Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00068

Full Text







Em *5g *e 0; e u ca tion




Good engineers are in a

position to choose.

So why choose FMC?


"At the outset, I knew that
working for FMC would mean
becoming a valued member
of their team. FMC is recog-
nized as a large corporation,
and it is-in terms of size,
varied product lines and
growth opportunities. Yet, the
people are warm and friendly,
and creativity is encouraged.
At FMC, people count, and
that has made the difference
to me."


"I was really impressed by
FMC's involvement in so
many types of products and
processes. Here, there is
always the chance to work on
optimizations and designs.
Learning day-to-day opera-
tions from FMC experts and
assuming major responsibil-
ity for projects have been
great challenges. I'm looking
forward to even greater ones
in the future."


"FMC offered me the best
opportunities for advance-
ment in a variety of situa-
tions. Working in four dif-
ferent departments has
increased my knowledge
enormously. At FMC, I've
been able to explore manu-
facturing and production
engineering. It gives me great
satisfaction to know that I am
a major contributor to our
overall plant operations."


Larry Ligawa earned his BS in
Industrial Technology at Indiana
State University in 1974 and went on
to complete his MS in Industrial
Professional Technology at ISU in
1976 before joining FMC. As an
Industrial Engineer with the Chain
Division in Indianapolis, Ind., Larry
studies and audits both labor- and
capital-intensive work processes and
recommends methods to increase
productivity.


Helen E. Bilson joined the Technical
Department of the FMC Agricultural
Chemical Group's plant in Baltimore,
Md., after earning her BS in Chemical
Engineering from Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State
University in 1978. Beth's first
assignment was to implement a
wastewater treatment technique
developed in FMC's own labs. She's
presently working on a project team
to design and engineer a production
plant for one of our important
chemical intermediates.


In four years at FMC, Stan Butkivich
progressed from an associate to a
senior level Industrial Engineer. Now,
as the Assistant Supervisor in the
Cost Control Engineering Depart-
ment of FMC's San Jose Ordnance
Plant in California, he is directly
involved with a most important
aspect of production-its costs. Stan
received his BS in Engineering Tech-
nology from California Polytechnic
State University in 1975.


FMC
FMC is an equal opportunity
employer, M/F.


Choosing FMC means...
...joining a major international producer of machinery and chemicals for
industry and agriculture with 1978 sales of $2.91 billion. FMC Corporation,
headquartered in Chicago, has more than 45,000 employees worldwide,
located at 136 manufacturing facilities in 33 states and 15 other nations. FMC
products include food and agricultural machinery and chemicals, industrial
chemicals, material and natural resource handling equipment, construction
and power transmission products, government and municipal equipment. We
offer a range of rewarding careers for engineers and other technical gradu-
ates. See us on campus or contact your placement office.












A Letter to Chemical Engineering Seniors
This is the 12th Graduate Issue to be published by CEE
and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous
issues, we include articles on graduate courses that are
taught at various universities and ads of departments on
their graduate programs. However, this year we have
also included some papers from departments in the United
Kingdom as well as papers on research being carried out
by certain outstanding chemical engineering professors.
In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of
graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the
articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A
list of the papers from recent years follows. If you would
like a copy of a previous Fall issue, please write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE


AUTHOR.


Culberson
Davis
Frank
Morari, Ray

Ramkrishna
Russel, Saville,
Ollis,
Schowalter
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen


Aris

Butt & Peterson
Kabel

Middleman

Perlmutter

Rajagopalan

Wheelock
Carbonell &
Whitaker




Dumesic

Jorne
Retz:off

Blanch, Russell
Chartoff


TITLE
Fall 1980
"Doctoral Level ChE Economics"
"Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics"
"Courses in Polymer Science"
"Integration of Real-Time Computing
Into Process Control Teaching"
"Functional Analysis for ChE's"


"Colloidal Phenomena"
"Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Mathematical Methods in ChE"
"Coal Liquefaction Processes"

Fall 1978
"Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes
on Seminars in a ChE Department'
"Chemical Reactor Engineering"
"Influential Papers in Chemical Re-
action Engineering"
"A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro-
cessing"
"Reactor Design From a Stability
Viewpoint"
"The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal
Systems"
"Coal Science and Technology"
"Transport Phenomena in Multicom-
ponent, Multiphase, Reacting
Systems"

Fall 1977
"Fundamental Concepts in Surface In-
teractions"
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Chemical Reaction Engineering Sci-
ence"
"Biochemical Engineering"
"Polymer Science and Engineering"


Alkire
Bailey & Ollis
DeKee
Deshpande
Johnson
Klinzing
Lemlich
Koutsky
Reynolds
Rosner


Astarita
Delgass
Gruver
Liu
Manning
McCoy
Walter

Corripio
Donaghey
Edgar
Gates, et al.
Luks
Melnyk & Prober
Tavlarides
Theis
Hamrin, et. al.

Merrill
Locke & Daniels
Moore
Wei

Hopfenberg

Fricke
Tierney

Bell
Chao &
Greenkorn
Cooney

Curl & Kadlee
Gainer
Slattery

Kelleher & Kafes
Douglas &
Kittrell


Fall 1976
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum Trans-
port"
Fall 1975
"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"
Fall 1974
"Digital Computer Control of Process"
"Solid-State Materials and Devices"
"Multivariable Control and Est."
"Chemistry of Catalytic Process"
"Advanced Thermodynamics"
"Wastewater Engineering for ChE's"
"Enzyme and Biochemical Engr."
"Synthetic & Biological Polymers"
"Energy Engineering"
Fall 1973
"Applied Chemical Kinetics"
"Corrosion Control
"Digital Computer Process Control"
"Economics of Chem. Processing Indus-
tries"
"Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal
Materials"
"Polymer Processing"
"Staged Separations"
Fall 1972
"Process Heat Transfer"
"Equilibrium Theory of Fluids"

"Biological Transport Pnenomena and
Biomedical Engineering"
"Modeling"
"Applied Surface Chemistry"
"Momentum, Energy and Mass Trans-
fer"
"Process and Plant Design Project"
"Engineering Entrepeneurship"


Fall 1971
Reid & Modell "Thermo: Theory & Applications"
Theofanous "Transport Phenomena"
Weller "Heterogeneous Catalysis"
Westerberg "Computer Aided Process Design"
Kabel "Mathematical Modeling..."
Wen "Noncatalytic Heterogeneous Reaction
Systems"
Beamer "Statistical Analysis and Simulation"
Himmelblau "Optimization of Large Scale Systems"


FALL 1980



































The people behind these products


still remember looking for


their first job.


They were people who wanted a
good job with a good company. A
chance to show what they could
do. And to be recognized for
doing it.
They were people like you.
The products they researched,
produced and marketed have
already touched every part of your
life. Food wrapping, herbicides,
antifreeze, medicine, packing mate-
rial, home insulation, paper, photo-
graphic chemicals, fertilizers, and
carpet backing, just to name a few.


The careers they took with Dow
gave them a chance to do some-
thing. To take responsibility. To
set their own goals and plan their
own schedules. And evaluate the
results.
It's an environment for people
to develop themselves. And to
develop the 2,200 products and
services we offer.
We need more people like that.
Help us get in touch with them.
Because if you know one of the
people we're looking for, we've


*Trademark oI The 0ow Chemical Company


probably got the job he-or she-
is looking for.
If you know of qualified graduates
in engineering or the sciences,
or with an interest in marketing,
finance or computer science, we
hope you will encourage them to
write us:
Recruiting and College Relations,
P.O. Box 1713-CE, Midland, Mich-
igan 48640. Dow is an equal oppor-
tunity employer-male/female.



common/uncommon
sense/chemistry











se~Leaich oa



POLYMER FLUID DYNAMICS:



R. BYRON BIRD
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706


FLUID DYNAMICS IS A very old subject. The
Navier-Stokes equations are about 150 years
old, and libraries have shelves of books devoted to
boundary-layer theory, turbulence, flow through
porous media, gas dynamics, and other facets of
this broad and useful discipline. Chemical engi-
neers share with other engineers their interest in
the applications of fluid dynamics and their re-
sponsibility for the further development of the
basic science of fluid dynamics.
There are several subfields of fluid dynamics
in which chemical engineers have particularly
strong responsibilities: fluid dynamics of reactive
systems, fluid dynamics of diffusing systems, two-
phase and multiphase flow systems, and polymer
fluid dynamics. The flow of polymer solutions and
polymer melts quite properly belong in the domain
of chemical engineering for several reasons:
* Chemical engineers are normally charged with the de-
velopment of design procedures involving the "unit
operations" of the polymer industry: extrusion, blow
molding, fiber spinning, etc.
* Chemical engineers have the background in organic
chemistry needed for understanding polymer synthesis,
solvent effects, chemical degradation, and molecular
weight distributions.
* Chemical engineers have sufficient training in physical
chemistry to understand optical phenomena, polymer
kinetic theory, surface tension, polyelectrolytes, and
phase equilibria.
* Chemical engineers have sufficient background in
transport phenomena to tackle problems in non-New-
tonian flow, viscous heating effects, mixing phenome-
na, and thermal dependence of transport properties.
It is no wonder then that chemical engineers
have in the past several decades developed strong
research programs and new courses in polymer
fluid dynamics. In so doing the chemical engineer-
ing professor has had to build strong bridges to
adjacent disciplines, particularly continuum me-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


R. Byron Bird is currently Vilas Research Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He received his
B.S. in ChE at the University of Illinois in 1947 and his PhD in
Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin in 1950. He held post-
doctoral appointments at University of Amsterdam (1950-51) and
University of Wisconsin (1951-52), then taught at Cornell University
(1952-53). A summer at the Dupont Experimental Station introduced
him to polymer processing and rheology. Since that time he has
been on the staff at the University of Wisconsin in Chemical Engi-
neering and served as departmental chairman 1964-1968. He has co-
authored six books including Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids
(Hirschfelder, Curtiss, and Bird), Transport Phenomena (Bird, Stewart,
and Lightfoot), and Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids (Bird, Armstrong,
Hassager, and Curtiss).

chanics, polymer chemistry, and applied mathe-
matics. Chemical engineers are currently in-
volved in at least ten kinds of problems in polymer
fluid dynamics, and in the following summary we
try to indicate what the objectives and challenges
are:
Development of Constitutive Equations. It is
well known that polymeric liquids do not obey
Newton's law of viscosity; many simple experi-
ments show this conclusively [1]. The stress tensor
(at the present time t) for fluids made up of small
molecules is given simply in terms of the velocity
gradients at the time t. For polymeric fluids, how-
ever, the stresses in a fluid element at the present
time t depend in a complicated way on the velocity
gradients experienced by that fluid element over
all past times t'; that is, "memory effects" are in-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








volved. One of the central problems of the field
is to obtain expressions for the stress tensor (the
"constitutive equation" or the "rheological equa-
tion of state"). This problem is still only partially
resolved. We have fragmentary answers provided
by rheometric experiments, by continuum me-
chanics, and by molecular theory.
Rheometry. One cannot go into the laboratory
and "measure the stress tensor" in an arbitrary
flow system. The best we can do is to measure
some of the stress tensor components in very
carefully controlled flow fields; this science of
measurement is now called "rheometry" [2, 3].
There still remains much to be done in developing
reliable instrumentation that can be used to
measure viscosity, stress relaxation, elongational
viscosity, complex viscosity, and a dozen or so
other theological properties. At the present we
do not have nearly enough trustworthy rheometric
data on carefully characterized samples (i.e.,
samples of known molecular weight, concentra-
tion, and molecular structure) to test the proposed
constitutive equations and molecular theories.
Kinetic Theory. If one is given the molecular
weight, concentration, and polymer structure,
there are no formulas that one can turn to to
predict with confidence the theological properties
that one needs for doing analysis or design of
polymer flow systems or processing units. The
past several decades have produced many new
kinetic theories for polymeric liquids [4] and these
have been very helpful in suggesting useful forms
for constitutive equations. Work along these lines
is continuing, both for dilute solutions [5] and for
polymer melts; for the latter, there are now two
very different kinds of competing theories, the
"network theories" [6, 7] and the reputationn
theories" [8, 9]. A number of investigators are also
approaching the structure-rheology relationship
through the use of computer simulation tech-
niques, but this method is in its infancy.
Solution of Flow Problems. Once one has settled
on a reasonable constitutive equation (and there
is at this moment still a great deal of subjective
judgment as to what "reasonable" is) then one is
faced with another enormous challenge, namely
that of solving the equations of continuity and


motion along with the constitutive equation in
order to predict velocity profiles. There are a few
trivial flows where one can get some analytical
solutions, or possibly even solutions by use of
perturbation theory [10]. But most problems .of
interest to the engineer necessarily require
numerical analysis. Such numerical problem-
solving taxes even the biggest computers because
of the necessity of taking into account the memory
effects. Current efforts seem to have met only
with moderate success; apparently computer solu-
tions break down when the Deborah number (ratio
of the time constant of the fluid to the character-
istic time of the flow) becomes equal to about
unity-and this is just the beginning of the excit-
ing region where the "elastic effects" begin to be
important [11].
Flow Visualization. Because of the problems
just mentioned it is of particular importance that
polymer fluid dynamicists develop techniques for
flow visualization and for the complete measure-
ment of velocity fields (e.g., by using laser-doppler
methods) in a variety of flow systems [12, 13].
We need to know much more about the various
"flow regimes," particularly the conditions where
various kinds of instabilities occur. It is important,
too, that the fluids used in these flow visualization
experiments be characterized rheometrically; that
is, it is essential to know the non-Newtonian
viscosity curves, the normal stress curves, and
other material functions in order to be able to
interpret the flow experiments. In many industrial
problems, flow visualization is particularly im-
portant. Very little progress can be made in
theorizing until the basic experimental facts are
known.
Heat Transfer Studies. Because of the very
high viscosities of concentrated polymer solutions
and melts, the viscous energy dissipation is, more
often than not, non-negligible. Most high-speed
extrusion processes, injection molding systems,
and other industrial operations involve appreci-
able viscous heating [14] and highly non-iso-
thermal conditions. As a result it is necessary to
put temperature dependence into the constitutive
relations [15] and to study the theological ma-
terial functions as a function of temperature.


Once one has settled on a reasonable constitutive equation
... then one is faced with another enormous challenge, namely that of solving
the equations of continuity and motion along with the constitutive equation in order
to predict velocity profiles.


FALL 1980









Flows with Phase Change. Not only does one
have to study nonisothermal problems, but also
problems in which solid-liquid or liquid-solid
transitions are occurring. In extruder operation
one has to melt the polymer pellets upstream from
the extrusion device. In all plastics manufactur-
ing processes, one has to cool the molten polymer
to obtain the finished product. In some instances
the cooling and solidification occurs when the
polymer is still in motion. Such problems involve
both the kinetics of phase change, crystallization,
heat transfer, and two-phase flow [16].
Two-Phase Flow. The widespread use of various
kinds of fillers in the fabrication of composites
brings up the subject of two-phase flow: solids,
liquids, or gases dispersed in a fluid which is visco-
elastic. Some of the most challenging problems
facing the polymer fluid dynamicist in the polymer
industry are those pertaining to the break-up of
particle aggregates, mixing and blending, particle
orientation in flow fields, distortion of gas bubbles,
interfacial phenomena, and alteration of me-
chanical and optical properties of the melt and
the solid finished product. Not nearly enough is
known about the clustering of particles and the
distribution of particles in concentrated two-phase
systems [17].
Polymer Unit Operations. All of the topics
listed above can be important in the development
of a better understanding of the polymer unit
operations. It is not enough, however, to analyze
existing processes and equipment. The chemical
engineer must also be concerned with improving
the equipment design and the process operation.
In addition, he has the even more challenging
task of trying to develop totally new fabrication
methods [16], often collaborating with mechanical
and electrical engineers. Most of this kind of in-
ventive work has been done in industry, where
personnel and equipment resources are more
plentiful than in the university. However, co-
operative projects or consulting activities can be
very important in bridging the gap between the
academic fluid mechanicist and the industrial de-
signer.
Drag Reduction. There are several phenomena
pertaining specifically to dilute solutions that have
been the subject of intensive research. The oldest
and most important of these is "drag reduction"
[18]. The addition of small amounts of a polymer
to a Newtonian liquid can reduce significantly the
friction factor in turbulent flow. The understand-
ing of this phenomenon presents an enormous


challenge, since it combines two very difficult
fields: turbulence, and viscoelasticity. Perhaps
some of the recent advances in the kinetic theory
of dilute solutions will be used to elucidate this
fascinating phenomenon.

ST SHOULD BE EVIDENT from the above listing of
problem areas that the field of polymer fluid
dynamics is enormous in extent and variety. All
of the above topics are interrelated, and the study
of any one part of the field invariably leads to
some other part of the subject. In polymer fluid
dynamics one can seek all kinds of challenges:
mathematical, physical, chemical, process design,
equipment design, computing, and instrumenta-
tion. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to thank the National
Science Foundation and the Vilas Trust Fund (U.
Wisconsin) for continued support of his research
in polymer fluid mechanics and kinetic theory.

REFERENCES
1. R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong, and 0. Hassager, "Dy-
namics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 1: Fluid Mechanics,"
Wiley, New York (1977) Ch. 3.
2. K. Walters, "Rheometry," Chapman and Hall, London
(1975).
3. R. W. Whorlow, "Rheological Techniques," Wiley,
New York (1980).
4. R. B. Bird, O. Hassager, R. C. Armstrong, and C. F.
Curtiss, "Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 2:
Kinetic Theory," Wiley, New York (1977).
5. R. B. Bird, P. J. Dotson, and N. L. Johnson, J. Non-
Newtonian Fluid Mech., 7, 213-235 (1980).
6. A. S. Lodge, Rheol. Acta, 7, 379-392 (1968).
7. M. H. Wagner, Rheol. Acta, 18, 33-50 (1979).
8. M. Doi and S. F. Edwards, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday
Trans., II, 74, 1789-1832 (1978); 75, 38-54 (1979).
9. C. F. Curtiss and R. B. Bird, "A Kinetic Theory for
Polymer Melts," U. Wisc. Theo. Chem. Inst. Reports
636 and 637, May, 1980.
10. R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong, and 0. Hassager, op.
cit., Chs. 5 through 9.
11. R. C. Armstrong, personal communication.
12. M. Gottlieb and R. B. Bird, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund.,
18, 357-368 (1979).
13. R. L. Christiansen, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Wisconsin (1980).
14. H. H. Winter, Adv. Heat Transfer, 18, 205-267 (1977).
15. G. Marrucci, Trans. Soc. Rheol., 16, 321-330 (1972).
16. Z. Tadmor and C. G. Gogos, "Principles of Polymer
Processing," Wiley, N.Y. (1979).
17. A. L. Graham, PhD Thesis, U. Wisconsin (1980).
18. H. S. Stephens and J. A. Clarke, eds., "Proc. Second
International Conference on Drag Reduction at Cam-
bridge," BHRA Fluid Engineering, Cranfield (1977).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







Chevron


Chevron Oil Field


Research Company


PhD Chemical Engineers I
For Research And Development
In Enhanced Oil Recovery


Chevron's laboratory in La Habra, California is
engaged in research directed toward increased
recovery of oil and gas from known subsurface
reservoirs. Chemical engineering technology is
extremely important in the very complicated
business of recovering petroleum from known
reservoirs-reservoirs of oil and gas already
discovered and in quantities large enough to
make a real difference in the United States'
domestic energy supply. That is, if we can find
more effective processes for breaking it free
from the rocks and bringing it to the surface.
The research, the development and the field
trials of new ideas for recovering oil carry
high risks and high costs. But the stakes are
high, tool When you realize that typically,
twice as much oil is left behind as is
produced by conventional methods, it is
easy to understand how large these
stakes really are and the energy resources
that will be available if we can find the
unlocking processes.


Our chemical engineers are also
working on the problems of in situ
recovery of heavy oils and oil from tar
sands and shale.
If you want to learn more about
research in the more complex
applications of chemical engineering,
send your resume to:

J.C. Benjamin
Chevron Oil Field Research Company
P.O. Box 446
La Habra, CA. 90631


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IN SITU PROCESSING


T. F. EDGAR
R. S. SCHECHTER
University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712

T HE DISPARITY BETWEEN ENERGY supply and
demand in the United States has emphasized
the need to utilize in situ technology for recovery
of fossil fuels and minerals. This technology offers
a way to extract reserves which are not technically
or economically feasible to recover using con-
ventional mining and may provide a means of
significantly increasing domestic fuel and feed-
stock production in the near future, thus reducing
dependence on foreign oil. In situ processing
combines extraction and conversion into a single
step, and the various in situ processes (oil shale,
coal, oil sands, uranium and other minerals) share
a number of desirable features:
Many of the health and safety problems of conven-
tional mining are avoided; underground labor is
eliminated altogether.
Solid waste pollution is avoided since undesirable
solid material is left underground.
The amount of surface equipment for mining and
processing is reduced, yielding economic leverage.
These positive features must be weighed against
potential problems, such as subsurface pollution
of ground water, low recovery efficiencies, and sub-
sidence.
The development of the emerging in situ
technologies is interdisciplinary in scope, involving
exchange of information among the fields of engi-
neering, earth sciences, chemistry, physics and en-
vironmental science. Chemical engineers are play-
ing a leading role because the concepts used to
design and operate chemical plants can be fruit-
fully applied to subsurface processing. In this
article we shall indicate the types of research in-
vestigations chemical engineering graduate
students can carry out, emphasizing two inter-
disciplinary projects at the University of Texas
at Austin. These two projects deal with under-
ground gasification of lignite, directed by T. F.
Edgar, and in situ leaching of uranium, directed
by R. S. Schechter.


The ultimate goal of the research is
to develop a set of laboratory and computer-
based tools which would allow site evaluation
based on field and laboratory measurements
of the mineral and associated overburdens.


APPLICABLE RESOURCES AND
COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION
T HE DOMESTIC COAL SUPPLY is, of course, ex-
tremely large and will be the major resource
for intermediate term energy production. In situ
recovery of coal will increase the recoverable coal
supplies to about 40% of the national resource
estimate (10% is recoverable using conventional
mining). Western coal can be successfully gasified
in situ, but Eastern coals cannot be recovered
easily because of their swelling characteristics.
Texas lignite is the resource studied in the UT-
Austin research; it is estimated that nearly 20
billion tons of lignite lie at surface mining depths
(down to 90 meters), but approximately 35 billion
tons lie between depths of 90 and 600 meters in
seam thicknesses between 1.5 m and 4.5 m, which
are technically feasible ranges for underground
coal gasification (UCG) [Al]. There have been
ten private sector and government-sponsored field
tests, two of which are being performed in Texas.
Demonstration-scale (e.g., 25 MW equivalent of
electricity or greater) tests have been performed
in the USSR with air injection, and several U.S.
tests of this magnitude are planned for the early
1980's, using steam/oxygen injection to produce
a medium Btu gas.
At the present time, in situ uranium leaching
provides only a small fraction of domestic uranium
requirements (less than 5%) but because of
activity particularly in Texas and Wyoming the
proportion can be expected to increase significantly
in the future. A number of companies are now
mining on a commercial scale in Texas. In 1979
there were 16 permits issued to five companies for
approximately 1500 production acres. Seven addi-


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








tional permits were being processed for an addi-
tional 2000 acres of production [A2].
Despite this high level of industrial interest in
both in situ gasification and uranium leaching,
significant problems, especially environmental, still
remain to be resolved. Failure to resolve them
adequately will result in a severe curtailment of
these rapidly emerging technologies.

RESEARCH APPROACH AND SCOPE
T HE PURPOSE OF THE UT-AUSTIN research on in
situ processing is to develop the necessary
theory and understanding of the underground
process so that commercialization can be facili-
tated for a wide range of mineral deposits. The
ultimate goal of the research is to develop a set of
laboratory and computer-based tools which would
allow site evaluation based on field and laboratory
measurements of the mineral and associated over-
burdens. Such an evaluation must of necessity be
semi-quantitative since there are never enough
data available about the subsurface to predict ac-
curately all physicochemical aspects of the re-
covery process. Laboratory screening is preferred
because field testing is uneconomic for every po-
tential site; an engineering and geological design
















Thomas F. Edgar is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at
The University of Texas at Austin, where he has been a faculty
member since 1971. His research interests include chemical process
control and coal combustion and gasification. He earned his B.S. Ch.E.
from the University of Kansas and Ph.D. in chemical engineering
from Princeton University. He is editor of the technical journal
In Situ. (L)
Robert S. Schechter is the E. J. Cockrell, Jr. Professor of Chemical
and Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin. His
research interests are mainly concerned with surface and interfacial
phenomena with particular emphasis on tertiary oil recovery and in
situ uranium leaching. He is a graduate of Texas A&M University (BS)
and the University of Minnesota (Ph.D.). Professor Schechter was
elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1976. (R)


The research is strongly oriented
toward developing mathematical models
suitable for design and scale-up and for
optimization of operation.

basis, which presently is incomplete, must be de-
veloped before economic application of the
technology can be realized.
The research is strongly oriented toward de-
veloping mathematical models suitable for design
scale-up and for optimization of operation. This
entails development of a fundamental understand-
ing of the dominant physical and chemical pro-
cesses occurring in the subsurface. However, the
research has pointed to the need for certain pro-
cess improvements, and efforts are now being
made to effect these improvements.
In order to develop successful techniques for
scale-up from the laboratory to the field, both the
coal and uranium projects have maintained close
liaison with field personnel and other researchers
in the field through biannual research review meet-
ings. Each project has a review board made up
of professionals from industry and government
laboratories who critically evaluate the research
results presented at these meetings.
At the University of Texas we are fortunate
to have strong departments of chemical engineer-
ing, petroleum engineering, geology, and environ-
mental engineering in order to pursue this re-
search; there have been as many as ten staff and
twenty students from the above departments in-
volved in the coal and uranium projects. Annual
support for the projects combined has been more
than $400,000/year; funding agencies have in-
cluded the Department of Energy, Environmental
Protection Agency, Department of HEW, National
Science Foundation, Office of Surface Mining, De-
partment of the Interior, Texas Petroleum Re-
search Committee, and private companies.

UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION RESEARCH

IN UCG, DRILLED HOLES ARE used to access the
coal seam. After the coal seam is ignited, the
permeability of the seam must be enhanced before
actual gas production. This can be done by using
a technique called counter-current or reverse com-
bustion, which pyrolyzes a narrow channel of high
permeability between two boreholes, thus allowing
directional control over gas flow. After this "link"
between boreholes is achieved, co-current combus-
tion can be employed for gas production [A3].


