his Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
ing from Princeton University in 1980. His research interests include
process control, process synthesis, reactor modelling, phase behavior
effects in coal liquefaction, and numerical methods. (R)


FALL 1981









groups. Nitrogen is also a significant heteroatom
component of the coal structure. The liquefaction
of coal is thought to begin with the thermal rup-
ture of scissile linkages at temperatures around
375C with the resulting formation of a large
number of free radical species. The key to the
liquefaction process is to "cap off" these free
radicals by hydrogen addition before they can
recombine with large coal fragments to form a
high-molecular-weight structure. This "donor"
hydrogen usually comes primarily from a "donor"
solvent; however, it may also arise from gas-
phase hydrogen or hydroaromatic portions of the
coal itself. The effective "capping" of these free
radicals leads to the formation of products of
lower molecular weight. If the reaction conditions
are severe enough, a liquid product is formed. A


cnl


CH'--CH '* TetrallnH2
U 2 (Donor Molecule)
CH2
oaol
Froment




Naphtholene
(Spent Solvent)


CH
Stabilization / I

CH3-C CH Naphthalene
I C3 (Spent Solvent)
CH3
Stabilized
Molecule


Regenerotion


H2
Tetralln2
(Donor Molecule)


FIGURE 1. Hypothetical stabilization of coal fragment
by donor solvent and regeneration of
solvent in coal liquefaction.


simple diagram of this process is shown in Figure
1, using a model donor solvent, tetrahydronaphtha-
lene (tetralin). The "spent" donor, naphthalene,
can be hydrogenated to regenerate the donor. In
an actual process, the donor recycle solvent is a
complex mixture of condensed aromatic com-
pounds derived from the coal itself. A more de-
tailed investigation of factors affecting coal lique-
faction has been presented elsewhere (Al). A
good introduction to coal technology can be found
in Berkowitz (A2).
A diagram of a typical coal liquefaction plant
is shown in Figure 2. The raw coal is liquefied in
the presence of a coal-derived recycle solvent and
hydrogen gas at about 2000 psig and 4250C. A
catalyst can be used in the reactor if desired. The
mineral matter indigenous to the coal together
with any undissolved coal are physically removed
following the reaction. The coal liquids are then


available for subsequent separation and process-
ing into the desired clean fuels. A commercial coal
liquefaction plant would process about 30,000
tons/day of raw coal. The only commercial opera-
tion of this magnitude today is in South Africa
where large quantities of liquid fuels are produced
via coal gasification and catalytic Fischer-Tropsch
technology (A3). The direct production of liquid
fuels from coal by solvent extraction-hydrogena-
tion avoids the gasification step and offers the po-
tential of a more thermally efficient process. A
survey of different coal liquefaction processes
being developed in this country can be found in
the excellent surveys by Klass (A4) and Perry
(A5).

Current Scope and Accomplishments

Coal liquefaction research at Auburn centers
on the production of clean liquid and solid fuels
from coal. At the present time, processes to per-
form these operations are not economically com-
petitive with the use of petroleum. The objective
of the Auburn research program is to investigate
the effects of process operating conditions, equip-
ment configurations, and nature of raw materials
upon the kinetics and mechanisms of coal lique-
faction. Included within the framework are the
hydrogenation, cracking and heteroatom (N, O, S)
removal reactions which are essential to convert-
ing coal to clean liquid fuels. By obtaining a
better understanding of coal liquefaction chemis-
try, guidelines and recommendations for improve-
ments in liquefaction technology can be developed,
thus leading to more competitive processes.
The coal liquefaction research thus far has re-
sulted in findings which may point the way to im-
provements in several areas of coal liquefaction
technology.
Solids Removal. Because of the large quantities
involved, the high solution viscosity, and the micron-
sized particles, the removal of coal mineral matter
and undissolved coal from the reactor effluent is a
costly and difficult job. Current research has shown
that analysis of particle size distribution in the
filter feed stream can provide an indication of the
difficulty of downstream filterability and filter cake
resistance (Bl).
Coal Properties. It has been determined that various
coals, e.g., Kentucky, Pittsburgh, Illinois, Wyoming,
respond quite differently to the liquefaction process.
Attempts are being made to correlate their diverse
behavior with the coal properties.
Solvent Composition. The quantity and composi-
tion of the recycle solvent are key variables in any
coal liquefaction operation. Using IR and NMR


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









spectroscopies, it has been found that the hydro-
aromaticity of the recycle solvent is closely related
to its effectiveness for coal liquefaction (B7).
Sulfur Removal. In certain coal liquefaction pro-
cesses, e.g., the SRC process, the primary objective is
to remove sulfur from the coal to produce a non-
polluting, clean burning product. By introducing
certain sulfur scavenging agents, e.g., Fe2O3, into
the liquefaction reactor, it has been found possible
to significantly reduce the sulfur content of the
SRC product (B5).
Coal Pretreatment. The oxidation of coal has been
found to reduce significantly the liquid yield from
processing. This factor has stimulated considerable
interest in the protocol used to store, grind, and
dry the fresh coal prior to liquefaction.
Coal Mineral Catalysis. It has been established that
coal minerals, notably pyrite, act as weak catalysts
for hydrogenation and heteroatom removal reactions
in the liquefaction process (B2, B4). This catalysis
can be used to improve hydrogen usage selectivity
and to lower the yield of non-desirable products,
e.g., light hydrocarbon gases (B6). The regenera-
tion of mineral residue from the reactor to produce
an active catalyst is an item of current research,
as are the kinetics of the catalytic reactions.
Product Characterization. The chemical nature of
coal liquefaction products, e.g., asphaltenes, SRC,
etc., is vastly complex. Inroads are being made in
this area using a variety of separation techniques
such as high performance liquid chromatography
coupled with a number of spectroscopic techniques
including Fourier transform infrared spectro-
photometer, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass
spectroscopy (B3).

Work related to the above areas is now ongoing
as part of the current coal liquefaction program
at Auburn. Some typical current research topics
on which graduate students are now working in-
clude:

A critical evaluation of mass transfer effects in
coal liquefaction
Solvent characterization using chromatographic
separation with 1H and 13C NMR


Cool Feed Liquefaction Gases
Reactor Solids
400OC, 2000 psig Separatlon
Coal Liquids

Minerals
Undissolved Cool Recycle
Solvent


solvent
Hydrosgenation Gsf Ash
(op iona) Gasiser As

SHydrogen

FIGURE 2. A schematic diagram of a typical coal lique-
faction process (adapted from A8).


The objective of the ... program
is to investigate the effects of process
operating conditions, equipment configurations,
and nature of raw materials upon
the kinetics and mechanisms
of coal liquefaction.



Catalyst deactivation in upgrading of crude coal
liquids
Kinetics and mechanism of hydrogen shuttling in
coal liquefaction
Tailoring of coal recycle solvent for more effective
liquefaction
Catalyst poisoning by heteroatom compounds in
coal derived liquids

COAL DESULFURIZATION RESEARCH

Physics and Technology of Coal Desulfurization

Physical coal desulfurization (cleaning or
beneficiation) methods are based upon the differ-
ences in the physical characteristics that affect
the separation of sulfur-bearing and ash-form-
ing minerals from the pulverized, coal. Typical
physical characteristics utilized in these methods
include specific gravity, electric conductivity,
magnetic susceptibility and surface properties.
In some of the new methods being developed,
chemical pretreatment is used to enhance the
difference in physical characteristics to facilitate
the physical separation of mineral impurities from
the pulverized coal (A6). An excellent survey of
the present and developing physical coal desulfuri-
zation processes can be found in Berry (A7), and
an in-depth review of much of the new methods
and developments of physical coal desulfuriza-
tion technology will soon be published (B10).
A relatively well-established technology which
has been proposed for coal desulfurization applica-
tions is the magnetic separation technique. Pre-
vious investigators have indicated that most of
the mineral impurities which contribute to coal's
sulfur and ash contents are weakly magnetic,
whereas coal is nonmagnetic (BS). During the
past few years, the magnetic desulfurization of
coal has been given new impetus with the introduc-
tion of the high gradient magnetic separation
(HGMS) technology (B9). The latter utilizes the
modern large-capacity magnetic separation equip-
ment of an intense field intensity and a large field
gradient, coupled with the latest magnetic pro-
cessing know-how such as the control of retention


FALL 1981








time for reducing the fluid drag force and im-
proving the separation efficiency.

Current Scope and Accomplishments

Since 1975, the Auburn Coal Preparation
Laboratory has been actively involved in both
basic and applied research in physical coal de-
sulfurization, emphasizing the development and
demonstration of HGMS processes. Major results
from this research have included:

The pilot-scale demonstration of the technical
feasibility of magnetic separation of mineral resi-
due from liquefied coal (B11);
The computer development and experimental verifi-
cation of a practical model for predicting the
technical performance of HGMS for the removal
of sulfur and ash from coal/water slurries (B12);
and
The experimental development of the patented
Auburn fluidized-bed HGMS process for desulfuriza-
tion of dry pulverized coal (B13).

The recent and current emphasis of the Auburn
coal desulfurization research has been placed on
the continued development and demonstration of
the patented fluidized-bed HGMS process for de-
sulfurization of utility boiler feed coals. In par-
ticular, a pilot-scale superconducting fluidized-
bed HGMS process development unit (PDU) has
been successfully designed, constructed and tested.
The available experimental results have shown
that the new fluidized-bed magnetic process can
reduce the sulfur emission level (lb S per million
BTU) of several pulverized Eastern coals (70 to
80% minus 200-mesh) by 55-70% and achieve
an average BTU recovery of 85-95% (B14). Work
is continuing on the automation and optimization
of the continuous PDU in order to provide the
necessary data for assessing the economics of the
new dry magnetic process for coal desulfurization.
Another emphasis of the Auburn current research
is the fundamental studies of magnetofluidized
beds as a new gas-solid contacting technology for
reaction, separation and filtration applications. A
novel concept of using a packed fluidized-bed in a
magnetic field for the removal of sulfur and ash
from pulverized coal invented in the Auburn
Laboratories has been described in a recent
patent (B13). O

A. LITERATURE CITED
Al. Guin, J. A., A. R. Tarrer, Z. L. Taylor, Jr., J. W.
Prather and S. Green, "Mechanisms of Coal Particle


Dissolution," I & EC Process Des. and Develop., 17,
490 (1976).
A2. Berkowitz, N., An Introduction to Coal Technology,
Academic Press, New York (1979).
A3. Heylin, M., "South Africa Commits to Oil from
Coal Process," Chem. and Eng. News, p. 13, Sept.
17 (1979).
A4. Klass, D. L., "Synthetic Crude Oil from Shale and
Coal," Chemtech., p. 499, Aug. (1975).
A5. Perry, H., "Coal Conversion Technology, Chem.
Eng., p. 88, July 22 (1980).
A6. Leonard, J. W., Editor, Coal Preparation, Soc.
Mining Engrs., Denver (1979).
A7. Berry, R. L., "Guide to Coal-Cleaning Methods,"
Chem. Eng., p. 47, Jan. 26 (1981).


B. SELECTED RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM THE
AUBURN COAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
Bl. Curtis, C. W., A. R. Tarrer and J. A. Guin, "Particle
Size Variation in the Solvent Refined Coal Process,"
I & EC Process Des. and Develop., 18, 377 (1979).
B2. Guin, J. A., A. R. Tarrer, J. M. Lee, H. F. Van-
Brackle and C. W. Curtis, "Further Studies of
Catalytic Activity of Coal Minerals in Coal Lique-
faction: 1. Verification of Catalytic Activity of
Mineral Matter by Model Compound Studies, and
2. Performance of Iron and SRC Mineral Residue
as Catalysts and Sulfur Scavengers," I & EC Pro-
cess Des. and Develop., 18, 371 and 631 (1979).
B3. C. W. Curtis, C. D. Hathaway, J. A. Guin, and
A. R. Tarrer, "Spectroscopic Investigation of Sol-
vent Refined Coal Fractions," Fuel, 59, 575 (1980).
B4. Guin, J. A., J. M. Lee, C. W. Fan, C. W. Curtis, J. L.
Lloyd and A. R. Tarrer, "The Pyrite Catalyzed
Hydrogenolysis of Benzothiophene at Coal Lique-
faction Conditions," I & EC Process Des. and
Develop., 19, 440 (1980).
B5. Garg, D., A. R. Tarrer, J. A. Guin, C. W. Curtis
and J. Clinton, "The Selective Action of Hema-
tite in Coal Desulfurization," I & EC Process Des.
and Develop., 19, 572 (1980).
B6. Garg, D., A. R. Tarrer, J. A. Guin, C. W. Curtis,
J. H. Clinton and S. M. Paranjape, "Selectivity Im-
provement in the Solvent Refined Coal Process. 1.
Detailed First-Stage Reaction Studies: Coal Mineral
Catalysis; and 2. Detailed Second-Stage Reaction
Studies: Hydrotreating of Coal Liquids," Fuel Pro-
cess Technol., 3, 245 and 263 (1980).
B7. Curtis, C. W., J. A. Guin, J. F. Jeng and A. R.
Tarrer, "Coal Solvolysis with a Series of Coal-
Derived Liquids," Fuel, in press (1981).
B8. Liu, Y. A., Editor, Proceedings of Magnetic De-
sulfurization of Coal Symposium, Special Issue on
Magnetic Separation, IEEE Trans. on Magn., MAG-
12, 423-551 (1976).
B9. Liu, Y. A., Editor, Industrial Applications of Mag-
netic Separation, 206 pages, IEEE Publication No.
78CH1447-2 MAG, Institute of Electric and
Electronic Engineers, Inc., New York (1979).
B10. Liu, Y. A., Editor, Physical Cleaning of Coal:
Continued on page 213.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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RenackC on


OIL SHALE CHAR REACTIONS

WILLIAM J. THOMSON
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164


WITH THE RE-EMERGENCE OF an oil shale in-
dustry in the United States, most chemical
engineers have become acquainted with the pyro-
lytic requirements to decompose the kerogen
contained in the raw shale; namely, temperatures
of 725 800 K and a sweep gas to remove the
pyrolysis products. However, what is often over-
looked is the fraction of the organic carbon which
remains behind on the spent shale as a carbona-
ceous char. As Dockter [1] has shown, there is
more than enough energy in the residual char to
supply the pyrolysis heat requirements for shales
assayed at greater than 20 gal/ton (GPT). Al-
though first generation surface retorting pro-
cesses will not utilize this char (TOSCO II,
UNION RETORT B), there is general agreement
that energy efficiency considerations will dictate its
exploitation in all future process schemes.
In discussing oil shale char, distinction must
be made between the western shales of the Green
River formation and the so-called black shales
which are found in the eastern United States (in
a north-south belt from Michigan to Texas). De-
pending on retorting conditions and assay, the
char remaining on spent western shale is 2-5 % of
the raw shale weight. On the other hand, whereas
the organic carbon content of the black shales is
similar to that of the western shales, the oil yield
is typically a factor of three lower. Thus the char
content here is substantially greater, undoubtedly
due to the higher degree of aromaticity in the
black shale kerogen [2].
The author has been involved in research on
the reactions and the associated kinetics of oil
shale char for the past six years. The ultimate
goal of the research is to develop quantitative rate
expressions for these reactions in support of
modeling efforts for both in-situ and surface re-
torting processes. Since any char utilization
scheme will necessarily involve at least partial

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


William J. Thomson is professor and chair of Chemical Engineering
at Washington State University. Prior to assuming these duties in
January, 1981, he taught at the University of Idaho for 11 years. He
holds degrees from Pratt Institute (B.Ch.E.), Stanford University (M.S.)
and the University of Idaho (Ph.D.). His research interests are in oil
shale processing as well as applied kinetics and catalysis.

combustion, temperatures will be high (950-1200
K), and a significant fraction of the mineral
matter in the shale will also react. Because a
number of these inorganic constituents can also
act as catalysts for the char reactions, there is no
way to ignore their behavior. We discovered this
early in our work and although it made our task
more difficult, it led to a number of interesting ob-
servations. The pertinent mineral reactions which
take place in western shale and the char reactions
we have studied are shown in Table 1.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

ALL OF OUR WORK TO DATE has been conducted on
western oil shale; specifically on samples taken
from the Parachute Creek member near Rifle,
Colorado. The raw shale samples, assayed at 15 to
50 GPT, were retorted under various conditions,
crushed to about 100 mesh and placed in a thermal
gravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Continuous
gravimetric measurements together with on-line
chromatographic analyses of the exit gas allowed
us to follow each of the reactions and to obtain
quantitative rate data. Details of the experimental
system and a discussion of its limitations have
been given in previous publications [3, 4].


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








CHAR OXIDATION


A S PART OF OUR STUDIES OF char oxidation we
included an evaluation of the effects of assay
and retorting conditions on the resultant char
activity. We found no dependence on assay and
only when the retorting rate was less than 1 K/
min and the sweep gas velocity was less than 0.05
m/min was there any effect on char activity. In
this case the quantity of char produced was in-
creased and its activity was 50 % lower. As Camp-
bell et al. [5] have suggested, the additional char
is probably due to the coking of the product oils.
Equation (9) gives the reaction rate expression
obtained at temperatures below 900 K where Ce
is the char concentration (moles/g shale)
97200
ro, = 1.41 x 103 exp [ RT ] Po, C (9)

with RT in joules/mole, Po2 in kPa, rox expressed
in moles/sec-g shale. It should also be pointed
out that, unlike coal combustion, the activity
does not change with fraction combusted (other
than the first order dependence on Ce). Variable
coal activity is generally attributed to changes
in pore size distribution during combustion
whereas oil shale char is distributed rather uni-
formly throughout an established inorganic
matrix. At temperatures greater than 900 K the
mineral reactions given in Table 1 begin to take
place and there is positive evidence [4] that the
CaO produced by reaction (7) catalyzes the char
oxidation. The effect is at least an order of magni-
tude increase in the activity but this has never
been quantified as a function of the CaO con-


The ultimate goal of the
research is to develop quantitative
rate expressions for these reactions in support of
modeling efforts for both in-situ and
surface retorting processes.


centration.
Both inter- and intra-particle mass transport
resistances are expected to be significant during
char combustion. Measurements of the effective
diffusivities for diffusion paths parallel and per-
pendicular to the bedding plane give values of
30 x 10-6 and 12 x 10-6 m2/sec, respectively. These,
together with estimates of gas-solid mass transfer
coefficients, were used to show that both forms of
mass transport were equally significant during the
consumption of the initial 40% of the char for a
typical in-situ burn [6].

CO, GASIFICATION

D DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE OIL shale processing,
the reaction between CO2 and carbon can be
an important part of the overall gasification
scheme. This is because of the large volumes of
CO2 liberated due to combustion and mineral de-
composition. In fact, the simultaneous occurrence
of these reactions is just what makes CO2 gasifica-
tion so difficult to isolate and analyze. As a result
it was necessary to develop a careful procedure to
study this reaction [7] and we were necessarily
limited to a rather narrow temperature range
(975 1050 K). The kinetic data were fit to the
types of rate expressions derived from the coal


TABLE 1
Char and Mineral Reactions (Western Shale)


INITIATION
TEMPERATURE
(K)


WGSR
4) CO + H2O -> CO, + H2
Mineral
5) CaMg(CO3), -> CaCO, + MgO + CO2
6) CaFe(CO3), -> CaCO, + FeO + CO2
7) CaCO,3 CaO + CO2
8) 2CaCO, + SiO2 -> Ca2SiO4 + 2CO,


COMMENTS


Strong CO inhibition
Catalyzed by CaO

Catalyzed by iron

Difficult to separate from reaction (7)

Reversible
Slow


REACTION


Char
1)
2)
3)


C + 02 -> CO2
C + CO, -> 2CO
C + H20 -> H2 + CO


FALL 1981








literature, resulting in equation (10). The numer-
ical values in equation (10) are similar to those
found in

k0 Pco2 Ce
roo2 1+ KPoo, + KPco (10)
ke = 7.83 x 104 exp [-184000/RT]
(kPa-sec) -1
k, = 0.0495 (kPa)-1
k2 = 5.0 (kPa)-1
the coal literature except that the inhibiting effect
of CO is ten times greater.

STEAM GASIFICATION

S TEAM GASIFICATION ALSO PROVED difficult to
isolate since the CO formed by reaction (3)
was found to react very rapidly via the water gas
shift reaction (WGSR), reaction (4). The CO.
formed in that reaction then competes with H20
for the available carbon. In fact the net effect of
steam gasification is to produce H2 and CO2 and,
after CO, scrubbing, the H2 could be used to offset
hydrotreating requirements for the raw shale oil.
We were able to circumvent these interactions by
taking initial rate data [7] and the rate expression
is given in equation (11).
k. Po20
rH20 = (11)
1 + Ks PH'o + K, PH2
k, = 6.62 exp [-100700/RT] (kPa-sec)-1
K = 0.20 exp [-17000/RT] (kPa)-1
K4 = 0.15 (kPa)-1

CATALYTIC EFFECTS
OVER THE YEARS THERE HAS been a continuing
interest in alkali promoted catalysis of coal
gasification and, more recently, of biomass py-
rolysis. In both of these applications an alkali
salt must be added to the fuel, either by im-
pregnation or by admixing. However, with oil
shale we already have many of these elements in
place. It is not surprising then that CaO was
found to catalyze char combustion and, later, to
catalyze steam gasification [7]. Recall that iron is
also present in the shale, either in the form of
ankerite (Table 1) or pyrite. In either case, oxida-
tion and its associated high temperatures result
in producing one or more of the oxidation states
of iron (FeO, Fe2O,, FeO,). We have studied
the WGSR over shale ash [7] and not only is it
catalyzed by iron, but the iron oxidation state
changes as the surrounding gas composition
changes. Again, as in the case of CaO, we have a
variable catalyst concentration and the dependence


of activity as a function of catalyst concentration
has yet to be quantified.

CONCLUSIONS
As is the case with most complex mixtures,
the study of oil shale and its reactions is a
challenging subject. Whereas we have managed
some success with the obvious, the subtle and vary-
ing catalytic effects of the inorganic matrix is still
in the early stages of investigation. It is likely
that we will discover more interesting catalytic
properties of shale ash as we continue our
studies. O

REFERENCES
1. Dockter, L., AIChE SYMP. SER., 72, 24 (1976).
2. Miknis, F. P. and Macill, G. E., presented at 14th Oil
Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, 22-24 April 1981.
3. Soni, Y. and Thomson, W. J., Proceedings of the 11th
Oil Shale Symposium, Colorado School of Mines
Press, p. 364 (1978).
4. Soni, Y. and Thomson, W. J., I&EC Proc. Des. and
Dev., 18, p. 661 (1979).
5. Campbell, J. H., Koskinas, G. H. and Stout, N. D.,
IN-SITU, 2, p. 1 (1978).
6. Thomson, W. J. and Soni, Y., IN-SITU, 4, p. 61
(1980).
7. Thomson, W. J., Gerber, M. A., Hatter, M. A. and
Oakes, D. G., to be published in, "Oil Shale, Tar Sands
and Related Materials," ACS SYMP. SER. (1981).


book reviews

COAL AND MODERN COAL PROCESSING:
AN INTRODUCTION

By G. J. Pitt and G. R. Millward
Academic Press, New York, 1979

Reviewed by T. D. Wheelock
Iowa State University
A number of books dealing with the properties
of coal and methods of utilizing this complex and
interesting material have recently appeared. Not
least among them is this volume of lectures pre-
sented during the 1976-77 session of the University
College of Wales to commemorate a British coal
scientist Dr. Walter Idris Jones. These lectures
were presented by various technical experts from
the National Coal Board in England and edited by
G. J. Pitt, one of the lectures, and G. R. Millward
who was with the University at the time.
Continued on page 219.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












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exploring your needs, goals and dreams.
Because the employee turnover rate at CPC
is very low, we feel we're successful at
meeting our people's expectations. You
might say now we're reaping the benefits
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If you think you'd like to grow with us,
write to:

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FALL 1981














KINETICS AND CATALYSIS


C. H. BARTHOLOMEW
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602

C ATALYSIS IS A DEVELOPING SCIENCE which plays
a critically important role in the petroleum,
chemical, and emerging energy industries. It com-
bines principles from somewhat diverse disciplines
of kinetics, chemistry, material science, surface
science and reaction engineering.
The subjects of kinetics and catalysis are very
basic to graduate curriculums in Chemical Engi-
neering and Chemistry. Yet because of the de-
manding nature of graduate curriculum require-
ments, few departments can afford the luxury of
offering and/or requiring more than one intro-
ductory course treating a combination of these
two subjects.

THE CHALLENGE
The challenge at BYU is to combine the funda-
mentals of kinetics and scientific/engineering
principles of heterogeneous catalysis into a single-


Calvin H. Bartholomew received his B.S. degree in Chemical Engi-
neering from Brigham Young University and his M.S. and Ph.D. de-
grees in Chemical Engineering from Stanford University. He spent a
year at Corning Glass Works as a Senior Chemical Engineer in
Surface Chemistry Research. In 1973 he joined the Chemical Engi-
neering Department at Brigham Young University and is currently
associate professor. His major research interests are heterogeneous
catalysis (adsorption, kinetics and catalyst characterization), Moess-
bauer spectroscopy and air pollution chemistry.


The challenge ... is to combine the
fundamentals of kinetics and scientific engineering
principles of heterogeneous catalysis into
a single-semester, 3-credit course
suitable for chemical engineering
and chemistry graduate students.

semester, 3-credit course suitable for chemical
engineering and chemistry graduate students. A
typical class consists of 15-20 students, most of
which are M.S. and Ph.D. bound chemical engi-
neers, the remainder consisting of 1-2 chemistry
majors and 1-2 chemical engineering seniors. The
obvious diversity in class makeup and subject
matter requires (i) review of some basic kinetic
and chemical principles and (ii) a careful com-
promise between depth and breadth in course
topics. Accordingly the course is divided into eight
topics covered in 35 50-minute lectures (see Table
1). In addition, three special lectures and three
demonstrations (see Table 2) and a term paper
based on study of the literature add spice and
flavor to the course.
Another challenge which faces instructors of
kinetics and catalysis is that of finding suitable
text materials. There is, in fact, no single text
which covers this subject matter as outlined in
Table 1. Our solution to this dilemma is to use
portions of J. M. Smith's book on "Chemical Engi-
neering Kinetics" (the only required text) supple-
mented with 4 chapters from Boudart's "Kinetics
of Chemical Processes" (out of print and used by
permission from the author), reference books on
library reserve and papers from the literature
(see References).

COURSE ORGANIZATION

T HE COURSE BEGINS WITH A brief but enthusi-
astic introduction to the world of catalysis and
the basic concepts, rules and definitions of
kinetics. The foundation for understanding and
predicting reaction rates is next laid through 6

0 Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 1: Course Outline


I. INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS
(two lectures)
A. Past, present and future of catalysis
B. Basic kinetic concepts and definitions
II. KINETIC THEORY
(six lectures)
A. Collision theory
B. Transition state theory
C. The H2 12 reaction, a case study
D. Thermodynamic formulation of rates
III. CONCEPTS, METHODS, AND TOOLS OF
KINETICS (three lectures)
A. Elementary steps/active centers and catalysis
B. Catalysis and the steady state approximation
C. Concept of the rate determining step
IV. ADSORPTION (four lectures)
A. Adsorption processes and types
B. Adsorption Isotherms
1. Langmuir
2. Others (Freundlich, Tempkin and BET)
C. Chemisorption
1. Measurement of Active metal surface area
2. Calculations of dispersion and crystallite
size
3. Heterogeneity and particle size effects
V. KINETICS OF SURFACE REACTIONS
A. Unimolecular and bimolecular surface reactions


lectures on kinetic theory using the magnificent
work of John H. Sullivan on H2 + 21 -> HI as
our classic case study. The student is next fitted
with the basic tools of kinetics in three lectures
dealing with elementary steps, the steady state
approximation and the concept of rate determin-
ing step. Here the methanation of CO serves
as our model reaction. The foundation and tools
are now used to erect the course framework
consisting of four lectures on adsorption and
surface reactions, the most basic processes in
catalysis. Two lectures on methods and materials
in catalysis provide an interesting diversion while
introducing the knowledge of catalyst structure
needed to tackle the meaty subjects of diffusion
and mass transfer. We concentrate on these latter
subjects in some depth (seven lectures) and in a
way which prepares the student for the ultimate
engineering problem of designing fixed bed
catalytic reactors. Again methanation is used as
our model reaction.

LEARNING FROM EXPERIMENTS AND LITERATURE

A MOST ENJOYABLE PART of the course involves
special lectures, experimental demonstrations
(see Table 2) and the study of papers from the
literature. The oscillating reaction is clearly our


B. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions
1. Definitions of rate, activity, selectivity, and
turnover number
2. Facile and demanding reactions
VI. METHODS AND MATERIALS IN CATALYSIS
(two lectures)
A. Catalyst properties and materials
B. Catalyst selection and testing
C. Catalysts characterization-tools of the trade
VII. DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSPORT IN
CATALYSIS (seven lectures)
A. Diffusion in porous catalytic solids
1. Overall rates and resistances
2. Effects of pore diffusion on rate-models
and equations
3. Pore resistance criteria
B. Film mass transfer
1. Model and correlations
2. Calculation of km
3. Mass transfer criteria
C. Nonisothermal heat effects
VIII. REACTOR DESIGN IN HETEROGENEOUS
CATALYSIS (eight lectures)
A. Review of ideal reactors
B. Material and energy balances for fixed beds
C. Laboratory and industrial reactors
D. Case study: reactor design of a methanator


most dazzling demonstration; although the simple
study of water level recession rates in a tank with
the exiting tube either verticle or horizontal pro-
vides a rewarding kinetic analogy in connection
with Bernoulli's equation. The very exothermic
oxidation of ammonia on thin (brightly) hot Pt
and Cu wires provides a fascinating but straight-
forward demonstration of the role of heat transfer
in catalysis.
Because catalysis is in large part an experi-
mental science, several class assignments are di-
rected at understanding basic experimental
techniques, methods of analyzing data, and ele-
ments of reactor design (including the design of
a recycle methanator). Most of our weekly as-

TABLE 2

Special Lectures and Demonstrations
SPECIAL LECTURES
1. Kinetic Analogies
2. Oscillating reactions and auto catalysis
3. Catalytic petroleum refining processes
DEMONSTRATIONS
1. Kinetic analogy: Water level in a tank with outlet
2. Oscillating reactions
3. Hot wire ammonia oxidation


FALL 1981









signments include the reading of a carefully se-
lected journal article (see References). One of
the assignments is to critically review one of these
articles, a task which stimulates the thinking of
the best students and makes for interesting class
discussion. However, the assignment that appears
to have the greatest learning impact is the prepa-
ration of a literature review paper on a topic of
the students' choice, typically a catalytic reaction
or process. O


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author acknowledges the excellent
examples of former teachers and stimulating con-
versation with colleagues of the present who have
influenced his thinking and provided ideas leading
to the demonstrations and special lectures, in-
cluding Michel Boudart (Stanford U.), Duane
Horton (formerly BYU), Douglas Bennion (BYU,
who has shared in the teaching of this course) and
James Christensen (BYU).


REFERENCES

Texts
1. Smith, J. M., "Chemical Engineering Kinetics," 3rd
Ed., McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1980.
2. M. Boudart, "Kinetics of Chemical Processes,"
Prentice Hall, 1968, Chapters 1-4. (Out of print, use
by permission of author).

Background Readings
1. Anderson, R. B., "Experimental Methods in Catalytic
Research," Academic Press, N.Y., 1968.
2. Benson, S. W., "Foundations of Chemical Kinetics,"
McGraw-Hill, 1960.
3. Carberry, J. J., "Chemical and Catalytic Reaction
Engineering," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976.
4. Denbigh, K. G. and Turner, J. C. R., "Chemical Re-
actor Theory," 2nd Edition, Cambridge, 1971.
5. Hill, C. G., "An Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Kinetics and Reactor Design," John Wiley, 1977.
6. Laidler, K. J., "Chemical Kinetics," 2nd Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 1965.
7. Moore, W. J., "Physical Chemistry," 3rd Edition,
Prentice-Hall, N.Y. 1962.
8. Glasstone, S., Laidler, K. J., and Eyring, H., "Theory
of Rate Processes," McGraw-Hill, 1941.
9. Satterfield, C. N., "Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous
Systems," MIT Press, 1970.
10. Satterfield, C. N., "Heterogeneous Catalysis in
Practice," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1980.
11. Thomas, C. L., "Catalytic Processes and Proven
Catalysts," Academic Press, N.Y., 1970.
12. Bond, G. C., "Heterogeneous Catalysis," Oxford
Press, 1979.


Topical Journal Articles
1. Sullivan, J. H., "Mechanism of the "Bimolecular"
Hydrogen-Iodine Reaction," J. Chem. Physics 46, 73
(1967). (Also see C & EN, Jan. 16, 1967, p. 40).
2. Boudart, M., "Catalysis by Supported Metals," Ad-
vances in Catalysis 20, 153 (1969).
3. Yates, J. T., Jr., "Catalysis, Insights From New
Technique and Theory," C. & EN, Aug. 26, 1974, p. 19.
4. Butt, J. B., "Progress Toward the a Priori Determina-
tion of Catalytic Properties," A.I.Ch.E. Journal 22,
1 (1976).
5. Sinfelt, J. H., Carter, J. L., and Yates, D. J. C.,
"Catalytic Hydrogenolysis and Dehydrogenation over
Copper Nickel Alloys," J. Catal. 24, 283 (1972).
6. Sinfelt, J. H., "Ru/Cu Bimetallic Clusters," J. Catal.
29, 308 (1973).
7. Boudart, M., "Two Step Catalytic Reactions,"
A.I.Ch.E. Journal 18, 465 (1972).
8. Dalla Betta, R. A., Piken, A. G., and Shelef, M.,
"Heterogeneous Methanation: Steady-State Rate of
CO Hydrogenation on Supported Ruthenium, Nickel
and Rhenium," J. Catal. 40, 173 (1975).
9. Vannice, M. A., "The Catalytic Synthesis of Hydro-
carbons from H2/CO Mixtures Over the Group VIII
Metals," J. Catal. 37, 449 (1975).
10. Wentrcek, P. R., Wood, B. J., and Wise, H., "The
Role of Surface Carbon in Catalytic Methanation,"
J. Catal. 43, 363 (1976).
11. Bartholomew, C. H., and Farrauto, R. J., "Chemistry
of Nickel-Alumina Catalysts," J. Catal. 45, 41 (1976).
12. Taylor, K. C., "Determination of Ruthenium Surface
Areas by Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemisorption," J.
Catal. 38, 299 (1975).
13. Mustard, D. G., and Bartholomew, C. H., "Determi-
nation of Crystallite Size and Morphology in Sup-
ported Nickel Catalysts," J. Catal. 67, 186 (1981).
14. Dumesic, J. A., Topsoe, H., Khammouma, S., and
Boudart, M., "Catalytic and Magnetic Properties of
Small Iron Particles, II Structure Sensitivity of
Ammonia Synthesis," J. Catal. 37, 503 (1975).
15. Bartholomew, C. H., Pannell, R. B., and Butler, J. L.,
"Support and Crystallite Size Effects in CO Hydro-
genation on Nickel," J. Catal. 65, 335 (1980).
16. Mears, D. E., "Tests for Transport Limitations in
Experimental Catalytic Reactors," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Process Des. Devel., 10, 541 (1971).
17. Carberry, J. J., and Butt, J. B., "On the Status of
Catalytic Reaction Engineering," Cat. Rev.-Sci. Eng.
10, 221 (1974).
18. Field, R. J., "A Reaction Periodic in Time and
Space," J. Chem. Ed. 49, 309 (1972).
19. Lefelhocz, "The Color Blind Traffic Light," J. Chem.
Ed. 49, 313 (1972).
20. Butt, J. B., and Weekman, V. W., Jr., "The Determina-
tion of Catalyst Properties," CEP 71, 33 (1975).
21. Carberry, J. J., "Designing Laboratory Catalytic Re-
actors," Ind. & Eng. Chem. 56, 39 (1964).
22. Weekman, V. W., A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 1974.
23. Conn, A. L., "Developments in Refining Processes
for Fuels," CEP 69, 11 (1973).
24. D. P. Burke, "Catalysts," Chemical Week, Nov. 1,
1972, p. 23.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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St. Louis.
These words, "Monsanto Drive"
have another and more significant mean-
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the special qualities of Monsanto people,
who have the will to meet challenges
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We offer bright and energetic people
with this drive the opportunity to help
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FALL 1981


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4f ac^Ai in


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

JOHN C. HASSLER
University of Maine at Orono
Orono, ME 04469


O NE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT changes in chemi-
cal engineering over the last several years has
been the rapid increase in the availability of a
rather vaguely defined resource which I will call
"computing power." In fact, mathematical
modeling has reached a level of sophistication and
reliability sufficient to allow it to replace some
or all of the "pilot plant" part of designing a
process. Further, the rate of increase of comput-
ing power availability shows no sign of decreas-
ing. This all serves to emphasize the importance
of the teaching of effective use of computers in
chemical engineering education.
Though few would disagree with these state-
ments, there is an important difficulty which I
have observed in myself and others. Most of our
faculty learned computing in the days of cards,
batch submission of programs, and expensive com-
puter time. Now, students have access to fully in-
teractive terminals, and computer time is
virtually free, compared to an engineer's time.
This requires a completely different attitude
toward computer use, especially in regard to the
efficiency of programs and algorithms, than most
of us are accustomed to. "Quick and dirty" solu-
tions to problems may be perfectly acceptable;
sloppy thinking never is. It is sometimes difficult
for the students to grasp the distinction, so I
return to this idea several times during the se-
mester in connection with various other topics.
This article describes a 3-hour, one semester
graduate course called "ChE Analysis." It is a re-
quired course, generally taken during the first


In fact, mathematical modeling has
reached a level of sophistication and reliability
sufficient to allow it to replace some
or all of the "pilot plant" part
of designing a process.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1981


John C. Hassler is currently an Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Maine at Orono. His degrees are in
physical chemistry from Kansas State University. He spent several
years in the "post-doc. holding pattern", including four years in the
Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Illinois, working
on lasers. He joined the Chemical Engineering faculty at Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia in
1972, and moved to Maine in 1977. His research interests are process
instrumentation, modeling, and control, with an emphasis on the
hardware and software involved in the application of computers to
real-time problems.

semester in residence, along with courses in ad-
vanced thermodynamics and unit operations. The
prerequisites are the usual undergraduate courses
in ChE, and the ability to program a computer.
Our students invariably use FORTRAN or a
structured version of FORTRAN (e.g., WATFIV-
S), though other languages could be used.
The purpose of the course is to provide a
"toolkit" of numerical methods and modeling
techniques sufficient to handle most of the
problems that are likely to occur in further
courses, or in engineering practice. Since most of
our students are M.S. candidates, the course is
strongly "applied" in nature. The emphasis is on
simple methods which usually work and which re-
quire no detailed knowledge in their application,
so that the student will be able to apply them even
after disuse has left them a bit rusty. This is
different from the usual graduate "Analysis"
course in that the emphasis is on applications
rather than on advanced mathematics.
This course was first taught in 1975 at VPI
in Blacksburg, VA, as a special one quarter


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








remedial FORTRAN course for a class of in-
coming graduate students. Since they were able
to learn the actual programming fairly quickly, I
spent most of the quarter on numerical methods
and modeling. The course filled an obvious need,
and was offered the next year without the
FORTRAN. In 1977, it was brought to UMO,
expanded to a semester, and made a required
graduate course. The content has been remarkably
stable over the years, though there has been a
gradual drift of the material from the first part
of the course into the undergraduate level. I
expect this to continue, which will allow the
introduction of more new mathematical material,
such a matrix theory, at the graduate level.

COURSE FORMAT

T HIS IS A ONE SEMESTER, three credit hour
graduate course. The grading is based entirely
upon a series of problem sets of increasing
difficulty. There are no examinations. All of the
problems involve computer use, and the results
are submitted in the form of informal reports. The
students are explicitly permitted to discuss the
problems among themselves, but are told to do
their own actual work. Though there is a potential
for abuse, we have had no real difficulties with this
policy.
The only real problems that I have ever had in
teaching the course resulted from a leniency in
enforcing due-dates for problems. The less fore-
sighted students suddenly found themselves at the
end of the semester with several (long) problems
to work, just at the time when access to the com-
puter is the most difficult to get. This resulted in
a very stressful couple of weeks for all concerned.
Since then I have been quite adamant about dead-
lines, with stiff penalties for lateness.

COURSE DESCRIPTION

T HE MATERIAL BREAKS INTO three roughly equal
(five week) segments. The first covers basic
numerical techniques, the second applies these to
modeling problems, and the last picks up topics
which I think are important, but which are less
likely to be immediately useful to a M.S. engineer.
Since each class progresses at a somewhat
different speed, it is usually necessary to choose
some subset of the matrix operations to fill out the
semester.
The text is Carnahan, Luther, and Wilkes
(CLW) [1]. Most students also have Luyben [2]


from undergraduate process control, and Franks
[3] is recommended as a reference. I also refer to
journal articles when appropriate, especially for
problems.
The following is an outline of the course, with
some comments. Most of the numerical methods
material comes directly from CLW, so I will not
comment on the methods themselves. Instead, I will
present the rationale for choosing the particular
topics which are covered.

SECTION I-The tool kit
Interpolation
This is used only as a background for the other
methods, and as an introduction to finite differ-
ences. There is really very little need for inter-
polation itself, since the advent of powerful calcu-
lators. For example, I find it easier to get values
of the error integral by direct integration on a


"Quick and dirty" solutions to problems
may be perfectly acceptable; sloppy thinking
never is. It is sometimes difficult for
the students to grasp the distinction,
so I return to this idea several
times during the semester...


programmable calculator than to use interpola-
tion in a table. This is another example of the
change in approach from when I was a student.

Integration
The methods considered are rectangular,
trapezoidal, and Simpson's rule. Gaussian methods
are described, but not covered in any detail. The
first homework assignment is to use numerical
integration to find the value of the error function
at x = 1, using each of the three methods mentioned
above, and to note the number of intervals re-
quired to get six figure accuracy. Students are
duly impressed by the difference between
Simpson's rule (a few intervals) and the trape-
zoid rule (a few tens of intervals), but are
astonished to find that the rectangular integra-
tion to the specified accuracy is impossible. Since
many tens of thousands of intervals would be re-
quired to reduce the truncation error to the desired
value, round off error builds up and overtakes it
before the required accuracy is reached. The few
clever students who figure this out and try to use
double precision arithmetic discover that the time


FALL 1981









. we again discuss the trade off between engineering time and computer time, and try to decide
when it is appropriate to use crude algorithms to minimize programming time.


allowed for a single run on a student computer
account is insufficient for the required number of
calculations. At this point, the ideas of round-
off and truncation errors are discussed in the
lecture.

Equation roots
These are covered from the "fixed point" ap-
proach [4]. Functional iteration, the secant
method ("false position"), and the Newton-
Raphson methods are discussed and shown to be
closely related. I recommend that they use either
Newton-Raphson or the secant method, depend-
ing on the difficulty of taking the derivative of the
equation. The standard polynomial root sub-
routines available on the computer are also dis-
cussed at this point.
Convergence criteria, and the use of iteration
counters to catch divergent cases, are discussed
next. The use of the programmer as the con-
vergence test is also discussed. It is often useful
in "quick and dirty" problems to just dump the
successive iterations to an interactive terminal and
let the programmer decide when to quit. As
pointed out above, this is a different way of using
the computer than those of us who grew up in the
days of "batch submission" are used to. However,
modern students seem to use it naturally, so we
spend a little class time discussing the good and
bad points. (The major bad point, incidentally, is
simply the danger that a casual approach to pro-
gramming can lead to a casual approach to think-
ing through the problem.)

Simultaneous linear equations
These are handled by Gauss-Jordan reduction
with pivoting. Since subroutines for linear systems
are readily available, very little time is spent on
this topic. Factorization schemes such as Grout's
or Doolittle's are mentioned but not covered, and
iterative methods are deferred until the next
topic.

Simultaneous non-linear equations
These are treated by analogy with the "fixed
-point" methods for a single equation. The Gauss-
Seidel method is recommended unless the Jacobian


is easily calculated, in which case the Newton
method is preferred. Some special methods for
very large or sparse systems are discussed briefly
[5], but not covered in any depth. Relaxation
methods, and the "damped Newton" method [4]
are also presented at this time.

Ordinary differential equations (ODE)
Here, I first derive Euler's method in three
ways, from a truncated Taylor's series, from finite
differences, and intuitively, from the current point
and the slope of the approximating straight line.
Then I show that the Euler method is closely re-
lated to rectangular integration. The students
readily recognize the accuracy problems by
analogy with their earlier integration problem. At
this point, we again discuss the trade off between
engineering time and computer time, and try to
decide when it is appropriate to use crude
algorithms to minimize programming time.
The "cannon problem," which is the calcula-
tion of a ballistic trajectory in the presence of a
velocity-dependent drag, is now used to introduce
several important concepts. These include modular
program design using subroutines (or "remote
blocks" for those using a structured FORTRAN),
modular testing, and program testing by the use
of limiting cases. For example, the case of zero
drag can be solved analytically, and the cor-
responding limiting case of a very low drag co-
efficient should approach this analytical solution.
The Modified and Improved Euler methods
are used to introduce Runge-Kutta methods. The
standard Runge-Kutta subroutine is described, and
the principle reason for its use is discussed, i.e.,
that it is readily available and familiar. Predictor-
corrector methods are also described, and the
standard Hamming subroutine is presented.
The origins of and problems inherent in "stiff
equations" are covered in detail. The usual method
of attack ("brute force"; a small step size, and
hang the computer time) is discussed, along with
a reiteration of the computer time vs. engineering
time trade off. Implicit methods are introduced
using the Backwards Euler method as an example,
and we demonstrate that what we have done is
replace the problem of a small step size with the
problem of solving a set of nonlinear simultaneous


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








equations to high accuracy. The standard Gear [6]
subroutines are described, but not covered in any
detail.

SECTION II-Modeling
At this point, about five weeks into the se-
mester, the students have sufficient tools available
to attack an impressive array of modeling
problems. They have, however, only been given
some highly structured and relatively easy problem
sets, and they are beginning to become compla-
cent. I repeat the warnings given at the beginning
of the semester about falling behind, and tell them
that things are now going to become much more
interesting.

Preliminaries
One class period is spent on various pre-
liminaries. I make extensive use of the informa-
tion flow diagrams given by Franks [3] in the
modeling part of the course. Though they are
helpful in general, they are the best method that
I have found to teach the modeling of staged
operations. I also present a number of little
aphorisms, such as, "Two small problems are
easier than one big one," or "Divide and conquer,"
or "KISS-Keep It Simple, Stupid." I then indicate
in a general way how one goes about breaking a
big problem into managable parts, and also bring
in the ideas from structured programming (fa-
miliar to some of our students) of "psychological
chunking," "reducing connectivity," etc., and how
these apply to modeling problems. This is all il-
lustrated with a sequence of simple examples,
following Franks [3], and culminating in the single
component boiler example [2, 3].

Applications to problems
For the first real modeling problem, the
students are asked to model an unstable CSTR
with a proportional controller (adapted from
Luyben [2]), and to use the model to determine
various stability limits, such as the minimum
value of the controller constant, the minimum
and maximum allowable feed temperatures, etc.
This is just a somewhat messy ODE problem, and
the first part is very well defined, so most students
get it easily. I also ask them to devise a start-up
procedure that they could use on a real system,
and test it with their model. With the problem as
stated (no external heating of the reactor-only


cooling) the only way is to start with the re-
actor full of heated pure solvent, and then start
the reactor flows. (The first several years that I
gave this course, there would be only one or two
students in a class who would get this part. Now,
they all do. Either they're getting smarter, or the
word is getting around.)
While the students are working the CSTR
problem, the lectures are leading up to a non-ideal
batch distillation problem. Though most of the
students are taking advanced thermodynamics
concurrently with the modeling course, they have
not reached the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE)
section yet, so I spend about one period covering
non-ideal VLE, the Margules and van Laar equa-
tions, and the like. They then solve a batch dis-
tillation problem, which is basically another ODE
problem, but with an "inner loop" of simultaneous
equations which must be solved to get the activity
coefficients.
The next problem is a single-effect evaporator.
It is not difficult, being somewhat similar to the

I also present a number of
little aphorisms, such as, "Two small
problems are easier than one big one," or
"divide and conquer," or "KISS-Keep
It Simple, Stupid."

batch distillation, but it is a preliminary to the
triple effect evaporator, which follows.
A triple effect evaporator is used for the staged
operation problem. The students are guided
through the setting up of the information flow
diagrams, and warned that the last effect is some-
what different than the first (n-1) effects. This is
easily seen from the information flow diagrams,
because the externally fixed parameters are
different for the two cases. The resulting set of
equations and flow diagrams is rather awesome.
However, we note that if we use forward integra-
tion methods for the ODE parts, then we can solve
all of the integration blocks at time t to get the
outputs of these at time t+dt. We then erase the
integration blocks, and solve the resulting alge-
braic network at the new time t+dt. Then we
simply repeat these steps. The Franks 13] informa-
tion flow diagrams get this across very easily. No
other teaching method that I have tried has re-
sulted in as rapid or as complete an understand-
ing of what is really being done in the solution of
dynamic models.
It should be noted that although the problems


FALL 1981








are easily described, this is actually the most
difficult part of the course. Five to six weeks are
usually spent on this section.

SECTION III-More numerical methods
The students have now seen the application of
their "toolkit" of methods to some moderately
difficult problems, so we now add a few more
"tools."

Optimization
The basic theory of optimization, and gradient
methods in general, are briefly touched upon. We
cover the "Sequential Simplex" method of Nelder
and Meade [7] in detail. I have found this to be
an easily understood and programmed method,
which works reasonably efficiently in practice.
Penalty functions [7] are suggested for con-
strained optimization, but no problems are
assigned.

Statistics
Some topics in statistics, taken from Himmel-
blau [8], are covered next, for two reasons. First,
our students have no idea of what is involved in
statistical analysis beyond the blind application
of "least squares," and second, it gives a play-
ground for applications of optimization methods.
Most of the students have had the experience of
trying to apply "least squares" to some problem
for which the normal equations turned out to be
impractical to solve. We discuss the use of opti-
mization methods to "minimize the squared
error," but we also give some thought as to what,
if anything, this really tells us. The students seem
to enjoy this section very much, gleefully fitting
arbitrary functions to random collections of points.
(In fact, I've done some of it myself, but I called
it "research.")
The last two topics are not very demanding,
and are given at this time partly to let the students
catch up on their modeling problems. The next two
sections are again fairly difficult.

Partial differential equations (PDE)
PDE are covered directly from the text [1]. I
preceded the text material by a short review of the
theory of PDE, and of the resulting types of
boundary conditions, and add a brief section on
hyperbolic PDE (which are not covered in the
text). The problems assigned include the steady
state temperature distribution in a cooling fin,


and the fearsome "ice problem," in which the
students model the freezing of a lake. This is a
moving interface problem, and is reasonably
difficult.

Matrix theory
By this time, we are near the end of the se-
mester, so I can cover only a little matrix theory.
We always cover the basic operations, and usually
manage an introduction to eigenvalues and eigen-
vectors, but only rarely do we have time to cover
similarity transformations. Although I regret this,
since my major interest is in control theory, the
other topics seem more directly useful to students
at this level.
A FEW GENERAL COMMENTS

T HERE ARE SEVERAL POTENTIAL problems in the
teaching of this course. For example, grading
can be difficult. If an answer is incorrect, it can
be very time consuming to decide whether it is
due to a lack of understanding or simply to a
trivial error in programming. I have not had much
success in trying to get the students to verify
their answers, either. They treat this as "just an-
other course," and expect me to tell them if they
are right or wrong. The only remedy I have found
is to require complete documentation, of the
algorithm as well as the program, along with the
problem solution. Since our students don't write
any better than anyone else's, this is also good
practice for them. (The students themselves com-
plain bitterly about all the writing. They would
rather spend 10 hours at a terminal than 10
minutes writing about what they have done.)
Another difficulty lies in the distribution of
work during the semester. The first half of the
course is really very easy, and doesn't require
much outside effort. The second half becomes
suddenly very demanding, and the students are
caught off guard no matter how often I have
warned them of what was coming. The only
remedy is to be completely rigid in the deadlines
for problems. This may result in some students
losing a lot of points for lateness, but I think
that it is preferable to allowing the student to
get hopelessly behind.
A final difficulty is keeping the problems fresh
and challenging. Even though the students don't
seem to copy old solutions, the approach to
specific problems seems to become part of the "con-
ventional wisdom" after a few years. For this
reason, I have given up using a distillation


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









column for the staged operation problem, and
substituted the triple effect evaporator. This
should be good for another year or so, and then I
will have to find something else. Another example
is the ice problem. Last year, I substituted the
"mirror fog" problem [9] as a moving boundary
example. Although the solution is obvious almost
by inspection, the requirement that the students
actually solve the PDE does result in a meaning-
ful problem.
To conclude on a positive note, when we were
revising the graduate curriculum a few years ago,
the graduate students recommended that this
course be kept unchanged. Also, several of my
former students have told me that this is one of
the most directly useful of the courses that they
have taken. It seems to fulfill its purpose of pro-
viding the tools needed to use a computer to solve
problems, and it gives the student a feeling for
how to approach even a very large modeling
problem. And perhaps the most important of all,
it is fun to teach. OE

REFERENCES
1. Carnahan, B., H. A. Luther, and J. O. Wilkes,
"Applied Numerical Methods," Wiley (1969).
2. Luyben, W. L., "Process Modeling, Simulation, and
Control for Chemical Engineers," McGraw-Hill
(1973).
3. Franks, R. G. E., "Modeling and Simulation in
Chemical Engineering," Wiley Interscience (1972).
4. Conte, S. D., and C. deBoor, "Elementary Numerical
Analysis," McGraw-Hill (1980).
5. Westerberg, A. W., H. P. Hutchison, R. L. Motard, and
P. Winter, "Process Flowsheeting," Cambridge Uni-
versity Press (1979).
6. Gear, C. W., "Numerical Initial Value Problems in
Ordinary Differential Equations," Prentice-Hall
(1971).
7. Beveridge, G. S. G., and R. S. Schecter, "Optimiza-
tion: Theory and Practice," McGraw-Hill (1970).
8. Himmelblau, D. M., "Process Analysis by Statistical
Methods," Wiley (1970).
9. Kabel, R. L., "The Mirror Fog Problem," Chem. Eng.
Education 18 No. 4 (1970) 155.


MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS
Continued from page 176.
3, 5, and 8.
4. C. Y. Tsang and W. B. Street, J. Chem. Eng. Data,
26, 155 (1981).
5. W. B. Street and J. C. G. Calado, J. Chem. Thermo.,
10, 1089 (1978).
6. C. Y. Tsang, P. Clancy, J. C. G. Calado and W. B.
Street, Chem. Eng. Commun., 6, 365 (1980).
7. C. Y. Tsang and W. B. Street, Fluid Phase Equi-


POSITIONS AVAILABLE
Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
% page $50; each additional column inch $20.

UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CHEMICAL ENGI-
NEERING. Must have a Ph.D., excellent academic back-
ground, strong interest in teaching and research, and be
a U.S. citizen or have permanent resident certification.
Responsible for teaching undergraduate and graduate
courses, supervising graduate research. Send resume, three
references, transcripts, and statement of interest to: Dr.
D. R. Paul, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineer-
ing, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX
78712-1165. Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Em-
ployer.

libria, 6, 261 (1981).
8. C. Y. Tsang and W. B. Street, Chem. Eng. Sci., 86,
993 (1981).
9. G. Schneider, in "Chemical Thermodynamics, Vol. 2,"
Specialist Periodical Reports, The Chemical Society,
London, 1978, Chap. 4.
10. W. B. Street, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 52, 92 (1974).
11. W. B. Street, A. L. Erickson and J. L. E. Hill, Phys.
Earth Planet. Interiors, 6, 69 (1972).
12. J. de Swaan Arons and G. A. M. Diepen, J. Chem.
Phys., 44, 2322 (1966).
13. D. S. Tsiklis, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 86,
1159 (1952).
14. For a review of the earlier theories see: K. E.
Gubbins, AIChEJ, 19, 684 (1973).
15. A review of theory and applications is given in:
K. E. Gubbins and C. H. Twu, Chem. Eng. Science,
33, 863, 879 (1978).
16. G. M. Gibbs, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford
(1979).
17. K. P. Shukla and Y. Singh, J. Chem. Phys., 72, 2719
(1980).
18. P. Clancy, K. E. Gubbins and C. G. Gray, Disc.
Faraday Soc., 66, 116 (1978).
19. K. E. Gubbins, C. G. Gray and J. R. S. Machado,
Molec. Phys., 42, 817 (1981).
20. B. Moser, K. Lucas and K. E. Gubbins, Fluid Phase
Equilibria, in press (1981).
21. K. E. Gubbins, Proc. Second Internat. Conf. Phase
Equilibria and Fluid Props. in the Chem. Industry,
Berlin, Dechema, Frankfurt (1980), p. 621.
22. For reviews see: W. B. Street and K. E. Gubbins,
Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem., 28, 373 (1977); J. M. Haile,
K. E. Gubbins and W. B. Street, Proc. 7th Symp.
Thermophys. Properties, Amer. Soc. Mech. Engr.,
New York (1977), p. 421.
23. D. A. Jonah, K. S. Shing and K. E. Gubbins, Proc. 8th
Symp. Thermophys. Properties, Amer. Soc. Mech.
Engr., New York (1981).
24. K. E. Gubbins and J. M. Haile, in "Oil Recovery by
Surfactant and Polymer Flooding," ed. D. O. Shah
and R. S. Schechter, Academic Press, New York
(1977), p. 119.
25. S. M. Thompson and K. E. Gubbins, J. Chem. Phys.,
74, 6467 (1981).


FALL 1981








7 Goane 0o1



UNDERGROUND PROCESSING

CLARENCE A. MILLER*
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213


THE EVENTS OF RECENT YEARS have brought in-
creased attention to processes for recovering
fossil fuels and minerals from underground forma-
tions. Higher prices for petroleum have caused
the industry to give serious attention to more
sophisticated recovery processes involving not just
flow, as in conventional processes, but also heat
and mass transport, various phase changes, chemi-
cal reactions, and interfacial phenomena. Under-
ground coal gasification seems promising for the
future. Research has increased on in situ process-
ing to recover oil from oil shale and tar sands.
Solution mining of uranium has begun in some
locations.
The number of engineers working on such
processes has increased rapidly in recent years,
especially in research. As more extensive field ap-
plications develop, additional engineers will be re-
quired to design processes applicable to specific
locations and to supervise production operations.
Because flow, transport, and chemical reaction are
involved in most of the processes, chemical engi-
neers are well suited for this work and should be
much in demand.
STo acquaint chemical engineering students with
this rapidly growing field and to provide them
with pertinent fundamental information not
ordinarily covered in a chemical engineering cur-
riculum, I have developed a one-semester course in
"Underground Processing." Although basically a
graduate course, it is open to interested under-
graduates who have had courses in fluid mechanics,
transport phenomena, and thermodynamics.

GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

T ABLE 1 IS AN OUTLINE of the course. The first
section deals with geological background ma-
terial.-In contrast to the usual situation in a
chemical plant, the "reactor" for an underground
process is not built to the designer's specification
*Present address: Rice University, Houston, TX 77001.


Clarence A. Miller received his B.A. and B.S. Degrees in chemical
engineering from Rice University in 1961. After spending four years
as an engineer with the Navy's nuclear power program in Washing-
ton, D.C., he undertook graduate studies at the University of Min-
nesota, receiving his Ph.D. Degree in 1969. He spent twelve years
on the chemical engineering faculty at Carnegie-Mellon University and
joined Rice University in September, 1981, as a Professor of Chemical
Engineering. For the last several years his major research interest has
been investigation of interfacial phenomena in enhanced oil recovery
processes.

but is provided by nature. It is usually the result
of geological processes which have occurred over
periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years.
As it is accessible only through a few widely
spaced wells, details of how its physical structure
and chemical composition vary with position are
not known. Some understanding of its geological
origin is useful in determining how effective
various processes might be.
The difference in pore structure between sand-
stones and limestones, the two most common reser-
voir rocks for petroleum, provides an example of
the importance of geology to an engineer. The
pore space in a sandstone is basically that origin-
ally present between the individual sand grains
just after deposition, although some decrease in
pore size occurs over time due to compaction as
the deposit is buried and due to precipitation of
silica, calcium carbonate, or other substances on
the surfaces of the grains and at their junctions.
Also called cementation, the precipitation at
junctions serves to bind the individual grains to-
( Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









gether to form a rock.
The situation is quite different for limestone
rocks which, in the first place, are often formed by
deposition of rather irregularly shaped particles
consisting of shells or skeletal fragments of
various marine creatures. Then too, some re-
crystallation after deposition is common in car-
bonate rocks. Since a density change is involved,
porosity and pore structure are affected. Pore
structure changes are also caused by cementation,
which can be extensive, by dissolution of material
in water flowing through the rock, and by fractur-
ing, which occurs more easily than for sandstones.
The overall result is a pore space much less regu-
lar than in a sandstone. Differences in pore size

TABLE 1
Course Outline for Underground Processing
A. GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
1. General geology
a. Plate tectonics theory
b. Formation and characteristics of sedimentary
rocks
c. Age of rocks and the geological time scale
2. Formation of fossil fuel and mineral deposits
a. Origin of hydrocarbons in shale deposits
b. Relation to formation of other fossil fuels
c. Migration of petroleum from source rocks to
traps
d. Formation of petroleum traps-sedimentary
basins
e. Formation of mineral deposits by hydrothermal
processes
f. Relation between plate tectonics and sites of
fossil fuel and mineral deposits
B. FLOW, TRANSPORT, AND INTERFACIAL
PHENOMENA IN POROUS MEDIA
1. Basic interfacial phenomena-interfacial tension,
contact angles
2. Interfacial phenomena in porous media-capillary
pressure
3. Single-phase flow in porous media-Darcy's Law
4. Relative permeabilities and two-phase flow
5. Conditions for trapping or mobilizing a residual
phase
6. Heat transport in porous media
7. Mass transport, hydrodynamic dispersion
8. Chromatographic transport
9. Stability of displacement fronts in porous media
C. DESCRIPTION OF UNDERGROUND PROCESSES
1. Petroleum recovery
a. Immiscible displacement, waterflooding
b. Polymer and surfactant flooding
c. Miscible displacement, carbon dioxide injection
d. Thermal recovery processes
2. Underground coal gasification
3. In situ processes for oil shale and tar sands
4. Solution mining of uranium


Because flow, transport, and chemical reaction
are involved in most of the processes, chemical
engineers are well suited for this work
and should be much in demand.

and shape between rocks have a significant effect
on displacement of one fluid by another, e.g., of oil
by water, and are thus of great importance to the
engineer.
Even when consideration is restricted to sand-
stone rocks, relatively minor differences in com-
position can be important for performance of
certain processes. For instance, most sandstones
contain some clay minerals although their primary
component is silica. Clays can adsorb surfactant
molecules and they can serve as sites of cation ex-
change between liquids in the pore space and the
rock surface. Both these properties have a signifi-
cant influence on enhanced oil recovery processes
which employ surfactants. Indeed, failure to
properly account for ion-exchange effects is be-
lieved to be the main reason for poor performance
of at least one field test of the surfactant process.
Thus, the amount of clay originally deposited with
the sand is significant.
Finally, variation in depositional conditions
with position and time can cause significant
permeability variations within a petroleum-
containing rock. Injected fluids prefer to flow
through high-permeability regions, largely by-
passing regions of low permeability. In an extreme
case, permeability barriers may exist between
nearby wells in a formation, so that flow between
the wells is minimal. Such a situation was found
in a recent field test of an enhanced oil recovery
process. Fortunately, it was discovered during
preparations for the test, and process adjustments
were made before the test was begun.
A brief overview of plate tectonics theory
begins the course. Only some fifteen years old in
its modern form, this theory has been the most
exciting development in geology in decades be-
cause it has provided a unifying framework re-
lating diverse results from many fields of geology.
Then a rather extensive discussion of rock forma-
tion is given with emphasis on sedimentary rocks
where oil, oil shale, and tar sands were formed
and where they are found.
The next major topic is formation of fossil
fuel and mineral deposits. As the result of ex-
tensive work by petroleum geologists and geo-
chemists during the past thirty years, much has
been learned about the origin of petroleum. Shale


rALL 1981









In contrast to the usual situation in a chemical plant,
the "reactor" for an underground process is not built to the designer's specification
but is provided by nature. It is usually the result of geological processes
which have occurred over periods of tens to
hundreds of millions of years.


is a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of small
particles of clay minerals and other inorganic ma-
terials but also containing a few percent of organic
material. If the original deposit forms under
anaerobic conditions, the organic material is pre-
served and, on burial, undergoes chemical reaction
to form a complex polymeric material known as
kerogen. As burial depth increases, the tempera-
ture rises until, at some point, further reactions
take place in which the kerogen releases hydro-
carbon molecules in order to form a more compact
structure consisting largely of multiple aromatic
rings. Hydrocarbons so produced are the con-
stitutents of petroleum.
With modern analytical techniques such as gas
chromatography, the composition of organic ma-
terial in shale has been measured as a function
of depth in several locations. Such work has
allowed the course of the reactions which generate
hydrocarbons in shale to be followed. It has also
shown that the same basic chemical process is re-
sponsible for formation of petroleum, coal, and oil
shale. Differences in these materials are the result
of differences in composition of the initial deposits.
Oil shale is richer in organic material than most
petroleum source rocks while coal forms from
deposits which are primarily organic with only
a few percent of inorganic material, just the op-
posite of shales. The differences in composition
between the terrestrial organic material which
forms coal and the marine organic material which
is the source of most oil also lead to major differ-
ences in the distribution of reaction products,
e.g., to generation of more methane and fewer
longer-chain hydrocarbons in coal. Oil shales have
never been subjected to temperatures high enough
to cause appreciable hydrocarbon release. Effect-
ing such release is the chief objective of oil shale
processing. Two excellent summaries of current
knowledge of fossil fuel formation are the recent
books by Tissot and Welte [1] and Hunt [2].
Also covered in the course are "primary" mi-
gration of hydrocarbons from the shales where
they form to nearby sandstones or limestones, a
process which remains poorly understood, and
"secondary" migration of oil within the reservoir


rocks. Generally speaking, oil travels upward
owing to gravitational effects until it reaches a
"trap" where a low-permeability shale or some
other permeability barrier precludes further up-
ward movement. Several geological structures
which can cause trapping are considered. So are
salt dome formation and other geological condi-
tions which can cause these structures to form.
Some comments are made on the emerging picture
of the connection between plate tectonics and oil
formation.
Tar sands are oils which have been degraded
after trapping by exposure to ground waters
containing bacteria. The bacteria preferentially
consume short-chain and paraffinic compounds.
Depending on the amount of degradation, the re-
maining oil may be only slightly more viscous than
the original oil, or it may be a "tar" with a vis-
cosity of tens of thousands of centipoise or more.
Student assignments for this part of the course
consist of: 1) a set of simple problems, which
provide a feeling for the magnitude of such quanti-
ties as the rate of plate motion over the earth's
surface, the heat flux from the earth's surface,
and the amount of water needed to increase the
porosity of a limestone rock by dissolution, and
2) a short paper on some aspect of the geological
part of the course. Topics selected by the students
have ranged from discussion of certain geophysi-
cal and geochemical methods for locating oil and
mineral deposits to a summary of the arguments
given by the few geologists who have yet to accept
plate tectonics theory. Most of the papers, how-
ever, have dealt with some aspect of the formation
of fossil fuels in more detail than the class notes
and lectures.
In summary, some knowledge of geology is
essential to those working in underground pro-
cessing. Experience has shown that the more one
knows about formation properties, the better the
chances of process success. Although engineers
naturally interact with geologists, who have a
detailed understanding of depositional conditions,
in developing formation descriptions, the inter-
action is more productive if the engineer has some
background in geology.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA, FLOW, AND
TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA

A ALTHOUGH THE FORMATIONS which serve as sites
for underground processes vary widely in
structure and composition, they may all be con-
sidered porous media. Since interfacial phenomena
control the distribution of immiscible fluids such
as oil and water within a porous medium at the
low flow rates common in oil recovery processes,
the first step is a thorough discussion of interfacial
tension and contact angles. A brief account of
surfactants and their properties is included as
well to provide a background for later considera-
tion of surfactant processes for enhanced oil re-
covery.
In porous media interfacial phenomena are
responsible for the pressure difference or "capil-
lary" pressure between immiscible fluids. Varia-
tion of capillary pressure during slow displace-
ment of one fluid by another is described. Empha-
sis is given to interfacial instabilities which lead
to "Haines jumps," the rapid and irreversible
final stage of displacement occurring in individual
pores even when the overall rate of displacement
is slow. As a result of these instabilities, capillary
pressure behavior exhibits hysteresis, i.e., capil-
lary pressure variation when water displaces oil
is not simply the reverse of that when oil dis-
places water.
Next, single-phase and two-phase flow in porous
media are discussed. Consideration is restricted to
low flow rates where Darcy's Law applies, the
usual situation in underground processing. An
important topic is the mechanism of trapping of a
residual phase when one fluid displaces another.
Because of such trapping, water is usually able to
displace only about half the oil originally present
in a reservoir. Obviously, the conditions required
to prevent trapping are of great interest. These
amount to a sufficiently large ratio of viscous to
interfacial forces, i.e., a sufficiently large value
of the dimensionless capillary number (tv/y4)),
where I and v are continuous phase viscosity and
superficial velocity, y is the interfacial tension
between fluid phases, and 0 is porosity.
After some coverage of heat and mass trans-
port in porous media and hydrodynamic dis-
persion, chromatographic transport in porous
media is considered. Introduction of the methods
of chromatographic analysis is a key part of the
course since they are used later in the analysis of
oil recovery processes. The presentation consists


of a sequence of examples of ever increasing
difficulty, ranging from simple adsorption of a
solute or its partitioning into a trapped fluid
phase to immiscible displacement of one fluid by
another (Buckley-Leverett analysis) to ion ex-
change phenomena to two-phase displacement pro-
cesses with partitioning of various components
between phases. The method of characteristics is
used to solve the simpler examples and to illustrate
how traveling concentration waves develop. Then
the more complicated examples are treated by
Helfferich's general scheme [3], which begins with
the assumption that concentration waves occur.
Winding up this portion of the course is a dis-
cussion of the stability of displacement fronts in
porous media. No matter how well a fluid can dis-
place another from an individual pore, its effective-
ness in a large-scale process is limited if the macro-



... the study of flow, transport, reaction,
and interfacial phenomena in porous media is an
excellent application of basic chemical engineering
principles and one that has utility far
beyond underground processing.


scopic front between displacing and displaced
fluids is unstable. For in this case the injected
fluid travels through the reservoir in channels,
completely bypassing many pores containing the
oil or other fluid originally present.
The lectures here deal first with instability
in the form of viscous fingering which occurs, for
example, during waterflooding of high viscosity
oils. Then transport effects are discussed with
stress given to their importance in thermal pro-
cesses for oil recovery and in underground coal
gasification.
Homework problems are assigned frequently
throughout this part of the course as the basic ma-
terial is by nature more quantitative than in the
geological background section.

PROCESSES FOR FOSSIL FUEL RECOVERY
SN THE LAST PART OF THE course the major
underground processes in use or being developed
are described. More attention is given to petroleum
recovery than to other processes, primarily be-
cause more is known about it. Waterflooding is
considered first. Then polymer flooding, surfactant
flooding, and miscible displacement, e.g., with high


FALL 1981








pressure carbon dioxide, are discussed. Basic
physical mechanisms are stressed in lieu of details
of processes performance. Simplified analyses
using chromatographic transport methods are used
to illustrate the main features of each process.
Because the chromatographic analyses em-
ployed assume that phase equilibrium and chemi-
cal reaction equilibrium are reached instantane-
ously, other methods are used for analysis of
thermal oil recovery processes such as steam drive
and underground combustion. In these processes
the rate of heat transport from the reservoir to
the surrounding formations is of great importance,
and heat conduction terms must be included in
the analysis.
Finite rates of chemical reaction are important
in other types of processes. Examples are the use
of acids to dissolve some of the rock near a well,
thereby increasing permeability, and reverse com-
bustion processes which are used in the initial
stages of underground coal gasification and which
are potentially of use in in-situ tar sand recovery.
Some aspects of a process are more important
in underground than in ordinary processing.
Clearly one highly desirable feature of an under-
ground process is relative insensitivity to varia-
tions in formation properties since, as indicated
above, detailed knowledge of such properties at all
points in a formation cannot be obtained.
The linked-vertical-well method of under-
ground coal gasification is used as an example to
illustrate this point. Reverse combustion is used
to "link" injection and production wells, i.e., to
provide a high-permeability path between them.
Once the link is complete air or oxygen can be
injected at relatively low pressure with a high de-
gree of assurance that, whatever the flow proper-
ties of the original coal, most of the injected gas
will travel along the link where resistance to flow
is low. This behavior has the highly desirable
results that most injected gas participates in the
main gasification reaction and that only a small
amount leaks away to surrounding areas where
its presence could be undesirable from an environ-
mental point of view.
Student assignments here consist of some
homework problems on waterflooding and sur-
factant flooding and a project involving a short
paper on some feature of a particular underground
process of interest to the student. Some of these
papers have been basically literature surveys,
while others have been analyses of certain pro-
cesses using chromatographic transport methods.


CONCLUDING REMARKS
N O EXISTING TEXTBOOK IS suitable for the entire
course. As a result, I have prepared notes for
most parts. Some books and articles which have
proved useful in this task and which are sources
of further information for students are listed
below [1-12]. The last part of the course on the
processes themselves is, except for the discussion
of waterflooding, based largely on journal articles
which have appeared during the past few years.
In summary, the course provides an introduc-
tion to underground processing to acquaint
students with opportunities in this area and with
pertinent fundamental knowledge. The geological
background material has been emphasized to a
greater extent in this article than in the course
itself because of its novelty and because the
author believes that interaction between chemical
engineering and geology may be fruitful in
generating research ideas beyond the present topic.
From a more traditional chemical engineering
view, however, the study of flow, transport, re-
action, and interfacial phenomena in porous
media is an excellent application of basic chemical
engineering principles and one that has utility far
beyond underground processing. 0
REFERENCES
1. Tissot, B. P. and D. H. Welte, Petroleum Formation
and Occurrence, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1978.
2. Hunt, J. M., Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology,
San Francisco, W. H. Freeman, 1979.
3. Helfferich, F., Soc. Petrol. Eng. J., 21, 51-62 (1981).
"Theory of multicomponent, multiphase displacement
in porous media."
4. Barnes, H. L. (ed.), Geochemistry of Hydrothermal
Ore Deposits, 2nd ed., New York, Wiley, 1979.
5. Selley, R. C., An Introduction to Sedimentology, New
York, Academic Press, 1976.
6. Press, F. and R. Siever, Earth, San Francisco, W. H.
Freeman, 1974.
7. Scheidegger, A. E., The Physics of Flow Through
Porous Media, 3rd ed., University of Toronto Press,
1974.
8. Dullien, F. A. L., Porous Media-Fluid Transport
and Pore Structure, New York, Academic Press,
1979.
9. Muskat, M., Physical Principles of Oil Production,
New York, McGraw-Hill, 1949.
10. Craig, F. F., Jr., The Reservoir Engineering Aspects
of Waterflooding, Dallas, Society of Petroleum Engi-
neers of AIME, 1971.
11. Craft, B. C. and M. F. Hawkins, Applied Petroleum
Reservoir Engineering, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
Prentice-Hall, 1959.
12. Aris, R. and N. R. Amundson, Mathematical Methods
in Chemical Engineering, Vol. 2, Englewood Cliffs,
N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1973.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JPVCATIQN










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FALL 1981










44%c4"e in


POLYMER PROCESSING


DAVID S. SOONG
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720


IN VIEW OF THE ever-increasing trend of polymer
utilization, there exists a need for a rigorous
course in polymer rheology and melt processing at
the graduate level. This led to a decision by the
faculty of chemical engineering at Berkeley to
develop two courses in polymer processing and re-
action engineering, which can be taken successively
or individually. When the first of the two-course
sequence was recently offered in the form of ChE
295N, Special Topics in Polymers, the emphasis
was placed on polymer dynamics, rheology and
processing.
Major references for the lecture materials of
ChE 295N included Middleman's "Fundamentals
of Polymer Processing" [1] and Bird et al's "Dy-
namics of Polymeric Liquids" [2, 3].
A survey of the various kinds of polymer pro-
cessing operations was given at the beginning of
the course, introducing the students to the di-
versity of this field. The importance of the rheo-
logical properties of polymers in affecting the
process characteristics was stressed at this early
stage, which prompted subsequent review of the
continuum mechanics and molecular approaches to
describe the behavior of polymeric fluids. Selected
processes, such as extrusion, calendering, injection
molding and fiber spinning, were then separately
discussed. In each case the general transport equa-
tions were first set up and boundary conditions
stipulated. Simplifying assumptions were made to
facilitate solution of the equations. Constitutive
equations for purely viscous materials (both
Newtonian and non-Newtonian) were used to
obtain model predictions before the complication
of viscoelasticity was introduced. This progressive
increase in the degree of sophistication allowed
the students to appreciate the critical considera-
tions in designing and operating processes handl-
ing viscoelastic materials. Results for viscoelastic

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


David Soong obtained his B.S. in Chemistry from National Taiwan
University in 1973. Upon arrival in the United States in 1975, he
pursued graduate work in Chemical Engineering at the University of
California at Berkeley, receiving his M.S. in 1977 and Ph.D. in 1978
under Mitchel Shen. Since 1979 he has been an Assistant Professor of
Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. His major research interests are
theological properties of polymers, polymer reaction engineering,
plasma-initiated polymerization and related microelectronics applica-
tions. He is a member of the Society of Rheology, Sigma Xi, AIChE and
ACS.

models were compared with those of the purely
viscous cases.
With the above brief introduction to the origin
and nature of this course, we are now in a posi-
tion to discuss various aspects of the course, such
as objectives, detailed content, teaching strategies
and, most importantly, observations and ex-
periences from its first offering.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
THE COURSE SERVED A number of functions and
carried multiple objectives. For example, a
variety of important process operations commonly
encountered in industry were examined. Basic
mechanical components and associated geometries
determining the critical flow field and state of
deformation of process fluids were depicted and
analyzed in depth. Much effort was devoted to
developing the ability to set up equations of con-
tinuity and motion to describe the processes under
consideration. For nonisothermal and/or reacting
systems, heat and mass transport equations were


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








invoked. These dynamic equations and related
boundary/initial conditions were independent of
the material being treated. The latter affected the
processes through the use of constitutive equa-
tions. These in turn were merely mathematical
representations (or rather approximations) of the
inherently complicated responses of the fluids to
the imposed flow field. The importance of ma-
terial properties in affecting polymer processing
was illustrated by several examples. A representa-
tive one involved laminar pressure flow in a
cylindrical conduit of constant cross-section.
Newtonian behavior, power-law fluid, and a hypo-
thetical system obeying Maxwell equation with
constant viscosity and relaxation time were
examined successively. In the first two cases sig-
nificant differences in the volumetric flowrate
were predicted at a given pressure gradient. When
the pressure gradient was suddenly varied, the
new steady state was rapidly reached for these
purely viscous fluids. The viscoelastic model gave
similar steady-state results, depending on model
parameters. However, when the pressure gradient
became a function of time, marked transient be-
havior was observed, even if uniform shear rate
in the radial direction was assumed at all time
(an idealized situation considering the finite rate
of momentum transfer).
Polymers, being viscoelastic and exhibiting
quite "peculiar" behaviors, are, in principle, amen-
able to systematic mathematical description. The
actual analytic/numerical manipulations involved
may be vastly greater than those for simpler
(viscous) fluids. Still, chemical engineers with a
sound training in transport phenomena coupled
with some knowledge of material properties of
polymers, should be capable of comprehending and
analyzing these polymer processes. Hence, this
course dispels certain "mystique" surrounding
polymers, viscoelasticity and the related processes.
In addition, an important concept emerged from
the repeated use of the series of constitutive equa-
tions to different processes. It was realized that
viscoelasticity is a generality rather than a
specialty, as purely viscous responses can be de-
rived from a viscoelastic equation by neglecting
certain terms, and Newtonian fluid represents
nothing more than a limiting behavior.
This course seeks to enhance the ability of
the students to apply transport principles to
situations where the fluid properties as well as
flow kinematics are both quite complicated. Solu-
tion of the simultaneous equations describing the


The first phase is a brief review of the
various common polymer processes, familiarizing the
students with the breadth of the subject and
illustrating the importance of modeling and
application of transport equations.

processes by either making simplifying assump-
tions or resorting to numerical methods is another
major objective. The relative merits and limita-
tions of either approach can thus be ascertained.

COURSE CONTENT

T HE COURSE CONSISTS OF three phases. The first
phase is a brief review of the various common
polymer processes, familiarizing the students
with the breadth of the subject and illustrating
the importance of modeling and application of
transport equations. Simple model flows (e.g.,
pressure and couette flow in parallel plates,
rectangular channels and concentric cylinders
executing axial and transverse motions) are then
analyzed in preparation for the more complicated
actual processes where the different modes of
simple flows frequently occur simultaneously.
Next the problem of describing theological proper-
ties of polymers is addressed. Experimental results
on two major flows (simple shear and uniaxial
elongation) are discussed extensively. Constitu-
tive equations of different levels of approxima-
tion, such as Newtonian, power-law and other
nonNewtonian functions, and several selected
viscoelastic models, are developed for obtaining
model predictions in later stages of the course.
Finally, individual processes are analyzed in detail.
In each case the applicable dynamic equations
and the appropriate boundary conditions are es-
tablished, thus forming the mathematical frame-
work of the model. Constitutive equations de-
veloped previously are then substituted into the
set of dynamic equations to yield predictions.
Table 1 outlines the course content.
As Table 1 indicates, ample opportunities for
modeling studies were provided in this program.
Couette and pressure flows in simple geometries
were thoroughly examined for Newtonian and
power-law fluids. The effects of combining two
or more simple flows for these purely viscous
fluids were also presented. These simple model
flows formed the basis for later development of
processes involving viscoelastic materials in com-
plex geometries.
Development of viscoelastic constitutive equa-


FALL 1981


205









tions was preceded by a brief review of various
empirical nonNewtonian functions for rate-de-
pendent viscosity. Elastic phenomena exhibited by
polymers and their influence on processing were
then discussed, justifying the use of viscoelastic
models under certain operating conditions. A
critical consideration here is the ease of applica-
tion of these models to engineering flow calcula-
tions. Unfortunately, most continuum models and
molecular theories developed to date [2, 3] to de-
scribe theological properties of concentrated solu-
tions and polymer melts are so mathematically
complex as to render their direct application to
actual process design impractical. This prompted
the adoption of the contravariant Oldroyd form of
the Maxwell equation [2, 3].
8T
r + X- = 71y (1)


TABLE 1
Course Outline

1. INTRODUCTION AND FUNDAMENTALS
Introduction to Polymer Processing
Modeling Philosophy
Review of General Transport Equations
Equations of Continuity
Equations of Motion (Dynamic Equations)
Heat and Mass Transport Equations
Kinematics and Dynamics
Boundary and Initial Conditions
Simple Model Flow Analysis
Combined Flow Analysis
2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS
FOR POLYMERS
Rheological Properties of Polymers-Experimental
Results
Continuum Mechanics and Molecular Models
Constitutive Equations for Purely Viscous Materials
Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Materials
Theories for Polymer Melts
3. DISCUSSION OF INDIVIDUAL POLYMER
PROCESSES
Extrusion Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids
Isothermal and Nonisothermal Analyses
Calendering Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids
Lubrication Approximation
Normal Stresses and Viscoelasticity
Fiber Spinning Newtonian, NonNewtonian and
Viscoelastic Fluids
Injection Molding Isothermal and Nonisothermal
Analyses for Viscous Fluids
Pressure-Dependent Viscosity
Polymerization Reaction Constitutive equations for
Diffusion and Generation
Dimensional Analysis of a
Tubular Reactor


... the course dispels a certain
"mystique" surrounding polymers, viscoelasticity
and the related processes.


where T and y are the stress and rate-of-deforma-
tion tensors, 8/8t is the Oldroyd contravariant de-
rivative, and X and 47 are the Maxwell relaxa-
tion time and viscosity of the fluid. Due to the
incorporation of this equation, the process models
now possess a unique set of transient responses.
However, Equation 1 is only qualitatively correct,
thus necessitating further improvement without
undue increase in mathematical tractability. One
such remedy is achieved by introducing certain
structure-property relationships into the original
formulation, i.e., making X and 1 structure-
dependent and thus time-dependent [4, 5]. Al-
though this approach is still in its infancy, the
resulting equation has proved useful [5] and is
mathematically simple so as to be practical for
engineering calculations. Throughout the balance
of this course, the original and the modified
Maxwell equations are used extensively.

COURSE REQUIREMENT AND
TEACHING STRATEGIES
A LIST OF TERM PROBLEMS was given to the
class, from which every member chose one for
an in-depth literature search and analytical/
numerical solution. Time was set aside at the
end of the course for student presentations of
their work. This was a successful endeavor in that
it encouraged much effort in problem solving and
stimulated active post-presentation discussions.
The complete sequence of identifying a research
problem, pursuing its solution, presenting the find-
ings and generating new ideas was experienced
through the term assignment, which was con-
ducted with minimal supervision. Research inde-
pendence was encouraged in the process.

SELECTED TERM PROBLEMS
O NE PROBLEM ENTAILED THE prediction of
transient velocity profile development in
planar couette and pressure flows using the struc-
ture-dependent Maxwell model. Solutions obtained
via collocation techniques [6] revealed a wide
range of complicated behavior including oscilla-
tory approach to steady state. Uniaxial extensional
flow of polymer melts was reviewed by a member


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








of the class, who was able to propose a new
constitutive equation. Preliminary evaluation of
this proposal shows promise and suggests further
work. Another project involved the application
of polymers as photoresist or e-beam resist ma-
terials in microelectronics industry. Resist
spinning on semiconductor wafers was modeled.
The relevant continuity and dynamic equations
were established in this effort. Analytical solution
was obtained only through the incorporation of
rather drastic assumptions. More accurate results
rely on incorporation of improved viscoelastic
equations and concentration-dependent solvent
diffusion rate expressions.
Other problems included the effect of pres-
sure-dependent viscosity on injection molding,
dynamic behavior of a single-screw extruder,
bubble rise in a viscous medium, and attempts at
modeling high-conversion polymerization reactors.
As a result of these class efforts, some potential
long-term research projects were nucleated. 0


I^ stirred pots

HEAT EXCHANGERS
The Agony and the Ecstasy
Premeditated motions
Control the beckoning valves.
Water begins its hereditary migration
Towards the shell side
While steam penetrates other water
Destined by ulterior motives to ramble
In a twisting gyrating frenzy
To the tube side.

Swept up in the confusion
Of bombarding torrents
A decision must be reached
By the bold few who dare
Comprehend heat exchangers,
IS there a heat balance ?

Time vacates as great minds
Ponder through flow rate commandments
And theories of original heat.
Minds seeking to know
Whys and wherefores,
Pros and cons,
Ins and outs,
And clues only heat exchangers can provides
The elusive stigma attached to heat transfer.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author appreciates the support and en-
couragement of his colleagues in the development
of this course. Most of all, he thanks his students
for making the offering of this course an enjoyable
and rewarding experience.

REFERENCES
1. S. Middleman, "Fundamentals of Polymer Processing,"
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.
2. R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong, and 0. Hassager, "Dy-
namics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 1: Fluid Me-
chanics," Wiley, New York, 1977.
3. R. B. Bird, O. Hassager, R. C. Armstrong, and C. F.
Curtiss, "Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 2:
Kinetic Theory," Wiley, New York, 1977.
4. D. S. Soong and M. Shen, J. Rheol., 25, 259 (1981).
5. T. Y. Liu, D. S. Soong and M. C. Williams, Polym.
Eng. Sci., 21, 675 (1981).
6. J. Villadsen and M. L. Michelsen, "Solution of
Differential Equation Models by Polynomial Ap-
proximation," Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1978.


Peering through the cheap answers
The truth shyly steps forward;
Heat has indeed been abducted
By common two-bit fouling resistance schemes
Use primarily by alien heat exchangers
Affiliated with corporations of ill repute
And shady character profiles.
This then becomes ... the agony.

Despite seemingly corrupt odds,
Heat transfer does occur;
The hot gets colder
The cold gets hotter
And data gets its wish, a plot.

How can one put into words
The ecstasy of a well correlated Wilson plot?
How can one man conceived in liberty
And dedicated to the proposition
That all men are created equal
Stand up and boldly proclaim
"I have found it... heat exchangers!"

Let this man step forward and be heard,
For he has indeed found
The elusive truth;

And this is the ecstasy.

Ellen Barrar, ChE '79
Oregon State University


FALL 1981










SSEPAlecuRATe cUeP i



SEPARATION PROCESSES


PHILLIP C. WANKAT
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907

SEPARATION PROCESSES AND MASS transfer have
long been an integral part of chemical engi-
neering education. At Purdue University two
graduate electives in separation processes and
one elective in mass transfer are offered. The
graduate students also all take a course in trans-
port processes, which covers the basics of mass
transfer.
One of the separation electives (ChE 558,
Equilibrium Stage Separation Processes) is a
dual level senior/graduate elective. This course
covers multicomponent distillation, absorption and
extraction and an optional section on chroma-
tography. C. Judson King's text Separation Pro-
cesses is used, and the course has been taught for
the last nine years (see Ref [1] for details).
The mass transfer elective (ChE 624, Mass
Transfer) has been taught as a special topics
course. Recently, this course has emphasized the
fundamentals of multicomponent systems, mass


Phil Wankat received his BSChE from Purdue and his PhD from
Princeton. He is currently a professor of chemical engineering at
Purdue. He is interested in teaching and counseling, has won several
teaching awards at Purdue, and is a part-time graduate student in
Education. Phil's research interests are in the area of separation
process with particular emphasis on cyclic separations, two-dimensional
separations, preparative chromatography, and high gradient magnetic
separation.


transport through membranes, convective mass
transfer, and the macroscopic mass balance. Ap-
plications emphasized have been in turbulent
diffusion, mass transfer at phase boundaries, mass
transfer with simultaneous chemical reaction,
fixed bed sorption, transport through polymers,
and biomedical devices.
The third elective in this area (ChE 623,
Separation Processes) is a much newer course and
has only been taught twice in its current form.
This course was designed to cover subjects not
covered in the other two electives, and to do it in
different ways. The result is a unique elective in
separation processes which is the subject of this
article.

COURSE PHILOSOPHY
IN DESIGNING CHE 623, a course philosophy had
to be developed and followed. The first tenet
was that as a special topics elective it is difficult
to say something must be part of the student's
education. Thus, I was willing to initially consider
almost any subject as long as it was in the general
area of separation processes. However, the second
tenet limited the first since I decided not to allow
substantial overlap with either ChE 558 or ChE
624. Thus, distillation, absorption, extraction and
fundamental mass transport theory would not be
covered.
My third decision was to spend close to half
the semester on operating techniques for adsorp-
tion, chromatography and ion exchange. The
major reason for this choice was selfish: this is
my research area (and I want to tell the world
about my research) and it is an important class
of separation techniques which I believe will be-
come increasingly more common in the future.
Because of my enthusiasm the students also be-
come interested and, in addition, it helps train
my graduate students for their research.
The fourth decision was to allow the students
to be selfish and to pick areas that interest them

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











PERIODS)


TABLE 1
Preliminary Course Outline
SUBJECTS


1 Introduction
2 Overview and classification schemes [2, 3]
3-6 Fixed beds: Phenomena [4], column balances
[5, 6], local equilibrium theory [5, 6]
7 (R) Discussion of separations literature and of
topics for second half of course
8 Sorbex process [7] and two-dimensional
analogy [8]
9 (R) Discussion of experimental papers
10 Moving feed point chromatography [9]
11 Parametric pumping [4, 10]
12 (R) Discussion of theoretical papers
13 (R) Library search methods
14 Pressure swing adsorption [11, 12]
15 Cycling zone adsorption [4, 13, 14]
16 Application local equilibrium model to ion
exchange [5, 15]
17-18 Solution for local equilibrium with dispersion
and linear system analysis [16, 17]
19 Constant Pattern Solutions [6]
20-22 Thomas Solution Method [6, 16, 18]
23 Test
24 (R) No class, Individual meetings on course
project
25-26 Topics selected by class
27 (R) No class, Individual meetings
28-29 Topics selected by class
30 (R) No class, Individual project reports
31-34 Topics selected by class
35 (R) No class, Individual meetings
36-42 Topics selected by class
43-45 (R) Student presentations of course projects
Finals 2nd test (not a final)
(R) Periods spent on separations research and class research project.

for the second half of the semester. Thus I let the
class pick the topics, subject only to the first two
constraints.
The last three decisions were concerned with
the way the course was taught. Since the lecture
is an efficient method for presenting new informa-
tion, I decided that most of the content would be
transmitted by lecture. An assigned text was not
used, partially since there is no text covering the
diverse topics of this course, but also because I
wanted the students to get a feel for the separa-
tions literature. So a combination of textbooks,
journal articles, and handouts was used. Finally,
I wanted the students to get an idea of what re-
search in separations is like. This goal was
achieved with a course project which consisted of
a small, theoretical research project on an un-
solved problem.
The ways in which these decisions were imple-
mented is discussed in detail below.


We first started with ordinary
adsorption and then considered simulated
counter-current operation and the related moving
feed point chromatography.


COURSE SCHEDULE

TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES discussed above, the
preliminary schedule shown in Table 1 was
handed out the first day of class. Note that during
the first half of the course a variety of operating
methods for adsorption, chromatography and ion
exchange were covered, and that this portion of
the schedule is listed in detail. The schedule for
the second half of the semester was left open and
was filled in only after considerable discussion with
the students.
Throughout the semester, time was allotted
for discussion of the research literature in separa-
tions, and for the research project. Individual
meetings with the students were scheduled and
time was set aside for student presentations at the
end of the semester.

ADSORPTION, CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ION
EXCHANGE COVERAGE

T HE COURSE OUTLINE FOR coverage of adsorp-
tion, chromatography and ion exchange is
shown in Table 1. First we looked at the basic
equations of change for a packed bed in detail
[4, 5, 6]. Then the logical order to make assump-
tions was discussed [5, 6] and the solution by the
method of characteristics for the local equilibrium
model was developed [5, 6]. Once this basic model
had been developed, the local equilibrium model
was used to explain and contrast a variety of
operating methods. We first started with ordinary
adsorption [5, 6] and then considered simulated
counter-current operation [7] and the related
moving feed point chromatography [9]. The
students further explored these methods with the
local equilibrium model by solving homework
problems which are not in the literature. As an
aside we discussed how analogous two-dimensional
separators could be constructed and analyzed [8].
We then discussed a variety of cyclic operating
methods. Both direct and recuperative mode para-
metric pumping [4, 10] were discussed. The com-
mercially important pressure swing adsorption
system [4, 11] was studied and the limits of ap-
plicability of the local equilibrium model were
demonstrated [12]. Single and multicomponent


FALL 1981









cycling zone adsorption [4, 13, 14] were then ex-
plored. Finally, the local equilibrium model was
used to study binary ion exchange [5, 15], and
differences and similarities with Langmuir ad-
sorption were highlighted. Homework assignments
developed from my research were used to further
investigate these subjects.
Having looked at a variety of operating
methods we then studied several other mathe-
matical models. First the linear local equilibrium
model with dispersion [16, 17] was introduced, and
the use of superposition in the solution of linear
problems was studied. Then constant pattern
methods [6] were explained, and the section was
completed with the Thomas solution method
[6, 16, 18]. Again homework assignments provided
practice.


We discussed nucleation and
crystal growth, crystal size distributions,
and crystallization equipment.

Four homework assignments with a total of
twenty problems were passed out and a one hour
closed book test was given. Students were given
an equation sheet in advance so they did not have
to memorize equations.
In the past we covered interacting multicom-
ponent analysis by the local equilibrium method,
and very briefly discussed numerical methods. Be-
cause of time constraints these areas were not
covered this semester. In the future I would like
to include two or three classes on numerical
methods. Obviously, other topics could be included.
The selection used here satisfied my purposes. The
material was covered at a rapid but digestable
pace.

TOPICS SELECTED BY CLASS
Roughly half of the lecture periods were left
open for topics to be selected by the class. Since
students are not accustomed to selecting their
own topics, I lead them through the selection pro-
cess. The need to select topics was discussed
during the first class period and in the second
class period a variety of separation methods were
briefly discussed. During period seven the students
were to browse through a variety of journals and
look at articles on separation methods. Then they
developed and turned in a first list of topics of
interest.
I took these first lists and made a master list


which was returned to the students. They then
gave me enlarged second lists of their interests
and I again made a master list and distributed it.
The third time I asked for a list with items rank
ordered. I collated these lists and decided what
to cover during the remainder of the semester.
The two topics of interest to the majority of the
students were membrane separations and crystal-
lization. In addition, I decided to cover molecular
sieves, activated carbon and affinity chromatogra-
phy, which were all requested by one or two
students. These latter topics were connected with
the first half of the semester and could be covered
quickly. Although we were not able to include all
of the student requests, at least one topic from
each student's list was discussed.
After considerable reading, an outline and
reading list for the second half of the course was
developed (Table 2). We started by discussing
the characteristics of molecular sieve adsorbents
[19, 20] and of activated carbon [21] and solvent
recovery by activated carbon [22]. Activated
carbon was the one topic where students did not
like the assigned reading [21]. Affinity chroma-
tography was covered with an emphasis on princi-
ples and not the specific reactions [23].
Seven class periods were devoted to membrane
separations. We started by reviewing all types of
membrane separators [24], and studied reverse
osmosis and ultrafiltration in detail. Osmotic pres-
sure [25] was briefly discussed since everyone had


TABLE 2
Outline of Topics Selected by Class


PERIODS)


25
26
28
29
31

32

33

34 and 36
37
38-39

40-41
42


SUBJECT


Molecular Sieve Adsorbents [19, 20]
Activated Carbon Adsorption [21, 22]
Affinity Chromatography [23]
Introduction to Membrane Separations [24]
Osmotic Pressure [25] and start concentra-
tion polarization [26]
Concentration polarization without gelling
[26, 27]
Concentration polarization with gelling
[26, 28]
Transfer inside the membrane [29]
Equipment and cascades [28, 30, 31]
Crystallization from solution: Nucleation
and crystal growth [32, 33, 34]
Crystal Size Distributions [32-35]
Crystallization equipment and operation
[32, 34, 36]


Note: Missing class periods were used for research project purposes
and are listed in Table 1.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The two topics of interest to
the majority of the students were
membrane separations and crystallization.

forgotten this portion of their physical chemistry.
Then the mathematical analysis of concentration
polarization both without [25, 27] and with gelling
[26, 28] was covered. We switched to irreversible
thermodynamics to study transfer inside the mem-
brane [29]. Finally we discussed membrane equip-
ment and cascades [28] with additional examples
of cascades presented in class [30, 31].
The student-selected topics were finished with
five periods on crystallization from solution. We
discussed nucleation and crystal growth, crystal
size distributions, and crystallization equipment.
The two basic references [32, 33] were supple-
mented by other sources [34-36].
The student-selected topics section included
three homework assignments with a total of a
dozen problems and a second closed book test was
given. I again gave the students equation sheets
before the test since this approach seemed to work
well.
One difficulty inherent in letting students select
the topics is that the professor may not know any-
thing about the topic. This was certainly the case
for crystallization, and I am not an expert in
membrane separations. I was aware of this po-
tential problem ahead of time, and warned the
students of its possibility. Throughout the se-
mester I spent considerable time reading up on
the various topics, and put crystallization last so
that I would have more time to prepare. Since
the course is in my research area, I was willing
to devote extra time to reading and learning. My
lack of expertness was only apparent a few times,
and the students were quite understanding. Over-
all, this portion of the course went very well.

SEPARATIONS RESEARCH AND RESEARCH PROJECT
SINCE ONE OF THE MAJOR course goals was to
introduce the students to separation research,
a considerable amount of effort was devoted to
the course project. To combat the nemesis of
student research projects, procrastination, I de-
veloped a pattern of exercises, small projects, and
check points which culminated in the final written
paper. The eleven classes labeled (R) in Table 1
are part of this pattern.
The pattern started with browsing through
journals and then listing (without reading) a


total of 15 articles on subjects of interest. The
students then read a recent experimental article
of their choice. This article was then analyzed in
detail starting with the bibliographic citation and
the purpose of the study. The methods, results
and authors' conclusions were described and finally
the student presented his evaluation of the study.
In class the students were divided into small
groups and informally discussed the papers they
had read. The same procedure was repeated for
theoretical papers. This activity was very popular
with the students. They felt they learned a lot in
the presentations, but weren't anxious because the
presentations were informal and ungraded. The
written papers were collected and graded.
The class heard a librarian lecture on library
search methods. As an assignment they were
asked to find certain articles from vague citations
and to list articles citing given papers or authors.
This was a useful activity, but the presentation
was at a somewhat too low level.
Next the students selected a general topic of
interest for their research project. They could
either select a topic of their own or pick from a
list I passed out and when they had selected a
topic, they were asked to meet individually with
me to discuss it. A citation search and literature
review were required.
Halfway through the semester a very specific
problem within their general topic area had to be
picked. I discussed these problems with each
student and requested that they develop a clear
and limited problem statement. The specific pro-
jects chosen are listed in Table 3. The projects
were to involve a theoretical analysis of a problem
which had not been solved or use of a new mathe-
matical method on a problem which had previously
been solved. Four of the seven students worked on
problems which I suggested. Two progress reports
were required during the second half of the se-
mester in order to stimulate continual progress.

TABLE 3
Student Research Projects
Analysis of multicomponent, equilibrium, pressure swing
adsorption.
Numerical analysis for supercritical fluid adsorption.
Numerical solution for affinity chromatography.
Determination of adsorption isotherms by a continuous
flow method.
Dynamic behavior of discrete cycling zone extraction.
Cylindrical rotating continuous flow electrophoresis.
Mathematical modeling of rotary thermal diffusion
columns.


FALL 1981











To combat the nemesis of student
research projects, procrastination, I developed
a pattern of exercises, small projects, and
check points which culminated in the
final written paper



To encourage a carefully written paper, an out-
line was required a week prior to the oral report.
These outlines were commented on and returned
to the students. A rough draft of the entire paper
was then required when the student presented his
oral report on his project and these were graded
and returned before the students wrote their final
draft.
Despite this structure there was some pro-
crastination. However, it was significantly less
than I have observed in any other class. Two
students ran out of time, but five of the seven
projects listed in Table 3 were completed. The
projects were all quite ambitious and several had
significant results. In my opinion, four of the
projects would be totally acceptable as research
papers in the open literature if the results were
significantly fleshed out. I have encouraged the
students to do this. Compared to the previous
time I taught ChE 623 when no structure was em-
ployed in developing research projects, these re-
search projects and oral reports were much more
professional and results were much more sig-
nificant.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
ChE 623, Separation Processes, was designed
to include three major threads. The first of these
was the study of operating methods for adsorption,
chromatography, and ion exchange in a pattern
set by the instructor. The second thread was the
study of topics selected by the students with the
assignments and lectures being developed by the
instructor. The third thread was the course project
done by each student. A structure was used to dis-
courage procrastination on the research project.
The first half of the course was enthusi-
astically accepted by the students. They became
quite interested in the material, and five of the
later research projects were related to that ma-
terial. The second half of the course also went
well, although the students were somewhat less
enthusiastic, perhaps because they were working
on their research projects.


The research project which was structured to
encourage work throughout the semester de-
creased, but did not prevent, procrastination. The
resulting research projects were much better than
those turned in after the previous course was
offered. I recommend that other professors con-
sider a similar paced structure when a course
project is a major part of a course. E

REFERENCES
1. Wankat, P. C., "A Modified Personalized Instruction-
Lecture Course," in J. M. Biedenback and L. P.
Grayson (eds.), Proceedings of the Third Annual
Frontiers in Education Conference, IEEE, NY, 1973,
144-148.
2. Karger, B. L., L. R. Snyder and C. Horvath, jAn
Introduction to Separation Science, Wiley, NY, 1973,
Chapter 4.
3. Lee, H., E. N. Lightfoot, J. F. G. Reis and M. D.
Waissbluth, "The Systematic Description and Develop-
ment of Separations Processes," in N. N. Li (ed.)
Recent Developments in Separation Science, Vol. III,
Part A, CRC Press, Cleveland, 1977, 1-69.
4. Wankat, P. C., "Cyclic Separations: Parametric
Pumping, Pressure Swing Adsorption and Cycling
Zone Adsorption," CHEMI module to be published
by AIChE.
5. Course handout. Mass and Energy Balances and
Local Equilibrium Solution. (Copies are available
from the author).
6. Sherwood, T. K., R. L. Pigford and C. R. Wilke,
Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1975, Chapter 10.
7. Broughton, D. B., R. W. Neuzil, J. M. Pharis and
C. S. Breasley, "The Parex Process for Recovering
Paraxylene," Chem. Eng. Prog., 66 (9), 70, (1970).
8. Wankat, P. C., "The Relationship Between One-
Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Separation Pro-
cesses," AIChE Journal, 23, 859 (1977).
9. Wankat, P. C., "Improved Efficiency in Preparative
Chromatographic Columns Using a Moving Feed,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 16, 468 (1977).
10. Pigford, R. L., B. Baker and D. E. Blum, "Equi-
librium Theory of Parametric Pump," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Fundam., 8, 144 (1969).
11. Skarstrom, C. W., "Heatless Fractionation of Gases
Over Solid Adsorbents," in N. N. Li (ed.), Recent
Developments in Separation Science, Vol. II, p. 95,
CRC Press, Cleveland, 1972.
12. Wong, Y. W., F. B. Hill, and Y. N. I. Chan, "Studies
of the Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes by a Pressure
Swing Adsorption Process," Separat. Sci. Technol.,
15 (3), 423 (1980).
13. Baker, B. and R. L. Pigford, "Cycling Zone Adsorp-
tion: Quantitative Theory and Experimental Results,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 10, 283 (1971).
14. Foo, S. C., K. H. Bergsman and P. C. Wankat,
"Multicomponent Fractionation by Direct Thermal
Mode Cycling Zone Adsorption," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fundam., 19, 86 (1980).
15. Anderson, R. E., "Ion-Exchange Separations," in
P. A. Schweitzer (ed.), Handbook of Separation


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


212









Techniques for Chemical Engineers, Sect. 1.12,
McGraw-Hill, NY, 1979.
16. Lightfoot, E. N., R. J. Sanchez-Palma and D. C.
Edwards, "Chromatography and Allied Fixed Bed
Separations Processes" in H. M. Schoen (ed.), New
Chemical Engineering Separation Techniques, Inter-
science, NY, p. 125 (1962).
17. Lapidus, L. and N. R. Amundson, "Mathematics of
Adsorption in Beds. VI. The Effect of Longitudinal
Diffusion in Ion Exchange and Chromatic Columns,"
J. Phys. Chem., 56, 984 (1952).
18. Thomas, H. C., "Chromatography: A Problem in
Kinetics," Annals New York Academy of Science,
49, 161 (1948).
19. Lee, M. N. Y., "Novel Separations with Molecular
Sieves Adsorption," in N. N. Li, Recent Developments
in Separation Science, Vol. II, (1972), p. 75.
20. Breck, D. W., Zeolite Molecular Sieves, Wiley, NY,
1978.
21. Mantell, C. L., Carbon and Graphite Handbook, Inter-
science, (1968), Chapter 13.
22. Wankat, P. C., and L. R. Partin, "Process for Re-
covery of Solvent Vapors with Activated Carbon,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 19, 446 (1980).
23. May, S. W., and L. M. Landgraff, "Separation
Techniques Based on Biological Specificity," in N. N.
Li (ed.), Recent Developments in Separation Science,
Vol. V., 227-255 (1979).
24. Lacey, R. E., "Membrane Separation Processes,"
Chem. Eng., Sept. 4, 1972, p. 56-74.
25. Reid, C. E., "Principles of Reverse Osmosis," in U.
Merten (ed.), Desalination by Reverse Osmosis, 1966,
p. 1-14.
26. Blatt, W. F., A. Dravid, A. S. Michaels, and L. Nelsen,
in "Solute Polarization and Cake Formation in
Membrane Ultrafiltration" in J. E. Flinn (ed.), Mem-
brane Science and Technology, p. 47-74, 1970.
27. Sherwood, T. K., P. L. T. Brian, R. E. Fisher and L.
Dresner, "Salt Concentration at Phase Boundaries in
Desalination by Reverse Osmosis," IEC Fundamentals,
4, 113, (1965).
28. Porter, M.C., "Membrane Filtration," in P. Schweitzer
(ed.), Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemi-
cal Engineers, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1979, Sect. 2.1.
29. Merten, U., "Transport Properties of Osmotic Mem-
branes" in U. Merten, Desalination by Reverse Os-
mosis, MIT Press (1966), Pages 15 to 54.
30. Sourirajan, S. (ed.), Reverse Osmosis and Synthetic
Membrane, National Research Council, Canada,
(1977).
31. Hwang, S. T. and J. M. Thorman, "The Continuous
Membrane Column," AIChE Journal, 26, 558 (1980).
32. McCabe, W. L. and J. C. Smith, Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, NY, 1976,
Chapter 28.
33. Larson, M. A. and A. D. Randolph, "Size Distribution
Analysis in Continuous Crystallization," CEP Symp.
Ser., Vol. 65, #95, p. 1 (1969).
34. Randolph, A. D. and M. A. Larson, "Theory of Par-
ticulate Process," Academic, NY, 1971, Chapters 4
to 9.
35. Garside, J. and M. B. Shah, "Crystallization Kinetics
from MSMPR Crystallizers," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process


Des. Develop., 19, 509 (1980).
36. Singh, G., "Crystallization from Solutions," in P.
Schweitzer (ed.) Handbook of Separation Techniques
for Chemical Engineers, McGraw Hill, NY, 1979, Sect.
2.4.



COAL LIQUEFACTION
Continued from page 182.
Present and Developing Methods, in press, Marcel
Dekker, Inc., New York (1981).
Bl. Liu, Y. A. and G. E. Crow, "Studies in Magneto-
chemical Engineering: I. A. Pilot-Scale Study of
High-Gradient Magnetic Desulfurization of Solvent-
Refined Coal," Fuel, 58, 345 (1979).
B12. Liu, Y. A. and M. J. Oak, "Studies in Magneto-
chemical Engineering: II. Theoretical Development
of a Practical Model for High Gradient Magnetic
Separation, and III. Experimental Applications of a
Practical Model of High Gradient Magnetic Separa-
tion to Pilot-Scale Coal Beneficiation," AIChE J.,
in press (1981).
B13. Eissenberg, D. M. and Y. A. Liu, "High Gradient
Magnetic Beneficiation of Dry Pulverized Coal via
Upwardly-Directed Recirculating Fluidization,"
U.S. Patent number 4,212,651, issued on July 15,
1980.
B14. Liu, Y. A., "Novel High Gradient Magnetic Separa-
tion Processes for Desulfurization of Dry Pulverized
Coal," Chap. 9 in Recent Development in Separation
Science: Volume VI, Norman N. Li, Editor, CRC
Press, Boca Raton, FL (1981).

C. SELECTED RECENT THESES FROM THE AUBURN
COAL RESEARCH PROGRAM

C1. McCord, T. H., "A Feasibility Study of Novel High
Gradient Magnetic Separation Processes for De-
sulfurization of Dry Pulverized Coal" (1979).
C2. Jeng, J. F., "Determination of a Solvent Quality
Index for Coal Liquefaction," (1979).
C3. Fan, C. W., "Heteroatom Removal from Model Com-
pounds by Coal Mineral Catalysts," (1979).
C4. Henson, B. J., "Solubilities of H2 and CO2 in Coal
Liquids," (1980).
C5.. Majlessi, S.H.R., "Synergistic and Phase Behavior
Effects Among Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds
in Coal Liquefaction," (1980).
C6. Wagner, R. G., "A Feasibility Study of Novel Con-
tinuous Superconducting High Gradient Magnetic
Separation Process for Desulfurization of Dry Pul-
verized Coal," (1980).
C7. Brook, D., "Effect of Pyrite on Liquefaction
Catalysis," (1981).
C8. Crawford, J., "Kinetics of Pyrite-to-Pyrrhotite
Transformation," (1981).
C9. Pehler, F. A., "Development and Demonstration of
the Auburn Fluidized-Bed Superconducting High
Gradient Magnetic Separation Process for Desulfur-
ization of Dry Pulverized Coal," (1981).
C10. Smith, N., "NMR Investigation of Recycle Solvent
Quality," (1981).


FALL 1981










4 Couiaie in


HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS

Principles, Practice and Modern Experimental Techniques


EDUARDO E. WOLF
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556

H ETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS PLAYS a key role in
the chemical process industry as well as in
energy conversion and pollution control processes.
The development of new processes is often pre-
ceded by the discovery of a new catalyst. A case
in point is, among many others, catalytic cracking
in petroleum refining. The first cracking processes
were non-catalytic, thermal processes designed to
increase the fraction of petroleum that could be
utilized as gasoline. The first catalytic cracking
process used a treated clay as a catalyst which de-
activated rapidly. Reactors were then developed
to regenerate the coked catalyst by using cycling
feeds, moving beds and fluidized beds. Synthetic
silica alumina catalysts replaced the natural
treated clays and these were superseded by
catalysts containing zeolites dispersed on an
amorphous silica alumina matrix. Optimum opera-
tion of the new zeolite cracking catalyst required
short contact times and higher temperatures. This














Eduardo E. Wolf is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
at Notre Dame where he has been a faculty member since 1975. He
received his BS from the University of Chile in Santiago, MS from the
University of California at Davis and Ph.D. from the University of
California at Berkeley. His research interests are in the area. of
applied and fundamental catalysis, catalytic reaction engineering and
catalytic coal conversion.


Catalysis is a multidisciplinary
subject wherein collaboration among
chemists, physicists, material scientists and
engineers render the best results.

led to the replacement of the fluid bed reactor by
the riser cracker or transport line reactor in
which the vaporized feed is contacted and trans-
ported upward with regenerated catalyst in a
vertical pipe. The strategic and economic implica-
tions of new catalysts development are evident
when considering the history and present status
of coal conversion processes. Such processes, first
used in Germany during WW II, were briefly con-
sidered in the U. S. in the fifties, but finds its
present full scale development and application in
South Africa. Present efforts in synfuels develop-
ment are a challenge open to future generations of
scientists and engineers. The answers lie, in part,
in our ability to develop new, more active and re-
sistant catalysts which can withstand operation in
the demanding environment of coal conversion pro-
cesses. The task requires that we possess a better
understanding of catalytic reactions and surfaces,
as well as a command of the modern tools used
for surface analysis and catalyst characteriza-
tion.
The advent of new spectroscopic tools for
direct probing of surfaces requires an intro-
duction to the methods of other disciplines not
currently included in the traditional chemical
engineering curriculum. Catalysis is a multidis-
ciplinary subject wherein collaboration among
chemists, physicists, material scientists and engi-
neers render the best results. For this to occur,
researchers in this area need to be equipped
with the basic understanding of the comple-
mentary disciplines and tools, otherwise the dialog
does not bear fruit. The course outline which
follows has been organized in this multidisciplin-
ary context comprising fundamental, practical,

CopyVght ChE Division, ASEE, 1981


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


214








and experimental aspects of heterogeneous
catalysis.

COURSE STRUCTURE AND DESCRIPTION

THE COURSE IS STRUCTURED so that lecture ma-
terials are combined with demonstration ex-
periments dealing with the use of spectroscopic
techniques for surface analysis. Table 1 presents
an outline of the course in the form of a table of
contents divided into three parts and subsections
or chapters. Parts I and II comprise the lecture
material whereas Part III consists of a brief de-
scription of the demonstration experiments. The
experiments are also indicated in parenthesis in
Part I to indicate the appropriate combination of
lectures and experiments.
The list of experiments presented in Part III
is incomplete since there are many other tech-
niques for surface analysis and catalyst charac-
terization. However, in practice, availability of
equipment places a restriction on the types of ex-
periments which can be conducted during the
course. When I teach the course at Notre Dame,
nine experiments are run for which I borrow the
facilities of Chemistry (XPS), Materials Science
(X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM), our college
(AES) and our own catalysis laboratories (FTIR,
adsorption, kinetics). Fig. 1 shows some of the
equipment used.
The demonstration experiments are presented
to groups of three or four students. One lecture is
conducted prior to the experiment to explain the
basic characteristics and operation of the equip-
ment and the type of data obtained. Emphasis is
given to sample preparation and interpretation of
results rather than to details concerning the ap-
paratus hardware. The results obtained during the
session are distributed among the students for
their analyses, which are submitted later in the
form of a short written report.
Part I is devoted to the principles and funda-
mentals of heterogeneous catalysis and related
topics. Due to the diversity of the subjects treated
(some of which could constitute a separate course)
the scope of the treatment is limited to those
aspects which are of import to catalysis.
The lecture material starts with an introduc-
tion to the solid state. It focuses on the nature of
bonding in solids, structure of crystals and
electronic structure of solids. The x-ray diffrac-
tion laboratory and transmission electron micro-
scopy (TEM) laboratories are discussed and
carried out concurrently with these lectures.


Following the introduction to the solid state
there is an introduction to surface chemistry
paralleling many of the concepts presented pre-
viously on geometrical and electronic structure of
solids. Emphasis is given to electron emission and
relaxation processes which are the basis of electron
spectroscopy. The lecture material is demonstrated
in the SEM x-ray dispersive analysis laboratory, x-
ray photoelectron spectroscopy laboratory (XPS)
and Auger electron spectroscopy laboratory
(Scanning Auger, SAM).
Once the fundamentals of the solid-state and
surfaces and the corresponding probing tech-
niques are introduced, the more classical concepts
of gas-surface interactions, such as physisorption,
chemisorption and surface reactions are treated.
Experimental demonstrations of BET adsorp-
tion infrared spectroscopy and selective chemi-
sorption of gases are presented concurrently with
this material. A discussion of selected examples of



.


FIGURE 1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
(FTIR) in the author's laboratory, showing
the data acquisition system, spectrometer
and GC/IR interface.
catalyst preparation for laboratory testing closes
Part I.
Part II deals with the more empirical but no
less significant subject of applied and industrial
catalysis. Beginning with an introduction on the
development and preparation of industrial cata-
lysts, there follows a discussion of reaction engi-
neering aspects of catalysts and catalytic reactors.
Mass and heat transport limitations in catalysts
pellets are analyzed in terms of observables. A
short discussion of catalyst deactivation analyzes
its different causes and remedies. The balance of
the lecture material is devoted to a description of
some of the major industrial catalytic processes
grouped according to the chemical elements in-


FALL 1981









TABLE 1


Principles, Practice and Modern Experimental Techniques in Heterogeneous Catalysts


PART I: INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES OF
HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
1. Introduction
1.1 Catalyst, Types and Physical Characteristics
1.2 Catalysis, Catalytic Sequence, Energetics
2. Introduction to the Solid State
2.1 Nature of Bonding in Solids
2.3 Structure of Crystals
(X-ray Diffraction Laboratory, Experiment No.
1, Section 13)
2.4 Electronic Structure of Solids
2.5 Imperfections in Solids
(Transmission Electron Microscopy
Laboratory, Experiment No. 2, Section 14)
2.6 Structural Transformations in Solids
2.7 Summary
3. Introduction to Surface Chemistry
3.1 Structure and Description of Solid Surfaces
(Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
Laboratory, Section 16)
3.2 Thermodynamics of Surfaces
(Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy
Dispersive X-ray Analysis Laboratory, Experi-
ment No. 3, Section 15)
3.3 Emission and Relaxation Processes Involving
Valence Electrons and Inner Electron Shells
3.3 Principles of Electron Spectroscopy
Auger Electron Spectroscopy
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
(Scanning Auger Microprobe Laboratory, Ex-
periment No. 4, Section 15)
Other Spectroscopic Techniques
(XPS Laboratory, Experiment No. 5, Section 15)
3.4 Summary
4. Interaction of Gases with Surfaces
4.1 Gas-Surface Interactions-Adsorption
4.2 Physical Adsorption; Isotherms, Energetics
(BET Laboratory, Experiment No. 7, Section 17)
4.3 Chemisorption, Molecular Aspects, Isotherms,
Heats of Chemisorption, Rates of Adsorption-
Desorption
4.4 The Surface Chemical Bond
(Infrared Spectroscopy Laboratory, Experi-
ment No. 6, Section 16)
4.5 Kinetic of Catalytic Reactions, Site Balances
4.6 Empirical Activity Patterns and Activity Cor-
relations; Acidity, Geometric Correlations,
Electronic Correlations (H2 Chemisorption
Laboratory, Experiment No. 8, Section 17)
4.7 Preparation and Characterization of Catalysts
for Laboratory Testing
4.8 Summary
(Catalytic Kinetic Laboratory, Experiment No.
9, Section 20)

PART II: INDUSTRIAL AND APPLIED CATALYSIS
5. Industrial Catalysts
5.1 The Development of Industrial Catalysts and
Catalytic Processes


5.2 Preparation of Industrial Catalysts
5.3 Mass and Heat-Transport Effects in Catalyst
Design
5.4 Reaction Engineering Considerations
5.5 Catalyst Deactivation
5.6 Summary
INDUSTRIAL CATALYTIC PROCESSES
6. Reactions of C-H
6.1 Petroleum Refining-Overview
6.2 Catalytic Cracking
6.3 Catalytic Naphtha Reforming
6.4 Hydrocracking
6.5 Catalytic Alkylation
7. Reactions of C-O-H
7.1 Steam Reforming
7.2 Methanol Synthesis
7.3 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis
7.4 Water Shift Reaction
7.5 Methanation
7.6 Partial Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
8. Reactions of N-H-O
8.1 Ammonia Synthesis
8.2 Ammonia Oxidation, Urea
8.3 Acrilonitrile Production
9. Reactions of S-O, S-H
9.1 S-Oxidation, Sulfuric Acid Manufacture
9.2 S-Production, Claus Process
10. Complex Systems
10.1 Automobile Pollution Control
10.2 Coal Gasification-Liquefaction
10.3 Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Coal Liquids
10.4 Demetallization of Heavy Oils
11. Other Catalytic Processes
PART III: MODERN EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
FOR CATALYST CHARACTERIZATION
12. X-ray Diffraction
Experiment No. 1
13. Electron Microscopy
Experiment No. 2, Transmission Electron
Microscopy
Experiment No. 3, SEiM, X-ray Dispersive
Analysis
14. Electron Spectroscopy
Experiment No. 4, Auger Electron Spectroscopy
Experiment No. 5, X-ray Photoelectron
Spectroscopy
Other Spectroscopic Techniques
15. Low Energy Electron Diffraction
Introduction
16. Infrared Spectroscopy
Experiment No. 6, Fourier Transform IR, GC/IR
17. Gas Adsorption Techniques
Experiment No. 7, BET Adsorption
Experiment No. 8, H2 Chemisorption
18. Catalytic Kinetic
Experiment No. 9, Fixed Bed, Differential and
CSTCR Reactors
19. Other Experimental Techniques


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


216









volved in the main reactions (i.e., C-H, C-O, etc.).
Each process is described in terms of the chemis-
try involved, thermodynamics, and kinetics
aspects. Emphasis is given to the catalyst ac-
tivity, selectivity and deactivation in relation to
process operation and reaction engineering
aspects. Cross reference is made to the funda-
mental aspects discussed in Part I whenever
possible.
The typical enrollment in the course is ten to
fifteen graduate students from chemical engineer-
ing and science. The material is presented in two,
75 minute lectures, and about one laboratory
session per week. Grades are assigned on the basis
of a written exam and a term paper. The latter
consists of a written report and an oral presenta-
tion which provides stimulating discussion as well
as fresh references and new ideas on specialized
topics. The research papers focused on energy re-
lated catalytic processes with emphasis in fossil
fuel and coal processing.
No text is available which covers all the ma-
terial included in Table 1. Hence I prepared a set
of notes based on more specialized books and
papers dealing with specific subjects and tech-
niques as well as information and experience ac-
cumulated in our own laboratory.
The combination of theory and experiments
has a strong impact on the students, even though
in some cases they do not directly operate the
equipment due to its complexity and specializa-
tion. The majority of the engineering students
have not been exposed to surface analysis and
electron microscopy techniques, and thus feel that
they acquired new knowledge in the course. The
combination of principles, industrial application
and experiments equips the students with a new
perspective of catalysis and catalytic reaction
engineering which enables them to face a larger
variety of problems with a larger diversity of
tools.
I enjoyed teaching the course because it pro-
vides an opportunity for interaction with col-
leagues from other disciplines, which enriched my
own knowledge and perspective of the subject. Ol

REFERENCES
(A list of references, including journal articles, is too
extensive, thus only books are cited.)
C. Kittel, "Introduction to Solid State Physics," John
Wiley, 1976.
G. Somorjai, "Principles of Surface Chemistry," Prentice-
Hall, 1972.
N. B. Hannay, "Solid State Chemistry," Prentice Hall,


1965.
W. N. Eelgass, G. L. Haller, R. Kellerman, J. H. Lundsford,
"Spectroscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis," Academic
Press, 1979.
A. W. Adamson, "Physical Chemistry of Surfaces," John
Wiley, 1976.
T. A. Carlson, "Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopy,"
Plenum Press, New York, 1975.
B. C. Gates, J. R. Katzer, G. C. Schuit, "Chemistry of
Catalytic Processes," McGraw-Hill, 1979.
D. L. Trim, "Design of Industrial Catalysts," Elsevier,
1980.
C. N. Satterfield, "Heterogeneous Catalysis," McGraw-
Hill, 1980.
J. J. Carberry, "Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engi-
neering," McGraw-Hill, 1976.
J. M. Thomas, R. M. Lambert, "Characterization of
Catalysts," John Wiley, 1980.
R. B. Anderson, "Experimental Methods for Catalysts
Characterization," Academic Press, Vol I, 1968; Vol
III, 1976.
J. Butt, "Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design," Prentice
Hall International, 1980.
J. M. Thomas and W. J. Thomas, "Introduction to the
Principles of Heterogeneous Catalysis," Academic
Press, 1967.
A. Clark, "The Theory of Adsorption and Catalysis,"
Academic Press, 1970.
P. A. Delmon, P. A. Jacobs and G. Poncelet, "Preparation
of Catalysts," Elsevier, Vol I, 1975 and Vol II, 1978.
B. Imelik, C. Naccache, Y. B. Taarit, J. C. Vedrine, G.
Coudurier and H. Prahand, Eds., "Catalysis by
Zeolites," Elsevier, 1980.


CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS
Continued from page 158.
17, 531 (1962).
3. Gibbs, R. E., and H. C. Van Ness, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fundam., 11, 410 (1972).
4. Van Ness, H. C., and M. M. Abbott, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fundam., 17, 66 (1978).
5. Van Ness, H. C., AIChE J., 16, 18 (1970).
6. Barker, J. A., Austral. J. Chem., 6, 207 (1953).
7. Abbott, M. M., and H. C. Van Ness, AIChE J., 1,
62 (1975).
8. Mrazek, R. V., and H. C. Van Ness, AIChE J., 7,
190 (1961).
9. Savini, C. G., et al., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 11, 40 (1966).
10. Winterhalter, D. H., and H. C. Van Ness, J. Chem.
Eng. Data, 11, 189 (1966).
11. Losito, N. A., Jr., Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute, (in preparation).
12. Wilson, G. M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 86, 127 (1964).
13. Renon, H., and J. M. Prausnitz, AIChE J., 14, 135
(1968).
14. Abrams, D. S., and J. M. Prausnitz, AIChE J., 1,
116 (1975).
15. Fredenslund, Aa., et al., "Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
using UNIFAC," Elsevier, Amsterdam (1977).
16. Kojima, K., and T. Tochigi, "Prediction of Vapor-
Liquid Equilibria by the ASOG Method," Elsevier,
Amsterdam (1979).


FALL 1981






"Just over two years with DuPont, and

'm a process engineer on a

multimillion dollar plant expansion."
Maria Williams, BS, Chemical Engineering

"In just over two years, I've
gone from college to designing
and specifying equipment for the
expansion of one of Du Pont's
Textile Fibers plants.
'"As a process engineer, I'm
not only involved with all kinds of
equipment, but I'm also getting
the chance to work with design
engineers, construction engi-
neers, architects, even outside
suppliers. It's a big responsibility,
and I really enjoy it.
"I had a lot of job offers
during my last semester at
Cornell, but I chose Du Pont
because they offered me an
assignment with real respon-
sibility, right from the beginning.
They put me in charge of finding
the cause of product defects
and determining the process
changes necessary to
correct them.
"Now I'm a process engineer
on a multimillion-dollar project.
Du Pont gave me a chance to go
a long way in a short time.'
If you're a graduating engi-
neer who wants responsibility
and the opportunity to start a
challenging career, set up an
interview next time a Du Pont
representative is on campus. Or
write: Du Pont Company, Room
38244, Wilmington, DE 19898.
At Du Pont...there's a
P "world of things you can
do something about.




9L :.- K Anjual Oppcoruru Employei M F








COAL PROCESSING
Continued from page 186.
The lectures or chapters cover a wide range of
topics starting with the origin and formation of
coal and continuing through the physical and
chemical structure and properties of coal, and
methods for processing and utilizing various kinds
of coal. Although established technology is re-
viewed, there is an important emphasis on newer
techniques such as fluidized bed combustion, super-
critical gas extraction, and the production of
carbon fibers. New processes under development
for manufacturing gaseous and liquid fuels from
coal are also discussed. There is an additional
chapter not covered by the original lectures which
deals with the application of high resolution
electron microscopy to study the microstructure
of graphitized and partially graphitized carbons
derived from coal.
The volume is highly readable and provides a
basic but rather brief (210 pages) introduction to
the science and technology of coal utilization. It
does not probe any topic in great depth nor pro-
vide many details and the list of references at the
end of each chapter is short. On the other hand, it
does provide a good overview of a number of
topical areas and should appeal to a great many
readers who desire a brief introduction to the
subject. Furthermore, even though the book tends
to emphasize technology which is of particular
interest to the British, it includes enough material
about new developments in the United States and
other countries to insure world-wide interest. The
volume could well serve as a text for an intro-
ductory course on coal science and technology for
college students with some background in chemis-
try and chemical engineering. O


THE CHEMICAL REACTOR OMNIBOOK

By Octave Levenspiel; published by the author and
distributed by Oregon State University Book
Stores, Corvallis, OR 97330

Reviewed by Rutherford Aris
University of Minnesota
As one who has often been puzzled by the ways
of publishers it is refreshing to find them at once
so right and so wrong. So wrong those conven-
tional publishers who declined a book of Octave
Levenspiel's; so right, the author and the Oregon


State University Book Stores who published the
book in the form which it takes. In it the problems
are beautifully typed and are linked by chapters in
Levenspiel's own hand. This is a round cursive of
admirable clarity and consistency and in itself
conveys the vitality and interest of the spoken
word. When linked with his figures and sketches in
the organic way which he achieves, we have the
effect of being in the classroom with a teacher of
known and valued vitality and his pages have all
the immediacy and effectiveness of the author's
presence.
One of the first things the teacher of chemical
engineering will spot is that here is a positive
gold mine of problems. There are no less than
1394, though it must be admitted that many are
one-line modifications of their neighbors. The book
is divided into seven main divisions (numbered to
leave a small remainder when 10 n is subtracted,
n = 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) with an interlude between
the first two and a coda on "Dimensions units, con-
versions and the orders of magnitude of this and
that." Single phase reactors are the burden of
the first division which is divided into seven
sections and has more than a third of the problems.
The interlude (sec. 11) is on the background of
multiphase reactors and leads to a division on
secss. 21-25) reactors with solid catalysts that
ranges from the particle to the fluidized bed. Then
there is a discussion secss. 31-34) of catalytic re-
actors with changing phases, of gas/liquid and
liquid/liquid reactions secss. 41, 42) and the re-
actions of solids secss. 51-55). Levenspiel next
groups together some discussions of the flow of
materials through reactors secss. 61-64, 66, 68)
and concludes with a section on biochemical re-
actors using enzymes and microbes secss. 81-85).
It is interesting to speculate whether a future doc-
torate (a D.Ed. perhaps) will be awarded for dis-
cussion of what forms of life might once have
played in these "Lacunae of Levenspiel" secss. 65,
67, and the 70's).
The style of the text sections is, by design,
sketchy. More often than not, it jumps from the
statement of a problem and its background to a
conclusion and adds certain comments afterwards.
This makes it an interesting book to think of using
in a course since, although one would be to some
extent committed to its notation (and who among
us is not fiercely jealous of their own) it would
provide a most useful framework with the least
restriction. Indeed Levenspiel suggests that its use
might be as a supplementary text in a course and


FALL 1981








very helpfully explains how he himself has used it.
It can also be used for a self-paced/self-study
course on the subject and is certainly a useful
book to have for reference. The reader using the
Omnibook for self-study would no doubt wish
for more references, for these are not given in
any complete and systematic way. I would have
liked to have seen Levenspiel's presentation of
the dynamics of reactors, for his virtuosity in the
integration of text and figure would have been
extended by a description of the recent work on


possible behaviors of the stirred tank. But I must
not get carried away on my hobby horses.
The last chapter (sec. 100) is an admirable
collection of units and conversions between them.
I trust I shall never need to use a number with a
dimension, but if such disaster should come upon
me, I shall flee for refuge to this "Miscellany". As
in so many places throughout the book, Levenspiel
has here an original touch; he gives "spectra" of
the orders of magnitude of various diffusivities,
conductivities and rates of reaction. O


[I )1 class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scott Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Our undergraduate student readers are encouraged to submit their solution to the following problem to Prof. Ray
Fahien, Editor, CEE, ChE Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, before January 1, 1982. A compli-
mentary subscription to CEE will be awarded, to begin immediately or, if preferred, after graduation, for the best solu-
tion submitted (Oregon State students are not eligible). We will publish Prof. Levenspiel's solution in a subsequent issue.


DOLPHIN PROBLEM


OCTAVE LEVENSPIEL
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331
Whales, dolphins and porpoises are able to
maintain surprisingly high body temperatures
even though they are immersed continuously in
cold, cold water. Since the extremities of these
animals (tails, fins, flukes) have a large surface
to volume ratio, a large portion of the heat loss
occurs there.
a) Now an ordinary engineering junior de-
signing a dolphin from first principles might view
the flipper as a flat single pass heat exchanger
with heat transfer occurring between a blood vessel
passing through the flipper and the flipper itself
which is assumed to be at the water ambient
temperature.
Let us suppose that blood'at 40C enters the
flipper at 0.3 kg/s, feeds the flipper, is cooled
somewhat, and then returns to the main part of
the body. The dolphin swims in 4C water, the
overall heat transfer coefficient is 100 cal/s'm2"K
and the heat transfer area is 3 m2. At what
temperature does the blood reenter the main part


of the body of the dolphin?
b) Frankly, the ordinary engineer above
(which you obviously are not) would design a
lousy dolphin. Let's try to do better; in fact let us
try to learn from nature. Let us see if we can
reduce some of the undesirable heat loss by insert-
ing an internal heat exchanger B ahead of the
flipper exchanger A above. This internal ex-
changer is a countercurrent one which transfers
heat from the outgoing warm arterial blood to
the cooled venous blood returning from the flipper.
Heat conservation of this sort, by having arteries
and veins closely paralleling each other, in
counterflow, is one of nature's clever tricks.
Assume for this internal exchanger B that
As = 2 m2
and
UB = 150 cal/s'm2"K

With this extra exchanger find T3, the tem-
perature of blood returning to the main part of
the body; and, in addition, the fraction of original
heat loss which is saved. Approximate the proper-
ties of blood by water. El


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


220




Good engineers are in a

position to choose.

So why choose FMC?


"I was really impressed by
FMC's involvement in so
many types of products and
processes. Here, there is
always the chance to work on
optimizations and designs.
Learning day-to-day opera-
tions from FMC experts and
assuming major responsibil-
ity for projects have been
great challenges. I'm looking
forward to even greater ones
in the future."


"FMC offered me the best
opportunities for advance-
ment in a variety of situa-
tions. Working in four dif-
ferent departments has
increased my knowledge
enormously. At FMC, I've
been able to explore manu-
facturing and production
engineering. It gives me great
satisfaction to know that I am
a major contributor to our
overall plant operations."