FALL 1980








Underground coal gasification systems repre-
sent a departure from conventional chemical re-
actors in that the internal geometry varies over
time, and their boundaries are not fixed as in
surface equipment. A number of specific models
are needed to describe quantitatively the behavior
of an underground coal gasification process. Such
models can be subsequently used for process design
and control. A model is needed to predict the
chemical composition of the product gas as a
function of the injected gas composition and rate
as well as how product gas composition might vary
with coal type, seam thickness, and water intrusion
rate. There is a need to be able to predict the
fraction of coal that will be recovered with a par-
ticular well pattern and to quantify the linking
pattern. Also important are predictions of water
influx and the potential of roof collapse and their
effects on gas composition and sweep efficiency.
Other predictive models can be used to quantify
the environmental impact, such as subsidence and
aquifer contamination. These physical and chemi-
cal models can be coupled with process economics
models so that system design and operation can
be optimized. The major emphasis of the chemical
engineering research has been on predicting

Underground coal gasification
systems represent a departure from
conventional chemical reactors in that the
internal geometry varies over time,
and their boundaries are not fixed
as in surface equipment.

product gas composition [A4] and sweep efficiency
[Bl], [B2] for a range of coals and geological condi-
tions.
There has been some success in using mathe-
matical models for interpreting field and labora-
tory data for in situ gasification. However, these
models have employed of necessity tremendous
simplifications in order to realize meaningful
results for such a complex system [A5]. The in
situ gasifier contains such components as a fixed
bed, a channel, and a porous medium [B3]. The
geometry of the gasifier may be irregular due to
burning of the coal and resulting roof collapse.
Complex heat transfer, mass transfer, and momen-
tum transfer phenomena occur simultaneously in
different parts of the system. It is clear that
"global" mathematical models are not practical
for the purpose of simulation; the challenge is to
determine which model elements are crucial for


matching the process performance. Even simpli-
fied models are often characterized by moving
boundaries, split boundary conditions, and stiff
differential equations.
A useful one-dimensional conceptual model of
UCG during co-current or forward combustion
involves the existence of several distinct reaction
zones, namely oxidation, reduction and pyrolysis/
drying [A3], [A4]. These are the same zones that
occur in moving-bed surface gasifiers. One way
to simulate UCG in the laboratory is to operate
a combustion tube charged with pulverized coal
similar to that used in petroleum recovery studies
[B4], [B5], [B6]. Field gasification temperatures
can be in excess of 13000C, which creates extreme
experimental difficulty in tube design; typical oil
combustion tubes are operated at less than 8000C,
well within the limits of steel alloy materials.
There is some disagreement about the ultimate
usefulness of such apparata for simulating the
three-dimensional UCG process, but a combustion
tube does provide the opportunity to study one
level of scale-up. Modeling of such a system also
implies reaction kinetics sub-models for oxidation
[B7], [B8], gasification [B9], and pyrolysis [B10],
[B11], [B12], which can be developed for a given
coal using a variety of microreactors.
It can be argued that the basic reaction unit in
UCG is a coal block rather than a coal particle,
which would emphasize intra-particle heat and
mass transfer effects [B13]. Self-gasification of the
coal block by moisture transportation and cracking
and gasification of pyrolysis products [B14],
which must diffuse through the block, also occur.
In a three-dimensional intrepretation of UCG,
sweep efficiency and burning rates may be
controlled by consolidated block transport phe-
nomena [B15]. Coal block experiments can illumin-
ate the effects of gas hydrodynamics, coal proper-
ties, and block transport phenomena on channel
growth [B16], [B17]. Gas composition probably is
only secondarily controlled by block gasification,
although more field and laboratory experiments
and mathematical modeling for a variety of sites
are necessary before definitive conclusions can be
reached.
Modeling of environmental effects, such as sub-
sidence and subsurface water pollution, is rela-
tively immature in development. Their predict-
ability is problematic because of the lack of in-
formation on geohydrology and rock behavior as
well as chemical, physical, and biological pro-
cesses which occur in the subsurface. Natural


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








renovation of polluted groundwater has been re-
ported in several U. S. field tests.
IN SITU URANIUM LEACHING RESEARCH

T HE OBJECTIVES OF IN SITU leaching of uranium
are to dissolve all the uranium-bearing miner-
als in place and to transport the dissolved
uranium back to the surface in the fluid injected
into the ore-bearing formation. In its simplest
form, the chemical process consists of: (1) oxidiz-
ing the uranium-bearing species and (2) putting
the uranium in solution in a chemical form which
can be recovered at the surface. Both of these
steps are to be accomplished while minimizing
the effect of those reactions between the leach
solution and the ore-bearing formation which are
detrimental to the extraction process and minimiz-
ing the damage to the subsurface environment.
The final stage of the mining process is to remove
those pollutants introduced into the formation
during the extraction stage. This is crucial since
the zones which can be mined are in aquifers.
The modeling of the production stage requires
that the rates of heterogeneous reactions of oxi-
dant with uranium bearing minerals and with all
the other minerals which compete for oxidant be
established. This is a somewhat challenging step
since there are often four or more minerals, each
competing for oxidant. Furthermore, the rates
cannot be studied independently since only studies
on carefully preserved field samples are meaning-
ful.
In a study of acid leaching kinetics, Tatom
found [Cl] that many of the heterogeneous re-
actions are initially mass transfer controlled so
that during the early stages of leaching, the over-
all reaction depends on the local fluid velocity. As
the quantity of unoxidized mineral decreases, there
exists a point, different for each mineral, at which
the intrinsic surface kinetics control the rate of
reaction. Thus the reaction rate models tend to
be more complex than that proposed by Galichon
[C2], [A6] and represent an interesting interplay
between mass transfer and surface kinetics.
Models for the chemical reactions which take
place during carbonate leaching are now being
developed [C3]. This research has the additional
goal of comparing the reaction rates in ammonium
carbonate solutions with those in potassium car-
bonate solutions. Ammonium carbonate has been
the main ingredient in the leach solution used by
most of the companies operating in Texas. How-
ever, many companies are now reluctant to use


this compound because of the severe requirements
for NH4+ removal after mining which have been
imposed by state and national regulatory agencies
[A2].
Sodium carbonate is sometimes used but in
many cases will damage the formation perme-
ability so that fluid injection becomes virtually
impossible. Potassium carbonate, which does not
damage the formation permeability, has not been
used because of its cost. However, the University
of Texas research team has developed a procedure
which utilizes a preflush that will reduce the cost
of subsequently leaching with potassium carbonate
by a factor of about four. This process [A7], for
which patents are pending (assigned to the Bu-
reau of Mines), is now being readied for field
testing.
A second aspect of the research has been the
development of restoration procedures. The initial
work focused on the recovering NH,+ cations from
the formation at the completion of the production
stage. This is essentially an ion exchange process
[A8], [A9], complicated by the existence of multiple
substrates having different free energies of ex-
change, interlayer mixing, axial dispersion, etc.,
[C4]. Process modeling indicated the desirability
of utilizing special fluids of high ionic strength
to flush ammonium; however, in some cases the
ammonium cation was strongly adsorbed and
difficult to remove.
An interesting example of the type of problem
which has been considered is the one-well test to
evaluate the restoration parameters. This test
involves the injection of relatively small volumes
of leach solution and the subsequent production of
a larger volume of fluid. Two important pa-
rameters-the cation exchange capacity and an
average free energy-are to be determined by
history matching the effluent composition. A study
of this procedure revealed that this goal cannot be
feasibly accomplished, and alternate techniques
were proposed [A10], [C5]. Before this study, such
tests were routinely performed, and in many cases,
erroneous values of the parameters were adopted.
Finally, all the detailed models for production
and restoration must be imbedded into a simulator
that can accommodate an arbitrary well pattern,
formation heterogeneity and anisotropy, variable
injection and production volumetric rates and
transient solution and solid phase compositions.
All these requirements have not yet been satisfied,
but Bommer [All], [C6] has reported a relatively
comprehensive two-dimensional simulator which


FALL 1980










is now being used by several operators to design
optimum systems.
In conclusion it should again be stressed that
the most difficult problems are environmental in
nature. There are many rules and regulations at
the national, state and local levels which must be
satisfied. Some of these rules are in conflict with
others [C8]. Studies such as those now being con-
ducted by Chen [C7] will help regulatory agencies
make rational decisions with regard to those
standards which should be strictly enforced and
those which can be relaxed to some extent without
altering the quality of the water. O

A. LITERATURE CITED

Al. Edgar, T. F., Kaiser, W. R. Humenick, M. J. and
Charbeneau, R. J., "Environmental Effects of In
Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite," Report to En-
vironmental Protection Agency, August, 1980.
A2. Whittington, D. and Taylor, W. R., "Regulations
and Restoration of In Situ Uranium Mining in
Texas," Proceedings of the South Texas Uranium
Seminar, Society of Mining Engineers of AIME
(1979).
A3. Gregg, D. W. and Edgar, T. F., "In Situ Coal Gasi-
fication," AIChE J., 24, 754 (1978).
A4. Natarajan, R., Edgar, T. F. and Savins, J. G., "Pre-
diction of Product Gas Composition for UCG," Proc.
Sixth Underground Coal Conversion Conference,
Afton, Oklahoma, July, 1980.
A5. Edgar, T. F., "Analysis and Modeling of Under-
ground Coal Gasification Systems," FOCAPD Engi-
neering Foundation Conference, Henniker, N. H.,
July, 1980.
A6. Galichon, P., Breland, W. M., Cowley, A. H. and
Schechter, R. S., "Chemical Factors in In Situ
Uranium Leach Mining," In Situ, 1 (2), 125 (1977).
A7. Tweeton, D., Guilinger, T. R., Breland, W. M. and
Schechter, R. S., "The Advantages of Conditioning
on Orebody with a Chloride Solution Before In
Situ Uranium Leaching with a Carbonate Solution,"
SPE Preprint No. 9490, 55th Annual Technical
Meeting, Dallas, Texas, Sept., 1980.
A8. Hill, A. D., Walsh, M. P., Breland, W. M., Humen-
ick, M. J., Silberberg, I. H. and Schechter, R. S.,
"Restoration of Uranium In Situ Leaching Sites,"
Soc. of Petroleum Engr. J., 20, (1980).
A9. Walsh, M. P., Humenick, M. J. and Schechter, R. S.,
"The Displacement and Migration of Ammonium
Ions from Uranium In Situ Leaching Sites," in In
Situ Uranium Mining and Groundwater Restora-
tion: W. J. Schlitt and D. A. Shock eds., Proc. of
the New Orleans Symp., Soc. of Mining Engr. of
AIME (1978).
A10. Kabir, M. I., Lake, L. W. and Schechter, R. S.,
"Evaluation of the One Well Uranium Leaching
Test: Restoration," SPE Preprint 9486, 55th Annual
Technical Conference, Society of Petroleum Engi-
neers of the AIME, Dallas, Texas, Sept. (1980).


All. Bommer, P. M., Schechter, R. S., "Mathematical
Modeling of In Situ Uranium Leaching," Society of
Petroleum Engineering Journal, 19, p 393 (1979).

B. THESES-UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION

Bl. Dinsmoor, B. (1979), "The Modeling of Channel
Systems in Underground Coal Gasification."
B2. Johnson, C. (1980), "A Three Dimensional Numeri-
cal Simulation for Underground Coal Gasification."
B3. Galland, J. (1974), "Analysis and Modeling of
Underground Coal Gasification Systems."
B4. Westbrook, D. (1976), "Design of a Combustion
Tube for Experimentation on In Situ Gasification
of Texas Lignite."
B5. Cook, R. (1980), "Combustion Tube Studies of
Texas Lignite Using Steam-Oxygen Injection."
B6. Ponnamperuma, J. (1980), "Combustion Tube
Studies of Air Gasification of Texas Lignite."
B7. Tseng, H. (1981), "Pore Size Effects on Oxidation
Kinetics of Texas Lignite Char."
B8. Hsia, S. (1977), "Oxidation Kinetics of Texas
Lignite."
B9. Bass, E. (1980), "Gasification Kinetics of Texas
Lignite Char and Steam."
B10. Cadwell, J. (1978), "Pyrolysis Properties of Texas
Lignite Under Conditions of In Situ Gasification."
Bll. Matteson, M. (1979), "Pyrolysis Kinetics of Texas
Lignite."
B12. Athans, M. (1980), "Sulfur Compounds Produced
During Pyrolysis of Texas Lignite."
B13. Tsang, T. (1980), "Modeling of Heat and Mass
Transfer During Coal Block Gasification."
B14. Hunt, C. (1979), "Cracking of Low Heating Rate
Pyrolysis Products Obtained from Texas Lignite."
B15. Wellborn, T. (1980), "Measurement of Linear Burn-
ing Rates for Consolidated Lignite Cores."
B16. Cornwell, J. (1982), "Channel Gasification of Lig-
nite Blocks."
B17. Triplett, K. (1980), "Analysis of Flow Patterns in
Underground Coal Gasification Using Tracers."

C. THESES-URANIUM LEACHING

C1. Tatom, A. (1980), "An Investigation of the Factors
Determining the Rate of Uranium Leaching in
Acid Solutions."
C2. Galichon, P. (1976), "In Situ Leaching of Uranium
Ore."
C3. Guilinger, T. (1981), "Optimal Formulation of
Carbonate Lixiviants for Uranium Solution Mining."
C4. Walsh, M. (1979), "Investigation of the Fate of
Ammonia from In Situ Uranium Solution Mining."
C5. Kabir, M. (1981), "In Situ Uranium Mining Reser-
voir Engineering and Aspects of Leaching and
Restoration."
C6. Bommer, P. (1979), "A Streamline-Concentration
Balance Model for In Situ Uranium Leaching and
Site Restoration."
C7. Chen, J. (1980), "The Migration of Low pH Solu-
tions in Groundwater."
C8. Shiao, S. (1980), "Environmental Aspects of
Uranium In Situ Leaching."


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























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Redea aow


WALL TURBULENCE


THOMAS J. HANRATTY
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801


Fluid mechanics research at the University of
Illinois at Urbana is being conducted by Prof.
Jonathan J. L. Higdon, Prof. A. J. McHugh and
myself. Dr. Higdon is doing work in the areas of
biological fluid mechanics and the mechanics of
concentrated suspensions. Dr. McHugh is studying
flow induced crystallization of polymers, and the
flow behavior of dilute polymer latex suspensions.
My own work is concerned with the structure of
turbulence, turbulent mass transfer, atomization,
droplet dispersion, flow over wavy surfaces and
the modelling of air-liquid and solid liquid flow
systems. This paper gives an account of research
on the structure of turbulence close to a solid
boundary.

O NE OF THE FIRST topics covered in an ele-
mentary course in fluid dynamics is the ex-
periment by Osborne Reynolds [1] in 1883 which
showed that the preferred motion of fluid particles
through a pipe at large flow rates is turbulent.
On the basis of these experiments he explained
why at high flows the law characterizing the
frictional pressure loss abruptly changes from a
linear to an approximately quadratic dependence
on fluid velocity.
A simple force balance on a cylindrical element
of fluid under fully developed conditions, as indi-
cated in Fig. 1, shows that a shear stress 7 can


r "T
Flow PPLx a-




FIGUR
FIGURE 1


In a Ph.D. thesis from this
laboratory Reiss invented a new
method to study the flow close to the wall
without interfering with it.

be defined which is related to the frictional pres-
sure gradient and the radial location
Ax
r by the equation
r AP (1)
2 Ax
For laminar flows this shear stress can be related
dV
to the velocity gradient through Newton's
law of viscosity
dV (2)
S= dr (2)
and the velocity field can be calculated by sub-
stituting (2) into (1) and integrating. The kinetic
theory of gases interprets T as equal to the nega-
tive of the momentum flow per unit time through
a unit area perpendicular to the r axis. This
momentum flux can be explained as due to the
mixing by molecular motion of high and low
velocity fluid in adjacent streamlines; the vis-
cosity is related to the mean free path X and
velocity of the molecules c by the relation / = kcX,
where k is a proportionality constant.
For a turbulent flow the components of the
velocity vector may be considered as the sum of
time averaged and fluctuating quantities,
Vi = Vi + ui (3)
Reynolds showed that the fluctuating flow can
give rise to much larger fluxes of momentum than
in purely laminar flow and defined the turbulent
contribution to the fluid stress as tij = p UiUj,
now called the Reynolds stress. Thus for fully de-
veloped flow in a pipe

Trx = -- p uux (4)
where Trx is the x-component of the stress on a

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








face perpendicular to the r-axis. Over most of the
pipe cross section the mixing due to turbulence
is much larger than the mixing due to molecular
motion so that the velocity gradient need not be
very large to maintain the fluid stress. However,
in a thin region close to the wall p uUrx is close

to zero so thatdV- must assume very large
dr
values in order to sustain the stress. This large
variation of the Reynolds stress close to a wall
accounts for the blunt shaped velocity profiles
observed for turbulent flows. The region close to
the wall where the Reynolds stresses are negligible
has been called the viscous sublayer. It extends a
yv*
distance from the wall y given as y+ 5,
where v* is the friction velocity equal to (rw/p) '2,
v is the kinematic viscosity, and p is the fluid
dV
density. The region where dr is making a
significant contribution to the fluid stress is called
the viscous wall region and is defined as y<30.
Considerable research has been done since the
time of Reynolds which is useful in interpreting
phenomena occurring in turbulent fields, but the
main issues raised by his work are still un-
resolved: (1) What is the mechanism by which
the flow through interaction with the bounding
walls sustains the turbulence? (2) How can the
variation of the Reynolds stresses in a flow field
be predicted?
Engineering practice today is quite often


Thomas J. Hanratty has been a member of the Chemical Engi-
neering faculty of the University of Illinois since 1953. He was
educated at Villanova, Ohio State, and Princeton, Ph.D. (1953). His
professional honors include the Colburn, Walker and Professional
Progress Awards of the A.I.Ch.E. and the Curtis W. McGraw and
Senior Research Awards of the A.S.E.E. He was elected to the National
Academy of Engineering in 1974.


based on early theoretical work which used physi-
cal models successful in treating laminar flows to
predict the Reynolds stress. One approach defines
a turbulent viscosity ct analogous to a molecular
viscosity so that
dV
-p urux = -t dr (5)
Another uses mixing length concepts analogous
to the mean free path defined in kinetic theory;
t = q 1 (6)
where q characterizes the magnitude of velocity
fluctuations. A practical difficulty in using these
theories is that an unknown spatial variation of
bt or 1 is substituted for an unknown variation of
uiuj. A conceptual difficulty, which is perhaps more
serious, arises because measured values of 1 are
found to be of the same magnitude as the size of
the container. This suggests that the Reynolds
stress cannot be related to local properties of the
velocity field, as implied in a Newtonian approach.
The understanding and the prediction of the pro-
duction of turbulence and of Reynolds stress in a
turbulent field therefore requires information on
the structure of the fluctuating velocity field.
A considerable effort is now underway in a
number of laboratories to determine the structure
of turbulent flows and it is quite likely that some
very meaningful breakthroughs will be made in
the next ten years. This current effort has been
made possible by the development of multiprobe
measuring techniques and of computer methods
for handling the data obtained from these
measurements.
In my laboratories at the University of Illinois
we are engaged in an extensive study of the struc-
ture of turbulence in the viscous wall region,
where the production of turbulence is a maximum.
One of the reasons for concentrating on the viscous
wall region is that an understanding of the me-
chanics of this region could be the key to finding
out how the turbulence is sustained. Another
reason is that many processes of vital interest to
chemical engineers are controlled by happenings
very close to a boundary. In this paper I will
outline some of the work we are doing to obtain
structural information on the viscous wall region
and how we are using this information to study
mass transfer at boundaries and flow over wavy
surfaces and to control turbulent fields.
In order to understand the difficulties involved
in obtaining detailed flow information on the
viscous wall region one has to realize the smallness


FALL 1980








of this region. For flow in a 5 cm pipe at a
Reynolds number of 500,000 the dimensionless
distance y+ = 30 would correspond to a distance
from the wall of only 0.08 mm. It is therefore
advantageous to work in large diameter pipes at
small Reynolds numbers. We have developed a
test loop for water flows with a diameter of 19.4
cm that occupies five floors in our building. At a
Reynolds number of 30,000 dimensionless distance
y+ = 30 would then correspond to a y of 3.5 mm.
Even with this improvement of spatial resolution
the use of conventional techniques to study the
details of the flow in the viscous wall region is
not an option.
In a Ph.D. thesis from this laboratory Reiss
[2, 3, 4] invented a new method to study the
flow close to the wall without interfering with it.
Circular electrodes with diameters as small as
0.12 mm are embedded flush with the wall of a
pipe through which an electrolyte is flowing.
These electrodes are the cathodes of an electroly-
sis cell. The anode is a section of a pipe wall of
much larger area than the cathode located down-
stream of the cathode. The electric current flow-
ing in the electrolysis cell is then controlled by
happenings at the cathode. The cathode is oper-
ated at a high enough voltage that the kinetics
of the electrochemical reaction is not influencing
the current flow and, yet, small enough that side
reactions are not occurring. Reiss showed that
under these conditions the average electric
current could be related to time averaged value
of the velocity gradient at the wall Sx and that
the time variation of the current could be related
to the time variation of the x-component of the
fluctuating velocity gradient at the wall sx. Thus
the limiting behavior of the velocity field close
to the wall could be determined using these tech-
niques since
U = S;y y-> 0 (7)
ux= Sxy y 0 (8)
In theses by Mitchell [5, 6] and Sirkar [7, 8]
other electrode configurations were investigated.
It was found that a rectangular electrode with its
long side perpendicular to the flow can be used to
measure sx and that rectangular electrodes at a
slant to the mean flow are sensitive both to sx and
to s,, the spanwise component of the fluctuating
velocity gradient at the wall. By measuring the
gum and the difference of the signals to two rec-
tangular electrodes in a chevron arrangement both
fluctuating components, sx and s,, can be measured


B A B A



z (b)






sx

y z (c)

FIGURE 2

at a given location on the wall. By measuring
simultaneously the current flowing to arrays of
these chevron electrodes it is possible to obtain
structural information on the velocity field in the
immediate vicinity of the wall. To do this we
measure as many as 40 signals. This requires the
use of a computer to handle and analyze the data.
Of particular value are newly developed techniques
for conditional averaging which enables us to
study repeatable events.
Studies with arrays of these electrodes have
revealed that the flow in the viscous wall layer is
dominated by an elongated secondary flow, of the
type shown in Fig. 2a. It is approximately homo-
geneous in the flow direction, has a spanwise wave-
length of X+ = 100, and evolves over a dimension-
less period Tv*2/v approximately equal to 100. In
theses by Sirkar [7, 9] and Fortuna [10, 11] it is
suggested that these eddies control the transfer of
momentum to the wall. High velocity or high mo-
mentum fluid is carried toward the wall by the
secondary flow. Momentum is transferred to the
wall as this secondary flow carries the high mo-
mentum fluid parallel to the wall. Momentum de-
ficient or low velocity fluid is then ejected from
the wall by the outward motion associated with
the secondary flow. This model suggests the phase
relation for the spatial variation of s. and s, shown
in Fig 2 b, c. Detailed studies by Lee [12, 13] and
Hogenes [14] of signals from arrays of wall elec-
trodes as well as from a combined array of wall
electrodes and fluid probes have confirmed this
picture. It thus appears that the level of Reynolds


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








stress production in a turbulent flow could be
strongly dependent on the properties of these wall
eddies. Experiments are now under way to show
this directly.
The definition of this repetitive event at the wall
through research in our laboratory and in other
laboratories throughout the world has been a very
significant forward step in understanding wall
turbulence. However, there are a number of im-
portant questions which have to be resolved before
a complete understanding can be obtained. What
is the origin of these structures? Why do they
scale in the manner observed? What are the details
of interaction of these structures with the outer
flow? How should these newly gained insights be
used to help develop predictive models for the
Reynolds stress?
The above long range questions are now being
pursued by students in my research group. How-
ever, we are also using newly gained insights
about the flow close to a wall to enable us to
obtain a better understanding of some shorter
range turbulence problems, such as mass transfer
to a boundary [9, 15, 16, 17, 18] or flow over wavy
surfaces [19, 20, 21, 22].
One of the first concepts presented to chemical
engineering students when they are introduced to
mass transfer is that of the "diffusion layer"
which seems to have evolved from the work of
Noyes and Whitney [24] and of Nernst [23]. It
visualizes the existence of a stagnant fluid of
thickness 8 at a boundary and gives the mass
transfer coefficient as k = D/8, where D is the
molecular diffusion coefficient. Convective motions
close to the boundary are pictured to control the
mass transfer process by controlling the thickness
8. It has been recognized for some time that the
flow in the immediate vicinity of a boundary is not
laminar or stagnant and therefore 8 has been
labelled a "fictitious" film thickness. A number of
attempts have been made to provide more realistic
models which relate mass transfer rates to con-
vective motions close to a boundary. These include
surface renewal concepts, analogies between mass
and momentum transfer and various pseudosteady
state eddy models. The results recently obtained
on flow close to a boundary suggest that these
attempts to improve the diffusion layer concept
are not correct. We are currently pursuing a de-
scription of the mass transfer process at solid-
fluid and at gas-fluid boundaries which is con-
sistent with the known fluid mechanics.
Our work at solid fluid interfaces is being


aided by studies of the fluctuations of the local
mass transfer rate at multiple locations in a large
mass transfer surface. We find that the structure
of the fluctuating mass transfer field resembles
that of the flow oriented eddies but that its fre-
quency is an order of magnitude smaller. A
number of laboratories, as well as our own, are
now trying to resolve this apparent paradox. I
am reasonably confident that a very significant
improvement in our understanding of turbulent
mass transfer to solid boundaries will be obtained
over the next few years.
An important unsolved problem in fluid me-
chanics is an understanding of the interaction of
a turbulent fluid and a wavy surface; i.e. the
variation of the pressure and shear stress along
the wavy surface. Oceanographers have taken an
active interest in this problem because of the need
to understand the mechanism by which the wind
feeds energy to the ocean. It also is of importance
in a number of problems that concern chemical
engineers, such as the atomization of fluids and
the prediction of flow regimes in air-liquid flows.
The key theoretical issue is to determine how the
flow perturbations introduced by the wavy surface
modulate the Reynolds stresses. We have been
carrying out studies of flow over solid wavy sur-
faces in order to resolve this issue and have found
out that the chief effect of the waves on the
Reynolds stresses is being felt in the viscous wall
region. The flow velocity increases close to the
wave peaks and decreases close to the wave
troughs because of the compression and spreading
apart of the streamlines. According to the Ber-
noulli equation this change in fluid velocity is ac-
companied by changes in pressure. We are able to
relate the modulation of the Reynolds stress to
the effect of pressure gradient on turbulence
properties in the viscous wall region. It would
be quite challenging to be able to explain these
results using the information that has been
obtained on the structure of turbulence close to a
wall.
Perhaps the most interesting practical aspect
of the results currently being obtained on
turbulence structure is the possibility of con-
trolling turbulence by altering the properties of
the repetitive cycle of events that are observed in
the viscous wall region. One possibility cited above
with reference to our studies of flow over wavy
surfaces is the use of pressure gradients. Another
which we are currently exploring is the use of
oscillations in the mean flow. In these experi-


FALL 1980









ments a sinusoidal variation with an amplitude
of about one tenth the mean flow and a frequency
approximately equal to the frequency of the flow
oriented eddies is being superimposed on the feed
to test section of our turbulent flow loop.
The most dramatic result obtained by altering
turbulent flow has been the finding that the addi-
tion of very small amounts of long chain polymers
to a turbulent liquid flow can reduce pressure
losses by a factor of two. We have been carrying
out experiments [10, 25] with these drag-reducing
polymers and have found out that their principal
effect is to increase the spanwise dimension of
the flow oriented wall eddies [26, 27]. One of the
students, Larry Chorn, who participated in that
research joined Atlantic Richfield after complet-
ing studies for his Ph.D. degree. He became in-
volved with a project that was to explore the
possibility of putting drag-reducing polymers in
the Alaska pipeline. The net result of the Atlantic
Richfield effort was to increase the throughput
190,000 barrels per day by using 15 ppm of
polymer. E

REFERENCES
1. Reynolds, 0. 1883, Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A 174,
935.
2. Reiss, L. P. 1962, Investigation of turbulence near a
pipe wall using diffusion controlled electrolytic re-
action on a circular electrode, Ph.D. thesis, Univ.
of Illinois, Urbana.
3. Reiss, L. P. and Hanratty, T. J. 1962, AIChE J., 8,
245.
4. Reiss, L. P. and Hanratty, T. J. 1963, AIChE J., 9,
154.
5. Mitchell, J. E. 1965, Investigation of wall turbulence
using a diffusion-controlled electrode, Ph.D. thesis,
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana.
6. Mitchell, J. E. and Hanratty, T. J. 1966, J. Fluid
Mech., 26, 199.
7. Sirkar, K. K. 1969, Turbulence in the immediate
vicinity of a wall and fully developed mass transfer
at high Schmidt numbers, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Il-
linois, Urbana.
8. Sirkar, K. K. and Hanratty, T. J. 1970, J. Fluid
Mech., 44, 605.
9. Sirkar, K. K. and Hanratty, T. J. 1970, J. Fluid Mech.,
44, 589.
10. Fortuna, G. 1971, Effect of drag reducing polymers
on flow near a wall, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Illinois,
Urbana.
11. Hanratty, T. J., Chorn, L. G. and Hatziavramidis,
D. T. 1977, Physics of Fluids, 20, S 112.
12. Lee, M. K. 1975, Turbulent wall eddy structure and
Reynolds stress production in the wall region of a
pipe flow, 1975, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana.
13. Lee, M. K., Eckelman, L. D. and Hanratty, T. J. 1974,
J. Fluid Mech., 66, 17.


14. Hogenes, J. H. A. 1979, Identification of the dominant
flow structure in the viscous wall region of a turbu-
lent flow, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana.
15. Shaw, D. A. 1976, Mechanism of turbulent mass
transfer to a pipe wall at high Schmidt numbers,
Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana.
16. Shaw, D. A. and Hanratty, T. J. 1977, AIChE J., 23,
28.
17. Shaw, D. A. and Hanratty, T. J. 1977, AIChE J., 23,
160.
18. Henstock, W. H. and Hanratty, T. J. 1979, AIChE J.,
25, 122.
19. Thorsness, C. B. 1975, Transport phenomena associ-
ated with flow over a solid wavy surface, Ph.D.
thesis, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana.
20. Thorsness, C. B., Morrisroe, P. E. and Hanratty, T. J.
1978, Chem. Eng. Sci., 33, 579.
21. Thorsness, C. B. and Hanratty, T. J. 1979, AIChE J.,
25, 686.
22. Thorsness, C. B. and Hanratty, T. J. 1979, AIChE J.,
25, 697.
23. Nernst, W. 1964, Z. Physik. Chem., 47, 52.
24. Noyes, A. A. and Whitney, W. R. 1897, Z. Physik
Chem., 23, 689.
25. Chorn, L. G. 1978, An experimental study of near
wall turbulence properties in highly drag reduced
pipe flows of pseudoplastic polymer solutions, Ph.D.
thesis, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana.
26. Fortuna, G. and Hanratty, T. J. 1972, J. Fluid Mech.,
53, 575.
27. Eckelman, L. D., Fortuna, G. and Hanratty, T. J. 1972,
Nature, 236, 94.