Larry Ligawa earned his BS in
Industrial Technology at Indiana
State University in 1974 and went on
to complete his MS in Industrial
Professional Technology at ISU in
1976 before joining FMC. As an
Industrial Engineer with the Chain
Division in Indianapolis, Ind., Larry
studies and audits both labor- and
capital-intensive work processes and
recommends methods to increase
productivity.


Helen E. Bilson joined the Technical
Department of the FMC Agricultural
Chemical Group's plant in Baltimore,
Md., after earning her BS in Chemical
Engineering from Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State
University in 1978. Beth's first
assignment was to implement a
wastewater treatment technique
developed in FMC's own labs. She's
presently working on a project team
to design and engineer a production
plant for one of our important
chemical intermediates.


In four years at FMC, Stan Butkivich
progressed from an associate to a
senior level Industrial Engineer. Now,
as the Assistant Supervisor in the
Cost Control Engineering Depart-
ment of FMC's San Jose Ordnance
Plant in California, he is directly
involved with a most important
aspect of production-its costs. Stan
received his.BS in Engineering Tech-
nology from California Polytechnic
State University in 1975.


Choosing FMC means...
...joining a major international producer of machinery and chemicals for
industry and agriculture with 1978 sales of $2.91 billion. FMC Corporation,
headquartered in Chicago, has more than 45,000 employees worldwide,
located at 136 manufacturing facilities in 33 states and 15 other nations. FMC
products include food and agricultural machinery and chemicals, industrial
chemicals, material and natural resource handling equipment, construction
and power transmission products, government and municipal equipment. We
offer a range of rewarding careers for engineers and other techrnica!, rady-
ates. See us on campus or contact your placement office.


A


FMC
FMC is an equal opportunity
employer, M/F.


"At the outset, I knew that
working for FMC would mean
becoming a valued member
of their team. FMC is recog-
nized as a large corporation,
and it is-in terms of size,
varied product lines and
growth opportunities. Yet, the
people are warm and friendly,
and creativity is encouraged.
At FMC, people count, and
that has made the difference
to me."









Ya Mem&oiam

HERBERT E. SCHWEYER
Herbert E. Schweyer was born in Easton, PA,
in 1910. He received his bachelor of science de-
gree in chemical engineering and a masters in
metallurgy from Lafayette College in the early
thirties. His interest in asphalt technology and
rheology was aroused during his college days and
employment with Barber Asphalt Company.
Eugene C. Bingham, Herb's physical chemistry
professor, was trying to demonstrate that rigid
materials such as marble, actually flowed. Other
noted rheologists, Marcus Reiner and H. Hencky
were working with Bingham at the time. Herb
worked with Ralph Traxler, a well known asphalt
technologist, up to 1937 when he left the Barber
Asphalt Company to pursue a Doctor of Philoso-
phy degree in chemical engineering at Columbia
University. During World War II he was em-
ployed as a research chemical engineer for Texaco
in Port Neches, Texas. In 1946 he started his
teaching career at the University of Florida. In
addition to teaching and supervision of candi-
dates for the Masters and Doctor of Philosophy
degrees, he was heavily involved in research with
the Florida Department of Transportation and
obtained several grants from the National
Science Foundation. As a member of eight pro-
fessional and technical societies, Herb was active
in committee work and was a frequent contributor
of technical papers. Over the years he authored
about 100 technical papers on asphalt rheology,
economics, and other subjects. He authored two
books on engineering economics and received
several patents.
He gave technical matters a high priority. At
professional meetings he was a frequent con-
tributor of new concepts. Discussions at meetings
were usually very lively, especially when Herb
considered somebody's technical view to be com-
pletely wrong. He always took time toi explain
concepts, testing methods, or other technical
aspects to individuals who were genuinely inter-
ested in the subject. In particular, he was con-
vinced that young engineers and scientists were
the key to technological advancements in the
future. Therefore, he felt it was important to
explain his concepts and instill in the younger
engineers an interest to carry on using his
knowledge as a foundation for new developments.


Students who worked on Herb's research pro-
jects often called him "Doc." He enjoyed his
students and they soon came to understand his
brisk and blunt manner of telling them, in no
uncertain terms, that they had messed up the test.
If a student needed assistance, Herb was there
willing to help them in any way possible. His
depth of experience and creative ideas were a
boon to students and colleagues alike.
Humor and an ability to laugh at himself was
not a shortcoming of Herb's personality. He en-
joyed hearing and conveying jokes or bits of dry
humor. As John Ferguson of Winnepeg, Canada,
put it: "His technical contributions have improved
our understanding of rheology. With his input, a
void would exist. However, our greatest loss will
be the absence of his humorous comments which
brought levity to the meetings.
He was a member of three honor societies and
the recipient of various awards and citations for
service. Probably the most significant award was
the Lafayette College Alumni Citation for teach-
ing chemical engineering. Herb was extremely
proud of his Alma Mater, which was most evident
when he wore his Lafayete cap or blazer with the
Lafayette College crest.
His tireless years of research for the Florida
Department of Transportation laid the ground-
work for improvements in testing procedures and
asphalt specifications. His involvement in the re-
cycling of asphalt pavements resulted in the de-
velopment of quality control requirements.
I believe that the culmination of his career
goals occurred within the last four years. His
forty some years of research had "paid off." Herb's
understanding of asphalt flow characteristics, re-
ferred to as rheology, was complete. The testing
device which he developed facilitated test measure-
ments of theological properties. The simplified
theological approach established by Herb has
gained in acceptance in the technical community.
Even some of his strongest opponents have
recognized the validity and need for his rheologi-
cal concepts.
A simple statement which I think summarizes
Herbert Schweyer's efforts and contributions was
made by Charles Potts: "He gave much more than
he received." We shall miss him very much.
Byron E. Ruth
University of Florida


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION INDEX Volumes XI-XV

AUTHOR INDEX


A
Abbott, M. M. --_... XI, 154; XV, 156
Ahlert, R. C. -------- -----XIII, 78
Alonso, J. ----- __ XII, 136
Anderson, T. J. XIV, 120
Angus, J. C. -_- XI, 4; XV, 25
Aris, R. __XI, 68; XII, 71, 148;
XV, 12, 219
Arkis, J. -__..--__-.-- ___ XI, 28
B
Baasel, W. D. ----_- XI, 34; XII, 78
Baiker, A. --- -- XII, 112
Balch, C. W. .--- XIII, 104
Barker, D. H. .--_ XI, 60, 104
Barrows, H. S. -.. .---- XIV, 91
Bartholomew, C. H. -_.....___ XV, 188
Basio, A. .--_______.--___ XIV, 47
Beckwith, W. F. .. .__ XI, 46
Beckmann, R. B. ---- XV, 146
Beer, J. M. --_____-...-----__ XIII, 80
Bethea, R. M. _______.----__ XI, 181
Birchenall, C. E. .-____- XI, 167
Bird, R. B. -. ___- XIV, 152
Blanch, H. ____ XI, 170
Blanks, R. F. -_ ~_ XIII, 14
Brewer, C. -------- -- XIII, 40
Buehler, R. J. _- XIV, 206
Butt, J. B. XII, 152; XIV, 12; XV, 160
C
CACHE, Trustees of XIV, 84
Carberry, J. J. ------- XIV, 78
Carbonell, R. G. ----- XII, 182
Carleson, T. E. -_.______..... XI, 118
Cassano, A. E. --..___.--__ XIV, 14
Cayrol, B. XV, 26
Charrier, J. M. ---___ -__ XI, 122
Chartoff, R. P. __ -__ XI, 174
Cheh, H. Y. ___ --- XI, 3
Chen, H. T. _---- XV, 166
Chorneyko, D. M. XIII, 132
Christmas, R. J. _- __- XIII, 132
Christy, R. S- ---_ ------- XI, 185
Churchill, S. W. __........--- XV, 74
Cise, M. D. ---__........- --- XI, 34
Cloutier, R. J. ..- ...- XII, 47
Cohen, K. C. --------- XII, 136
Cooney, D. O. __ XII, 129; XIV, 147
Corcoran, W. H. ... XI, 38; XII, 72
Cosic, S .. ------ -.... XIII, 132
Crowe, C. M. _______ XII, 98
Culberson, O. L. ..____ ----- XIII, 168
Cullinan, H. T. Jr. --.____- XII, 56
Curtis, C. W. --...... XV, 178
Cussler, E. L. X-.___ XI, 176
Cutlip, M. B. .. XV, 78
Cyert, R. M. XIII, 145
D
Dadyburjor, D. B. _----XV, 54
Darby, R. L.... XIV, 114
Daugherty, R. L. .______- ..- XI, 41
Davidson, B. ------ ------. XI, 54
Davis, H. T. __. XIII, 198; XIV, 126
deNevers, N. XII, 199
Dennett, C. R. _. -_- .. XI, 32
Deshpande, P. B. XIII, 138; XIV, 26
Dibbs, S. E. XIII, 132
DiBella, C. A. W. .------ XI, 53
Dippold, B. -.... ____-. .__ XII, 50
Doig, I. D. ___ ..... XIV, 130


Drinkenburg, A. A. H. .-__ -.. XII, 38
Duckler, A. E. ------ XI, 108
Dumesic, J. A. -_ ----- XI, 160
Dunn, R. W. -......- XII, 116; XIII, 64
E


Eagleton, L. C. ..- .
Echols, G. _--
Economides, M. J.
Edgar, T. F. -
]
Fahidy, T. Z. ------
Felder, R. M. .-...
Finlayson, B. A. -
Frank, C. W. .
Frankel, D. S. -
Freighter, J. W. ---
Fricke, A. L. -_
Fry, C. M. ----
Fuller, 0. M. ----


Gilot, B. _-- -
Gordon, R. J. --
Greenberg, D. B. ----
Greenlee, R. N. -
Griskey, R. G.--
Gubbins, K. E. XIII,
Guin, J. A. ~---
Guiraud, R. ---
Gully, A. J. -----


Hall, K. R. --.-
Hallman, J. R. -
Hamielec, C. M. -
Han, C. D. ------
Hanesian, D. _--
Hanks, R. W.
Hanley, T. R. -
Hanratty, T. J. -
Hansen, D. ----_---
Harriott, P.
Harrison, D. P.
Hartley, E. -_
Hassler, J. C. -
Haugrud, B. --
Heenan, W. A. -
Heichelheim, H. R.
Henley, E. J. -----
Henry, J. M. .-.. .-
Hill, J. C. --
Himmelblau, D. M.
Himmelstein, K. J.
Hittner, P. M.
Hollein, H. C. -----
Hottel, H. C.
Houze, R. N. _..--
Howard, G. M. ----
Howard, J. B. ..---
Huang, C. R. -
Hudgins, R. R.


--...-------- XI, 130
--_ _- XI, 28
_... XII, 122, 151
XIV, 99, 156


SXIV, 94; XV, 92
XII, 2; XIII, 116
---- XV, 20
..-----_ XIII, 190
--- XII, 18
-.-__. XIV, 91
---___ XV, 122
_--- _- XI, 24
XIV, 130


XII, 140
-- XIV, 46
.--- XIV, 138
-. __ XI, 32
-- XII, 44, 65
69; XV, 97, 172
__ XV, 178
--. XII, 140
.-__-.___ XI, 181


_____ XIII, 110
-- __- -- XII, 92
-- XIII, 132
----..-. XV, 59
XI, 134, 149
___XIII, 46
-- XIII, 84
XIV, 162
XI, 3; XII, 73
XIII, 12
-- XIII, 54
XIV, 114
--- XV, 192
XV, 40
._. __- XI, 64
--.... .... XI, 181
_- XI, 64; XII, 136
---__-----__.. XIII, 84
.._..._ XIII, 34
. ..... XII, 26
..... ____ XIV, 99
----__XIV, 138
._.-_--.__ XV, 166
------- XIII, 80
__ XIV, 114
-_____-.____ XIV, 66
.....------I.. XIII, 80
---_----- XV, 166
-___-__- XV, 26


J
Jackson, S. C. --.- -. XII, 30
Johnson, H. F. .-_-. XI, 98
Jolls, K. R. -- ...--- XIII, 75
Jorne, J. ------------- XI, 164
K
Kabel, R. L .----..-. XII, 158; XIII, 39,


70, 155; XIV, 45, 70, 198, 199;
XV, 38
Kenney, C. N. ..---- __ XIV, 168
Kerobo, C. 0. -__ XV, 166
Kershenbaum, L. S....... --- XIV, 174
King, C. J. __ XII, 3, 70; XIV 130
King, F. G. -____- XIII, 120
Klvana, D. ---- __ XII, 140
Kniebes, D. V. __.- XII, 118
Koukios, E. G. ___ XV, 140
Krantz, W. B. -...--.- XIV, 54; XV, 137
Kreith, F. -_-_............___ XI, 2
Kung, H. ----_ -----__- XV, 160
L
Lacksonen, J. W. XIII, 92
Lahti, L. E. ---- XIII, 104
Laukhuf, W. L. S. --- XIV, 26
LeBlanc, D. --------_--- XI, 32
Lees, F. P. ____--...__ XIV, 180
Leesley, M. E. ___ XII, 188; XIV, 208
Leonard, E. F. .--.... XI, 3; XII, 55
Levenspiel, O. --.._______ XV, 220
Licht, W. __..__ XIV, 146
Liu, B. Y. H. ...------------- XII, 101
Liu, Y. A. __.--_- XIV, 184; XV, 178
Locke, M. __.-.. ..--- _____. XV, 36
Lockhart, F. J. ._-- XIV, 205
Longwell, J. P.---____--- XIII, 80
Luks, K. D.- --- __ XII, 163
Lynn, S. --___-----.____. XIV, 130


McCollister, R. D.
McGee, H. A., Jr.
McNeil, K. M. -


XI, 118
--_ --XI, 39
--._ XII, 130


MacLeod, L. K. XIII, 132
Macosko, C. ---------- XII, 144
Maloney, J. 0. ---- XII, 122
Marsland, D. B. ____ .. XIII, 116
Martin, J. J. ..__.-. XII, 73; XIII, 73
Martinez, E. N. XI, 78
Mellichamp, D. A. XIV, 18
Melrose, J. C. _... .--____ XII, 143
Mensing, R. W. .___._ .....- XII, 37
Michelsen, D. L. -.. XI, 28
Middleman, S. XII, 164
Miller, C. A. --___ XV, 198
Miller, D. ---____- XI, 10
Minnesota Colleagues --___..- XIII, 8
Missen, R. W. _- ..- XIII, 26
Moore, R. F. ---- __ XIII, 132
Moo-Young, M. _- XII, 88
Morari, M. ----..._. XIII, 160; XIV, 32
Murray, J. ----...-- ..---.. XV, 112
Myers, A. L. -..--_ ...___- XIV, 8
N
Neufeld, V. R. XIV, 91
Neumann, P. D. -. ..___.--_-- XII, 92
Newton, J. J. --_-_______--. XII, 116
Noble, R. D. -.~~ XIII, 142
Norman, G. R. -----------XIV, 91
Norman, S. L. _.- XIII, 132
Notre Dame Faculty --__-----_ XV, 2

0
O
O'Connell, J. P. __..... XIV, 120
Oliver, B. F. ....- ------ XI, 103


223


FALL 1981









Ollis, D. F. --- __
Oscarson, J. L. __
P
Paspek, S. C. ------_
Patke, N. G. ---
Patterson, G. K. _----_---
Peck, R. ___-----___
Penn, M. _- -----_-
Peppas, N. A. XIV, 188; X7
Perkins, J. D. __ -
Perlmutter, D. D. XII, 1
Peters, M. S. .-------_
Petersen, E. E. __--
Plank, C. A. .---__-_-_-_.
Poehlein, G. W.
Prieve, D. C ....---- XII, 1
Prud'homme, R. K. --_
Purkapple, J. D. ___ _
Pyle, D. L. __-__ --


Quentin, G. H.


XIII, 176 Schowalter, W. R.
XIII, 46 Schultz, J. S. _
Sears, J. T. -----
Seborg, D. E. .
XIV, 78 Senkan, S. M. _.
XIV, 76 Shacham, M. _--
_ XIV, 26 Shah, D. 0. ----
-- XIII, 76 Shaheen, E. I. -
_XI, 68 Shinnar, R.
---, 1 X, 68 Silveston, P. L.
, 120, 135 Smith, W. R- .
XIV, 174 Snider, E. H.-
18; xv, 14 Sommerfeld, J. T.
XV, 144 Soong, D. S.
XII, 152 Sprague, C. H.
XIII, 138 Stadtherr, M. -
.02 XIV, 2 Stanford, T. G. _
02; XV, 54 Stankovich, R. J.
XV, 130 Sterling, A. M.
--XI, 185 Stevens, J. D. -
XIV, 174 Stevenson, J. F.
Stewart, W. E.
Street, W. B. --
XI, 24 Stroeve, P. ---
Sundberg, D. C.
Sussman, M. V.


Rajagopalan, R. __------ XII, 172
Ramkrishna, D. __ XII, 14; XIII, 172
Ranz, W. E. .. ..______.- XIV, 112
Rao, Y. K. -..-- -------XIII, 147
Ray, W. H. ....... XIII, 160; XIV, 32
Reid, R. C. ___ XII, 60, 108, 194
Retzloff, D. _-- __ .. ... XI, 168
Richarz, W. --- --_ XII, 112
Rodriguez, F. -__ ____....._ XIII, 96
Rosner, D. E. -_ XIV, 192, 193
Rousseau, R. W. .--__. XIII, 72; XV, 8
Russel, W. B. ....-.__ .. ___ XIII, 176
Russell, T. W. F. _. XI, 41, 74, 170;
XII, 18; XIII, 194
Ryan, J. T. _....---------------.. XV, 40

S


Sacco, A., Jr. --
Sarofim, A. F.
Saville, D. A.
Schechter, R. S.


------ XV, 121
___XIII, 80
.--_- XIII, 176
XIV, 156


Tanner, R. D. .---.......
Tarbell, J. M. ____.
Tarrar, A. R .. ..._......
Tassios, D. ---~_- -
Taylor, W. K. __---
Thatcher, C. M.
Theodore, L. ---
Thomson, W. J. __ ---
Threadgill, D.
Timmerhaus, K. D. -..
Tock, R. W. .---
Turner, H. E. _
Tyne, S. C. --_.....
U
Uhl, V. W. ---


VanNess, H. C.


......-.__ .. XIII, 176
. ----- XII, 4
--.--_. XII, 74
XIV, 42; XV, 106
___- XIV, 200
.----- XV, 78
-XI, 14
------- XII, 118
-- -_ --- XI, 150
----- XIV, 130
-.----- XIII, 26
XI, 44
.__ XIII, 126; XV, 86
XV, 204
- __- XI, 24
X~_ IV, 114
----- XI, 186
-- XIII, 132
-___- XIII, 54
.-.--- XIV, 136
-. ---- XII, 30
----- XII, 72
------ XV, 172
XV, 126
---_- XI, 118
-. --- XII, 34


..---.- XIII, 145
-- XII, 8
--------- XV, 178
XV, 133
XIV, 88
XIV, 96
XII, 198
XV, 184
XIV, 108
~_ XV, 68
-- XIII, 40
XI, 74
__ XIII, 132


Vannice, M. A. ----___ XIII, 164
Varma, A. _--- XIII, 131, 184; XIV, 78
Vermeulen, T. _--- XIII, 156
Vernor, T. E. --- XI, 185
Veronda, W. -__ XIV, 60
Vivian, J. E. ---- XIV, 200

W
Wall, J. D. -.. _-..-. XI, 138
Waller, K. V. __ -- XV, 30
Walter, C. -___ ---_-- XII, 23
Wankat, P. C. --- 2 XV, 208
Ware, C. H., Jr. -__. XIV, 24
Ward, T. J. ____ XIV, 38
Wasan, D. ------ XI, 10
Watson, C. G. ---- XIV, 90
Webster, D. J. XII, 116
Weinstock, I. B. -__- XII, 206
Wengrow, H. R. --- XI, 32
Westerberg, A. W.- XIV, 72
Westwater, J. W. ----- XI, 53; XII, 73
Wheelock, T. D. __ XII, 178; XV, 186
Whitaker, S. ------- XII, 182
White, J. L. _-- ~ XIII, 87
White, R. E. _-- XIII, 110
Whitney, R. P. -------.- XII, 56
Wicks, C. E. ----- XIV, 102
Wilcox, W. R. _____ XIII, 88
Williams, D. C. --__--- XV, 178
Williams, G. C. -- .... XIII, 80
Williams, M. L. -- -- XII, 188
Willis, M. S. __ ___ XIII, 170
Wills, G. B. ---- XIV, 142
Wisconsin Colleagues -------- XIII, 60
Wolf, E. E. -- XV, 214
Wong, L. K. .__----_- XIII, 132
Woods, D. R.__.._ XI, 86, 140;
XII, 116, XIII, 64, 132; XIV, 88,
92, 130


Yen, T. F. ----- XIII, 180
XI, 149 Youngquist, G. R. ._ XII, 202; XIII, 20


-.-...---- XI, 154


Zipf, K. ------.------... .. ----- XII, 33


TITLE INDEX


A
Air Pollution, Engineering Control of* ----__ XIV, 146
Analysis, Chemical Engineering ---~ XV, 192
Audio Visual Aids Subcommittee Activities __--- XI, 46
AWARD LECTURES:
Cryogenic Heat Transfer ____------ XV, 68
Dynamics of Runaway Systems __-_....------ XIII, 156
Kinetics of Coal Processing _-._._....- .__------- XV, 14
Superheated Liquids --- __ _- XII, 60, 108, 194
B
Bachelors-Masters Program, A Combined --~_.. XIII, 138
Biochemical Engineering, A Course in -------- XI, 170
Biochemical Engineering Programs: A Survey of
U.S. and Canadian ChE Departments ... ------ XII, 88
Biomedical Engineering Principles* -- ..__ .. XII, 55
Biophysical Chemistry* __. ~_. XIV, 147
C
CACHE, What is __ --- -- ---- XIV, 84
Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering,
Research on ._____.__.. ---- __.... XV, 160
Cellulose as a Chemical and Energy Resource* ----- XII, 23
Chemical Engineering and Modular Instruction XII, 136
Chemical Engineering Education Revisited ----___ XII, 198
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Influential
Papers in -.---- -------------- -- ..- -------XII, 158


Chemical Reaction Engineering Science -__ -- XI, 168
Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plants* ------ XIV, 24
Chemical Reactor Engineering ---_ XII, 152
Chemical Reactor Omnibook* ------- XV, 219
Chemical Reactor Theory, A Review of* .__ XIII, 131
Chemical Reactors, A Course in --. __ XIV, 168
Chemical Stoichiometry, What is e -----_ XIII, 26
Chemists, A 15-Month MS ChE Degree
Program for --___ __ __---- XIII, 46
Classical Thermodynamics XV, 156
Close Encounters of a Sparse Kind -------XIV, 72
Coal and Modern Coal Processing* -_ XV, 186
Coal Liquefaction and Desulfurization ------~~~. XV, 178
Coal Liquefaction Processes ------- XIII, 180
Coal Science and Technology _-........___--- _- XII, 178
Colloidal Phenomena, A Course on __--_-- XIII, 176
Combustion Science and Technology XIV, 193
Computer-Aided Curriculum Analysis ------_ XI, 64
Computer-Aided Process Design __ .. XIII. 126
Computer-Based Instruction ___ ---_ ___ XV, 78
Contact Catalysis* _--. XIV, 12
Continuum Thermodynamics, Foundations of* --- XII, 143
Co-Op Ph.D. Programme in ChE .- XIV, 94
Course Types by Descriptive and Prescriptive
Educational Factors, Comparison of ..---_ XII, 74
Creation, The ---- XIII, 209

*Book Review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


-------------









D
DEPARTMENTS:
Brigham Young _.-_. __.- --_.--- -___--__--- XI, 104
Carnegie-Mellon _---------- -__ ...--- -- XII, 102
Case Western Reserve .-------------------------- XI, 4
Colorado ___------__ __________- __ .---- XIV, 54
Georgia Tech ______ -_____ XIV, 2
Institute of Paper Chemistry --- -- XII, 56
LSU .---- XIII, 54
N.C. State ....------------------.--- XIII, 2
Notre Dame .----------- ---------- --__--- XV, 2
Oregon State ---___------- -- --------- --- XIV, 102
Penn State .. --_.- -.-....-----.. XII, 8
Rolla, U. Missouri -------------------------- XV, 62
Rutgers -___--------__ ---- XI, 54
Santa Barbara, U. C. ----- .------- XV, 106
Texas A & M -- ~~___~_- XIII, 110
Departments, Too Many _-------_-- -----__.....-- XI, 39
Design, Internship in ChE ___--- XI, 74
Diffusion and Surface Reaction in Heterogeneous
Catalysis __ -.________.___ --____ -_______ .. XII, 112
Division Activities --___-__ XII, 107; XIV, 113; XV, 96, 118
E
Economics, A Doctoral Level ChE Course _----- XIII, 168
EDUCATORS:
Bennett, Gary, of Toledo .-_..---------------- XIII, 104
Bird, R. Byron, of Wisconsin --- -- XIII, 60
Brainard, Alan J., of Pittsburgh .- ---- XII, 50
Corcoran, William H., of Caltech XIV, 60
Felder, Richard M., of N.C. State XV, 8
Fogler, Scott, A Teacher of Learning ------- XII, 4
Humphrey, Art, University of Pennsylvania -- XIV, 8
Peck, Ralph, of Illinois Tech ___ ---- XL, 10
RA of Minnesota .---....---------------------- XIII, 8
Ruckenstein, Eli., of SUNY Buffalo -.......----- XV, 54
Scriven, Skip, of Minnesota ___--- XI, 50
Sparks, Bob, of Washington University -- XV, 112
Tanner, Bob, of Vanderbilt ---- XIV, 108
White, Jim, of Tennessee ...---------------..- -- XI, 98
Woods, Don, of McMaster ---- XII, 98
Electrochemical Engineering, A Course in ------_ XI, 164
Enrollment by Professional Society Action, Can
We Limit _________------- __-_ XI, 41
Enrollments, Coping With Bulging ChE ---.. ..... XV, 146
Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment ----- XIII, 20
Equipment, A Course in ChE -_______- XIII, 88
Examinations as a Method of Teaching _--------- XIII, 76
Examinations in ChE, Usage of Multiple Choice -- XV, 86
Experience at One University ~_- XI, 181
Experiments for Estimating Free Convection and
Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficients .----- XII, 122
Experiments in Undergraduate Reaction Engineering:
Startup and Transient Response of CSTR's
in Series _- __ --___ XI, 118
Experiments, Teaching of ChE Thermodynamics XII, 130
F
Faculty-Student Consultant Teams to Solve
Industrial Problems, Using Summer _----- XI, 28
Faculty Work Load Measurement -------_ XI, 134
Faculty Workload Measurement at Penn State __ XI, 130
Filtration: Principles and Practices, Part 1* --... XIII, 170
Financial Decision Making in the Process
Industry* -------- ----------- ------- ---- XI, 149
Finite Element, Some Infinite Possibilities .------ XV, 20
Fluid Flow and Electric Circuitry, Analogy
Between -- -----------.- XIII, 96
Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun ----- -- XIII, 14
Fossil Fuels Program, M.I.T.'s -__--------------------.----- XIII, 80
Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A
Laboratory Experiment ---_--- XIII, 142
Functional Analysis for ChE's, A Course on ----- XIII, 172
G
Gas Chromatography, Simple and Rapid Method of
Determining the Vapor Pressure of
Liquids by .---- ----- -- XII, 140


Gas Engineering at the Algerian Petroleum
Institute, Training and --______ XII, 118
Graduate Education on a Statewide Closed-Circuit
Television Network _-...... ---.---- -..... XI, 186
Graduate Programs for Non-Chemical Engineers __ XI, 176
Graduate School Through Undergraduate
Research--- ---------- XV, 135
Growth in ChE, Practical Limits to __----.. ____ XI, 38
H
Heterogeneous Catalysis, A Course in __-.-.__ XV, 214
Heterogeneous Catalysis, A Course on __-..--- XIII, 164
Horses of Other Colors: Some Notes on
Seminars in a ChE Department -- XII, 148
Hydrocolloidal Systems, The Dynamics of -----__ XII, 172
I
Industrial Chemistry: Principles of* -- XV, 144
Industrial Crystallization* _____-- --- XIII, 72
Industrial Implications in a Polymer
Engineering Course, Stressing ___- XI, 122
In Situ Processing, Research on -- XIV, 156
Interface Between Industry and the Academic
World ___- -------__ _- XI, 150
K


Kinetics and Catalysis


XV, 188


L
Large Classes, Handling ___------- -XIV, 114
Lessons in a Lab: Incorporating Laboratory
Exercises into Industrial Practices __- __ XII, 92
Letters To The Editor ----- XI, 3, 53, 149; XII, 47, 129, 151
XIII, 19, 63, 68, 91; XIV, 68; XV, 25, 116
Library, Organization of a Functional ChE ------------ XI, 44
Liquids and Solutions: Structure and Dynamics* __ XIII, 69
Liquids and Their Properties* ---___- XV, 97
M
Market Analysis, Teaching --__---_~_ --__.. XV, 40
Material Balance Calculations with Reaction:
Steady-State Flow Processes -__ -- XIII, 92
Materials Course, Experiences in a Senior
ChE XIV, 120
Materials Education, What Does the Practicing
ChE Want in ___- __________ XII, 44
Materials Science, Introduction to (SI Edition)* -- XI, 167
Materials, The Nature and Properties of
Engineering* -___- -___ XIII, 87
Mathematical Methods in ChE, A Course in __ XIII, 184
Mathematical Modeling, The Application of, to
Process Development and Design* -.__ XI, 53
MEMORIAL:
Biery, John C. __- ------ .._----- --... XV, 60
Chen, Huang Tsung -----_...... .. ---XV, 171
Lapidus, Leon- __ ___ ..---. XI, 148
Parravano, Guiseppe --...-... ____--_____..... XII, 163
Peebles, Fred N. -- XIV, 145
Schweyer, Herbert E. X--_____..--___ ___.-- XV, 122
Shen, Mitchel ------ __ ----- XIII, 204
Stevens, John D. -- __ __- XIV, 77
Treybal, Robert E. ----- XIII, 204
Mexico, ChE Education in Methodology and
Evaluation --_-..................._____--_______.__ .... XI, 78
MIT School of ChE Practice ----_-__ XIV, 200
Modified Carnot Cycle, A .---. XIII, 147
Molecular Theory of Fluid Microstructures ..__ XIV, 126
Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics,
Introduction -------- ---- XIII, 198
Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer
Simulation ---_- XV, 172
Multiple Choice Examinations in ChE, Usage of __ XV, 86
N
News, ChE _______-- XI, 53; XII, 135, 144; XIII, 32, 52, 94,
108, 115, 203; XIV, 44, 98, 208
*Book Review


FALL 1981








O
Oil Shale Char Reactions ____------___ XV, 184
Operational Amplifiers in
Chemical Instrumentation* ..____ ..- ____ XIII, 75
Optimization Theory, Introduction to* -.....-- XIV, 99

P
Parametric Pumping, Research on -- XV, 166
Petroleum and the Continental Shelf of
North West Europe* _~~~~- XI, 138
Piping Layout as a Laboratory Project ---------- XIII, 64
Plant Engineering at Loughborough -__- XIV, 180
Pollution Control, Strategy of* ___--_ ---- XII, 199
Polymer Fluid Dynamics, Research on --------_ XIV, 152
Polymerization Reaction Engineering _... ____ XIV, 188
Polymer Processing, A Course in ___ _- XV, 204
Polymer Processing, A Graduate Course in -..-- XII, 164
Polymer Processing, Principles of* _...____ XV, 59
Polymer Science and Engineering, Courses in .---. XI, 174
Polymer Science, Two Courses in ___ ..__ XIII, 190
Population Balances, The Prospects of .-- __ XII, 14
Practice School __--- -----___- XIII, 84
Primary Battery, The* __.. ---__..... .__ -. XII, 206
Problem Solving, On Teaching
Part 1: What is Being Done ..---___ XI, 86
Part 2: The Challenges ---- ---- XI, 140
Problem Solving, Patterns of* --.----------- XIII, 145
Problem Solving, What is ..----.-.. ------.----.... XIII, 132
PROBLEMS:
Dolphin Problem --___ ------_. XV, 220
Iceberg Problem, The .----- ___- XIII, 70
In the "Heat" of the Night .....- ___-. --.... XIV, 46
In the Heat of the Night: Two Dimensional
Heat Transport ---____-----___--- XIV, 47
Mirror Fog Problem, The --. ____.. XIII, 155
Mirror Fog Problem: Solution _. XIV, 45
Prairie Dog Appendix, A _------__.----_.___ XIV, 199
Prairie Dog Appendix: Solution ----_- XV, 38
Prairie Dog Problem ____-__~_---__ XIV, 70
Prairie Dog Problem: Solution ---- XIV, 198
Process Control Education in the U.S. and
Canada, A Survey of ___-__ _____ __ XIV, 42
Process Control Engineering at UT Permian -....-- XI, 24
Process Control Experiments, Advanced --__ ... XIV, 26
Process Control, A Flexible Self-Paced Course -_ XIII, 120
Process Control Education and Research in
the USA, Impressions of ________ ___-- XV, 30
Process Control Experiment: The Toilet Tank ... XIV, 38
Process Design, Applied Chemical* _-.........._ XIV, 205
Process Design, Teaching the Basic Elements
of, With a Business Game ___--......_____ .... XII, 18
Processes, Elementary Principles of Chemical* .- XIV, 136
Processing Industries, The Structure of Chemical XIII, 194
Process Simulation, We Can Do: UCAN-II XIV, 138
Process Synthesis, A Course in XIV, 184
Process Systems, Chemical: A Second Course in __ XIII, 116
R
Radiative Heat Transfer, Engineering
Calculations in* __ -------------------- __ --_ XI, 2
Ranking ChE Departments in Terms of
Productivity Indices .... _-_______ _-.__ -. ...- XII, 65
Ranking of Departments: Is Productivity the
Same as Quality: Editorial --__---__---__---- XII, 64
Rate Data, Interpretation and Use of -... _--. XIII, 39
Rate of Reactions: A Definition or the Result
of a Conservation Equation _____ XIV, 14
Rate Phenomena in Process Metallurgy* _...--_ --. XI, 103
Reactor Design From a Stability Viewpoint ----- XII, 168
Reactor Design, Kinetics in a*--- ------- XIV, 99
Real-Time Computing, A Full-Year Course
Sequence in ___. ....- ---__ XIV, 18
Real-Time Computing, Integration of, into
Process Control Teaching
Part I: The Graduate Course -------- XIII, 160
Part II: The Undergraduate Course .. XIV, 32
Recycle Reactor, Utilization of the, In
Determining Kinetics of Gas-Solid Catalytic


Reactions -___-___-....- ..-..-----....---
Refinery II: Collograph -----_ ---
Research with Senior Level Students -
Reynolds' Number Song, The _
Road to Hell, The ...- -----


- XIV, 78
SXIV, 192
XV, 133
XIII, 12
XII, 33


Sciences and the Humanities, The .._____ XI, 68
Scientists Must Write* ------- XIV, 208
Seminars in a ChE Department, Some Notes on XII, 148
Separation Processes, An Elective Course in .- XV, 208
Separation Processes, Use and Abuse of
Efficiencies in ---- -- ---------- XII, 38
SI Units in ChE and Technology* ... ----- XII, 202
Smoke, Dust and Haze: Fundamentals of
Aerosol Behavior* -__ -- ___ XII, 101
Sodales Princetonienses ------ XV, 12
Special Functions and Applications .---_ XV, 92
Statistical Methods for Engineers and
Scientists* -- ---- _____ XII, 37
Statistics for Experimenters: Introduction to
Design, Data Analysis and Model Building* _- XIV, 206
Student Point of View, A .-- ---..- XI, 185
Study-Travel Program, Virginia Tech's -------- XIV, 142
Summer School in Snowmass ---- XII, 3
Surface Science, The World of _-...--__- ~~_ XI, 14
Sycons, A Systems Control Simulator XI, 32
Symposium at Carnegie-Mellon, ChE --_- XV, 36
Systems Modelling and Control __- XIV, 174
T
Take Two Pills Every Four Hours: A Hydrodynamic
Analog for Drug Dosage Regimens -- __ XII, 30
Teaching From an Assistant Professor's Point
of View, The Importance of _--- ._- XIV, 66
Technical Communication at Texas Tech,
Renewed Emphasis on ___- .....-- ... XIII, 40
Technical Prose: English or Techlish ---- XI, 154
Telephone Tutorial Service, A --- XII, 26
Theoretical Rheology* ------_ XII, 144
Thermochemical Kinetics* ------- XIII, 145
Thermodynamic Heresies ---- ______ XII, 34
Thermodynamics, Chemical and Engineering* __ XIV, 96
Thermodynamics: Fundamentals, Applications* -- XII, 163
Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent,
Multiphase Reacting Systems ..._____ .. XII, 182
Transport Phenomena in the Delaware -_____ XV, 74
Traveling Circus as a Means of Introducing
Practical Hardware, The ... -------XII, 116
Trouble Shooting at Canadian Industries
Limited -____._--_--- --___- XIV, 88
Trouble Shooting at McMaster __---- XIV, 92
Trouble Shooting at the University of Wisconsin XIV, 90
Trouble Shooting Cases at McMaster
Health Sciences -~__ XIV, 91
Trouble Shooting Problems, Using -. XIV, 88; XIV, 130
Tubular Reactor Experiment, A Simple XV, 26
Turbulent Mixing in Non-Reactive and
Reactive Flows* _~___----- __ XIV, 112
Turbulent Transport Processes, Models for _------ XIII, 34
Two Phase Flow, The Role of Waves in -- XI, 108

U


Undergraduate Curricula 1976
Undergraduate Research -
Underground Processing -


---- XI, 60
.XV, 120-144
-_- XV, 198


Wall Turbulence, Research on --------. XIV, 162
Waste-Water Treatment Processes,
Introduction to* ----- ----- XIII, 78
When is a Man Half a Horse __. -- -_ XIII, 73
Where is the Roller Coaster Headed _--- XI, 34
Why PSI? How to Stop Demotivating Students __ XII, 78
Write, All a Chemical Engineer Does is -..---- XII, 188


*Book Review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







STHE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ




The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena







Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.




For further information.
write to:
Dr'. J. 0. L. II'endt
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of .4rizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opporlunily educational
instilution/equal opportun;ly employer


DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes


WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in
teams, Blood Processing


Biological Sys-


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants,
Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate
Growth Kinetics.

FARHANG SHADMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis







I:


SI


: *4-


0I -


1 :I1 F


i


I,


4~h~


Ei


rl =1 :








Chemical Engineering at



UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


EDMONTON, CANADA


Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota):
Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process
Dynamics and Control, Real-Time
Computer Applications, Process
Design.
C. Kiparissides, Ph.D. (McMaster):
Polymer Reactor Engineering, Op-
timization, Modelling, Stochastic
Control.
D. Lynch, Ph.D. (Alberta): Kinetic
Modelling, Numerical Methods,
Computer Aided Design.
J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (British Colum-
bia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, In-Situ Recovery
of Oil Sands.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase
Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High
Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil, (Vienna): Heat
Transfer, Air Pollution, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied
Mathematics.
F. D. Otto (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michi-
gan): Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Re-
actions, Separation Processes, En-
vironmental Engineering.
D. Quon, Sc.D. (MIT), Professor Emeri-
tus: Energy Modelling and Economics,
Linear Programming, Network
Theory.
D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan):
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of
Fluids. Phase Equilibria, Thermody-
namics.
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process
Economics, Energy Economics and
Supply.
S. L. Shah, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear
Systems Theory, Adaptive Control,
Stability Theory, Stochastic Control.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis):
Catalysis, Kinetics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern):
Process Dynamics and Identification,
Control of Distillation Columns,
Modelling of Crushing and Grinding
Circuits.


I

Graduate Study
U of A's Chemical Engineering gradu-
ate program offers exciting research
opportunities to graduate students moti-
vated towards advanced training and
research. Graduate programs leading to
the degrees of Master of Science, Master
of Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy
are offered. There are currently 13 full-
time faculty members, a few visiting
faculty, several post-doctoral research
associates and 35 graduate students.



Financial Aid
Financial support is available to full-
time graduate students in the form of
fellowships, teaching assistantships and
research assistantships.



The University of Alberta
U of A is one of Canada's largest
Universities and engineering schools
with total enrollment of over 25,000
students. The campus is located in the
city of Edmonton and overlooks the
scenic North Saskatchewan River Valley.
Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern
city of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a
renowned resident professional theatre,
symphony orchestra and professional
football, hockey and soccer leagues.
The famous Banff and Jasper National
Parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains
are within easy driving distance.









Applications for additional information
write to:

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Canada T6G 206


FALL 1981










I"' THE UNIVERSITY OF flKRON
fWkron,OH 44325


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING



GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY


RESEARCH INTERESTS


G. A. ATWOOD -____ ..----. Digital Control, Polymeric Diffusivities, Multicomponent Adsorption.
J. M. BERTY Reactor Design.
L. G. FOCHT ___ Fixed Bed Adsorption, Design and Process Analysis.
H. L. GREENE Biorheology, Kinetic Modeling, Contaminant Removal from Coal Gasification.
S. LEE -- ---___________- -- ..Coal Gasification, Kinetic Modeling, Digital Simulation.
J. P. LENCZYK High Pressure Kinetics, Activity and Diffusion Coefficients via Ultracentrifuge.
R. W. ROBERTS .__ __ Atomization Processes, Fusion and Adhesion Characteristics of Polymer Powders.
R. F. SAVINELL ___Electrochemical Phenomena.
M. S. WILLIS Multiphase Theory, Filtration and Diffusion in Foamed Plastics.




Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $4,200. Industrially
sponsored fellowships available up to $9,000. These awards include waiver of
tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The
deadline for assistantship application is March 1.





ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
Dr. Howard L. Greene, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Akron
Akron, Ohio 44325


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










ARIZONA STATE

UNIVERSITY

Graduate Programs
for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
in Chemical and Bio Engineering



Research Specializations Include:
ENERGY CONVERSION ADSORPTION/SEPARATION *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING *TRANSPORT PHENOMENA*
SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL* ENGINEERING DESIGN*

Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented
by a highly-respected faculty:
James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976
Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966
Nell S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962
William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct)
William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967
Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971
James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970
Kim L. Nelson, University of Delaware, 1981
Castle 0. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus)
Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963
Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967
Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
Imre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961
Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to
qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix
metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in ASU's
ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study. Arizona's year-
round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and
recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Imre Zwiebel, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287



!Simi









AUBURN UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDIES


Graduate Degrees
The Department of Chemical Engineering
at Auburn University offers graduate work
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in
chemical engineering. The research empha-
sizes experimental and theoretical work in
areas of current national interest. Modern
research equipment is available for ana-
lytical, process and computational studies.
Auburn University is an equal opportunity
Institution.

Area Description
Auburn University, which has 18,000
students, is located in Alabama between
Atlanta and Montgomery, Ala., with Co-
lumbus, the second largest city in Georgia,
only 35 miles away. The local population
is about 75,000. University-sponsored activi-
ties include a lecture series with nationally
known speakers, a series of plays and
artistic and cultural presentations of all
kinds. Recreational opportunities include
equipment at the University for participation
in almost every sport.


,


Research Areas
COAL: Coal liquefaction, magnetic de-
sulfurization and beneficiation, solvent re-
fining.
BIOMASS: Chemical and enzymatic con-
version of forest and agricultural waste to
fuels, petrochemicals and animal feed.
FUNDAMENTALS: Kinetics, catalysis, en-
zymatic and fermentation reactors, high
gradient magnetic separation, transport
phenomena, solid-liquid separation, bio-
medical engineering.
ENVIRONMENTAL: Air and water pollu-
tion control processes.
NEW TECHNOLOGY: Advanced coal con-
version, novel enzymatic reactors, applica-
tions of high gradient magnetic separation,
photography by immobilized enzymes,
novel thickener design, polymeric replace-
ment of textile size, enzymatic artificial
liver.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL:
Design of optimal energy-integrated pro-
cesses and control of interactive, multivari-
able, nonlinear processes.






For financial aid and admission
application forms write:

Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


r I










BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

PROVO,UTAH


* Ph.D., M.S., & M.E.
* ChE. Masters for Chemists Program
* Research


Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Coal Gasification


Combustion
Electrochemical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics


Fossil Fuels Recovery
High Pressure Chemistry
Thermochemistry &
Calorimetry


* Faculty
D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951)
C. H. Bartholomew, (Ph.D., Stanford, 1972)
M W. Beckstead, (Ph.D., Utah, 1965)
D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D., Berkeley, 1964)
B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979)
J J. Christensen, (Ph.D., Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958)
J. M. Glassett, (M.S., MIT, 1948)


R. W. Hanks, (Ph.D., Utah, 1961)
W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley,
1981)
P O. Hedman, (Ph.D., BYU, 1973)
J. L. Oscarson, (Ph.D., Michigan, 1979)
P. J. Smith, (Ph.D., BYU, 1979)
L. D. Smoot, (Ph.D., Washington, 1960)
K. A. Solen, (Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1974)


Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains
Financial aid available (We have lots of money.)
Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Richard W. Hanks, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Dept. 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602


FALL 1981


233












The University of Calgary

Program of Study

The Department of Chemical Engineering provides unusual opportunities for research and study leading to the M.Eng., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees.
This dynamic department offers a wide variety of course work and research in the following areas: Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Environ-
mental Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering, Rheology and Thermodynamics. The University operates
on an eight-month academic year, thus allowing four full months per year for research.
The requirements for the M.Eng. and M.Sc. degrees are 4 to 8 courses with a B standing or better and the submission of a thesis on a
research project.
The requirements for the Ph.D. degree are 6 to 10 courses and the submission of a thesis on an original research topic for those with a B.Sc.
degree.
The M.Eng. program is a part-time program designed for those who are working in industry and would like to enhance their technical educa-
tion. The M.Eng. thesis is usually of the design type and related to the industrial activity in which the student is engaged. Further details of this
program are available from the Department Head, or the Chairman of the Graduate Studies Committee.
Research Facilities

The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies one wing of the Engineering Complex. The building was designed to accommodate the
installation and operation of research equipment with a minimum of inconvenience to the researchers. The Department has at its disposal an
EAl 690 hybrid computer and a TR48 analog computer an Interdata 7132 mini computer for data acquisition and control and numerous direct
access terminals to the University's Honeywell level 68 DPS computing system. In addition, a well equipped Machine Shop and Chemical
Analysis Laboratory are operated by the Department. Other major research facilities include a highly instrumented and versatile multiphase pipeline
flow loop, an automated pilot plant unit based on the Girbotol Process for natural gas processing, an X-ray scanning unit for studying flow in
porous media, a fully instrumented adiabatic combustion tube for research on the in-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands, a laser ane-
mometer unit, and environmental research laboratories for air pollution, water pollution and oil spill studies.
Financial Aid

Fellowships and assistantships are available with remuneration of up to $15,000 per annum, with possible remission of fees. In addition, new
students may be eligible for a travel allowance of up to a maximum of $300. If required, loans are available from the Federal and Provincial
Governments to Canadian citizens and Landed Immigrants. There are also a number of bursaries, fellowships, and scholarships available on a
competition basis to full-time graduate students. Faculty members may also provide financial support from their research grants to students
electing to do research with them.
Cost of Study

The tuition fees for a full-time graduate student are $756 per year plus small incidental fees. Most full-time graduate students to date have had
their tuition fees remitted.
Cost of Living

Housing for single students in University dormitories range from $259/mo. for a double room, to $320/mo. for a single room, including board.
There are a number of new townhouses for married students available, ranging from $240/mo. for a 1-bedroom, to $300/mo. for a 2-bedroom
and to $278/mo. for a 3-bedroom unit, including utilities, major appliances and parking. Numerous apartments and private housing are within
easy access of the University. Food and clothing costs are comparable with those found in other major North American urban centres.
Student Body

The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe. The current enrollment is about 11,000 with ap-
proximately 1,280 graduate students. Most full-time graduate students are currently receiving financial assistance either from internal or external
sources.
The Community

The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe. The current enrollment is about 13,000 with ap-
the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and
the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of
the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in
the community at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations
of engineering activity in the country.
The University

The University operated from 1945 until 1966 as an integral part of the University of Alberta. The present campus situated in the rolling hills
of northwest Calgary, was established in 1960, and in 1966 The University of Calgary was chartered as an autonomous institution by the
Province of Alberta. At present the University consists of 14 faculties. Off-campus institutions associated with The University of Calgary include
the Banff School of Fine Arts and Centre of Continuing Education located in Banff, Alberta, and the Kananaskis Environmental Research Station
located in the beautiful Bow Forest Reserve.
Applying

The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
Canada


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


234








UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA


u^^^pw~" rA


RESEARCH FACULTY


ENERGY UTILIZATION

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

POLYMER TECHNOLOGY

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MATERIALS ENGINEERING

FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY




FOR APPUCATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE:


Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Edward K. Reiff, Jr
David S. Soong
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermuelen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720


VQI









UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media
Faculty
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
RUBEN G. CARBONELL, Princeton University
Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum
Statistical Mechanics, Transport Processes in
Porous Media
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation, and Transport Processes
DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University
Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy


Program
UC Davis, with 17,500 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.






For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


236









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY






ALIFORNIA






OS


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
graduate programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities.
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research, adding to
the already wide spectrum of research
activities.

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
of tuition and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly-regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on
campus.


CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering
NGELES 5405 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Los Angeles, CA 90024


FACULTY
D. N. Bennion
Yoram Cohen
S. M. Dinh
S. Fathi-Afshar
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
E. L. Knuth
J. W. McCutchan


Ken Nobe
L. B. Robinson
0. I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
V. L. Vilker
F. E. Yates
M. M. Baizer


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA
..... __. __ ,-"


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE
Ph.D. (Waterloo)
Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis
and Wastes
H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Chemical Reactor Modeling,
Applied Mathematics
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
HUSAM GUROL Ph.D. (Michigan)
Statistical Mechanics, Polymers,
Radiation Damage to Materials,
Nuclear Reactor Theory.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
(Chairman)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical
Reactor Analysis, Transport
Phenomena.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS
Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Dean of Engineering)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

G. ROBERT ODETTE
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
(Vice Chairman, Nuclear Engineering)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.

A. EDWARD PROFIO
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion
Reactors, Radiation Transport
Analyses.

ROBERT G. RINKER
Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.

ORVILLE C. SANDALL
Ph.D. (Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.

DALE E. SEBORG
Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.


238


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Owen T. Hanna, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION



































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature to the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup.
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. G. Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1982.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Institute Professor
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering;
air and water quality.

GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
andoptimization; coal gasification.
ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena
L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Assistant Pro-
fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.

W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.








Have you considered Graduate
Studies in Biomedical Engineering/
Chemical Engineering
at
CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY?


Break Through
Write: Chairman CarnegieMellon University Biomedical Engineering Program
Science1325 Pgh.Pa15213


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





THE FINEST CHOICE


write
Graduate Chemical Engineering
Carnegie-MellonUniversity
Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania 15213


I ~I-~L~-1YPWr YYWLII.-~._i






























IS THERE LIFE
AFTER GRADUATE STUDY?
Want to find out? Heaven can't wait!
Write to:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
242 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI


"'


iv;'


Research iacuity


Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Utilization
Environmental Engineering
Heat Transfer
Kinetics & Catalysis
Polymers & Rheology
Process Dynamics & Control


James N. Anno
John M. Christenson
Stanley L. Cosgrove
Robert M. Delcamp
Leroy E. Eckart
Kenneth M. Emmerich
Joel R. Fried
Rakish Govind


David B. Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Robert Lemlich
William Licht
Alvin Shapiro
Joel Weisman


For Admission Information
Chairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Chemical and Nuclear Engineering (171)
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221


GRADUATE STUDY in

Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees







2 _____


Clarkson

1: M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
0 0 Friendly Atmosphere
Vigorous Research Programs Supported by Government
and Industry
Faculty with International Reputation
Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and Other
Recreation in the Adirondacks
Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts
Colleges Nearby
Faculty
S. V. Babu D. H. Rasmussen
Der-Tau Chin Herman L. Shulman
Robert Cole R. Shankar Subramanian
Sandra Harris Peter C. Sukanek
Angelo Lucia Ross Taylor
Richard J. McCluskey Thomas J. Ward
John B. McLaughlin Ralph H. Weiland
Richard J. Nunge William R. Wilcox
Nsima Tom Obot Gordon R. Youngquist
Research Projects are available in:
Energy
Materials Processing in Space
Turbulent Flows
Heat Transfer
Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion
Polymer Processing
Particle Separations
Phase Transformations and Equilibria
Reaction Engineering
Optimization and Control
: Crystallization
SAnd More...
Financial aid in the form of fellowships, research
-. assistantships and teaching assistantships is
". 7 available. For more details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676











COLORADO /


SCHOOL /


OF
1874

MINES LRo


THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
P. F. Dickson, Professor and Head; Ph.D., University of
Minnesota. Oil-shale, shale oil processing, petro-
chemical production from shale oil, heat transfer,
heat exchanger design.

J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up-
grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re-
finery processing operations, heavy oil processing.
S A. J. Kidnay, Professor; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines.
Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived liquids,
vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems, cryo-
genic engineering.
R M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Coal liquefaction by direct hydro-
genation, mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics
of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochemistry
S to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-derived
asphaltenes.
M. S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro-
cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of
coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading.
M. C. Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Heat transfer and fluid me-
chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer
in porous media, free convection in porous media.

E. D. Sloan, Jr., Associate Professor; Ph.D., Clemson Uni-
versity. Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measure-
ments of natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates,
thermal conductivity measurements for coal derived
A -fluids, adsorption equilibria measurements, stage-
_wise processes, education methods research.
.,' YV. F. Yesavage, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
Michigan. Kinetic studies of shale oil, phase be-
S havior and enthalpy of synthetic fuels.

P I A. L. Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of
SCalifornia at Berkeley. Enhanced oil recovery.

J.- For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering
A Colorado School of Mines
S'", Golden, CO 80401


FALL 1981






Chemical Engineering at


CORNELL

UNIVERSITY


A place to grow...


with active research in

biochemical engineering
applied mathematics/computer simulation
energy technology
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
microscopy
reactor design
thermodynamics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange
individual programs with a core of chemical engineering
courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell
departments including

chemistry
biological sciences
physics
computer science
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
business administration
and others

with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one
of the most scenic regions of the United States.

Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering
(the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program).
Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn, Keith E.
Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht,
Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler,
Julian C. Smith, William B. Street, Raymond G. Thorpe,
Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to
Professor Keith E. Gubbins
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853































The

University

of %elaware

awards three

grzdua te

degrees for

studies and
practice in

theartand

science of

chemical

engineering.


An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.
A Ph.D. degree for original work presented in a dissertation.
THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE: CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE:
Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) Thermodynamics and Separ-
M. A. Barteau ation Process
C. E. Birchenall Rheology, Polymer Science
K. B. Bischoff (Chairman) and Engineering
C. D. Denson Materials Science and
B. C. Gates Metallurgy
M. T. Klein Fluid Mechanics, Heat and
R. L. McCullough Mass Transfer
A. B. Metzner Economics and Management
J. H. Olson in the Chemical Process Industries
M. E. Paulaitis Chemical Reaction Engi-
R. L. Pigford neering, Kinetics and
T. W. F. Russell Simulation
S. I. Sander Catalytic Science and
G. C. A. Schuit (/2 time) Technology
J. M. Schultz Biomedical Engineering-
L. A. Spielman Pharmacokinetics and
A. B. Stiles (1/2 time) Toxicology
R. S. Weber
FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS, WRITE:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711


























Only the

University

of Florida's

Departmer

of Chemicc

Engineerin

gives you both
outstanding
academic
challenge
and all the
advantages of
the Florida clime


Current Research Areas
Fluid Mechanics
Rheology
Catalysis
Reaction Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Interfacial Phenomena
Semiconductor Processing
Thermodynamics
Energy Systems
Process Control
Mass Transfer
and more....


The Faculty
T.J. Anderson
S.S. Block
R.W. Fahien
R.J. Gordon
G.B. Hoflund
L.E. Johns
D.W. Kirmse
H.H. Lee
F.P. May
J.P. O'Connell
D.O. Shah
M. Tyner
R.D. Walker
G.B. Westermann-Clark


Gainesville is a city of 90,000 (plus 40,000 students)
located in the center of the Florida Peninsula, about
120 miles north of Tampa, and 70 and 50 miles from
the Atlantic and Gulf, respectively. The average yearly
temperature is 70 degrees. Need we say more?
For more information on admission and
financial aid, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904)392-0881 / .


An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer


______I











Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston



The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of
Houston has developed five areas of special research strength:
Chemical reaction engineering
Applied fluid mechanics and transfer processes
Energy engineering
Environmental engineering
Process simulation and computer-aided design

The department occupies more than 52,000 square feet and is
equipped with more than $2.0 million worth of experimental
apparatus.

Financial support is available to full-time graduate students
with stipends ranging from $7,200 to $10,000 for twelve
months.
The faculty:
N. R. Amundson
E. L. Claridge
J. R. Crump
A. E. Dukler
R. W. Flumerfelt
E. ). Henley
C. J. Huang
R. Jackson
o nD. Luss
A. C. Payatakes
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
J. T. Richardson
For more information or application forms write: F. M. Tiller
Director, Graduate Admissions J. Villadsen
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston F. L. Worley, Jr.
4800 Calhoun
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


250




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PAGE 1

z 0 < u :::, 0 w C) z ci w w z C) z w DI: 2 DI: l u.. 0 z 0 U) > 0 C) z ii w w z e z w ... u, 0 chemical engineering education VOLUME XV NUMBER 4 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE R~a,,, ... FALL 198 1 CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS Abbott CATALYSIS / CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING Butt, Kung PARAMETRIC PUMPING Chen, Kerobo, Hollein, Huang MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS / COMPUTER SIMULATION Gubbins, Street COAL LIQUEFACTION AND DESULFURIZATION OIL SHALE TAR REACTIONS e~ui ... KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ANALYSIS UNDERGROUND PROCESSING POLYMER PROCESSING SEPARATION PROCESSES HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS aMd ... Guin Liu, Curtis, Tarrar, Williams Thomson Bartholomew Hassler Miller Soong Wankat Wolf THE DOLPHIN PROBLEM levenspiel HEAT EXCHANGER: THE AGONY AND THE ECSTASY Barrar ARIS REVIEWS OMNIBOOK

PAGE 2

ecc 3M COMPANY ... CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 3

A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school. In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them and reports on a survey of industrial needs for Ph.D.'s. Should you go to g r aduate school? Through the papers in this special graduate education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa,.. t -v on invites you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional de velopment. We believe that you will find that graduate work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate study can provide you with insurance against the increasing danger of technical obsolescence Furthermore, we believe that graduate research work under the guidance of an inspiring and in terested faculty member will be important in your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity. Is there a n e ed fo r Ph.D.'s in ChE? Yes, definitely. A survey conducted by GEE of ten leading companies indicated that while during 1980-81 they had combined needs for 220 chemi cal engineering Ph.D.'s, they were only able to hire 143. Most companies also indicated that their 1981-82 needs will be as great. In addition, it is well known that there has been for several years a great need for additional professors in chemical engineering departments-a position for which a Ph.D. is required. What is taught in graduate school? In order to familiarize you with the content of some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate courses as they are taught by scholars at various universities. We strongly suggest that you supplement your reading of this issue by also reading the articles published in pre vious years. If your department chairman or pro fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no charge. What is the nature of g r aduate re sea rc h? In an effort to acquaint you with some of the FALL 1981 areas of research in chemical engineering, we are also publishing articles on the research of certain faculty members. These articles, as well as those on course work, are only intended to provide examples of graduate research and course work. The professors who have written them are by no means the only authorities in those fields nor a r e their departments the only departments which emphasize that area of study. Whe r e should y ou go to g r aduate school? It is common for a student to broaden him self by doing graduate work at an institution other than the one from which he receives his bachelor's degree. Fortunately there are many fine chemical engineering departments and each of these has its own "personality" with special em phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in choosing a graduate school you might first con sider which school is most suitable for your own future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a specific research project in mind, you might want to attend a university which empha sizes that area and where a prominent specialist is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if y ou are unsure of your field of research, you might consider a department that has a large faculty with widely diversified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a small enrollment of graduate students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by writing the schools that have provided information on their graduate programs in the back of this issue. You will probably also wish to seek advice from members of the faculty at your own school. But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that you explore the possibility of continuing your education in graduate school. Sincerely, RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE U nivers i t y of Flo ri da Ga i n esvi ll e, FL 32 611 153

PAGE 4

PROCTER & GAMBLE is looking for in R&D/Product Development This organization is responsible for the creation and improvement of new and existing products, together with developing the associated technology advances and solving technical problems. While this organization encompasses the full range of scientific and engineering backgrounds, the primary need at the BS/MS level is for Chemical Engineers and MBAs with a chemical or engineering undergraduate degree Your initial responsibilities in the organization would be primarily technical, with varying degrees of interactions with P&G's Engineering, Manufacturing and Marketing divisions. As you advance, your career could evolve along technical and/ or management routes. This evolution will include progressive assignments, exposure to other divisions, and in many cases a transfer to another R&D/Product Development division, or where appropriate to an Engineering, Manufacturing or Marketing division. The R&D/Product Development organization is headquartered in Cincinnati, consists of over 20 divisions, focuses on U.S. consumer and industrial products, conducts P&G's basic research, and provides technical support for our international operations and technical centers. (This technical support includes international travel by certain of our U.S.-based division personnel.) RESPONSIBILITY NOW! If you are Interested In this area, please send a resume to: The Procter & Gamble Company R&D BS/ MS Recruiting Coordination Office lvorydale Technical Center Spring Grove and June Avenues Cincinnati, Ohio 45217 PROCTER & GAMBLE l'IN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER

PAGE 5

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857 Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Editorial & Business Assistant: Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: Lee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University Past Chairman: Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado SOUTH: Homer F. Johnson Unive1sity of Tennessee Ralph W. Pike Louisiana State University James Fair University of Texas Gary Poehlein Georgia Tech CENTRAL: Darsh T. Wasan Illinois Institute of Technology J. J. Martin University of Michigan Lowell B. Koppel Purdue University WEST: William H. Corcoran California Institute of Technology William B. Krantz University of Colorado C. Judson King University of California Berkeley NORTHEAST: Angelo J. Perna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Raymond Baddour M.I.T. A. W. Westerberg Carnegie-Mellon University NORTHWEST: Charles Sleicher University of Washington CANADA: Leslie W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W. Weber state University of New York FALL 1981 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME XV NUMBER 4 FALL 1981 RESEARCH ON 156 Classical Thermodynamics, Michael M. Abbott 160 Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, John B. Butt, Harold H. Kung 166 Parametric Pumping, H. T. Chen, C. O. Kerobo, H. C. Hollein, C. R. Huang 172 Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer Simulation, Keith E. Gubbins, William B. Street 178 Coal Liquefaction and Desulfurization, J. A. Guin, Y. A. Liu, C. W. Curtis, A. R. Tarrar, D. C. Williams 184 Oil Shale Char Reactions, William J. Thomson COURSES IN 188 Kinetics and Catalysis, C. A. Bartholomew 192 Chemical Engineering Analysis, John C. Hassler 198 Underground Processing, Clarence A. Miller 204 Polymer Processing, David S. Soong 208 Separation Processes, Phillip C. Wankat 214 Heterogeneous Catalysis, Eduardo E. Wolf DEPARTMENTS 220 Class and Home Problems The Dolphin Problem, Octave Levenspiel 153 Editorial 171, 222 In Memoriam Hung Tsung Chen, Herbert E. Schweyer 197 Positions Available 207 Stirred Pots Ellen Barrar 222 Index 186,219 Book Reviews CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering D i vision, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter; cil,culation and changes of address should he addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $16 per year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies Copyright 1981 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days. The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical. lq5

PAGE 6

CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS MICHAEL M. ABBOTT Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12181 RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING thermodynamics is often inspired by the practical importance of vapor / liquid equilibrium (VLE). This is certainly true at Rensselaer, where we specialize in VLE data collection and correlation for systems at low to moderate pressures. Since experiment is necessarily conditioned by theory, we first consider the relevant thermodynamic equa tions. LOW-P'RESSURE VLE AND EXCESS FUNCTIONS As shown in numerous textbooks, VLE in a system of uniform T and P requires uniformity of I\ the component fugacity f; of each distributed species: (1) This notorious equation, while suitably general, is not especially useful as it stands. In particular, one wishes to display explicitly the compositions X1 and y i of the phases. We do this by definition, through one or the other of two secondary quanti/\ ties: the component fugacity coefficient
PAGE 7

Equation ( 4) in effect establishes the composition dependence of G E through reduction of VLE data; the T and P dependencies are related to H E (the "heat of mixing") and V E (the "volume change of mixing") : (5) V E = aG E oP (6) In principle, the T dependence of G E can be de termined by analysis of isothermal VLE data taken at several different temperatures; in practice, it is far more easily established through Eq. (5), by use of a single set of isothermal VLE data and one or more directly measured sets of data for H E The volume change of mixing is small for liquids at low pressure levels and is easily measured; the correspondingly small effect of P on G E is always determined through Eq. ( 6) DATA COLLECTION AND REDUCTION o UR RESEARCH PROGRAM IN thermodynamics, initiated by H. C. Van Ness, is an effort of some 25 years' standing. The thermodynamics is "classical," and largely centers on the exploitation of Eqs. (3) through (5) ; that is, on the measure ment, reduction, and correlation of low-pressure VLE data and of the excess functions, particularly G E and H E The immediate goals of our research are severalfold : To derive and expose the classical thermodynamic theory relating measurable variables to functions of practical interest. To develop the tools (equations of state and ex pressions for the exces s functions) required for implementation of technical thermodynamic calcula tions. To devise experimental methods that are as accurate, quick, and "technique-proof" as possible, and to demonstrate their feasibility. To produce high-quality data suitable for formula tion and testing of theories of solutions. We regard the last two items as particularly sig nificant, and consider them in the following para graphs. Apart from a few special techniques, VLE data at low pressures (ca. 1 bar or less) are mainly collected on one of two types of apparatus: dy namic circulation stills, and static equilibrium cells. Because of their simple construction and ease of operation, we favor the use of static cells. By this technique, a liquid mixture is charged to FALL 1981 Michael M Abbott is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at R.P.I., where he has worked since 1969 Pr i or to that, he was employed by Esso Research and Engineering In his research, he collaborates with H C Van Ness on work described in this paper. His teaching interests are mainly j n the thermal sciences and in chemi cal process design. an evacuated cell immersed in a constant-tempera tute bath. Equilibration of the phases is brought about by stirring, and the equilibrium pressure is read from a high-precision gauge. In an older design [2], we determined liquid compositions gravimetrically; with our present equipment [3], liquids are metered into the cell with calibrated piston-injectors There are two potential problems associated with static cells : possible errors in measured pressures because of incomplete degassing of the liquids before charging, and errors arising from disturbance of the equilibrium state on withdraw ing vapor samples for analysis. We have solved the first problem by a novel distillation technique [4]. The second problem is in fact avoidable be cause, if an accurate equation of state is available for the vapor phase (the usual case for low pressure VLE), then the vapor compositions actually represent redundant information. Thus we measure only P and x, and reduce the data either by integration of the coexistence equation [2, 5], or by applying a technique known as Barker's method [6, 7]. Barker's method presumes the availability of an expression for G E of sufficient flexibility to represent the P-x data to within their precision, and of an efficient computer program for nonlinear regression. We have built up a library of such equations and programs, and re duction of our VtE data is now normally straight.:; forward: we can collect and correlate (via an ex pression for G E ) VLE data for a binary system in two to three days, an exercise that at one time constituted half the effort for a Master's degree. 1 57

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It was once hoped ... that thermodynamic properties of mixtures could somehow be estimated from properties of the constituent pure species. This hope has been abandoned and replaced with a more realistic goal. Next to GE, the liquid-phase excess function of major interest is H E for, by Eq. (5), it es tablishes the often significant effect of Ton G E and is an indispensable tool for computation of isobaric VLE from isothermal VLE measurements [1]. Moreover, knowing both GE and HE, one can com pute the excess entropy and the entropy change of mixing, quantities of importance to solution theorists: SE = (HE GE) /T LiS = SE Rix i ln xi (7) (8) We measure HE by isothermal dilution calori metry, a technique in which amounts of a com ponent ( or solution) are successively injected into a vessel containing another component ( or solu tion), sufficient amounts of heat being added or extracted in the meantime so as to keep the contents of the vessel at constant temperature. The quantitative transfer of heat under these conditions is an extremely exacting task, subject to some fairly subtle sources of error, and the measurement of heats of mixing is thus inherently more difficult than the taking of isothermal VLE data. On the other hand, the reduction of the calorimetric data is trivial-unlike the reduction of VLE data-because the quantity measured is directly related to the quantity sought. Our dilution calorimeters have gone through several stages of development. The prototype de vice of Mrazek and Van Ness [8] demonstrated the suitability of the technique for producing high-quality data on endothermic systems, quickly and with a minimum of effort. The secondand t}rd-generation designs [9, 10], which followed closely upon one another, incorporated (then) state-of-the-art electronics and circuitry, and ac commodated exothermic as well as endothermic systems. These devices have been widely copied and are thus, directly or indirectly, the source of many of the world's published heat-of-mixing data. Inevitably, the most recent electronics revo lution has caught up with us, and we recently [11] constructed and tested a fourth-generation calorimeter, incorporating the latest in solid-state 158 microcircuitry. A photograph of the new device is shown in Figure 1. As already noted, thermodynamics at R. P. I. is of the classical variety, directed mainly at the measurement and empirical description of macro scopic properties of solutions. We endeavor, how ever, to keep abreast of developments in molecular thermodynamics, and the tone of our experimental program reflects and complements trends in this area. It was once hoped, for example, that thermo dynamic properties of mixtures could somehow be estimated from properties of the constituent pure FIGURE 1. The fourth-generation heat-of-mixing calorimeter. species. This hope has been abandoned and re placed by a more realistic goal: that of predicting properties of multicomponent mixtures from those of the constituent binaries, either through models for GE based on the "local composition" concept [12, 13, 14], or by "group contribution" techniques [15, 16]. For such approaches, binary data form the data base, but multicomponent data are required for testing and fine-tuning the correlations. The simplest multicomponent system contains three chemical species, and thus for the past eight years we have conducted a program of collecting precise VLE and HE data for ternary systems and their constituent binaries. This program is still in pro gress. REFERENCES 1. Van Ness, H. C., and M. M. Abbott, "Classical Ther~odynamics of Nonelectrolyte Solutions, With Applications to Phase Equilibria," Ch. 6, McGraw Hill, New York (1982). 2. Ljunglin, J. J., and H. C. Van Ness, Chem. Eng. Sci., Continued on page 217. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Read any best-sellers lately? These DOW CAREERS booklets can help college graduates find uncommon career opportunities. CHEMICAL ENGINEERS-CHEMISTS -MECHANICAL ENGINEERS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS-MARKET ING-COMPUTER SCIENCE-BIO LOGICAL SCIENCES-PEOPLE AND PLACES At Dow we re firmly comm i tted to .attracting the best college graduates every year And our DOW CAREERS booklets have been our best-sellers -convincing a lot of peop l e to choose careers with us Each booklet outlines a specific career at Dow. You ll read about people who have those jobs now and see how t hey like them And you ll find out about some typical job challenges and how Dow people solve them. And every booklet e x plains impor tant facts about Dow like how we re one of the largest chemica l compan i es i n the world and yet d ec entralized so you don t feel lost in some corporate ma z e Dow gives new employees actual hands on e x perience beginning with the f i rst day on the job A chance to develop to grow and show us what they can do Plus the recognition they deserve So find out more about the Com mon Sense / Uncommon Chemist r y People in our DOW CAREERS book lets and learn about our uncommonly good careers If you know of qualified graduates in engineering or the sciences or with an i nterest in marketing finance or computer science we hope you will encourage them to get copies of the DOW CAREERS booklets by writing us : Recruiting and College Relations P O Box 1713 CE Midland Michigan 48640 Dow is an equal opportunity employer male/female DOW CHEMICAL U S A. m Trademark ol The Dow Che mi cal Company ;;e 0 1 981, The Dow Chem cal Cornpany

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CATALYSIS AND CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING JOHN B. BUTT AND HAROLD H. KUNG Northwestern Un iv ersity E v anston, IL 60201 C ATALYSIS IS A KEY PROCESS in a large share of the chemical industry and in an even larger share of the petroleum industry. In addition, im portant applications of catalysis are found in en vironmental areas, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in agriculture via fertilizers. Since most chemical reactions which proceed merely upon mixing and heating must already have been dis covered, the technological importance of catalysis can only increase with time. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis are involved in techno logically important processes and it is unlikely that this situation will change. Each type of catalysis has its advantages; however, hetero geneous catalysis is particularly advantageous in the important case of large volume operations. Research in catalysis encompasses a wide variety of aspects. One is concerned with the basic chemistry of the catalyst and of the catalytic re action, with the kinetics of the reaction, with its mechanism and the nature of the adsorbed species which are intermediates in the mechanism, and the exact structure of the solid catalyst. One is also concerned with the catalytic reaction engineering associated with transport effects, reactor design, catalyst design, and other factors of importance in technological application. At the other end of the scale, the relatively new area of surface chemical physics, which is concerned with the nature of single crystal surfaces, their interaction with molecules from the gas phase, and now in creasingly with the reactions of adsorbed species at single crystal planes, is making an ever increas ing contribution to the understanding of hetero geneous catalysis. An important result of these very different aspects of heterogeneous catalysis is that it has now necessarily become an interdisciplinary area : of research. It is not easy for one person to master C opyrigh t ChE D ivisi on, ASEE, 1 981 160 John Butt receiv e d his B.S from Clemson University and D Eng from Yal e. He is a recipient of the Colburn and Professional Progress Awards from AIChE, and currently is Walter P Murphy Professor of Chemical Engineering at Northwestern. (L) H. Kung received his B S from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. After a brief stay at the DuPont Chemical Company as a research scientist, he joined the Chemical Eng i neering Department of Northwestern in 1976 where he is currently associate professor. (R) the techniques of proper measurement of catalytic kinetics, methodology of isotopic tracer studies, handling the rather complicated organic molecules involved in many catalytic processes, knowledge of coordination chemistry and organometallic chemis try needed to understand reactions at the surfaces of catalysts, the many techniques of physical characterization, the methods and interpretation of electron spectroscopies-and at the same time be able to master the theory of diffusion and re action and be expert in reactor design. Thus while a very central component of catalysis research at Northwestern is located in the Chemical Engineer ing Department, it will be seen below that sub stantial interactions with two other departments ( Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineer ing) are involved in the overall program. CATALYSIS LAB FACILITIES C URRENTLY IN OUR DEPARTMENT, the effort in catalysis research involves three post-doctoral fellows, fifteen Ph.D. students, and four M.S. students. These students are engaged in over ten CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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different projects which include studies on different types of catalysts, as well as studies on various types of reactions such as hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, isomerization, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, selective oxidation, total oxidation, and deactivation. In most of the projects, the objective is to search for funda mental chemical principles that govern the cata lytic reaction. One particular emphasis being pursued is to relate the morphology and the com position of a catalyst to the kinetics and the product selectivity of various reactions as well as to the poisoning resistance characteristics. In order to accomplish the above objective, it is necessary to fully characterize the catalysts chemically and physically. Chemical characteriza tion involves the study of reduction, oxidation, and carefully chosen catalytic probe reactions. Physi cal characterization involves measurements of bulk and surface morphology and composition. There fore, as stated above, we attack this combined material and chemical science problem by ap propriate collaboration with faculty in the Ma terials Science and Engineering and Chemistry Departments. Another feature is that we recog nize the importance and need to characterize the catalysts under practical reaction conditions. Thus as far as possible, spectroscopies capable of in situ measurements are used. Currently these include primarily x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectro scopy. Finally, whenever appropriate, the re actions are conducted at elevated pressures. In other cases where in situ spectroscopic measurements cannot be conveniently performed, the catalysts are routinely characterized by various techniques such as BET surface area measure ments, selective chemisorption, temperature pro grammed reduction, temperature programmed de sorption, and x-ray diffraction. Whenever ap propriate, they are also studied with Mossbauer spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. While a large number of these techniques are available in our Department and many are dedicated to the projects involved, we also make heavy use of the Materials Science facilities of the Northwestern Materials Research Center, and the analytical facility of the Chemis try Department. The three Materials Science facilities most often used are the x-ray facility, the Mossbauer facility, and the electron micro scopy facility. The x-ray facility houses more than ten x-ray diffractometers all of which are slaved FALL 1981 to microcomputers. For high intensity measure ments there are two rotating anode x-ray sources, and we have also made use of the Cornell syn chrotron center in recent research. In addition to obtaining the detailed structural information on metallic catalysts that will be discussed later, th~ x-ray facility is routinely used for particle size determination, single crystal alignment, and struc tural identification from diffraction patterns. The Mossbauer facility is used primarily to character ize supported iron, iron alloy, iron carbide and nitride catalysts. It houses two spectrometers. The electron microscope facility is used primarily to characterize supported metal and supported oxide catalysts by transmission electron microscopy both in the bright field and the dark field modes. The Chemistry analytical facilities are being used currently mostly for the analytical aspects of catalyst preparation. It houses a wide variety of spectrometers such as infrared, Fourier trans formed infrared, UV-visible, NMR, GC-MS and An important result of these very different aspects of heterogeneous catalysis is that it has now necessarily become an interdisciplinary area of research. other spectrometers, as well as a carbon-hydrogen nitrogen analysis service; of these, the FTIR is currently of most use in our catalysis projects. A C 1 3 high field NMR will be available soon. The technique of magic angle spinning will permit its use on solid catalysts, so useful NMR techniques will become possible. The Chemical Engineering Department has two ultra high vacuum chambers for modern surface analyses. Each chamber is equipped with a low energy electron diffractometer for the de termination of surface atomic crystallography, an Auger electron spectrometer for surface composi tion determination, and a quadrupole mass spectro meter for reaction studies ; these are dedicated pieces of equipment. When needed, x-ray and ultra violet photoelectron spectrometers (XPS and UPS) are also available in the Materials Science surface facility. The chemical characterizations that we use the most are adsorption / desorption, reduction and re action measurements. Reaction product determina tion is often performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. As far as possible, routine analyses of the products are performed by microcomputers. An Apple II Plus and a NU 161

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Most of the current work is associated with various problems related to catalyst deactivation, primarily by the mechanism of poisoning-so much so that Jim Carberry has suggested we dub ourselves the L. Borgia Laboratory of Catalyst Decay Micro 80 computer are connected to the mass spectrometers, and recording integrators are used with gas chromatographs. In the near future, we expect to see a large increase in the use of micro computers to automate data acquisition and pro cessing. When stating the general objective in catalysis research earlier, we emphasized the need to use various techniques in materials and chemical characterization. It is natural then that our re search would benefit from scientific exchange and collaboration with experts in the Materials Science and Chemistry disciplines. Indeed cross disciplinary collaborative research has been a unique and fruitful experience at Northwestern. In the past six or seven years, there have been four extensive projects that involve direct partici pation from faculty and students in Chemistry and/or Materials Sciences. Three of these will be discussed in greater detail later. In addition to these formal collaborations, there are countless in formal discussions and consultations. For example, neither of us has formal training in the area of ultra high vacuum surface science. Thus when we set up the surface analytical tools, the task was made much easier when Professor Peter Stair of Chemistry and Professor Yip-Wa Chung of Materials Sciences offered to share their wisdom and experience. CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING CATALYTIC REACTION ENGINEERING has had a rather long history in our department and names of faculty both past and present who have contributed research in this area include J. S. nranoff, H. M. Hulburt, Y. G. Kim, J. M. Smith, and G. Thodos. Over the years this work has en compassed a wide variety of interests including kinetic studies, pore diffusion problems, catalytic reactor design and analysis, photocatalytic re actions, and catalyst deactivation. Most of the current work is associated with various problems related to catalyst deactivation, primarily by the mechanism of poisoning-so much so that Jim Carberry has suggested we dub ourselves the L. Borgia Laboratory of Catalyst Decay. Many of the techniques and approaches that 162 we have mentioned in the previous section carry over directly to the work in catalyst deactivation. To this we may add one special type of "spectro scopy" : the fixed bed reactor or single catalyst particle undergoing catalyst decay. Our particular interests have been in how catalyst poisoning or coke formation influences the dynamics of parti cles or reactors. These effects manifest themselves in two ways ; first, the existence of deactivation itself means that our familiar steady-state problems become unsteady-state ones (with vastly differing time scales) and, second, the dynamics of partially deactivated systems to perturbations in concentration or temperature are different from those of undeactivated systems. Another aspect that is somewhat unique to these "spectroscopies" is the fact that they are completely tied in with the measurement of gradients. Thus, rather than gradientless reactors, we have "grandientfull" ones, and much of our work has dealt with the reconciliation of theoreti cal models of varying degrees of complexity to ex perimental data on the motion of thermal waves within fixed bed reactors or individual catalyst particles. Some of our more recent work on poisoning has a clear interrelation with the catalysis studies of supported metals. In that work ( de scribed in more detail below) a major interest is in the relationship between the morphology of a supported metal crystallite, in particular size, and its catalytic properties. It has been shown that for certain reactions the specific activity of an in dividual metal atom depends upon the size of the crystallite in which it is found; in such instances the reaction is termed "structure sensitive." It stands to reason that it is possible that the poison ing of such metal crystallites could also be struc ture sensitive, and if so, one might use some good catalytic reaction engineering to try to tailor the catalyst for maximum resistance to poisoning. Systems such as carbon monoxide on platinum are being investigated in this work and, since there is a considerable amount of information available from surface chemical physics studies on such systems, the additional hope is that we can effect some bridging of results from the two types of experiments. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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OUR CLUB: THE CATALYSIS, ENGINEERING AND SURFACE SCIENCE SEMINAR THE INTENSE INTEREST IN catalysis and catalytic reaction engineering, and the extensive in volvement among various faculty in different de partments result in a core group of over thirty five graduate students working in these areas. This large number of students enables us to have a weekly seminar group. The participants in the seminars are both graduate students and faculty, and topics span a wide range from surface chemi cal physics calculations and measurements to surface organometallic chemistry, to reaction kinetics and mechanisms, and to catalyst deactiva tion engineering. The students are therefore being exposed to a broad view. Visitors often inject new ideas and approaches also While we enjoy and benefit from the collabora tive atmosphere among people in various disci plines, graduate students in our department also receive a coordinated introduction to catalysis re search through a series of courses. Currently, there are three courses on this subject in our de partment. One course surveys the various spectro scopic methods currently used in catalysis; one surveys the modern theory and current research; one surveys the industrial and processing aspects of catalysis. In addition, students commonly take courses in advanced kinetics, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and others. In the reaction engineering area, in addition to an entry level graduate course in kinetics and reactor design, an advanced reactor course is offered covering gas liquid, multiphase, chromatographic, and fluidized bed design and analysis. In recent years we have also been offering a course on reactor stability in alternate years. Our modest goal in both catalysis and reaction engineering is to make our students as broadly-based and as knowledgeable as possible. SOM E EXAMP L ES T HUS FAR WE HAVE HIGHLIGHTED the special features of our research efforts in general terms. Now we discuss as examples three projects to illustrate in detail some of these features. Fisc h e r-T ropsc h C a t a l y sis The catalytic production of higher hydro carbons from CO and H 2 is known as the Fischer Tropsch process. The possible change of the source of raw material from crude oil to other fossil fuel FALL 1981 has renewed interest in the study of this process. We are studying this on iron, promoted iron, and iron alloy catalysts to determine how the proper ties of iron and the chemical nature of the catalysts are being affected by the alloying agents and promoters, and what their relationship 1s to the activity and product selectivity. One of us (JB B ) in collaboration with Professor L. Schwartz in Materials Science (who provides expertise in Mossbauer spectroscopy and electron microscopy) began this project by studying supported ir o n catalysts Starting with a calcined supported iron oxide, the reduction of the oxide to metal can be 1. 002 994 9a G .9 7 8 9 7 0 t 994 986 9 7 8 ;,< 970 j z f:l z H 1. 002 E-< ;5 994 "' "' .... \ ,978 910 I 1,000 9% 9 6 3 0 3 6 \T;lLOCIT'l (r..m/ sec) FIG U RE 1. Id e ntific a ti o n of oxidation-reducti o n for a 5% (wt) Fe/Si0 2 catalyst via M o s sba u e r s pe ctrosc op y. (a) calcined s am ple, ( b ) re ., du ced in H 2 for 12 h, (c) S pe ctrum of {b ) af t e r e xp o sure t o 0 2 at room te m p e r a t u r e ( d ) Re d uce d in H 2 at 425 C fo r 24 h i n a di ff e r en tial r ea ct o r. 163

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z "' H ~H ... ;:s !;l 1.0 0 0 .992 9 84 ,976 96 8 1,000 .9 92 984 .976 .968 1,000 .9 96 .992 .9 88 ,984 .!. -6 3 0 3 6 VE LOCITY (mm/ sec) FIGURE 2. Identification of the carburization of a 5% (wt) Fe / SiO 2 catalyst via Mossbauer spectro scopy. (a) Carburized by 1 :3 CO in H 2 at 250 C for 6 h, (b) Spectrum of (a) at liquid N 2 temperature, (c) Carburized by 1 :3 CO in H 2 at 255 C for 1.5 h in a differential reactor. easily monitored by Mossbauer spectroscopy (Fig. 1). However the reduced metal is not very active for the FT reaction. Instead, the activity slowly in creases with time on stream. Simultaneously the Mossbauer pattern slowly converts into one characteristic of iron carbide (Fig. 2), which is then the active phase. The reduction behavior of the iron oxides is found to depend on the mode of preparation. While attempting to interpret this by the different crystallite sizes, we discovered that x-ray line broadening and Mossbauer adsorp tion analysis gave misleading results on the crystallite sizes of the iron particles on the support. What happened was that both of these techniques give sizes of the crystallites that are atomically well ordered. Yet they cannot distinguish whether these crystallites are physically separated from 164 each other, or clumped together to form a big cluster. Transmission electron microscopy which sees crystallites directly can easily distinguish these possibilities. Indeed depending on the de tails in the catalyst pretreatment, different de grees of clustering can be obtained. The type of information obtained for the supported iron catalyst can likewise be obtained for the promoted and alloyed catalysts. Coupling Mossbaue r, kinetics and reduction measurements, we found that some promoters affect the carbiding of the catalysts, some affect the activity and se lectivity, while some affect stability of the cata l ysts. Thus much richer information has been obtained using this multi-technique approach than would be possible with only some of these techniques. It is clear that both the students in volved and the scientific understanding benefit from the collaborative effort. Supported Noble Metal Catalysis Noble metal catalysts highly dispersed on an inert support have long been a subject of research. However, only recently have there been developed techniques that permit us physically to probe these metal clusters of only a small number of atoms. Analysis of diffuse x-ray scattering now can provide information on the average size, the size distribution, the degree of perfection, and crystallographic orientation of these crystallites. This makes possible a very meaningful study that involves a careful, well documented preparation of these catalysts, x-ray characterization, and chemical characterization by chemisorption, deuterium isotope exchange reaction, hydrogena tion, isomerization and hyd rog enol ysis reactions. This extensive program in volves the participation of three faculty: John Butt R. L. Bur well, Jr. of Che mi stry, and J.B. Cohen of Materials Sciences. An interesting result of this work is that it has been found that the small noble metal crystallites are crystallographically perfect down to as small as two nanometers in diameter. Furthermore the activity an d selectivity in the test reactions vary by less than a factor of five when the metal crystallite sizes change from less than two nano meters to over fifteen nanometers. Pretreatment conditions have a much mo re profound effect than particle size alone. Another study that was made possible by this collaboration was the in situ x-ray characteriza tion of supported Pd catalysts. Fig. 3 shows some CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of the findings in which a Pd/Si0 2 catalyst was being exposed to a reaction mixture of hydrogen and methylcyclopropane. If the starting catalyst was Pd, the reaction mixture results in the forma tion of a mixture Pd metal and Pd hydride at steady state. If the starting catalyst was Pd hydride, the steady state of the catalyst was also a mixture of Pd metal and hydride but of a different proportion. We think this is the first report of multiple steady states of a working catalyst obtained by direct observation. Mixed Oxide Catalysis Almost all commercial oxide catalysts are multicomponent, and it is of interest to understand how these different components affect each other catalytically. In particular, some of these com ponents in industrial catalysts are added as promoters and their functions are not fully under stood. Our effort in this area has been to elucidate DIFFRACTION PEAK STARTING CATALYST 101. Pd, 90 1. Pdllo, 7 Pd AF'IER 16:1: :MCP:H 2 o 0 c, 6 AND 13 MIN 10 h pd 90 '% Pdllo,J Pd TWO THETA ANGLE FIGURE 3. The multiple steady states of a Pd/SiO 2 catalyst in the hydrogenolysis of methyl cyclopropane at O C. (a) starting with 100% Pd, steady state catalyst is 70% metal, 30% hydride, (b) Starting with 10% metal and 90% hydride, steady state catalyst is unchanged. FALL 1981 One is also concerned with the catalytic reaction engineering associated with transport effects, reactor design, catalyst design ... the effect of these promoters on bulk structural stabilization, reducibility, and activity and se lectivity. The catalytic system being investigated is the selective oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene over ferrite catalysts promoted by zinc and / or chromium. To achieve our objec tive, the surface and the bulk of the catalysts must be well characterized. This would involve in addition to catalytic measurements, measurements of surface composition, bulk structure, reduction behavior and chemisorption. H. Kung, in col laboration with Professor Y. W. Chung of Ma terials Science and Professor P. Stair of Chemis try, has measured quantitatively the surface density of iron even though the samples are electrically insulating. Temperature programmed reduction and reaction further suggest that the reducibility of the oxide greatly affects the se lectivity of the reaction. In particular, the carbon dioxide production is reduced on catalysts more re sistant to reduction. These and other observations allow us to conclude that the Zn and Cr additives act as structural promoters by stabilizing the bulk against reduction and structural transformation. They also stabiliz the surface against reduction which leads to enhanced selectivity. Finally, they affect the active sites through long range electronic interaction which results in enhanced activity by lowering the activation energy of the reaction. Concluding Statement THE EXAMPLES ABOVE SERVE TO illustrate the emphasis and the approach in most of our catalytic research effort. To reiterate, we aim at fundamental understanding of catalytic reactions through detailed studies of the solid and the re action. A very special feature is that we try to involve workers in other disciplines who bring in a wide spectrum of expertise. This allows us to make use of the fullest potential of many physical and chemical techniques in a manner that would be impossible for a single worker. Thus the re search problem can be more satisfactorily solved. The collaboration also benefits the graduate students by broadening their experience and knowledge. We might add that the same state ment pertains to the faculty. 165

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PARAMETRIC PUMPING H. T. CHEN (deceased), C. 0. KEROBO, H. C. HOLLEIN and C. R. HUANG New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, NY 07102 p ARAMETRIC PUMPING IS A new separation technique that should rightfully take its place alongside other chemical engineering unit opera tions. Parametric pumping is a cyclic separation process characterized by flow reversal coupled to a change in a thermodynamic variable. The change in the intensive variable induces separa tion of the components of a fluid mixture in a two phase system consisting of one mobile and pne immobile phase (gas-solid, liquid-solid, or liquid liquid). The oscillating direction of fluid flow enhances the separation normally achieved in ad sorption-desorption or liquid-liquid extraction pro cesses. Parametric pumping has received con siderable attention in recent years. Parapumping represents a new development in separation science, both because of its novelty and because of its adaptability to techniques commonly used in the separation of fluid mix tures, i.e., adsorption, extraction, affinity chroma tography, and ion-exchange chromatography. The adaptation can be made in principle to any system where alteration of an applicable intensive vari able, such as temperature, pressure, pH, ionic strength, or electric field, results in a differential shift in the distribution of solutes between the mobile and immobile phases. The new separation technique has the follow ing features : 1) Batch chromatographic separations can be made semi-continuous or continuous; continuous operaA similar process which utilizes cycliei variation of an intensive variable, but no change in flow direction, called "cycling zone adsorption," was developed by P igford and co-workers. 166 tion minimizes processing time (thereby reducing degradation of sensitive substances like proteins) and maximizes production rate. 2) The semi-continuous or continuous process, when optimized, has a high separation capability, and the solutes can be concentrated to certain desired levels by setting the relative volumes of the ap propriate product streams. 3) No regeneration chemicals are needed to clean the adsorbent, so chemical contamination of the product streams is eliminated. The late Wilhelm and co-workers [1] invented the batch parapump and introduced a semi continuous parapumping process in 1966. Since that time, a pre-existing industrial process, known as "pressure swing adsorption," has been identi fied as operating on the parametric-pumping principle [2, 3]. A similar process which utilizes cyclic variation of an intensive variable, but no change in flow direction, called "cycling zone ad sorption," was developed by Pigford and co-work ers in 1969 [4]. A number of review papers are available: Sweed, 1971 and 1972 [5, 6] ; Wankat, 1974 and 1978 [7, 8); Rice, 1976 [9]; and Chen, 1979 [10]. We intend to concentrate this discussion on the parametric pumping research work done in our laboratories. PARAPUMPING RESEARCH AT N.J.I.T. AN EXTENSIVE AMOUNT OF work has been done by Chen and co-workers using temperature and pH as the intensive variables for parametric pumping separations. Other intensive variables under investigation are pressure, ionic strength, and electric field. The overall objective of these research projects is to demonstrate that para metric pumping is a feasible process for the sepa ration of fluid mixtures commonly found in life sciences, and in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The research is oriented towards the development of sound experimental programs and suitable mathematical models for design, scale-up, and optimization of the processes. Following is a brief review of these research projects. Copyright ChE Di11ision, ASEE, 1981 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Hung-Tsung Chen was Professor of Chemical Engineering and Assistant Chairman of the Graduate Program He taught at N J I.T from 1966 until his death in 1981. He received his B S degree from National Taiwan Univers i ty in 1958 and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Polytechnic Insti tu te of New York in 1962 and 1964. He was the author of a number of publications in the fields of para metr ic pumping and photopolymerization reactor design, and held grants from the National Science Foundation for fundamental research in these areas (L) Charles Kerobo has been a Research Associate at N.J .I .T. in the field of parametric pumping since 1975 He received his B S.Ch.E. and M.S.Ch E degrees from N J I.T in 1976 and 1979, respectively. He is currently a Ph D candidate and his parametric pumping research ex perience includes pressure -, pH-, and temperature driven parapump systems. (LC) THERMAL PARAMETRIC PUMPING Chen and Hill [11] introduced the first com pletely continuous parametric pumping process in 1971. Five different versions of the thermal para pump (two continuous, two semi-continuous, and the batch pump) were analyzed in terms of the equilibrium theory and the appropriate mass transport equations. The mathematical model indicates that, under certain operating conditions, the batch pump and pumps with feed at the en riched end have the capacity for complete removal of a solute from one product fraction and for arbitrarily large enrichment of that solute in the other fraction. Separation factors and enrichment are modest for pumps with feed at the depleted end. Experimental verifications of these models for the system toluene-n-heptane on silica gel have been subsequently presented [12, 13, 14]. Continuous thermal parametric pumping was extended to the separation of multicomponent mix tures. The model system used was toluene, aniline, and n-heptane on silica gel [15]. A simple method for predicting multicomponent separations was developed. This method invokes the assumption that a multicomponent mixture contains a series of pseudo-binary systems. Each binary system consists of one solute (toluene or aniline) plus the common inert solvent (n-heptane). Experi mental data agreed reasonably well witp. the FALL 1981 Helen Hollein has been an Adjunct Professor at N.J.I.T. since 1978 She recei ve d her B S Ch E. degree from the University of South Carolina in 1965, and worked for Exxon Research and Engineering Company following graduation She earned her M S. degree at N J.I.T. in 1979 and is currently a Ph D candidate working on protein separations via parametric pumping (RC) Ching-Rong Huang came to N.J I.T. in 1966 and is currently Pro fessor of Chemical Engineering and Assistant Chairman for the Graduate Program of the Department He received his chemical engi neering degrees from National Taiwan University (B.S., 1954), Massa chusetts Institute of Technology (M S 1958) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1966) He also earned an M.S. in mathematics at the University of Michigan in 1965. His research interests are in the areas of rheology, transport phenomena, and mathematical modeling. (R) analytical predictions. The multicomponent system, glucose-fructose water on a cation exchanger (Bio-Rad AG50W.X4, calcium form) was also studied [16]. Agreement between experiment and theory was roughly equivalent to that obtained above. Earlier studies on the glucose-fructose-water system used fuller's earth (LVM 16-30 Mesh) and activated carbon as the adsorbent [17, 18]. Mathematical expressions for determining optimal performance of equilibrium pumps were derived, based on the separation of NaNO s from water via an ion-retardation resin [19]. Emphasis was placed on the operating conditions necessary for achieving high separation factors with maxi mum yield. The performance of non-equilibrium continu ous pumps for the case of NaCl separati on from water via an ion-retardation resin was also studied [20] The criterion for approach to equilibrium operation was established for the cases where large separations were deemed possible. A scale-up of the continuous thermal para 'PUmping system was made and the design equa tions were developed [21 J. Proposals were out lined for the construction and operation of the parapump assembly; the auxiliary equipment and the instrumentation were also outlined. The com merci al parapump assumes the configuration of

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Parametric pumping is a cyclic separation process characterized by flow reversal coupled to a change in a thermodynamic variable. multiple parallel tubes in a heat exchanger shell; this design facilitates direct thermal mode opera tion. The energy requirements were shown to be of the same order of magnitude as that for distilla tion. All of the thermal processes investigated by Chen and co-workers were operated in the so called direct mode, i.e., the intensive variable is applied instantaneously over the entire bed. This is the more common method of operation for thermal parametric pumping [7, 8]. Rice and Foo [22] have recently carried out a direct-mode pro cess for the continuous desalination of water, using a dual-column system pH PARAMETRIC PUMPING p ARAMETRIC PUMPING PROCESSES which are based on pH variation are usually operated in the so-called recuperative mode, i.e., the intensive variable is set at a different level in the streams entering either end of the bed. In this mode, the pH change moves across the bed as the entering streams penetrate the chromatographic column. Sabadell and Sweed [23] developed pH para metric pumping in 1970 for the separation of aqueous solutions of K + and Na + on a cation ex change resin. In 1975, Shaffer and Hamrin [24] re ported a pH parapumping process for trypsin re moval from an enzyme mixture ( a -chymotrypsin plus trypsin) using a Sepharose type ion ex changer. Since then, Chen and co-workers have researched protein separations via pH parametric pumping, with emphasis on maximum separation and continuous operation. A semi-continuous pH parametric pump was experimentally investigated using the model system of the two arbitrarily mixed proteins, human serum albumin and human hemoglobin in aqueous solution on Sephadex cation exchanger [25, 26]. These two proteins have different iso electric points, and the processes developed for the model system may be applied to any mixture of proteins having different isoelectric points. Proteins carry a net positive charge and will ad sorb on a cation exchanger at pH's below their isoelectric points; proteins carry a net negative 168 charge at pH's above their isoelectric points. The semi-continuous pump, which had a center feed between an enriching column and a stripping column, was operated batchwise during upflow and continuously during downflow. Two pH levels were imposed periodically on the system. Various factors affecting the separation were examined, including pH levels and ionic strength of the protein solutions, reservoi r displacement, and product flow rate. Hemoglobin was stripped from the top stream and enriched in the bottom stream; the separation factor for hemoglobin reached a limit of six in the best run. The albumin con centration remains unchanged in this process, but removal of hemoglobin from the top stream leaves the top product relatively richer (by weight fraction) in albumin. A "continuous" pH parametric pump was used to separate the model s y stem hemoglobin albumin on CM Sepharose cation exchanger [27]. This pump configuration had protein feed solu tions at low pH and at high pH (relative to the isoelectric point of hemoglobin) introduced re spectively to the bottom and top of a chroma tographic column. It was shown that increasing the volume of the top product to some optimum level r elative to the volume of the bottom product gave t he pump the capacity for large enrichment of hemoglobin in the bottom product stream. Note that t his system is. currently considered to be "semi-continuous," because each cycle contains two s tages where product is not withdrawn. A comp l etely continuous parapumping process for prote i n separations is being developed. A mathematical model with finite mass trans fer w as developed for the model system hemo globin-albumin on CM Seph a rose [28]. This model agree s quite well with the experimental data. Various factors affecting the separation were exam i ned, including the addition of recycle stages to the one-column process. A n equilibrium theory was used in a theo retical analysis of the batch single-column and multi column pH parametric pump [29]. Simple grapl ical procedures for predicting separation showed that a parapump consisting of a series of columns packed alternately with cation and anion exchangers is capable of yielding very high separation factors. Experimental results, based on a comparison of albumin enrichment in one-column and two-column systems packed with CM and DEAE Sepharose, were shown to support the theory. C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Fractionation of multicomponent protein mix tures by multi-column pH parametric pumping was investigated theoretically and experiment ally [30]. The parapump consists of a series of chromatographic columns packed alternately with cation and anion exchangers. Separation of a mix ture of n proteins requires a parametric pumping system consisting of n columns and n + 2 reser voirs. Various methods of operation of the para pump were discussed. Preliminary experimental data was shown in this paper for the two-column batch separation of the model system hemoglobin albumin on CM and DEAE Sepharose, and this data was in qualitative agreement with the calcu lated results. Optimization of the batch two column system has been recently completed and separation factors as large as twenty-five were obtained for the mixture [31]. The semicontinuous multicolumn data is being currently obtained. PRESSURE PARAMETRIC PUMPING PRELIMINARY WORK HAS BEEN done on the separation of gas mixtures. An equilibrium plug-flow model for the batch isothermal system (propane-argon on activated carbon) was studied using presure swing adsorption [32]. Effects of temperature, pressure, and concentration were investigated. A continuous pressure parapump was studied for the model system carbon dioxide heli um on silica gel [33]. The experimental results were analyzed by means of an equilibrium theory, and the various operating parameters necessary for the complete removal of the solute ( CO 2 ) were investigated. The continuous process was extended to the separation of a ternary mixture, propylene carbon dioxide-helium on silica gel [34]. Various performance characteristics were examined. Using the same model system, an experimental and theoretical study was done based on a non equilibrium theory and linear adsorption iso therms [35]. A comparison was made for the binary and ternary gas mixtures, and the condi tions necessary for the separation of the multi component mixtures were established. SCOPE OF CURRENT RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ARE currently in progress on two pressure swing systems : one for the removal of organics from hydrogen streams and one for the separation of hydrogen isotopes. Although pressure swing adsorption is a common FALL 1981 industrial process, fundamental studies are limited in the open literature [36]. The separation of hydrogen isotopes on vanadium hydride was re cently reported by Wong, Hill and Chan [37]. The purification of the enzyme (alkaline phos phatese) by parametric pumping with pH and ionic strength has been investigated using a semi continuous process [38]. Alkaline phosphatese, ex tracted from the human placenta, contains some undesired proteins which have isoelectric points approximately equal to that of the enzyme; hence, the additional intensive variable (ionic strength) is required. This new process is the first one re ported which uses ionic strength as the intensive variable for parametric pumping. Comparison of enzyme purification by parametric pumping and cycling zone adsorption shows that the former A new semi-continuous parapumping process based on cyclic variation of pH and electric field has been shown to be capable of splitting two proteins in a mixture from each other ... process has a higher purification factor and larger % enzyme activity recovered, while the latter process has a higher rate of production. Optimiza tion studies on the enzyme system indicate that a parapump operation with the proper combina tion of the two intensive variables, pH and ionic strength, is superior to a parapump system based on only pH or ionic strength [39]. A comparison of the purification of alkaline phosphatese via parametric pumping to the purification which can be obtained via a conventional process, such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is nearly com pleted. A new semi-continuous parapumping process based on cyclic variation of pH and electric field has been shown to be capable of splitting two proteins in a mixture from each other, using a single-column set-up [40]. The same model system was used as in previous protein separation studies, i.e., hemoglobin and albumin in aqueous solution on CM Sepharose cation exchanger. The separation obtained in the single-column, semi-continuous pH parametric pumping process is enhanced by inducing an electric field across the chromato graphic column during certain stages of the pro cess. Separation factors as high as 120 are re ported for the mixture. Mathematical analysis of this system is currently underway. Separation, re169

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covery and production rate for this system will be compared to the multicolumn pH system, when the semi-continuous multicolumn data is available. Other researchers have shown electrochemical parapumping to be potentially useful for desali nation of water [41, 42]. Separation of protein mixtures by multi affinity chromatography combined with cyclic operation is being investigated [43]. The system consists of a series of columns packed alternately with anion and cation exchangers (Sephadex ( G 150) and Sepharose ( 4B) ) Two cyclic methods are being considered: semi-continuous parametric pumping and continuous simulated moving bed operation. This process is being adapted for the separation of lectine mixtures, such as Convalin A and Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I. A staged sequence multicolumn cyclic process is being developed for the separation of liquid mixtures. This continuous process eliminates the mixed reservoirs normally used in parametric pumping. (Note that reservoir mixing tends to reduce separation [22].) Separation of a mixture of n solutes by the direct-mode of operation re quires a set-up with n + 1 columns and n driving forces. The feed and product ports are fixed in the staged sequence process, but different com ponents can be directed to exit from specified ports by synchronizing the feed and product positions with the appropriate intensive variable. Preliminary experimental results for semi continuous operation in a one-column system are being extended to the continuous multicolumn system. A mathematical model which fits the one column data is being modified to predict the continuous separation. From the discussion of active research areas, it is evident that parametric pumping is a very useful and versatile process in separation tech nology. It is our belief that commercialization of some of these parapumping systems would be economically feasible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Portions of this research were supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants ENG 77-04129 and CPE 79-10540. D POSTSCRIPT This article was initiated by Dr. Chen at the request of GEE, prior to the tragic automobile 170 accident which ended his life on April 21, 1981, and completed by his co-workers in his memory. REFERENCES 1. Wilhelm, R.H., A. W. Rice and A. R. Bendelius, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 5, 141 (1966). 2. Skarstrom, C. W., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 72, 75 (1959). 3. Shendalman, L. H. and J. E. Mitchell, Chem. Eng. Sci., 2 7, 1449 (1972). 4. Pigford, R. L., B. Baker III and D. E. Blum, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 8, 848 (1969). 5 Sweed, N. H., in E. S. Perry and C. J. Von Oss (Eds.), "Progress in Separation and Purification," Vol. 4, Wiley (Interscience), New York (1971). 6 Sweed, N. H., in N. Li. (Ed.), "Recent Developments in Separation Science," Vol. 1, Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland (1972). 7. Wankat, P. C., Separation Science, 9, 85 (1974). 8 Wankat, P. C in A. E. Rodrigues (Ed.), "Proceed ings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Percolation Processes," Espinho, Portugal (July, 1968). 9. Rice, R. G., Sep. Purif. Methods, 5, 139 (1976). 10. Chen, H. T., in P. A. Schweitzer (Ed.), "Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers," McGraw-Hill, New York (1979). 11. Chen, H. T. and F. B. Hill, Separation Science, 6, 411 (1971). 12. Chen, H. T., J. L. Rak, J. D. Stokes and F. B. Hill, AIChE Journal, 19, 356 (1972). 13. Chen, H. T., E. H. Reiss, J. D. Stokes and F. B. Hill, AIChE Journal, 19, 589 (1973). 14. Chen, H. T., J. A. Park and J. L. Rak, Separation Science, 9, 35 (1974). 15. Chen, H. T., W. W. Lin, J. D. Stokes and W. R. Fabrisiak, AIChE Journal, 20, 306 (1974). 16. Chen, H. T. and V. J. D'Emidio, AIChE Journal, 21, 813 (1975). 17. Chen, H. T., J. Jaferi and J. D. Stokes, paper 9e pre sented at 73rd AIChE National Meeting, Minneapolis, MN (August, 1972). 18. Ahmed, Z. M., paper F2-2 AIChE-GVC joint meeting, Vol. IV of preprints, Munich, Germany (September, 1974). 19. Chen, H. T. and J. A. Manganaro, AIChE Journal, 20, 1020 (1974). 20. Chen, H. T., A. K. Rastogi, C. Y. Kim and J. L. Rak, Separation Science, 11, 335 (1976). 21. Stokes, J. D. and H. T. Chen, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 18, 147 (1979). 22. Rice, R. G. and S. C. Foo, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 20, 150 (1981). 23. Sabadell, J. E. and N. H. Sweed, Separation Science, 5, 171 (1970). 24. Shaffer, A. G. and C. E. Hamrin, AIChE Journal, 21, 782 (1975). 25. Chen, H. T., D. I. Cho, J. Dell'Osso and P. Falcon, paper 34b presented at 82nd AIChE National Meet ing, Atlantic City, NJ (August, 1976). 26. Chen, H. T., T. K. Hsieh, H. C. Lee and F. B. Hill, AIChE Journal, 23, 695 (1977). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDVQA.l'lON

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27. Chen, H. T., Y. W. Wong and S. Wu, AIChE Journal, 2 5, 320 (1979). 28. Chen, H. T., W. T. Yang, C. M. Wu, C. 0. Kerobo and V. Jajalla, Separat. Sci. and Tech., 16, 43 (1981). 29. Chen, H. T., U. Pancharoen, W. T. Yang, C. 0. Kerobo and R. J. Parisi, Separat. Sci. and Tech., ,1.5, 1377 (1980). 30. Chen, H. T., W. T. Yang, U. Pancharoen and R. J. Parisi, AIChE Journal, 26, 839 (1980). 31. Chen, H. T., D. Hanesian and A. Allentuch, "Separa tion and Purification of Proteins via Continuous Para metric Pumping," N. S. F. Report (March 25, 1981). 32. Lopez, J. G., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Institute of Technology (1973). 33. Weingartner, P. F., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Insti tute of Technology (1973). 34. Belsky, S. E., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Institute of Technology (1977). 35. Rastogi, A. K., M. S. Thesis, New Jersey Institute of H UNG TSU N G CHE N Hung Tsung Chen was killed in an auto acci dent on April 21, 1981. His numerous students, faculty colleagues, and members of the New Jersey Institute of Technology community will miss him a great deal. The work he did in the area of para metric pumping and polymer engineering was exemplary and he is irreplaceable. We all extend our sympathies to his wife Vera, his son, Andrew, and his daughter, Carol. Dr. Chen was born in Taiwan, Republic of China, on August 23, 1935. He attended the National Taiwan University and obtained his BS degree in chemical engineering in 1958. He came to the United States and received both the MS (1962) and PhD (1964) in chemical engineering from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He worked under the supervision of Dr. Othmer. Following his graduate studies he worked for FMC Corporation. In 1966, he joined the faculty of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry at New Jersey Institute of Technology where he worked until his untimely death. Dr. Chen was a Full Professor and Assistant Chair man of the Graduate Program. He has served as a consultant for numerous companies including Bookhaven National Laboratory. He was an ex cellent undergraduate and graduate teacher and was highly admired by his students. He worked in the area of parametric pumping and had developed into one of the leading international authorities on FALL 1981 Technology (1977). 36. Chan, Y. N. I., F. B. Hill and Y. W. Wong, Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 243 (1981). 37. Wong, Y. W., F. B. Hill and Y. N. I. Chan, Separat. Sci. and Tech., 15, 423 (1980). 38. Chen, H. T., Z. M. Ahmed and V. Rollan, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 20, 171 (1981). 39. Ahmed, Z. M., Ph.D. Dissertation, New Jersey Insti tute of Technology (1981). 40. Chen, H. T., H. C. Hollein and H. C. Ma, paper to be presented at 2nd World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Montreal ( October, 1981). 41. Thompson, D. W. and D. Bass, Canadian J. Chem. Engr., 52, 345 (1974). 42. Oren, Y. and A. Soffer, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 869 (1978). 43. Chen, H. T., J. F. Chao, J. J. Huang and C.R. Huang, paper to be presented at AIChE New Orleans Meet ing (November, 1981). the subject. He had more than 20 graduate students working with him in this area and poly merization reactor technology. Dr. Chen, a prolific publisher, had more than 40 publications. He also contributed to Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers. One publication in the AIChE Journal was accepted without any revision needed. The Editor called this a "first." He served the department and Institute on many committees. He was an active member of AIChE, Sigma Xi, Omega Chi Epsilon and was a registered professional engineer. Dr. Chen was an invited speaker at the Gordon Conference ( 1980), had numerous NSF grants, was named "Outstanding Educator of America," was listed in Who's Who in the East, American Men of Science, Community Leaders and Note worthy Americans, Directory of International Biography, and Men of Achievement. On May 28, 1981, at our Institute's Centennial Year Commencement exercise, Dr. Chen received (posthumously) the first Harlan J. Perlis Award for Excellence in Research given by our Institute. The award was received by his wife, Vera, with a standing ovation. Dr. Chen can never be forgotten. He is irre placeable and future generations of chemical en gineering students have been deprived of his atten tion by our great loss. Dr. Chen will always be with us, and will represent a standard of high achievement and excellence. He will be; missed very much by our chemical engineering profession. Deran Hanesian Angelo Perna 171

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MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS AND COMPUTER SIMULATION KEITH E. GUBBINS WILLIAM B. STREET Cornell Uni v ersity Ithaca, NY 14853 THE FOUNDATIONS OF MOLECULAR thermodynamics were laid about 100 years ago by J. D. van der Waals working in Amsterdam and J. Willard Gibbs at Yale University. The first realistic equation of state, and also the principle of corresponding states, were proposed by van der Waals, and led to a flourishing Dutch school of thermodynamics ( Roozeboom, Schreinemakers, Buchner, Kuenen, and others) and extensive studies of binary phase equilib r ia. Gibbs intro duced the phase rule and provided the basis for all modern work on both classical chemical thermo dynamics and statistical mechanics. From its beginnings chemical engineering has included classical thermodynamics as an important branch of the subject. Classical thermodynamics tells us how to carry out calculations given the necessary property data, but tells us nothing about how to predict the data needed for design or operation of chemical processes. For this we must turn to statistical mechanics, the science that connects the properties of interest to the underlying intermolecular forces. Over the past 25 years chemical engineers have increasingly used statistical mechanics as a starting point for predictive techniques and correlations. Notable successes that have been thoroughly integrated into industrial use include the calculations of heats and free energies of formation of gases and The three approaches of experiment, theory, and computer simulation are complementary and are most powerful when combined in a comprehensive study of particular liquids and liquid mixtures. C o p y ri ght ChE D i v i si o n ASEE 19 8 1 172 solid s [1 ] the v i r ial equation of state for com pressed gases [2], and a variety of corresponding states methods [2, 3 ] Among the more difficult p r oblems have been the prediction of thermo dynamic and interfacial properties of liquids. Some chemical engineering problems of current interest that call for further research on liquid properties include: The need for experimental studies and prediction methods for new fuel technologie s including coal liquefaction and gasification, the conversion of methanol to ga s oline, hydrogen-energy technology, processing liquefied natural and synthetic gas, and the production of ethanol. Existing prediction methods were developed for hydrocarbon mixtures, and often fail for synthetic fuels. Prediction of sol v ent effects on reaction rates and equilibrium yield s The design of high pressure separations equipment and multiphase reactors. The role of s urface properties (surface tension, molecular a li gnment, diffusion rate s, etc.) in the use of s urfactants in modifying emulsions and oil recovery, interfacial transfer rate s in extraction equipment nucleation lubrication, liquid-phase reactions at a solid surface adsorption and chromatography crystalliza tion, and the design of artificial organs for the body. The most significant advances that have occurred in molecular thermodynamics of liquids in the past decade have been: (a} the development of new prediction methods for polar ( and other) liquids of industrial interest, based on perturba tion theory, (b) the rapid development of com puter simulation techniques for such liquids, in which the properties of precisely defined model fluids are evaluated by using the computer to calculate molecular motions and configurations, ( c) experimental studies of phase equilibria and critical phenomena in highly nonideal mixtures over wide ranges of pressure and temperature, and ( d) the study of interfacial properties by both theory and simulation. The three approaches of experiment, theory, and computer simulation are complementary (Figure 1) and are most powerful w hen combined in a comprehensive study of par ticular liquids and liquid mixtures. A program CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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combining these three methods was initiated in the School of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University in 1977. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF FLUIDS E XPERIMENTAL THERMODYNAMICS AT Cornell currently includes measurements of phase equilibria, PVT properties, and heats of mixing. The phase equilibria and PVT studies are carried out over wide ranges of pressure and temperature (0-10,000 atm, 70-500K) to provide extensive data for testing and refining the predictions of theories based in molecular physics and statistical mechanics. Mixtures for study are chosen mainly on the basis of the types of molecules (spherical, diatomic, triatomic, etc.) and intermolecular forces (dipolar, quadrupolar, hydrogen-bonded, etc.) to provide examples of several classes of industrially important mixtures. Recent phase equilibrium ex periments for binary mixtures include: simple nonpolar systems, such as krypton/xenon, kryp ton / methane, and krypton/ethane; systems con taining polar liquids such as carbon dioxide/ dimethyl ether [4] and methanol / dimethyl ether; and a family of hydrogen binary mixtures includ ing hydrogen / nitrogen [5], hydrogen / methane [6], hydrogen / carbon monixide [7], and hydrogen/ carbon dioxide [8]. The hydrogen / X phase dia grams have been studied at pressures up to about 1500 atm. Together with earlier studies of helium/ X and neon / X systems carried out at pressures as high as 10,000 atm [5], they provide a compre hensive picture of fluid phase behavior in binary systems in which one pure component is a highly supercritical gas and the other a liquid. The experimental apparatus used in this work includes a vapor-recirculating equilibrium system, in which the vapor phase is continuously recircuCOMPUTER SIMULATION /EST of MODE~ EXPERIMENT + THEORY THEORY FIGURE 1. Three methods of studying properties, and the interaction between them. 'Model' refers to the intermolecular force law. FALL 1981 Keith E. Gubbins is currently the Thomas R Briggs Professor of Engineering at Cornell University H e received his B.S and Ph.D degrees at the Univers ity of London, and was on the staff at the University of Florida from 1962-1976, when he moved to Cornell. He has held visiting appointments at Imperial College, London, Oxford University the University of Kent, and the University of Guelph, and has coauthored two books, Applied Statistical Mechanics (Reed and Gubbins) and Theory of Molecular Liquids (Gray and Gubbins to appear in 1982 ). (L) William 8 Streett is Professor of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1978 He received a B .S. degree from West Point and a Ph.D in mechanical enginee ring from the University of Michigan. He spent 23 years in the Army, mainly at West Point where he was the founder and first Director of the Sci ence Research Laboratory. His research inte rests are in experimental thermodynamics of fluids and computer simulation studies of molecular liquids He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellow ship in 1974. (R) lated through a closed loop of high pressure tubing by means of a magnetically operated pump, and bubbled through the liquid phase [4, 5]. After equilibrium is established at fixed P and T, samples of the two phases are withdrawn through stainless steel capillary lines and analyzed by means of a thermal conductivity detector or gas chromato graph. Recent experiments have shown that there are continuous transitions at high pressures between phase separations of the gas-liquid, liquid-liquid, and so-called "gas-gas" types [9, 10]. An example of such a high pressure phase diagram produced by our experiments is shown in Figure 2. These diagrams are often found in mixtures of highly dissimilar molecules, in which the critical tempera tures of the pure components are far apart. Examples include He /CH4 [11], He-Xe [12], and He-CO 2 [13]; experimental data for the He/CH 4 system, for example, cover temperatures from 95 to 290 K, and pressures to 10,000 atm. A gaseous mixture of 75 mole % helium in methane, com pressed isothermally at 20C, separates into two 173

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fluid phases at about 8000 atm; at 10,000 atm the light phase contains about 95 % helium and the dense phase about 45 % helium. (A temperature LE G E ND 3 -PH AS E R E GION 11111111 1 111 ISOTH E RM ~ ISO&AR FIGURE 2. Schematic three-dimensional phase dia gram for a binary system that exhibits gas gas equilibrium. Lines AC and AD, in the near P-T face of the diagram, are the vapor pressure and melting curves of the pure heavy component. The critical temperature of the light component lies well below the triple point A, out of the range of the diagram. The planes T 1 T a are isotherms and P 1 P 2 are isobars, in which the shaded areas are regions of phase separa tion. The curved boundaries of these areas are lines cut by planes of constant T or P in the pairs of surfaces that describe the equilibrium between two phases The mix ture critical line, CC', begins at the critical point, C, of the pure heavy component, and rises to higher temperature at higher pressures. Thus isotherms T 2 and T a repre sent phase separations at temperatures above the critical temperatures of both pure components-the phenomenon commonly known as gas-gas equilibrium. The shaded surface AFGBEA describes a region of equilibrium between three phases: a solid phase represented by AE, a liquid phase AB, and gas phase AFG. At low pressures this region terminates in the triple point, A, of the pure heavy component. 174 of 20 C corresponds roughly to T a in Figure 2). Accurate prediction of thermo-physical properties under these extreme conditions poses a severe test for any prediction method. THEORY OF LIQUID MIXTURES THE METHODS CURRENTLY USED BY chemical engineers to predict liquid properties are based largely on theories developed before 1970; these theories assume the molecules are roughly spherical and interact rather weakly. They are satisfactory for near-ideal solutions, but perform poorly for mixtures involving polar or super critical fluids, or when liquid-liquid immiscibility occurs [14]. Since 1972 interest has turned to theories for liquids composed of nonspherical molecules, in which the intermolecular forces are strongly orientation-dependent, and include long-range (e.g. dispersion, electrostatic) and short-range (repulsion, hydrogen-bond, etc.) contributions. At the present stage of development the theory is capable of predicting the thermodynamics of fluids of fairly small polar and quadrupolar molecules, such as HCl, CO 2 H 2 O, lower molecular weight alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc. The most successful approach for thermodynamic properties is pertur bation theory, in which the properties of the fluid of interest are related to those of a reference fluid with simpler intermolecular forces. The properties of the two fluids are connected via an expansion in powers of the perturbing force or potential. For the Helmholtz free energy A, for example, we have A = A o + A 1 + A2 + A s + where A o is the reference fluid free energy, A 1 is the first order perturbation term, and so on. Ex pressions for the perturbation terms involve reference fluid properties, and are obtained from the expressions of statistical mechanics. Recent advances in such theoretical equations of state have come from the improved understanding of suitable reference fluids, and from the use of standard mathematical methods ( e.g. Pade ap proximants) to accelerate series convergence. Such perturbation expansions are more powerful than the traditional corresponding states methods since they can be applied to mixtures of constituents that obey different intermolecular force laws ( e.g. hydrocarbons with alcohols, as occurs often in coal-derived synthetic fuels). In the most widely studied form of the theory, the reference fluid is CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Classical thermodynamics tells us how to carry out calculations given the necessary property data but tells us nothing about how to predict the data needed for design or operation of chemical processes. For this we must turn to statistical mechanics, the science that connects the properties of interest to the underlying intermolecular forces. taken to be one of spherical or near spherical molecules, and the perturbation terms then ac count for the nonspherical force contributions due to dipoles, nonspherical shape, etc. [15]. This method is superior to the existing chemical engi neering prediction methods for mixtures that involve polar liquids or are otherwise highly non ideal [6, 15-21]. A comparison of theory and ex periment is shown in Figure 3 for H 2/ CH 4 [6], a highly nonideal system with a three-dimensional PTx phase diagram of the form shown in Figure 2. In this case H 2 is supercritical, and quantum effects are important. Much remains to be done to develop these methods for hydrogen-bonded liquids, dilute solu tions, liquid-liquid immiscible systems, synthetic fuel mixtures, supercritical extraction, etc. The further development of theoretical equations of state will be aided by combining theoretical work with computer simulation studies and experimen tation. COM P U T ER SI M ULATION IN COMPUTER SIMULATION THE fluid is represented by a small sample containing a hundred to a few thousand molecules [22]. The equation de scribing the intermolecular forces is precisely specified, and surface effects are minimized by the use of periodic boundary conditions, in which the basic cell containing the sample is surrounded by replicas of itself. Such small samples have been found to faithfully represent macroscopic systems except for fluids with quantum effects or near criti cal points. Two simulation procedures have been used.:._the Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) techniques, both introduced in the 1950's. In the MC method the many-dimensional integrals that arise in statistical mechanics are evaluated by sampling using random numbers. In the MD method the Newtonian equations of motion are solved numerically for each molecule in the sample, keeping the system energy, volume and number of molecules fixed. The molecular motions are followed for a period of the order of 10 9 sec., and averages over these motions are then taken to obtain the thermodynamics, diffusion coFALL 1981 efficients, molecular distributions, etc. MD has the advantage that transport properties can be studied, whereas in MC calculations only the equilibrium properties are obtained. However in MC the energy and volume need not be kept constant; this is an advantage in many applications of interest to chemical engineers, e.g. the study of phase equilibria. At Cornell these studies are carried out on a dedicated PDP 11 / 70 computer, and on a Floating Point Systems array processor. Research problems in this area include: Studies of activity coefficients in liquid mixtures containing polar and supercritical components, and the development of better equations to describe them. Studies of gases dissolved in liquids and systems used in supercritical extraction (solids or liquids dissolved in compressed gases). A recent result for such a study of the Henry's constant in simple liquid mixtures [23] is shown in Figure 4. Development of computer graphics techniques for the display of molecular motions and orientation in liquid mixtures and at surfaces, and for displaying three dimensional phase diagrams and projections of these. 1000 I I I 0 0 ..., I I 0 0 I I I I 0 o I eooI I a: I I < I o I ID I ......___ 600 I \\ I I 01 IJ.I 0 \\ a: // :::J (/) IJ') 400 ,1/0 ol IJ.I \ a: a.. lo I/ 200 b 1 '/ b J b b 00 o I 0 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 XH 2 FI G URE 3. VLE for H 2 /CH 4 at 100K fr o m ex p eri m ent ( po ints), perturbati o n t h e o ry ( so li d li n e) a n d Re d lich-Kw o ng e qua ti o n (dashed line) [fr o m ref. 6]. 175

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Nucleation st udie s, where nucleation rates are co ntrolled by poorly understood surface effects. Molecula r diffu sion and orientation at gas-liqu id liquid l i quid, solid -liquid and solid-gas interfaces. Behavior of s ur factants at interfaces. Droplet properties-surface tension, diffusion, etc. SURFACE PROPERTIES THE INTERFACE BETWEEN TWO phases is an inhomogeneous layer that is usually only two or three molecules thick. The interfacial proper ties ( diffusion rates, molecular orientation, surface tension, pressure tensor, adsorption, etc.) play a crucial and often poorly understood role in many chemical engineering processes-in separations, oil recovery, heterogeneous reactions, etc. Because of the thinness of the interface, ex perimental studies are fraught with difficulty. Relatively sophisticated particle beam scattering experiments can be carried out on solid surfaces, but cannot be used for liquid surfaces because they require a vacuum above the liquid. Computer simulation and theoretical studies therefore play a particularly important role [24, 25]. The first simulations of gas-liquid interfaces were carried out in the mid-1970's, and are now being extended to solid-liquid interfaces and polar liquids. In addi tion to the perturbation theory approach described 0 FIGURE 4. 176 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 (Tca/T cb/ 2 The Henry constant K a for solute a in solvent b as a function of (T ca/ T c b l for a mixture of simple spherical molecules from MC simula tion (points, solid line) and two current theories (dashed line = expansion about pure solvent, dotted line = Mansoori Leland approximation). Here T c V e are criti cal temperature and volume, v is molar volume of solvent (from ref. 23) A great variety of surface effects of practical interest remain to be studied ... above for bulk liquids, an alternative approach known as integral equation theory seems promis ing for surface properties. A great variety of surface effects of practical interest remain to be studied, some of which have been listed under computer simulation above. Others include the de v elopment of predictive methods for calculating surface tensions, adsorption at interfaces, dif fusion rates across and through the surface l ayer, and nucleation rates. CONCLUSION AFTER A PERIOD OF CONSOLIDATION in the 1960's, molecular thermodynamics has in the last six or seven years entered a period in which there have been dramatic developments in both experi mental studies of phase behavior, and in the techniques of theory and simulation. In parallel with these developments, chemical engineers have been faced with challenging thermodynamics problems in new processes for synthetic fuels, oil recovery, and new separations techniques. The most profitable line of approach will involve care fully planned studies that combine the techniques of experiment, theory and simulation. D ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is a pleasure to thank the National Science Foundation, the Gas Research Institute, and the Donors of the Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society for continued support of this research. We thank Katherine Shing for permission to reproduce Figure 4. REFERENCES 1. JANAF Thermochemical Tables, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Series, Nat. Bur. Stand. 37, U.S. Department of Commerce (1971); F. D. Rossini et al., "Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties," Nat. Bur. Stand. Circular 500 (1952). 2. T. M. Reed and K. E. Gubbins, "Applied Statistical Mechanics," McGraw-Hill, N ew York (1973), Chap. 7, 11; J. M. Prausnitz "Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Pha se Equilibri a," Pr e ntice-Hall Englewood Cliffs (1969), Chap. 4, 5. 3 R. C Reid, J.M. Prausnitz an d T. K. Sherwood, "The Properties of Gases and Liquids," 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York (1977), particularly Chap. Continued on page 197. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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INNOVATION ... Sometimes it's not all it's cracked up to be. an equal opportunity empfoyer However, at Union Carbide innovation continues to improve peoples lives Union Carbide pioneered the petrochemicals industry. Today the Corporation's many hun dreds of chemicals are used in everything from automobile bumpers to shampoos A leader in the field of industrial gases our cryogenic technology led to the development of the Oxygen Walker System, which allows mobility for patients with respiratory diseases. Union Carbiders are working on the frontiers of energy research-from fission to geothermal-at the world renowned Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. Our revolutionary Unipol process produces polyethylene the world's most widely used plastic at one half the cost and one quarter the energy of standard converting processes From sausage casings to miniature power cells the Union Carbide tradition of innovation extends beyond research and development activities to our engineering groups, manufactur ing operations, and sales forces Continued innovation will largely spring from the talents of the engineers and scientists who jofn us in the 1980's. We invite you to encourage qualified students to see our representatives on campusor write to : Coordinator, Professional Placement Union Carbide Corporation 270 Park Avenue New York N Y 10017

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COAL LIQUEFACTION AND DESULFURIZATION J. A. GUIN, Y. A. LIU, C. W. CURTIS, A. R. TARRER AND D. C. WILLIAMS Auburn Uni v ersity Auburn, AL 36849 ALABAMA IS A SIGNIFICANT producer of coal in the United States, particularly in the Gulf province. There are large reserves of coal in Ala bama; 35 billion tons lie in the northern and central counties, enough for hundreds of years at our present rate of production. Lignite deposits in southern Alabama counties await the technology to properly realize their value. Thus, a strong recommendation of a statewide conference on "Energy and the Future of Alabama" sponsored by Auburn University in 1972 was for "research, development and technical liaison in the areas of coal production, coal processing and coal usage." Auburn University acted upon this recommenda tion, and with major support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), established the Au burn Coal Conversion Research Laboratory in the Department of Chemical Engineering in 1973. Subsequently, with additional support from NSF in 1975, Auburn University established a Coal Preparation Research Laboratory. Since their initiation, the Auburn Coal Research Laboratories have been heavily involved in the graduate train ing of selected M.S. and Ph.D. students in the areas of coal conversion and utilization. A major thrust of the recent and ongoing research has been placed on coal liquefaction and desulfurization. The program is presently the largest university based coal research program in the Southeastern region, and current support for the program is at a level of about $450,000 annually. Recent and current sponsors of the program, summarized in Table 1, have included many industrial organiza tions. Of particular significance is the fact that the Southern Company Services, Inc., which is widely recognized in the area of coal conversion technology and applications of coal-derived fuels, has continued since 1973 to actively support many Co p yr i ght ChE D ivisi on, A SEE, 19 8 1 178 The program is presently the largest university-based c o al research program in the S o utheastern region, and current support is .. about $450,000 annually. aspects of the Auburn coal liquefaction research program. It has made available its resources and facilities at the 6 tons / day solvent-refined-coal (SRC) pilot plant located at Wilsonville, Alabama (90 miles from Auburn) for support of the super vised internship and hands-on research training of the Auburn program. The largest utility coal user in the Northeast, the New England Electric System, has also actively participated in the Au burn coal desulfurization research since 1978. COAL RESEARCH FACULTY AND FACILITIES The Auburn coal liquefaction research program is presently being directed by a number of chemical engineering faculty, including Drs. J. A. Guin, A. R. Tarrer, C. W. Curtis and D. C. Williams. These individuals have had extensive coal liquefaction research experience, particularly related to the aspects of transport phenomena, reaction engineering, analytical chemistry, applied TABLE 1 Recent Sp o nsors o f the Auburn Coal Rese a r c h Program Disposable catalysts for coal liquefaction: Air Products and Chemical s Inc. Corrosion by coal liquids: Catalytic, Inc. Catalyst deactivation in coal liquefaction: Cities Service Research and Development Two-stage coal liquefaction: Electric Power Research Institute Visual reactor studies of coal dissolution: Gulf Research and Development Company Magnetofluidized beds and coal desulfurization: New England Power Ser v ice Company Magnetic beneficiation of coal: Union Carbide Corporation Graduate training in coal con v ersion and utilization: U.S. Department of Education Solvent refining of coal: U S. Department of Energy Dry coal desulfurization: U.S. Department of Energy CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDlJGA'nON

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catalysis and separation processes. Both Drs. Guin and Tarrer have served as project managers for the Fossil Energy Program of the U. S. De partment of Energy, providing the Auburn Labo ratories with unique and practical insights to the ongoing coal conversion research in the country. In addition, Dr. S. C. Worley of the Department of Chemistry and Dr. B. Tatarchuk, a new chemi cal engineering faculty in the Fall, 1981, are di recting fundamental research related to catalysis in coal liquefaction ; and Dr. R. B. Cook of the Department of Geology is directing the geological aspects of coal conversion processes. The Auburn coal desulfurization research program is currently being directed by Dr. Y. A. Liu, a chemical engi neering faculty member. During the past few years, the Auburn coal research faculty has become nationally and inter nationally recognized for its research as well as its scholastic and professional contributions re lated to coal liquefaction and desulfurization, and magnetic separation applied to coal preparation. The research results obtained in the last few years have been widely publicized through publication of three books, two patents, and over 150 articles, presentations and seminars. Further, the Auburn Laboratories have organized and chaired two international conferences on coal desulfurization and magnetic separation (B8, B9), and one national conference on the future of coal. A list of Y. A. Liv received his S S. from National Taiwan University, M S from Tufts University and Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1974. He is presently an alumni associate professor of Chemical Engineering at Auburn University. (L) James A. Guin is a professor of chemical engineering at Auburn Uni~ersity. He received his B S. and M.S from the University of Alabama and Ph D. from the University of Texas at Austin. His re search interests include coal liquefaction, reactor design, and catalytic upgrading of coal liquids. (LC) Authur R. Tarrer is an associate professor of chemical engineering at Auburn University. He received his B S. from Auburn University and M.S and Ph.D. from Purdue University His research interests include FALL 1981 selected recent publications and theses from the Auburn coal research program is given at the end of this article. Laboratories containing approximately 4000 ft 2 in the Department of Chemical Engineering have been equipped for coal conversion and utilization studies. Complete laboratory facilities for high-pressure coal conversion, coal crushing and grinding, instrumental analysis, wet chemical analysis and coal preparation research are avail able. Complete analytical equipment for standard analyses of coal and coal-derived products is also available in the laboratories. In addition, specialized research equipment such as a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer, a CHONS analyzer and a superconducting high-intensity magnetic separator are available in the laboratories. COAL LIQUEFACTION RESEARCH Chemistry and Technology of Coal Liquefaction In order to better appreciate the rese~rch being conducted in coal liquefaction, a brief iook at coal liquefaction chemistry and technology is desirable. Coal may be viewed as a large, organic, amorphous, polymeric-like structure consisting of condensed polynuclear aromatic systems coupled by methylene-bridge groups, or heteroatom linkages such as ether or sulfide coal liquefaction, solids/liquid separation, process dynamics and control, and catalysis. (C) Christine W. Curtis is a research associate in chemical engineering at Auburn University. She received her B.S. from Mercer University and M S and Ph.D. from Florida State University. Her research interests include coal liquefaction, catalytic upgrading and analysis of coal liquids. (RC) Dennis C Williams is an assistant professor of chemical engineer ing at Auburn University He received his Ph D. in chemical engineer ing from Princeton University in 1980. His research interests include process control, process synthesis, reactor modelling, phase behavior effects in coal liquefaction, and numerical methods. (R) 179