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CHEMICAL REACTORS


C. N. KENNEY
Cambridge University England
Cambridge, England CB2 3RA

T THE HEART OF MOST chemical plants lies the
chemical reactor and so a knowledge of the
factors and concepts affecting its design and per-
formance are a central part of the education of
the chemical engineer. Until the 1960's much of
the efforts of chemical engineers centered on
equilibrium stage processes used for separations
along with the applications of fluid mechanics
and heat transfer in industrial equipment. Since
then interest in the challenging field of the inter-
action of chemical reactions and transport pro-
cesses has grown for at least three reasons: the
rapid development of mathematical techniques,
using computers, which now permit more realistic
models of chemical reactors to be developed; an
enormous growth in fundamental surface science
studies which offers a promise of understanding


C. Nigel Kenney received his B.A. and Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry
at Cambridge. After spending a post-doctoral year at the E.T.H. in
Zurich, Switzerland he moved to Imperial Chemical Industries. In
1961 he joined the Chemical Engineering Department as a Lecturer
and has recently been appointed Reader in Chemical Engineering. He
is a frequent visitor to the United States and was a Visiting Professor
at the Universities of Houston and Stanford in 1976-77. His major
research interests are in applied catalysis, kinetics and gas-solid
separations.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


the way catalysts function; and finally, in the
1970's, the problems raised by pollution and
energy conservation have forced all chemical
manufacturers to re-examine the performance of
their processes, so they remain in harmony with
the society of which they are a part, and still
operate profitably.
Chemical engineering as a distinct discipline,
began in Cambridge in 1948 with an endowment
from Shell Ltd., the first Shell Professor being T.
Fox. At that time certain policy decisions over
the course were taken which are still in force.
The chief of these was that the graduating chemi-
cal engineer should have a firm grounding in engi-
neering principles, particularly in fluid mechanics,
and in applied physical chemistry with thermo-
dynamics and reaction kinetics playing a central
role. Thus the undergraduate course comprises
two years of science or engineering followed by a
third year in the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment studying for 'Part I of the Chemical Engi-
neering Tripos.' Although this three year course
ends with the Cambridge B.A. and provides pro-
fessional recognition by the U.K. Institution of
Chemical Engineers there is little opportunity in
such a full curriculum to go into many topics in
the depth that is a feature of Cambridge science
and engineering. Most Cambridge BA's stay on
to take the fourth year 'Part II of the Chemical
Engineering Tripos' which is widely recognized
in the U.K. as being equivalent to an MSc by
examination, rather than by research. This fourth
year course is similar in approach to many of the
graduate programmes offered at U.S. universities
and contains lectures on mathematics, polymers,
chemical reactors, fluid mechanics, granular ma-
terials, and process simulation. Additional teach-
ing is given on topics such as process economics
and materials. Some lectures will be given for the
first time in 1980-81 on biotechnology and these
will probably be expanded in subsequent years.
The topics which reflect in part the teaching and
research interests of the faculty, have the under-
lying aim of giving more advanced training in
chemical engineering. Although mainly provided


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










... it is possible using physical arguments to explain why reactors for the
catalytic oxidation of butene and ethylene consist of hundreds of parallel tubes, each
one being a few centimeters in diameter and surrounded by coolant, whereas entirely different
criteria have influenced the design of sulphuric acid and ammonia converters.


for Cambridge graduates, there are usually a small
number of overseas graduate students with under-
graduate backgrounds in chemical engineering or
chemistry, including some from the United States,
who come to the department to take these post-
graduate courses. At the end of the year the
'Certificate of Advanced Study' is awarded: some
stay on for a further two years to complete a
PhD, but most return to the United States to
take up industrial positions or do additional post-
graduate training. They appear to find their
graduate year abroad in Britain both enjoyable
and stimulating. Students admitted with the in-
tention of working for a three year PhD are
usually required to, select only a few of these
subjects for examination, the major requirement
in their first year being a brief research disserta-
tion describing their progress and future pro-
gramme. The course requirements for the PhD
are significantly less than is customary in the
United States. This is partly a consequence of the
need to complete the PhD in the three years for
which the U.K. Science Research Council provide
studentships covering tuition and maintenance. A
marked difference between university teaching in
Britain and North America is that courses are
spread out over the whole year (October to June)
made up of three 9-10 week terms, and the only
examination is that held in early June; continuous
assessment is restricted to work on a research
project over the year, which contributes some 20-
25% towards the examination mark. The advant-
ages and shortcomings of end-of-year exams as
against mid-and end-of-semester tests is a con-
troversial subject which is hotly argued when-
ever two or three professors or students are
gathered together. It is likely to remain so, but
U.K. pupils experience the yearly examination
system from an early age in secondary school.

TECHNICAL CONTENT
ALL THOSE TAKING THE lectures on chemical re-
actors are assumed to be familiar with the
basic concepts as discussed in texts such as 'Chemi-
cal Reactor Theory' by Denbigh and Turner, both
of whom spent many years on our faculty. Topics


comprise the analysis of idealised continuous
single phase reactors, such as the stirred tank, and
the isothermal gas phase plug-flow reactor operat-
ing at constant pressure. The latter has the im-
portant feature that reaction stoichiometry makes
an important contribution to the volume required
for a given conversion. These reactor types also
provide a useful basis for a discussion of residence
time concepts, yield and selectivity, and non-
isothermal behaviour. It is in the fourth year
graduate course under discussion that there is an
opportunity to examine the features of the many
industrial reactors which bring together two or
more gas/liquid/solid phases. Examples are the
catalytic reactor with diffusion and reaction oc-
curring in the catalyst pellet, gas-solid fluidised
beds, gas-liquid contacting processes. In addition,
particularly with industrial oxidation processes,
problems of heat transfer must be recognized and
taken into account.
Undergraduate courses on heterogeneous
catalysis tend to be somewhat limited in scope
and so although the idea of the rate determining
step leading to Langmuir Hinshelwood mechan-
isms is quickly grasped, it is necessary to spend
some time outlining the structure, properties, and
characterisation of real catalysts and their
supports. The mathematics of diffusion and re,
action under steady state conditions are examined
and examples of industrial processes where
catalyst effectiveness is important are considered.
Comparisons are made, in terms of experimentally
accessible parameters, of the relative importance
of heat and mass transfer effects through the
fluid film and within the particle, and it is empha-
sized how failure to recognize these diffusional
limitations may give spurious estimates of in-
trinsic kinetics and reaction order. This leads to
the recognition of possible multiple states in steady
state operation. It also provides an opportunity to
contrast the elegant mathematics of steady state
diffusion-reaction theory based on a continuum
model with the untidy reality of irregular porous
supports containing metal catalyst crystallites.
When attention is turned to the assembly of
catalyst particles in a tube (that work-horse of the
chemical industry), the fixed bed reactor, it be-


FALL 1980









TABLE 1
Course Outline


DIFFUSION AND REACTION IN CATALYST PELLETS
(N. K. H. Slater) 6 Lectures
* Survey of heterogeneous catalytic processes.
* Structure of porous catalysts-tortuousity, voidage.
* Transport mechanisms in catalyst pores-Bulk and
Knudsen diffusion.
Diffusion and reaction-Thiele modulus and effective-
ness factors.
Analysis for different particle geometry and complex
kinetics.
Non-isothermal reactions : inter and intra-particle
effects.
RESIDENCE TIME EFFECTS (J. F. Davidson) 6 Lectures
Micro and macro mixing. Effect of velocity profile on
conversion with different kinetics.
Dispersion models, Danckwerts boundary conditions.
Limiting cases for zero and infinite axial dispersion.
Applications of R.T.D.'s to fluidised bed.
Taylor Diffusion in a circular pipe with laminar flow.
Dispersion in turbulent flows.
FIXED BED REACTORS (C. N. Kenney) 8 lectures
Models for radial and axial dispersion and transport.
Experimental determination of transport coefficients
in fixed beds.
Non-isothermal fixed bed reactors : relative importance
of particle and wall heat transfer.
Hot spots, Barkelew's analysis : comparison with
simple thermal explosion theory.
* Dynamics of non-isothermal C.S.T.R. linearised sta-
bility analysis, limit cycles.
Conditions for unique steady states. Examples of
multiplicity and oscillations in isothermal catalytic and
biological systems.
GAS ABSORPTION WITH CHEMICAL REACTION
(C. N. Kenney) 8 lectures
* Gas-liquid reactions for gas cleaning and product

comes necessary to consider a number of new
factors associated with the flow of fluid (and
heat) ; in particular how seriously does the piston
flow assumption associated with the ideal single
phase tubular reactor become modified by an axial
spreading term as a. result of streams of fluid
entering and leaving the voids between the
catalyst particle. As is well known such axial dis-
persion leads usually to a reduction in conversion
because of the departure of the residence time
distribution from that of a plug-flow system. Al-
though not primarily a chemical reactor problem,
the phenomenon of Taylor Diffusion is discussed
at this point, not inappropriately since the work
was carried out by the late Sir Geoffrey Taylor
in a building close to our department. The analysis,
apart from its intrinsic interest, provides a telling
example of the merits of simple experiments and


synthesis.
Film model for kinetic and diffusion regimes. Hatta
number, fact first order reactions in liquid film.
Second order reactions. Transition from fast to in-
stantaneous regime. Van-Krevelen graphical solution.
Iterative methods for column design. Gas-liquid re-
actors in practice.
Film, Higbie and Danckwerts absorption models.
Experimental methods for absorption rates in labora-
tory and industrial equipment.
Three-phase slurry reactors.
FIXED BED DYNAMICS (C. N. Kenney) 6 lectures
Ion exchange, chromatography, pressure swing pro-
cesses, parametric pumping.
Ideal chromatography, speed of movement of front,
self sharpening fronts.
Non-ideal chromatography. Laplace Transform applied
to linear isotherm and finite mass transfer.
Theoretical plates in chromatography. Moment
analysis.
Preparation and physical chemistry of ion-exchangers.
FLUIDISATION (D. Harrison/R. Clift) 10 lectures
Calculation of incipient fluidising velocities. Relation
between Archimedes and Reynolds numbers.
* Plot of Umf versus particle diameter. Slug flow. Pre-
diction of bed height.
* Bubble formation and bubble coalescence.
* Flow regimes and transitions.
* First order reaction. Bubble model with complete
mixing in particulate phase, conversion.
* Exchange between bubbles and particulate phase.
Formulae for crossflow factors. Comparison with ex-
periment.
* Heat transfer in fluidised beds. Penetration theory and
slug flow bubble mechanics applied to transfer co-
efficient prediction.

observation in our high technology age which
should be grasped by all students of science and
engineering: namely that it was possible for con-
siderable numbers of experimentalists over several
hundred years to watch the spreading of dye in
water flowing through small bore tubes at low
velocities without understanding the mechanism
of axial dispersion. Even those who had the ability
to write down the appropriate differential equation
did not have G.I. Taylor's insight to judge which
terms could be ignored on physical grounds, so
reducing the problem to one of relatively simple
integration.
When an exothermic reaction can occur in a
fixed bed, heat balance equations are coupled with
those governing the transport and consumption of
reactants. The detailed solution of such coupled
equations does not form a part of the course, but


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









it is possible using physical arguments to explain
why reactors for the catalytic oxidation of butene
and ethylene consist of hundreds of parallel tubes,
each one being a few centimeters in diameter and
surrounded by coolant, whereas entirely different
criteria have influenced the design of sulphuric
acid and ammonia converters.
An important class of reactors are those in
which gas bubbles, or slugs, contact and react in-
liquids or solid particles. Such systems which in-
clude fluidised beds have long been a research
interest of the department. Material appears in
the timetable in a block called granular materials
but has obvious relevance to the general field of
reactor design. In such systems, an understanding
of the fluid mechanics of bubble flow is crucial to
an appreciation of fluidised bed behaviour. Lec-
tures follow the 'two phase theory' of fluidisation
which has been extensively developed by J. F.
Davidson, the present Shell Professor and De-
partmental Chairman, and D. Harrison. The
problem of the transfer of gas from a bubble to
catalyst pellets as it passes through a bed of fluid
particles, in spite of its complexity, can nonethe-
less be discussed in quantative form by recognis-
ing that a part of the gas supports the particles
and gives the medium liquid-like properties. Effec-
tive mass transfer coefficients can be obtained and
if (and it is a substantial provision) the mixing
features of gas and solid particles are known,
then the conversion obtainable in a fluidised bed
reactor can be derived. Although the behaviour
of single bubbles is now fairly well understood, a
major aim of the engineer is to develop methods of
scaling-up laboratory experiments to industrial
dimensions. The high gas velocities used in in-
dustrial units and the fact that the gas is intro-
duced in bubble swarms which can coalesce and
re-divide, continue to provide many challenges to
theory and experiment.
The problem of gas absorption with chemical
reaction in a liquid is discussed in some eight
lectures beginning with industrial examples of
gas-liquid contacting devices used for gas purifica-
tion and homogeneous catalytic reactors. A
knowledge of the Whitman two-film theory is as-
sumed and the importance of the Hatta number
in characterising a family of absorption regimes
i.e. kinetic and diffusion control, fast reaction in
the liquid film, and instantaneous reaction is de-
veloped. The 'film model' equation is discussed
giving the variation of concentration of the ab-
sorbed species, c, as function of its distance from


the gas-liquid interface, z.
Dd2c
d -R(c) = 0

Here D is a liquid phase diffusion coefficient and
R(c) a kinetic rate term. The comparison of the
Enhancement Factor with the Effectiveness
Factor concept of gas-solid catalysts emphasizes
the common features of diffusion-reaction pro-
cesses. The transition to instantaneous reaction
with the diffusion of reactive solute to the gas-
liquid reaction interface, provides an opportunity
to illustrate the use of the Van-Krevelen plots of
Enhancement factor as a function of Hatta
number.
A discussion is provided of the penetration
theory of absorption with reaction, developed by
Professor Danckwerts who was initially a lecturer
and later Shell Professor and Departmental
Chairman for some fifteen years. This involves
the solution of partial differential equations of
the type

D 2c R (c) ac
z2(c) t
The partial derivative on the right hand side ex-
presses the fact that the concentration at any z
is time dependent. The final lectures touch on the
use of the laminar jet, and wetted wall column for
obtaining data in the laboratory and how the pa-


TABLE 2
Reading List
G. Astarita, Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction,
Elsevier, 1967
J. J. Carberry, Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineer-
ing, McGraw Hill, 1976
P. V. Danckwerts, Gas Liquid Reactions, McGraw Hill,
1970
J. F. Davidson and D. Harrison, Fluidised Particles, C. U. P.
1963
J. F. Davidson and D. Harrison, Fluidization, Academic
Press, 1971
K. G. Denbigh and J, C. R. Turner, Chemical Reactor
Theory, C. U. P. 1976
D. Kuni and 0. Levenspiel, Fluidization Engineering. Wiley,
1969
D. D. Perlmutter, Stability of Chemical Reactors,
Prentice Hall, 1972
C. N. Satterfield, Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous
Catalysis, M.I.T. Press, 1970
T. K. Sherwood, R. L. Pigford and C. R. Wilke, Mass
Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 1975
J. M. Thomas and W. J. Thomas, Introduction to the
Principles of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Academic Press,
1967


FALL 1980








rameters obtained from such experiments may be
used in the design of industrial reactors. The
complexities of designing a countercurrent absorp-
tion column involving the consumption of both gas
and liquid phase reactants are pointed out, but
limitations of time do not allow the class to do
examples involving lengthy iterative calculations.
Later on in the course, features of reactor be-
haviour are discussed which involve time-de-
pendent, as opposed to steady state, behaviour.
The first of these is the question of parametric
sensitivity and temperatures runaway in fixed bed
reactors. Although distributed parameter systems
are important, from the teaching standpoint the
dynamic behaviour of the lumped non-isothermal
CSTR can be discussed more effectively in a few
lectures. The stability behaviour of linearised
two variable systems is examined in the mathe-
matics lectures and shows how the defining equa-
tions, with X as vector of concentration and
temperature, can be related to reactor parameters
making up the 2 x 2 matrix, A

X=AX

These equations can lead to experimentally ob-
servable non-linear oscillations in temperature and
concentration. Discussion of such limit cycles
appears to add a desirable reality to topic which
in the mathematics lectures some students
certainly find somewhat abstract.
Another topic covered in some depth is that
of chromatographic separation processes with the
same principles having their large scale realisa-
tion in ion-exchange and gas-solid adsorption pro-
cesses. The pair of partial-differential equations
covering the behaviour of the adsorption column
provide good illustrations of the applicability of
graduate level mathematical techniques

-ev ac IE aI + P. I )
az t at ath z
P =- F(c,q)

Here e and p are the bed voidage and density re-
spectively and v is fluid velocity. The equations
show how solute concentration in fluid, c, and in
solid, q, vary with distance along the bed z, and
time, t. If the second equation applies to a situa-
tion where there is instantaneous equilibrium
between moving and solid phases, then the 'theory
of characteristics' shows how the front may
broaden or self sharpen, depending on whether the


adsorption isotherm is linear or curved. When the
,equilibrium between gas and solid is not
instantaneous and the rate of mass transfer be-
tween gas and solid is included with a linear iso-
therm, then the analysis provides a useful example
of the applicability of Laplace transform theory
to partial differential equations. Accompanying
this formal analysis, some information is provided
on the background physical chemistry of ad-
sorbents and ion-exchangers. Although the theory
of fixed bed separation is well established, it seems
likely that recent advances in the preparation of
adsorptive solids will ensure an increasing appli-
cation of these separation methods in future. In
passing it will be noticed that these equations
are effectively those describing the response of a
fixed bed reactor to perturbations in concentration
and so have relevance to fixed bed dynamics and
control.

PRESENTATION
THE PRESENTATION OF THIS course follows a
traditional pattern using the lecture plus
blackboard method. Slides and overhead trans-
parencies are employed occasionally; handouts are
given of some of the more elaborate mathematical
development. Each lecturer distributes problem
sheets. Students have a weekly tutorial of one
hour with a member of the teaching staff, who
is their supervisor over the year, and who allo-
cates them additional examples and deals where
possible with questions over the bulk of the Part
II course. However, individual lecturers are always
available to deal with specific queries if required.
The author is fortunate in having been able to
give large parts of this course when he was a
Visiting Professor at the University of Houston in
1976 and at Stanford University in 1977, and
found it was well received. The students in U.S.
graduate classes appear to have much more diverse
backgrounds than would be encountered in the
more homogeneous U.K. system. However, their
enthusiasm and lively interest always provides
visiting lecturers with a class of appreciative and
able students. In the course a positive attempt is
made to show how catalyst chemistry, chemical
engineering and mathematical methods come to-
gether to influence the design, economics and
operation of chemical reactors. Advances in all
three topics give hope that imaginative design
may be the approach in the future rather than a
too heavy reliance on empiricism and past
practice. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







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4aSYSTS e in



SYSTEMS MODELLING AND CONTROL


L. S. KERSHENBAUM,
J. D. PERKINS AND D. L. PYLE
Imperial College
London SW7, England

T HE GAP BETWEEN ACADEMIC research activities
and industrial application in the field of process
control appears to be large. Some reasons for
this are immediately apparent: advances in
electronics and aerospace have brought about the
theory necessary to solve some control problems
which were otherwise insoluble; corresponding
developments in computer power have made these
soluble in a reasonable amount of time; thus the
area has been perceived as an interesting subject
for academic research.
Nevertheless, many industrial process control
problems are adequately (although not perfectly)
dealt with using straightforward control tech-
niques which are characterized by an extreme "ro-
bustness" that is, the choice of actual control
constants used in classical algorithms is not too
critical. Furthermore, those problems which are
more difficult to cope with using classical tech-
niques are thought to be so complex that vast
amounts of time are necessary in modelling before
the control activity can even begin. Furthermore,
because it involves more complex mathematics,
operators or even engineers are unlikely to be able
to "tune" the algorithm on-line in case of some
deterioration of performance. And so, despite the
fact that many large plants have on-line computer
control, in most cases this powerful tool is being
used for little more than digital 3-term controllers,
possibly with supervisory control of set points as


It is our belief that adequate
progress has now been made by academic
researchers using simulations or small-scale
experiments, for us to be able to demonstrate ...
that there are certain situations in which
these techniques can be used in real
plants, solving real control problems.


dictated by some steady-state linear programming
algorithm.
It is our belief that adequate progress has
now been made by academic researchers using
simulations or small-scale experiments, for us to
be able to demonstrate, both to students and to
practising control engineers, that there are certain
situations in which these techniques can be used
in real plants, solving real control problems. We,
at Imperial College, have an opportunity to carry
out this program since we are equipped with
large pilot plants, fully instrumented and linked
with an industrial-type mini computer. Software
includes conventional 3-term digital controllers
plus a range of modern control algorithms which
can be called upon to perform at any point in the
plants.
Rather than attempt to deal with all aspects
of modern control theory, we have decided to focus
attention in our course on those areas in which
significant improvement over classical control
methods can be realized without an excessive
amount of time spent on preliminary modelling
exercises. Accordingly, we have isolated three
problem areas for which classical control tech-


Evaporotor CW Cooler- Crystallizer


CRYSTALLIZATION PLANT

C.W
(Gas recycle )
Col cw iCN2



Monoethanolomine CO2 N?
solution
CO2 ABSORPTION PLANT


Outputs
l23)





Inputs
fc.8L )


Honeywell
DDP-516
Computer

Peripherals


FIGURE 1. Imperial College Computer-Controlled Pilot
Plant.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980

























Dr. L. S. Kershenbaum, who is Reader in Chemical Engineering,
received his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of
Michigan in 1964. He subsequently joined the staff at Drexel Uni-
versity and also worked for the Du Pont Corporation in Philadelphia
and in Wilmington, Delaware. He joined Imperial College in 1970,
assuming responsibility for the development of research and teaching
programmes utilizing the Department's computer-controlled pilot
plants. In addition to this work his research interests include chemical
reaction engineering and applied catalysis with special emphasis on
reactions important in energy utilization. (L)
Dr. D. L. Pyle is a Senior Lecturer in Chemical Engineering. He
graduated from the Universities of Manchester (1961) and Cam-
bridge (PhD, 1964); before joining Imperial College he spent two


years at the British Coal Utilisation Research Association.
He was largely responsible for the design of the computer-
controlled plants and has had a continuing interest in research,
mainly involving the crystallisation plant, and teaching in control.
His research interests also include fluidisation and, more recently,
problems relating to technology choice in developing countries, with
special emphasis on renewable energy supplies. (C)
Dr. J. D. Perkins is a Lecturer in Chemical Engineering. He gradu-
ated from Imperial College (BSc, 1971; PhD, 1973), and spent four
years teaching at the University of Cambridge, and one year working
for ICI Agricultural Division in Billingham. He joined the staff at
Imperial College in 1977. His research interests are in control, and
in the computer-aided design of chemical processes. (R)


niques offer little guidance or assistance to the
control engineer and in which modern methods
are reasonably easy to implement. The three areas
are
* situations in which there is significant interaction be-
tween control loops (and in which this interaction is not
easily eliminated by intermediate buffer tanks, etc.), and
where multivariable control methods are appropriate
* the control of processes with important but unmeasured
or unmeasurable variables
* the control of nonlinear processes in which change of
load or setpoint requires periodic re-tuning of control
loops.
It is our experience that most control engineers
will immediately recognize these as significant
problems and will be able to place some of their
own problems into one or more of these areas.
Our approach is to provide the background
mathematics required for the solution of these
problems, and to allow the student time to imple-
ment these algorithms on the plants. The actual
method of instruction and practical experience
varies with the type of group, as described below.

PLANT & COMPUTER SYSTEM

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF the plants and computer
system is given here for reference.


The plant and computer system is illustrated
schematically in Fig. 1. Two plants, a carbon di-
oxide absorber-desorber unit and a fractional
crystallization plant, are linked to a Honeywell
DDP-516 computer housed in an adjacent control
room. (A third plant, a fixed-bed catalytic reactor
plus associated purification unit, has recently been
commissioned). Surveillance and control of all
plants can be carried out simultaneously.
The measured process variables may be associ-
ated with any of the control valves by conventional
control algorithms, or via special purpose, user-
written programs. In particular, the latter in-
corporate on-line estimation, identification and op-
timization routines as part of their control al-
gorithms.
The absorption/desorption plant consists of 2
columns (9m high x 0.25m diameter) for the sepa-
ration of CO, from nitrogen using ethanolamine
solution as the absorbent. The CO2 is continuously
absorbed in the solution in the absorption column,
and the spent solution is continuously regenerated
in the desorption column. The other plant sepa-
rates two soluble salts by 2-stage fractional
crystallization. One salt, potassium sulfate, pre-
cipitates and is continuously removed in the first
unit (volume, 100 1) and the other salt, potassium


FALL 1980








nitrate, crystallizes and is removed from the
second unit (volume, 200 1).
The plants are fully instrumented with con-
ventional industrial instruments and various
continuous and discrete analytical measurements
including on-line infra-red analysis, on-line pH
measurement and off-line gas chromatography.
Control by the computer is achieved by standard
current to pressure converters and pneumatically
operated control valves.
The computer is a Honeywell DDP 516 with a
16 bit word and 32K words of core store, with a
0.96 ts memory cycle time. Hardware fixed-point
arithmetic is available. The core memory is backed
by a 1M word Burroughs fixed head disc with disc-
core transfer by direct memory access. Programs
may be written in real time extensions to Fortran
4. The system allows foreground/background
operation and the use of disc resident subprograms
which are loaded into core only during execution.
Thus, the scale of the operation is as close as
possible to computer systems currently in use in
typical chemical process plants.

COURSE AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT

As WE NOTED, rather than attempt the im-
possible task of covering the whole of modern
control theory in one short course we chose to
focus on three types of problem: multivariable
control system design, estimation and filtering,
and the design and use of adaptive 'self-tuning'
regulators. Even with such a limited set of
problems to discuss it would still be impossible to
deal with all the relevant theory and practical
aspects of the techniques. Instead we set out with
a limited group of objectives.
First, we intended that the students should be
able to identify process situations and problems
where the techniques might be useful; this would
involve the discussion of problems where classical
control methods can no longer cope-for example
because of interactions between process variables,
where nonlinearities might be important, or where
key states and parameters are unknown or un-
measurable. Secondly, the students should be able
to describe in simple terms the basic theoretical
ideas underlying the three sets of techniques.
Thus, for example, we wouldn't expect a detailed
understanding of all the theory of linear multi-
variable systems, nor would we expect the student
to be able to derive from first principles the
Kalman filter, but we would expect a level of


understanding of the theory appropriate to the
intelligent use of the methods. Thirdly, the student
should be able to cast problems into the form
necessary for the use of the techniques and also
be able to specify the information necessary for
their application. Faced with a problem of con-
trolling a process on which insufficient informa-
tion is available, for example, the student should
be able to set up a dynamic model of the process
and to be aware of the statistical information
necessary for a filtering algorithm to function
adequately. In very broad terms, then, we hoped
that by the end of the course the student should
recognize the limitations and inadequacies of
classical control theory, while retaining an appre-
ciation of its value-and also appreciate and value
the areas where certain modern control methods
might have a powerful role to play.
We can summarise what we hoped to achieve
in the course in terms of three broad aims. First
we would introduce the underlying theoretical
ideas behind the techniques. For example, in the
case of multivariable control methods, this would
involve the extension of the familiar (scalar) ideas


A general view of the absorption/desorption pilot plant.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








for the algebra and frequency response analysis
of linear dynamic systems to the parallel (vector-
matrix) analysis of multi-input, multi-output
systems. In estimation theory we need some basic
statistical ideas leading to the Kalman filter.
Similarly, the discussion of the self-tuning regula-
tor requires some ideas, new to most students,
about the behaviour of discretised systems in order
to outline a procedure for the periodic re-estima-
tion of process parameters and the automatic re-
adjustment of control constants.
The second aim of the course was to enable the
students to perform the process and system
modelling and specification necessary for the ap-
plication of the control methods.
The third aim was to give the students the op-
portunity and experience of applying at least one
of the techniques to a real problem. In this respect
we were very fortunate in having the computer
controlled pilot plants described above, where
realistic problems of process interaction, or of
unknown key variables, and of significant non-
linearities under load changes are all present.
A short syllabus for the course is summarised
in Table 1. We return below to the questions about
the prerequisites required of the participants and
to the methods and strategy we have adopted in
attempting to realise the aims and objectives
summarised above.