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groups. Nitrogen is also a significant heteroatom component of the coal structure. The liquefaction of coal is thought to begin with the thermal rup ture of scissile linkages at temperatures around 375 C with the resulting formation of a large number of free radical species. The key to the liquefaction process is to "cap off" these free radicals by hydrogen addition before they can recombine with large coal fragments to form a high-molecular-weight structure. This "donor" hydrogen usually comes primarily from a "donor" solvent; however, it may also arise from gas phase hydrogen or hydroaromatic portions of the coal itself. The effective "capping" of these free radicals leads to the formation of products of lower molecular weight. If the reaction conditions are severe enough, a liquid product is formed. A C H 2 A~+O:, : C H 2 -CH 01 T e trall n 2 I 1 2 CH 3 S toolllza tlon + H2 ~ CH3 C N OPhthalene Regene r ation I 3 (Spent so l vent> CH3 St lllze d Molecule "2 ~ 112 vV H2 Tetro l 1~ 2 mano r M olecu l e) FIGURE 1. Hypothetical stabilization of coal fragment by donor solvent and regeneration of solvent in coal liquefaction simple diagram of this process is shown in Figure 1, using a model donor solvent, tetrahydronaphtha lene (tetralin). The "spent" donor, naphthalene, can be hydrogenated to regenerate the donor. In an actual process, the donor recycle solvent is a complex mixture of condensed aromatic com pounds derived from the coal itself. A more detailed investigation of factors affecting coal lique faction has been presented elsewhere (Al). A good introduction to coal technology can be found in Berkowitz (A2). A diagram of a typical coal liquefaction plant is shown in Figure 2. The raw coal is liquefied in the presence of a coal-derived recycle solvent and hydrogen gas at about 2000 psig and 1 425 C. A catalyst can be used in the reactor if desired. The mineral matter indigenous to the coal together with any undissolved coal are physically removed following the reaction. The coal liquids are then 180 available for subsequent separation and process ing into the desired clean fuels. A commercial coal liquefaction plant would process about 30,000 tons / day of raw coal. The only commercial opera tion of this magnitude today is in South Africa where large quantities of liquid fuels are produced via coal gasification and catalytic Fischer-Tropsch technology (A3). The direct production of liquid fuels from coal by solvent extraction-hydrogena tion avoids the gasification step and offers the po tential of a more thermally efficient process. A survey of different coal liquefaction processes being developed in this country can be found in the excellent sur v eys by Klass (A4) and Perry (A5). Current Scope and Accomplishments Coal liquefaction research at Auburn centers on the production of clean liquid and solid fuels from coal. At the present time, processes to per form these operations are not economically com petitive with the use of petroleum. The objective of the Auburn research program is to investigate the effects of process operating conditions, equip ment configurations, and nature of raw materials upon the kinetics and mechanisms of coal lique faction. Included within the framework are the hydrogenation, cracking and heteroatom (N, 0, S) removal reactions which are essential to convert ing coal to clean liquid fuels. By obtaining a better understanding of coal li q uefaction chemis try, guidelines and recommendations for improve ments in liquefaction technology can be developed, thus leading to more competitive processes. The coal liquefaction research thus far has re sulted in findings which may point the way to im provements in several areas of coal liquefaction technology. Solids Removal. Be c au s e of the large quantities involved, the high s olution vi s co s ity, and the micron siz e d particl es th e r emoval of coal mine r al matter and undi s solv e d coal from the reactor effluent is a costly and difficult job. Curr e nt research has shown that anal ys i s of particl e s ize distribution in the filter feed st r eam can provide an indication of the difficulty of downstream filterability and filter cake r esistanc e (Bl). Coal Properties. It has been determined that various coal s e. g ., K e ntucky, Pittsbur g h, Illinois, Wyoming, re s pond quit e differently to the liquefaction process. Att e mpts are being made to correlate their diverse b e havior w ith the coal properti e s. Solvent Composition. The quantity and composi tion of the r e cycle solvent are key variables in any coal liquefaction operation. Using IR and NMR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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spectroscopies, it has been found that the hydro a romaticity of the recycle solvent is c losely related to its effectiveness for coal liquefaction (B7). Sulfur Removal. In certain coal liquefaction pro cesses, e.g., the SRC process, the primary objective is to remove sulfur from the coal to produce a non polluting, clean burning product. By introducing certain sulfur scavenging agents, e.g., Fe 2 0 3 into the liquefaction reactor, it has been found possible to significantly reduce the sulfur content of the SRC product (B5). Coal Pretreatment. The oxidation of coal has been found to reduce significantly the liquid yield from processing. This factor has stimulated considerable interest in the protocol used to store, grind, and dry the fresh coal prior to liquefaction. Coal Mineral Catalysis. It has been established that coal minerals, notably pyrite, act as weak catalysts for hydro ge nation and heteroatom removal reactions in the liquefaction process (B2, B4). This catalysis can be used to improve hydrogen usage selectivity and to lower the yield of non-desirable products, e.g light hydrocarbon gases (B6) The regenera tion of mineral residue from the reactor to produce an active catalyst is an it em of current research, as are the kinetics of the catalytic reactions. Product Characterization. The chemical nature of coal liquefaction products, e.g., asphaltenes, SRC, etc., is vastly complex. Inroads are being made in this area using a variety of separation techniques s uch as high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a number of spectroscop ic techniques including Fourie r transform infrared spectro photometer, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy ( B3) Work related to the above areas is now ongoing as part of the current coal liquefaction program at Auburn. Some typical current research topics on which graduate students are now working in clude: A critical evaluation of mass transfer effects in coal liquefaction Solvent characterization u s ing chromatographic separation with 1 H and 1 a c NMR Coal Fee d ..., lfquefoctlon ,--0Reactor I00 C, 2000 pslg .! so t ve n t '-Hydrogenation Hydrogen ,_ Solids Seoarotlon ,. Minerals Undiss o lved Cool --Gasifier rI Gases Coo l Liquids Recvcte So l vent Ash FIGURE 2. A schematic diagram of a typical coal lique faction process (adapted from AS). FALL 1981 The objective of the ... program is to investigate the effects of process operating conditions, equipment configurations, and nature of raw materials upon the kinetics and mechanisms of coal liq uefaction. Cata lyst deactivation in upgrading of crude coal liquids Kinetics and mechanism of hydrogen shuttling in coal liquefaction Tailoring of coal recycle solvent for more effective liquefaction Catalyst poisoning by heteroatom compounds in coal derived liquids COAL DESULFURIZATION RESEARCH Physics and Technology of Coal Desulfurization Physical coal desulfurization ( cleaning or beneficiation) methods are based upon the differ ences in the physical characteristics that affect the separation of sulfur-bearing and ash-form ing minerals from the pulverized coal. Typical physical characteristics utilized in these methods include specific gravity, electric conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and surface properties. In some of the new methods being developed, chemical pretreatment is used to enhance the difference in physical characteristics to facilitate the physical separation of mineral impurities from the pulverized coal (A6). An excellent survey of the present and developing physical coal desulfuri zation processes can be found in Berry (A 7), and an in-depth review of much of the new methods and developments of physical coal desulfuriza tion technology will soon be published (BlO) A relatively well-established technology which has been proposed for coal desulfurization applica tions is the magnetic separation technique. Pre vious investigators have indicated that most of the mineral impurities which contribute to coal's sulfur and ash contents are weakly magnetic, whereas coal is nonmagnetic (B8). During the past few years, the magnetic desulfurization of coal has been given new impetus with the introduc tion of the high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technology (B9). The latter utilizes the modern large-capacity magnetic separation equip ment of an intense field intensity and a large field gr~dient, coupled with the latest magnetic pro cessing know-how such as the control of retention 181

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time for reducing the fluid drag force and im proving the separation efficiency. Current Scope and Accomplishments Since 1975 the Auburn Coal Preparation Laboratory has been actively involved in both basic and applied research in physical coal de sulfurization, emphasizing the development and demonstration of HGMS processes. Major results ; from this research have included: The pilot-scale demon stration of the technical feasibility of magnetic separation of mineral resi due from liquefied coal (Bll) ; The computer development and experimental verifi cation of a practical model for predicting the technical performance of HGMS for the removal of sulf ur and ash from coal / water slurries (B12); and The experimental development of the patented A uburn fluidized-bed HGMS process for desulfuriza tion of dry pul ver ized coal (B13). The recent and current emphasis of the Auburn coal desulfurization research has been placed on the continued development and demonstration of the patented fluidized-bed HGMS process for de sulfurization of utility boiler feed coals. In par ticular, a pilot-scale superconducting fluidized bed HGMS process development unit (PDU) has been successfully designed, constructed and tested. The available experimental results have shown that the new fluidized-bed magnetic process can reduce the sulfur emission level (lb S per million BTU) of several pulverized Eastern coals (70 to 80 % minus 200-mesh) by 55-70 % and achieve an average BTU recovery of 85-95 % (B14). Work is continuing on the automation and optimization of the continuous PDU in order to provide the necessary data for assessing the economics of the new dry magnetic process for coal desulfurization. Another emphasis of the Auburn current research is the fundamental studies of magnetofluidized beds as a new gas-solid contacting technology for reaction, separation and filtration applications. A novel concept of using a packed fluidized-bed in a magnetic field for the removal of sulfur and ash from pulverized coal invented in the Auburn Laboratories has been described in a recent patent (B13). D A. LITERATURE CITED Al. Guin, J. A., A. R. Tarrer, Z. L. Taylor, Jr., J. W. Prather and S. Green, "Mechanisms of Coal Particle 182 Dissolution," I & EC Process Des. and Develop., 17, 490 (1976). A2. Berkowitz, N., An Introd uction to Coal Technology, Academic Press, New York (1979). A3 Heylin, M., "South Africa Commits to Oil from Coal Process," Chem and Eng. News, p. 13, Sept. 17 (1979). A4. Klass, D. L., "Synthetic Crude Oil from Shale and Coal," Chemtech., p. 499, Aug. (1975). A5. Perry, H., "Coal Conversion Technology, Chem. Eng., p. 88, July 22 (1980). A6. L e onard, J. W., Editor, Coal Preparation, Soc. Mining Engrs., Denver (1979). A 7. Berry, R. L., "Guide to Coal-Cleaning Methods," Chem Eng., p. 47, Jan. 26 (1981). B. SELECTED RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM THE AUBURN COAL RESEARCH PROGRAM Bl. Curtis, C. W., A. R. Tarrer and J. A. Guin, "Particle Size Variation in the Solvent Refined Coal Process," I & EC Pro cess De s. and D eve lop., 18, 377 (1979). B2. Guin, J. A., A. R. Tarrer, J. M. Lee, H. F. Van Brackle and C. W. Curtis, "Further Studies of Catalytic Activity of Coal Minerals in Coal Lique faction: 1. Verification of Catalytic Activity of Mineral Matter by Model Compound Studies, and 2. Performance of Iron and SRC Mineral Residue as Catalysts and Sulfur Scavengers," I & EC Pro cess Des. and D eve lop. 18, 371 and 631 (1979). B3. C. W. Curtis, C. D. Hathaway, J. A. Guin, and A. R. Tarrer, "Spectroscopic Investigation of Sol vent Refined Coal Fractions," Fuel, 59, 575 (1980). B4. Guin, J. A., J.M. Lee, C. W. Fan, C. W. Curtis, J. L. Lloyd and A R. Tarrer, "The Pyrite Catalyzed Hydrogenolysis of Benzothiophene at Coal Lique faction Conditions," I & EC Process Des. and D eve lop., 19, 440 (1980). B5. Garg, D., A. R. Tarrer, J. A. Guin, C. W. Curtis and J. H. Clinton, "The Selective Action of Hema tite in Coal Desulfurization," I & EC Process Des. and D eve lop., 19, 572 (1980). B6. Garg, D., A. R. Tarrer, J. A. Guin, C. W. Curtis, J. H. Clinton and S. M. Paranjape, "Selectivity Im provement in the Solvent Refined Coal Process. 1. Detailed First-Stage Reaction Studies: Coal Mineral Catalysis; and 2. Detailed Second-Stage Reaction Studies: Hydrotreating of Coal Liquids," Fuel Pro cess Technol., 3, 245 and 263 (1980). B7. Curtis, C. W., J. A. Guin, J. F. Jeng and A. R. Tarrer, "Coal Solvolysis with a Series of Coal Derived Liquids," Fuel, in press (1981). B8. Liu, Y. A., Editor, Proc ee ding s of Magnetic De su lfuri zati on of Coal Symposium, Special Issue on Magnetic Separation, IEEE Trans. on Magn., MAG1 2, 423-551 (1976). B9. Liu, Y. A., Editor, Indu stri al Applications of Mag netic Separation, 206 pages, IEEE Publication No. 78CH1447-2 MAG, Institute of Electric and Electronic Engineers, Inc., New York (1979). B10. Liu, Y. A., Editor, Phy sical Cleaning of Coal: Continued on page 213. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The Once and Future You. Nobody is exactly like you. Your character and individuality have been form ing since childhood That 's why Rohm and Haas looks at new gradu ates as men and women who are individuals, not just a collection of college-acquired skills. We're looking for people with determined and decisive characters. We know from our experience that motivation and character are as important to your success in life as the knowledge that yo u 've gained in college We know this because without determined highly-motivated people, we never would have become one of America's leading chemical companies. We believe that it s our job to encourage new people to grow and develop as individuals. Conse quently, we place a lot of importance on helpin g graduates to assume as mu c h responsibility as pos s ble as soon as possible. This strengthens their ability to identify so lution s to problems that require logi c and good judgement. We try to hire positive highly-motivated people And, we move them up as quickly as possible. Race ethnic background or sex make no difference, but one thing is always apparent they know where they're headed in life ; they set high standards for themselves. We produce a broad range of more than 2500 chemical products that are used in industry, agricul ture and health services ; therefore, we need people with solid academic backgrounds in a discipline that will contribute to our mutual success. This year, we have openings in Engineering, Manufacturing Research, Technical Sales, and Finance If this sounds like a company you can identify with, write to : Rohm and Haas Company Recruiting and Placement #8180, Independence Mall West Phila delphia PA 19105 RDHMD iHAAS~ PHILADELPHIA PA 1910 5 An eq u a l opportunity emp lo yer

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OIL SHALE CHAR REACTIONS WILLIAM J. THOMSON Washington State Universit y Pullman, WA 99164 w ITH THE RE-EMERGENCE OF an oil shale industry in the United States, most chemical engineers have become acquainted with the pyro lytic requirements to decompose the kerogen contained in the raw shale; namely, temperatures of 725 800 K and a sweep gas to remove the pyrolysis products. However, what is often over looked is the fraction of the organic carbon which remains behind on the spent shale as a carbona ceous char. As Dockter [1] has shown, there is more than enough energy in the residual char to supply the pyrolysis heat requirements for shales assayed at greater than 20 gal / ton (GPT). Al though first generation surface retorting pro cesses will not utilize this char (TOSCO II, UNION RETORT B), there is general agreement that energy efficiency considerations will dictate its exploitation in all future process schemes. In discussing oil shale char, distinction must be made between the western shales of the Green River formation and the so-called black shales which are found in the eastern United States (in a north-south belt from Michigan to Texas). De pending on retorting conditions and assay, the char remaining on spent western shale is 2-5 % of the raw shale weight. On the other hand, whereas the organic carbon content of the black shales is similar to that of the western shales, the oil yield is typically a factor of three lower. Thus the char content here is substantially greater, undoubtedly due to the higher degree of aromaticity in the black shale kerogen [2]. The author has been involved in research on the reactions and the associated kinetics of oil shale char for the past six years. The ultimate goal of the research is to develop quantitative rate expressions for these reactions in support of modeling efforts for both in-situ and surface re torting processes. Since any char utilization scheme will necessarily involve at least partial Co p yr i ght C hE D ivisi o n A SEE, 1 981 184 William J. Thomson is professor and chair of Chemical Engineering at Washington State University Prior to assuming these dut i es in January 1981, he taught at the Univers i ty of Idaho for 11 years He holds degrees from Pratt Institute (8.Ch E ), Stanford University (M.S.) and the University of Idaho (Ph D ) H i s research interests are i n oil shale pro c essing as well as applied kinetics and catalysis. combustion, temperatures will be high (950-1200 K), and a significant fraction of the mineral matter in the shale will also react. Because a number of these inorganic constitutents can also act as catalysts for the char reactions, there is no way to ignore their behavior. We discovered this early in our work and although it made our task more difficult, it led to a number of interesting ob servations. The pertinent mineral reactions which take place in western shale and the char reactions we have studied are shown in Table 1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH A LL OF OUR WORK TO DATE has been conducted on western oil shale; specifically on samples taken from the Parachute Creek member near Rifle, Colorado. The raw shale samples, assayed at 15 to 50 GPT, were retorted under various conditions, crushed to about 100 mesh and placed in a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Continuous gravimetric measurements together with on-line chromatographic analyses of the exit gas allowed us to follow each of the reactions and to obtain quantitative rate data. Details of the experimental system and a discussion of its limitations have been given in previous publications [3, 4]. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHAR OXIDATION As PART OF OUR STUDIES OF char oxidation we included an evaluation of the effects of assay and retorting conditions on the resultant char activity. We found no dependence on assay and only when the retorting rate was less than 1 K/ min and the sweep gas velocity was less than 0.05 m / min was there any effect on char activity. In this case the quantity of char produced was in creased and its activity was 50 % lower. As Camp bell et al. (5] have suggested, the additional char is probably due to the coking of the product oils. Equation (9) gives the reaction rate expression obtained at temperatures below 900 K where C c is the char concentration (moles / g shale) 3 97200 r ox 1.41 X 10 exp [ RT ] P o2 C c (9) with RT in joules / mole, P o 2 in kPa, r ox expressed in moles / sec-g shale. It should also be pointed out that, unlike coal combustion, the activity does not change with fraction combusted ( other than the first order dependence on C c ). Variable coal activity is generally attributed to changes in pore size distribution during combustion whereas oil shale char is distributed rather uni formly throughout an established inorganic matrix. At temperatures greater than 900 K the mineral reactions given in Table 1 begin to take place and there is positive evidence [4] that the CaO produced by reaction (7) catalyzes the char oxidation. The effect is at least an order of magni tude increase in the activity but this has never been quantified as a function of the CaO conThe ultimate goal of the research is to develop quantitative rate expressions for these reactions in support of modeling efforts for both in-situ and surface retorting processes. centration. Both interand intra-particle mass transport resistances are exp e cted to be significant during char combustion. Measurements of the effective diffusivities for diffusion paths parallel and per pendicular to the bedding plane give values of 30 x 106 and 12 x 10 6 m 2 / sec, respectively. These, together with estimates of gas-solid mass transfer coefficients, were used to show that both forms of mass transport were equally significant during the consumption of the initial 40 % of the char for a typical in-situ burn (6]. CO 2 GASIFICATION DURING HIGH TEMPERATFRE OIL shale processing, the reaction between CO 2 and carbon can be an important part of the overall gasification scheme. This is because of the large volumes of CO 2 liberated due to combustion and mineral de composition. In fact, the simultaneous occurrence of these reactions is just what makes CO 2 gasifica tion so difficult to isolate and analyze. As a result it was necessary to develop a careful procedure to study this reaction (7] and we were necessarily limited to a rather narrow temperature range (975 1050 K). The kinetic data were fit to the types of rate expressions derived from the coal TABLE 1 Char and Mineral Reactions (Western Shale) REACTION Char 1) 2) 3) C + 0 2 CO 2 C + CO 2 2CO C + H 2 0 H 2 + CO WGSR 4) CO+ H 2 0 CO 2 + H 2 Mineral 5) CaMg(C0 3 ) 2 CaC0 3 + MgO + CO 2 6) CaFe(C0 3 ) 2 CaC0 3 + FeO + CO 2 7) CaC0 3 :;;= CaO + CO 2 8) 2CaC0 3 + Si0 2 Ca 2 Si0 4 + 2C0 2 FALL 1981 INITIATION TEMPERATURE ( O K) 645 975 975 925 900 900 950 1075 COMMENTS Strong CO inhibition Catalyzed by CaO Catalyzed by iron Difficult to separate from reaction (7) Reversible Slow 185

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literature, resulting in equation (10). The numer ical values in equation (10) are similar to those found in 1+ K1P o o 2 + K 2 P o o (10) 7.83 x 10 4 exp [ -184000/RT] (kPa-sec) 1 k 1 0 0495 (kPa) 1 k 2 5.0 (kPa) 1 the coal literature except that the inhibiting effect of CO is ten times greater. STEAM GASIFICATION s TEAM GASIFICATION ALSO PROVED difficult to isolate since the CO formed by reaction (3) was found to react very rapidly via the water gas shift reaction (WGSR), reaction (4). The CO 2 formed in that reaction then competes with H 2 O for the available carbon. In fact the net effect of steam gasification is to produce H 2 and CO 2 and, after CO 2 scrubbing, the H 2 could be used to offset hydrotreating requirements for the raw shale oil. We were able to circumvent these interactions by taking initial rate data [7] and the rate expression is given in equation (11). k P u 2 0 r H2 0 = K (11) 1 + K a P H 2 0 + 4 P H 2 k s 6.62 exp [ 100700 / RT] (kPa-sec) 1 K a = 0.20 exp [-17000 / RT] (kPa) 1 K 4 = 0.15 (kPa) 1 CATALYTIC EFFECTS o VER THE YEARS THERE HAS been a continuing interest in alkali promoted catalysis of coal gasification and, more recently, of biomass py rolysis. In both of these applications an alkali salt must be added to the fuel, either by im pregnation or by admixing. However, with oil shale we already have many of these elements in place. It is not surprising then that CaO was found to catalyze char combustion and, later, to catalyze steam gasification [7]. Recall that iron is also present in the shale, either in the form of ankerite (Table 1) or pyrite. In either case, oxida tion and its associated high temperatures result in producing one or more of the oxidation states of iron (FeO, Fe 2 O a Fe a O 4 ). We have studied the WGSR over shale ash [7] and not only is it catalyzed by iron, but the iron oxidation state changes as the surrounding gas composition changes. Again, as in the case of Cao, we have a variable catalyst concentration and the dependence 186 of activity as a function of catalyst concentration has yet to be quantified. CONCLUSIONS As is the case with most complex mixtures, the study of oil shale and its reactions is a challenging subject. Whereas we have managed some success with the obvious, the subtle and vary ing catalytic effects of the inorganic matrix is still in the early stages of investigation. It is likely that we will discover more interesting catalytic properties of shale ash as we continue our studies. REFERENCES 1. Dockt e r, L., AIChE SYMP. SER., 7 2 24 (1976). 2 Miknis, F. P. and Macill, G. E., presented at 14th Oil Shal e Symposium, Gold e n, CO, 22-24 April 1981. 3. Soni, Y. and Thomson, W. J Proceedings of the 11th Oil Shale Symposium, C olorado School of Mines Pr e s s p. 364 (1978). 4 S oni Y. and Thomson, W. J., I&EC Proc. Des. and D e v 18, p. 661 (1979). 5. Ca mpb e ll, J. H., Koskinas, G. H. and Stout, N. D., IN-SITU, 2 p. 1 (197 8 ). 6. Thomson, W. J and Soni Y., IN-SITU, 4, p. 61 (1980). 7. Thomson, W. J., Gerb e r, M. A., Hatter, M. A. and Oak e s, D. G., to be publish e d in, "Oil Shale, Tar Sands and R e lated Mat e rials," ACS SYMP. SER. (1981). [eJ Na book reviews COAL AND MODERN COAL PROCESSING: AN INTRODUCTION B y G. J. Pitt and G. R. Millward Academic Press, Ne w York, 1979 Reviewed by T. D. Wheelock Iowa State University A number of books dealing with the properties of co a l and methods of utilizing this complex and interesting material have recently appeared. Not least among them is this volume of lectures pre sented during the 1976-77 session of the University College of Wales to commemorate a British coal scientist Dr. Walter Idris Jones. These lectures were presented by various technical experts from the National Coal Board in England and edited by G. J. Pitt, one of the lectures, and G. R. Millward who was with the University at the time. Continued on page 219. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Corn needs room to grow. So do people. In the Corn Products Unit of CPC North America, we realize that our people need a wide-open environment to thrive and grow to their full potential. To promote such growth, we try to provide employees with both the right blend of career nutrients and nurturing work conditiohs. And it works, too. With their help, we've become one of the nation's leaders in the research, process and manufacture of corn-based industrial and home products Each year the Unit recruits some of the nation's brightest and most promising students to work for us. This year, we're looking for people with Chemical Engineering and Microbiology backgrounds. Perhaps you qualify. AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER M / F FALL 1981 If you do, we'll give you a chance to experience a wide variety of job assignments and challenges. And through the coming years, we'll offer professional career counseling and on-the-job training to help you keep exploring your needs, goals and dreams. Because the employee turnover rate at CPC is very low, we feel we're successful at meeting our people's expectations. You might say now we're reaping the benefits of their growth! If you think you'd like to grow with us, write to : Mrs. Marianne Vukosovich Personnel Services / Labor Relations Corn Products, a Unit of CPC North America P O. Box 345 Argo, Illinois 60501 187

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KINETICS AND CATALYSIS C. H. BARTHOLOMEW Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 CATALY SIS IS A DEVELOPING SCIENCE which plays a critically important role in the petroleum, chemical, and emerging energy industries. It com bines principles from somewhat diverse disciplines of kinetics, chemistry, material science, surface science and reaction engineering. The subjects of kinetics and catalysis are very basic to graduate curriculums in Chemical Engi neering and Chemistry. Yet because of the de manding nature of graduate curriculum require ments, few departments can afford the luxury of offering and / or requiring more than one intro ductory course treating a combination of these two subjects. THE CHALLENGE The challenge at BYU is to combine the funda mentals of kinetics and scientific/engineering principles of heterogeneous catalysis into a singleCalvin H. Bartholomew received his B S. degree in Chemical Engi neering from Br igham Young University and his M S. and Ph.D de grees in Chemical Engineering from Stanford University. He spent a year at Corning Glass Works as a Senior Chemical Engineer in Surface Chemistry Research. In 1973 he joined the Chemical Engi neering Department at Brigham Young University and is currently associate professor His major research interests are heterogeneous catalysis (adsorption, kinetics and catalyst characterization), Moess bauer s pectros copy and air pollution chemistry. 188 The challenge ... is to combine the fundamentals of kinetics and scientific engineering principles of heterogeneous catalysis into a single-semester, 3-credit course suitable for chemical engineering and chemistry graduate students. semester, 3-credit course suitable for chemical engineering and chemistry graduate students. A typical class consists of 15-20 students, most of which are M.S. and Ph.D. bound chemical engi neers, the remainder consisting of 1-2 chemistry majors and 1-2 chemical engineering seniors. The obvious diversity in class makeup and subject matter requires (i) review of some basic kinetic and chemical principles and (ii) a careful com promise between depth and breadth in course topics. Accordingly the course is divided into eight topics covered in 35 50-minute lectures (see Table 1). In addition, three special lectures and three demonstrations (see Table 2) and a term paper based on study of the literature add spice and flavor to the course. Another challenge which faces instructors of kinetics and catalysis is that of finding suitable text materials. There is, in fact, no single text which covers this subject matter as outlined in Table 1. Our solution to this dilemma is to use portions of J.M. Smith's book on "Chemical Engi neering Kinetics" (the only required text) supple mented with 4 chapters from Boudart's "Kinetics of Chemical Processes" ( out of print and used by permission from the author), reference books on library reserve and papers from the literature ( see References) COURSE ORGANIZATION THE COURSE BEGINS WITH A brief but enthusiastic introduction to the world of catalysis and the basic concepts, rules and definitions of kinetics. The foundation for understanding and predicting reaction rates is next laid through 6 Co py r ig ht C hE D iviaion A SE E 19 8 1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 1: Course Outline I. INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS (two lectures) A. Past, present and future of catalysis B. Basic kinetic concepts and definitions II. KINETIC THEORY (six lectures) A. Collision theory B. Transition state theory C. The H 2 1 2 reaction, a case study D. Thermodynamic formulation of rates III. CONCEPTS, METHODS, AND TOOLS OF KINETICS (three lectures) A. Elementary steps / active centers and catalysis B. Catalysis &nd the steady state approximation C. Concept of the rate determining step IV. ADSORPTION (four lectures) A. Adsorption processes and types B. Adsorption Isotherms 1. Langmuir 2. Others (Freundlich, Tempkin and BET) C. Chemisorption 1. Measurement of Active metal surface area 2. Calculations of dispersion and crystallite size 3. Heterogeneity and particle size effects V. KINETICS OF SURF ACE REACTIONS A. Unimolecular and bimolecular surface reactions lectures on kinetic theory using the magnificent work of John H. Sullivan on H 2 + 21 HI as our classic case study. The student is next fitted with the basic tools of kinetics in three lectures dealing with elementary steps, the steady state approximation and the concept of rate determin ing step. Here the methanation of CO serves as our model reaction. The foundation and tools are now used to erect the course framework consisting of four lectures on adsorption and surface reactions, the most basic processes in catalysis. Two lectures on methods and materials in catalysis provide an interesting diversion while introducing the knowledge of catalyst structure needed to tackle the meaty subjects of diffusion and mass transfer. We concentrate on these latter subjects in some depth (seven lectures) and in a way which prepares the student for the ultimate engineering problem of designing fixed bed eatalytic reactors. Again methanation is used as our model reaction. LEARNING FROM EXPERIMENTS AND LITERATURE A MOST ENJOYABLE PART of the course involves special lectures, experimental demonstrations (see Table 2) and the study of papers from the literature. The oscill~ting reaction is clearly our B. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions 1. Definitions of rate, activity, selectivity, and turnover number 2. Facile and demanding reactions VI. METHODS AND MATERIALS IN CATALYSIS (two lectures) A. Catalyst properties and materials B. Catalyst selection and testing C. Catalysts characterization-tools of the trade VII. DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSPORT IN CATALYSIS (seven lectures) A. Diffusion in porous catalytic solids 1. Overall rates and resistances 2. Effects of pore diffusion on rate-models and equations 3. Pore resistance criteria B. Film mass transfer 1. Model and correlations 2. Calculation of km 3. Mass transfer criteria C. Nonisothermal heat effects VIII. REACTOR DESIGN IN HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS (eight lectures) A Review of ideal reactors B. Material and energy balances for fixed beds C. Laboratory and industrial reactors D. Case study : reactor design of a methanator most dazzling demonstration; although the simple study of water level recession rates in a tank with the exiting tube either verticle or horizontal pro vides a rewarding kinetic analogy in connection with Bernoulli's equation. The very exothermic oxidation of ammonia on thin (brightly) hot Pt and Cu wires provides a fascinating but straight forward demonstration of the role of heat transfer in catalysis. Because catalysis is in large part an experi mental science, several class assignments are di rected at understanding basic experimental techniques, methods of analyzing data, and ele ments of reactor design (including the design of a recycle methanator) Most of our weekiy asTABLE 2 Special Lectures and Demonstrations SPECIAL LECTURES 1. Kinetic Analogies 2. O s cillating reactions and auto catalysis 3. Catalytic petroleum refining processes DEMONSTRATIONS 1. Kinetic analogy: Water level in a tank with outlet 2. Oscillating reactions 3. Hot wire ammonia oxidation 189

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signments include the reading of a carefully se lected journal article (see References). One of the assignments is to critically review one of these articles, a task which stimulates the thinking of the best students and makes for interesting class discussion. However, the assignment that appears to have the greatest learning impact is the prepa ration of a literature review paper on a topic of the students' choice, typically a catalytic reaction or process. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author acknowledges the excellent examples of former teachers and stimulating con versation with colleagues of the present who have influenced his thinking and provided ideas leading to the demonstrations and special lectures, in cluding Michel Boudart (Stanford U.), Duane Horton (formerly BYU), Douglas Bennion (BYU, who has shared in the teaching of this course) and James Christensen (BYU). REFERENCES Texts 1. Smith, J. M., "Chemical Engineering Kinetics," 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1980. 2. M. Boudart, "Kinetics of Chemical Processes," Prentice Hall, 1968, Chapters 1-4. (Out of print, use by permission of author). Background Readings 1. Anderson, R. B., "Experimental Methods in Catalytic Research," Academic Press, N.Y., 1968. 2. Benson, S. W., "Foundations of Chemical Kinetics," McGraw-Hill, 1960. 3 Carberry, J. J., "Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976. 4. Denbigh, K. G. and Turner, J. C. R., "Chemical Re actor Theory," 2nd Edition, Cambridge, 1971. 5. Hill, C. G., "An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design," John Wiley, 1977. 6. Laidler, K. J., "Chemical Kinetics," 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1965. 7. Moore, W. J., "Physical Chemistry," 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, N.Y. 1962. 8. Glasstone, S., Laidler, K. J., and Eyring, H., "Theory of Rate Processes," McGraw-Hill, 1941. 9. Satterfield, C. N., "Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Systems," MIT Press, 1970. 10. Satterfield, C. N., "Heterogeneous Catalysis in Practice," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1980. 11. Thomas, C. L., "Cata lytic Processes and Proven Catalysts," Academic Press, N.Y., 1970. 12. Bond, G. C., "Heterogeneous Catalysis," Oxford Press, 1979. 190 Topical Journal Articles 1. Sullivan, J. H., "Mechanism of the "Bimolecular" Hydrogen-Iodine Reaction," J. Chem. Physics 46, 73 (1967). (Also see C & EN, Jan. 16, 1967, p. 40). 2. Boudart, M., "Catalysis by Supported Metals," Ad vances in Catalysis 20, 153 (1969). 3 Yates, J. T., Jr., "Catalysis, Insights From New Technique and Theory," C. & EN, Aug. 26, 1974, p. 19. 4. Butt, J.B., "Progress Toward the a Priori Determina tion of Catalytic Properties," A.I.Ch.E. Journal 22, 1 (1976). 5. Sinfelt, J. H., Carter, J. L., and Yates, D. J. C., "Catalytic Hydrogenolysis and Dehydrogenation over Copper Nickel Alloys," J. Cata!. 24, 283 (1972). 6 Sinfelt, J H., "Ru / Cu Bimetallic Clusters," J. Catal. 29 308 (1973). 7. Boudart, M., "Two Step Catalytic Reactions," A.I.Ch.E. Journal 18, 465 (1972). 8. Dalla Betta, R. A., Piken, A. G., and Shelef, M., "Heterogeneous Methanation: Steady-State Rate of CO Hydrogenation on Supported Ruthenium, Nickel and Rhenium," J. Cata!. 40, 173 (1975). 9. Vannice, M. A., "The Catalytic Synthesis of Hydro carbons from H 2 / CO Mixtures Over the Group VIII Metals," J. Cata!. 37, 449 (1975). 10. Wentrcek, P. R., Wood, B. J., and Wise, H., "The Role of Surface Carbon in Catalytic Methanation," J. Cata!. 43, 363 (1976). 11. Bartholomew, C. H., and Farrauto, R. J., "Chemistry of Nickel-Alumina Catalysts," J. Cata!. 45, 41 (1976). 12. Taylor, K. C., "Determination of Ruthenium Surface Areas by Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemisorption," J. Cata!. 38, 299 (1975). 13. Mustard, D. G., and Bartholomew, C. H., "Determi nation of Crystallite Size and Morphology in Sup ported Nickel Catalysts," J. Cata!. 67, 186 (1981). 14. Dumesic, J. A., Topsoe, H., Khammouma, S., and Boudart, M., "Catalytic and Magnetic Properties of Small Iron Particles, II Structure Sensitivity of Ammonia Synthesis," J. Cata!. 37, 503 (1975). 15. Bartholomew, C. H., Pannell, R. B., and Butler, J. L., "Support and Crystallite Size Effects in CO Hydro genation on Nickel," J. Cata!. 65, 335 (1980). 16. Mears, D. E., "Tests for Transport Limitations in Experimental Catalytic Reactors," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Devel., 10, 541 (1971). 17. Carberry, J. J., and Butt, J. B., "On the Status of Catalytic Reaction Engineering," Cat. Rev.-Sci. Eng. 10, 221 (1974). 18. Field, R. J., "A Reaction Periodic in Time and Space," J. Chem. Ed. 49, 309 (1972). 19. Lefelhocz, "The Color Blind Traffic Light," J. Chem. Ed. 49, 313 (1972). 20. Butt, J.B., and Weekman, V. W., Jr., "The Determina tion of Catalyst Properties," CEP 71, 33 (1975). 21. Carberry, J. J., "Designing Laboratory Catalytic Re actors," Ind. & Eng. Chem. 56, 39 (1964). 22. Weekman, V. W., A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 1974. 23. Conn, A. L., "Developments in Refining Processes for Fuels," CEP 69, 11 (1973). 24. D. P. Burke, "Catalysts," Chemical Week, Nov. 1, 1972, p. 23. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION:

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Monsanto Drive. It takes you a very long way. This sign marks the road that leads into our International Headquarters in St. Louis. These words, Monsanto Drive" have another and more significant mean ing at Monsanto. It's a way of expressing the special qualities of Monsanto people who have the will to meet challenges head-on-to accomplish and succeed We offer bright and energetic people with this drive the opportunity tq help solve some of the world's major problems concerning food, energy, the environment and others. Challenging assignments exist for engineers, scientists, accountants and FALL 1981 marketing majors at locations throughout the U.S. We offer you opportunities, training and career paths that are geared for upward mobility. If you are a person who has set high goals and has an achievement record, and who wants to advance and succeed, be sure to talk with the Monsanto representative when he v isit s your campus or write to: Buck Fetters, University Relations and Professional Employment Director, Monsanto Company 800 North Lind bergh, St. Louis, MO 63166. Monsanto An eq ual o pportunity em pl oye r 191

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ANALYSIS JOHN C. HASSLER Uni v ersity of Maine at Orono Orono, ME 04469 o NE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT changes in chemical engineering over the last several years has been the rapid increase in the availability of a rather vaguely defined resource which I will call "computing power." In fact, mathematical modeling has reached a level of sophistication and reliability sufficient to allow it to replace some or all of the "pilot plant" part of designing a process. Further, the rate of increase of comput ing power availability shows no sign of decreas ing. This all serves to emphasize the importance of the teaching of effective use of computers in chemical engineering education. Though few would disagree with these state ments, there is an important difficulty which I have observed in myself and others. Most of our faculty learned computing in the days of cards, batch submission of programs, and expensive com puter time. Now, students have access to fully in teractive terminals, and computer time is virtually free, compared to an engineer's time. This requires a completely different attitude toward computer use, especially in regard to the efficiency of programs and algorithms, than most of us are accustomed to. "Quick and dirty" solu tions to problems may be perfectly acceptable; sloppy thinking never is. It is sometimes difficult for the students to grasp the distinction, so I return to this idea several times during the se mester in connection with various other topics. This article describes a 3-hour, one semester graduate course called "ChE Analysis." It is a re quired course, generally taken during the first In fact, mathematical modeling has reached a level of sophistication and reliability sufficient to allow it to replace some or all of the "pilot plant" part of designing a process. Co p y rig h t C h E D iviBicm, A S EE 198 1 192 John C Hassler is currently an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Ma i ne at Orono. His degrees are in physical chemistry from Kansas State University. He spent several years i n the post-doc. holding pattern", including four years in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Illinois, working on lasers. He joined the Chemical Engineering faculty at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Un i versity in Blacksburg, Virginia in 1972 and moved to Maine in 1977. His r e search interests are process instrumentation, modeling, and control, with an emphasis on the hardware and software involved in the application of computers to real-time problems. semester in residence, along with courses in ad vanced thermodynamics and unit operations. The prerequisites are the usual undergraduate courses in ChE, and the ability to program a computer. Our students invariably use FORTRAN or a structured version of FORTRAN (e.g., WATFIV S) though other languages could be used. The purpose of the course is to provide a "toolkit" of numerical methods and modeling techniques sufficient to handle most of the problems that are likely to occur in further courses, or in engineering practice. Since most of our students are M.S. candidates, the course is strongly "applied" in nature. The emphasis is on simple methods which usually work and which re quire no detailed knowledge in their application, so that the student will be able to apply them even after disuse has left them a bit rusty. This is different from the usual graduate "Analysis" course in that the emphasis is on applications rather than on advanced mathematics. This course was first taught in 1975 at VPI in Blacksburg, VA, as a special one quarter CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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remedial FORTRAN course for a class of in coming graduate students. Since they were able to learn the actual programming fairly quickly, I spent most of the quarter on numerical methods and modeling. The course filled an obvious need, and was offered the next year without the FORTRAN. In 1977, it was brought to UMO, expanded to a semester, and made a required graduate course. The content has been remarkably stable over the years, though there has been a gradual drift of the material from the first part of the course into the undergraduate level. I expect this to continue, which will allow the introduction of more new mathematical material, such a matrix theory, at the graduate level. COURSE FORMAT THIS IS A ONE SEMESTER, three credit hour graduate course. The grading is based entirely upon a series of problem sets of increasing difficulty. There are no examinations. All of the problems involve computer use, and the results are submitted in the form of informal reports. The students are explicitly permitted to discuss the problems among themselves, but are told to do their own actual work. Though there is a potential for abuse, we have had no real difficulties with this policy. The only real problem s that I have ever had in teaching the course resulted from a leniency in enforcing due-dates for problems. The less fore sighted students suddenly found themselves at the end of the semester with several (long) problems to work, just at the time when access to the com puter is the most difficult to get. This resulted in a very stressful couple of weeks for all concerned. Since then I have been quite adamant about dead lines, with stiff penalties for lateness. COURSE DESCRIPTION T HE MATERIAL BREAKS INTO three roughly equal (five week) segments. The first covers basic numerical techniques, the second applies these to modeling problems, and the last picks up topics which I think are important, but which are less likely to be immediately useful to a M.S. engineer. Since each class progresses at a somewhat different speed, it is usually necessary to choose some subset of the matrix operations to fill out the semester. The text is Carnahan, Luther, and Wilkes (CLW) [1]. Most students also have Luyben [2] FALL i981 from undergraduate process control, and Franks [3] is recommended as a reference. I also ref er to journal articles when appropriate, especially for problems. The following is an outline of the course, with some comments. Most of the numerical methods material comes directly from CLW, so I will not comment on the methods themselves. Instead, I will present the rationale for choosing the particular topics which are covered. SECTION I-The tool kit Interpolation This is used only as a background for the other methods, and as an introduction to finite differ ences. There is really very little need for inter polation itself, since the advent of powerful calcu lators. For example, I find it easier to get values of the error integral by direct integration on a "Quick and dirty" solutions to problems may be perfectly acceptable; sloppy thinking never is. It is sometimes difficult for the students to grasp the distinction, so I return to this idea several times during the semester ... programmable calculator than to use interpola tion in a table. This is another example of the change in approach from when I was a student. Integration The methods considered are rectangular, trapezoidal, and Simpson's rule. Gaussian methods are described, but not covered in any detail. The first homework assignment is to use numerical integration to find the value of the error function at x = 1, using each of the three methods mentioned above, and to note the number of intervals re quired to get six figure accuracy. Students are duly impressed by the difference between Simpson's rule (a few intervals) and the trape zoid rule ( a few tens of intervals) but are astonished to find that the rectangular integra tion to the specified accuracy is impossible. Since many tens of thousands of intervals would he re quired to reduce the truncation error to the desired value, round off error builds up and overtakes it before the required accuracy is reached. The few clever students who figure this out and try to use double precision arithmetic discover that the time 193

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... we again discuss the trade off between engineering time and computer time, and try to decide when it is appropriate to use crude algorithms to minimize programming time. allowed for a single run on a student computer account is insufficient for the required number of calculations. At this point, the ideas of round off and truncation errors are discussed in the lecture. Equation roots These are covered from the "fixed point" ap proach [4]. Functional iteration, the secant method ("false position"), and the Newton Raphson methods are discussed and shown to be closely related. I recommend that they use either Newton-Raphson or the secant method, depend ing on the difficulty of taking the derivative of the equation. The standard polynomial root sub routines available on the computer are also dis cussed at this point. Convergence criteria, and the use of iteration counters to catch divergent cases, are discussed next. The use of the programmer as the con vergence test is also discussed. It is often useful in "quick and dirty" problems to just dump the successive iterations to an interactive terminal and let the programmer decide when to quit. As pointed out above, this is a different way of using the computer than those of us who grew up in the days of "batch submission" are used to. However, modern students seem to use it naturally, so we spend a little class time discussing the good and bad points. (The major bad point, incidentally, is simply the danger that a casual approach to pro gramming can lead to a casual approach to think ing through the problem.) Simultaneous linear equations These are handled by Gauss-Jordan reduction with pivoting. Since subroutines for linear systems are readily available, very little time is spent on this topic. Factorization schemes such as Crout's or Doolittle's are mentioned but not covered, and iterative methods are deferred until the next topic. Simultaneous non-linear equations These are treated by analogy with the "fixed point" methods for a single equation. The Gauss Seidel method is recommended unless the Jacobian 194 is easily calculated, in which case the Newton method is preferred. Some special methods for very large or sparse systems are discussed briefly [5], but not covered in any depth. Relaxation methods, and the "damped Newton" method [4] are also presented at this time Ordinary differential equations (ODE) Here, I first derive Euler's method in three ways, from a truncated Taylor's series, from finite differences, and intuitively, from the current point and the slope of the approximating straight line. Then I show that the Euler method is closely re lated to rectangular integration. The students readily recognize the accuracy problems by analogy with their earlier integration problem. At this point, we again discuss the trade off between engineering time and computer time, and try to decide when it is appropriate to use crude algorithms to minimize programming time. The "cannon problem," which is the calcula tion of a ballistic trajectory in the presence of a velocity-dependent drag, is now used to introduce several important concepts. These include modular program design using subroutines ( or "remote blocks" for those using a structured FORTRAN), modular testing, and program testing by the use of limiting cases. For example, the case of zero drag can be solved analytically, and the cor responding limiting case of a very low drag co efficient should approach this analytical solution. The Modified and Improved Euler methods are used to introduce Runge-Kutta methods. The standard Runge-Kutta subroutine is described, and the principle reason for its use is discussed, i.e., that it is readily available and familiar. Predictor corrector methods are also described, and the standard Hamming subroutine is presented. The origins of and problems inherent in "stiff equations" are covered in detail. The usual method of attack ("brute force"; a small step size, and hang the computer time) is discussed, along with a reiteration of the computer time vs. engineering time trade off. Implicit methods are introduced using the Backwards Euler method as an example, and we demonstrate that what we have done is replace the problem of a small step size with the problem of solving a set of nonlinear simultaneous CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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equations to high accuracy. The standard Gear [6] subroutines are described, but not covered in any detail. SECTION II-Modeling At this point, about five weeks into the se mester, the students have sufficient tools available to attack an impressive array of modeling problems. They have, however, only been given some highly structured and relatively easy problem sets, and they are beginning to become compla cent. I repeat the warnings given at the beginning of the semester about falling behind, and tell them that things are now going to become much more interesting. Preliminaries One class period is spent on various pre liminaries. I make extensive use of the informa tion flow diagrams given by Franks [3] in the modeling part of! the course. Though they are helpful in general, they are the best method that I have found to teach the modeling of staged operations. I also present a number of little aphorisms, such as, "Two small problems are easier than one big one," or "Divide and conquer," or "KISS-Keep It Simple, Stupid." I then indicate in a general way how one goes about breaking a big problem into managable parts, and also bring in the ideas from structured programming (fa miliar to some of our students) of "psychological chunking," "reducing connectivity," etc., and how these apply to modeling problems. This is all il lustrated with a sequence of simple examples, following Franks [3], and culminating in the single component boiler example [2, 3]. Applications to problems For the first real modeling problem, the students are asked to model an unstable CSTR with a proportional controller (adapted from Luyben [2]), and to use the model to determine various stability limits, such as the minimum value of the controller constant, the minimum and maximum allowable feed temperatures, etc. This is just a somewhat messy ODE problem, and the first part is very well defined, so most students get it easily. I also ask them to devise a start-up procedure that they could use on a real system, and test it with their model. With the problem as stated (no external heating of the reactor-only FALL 1981 cooling) the only way is to start with the re actor full of heated pure solvent, and then start the reactor flows. (The first several years that I gave this course, there would be only one or two students in a class who would get this part. Now, they all do. Either they're getting smarter, or the word is getting around.) While the students are working the CSTR problem, the lectures are leading up to a non-ideal batch distillation problem. Though most of the students are taking advanced thermodynamics concurrently with the modeling course, they have not reached the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) section yet, so I spend about one period covering non-ideal VLE, the Margules and van Laar equa tions, and the like. They then solve a batch dis tillation problem, which is basically another ODE problem, but with an "inner loop" of simultaneous equations which must be solved to get the activity coefficients. The next problem is a single-effect evaporator. It is not difficult, being somewhat similar to the I also present a number of little aphorisms, such as, "Two small problems are easier than one big one," or "divide and conquer," or "KISS-Keep It Simple, Stupid." batch distillation, but it is a preliminary to the triple effect evaporator, which follows. A triple effect evaporator is used for the staged operation problem. The students are guided through the setting up of the information flow diagrams, and warned that the last effect is some what different than the first (n-1) effects. This is easily seen from the information flow diagrams, because the externally fixed parameters are different for the two cases. The resulting set of equations and flow diagrams is rather awesome. However, we note that if we use forward integra tion methods for the ODE parts, then we can solve all of the integration blocks at time t to get the outputs of these at time t + dt. We then erase the integration blocks, and solve the resulting alge braic network at the new time t+dt. Then we simply repeat these steps. The Franks '[3] informa tion flow diagrams get this across very easily. No other teaching method that I have tried has re sulted in as rapid or as complete an understand ing of what is really being done in the solution of dynamic models. It should be :rioted that although the problems 195

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are easily described, this is actually the most difficult part of the course. Five to six weeks are usually spent on this section. SECTION Ill-More numerical methods The students have now seen the application of their "toolkit" of methods to some moderately difficult problems, so we now add a few more "tools." Optimization The basic theory of optimization, and gradient methods in general, are briefly touched upon. We cover the "Sequential Simplex" method of Nelder and Meade [7;] in detail. I have found this to be an easily understood and programmed method, which works reasonably efficiently in practice. Penalty functions [7] are suggested for con strained optimization, but no problems are assigned. Statistics Some topics in statistics, taken from Himmel blau [8], are covered next, for two reasons. First, our students have no idea of what is involved in statistical analysis beyond the blind application of "least squares," and second, it gives a play ground for applications of optimization methods. Most of the students have had the experience of frying to apply "least squares" to some problem for which the normal equations turned out to be impractical to solve. We discuss the use of opti mization methods to "minimize the squared error;" but we also give some thought as to what, if anything, this really tells us. The students seem to enjoy this section very much, gleefully fitting arbitrary functions to random collections of points. :Cln fact, I've done some of it myself, but I called it "research.") The last two topics are not very demanding, and are given at this time partly to let the students catch up on their modeling problems. The next two sections are again fairly difficult. Partial differential equations (Pl>E) PDE are covered directly from the text [l]. I preceed the text material by a short review of the theory of PDE, and of the resulting types of boJJ l,ldary conditions, and add a : brief section on hy:petbolic PDE (which are not covered in the text). The problems assigned include the steady state temperature distribution in a : cooling fin, 196 and the fearsome "ice problem," in which the students model the freezing of a lake. This is a moving interfac~ problem, and is reasonably difficult. Matrix theory By this time, we are near the end of the se mester, so I can cover only a little matrix theory. We always cover the basic operations, and usually manage an introduction to eigenvalues and eigen vectors, but only rarely do we have time to cover similarity transformations. Although I regret this, since my major interest is in control theory, the other topics seem more directly useful to students at this level. A FEW GENERAL COMMENTS T HERE ARE SEVERAL POTENTIAL problems in the teaching of this course. For example, grading can be difficult. If an answer is incorrect, it can be very time consuming to decide whether it is due to a lack of understanding or simply to a trivial error in programming. I have not had much success in trying to get the students to verify their answers, either. They treat this as "just an other course," and expect me to tell them if they are right or wrong. The only remedy I have found is to require complete documentation, of the algorithm as well as the program, along with the problem solution. Since our students don't write any better than anyone else's, this is also good practice for them. (The students themselves com plain bitterly about all the writing. They would rather spend 10 hours at a terminal than 10 minutes writing about what they have done.) Another difficulty iies in the distribution of work during the semester. The first half of the course is really very easy, and doesn't require much outside effort. The second half becomes suddenly very demanding, and the students are ca ught off guard no matter how often I have warned them of what was coming. The only remedy is to be completely rigid in the deadlines for problems. This may result in some students losing a lot of points for lateness, but I think that it is preferrable to allowing the student to get hopelessly behind. A final difficulty is keeping the problems fresh and ~hallenging. Even though the students don't seem to copy old solutions, the approach to specific problems seems to become part of the "con ventional wisdom" after a few years. For this reasen, I have given up using a distillation CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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column for the staged ope ration problem, and substituted the triple effect evaporator. This should be good for another year or so, and then I will have to find something else. Another example is the ice problem. Last year, I substituted the "mirror fog" problem (9] as a moving boundary example. Although the solution is obvious almost by inspection, the requirement that the students actually solve the PDE does result in a meaning ful problem. To conclude on a positive note, when we were revising the graduate curriculum a few years ago, the graduate students recommended that this course be kept unchanged. Also, several of my former students have told me that this is one of the most directly useful of the courses that they have taken. It seems to fulfill its purpose of pro viding the tools needed to use a computer to solve problems, and it gives the student a feeling for how to approach even a very large modeling problem. And perhaps the most important of all, it is fun to teach. REFERENCES 1. Carna han, B ., H. A. Luther, and J. 0. Wilkes, "Applied Numerical Methods," Wiley (1969). 2. Luyben, W. L., "Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control for Chemical Engineers," McGraw-Hill (1973). 3. Franks, R. G. E., "Modeling and Simulation in Chemical Engineering," Wiley Interscience (1972). 4. Conte, S D., and C. deBoor, "Elementary Numerical Analysis," McGraw-Hill (1980). 5. Westerberg, A. W., H.P. Hutchison, R. L. Motard, and P. Winter, "Process Flowshe e ting," Cambri dge Uni versity Press (1979). 6. Gear, C. W., "Numerical Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations," Prentice-Hall (1971). 7. Beveridge, G. S. G., and R. S. Schecter, "Optimiza tion: Theory and Practice," McGraw-Hill (1970). 8. Himmelblau, D. M., "Process Analysis by Statistical Methods," Wiley (1970). 9. Kabel, R. L., "The Mirror Fog Problem," Chem. Eng. Education 18 No. 4 (1970) 155. MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS Continued from page 176. 3, 5, and 8 4. C Y. Tsang and W. B. Streett, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2 6, 155 (1981). 5. W B. Streett and J. C. G. Calado, J. Chem. Thermo., 10, 1089 (1978). 6. C. Y. Tsang, P. Clancy, J. C. G. Calado and W. B. Streett, Chem. Eng. Commun 6, 365 (1980). 7. C. Y. Tsang and W. B. Streett, Fluid Phase EquiFALL 1981 POSITIONS AVAILABLE Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate page $50; each additional column inch $20. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CHEMICAL ENGI NEERING. Must ha ve a Ph.D., excellent academic back grou nd, stro ng interest in teaching and research, and be a U.S. citizen or have permanent resident certification. Responsible for teaching undergraduate and graduate courses, s upervising graduate research. Send resume, three references, transcripts, and state ment of interest to: Dr. D. R. Paul, C hairman, Department of Chemical Engineer ing, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1165. Affir mati ve Action / Equal Opportunity Em ployer. libria, 6, 261 (1981). 8. C Y. Tsang and W. B. Streett, Chem. Eng. Sci., 96, 993 (1981). 9. G. Schneider, in "Chemical Thermodynamics, Vol. 2," Specialist Periodical Reports, The Chemical Society, London, 1978, Chap 4. 10. W. B. Streett, Can J. Chem Eng., 52, 92 (1974). 11. W. B. Streett, A. L. Erickson and J. L. E. Hill, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 6, 69 (1972). 12. J. de Swaan Arons and G. A M. Diepen, J. Chem. Phys., 44, 2322 (1966). 13. D. S. Tsiklis, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 86, 1159 (1952). 14. For a review of the earlier theories see: K. E. Gubbins, AIChEJ, 19, 684 (1973). 15. A review of theory and applications is given in: K. E. Gubbins and C. H. Twu, Chem. Eng. Science, 88,863,879 (1978). 16 G. M. Gibbs, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford (1979). 17. K. P. Shukla and Y. Singh, J. Chem. Phys., 72, 2719 (1980). 18 P. Clancy, K. E. Gubbins and C. G. Gray, Disc. Faraday Soc., 66, 116 (1978). 19. K. E. Gubbins, C. G. Gray and J. R. S. Machado, Molec. Phys., 42, 817 (1981). 20. B. Moser, K. Lucas and K. E. Gubbins, Fluid Phase Equilibria, in press (1981). 21. K. E. Gubbins, Proc. Second lnternat. Conf. Phase Equilibria and Fluid Props. in the Chem. Industry, Berlin, Dechema, Frankfurt (1980), p. 621. 22 For reviews see: W. B. Streett and K. E. Gubbins, Arin Rev. Phys. Chem., 28, 373 (1977); J. M. Haile, K. E. Gubbins and W. B. Streett, Proc. 7th Symp. Thermophys. Properties, Amer. Soc. Mech. Engr., New York (1977), p. 421. 23. D. A. Jonah, K. S. Shing and K. E: Gubbins, Proc. 8th Symp. Thermophys. Properties, Amer, Soc. Mech. Engr., New York (1981). ,_ 24. K. E. Gubbins and J. M. Haile, in "Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding," ed. D. 0. Shah and R. S. Schechter, Academic Press, New York (1977), p. 119. 25. S. M. Thompson and K. E. Gubbins, J. Chem. Phys., 74, 6467 (1981). 197

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UNDERGROUND PROCESSING CLARENCE A. MILLER* Ca r negie-Mellon U n i v ersity Pittsburgh PA 15213 THE EVENTS OF RECENT YEARS have brought increased attention to processes for recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground forma tions. Higher prices for petroleum have caused the industry to give serious attention to more sophisticated recovery processes involving not just flow, as in conventional processes, but also heat and mass transport, various phase changes, chemi cal reactions, and interfacial phenomena. Under ground coal gasification seems promising for the future. Research has increased on in situ process ing to recover oil from oil shale and tar sands Solution mining of uranium has begun in some locations The number of engineers working on such processes has increased rapidly in recent years, especially in research. As more extensive field ap plications develop, additional engineers will be re quired to design processes applicable to specific locations and to supervise production operations Because flow, transport, and chemical reaction are involved in most of the processes, chemical engi ne ers are well suited for this work and should be inuch in demand. To acquaint chemical engineering students with this rapidly growing field and to provide them with pertinent fundamental information not ordinarily covered in a chemical engineering cur riculum ~ X have developed a one-semester course in "Underground Processing." Although basically a graduate course, it is open to interested under graduates who have had courses in fluid mechanics, trari&port phenomena, and thermodynamics. GJ:OLOGICAL BACKGROUND TABtE 1 IS AN OUTLINE of the course. The first .. sectjon deals with geological background ma terial. ~ In contrast to the usual situation in a ~ hemical plant, the "reactor" for an underground process is not built to the designer's specification ., Present address: Rice University Houston, TX 77001. l98 Clarence A. Miller received h i s B A. and B S Degree s i n chemical engineering from Rice University in 1961. Af t er spending four years as an engineer with the Navy's nuclear power program in Washing ton D C. he undertook graduate studies at the Univers i ty of Min nesota, receiving his Ph D Degree in 1969 He spent twelve years on the chemical engineering faculty at Carnegie-Mellon University and joined Rice University in September, 1981, as a Professor of Chemical Engineering. For the last several years his major research interest has been investigation of i nterfacial phenomena in enhanced oil recovery processes. but is provided by nature. It is usually the result of geological processes which have occurred over periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years As it is accessible only through a few widely spaced wells, details of how its physical structure and chemical composition vary with position are not known. Some understanding of its geological origin is useful in determining how effective various processes might be. The difference in pore structure between sand stones and limestones, the two most common r eser voir rocks for petroleum, provides an example of the importance of geology to an engineer. The pore space in a sandstone is basically that origin ally present between the individual sand grains just after deposition, although some decrease in pore size occurs over time due to compaction as the deposit is buried and due to precipitation of silica, calcium carbonate, or other substances on the surfaces of the grains and at their junctions. Also called cementation, the precipitation at junctions serves to bind the individual grains to Copyr i ght ChE D ivisi on, A BEE, 19 8 1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ED ll Q.(\ Tl ON

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gether to form a rock. The situation is quite different for limestone rocks which, in the first place, are often formed by deposition of rather irregularly shaped particles consisting of shells or skeletal fragments of various marine creatures. Then too, some re crystallation after deposition is common in car bonate rocks. Since a density change is involved, porosity and pore structure are affected. Pore structure changes are also caused by cementation, which can be extensive, by dissolution of material in water flowing through the rock, and by fractur ing, which occurs more easily than for sandstones. The overall result i s a pore space much less regu lar than in a sandstone. Differences in pore size TABLE 1 Course Outline for Underground Processing A. GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND 1. General geology a:. Plate tectonics theory b. Formation and characteristics of sedimentary rocks c. Age of rocks and the geological time scale 2. Formation of fossil fuel and mineral deposits a. Origin of hydrocarbons in shale deposits b. Relation to formation of other fossil fuels c. Migration of petroleum from source rocks to traps d. Formation of petroleum traps-sedimentary basin s e. Formation of mineral deposits by hydrothermal processes f. Relation between plate tectonics and sites of fossil fuel and mineral deposits B. FLOW, TRANSPORT, AND INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA IN POROUS MEDIA 1. Basic interfacial phenomena-interfacial tension, contact angles 2. lnterfacial phenomena in porous media-capillary pressure 3. Single-phase flow in porous media-Darcy's Law 4. Relative permeabilities and two-phase flow 5. Conditions for trapping or mobilizing a residual phase 6. Heat transport in porous media 7. Mass transport, hydrodynamic dispersion 8. Chromatographic transport 9. Stability of displacement fronts in porous media C. DESCRIPTION OF UNDERGROUND PROCESSES 1. Petroleum recovery a. Immiscible displacement, waterflooding b. Polymer and surfactant flooding c. Miscible displacement, carbon dioxide injection d. Thermal recovery processes 2. Underground coal gasification 3. In situ processes for oil shale and tar sands 4. Solution mining of uranium Because flow, transport, and chemical reaction are involved in most of the processes, chemical engineers are well suited for this work and should be much in demand. and shape between rocks have a significant effect on displacement of one fluid by another, e.g., of oil by water, and are thus of great importance to the engineer. Even when consideration is restricted to sand.:. stone rocks, relatively minor differences in com position can be important for performance of certain processes. For instance, most sandstones contain some clay minerals although their primary component is silica. Clays can adsorb surfactant molecules and they can serve as sites of cation ex change between liquids in the pore space and the rock surface. Both these properties have a signifi cant influence on enhanced oil recovery processes which employ surfactants. Indeed, failure to properly account for ion-exchange effects is be lieved to be the main reason for poor performance of at least one field test of the surfactant process. Thus, the amount of clay originally deposited with the sand is significant. Finally, variation in depositional conditions with position and time can cause significant permeability variations within a petroleum containing rock. Injected fluids prefer to flow through high-permeability regions, largely by passing regions of low permeability. In an extreme case, permeability barriers may exist between nearby wells in a formation, so that flow between the wells is minimal. Such a situation was found in a recent field test of an enhanced oil recovery process. Fortunately, it was discovered during preparations for the test, and process adjustments were made before the test was begun. A brief overview of plate tectonics theory begins the course. Only some fifteen years old in its modern form, this theory has been the most exciting development in geology in decades be cause it has provided a unifying framework re lating diverse results from many fields of geology. Then a rather extensive discussion of rock fC>rma tion is given with emphasis on sedimentary rocks where oil, oil shale, and tar sands were formed and where they are found. The next major topic is formation of fossil fuel and mineral deposits. As the result of ex tensive work by petroleum geologists and geo chemists during the past thirty years, much has been learned about the origin of petroleum. S hale 199

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In contrast to the usual situation in a chemical plant, the "reactor" for an underground process is not built to the designer's specification but is provided by nature. It is usually the result of geological processes which have occurred over periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. is a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of small particles of clay minerals and other inorganic ma terials but also containing a few percent of organic material. If the original deposit forms under anaerobic conditions, the organic material is pre served and, on burial, undergoes chemical reaction to form a complex polymeric material known as kerogen. As burial depth increases, the tempera ture rises until, at some point, further reactions take place in which the kerogen releases hydro carbon molecules in order to form a more compact structure consisting largely of multiple aromatic rings. Hydrocarbons so produced are the con stitutents of petroleum. With modern analytical techniques such as gas chromatography, the composition of organic ma terial in shale has been measured as a function of depth in several locations. Such work has allowed the course of the reactions which generate hydrocarbons in shale to be followed. It has also shown that the same basic chemical process is re sponsible for formation of petroleum, coal, and oil shale. Differences in these materials are the result of differences in composition of the initial deposits. Oil shale is richer in organic material than most petroleum source rocks while coal forms from deposits which are primarily organic with only a few percent of inorganic material, just the op posite of shales. The differences in composition between the terrestrial organic m a terial which forms coal and the marine organic material which is the source of most oil also lead to major differ ences in the distribution of reaction products, e.g., to generation of more methane and fewer longer-chain hydrocarbons in coal. Oil shales have never been subjected to temperatures high enough to cause appreciable hydrocarbon release. Effect ing such release is the chief objective of oil shale processing. Two excellent summaries of current knowledge of fossil fuel formation are the recent books by Tissot and Welte [1] and Hunt [2]. Also covered in the course are "primary" mi gration of hydrocarbons from the shales where they form to nearby sandstones or limestones, a process which remains poorly understood, and "secondary" migration of oil within the reservoir 200 rocks. Generally speakin g oil travels upward owing to gr a vitational effects until it reaches a "trap" where a lo w -p e rmeability shale or some other permeability bar r ier precludes further up ward movement. Several geological structures which can cause trapping are considered. So are salt dome formation and other geological condi tions which can cause these structures to form. Some comments are made on the emerging picture of the connection between plate tectonics and oil formation. Tar sands are oils which have been degraded after trapping by exposu r e to ground waters containing bacteria. The bacteria preferentially consume short-chain and paraffinic compounds. Depending on the amount of degradation, the re maining oil may be only slightly more viscous than the original oil, or it may be a "tar" with a vis cosity of tens of thousands of centipoise or more. Student assignments for this part of the course consist of: 1) a set of simple problems which provide a feeling for the magnitude of such quanti ties as the rate of plate motion over the earth's surface, the heat flux from the earth's surface, and the amount of water needed to increase the porosity of a limestone rock by dissolution, and 2) a short paper on some aspect of the geological part of the course. Topics selected by the students have ranged from discussion of certain geophysi cal and geochemical methods for locating oil and mineral deposits to a summary of the arguments given by the few geologists who have yet to accept plate tectonics theory. Most of the papers, how ever, have dealt with some aspect of the formation of fossil fuels in more detail than the class notes and lectures In summary, some knowledge of geology is essential to those working in underground pro cessing. Experience has shown that the more one knows about formation properties, the better the chances of process success. Although engineers naturally interact with geologists, who have a detailed understanding of depositional conditions, in developing formation descriptions, the inter action is more productive if the engineer has some background in geology. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA, FLOW, AND TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA A LTHOUGH THE FORMATIONS which serve as sites for underground processes vary widely in structure and composition, they may all be con sidered porous media. Since interfacial phenomena control the distribution of immiscible fluids such as oil and water within a porous medium at the low flow rates common in oil recovery processes, the first step is a thorough discussion of interfacial tension and contact angles. A brief account of surfactants and their properties is included as well to provide a background for later considera tion of surfactant processes for enhanced oil re covery. In porous media interfacial phenomena are responsible for the pressure difference or "capil lary" pressure between immiscible fluids. Varia tion of capillary pressure during slow displace ment of one fluid by another is described. Empha sis is given to interfacial instabilities which lead to "Haines jumps," the rapid and irreversible final stage of displacement occurring in individual pores even when the overall rate of displacement is slow. As a result of these instabilities, capillary pressure behavior exhibits hysteresis, i.e., capil lary pressure variation when water displaces oil is not simply the reverse of that when oil dis places water. Next, single-phase and two-phase flow in porous media are discussed. Consideration is restricted to low flow rates where Darcy's Law applies, the usual situation in underground processing. An important topic is the mechanism of trapping of a residual phase when one fluid displaces another. Because of such trapping, water is usually able to displace only about half the oil originally present in a reservoir. Obviously, the conditions required to prevent trapping are of great interest. These amount to a sufficiently large ratio of viscous to interfacial forces, i.e., a sufficiently large value of the dimensionless capillary number (.v /yep), where. and v are continuous phase viscosity and superficial velocity, y is the interfacial tension between fluid phases, and cf> is porosity. After some coverage of heat and mass trans port in porous media and hydrodynamic dis persion, chromatographic transport in porous media is considered. Introduction of the methods of chromatographic analysis is a key part of the course since they are used later in the analysis of oil recovery processes. The presentation consists FALL 1981 of a sequence of examples of ever increasing difficulty, ranging from simple adsorption of a solute or its partitioning into a trapped fluid phase to immiscible displacement of one fluid by another (Buckley-Leverett analysis) to ion ex change phenomena to two-phase displacement pro cesses with partitioning of various components between phases. The method of characteristics is used to solve the simpler examples and to illustrate how traveling concentration waves develop. Then the more complicated examples are treated by Helfferich's general scheme [3], which begins with the assumption that concentration waves occur. Winding up this portion of the course is a dis cussion of the stability of displacement fronts in porous media. No matter how well a fluid can dis place another from an individual pore, its effective ness in a large-scale process is limited if the macro... the study of flow, transport, reaction, and interfacial phenomena in porous media is an excellent application of basic chemical engineering principles and one that has utility far beyond underground processing. scopic front between displacing and displaced fluids is unstable. For in this case the injected fluid travels through the reservoir in channels, completely bypassing many pores containing the oil or other fluid originally present. The lectures here deal first with instability in the form of viscous fingering which occurs, for example, during waterflooding of high viscosity oils. Then transport effects are discussed with stress given to their importance in thermal pro cesses for oil recovery and in underground coal gasification. Homework problems are assigned frequently throughout this part of the course as the basic ma terial is by nature more quantitative than in the geological background section. PROCESSES FOR FOSSIL FUEL RECOVERY I N THE LAST PART OF THE course the major underground processes in use or being developed are described. More attention is given to petroleum recovery than to other processes, primarily be cause more is known about it. Waterflooding is considered first. Then polymer flooding, surfactant flooding, and miscible displacement, e.g., with high 201