STRATEGY AND TEACHING METHODS
IN PRACTICE, OF COURSE, the particular teaching
methods employed depend on the course par-
ticipants and the time available. So far the course
has been given to two rather different groups: the
first was a class of master's degree students and
of first-year research students. In a typical year
there are around 15-20 students in the class and
the majority have first degrees in chemical engi-
neering but from a wide range of universities in
Britain and abroad. Moreover the great majority
of these students will have come directly from
their undergraduate studies and, as a consequence,
have had relatively little practical experience. For
this group of students the course is allocated
around 20 scheduled hours during one term (of
eleven weeks). The main problems to be antici-
pated with such a group of students stem from
their very different backgrounds and levels of
attainment: some will have had a strong under-
graduate course in modelling and control; others
will be relatively weak in that area. Similarly,


TABLE 1
Summary Syllabus
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND.
The basic mathematics of linear systems: state repre-
sentation and essentials of state space algebra and calcu-
lus; discrete time representation of continuous processes
and Z-transforms; basic statistical theory.
DESIGN OF MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL SYSTEMS.
Limitations of classical control theory: interaction and
stability. Algebra of multivariable systems; methods for
analysis and synthesis of control schemes: decoupling,
stability of multivariable systems, dominance and the de-
velopment of Nyquist-type design methods.
ESTIMATION OF UNMEASURED VARIABLES.
The basic mathematics of estimation theory; the Kal-
man filter-the optimal estimator for linear systems; the
use of the filter for the estimation of states and parameters
in non-linear systems.
REGULATION OF TIME-VARYING PLANT.
An adaptive "Self-Tuning Regulator"; elimination of
manual returning; periodic re-estimation of parameters in
simple linear process models; automatic adjustment of
control constants as plant operating conditions change.

some will have a strong mathematical back-
ground and others will be much less well prepared.
As a group, they probably share a lack of ex-
perience and perspective into the nature of 'real'
process control problems.
The second group (to whom the course has
been presented in the form of an intensive one-
week programme) came from industry. This
group, of 12, were all active in control or control-
related work in the process industry, although
they were heterogeneous to the extent in which
their work implied a working knowledge of
classical, let alone modern, techniques for control.
There was a similar heterogeneity in their famili-
arity with the necessary mathematics. On the other
hand, we did anticipate that their concern with
both day-to-day and longer-term industrial
problems would bring a sense of purpose to the
class and also provide a different critical perspec-
tive on the course itself from that provided by
our internal students.
For both groups the aims and objectives of the
course were the same, although, of course, the
detailed objectives would be adjusted as necessary.
We also decided to prepare a set of quite detailed
course notes which would serve for both groups.
Apart from supplementary handouts in the form
of computer programs or examples to be worked
through, these notes are intended to be self-
sufficient for the purposes of the course.


FALL 1980








For both groups a certain level of attainment
and familiarity with some basic materials was
necessary. The industrial group was contacted
well in advance of the course and sent a brief
summary of the background we would assume and
a summary of what we thought would be the most
useful material. This covered some essentials of
traditional control theory, matrix algebra and
analysis, and some basic statistics. For this group
the first day of the course was spent in discussing
their, and our, perceptions of the course and its
objectives, and in reviewing the background
material by discussing the problems they had en-
countered.
A rather similar approach was taken with
our own students. At the first meeting of the
course we discussed the sorts of skills we would
subsequently be using. The students were then
directed toward the necessary background reading
and to a range of examples to be used to monitor
their levels of attainment and to give them practice
in acquiring new or improving rusty skills. In
practice this was far more difficult than we had
anticipated: it was very difficult to promote the
right atmosphere within the class when we met
later to discuss their problems. In the end we had
to resort to a rather unsatisfactory blend of dis-
cussing problems which not all the class had
attempted and of exposition on our part on what
we thought their problems might be. It is interest-
ing that the experience with the more mature and
perhaps, in many cases less well prepared, in-
dustrial group was far more satisfactory. They
were far more prepared to treat us, the 'teachers,'
as equals, and to want to explore a host of
questions of varying levels of difficulty or sophis-
tication. For example, there were one or two
people within the group whose recall of classical
control theory or of some basic algebra was very
rudimentary; on the other hand, there was at
least one person in the group who wanted to ask
rather probing questions about the use of filtering
theory.
The background notes that we had given to the
participants and which were freely available to
our own students had been composed (around the
syllabus outlined in Table 1) to meet our course
objectives. Class sessions, then, were organised not
as formal lectures but rather to outline the main
thrust of the theoretical ideas in the notes and
the practical control methods, and to come to grips
with some of the problems likely to be encountered
through a series of examples. For such a strategy


to be really successful a number of conditions must
be satisfied: the notes should be clear and reason-
ably comprehensive; one needs a set of examples
for exposition and for the student to work on; one
needs the right sort of classroom and group
conditions to encourage such a method of learn-
ing. In the case of this course the possibility, from
early on, of attempting to use the techniques in
practical situations was absolutely crucial. Again
we were confronted with a problem, since the time
available in either course and alternative demands
on the students' time and interest made it im-
possible for each student to build up the necessary
computer programs to implement any of the
techniques. To try to solve this problem we had
recourse to a blend of methods: we gave the
students a few small problems to work on (e.g.
sketching the inverse Nyquist array for a 2 x 2
system with a very simple transfer function
matrix) and working on prewritten program
suites either off-line, on simulation or analysis
exercises, or on-line on the pilot plant.
About 40% of the scheduled course time was
allocated to this sort of activity with the industrial
group, which was, of course, sufficiently small to
be able to break into three smaller groups to work
in parallel on the various problems. Thus while
one group was exploring the behaviour of the self-
tuning regulator on the CO, absorption/desorp-
tion plant, another group would be trying out the
Kalman filter on a computer terminal, while the
final group would be trying out the suite of multi-
variable design programs which are available on
the College computing system. By the end of the
course one of our aims at least was more than
met, since each group had had some experience
with at least two, and possibly, all three of the
techniques focused on in the course. Our final dis-
cussions with the group and subsequent contacts
suggest that our course objectives had been fairly
satisfactorily achieved.
Our only measure of the course achievements
with the postgraduate class was their perform-
ance in the end of course written examination.
Three questions covering the main topics of the
course were set and the students were required
to attempt all of them. The results were reasonably
satisfactory since the students showed a fair grasp
of the principles and application methods of the
topics covered in the course. However we feel it
may be necessary to develop more appropriate
measures of the class performance than is afforded
by the traditional written examination. E


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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We know from our experience that motivation
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the knowledge that you've gained in college.
We know this because without determined,
highly-motivated people, we never would have
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We believe that it's our job to encourage new
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And, we move them up as quickly as possible. Race,
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We produce a broad range of more than 2500
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PAT EG AT iL


PLANT ENGINEERING AT LOUGHBOROUGH


FRANK P. LEES
Loughborough University of Technology
Loughborough, Leicestershire, England

T HE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at
Loughborough runs three courses at under-
graduate level:
Chemical Engineering
Chemical Engineering and Management
Food Processing Technology
The first of these is the main course and is
taken by about 80% of the students. All under-
graduate courses in the department come as 3- or
4-year courses with the third year of the 4-year
course being spent in industry. Some 85% of
students opt for the 4-year courses.
At the graduate level the department runs
two Masters courses:
Advanced Chemical Engineering
Plant Engineering in the Process Industries
The former course has been running since 1969
and was described in an earlier paper [1]. The
latter course was started in 1976.
There are some 23 staff in the department, as
shown in Table 1. It is found convenient, both for
undergraduate and for graduate education and for
research, to operate through the medium of
specialist groups:
Transfer Processes
Process Technology
Particle Technology
Plant Engineering
Food Processing Technology
These are loose groupings, however, and many
members of the staff have a foot in several camps.

PLANT ENGINEERING STUDIES

T HERE ARE TWO BASIC REASONS for the develop-
ment of studies in plant engineering at Lough-
borough. One is the belief that the subjects which
we group under this heading are important to the
chemical engineer but have received insufficient
emphasis in many undergraduate courses in
recent years. The other is that the job of the plant


Frank P. Lees graduated in chemical engineering at Imperial
College, London. He worked for two years in the steel industry and
eleven years in the chemical industry. He came to the Department
of Chemical Engineering at Loughborough University of Technology
in 1967. He holds the Chair in Plant Engineering in the Department
and is course tutor for the M.Sc. in Plant Engineering in the Process
Industries. His teaching and research interests include plant engineer-
ing, loss prevention, reliability engineering and process control. He
is a member of the Advisory Committee on Major Hazards set up by
the UK Government after the Flixborough disaster. He is author of
the book Loss Prevention in the Process Industries.

engineer is an important one but tends to be
neglected by engineering schools.
One working definition of plant engineering is
effectively the body of knowledge useful to the
plant engineer. In the U.K. it is normal practice in
process plants for there to be a plant manager,
who is responsible for plant operation, and a plant
engineer, who is responsible for plant maintenance
and modification. The former is typically a chemi-
cal engineer and the latter a mechanical engineer.
Increasingly, however, chemical engineers are
working as plant engineers.
A central theme of plant engineering is that of
the failures which occur on plant. Almost all the
topics which we deal with under the heading of
plant engineering are related to deviation, mal-
operation, and failure in some way.
The Plant Engineering Group in the depart-
ment is led by the author, who holds the Chair
in Plant Engineering which was funded by the
Institution of Plant Engineers. The group takes
the lead role in undergraduate teaching of topics
broadly in the plant engineering field, such as


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980









mechanical engineering, electrical engineering,
instrumentation, reliability engineering, loss pre-
vention, energy, maintenance. It also takes re-
sponsibility for the Masters course and research in
plant engineering.

MASTERS COURSE IN PLANT ENGINEERING

T HE WORK OF THE PLANT engineer has often
been taken for granted, but this situation is
changing. The economic importance of the main-
tenance function is receiving recognition, while
the importance of other aspects of the job, such
as loss prevention, energy conservation and pollu-
tion control, does not need to be emphasised.
Consequently, there is a growing appreciation of
the need for people with a more fundamental edu-
cation in plant engineering, particularly one
which both increases the engineers' effectiveness
as a junior manager and also gives him the back-
ground needed for senior management.
A central theme of the course is the plant engi-
neering information system. This approach
focuses attention on the decisions which the plant
engineer has to make, on the information required
to make those decisions, and on the information


A central theme of plant engineering
is that of the failures which occur on plant.
Almost all the topics which we deal with under the
heading of plant engineering are related to
deviation, mal-operation and
failure in some way.


system needed in order to obtain the information.
In addition, emphasis is also placed on the de-
cisions which the plant engineer's colleagues need
to make, whether they be the designer, the buyer
or the accountant. They, too, require information
and often it is the plant engineer who should
supply it. The plant engineer needs, therefore, an
information system which will furnish the data
which he and his colleagues need, as effectively
and as economically as possible. The concept of
this information system for the plant engineer
provides a framework for the integration of spe-
cific plant engineering studies and enables the
plant engineer to argue his case within the organi-
sation on a level with his colleagues in the other
engineering disciplines.
Of course, for most plant engineers the short


TABLE 1
Staff of the Department


R. J. Aird, Lecturer; B.Sc. 1962, Durham University; Plant
Engineering, Reliability Engineering
R. J. Akers, Senior Lecturer; Ph.D. 1972, Westfield College,
London; Particle Technology, Filtration, Flocculation
P. K. Andow, Lecturer; Ph.D. 1973, Loughborough Uni-
versity of Technology; Fluid Mechanics, Process
Control, Hazard Assessment
R. H. Beresford, Senior Lecturer; M.A. 1955, Cambridge
University; Petroleum Industry Economics, Opera-
tional Research, Computer-Aided Design
B. W. Brooks, Senior Lecturer; Ph.D. 1964, Leeds Uni-
versity; Polymerisation Reactions, Electrochemical Re-
actions
B. A. Buffham, Senior Lecturer; Ph.D. 1969, Loughborough
University of Technology; Thermodynamics, Mixing
Phenomena
D. W. Drott, Lecturer; Ph.D. 1972, University of Minne-
sota; Process Control, Reaction Engineering
A. Foord, Senior Lecturer; Ph.D. 1956, Birmingham Uni-
versity; Process Economics
D. C. Freshwater, Professor; Ph.D. 1954, Birmingham Uni-
versity; Distillation, Energy Economy, Particle Tech-
nology
J. Glover, Lecturer; M.Sc. 1954, Birmingham University;
Thermodynamics, Reaction Engineering
T. A. Kletz, Industrial Professor and Division Safety Ad-
viser, ICI Petrochemicals Division; B.Sc. 1944, Liver-
pool University; Safety and Loss Prevention
F. P. Lees, Professor; Ph.D. 1969, Loughborough Uni-


versity of Technology; Plant Engineering, Reliability
Engineering, Loss Prevention, Process Control
P. J. Lloyd, Senior Lecturer; B.Sc. 1956, University College,
London; Particle Technology, Particle Characterisation,
Filtration
J. Mann, Professor; Ph.D. 1965, Cambridge University;
Food Processing Technology, Management, Economics,
Process Control
G. Mason, Lecturer; Ph.D. 1979, Council for National
Academic Awards; Porous Media
C. P. Murphy, Research Fellow; Ph.D. 1979, Loughborough
University of Technology; Computer Science
P. Rice, Lecturer; Ph.D. 1970, Loughborough University
of Technology; Heat and Mass Transfer, Reaction
Engineering
B. Scarlett, Senior Lecturer; M.Sc. 1964, Durham Uni-
versity; Particle Technology, Particle Characterisa-
tion, Packed Beds
J. Selman, Lecturer; B.Sc. 1972, Reading University; Food
Processing Technology
J. I. T. Stenhouse, Senior Lecturer; Ph.D. 1973, Lough-
borough University of Technology; Particle Technology,
Gas Cleaning
A. S. Teja, Lecturer; Ph.D. 1972, Imperial College, London;
Thermodynamics, Phase Equilibria
C. R. G. Treasure, Lecturer; B.Sc. 1950, University College,
London; Particle Technology, Particle Characterisation
A. S. Ward, Lecturer; B.Sc. Tech. 1960, Manchester Uni-
versity; Particle Technology, Filtration


FALL 1980









continuing education course (lasting typically one
week) will be the principal method of further
education. This is right and proper. The depart-
ment is very much involved in this type of course,
but there is a difference between what can be
achieved in such short courses and what can be
done in a longer period of study.
The Masters course starts in early October and
lasts for exactly a year. There are two 10-week
terms of lectures, tutorials and seminar/work-
shops separated by a break of about 3 weeks at
Christmas. Written examinations are completed
by late April and the remainder of the year is
devoted to a project. About half the projects are
done in industry and half at the University.
The course has about 7 to 8 graduate students
per year. Students split roughly half and half
between chemical and mechanical engineers.
Usually rather more than half have substantial
industrial experience. The course provides a
basic tool kit of relevant subjects for both me-
chanical and chemical engineers who propose to
make careers as plant engineers. It is not assumed,
however, that graduates from the course will
necessarily practice as plant engineers. A chemi-

TABLE 2
Outline of Masters Course in Plant Engineering
in the Process Industries
PART 1
Process Economics
Financial Analysis and Control
Project Engineering
Maintenance Management
Human Relations
Probabilistic Methods
Reliability Engineering
Materials Technology 1
Materials Technology 2
Loss Prevention
Plant Services
Electrical Plant
Noise and Vibration
Process Instrument Systems
Computer Laboratory
and either (A)
Mechanical Design
Process Machinery
Process Vessels and Structures
Manufacturing Technology Workshop
or (B)
Process Instrumentation
Chemical Engineering Principles 1
Chemical Engineering Principles 2
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
PART 2
Project


cal engineer may take the course to strengthen his
knowledge of the mechanical side of the process
industries, while a mechanical engineer may take
it to strengthen his knowledge of the process side
of these industries. In effect, the course is neither
a purely specialist nor a purely conversion course,
but has elements of both.
An outline of the course is given in Table 2.
Normally option A is taken by the chemical engi-
neer and option B by the mechanical engineer. Al-
though lectures are an important part of the
course, extensive use is made of other teaching
methods, in particular tutorials (which have long
been strongly emphasised in the department) and
on workshops, laboratories, seminars and project
work.

DOCTORAL STUDIES
S STUDENTS ENTER THE DOCTORAL program either
directly or through one of the two Masters
courses. In the former case there is a program
of formal graduate studies, while in the latter
case the Masters program fulfils this function. For
students who take the Masters route, the research
topic for the doctorate is typically a development
of the Masters project, which, in such cases, is
chosen with this in view. Presentation of the
doctoral thesis normally occurs two years after
taking the M.Sc.

RESEARCH IN PLANT ENGINEERING
T MAY BE HELPFUL to supplement the rather
generalised description above with a brief
account of some of the specific areas of plant
engineering in which the department is working.
There is a long-term program of work on the
generic problem of the propagation of faults in
process plants. There are currently a number of
specific techniques which deal with this problem.
They include, in plant design, failure modes and
effects analysis, hazard and operability studies,
fault trees, event trees and cause-consequence dia-
grams, and, in process control, alarm analysis,
which is virtually synonymous with disturbance
analysis. Disturbance analysis is one of the
techniques which the Nuclear Regulatory Commis-
sion has recommended for assessment following
the Three Mile Island incident. This work started
some ten years ago on the alarm analysis side and
has led to two systematic methods of obtaining
the data structure for process computer alarm
analysis. Currently the emphasis is on the generic


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Another related area of work is the relation
between inspection and reliability.


problem of representing the fault structure of a
plant, whether for design or control. A computer
code with interactive facilities has been developed
in which the fault propagation structure of the
plant is synthesised from a library of models of
plant units.
Knowledge of the fault propagation structure
should also assist in the creation of improved
alarm systems and work is being done both on
this and on other aspects of alarm systems.
Another area of research is the application
of the techniques of reliability engineering to pro-
cess plants, and in particular to plant mainten-
ance. Failure data from operating plants are
analysed to identify the failure regime (early,
constant, or wearout failure). There are a
number of problems, particularly of small samples
and of observation intervals, associated with such
analysis. It turns out, somewhat unexpectedly, that
early failure is often the prevalent regime, even in
plants which have been operating for many years.
The failure data analysis is therefore followed up
by observation of the task to determine the causes
of early failure. These include such things as
poor diagnosis, lack of training, dirty working
conditions and so on. The correction of these
problems has led to substantial reduction of failure
rates and improvements in plant availability.
Another related area of work is the relation
between inspection and reliability. There is a large
and increasing number of techniques for monitor-
ing the condition and performance of plant. It is
important to be able to select those techniques
which are really useful and economically beneficial.
Work has been done on the relation between the
reliability and the inspection signal, whether this
be for equipment which fails in an obvious
manner or for equipment failure which can be
predicted only from a monitoring signal.

LOUGHBOROUGH-U.S. LINKS

T HE DEPARTMENT HAS LINKS WITH institutions
in the U.S. in several ways. At the level of
student interchange the department cooperates
with Georgia Institute of Technology in running a
Masters course in particle technology. This is
based at the Loughborough end on the Particle
Technology option within the M.Sc. course in Ad-


vanced Chemical Engineering. There is an ex-
change of students with six months being spent in
each institution. This scheme is now in its tenth
year. There is also intervisitation of staff par-
ticularly, but not exclusively, in the particle
technology area.
Another link is with the University of Dela-
ware. Students from Loughborough take the
Masters course at Delaware. This is another
tradition which is about ten years old. Currently
there is one Loughborough student at Georgia
Tech. and one at Delaware and one Georgia Tech.
student at Loughborough who took the Masters
course in Plant Engineering two years ago and
is now doing a doctorate.
At the level of continuing education the de-
partment has for some years run post-experience
courses in particle technology in the U.S. in co-
operation with the departments of chemical engi-
neering at City College, New York, and at the
University of Houston.
Finally, at the level of research the department
has numerous links with the American academics
and industrialists in the particle technology field
and is a founder member of the recently formed
International Fine Particle Research Institute.

FINANCIAL SUPPORT
THE BASIC SOURCE OF finance for U.K. graduate
students is the Science Research Council, which
corresponds broadly to the NSF. The SRC funds
studentships for both Masters and doctoral
courses. These student grants cover the student's
bare living costs and pay his fees, but they are well
below industrial salaries.
The SRC also awards research grants, which
may include support of Research Assistantships.
Until quite recently the rules did not permit a Re-
search Assistant on a SRC grant to work for a
doctorate, but this restriction has been relaxed.
As a consequence, since the Research Assistant-
ship's salary is closer to an industrial one, there
is a growing tendency for doctoral students to be
supported in this way.
Another basic source of finance is industrial
research grants, which again may fund Research
Assistantships. Students from overseas are often
supported in this way. E

REFERENCES
1) Freshwater, D. C. and Lees, F. P., Chem. Engng.
Educ., 6, 190, (1972).


FALL 1980












PROCESS SYNTHESIS


Y. A. LIU
Auburn University
Auburn, AL 36849

PROCESS DESIGN CAN BE roughly subdivided into
two steps: synthesis and analysis. A great deal
of attention has been devoted to the mathematical
analysis of process flowsheets, once the flowsheet
has been specified. However, the creation, or
synthesis, of that flowsheet is not very susceptible
to the usual mathematical techniques, and has con-
sequently received relatively less attention in
chemical engineering teaching and research. The
specification of the chemical and/or physical trans-
formations as well as the selection and intercon-
nection of equipment to implement these trans-
formations to convert the raw materials into
desired products on an industrial scale have been
regarded, for the most part, an intuitive art.
This article describes a survey course on pro-
cess synthesis which has been offered to graduate
students and qualified seniors at Auburn Uni-
versity since Winter, 1976. The main objective of
the course is to introduce to the student the basic
techniques and practical applications of process
synthesis, emphasizing the systematic generation
of economical and energy-efficient process flow-
sheets. An additional goal of the course is to stimu-
late interest in process synthesis research among
chemical engineering students.
Table 1 presents an outline of the course topics
and lectures along with the pertinent references
cited in parentheses. The course begins with an
introduction to the important problem of optimal
synthesis of multicomponent separation sequences,
which is concerned with the proper selection of
the method and sequence for separating a multi-
component mixture into its respective components.
The general techniques which have been de-
veloped for solving this problem have included
the optimization (algorithmic) approach involving
some established optimization principles (topic 1),
the heuristic approach based on the use of rules of
thumb (topic 2), and the evolutionary approach
wherein improvements are systematically made

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


Y. A. Liu received his B.S. from National Taiwan University, M.S.
from Tufts University and Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1974.
He has been on the chemical engineering faculty at Auburn Uni-
versity since 1974, where he presently holds an alumni associate pro-
fessorship endowed by the Auburn Alumni Association. His teaching
and research interests include process control and synthesis, numerical
methods, separation processes, coal desulfurization and magneto-
chemical engineering. He is an author of over sixty publications and
presentations, and an editor of three books on magnetic separation
and coal desulfurization.


to an initially created feasible flowsheet (topic 3).
The lectures emphasize the basic concepts of these
approaches along with their strengths and short-
comings for applications to the optimal synthesis
of multicomponent separation sequences.
In topic 4, the preceding synthesis techniques
and their combinations are applied to an im-
portant process design problem related to energy
conservation, namely the synthesis of energy-
optimum and minimum-cost networks of ex-
changers, heater and/or coolers to transfer the
excess energy from a set of hot streams to streams
that require heating (cold streams). This
synthesis problem is relatively well-defined and
it has received the greatest attention in the litera-
ture. As a result, it is possible to clearly identify
the characteristics of energy-optimum and mini-
mum-cost networks and suggest the basic require-
ments of an effective approach to their synthesis.
The lectures include a detailed discussion of the
evolutionary block matching method developed at
Auburn University and its recent extensions for
the synthesis of complex networks, as well as the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


flQ44 it








practical applications of different techniques to
the synthesis of energy-optimum and minimum-
cost networks for industrial crude unit preheat
recovery.
Topics 5 and 6 are concerned with the syste-
matic synthesis of large-scale process flowsheets
by the decomposition (multilevel) approach to-
gether with heuristic and evolutionary methods.
Here, the synthesis problem is decomposed into a
sequence of smaller and simpler problems (sub-
problems) which, when solved, generate the flow-
sheet for the original problem. It is solved by
first establishing the sequence of reactions which
best convert the raw materials into desired
products (reaction path synthesis). The next sub-
problem is the species allocation and material
balancing which involves the synthesis of ma-
terial flow from raw material and reaction site
sources to product, waste and reaction site desti-
nations. During species allocations, the easiest set
of separation tasks is sought. The third sub-
problem is the separation task selection and se-
quencing discussed previously in Topics 1 to 3.
The fourth subproblem involves the specification
of auxiliary unit operations which are necessary
to achieve the design objectives (auxiliary task
assignment). The last subproblem is task integra-
tion in which several unit operations are inte-
grated for the reuse of energy and/or material.
The lectures emphasize the applications of heur-
istic and evolutionary methods to the solution of
each subproblem along with the overall coordina-
tion of the subproblem solutions in the systematic
synthesis of large-scale process flowsheets for the
manufacture of industrial chemicals.
Topic 7 presents a relatively new technique for
solving process synthesis problems, namely, the
thermodynamic approach. The lectures begin with
a review of the thermodynamic availability
principle and the second law analysis along with
their applications to energy conversion and con-
servation and to process design and evaluation.
The applications of thermodynamic principles to
the synthesis of energy-optimum heat exchanger
networks and to the analysis of energy consump-
tion of separation processes are then discussed.
The remaining lectures are concentrated on the
development and demonstration of the thermo-
dynamic approach as a simple and unifying
method for the analysis and synthesis of different
energy conservation (integration) schemes in dis-
tillation systems.
The course concludes with a survey of other


... the author shares the suggestion
of many chemical engineers that process design
education should be more oriented toward
emphasis upon analysis alone.


process synthesis problems and solution methods,
and a summary of the status of current research
and industrial applications of process synthesis
techniques (topic 8).
The course meets three times a week for fifty-
minute lectures over a ten-week quarter. Although
the book by Rudd, Powers and Siirola, Process
Synthesis, Prentice-Hall (1973), is often quoted
in lectures, a textbook which adequately covers the
recent developments in process synthesis does not
exist. Consequently, an organized set of course
notes has been prepared for the students. These
notes have been revised before each course offering
since 1976 to include the latest literature. Class
work is comprised of weekly homework problems
and a comprehensive term paper. Typical subjects
of homework problems and term papers are listed
in Table 1.
In closing, the author shares the suggestion of
many chemical engineers that process design edu-
cation should be more oriented toward synthesis,
rather than the usual emphasis upon analysis
alone. It is hoped that the detailed course outline
and references presented in this article will assist
other interested faculty in establishing similar
courses in process synthesis and in bringing a
better balance between analysis and synthesis in
process design education. O
TABLE 1
Course Outline and References
1. Optimization (Algorithmic) Approach to Process
Synthesis: An Introduction to Selected Optimization
Methods and Their Applications to the Optimal
Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation Sequences
1.1 An Introduction to Optimization Approach to Process
Synthesis
1.2 Basic Concepts of Dynamic Programming (1, 2)
1.3 Application of Dynamic Programming to the Optimal
Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation Sequences
(3-5)
1.4 An Introduction to Branch and Bound Methods and
Their Comparison with Dynamic Programming for
the Optimal Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation
Sequences (6, 7)
1.5 Applications of Dynamic Programming to Other Pro-
cess Synthesis Problems (8-12)
Typical Homework: Optimal Selection of Separation
Methods and Synthesis of Separation Sequences for


FALL 1980









Multicomponent Mixtures by Dynamic Programming
2. Heuristic Approach to Process Synthesis: Heuristic
Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation Sequences
2.1 An Introduction to Heuristic Approach to Process
Synthesis
2.2 Published Heuristics for the Optimal Synthesis of
Multicomponent Separation Sequences (4, 13-26)
2.3 An Ordered Heuristic Procedure for the Optimal
Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation Sequences
(27)
Typical Homework: Applications of Heuristic and Ordered
Heuristic Procedures to the Optimal Synthesis of
Multicomponent Separation Sequences; Heuristics for
Complex Multiple-Section Distillation Systems and
Their Applications (22, 23)
3. Evolutionary Approach to Process Synthesis: Evolu-
tionary Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation Se-
quences
3.1 An Introduction to Evolutionary Approach to Process
Synthesis (24-26, 39-40)
3.2 Evolutionary Synthesis of Multicomponent Separa-
tion Sequences (24-26)
3.3 An Overview of Published Literature on the Optimal
Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation Sequences
(5, 11, 13-39)
Typical Homework: Heuristic-Evolutionary Synthesis of
Multicomponent Separation Sequences; Optimal
Synthesis of Separation Sequences in the Manufac-
ture of Detergents from Petroleum
4. Optimal Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks
4.1 An Introduction to Optimal Synthesis of Heat Ex-
changer Networks (5, 11, 41-44)
4.2 Characteristics of Energy-Optimum and Minimum-
Cost Heat Exchanger Networks and Basic Require-
ments of an Effective Approach to the Optimal
Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks (44, 56, 60,
63)
4.3 A Simple and Practical Approach to the Optimal
Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks (Evolution-
ary Block Matching Method): Minimum Area Al-
gorithm, and Heuristic and Evolutionary Rules (44)
4.4 Further Topics on Optimal Synthesis of Heat Ex-
changer Networks
A. Determination of Minimum Utility Requirements
by the Problem Table (56, 60, 63)
B. Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks by
Temperature Interval Method (60, 63)
C. Systematic Evolutionary Synthesis of Energy-
Optimum and Minimum-Cost Heat Exchanger
Networks (44, 60, 63, 64)
D. Application of Evolutionary Block Matching
Method to the Optimal Synthesis of Complex
Heat Exchanger Networks: Temperature-De-
dependent Heat Capacities, Different Heat
Transfer Coefficients Among Process/Utility
Streams and Phase Changes of Process Streams
(65)
4.5 An Overview of Published Literature on the Optimal
Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks (5, 6, 11, 41-
65)
Typical Homework: Optimal Synthesis of Heat Exchanger
Networks for Industrial Crude Unit Preheat Re-
covery; Comparison of Algorithmic, Heuristic and