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pressure carbon dioxide, are discussed. Basic physical mechanisms are stressed in lieu of details of processes performance. Simplified analyses using chromatographic transport methods are used to illustrate the main features of each process. Because the chromatographic analyses em ployed assume that phase equilibrium and chemi cal reaction equilibrium are reached instantane ously, other methods are used for analysis of thermal oil recovery processes such as steam drive and underground combustion. In these processes the rate of heat transport from the reservoir to the surrounding formations is of great importance, and heat conduction terms must be included in the analysis. Finite rates of chemical reaction are important in other types of processes. Examples are the use of acids to dissolve some of the rock near a well, thereby increasing permeability, and reverse com bustion processes which are used in the initial stages of underground coal gasification and which are potentially of use in in-situ tar sand recovery. Some aspects of a process are more important in underground than in ordinary processing-. Clearly one highly desirable feature of an under ground process is relative insensitivity to varia tions in formation properties since, as indicated above, detailed knowledge of such properties at all points in a formation cannot be obtained. The linked-vertical-well method of under ground coal gasification is used as an example to illustrate this point. Reverse combustion is used to "link" injection and production wells, i.e., to provide a high-permeability path between them. Once the link is complete air or oxygen can be injected at relatively low pressure with a high de gree of assurance that, whatever the fl.ow proper ties of the original coal, most of the injected gas will travel along the link where resistance to fl.ow is low. This behavior has the highly desirable results that most injected gas participates in the main gasification reaction and that only a small amount leaks away to surrounding areas where its presence could be undesirable from an environ mental point of view. Student assignments here consist of some homework problems on waterfl.ooding and sur factant flooding and a project involving a short paper on some feature of a particular underground process of interest to the student. Some of these papers have been basically literature surveys, while others have been analyses of certain pro cesses using chromatographic transport methods. 202 CONCLUDING REMARKS N o EXISTING TEXTBOOK IS suitable for the entire course. As a result, I have prepared notes for most parts. Some books and articles which have proved useful in this task and which are sources of further information for students are listed below [1-12]. The last part of the course on the processes themselves is, except for the discussion of waterflooding, based largely on journal articles which have appeared during the past few years. In summary, the course provides an introduc tion to underground processing to acquaint students with opportunities in this area and with pertinent fundamental knowledge. The geological background material has been emphasized to a greater extent in this article than in the course itself because of its novelty and because the author believes that interaction between chemical engineering and geology may be fruitful in generating research ideas beyond the present topic. From a more traditional chemical engineering view, however, the study of flow, transport, re action, and interfacial phenomena in porous media is an excellent application of basic chemical engineering principles and one that has utility far beyond underground processing. REFERENCES 1. Tissot, B. P. and D. H. Welte, P etr oleum Formation and Occurrence, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1978. 2. Hunt, J. M., P etro l eum Geochemistry and Geology, San Francisco, W. H. Freeman, 1979. 3. H e lfferich, F ., Soc P etro l. Eng. J., 21, 51-62 (1981). "Theory of multicomponent, multiphase displacement in porous media." 4. Barnes, H. L. (ed.), Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Or e Deposits, 2nd ed., New York, Wiley, 1979. 5. Selley, R. C., An Introduction to Sedimentology, New York, Academic Press, 1976. 6. Press, F. and R. Siever, Earth, San Francisco, W. H. Freeman, 1974. 7. Scheidegger, A. E., Th e Phy sics of Flow Through Poro us Media, 3rd ed University of Toronto Press, 1974. 8. Dullien, F. A. L., Porou s Mediar-Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, New York, Academic Press, 1979. 9. Muskat, M., Phy sical Principl es of Oil Production, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1949. 10. Craig, F. F., Jr., Th e R eservo ir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding, Dallas, Society of Petroleum Engi neers of AIME, 1971. 11. Craft, B. C. and M. F. Hawkins, Applied Petroleum Reservoir Eng ineering, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1959. 12. Aris, R. and N. R. Amundson, Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engine ering Vol. 2, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1973 CHEMICAL ENGINEERINq E:PTJGATlQN

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I .~ ;.?_ Many young graduates who joined Exxon straight out of college are still positive today they made the right choice. And so are we We recognize that the right choice depends upon the best possible match between an employer and your indi vidual personal and career goals What do we have to offer? An oppor tunity to work with people who are leaders in their field planning and doing meaningful things in the world s work career assignments of un ., rivaled var i ety .. an opportunity to develop your talents and make a con tribution .. to change career directions if you wish ... a company that encourages recognizes and rewards your achievements both in terms of pride and pay ... and above all a lifetime career w i th a growing company. I f this sounds like your personal checklist for a company perhaps there s a match contact your college placement office or send your resume to Exxon Professional Recruitment P 0 Box 2180 Houston Texas 77001. E)J{ON Equal Opportunity Employer M / F FALL 1981 203

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POLYMER PROCESSING DAVID S. SOONG Uni v ersity of California Berkeley, CA 94720 I N VIEW OF THE ever-increasing trend of polymer utilization, there exists a need for a rigorous course in polymer rheology and melt processing at the graduate level. This led to a decision by the faculty of chemical engineering at Berkeley to develop two courses in polymer processing and re action engineering, which can be taken successively oi: individually. When the first of the two-course sequence was recently offered in the form of ChE 295N, Special Topics in Polymers, the emphasis was placed on polymer dynamics, rheology and processing. Major references for the lecture materials of ChE 295N included Middleman's "Fundamentals of Polymer Processing" [1] and Bird et al's Dy namics of Polymeric Liquids" [2, 3]. A survey of the various kinds of polymer pro cessing operations was given at the beginning of the course, introducing the students to the di versity of this field. The importance of the rheo logical properties of polymers in affecting the process characteristics was stressed at this early stage, which prompted subsequent review of the continuum mechanics and molecular approaches to describe the behavior of polymeric fluids. Selected processes, such as extrusion, calendering, injection molding and fiber spinning, were then separately discussed. In each case the general transport equa tions were first set up and boundary conditions stipulated. Simplifying assumptions were made to facilitate solution of the equations. Constitutive equations for purely viscous materials (both Newtonian and non-Newtonian) were used to obtain model predictions before the complication of viscoelasticity was introduced. This progressive increase in the degree of sophistication allowed the students to appreciate the critical considera tions in designing and operating processes handl ing viscoelastic materials. Results for viscoelastic Copyr i ght ChE D ivisi on, A SEE 19 8 1 204 David Soong obtained his B S in Chemistry from National Taiwan University in 1973 Upon arrival in the United States in 1975, he pursued graduate work in Chemical Engineering at the Univers i ty of California at Berkeley, r eceiving his M S. in 1977 and Ph D in 1978 under M i tchel Shen. Since 1979 he has been an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley His major research interests are rheological properti e s of polymers, po l ymer reaction engineering plasma-initiated polym e ri z ation and related microelectronics applica tions He is a member of the Society of Rheology Sigma Xi AIChE and ACS models were compared with those of the purely viscous cases. With the above brief introduction to the origin and nature of this course, w e are now in a posi tion to discuss various aspects of the course, such as objectives, detailed content, teaching strategies and, most importantly observations and ex periences from its first offering. COURSE OBJECTIVES THE COURSE SERVED A number of functions and carried multiple objectives. For example, a variety of import a nt process operations commonly encountered in industry were examined. Basic mechanical components and associated geometries determining the critical flow field and state of deformation of process fluids were depicted and analyzed in depth. Much effort was devoted to developing the ability to set up equations of con tinuity and motion to describe the processes under consideration. For nonisothermal and / or .r eacting systems, heat and mass transport equations were CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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invoked. These dynamic equations and related boundary /initial conditions were independent of the material being treated. The latter affected the processes through the use of constitutive equa tions. These in turn were merely mathematical representations (or rather approximations) of the inherently complicated responses of the fluids to the imposed flow field. The importance of ma terial properties in affecting polymer processing was illustrated by several examples. A representa tive one involved laminar pressure flow in a cylindrical conduit of constant cross-section. Newtonian behavior, power-law fluid, and a hypo thetical system obeying Maxwell equation with constant viscosity and relaxation time were exam~ned Sl:l:Ccessively. In the first two cases sig nificant differences in the volumetric flowrate were predicted at a given pressure gradient. When the pressure gradient was suddenly varied, the new steady state was rapidly reached for these purely viscous fluids. The viscoelastic model gave similar steady-state results, depending on model parameters. However, when the pressure gradient became a function of time, marked transient be havior was obs~rved, even if uniform shear rate in the radial direction was assumed at all time (an idealized situation considering the finite rate of momentum transfer) Polymers, being viscoelastic and exhibiting quite "peculiar" behaviors, are, in principle, amen able to systematic mathematical description. The actual analytic / numerical manipulations involved may be vastly greater than those for simpler (viscous) fluids. Still, chemical engineers with a sound training in transport phenomena coupled with some knowledge of material properties of polymers, should be capable of comprehending and analyzing these polymer processes. Hence, this course dispels certain "mystique" surrounding polymers, viscoelasticity and the related processes. Iii' addition, an important concept emerged from the repeated use of the series of constitutive equa tions to different processes. It was realized that viscoelasticity is a generality rather than a specialty, as purely viscous responses can be de rived from a viscoelastic equation by neglecting certain terms, and Newtonian fluid represents nothing more than a limiting behavior. This course seeks to enhance the ability of the students to apply transport principles to situations where the fluid properties as well as flow kinematics are both quite complicated. Solu tion of the simultaneous equations describing the FALL 1981 The first phase is a brief review of the various common polymer processes, familiarizing the students with the breadth of the subject and illustrating the importance of modeling and application of transport equations. processes by either making simplifying assump tions or resorting to numerical methods is another major objective. The relative merits and limita tions of either approach can thus be ascertained. COURSE CONTENT THE COURSE CONSISTS OF three phases. The first phase is a brief review of the various common polymer processes, familiarizing the students with the breadth of the subject and illustrating the importance of modeling and application of transport equations. Simple model flows (e.g., pressure and couette flow in parallel plates, rectangular channels and concentric cylinders executing axial and transverse motions) are then analyzed in preparation for the more complicated actual processes where the different modes of simple flows frequently occur simultaneously. Next the problem of describing rheological proper ties of polymers is addressed. Experimental results on two major flows (simple shear and uniaxial elongation) are discussed extensively. Constitu tive equations of different levels of approxima tion, such as Newtonian, power-law and other nonN ewtonian functions, and several selected viscoelastic models, are developed for obtaining model predictions in later stages of the course. Finally, individual processes are analyzed in detail. In each case the applicable dynamic equations and the appropriate boundary conditions are es tablished, thus forming the mathematical frame work of the model. Constitutive equations de veloped previously are then substituted into the set of dynamic equations to yield predictions. Table 1 outlines the course content. As Table 1 indicates, ample opportunities for modeling studies were provided in this program. Couette and pressure flows in simple geometries were thoroughly examined for Newtonian and power-law fluids. The effects of combining two or more simple flows for these purely viscous fluids were also presented. These simple model flows formed the basis for later development of processes involving viscoelastic materials in com plex geometries. Development of viscoelastic constitutive equa205

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tions was preceded by a brief review of various empirical nonNewtonian functions for rate-de pendent viscosity. Elastic phenomena exhibited by polymers and their influence on processing were then discussed, justifying the use of viscoelastic models under certain operating conditions. A critical consideration here is the ease of applica tion of these models to engineering flow calcula tions. Unfortunately, most continuum models and molecular theories developed to date [2, 3] to de scribe rheological properties of concentrated solu tions and polymer melts are so mathematically complex as to render their direct application to actual process design impractical. This prompted the adoption of the contravariant Oldroyd form of the Maxwell equation [2, 3]. -r+A6T 6t 'YJY TABLE 1 Course Outline 1. INTRODUCTION AND FUNDAMENTALS Introduction to Polymer Processing Modeling Philosophy Review of General Transport Equations Equations of Continuity Equations of Motion (Dynamic Equations) Heat and Mass Transport Equations Kinematics and Dynamics Boundary and Initial Conditions Simple Model Flow Analysis Combined Flow Analysis (1) 2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR POLYMERS Rheological Properties of Polymers-Experimental Results Continuum Mechanics and Molecular Models Constitutive Equations for Purely Viscous Materials Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Materials Theories for Polymer Melts 3. DISCUSSION OF INDIVIDUAL POLYMER PROCESSES Extrusion Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids Isothermal and Nonisotherrnal Analyses Calendering Newtonian and N onN ewtonian Fluids Lubrication Approximation Normal Stresses and Viscoelasticity Fiber Spinning Newtonian, NonNewtonian and Viscoelastic Fluids Injection Molding Isothermal and Nonisothermal Analyses for Viscous Fluids Pressure-Dependent Viscosity Polymerization Reaction Constitutive equations for Diffusion and Generation_ 206 Dimensional Analysis of a Tubular Reactor ... the course dispels a certain "mystique" surrounding polymers, viscoelasticity and the related processes. where -r and y are the stress and rate-of-deforma tion tensors, 6 / 6t is the Oldroyd contravariant de rivative, and A and 7J are the Maxwell relaxa tion time and viscosity of the fluid. Due to the incorporation of this equation, the process models now possess a unique set of transient responses. However, Equation 1 is only qualitatively correct, thus necessitating further improvement without undue increase in mathematical tractability. One such remedy is achieved by introducing certain structure-property relationships into the original formulation, i.e., making A and 7J structure dependent and thus time-dependent [4, 5]. Al though this approach is still in its infancy, the resulting equation has proved useful [5] and is mathematically simple so as to be practical for engineering calculations. Throughout the balance of this course, the original and the modified Maxwell equations are used extensively COURSE REQUIREMENT AND TEACHING STRATEGIES A LIST OF TERM PROBLEMS was given to the class, from which every member chose one for an in-depth literature search and analytical/ numerical solution. Time was set aside at the end of the course for student presentations of their work. This was a successful endeavor in that it encouraged much effort in problem solving and stimulated active post-presentation discussions. The complete sequence of identifying a research problem, pursuing its solution, presenting the find ings and generating new ideas was experienced through the term assignment, which was con ducted with minimal supervision. Research inde pendence was encouraged in the process. SELECTED TERM PROBLEMS 0 NE PROBLEM ENTAILED THE prediction of transient velocity profile development in planar couette and pressure flows using the struc ture-dependent Maxwell model. Solutions obtained via collocation techniques [6] revealed a wide range of complicated behavior including oscilla tory approach to steady state. Uniaxial extensional flow of polymer melts was reviewed by a member CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of the class, who was able to propose a new constitutive equation. Preliminary evaluation of this proposal shows promise and suggests further work. Another project involved the application of polymers as photoresist or e-beam resist ma terials in microelectronics industry. Resist spinning on semiconductor wafers was modeled. The relevant continuity and dynamic equations were established in this effort. Analytical solution was obtained only through the incorporation of rather drastic assumptions. More accurate results rely on incorporation of improved viscoelastic equations and concentration-dependent solvent diffusion rate expressions. Other problems included the effect of pres sure-dependent viscosity on injection molding, dynamic behavior of a single-screw extruder, bubble rise in a viscous medium, and attempts at modeling high-conversion polymerization reactors. As a result of these class efforts, some potential long-term research projects were nucleated. ti Na stirred pots HEAT EXCHANGERS The Agony and the Ecstasy Premeditated motions Control the beckoning valves. Water beg i ns its hereditary migration Towards the shell side While steam penetrates other water Destined by ulterior motives to ramble In a twisting gyrating frenzy To the tube side. S w ept up in the confusion Of bombarding torrents A decision must be reached By the bold few who dare Comprehend heat exchangers IS there a heat balance? Time vacates as great minds Ponder through flow rate commandments And theories of original heat. Minds seeking to know Whys and wherefores, Pros and cons, Ins and outs, And clues only heat exchangers can provides The elusive stigma attached to heat transfer. FALL 1981 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author appreciates the support and en couragement of his colleagues in the development of this course. Most of all, he thanks his students for making the offering of this course an enjoyable and rewarding experience. REFERENCES 1. S. Middleman, "Fundamentals of Polymer Processing," McGr a w-Hill, New York, 1977. 2. R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong, and O; Hassager, "Dy namics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 1: Fluid Me chanics," Wiley, New York, 1977. 3. R. B. Bird, 0. Hassager, R. C. Armstrong, and C. F. C urtiss, "Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 2: Kinetic Theory," Wiley, New York, 1977. 4. D S. Soong and M. Sh e n, J. Rheol., 25 259 (1981). 5 T. Y Liu, D. S. Soong and M C. Williams, Polym. Eng Sci., 21 675 (1981). 6. J. Villadsen and M. L. Michelsen, "Solution of Diff e rential Equation Models by Polynomial Approximation," Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1978. Peering through the cheap answers The t r uth shyly steps forward; Heat has indeed been abducted By common two-bit fouling resistance schemes Use primarily by alien heat exchangers Affiliated with corporations of ill repute And shady character profiles. This then becomes ... the agony. Despite seemingly corrupt odds, Heat transfer does occur; The hot gets colder The cold gets hotter And data gets its wish, a plot. How can one put into words The ecstasy of a well correlated Wilson plot? How can one man conceived in liberty And dedicated to the proposition That all men are c r eated equal Stand up and boldly proclaim "I have found it .. heat exchangers!" Let this man step forwa r d and be heard, For he has indeed found The elusive truth; And this is ... the ecstasy. Ellen Barrar, ChE '79 Oregon State University 207

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SEPARATION PROCESSES PHILLIP C. W ANKAT Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 s EPARATION PROCESSES AND MASS transfer have long been an integral part of chemical engi neering education. At Purdue University two graduate electives in separation processes and one elective in mass transfer are offered. The graduate students also all take a course in trans port processes, which covers the basics of mass transfer. One of the separation electives (ChE 558, Equilibrium Stage Separation Processes) is a dual level senior / graduate elective. This course covers multicomponent distillation, absorption and extraction and an optional section on chroma tography. C. Judson King's text Sepa r ation Pro cesses is used, and the course has been taught for the last nine years (see Ref [l] for details). The mass transfer elective (ChE 624, Mass Transfer) has been taught as a special topics course. Recently, this course has emphasized the fundamentals of multicomponent systems, mass Phil Wa n kat received his BSChE from Purdue and his PhD from Princeton He is currently a professor of chemical engineering at Purdue. He is interested in teaching and counseling, has won several teach i ng awards at Purdue and is a part time graduate student in Education Phil's research interests are in the area of separat i on process with particular emphasis on cyclic separations, two dimensional separations, preparative chromatography and high gradient magnetic separation. io8 transport through membranes, convective mass transfer, and the macroscopic mass balance. Ap plications emphasized have been in turbulent diffusion, mass transfer at phase boundaries, mass transfer with simultaneous chemical reaction, fixed bed sorption, transport through polymers, and biomedical devices. The third elective in this area (ChE 623, Separation Processes) is a much newer course and has only been taught twice in its current form. This course was designed to cover subjects not covered in the other two electives, and to do it in different ways. The result is a unique elective in separation processes which is the subject of this article. C O URSE PHILOSOPHY J N DESIGNING CHE 623, a course philosophy had to be developed and followed. The first tenet was that as a special topics elective it is difficult to say something must be part of the student's education. Thus, I was willing to initially consider almost any subject as long as it was in the general area of separation processes. However, the second tenet limited the first since I decided not to allow substantial overlap with either ChE 558 or ChE 624. Thus, distillation, absorption, extraction and fundamental mass transport theory would not be covered. My third decision was to spend close to half the semester on operating techniques for adsorp tion, chromatography and ion exchange. The major reason for this choice was selfish : this is my research area (and I want to tell the world about my research) and it is an important class of separation techniques which I believe will be come increasingly more common in the future. Because of my enthusiasm the students also be come interested and, in addition, it helps train my graduate students for their research. The fourth decision was to allow the students to be selfish and to pick areas that interest them Co pyri gh t ChE Di visi on, ASEE, 1981 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUC~TION

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PERIOD(S) 1 2 3-6 7 (R) 8 9 (R) 10 11 12 (R) 13 (R) 14 15 16 17-18 19 20-22 23 24 (R) 25-26 27 (R) 28-29 30 (R) 31-34 35 (R) 36-42 43-45 (R) Finals TABLE 1 Preliminary Course Outline SUBJECTS Introduction Overview and classification schemes [2, 3] Fixed beds: Phenomena [ 4 ], column balances [5, 6], local equilibrium theory [5, 6] Discussion of separations literature and of topics for second half of course Sorbex process [7] and two-dimensional analogy [8] Discussion of experimental papers Moving feed point chromatography [9] Parametric pumping [4, 10] Discussion of theoretical papers Library search methods Pressure swing adsorption [11, 12 ] Cycling zone adsorption [4, 13, 14] Application local equilibrium model to ion exchange [5, 15] Solution for local equilibrium with dispersion and linear system analysis [16, 17] Constant Pattern Solutions [6] Thomas Solution Method [6, 16 18 ] Test No class, Individual meetings on course project Topics selected by class No class, Individual meetings Topics selected by class No class, Individual project reports Topics selected by class No class, Individual meetings Topics selected by class Student presentation s of course projects 2nd test (not a final) (R) Periods spent on separations research and cla s s re s earch project. for the second half of the semester. Thus I let the class pick the topics, subject only to the first two constraints. The last three decisions were concerned with the way the course was taught. Since the lecture is an efficient method for presenting new informa tion, I decided that most of the content would be transmitted by lecture. An assigned text was not used, partially since there is no text covering the diverse topics of this course, but also because I wanted the students to get a feel for the separa tions literature. So a combination of textbooks, journal articles, and handouts was used. Finally, I wanted the students to get an idea of what re search in separations is like. This goal was achieved with a course project which consisted of a small, theoretical research project on an un solved problem. The ways in which these decisions were imple mented is discussed in detail below. FALL 1981 We first started with ordinary adsorption and then considered simulated counter-current operation and the related moving feed point chromatography. COURSE SCHEDULE T o MEET THE OBJECTIVES discussed above, the preliminary schedule shown in Table 1 was handed out the first day of class. Note that during the first half of the course a variety of operating methods for adsorption, chromatography and ion exchange were covered, and that this portion of the schedule is listed in detail. The schedule for the second half of the semester was left open and was filled in only after considerable discussion with the students. Throughout the semester, time was allotted for discussion of the research literature in separa tions, and for the research project. Individual meetings with the students were scheduled and time was set aside for student presentations at the end of the semester. ADSORPTION, CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ION EXCHANGE COVERAGE THE COURSE OUTLINE FOR coverage of adsorption chromatography and ion exchange is shown in Table 1. First we looked at the basic equations of change for a packed bed in detail [4, 5, 6]. Then the logical order to make assump tions was discussed [5, 6] and the solution by the method of characteristics for the local equilibrium model was developed [5, 6]. Once this basic model had been developed, the local equilibrium model was used to explain and contrast a variety of operating methods. We first started with ordinary adsorption [5, 6] and then considered simulated counter-current operation [7] and the related moving feed point chromatography [9]. The students further explored these methods with the local equilibrium model by solving homework problems which are not in the literature. As an aside we discussed how analogous two-dimensional separators could be constructed and analyzed [8]. We then discussed a variety of cyclic operating methods. Both direct and recuperative mode para metric pumping [ 4, 10] were discussed. The com mercially important pressure swing adsorption system [ 4, 11] was studied and the limits of ap plicability of the local equilibrium model were demonstrated [12]. Single and multicomponent 209

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cycling zone adsorption [4, 13, 14] were then ex plored. Finally, the local equilibrium model was used to study binary ion exchange [5, 15], and differences and similarities with Langmuir ad sorption were highlighted. Homework assignments developed from my research were used to further investigate these subjects. Having looked at a variety of operating methods we then studied several other mathe matical models. First the linear local equilibrium model with dispersion [16, 17] was introduced, and the use of superposition in the solution of linear problems was studied. Then constant pattern methods [6] were explained, and the section was completed with the Thomas solution method [6, 16, 18]. Again homework assignments provided practice. We discussed nucleation and crystal growth, crystal size distributions, and crystallization equipment. Four homework assignments with a total of twenty problems were passed out and a one hour closed book test was given. Students were given an equation sheet in advance so they did not have to memorize equations. In the past we covered interacting multicom ponent analysis by the local equilibrium method, and very briefly discussed numerical methods. Be cause of time constraints these areas were not covered this semester. In the future I would like to include two or three classes on numerical methods. Obviously, other topics could be included. The selection used here satisfied my purposes. The material was covered at a rapid but digestable pace. TOPICS SELECTED BY CLASS Roughly half of the lecture periods were left open for topics to be selected by the class. Since students are not accustomed to selecting their own topics, I lead them through the selection pro cess. The need to select topics was discussed during the first class period and in the second class period a variety of separation methods were briefly discussed. During period seven the students were to browse through a variety of journals and look at articles on separation methods. Then they developed and turned in a first list of topics of interest. I took these first lists and made a master list 210 which was returned to the students. They then gave me enlarged second lists of their interests and I again made a master list and distributed it. The third time I asked for a list with items rank ordered. I collated these lists and decided what to cover during the remainder of the semester. The two topics of interest to the majority of the students were membrane separations and crystal lization. In addition, I decided to cover molecular sieves, activated carbon and affinity chromatogra phy, which were all requested by one or two students. These latter topics were connected with the first half of the semester and could be covered quickly. Although we were not able to include all of the student requests, at least one topic from each student's list was discussed. After considerable reading, an outline and reading list for the second half of the course was developed (Table 2). We started by discussing the characteristics of molecular sieve adsorbents [19, 20] and of activated carbon [21] and solvent recovery by activated carbon [22]. Activated carbon was the one topic where students did not like the assigned reading [21]. Affinity chroma tography was covered with an emphasis on princi ples and not the specific reactions [23]. Seven class periods were devoted to membrane separations. We started by reviewing all types of membrane separators [24], and studied reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration in detail. Osmotic pres sure [25] was briefly discussed since everyone had TABLE 2 Outline of Topics Selected by Class PERIOD(S) 25 26 28 29 31 32 33 34 and 36 37 38-39 40-41 42 SUBJECT Molecular Sieve Adsorbents [19, 20] Activated Carbon Adsorption [21, 22] Affinity Chromatography [23] Introduction to Membrane Separations [24] Osmotic Pressure [25] and start concentra tion polarization [26 ] Concentration polarization without gelling [26, 27] Concentration polarization with gelling [26, 28] Transfer inside the membrane [29] Equipment and cascades [28, 30, 31] Crystallization from solution: Nucleation and crystal growth [32, 33, 34 ) Crystal Size Distributions [32-35) Crystallization equipment and operation [32, 34, 36 ] Note: Missing class periods were used for research project purposea and are listed in Table 1. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDVONflQN

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I The two topics of interest to the majority of the students were membrane separations and crystallization. forgotten this portion of their physical chemistry. Then the mathematical analysis of concentration polarization both without [25, 27] and with gelling [26, 28] was covered. We switched to irreversible thermodynamics to study transfer inside the mem brane [29]. Finally we discussed membrane equip ment and cascades [28] with additional examples of cascades presented in class [30, 31]. The student-selected topics were finished with five periods on crystallization from solution. We discussed nucleation and crystal growth, crystal size distributions, and crystallization equipment. The two basic references [32, 33] were supple mented by other sources [34-36]. The student-selected topics section included three homework assignments with a total of a dozen problems and a second closed book test was given. I again gave the students equation sheets before the test since this approach seemed to work well. One difficulty inherent in letting students select the topics is that the professor may not know any thing about the topic. This was certainly the case for crystallization, and I am not an, expert in membrane separations. I was aware of this po tential problem ahead of time and warned the students of its possibility. Throughout the se mester I spent considerable time reading up on the various topics, and put crystallization last so that I would have more time to prepare. Since the course is in my research area, I was willing to devote extra time to reading and learning. My lack of expertness was only apparent a few times, and the students were quite understanding. Over all, this portion of the course went very well. SEPARATIONS RESEARCH AND RESEARCH PROJECT S INCE ONE OF THE MAJOR course goals was to introduce the students to separation research, a considerable amount of effort was devoted to the course project. To combat the nemesis of student research projects, procrastination, I de veloped a pattern of exercises, small projects, and check points which culminated in the final written paper. The eleven classes labeled (R) in Table 1 are part of this pattern. The pattern started with browsing through journals and then. listing (without reading) a FALL 1981 total of 15 articles on subjects of interest. The students then read a recent experimental article of their choice. This article was then analyzed in detail starting with the bibliographic citation and the purpose of the study. The methods, results and authors' conclusions were described and finally the student presented his evaluation of the study. In class the students were divided into small groups and informally discussed the papers they had read. The same procedure was repeated for theoretical papers. This activity was very popular with the students. They felt they learned a lot in the presentations, but weren't anxious because the presentations were informal and ungraded. The written papers were collected and graded. The class heard a librarian lecture on library s earch methods. As an assignment they were asked to find certain articles from vague citations and to list articles citing given papers or authors. This was a useful activity, but the presentation was at a somewhat too low level. Next the students selected a general topic of interest for their research project. They could either select a topic of their own or pick from a list I passed out and when they had selected a topic, they were asked to meet individually with me to discuss it. A citation search and literature review were required. Halfway through the semester a very specific problem within their general topic area had to be picked. I discussed these problems with each student and requested that they develop a clear and limited problem statement. The specific pro jects chosen are listed in Table 3. The projects were to involve a theoretical analysis of a problem which had not been solved or use of a new mathe matical method on a problem which had previously been solved. Four of the seven students worked on problems which I suggested. Two progress reports were required during the second half of the se mester in order to stimulate continual progress. TABLE 3 Student Research Projects Analysis of multicomponent, equilibrium, pressure swing adsorption. Numerical analysis for supercritical fluid adsorption. Numerical solution for affinity chromatography. Determination of adsorption isotherms by a continuous flow method. Dynamic behavior of discrete cycling zone extraction. Cylindrical rotating continuous flow electrophoresis. Mathematical modeling of rotary thermal diffusion columns. 211

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To combat the nemesis of student research projects, procrastination, I developed a pattern of exercises, small projects, and check points which culminated in the final written paper To encourage a carefully written paper, an out line was required a week prior to the oral report. These outlines were commented on and returned to the students. A rough draft of the entire paper was then required when the student presented his oral report on his project and these w ere graded and returned before the students wrote their final draft. Despite this structure there was some pro crastination. However, it was significantly less than I have observed in any other class. Two students ran out of time, but five of the seven projects listed in Table 3 were completed. The projects were all quite ambitious and several had significant results. In my opinion, four of the projects would be totally acceptable as research papers in the open literature if the results were significantly fleshed out. I have encouraged the students to do this. Compared to the previous time I taught ChE 623 when no structure was em ployed in developing research projects, these re search projects and oral reports were much more professional and results were much more sig nificant. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ChE 623, Separation Processes, was designed to include three major threads. The first of these was the study of operating methods for adsorption, chromatography, and ion exchange in a pattern set by the instructor. The second thread was the study of topics selected by the students with the assignments and lectures being developed by the instructor. The third thread was the course project done by each student. A structure was used to dis courage procrastination on the research project. The first half of the course was enthusi astically accepted by the students. They became quite interested in the material, and five of the later research projects were related to that ma terial. The second half of the course also went well, although the students were somewhat less enthusiastic, perhaps because they were working on their research projects. 212 The research project which was structured to encourage work throughout the semester de creased, but did not prevent, procrastination. The resulting research projects were much better than those turned in after the previous course was offered. I recommend that other professors con sider a similar paced structure when a course proj,ct is a major part of a course. REFERENCES 1. Wankat, P. C., "A Modified Personalized Instruction Lecture Course," in J. M. Biedenback and L. P. Grayson (eds.), Proce e ding s of the Third Annual Fronti ers in Educa tion Conference, IEEE, NY, 1973, 144-148. 2. Karger, B. L., L. R. Snyder and C. Horvath, ;An Introduction to Separation Science, Wiley, NY, 1973, Chapter 4. 3. Le e, H., E. N. Lightfoot, J. F. G. Reis and M. D. Wai ssb luth, "The Systematic Description and Develop ment of Separations Process es ," in N. N. Li (ed.) Recent D evelopments in Separation Science, Vol. III, Part A, CRC Press, Cleveland, 1977, 1-69. 4 Wankat, P. C., "Cyclic Separations: Parametric Pumping, Pressure Swing Adsorption and Cycling Zone Adsorption," CHEM! module to be published by AIChE. 5 Course handout. Mass and Energy Balances and Local Equilibrium Solution. (Copies are available from the author) 6. Sherwood, T K., R. L. Pigford and C. R. Wilke, Mass Tran sfer McGraw-Hill, NY, 1975, Chapter 10. 7. Broughton, D. B., R. W. Neuzil, J. M. Pharis and C. S. Breasley, "The Parex Process for Recovering Paraxylene," Chem Eng. Prog., 66 (9), 70, (1970). 8. Wankat, P. C., "The Rel a tionship Between One Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Separation Pro cesses," AIChE Journal 28, 859 (1977). 9. Wankat, P. C., "Improved Efficiency in Preparative Chromatographic Columns Using a Moving Feed," Ind. Eng. Chem Fundam., 16, 468 (1977). 10. Pigford, R. L., B Baker and D. E. Blum, "Equi librium Theory of Parametric Pump," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam ., 8, 144 (1969). 11. Skarstrom, C, W., "Heatless Fractionation of Gases Over Sol id Adsorbents," in N. N. Li (ed.), Recent Developments in Separation Science, Vol. II, p. 95, CRC Press, Cleveland, 1972. 12. Wong, Y. W., F. B. Hill, and Y. N. I. Chan, "Studies of the Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes by a Pressure Swing Adsorption Process," Separat. Sci. T e chnol., 15 (3), 423 (1980). 13. Baker, B. and R. L. Pigford, "Cycling Zone Adsorp tion: Quantitative Theory and Experimental Results," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam ., 10, 283 (1971). 14. Foo, S. C., K. H. Bergsman and P C. Wankat, "Multicomponent Fractionation by Direct Thermal Mode Cycling Zon e Adsorption," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam 19, 86 (1980). 15. Anderson, R. E., "Ion-Exchang e Separations," in P. A. Schweitzer (ed.), Handbook of Separation CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUOA.TION

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Techniques for Chemical Engineers, Sect. 1.12, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1979. 16. Lightfoot, E. N., R. J. Sanchez-Palma and D. C. Edwards, "Chromatography and Allied Fixed Bed Separations Processes" in H. M. Schoen (ed.), Nf?/W Chemical Engineering Separation Techniques, Inter science, NY, p 125 (1962). 17. Lapidus, L. and N. R. Amundson, "Mathematics of Adsorption in Beds. VI. The Effect of Longitudinal Diffusion in Ion Exchange and Chromatic Columns," J. Phys. Chem 56, 984 (1952). 18. Thomas, H. C., "Chromatography: A Problem in Kinetics," Annals New York Academy of Science, 49, 161 (1948). 19. Lee, M. N Y., "Novel Separations with Molecular Sieves Adsorption," in N. N. Li, Recent Developments in Separation Science, Vol. II, (1972), p. 75. 20. Breck, D. W., Zeolite Molecular Sieves, Wiley, NY, 1978. 21. Mantell, C. L., Carbon and Graphite Handbook, Inter science, (1968), Chapter 13. 22 Wankat, P. C., and L. R. Partin, "Process for Re covery of Solvent Vapors with Activated Carbon," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 19, 446 (1980). 23. May, S. W., and L. M. Landgraff, "Separation Techniques Based on Biological Specificity," in N. N. Li (ed.), Recent Development s in Separation Science, Vol. V 227-255 (1979). 24. Lacey, R. E., "Membrane Separation Processes," Chem Eng., Sept 4, 1972, p. 56-74. 25 Re i d, C. E., "Principles of Reverse Osmosis," in U. Merten (ed.), Desalination by Reverse Osmosis, 1966, p 1-14. 26. Blatt, W. F., A. Dravid, A. S. Michaels, and L. Nelsen, in "Solute Polarization and Cake Formation in Membrane Ultrafiltration" in J. E. Flinn (ed.), Mem brane Science and Technology, p. 47-74, 1970. 27 Sherwood, T. K., P. L. T. Brian, R. E. Fisher and L. Dresner, "Salt Concentration at Phase Boundaries in Desalination by Reverse Osmosis," IEC Fundamentals, 4, 113, (1965). 28. Porter, M C "Membrane Filtration," in P. Schweitzer (ed.), Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemi cal Engineers, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1979, Sect. 2.1. 29 Merten, U "Transport Properties of Osmotic Mem branes" in U. Merten, Desalination by Reverse Os mo s is, MIT Press (1966), Pages 15 to 54. 30. Sourirajan, S. (ed ), Reverse Osmosis and Synthetic Membrane, National Research Council, Canada, (1977) 31. Hwang, S. T. and J M. Thorman, "The Continuous Membrane Column," AIChE Journal, 26, 558 (1980). 32 McCabe, W. L and J. C Smith, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, NY, 1976, Chapter 28. 33. Larson, M. A. and A. D. Randolph, "Size Distribution Analysis in Continuous Crystallization," CEP Symp. Ser., Vol. 65, #95, p. 1 (1969). 34. Randolph, A. D and M. A. Larson, "Theory of Par ticulate Process," Academic, NY, 1971, Chapters 4 to 9 35 Garside, J. and M B. Shah, "Crystallization Kinetics from MSMPR Crystallizers," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process FALL 1981 Des Develop 19, 509 (1980). 36. Singh, G., "Crystallization from Solutions," in P. Schweitzer (ed.) Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers, McGraw Hill, NY, 1979, Sect. 2.4. COAL LIQUEFACTION Continued from page 182 Present and Developing Methods, in press, Marcel Dekker, Inc New York (1981). Bll. Liu, Y. A. and G. E. Crow, "Studies in Magneto chemical Engineering: I. A. Pilot-Scale Study of High-Gradient Magnetic Desulfurization of Solvent Refined Coal," Fuel, 58, 345 (1979). B12. Liu, Y. A. and M. J. Oak, "Studies in Magneto chemical Engineering: II. Theoretical Development of a Practical Model for High Gradient Magnetic Separation, and III. Experimental Applications of a Practical Model of High Gradient Magnetic Separa tion to Pilot Scale Coal Beneficiation," AIChE J., in press (1981). B13 Eissenberg, D. M. and Y. A. Liu, "High Gradient Magnetic Beneficiation of Dry Pulverized Coal via Upwardly-Directed Recirculating Fluidization," U.S. Patent number 4,212,651, issued on July 15, 1980. B14. Liu, Y. A., "Novel High Gradient Magnetic Separa tion Processes for Desulfurization of Dry Pulverized Coal," Chap. 9 in Recent Development in SepMation Science: Volume VI, Norman N. Li, Editor, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1981). C SELECTED RECENT THESES FROM THE AUBURN COAL RESEARCH PROGRAM Cl. McCord, T H "A Feasibility Study of Novel High Gradient Magnetic Separation Processes for De sulfurization of Dry Pulverized Coal" (1979). C2. Jeng, J. F "Determination of a Solvent Quality Index for Coal Liquefaction," (1979). C3. Fan, C. W., "Heteroatom Removal from Model Com pounds by Coal Mineral Catalysts," (1979). C4 Henson, B. J., "Solubilities of H 2 and CO 2 in Coal Liquids," (1980). C5 .. Majlessi, S.H.R., "Synergistic and Phase Behavior Effects Among Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds in Coal Liquefaction," (1980). C6. Wagner, R. G., "A Feasibility Study of Novel Con tinuous Superconducting High Gradient Magnetic Separation Process for Desulfurization of Dry Pul verized Coal," (1980). C7. Brook, D., "Effect of Pyrite on Liquefaction Cata l ysis," (1981). CB. Crawford, J., "Kinetics of Pyrite-to Pyrrhotite Transformation," (1981). C9 Pehler, F. A "Development and Demonstration of the Auburn Fluidized-Bed Superconducting High Gradient Magnetic Separation Process for Desulfur ization of Dry Pulverized Coal," (1981). ClO. Smith, N "NMR Investigation of Recycle Solvent Quality," (1981). 213

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HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Principles, Practice and Modern Experimental Techniques EDUARDO E. WOLF University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS PLAYS a key role in the chemical process industry as well as in energy conversion and pollution control processes. The development of new processes is often pre ceded by the discovery of a new catalyst. A case in point is, among many others, catalytic cracking in petroleum refining. The first cracking processes were non-catalytic, thermal processes designed to increase the fraction of petroleum that could be utilized as gasoline. The first catalytic cracking process used a treated clay as a catalyst which de activated rapidly. Reactors were then developed to regenerate the coked catalyst by using cycling feeds, moving beds and fluidized beds. Synthetic silica alumina catalysts replaced the natural treated clays and these were superseded by catalysts containing zeolites dispersed on an amorphous silica alumina matrix. Optimum opera tion of the new zeolite cracking catalyst required short contact times and higher temperatures. This Eduardo E. Wolf is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Notre Dame where he has been a faculty member since 1975. He received his BS from the University of Chile in Santiago, MS from the University of California at Davis and Ph.D from the University of California at B erkeley. His research interests are in the area of applied and fundamental catalysis, catalytic reaction engineering and catalytic coal conversion 214 Catalysis is a multidisciplinary subject wherein collaboration among chemists, physicists, material scientists and engineers render the best results. led to the replacement of the fluid bed reactor by the riser cracker or transport line reactor in which the vaporized feed is contacted and trans ported upward with regenerated catalyst in a vertical pipe. The strategic and economic implica tions of new catalysts development are evident when considering the history and present status of coal conversion processes. Such processes, first used in Germany during WW II, were briefly con sidered in the U. S. in the fifties, but finds its present full scale development and application in South Africa. Present efforts in synfuels develop ment are a challenge open to future generations of scientists and engineers. The answers lie, in part, in our ability to develop new, more active and re sistant catalysts which can withstand operation in the demanding environment of coal conversion pro cesses. The task requires that we possess a better understanding of catalytic reactions and surfaces, as well as a command of the modern tools used for surface analysis and catalyst characteriza tion. The advent of new spectroscopic tools for direct probing of surfaces requires an intro duction to the methods of other disciplines not currently included in the traditional chemical engineering curriculum. Catalysis is a multidis ciplinary subject wherein collaboration among chemists, physicists, material scientists and engi neers render the best results. For this to occur, researchers in this area need to be equipped with the basic understanding of the comple mentary disciplines and tools, otherwise the dialog does not bear fruit. The course outline which follows has been organized in this multidisciplin ary context comprising fundamental, practical, Copyr i ght ChE D ivision, ASEE, 1981 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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and experimental aspects of heterogeneous catalysis. COURSE STRUCTURE AND DESCRIPTION T HE COURSE IS STRUCTURED so that lecture ma terials are combined with demonstration ex periments dealing with the use of spectroscopic techniques for surface analysis. Table 1 presents an outline of the course in the form of a table of contents divided into three parts and subsections or chapters. Parts I and II comprise the lecture material whereas Part III consists of a brief de scription of the demonstration experiments. The experiments are also indicated in parenthesis in Part I to indicate the appropriate combination of lectures and experiments. The list of experiments presented in Part III is incomplete since there are many other tech niques for surface analysis and catalyst charac terization. However, in practice, availability of equipment places a restriction on the types of ex periments which can be conducted during the course. When I teach the course at Notre Dame, nine experiments are run for which I borrow the facilities of Chemistry (XPS), Materials Science (X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM), our college (AES) and our own catalysis laboratories (FTIR, adsorption, kinetics). Fig. 1 shows some of the equipment used. The demonstration experiments are presented to groups of three or four students. One lecture is conducted prior to the experiment to explain the basic characteristics and operation of the equip ment and the type of data obtained. Emphasis is given to sample preparation and interpretation of results rather than to details concerning the ap paratus hardware. The results obtained during the session are distribute~ among the students for their analyses, which are submitted later in the form of a short written report. Part I is devoted to the principles and funda mentals of heterogeneous catalysis and related topics. Due to the diversity of the subjects treated (some of which could constitute a separate course) the scope of the treatment is limited to those aspects which are of import to catalysis. The lecture material starts with an introduc tion to the solid state. It focuses on the nature of bonding in solids, structure of crystals and electronic structure of solids. The x-ray diffrac tion laboratory and transmission electron micro scopy (TEM) laboratories are discussed and carried out concurrently with these lectures. FALL 1981 Following the introduction to the solid state there is an introduction to surface chemistry paralleling many of the concepts presented pre viously on geometrical and electronic structure of solids. Emphasis is given to electron emission and relaxation processes which are the basis of electron spectroscopy. The lecture material is demonstrated in the SEM x-ray dispersive analysis laboratory, ray photoelectron spectroscopy laboratory (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy laboratory (Scanning Auger, SAM). Once the fundamentals of the solid-state and surfaces and the corresponding probing tech niques are introduced, the more classical concepts of gas-surface interactions, such as physisorption, chemisorption and surface reactions are treated. Experimental demonstrations of BET adsorp tion infrared spectroscopy and selective chemi sorption of gases are presented concurrently with this material. A discussion of selected examples of FIGURE 1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) in the author's laboratory, showing the data acquisition system, spectrometer and GC/IR interface. catalyst preparation for laboratory testing closes Part I. Part II deals with the more empirical but no less significant subject of applied and industrial catalysis. Beginning with an introduction on the development and preparation of industrial cata lysts, there follows a discussion of reaction engi neering aspects of catalysts and catalytic reactors. Mass and heat transport limitations in catalysts pellets are analyzed in terms of observables. A short discussion of catalyst deactivation analyzes its different causes and remedies. The balance of the lecture material is devoted to a description of some of the major industrial catalytic processes grouped according to the chemical elements in215

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TABLE 1 Principles, Practice and Modern Experimental Techniques in Heterogeneous Catalysts PART I: INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES OF HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS 1. Introduction 1.1 Catalyst, Types and Physical Characteristics 1.2 Catalysis, Catalytic Sequence, Energetics 2. Introduction to the Solid State 2.1 Nature of Bonding in Solids 2.3 Structure of Crystals (X-ray Diffraction Laboratory, Experiment No. 1, Section 13) 2.4 Electronic Structure of Solids 2.5 Imperfections in Solids (Transmission Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Experiment No. 2, Section 14) 2.6 Structural Transformations in Solids 2.7 Summary 3. Introduction to Surface Chemistry 3.1 Structure and Description of Solid Surfaces (Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) Laboratory, Section 16) 3.2 Thermodynamics of Surfaces (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis Laboratory, Experi ment No. 3, Section 15) 3.3 Emission and Relaxation Processes :rnvolving Valence Electrons and Inner Electron Shells 3.3 Principles of Electron Spectroscopy Auger Electron Spectroscopy X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Scanning Auger Microprobe Laboratory, Ex periment No. 4, Section 15) Other Spectroscopic Techniques (XPS Laboratory, Experiment No. 5 Section 15) 3.4 Summary 4. Interaction of Gases with Surfaces 4.1 Gas-Surface Interactions-Adsorption 4.2 Physical Adsorption; Isotherms, Energetics (BET Laboratory, Experiment No. 7, Section 17) 4.3 Chemisorption, Molecular Aspects, Isotherms, Heats of Chemisorption, Rates of Adsorption Desorption 4 4 The Surface Chemical Bond (Infrared Spectroscopy Laboratory, Experi ment No. 6, Section 16) 4 5 Kinetic of Catalytic Reactions, Site Balances 4.6 Empirical Activity Patterns and Activity Cor relations; Acidity, Geometric Correlations, Electronic Correlations (H 2 Chemisorption Laboratory, Experiment No. 8, Section 17) 4.7 Preparation and Characterization of Catalysts for Laboratory Testing 4.8 Summary (Catalytic Kinetic Laboratory, Experiment No 9, Section 20) PART II: INDUSTRIAL AND APPLIED CATALYSIS 5. Industrial Catalysts 216 5.1 The Development of Indu stria l Catalysts and Catalytic Processes 5.2 Preparation of Industrial Catalysts 5.3 Mass and Heat-Transport Effects in Catalyst Design 5.4 Reaction Engineering Considerations 5.5 Catalyst Deactivation 5 6 Summary INDUSTRIAL CATALYTIC PROCESSES 6. Reactions of C-H 6.1 Petroleum Refining-Overview 6.2 Catalytic Cracking 6.3 Catalytic Naphtha Refonning 6.4 Hydrocracking 6.5 Catalytic Alkylation 7. Reactions of C-O-H 7.1 Steam Reforming 7.2 Methanol Synthesis 7 .3 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis 7.4 Water Shift Reaction 7.5 Methanation 7.6 Partial Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 8. Reactions of N -H-O 8.1 Ammonia Synthesis 8.2 Ammonia Oxidation, Urea 8.3 Acrilonitrile Production 9. Reactions of S-O, S-H 9.1 S-Oxidation, Sulfuric Acid Manufacture 9.2 S-Production Claus Process 10. Complex Systems 10.1 Automobile Pollution Control 10.2 Coal Gasification-Liquefaction 10.3 Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Coal Liquids 10.4 Demetallization of Heavy Oils 11. Other Catalytic Processes PART III: MODERN EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES FOR CATALYST CHARACTERIZATION 12. X-ray Diffraction Experiment No. 1 I 3. Electron Microscopy Experiment No. 2, Transmission Electron Microscopy Experiment No. 3, siM, X-ray Dispersive Analysis 14. Electron Spectroscopy Experiment No. 4, Auger Electron Spectroscopy Experiment No. 5, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Other Spectroscopic Techniques 15. Low Energy Electron Diffraction Introduction 16. Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment No. 6, Fourier Transform IR, GC/IR 17. Gas Adsorption Techniques Experiment No. 7, BET Adsorption Experiment No. 8, H 2 Chemisorption 18. Catalytic Kinetic Experiment No. 9, Fixed Bed, Differential and CSTCR Reactors 19. Other Experimental Techniques CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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volved in the main reactions (i.e C-H, C-0, etc.). Each process is described in terms of the chemis try involved, thermodynamics, and kinetics aspects Emphasis is given to the catalyst ac tivity, selectivity and deactivation in relation to process operation and reaction engineering aspects. Cross reference is made to the funda mental aspects discussed in Part I whenever possible. The typical enrollment in the course is ten to fifteen graduate students from chemical engineer ing and science. The material is presented in two, 75 minute lectures, and about one laboratory session per week. Grades are assigned on the basis of a written exam and a term paper. The latter consists of a written report and an oral presenta tion which provides stimu lating discussion as well as fresh references and new ideas on specialized topics. The research papers focused on energy re lated catalytic processes with emphasis in fossil fuel and coal processing. No text is available which covers all the ma terial included in Table 1. Hence I prepared a set of notes based on more specialized books and papers dealing with specific subjects and tech niques as well as information and experience ac cumulated in our own laboratory. The combination of theo ry and experiments has a strong impact on the students, even though in some cases they do not directly operate the equipment due to its complexity and specializa tion. The majority of the engineering students have not been exposed to surface analysis and electron microscopy techniques, and thus feel that they acquired new knowledge in the course. The combination of principles, industrial application and experiments equips the students with a new perspective of catalysis and catalytic reaction engineering which enables them to face a larger variety of problems with a larger diversity of tools. I enjoyed teaching the course because it pro vides an opportunity for interaction with col leagues from othe r disciplines, which enriched my own knowledge and perspective of the subject. REFERENCES (A li st of references, inclu ding journal articles, is too extensive, thus only books are cited.) C. Kittel, "Introduction to Solid State Physics," John Wiley, 1976. G. Somorjai, "Principles of Surface Chemistry," Prentice Hall, 1972. N. B Hannay, "Solid State Chemistry," Prentice Hall, FALL 1981 1965. W. N. E e lgass, G. L. Haller, R. Kellerman, J. H. Lundsford, "Spectroscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis," Academic Press, 1979. A W. Adamson, "Physical Chemistry of Surfaces," John Wiley, 1976. T. A. Carlson, "Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopy," Plenum Press, New York, 1975. B. C. Gates, J. R. Katzer, G. C. Schuit, "Chemistry of Catalytic Processes," McGraw -Hill 1979. D L. Trim, "Design of Industrial Cata ly ~ts," Elsevier, 1980 C N. Satterfield, "Heterogeneous Catalysis," McGraw Hill, 1980. J. J. Carberry, "Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engi neering," McGraw-Hill, 1976. J. M. Thomas, R. M. Lambert, "Characterization of Catalysts," John Wiley, 1980. R. B. Anderson, "Experimental Methods for Catalysts Characterization," Academic Press, Vol I, 1968; Vol III, 1976. J. Butt, "Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design," Prentice Hall Int e rnational, 1980. J. M. Thomas and W. J. Thomas, "Introduction to the Principles of Heterogeneous Catalysis," Academic Press, 1967. A. Clark, "The Theory of Adsorption and Catalysis," Academic Press, 1970. P.A Delmon, P.A. Jacobs and G. Poncelet, "Preparation of Catalysts," Elsevier, Vol I, 1975 and Vol II, 1978. B. Imelik, C. Naccache, Y. B. Taarit, J. C. Vedrine, G. Coudurier and H. Prahand, Eds., "Catalysis by Zeolit es," Elsevier, 1980. CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS Continued from page 158. 17, 531 (1962). 3. Gibbs, R. E., and H. C. Van Ness, Ind. Eng. Chem. F un dam., 11, 410 (1972). 4. Van Ness, H. C., and M. M. Abbott, Ind. Eng. Chem. F un dam., 17, 66 (1978). 5. Van Ness, H. C., AIChE J., 16, 18 (1970). 6. Barker, J. A., Austral J. Chem., 6, 207 (1953). 7. Abbott, M. M., and H. C. Van Ness, AIChE J., 21, 62 (1975). 8. Mrazek, R. V., and H. C. Van Ness, ,AIChE J., 7, 190 (1961). 9. Savini, C. G., e t al., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 11, 40 (1966). 10. Winterhalter, D. H., and H. C. Van Ness, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 11, 189 (1966). 11. Losito, N. A., Jr., Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Poly technic Institute, (in preparation). 12. Wilson, G. M., J. Am Chem. Soc., 86, 127 (1964). 1 3. Renon, H., and J. M. Prausnitz, AIChE J., 14, 135 (1968). 14. Abrams, D. S., and J. M. Prausnitz, AIChE J., 21, 116 (1975). 15. Fredenslund, Aa., et al., "Vapor-Liquid Equilibria using UNIF AC," Elsevier, Amsterdam (1977). 16. Kojima, K., and T. Tochigi, "Prediction of Vapor Liquid Equilibria by the ASOG Method," Elsevier, Amsterdam (1979). 217

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11 Just over two yean with DuPont, and l'n1 a process engineer on a multimillion dollar plant expansion:' Maria Williams, BS, Chemical Engineering "In just over two years, I've gone from college to designing and specifying equipment for the expansion of one of DuPont's Textile Fibers plants. ''.As a process engineer, I'm not only involved with all kinds of equipment, but I'm also getting the chance to work with design engineers, construction engi neers, architects, even outside suppliers. It's a big responsibility, and I really enjoy it. "I had a lot of job offers during my last semester at Cornell, but I chose Du Pont because they offered me an assignment with real respon sibility, right from the beginning. They put me in charge of finding the cause of product defects and determining the process changes necessary to correct them. "Now I'm a process engineer on a multimillion-dollar project. Du Pont gave me a chance to go a long way in a short time'.' If you're a graduating engi neer who wants responsibility and the opportunity to start a challenging career, set up an interview next time a Du Pont representative is on campus. Or write: Du Pont Company, Room 38244, Wilmington, DE 19898. At Du Pont ... there's a world of things you can do something about. RE G. U.S PAT. & TM Of'f. An E qual Op po rtunit y Empl oye r M / F

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COAL PROCESSING Continued from page 186. The lectures or chapters cover a wide range of topics starting with the origin and formation of coal and continuing through the physical and chemical structure and properties of coal, and methods for processing and utilizing various kinds of coal. Although established technology is re viewed, there is an important emphasis on newer techniques such as fluidized bed combustion, super critical gas extraction, and the production of carbon fibers. New processes under development for manufacturing gaseous and liquid fuels from coal are also di s cussed. There is an additional chapter not covered by the original lectures which deals with the application of high resolution electron microscopy to study the microstructure of graphitized and partially graphitized carbons derived from coal. The volume is highly readable and provides a basic but rather brief (210 pages) introduction to the science and technology of coal utilization. It does not probe any topic in great depth nor pro vide many details and the list of references at the end of each chapter is short. On the other hand, it does provide a good overview of a number of topical areas and should appeal to a great many readers who desire a brief introduction to the subject. Furthermore, even though the book tends to emphasize technology which is of particular interest to the British, it includes enough material about new developments in the United States and other countries to insure world-wide interest. The volume could well serve as a text for an intro ductory course on coal science and technology for college students with some background in chemis try and chemical engineering. THE CHEMICAL REACTOR OMNIBOOK By Octa v e Le v enspiel; published by the author and distributed by Oregon State University Book Stores Cor v allis, OR 97330 Reviewed by Rutherford Aris University of Minnesota As one who has often been puzzled by the ways of publishers it is refreshing to find them at once so right and so wrong. So wrong those conven tional publishers who declined a book of Octave Levenspiel's; so right, the author and the Oregon FALL 1981 State University Book Stores who published the book in the form which it takes In it the problems are beautifully typed and are linked by chapters in Levenspiel's own hand. This is a round cursive of admirable clarity and consistency and in itself conveys the vitality and interest of the spoken word. When linked with his figures and sketches in the organic way which he achieves, we have the effect of being in the classroom with a teacher of known and valued vitality and his pages have all the immediacy and effectiveness of the author's presence. One of the first things the teacher of chemical engineering will spot is that here is a positive gold mine of problems. There are no less than 1394, though it must be admitted that many are one-line modificati<_?ns of their neighbors. The book is divided into seven main divisions (numbered to leave a small remainder when 10 n is subtracted, n = 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) with an interlude between the first two and a coda on "Dimensions units, con versions and the orders of magnitude of this and that." Single phase reactors are the burden of the first division which is divided into seven sections and has more than a third of the problems. The interlude (sec. 11) is on the background of multiphase reactors and leads to a division on (secs. 21-25) reactors with solid catalysts that ranges from the particle to the fluidized bed. Then there is a discussion (secs. 31-34) of catalytic re actors with changing phases, of gas/liquid and liquid / liquid reactions (secs. 41, 42) and the re actions of solids (secs. 51-55). Levenspiel next groups together some discussions of the flow of materials through reactors (secs. 61-64, 66, 68) and concludes with a section on biochemical re actors using enzymes and microbes (secs. 81-85). It is interesting to speculate whether a future doc torate (a D.Ed. perhaps) will be awarded for dis cussion of what forms of life might once have played in these "Lacunae of Levenspiel' ~ (secs. 65, 67, and the 70's). The style of the text sections is, by design, sketchy. More often than not, it jumps from the statement of a problem and its background to a conclusion and adds certain comments afterwards. This makes it an interesting book to think of using in a course since, although one would be to some extent-committed to its notation (and who among us is not fiercely jealous of their own) it would provide a most useful framework with the least restriction. Indeed Levenspiel suggests that its use might be as a supplementary text in a course and 219