Evolutionary Methods for the Optimal Synthesis of
Heat Exchanger Networks; Concept of the Degree of
Freedom and the Shifting and Merging of Ex-
changers, Heaters and/or Coolers (63); Develop-
ment of New Evolutionary Rules for the Synthesis
of Energy-Optimum and Minimum-Cost Heat Ex-
changer Networks.
5. Decomposition (Multilevel) Approach to Process
Synthesis
5.1 An Introduction to Decomposition (Multilevel) Ap-
proach to Process Synthesis (66-68)
5.2 Optimal Synthesis of Chemical Process Flowsheets
Based on Task Assignment and Integration (69-70)
5.3 Strategy for Task Assignment to Make Up the
Differences in Process State Variables (69, 70)
5.4 Heuristics for Task Integration to Simplify the
Initial Process Flowsheet (42, 69, 70)
5.5 Multilevel Approach to Process Synthesis with
Multiple Performance Indices (70, 71)
5.6 An Overview of Four General Approaches to Process
Synthesis: Optimization (Algorithmic), Heuristic,
Evolutionary and Decomposition (Multilevel) Ap-
proaches (5, 11)
Typical Homework: Synthesis of Complete Process Flow-
sheets for the Manufacture of Industrial Chemicals
such as Vinyl Chloride from Acetylene and Ethylene
(72) and Nitric Acid from Ammonia (73) by Task
Assignment and Integration
6. Heuristic and Evolutionary Synthesis of Chemical
Process Flowsheets
6.1 An Overview of Heuristic and Evolutionary Syn-
thesis of Chemical Process Flowsheets (38-40, 74-76,
81-82)
6.2 Heuristic Synthesis of Initial Process Flowsheets
A. Heuristic Approach to Reaction Path Synthesis
(77-79)
B. Heuristic Synthesis of Material Flow from Re-
action Paths (77, 80)
C. Heuristic Approach to Separation Task Selection
and Sequencing (4, 13-27)
D. Heuristic Approach to Auxiliary Task Assign-
ment and Integration (42, 69, 70)
6.3 Evaluation Functions and Evolutionary Rules for
Modifying the Initial Process Flowsheets (82)
A. Evaluation Functions of a Given Process Flow-
sheet
B. Evolutionary Rules for Minimizing the Redund-
ency in Process Flowsheets
Typical Homework: Heuristic and Evolutionary Synthesis
of Complete Process Flowsheets for the Manufacture
of Industrial Chemicals such as Octanes from Bu-
tanes (83)
7. Thermodynamic Approach to Process Synthesis
7.1 An Introduction to Thermodynamic Approach to
Process Synthesis
7.2 An Introduction to the Thermodynamic Available
Energy (Available Useful Work) and the Second
Law Analysis (84-91)
A. Some Background on Thermodynamic Laws and
Efficiencies
B. The Second Laws Efficiency and Thermodynamic
Available Energy
Continued on page 212.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








New
for 1981
PROCESS
ANALYSIS AND
DESIGN FOR
CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS
William Resnick, Technion-
Israel Institute of Technology
400 pages (tent.), $26.50 (tent.)
This new book combines the
elements of modern process
engineering and design with
those aspects of traditional
chemical engineering that need
emphasis in light of the design
and analysis functions of the I
chemical engineer.
PRINCIPLES OF
POLYMER
SYSTEMS, 2/e
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Cornell
University
576 pages (tent.), $28.50
Emphasizing quantitative
description of polymers and
manipulation of data to predict
and correlate the behavior of real
polymer systems, the new
second edition includes the most
current figures, references, and
text material.
CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
KINETICS, 3/e
J.M. Smith, University of
California, Davis
736 pages (tent.), $26.50 (tent.)
Thoroughly
revised and
updated, the
new edition
of this
successful
text
continues to
emphasize l
the application of the
principles of reactor design to
real chemical systems.
COLLEGE DIVISION
McGraw-Hill Book Company
1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, N.Y. 10020


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pniIEi
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From the McGraw-Hill
Advanced Book Program
ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL
W. Harmon Ray, University of Wisconsin, Madison
416 pages, $29.50
Appropriate for advanced undergraduate and
graduate students as well as practicing control
engineers who must design economically optimal
process control schemes, this book presents a
comprehensive introduction to the theory and
practice of modern computer process control.
From Our 1980 List


SEPARATION PROCESSES, 2/e
C. Judson King, University of California, Berkeley
864 pages, $28.95
PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, 3/e
O3 Max S. Peters and Klaus D. Timmerhaus,
G, both of the University of Colorado, Boulder
II\V/ 944 pages, $28.50
SV HETEROGENEOUS
CATALYSIS IN PRACTICE
1 Charles N. Satterfield, Massachusetts
I Institute of Technology
S432 pages, $26.95
MASS TRANSFER
OPERATIONS, 3/e
The late Robert E. Treybal
800 pages, $26.50


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14*rtncj


Prices subject to change










EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
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Chemical Engineering Education


VOLUME XIV


NUMBER 4


FALL 1980


Research on
152 Polymer Fluid Dynamics, R. Byron Bird
156 In Situ Processing, T. F. Edgar,
R. S. Schechter

162 Wall Turbulence, Thomas J. Hanratty

Courses in
168 Chemical Reactors, C. N. Kenney
174 Systems Modelling and Control,
L. S. Kershenbaum, J. D. Perkins,
D. L. Pyle

184 Process Synthesis, Y. A. Liu
188 Polymerization Reaction Engineering,
Nicholas A. Peppas

193 Combustion Science and Technology,
Daniel E. Rosner

Programs
180 Plant Engineering at Loughborough,
Frank P. Lees

200 MIT School of Chemical Engineering
Practice: A Continuing Catalyst In
Engineering Effectiveness,
S. M. Senkan, J. Edward Vivian

Class and Home Problems
198 Solution: Prairie Dog Problem, and
Prairie Dog Appendix, R. L. Kabel

208 ChE News
205, 206, 208 Book Reviews
215 Books Received




CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
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Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
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which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


FALL 1980










A GPOLYe An


POLYMERIZATION REACTION ENGINEERING


NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
N RECENT YEARS POLYMER science and engineer-
ing has become an integral part of almost every
chemical engineering curriculum. The transition of
polymer education from chemistry to chemical
engineering and the significant interest in polymer
research within ChE Departments have been
explained in recent reports as a natural trend of
the interdisciplinary approach of chemical engi-
neering. A 1977 Chemical and Engineering News
report [1] points out that at least 30% of the
graduating chemical engineers will be employed
by industries involved in polymers. The annual
guide of the Plastics Institute of America [2]
reveals that chemical engineering is the center
of polymer activities in 65% of the universities
with active polymer programs. Even more surpris-
ing are the results of a recent survey of under-
graduate and graduate polymer education
conducted among chemical engineering depart-
ments [3]. Out of 88 ChE departments that replied
to this survey, 63 offer at least one polymer course,
while thirteen departments offer at least five
different polymer courses.
Most chemical engineering programs offering
one course in polymers concentrate on a survey
of polymer science and engineering, usually
emphasizing the basics of polymer characteriza-
tion, polymerization kinetics and polymer process-
ing. For programs offering more than one polymer
course, the natural trend is toward teaching of
separate courses on rheology and processing,
physical chemistry and mechanical behavior of
polymers [4]. However, polymerization reaction
engineering is less frequently taught as a separate
course. Turning again to the preliminary data of
the AIChE survey [3], it is noted that out of 188

. the natural trend is toward
teaching of separate courses on rheology and
processing, physical chemistry and
mechanical behavior of polymers.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


surveyed courses, only fourteen are courses
specializing in polymerization reaction engineer-
ing. This area is usually treated as a graduate
subject, and ten of the courses offered are
addressed to graduate students. Individual
questionnaires attribute this trend partially to
the apparent lack of an appropriate textbook in
this area and to the many complexities of poly-
merization reactions which require advanced
knowledge in related areas.
The rather unfortunate lack of emphasis on
the engineering aspects of polymerization re-
actions is of some concern, especially since re-
action engineering is a "natural" for chemical
engineers. Certain educators claim that a com-
bination of an undergraduate or graduate reaction
engineering course with basic knowledge of poly-
merization kinetics obtained in a general polymer
course adequately cover the needs in polymeriza-
tion reaction engineering. Our disagreement stems
from the fact that the study of polymerization re-
actions differs significantly from the study of
more conventional chemical reactions.
Reactions of macromolecules evince a range
of phenomena which are distinctly different to the
ones observed in most of the reactions of small
molecules. Kinetically the steps of initiation, pro-
pagation and termination may comprise a series
of reactions (characterized by distinct kinetic
constants) which contribute towards the forma-
tion and growth of a specific chain. The type of
initiation is of importance in most polymerization
rates. In addition, the termination step controls
important polymer properties. In some types of
polymerization reactions the termination step is
non-existent leading to non-terminated macro-
molecular chains constituting living polymers. Pre-
mature termination of growing chains can be ob-
served when chain transfer reactions to the
monomer, initiator or solvent prevail. Finally, im-
portant differences in the kinetic mechanism (e.g.
step versus chain polymerization) may lead to
considerable differences in reactor design.
It must be emphasized that understanding of
the reaction parameters is most important in
controlling polymerization rate, molecular weight
and molecular weight distribution, polymer


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























Nicholas A. Peppas joined Purdue in September 1976 and he is
presently Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering. He received
his Dipl. Eng. from N.T.U. Athens (1971) and his Sc.D. from M.I.T.
(1973). His current research interests are the structure of macromolecu-
lar networks, diffusion and permeation in polymer films and mem-
branes, and biomedical phenomena at polymer/liquid interfaces. He
is contributing editor of "Polymer News" and on the editorial boards
of "Biomaterials" and "Journal of Applied Polymer Science." At
Purdue he has developed courses in advanced mass transfer, in-
dustrial chemistry, biomedical engineering and various areas of
polymer science and engineering. For his teaching he was the re-
cipient of the 1980 ASEE Western Electric Fund Award, the 1978
A. A. Potter Award, and the 1978 and 1980 R. N. Shreve Awards.

particle size and its distribution, and structural
modification such as crosslinking and branching.
With very few exceptions polymerization re-
actions lead to macromolecular systems with a
wide distribution of molecular weights. The
mobility of growing macromolecular chains and/
or the lack thereof, is responsible for impediment
of termination, autoacceleration (Trommsdorff)
effects, diffusion-controlled effects etc. Side re-
actions in the presence of functional groups and
small quantities of crosslinking agents can lead
to highly branched and crosslinked polymers.
Thus, a phenomenon, which in "conventional"
chemical reactions could be considered highly un-
desirable, is effectively used to provide polymers
with important structural characteristics and de-
sirable properties. Finally, phenomena related to
continuous increase of the viscosity of the react-
ing medium affect mass and heat transfer, in turn
creating a series of challenging engineering
problems related to modelling, design and opera-
tion of polymerization reactors.
Although incomplete in many aspects, this
partial list of special phenomena observed in poly-
merization reactions shows that conventional
chemical reaction engineering cannot provide the
answers to all the challenging questions of this
area. In fact, polymer reaction engineering re-


quires background knowledge extracted from such
diverse fields as probability theory, organic and
physical chemistry, transport phenomena, control
theory etc.
Here we present a new polymer course which
was recently developed and favorably received by
both graduate students and qualified seniors in
chemical engineering. ChE 543, Polymerization
Reaction Engineering is a three credit-hour course
offered usually in the fall semester of the academic
year. At Purdue University a semester consists of
fifteen weeks and one week of final examinations.
Therefore, a maximum of forty five lecture hours
are available, with at least three hours reserved
for quizzes and examinations.
ChE 543 can be taken independently of other
polymer courses and no previous knowledge of
polymers is required. Prerequisites include organic
chemistry and an undergraduate course in reaction
engineering. The course emphasizes the funda-
mentals of polymerization kinetics, methods, and
reaction engineering and it includes topics on in-
dustrial operation. Kinetics and polymerization
methods are covered thoroughly in approximately
eight weeks in a rather fast pace. The reaction
engineering aspects are discussed in the last six

Reactions of macromolecules evince
a range of phenomena which are distinctly
different to the ones observed in most
of the reactions of small molecules.

weeks of the course. Table 1 gives a detailed out-
line of the course subjects pointing out the special
emphasis on reaction engineering topics.
Selection of an appropriate textbook for ChE
543 or similar courses is a rather difficult task.
The textbook by G. Odian, Principles of Polymeri-
zation, McGraw-Hill, 1971 is highly recommended
as the basic reference for the kinetics portion of
the course. Topics covered in Odian's book (ex-
cluding Chapters 7 and 9) are extensively dis-
cussed in the first eight weeks. Notes and review
articles (see Table 2) are presented where we feel
that additional emphasis is required. Typically five
to seven articles of this list will be used in a
semester as additional reading material. For
example, subjects covered in depth include molecu-
lar weight distributions, Markov chains and sto-
chastic processes, gelation theory, Z-transforms,
fundamentals of copolymerization reactions, and
the kinetics of emulsion polymerizations. Ad-
ditional reference books on reserve for this course


FALL 1980









are listed below, with reference to the chapters
covered in ChE 543.

* A. E. Hamielec, Polymerization Reaction Engineering,
four volumes, McMaster University, 1977; Chapters
covered include 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6.
* H. Sawada, Thermodynamics of Polymerization,
Dekker, 1976; selected topics.
* G. G. Lowry, Markov Chains and Monte Carlo Calcu-
lations in Polymer Science, Dekker, 1970; selected
topics.

Coverage of the reaction engineering aspects
of polymerization is achieved mainly through
notes. No book presents a thorough analysis of
these subjects, although Hamielec's book (mostly
in the form of chapters written by various
academic and industrial authors) covers some of
the basic needs for this portion of the course. J.
Throne's textbook on Plastics Process Engineer-
ing, Dekker, 1979, appeared late in 1979 and his
chapters 2 and 3 have not been tried yet in ChE
543. It is worth noting that the lack of an ap-
propriate textbook on reaction engineering aspects


of polymerization has also been noted by other
educators. Out of the fourteen courses surveyed
recently [3], eight use personal notes throughout
the course; the only textbook with more than one
user is Odian's (four courses), although the engi-
neering aspects are again covered by notes and
review articles. Preliminary notes on this subject
from three different authors are used on a limited
basis, and it is now known that two of these sets
of notes will be published as books during 1981.
After an introductory review of chemical and
physical structure of polymeric materials, a
thorough analysis of molecular weights and
molecular weight distributions is presented with
emphasis on theoretical and empirical distribu-
tions such as the Flory, Schulz, Wesslau and other
distributions. In the analysis of polycondensation
kinetics, we emphasize the use of Markov chains
to statistically describe polycondensation reactions.
The degree of polycondensation is treated as the
fundamental random variable. The probability
distributions and first and second moments of the


TABLE 1: Course Outline
I. Introduction to polymer science (3 lectures) 6. Stereospecific polymerizations
1. Chemical Structure, physical behavior 6a. Ziegler-Natta catalysts
2. Molecular weights, molecular weight 6b. Heterogeneous catalytic reactions
distributions 6c. Other reactions
II. Polymerization kinetics (20 lectures) III. Polymerization methods (5 lectures)
1. Polycondensation reactions 1. Bulk polymerization
la. Kinetics, molecular weight distributions 2. Solution polymerization
lb. Markov chains and stochastic processes 3. Suspension polymerization
2. Multichain polymerization 3a. Particle size distribution and its control
2a. Gelation theory 4. Emulsion polymerization
2b. Crosslinking reactions, kinetics 5. Gaseous and plasma polymerizations
2c. Real networks IV. Polymerization reaction engineering (12 lectures)
3. Radical polymerizations 1. Modelling of polymerization reaction systems
3a. Kinetics, initiation effects, chain transfer la. Batch and semibatch operation
3b. Inhibition and retardation lb. Tubular reactors
3c. Autoacceleration ic. Continuous stirred tank reactors
3d. Moment distribution functions Id. Uniqueness and multiplicity of steady
(Z-transforms) states, stability analysis
3e. Thermodynamics, ceiling temperature, de- le. Copolymerization reactor design
polymerization If. Heterogeneous catalytic polymerization re-
3f. Pressure effects Pction engineering
4. Ionic polymerizations 2. Modelling of emulsion polymerization reactions
4a. Cationic polymerizations 2a. Modelling characteristics
4b. Anionic polymerizations 2b. Control of molecular weight distribution
4c. Reactions without termination, mono- 2c. Control of particle size distribution
dispersity V. Problems of industrial operation (5 lectures)
4d. Solvent polarity effects 1. Industrial problems with reactor design
5. Copolymerizations la. Heat and viscosity effects, hot-spots and
5a. Kinetics, chain transfer, depolymerization, thermal runaways, heat transfer
penultimate effects lb. Polymer build-up, agitation
5b. Multicomponent copolymerization 2. Product purification
5c. Q-e schemes 2a. Separation and drying equipment
5d. Statistical methods of determination of re- 2b. Size reduction, pelletizers
activity ratios 3. Computer control of polymerization reactors
4. On-line testing of polymer properties


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









distribution are determined. This analysis is
applied to difunctional monomers. Multichain poly-
merizations, branching and crosslinking reactions
are analyzed using probability theory; the Stock-
mayer gelation theory is also presented and
analyzed.
The lectures on radical polymerizations are
straightforward, although emphasis is placed on
the thermodynamics of polymerization reactions
and the importance of ceiling temperatures. The
kinetics of the Trommsdorff effect are analyzed in
view of recent experimental results and their im-
portance in reactor design is stressed.
Discrete moment generation functions (Z-
transforms) are introduced at this point and
their importance in determining the moments of
a discrete distribution with applications to addi-
tion polymerization is analyzed. Other topics
where special emphasis is placed include the effect
of solvent polarity on ionic polymerization kinetics
(cage effect) and the kinetic analysis of copoly-
merizations where penultimate groups effects are
important. Stereospecific polymerizations are
covered to considerable extent and their rather
complicated kinetics are discussed.
After an analysis of the various polymeriza-
tion methods (Table 1) where the student is
exposed to the special characteristics of each
technique and to the major difference in kinetics
of each polymerization, the basics of the modelling
of polymerization reactions systems are intro-
duced. Topics of special interest include the
mathematical analysis of semibatch operations,
tubular reactors and copolymerization reactors.
Techniques for the prediction and control of
molecular weight and particle size distribution
are analyzed.
The final part of this course concentrates on
the analysis of heat and mass transfer related
problems and computer control of polymerization
reactors. Basic information on product purifica-
tion is also presented to some extent.
ChE 543 presents an integral view of poly-
merization reactions with strong emphasis on the
transition from the kinetic expressions to the
design of the proper reactor. This course consti-
tutes one of three main courses in our graduate
polymer program and it is recommended in addi-
tion to ChE 544, Structure and Physical Behavior
of Polymer Systems, (a course on statistical me-
chanics, physical chemistry, elasticity, visco-
elasticity and diffusion in polymers) and ChE
697B, Rheology of Macromolecular and Other


TABLE 2
Review Articles for ChE 543
R. Shinnar and S. Katz, Polymerization Kinetics and Re-
actor Design, in K. B. Bischoff, ed., "Chemical Reaction
Engineering," 56-74, Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol.
109, ACS, Washington, 1972.
D. C. Pepper, Analogies and Discrepancies between
Cationic and Anionic Polymerizations, J. Polym. Sci.,
Symp., 50, 51-69, (1975).
A. T. Bell, Fundamentals of Plasma Polymerization, J.
Macromol. Sci., Macromol. Chem., A10, 369-381, (1976).
J. Ugelstad and F. K. Hansen, Kinetics and Mechanisms
of Emulsion Polymerization, Rubb. Chem. Techn., 49, 536-
609, (1976).
W. H. Ray, On the Mathematical Modelling of Polymeriza-
tion, J. Macrom. Sci., Revs. Macromol. Chem., C8, 1-56,
(1972).
R. J. Zeman and N. R. Amundson, Continuous Polymeriza-
tion Models. Part I, II, Chem. Eng. Sci., 20, 331-361, 637-
664, (1965).
J. A. Biesenberger, R. Capinpin and D. Sebastian, Thermal
Ignition Phenomena in Chain Addition Polymerizations,
Appl. Polym. Symp., 26, 211-236, (1975).
R. P. Goldstein and N. R. Amundson, An Analysis of
Chemical Reactor Stability and Control. Parts Xa, Xb, XI,
XII, Chem. Eng. Sci., 20, 195-236, 449-476, 477-479, 501-
527, (1965).
K. W. Min and W. H. Ray, On the Mathematical Modelling
of Emulsion Polymerization Reactors, J. Macrom. Sci.,
Revs. Macromol. Chem., C11, 177-255, (1974).

Non-Newtonian Fluids. Topics on reactive pro-
cessing of polymers (e.g. reaction injection mold-
ing) are not covered in ChE 543, but rather in
ChE 597N, Processing of Polymer Solids and
Fluids. A limited number of laboratory experi-
ments, mostly on polymerization kinetics are in-
cluded in a Polymer Laboratory course, ChE 597 0,
which will be offered this academic year. O

REFERENCES
1. R. L. Rawls, "Polymer Education Edges Away from
Chemistry," Chem. Eng. News, 55 (21), 19, (1977).
2. "Polymer Science and Engineering Programs,"
Plastics Institute of America, Hoboken, NJ 1978.
3. N. A. Peppas, "Teaching of Polymer Science and
Engineering Courses in Chemical Engineering De-
partments," a report prepared under the auspices of
the AIChE Chemical Engineering Educational Proj-
ects Committee, to be presented at the 73rd Annual
Meeting, Chicago, November 1980.
4. R. G. Griskey, "A New Polymer Department-An
Option Within an Existing Department of an Inter-
disciplinary Program: Which Route for Polymer
Education?" S.P.E. Techn. Papers, 26, 663, (1980).


FALL 1980


I





J;
eei~'
I
ci


IN











COMBUSTION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

COMBUSTION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


DANIEL E. ROSNER
Yale University
New Haven, CT 06520
1. INTRODUCTION

B ECAUSE "COMBUSTION" is usually defined as a
rapid, net-exoergic, oxidation reaction (often
accompanied by light), from a ChE's perspective
the subject can be regarded as the exoergicc
branch of chemical reaction engineering" (CRE),
or perhaps as high temperature chemical re-
action engineering (HTCRE). However, whereas
CRE is presently focused on chemical synthesis
as the objective, combustion (when not inad-
vertant!) is carried out for much more diverse
purposes (see Section 2.1 below). If the ChE's
"charge" and forte is to cleverly control and ex-
ploit chemical change (inevitably coupled with
physical change) in the service of humans, then
surely combustion should be closer to the center
of the attention of ChEs than it is at present.
Indeed, one finds that while ChEs have made im-
portant contributions to Combustion Science and
Technology (CST) (see, e.g., Section 3), the
subject is dominated by mechanical engineers
(MEs) and aeronautical engineers (AEs) (on
the applied side), and chemists (on the basic
side). At the risk of oversimplifying, it is as
though ChEs have been content to "supply the
fuels," and let others decide how effectively they
are used! One of the purposes of this paper is to
focus the attention of ChE students and faculty
members on a subject which is simultaneously:
* Of enormous strategic importance (since more effec-
tive fossil fuel utilization will determine the extent
and duration of our precarious dependence on im-
ported oil)
* In need of insights that can be provided by ChEs (who
have perhaps the best undergraduate preparation to
contribute to this field)

Editor's Note: Professor Rosner's talents
extend far beyond the classroom and labora-
tory. His collograph Refinery II (1977) on the
facing page is an outstanding example of his
professionally recognized talent in the field
of graphic arts.


* The source of many recent results and techniques
(theoretical and experimental) which could benefit
ChEs in other areas of CRE
* Actually more general (in the sense above) than CRE
(as presently taught in ChE departments throughout
the world).
The perceptive future graduate student will
recognize that this adds up to exciting research
and employment opportunities, accessible through
those ChE departments who interpret chemical
engineering in its broader sense.
The graduate course described below [1] was
developed and taught at Yale University in the
Fall of 1978, and, together with other advanced
courses in CRE and Transport Phenomena, will
be offered at least once in the residence time (ca.
3-4 years) of each graduate student. While in-
tended primarily for ChEs (in the sense that it
fully utilizes the CRE-perspective and ChE back-
ground in the underlying subjects of thermo-
chemistry, chemical kinetics and mass transfer),
it has proven to be of value also to MEs, AEs and
Applied Science majors planning to contribute to
this rapidly advancing field.

2. SCOPE OF SUBJECT AND COURSE OUTLINE
2.1 Scope of Combustion Science and Technology (CST)
The breadth of CST is evident from the follow-
ing major combustion application areas. Thus, our
lecture sequence (Section 2.2) was developed to
embrace the essential features of:
Al. Combustion for High Temperature Process Heat,
Welding, Cutting,... (e.g., pyrometallurgy, glass-
making, chemical torches (oxyacetylene), drying,
sintering, etc.).
A2. Combustion in Chemical Syntheses
(e.g., H2SO, via S(1)-combustion, carbon black
production, HC1 via H2+C12, production of sub-
micron TiO2 pigments and SiO2- viscosity modi-
fiers, Si(l) production via SiCl4(g) + Na(g),
etc.).
A3. Combustion for Power Generation and/or Propul-
sion (e.g., stationary boilers (oil, pulverized coal
jet and fluidized bed combustion (FBC)), mobile
power plants (piston, gas turbine (GT) and
rocket engines)).
A4. Combustion as a Separation Technique (e.g.,
uranium recovery (HTGR fuel elements) from

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


FALL 1980









encapsulated pyrolytic carbon, "ashing," etc.).
A5. Combustion Hazard Evaluation/Loss Prevention
(e.g., chemical process explosion hazards, trans-
portation/storage precautions for chemicals/fuels
(LNG, chemical tankcars, lab refrigerators),
product flammability (synthetic fabrics), fires in
buildings).
A6. Combustion for Pollution Control (e.g., homo-
geneous and heterogeneous (catalytic) incinera-
tion of trace solvent vapors, toxic or carcinogenic
compounds)).
A7. Combustion for Radiation (Photon) Production
(e.g., luminous (soot-laden) combustion products,
chemical flash tubes, flares (pyrotechnics), and
high power chemical lasers).

Of course, each of these applications was not
the subject of a separate lecture. Rather, the lec-
tures were organized about fundamental types of
combustion, and their distinguishing character-
istics (exploited in the areas given above). Thus,
the course was advertised as including:
"A coherent series of lectures on the role of chemical
and physical phenomena in the combustion of vapors,
liquids and solids. Ignition, propagation and extinction
in engineering and natural environments will be
quantitatively treated."
2.2 Lectures
As developed in the Fall of 1978 the Yale
course consisted, in part, of the following 18 lec-
tures, each prepared by a faculty or staff member
with highly relevant research and/or industrial
experience:


Daniel E. Rosner is Professor of Chemical Engineering and Applied
Science, Yale University, Director of the Yale High Temperature
Chemical Reaction Engineering (HTCRE) Laboratory, and an engineer-
ing consultant to EXXON, General Electric and AeroChem Corpora-
tions. His research interests include convective energy and mass
transport, interfacial chemical reactions, phase transformations, aerosol
phenomena and combustion, subjects on which he has published over
100 papers. He joined the Yale University engineering faculty after
11 years of industrial research experience, having completed his
undergraduate and Ph.D. engineering degrees at City College of
New York and Princeton University, respectively.


If the ChE's "charge" and forte is to
cleverly control and exploit chemical change
... in the service of humans, then surely combustion
should be closer to the center of the attention
of ChEs than it is at present.



L1 Introduction: Scope and ChE Importance
L2 Conservation and Transport Laws ("Combustion
Gas Dynamics")
L3 Kinetics of Combustion and Pollutant Reactions
L4 Combustion Temperatures and Compositions:
Measurement Techniques and Calculations
L5 Laminar Premixed Flames
L6 Laminar Diffusion Flames
L7 Detonations
L8 Ignition/Extinction of Premixed and Diffusion
Flames; Explosion and Flammability Limits
L9 Droplet Combustion: Bi-propellant and Monopro-
pellant
L10 Spray Combustion
Lll Heterogeneous Combustion: A. Surface Combustion
of Coal (Single Particles, Fluidized Beds)
L12 Heterogeneous Combustion: B. Solid Propellants,
Ablation with Chemical Reaction (Erosive Burn-
ing, etc.)
L13 Surface-Catalyzed Combustion
L14 Combustor Configurations and their Instabilities
L15 Flame Spread: Fires
L16 Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Flows
L17 Chemical Lasers
L18 Heat and Mass Transfer from Flames

Each lecturer distributed (usually 1 week in ad-
vance) a reference/reading list and detailed out-
line [1], as well as one or more instructive quanti-
tative exercises to illustrate the implications of
the principles stressed in the lecture to some of
the application-areas given above. These home-
work sets were corrected, graded and returned to
each student along with helpful comments and
queries.