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very helpfully explains how he himself has used it. It can also be used for a self-paced/self-study course on the subject and is certainly a useful book to have for reference. The reader using the Omnibook for self-study would no doubt wish for more references, for these are not given in any complete and systematic way. I would have liked to have seen Levenspiel's presentation of the dynamics of reactors, for his virtuosity in the integration of text and figure would have been extended by a description of the recent work on possible behaviors of the stirred tank. But I must not get carried away on my hobby horses. The last chapter (sec. 100) is an admirable collection of units and conversions between them. I trust I shall never need to use a number with a dimension, but if such disaster should come upon me, I shall flee for refuge to this "Miscellany". As in so many places throughout the book, Levenspiel has here an original touch; he gives "spectra" of the orders of magnitude of various diffusivities, conductivities and rates of reaction. [eJ ij I class and home problems The object of this column is to enhance our read e rs' collection of interesting and novel problems in Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to moti v ate the student by presenting a particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elu c idate difficult concepts. Please sub mit them to P rofessor H. Scott Fogler, ChE Department, Uni v ersity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Our undergraduate stude nt readers are encouraged to submit their solution to the following problem to Prof. Ray Fabien; Editor, CEE, ChE Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, before January 1, 1982. A compli mentary s ub scription to CEE will be awarded, to begin immediately or, if preferred, after graduation, for the best solu tion submitted (Oregon State students are not eligible). We will publish Prof. Levenspiel's solution in a subsequent issue. DOLPHIN PROBLEM OCTA VE LEVENSPIEL Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331 Whales, dolphin SI and porpoises are able to maintain surprisingly high body temperatures even though they are immersed continuously in cold, cold water. Since the extremities of these animals (tails, fins, flukes) have a large surface to volume ratio, a large portion of the heat loss occurs there. a) Now an ordinary engineering junior de signing a dolphin from first principles might view the flipper as a flat single pass heat exchanger with heat transfer occuring between a blood vessel passing through the flipper and the flipper itself which is assumed to be at the water ambient temperature. Let us suppose that blood at 40C enters the flipper at 0.3 kg/s, feeds the flipper, is cooled somewhat, and then returns to the main part of the body. The dolphin swims in 4C water, the overall heat transfer coefficient is 100 cal / s 2 K and the heat transfer area is 3 m 2 At what temperature does the blood reenter the main part 220 of the body of the dolphin? b) Frankly, the ordinary engineer above ( which you obviously are not) would design a lousy dolphin. Let's try to do better; in fact let us try to learn from nature. Let us see if we can reduce some of the undesirable heat loss by insert ing an internal heat exchanger B ahead of the flipper exchanger A above. This internal ex changer is a countercurrent one which transfers heat from the outgoing warm arterial blood to the cooled venous blood returning from the flipper. Heat conservation of this sort, by having arteries and veins closely paralleling each other, in counterflow, is one of nature's clever tricks. Assume for this internal exchanger B that AB= 2m 2 and UB = 150 cal/sm 2 K With this extra exchanger find T a the tem perature of blood returning to the main part of the body; and, in addition, the fraction of original heat loss which is saved. Approximate the proper ties of blood by water. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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-FMC FMC is an equal opportunity employer M/F Good engineers are in a p osition to choose. So why choose FMC? At the outset, I knew that working for FMC would mean becoming a valued member of their team. FMC is recog nized as a large corporation, and it is-in terms of size, varied product lines and growth opportunities. Yet, the people are warm and friendly, and creativity is encouraged. At FMC, people count, and that has made the difference to me." "I was really impressed by FMC's involvement in so many types of products and processes. Here, there is always the chance to work on optimizations and designs. Learning day-to-day opera tions from FMC experts and assuming major responsibil ity for projects have been great challenges. I'm looking forward to even greater ones in the future." "FMC offered me the best opportunities for advance ment in a variety of situa tions. Working in four dif ferent departments has increased my knowledge enormously. At FMC, I've been able to explore manu facturing and production engineering. Itgives me great satisfaction to know that I am a major contributor to our overall plant operations." Choosing FMC means ... Larry Ligawa earned his BS in Industrial Technology at Indiana State University in 1974 and went on to complete his MS in Industrial Prqfessional Technology at lSU in 1976 before joining FMC As an Industrial Engineer w i th the Chain Division i n Indianapolis, Ind., Larry studies and audits both laborand capital-intensive work processes and recommends methods to increase productivity Helen E. Bilson joined the Technical Department of the FMC Agricultural Chemical Group s plant in Baltimore, Md : after earning her BS i n Chemical Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Un i versity in 1978 Beth s first ass i gnment was to implement a wastewate r treatment technique developed i n FMC s own labs She's presently working on a project team to design and engineer a production plant for one of our important chemical intermediates. In four years at FMC Stan Butkivich progressed from an associate to a senior level Industrial Engineer. Now as the Assistant Supervisor in the Cost Control Engineer i ng Depart ment of FMC's San Jose Ordnance Plant in California he is directly involved with a most important aspect of production-its costs Stan received his BS in Engineering Tech nology from California Polytechnic State University in 1975 .. joining a major international producer of machinery and chemicals for industry and agriculture with 1978 sales of $i91 billion. FMC Corporation headquartered in Chicago has more than 45,000 employees worldwide located at 136 manufactu r ing facil i t i es in 33 states and 15 other nati ons. FMC products include food and agricultural mach i nery and chem i cals, industrial chem i cals material and natural resource handling equipment construction and power transmission products government and municipal equipment. We offer a range of reward i ng careers for engineers and other techn i
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!luM~ HERBERT E. SCHWEYER Herbert E. Schweyer was born in Easton, PA, in 1910. He received his bachelor of science de gree in chemical engineering and a masters in metallurgy from Lafayette College in the early thirties. His interest in asphalt technology and rheology was aroused during his college days and employment with Barber Asphalt Company. Eugene C. Bingham, Herb's physical chemistry professor, was t;rying to demonstrate that rigid materials such as marble, actually flowed. Other noted rheologists, Marcus Reiner and H. Hencky were working with Bingham at the time. Herb worked with Ralph Traxler, a well known asphalt technologist, up to 1937 when he left the Barber Asphalt Company to pursue a Doctor of Philoso phy degree in chemical engineering at Columbia University. During World War II he was em ployed as a research chemical engineer for Texaco in Port Neches, Texas. In 1946 he started his teaching career at the University of Florida. In addition to teaching and supervision of candi dates for the Masters and Doctor of Philosophy degrees, he was heavily involved in research with the Florida Department of Transportation and obtained several grants from the National Science F oundation. As a member of eight pro fessional and technical societies, Herb was active in committee work and was a frequent contributor of technical papers. Over the years he authored about 100 technical papers on asphalt rheology, economics, and other subjects. He authored two books on engineering economics and received several patents. He gave tech.nical matter.s a high priority. At professional meetings he was a frequent con tributor of new concepts Discussions at meetings were usually very lively, especially when Herb considered somebody's technical view to be com pletely wrong. He always took time toi explain concepts, testing methods, or other technical aspects to individuals who were genuinely inter ested in the subject. In particular, he was con vinced that young engineers and scientists were the key to technological advancements in the future. Therefore, he felt it was important to explain his concepts and instill in the younger engineers an interest to carry on using his lpiowledge as a foundation for new developments. 222 Students who worked on Herb's research pro jects often called him "Doc He enjoyed his students and they soon came to understand his brisk and blunt manner of telling them, in no uncertain terms, that they had messed up the test. If a student needed assistance, Herb was there willing to help them in any way possible. His depth of experience and creative ideas were a boon to students and colleagues alike. Humor and an ability to laugh at himself was not a shortcoming of Herb's personality. He en joyed hearing and conveying jokes or bits of dry humor. As John Ferguson of Winnepeg, Canada, put it: "His technical contributions have improved our understanding of rheology. With his input, a void would exist. However, our greatest loss will be the absence of his humorous comments which brought levity to the meetings. He was a member of three honor societies and the recipient of various awards and citations for service. Probably the most significant award was the Lafayette College Alumni Citation for teach ing chemical engineering. Herb was extremely proud of his Alma Mater, which was most evident when he wore his Lafayete cap or blazer with the Lafayette College crest. His tireless years of research for the Florida Department of Transportation laid the ground work for improvements in testing procedures and asphalt specifications. His involvement in the re cycling of asphalt pavements resulted in the de velopment of quality control requirements. I believe that the culmination of his career goals occurred within the last four years. His forty some years of research had "paid off." Herb's understanding of asphalt flow characteristics, re ferred to as rheology, was complete. The testing device which he developed facilitated test measure ments of rheological properties. The simplified rheological approach established by Herb has gained in acceptance in the technical community. Even some of his strongest opponents have recognized the validity and need for his rheologi cal concepts. A simple statement which I think summarizes Herbert Schweyer's efforts and contributions was made by Charles Potts: "He gave much more than he received." We shall miss him very much. Byron E Ruth Univ e rsity of Florida, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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---------------~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION INDEX Volumes XI-XV AUTHOR INDEX A Drinkenburg, A. A. H. ___________ XII, 38 Abbott, M. M. ___ _______ XI, 154; XV, 156 Ahlert, R. C. _____ XIII, 78 Alonso, J. _______ XII, 136 Anderson, T. J. ____ XIV, 120 Angus, J. C. ____ XI, 4; XV, 25 Aris, R. ___ XI, 68; XII, 71, 148; xv, 12,219 Arkis, J. _________ XI, 28 Duckier, A. E. ______ XI, 108 Dume s ic, J. A. ______ XI, 160 Dunn, R. W. ____________ XII, 116; XIII, 64 E Eagleton, L C ______ XI, 130 Echols, G. ________ XI, 28 Economides, M. J _______ XII, 122, 151 Edgar, T. F. ____ XIV, 99, 156 B F Baasel, W. D. _________ XI, 34; XII, 78 Baiker, A. _______ XII, 112 Balch, C. W. ______ XIII, 104 Barker, D. H. ____ XI, 60, 104 Barrows, H. S. _____ XIV, 91 Bartholomew, C.H. ___ XV, 188 Basio, A. ________ XIV, 47 Beckwith, W. F. ______ XI, 46 Beckmann, R. B. __ __ XV, 146 Beer, J. M. _______ XIII, 80 Bethea, R. M. ______ XI, 181 Birchenall, C. E. _____ XI, 167 Bird, R. B. _______ XIV, 152 Blanch, H. _______ XI, 170 Blanks, R. F. ___ __ XIII, 14 Brewer, C. _______ XIII, 40 Buehler, R. J. _____ XIV, 206 Butt, J. B. XII, 152; XIV, 12; XV, 160 C CACHE, Trustees of ___ XIV, 84 Fahidy, T. Z ____________ XIV, 94; XV 92 Felder, R. M ________ XII, 2; XIII, 116 Finlayson B A. _____ XV, 20 Frank, C W. _____ XIII, 190 Frankel, D. S. -----XII, 18 Freighter, J W. _____ XIV, 91 Fricke, A. L. ______ XV, 122 Fry, C M ~-----XI, 24 Fuller, 0. M. _____ XIV, 130 G Gilot, B. _______ XII, 140 Gordon, R J -,------XIV, 46 Greenbe r g, D. B. ____ XIV, 138 Greenlee, R. N. ______ XI, 32 Griskey, R. G. ____ XII, 44, 65 Gubbins, K. E. XIII, 69 ; XV, 97, 172 Guin, J. A. _______ XV, 178 Guiraud, R. ______ XII, 140 Gully, A. J. ------XI, 181 Carberry, J. J. ____ __ XIV, 78 Carbonell, R. G. ____ XII, 182 H Carleson, T. E. ____ __ XI, 118 Hall, K. R. -----XIII, 110 Cassano, A. E. _____ XIV, 14 Hallman, J. R. _____ XII, 92 Cayrol, B. ________ XV, 26 Charrier, J.M. ______ XI, 122 Hamielec, C. M. ____ XIII, 132 Han, C. D. ______ XV, 59 Chartoff, R. P. ______ XI, 174 Cheh H. Y. _______ XI, 3 Chen, H. T. ______ XV, 166 Chorneyko, D. M. ____ XIII, 132 Christmas, R. J. ____ XIII, 132 Christy, R. S. ___ __ XI, 185 Churchill, S. W. _____ XV, 74 Cise, M. D. ________ XI, 34 Cloutier, R. J. ______ XII, 47 Cohen, K. C. _____ XII, 136 Cooney, D 0. _____ XII, 129; XIV, 147 Corcoran, W. H. ____ ____ XI, 38; XII, 72 Cosic S. _______ XIII, 132 Hanesian, D. _____ XI, 134, 149 Hanks R. W. ______ XIII, 46 Hanley, T. R. _____ XIII, 84 Hanratty, T. J. _____ XIV, 162 Hansen, D. ____ XI, 3; XII, 73 Harriott P. ______ XIII, 12 Harri s on, D. P _____ XIII, 54 Hartley, E. ______ XIV, 114 Hassler J. C ______ XV, 192 Haugrud, B .,-------XV, 40 Heenan, W A. ______ XI, 64 Heichelheim, H. R. ____ XI, 181 Henley, E. J. ___________ XI, 64; XII, 136 Crowe, C. M. ______ XII, 98 Culberson, 0. L. ____ XIII, 168 Cullinan, H. T. Jr. ____ XII, 56 Curtis, G. W. ______ XV, 178 Gussler, E. L. ______ XI, 176 Cutlip, M. B. ______ XV, 78 Cyert, R. M. ______ XIII, 145 D Dadyburjor, D. B. ____ XV, 54 Darby, R. _______ XIV, 114 Daugherty, R. L. _____ XI, 41 Davidson, B. _______ XI, 54 Davis, H. T. ______ XIII, 198; XIV, 126 deNevers, N. ______ XII, 199 Dennett, C. R. _______ XI, 32 Deshpande, P. B. ____ XIII, 138; XIV, 26 Dibbs, S. E. ______ XIII, 132 Henry, J. M ______ XIII, 84 Hill, J C _______ XIII, 34 Himmelblau, D. M. ____ XII, 26 Himmelstein, K. J. ___ XIV, 99 Hittner, P. M. _____ XIV, 138 Hollein, H. C. _____ XV, 166 Hottel, H. C. _____ XIII, 80 Houze, R. N. ______ XIV, 114 Howard G. M. _____ XIV, 66 Howard J B. ______ XIII, 80 Huang, C. R. ______ XV, 166 Hudgins R. R. ______ XV, 26 J Jackson, S. C. -----XII, 30 Johnson, H. F. XI, 98 J oils, K R. XIII, 75 Jorne, J. XI, 164 DiBella, C. A. W. _____ XI, 53 Dippold, B. ______ XII, 50 Doig, I. D. ______ XIV, 130 K Kabel, R. L. -----------XII, 158; XIII, 39, f..U.,l, 1981 70, 155; XIV, 45, 70, 198, 199; xv, 38 Kenne y, C. N. _____ XIV, 168 Kerobo, C. 0 ----==----XV, 166 Kershenbaum, L. S. ___ XIV, 174 King, C. J. __________ XII, 3, 70; XIV 130 King, F. G. ______ XIII, 120 Klvana, D. --=-----XII, 140 Kniebe s D. V. _____ XII, 118 Koukios, E. G. ---=-==-XV, 140 Krantz, W. B. -----------XIV, 54; XV, 137 Kr e ith, F. _________ XI, 2 Kung H. ________ XV, 160 L Lack so n e n, J. W ____ XIII, 92 Lahti, L. E. ______ XIII, 104 Laukhuf, W. L S. ____ XIV, 26 L e Blanc, D. -------,XI, 32 Le es F P. ______ XIV, 180 Leesley, M. E. ____ XII, 188; XIV, 208 Leonard, E F. ___________ XI, 3; XII, 55 Levenspiel, 0. _____ XV, 220 Licht, W. =-----XIV, 146 L~u, B. Y H. ______ XII, 101 Liu Y. A. _______ XIV 184; XV, 178 Locke, M. ~-=------__,,. XV, 36 Lo c khart, F. J. _____ XIV, 205 Longw e ll, J P. _____ XIII, 80 Lu ks, K. D. ______ XII, 163 L y nn, S. _______ XIV, 130 Mc McCollister, R. D. ____ XI, 118 McGee, H A., Jr. XI, 39 McNeil, K. M. XII, 130 M MacLeod, L K. ____ XIII, 132 Macosko, C. ;:------XII, 144 Maloney, J. 0 _____ XII, 122 Mars~and, D. B. ____ XIII, 116 Martm, J. J. __________ XII, 73; XIII, 73 Martinez, E. N ------, XI, 78 Mellichamp D. A. ____ XIV, 18 Melrose, J. C ,-------XII, 143 Mensing R. W. _____ XII 37 Michel se n, D. L. ------= XI: 28 Middleman, S. _____ XII, 164 Miller, C. A. ______ XV, 198 Miller, D. -=--=------XI, 10 Minnesota Colleagues ___ XIII, 8 Missen, R. W. ------:: XIII, 26 M oore, R F ~----XIII, 132 Moo -Y oung, M. _____ XII, 88 Morari, M. _________ XIII, 160; XIV, 32 Murray, J _______ XV, 112 Myers, A. L. ______ XIV, 8 N Neufeld, V. R. _____ XIV, 91 Neumann, P. D. XII, 92 Newton, J. J. XII, 116 Noble, R. D. XIII, 142 Norman, G R. XIV, 91 Norman, S. L. XIII, 132 Notre Dame Faculty XV, 2 0 O 'C onnell, J. P ____ XIV, 120 Oliver, B. F. XI, 103 223

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Ollis, D. F. _____ XIII, 176 Oscarson, J. L XIII, 46 p Paspek, S. C. ______ XIV, 78 Patke, N. G. ______ XIV, 26 Patterson, G. K. _____ XV, 62 Peck, R. ________ XIII, 76 Penn, M. _________ XI, 68 Peppas, N. A. XIV, 188; XV, 120, 135 Perkins, J. D. _____ XIV, 174 Perlmutter, D. D. ___ XII, 168; XV, 14 Peters, M. S. ______ XV, 144 Petersen, E. E. _____ XII, 152 Plank, C. A. ______ XIII, 138 Poehlein, G. W. _____ XIV 2 Prieve, D. C. ____ XII, 102; XV, 54 Prud'homme, R K. ____ XV, 130 Purkapple, J. D. _____ XI, 185 Pyle, D. L. ______ XIV, 174 Q Quentin, G. H. ______ XI 24 R Rajagopalan, R. _____ XII, 172 Ramkrishna, D. ___ XII, 14; XIII, 172 Ranz, W E. ______ XIV, 112 Rao, Y. K. _____ XIII, 147 Ray, W. H. ________ XIII, 160; XIV, 32 Reid, R. C. ___________ XII, 60, 108, 194 Retzloff, D. _______ XI, 168 Richarz, W. ______ XII, 112 Rodriguez, F. ______ XIII, 96 Rosner, D. E. ____ XIV, 192, 193 Rousseau, R. W. _____ __ XIII, 72; XV, 8 Russel, W. B. _____ XIII, 176 Russell, T. W. F. ___ ___ XI, 41, 74, 170; XII, 18; XIII, 194 Ryan, J T. ________ XV, 40 s Sacco, A., Jr. ______ XV, 121 Sarofim, A. F. XIII, 80 Saville, D. A. XIII, 176 Schechter, R. S. XIV, 156 A Schowalter, W.R. ___ XIII, 176 Schultz, J. S. ______ XII, 4 Sears, J T. _______ XII, 74 Seborg, D. E. _____ XIV, 42; XV, 106 Senkan, S M _____ XIV, 200 Shacham M. ______ XV, 78 Shah, D. 0. ______ XI, 14 Shaheen, E. I. _____ XII, 118 Shinnar, R. _______ XI, 150 Silveston, P. L. _____ XIV, 130 Smith, W. R. _____ XIII, 26 Snider, E. H. _______ XI, 44 Sommerfeld, J. T ____ XIII, 126; XV, 86 Soong, D.S. ______ XV, 204 Sprague, C. H. ______ XI, 24 Stadtherr, M _____ XIV, 114 Stanford, T. G. _____ XI, 186 Stankovich, R J. ____ XIII, 132 Sterling, A. M. _____ XIII, 54 Stevens, J. D. _____ XIV, 136 Stev e nson, J. F. _____ XII, 30 Stewart, W. E. _____ XII, 72 Street, W. B. ______ XV, 172 Stroeve, P. _______ XV, 126 Sundberg, D C. _____ XI, 118 Sussman, M. V. _____ XII, 34 T Tanner, R. D. _____ XIII, 145 Tarbell, J. M. XII, 8 Tarrar, A. R. XV, 178 Tassios, D. XV, 133 Taylor, W. K. XIV, 88 Thatcher, C. M. XIV, 96 Theodore, L. XII, 198 Thomson, W. J. XV, 184 Threadgill, D XIV, 108 Timmerhaus, K. D. XV 68 Tock, R. W. XIII, 40 Turner, H. E. XI 74 Tyne, S C. XIII, 132 u Uhl, V. W. _______ XI 149 V VanNess, H. C. _____ XI, 154 TITLE INDEX Vannice, M. A. _____ XIII, 164 Varma, A. ______ XIII, 131, 184; XIV, 78 Vermeulen, T. _____ XIII, 156 Vernor, T. E. ______ XI, 185 Veronda, W. ______ XIV, 60 Vivian, J. E. ______ XIV, 200 w Wall, J. D. _______ XI, 138 Waller, K. V ______ XV, 30 Walter, C. ______ XII, 23 Wankat, P. C. ______ XV, 208 Ware, C. H Jr. ____ XIV, 24 Ward, T J. _______ XIV, 38 Wasan, D. -----------:: XI, 10 Wat s on, C. G. ______ XIV, 90 Webster, D J. _____ XII, 116 Weinstock, I. B. ____ XII, 206 Wen g row H. R _____ XI, 32 W e sterberg A. W. ____ XIV, 72 W e stwate r, J. W. ________ XI, 53; XII, 73 Wheelo c k, T. D. ____ XII 178; XV, 186 Whitaker, S ______ XII, 182 White, J. L. ______ XIII, 87 White, R. E. ______ XIII, 110 Whitney, R. P. ______ XII, 56 Wicks, C. E ______ XIV, 102 Wilcox, W. R. ______ XIII, 88 Williams, D. C. _____ XV, 178 Williams, G. C _____ XIII, 80 Williams, M. L _____ XII, 188 Willis M. S _____ XIII, 170 Wills, G B. _____ XIV, 142 Wisconsin Colleagues ____________ XIII, 60 Wolf, E. E. ______ XV, 214 Wong, L. K. _____ XIII, 132 Woods, D. R. ____ XI, 86, 140; XII, 116, XIII, 64, 132; XIV, 88, 92,130 y Yen T. F. _______ XIII, 180 Youngquist, G. R. ____ XII, 202; XIII, 20 z Zipf, K. ________ XII, 33 Chemical Reaction Engineering Science ____ XI, 168 Air Pollution, Engineering Control of _____ ____ XIV, 146 Analysis, Chemical Engineering _______ XV, 192 Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plants ________ XIV, 24 Chemical Reactor Engineering _______ XII, 152 Audio Visual Aids Subcommittee Activities _______ XI, 46 AWARD LECTURES: Cryogenic Heat Transfer _________ XV, 68 Dynamics of Runaway Systems XIII, 156 Kinetics of Coal Processing __ __ ___ XV, 14 Superheated Liquids XII, 60, 108, 194 B Bachelors-Masters Program, A Combined ____________ XIII, 138 Biochemical Engineering, A Course in -----,XI, 170 Biochemical Engineering Programs: A Survey of U.S. and Canadian ChE Departments ____ XII, 88 Biomedical Engineering Principles _____ XII, 55 Biophysical Chemistry __________ XIV, 147 C CACHE, What i s ____________ XIV, 84 Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Research on ______________ XV, 160 Cellulose as a Chemical and Energy Resource ________ XII, 23 Chemical Engineering and Modular Instruction __ XII, 136 Chemical Engineering Education Revisited _________ XII, 198 Chemical Reaction Engineering, Influential Papers in ______________ XII, 158 224 Chemical Reactor Omnibook ________ XV, 219 Chemical Reactor Theory, A Review of _________ XIII, 131 Chemical Reactors, A Course in ______ XIV, 168 Chemical Stoichiometry, What is ______ XIII, 26 Chemi s ts A 15-Month MS ChE Degree Program for _____________ XIII, 46 Classical Thermodynamics _________ XV, 156 Close Encounters of a Spar s e Kind _____ XIV, 72 Coal and Modern Coal P r oc e ssing _____ XV, 186 Coal Liquefaction and De s ulfurization ____ XV, 178 Coal Liquefaction Processes ________ XIII, 180 Coal Science and Technology ________ XII, 178 Colloidal Phenomena, A Course on ____ XIII 176 Combustion Science and Technology ____ XIV, 193 Computer-Aided Curriculum Analysis ____ XI, 64 Computer-Aided P r oces s Design _____ XIII. 126 Computer-Bas e d Instruction _________ XV, 78 Contact Catalysis ____________ XIV, 12 Continuum Thermodynamics Foundations of ____ XII, 143 Co-Op Ph.D. Prog r amme in ChE ______ XIV, 94 Course Types by Descriptive and Prescriptive Educational Factors, Compari s on of ____ XII, 74 Creation, The XIII, 209 Book Review CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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D DEPARTMENTS: Brigham Young ____________ XI, 104 Carnegie -M ellon XII, 102 Case Western Reserve XI, 4 Colorado XIV, 54 Georgia Tech XIV, 2 Institute of Paper Chemistry XII, 56 LSU XIII, 54 N.C. State XIII, 2 Notre Dame XV, 2 Oregon State XIV, 102 Penn Stat e XII, 8 Rolla, U Missouri XV, 62 Rutgers XI, 54 Santa Barbara, U. C. XV, 106 Texas A & M XIII, 110 Departments, Too Many XI, 39 De s ign, Internship in ChE XI, 74 Diffusion and Surface Reaction in Heterogeneous Catalysis ____ ______ XII, 112 Division Activities ____ ___ XII, 107; XIV, 113; XV, 96, 118 E Economics, A Doctoral Level ChE Course __ __ ___ XIII, 168 EDUCATORS: Bennett, Gary, of Toledo ______ XIII, 104 Bird, R. Byron, of Wisconsin _______ XIII, 60 Brainard, Alan J., of Pittsburgh ___ __ XII, 50 Corcoran, William H of Caltech _____ XIV, 60 Felder, Richard M., of N.C. State _____ XV, 8 Fogler, Scott, A Teacher of Learning __ __ XII, 4 Humphrey, Art, University of Pennsylvania ___ XIV, 8 Peck, Ralph, of Illinois Tech ______ XL, 10 RA of Minnesota ____ __ __ __ XIII, 8 Ruckenstein, Eli., of SUNY Buffalo _____ XV, 54 Scriven, Skip, of Minnesota ____ ___ XI, 50 Sparks, Bob, of Washington University --XV 112 Tann e r, Bob, of Vanderbilt _______ XIV, 108 White, Jim, of Tennessee _____ __ XI, 98 Woods, Don, of McMaster _________ XII, 98 Electrochemical Engineering, A Course in _________ XI, 164 Enrollment by Professional Society Action, Can We Limit __________ XI, 41 Enrollments, Coping With Bulging ChE __ __ XV, 146 Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment ______ XIII, 20 Equipment, A Course in ChE ________ XIII, 88 Examinations as a Method of Teaching __ XIII, 76 Examinations in ChE, Usage of Multiple Choice __ XV, 86 Experience at One University _______ XI, 181 Experiments for Estimating Free Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficients __________ XII, 122 Experiments in Undergraduate Reaction Engineering: Startup and Transient Response of CSTR's in Series ______ _______ __ XI, 118 Experiments, Teaching of ChE Thermodynamics __ XII, 130 F Faculty-Student Consultant Teams to Solve Industrial Problems, Using Summer __ XI, 28 Faculty Work Load Measurement ____ __ XI, 134 Faculty Workload Measurement at Penn State __ XI, 130 Filtration: Principles and Practices, Part 1 __ XIII, 170 Financial Decision Making in the Process Industry ___ _____ XI, 149 Finite Element, Some Infinite Possibilities ________ XV, 20 Fluid Flow and Electric Circuitry, Analogy Between ___ _____ ____ ___ XIII, 96 Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun XIII, 14 Fossil Fuels Program, M I.T.'s XIII, 80 Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A Laboratory Experiment ________ XIII, 142 Functional Analysis for ChE s, A Course on ______ XIII, 172 G Gas Chromatography, Simple and Rapid Method of Determining the Vapor Pressure of Liquids by ____ _____ __ XII, 140 FALL 1981 Ga s Engineering at the Algerian Petroleum Institute, Training and ________ XII, 118 Graduat e Education on a Statewide Closed-Circuit Television Network ________ ___ XI, 186 Graduate Programs for Non Chemical Engineers XI, 176 Gra duate School Through Undergraduate Research XV, 135 Growth in ChE, Practical Limits to _______ XI, 38 H Heterogeneous Catalysis, A Course in __ __ XV, 214 Heterogeneous Catalysis, A Course on XIII, 164 Hor s es of Other Colors : Some Notes on Seminars in a ChE Department ___ ___ XII, 148 Hydrocolloidal Systems, The Dynamics of _____ XII, 172 I Industrial Chemistry : Principles of ____ XV, 144 Industrial Crystallization XIII, 72 Industrial Implications in a Polymer Engineering Course, Stressing XI, 122 In Situ Processing, Research on XIV, 156 Interface Between Industry and the Academic World XI, 150 K Kinetics and Catalysis __________ XV, 188 L Large Classes, Handling ______ ____ XIV, 114 Lessons in a Lab: Incorporating Laboratory Exercises into Industrial Practices ___ __ XII, 92 Letters To The Editor __ __ __ XI, 3, 53, 149; XII, 47, 129, 151 XIII, 19, 63, 68, 91; XIV, 68; XV, 25, 116 Library, Organization of a Functional ChE ____________ XI, 44 Liquids and Solutions: Structure and Dynamics XIII, 69 Liquids and Their Properties _______ XV, 97 M Market Analysis, Teaching ______ ___ XV, 40 Material Balance Calculations with Reaction: Steady-State Flow Processes _____ XIII, 92 Materials Course, Experiences in a Senior ChE Materials Education, What Does the Practicing XIV, 120 ChE Want in _______ _____ XII, 44 Materials Science, Introduction to ( SI Edition)* __ XI, 167 Materials, The Nature and Properties of Engineering _____ __ _____ XIII, 87 Mathematical Methods in ChE, A Course in -~ XIII, 184 Mathematical Modeling, The Application of, to Process Development and Design _____ XI, 53 MEMORIAM: Biery, John C. XV, 60 Chen, Huang Tsung ___ ___ XV, 171 Lapidus, Leon __ _______ ___ XI, 148 Parravano, Guiseppe XII, 163 Peebles, Fred N. XIV, 145 Schweyer, Herbert E. XV, 122 Shen, Mitchel XIII, 204 Stevens, John D. XIV, 77 Treybal, Robert E. XIII, 204 Mexico, ChE Education in Methodology and Evaluation __ _____ ____ XI, 78 MIT School of ChE Practice ___ ____ XIV, 200 Modified Carnot Cycle, A -----XIII, 147 Molecular Theory of Fluid Microstructures __ XIV, 126 Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics, Introduction ___ __________ XIII, 198 Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer Simulation __________ __ XV, 1 72 Multiple Choice Examinations in ChE, Usage of XV, 86 N News, ChE ______ XI, 53; XII, 135, 144; XIII, 32, 52, 94, 108, 115, 203; XIV, 44, 98, 208 Book Review 225

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0 Oil Shale Char Reactions Operational Amplifiers in Chemical Instrumentation Optimization Theory, Introduction to p Parametric Pumping Research on _____ Petroleum and the Continental Shelf of xv, 184 XIII, 75 XIV, 99 xv, 166 North West Europe __________ XI, 138 Piping Layout as a Laboratory Project ___ XIII, 64 Plant Engineering at Loughborough ____ XIV, 180 Pollution Control, Strategy of ______ XII, 199 Polymer Fluid Dynamics Research on ____ XIV, 152 Polymerization Reaction Engineering ____ XIV 188 Polymer Processing, A Course in _______ XV, 204 Polymer Processing, A Graduate Course in _______ __ __ XII, 164 Polymer Processing, Principles of ______ XV, 59 Polymer Science and Engineering, Courses in ___ XI, 174 Polymer Science, Two Courses in ______ XIII, 190 Population Balances, The Prospects of ____ XII, 14 Practice School __ ____ ___ ____ XIII, 84 Primary Battery, The ___________ XII, 206 Problem Solving, On Teaching Part 1: What is Being Done _______ XI, 86 Part 2 : The Challenges XI, 140 Problem Solving, Patterns of XIII, 145 Problem Solving, What is XIII, 132 PROBLEMS : Dolphin Problem __ __ _____ ___ XV, 220 Iceberg Problem, The XIII, 70 In the "Heat" of the Night XIV, 46 In the Heat of the Night: Two Dimensional Heat Transport ____________ XIV, 47 Mirror Fog Problem The XIII, 155 Mirror Fog Problem: Solution XIV, 45 Prairie Dog Appendix, A XIV, 199 Prairie Dog Appendi x : Solution XV, 38 Prairie Dog Problem XIV, 70 Prairie Dog Problem: Solution XIV, 198 Process Control Education in the U.S. and Canada, A Survey of __________ XIV, 42 Process Control Engineering at UT Permian __ _______ __ XI, 24 Process Control Experiments, Advanced ____ XIV, 26 Process Control, A Flexible Self Paced Course XIII, 120 Process Control Education and Research in the USA, Impressions of _________ XV, 30 Process Control Experiment : The Toilet Tank __ __ XIV, 38 Process Design, Applied Chemical ___ XIV, 205 Process Design, Teaching the Basic Elements of, With a Business Game _______ XII, 18 Processes, Elementary Principles of Chemical ____ XIV, 136 Processing Industries, The Structure of Chemical XIII, 194 Process Simulation, We Can Do: UCAN-II --XIV, 138 ;Process Synthesis, A Course in __ _____ XIV, 184 Process Systems, Chemical: A Second Course in __ XIII, 116 R Radiative Heat Transfer, Engineering Calculations in __ __ ________ XI, 2 Ranking ChE Departments in Terms of Productivity Indices __________ XII, 65 Ranking of Departments: Is Productivity the Same as Quality: Editorial ___ ____ XII, 64 Rate Data, Interpretation and Use of XIII, 39 Rate of Reactions : A Definition or the Result of a Conservation Equation __ ___ __ XIV, 14 Rate Phenomena in Process Metallurgy ___ XI, 103 Reactor Design From a Stability Viewpoint ______ XII, 168 Reactor Design, Kinetics in a ___ _____ XIV, 99 Real-Time Computing, A Full-Year Course Sequence i n ____ __ _____ XIV, 18 Real-Time Computing, Integration of, into Process Control Teaching Part I: The Graduate Course ____ XIII, 160 Part II: The Undergraduate Course ______ XIV, 32 Recycle Reactor, Utilization of the, In Determining Kinetics of Gas-Solid Catalytic 226 Reactions ----------------, XIV, 78 Refinery II: Collograph XIV, 192 Re s earch with Senior Lev e l Student s XV, 133 Reynolds' Number Song, The XIII, 12 Road to Hell, The XII, 33 s Sciences and the Humanities, The ________ XI, 68 Scientists Must Writ e ___________ XIV, 208 Seminars in a ChE Department Some Notes on ____ XII, 148 Separation Processes, An Elective Course in ____ XV, 208 Separation Processe s Use and Abuse of Efficien c ies in ______________ XII, 38 SI Units in ChE and Technology XII, 202 Smoke, Dust and Haze: Fundam e ntal s of Aerosol Behavior ___________ XII 101 Sodales Princetonienses ___________ XV, 12 Special Functions and Applications XV, 92 Statistical Method s for Engineers and Scientists XII, 37 Statistics for Experimenters: Introduction to Design, Data Analysis and Model Building ___ XIV, 206 Student Point of View, A _________ XI, 185 Study-Travel Prog r am, Virginia T ec h's XIV, 142 Summer School in Snowmas s ________ XII, 3 Surface Science, Th e World of ________ XI, 14 Sycons, A Systems Control Simulator ______ XI, 32 Symposium at Carnegie-Mellon, ChE _____ XV, 36 Systems Modelling and Control _____ XIV, 174 T Take Two Pills Every Four Hours: A Hydrodynamic Analog for Drug Dosage Regimens _____ XII, 30 Teaching From an Assistant Professor's Point of View, The Importance of __ ____ XIV, 66 Technical Communication at Texas Tech, Renewed Emphasis on _________ XIII, 40 Technical Prose : English or Techli s h _____ XI, 154 Telephone Tutorial Service, A ________ XII, 26 Theoretical Rheology __________ XII, 144 Thermochemical Kineti c s _________ XIII, 145 Thermodynamic Heresies ___ ______ XII, 34 Thermodynamics, Chemical and Engineering ____ XIV, 96 Thermodynamics: Fundamentals, Applications __ __ XII, 163 Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase Reacting Systems ______ XII, 182 Transport Phenomena in the Delaware XV, 74 Traveling Circus as a Means of Introducing Practical Hardware, Th e _______ XII, 116 Trouble Shooting at Canadian Industries Limited _______________ XIV, 88 Trouble Shooting at McMaster _______ XIV, 92 Trouble Shooting at the University of Wisconsin XIV, 90 Trouble Shooting Ca s e s at McMa s ter Health Sciences _____________ XIV 91 Trouble Shooting Problem s Using ___ XIV 88; XIV, 130 Tubular Reactor Experiment, A Simple XV, 26 Turbulent Mixing in Non-Reactive and Reactive Flows ____________ XIV, 112 Turbulent Transport Processes, Models for ___________ XIII, 34 Two Phase Flow, The Role of Waves iii ____ XI, 108 u Undergraduate Curricula 1976 ________ XI, 60 Undergraduate Research XV, 120-144 Underground Processing XV, 198 w Wall Turbulence, Re s earch on _______ XIV, 162 Waste-Water Treatm e nt Processe s Introduction to __ __ ________ XIII, 78 When is a Man Half a Horse ________ XIII, 73 Where is the Roller Coaster Headed _____ XI, 34 Why PSI? How to Stop Demotivating Students ___ XII, 78 Write, All a Chemical Engineer Does is ____ XII 188 Book Re v i e w CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON, AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs Financial support is available through gov ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics Fluid Me chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Applied Design JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody namics lnterfacial Phenomena Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreation a I opportunities. It is a growing, modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to: Dr. J. 0. L. Wendt Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/ equal opportunity employer DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor Ph D. Oregon State University, 1973 Transpiration Cooling Heat Transfer in Biological Sys tems, Blood Processing THOMAS W. PETERSON, Asst. Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollu,tant Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics. FARHANG SHADMAN, Asst. Professor Ph.D., University of California Berkeley, 1972 Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis

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THE .UNIVERSITY OF ... ALABAMA -~ .. ,., .. ..\ rl' '1rk ,,, .-..... ~.. ~--.-4 "' : ,-' I I ~. ,.lt .. ;lift: : ,w .... \ .,,., :-\I' ~ :. .. ;.. : lGRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Alabama, enrolling approximately 18,000 undergraduate and 5;000 graduate students per year, is located in Tuscaloosa, a town of some 70,000 population in west central Alabama. Since the climate is warm, outdoor activities are possible most of the year. The Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering has an annual enrollment of approximately 200 undergraduate and 25 graduate students. For information concerning available graduate fellowships and assistantships, con tact: Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, P.O. Box G, University, AL 35486. Faculty and Research Interests G.C APRIL, Ph D (Louisiana State) : Biomass con version Modeling, Transport Processes D.W. ARNOLD, Ph.D (Purdue): Thermodyna mics Physical Properties Phase Equilibrium J H. BLACK Ph D. (Pittsburgh): Process Design cost Engineering Economics W C. CLEMENTS, JR., Ph D (Vanderbilt) : Process Dynamics and control, Micro-computer Hard ware W J. HATCHER, JR. Ph D (Louisiana State): Cata lysis, Chemical Reactor Design Reaction Kine tics E.K. LANDIS, Ph.D (Carnegie Institute Of Tech nology): Metallurgical Processes Solid-liquid separations, Thermodynamics M.D MCKINLEY, Ph.D (Florida) : Coal and Oil Shale, Mass Transfer, separation Processes LY SADLER, Ill, Ph D (Alabama): Energy Conver sion Processes, Rheology Lignite Technology

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-------------~ Chemical Engineering at UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA F a culty and Research Interest s 1. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota) : Kinetics, Het eroge neous Catalysis. D G. Fisher, Ph D. (Michigan): Process Dynamic s and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process D es ign. C. Kiparissides, Ph D (McMaster): Polym er R eactor Engineerin g, Op timization, Modellin g, Stochastic Control. D L y nch Ph D (Alberta): Kinetic M ode llin g Numerical Meth ods, Computer Aided Design. J H. Ma s liyah, Ph D. (British Colum bia): Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis, In-Situ R ecovery of Oil Sands. A. E. Mather Ph D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properti es at High Pr ess ur es, Thermodynamic s. W. Nader, D r Phil, (Vienna): Heat T ra n s fer, Air Pollution, Tr a n sport Phenomena in Porou s Media Applied M at hematic s. F. D O tto (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michi gan) : Ma ss Tran s fer, Gas-Liquid Re actions, Separation Proces ses En v i ronmenta l Engineering. D. Quon, Sc.D. (MIT), Professor Emeri tus: Energy Modellin g and Econom ics, Linear Pro gra mming, Network Th eory. D B. Robinson, Ph.D (Michigan): Thermal and Volumetric Properti es of Flu i ds. Phase Equilibria, The rmody namics. J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Proc ess Economics, Energy Economics and Supply. S. L Shah, Ph D. (Alberta): Lin ear Systems Theory, Adaptive Control, Stability Theory, Stochastic Control. S. E. Wanke, Ph.D (California-Davis): Catalys is, Kinetics. R. K. Wood, PhD. (Northwestern): Process D yna mic s and Id e ntification, Control of Di st illation Columns, Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circ uits. FA LL 1981 EDMONTON, CANADA Graduat e Stu dy U of A's Chemical Engineerin g gradu ate program offers exciting research opportunities to graduate students moti vated towards advanced training and researc h. Graduate p r ograms leadin g to t he de grees of Master of Science, Master of En g ineerin g and Doctor of Philosophy are offered. There are currently 1 3 full time faculty members, a few visiting f acu lty, severa l post-doctoral research associates a nd 36 g raduate students. F i nan ci al Aid Financial support is available to full ti m e g raduate st udents in the form of f e llo ws hip s, teaching assistantships and research assistantships. The Un i ve r si ty of Albert a U of A is one of Canada's largest Universities and engineering sc hool s with total e nrollm e nt of over 26,000 st ud e n ts. The campus fa located in the city of Edmon ton and overlooks the sce n ic North Saskatchewan Ri ver Vall ey Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern c ity of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a renowned resident professional theatre, symp hony orchestra and professional football, hock ey and soccer leagues Th e famous Banff and Jasper National Parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains are wit hin easy driving distance. Application s fo r addit i onal i nformat i o n writ e to : CHAIRMAN Department of Chemica l E ng i ne eri n g Unive r sity of Alb e rta Edmonton, Ca n, d .i T 6 G 2G6 229

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FACULTY THE UNIUERSITY Of ftKRON ftkron, OH 4432S DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAM RESEARCH INTERESTS G. A. ATWOOD ______ Digital Control, Polymeric Diffusivities, Multicomponent Adsorption. J. M. BERTY Reactor Design. L. G. FOCHT Fixed Bed Adsorption, Design and Process Analysis. H. L. GREENE Biorheology, Kinetic Modeling, Contaminant Removal from Coal Gasification. S. LEE ___ Coal Gasification, Kinetic Modeling, Digital Simulation. J. P. LENCZYK High Pressure Kinetics, Activity and Diffusion Coefficients via Ultracentrifuge. R. W. ROBERTS Atomization Processes, Fusion and Adhesion Characteristics of Polymer Powders. R. F. SAVINELL Electrochemical Phenomena. M. S. WILLIS Multiphase Theory, Filtration and Diffusion in Foamed Plastics. 230 Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $4,200 Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $9,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship application is March 1 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE: Dr Howard l. Greene, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Akron Akron, Ohio 44325 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical and Bio Engineering Research Specializations Include: ENERGY CONVERSIONADSORPTION/SEPARATION BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENGINEERING DESIGN Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented by a highly-respected faculty: James R. Beckman, University of Ar i zona 1976 Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966 Neil S. Berman, University of Texas 1962 William J. Crowe, University of Florida 1969 (Adjunct) William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati 1967 Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University 1971 James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University 1970 Kim L. Nelson, University of Delaware 1981 Castle 0. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus) Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963 Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota 1967 Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State Univers it y 1978 lmre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961 Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to qualified applicants ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120 000, part of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 38 000 students are enrolled in ASU s ten colleges; 10 000 of whom are in graduate study Arizona's year round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and recreational facilities FOR INFORMATION CONTACT : lmre Zwiebel Chairman -Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering Arizona State University Tempe AZ 85287

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AUBURN UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDIES 232 Graduate Degrees The Department of Chemical Engineering at Auburn University offers graduate work leading to the M S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering. The research empha sizes experimental and theoretical work in areas of current national interest. Modern research equipment is available for ana lytical, process and computational studies. Auburn University is an equal opportunity Institution. Area Description Auburn University, which has 18,000 students, is located in Alabama between Atlanta and Montgomery, Ala., with Co lumbus, the second largest city in Georgia, only 35 miles away. The local population is about 75,000. University-sponsored activi ties include a lecture series with nationally known speakers, a series : of plays and artistic and cultural presentations of all kinds. Recreational opportunities include equipment at the University for participation in almost every sport. Research Areas COAL: Coal liquefaction, magnetic de sulfurization and beneficiation, solvent re fining. BIOMASS: Chemical and enzymatic con version of forest and agricultural waste to fuels, petrochemicals and animal feed. FUNDAMENTALS: Kinetics, catalysis, en zymatic and fermentation reactors, high gradient magnetic separation, transport phenomena, solid-liquid separation, bio medical engineering. ENVIRONMENTAL: Air and water pollu tion control processes. NEW TECHNOLOGY: Advanced coal con version, novel enzymatic reactors, applica tions of high gradient magnetic separation, photography by immobilized enzymes, novel thickener design, polymeric replace ment of textile size, enzymatic artificial liver. PROCESS SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL: Design of optimal energy-integrated pro cesses and control of interactive, multivari able, nonlinear processes For financial aid and admission application forms write: Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head Chemical Engineering Auburn University, AL 36849 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PROVO, UTAH Ph.D., M.S., & M.E. ChE. Masters for Chemists Program Research Combustion Biomed i cal Eng i neer i ng Catalysis Coal Gasification Electrochemical Eng i neer i ng Fluid Mechanics Fossil Fuels Recovery High Pressure Chemistry Thermochemistry & Calorimetry Faculty D. H. Barker (Ph D ., U t ah, 1951) C. H. Bartholomew, ( Ph D. Stanfo r d, 1972 ) MW. Beckstead, (Ph.D ., Utah 1 965) D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D Berkeley, 1964) B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979) J J. Christensen, (Ph D Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958) J.M. Glassett, (M S MIT 1948) R W. Hanks ( P h. D ., U t ah, 1 96 1) W. C Hecker (Ph D., U.C Berkeley 1981) P 0. Hedman, (Ph.D BYU, 1973) J. L. Oscarson, (Ph.D ., Michigan, 1979) P. J. Smith, (Ph D., BYU, 1979) L. D. Smoot, (Ph D., Washington 1960) K. A. Solen, (Ph.D ., Wisconsin 1974) Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains Financial aid availabte (We have lots of money.) FALL 1981 Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Richard W. Hanks Chairman Chemical Engineering Dept. 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602 233

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The University of Calgary Program of Study The Department of Chemical Engineering provides unusual opportunities for research and study leading to the M.Eng., M.Sc. or Ph D. degrees. Th i s dynamic department offers a wide variety of course work and research in the following areas : Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Environ mental Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer Mass Transfer, Process Engineering, Rheology and Thermodynamics The University operates on an eight-month academic year, thus allowing four full months per year for research. The requirements for the M.Eng. and M.Sc. degrees are 4 to 8 course s with a B standing or better and the submission of a thesis on a research project The requirements for the Ph.D degree are 6 to l O courses and the submission of a thesis on an original research topic for those with a B.Sc degree The M Eng. program is a part-time program designed for those who a re working in industry and would like to enhance their technical educa tion. The M Eng thesis is usually of the design type and related to the industrial activity in which the student is engaged. Further details of this program are available from the Department Head, or the Chairman of the Graduate Studies Committee. Research Facilities The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies one wing of the Engineering Complex. The building was designed to accommodate the installation and operation of research equipment with a minimum of inconven i ence to the researchers. The Department has at its disposal an EA l 690 hybrid computer and a TR48 analog computer an Interdata 7132 mini computer for data acquisition and control and numerous direct access terminals to the University's Honeywell level 68 DPS computing system. In addition, a well equipped Machine Shop and Chemical Analysis Laboratory are operated by the Department. Other major research facilities include a highly instrumented and versatile multiphase pipeline flow loop, an automated pilat plant unit based on the Girbotol Process for natural gas processing, an X-ray scanning unit for studying flow in porous media, a fully instrumented adiabatic combustion tube for research on the in situ recovery of hydrocarbons from o i l sands, a laser ane mometer unit and environmental research laboratories for air pollution, water pollution and oil spill studies. Financial Aid Fellowships and ass i stantships are available with remuneration of up to $15 000 per annum, with possible rem1ss1on of fees. In addition, new students may be eligible for a travel allowance of up to a maximum of $300 If required, loans are available from the Federal and Provincial Governments to Canadian citizens and Landed Immigrants There are also a number of bursaries, fellowships, and scholarships available on a competition basis to full-time graduate students. Faculty members may also provide financial support from their research grants to students electing to do research with them. Cost of Study The tuition fees for a full-time graduate student are $756 per year plus S'.l'lall incidental fees Mo s t full-time graduate students to date have had 1heir tuition fees remitted. Cost of living Housing for single students in University dormitories range from $259 / mo for a double room to $320 / mo. for a single room including board There are a number of new townhouses for married students available ranging from $240 / mo. for a ]-bedroom, to $300 / mo for a 2-bedroom and to $278 / mo. for a 3-bedroom unit including utilities, major appliances and parking. Numerous apartments and private housing are within easy access of the University. Food and clothing costs are comparable with those found in other major North American urban centres. Student Body The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe The current enrollment is about 11,000 with ap proximately 1,280 graduate students. Most full time graduate students are currently receiving financial assistance either from internal or external sources The Community The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe The current enrollment is about 13,000 with ap the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in the community at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations of engineering activity in the country. The University The University operated from 1945 until 1966 as an integral part of the University of Alberta. The present campus situated in the rolling hills of northwest Calgary, was established in 1960, and in 1966 The University of Calgary was chartered as an autonomous institution by the Province of Alberta. At present the University consists of 14 faculties. Off-campus institutions associated with The University of Calgary include the Banff School of Fine Arts and Centre of Continuing Education located in Banff, Alberta, and the Kananaskis Environmental Research Station located in the beautiful Bow Forest Reserve. 234 The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta T2N l N4 Canada CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA RESEARCH ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRON MENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MATERIALS ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE: FACULTY Alexis T. Bell (Chairman) Harvey W Blanch Elton J. Cairns Morton M. Denn Alan S Foss Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N Hanson Dennis W. Hess C Judson King Scott Lynn Dav i d N Lyon John S. Newman Eugene E Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Edward K. Reiff Jr David S. Soong Charles W Tobias Theodore Vermuelen Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams Department of Chemical Englneertng UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley California 94720

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied Mathematics Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering Catalysis Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Dynamics Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Processes in Porous Media Faculty RICHARD L. BEL~, University of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications RUBEN G CARBONELL, Princeton University Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum Statistical Mechanics, Transport Processes in Porous Media ALAN P JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota Separation, and Transport Processes DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design PIETER STROEVE Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mass Transfer, Colloids STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware 236 Fluid Mechanics, lnterfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes in Porous Media Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Program UC Davis, with 17,500 students, is one of the major campuses of the University of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition, the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M S level. This is done routinely in the areas of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio chem i cal engineering and biomedical engineering Excellent laboratories, computation center and electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants. Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just over an hour away from the San Francisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec reational opportunities combine with the friendly in formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus Both furnished and unfurnished oneand two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance. For further details on graduate study at Davis, please write to: Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-0400 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D. N. Bennion Yoram Cohen S M. Dinh S. Fathi-Afshar T H. K. Frederking S K. Friedlander E L. Knuth J. W. Mccutchan Thermodynamics a nd Cryoge11ks Reverse Osmosis and Mem : brane Transport Process Desig n a nd Systems Analysis Polymer Process ing and Rheology Mass Tr:ansfer,--and Fluid Mechanics Kin etics Combustion and Catalysis Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Aerosol and Environmental Engineering

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS SANJOY BANERJEE JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Waterloo ) Two Phase Flow Reactor Safet y, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analy sis and Wastes H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D. ( Pr i nceton ) Chemical Reactor Modeling, Applied Mathematics HENRI FENECH Ph D. (M.I.T ) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two Pha se Flow Heat T ransfer. HUSAM GUROL Ph D. (M i chigan ) S t atist i cal Mechanics Polymer s, Radiation Damage to Materials, Nuclear Reactor Theory. OWEN T. HANNA Ph D (Purdu e ) (Chairman) Theoretical Methods Chemical Reactor Analysis Transport Phenomena GLENN E. LUCAS Ph D (M I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials. DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-T i me Comput i ng 238 P h. D (Michigan) ( Dean of Engineer i ng ) Boiling Heat Transfer G ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D (M I.T ) (Vice Cha i rman Nuclear Engineer i ng) Radiat i on Effec t s in Solids Energy Related Materials Developmen t. A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D ( M I.T ) Bionuclear Engineering Fusion Rea c tors Radiation Transport Analyses ROBERT G. RINKER Ph D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design Catalysis, Energy Conver s ion, Air Pollution. ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph D (Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separat i on Processes DALE E. SEBORG Ph D. (Princeton) Proce s s Control Computer Control, Process Identification. PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT The Department offers M S. and Ph.D. de gree programs Financial aid, including fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re search assistantships, is available. Some awards prov i de limited moving expenses. THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast l 00 miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330 miles south of San Francisco The student enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for i ts mild, even cl i mate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor Owen T. Hanna, Chairman Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech nology are the c r eative re s earch atmosphere and the strong e mphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student can properly prepare for a productive career of research, development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex panding tchnological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special M.S. option, involving eith e r research or an inte grated design project, is a feature to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Professor L. G. Leal Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It is advisable to submit applications before February 15 1982. FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JAMES E. BAILEY, Pro fe ssor Ph.D. (1969) Rice University Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction engin ee ring. WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Institute Professor Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering; air and water quality. GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization; coal gasification ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena L. GARY LEAL, Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Prof e ssor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Air pollution; control and estimation theory. FRED H SHAIR Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies of various environmental problems. GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Assistant Pro fe s sor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction engineering. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure property relations in polymers. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor Ph D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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240 Have you considered Graduate Studies in Biomedical Engineering/ Chemical Engineering at CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY? VASCULAR PHYSIDLD&Y PHARMACDKINETICS MEMBRANES TRANSPORT PHENOMENA CELLULAR HYDRODYNAMICS @ Break Through Write: Chairman Carnegie Mellon University Biomedical Engineering Program Science1325 Pgh. Pa 15213 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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-~------------, THE FINEST CHOICE CARNEGIE-MELWN UNIVERSITY $ write Graduate Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213

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242 IS THERE LIFE AFTER GRADUATE STUDY? Want to find out? Heaven can't wait! Write to: Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio 44106 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING :f,;J)l,TCA'flON;

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The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI Research Air Pollution Control Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Electrochemical Engineering Energy Utilization Environmental Engineering Heat Transfer Kinetics & Catalysis Polymers & Rheology Process Dynamics & Control GRADUATE STUDYin Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Faculty James N. Anno John M. Christenson Stanley L. Cosgrove Robert M. Delcamp Leroy E. Eckart Kenneth M. Emmerich Joel R. Fried Rakish Govind David B. Greenberg Daniel Hershey Yuen-Koh Kao Soon.Jai Khang Robert Lemlich William Licht Alvin Shapiro Joel Weisman For Admission information Chairman Graduate Studies Committee Chemical and Nuclear Engineering (171) University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221

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Clarkson M S and Ph D Programs Friendly Atmosphere Vigorous Research Programs Supported by Government and Industry Faculty with International Reputation Skiing, Canoeing Mountain Climbing and Other Recreation in the Adirondacks Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts Colleges Nearby Faculty S V Babu Der-Tau Chin Robert Cole Sandra Harris Angelo Lucia Richard J McCluskey John B Mclaughlin Richard J Nunge Nsima Tom Obot D H. Rasmussen Herman L. Shulman R. Shankar Subramanian Peter C Sukanek Ross Taylor Thomas J Ward Ralph H. Weiland William R. Wilcox Gordon R. Youngquist Research Projects are available in : Energy Materials Processing in Space Turbulent Flows Heat Transfer Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion Polymer Pro c essing Particle Separations Phase Transformations and Equilibria Reaction Engineering Optimization and Control Crystallization And More .. Financial aid in the form of fellowships, research assistantships and teaching assistantships is available. For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson College of Technology Potsdam, New York 13676

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FALL 1981 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH P. F. Dickson, Professor and Head; Ph.D., University of Minnesota. Oil shale shale oil processing petro chemical production from shale oil, heat transfer, heat exchanger design J. H. Gary, Professor ; Ph.D., University of Florida Up grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re finery processing operations, heavy oil processing A. J. Kidnay, Professor; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived liquids, vapor-liquid equi libria in natural gas systems cryo genic engineering R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph D ., Colorado School of Mines. Coa I liquefaction by direct hydro genation, mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochemistry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal derived asphaltenes M. S Graboski, Associate Professor ; Ph.D ., Pennsylvania State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading. M. C Jones, Associate Professor; Ph D ., University of California at B erkeley. H eat transfer and fluid me chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer in porous media, free convection in porous media. E. D. Sloan, Jr., Associate Professor; Ph.D., Clemson Uni versity. Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measure ments of natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates, thermal conductivity measurements for coal derived fluids adsorption equilib ria measurements, stage wise processes, education methods research V. F Yesavage, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan Kinetic studies of shale oil, phase be hav i or and enthalpy of synthetic fuels. A L Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley Enhanced oil recovery. For Applications and Further Information On M S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO B0401 245

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Chemical Engineering at CORNELL UNIVERSITY A place to grow ... with active research in biochemical engineering applied mathematics / computer simulation energy technology environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science heat and mass transfer polymer science fluid dynamics rheo ogy and biorheology microscopy reactor design thermodynamics with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange individual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell departments including chemistry biological sciences physics computer science food science materials science mechanical engineering business administration and others with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one of the most scenic regions of the United States Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering (the M.Eng. is a professional, design oriented program). Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available. The faculty members are: Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F Scheele, Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, William B. Streett Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg Herbert F. Wiegandt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to Professor Keith E Gubbins Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, New York 14853

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'lhe Universily of~laware awards three giaduate de~eesfor sludiesand practicein theartand science of chemical engineering. An M Ch.E degree based upon course work and a thesis problem An M Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer In the Delaware Valley chemical process industries. A Ph D degree for original work presented In a dissertation THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE: Gianni Astarita time) M A Bart,tau C. E Birchenall K B Bischoff (Chairman) C. D. Denson B. C Gates M. T. Klein R. L McCullough A B Metzner J H Olson M E. Paulaitis R L Pigford T. W. F Russell S. I. Sandler G. C. A. Schuit f time) J M. Schultz L. A. Spielman A B. Stiles time) R. S. Weber ~UHENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE: Thermodynamics and Separ ation Process Rheology, Polymer Science and Engineering Materials Science and Metallurgy Fluid Mechanics, Heat and Mass Transfer Economics and Management in the Chemical Process Industries Chemi cal Reaction Engineering, Kinetics and Simulation Catalytic Science and Technology Biomedical Engineering Pharmacokinetics and Toxicology FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS WRITE : Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19711

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Onlythe Universit:, of Florida's Department of Chemical Engineering gives you both outstanding acade1nic challenge and all the advantages of the Florida climate. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer Current Research Areas The Faculty Fluid Mechanics Rheology Catalysis Reaction Engineering Biomedical Engineering Electrochemical Engineering lnterfacial Phenomena Semiconductor Processing Thermodynamics Energy Systems Process Control Mass Transfer and more .... T .J. Anderson S.S. Block R.W. Fahien R.J. Gordon G.B. Hoflund L.E. Johns D W. Kirmse H.H. Lee F P. May J.P. O'Connell D.O. Shah M. Tyner R.D. Walker G.B. Westermann-Clark Gainesville is a city of 90,000 (plus 40,000 students) located in the center of the Florida Peninsula, about 120 miles north of Tampa, and 70 and 50 miles from the Atlantic and Gulf, respectively. The average yearly temperature is 70 degrees. Need we say more? For more information on admission and financial aid, write: Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (904)392-0881

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ... GEORGIA TECH Atlanta Ballet Center for Disease Control Commercial Center of the South High Museum of Art All Professional Sports Major Rock Concerts and Recording Studios Sailing on Lake Lanier Snow Skiing within two hours Stone Mountain State Park Atlanta Symphony Ten Professional Theaters Rambling Raft Race White Water Canoeing within one hour For more information write : Dr Gary W Poehlein School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta Georgia 30332 Chemical Engineering Air Quality Technology Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Surfaces Electrochemical Engineering Energy Resear ch and Conservation Fine Particle Technology lnterfacial Phenomena Kinetics Mining and Mineral Engineering Polymer Scien ce and Engineering Process Synthesis and Optimization Pulp and Paper Engineer i ng Reactor Design Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena

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Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering University of Houston The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston has developed five areas of special research strength: Chemical reaction engineering Applied fluid mechanics and transfer processes Energy engineering Environmental engineering Process simulation and computer-aided design The department occupies more than 52,000 square feet and is equipped with more than $2.0 million worth of experimental apparatus. Financial support is available to full-time graduate students with stipends ranging from $7,200 to $10,000 for twelve months. For more information or application forms write: Director, Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Houston 4800 Calhoun Houston, Texas 77004 (Phone 713/749-4407) 250 The faculty: N. R. Amundson E. L. Claridge J. R. Crump A. E. Dukler R. W. Flumerfelt E. J. Henley C. J. Huang R. Jackson D. Luss A. C. Payatakes R. Pollard H. W. Prengle, Jr. J. T. Richardson F. M. Tiller J. Villadsen F. L. Worley, Jr. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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---, .{ ~""-~- Graduate Programs in The Department of Energy Engineering leading to the degrees of MASTER OF SCIENCE and DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Faculty and Research Activities in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor and Head of the Department Francisco J. Brana-Mulero Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980 Assistant Professor Paul M. Chung Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957 Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering T. S. Jiang Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1981 Assistant Professor John H. Kiefer Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Sohail Murad Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor The MS program, with its optional thesis, can be completed in one year. Evening M.S. can be completed in three years. The department invites applications for admission and support from all qualified candidates. Special fellowships are available for minority students. To obtain application forms or to request further information write: 11111 Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow and heat transfer, porous media processes, mathematical analysis and approximation. Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence, chemically reacting flows Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows flow through porous media, suspension rheology Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes, molecular lasers Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids, solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions, solar energy Process synthesis, operations research, optimal process control, optimization of large systems, numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations. Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized bed combustion Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy transmission, modeling and optimization Professor G. Ali Mansoori, Chairman The Graduate Committee Department of Energy Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Circle Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680

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FACULTY Richard C. Alkire, Professor Electrochemical Engineering Harry G. Drickamer, Professor High Pressure Studies Structure and Properties of Solids Charles A. Eckert, Professor and Head Molecular Thermodynamics, Applied Chemical Kinetics Thomas J. Hanratty, Professor Fluid Dynam i cs, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer 252 Jonathan J. L. Higdon, Assistant Professor Flu i d Mechanics Applied Mathematics Richard S. Larson, Assistant Professor Chemical Kinetics Richard I. Masel, Assistant Professor Catalysis Surface Science Anthony J. McHugh, Assoc i ate Professor Polymer Crystallization Transport of Particles CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT THE UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS 'URBANA CHAMPAIGN For application forms and further information, write to: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Chemical Engineering 113 Roger Adams Laboratory 1209 W California Urbana, Illinois 61801-3791 Joseph A. Shaeiwitz, Assistant Professor Mass Transfer, lnterfacial and Collodial Phenomena Mark A. Stadtherr, Assistant Professor Systems Analysis and Process Design James W. Westwater, Professor Boili'ng Heat Transfer, Phase Chapges CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Institute of Technology M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS IN Chemical Engineering an d Interdisciplinary Areas of Polymer Processes Chemical Plant Operat i ons and Management Energy Conservation and Resources R L BEISSINGER D. GIDASPOW D. T HATZIA VRAMIDIS J.R SELMAN B S. SW ANSON D.T.WASAN C. V. WITTMANN r Pol ymer P r o cessing an d B i o l o gical S ys t ems H ea t T rans! er and Energy Conversion Mu lt ip h ase F low and T ur b ulence El ec t r o c h emical Engineering P rocess D ynamics and Contro l s Mass T ransfer and Surface and C oll oid P hen o mena Chemical Reaction Engineering Analysis FOR INQUIRIES WRITE D T. Wasan Chemica l Engineering Dept. Illinois Institute of Technology 10 West 33rd St (:hica8o, IL 6061 253

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THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY is an independent graduate school. It has an interdisciplinary degree program designed for B.S. chemical engineering graduates. Fellowships and full tuition scholarships are available to qualified U.S. and Canadian Citizens. Currently, our students receive fellowships in the amount of $8000.00 per calendar year. INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY -'Apple I(!,; [11Sronsi',i ... Current research programs underway include: plant tissue culture surface and colloid science fluid mechanics environmental engineering polymer engineering heat and mass transfer process engineering simulation and control separations science and reaction engineering For further information cont.act: Director of Admissions The Institute of Paper Chemistry P.O. Box 1039 Appleton, WI 54912 Tele hone ... 414 734-9251

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OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY .i. Biochemical Engineerip.g (Enzyme Technology) Charles E. Glatz Peter J. ReiUy Polymerization Processes William H .Abraham Crystallization Kinetics Maurice A. Larson Process Instruinentati and Syi;tem Optimizat, o and Control 1 Lawrence E. Burkhart Kenneth R. Jolls as well'as Air Pollution Control Solvent Extractioit High Pr echnology Mi ___!J!.essing j

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256 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Up to $10,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66506 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ENERGY ENGINEERING COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE SOLID MIXING CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM ENGINEERING FLUIDIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Department of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Areas of Research Pulp and Paper Reaction engineering of pulping Pulp bleaching Formation of paper web Paper coating Environmental Science Waste water treatment Air pollution Polymer Science & Engineering Polymer synthesis and properties Polymer processing Fluids and Particle Systems Rheology Solid-fluid separation Porous media modeling Colloidal stability Process Dynamics and Control Process control & instrumentation Real-time computing FALL 1981 Facilities Pulp and Paper Research and Testing Laboratory Pilot scale batch digesters pulp re finers, a fourdrinier paper machine, paper coaters and complete testing equipment. Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Scanning electron microscope with ray microanalyzer gas and liquid chromatographs, atomic absorption unit infrared, UV and visible spectro photometers. Polymer Laboratory Injection and compression molding, spinning, membrane and vapor pres sure, osmometers, light scattering, GPC, transport property measurement, synthesis, torsion pendulum Fluid Dynamics & Rheology Mechanical spectrometer, lnstron capillary rheometer, Haake RV-12 visco meter, Sedigraph 5000D Particle size analyzer, Zeta meter and others Real Computing Laboratory PDP 11 / 60 with a data link with the U'niversity IBM 370 system three PDP 11 / 03 systems, 8 CRT's, plotters Academic Programs M S. and Ph D in Chemical Eng inee ring M.S. in Pulp and Paper Technology Master in Chemical Engineering MChE (no thesis required) In addition to the students with 8.S in ChE, students who have a 8.S. in the related fields such as chemistry, bio chemistry, and wood science are en couraged to do graduate work in ChE. Most prerequisite courses are offered every year during the summer Financial Assistance Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Stipends range from $4 500 for nine months up to $8,000 for 12 months Admission For application and a copy of the Graduate School catalog, write to: Chairman, Chemical Engineering Dept 115 Jenness Hall University of Maine Orono, ME 04469 257

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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS Amherst The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or our prestigious Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid in the form of research assistantships and teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. W. C.CONNER 0 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 0 R. L. LAURENCE* Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion M. F. DOHERTY Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design J. M. DOUGLAS Process design and control, Reactor engineering J. W. ELDRIDGE Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria V. HANSEL Catalysis, Kinetics R. S. KIRK Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors J. R. KITTRELL Kinetics and catalysis, Catalyst deactivation Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics R. W. LENZ* Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization M. F. MALONE Rheology, Polymer processing, Design K.M.NG Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows, Fluid mechanics J. M. OTTINO* Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering M. VANPEE Combustion, Spectroscopy H. H. WINTER Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer J. C. W. CHIEN 0 POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 0 E. P. OTACKA Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers, Polymer degradation R. FARRIS Polymer composites, Mechanical properties, Elastomers A. S. HAY Polymer synthesis, catalysis, polymer modification S. L. HSU Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis F. E. KARASZ Polymer transitions, Polymer blends, Conducting polymers W. J. MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers Polymer stabilization, processing and fabrication, high performance composites R. S. PORTER Polymer rheology, Polymer processing I. C. SANCHEZ Statistical thermodynamics of solutions, transport properties, phase transition phenomena R. STEIN Polymer crystallinity and morphology, Characterization E. L. THOMAS* Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology, Polyurethanes 0. VOGL Polymer synthesis, degradation and stabilization of polymers *Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering 258 For further details, please write to: Prof. J. W. Eldridge Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass. 01003 413-545-0276 Prof. R. Farris Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass. 01003 413-545-0433 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Ph o t o b11 : Cal vi n Camp b e ll CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT FACULTY R. C. Armstrong R. F. Baddour J.M. Beer J F. Brady H. Brenner R A. Brown R.E.Colton W M. Deen L.B. Evans F. W. Gelbard C. Georgakis T. A. Hatton H. C. Hottel J.B. Howard J. P. Longwell M. P. Manning H. P. Meissner E. W. Merrill M. Modell C. M. Mohr F. A. Putnam R C. Reid A F. Sarofim C. N. Satterfield H. H. Sawin S. M. Senkan K.A. Smith U. W. Suter J. W. Tester C. G. Vayenas P S. Virk J. F. Vivian J. Wei G. C. Williams RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical and Biomedical Chemical Wa s te Management Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Kinetics and Catalysis Polymer s Process Dynamic s Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in Albany, New York and at the Oak Ridge National Labora tory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For information : Chemical Engineering Headquarters Room 66-350 Massachusetts lnsititute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 l ; L\

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I MCMASTER UNIVERSllY 260 M.ENG. AND PH.D. PROGR4MS PROCESS AND ENERGY ENGINEERING CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND CATALYSIS COMPUTER CONTROL, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMER ENGINEERING BIOM EDICAL ENGINEERING WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: CHAIRMAN DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING McMASTER UNIVERSITY HAMILTON, ONTARIO, CANADA L8S 4L7 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE FACULTY Dale Briggs Louisville, Michigan Brice Carnahan Case-Western, Michigan Rane Curl MIT Francis Donahue LaSalle, UCLA H. Scott Fogler Illinois, Colorado Erdogan Gulari Roberts, Cal Tech James Hand NJIT, Berkeley Robert Kadlec Wisconsin, Michigan Donald Kat:z Michigan Lloyd Kempe Minnesota Joseph Martin Iowa, Rochester Carnegie John Powers Michigan, Berkeley Jerome Schultz, Chairman Columbia, Wisconsin Johannes Schwank Innsbruck Maurice Sinnott Michigan Henry Wang Iowa State, MIT James Wilkes Cambridge, Michigan Brymer Williams Michigan Gregory Yeh Holy Cross, Cornell, Case Edwin Young Detroit, Michigan f~l,i 1 981 Chemical Engineering At The University Of Michigan THE RESEARCH PROGRAM Laser Light Scattering Reservoir Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Thrombogenesis Microem ulsions Applied Numerical Methods Dynamic Process Simulation Ecological Simulation Electroless Plating Electrochemical Reactors Polymer Physics Polymer Processing Composite Materials Coal Liquefaction Coal Gasification Acidi:zation Biochemical Engineer i ng Periodic Processes Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport In Membranes Flow Calorimetry Ultrasonic Emulsification Heat Exchangers Renewable Resources THE PLACE Department Of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109 For Information Call 3131763-1148 Collect For Tomorrows Engineers Today.