2.3 Report

To help tie together the principles of this CST
Course, students were asked to select one of the
topics listed below on which to report, in writing,
at the completion of the course. In this way the
principles transmitted during the lectures were
brought to bear on a specific topic important to
each individual student. Where applicable, and
as quantitatively as possible, each topic was con-
sidered from the points of view of:
* balance of empiricism ("art") and rational theory
("science") in the design of equipment
* role of the underlying sciences of thermodynamics,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









chemical kinetics and fluid (gas) dynamics
* efficiency of fuel utilization
* alternate fuel types (availability, costs)
* pollutant formation and control.

Our initial list of topics included:


Internal Combustion
(Piston) Engines
Gas Turbine (Continuous
Combustion)
Solid Propellant Rocket
Liquid Propellant Rocket
Ramjet
Pulverized Fuel Furnace
Oil-fired Furnace
Gas-fired Furnace
Surface-catalyzed
Combustion
Fluidized Bed
Combustion
Incineration
Forest Fire (Prevention/
Control)
Intrabuilding Fire Spread
Interbuilding Fire Spread
Non-flammable Materials,
Fire Suppression


Fire, Explosion Hazards:
Mines
Fire, Explosion Hazards:
Industrial Operations
Fire, Explosion Hazards:
Fuel Transport, Storage
Fuel Extraction: Under-
Ground Coal Gasification
Light Sources (Flares,
Flash Lamps)
Guns, Artillery
Cutting and Welding
Chemical Reactor
Applications
Controlled Explosions
(Excavation, Size Reduc-
tion, etc.)
Singular Perturbation
Techniques in Combustion
Theory
Similitude and Scale-up
Principles in CST


Bibliographies for all of these reports were pooled,
copied and distributed to each student for possible
future use.

2.4 Exam
Apart from each student's performance on the
abovementioned report and homework sets, his/
her grade was determined in part by a short (30
min.) in-class mid-term exam. Part 1 of this exam
asked for a brief definition of important CST
terms such as:


equivalence ratio
explosion peninsula
quenching diameter
detonation wave
flash-back
blow-off
(etc.)


emission index
branching reaction
combustion efficiency
flame thickness
droplet "slip"
pyrophoricity


Part 2 gave a number of important formulae (e.g.,
relation for the time dependence of a fuel droplet's
area during combustion (see Section 3.2), steady
state combustion catalyst surface temperature,
Chapman-Jouget detonation speed, etc.) and
asked the student to a) identify the equation,
and b) enumerate two essential underlying as-
sumptions. While alternate exam-types were
considered, this provided an ample supplement to
our other indicators of student comprehension,
without excessive time demands.


2.5 Textbooks

Because of the orientation and scope of this
course no single available textbook proved suit-
able. Rather, a bibliography was distributed [1]
and the corresponding set of books and reports
was made available on the reserve shelf of our
engineering library.

3. ChE VIEWPOINT AND IMPORTANT COMBUSTION
PROBLEMS

A list of early combustion researchers reads
like a Who's-Who of pure and applied chemistry,
including A, Lavoisier, H. Davy, M. Faraday,*
M. Berthelot, H. L. LeChatlier, R. Bunsen, J. H.
Van't Hoff, O. Boudouard and, in the early 1900's,
F. Haber, K. F. Bonhoeffer, W. Nernst, W. Nusselt,
A. Eucken, E. Schmidt, N. Semenoff, H. S. Taylor


Recent flame structure and speed
calculations have been remarkably successful
and are, in fact, equivalent to short plug flow
reactor calculations with "axial" (in this
case molecular) dispersion.


and G. Damkohler. That a wealth of challenging,
important problems remain (and multiplies
daily!) in the face of this early attack by some
of the giants of chemistry/ChE, is ample testi-
mony to the richness and subtleties of this field,
as well as a) the existence of time-dependent
technological constraints, and b) the availability
of new and more powerful experimental and com-
putational techniques.

3.1 Flame Propagation and Stabilization in
Premixed Gases

One of the most fundamental problems in com-
bustion concerns the rate of propagation of a com-
bustion zone ("deflagration wave") across a non-
turbulent, premixed (fuel + oxidizer + "inert")
gas. While in many practical applications such a

*It is interesting to note [2] that in 1816 the young M.
Faraday cited as evidence of French chemists' "prejudice"
the fact that they refused to call the rapid exoergic re-
action of sulfur with iron by the name of combustion be-
cause it involved no oxygen! Indeed, today "combustion"
embraces all fuels and oxidizers (chemical type and physi-
cal state), as well as exoergic decompositions of oxygen-
free compounds (e.g., monopropellants such as hydrazine).
Thus, the subject of combustion (or CST) differs from
chemical reaction engineering often only in "purpose"
(see Section 1).


FALL 1980








2000

T(K)


1000


c. -- ----- 0 S 0
0 2 2 2 0
S( Ato bo w o 6MrbO f
FIGURE 1. Comparison of predicted and experimental
(Peeters and Mohnen (1973) structure of a
premixed laminar flame (deflagration
wave): methane vapor burning in air [5].

flame is thin enough to be treated as a gas-dynamic
discontinuity [3] relative to the scale of the com-
bustor, experiments (Fig. 1) reveal that it is thick
enough (measured in mean-free-paths) to be ade-
quately described using reactive continuum con-
cepts, albeit in one dimension (normal to flame).
Indeed, early theoretical models revealed that the
laminar flame speed S, and wave structure are
interrelated in the sense that a flame structure
satisfying appropriate upstream and downstream
boundary conditions can only be found for one
value (an "eigen-value") of the dimensionless
flame speed [4]. Recent flame structure and speed
calculations [5] have been remarkably successful
(cf. experiment and theory compared in Figs. 1,
2) and are, in fact, equivalent to short plug flow
reactor (PFR) calculations with "axial" (in this
case molecular) dispersion.
In steady-flow ducted devices (e.g., GT after-
burners) it is possible to "anchor" such flames at

EExPrtmeonal_ .
S(s Andrews O. Bradl.)




tit 1 I \\ 's
0 V
1 293K K
VOL %CHI -
06 06 1.0 1.2 1 16
EQUIVALENCE RATIO -
FIGURE 2. Comparison of predicted [5] and experi-
mental (see Andrews, Bradley, et al. (1972))
methane-air laminar flame speeds at
various fuel/air equivalence ratios, 0 (4)
> 1 corresponds to fuel-rich combustion).


mean-gas-velocities far greater than S. using so-
called bluff-body "flame-holders." It has been
demonstrated [6] that the stabilization mechanism
and stability limits ("blow-off") can be understood
by considering the recirculating wake region of
each stabilizer as a continuous stirred tank reactor
(CSTR) (see also Section 3.3).

3.2 "Heterogeneous" Combustion: Individual Fuel
Droplet and Droplet Sprays

Many useful fuels are not only conveniently
stored as liquids, but they can be effectively burned
(without complete "pre-vaporization") by spray-
ing them directly into the combustion space (e.g.,
oil fired furnaces, diesel engine cylinders). To
estimate the lifetime of a typical fuel droplet,
early theoretical models visualized each droplet
surrounded by an "envelope" flame sheet (Fig. 3)


I



PT.NlUcI '%
Y31 ~ -- v -


/ /..- namC ro*r
",rI "I

.." /^ Oxidlzer
Svapor


FIGURE 3. Envelope flame (two-"film") model of in-
dividual fuel droplet combustion at sub-
critical chamber pressures in the absence
of appreciable forced or natural convection
relative to the droplet [7].

acting both as a heat source (to sustain droplet
vaporization) and as a (fuel + oxidizer vapor)
sink [7]. ChEs will recognize this as a non-iso-
thermal "two-film" model; indeed, the localized
diffusion-controlled chemical reaction enhances the
quasi-steady (QS) rate of diffusional mass trans-
port, leading to droplet lifetimes considerably
shorter than a "nonignited" droplet evaporating
into the same ambient medium.
ChEs are in an excellent position to deal with
the behavior of oxidizers and/or fuels under ex-
treme conditions, such as pressures comparable to
Continued on page 209.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








You know about

Atlantic Richfield Company.


Now start reading

between the lines.

ARCO Oil and Gas Company 0
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany
ARCO Petroleum Products Company 4)
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany
ANACONDA Industries 4
Division of The ANACONDA Company
ARCO Transportation Company 0F
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany
ARCO Chemical Company O,
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany

ANACONDA Copper Company 4
Division of The ANACONDA Company
ARCO International Oil and Gas Company 0
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany
ARCO Coal Company 40
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany

ARCO Ventures Company 0
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany

With all the companies you should be talking to, why not
meet nine with one interview? For more information regarding
career opportunities with us, see your Placement Office.

AtlanticRichfieldCompany "N

Atlantic Richfield is a practicing equal opportunity employer,










Class and home problemsI

The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scott Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.




SOLUTION: PRAIRIE DOG PROBLEM


Editor's Note: Professor Kabel presented the
"Prairie Dog Problem" to our readers in the
Spring 1980 (Volume XIV, No. 2) issue of Chemi-
cal Engineering Education. The following is his
solution to that problem. It is followed by Pro-
fessor Kabel's new, but similar, "Prairie Dog
Appendix" problem statement, for which we
invite student solutions.


R. L. KABEL
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

The key point is the Bernoulli effect* and the
solution given here pertains to that effect. Of
course, students often pursue other mechanisms
which lead to good class discussions.
Take the total path length
2 + 15 + 3 = 20m
Assume path cross-sectional area is uniform
1 x 10-2 m2
Assume laminar flow in burrow and use the
Hagen-Poiseuille equation to obtain the flow result-
ing for a given pressure drop.
Use the Bernoulli equation to relate pressure
drop to velocity difference. Bird, Stewart, & Light-
foot (p. 212-213) gives Eq. 7.3-2 as Bernoulli equa-
tion with friction included. (This equation is also
given as Eq. 2.5-5, p. 30, of Himmelblau and Bis-
choff.)

*See Vogel, S., and W. L. Bretz, Science 175, 210-211
(1972), the original reference on this and other similar
situations, or Chem. & Eng. News, May 1, 1972, where I
first came across the idea.


1
2 <->


P2

+ A+ P dp + W + Ev = 0
pi


A A
Neglecting work W, friction Ev, and potential

energy change A (A, we get


1
2


P2
1
f dp =0


For flat velocity profiles / -
2. Note air flow is characteristically turbu-
lent in open spaces, but the velocity is not really
uniform in the region of interest.
Also, for ordinary velocities and pressure, air
is incompressible (i.e. p = constant). Hence,
[A1/2 + (p2-p)/p = 0
[< 2>2 2/2 + (p pI)/p = 0
Take a very light wind of 0.2 m/sec (= 0.45
mile/hr) at the high port and one-half that at the
low port (0.1 m/sec). This selection of condi-
tions is somewhat arbitrary but the magnitude
is low enough that such winds can be expected
at least on a day-night basis. The factor of 2 is
supported by Bird, et. al., p. 136-7, in an example
on ideal flow around a cylinder v2 = 4 v,2 sin2 0.
If the prairie dog mound were a cylinder, the
top would be at 0 = ir/2, hence sin 0 = 1 and v =
2 v.. Thus the velocity at the top is twice the ap-
proach velocity in this case.
Density of air = 1.2928 g.l-1 = 1.2928 kg.m-3
at 0C, 1 atm or 273.20K, 1(10S) N.m-2
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









-(P2-pt) = P(<>2 2- 2)
2
0;.22 0.12
= 1.2928 kg-m-3 m'2s-2
2
= 0.0194 kg.m-l.s-2
1 newton = 1 kg (1)m*s-2 or 1 kg*s-2 = N-m-1
-(P2 p) = 0.0194 N*m-2 p P2
= 2.8(10-6) psi = 1.45(10-4) mm Hg
As a matter of interest one student calculated
static pressure difference between points 1 and 2
to be 0.0267 N.m-2.
The Hagen-Poiseuille equation (Eq. 2.3-19,
Bird, Stewart, & Lightfoot) gives the air flow
rate as

Q 7r (P- PL) R4
8uL
where
Po PL = Pi P2
L = 20m
rR2 = 1(10-2)m2, R = 0.0564 m (= 2.22 in)
air(00C, latmi) = 0.01716 cp = (1.716)
(10-5) kg*m-.s-1 = (1.716) (10-5) N*s*m-2
Q 7 r(p p2)R4 7r(0.0194) (0.05644)
81AL 8(1.716) (10-5) (20)
= (2.246) (10-4) m3*s-1


Volume of tunnel = (20)m(1) (10-2)m2 = 0.2m3
0.2 m9
Air turnover = 0. m = 890 s
(2.246) (10-4) m3*s-1
= 14.8 min = 0.247 hr
This answer does not check with the paper
exactly since the paper specified turnover every
10 minutes. The difference could be in physical
properties but the agreement is close enough and
the main point is clear.

NR, = D p/ip

10- m s m
2 (0.0564)m [ 2.2 M2

1.716 (10-5) kg.m-1.s-
= 191, so laminar flow does exist in the
as assumed.
As a matter of interest the velocity in the
tunnel is
2.246 (10-4) m'.s-1
in channel = 10-2 2
10-2 m2
= 2.246 (10-2) m.s-1 = 0.05 miles-hr-1
about a factor of 10 slower than outside velocity.
It is clear that by building his mound and
burrow properly, the prairie dog will have enough
air to breathe even when hibernating. O


A PRAIRIE DOG APPENDIX

Our student readers, both graduate and undergraduate, are encouraged to submit their solution to the
following problem to Prof. Robert L. Kabel, ChE Dept., Pennsylvania State University, University Park,
PA 16802, before Dec. 31, 1980 (please designate your student status on your entry). A complimentary
subscription to CEE will be awarded in each category, to begin immediately or, if preferred, after gradua-
tion, for the first correct solution submitted. (Penn State students are not eligible.) We will publish Prof.
Kabel's solution in a subsequent issue.


The following numerical example illustrates
the effects discussed in the Prairie Dog Problem.
An open vertical tube, 2 m long and 0.01 m
in diameter, is to be used as a wind gauge. In
a particular experiment the base of the tube
was located 0.5 m above ground and an aver-
age vertical velocity through the tube was ob-
served to be 1 ms-1. Find the horizontal
velocity of the wind at 3 m above the ground.
A numerical answer is required.
Other pieces of information which may be
helpful are the air density, p = 1.2 kg m-3, and
viscosity, t = 1.8(10-5kg m-1 s-). Also there


is a well-known correlation for the horizontal
wind velocity, U, as a function of height above
the earth's surface, z.
U(z) 1 z
U. k Zo
In this correlation, k is the von Karmin
constant and is usually taken equal to 0.4.
The roughness height, zo, for this particular
location is 0.04 m. The friction velocity, U., is
a constant related to the shear stress at the
surface which in turn depends on the wind
speed.


FALL 1980










4 Pw 4am in4


MIT SCHOOL of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE*

A Continuing Catalyst in Engineering Effectiveness


SELIM M. SENKAN
J. EDWARD VIVIAN
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139

C CHEMICAL ENGINEER'S ASSIGNMENTS are today
more diverse and complex than ever before and
result in even more unanticipated problems. We
live in a highly complicated and controversial
world, and chemical engineers face considerable
uncertainty with respect to energy, environment,
health, food, and raw materials supply. The
problems are diverse, complex, and multifaceted
challenges in an environment complicated by
changing energy costs, material shortages, en-
vironmental regulations, social awareness, and
domestic and international politics.
To meet these challenges, a strong back-
ground in chemical engineering fundamentals is
not enough. Chemical engineers are expected to
function as a team with other professionals,
making goal-oriented and timetable-conscious ap-
proaches to identifying and solving current and
future problems. They are expected to be creative,
productive, and effective in applying their
knowledge to the solution of these problems and
to be alert to the needs of sophisticated industrial
operations and the dynamic society in which they
live. They are expected to have excellent oral and
written communication skills, to help influence
action and motivate individuals, and to dissemin-
ate the results of their findings.
Last but not least, they are expected to respond
to needs of their communities and to be proficient
in human relations.
Though they could hardly have foreseen the
complexities of today, some of these ideas clearly

*Portions of this article are reprinted from Technology
Review, Vol. 81, No. 5 (Copyright 1979) by special per-
mission of the Alumni Association of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.

C Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


were in the minds of Arthur D. Little, '85, and
William H. Walker when they established the
School of Chemical Engineering Practice in 1916.
It integrated classroom experience and practical
work by providing students with an intensive, in-
dustrial- and research-oriented internship away
from the campus, under the direct supervision of
M.I.T. faculty members [4].
Since then, the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology School of Chemical Engineering
Practice has been a major feature of the gradu-
ate program in chemical engineering education at
MIT.
Presently, MIT operates Practice School
Stations at two locations: one at Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, a dynamic research and de-


J. Edward Vivian obtained his BS degree from McGill University,
and his MS and ScD (1945) from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology. He has been very active in the School of Chemical Engineering
Practice, served as director of a number of stations, as well as the
overall program. His research activities are in the areas of gas-liquid
reactions, and separation processes. He is Professor of Chemical
Engineering. (L)
Selim M. Senkan received his BS degree from METU Ankara, Turkey
and his MS and ScD (1977) from the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. After completing a two year stint as director of the
School of Chemical Engineering Practice at Oak Ridge, Tennessee he
returned to Cambridge. His current research activities are in the
areas of chemical reaction engineering and hazardous chemical waste
management. He is presently an Assistant Professor of Chemical
Engineering. (R)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Presently, MIT operates Practice School Stations at two locations: one at Oak
Ridge National Laboratory . and the other at General Electric Company's modern plastics
and silicone production facilities at Albany, New York.


velopment organization operated by the Nuclear
Division of the Union Carbide Corporation at Oak
Ridge, Tennessee, under contract to the Depart-
ment of Energy, and the other at General Electric
Company's modern plastics and silicone production
facilities at Albany, New York. The widely differ-
ent operations of these plants provide a good basis
for problem solving and the opportunity for ex-
posure to a large variety of technical activities in
which the engineering students will find them-
selves engaged during later stages of their careers.
In response to the evolution of the chemical
engineering profession, Practice School stations
have been located at 18 different plants over the
program's 60-year history. Continuous evalua-
tion of the program by graduates, faculty, and in-
dustry (industry is a strong proponent of the pro-
gram) has kept it as an elite program of engineer-
ing education at MIT. This dynamic and
continuously renewing character of the program is
particularly important to the expanding engineer-
ing profession today [1].
In evaluating the first year of operation of
MIT's School of Chemical Engineering Practice,
W. H. Walker wrote in 1917 [3]:

"It is a truism to say that it is easier to acquire a
knowledge of science than it is to apply intelligently
and successfully this knowledge to the solution of
technical problems."

He also noted that the most far-reaching benefit
accruing to experience in the School of Chemical
Engineering Practice is that it develops within the
student the convictions:
* "That he must acquire a sounder knowledge of existing
science.
* That he must aid in creating or enlarging the field of
science.
* That he must continue to apply science to industry for
the ultimate good of mankind."

In commenting on the value of the Practice School,
W. K. Lewis wrote in 1951 [2]:

"Three things are essential for the young technical
man in industry. First he must recognize the rele-
vance of the theory which he has learned in class
and laboratory to the solution of practical problems,
and he must master the methods of using theory in
handling such problems. Second he must appreciate


the complexity of the economic factors that play
such a predominant part in the problems of in-
dustry. Finally, he must understand the character,
complexity, and importance of human relationships
involved in industry and know how to handle them."

Clearly these comments, which, incidentally, are
very similar to the ones made almost 30 years
earlier by Walker, are more to the point today than
ever before.

GOALS

The aim of Practice School is to accelerate the
development of highly competent engineers by
broadening their experience, not only in technical
aspects of the profession but also in communica-
tion and human relations (which are frequently
decisive in the success of an engineering enter-
prise). It is an intensive and guided program in
which qualities such as leadership, organization
and planning, team-work, and communication
skills are developed. These are crucial attributes
which a competent engineer should possess, yet
which are difficult to acquire in the classroom.
To reach these goals, the Program stresses four
main issues (see Figure 1) ;


TO DEVELOP SELF-RENEWING,
GOAL-ORIENTED, TIMETABLE-
CONSCIOUS, CHEMICAL ENGIN-
EERS TO HANDLE COMPLEX
SOCIO-ECONOMIC, TECHNICAL
PROBLEMS.


TO DEVELOP AN
ABILITY TO APPLY
ENGINEERING
PRINCIPLES TO A
' IDE RANGE OF
PROBLEMS.


TO BE MADE AIARE
THAT EDUCATION
MUST PROCEED WITH
RENEWED VIGOR
BEYOND THE CLASS-
ROOM.


FIGURE 1. Intent Diagram for the Practice School.

1. Development of an ability to apply engi-
neering principles to a wide range of problems.
Students at the graduate level already have
command of most of the fundamentals. However,
the application of these basic principles to the
solution of today's problems is perhaps more
difficult than ever before. In addition, chemical
engineers frequently contribute to a wide variety
of disciplines which were once thought outside
their purview. By design, Practice School permits
the students to face many kinds of unique in-
dustrial- and research-related problems in a


FALL 1980








variety of disciplines. The nature of the projects
ranges from fusion-energy research, coal gasifica-
tion and liquefaction, and nuclear medicine, to
technical and economic feasibility analysis, design,
operation and optimization of chemical processes,
to name a few. Every new problem (new problems
are assigned every four weeks) is presented as a
challenge to the ability of the students. By stimu-
lating students to meet these challenges, the
Practice School catalyzes creativity and fosters
the sense of achievement that accompanies the
successful completion of any problem.

The opportunity to help solve some
problems of concern to plant personnel or to
contribute to the understanding of a phenomenon at
the forefront of a research program motivates
the student to accomplish a great deal of
work in a surprisingly short time.

2. Development of the awareness that educa-
tion must proceed with renewed vigor beyond
classroom teaching. Since chemical engineers are
facing problems which are increasingly inter-
disciplinary and of ever-increasing complexity, it
is important to create an atmosphere in which in-
dividuals are motivated to become familiar with
other disciplines, concepts, and ideas. The large
variety of projects offered at Practice School
brings about the realization of this need and
provides students with relevant experience in
handling new situations with caution and confi-
dence.
3. Development of a proficiency in human
relations. To emphasize the co-operative nature of
engineering tasks, Practice School projects are
always assigned to student groups of two to four.
This results in improved thinking and decision
making by group members, and usually a small
group decision is superior to that of an individual
working alone. Small-group communication is also
conducive to changing group members' attitudes.
Groups and designated group leaders change with
each project, giving each student a chance to be-
come a group leader and an opportunity to work
with others. Emphasis is placed on developing
effective leadership and organization skills in
handling complex engineering assignments.
4. Development of a proficiency in effective
oral and written communication skills. Results of
a technical investigation have little utility unless
they can be understood and used by others. A
technical achievement can be outstanding, but


unless the results are communicated effectively and
persuasively, the value of the achievement is less
likely to be appreciated. Practice School provides
the students with excellent experience in develop-
ing these skills.
Students get realistic experience in oral report-
ing during the projects. On a weekly basis, one
member of each group gives an oral presentation
outlining the progress and future plans of the
group. These sessions are attended by all par-
ticipating students, plant personnel, and Practice
School staff. In addition to the talks on problem
assignments, scheduled oral seminars are held
throughout the term on assigned and optional
subjects. Frequently, students are also asked to
present their work at symposia organized by pro-
fessional societies such as The American Chemical
Society, The American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, and The American Nuclear Society.
Technical report writing is also an essential
attribute of a competent engineer, although often
not sufficiently emphasized at school, and Practice
School provides excellent experience. An assign-
ment is not considered complete until an acceptable
written account of the work has been prepared.
The program emphasizes the need for a precise
and concise report of the effort in which straight-
forward development of the logic of approach,
perspective in relating the importance of the
results, and critical and candid evaluation of the
strengths and weaknesses of the technical argu-
ments are documented. These are important
factors in establishing the credibility of the ac-
complishments as well as the credibility of the
engineers who did the work.

STATION OPERATION

G OALS OF THE PRACTICE SCHOOL are attained
in an unusual way. Each Practice School
station is directed by two resident chemical engi-
neering department staff members. The student-
to-faculty ratio is kept around six so that students
may receive a high degree of individual instruc-
tion and evaluation, and also so that their potential
ability may be recognized and developed at the
Practice School.
The operation of the Practice School is quite
similar to a small consulting company. The MIT
staff works closely with the technical staff of the
host company in identifying and arranging the
problems, with student groups serving as plant-
wide task forces on the projects. At the beginning


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








of each term the technical staff of the host-
company is invited to submit problem suggestions
to the Practice School. After problem suggestions
are received, the station staff reviews them and
contacts the individuals with whom suitable proj-
ects appear possible. The most important criteria
used in problem selection are: first, problems must
be of educational value to the student group;
second, the solution can be expected to require in-
depth application of a broad variety of technical
skills, original thought, initiative, and judgment
on the part of the student group; and third, solu-
tions of the problem will result in a worthy contri-
bution to the host-plant operation and/or to the
understanding of a phenomenon in the profession.
The technical staff of the company who suggested
the problem is then asked to make itself available
as consultants.
The opportunity to help solve some problems
of concern to plant personnel or to contribute to
the understanding of a phenomenon at the fore-
front of a research program motivates the student
to accomplish a great deal of work in a sur-
prisingly short time. This attitude provides the
key to Practice School operations and results in
the production of widely recognized high-quality
work. Since the time available for solving the
problems is short, the group finds itself under
considerable pressure to accomplish its goals. Al-
though the student group bears prime responsi-
bility for solving the problem, the members are
encouraged to draw on advice of the Practice
School staff, project consultants, and other in-
dividuals both on plant-site and at MIT, all of
whom are considered part of a team whose job it
is to solve the problem (see Fig. 2). The group
leader organizes the effort and keeps all the
interested individuals informed on group progress.
Nevertheless, the successful completion of the
project hinges on the cooperative effort of the
entire group in planning and executing the task.
As the first step in solving the problem, the
group members collect pertinent information and
become acquainted with the current theory, opera-
tions, and equipment. Then they define the exact
nature of the problem, generate as many alter-
native approaches as possible, and determine the
alternatives with the minimum set of objectives
to reach their goal. They defend their approach in
the formal preliminary conference before the
Practice School staff, consultants, plant personnel,
and, on many occasions, visiting members of the
MIT chemical engineering department faculty.


FIGURE 2. Problem Solving at MIT School of Chemical
Engineering Practice.

Undoubtedly, the preliminary conference is the
most important of a series of interactions aimed
at sharpening and perfecting the approach to solu-
tion of the problem and requires the participation
of everyone involved.
Following the preliminary conference and pro-
gram approval, the main body of the project work
begins, during which continuous re-evaluation of
objectives, methods of approach, results, and
schedule are also undertaken. Since the atmosphere
is informal, everyone participates in extensive
discussions pertinent to the successful completion
of the group's objectives. When there are dis-
agreements (and disagreements are very common)
they are not suppressed; the group seeks to resolve
them rather than to dominate the dissenter.
Formal progress reports are also made every
week, with participation similar to that of the
preliminary conference. Progress reports are de-
signed to serve three important purposes: (1) to
inform the participants about the progress of the
project, provide intermediate results, and discuss
new changes, (2) to provide a basis for ex-
changing ideas to solve problems encountered, and
(3) to provide an opportunity for the students to
improve their oral presentation skills. Students
are encouraged to use the conference room as
ground on which they can extract information
from the audience as well as provide it. An im-
portant part of these meetings is the question-and-
answer period which follows, for it tests the
speaker's understanding of the subject and his
ability to handle audiences and reply to a range
of questions promptly and directly. These talks


FALL 1980









are also constructively criticized by the staff and
students for the benefit of the speaker.
The assignment is not considered complete
until all results have been analyzed, the con-
clusions and recommendations have been properly
presented in a written report, and a final oral
presentation has been made. Each report is evalu-
ated for its accuracy, technical content, imparti-
ality, organization, literary style, coherence, and
conciseness. When necessary, the report is re-
turned to the group for revision and this pro-
cedure is repeated until a satisfactory report is
produced. Student performance is then evaluated
by the staff, with contributions from fellow
students and consultants. The ability to work with
people, leadership, and other such qualities are
considered in addition to technical competence.
Other activities during the semester include
field trips to nearby industrial plants and research
centers, attendance at seminars and symposia, and
participation in periodic staff conferences in which
students rate each other, and where consultants
and staff rate the students. The students thus have
the opportunity to see themselves as others do.
The staff member who handles the conference
discusses the student's abilities and liabilities from
a friendly point of view. Most students respond
well and react quickly to such a conference because
in most cases it is the first time that such a candid
evaluation has been presented.

DESCRIPTION OF FIELD STATIONS

FACILITIES AT EACH STATION include a library,
student offices, conference rooms, and computer
facilities. Additional help is provided by a full-
time secretary maintained at each station. The
two Practice School stations will be briefly de-
scribed below, together with the nature of projects
undertaken by MIT students.

Albany Station
The Albany Station is operated by General
Electric Company's Noryl Products facility at Sel-
kirk, New York, and the Silicone Products Plant
at Waterford, New York. At this station students
obtain an intensive exposure to a chemicals manu-
facturing environment. Technical emphasis is
placed on economic analysis, design, process de-
velopment and improvement, and the relationship
of product properties to production operation.
Strong emphasis is placed on having the students
work in at least one of the production areas.