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State University has assistant s hip s and fellowships available for students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two additional years. ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $690.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S. degree and approximately $750.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject covered by the research assistantship. Students must pay resident tuition, but the additional non resident fee is waived. FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $12,000 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year. CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman Ph.D., University of Washington Transpo rt Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio vascular Physiology, Diffusion in Polymers C.M.COOPER Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of Transport Processes A. L. DeVERA Ph.D., University of Notre Dame Chemical & Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Transport Properties of Random Heterogeneous Media, Applied Mathematics, and Hydrocarbon Synthesis from Coal E.A.GRULKE Ph.D., Ohio State University Food Engineering, Membranes Separations, and Polymer Engineering P. E. WOOD M. C. HAWLEY Ph.D Michigan State University Porous Media Transport, Kinetics, Catalysis, Plasmas, and Reaction Engineering K. JAYARAMAN Ph D. Princeton University Simplification of Process Models, Parameter Estima tion, Two-Phase Flow of Polymer Foams, and Nonlinear Viscoelasticity of Polymer Solutions C.A.PETTY Ph.D., University of Florida Fluid Mechanics, Turbulence, Hydrocyclonic Stability Theory, and Solid-Fluid Separations B. W. WILKINSON Ph.D., Ohio State University Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Reactors, and Radioisotope Applications Ph.D., California Institute of Technology 262 Turbulent Transport Phenomenon, Mathematical Modeling, Applied Mathematics and Numerical Methods FOil ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering 173 Engineering Building, Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824 MSU is an Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Institution CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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chemical reactor modeling catalysis enhanced oil recovery polym e r r h e ology biomedical engi neering process synthesis porous media mixed cultures kinetic theory statistical mechanics transport in blood polyme ri zat i on nuclear engineering phys i cal metallu r gy population dy namics surface science artificial organs photochemistry air pollution solid spectroscopy electro migration food science superconductivity partic l e technology capillary hydrodynamics vercola tion theory stress corrosion fracture mechanics Responses of some of our current graduate students to the question "WHY MINNESOTA?": "I chose Minnesota simply because of the quality of the school-it is a large, diverse, excellent graduate school-and because the size of the department allows a choice between several possible areas of research ." "I came for the best education available for a research career in chemical engineering," I really like the community. I think Minneapolis is one of the nicest of all Northern cities." "I chose Minnesota because of the faculty here and the courses that are offered." "I like Minneapolis. I knew the faculty at Minnesota was very good. Then my visit here gave me a very favorable impression of the school and community." R. Aris R. Carr E. L. Gussler J. Dahler H. T. Davis D. F. Evans A. Fredrickson W. Gerberich G. L. Griffin H. Isbin C. Jensen K. Jensen K. Keller C. Macosko M. Nicholson R. A. Oriani W. Ranz L. Schmidt L. E. Scriven J. Sivertsen G. Stephanopoulos M. Tirrell L. Toth H. Tsuchiya J. Wallace S. Wellinghoff FALL 1981 WHY MINNESOTA? Young specime~s of Minne s ota s state tre~, t~e red pin e, growm g on the Saganaga Gramte m the Boundary Water s Canoe Area, Cook County. (Photo courtesy A. Fredrickson) 1 Yes! PLEASE SEND INFORMATION ON 1 YOUR GRADUATE PROGRAM TO: I 1 Name ------------------------1 1 Address -------------------------------------------------: Uni v. of Minnesota, Chemical Engr. & Matls. Sci. Dept., 4 2 1 Washington A v e. S. E. 1 Minneapol i s MN 55455 263

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264 Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman Day Programs M.S and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. AZBEL (D.Sc., Mendeleev ICT-Moscow)-Dis persed Two-Phase Flow, Coal Gasification and Liquefaction N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado)-Computer Aided Process De~ign, Bioconversion. 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice)-Transport Properties, Kinetics, Catalysis. M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida) Biochemical Studies, Biomass Utilization J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. lllinois-Chicago) -Chemical kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo dynamics. J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode Re actions, Corrosion. A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich}.-Adsorption, Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor Design. D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas) Thermodynamics Vapor-Liquid Equilibriun1 P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-lnterfacial Phenomena R. A. MOLLENKAMP (Ph.D., Louisiana State) Process Dynamics and Control. G. K. PATTERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Turbu lence, Mixing, Mixed Reactors, Polymer Rheology. B. E. POLING (Ph.D., lllinois) Kinetcis, Energy Storage, Catalysis X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota) Fluid Me chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena, Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure. R. C. Waggoner (Ph.D., Texas A&M)-Multistage Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Extraction, Process Control. H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse) Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech nology, Plasma Polymerization Biomedical Ma terials. 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla) Bioengineer i ng Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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STA TE UNIVERSITY, BOZEMAN MONTANA Challenge y 0 urseU In The Big Sky Cou11-try Come to Montana State University and enjoy a unique lifestyle while getting a solid graduate edu cation in chemical engineering We are literally minutes away from some of the finest downhill ski ing in America and 90 miles from Yellowstone Na tional Park We offer M S and Ph D. degrees and have just in tiated a special master s program for students whose unc:lergraduate preparation is in chemistry or other scientific areas The department has a low student to faculty ratio and occupies two floors of a modern six storied building. Financial support is available Incoming students can choose research topics in a variety of areas. The department has particular strength i n energy separations, heat transfer and chemical kinetics. Write today for further information and applica tion forms : Graduate Coo r dinator Chemical Engineering Department Montana State University Bozeman, Montana 59717

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY RALEIGH, N.C. CRYSTALLIZATION Seco ridary nucleation Crystallization kinetics Selective nucleation CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING Process modeling Pilot plant studies Radiation polymerization ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Stack monitoring Control technology development Biological effects of pollutants B.S. ChE's and Chemists: ADVANCED STUDY AND RESEARCH LEADING TO THE M.S., M.ChE., AND PhD. DEGREES. ALSO Phase equilibrium thermodynamics Heat Transfer Separation Processe s Computer Applications COAL GASIFICATION $2 4 Million Pilot Plant completed (1978) in cooperat i on with EPA Pollutant characterization Process development Sampling and analys i s Acid gas cleanup POLYMER SCIENCE Natural and synthetic polymers Glassy state anomalies Advanced membrane processing Controlled drug delivery FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, A CATALOG, AND APPLICATION MATERIALS, WRITE Dr. Harold B. Hopfenberg, Head Department of Chemical Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina 27650 266 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The Ohio State University Chemical Engineering M.Sc. and Ph.D. Programs The Ohio State University 140 West 19th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 FALL 1981

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268 .,,+ : (S' :. in Chemical Engineering t <-t'.' 1~-. for chemical engineering and [? non-chemical engineering students lE{ A o--, '.~; ~~<~ Chemkel Dr. j 0 hn R. Collier Engineering Department OHIO UNIVERSITY Athens, Ohio 45701

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FALL 1981 269

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Oklahoma State University ... where people are important [[][]] Address inquiries to : Billy L. Crynes Head School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater Oklahoma 74078

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university of pennsylvania chemical eng1neer1ng RESEARCH AREAS Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Chemical Reactor Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Energy Production Fluid Mechanics Heterogeneous Catalysis lnterfacial Phenomena Membrane Transport Polymer Science and Engineering Process Simulation Reaction Kinetics Separation Techniques Solar Energy Surface Phenomena Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Pennsylvania's chemical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the depart ment. The full resources of this Ivy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. FALL 1981 FACULTY Stuart W Churchill, PhD, Michigan (1952) Elizabeth B. Dussan V PhD, Johns Hopkins (1972) William C. Forsman, PhD, Pennsylvania (1961) Eduardo D. Glandt, PhD, Pennsylvania (1977) Raymond J Gorte, PhD, Minnesota (1981) David J. Graves, ScD, MIT (1967) A. Norman Hixson, Emeritus Douglas A. lauffenburger, PhD, Minnesota (1979) Mitchell Litt, D Eng Sci ., Columbia (1961) Alan l. Myers, PhD, California (1964) Melvin C. Molstad, Emeritus Daniel D. Perlmutter, PhD, Yale (1956) John A. Quinn, PhD, Princeton (1959)-Chairman Warren D. Seider, PhD, Michigan (1966) PHILADELPHIA: The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the Atlantic shore are within a two-hour drive. For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Science 311A Towne Building / DJ University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 271

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LOOKING 272 WRITE TO Prof. Lee C Eagleton, Head 160 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pa. 16802 for a graduate education in Chemical Engineering ? Consider PENN STATE Some Current M.S. & Ph.D. General Research Areas: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Physiological Transport Processes Newborn Monitoring ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Gaseous and Particulate Control Atmospheric Modeling HETEROGENEOUS CAT ALYS IS Metal Support Interactions Adsorption and Desorption Processes Catalyst Characterization UNSTEADY-STATE OPERATIONS Cyclic Reactor Operations Cyclic Distillation TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Analytical and Numerical Solutions Polymer Rheology and Transport Convective Heating and Mass Transfer Mass Transfer in Cocurrent Flow THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Property Correlations Sta tistica I Meehan ics APPLIED MATHEMATICS Stability and Bifurcation Theory Perturbation Theory APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND KINETICS Industrial Chemical Processes Complex Reaction Systems PETROLEUM REFINING Process Development Product Conversion TRIBOLOGY Properties of Liquid Lubricants Boundary Lubrication Fundamentals INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA Adsorption Thermodynamics and Kinetics Monolayer and Membrane Processes ENERGY RESEARCH Tertiary Oil Recovery Nuclear Technology CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg R. F. Benenati J. J. Conti C. D. Han W. H. Kapfer J. S. Mijovic E M. Pearce P. F. Schubert L. I. Stiel E. N. Ziegler Polvtechnic Institute @~~Ww~ Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and New York Unive r sity School of Engineering and Science Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research: chemical engineering, polymer science and engineering and environmental studies. RESEARCH AREAS Air Pollution Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Fermentation and Food Processing Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Mathematical Modelling Mechanical Behavior of Polymers Morphology of Polymers Polymerization Reactions Process Control Rheology and Polymer Processing Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available. For further information contact Professor C. D Han Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Institute of New York 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, New York 11201

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Albright Greenkorn Caruthers Hannemann Chao Houze Delgass Kessler Eckert Koppel Emery Lim Franses Peppas Ramkrishna Reklaitis Squires Tsao Wang Wankat Graduate Information Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 4 7907 An equal access / equal opportunity university

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University of Queensland POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships A v ailable STAFF L. S. LEUNG {Cambridge) P. R. BELL (N.S.W.) P. C. BROOKS (M.I.T.) D. D. DO (Queensland) P. F. GREENFIELD (N S.W.) G. J. KELLY (Tasmania) R. B. NEWELL (Alberta) D. J. NICKLIN (Cambridge) E T. WHITE (Imperial College) R. J. WILES (Queensland) THE DEPARTMENT ( rvt / I -: --, r'" RESEARCH AREAS Two Phase Flow Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Electrochemistry Corrosion Fermentation Enzyme Engineering Environment Control Process Economics The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an ex tensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M.Eng. Studies, M.Eng.Science and Ph.D.degrees. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY The University is one of the largest in Australia with more than 18,000 students. Brisbane, with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef. For further information write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4067 AUSTRALIA. FALL 1981 275

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276 RPI Advanced Study and Research Areas Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Kinetics & Catalysis Reaction Engineering Fluidization Fluid-Particle Systems I nterfacial Phenomena Process Design & Control Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Environmental Engineering Polymer Engineering For full details write RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering The Faculty Michael M Abbott Ph.D ., Rensselaer Elmar R. Altwicker Ph.D., Ohio State Yaman Arkun Ph 0 ., Minnes o ta Donald B Aulenbach Ph 0. Rutger s Georges Belfort Ph 0. California Irvine Henry R. Bungay 111 Ph.D. Syracuse Chan I. Chung Ph D. Rutgers Nicholas L. Clesceri Ph D. Wis co nsin Dady B Dadyburjor Ph D. Delaware Arthur Fontijn O.Sc. Amsterdam Cynthia S Hirtzel Ph D. Northwestern Arland H. Johannes Ph.D ., Kentu cky Clement Kleinstreuer Ph D. Vanderbilt Peter K. Lashmet Ph.D ., Delaware Howard Littman Ph D. Yale Charles Muckenfuss Ph. 0. Wisconsin E Bruce Nauman Ph.D. Leeds Michael H. Peters Ph.D ., Ohio State Rajamani Rajagopalan Ph.D. Syracuse William W Shuster D.Ch E. Rensselaer Sanford S. Sternstein Ph.D. Rensselaer Hendrick C. Van Ness D.En g ., Yale Peter C. Wayner Jr. Ph D. Northwestern Dr. P K. Lashmet, Executive Officer Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York 12181 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATlON

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science, A ioint program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M-D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available. The Department has approximately 45 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the leading Chemical Engineer ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to recent evaluations. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization, Stability, and Process Control Biochemical Reaction Engineering Rheology and Fluid Mechanics i Polymer Science Chemical Reactor Modeling : Coal Liquefaction I Tertiary Oil Recovery ; BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma ; Biorheology Biomaterials Rice University I i Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca tional univer sity. It occupies an architecturally attrac tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine '. residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston ; There are approximately 2600 undergraduate and 1000 : graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a ; complete university with programs in the various fields '' of science and the htJmanities, as well as in engineer1 ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings. ; The academic year is from August to May. As there I are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly i four months for research. The school offers excellent ; recreational and athletic facilities with a completely I equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing yearround activities. FALL 1981 FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of $600-750 per month. APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION Address letters of inquiry to: Houston Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Rice University Houston, Texas 77001 With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company, which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and Museum of Natural ScienceThe air-conditioned Astra dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers and the site of many other events. 277

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~(\~ RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY College of Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AND CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY, COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES BIOMATERIALS ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS FUELS FROM BIOMASS CONTROL OF FERMENTATION FOOD PROCESSING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE 278 COAL DESULFURIZATION OCEANS AND ESTUARIES ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING QUALITY MANAGEMENT POLYMER PROCESSING WASTES RECOVERY PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS For Application Forms and Further Information Write To: Graduate Admissions Offlce Van Nest Hall Rutgers, The State University New Brunswick, N.J. 08903 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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University of south Carolina The College of Engineering offers M.S ., M E and Ph.D degrees in Chemical Engineering Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely with the faculty on research projects Research and teaching stipends are available from $3000 to $8000. The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of 23,800 on the Columbia campus, offers a variety of cultural and recreational activities. Columbia is part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country The Chemical Engineering Faculty B.L. Baker, Distinguished Professor Emeritus Ph D ., North Carolina State University 1955 (Process design environment problems, ion transport). M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor Ph D ., University of California (Berkeley) 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis chemical process analysis solvent extraction, waste treatment) J.H. Gibbons, Professor Ph D ., University of Pittsburgh 1961 (Heat transfer, fluid mechanics) F.P. Pike, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid-liquid systems vapor-liquid equilibria) T.G. Stanford, Assistant Professor Ph D The University of Michigan 1977 (Chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems process design, thermodynamics) V. Van Brunt, Associate Professor, Ph D., University of Tennessee 1974 (Mass transfer, computer modeling fluidization) For further Information contact: Prof. J H Gibbons Chairman, Chemical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Carolina t Columbia South Carolina 29208 ,,

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Stevens Institute of Technology Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to the Degrees of Master of Engineering Chemical Engineer Ph.D. Full and part-time day and evening programs RESEARCH IN Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Coal Combustion FACULTY Energy Conversion Multiphase Transport Natural Gas Engineering Polymerization Engineering Polymer Rheology and Processing Polymer Structuring Process Design and Development Process Simulation and Control Separation Processes J. A. Biesenberger (Ph.D., Princeton) S. Kovenklioglu (Ph.D., Stevens) H. Silla (Ph.D., Stevens) G. B. Delancey (Ph.D., Pittsburgh) K. T. O'Brien (Ph.D., Leeds) K. K. Sirkar (Ph.D., Illinois) C. G. Gogos (Ph.D., Princeton) D. H. Sebastian (Ph.D., Stevens) A. P. Zioudas (Ph.D., Illinois) For additional information, contact: Prof. F. T. Jones Head, Department of Chemistryand Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, N.J. 07030 (201) 420-5546 For application contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, N.J. 07030 (201) 420-5234 Overlooking the Hudson River and midtown Manhattan, the 55-acre Stevens campus encompasses more than 30 buildings, including classroom and research facilities. The location of the campus is unique, just 15 minutes from the heart of New York and within a SO-mile radius of the country's largest research laboratories and chemical, petroleum and pharmaceutical companies. Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate on the basis of race color sex age handicap religion national or ethnic origin in the administration of its educational policies scholarship and loan programs and athletics and other Institute-administered programs.

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COME TO TENNESSEE THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE Graduate Studies in Chemical Metallurgical, and Polymer Engineering Programs Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and D octor of Ph i losoph y are offered in chemical engineering metallurgical e n gineering and poly mer e n gineeri n g The Master s pro gram may be t ailored as a terminal one w ith emphasis on professional devel o pment or it may serve as prep aration for more advanced work lead ing to the Doctorate Financial Assistance S ources available include graduate teaching assis t antships research as sistantships a n d industrial fellow ships Write D e p artment of Che mi cal M etall u rgical an d Po l y m er Eng i neering The U niversity of Tennessee Knoxvi ll e Ten n essee 37916 Faculty W i lliam T Becker Donald C Bogu e Charlie R. Brook s Duane D Brun s Edward S C l ark Robert M. Counce Oran L Culberson (Emeritus) John F Fellers George C. Frazier Hsien-Wen Hsu Homer F John s on Department Head Stanley H Jury ( Emeritu s) Carl D Lundin Charles F. Moore B en F Oliver Professor-in Charge of Metallurgical Engineering Joseph J Perona Joseph E Sprui e ll E Eugene Stansbur y Roy A. Vandermeer James L White Professor-in-Charge of Polymer Engineering Research Process Dynam i cs and Control Coal Processing Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge Studies of Macromolecules Development and Synthesis of New Engineering Polymers Fiber and Plast i cs Processing Chemical Bioengineer i ng X-Ray Diffraction Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy Solidification Zone Refining Welding Cryogenic and High Temperature Calorimetry Flow and Fracture in Metallic and Polymetric Systems Corrosion Solid State Kinetics

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M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty research interests include Aerosol Technology Bioengineering Coal Utilization Computer-Aided Design Energy Environmental In Situ Processing Kinetics and Catalysis Materials Membrane Science Optimization Polymer Engineering Process Control Process Engineering Process Simulation Separations Surface Phenomena Transport Processes for addition a l i nformation : Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering The Uni v ersit y of Texas Austin Texas 78712

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Texas A&M is a land-grant and sea-grant university, and the oldest public institution of higher learning in Texas. The current enrollment is about 33,000. The uni versity location is Bryan / College Station, Texas-twin cities with a combined population of 122,000 (including students) The surrounding country is deciduous forest Houston is 95 miles Southeast and Dallas is 160 miles North CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The ChE department has an enrollment of about l 000 undergraduates and 70 graduates. ChE has excellent facilities in the Zachry Engineering Center. All gradu ate students have desk space Graduate stipends are Currently $950 / month for teaching assistantships and $800 / month for research assistants Admission to The Texas A&M University System and any of its sponsored programs is open to qualified individuals regardless of race, color, age, religion, sex, national origin or educationally unrelated handicaps. FALL 1981 FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS C. D. Holland (department head) distillation A. Akgermon-k i net i cs R. G. Anthony catalysis D. B. Bukur-simulation J. A. Bullin-pollution R Darby-rheology R. R. Davison-solar energy L. D. Durbin-process control P. T Eubank-thermodynamics T W Fogwell applied mathematics C. J. Glover-polymer solutions K. R Hall-thermodynamics D T. S. Hanson-biochemical W B. Harris-methanol fuel J. C. Holste-polymers A. D. Messina-heat transfer G. B. Tatterson-turbulence and mixing A. T Watson-porous media R. E. White-electrochemical applications FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Dept. Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 713 / 845-3361 283

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WASHINGTON UrNIVERSITY INST LOUIS ":;,'(", ,.r ............. '~ .-.r .,:_4 ;, : ~, "=: "''. ~.,,;-':. ~--, .. ,'t tJ, ,_ :: .:, Research Areas Re9ctio11 ~rigirn:~ering Transport PRenomena : T~~~~qdynamics .. : .. .Process Design -_ .. ,; And Control _:,,, Poly~ er And Materials Engineering .. ~. .. .., ~_ < :~-Biom~dic:;al ~ngineering "~ :~i : r : ~{ ~i?; b ~~i
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:>u1z :J IU ilS J\{ ill 14M s11 a 4s663 FALL 1981 Chemical Engineering a t Vi rginia Polytechn ic Institute and State University applying chemistry to the needs of man Study with outstanding professors in the land of Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Lee ... :where Chemical Engineering is an exciting art. Some current areas of major and well-funded activity are: Renewable Resources chemical and microbiological processing, chemicals from renewable resources Coal Science and Process Chemistry chemistry of prompt intermediates, reaction paths in coal liquefaction, fate of trace elements Coal Combustion Workshop small-scale systems, fate of trace elements, environmental controls, fluidized beds Microcomputers, Digital Electronics, and Control digital process measurements, microcomputer interfacing, remote data acquisition, digital controls Polymer Science and Engineering processing, morphology, synthesis, surface science, biopolymers Engi n eering Chemistry chemically pumped lasers, multiphase catalysis, chemical microengineering, photoelectrochemistry reactor design Biochemical Engineering synthetic foods, food processing, antibiotics, fermentation processes and instrumentation, environmental engineering Surface Activity use of bubbles and other interfaces for separations, water purification, trace elements, concentration, understanding living systems VPI&SU is the state university of Virginia with 20,000 students and over 5,000 engineering students located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern Virginia. White-water canoeing, skiing, backpacking, and the like are all nearby, as are Washington, D. C. and historic Williamsburg. Initial Stipends to $15,000 plus all fees. Write to: Dr. H. A. McGee, Jr., Department Head, Chemical Engineering Department. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, or call collect (703) 961-6631. 285

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Chemical Engineering Energy Engineering Coal Conversion Combustion Conversion of Solid Wastes to Low BTU Gas Environmental Engineering Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering SO 2 Scrubbing River & Lake Modeling Economic Impact of Environmental Regulations West l/'lrgIn1a UnIvers1ly Other Topics Optimization Chemical Kinetics Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Polymers Fluidization Biochemical and Bioengineering Transport Phenomena Utilization of Ultrasonic Energy Electrochemical Engineering Solution Chemistry M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write: 286 Dr. J. D. Henry Department of Chemical Engineering West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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DUC BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering MS R E Slonaker Jr., Chairman (Ph.D ., Iowa State) Growth and properties o f single c r ys tals h i gh temperature c alorimetr y, vapor liquid equilibria in ternary systems M. E. Hanyak, Jr. (Ph D. University of Pennsylvania) Computer-aided design and instru c ti o n pr o blem oriented languag es, num erica l analysis F W. Koko Jr ( Ph D ., Lehigh Univ ersi t y) Optimization algorithms, fluid mechanic s and rheol o g y, direct digital con tr ol. IM J M Pommersheim ( Ph.D ., Universit y of Pittsburgh) Catalyst deactivation reaction analysis math ema ti cal m odeli n g, and diffusion with reaction and phase c h ange. W J Snyder ( Ph D ., Pennsylvania S tat e University) Ca tal ysis polymerizat io n thermal anal ysis, development of specific ion e l ec tr odes mi cro proc essors, a n d instrumentation w h o hold und e rgra duate degrees in one o f the natural sciences o r mathematics sho ul d co ntact th e department chairman r e garding e ligibil i t y for graduate study. Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships ar e available L e wisburg l oca ted in the ce nt er of P e nn sylv an ia provid es the attraction o f a rural se tting while co nveniently located within 200 miles o f N ew York, Philadelphia Wa s hingt o n D C. and Pittsburgh For further Information, write or phone : Coord i nator of Graduate Studies Bucknell Un i versity Lewisburg PA 178 37 .._ ________ 717 524 1304 ------~ .FALL 1981 Lake Huron Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De partment offers regular and co-operative M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-doctoral programs in: *Biochemical and Food Engineering *Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Reactor Design Environmental and Pollution Control *Extractive and Process Metallurgy *Polymer Science and Engineering *Mathematical Analysis, Statistics and Control *Transport Phenomena, Multiphase Flow, Petroleum Recovery *Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling, Microwave Heating Financial Aid: Minimum $10,150 per annum Academic Staff: E. Rhodes, Ph D. (Manchester), Chair man; T. Z. Fahidy, Ph D. (Illinois), Associate Chairman, (Graduate); G. S. Mueller, Ph.D. (Manchester), Associ ate Chairman, (Undergraduate); T. L. Batke, Ph.D. (To ronto); L. E. Bodnar, Ph D. (McMaster); C. M. Burns, Ph.D. (Polytech. Inst. Brooklyn); J. J. Byerley, Ph.D. (UBC); K. S. Chang, Ph D. (Northwestern); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D (UBC); K. E. Enns, Ph.D. (Toronto); J. D Ford, Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E Gall, Ph.D. (Minn .); R. Y. M. Huang, Ph.D (Toronto); R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D. (Prince ton); I. F. Macdonald, Ph.D. (Wisconsin); M. Moo-Young, Ph.D. (London); K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton); D C. T Pei, Ph.D. (McGill); P M. Reilly, Ph.D. (London); G. L. Rempel, Ph D. (UBC); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (Berkeley); A. Rudin, Ph D. (Northwestern); J. M. Scharer, Ph D. (Pennsylvania); D.S. Scott, Ph D. (Illinois); P. L. Silveston, Dr Ing. (Munich); D R. Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State); G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Manchester); B. M. E. van der Hoff, Ir. (Delft); J. R. Wynnyckj, Ph.D (Toronto). To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G 1 Further information: See CEE, p. 4, Winter 1975 287

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Ill UNIV~!!~!! c~~AL ~!!~NSAS Graduate Study and Research Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION ROBERT E. BABCOCK e Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamic Properties PHILIP E. BOCQUET e Electrokinetics, Thermo dynamics EDGAR C. CLAUSEN Conversion of Biomass into Chell}icals and Energy JAMES R. COUPER Proce ss Design and Economic s, Polymers JAMES L. GADDY Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization JERRY A. HA YENS e Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fi re and Explosion Hazard Assessment CHARLES SPRINGER e Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes CHARLES M. THATCHER e Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation LOUIS J. THIBODEAUX e Chemical Separations Chemodynamics JIM L. 4'URPIN Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conver sion, Process Design FINANCIAL AID Graduate Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellow ships. LOCATION The U of A campus is located in beautiful Northwest Arkansas in the heart of the Ozark mountains. This tranquil setting provides an invigorating climate with exc ellent outdoor re cre a tion including hunting, fishing, c amping hiking, skiing, sailing, and canoeing. Technical and cultural opportunities are available within the eight-college consortium for higher education. For Further Details Contact: Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering 227 Engineering Building, University of Arkansas Fayetteville AR 72701 Brown University Grad~ate Study 288 Faculty H a s san Ar e f Ph D. (C orn e ll ) J o s e ph M Cal o Ph.D. ( Princet o n ) Bruce Ca s w e ll Ph D (S tanford ) J os eph H Clark e Ph D ( P o l y t ec hn i c In s titut e o f N ew Y o rk ) Ric h ard A. Dobbi11s Ph D. ( Prin ceto n ) S tu r e K :F Karl sso n Ph.D (Jo hn s H o pk i n s ) J os eph D K es tin, D.S c. ( U ni vers it y o f L o nd o n ) J os eph T .C. Liu Ph.D ( Ca liforn'ia I n s titut e o f T ec hn o l ogy ) Paul F. Ma e d e r Ph .D. ( B ro wn ) Edw a rd A M aso n ; Ph.D. ( Ma ss a c hu se tt s In s titut e of T e c hn o l ogy ) T. F M o r se Ph D. ( N o rthwe s t e rn ) Pet e r D Ri c h a rd so n Ph.D. D.Sc E n g ( U ni vc r s i'ty of L o nd o n ) Merwin Sibulkin A E ( Ca liforni a I n s titut e of T ec hn o l ogy ) Eri c M Suub e r g Sc. D. ( M assac hu se tt s In s titut e of T ec hn o l ogy ) 1n Chemical Engineering Research Tipics in Chemical Engineering Chemical kin etics com bu stio n two ph ase fl ows, fluidiz e d beds sepa r a ti o n p rocesses, numerical si mulati o n vortex methods, turbul e n ce, h yd ro d y n amic sta bilit y, coal chemistry, coal gasi fi ca ti o n h e a t a nd m as s tran sfe r aerosol condensation, tr a nsp or t processes, irrevers ible th er m o d y n a mics m em br a n es, pa rticul a t e d epos iti o n physiological fluid m ec h a n ics, rheology. A program of gra du at e s tud y in C h emica l Engineering l ea d s cowa rd th e /1;1 Sc or Ph.D. Degree Teaching an d Research Assistantship s as well as Industrial a nd University Fellowships are avai l a bl e ~ For furth er i rfor m a ti on write: Profe sso r J. Calo Coo r d i nator Ch e mic al Engineering Pro gram Division o f Engineering Brown U niv ers it y P rovi den ce, Rhode Island 02912 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Study In Chemical Engineering Degrees Offered M S and Ph.D programs are available for persons in Chemical Engineering or related fields Research Areas Energy Storage and Conservation Polymer Processing Env i ronmental Pollution Control Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design Computer Process Control Process Simulation Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Membrane Transport Processes Thermodynamics Faculty F C Alley W B Bar l age J N Beard W.F Beckw i th D.D Edie J.M Haile R.C Harshman S S Melsheimer J C Mullins R.W Rice W.H Talbott C H Gooding Clemson University Clemson University is a state coeducational land-grant university offering 78 undergraduate fields of study and 57 areas of graduate study in its n i ne academic units which i nclude the College of Eng i neering. Present on-campus enrollment totals about 10 800 students which includes about 1 500 graduate students The campus which comprises 600 acres and represents an i nvestment of approximately $195 million in permanent facilities is located in the northwestern part of South Carolina on the shores of Lake Hartwell. For Information For further information and a descriptive brochure wr i te D.D Edie Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemica l Engineering Clemson University C l emson SC 29631 THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Transport Processes Porous Media Bioengineering Reaction Engineering Simulation Processes Zeolites The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the doctorate Financial assistance is available. FALL 1981 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: Depprtment of Chemical Engineering The Cleveland State University Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street Cleveland Ohio 44115 ,, 289

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290 I tor: P rof e ssors R J. M acG r eg o r, J L. Fa lco ner, W F. Ramire z, W B Krant z, K D Ti mmerh a u s, and M S Pete rs not s ho w n : Pro f e ss or s P L. B a rri ck, D E. C l o u g h JOIN OUR TEAM At the University of rnmmrnmmrnrn for Graduate Research In ATMOSPHERIC & GEOPHYSICAL STUDIES BIOENGINEERING ENERGY ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING KINETICS AND CATALYSIS PROCESS CONTROL & OPTIMIZATION SURFACE PHENOMENA THERMODYNAMICS & CRYOGENICS ******************** WRITE TO: Pr o f ess or M a x S. P e ter s, C hairman D e partm e nt o f C h e mi c al E n gi n ee rin g Ca mpu s B ox 424 R I. G amow, H .J. M. Ha nl ey, R C. Joh n so n R L. Sa n i a nd R. E. W est U ni ve r s it y o f Co lorad o Bould e r C O 80 3 09 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS : J. A ASENJO P 0. BRUNN F. S CASTELLAN A H Y. CHEH H.P. GREGOR C C GRYTE E. F. LEON A RD J. L. S PEN C ER For Further Information. Write: Financial assistance is available Biochemica l E ngineering Applie d Mathematics, F l ui d Mechanics Biomedical E ngineering, Mass T ransfer Chemica l T hermo d ynamics an d K inetics, El ectrochemica l E ngi n eering P olymer Science, Membrane P rocesses, E nvironmental E ngineering P o l ymer Science, Separation P rocesses Biome d ica l E ngineering, T ransport P henomena Applied Mathematics, Chemica l Reactor Engineering C hairman Graduate Commi t tee Department o f Chemical Enginee r ing and Appl i ed Chemistry Columbia Univers i ty ~ew York, New York 10027 ( 212) 280-4453 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING E DU C ATION

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faculty T F. ANDERSON P BABCOCK J. P BELL C. 0. BENNETT R. W. COUGHLIN M. B. CUTLIP A T DiBENEDETTO programs M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering most aspects of Chemical Engineering. Research projects in the following areas: KINETICS AND CATALYSIS G M. HOWARD H E. KLEI M T. SHAW R. M. STEPHENSON L. F. STUTZMAN POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING D W. SUNDSTROM R A WEISS FUEL PROCESSING SEPARATION THERMODYNAMICS financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut, convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities for an education at UCONN, please write to: Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06268 DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty D. R Coughanowr E D Grossmann Y. Lee R. Mutharasan J. A. Tallmadge J R Thygeson X. Verykios C. B. Weinberger S. M. Benner Consider: High faculty/student ratio Excellent facili ties Research Areas Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering Coal Conversion Technology Mass and Heat Transport Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options Write to: Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 FALL 1981 291

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS University of Idaho T E. CARLESON L. L. EDWARDS R. R. FURGASON W.R. HAGER D S HOFFMAN M L. JACKSON R A. KORUS J. Y. PARK J. J SCHELDORF G. M. SIMMONS FACULTY -Mass Transfer Enhancement, Electrostatic Precip i tation Electrophoresis -Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp / Paper Engineering -Heat Transfer, Process Design and Economics Environmental Systems Alternative Energy Engineering Education Appli e d Thermodynamics Mass Transfer Mass Transfer in Biological Systems Particulate Control Technology -Polymers Biochemical Engineering -Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis Heat Transfer Thermodynamics Geothermal Energy Engineer i ng Energy Re covery Pyrolysis Kinetics A concentrated program of study in an i nformal atmosphere allow s completion of a M S program in on e calendar year. Graduate programs are also ava i lable for student s having non-chemical degrees The region has an invigorating cl i mate with excellent outdoor recreation including fishing hunting skiing hiking, boating, and camp i ng The university community provides access to a variety of cultural activit i es and events FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho 83843 GRADUATE STUDY LEADING TO MS AND PhD DEGREES IN GAS ENGINEERING AT ILL/NOii INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Gas Engineering courses include : Areas of Research i nclude : Coal Gasification LNG Fundamental s Energy Conservation Coal Conversion Kinetics Fluidized Bed Engineering Natural Ga s Processing Two Phase Flow Fossil Fuel Conversion Reactor Design Unconventional Energy Extraction and Conversion C ombustion Theory Energy Economics and Policy Flow through porous media Fluidization Gas-Solid Transport Fundamentals of Reactor Design Properties and Thermod y namics of Mixture s C ombustion Heat Pump s Fellowships and research assistantships are available with stipends up to $10,050 for a twelve month period. 292 Fo r add i tion a l i n format i o n w r i t e to Dr Stuart leipziger Gas Engineering Department Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois 60616 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The Johns Hopkins University M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Faculty Stanley Corrsin Ph.D Caltech Marc Donohue Ph.D. Berkeley Joseph Katz Ph.D. Chicago Robert Kelly Ph.D North Carolina State Louis Monchick, Ph.D. Boston Vivian O Brien Ph.D. Johns H opkins Geoffrey Prentice, Ph.D. Berkeley William Schwarz, Dr. Eng. Johns Hopkin s For details write to: J. T. Schrodt Director for Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Dept. University of Kentucky Lexington Kentucky 40506 Research Areas Fluid Mechanics Phase Equilibria Biotechnology Nucleation and Crystallization Electrochemical Engineering Rheology Coal Conversion Turbulence and Mixing Mass and H eat Tr ansfer Process Modeling and Control Financial assistance is available Please contact: Professor Marc Donohue Department of Chemical Engineering The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland 2 1218 30 1 -33 8 -776 1 University of Kentucky M S and Ph D. Programs Faculty D. Bhattacharyya, Ph D., Illinois Institute of Technology W. L Conger Ph D., Pennsylvania G. F. Crewe, Ph D West Virginia R. B. Grieves, Ph.D., Northwestern C. E. Ham ri n, Ph.D Northwestern R. I. Kermode, Ph D., Northwestern L. K. Peters, Ph.D. Pittsburgh E D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State A. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville Research Areas Novel Separation Processes; Membranes ; Water Pollution Control Thermochemical Hydrogen Production; 2nd Law Analysis of Processes Catalytic Hydrocracking of Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction Foam Fractionation; Physicochemical Separations Coal Liquefaction ; Catalysis; Nonisotl)ermal Kinetics Process Control and Economics Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena Electrochemical Processes; Novel Measurement Techniques Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen Regime ; Transport Phenomena Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer; Fuel Gas Desulfurization Department of Chemical Engineering FALL 198 1 293

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294 FACULTY Hugo S. Caram Marvin Charles John C. Chen Curtis W. Clump Mohamed EI-Aasser Arthur E. Humphrey Fikret Kargi Andrew Klein William L. Luyben Janice Phillips William E. Schiesser Cesar Silebi Leslie H. Sperling Fred P. Stein Leonard A. Wenzel LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS Polymer Science & Engineering Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering, Biochemical Engineering Process Simulation & Control Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Thermodynamic Property Research Energy Conversion Technology Applied Heat & Mass Transfer Fluid Mechanics SPECIAL PROGRAMS M.Eng Program in Design M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Polymer Science & Engineering FINANCIAL AID Of course. WRITE US FOR DETAILS UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE Masters and Doctoral Programs in Chemical Engineering CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Polymers Catalysis Process Dynamics and Control Thermodynamics Physical-Chemical Properties Separation Operations Applied Chemistry Environmental Engineering Coal & Shale Conversion Chemical Hazards FACULTY P. M. Christopher, M.S. (Newark) ; D. J. Collins, Ph .D. (Georgia Tech); P. B. Deshpande, Ph.D. (Arkansas); M. Fleischman, Ph.D. (Cincinnati); D. 0. Harper, Ph.D. (Cincinnati); G. C. Holdren, Ph.D (Wisconsin); W. L. S. Laukhuf, Ph.D (Louisville); M. K. Nakamura, Ph D (Illinois); C. A. Plank, Ph.D (North Carolina State); H. T. Spencer, Sc.D. (John Hopkins); K C. Tsai, Ph.D. (Missouri); J. C. Watters, Ph.D. (Maryland) Lo uisville is a metropolitan area with a moderate climate, excellent recreational and cultural opportunities, and a sizeable chemical processing industry. Pa rt time study available. WRITE: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering J.B. Speed Scientific School University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Bioengineering Graduate Enrollment 77 Faculty 17 Pollution Control Process Dynamics Computer Contr ol Kinetics and Catalysi ~ Thermodynamics Ecological"Modeling Write: Chemical Engineering Department Sugar Technology Programs of Study: Cost of Tuition: The Community: Financial Aid: :FALL 1981 Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 7 0803 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND The Department offers a broad program of graduate studies leading to the MS (with or without thesis) and the PhD degrees Areas of research emphasis include Biochemical Engi neering, Coal Technology, Process Analysis, Simulation, and Control, Polymers, and Aerosol Mechanics Tuition for the 1981 82 academic year is $92.50 per credit hour fo r Maryland res i dents and $142.50 per credit hour for nonresidents. The College Park campus is located a few m i les from Washington, D.C. and thirty miles from Baltimore and Annapolis, Maryland. Because of its location, t he University community enjoys advantages found nowhere else in the country. The variety of scientific, political, educational, cultural and athletic activities in the area enhances the life of all graduate students at Maryland. Fellowships Graduate Research and Teaching Assistantsl:iips For further informatio!'I on the programs and aid available, contact Dr. T. W. Cadman, Chairman, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 Phone (301) 454-2431. 295

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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D. Degrees Research Areas Air Pollution Monitoring and Control Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Energy Sources and Systems Environmental Control Engineering Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Process Control and Modelling of Processes Single-Cell Protein Research Them odynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids Transport in Biological Systems WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg., University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 29'6 UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN: Air Pollution Polymer Engineering Bio-mass Conversion Separation Processes Reaction Kinetics Surface Science Micro-processor Applications Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria For Application and Information: Dr. Luh C. Tao, Chairman of Chemical Engineering 226 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION:

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FALL 1981 THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Offering Research Opportunities in ; :'.' J Coal Gasification :: ;;..~ Desalination / Separation Processes, s :, ;.~ Process Simulation and Design f r Synthetic Fuels-In Situ Technology Catalysis Mini Computer Applications to Process Control Process Simulation Hydro-Metallurgy Radioactive Waste Management Biomedical Systems Solar Ponds ... and more Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque! For further information, write: Chairman, Graduate Committee Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 Graduate study toward M.S. degrees in chemical engineering Major energy research center: solar petroleum bioconversion geothermal Financial assistance available. Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other fields. FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION: Dr John T. Patton, Head, Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 3805, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-3805 New Mexico State University is an Equal Opportunity Affirmative Action employer. 297

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298 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Faculty and Research Activities: S G Bankoff G M Brown J. B Butt S H Carr W. C. Cohen B. Crist J S. Dranoff T. K. Goldstick W. W. Graessley H. M Hulburt H. H. Kung R. S. H. Mah J. C. Slattery W F. Stevens G. Thodos Boiling Heat Transfer, Two-Phase Flow Thermodynamics, Process Simulat i on Chemical Reaction Engineering Applied Catalys i s Sol i d State Properties of Polymers, Biodegradat i on Dynamics and Control of Process Systems Polymers in the Solid State Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chromatographic Separations Biomedical Engineering Oxygen Transport Polymer Rheology, Polymer Reaction Engineering Analysis of Chemical and Physical Processes Catalyst Behavior, Properties of Oxide Surfaces Computer A i ded Process Planning, Design and Analysis Transport and lnterfacial Phenomena Process Optimization and Control, Computer Applications Properties of Fluids Coal Processing, Solar Energy Financial support is available For information and application materials, write: Professor J. S. Dranoff, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60201 RESEARCH AREAS e1te111ieal 811gi11eering at /votre ZJame Catalysis Reaction Engineering Phase Eq uilibria Thermodynamics Energy Conversion Applied Mathematics Process Dynamics and Control Modeling and Simulation Transport Phenomena FACULTY R. A. Schmitz, Chairman J. J. Carberry C. F. Ivory J. C. Kantor J.P.Kohn M.A. McHugh W. C. Strieder A. Varma E. E. Wolf J. T. Banchero, Emeritus The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master's degree are normally completed in one calendar year. The doctoral program usually requires three to four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships are available to outstanding students pursuing either program For further information, write to Prof. R A. Schmitz, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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OREGON ST A TE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY A. Konuk Process Systems Simulation and Analysis J. G. Knudsen -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two Phase Flow 0. Levenspiel Reactor Design, Fluidization R. E. Meredith Corrosion, Electrochemical Engineer ing R. V. Mrazek Thermodynamics, Applied Mathe matics C. E. Wicks Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment An informal atmosphere with oppor t unity for give and take with faculty and for joint work with the Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA), Metallurgical Research Center of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Forest Product Laboratory, Environmental Health Science Center and the School of Oceanography. The location is good-in the heart of the Willamette Valley-60 miles from the rugged Oregon Coast and 70 miles from good skiing or mountain climbing in the high Cascades For further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department, Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA M.A.Sc. and Ph D. programs in: energy storage ... extraction .. process control ... enhanced oil recovery ... reverse osmosis ... k i netics and catalysis ... porous media ... non Newtonian flow ... thermodynamics solar energy ... experimental design polymer modification .. pulp & paper ... phase equilibria CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OTIA WA, ONTARIO, CANADA KIN 9B4 phone (613)231-3476 FACULTY J. A. Golding, Ph.D (Toronto) W. Hayduk Ph.D. (UBC) V. Hornof, Ph.D. (SFU) W. Kozicki, Ph.D. (Caltech) B.C. Y. Lu, Ph.D. (Toronto) R. S. Mann, Ph D. (Hull) D. D. McLean, Ph.D (Queens) G H. Neale, Ph.D. (Alberta) S. Sourirajan, Ph D. (Bombay), D. Eng. (Yale) F D. F Talbot, Ph.D (Toronto), Chairman who should be contacted for further information. COME AND JOIN US IN THE EXCITING ENVIRONMENT OF CANADA'S NATIONAL CAPITAL FALL 1981 299

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 300 University of Pittsburgh Today, approximately 2,000 undergraduates and 600 graduate students are enrolled in the School of Engineering. Students have access to the George M. Bevier Engineer ing Library of 38,000 volumes; University libraries of over 2,500,000 volumes: libraries in 50 industrial research centers and universities nearby. University of Pittsburgh has a comprehensive computer system with both batch and time-sharing facilities to use in academic and research investigations. FACULTY Charles S. Beroes Alfred A. Bishop Alan J. Brainard Shiao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb, Jr. Paul F. Fulton James G, Goodwin Gerald D Holder George E Klinzing Joseph H. Magill Alan A. Reznik Yatish T. Shah John W. Tierney Irving Wender Princeton PROGRAMS AND SUPPORT Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineer ing and Master of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering are offered. While obtaining advanced degrees, students may specialize in Reaction Engineering, Catalysis, Thermodynamics, Particulate Systems, Nuclear, and Environmental areas. A joint Master of Science degree with Petroleum Engineering and the Department of Mathematics is offered. Teaching and Research Assistantships and Fellowships are available. Eighty graduate students, along with 300 und ergraduates pursue their education on three floors of Benedum Hall. The facilities are modern and excellently equipped. Graduate applicants should write: Graduate Coordinator, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering School of Engineering Univenity of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis; Chemical Reactor / Reaction Engineering; Computer-Aided Design; Energy Conversion and Fusion Reactor Technology; Colloidal Phenomena ; Environmental Studies; Fluid Mechanics and Rhe ology; Hazardous Wastes; Mass and Momentum Transport; Polymer Materials Science and Rhe ology; Process Control; Reactor Engineering; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria. FACULTY Robert C. Axtmann, Jay B. Benziger, John K Gillham, Carol K. Hall, Ernest F. Johnson, Jeffrey Koberstein, Morton D. Kostin, Bryce Maxwell, Robert G. Mills, Robert K Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld, William B. Russel, Dudley A. Saville, William R. Schowalter, Chairman, Sankaran Sundersan. WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemi~al Engineering Princ~t,orr Univenity Princeton, New Jeney 08544 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUGA'fION

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----------Qgeen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D. W Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H. A. Becker ScD (MIT) D H. Bone PhD (London S. H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R.H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) R. K. Code PhD (Cornell) A. J. Daugulis PhD (Queen's) P. L. Douglas PhD (Waterloo) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) E.W. Grandmaison Ph.D. (Queen's) C. C. Hsu PhD (Texas) B. W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) Resource Recovery solid-waste treatment biotechnology biochemical engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering catalysis statistical design polymerization Transport Processes combustion turbulence and mixing drying rheology Fuels and Energy coal conversion fluidized-bed combustion wood gasification alcohol product i on Write: Dr. Henry A. Becker Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Canada K7L 3N6 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FALL 1981 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Biochemical Engineering Food Engineering Materials Engineering Phase Change Kinetics Mixing Separation Processes Energy Engineering Heat Transfer APPLICATIONS APPLY TO: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Applications for financial aid should be received not later than Feb 16 301

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302 UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 14627 MS & PhD Programs The Faculty S. H. Chen, Ph.D., 1981, Minnesota Mass Transfer, lnterfacial Phenomena G. R. Cokelet, Sc D., 1963, MIT Blood & Suspension Rheology, Biotechnology R F. Eisenberg, M.S 1948, Rochester Corrosion, Physical Metallurgy M. R. Feinberg, Ph D., 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems, Continuum Mechanics J. R. Ferron, Ph.D., 1958, Wisconsin Molecular Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics J.C. Friedly, Ph D., 1965, California (Berkeley) Process Dynamics, Control Heat Transfer R. H. Heist, Ph.D., 1972, Purdue Nucleation Solid State, Atmospheric Chemistry R. H Notter, Ph.D., 1969, Washington (Seattle) lnterfacial Phenomena, Bioengineering M.D., 1980, Rochester H.J. Palmer, Ph.D., 1971, Washington (Seattle) lnterfacial Phenomena, Mass Transfer H. Saltsburg, Ph.D., 1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering G. J Su, Sc. D., 1937, MIT Colloidal & Amphorous States, Glass Science For information write: J. C. Friedly, Chairman EHULMAN OF RESEARCH AREAS Kinetics and Catalysis En e rgy Resources and Conversion Process Control Polymers Thermodynamics Transport Phenom e na Biochemical Processing Biom e dical Transport and Co nt ro l TECHNOLOGY FACULTY R. S Artigue, D.E, Tulane W. W. Bowden, P h.D., Purdue J. A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson T. R. Hanley, Ph.D. VPISU S. C. Hite, Ph.D., Purdue P. F. Hogan, Ph.D., Rice N. E. Moore, Ph.D., Purdue For Information Write : Dr. Thomas R. Hanley Dept. Graduate Advisor Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute, IN 47803 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CAilIFORNIA Los Angeles Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering FACULTY WENJI VICTOR CHANG ( Ph.D., Ch.E., Caltech 1976) CHARLES J. RHERT ( Ph.D ., Ch E ., Ohio State U., 1955) Rheological properties of polymers and composites, adhesion, pol ymer processing JOE D. GODDARD H i gh pressure vapor-liquid equilibria two phase flow liquid thermal conducticity RONALD SALOVEY Interested in advanced studies for the M.S., Eng or Ph D. degree in Chemical Engineering? Interested in a dynamic and growing depart ment in one of the World's great climates and metropolitan areas? If so, write for further information about the program financial support, and applica tion forms to: Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Southern California University Park, PCE Building 205 Los Angeles, CA 90007 (Ph.D. Ch E U.C. Berkeley 1962) Rheology and mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids and composite materials, transport processes LYMAN L. HANDY (Ph.D., Phys Chem ., U. of Wash., 1951) Fluid flow through porous media and petroleum reservo ir engineering FRANK J. LOCKHART ( Ph D ., Ch .E., U. of Mich., 1943) Distillation, air pollution design of chemical plants CORNELIUS J. PINGS ( Ph.D Ch E Caltech 1955 ) Thermodynamics statistical mechanics and liquid state physics (Ph.D., Phys. Chem., Harvard, 1958) Physical chemistry and irradiation of polymers, character iz ation of elastomers and polyurethanes THEODORE T. TSOTSIS (Ph.D., Ch E., U of Ill., Urbana, 1978) Chemical reaction engineering, process dynamics and control JAMES M. WHELAN (Ph.D., Chem ., U C. Berkeley, 1952) Thin F ilms 111-V, heterogenous catalysis, sintering processes VANIS C. YORTSOS (Ph.D., Ch E ., Caltech 1978) Mathematical modelling and transport processes, flow in porous media and thermal oil r ecovery methods Chemical Engineering at Stanford Stanford University offers pr'ograms of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy de grees in chemical engineering with a number of financially attractive fellowships and assistantships available to out standing students pursuing either program For further information and application blan~s write to: Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford California 94305 Closing date for applications is January 15 1982. FALL 1981 0 FACULTY : Andreas Acrivos ( Ph D ., 1~54, Minne so ta) Fl~id Mechanics Michel Boudart (Ph D ., 1950, Princeton) Kinetics and Catalysis Curtis W. Frank (Ph D 1972 Illinois) Polymer Science Gerald G Fuller ( Ph D 1 980, Cal Tech) Microrheology George M. Homsy (Ph D .. 1969, Illinois) Fluid Mechanics and Stabil i ty Robert J Mad ix ( Ph D 1 964 U Cal-Berkeley) Surface Reactivity David M. Mason ( Ph D ., 1949 C
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. 304 G F Andrews D.R. Brutvan W.Y. Chon P Ehrlich W N Gi/1 R J. Good R Gupta V Hlavacek K M. Kiser CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT State University of New York at Buffalo Faculty E Ruckenstein M : E Ryan T. Sridhar P. Stroeve J J. Ulbrecht C.J. van Oss T W Weber S W Weller R T Yang Adhesion Adsorption Applied Mathematics Biochemical & Biomedical Catalysis Kinetics & Reactor Design Coal Conversion Desalination & Reverse Osmosis Design and Economics Research Areas Fluidization Mixing Nuclear Engineering Polymer Processing & Rheology Process Control Separation Proce s ses Surface Phenomena Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemical engineering fundamental~ while preserving the flexibility needed to develop special areas of interest The Depart ment also draws on the strengths of being part of a large and diverse university center This environ ment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research. The new departmental facilities offer an exceptional opportunity for students to develop their research skills and capabilities. These features, combined with year-round recreational activities afforded by the Western New York countryside and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo, make SUNY/Buffalo an espedally attractive place to pursue graduate studies For {iiformatlon and applications, write to: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY IN SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AREAS Water Renovation Biomedical Engineering Membrane Processes Desalination Catalysis Polymer Characterization Process Simulation Fluid-Particle Separation Liquid-Liquid Extraction FACULTY Allen J. Barduhn James A. Schwarz John C. Heydweiller S. Alexander Stern George C. Martin Lawrence L. Tavlarides Philip A. Rice Chi Tien Chiu-Sen Wang Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among the hills of Central New York State. A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering, science, the social sciences, and the humanities exists at the university. The many diversified activities conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both spedflc and general educational goals. As a part of this medium sized research oriented university, the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of the faculty in new Jechnological problems confronting society. Research, independent study and the general atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation. FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1980-1981 For Information: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Syracuse University Syracuse, New York 13210 Stipends: Stipends range from $6,000 to $7,500 with most students receiving at least $6,000 per annum in addition to re mitted tuition privileges. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY W. J Conner Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. FACULTY K C. Oosterhout Ph D. Tulane University Fluid Mechanics and Combustion J. B Finley Ph.D Oklahoma State University Mass Transfer and Corrosion Ph D. University of Pennsylvania Kinetics R. W. Serth Ph.D. S.U N.Y at Buffalo Texas A&I University is located in Tropical South Texas, 40 miles south of the Urban Center of Corpus Christie, and 30 miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. Rheology and Applied Mathematics FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: GRADUATE ADVISOR Department of Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering RESEARCH and TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE Texas A&I University Kingsville, Texas 78363 FALL 1981 The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships Available. EPA Traineeships in Water Supply and Pollution Control. For more details write: Dr. S. L. Rosen Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 305

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS TUFTS UNIVERSITY CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS Metropolitan Boston RHEOLOGY OPTIMIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION POLYMER STUDIES MEMBRANE PHENOMENA CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY BIO-ENGINEERING MECHANO-CHEMISTRY PROCESS CONTROL FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF. K. A. VAN WORMER, CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155 STUDY WITH US AND ENJOY NEW ORLEANS TOOi CHEMICAL AND MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING TULANE UNIVERSITY Specialize through options in: l. The Polymers and Reaction Engineering Laboratory. 2. The Energy and Environmental Laboratory. 3. The Health and Ecology Laboratory 4. The Management and Control Laboratory. Established Internships with Industry and Government Agencies For Additional Information Please Contact R. V. Bailey, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118 306 THE FACULTY: R. V. Bailey Ph.D. (LSU) _______ .,.,ystems Engineering, Applied Math Energy Conversion R W Freedman Sc D. (M.I T ) _____ _, ,umerical Methods, Control Theory, Mathematical Simulation Henry H. Luttrell, Ph D (LSU) -----Thermodynamics Reactor Des i gn, Bio engineering D W McCarthy Ph.D (Tulane) ____ Computer Control, Optimization, Determin i stic Modeling S. L. Sullivan, Jr Ph D (Texas A&M) _________ Separation Processes Transport Phenomena, Numerical Methods K. D Papadopoulos, D.Eng.Sci. (Columbia) ___ Colloid Chemistry, Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Bert Wilkins (Ga Tech.) _______ Transport Phenomena, Energy and En v i ronmental Studies, Bioengineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE FACULTY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Tulsa M.S., Master of Engineering Management, Ph.D. A. P. Buthod Peter Clark K. D. Luks F. S. Manning W. C. Philoon E. H. Snider N. D. Sylvester R. E. Thompson Petroleum refining, petroleum phase behavior, heat transfer Enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing Thermodynamics, phase equilibria Industrial pollution control, enhanced oil recovery Corrosion, process design Environmental engineering, kinetics Enhanced oil recovery, environmental protection, fluid mechanics, reaction engineering Oil and gas processing, computer-aided process design FURTHER INFORMATION If you would like additional information concerning specific research areas, facilities, and curriculum contact the Chairman of Chemical Engineering (Prof. Manning). Inquiries concerning admissions and financial support should be directed to the Dean of the Graduate School. The University of Tulsa 600 S. College Tulsa, OK 74104 (918) 592-6000 The University of Tulsa has an Equal Opportunity/ Affirmative Action Program for students and employees. THE BURNING OUESTIONI FALL 1981 One would think that by now industrial societies would know how to burn coal. We do, but not in ways that minimize the formation of air pollutants. As we move toward a coal-based society, the pollutants from coal combustion are indeed becoming the burning question. The furnace at the left, in the Combustion Research Laboratory in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of U t ah, is one of the most technically advanced facilities in the world for the study of air pollutant formation in coal combustion. If you would like to learn more about this and other burning questions in Chemical Engineering, contact Noel de Nevers Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 307

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308 University of Washington Chemical Engineering Faculty G Graham Allant Glasgow John C Berg, Berkeley Morton M. David (Eme ritu s), Yale Bruce A. Finlayson Minnesota Harold E Hager, Princeton William J. Heideger Princeton Allan S. Hoffman Mass. Inst. of Tech Thomas A Horbett Washington Thomas E Hutchinson, Virginia Lennart N. Johanson Wiscon sin Barbara B. Krieger Wayne State Joseph L McCarthyt McGill William T McKeant, Washington R. Wells Moulton (Emeritus) Washington Buddy D Ratner, Brooklyn Poly N. Lawrence Ricker : Berkele y Kyosti V. Sarkanent New York James C. Seferis Delaware Charles A. Sleicher Michigan t joint appointments with Forest Resources joint appointments with Bioengineering Research Areas Polymer Science and Engineering Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Electr ochemica l Engineering Surface and lnterfacial Phenomena Computer Process Control and Optimization Mathematical Modeling of Dynam ic Systems Applied Kinetics Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Pro cesses Semiconductor Processing and Technology Heat Transfer The University of Wa shington is a diverse institution with strong programs in many scholarly fields Chemical engineering graduate st udents take advantage of specialized courses given by other departments to add breadth and depth to their program of study. Esssentially all graduate students are su pported financially Seattle has outstanding recreational and cultural opportunities and has been consistently rated one of the most "livable cities in the U S Further information, write: Chairman, Chemical Engineering Dept. University of Washington BF 1 O Seattle Washington 98195 WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY AIR POLLUTION: COMPUTERS: ENERGY: HYDROMET ALLURGY : NUCLEAR ENGINEERING: POLYMER ENGINEERING : TRANSPORT PHENOMENA: Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Submicron Particulate Collection/High Temperature Catalysis/ Global Monitor ing & Meteorological Interaction/ Atmospheric Chemistry & Trace Analyses/ Odor Perception/Phytotoxicity / Meteorological Tracer Studies Computer Control, Real Time Computing Oil Shale Processing / Synthesis Gas Catalysis/Hot Gas Clean Up/In-Situ Recovery Low Grade Ore Leaching / Solution Thermodynamics Radioactive Waste Management/Radiocarbon Dating Electroiniated Polymerization/Polymeric Encapsulation / Multiphase Polymerization Reactor Design Laser-Doppler Velocimetry / Multi-Phase Transport & Reactions Particulate Transport & Stability /T ransport Phenomena in Living Systems Fellowships, Assistantships and Full-time Summer Appointments Available Contact: W. J. Thomson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Wa. 99164 / Tel. 509-335-4332. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY FALL 1981 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D. A. Crowl, PhD H. G Donnelly, PhD E. R Fisher, PhD E. Gulari, PhD J. Jorne, PhD R H. Kummler, PhD C. B. Leffert, PhD R. Marriott, PhD J H. McMicking, PhD R Mickelson PhD P. K Roi, PhD E. W Rothe, PhD S Salley PhD S K. Stynes, PhD Contact: combustion process control thermodynamics-process design kinetics-molecular lasers transport-laser light scattering electrochemical engr. fuel eel Is environmental engr. kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr. process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments Biosystems modelling-kinetics multi-phase flows-environmental engr. Dr. Ralph H. Kummler Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 309

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IIIPI WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE "The Innovative School" The WPI Chemical Engineering Department enjoys an excellent reputation for its research under the direction of ten full time faculty members in: ADSORPTION DIFFUSION CATALYSIS MOLECULAR SIEVES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENERGY CONVERSION GAS SOLID REACTION Extensive technical and cultural opportunities within the ten-college Worcester Consortium for Higher Education and the facilities of a medium sized city in Central Massachusetts. Attractive assistantships available. Address inquiries to: Dr. Y. H. Ma, Chairman ~ ---Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING For more information contact: Dr. A. L. Hines We offer exciting opportunities for research in many energy related areas. In recent years research has been conducted in the areas of kinetics and catalysis, hydrogenation of shale oil, coal liquefaction, water de salination, waste energy recovery, thermodynamics and phase equilibria, transport phenomena, in-situ coal gasification and synthetic fuel pro duction from coal and oil shales. Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Wyoming P.O. Box 3295 University Station Laramie, Wyoming 82071 Graduates of any accredited engineering school are eligible for ad mission, and the department also offers a masters degree program for students with a B.S. degree in chemistry or physics. Financial aid is available, and all aid recipients receive full fee waivers. 310 A dm issi on, e m p loym en t, and programs of th e U nive r si ty of Wyom i ng ar e offered to all e l i g i bl e p e o p l e wi thout r e grad to rac e c olor, n a t i onal orig i n, se x, r e lig i on, or po liti c al b elie f. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING J. W. Gibbs PhD-Engineering You? PhD-Engineering 1863 1985 YALE UNIVERSITY ECOLE POL YTECHNIQUE AFFILIEE A L'UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Research assistantships are available in the following areas: POLYMER ENGINEERING RHEOLOGY SOLAR HEATING FLUIDISATION REACTION KINETICS PROCESS CONTROL AND SIMULATION INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING PROFITEZ DE CETTE OCCASION POUR PARFAIRE VOS CONNAISSANCES DU FRANCAISI VIVE LA DIFFERENCE!* Some knowledge of the French language is required. FALL 1981 For information, write to: D. Klvana, prepose a !'admission, Departement du Genie Chimique, Ecole Polytechnique C.P. 6079, Station A Montreal H3C 3A7, CANADA THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA Iowa City M.S. Ph.D. Research in Flow through microporous media Membrane Separations Mass transfer operations Characterization of particulate materials Materials science Materials processing Air pollution Fracture mechanics Reaction kinetics Catalysis Write: Chairman Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 311

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NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEWARK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR M.S., ENGINEER AND Sc.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Biomedical Engineering Biochemical Engineering Environmental Engineering Polymer Science and Engineering Basic Studies-Chemical Engineering Basic Studies-Applied Chemistry Process and Design Studies For details on applications and financial aid, write: Mr. Dino Sethi Director of Graduate Studies New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 High Street Newark, New Jersey 07102 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA IL Graduate Studies MS and MEngr. i11 C~emical Engineering PROGRAMS: Thesis and non-thesis options are available at the MS level. A substantial design project is required for the M.Engr. degree. A full time student with a BS in Ch.E can complete a program in a calendar year. Students with a degree in chemistry are accepted in our program. Research and Teaching Assistant ships are available RESEARCH PROJECTS: Most funded research p r ojects are energy related although other basic and applied projects are avail able. Students may participat e in project-related thesis problems or may be employed as project workers in the Department, the Engineering Experiment Station or the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY : A cooperative program of study research related to foss i l fuel conversion and upgrading is offered by the Department and the U.S. Department of Energy through the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Joint Re search fellowships are available to U S. citizens. FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (70 l-777-4244) MONASH UNIVERSITY CLAYTON, VICTORIA Department of Chemical Engineering Applications are in vited for Monash University Research Scholar ships tenable in the Department of Chemical Engineering The awards are intended to enable sc holars to carry out under supervision, a programme of full time advanced studies and research which may lead to the degrees of Master of Engineer ing Science and/ or Doctor of Philosophy Facilities are available for work in the general fields of: Biochemical and Food Engineering Chemical Reactor Engineering Extractive Metallurgy and Mineral Engineering Process Dynamics, Control and Optimization Polymer Processing and Rheology Transport Phenomena Waste Treatment and Water Purification. Hydrogenation and Drying of Brown Coal Scholarships carry a stipend of $4,400 per annum Detailed i nformation about the awards and the necessary application forms may be obtained from the Academic Registrar. Technical enquiries should be addressed to the Chairman of Department, Professor 0. E. Potter. Postal Address: Monash University Wellington Road Clayton, 3168 Victoria, Australia UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Programs leading to Ph.D. and M.Sc. degrees Research in the general fields of Corrosion Adsorption and catalysis Heat transfer Transport phenomena Biochemical treatment of wastes Conversion of liquo-cellulosics and coal into other usable products. Excellent laboratory, computational and library facilities Maximum stipend of $9,500 PL US payment of program fees is available for highly qualified students For furth e r information and d e scriptive bro c hures write to Head, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering University, of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W0 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TEXAS TECH Join a rapidly accelerating department (research funding has increased an average of 26% per year for the last three years) Graduate research projects available inBIOMASS UTILIZATION PROCESS ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY COMPLEX FLUID FLOWS Texas Tech Chemical Engineering graduates are among the most sought-after by industry in the country. Be one of them! For information, brochure and application mate rials, write Dr. R. W Tock Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDIES M.S., and Ph D. Programs in Chemical Engineering. Special M.S. program for Chemists and other Natural Science Majors. RESEARCH INTERESTS: Fundamental mass and heat transfer operations, chemical reactor analysis and engineering, crystalliz tion phenomena, mixing, fluidization, fixed-bed adsorption, air pollution control, electrochemical processes, solar energy utiliza tion, low Reynolds number and surface tension driven flows, polymer rheology, macromolecular adsorption, intermolecular association, hindered diffusion, thermodynamics and statistlc I mechanics, physical properties of fluids, alternative energy sources, biochemical engineering and biotechnology, enzyme engineering, transport phenomena in biological systems, design, development and economics of chemical processes. FOR ADMISSION AND FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs FRANCIS J. BONNER: Polymer Engineerihg,Characterization of polymers, Thermal Diffusion and Membrane Transport of macromole cules KENNETH A. DEBELAK: Gasification and Liquifaction of coal, Energy-Environmental Systems, Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Processes THOMAS M. GOLDBOLD: Process Dynamics and Control, Mass Transfer KNOWLES A. OVERHOLSER: Combustion Physics, Biorheotogy ROBERT J. ROSELLI: Biomedical Engineering, Biological Mass Transfer JOHN A. ROTH: Reaction Kinetics and Chemical Reactor Design, Gas Chromatography, Industrial Waste Management and Control KARL B. SCHNELLE, JR.: Air Pollution, Instrumentation and Auto matic Control, Dispersion Studies ROBERTO. TANNER: Enzyme Kinetics, Fermentation Processes and Kinetics, Pharmacokinetics, Microbial Assays W. DENNIS THREADGILL: Unit Operations, Food and Diary Industry Waste Treatment DAVID W WILSON : Surface Chemical Separation Techniques, Physi cal-Chemical Methods of Waste Water Treatment Further Information: Karl B. Schnelle, Jr., Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Box 1604, Station B Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee 37235 WEST VIRGINIA TECH That's what we usually are called. Our full name is West Virginia Institute of Technology. We're in a small state full of friendly people, and we are small enough to keep your personal goals in mind. Our forte is high quality undergraduate instruction, but we are seeking high-grade students for our new graduate program for the M.S. If you are a superior student with an interest in helping us while we help you, we may have funding for you. Write: Dr. E. H. CRUM Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia Inst. of Technology Montgomery, WV 25136

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ACl(NOWLEDGMENTS Departmental Sponsors: The following 143 departments contributed to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1981 with bulk subscriptions. University of Akron University of Alabama University of Alberta Arizona State University University of Arizona University of Arkansas Auburn University Brigham Young University University of British Columbia Bucknell University University of Calgary California State Polytechnic California Institute of Technology University of California (Berkeley) University of California (Davis) University of California (Santa Barbara) Carnegie-Mellon University Case-Western Reserve University University of Cincinnati Clarkson College of Technology Clemson University Cleveland State University University of Colorado Colorado School of Mines Columbia University University of Connecticut Cooper Union Cornell University University of Dayton University of Delaware U. of Detroit Drexel University Ecole Polytechnique (Canada) University of Florida Georgia Technical Institute University of Houston Howard University University of Idaho University of Illinois (Urbana) Illinois Institute of Technology Insti t ute of Gas Technology Institute of Paper Chemistry University of Iowa Iowa State University Kansas State University University of Kentucky Lafayette College Lamar University Lehigh Unh-ersity Loughborough University Louisiana State University Louisiana Tech. University University of Louisville University of :\laine U niversity of l'tlaryland University of Massachusetts Massachusetts Institute of Technology McMaster University :M:cNeese State University University of Michigan Michigan State University Michigan Tech. University University of Minnesota University of Mississippi University of Missouri (Columbia) University of :mssouri (Rolla) :\Ionash Uni,ersity Montana State University University of Nebraska University of 1 ew Brunswick ~ew Jersey Inst. of Tech. University of New Hampshire Xew :\Iexico State Uni,ersity University of New Mexico City University of Xew York Polytechnic Institute of Xew York State University of )l'.Y. at Buffalo Xorth Carolina State niversity niversity of Xorth Dakota Xortheastern "Gni,ersity Northwestern l, niversity University of Xotre Dame Nova Scotia Tech. College Ohio State university Ohio Uni.ersity University of Oklahoma Oklahoma State University Oregon State Uni,ersity University of Ottawa niversity of Pennsyl,ania Pennsylvania State ni,ersity University of Pittsburgh Princeton l,niversity University of Puerto Rico Purdue University Queen's University Rens s elaer Polytechnic Institut University of Rhode Island Rice University University of Rochester Rose-Hulm.an Institute Rutgers U. l,niversity of South Carolina ni,ersity of Saskatchewan South Dakota School of }',fines University of South Alabama University of Sooth Florida University of Southern California Stanford University Stevens Institute of Technology Syracuse University Teeside Polytechnic Institute Tennessee Technological University University of Tennessee Texas A&M University Texas A&I Uni,ersity University of Texas at Austin Texas Technological Uni,ersity 1Jni,ersity of Toledo ni,ersity of Toronto Tri-State University Tufts "Gniversity Tulane -C-ni,ersity Gniversity of Tulsa Gniversity of Utah Vanderbilt "Cni,ersity 'Villano,a 1:"ninrsity Virginia Polytechnic Institute "Cniversity of Virginia '1ashington State "Cni,e:rsity "GniTersity of Washington W ashmgton Uni.ers:ity l:'niversity of aterloo Wayne State uni,ersity We,,--t -Virginia Inst. Technology West 1irginia l:'niversity University of We:,,--tern Ontario l:'niversity of Wmdsor lJ ni,ersity of "W iscon.s:in (llifu on) Worcester Polytechnic In.,,--titute l:'ni,ersity of Wyo g Yale "Cni,ersity Youngsto State l;niversity TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contribu1or please ask your department chairman to write CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATlON c o Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida Gainesville Florida 32611.