Both batch and continuous processes are used
in producing chemicals, and students are involved
with virtually all kinds of large-scale chemical
engineering unit operations. This gives them an
opportunity to evaluate and compare the merits
of each operation.
Some past projects at the Albany Station have
been:
* Wastewater clarification
* Physical-mechanical model of intermediates reactor
* Design of remote sampling system for resin reactors
and statistical analysis of resin properties
* The effect of processing variables on theological
properties
* Determination of economic feasibility of rubber
reclamation
* Dryer vent system analysis and modification
* Detailed design of extractive dehydration pilot plant
unit
* Computer modelled optimization of plastics manufactur-
ing operations
* On-line solids analysis for silicone emulsions
* Improvement of crystalline product yield from process
mother liquors

Oak Ridge Station
The field station at Oak Ridge National Labora-
tory (ORNL) is located in one of the largest
energy research and development institutions in
the nation and also one of the most diverse in the
range of scientific and technological disciplines
represented. ORNL is operated by the Union
Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division under
contract with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Laboratory specialties, once limited to nuclear
energy development, now extend into other
disciplines of physical and life sciences, mathe-
matics and engineering, as well as economics and
social sciences. The laboratory operates in a way
that provides the flexibility necessary to attack
large problems that require broadly-based efforts
on the part of multi-disciplinary teams, and the
MIT Practice School has been involved with
virtually all of the unclassified programs.
Some past projects at Oak Ridge station have
been:
* Mass transfer in three phase fluidized beds
* Freezing of living cells and tissues
* Surface properties and reactions of coal
* Dispersion of miscible fluids in porous media
* Design of a IsF production system for ORNL cyclotron
facility (nuclear medicine)
* Radiation cooling in liquid metal fast breeder reactor
(LMFBR) cores
* Super cooling of water in annual cycle energy system
(ACES) heat exchangers


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


204








* Hydrodynamics of a recirculating fluidized bed
* UF, formation from the surface reactions of uranium
and fluorine
* Auxiliary power recovery from coal gasification
processes
The projects at Oak Ridge are oriented toward
laboratory-type research and development work,
complementing the industrial nature of the
problems at the Albany Station.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

EACH TERM, A SELECT number of graduate
students (presently the enrollment is limited
to 24) are admitted to the School. Since the pro-
gram is highly demanding, self-motivation, in-
dustriousness, and other such qualities are also
sought in addition to exceptional academic achieve-
ments. The requirements for the Master of Science
in Chemical Engineering Practice (Course X-A)
are the same as those for the Master of Science in
Chemical Engineering, except that 24 units of
Practice School experience is accepted in lieu of
the Master's thesis.
Bachelor of Science graduates of the depart-
ment ordinarily meet the requirements of the pro-
gram in two terms. Beginning in September
following their graduation, students spend the
semester at the Practice School; half at Albany,
New York, and the other half at Oak Ridge,
Tennessee. Then they return to the Institute to
complete the program during the Spring term.
A similar program also begins in February and
extends to the end of May.
For the students who have graduated in chemi-
cal engineering from other schools, the usual pro-
gram of study involves one or two terms at the
Institute followed by the field station work in the
Practice School. Students with chemistry majors
usually require an additional term at the Institute.
Although there are no specific course require-

TABLE I
Suggested Prerequisite Courses.


FALL
ChE Thermodynamics
Advanced Heat Transfer
Industrial Chemistry
Catalysis and Catalytic
Processes
Analytical Treatment of
ChE Processes
Structure and Properties
of Polymers


SPRING
Same
Heat and Mass Transfer
Same
Chemical Reaction
Engineering
Advanced Calculus for
Engineers
Physical Chemistry of
Polymers


ments for the Practice School program (beyond
the usual S.M. degree course requirements) the
courses listed in Table 1 have been found to be
particularly beneficial according to the students
who participated in the program. E

REFERENCES
1. King, C. J., and A. S. West, "The Expanding Domain
of Chemical Engineering," Chem. Eng. Progr., 72, 35
(1976).
2. Lewis, W. K., "Practice Training in Universities,"
Chem. Eng. News, 29, 1397 (1951).
3. Walker, W. H., "The School of Chemical Engineering
Practice. A Year's Experience," Ind. Eng. Chem., 9,
1087 (1917).
4. Walker, W. H., "A Master's Course in Chemical Engi-
neering," Ind. Eng. Chem., 8, 746 (1916).


l3j book reviews

APPLIED CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN
By Frank Aerstin and Gary Street
Plenum Press, 1978, 294 pages.
Reviewed by Frank J. Lockhart
University of Southern California, L.A.

This is not a textbook. Developments, discus-
sions and derivations have been eliminated, leav-
ing a concise presentation of methods and correla-
tions useful in process design, pilot plants or
production. Some of the methods are theoretical,
some are not; but they all are empirical in that
they can be used satisfactorily in the real world.
Explanations are scarce, which means the user
needs prior education in the basics of topics such
as fluid flow, heat transfer, and distillation. A
critical user will check the validity of various di-
mensional equations which probably have not
been seen before. For example, page 16 has a di-
mensional equation for Reynolds number in a
circular pipe. It is correct, but it looks most un-
usual as NRo = 6.31 W/jD.
Some useful topics are included which are
seldom found in conventional chemical engineer-
ing textbooks. For example: relief valves, rupture
discs, vapor-liquid separators, and details on air-
cooled heat exchangers. Continued, next page.
I s ~


OMNI and MINI adoptions
come with solution books


ADVERTISEMENT


FALL 1980








The authors are to be commended for giving
stepwise procedure, followed by "sample deter-
mination" (i.e. an example), and at the end of
each chapter its nomenclature, references to the
particular methods and some selected readings.
This book covers the topics the authors con-
sider important, and the published correlations
they prefer. Other engineers may select different
topics and correlations based upon their own ex-
periences. I consider they have covered the most
important topics and usually, acceptable correla-
tions. However, the graphical correlation on page
42, labeled the "optimum-minimum reflux rela-
tionship ..." and being around 1.2-1.5, must truly
be the "typical design-minimum reflux relation-
ship." The ratio of optimum to minimum reflux
ratio for about 25 years has been less than 1.15,
which is essentially off the graph. And this ratio
is decreasing more with increasing cost of energy.
Line 4, page 277 says, "A vapor-liquid separa-
tor is a drum where entrainment is generated," a
statement which I do not believe.
Where does this book fit? Possibly as an ap-
pendage to a chemical plant design course in a
university, but not as a textbook. Possibly as a
reference for an engineer who is away from the
office, but not as a typical office-reference book. O


SAdopt an OMNIBOOK and its solution
manual of 543 problems is yours

ADVERTISEMENT
STATISTICS FOR EXPERIMENTERS. AN IN-
TRODUCTION TO DESIGN, DATA ANALYSIS,
AND MODEL BUILDING
By George E. P. Box, William G. Hunter, and
Stuart Hunter
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. NY, 1978. xviii
+ 653 pp.
Reviewed by Robert J. Buehler
University of Minnesota
This book is aimed at persons who collect and
analyze data, including, in particular, engineers,
chemists, biologists and statisticians. It claims to
be "neither a cookbook nor a textbook on mathe-
matical statistics. It is an introduction to the
philosophy of experimentation and the part that
statistics plays in experimentation." The book is
intended for use as a text, but could also be used
for self-instruction. No knowledge of calculus is
assumed.


There are four parts: I. Comparing two treat-
ments; II. Comparing more than two treatments;
III. Measuring the effects of variables; IV. Build-
ing models and using them. To give an idea of
the coverage (but not the flavor) : Part I: Signifi-
cance tests; confidence intervals; normal, t, bi-
nomial and Poisson distributions; randomization;
replication; blocking. Part II: Analysis of vari-
ance; factorial designs; transformations; random-
ized blocks; incomplete blocks; Latin squares. Part
III: Factorial designs at two levels; normal prob-
ability plots; fractional factorials. Part IV: Re-
gression models; response surfaces; mechanistic
models; control charts; variance components;
modeling and forecasting with time series.
The flavor of this book is totally practical.
New topics are invariably introduced by example.
The authors draw on their very considerable real
world experience to emphasize the concepts and
techniques of greatest utility. Over and over they
stress the importance of finding appropriate
models and of checking the adequacy of any as-
sumed model (making "diagnostic checks"),
usually by inspection of residuals. Many common
pitfalls are pointed out: assuming independence
when serial correlation is present; mistaking as-
sociation for causation; confusing statistical sig-
nificance with practical significance; dangers of
"happenstance data;" dangers of letting the com-
puter replace the human brain where the brain is
superior. Limitations of rigid mathematical
theories such as "optimal design" are indicated
(p. 472). In keeping with the more casual "data
analytic" approach as opposed to a theoretical
mathematical approach, hypotheses are not re-
jected but "discredited," and reporting observed
significance levels or confidence intervals is
favored over a pure accept-reject procedure.
This is clearly an authoritative book. I found
it also to be tightly and clearly written, with very
good use of figures, suitable problems, and ade-
quate references for further study. The geometric
concept of orthogonality in the analysis of vari-
ance is an example of a topic well described at an
elementary level which is usually found only in
more advanced texts.
Not wishing to imply that the book is flawless,
let me say in closing that while the authors
correctly emphasize the fundamental contributions
of the incomparable R. A. Fisher, they need not
have followed his example in spelling Gosset
("Student") both correctly (p. 15) and incorrectly
(Gossett, p. 49). 0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





"Du Pont gives me

a chance to use all my


professional skills:'
J. Susan Morgan BS, Chemical Engineering

"I wanted variety and respon-
sibility, and at Du Pont I got it.
"While still at the U. of Kansas
I worked a summer at a Du Pont
plant in Delaware and, during my
senior year, two days a week at a
nearby Kansas plant.
"After graduation, I worked full
time for Du Pont in the Engineering
Department in Delaware in a Con-
sultants Section on heat and mass
transfer problems. I specified equip-
ment and process parameters for
new processes and plant expansions.
"From pure engineering I
moved to college recruiting. Based
in Wilmington, I travelled to college
campuses all over, interviewing
candidates and speaking to student
groups. I also organized programs
like the Summer Employment
Program I was in at college.
"Now I'm at a photographic
products plant in New Jersey on
process improvements for a relative-
ly new and exciting product. The
tremendous variety in my projects
requires daily interaction with people
throughout the plant. I use both my
engineering and people skills."
Whatever your specialty, you
have a big choice of careers at
Du Pont. Talk to our campus
representative. Or write: Du Pont
Company, Room 37755,
Wilmington, DE 19898.
At DuPont...there's a
world of things you can
do something about.



Are us ParTaM OF
An Equal Opportunity Employer, M/F









ra news
NOBLE RECEIVES AWARD
Recipients of special awards given at the
ASEE meeting in Amherst, MA, on June 25, 1980,
were listed in the Summer 1980 issue of CE.
That list of outstanding ChEs should have in-
cluded Richard D. Noble of the University of
Wyoming, who received the Outstanding Zone
Campus Activity Coordinator Award, Zone IV.

[0 I p book reviews
SCIENTISTS MUST WRITE
By Robert Barrass
Chapman and Hall, London, 1978
Reviewed by Michael E. Leesley
University of Texas at Austin
When asked to review this book I kept putting
it off thinking it would be just one more sermon
on the need for engineers and scientists to write
good English. By now there can hardly be an
engineer or scientist in industry or academia who
is not fully aware of the deplorable level of the
communication skills of graduating students.
Finally and reluctantly I picked it up. I was
amazed. Mr. Barrass has packed a huge amount
of common sense into this tiny text. Unequivoc-
ably it is the best condensation of written com-
munication know-how that I have ever seen.
Mr. Barrass must be a most astute observer of
both written and verbal communication. He picks
out examples of misuse of English and then shows
how they could have been improved. Furthermore,
in some cases, he suggests reasons why the
writer had used the poor English of the examples.
He gives useful hints for writing summaries,
precis, letters, memoranda, reports, essays, theses
and even book reviews. He lists tricks, some old
some new, which will help a writer gain and
keep a reader's interest. Of course, being British,
Mr. Barrass has stated the normal rules of
English for his country and these do not always
apply in the United States. Perhaps an American
version could be published: it certainly would be a
most useful text in this country.
Teachers will find that it provides many illus-
trative examples of misuse of English. The sources
of his examples and the delightful anecdotes
could not be more wide-ranging: from Patrick
Dennis's Aunt Mame to Rudyard Kipling's letters
to technical journals, the chosen passages are


witty and entertaining.
However, it is difficult to see just how this
book could be used in a formal science or engi-
neering education unless in the curriculum there
is a course designed to improve writing skills of
attendees. Even then, a professor would be more
likely to choose as required text the Harbrace
College Handbook or one of the similar hand-
books currently available. It's not that the book
fails as a teaching aid: rather, it is insufficiently
structured and does not contain a coded feedback
mechanism to use when grading students' written
work.
He does discuss some controversial issues. One
minor one is his reminder that the word "com-
prise" does not need the word "of" between it
and a list: a common error in American use of
English. More important, he tackles the question
of the use of active mood, first person reporting
of technical work. After a brief history of views
on this topic he comes down on the side of first
person active. I wish most sincerely that his advice
and exhortation would change the stuffy attitude
which is currently prevalent in the U.S. "I found"
is far more concise than the clumsy "it was found
that" which always seems evocative of a lack of
confidence in one's work. Further there is nothing
whatsoever untrue or deceitful in saying "I con-
clude that" instead of the awkward "it can be
concluded that" which is far more common.
As efficient as the rest of the book, the sections
on recommended reading are well presented and
include the United States' and United Kingdom's
Standards (ANSI and BBS) for written media
and numerous handbooks, directories, indexes
and abstracting journals. I like, too, the extra
chapter at the end where he complements the main
body of the book with some useful hints on tech-
nique for people talking about science and engi-
neering.
After all this praise of what is really quite a
small book, I have one negative point to raise.
The book would have been just that little bit
better if the asinine cartoons had been left out.
All in all, this is an excellent book which could
be revised very simply for the American market,
but which is unlikely to be used in colleges and
universities except, perhaps, as an entry in lists of
recommended reading. E

S Solution manuals for the OMNIBOOK
cost $543 ... without an adoption
ADVERTISEMENT
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
Continued from page 196
the thermodynamic critical pressure of the fuel.
In such cases (commonly encountered in diesel and
rocket engines) a) the QS assumption breaks
down because the droplet density no longer greatly
exceeds that of the surrounding vapors, and b) the
latent heat of vaporization of the liquid becomes
strongly temperature dependent (as the critical
temperature of the fuel is approached). In Ref.
[8] it was shown that ChE calculations of transient,
diffusion-controlled sphere dissolution [9] could be
transformed to estimate droplet burning times
under these conditions; and, as a consequence of
b), there are actually two droplet ("wet bulb")
temperatures under some ambient conditions, only
one of which (the lower) is statically stable (cf.
Fig. 4). There results an overall picture of the
initial droplet conditions causing either (i) ulti-
mate droplet evaporation (with or without com-
bustion) at a subcritical droplet temperature
(even at supercritical chamber pressures) or (ii)
transient heating leading a droplet to seek its
critical temperature during transient evapora-
tion [8].


T (*K)- 600


0.7 0.8 Tw/T 0.9 1.0
DROPLET TEMPERATURE -*
FIGURE 4. Droplet vaporization at chamber pressures
comparable to the fuel's thermodynamic
critical point. Multiplicity of "wet bulb"
temperatures, and domains of droplet
heating and cooling near the critical
temperature. Chamber gas temperatures
are those corresponding to isentropic com-
pression from 300 K, 1 atm to the stated
pressures. (after Rosner and Chang [8]).


0 0 0 0 0



e 00 0

0 0 0 0 o


oi)


0 0 0 0




o o
0 0 0 0 0
1C)


0 o 0 0 0


o 0()o0


o o () 0 o


e B 0
{b}


0 0


+


[d]


FIGURE 5. Superposition calculations of flame loca-
tions for small arrays of fuel droplets [11]
reveal the onset of flame "sharing" by sub-
groups of droplets in the interior of the
droplet cloud. For larger clouds a contin-
uum model (analogous to that used for
predicting catalyst effectiveness factors)
quantitatively describes "group combus-
tion" phenomena, based on oxidant access
limitations [11].

In actual fuel spray combustion individual en-
velope flames (cf. Fig. 3) are rarely seen; rather,
a spray "core" consisting of many droplets supplies
fuel vapor to a "single" outer diffusion flame. This
flame "sharing" or "group combustion" behavior
can be explained in terms of the difficulty of
oxidizer transport into (and combustion product
transport out of) the interior of the droplet cloud
(see Fig. 5). This is the combustion analog of
the catalyst "effectiveness factor" problem [10]-
indeed, the criterion for group (cf. individual
droplet) combustion is expressible in terms of a
Thiele modulus (Damkohler number) based on
cloud radius [11].

3.3 Modeling Combustor Pollutant Emission/Control
Chemical synthesis and reactor selectivity are
the essence of the combustor pollutant problem
(e.g., emissions of NO(g), SO2(g), soot, etc.).
Here, the kinetic details of many competing chemi-
cal reactions, occurring in local environments and
residence times influenced by compressible gas


FALL 1980


I









dynamics and turbulent mixing [12], determine,
say, what fraction of the nitrogen in coal will
appear at the combustor exit as NO or N2; what
fraction of the carbonaceous condensate inter-
mediate (called soot) in an oil-fired furnace will
survive oxidation and be emitted as black smoke,
etc.
In an interesting ChE approach to the problem
of modeling and predicting emissions from a high
intensity spray combustor, Munz and Eisenklam
[13] have used tracer-stimulus response/residence
time distribution (RTD)-techniques to arrive at
an equivalent PFR/CSTR network (with internal
recycle) to represent the behavior of the actual
combustor (see Fig. 6). This equivalent network
was then analyzed using a 22-step kinetic reaction
mechanism for NO production/consumption.


ATOMISER


_ SECONDARY
FORWARD AIR


SECONOAP'R CRWARO AR
FIGURE 6. "Equivalent" idealized chemical reactor
flow network to simulate the pollutant
emission characteristics of the forward
chamber region of a high intensity spray
(gas oil) combustor. System "identification"
accomplished via tracer RTD techniques
(after [13]).


Methodologically similar "lumped" models with
simpler ("global") kinetics have been used to
understand the chemical thermal energy
efficiency of GT-combustors [14].
In the long-run an increasing fraction of com-
bustor performance predictions for design will
be made using "direct solution techniques." These
will involve deterministic a priori predictions of
the detailed velocity, temperature and species con-
centration fields (time-averaged values as well as
fluctuation intensities for steady turbulent flow
[15]) within the combustion space, using suitable
finite difference (or finite element) numerical
methods [16]. For transient, 3-dimensional, multi-
component, multiphase turbulent flows with re-
circulation this is still rather impractical, based
on both computational limitations and modeling
uncertainties (e.g., chemistry in a turbulent flow).
For a recent summary of advances in this line of
attack, equivalent to the ChE modeling of "non-
ideal" reactors, see Ref. [17].

3.5 Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) of Coal
Fluidized bed reactor technology, which revolu-
tionized the process of catalytic cracking of
petroleum feedstocks in the USA just in time to
supply us with the high grade fuels necessary to
escape fascist subjugation in World War 2, could
play a comparable role in the way we extract
energy from our coal reserves in the near future.
This is because current and future constraints on
emissions (ash, SO,, NO, alkali sulfates, etc.) and
capital investment may render FBC more cost-
effective than its well-established rival: the pul-
verized coal-fired furnace (with all of its required
upstream and downstream "add-ons" [18]). If
currently visualized pressurized FBC proves tech-
nologically feasible (see Fig. 7), it offers the
following advantages:
* much higher volumetric heat release rates (hence
smaller plant size for same output power);
* in situ sulfur and ash removal via fluidized sorbents
(e.g., CaCO,);
* ability to operate with a wide variety of coal types at
temperatures low enough to minimize production and
carryover of NO, salt and ash vapors; and
* possibility of energy extraction via both in-bed heat
exchangers as well as direct drive of gas turbines using
the FBC products (provided deposition [19], erosion
and corrosion problems can be solved).

This is an area of combustion to which ChEs will
clearly make an enormous contribution. It is a par-
ticularly formidable one from the viewpoint of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









to cyclones
and GTr


H20


aorbent
Fin es
Recycle
Coo'


Spent
Sorbenl


FIGURE 7. Schematic of pressurized fluidized-bed com-
bustor (FBC) for efficient power extraction
from coal subject to present-day environ-
mental constraints (see Section 3.5).

direct computational modeling using a generalized
continuum mechanics approach, yet progress is
being made [20].

4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Combustion is seen to be chemical reaction
engineering (CRE) with objectives that include
but, more often, differ from that of the synthesis
of volume chemicals (Section 2.1). Accordingly,
ChEs, because of their breadth and understanding
of coupled chemical and physical change, are in
an excellent position to contribute directly to com-
bustion science and technology (CST)-a subject
of vital current and future interest to our economy,
standard of living and even political independence.
Reciprocally, recent advances in CST will be of
considerable interest to ChEs concerned with CRE
in exo-ergic systems. For these reasons we have
introduced into our ChE graduate program the


CST course described in Section 2. We hope this
brief account proves useful to graduate students
and ChE faculty alike, and will be especially
pleased if our discussion (Sections 1, 3) con-
tributes to the increased participation of ChEs
in teaching and research in combustion science
and technology. Indeed, as we enter a "synthetic
fuels" era there will have to be a closer coupling
between fuel users and formulators. What better
way to accomplish this than for the ChE com-
munity to become as actively involved in R & D
on the optimum utilization of these fuels? E
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank Drs. K. Seshadri, M. Labowsky,
B. T. Chu, R. Chang and W. Reifsnyder for their
assistance in planning and teaching this graduate
course in CST at Yale. I am also indebted to Drs.
Richard Wilhelm, Irvin Glassman, Hartwell Cal-
cote, and John Fenn, all ChEs, for "igniting" my
research interest in combustion as a graduate
student, and calling to my attention the relevant
early literature of D. A. Frank-Kamenetskii and
G. Damk6hler.
REFERENCES
1. Rosner, D. E.: "Combustion Science and Technology"
(EAS 607 Course Syllabus); Department of Engi-
neering and Applied Science/ChE Section, Yale Uni-
versity (January 1979).
2. Agassi, J.: Faraday as a Natural Philosopher, Uni-
versity of Chicago Press (Chicago) 1971, 26.
3. Rosner, D. E.: "Energy, Mass and Momentum Trans-
port-The Treatment of Jump Conditions at Phase
Boundaries and Fluid-dynamic Discontinuities,"
Chemical Engineering Education, Vol. X, No. 4, 190-
194 (Fall 1976).
4. Williams, F. A.: Combustion Theory, Addison-Wesley,
Reading, MA (1965).
5. Luck, K. C. and G. Tsatsaronis, "A Study of Flat
Methane-Air Flames at Various Equivalence Ratios"
in Gaadynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems
(A. K. Oppenheim, ed.), Pergamon Press, (Oxford,
UK), 467-475 (1980).
6. Longwell, J. P., et al.: "Flame Stabilization by Baffles
in High Velocity Gas Streams," Third (International)
Symposium on Combustion, Flame and Explosion
Phenomena, Williams and Wilkins Co. (Baltimore,
MD), 40 (1949).
7. Rosner, D. E.: "Liquid Droplet Vaporization and
Combustion," in Liquid Propellant Rocket Combustion
Instability, NASA Scientific and Technical Informa-
tion Office, Chap. 2.4, pp. 74-100, NASA SP-194
(1972).
8. Rosner, D. E. and Chang, W. S.: "Transient Evapora-
tion and Combustion of a Fuel Droplet Near its
Critical Temperature," Combustion Science and Tech-
nology 7, 145-158 (1973).
9. Duda, J. L. and J. S. Vrentas: "Heat or Mass Trans-


FALL 1980


211









fer Controlled Dissolution of an Isolated Sphere,"
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 14, 395 (1971).
10. Aris, R.: The Mathematical Theory of Diffusion and
Reaction in Permeable Catalysts, Vol. 1, Clarendon
Press (Oxford, UK) 1975.
11. Labowsky, M. and D. E. Rosner: "Conditions for
'Group' Combustion of Droplets in Fuel Clouds. I.
Quasi-Steady Predictions," in Proc. Symposium on
Evaporation/Combustion of Fuel Droplets, Amer.
Chem. Soc., Adv. in Chem. Series, No. 166, 63-69
(1978).
12. Rosner, D. E.: "Governing Conservation Principles
and Constitutive Laws," Chapter 2 of Short Course:
Introduction to the Fluid Mechanics of Combustion,
EXXON Research and Engineering Co., Florham
Park, NJ (December, 1980).
13. Munz, N. and P. Eisenklam: "The Modelling of a
High Intensity Spray Combustion Chamber,"
Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion,
The Combustion Inst. (Pittsburgh, PA), 593-604,
1976.
14. Swithenbank, J., I. Poll, D. D. Wright and M. W.
Vincent: "Combustor Design Fundamentals," 14th
Symposium (International) on Combustion, The
Combustion Inst., Pittsburgh, PA 627-638 (1973).
15. Long, M. B., B. F. Webber, and R. K. Chang: "In-
stantaneous Two-Dimensional Concentration Measure-
ments in a Jet Flow by Mie Scattering," Appl. Phys.
Letters 34, 22-24 (1979); see also M. B. Long, B. T.
Chu, and R. K. Chang: "Instantaneous Two-Di-
mensional Gas Concentration Measurements by Light
Scattering," paper AIAA-80-1370, presented at the
AIAA 13th Fluid & Plasma Dynamics Conference,
14-16 July 1980, Snowmass, CO, AIAA J. (in press).
16. Gosman, A. D., et al.: Heat and Mass Transfer in
Recirculating Flows, Academic Press (New York,
NY), 1969; see also: Proc. Third Int. Conf. on
Numerical Methods in Fluid Mechanics, Springer-
Verlag, 60, 1973.
17. Caretto, L. S.: "Mathematical Modeling of (Com-
bustor) Pollutant Formation," in Energy and Com-
bustion Science (N. Chigier, ed.), Pergamon Press
(Oxford, UK), 1979, 44-73.
18. Squires, A. M.: "Clean Power from Coal," Science
169, 821-828 (1970).
19. Rosner, D. E.: "Mass Transfer from Combustion
Gases," Presented at the AIChE 73rd Annual Meet-
ing, 16-20 November 1980, Chicago, IL (session on
Combustion Fundamentals). Ms. No. 4606.
20. Pritchett, J. W., T. R. Blake and S. K. Garg: "A
Numerical Model of Gas Fluidized Beds," AIChE
Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series
(in press 1980).




PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Continued from page 186.
7.3 Thermodynamic Availability Analysis and Its Ap-
plications to Energy Conversion and Conservation
and to Process Design and Evaluation (85, 86, 92-102)
7.4 Thermodynamic Availability Analysis of Heat-Ex-


Solution books to the OMNI and to the
MINI are now available
ADVERTISEMENT
change Process and Its Applications to the Synthesis
of Energy-Optimum Heat Exchanger Networks (44,
60, 63-65, 103)
7.5 Thermodynamic Analysis of Energy Consumption of
Separation Processes of Relevance to the Synthesis
of Energy-Efficient Separation Processes (14, 104-
106).
7.6 Thermodynamic Availability Analysis of Distillation
Systems and Its Application to the Synthesis of
Energy Conservation (Integration) Schemes in Dis-
tillation Systems (107-109)
A. Thermodynamic Availability Diagram for Repre-
senting Distillation Systems (107)
B. Minimization of the Available Energy Loss
Through Energy Integration (107-109)
C. Approximate Minimization of the Available
Energy Loss on the Temperature-Enthalpy Dia-
gram (107)
D. Synthesis of Energy Conservation (Integration)
Schemes for Multicomponent Distillation Systems
through Systematic Manipulations on the
Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram (107)
7.7 Analysis and Synthesis of Energy Conservation (In-
tegration) Schemes in Distillation Systems
A. Multieffect Distillation (Cascade Columns) (14,
110)
B. Use of Feed as a Reboiling or Condensing Medium
(14)
C. Heat Pumps (14, 105, 106, 111, 112)
D. Intermediate Reboilers (Interreboilers) and
Condensers (Intercondensers) (14, 104, 106)
E. Combined Use of Heat Pumps and Intermediate
Reboilers/Condensers (113, 114)
F. Distillation with Secondary Reflux and Vapori-
zation: SRV Distillation (115-117)
G. Heat-Exchange Integration (Use of Heat Ex-
changer Networks): Decomposition Approach to
the Optimal Synthesis of Heat-Integrated Multi-
component Separation Sequences (10, 31-33)
7.8 Applications of Thermodynamic Approach to Other
Process Synthesis Problems (9, 12, 40, 50, 118, 119)
Typical Homework: Synthesis of Energy Conservation
(Integration) Schemes of Multicomponent Distilla-
tion Systems
8. A Survey of Other Process Synthesis Problems and
Solution Methods: Current Trends in Research and
Developing Prospects for Industrial Applications
8.1 An Introduction to Fault Tree Synthesis of Chemical
Processes (120-126)
8.2 An Introduction to the Structure Parameter Ap-
proach for Solving Steady-State and Dynamic Pro-
cess Synthesis Problems (127-133)
8.3 Current Status of Development and Applications of
Process Synthesis Techniques: Research Needs and
Opportunities
Typical Homework: Comprehensive Term Papers on Such
Topics as (1) Ordered Heuristic Procedures for the
Optimal Synthesis of Multicomponent Separation


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


212









Sequences; (2) Heuristic Synthesis of Reaction Paths
for the Manufacture of Industrial Chemicals; (3)
Heuristic and Evolutionary Synthesis of Large-Scale
Process Flowsheets; (4) Applications of Thermo-
dynamic Principles to Process Synthesis; and (5)
Analysis and Synthesis of Energy Conservation
Schemes in Distillation Systems.

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(1976).




books received

"Operations Research Support Methodology (Industrial
Engineering Series, Volume 2)," Edited by A. G. Holz-
man. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1979. 664 pages, $39.75.
Topics covered in this book include mathematical
foundations and methods, OR related concepts and
solution methodology, and linguistics and behavioral
concepts. The material is directed toward a broad
spectrum of people involved with many different kinds
of OR related activities.
"Chemindustry Experiments and Chemindustry Experi-
ments-Instructor's Manual," B. W. Hill, Franklin Insti-
tute Press, Philadelphia, 1979, 213 pages.
This book of general chemistry laboratory experiments
is designed to familiarize students with some of the
applications of theoretical and descriptive general
chemistry.
"The Molten State of Matter," A. R. Ubbelohde. John
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978, 454 pages, $58.95.
Melting is a function of the detailed structure of the
crystalline state and because of the diversity of crystal
chemistry diverse laws of melting must be looked for.
In this book the author's aim has been to describe
fully the established present developments in the molten
state of matter and to include what may become
effective lines of research in the future.
"Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards" 2nd Edition,
by L. Bretherick. Butterworth, Inc., 19 Cummings Park,
Woburn, MA, 01801, 1979. 1281 pages, $115.
This handbook gives the experimentalist and the
safety officer documented information on the likely re-
action hazard-potential associated with a chemical
compound or reaction system. It should encourage in-
creased awareness of potential chemical reactivity
hazards in plants and laboratories and help dispel
ignorance of such matters in the area of safety train-
ing.


FALL 1980










THE UNIVERSITY OF flKRON S






DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY RESEARCH INTERESTS
G. A. ATWOOD _____-___- Digital Control, Polymeric Diffusivities, Multicomponent Adsorption.
J. M. BERTY ___.___. Reactor Design.
L. G. FOCHT ------_________----- Fixed Bed Adsorption, Design and Process Analysis.
H. L. GREENE ___Biorheology, Kinetic Modeling, Contaminant Removal from Coal Gasification.
S. LEE -- ---______Coal Gasification, Kinetic Modeling, Digital Simulation.
J. P. LENCZYK _____ High Pressure Kinetics, Activity and Diffusion Coefficients via Ultracentrifuge.
R. W. ROBERTS ______ --....Atomization Processes, Fusion and Adhesion Characteristics of Polymer Powders.
R. F. SAVINELL __Electrochemical Phenomena.
M. S. WILLIS -Multiphase Theory, Filtration and Diffusion in Foamed Plastics.




Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $3,900. Industrially
sponsored fellowships available up to $9,000. These awards include waiver of
tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The
deadline for assistantship application is March 1.





ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
Dr. Howard L. Greene, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Akron
Akron, Ohio 44325


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


Faculty and Research Interests Graduate Study


1. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and
Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De-
sign.
C. KIPARISSIDES, Ph.D. (McMaster): Polymer Reactor
Engineering, Optimization, Modelling, Stochastic Control,
Transport Phenomena.
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (Brit. Columbia): Transport Pheno-
mena, Numerical Analysis, In situ Recovery of Oil Sands.
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied
Mathematics.
F. D. OTTO, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer,
Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environmental
Engineering.
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
dynamics.
J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economcis, Energy
Economics and Supply.
S. SHAH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear Systems Theory, Adap-
tive Control, System Identification.
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
tics.
R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns,
Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circuits.
Applications
For additional information write to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
FALL 1980


U of A's Chemical Engineering graduate
program offers exciting research opportunities
to graduate students motivated towards
advanced training and research. Graduate
programs leading to the degrees of Master
of Science, Master of Engineering and Doctor
of Philosophy are offered. There are currently
12 full-time faculty members, a few visiting
faculty, several post-doctoral research associ-
ates and 35 graduate students.

Financial Aid
Financial support is available to full-time
graduate students in the form of fellowships,
teaching assistantships and research assistant-
ships.

The University of Alberta
U of A is one of Canada's largest Universi-
ties and engineering schools with total enroll-
ment of over 25,000 students. The campus is
located in the city of Edmonton and overlooks
the scenic North Saskatchewan River Valley.
Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern city
of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a renowned
resident professional theatre, symphony or-
chestra and professional football, hockey and
soccer leagues. The famous Banff and Jasper
National Parks in the- Canadian Rocky
Mountains are within easy driving distance.







THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ



The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena


DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes


WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer
teams, Blood Processing


in Biological Sys-


JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants,
Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate
Growth Kinetics.


FARHANG SHADMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis


Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.




For further information,
write to:
Dr. James Wm. White
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer


1











ARIZONA STATE

UNIVERSITY

Graduate Programs
for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
in Chemical and Bio Engineering



Research Specializations Include:
ENERGY CONVERSION ABSORPTION/SEPARATION
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING *TRANSPORT PHENOMENA*
SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING*
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL* ENGINEERING DESIGN*

Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented
by a highly-respected faculty:
James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976
Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966
Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962
William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct)
William J. Dorson Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967
Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971
James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970
Castle 0. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus)
Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963
Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967
Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978 (Adjunct)
Imre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961

Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to
qualified applicants.

ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix
metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in ASU's
ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study. Arizona's year-
round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and
recreational facilities.

FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Imre Zwiebel, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering,
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281



1 111









AUBURN UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDIES
I I


Graduate Degrees
The Department of Chemical Engineering
at Auburn University offers graduate work
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in
chemical engineering. The research empha-
sizes experimental and theoretical work in
areas of current national interest. Modern
research equipment is available for ana-
lytical, process and computational studies.
Auburn University is an equal opportunity
Institution.

Area Description
Auburn University, which has 18,000
students, is located in Alabama between
Atlanta and Montgomery, Ala., with Co-
lumbus, the second largest city in Georgia,
only 35 miles away. The local population
is about 75,000. University-sponsored activi-
ties include a lecture series with nationally
known speakers, a series of plays and
artistic and cultural presentations of all
kinds. Recreational opportunities include
equipment at the University for participation
in almost every sport.


Research Areas
COAL: Coal liquefaction, magnetic de-
sulfurization and beneficiation, solvent re-
fining.
BIOMASS: Chemical and enzymatic con-
version of forest and agricultural waste to
fuels, petrochemicals and animal feed.
FUNDAMENTALS: Kinetics, catalysis, en-
zymatic and fermentation reactors, high
gradient magnetic separation, transport
phenomena, solid-liquid separation, bio-
medical engineering.
ENVIRONMENTAL: Air and water pollu-
tion control processes.
NEW TECHNOLOGY: Advanced coal con-
version, novel enzymatic reactors, applica-
tions of high gradient magnetic separation,
photography by immobilized enzymes,
novel thickener design, polymeric replace-
ment of textile size, enzymatic artificial
liver.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL:
Design of optimal energy-integrated pro-
cesses and control of interactive, multivari-
able, nonlinear processes.






For financial aid and admission
application forms write:

Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


3








BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

PROVO,UTAH


* Ph.D., M.S., & M.E.
* Ch.E. Masters for Chemists Program
* Research


Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Coal Gasification
Combustion


Electrochemical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Fossil Fuels Recovery
High Pressure Chemistry
Thermochemistry & Calorimetry


Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky
Mountains
Financial aid available

Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University Dr. Richard W. Hanks,
Chairman Chemical Engineering Dept. 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602
FALL 1980


221











The University of Calgary


Program of Study

The Department of Chemical Engineering provides unusual opportunities for research and study leading to the M.Eng., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees.
This dynamic department offers a wide variety of course work and research in the following areas: Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Environ-
mental Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering, Rheology and Thermodynamics. The University operates
on an eight-month academic year, thus allowing four full months per year for research.
The requirements for the M.Eng. and M.Sc. degrees are 4 to 8 courses with a B standing or better and the submission of a thesis on a
research project.
The requirements for the Ph.D. degree are 6 to 10 courses and the submission of a thesis on an original research topic for those with a B.Sc.
degree.
The M.Eng. program is a part-time program designed for those who are working in industry and would like to enhance their technical educa-
tion. The M.Eng. thesis is usually of the design type and related to the industrial activity in which the student is engaged. Further details of this
program are available from the Department Head, or the Chairman of the Graduate Studies Committee.
Research Facilities

The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies one wing of the Engineering Complex. The building was designed to accommodate the
installation and operation of research equipment with a minimum of inconvenience to the researchers. The Department has at its disposal an
EAl 690 hybrid computer and a TR48 analog computer an Interdata 7132 mini computer for data acquisition and control and numerous direct
access terminals to the University's Honeywell level 68 DPS computing system. In addition, a well equipped Machine Shop and Chemical
Analysis Laboratory are operated by the Department. Other major research facilities include a highly instrumented and versatile multiphase pipeline
flow loop, an automated pilot plant unit based on the Girbotol Process for natural gas processing, an X-ray scanning unit for studying flow in
porous media, a fully instrumented adiabatic combustion tube for research on the in-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands, a laser ane-
mometer unit, and environmental research laboratories for air pollution, water pollution and oil spill studies.
Financial Aid

Fellowships and assistantships are available with remuneration of up to $11,000 per annum, with possible remission of fees. In addition, new
students may be eligible for a travel allowance of up to a maximum of $300. If required, loans are available from the Federal and Provincial
Governments to Canadian citizens and Landed Immigrants. There are also a number of bursaries, fellowships, and scholarships available on a
competition basis to full-time graduate students. Faculty members may also provide financial support from their research grants to students
electing to do research with them.
Cost of Study

The tuition fees for a full-time graduate student are $756 per year plus small incidental fees. Most full-time graduate students to date have had
their tuition fees remitted.
Cost of Living

Housing for single students in University dormitories range from $259/mo. for a double room, to $320/mo. for a single room, including board.
There are a number of new townhouses for married students available, ranging from $240/mo. for a 1-bedroom, to $259/mo. for a 2-bedroom
and to $278/mo. for a 3-bedroom unit, including utilities, major appliances and parking. Numerous apartments and private housing are within
easy access of the University. Food and clothing costs are comparable with those found in other major North American urban centres.
Student Body

The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe. The current enrollment is about 11,000 with ap-
proximately 1,280 graduate students. Most full-time graduate students are currently receiving financial assistance either from internal or external
sources.
The Community

The University is located in Calgary, Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of half a million combines the traditions of
the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and
the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of
the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in
the community at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations
of engineering activity in the country.
The University

The University operated from 1945 until 1966 as an integral part of the University of Alberta. The present campus situated in the rolling hills
of northwest Calgary, was established in 1960, and in 1966 The University of Calgary was chartered as an autonomous institution by the
Province of Alberta. At present the University consists of 14 faculties. Off-campus institutions associated with The University of Calgary include
the Banff School of Fine Arts and Centre of Continuing Education located in Banff, Alberta, and the Kananaskis Environmental Research Station
located in the beautiful Bow Forest Reserve.
Applying

The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
Canada

222 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA


RESEARCH

ENERGY UTILIZATION

ENVIRONMENTAL

KINETICS AND CATALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESS DESIGN
AND DEVELOPMENT

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MATERIAL ENGINEERING

FLUID MECHANICS
AND RHEOLOGY


FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE:


FACULTY
Alexis T. Bell
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Edward K. Reiff, Jr.
David S. Soong
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermuelen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720








UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Faculty
R. L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
RUBEN CARBONELL, Princeton University
Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum
Statistical Mechanics, Transport Processes in
Porous Media
ALAN JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
B. J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes
DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University
Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering
J. M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy


Program
UC Davis, with 17,500 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.






For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


224












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE
Ph.D. (Waterloo)
Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis
and Wastes

H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Chemical Reactor Modeling,
Applied Mathematics
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
HUSAM GUROL Ph.D. (Michigan)
Statistical Mechanics, Polymers,
Radiation Damage to Materials,
Nuclear Reactor Theory.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical
Reactor Analysis, Transport
Phenomena.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS
Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Dean of Engineering)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

G. ROBERT ODETTE
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
(Vice Chairman, Nuclear Engineering)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.

A. EDWARD PROFIO
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion
Reactors, Radiation Transport
Analyses.

ROBERT G. RINKER
Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.

ORVILLE C. SANDALL
Ph.D. (Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.

DALE E. SEBORG
Ph.D. (Princeton)
(Chairman)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Dale E. Seborg, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


FALL 1980











CHEMICAL ENGINEERING C L A CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


_9-Areas Experiencing One
Or More Stage Two Episodes


The isopleths show the number of days of Stage 1
smog episodes experienced in various regions of the Los
Angeles area in 1977. The crosshatched areas indicate those
regions experiencing one or more of the more serious Stage
2 episodes. UCLA is located in West Los Angeles. Its


proximity to the Pacific Ocean provides for access to many
advantages of Southern California living but with a rela-
tively smog-free atmosphere throughout most of the year.
Drawing courtesy Los Angeles Times.


RESEARCH AREAS


Rheology
Reverse Osmosis
Membrane Transport
Electrochemical Engineering
Electroorganic Synthesis
Corrosion
Catalysis
Cryogenics



Douglas N. Bennion
Steven M. Dinh
Traugott H. K. Frederking
Sheldon K. Friedlander
Eldon L. Knuth
Joseph W. McCutchan
Ken Nobe


Aerosol Physics and Chemistry
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Combustion
Molecular Dynamics
Polymer Processing
Thermodynamics


FACULTY


Lawrence B. Robinson
Owen I. Smith
William D. Van Vorst
Vince L. Vilker
Manuel M. Baizer
F. Eugene Yates
Saeed Fathi-Afshar


For information on admission and financial aid write:
Chemical Engineering
Boelter Hall 5405
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024



































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further


advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup,
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. G. Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1981.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; Chemical reaction
engineering.
WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Institute Professor
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering;
air and water quality.
G RGRE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena
L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor,
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Assistant Pro-
fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.





DON'T GAMBLE
WITH
GRAD SCHOOLS


Play With a Pat Hand


WRITE


GRADUATE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY
PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA 15213































IS THERE LIFE
AFTER GRADUATE STUDY?
Want to find out? Heaven can't wait!
Write to:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
FALL 1980 229







The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI

Q


;~


Research Faculty


Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Utilization
Environmental Engineering
Heat Transfer
Kinetics & Catalysis
Polymers & Rheology
Process Dynamics & Control


James N. Anno
John M. Christenson
Stanley L. Cosgrove
Robert M. Delcamp
Leroy E. Eckart
Kenneth M. Emmerich
Joel R. Fried
Rakish Govind


David B. Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Robert Lemlich
William Licht
Alvin Shapiro
Joel Weisman


For Admission Information
Chairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Chemical and Nuclear Engineering (171)
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221


GRADUATE STUDY in

Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees













Graduate Study
in Chemical Engineering




Cldrkson

* M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
* Friendly Atmosphere
" Freedom from Big City Problems
* Personal Touch
* Vigorous Research Programs Supported by
Government and Industry
Faculty with International Reputation
Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and
Other Recreation in the Adirondacks
Variety of Cultural Activities with Two
Liberal Arts Colleges nearby

Faculty
W. L. Baldewicz D. H. Rasmussen
Der-Tau Chin Herman L. Shulman
Robert Cole R. Shankar Subramanian
David O. Cooney Peter C. Sukanek
Sandra Harris Ross Taylor
Richard J. McCluskey Thomas J. Ward
John B. McLaughlin Ralph H. Weiland
Richard J. Nunge William R. Wilcox
Nsima Tom Obot Gordon R. Youngquist

Research Projects are available in:
Energy
Materials Processing in Space
Multiphase Transport Processes
Health & Safety Applications
Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion
Polymer Processing
Particle Separations
Phase Transformations and Equilibria
Reaction Engineering
Optimization and Control
Crystallization
And More....

Financial aid in the form of fellowships,
research assistantships, and teaching
assistantships is available. For more
details, please write to:

DEAN OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
CLARKSON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
POTSDAM, NEW YORK 13676







Chemical Engineering at


CORNELL

UNIVERSITY


A place to grow...


with active research in

biochemical engineering
applied mathematics/computer simulation
energy technology
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
microscopy
reactor design
thermodynamics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange
individual programs with a core of chemical engineering
courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell
departments including

chemistry
biological sciences
physics
computer science
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
business administration
and others

with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one
of the most scenic regions of the United States.

Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering
(the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program).
Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
Joseph F. Cocchetto, George G. Cocks, Claude Cohen, Robert
K. Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill,
William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele,
Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, William B. Street, Ray-
mond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to
Professor Keith E. Gubbins
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853













I



I


The &
University
of awaree
awards three


graduate
degrees for
studies and
practice in
the art and
science of
chemical
engineering.


An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.
A Ph.D. degree for original work presented in a dissertation.


The regular faculty are:
Gianni Astarita (/2 time)
C. E. Birchenall
K. B. Bischoff (Chairman)
M. M Denn
C. D. Denson
B. C. Gates
J. R. Katzer
M. T Klein
R. L. McCullough
A. B Metzner
J. H Olson
M E. Paulaitis
R. L. Pigford
T. W. F. Russell
S. I. Sander
G. C. A. Schuit (/2 time)
J. M. Schultz
L. A Spielman
A. B. Stiles (Y2 time)


Current areas of research include:
Thermodynamics and Separ-
ation Process
Rheology, Polymer Science
and Engineering
Materials Science and
Metallurgy
Fluid Mechanics, Heat and
Mass Transfer
Economics and Management
in the Chemical Process
Industries
Chemical Reaction Engi-
neering. Kinetics and
Simulation
Catalytic Science and
Technology
Biomedical Engineering-
Pharmacokinetics and
Toxicology


For more information and admissions
materials, write:
S.I. Sandler, Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711


"' "' "
41%


I


i
























Only the

University
of Florida's

Department

of Chemical

Engineering
gives you both
outstanding
academic
challenge
and all the
advantages of
the Florida climate.


Ii


The academic opportunities offer you
a four-quarter (12 month) Master's degree
program with research;
an unusually broad program in enhanced
oil recovery by surfactant-polymer flooding,
solution interfacial and phase behavior
and rock-fluid interactions;
special expertise in applied molecular
theory, catalysis, semiconductors, interfaces,
reactors and biomedical engineering;
excellent facilities in a large, modern, fully-
equipped chemical engineering building.
The Gainesville, Florida location offers you
natural, blue water springs only 30 minutes away;
fishing and water sports most of the year;
Daytona Beach, Disney World, St. Augustine,
other resorts;
concerts, plays, dance, theater and lectures
possible only at a major university.


For more information, contact
John C. Biery, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
904/392-0881.


An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer










Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering at the...


University of Houston

The Department of Chemical
Engineering at the University of
Houston Central Campus has
developed five areas of special
research strength:
> chemical reaction engineering
> applied fluid mechanics and transfer
processes
> energy engineering
> environmental engineering
> process simulation and
computer-aided design
The department occupies more than
52,000 square feet and is equipped
with more than $1.5 million worth of
experimental apparatus.
The faculty:
N.R. Amundson
E.L. Claridge
J.R. Crump
A.E. Dukler
R.W. Flumerfelt
E.J. Henley
C.J. Huang
R. Jackson
D. Luss
A.C. Payatakes
R. Pollard
H.W. Prengle, Jr.
J.T. Richardson
F.M. Tiller
J. Villadsen
F.L. Worley, Jr. d F p Financial support is available to full-time
Graduate students with stipends ranging
from $6,000 to $7,800 for twelve months.
For more information or application
V. ,forms write:
Director, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston Central
Campus
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)






GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH


The Deparlmenl of Energy Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO CIRCLE




Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


Faculty and Research Activities in
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor and Head of the Department
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering
David S. Hacker
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1954
Associate Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Francisco J. Brana-Mulero
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980
Assistant Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed
in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:


Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.
Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Chemical kinetics, mass transport phenomena, chemical
process design, particulate transport phenomena

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy
Process synthesis, operations research, optimal
process control, optimization of large systems,
numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations.
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and
statistical mechanics of liquids and
liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion

Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization


Professor J. C. F. Chow, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680









UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

URBANA, CHAMPAIGN

ACTIVE, RESPECTED, ACCESSIBLE FACULTY
The Department is deeply committed to teaching and research. Everyone
is expected to maintain an active, first-class research program. Administrators
or "older members" are not exceptions. The standards are high. A third of
the faculty are members of the National Academy of Engineers or the
National Academy of Sciences. The Department prides itself on the large
number of major national or international awards its members have won,
an average of 3 awards per tenured faculty member.
Even so, the faculty is accessible. The Department views research as the
highest form of teaching, where students and faculty work together on a
joint project. It is not unusual to find faculty members in the lab, and
doors are always open for questions, comments or help.

EXCEPTIONAL FACILITIES
The Department, as a part of the School of Chemical Sciences maintains
some of the most up-to-date facilities in the country, including for example
a multichannel analyser capable of counting the nanosecond range, and
pressure and vacuum equipment giving a useful operating range of 101 to
10-'3 atm. The School has extensive service facilities including a glass shop,
electronic shop, machine shop, electronic design facility, analytical and laser
labs. The shops are some of the best in the country, and the analytical and
laser labs are truly exceptional. The campus library is one of the largest in
a major university with over 5,000,000 items in its collection including
more complete run journals in the chemical sciences than can be found
in any other education institution. The School is committed to keeping its
equipment up to the state of the art, and so for example, we have just
received a VAX 11/780 to replace our IBM 1800, and are in the process
of purchasing NMR capabilities beyond our 200 MHZ machine.


* A DIVERSITY OF RESEARCH INTERESTS
Applied Mathematics High Pressure
Biological Application of Interfacial Phenomena
Chemical Engineering Mass Transfer
Catalysis Materials Science and Engineering
Colloidal Phenomena Molecular Thermodynamics
Computer-Aided Process Phase Transformations
Simulation and Design Polymer Crystallization
Corrosion Reaction Rate Theory
Electronic Structure of Matter Resource Management
Electrochemical Engineering Statistical Mechanics
Energy Sources and Conservation Surface Science
Environmental Engineering Transport of Particles
Fluid Dynamics Two-Phase Flow
Heat Transfer
FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS: Professor C. A. Eckert
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Adams Laboratory
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
















II1INOIS


Institute of Technology




M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Inter-
disciplinary Areas of Polymer Processes, Chemical Plant Opera-
tions and Management, Energy Conversion and Resources.


D. GIDASPOW
J. R. SELMAN
B. S. SWANSON
L. L. TAVLARIDES
D. T. WASAN
C. V. WITTMANN


Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion
Electrochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics and Controls
Reactor Design and Dispersed Phase Systems
Mass Transfer and Surface and Colloid Phenomena
Chemical Reaction Engineering Analysis


FOR INQUIRIES, WRITE
D. T. Wasan
Chemical Engineering Dept.
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd St.
Chicago, IL 60616


FALL 1980


















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Institute research activity spans the breadth
of the papermaking process.


Current research programs are underway in:
Cell Fusion Surface and Colloid Chemistry
Fluid Mechanics Environmental Engineering
Polymer Science Heat and Mass Transfer
Process Engineering Simulation & Control
Laser, Raman and X-Ray Diffraction Studies


For further information contact:


Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone...414/734-9251


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Thomas D. Wheelock


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: c' hard C. SeagraTe
--. Charles E. Glat.


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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $10,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
ENERGY ENGINEERING
COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION
THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SOLID MIXING
CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS
OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM
ENGINEERING
FLUIDIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











University of



MASSACHUSETTS


Amherst

The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer
engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Research in polymers can be coordinated
with the faculty of the Department of Polymer Science and Engineering. Financial aid in the form of
research assistantships and teaching assistantships isavailable. Course of study and area of research
are selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING *


W. C. CONNER
Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion
M. F. DOHERTY
Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design
J. M. DOUGLAS
Process design and control, Reactor engineering
J. W. ELDRIDGE
Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria
V. HAENSEL
Catalysis, Kinetics
R. S. KIRK
Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors
J. R. KITTRELL
Kinetics and catalysis, Catalyst deactivation


R. L. LAURENCE*
Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics
R. W. LENZ*
Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization
M. F. MALONE
Rheology, Polymer processing, Design
K. M. NG
Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows,
Fluid mechanics
J. M. OTTINO*
Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering
M. VANPEE
Combustion, Spectroscopy
H. H. WINTER
Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer


* POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 0


J. C. W. CHIEN
Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers,
Polymer degradation
R. FARRIS
Polymer composites, Mechanical
properties, Elastomers
S. L. HSU
Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis
F. E. KARASZ
Polymer transitions, Polymer blends,
Conducting polymers


R. S. PORTER
Polymer rheology, Polymer processing
R. STEIN
Polymer crystallinity and morphology,
Characterization
E. L. THOMAS*
Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology,
Polyurethanes
O. VOGL
Polymer synthesis, degradation and stabilization
of polymers


W. J. MacKNIGHT
Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers

*Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering

For further details, please write to:


Prof. J. W. Eldridge
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003


Prof. R. Farris
Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003


FALL 1980






SMcMASTER UNIVERSITY


M. ENG.
AND
/ PH.D.
PROGRAMS
PROCESS AND ENERGY
ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL REACTION
ENGINEERING AND CATALYSIS
COMPUTER CONTROL,
SIMULATION AND
Y OPTIMIZATION
POLYMER ENGINEERING
~ .BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
WATER AND WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION,
PLEASE CONTACT:
CHAIRMAN
DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
McMASTER UNIVERSITY
HAMILTON, ONTARIO, CANADA L8S 4L7


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






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Chemical


En gineeringi


at MIT


Faculty:


.4.


Research Areas:

' Biochemical and Biomecjga,
Combustion
Computer Aided..Design
Electrochemistry
Energy Conversion
Environmental
Kinetics and Catalysis
Polymers
SProcess Dynamics
Su*A B and Colloids
STrWasport Phenomena -





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R.C. Armstrong
R.F. Baddour
J.M. Be6r
R.A. Brown
R.E. Cohen
C.K. Colton
W.M. Deen
L.B. Evans
F.W. Gelbard
C. Georgakls
H.C. Hottel
J.B. Howard
J.P Longwell
M.P. Manning
H.P Meissner
E.W. Merrill
M. Modell
C.M. Mohr
F.A. Putnam
R.C. Reid
A.F. Sarofim
C.N.Satterfield
H.H.Sawin
S.M. Senkan
K.A. Smith
J.W. Tester
C.G. Vayenas
P.S. Virk
J.E. Vivian
SJ.Wei
SG.C. Williams
S-_ *.'


MITaalso'operates
jhe Schoolof r
Cheitcal Ertifneering ,,
* Practice, with field .
stations atth6 J
General Electric ., /
CorifpanV in Alt'ny, .
NBw York, ~i :at the
OakRidge Natina; .
Laboratr& ak
Ridge,t neee'. .iy," .

For Infoortion:'

Chemical Engineering
Headquarters
.Room i&350 -"B,
Massachlsetts Institb$-?_ t
ofTecIfhlogy. ,' ._.,
Cambridge, Maisachje:i
02139


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Chemical

Engineering

At The

University

Of Michigan


THE FACULTY


THE RESEARCH PROGRAM


Dale Briggs
Louisville, Michigan
Brice Carnahan
Case-Western, Michigan
Rane Curl
MIT
Francis Donahue
LaSalle, UCLA
H. Scott Fogler
Illinois, Colorado
Erdogan Gulari
Roberts, Cal Tech
James Hand
NJIT, Berkeley
Robert Kadlec
Wisconsin, Michigan
Donald Katz
Michigan
Lloyd Kempe
Minnesota
Joseph Martin
Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie
John Powers
Michigan, Berkeley
Jerome Schultz, Chairman
Columbia, Wisconsin
Johannes Schwank
Innsbruck
Maurice Sinnott
Michigan
Henry Wang
Iowa State, MIT
James Wilkes
Cambridge, Michigan
Brymer Williams
Michigan
Gregory Yeh
Holy Cross, Cornell, Case
Edwin Young
Detroit, Michigan
246


Laser Light Scattering
Reservoir Engineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Thrombogenesis
Microemulsions
Applied Numerical Methods
Dynamic Process Simulation
Ecological Simulation
Electroless Plating
Electrochemical Reactors
Polymer Physics
Polymer Processing
Composite Materials
Coal Liquefaction
Coal Gasification
Acidization
Biochemical Engineering
Periodic Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Transport In Membranes
Flow Calorimetry
Ultrasonic Emulsification
Heat Exchangers
Renewable Resources


For

Tomorrows

Engineers

Today.


THE PLACE

Department Of Chemical Engineering
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109

For Information Call 313/763-1148 Collect


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


__




Full Text