Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00067

Full Text





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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Chemical Engineering Education


VOLUME XIV


NUMBER 3


Editor: Ray Fahien


Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial & Business Assistant:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
Past Chairman:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Ralph W. Pike
Louisiana State University
James Fair
University of Texas
CENTRAL:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Lowell B. Koppel
Purdue University
WEST:
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
William B. Krantz
University of Colorado
C. Judson King
University of California Berkeley
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
A. TV. Westerberg
Carnegie-Mellon University
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


102 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Oregon State University, Charles E. Wicks

108 The Educator
Bob Tanner of Vanderbilt,
Dennis Threadgill

114 Feature
Handling Large Classes: Isn't it Nice to be
Popular?, Ron Darby, R. Neal Houze,
Mark Stadtherr, Ed Hartley

120 Classroom
Experiences in a Senior Chemical Engineer-
ing Materials Course, John P. O'Connell,
Timothy J. Anderson

138 We Can Do Process Simulation: UCAN II,
Philip M. Hittner, David B. Greenberg

130 Using Trouble Shooting Problems, Edited
by Donald R. Woods: Contributors; Ian
D. Doig, O. Maynard Fuller, C. Judson
King, Scott Lynn, Peter L. Silveston

126 ChE Lecture
Molecular Theory of Fluid Microstructures,
H. Ted Davis

142 Laboratory
Virginia Tech's Study-Travel Program,
George B. Wills

113 Division Activites

145 In Memorium

112, 163, 146, 147 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1980 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


SUMMER 1980


SUMMER 1980





























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OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY


Submitted by
CHARLES E. WICKS
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331

OREGON'S TRADITIONAL COMMITMENT to quality
higher education was established in 1868
when Oregon State University (then known as
Corvallis College) became qualified under the
Morrill Act as a land-grant college. The U.S.
Congress defined the purpose of the land-grant
schools in these words: "The leading object shall
be, without excluding other scientific and classical


studies, to teach such branches of learning as are
related to agricultural and the mechanic arts, in
order to promote the liberal and practical educa-
tion of the industrial classes in the several pursuits
and professions of life." Since its founding, the
university has grown in scope and diversity,
accepting the challenge of the Morrill Act while
seeking to free people's minds from ignorance, pre-
judice and provincialism and to stimulate instead
a lasting attitude of inquiry. Oregon State Uni-
versity is currently recognized as a university
composed of schools in which the liberal arts are
pursued, together with professional and techno-
logical schools which depend chiefly on the sciences
and social sciences.
The 400 acre Oregon State University campus,
composed of 54 major buildings surrounded by


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980









expanses of lawns, tall shade trees and flowering
shrubs, is located in Corvallis, the heart of the
Willamette Valley. This city of 45,000 people is
situated between the snow-capped Cascade
Mountains which rise to the east and the forested
Coast Range to the west, beyond which lie the
headland and scenic beaches of the Oregon Coast.
These mountains and beaches provide a wide
variety of outdoor activities throughout the year.
These are balanced by the many cultural events
and facilities found on campus. Oregon State offers
a quality education in a relaxed, coherent atmos-
phere within a state that is proud of its leadership
role in protecting the environment.

DEPARTMENT ROOTS
INSTRUCTION IN ENGINEERING began on the
campus in 1883 with supervision vested in the
mathematics department. In 1889, the Engineer-
ing Curricula was established involving civil,
electrical, mechanical, and mining engineering.
The first Chemical Engineering instruction
followed the appointment of Professor Floyd
Roland in 1914; at that time, Chemical Engineer-
ing was a separate school. The first bachelor of
science degree in Chemical Engineering was
awarded by this academic unit in 1917. After the
addition of graduate courses, the first masters de-
gree was granted in 1931 and the first Ph.D. de-
gree in 1946. Chemical Engineering remained a
separate school until the reorganization of the
State System of Higher Education in 1932, when
the school was brought into the School of Engi-
neering. An important milestone in the emergence
of the Chemical Engineering Department at
Oregon State University was in 1942 when the
Department became fully accredited.
Since its birth, the department has grown
under the leadership of several outstanding in-
dividuals; notably George Gleeson-who later be-
came Dean of the School of Engineering-and
Jesse Walton. The Chemical Engineering program
now occupies an eminent position in the School of
Engineering, enrolling over 270 undergraduates
and 35 graduate students. The department has
been located in its own building since 1955; this
facility makes available over 35000 square feet for


instruction and research.
Flexibility in its academic and research pro-
grams continues to be the keystone to the depart-
ment's development. Rather than adhering to any
narrow field of specialization, the department has
sought to shift its technical emphasis over the
years so that its graduates could meet the
challenges of the future, using the most newly de-
veloped technology. Due to this philosophy and the
accomplishments of the department's faculty


Dr. Kayihan and Brice Dardell using departmental
minicomputer in their computer graphics develop-
mental work.

members, chemical engineers have filled several of
the university's high administration positions.
Currently, the Associate Dean of Engineering and
Director of the Experiment Station and the depart-
ment chairmen of agricultural, chemical and me-
chanical engineering have Ph.D. degrees in Chemi-
cal Engineering. The Associate Dean, Jim Knud-
sen, is also the national president of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Since our first graduate in 1917, the depart-
ment has provided the education of several out-
standing engineers and scientists who have con-
tinued to make important contributions in in-
dustrial, governmental, and academic circles. The
department is particularly proud of two of our
earlier undergraduates who have recently been
honored by Oregon State University for their dis-
tinguished services to society. Linus Pauling, the
only chemical engineer to receive two Nobel prizes


SUMMER 1980


Flexibility in its academic and research programs continues to be the
keystone to the department's development. Rather than adhering to any narrow field of
specialization, the department has sought to shift its technical emphasis over the years so that
its graduates could meet the challenges of the future, using the most newly developed technology.
1: I








(one for his contributions in the field of chemis-
try and one for his efforts toward world peace)
and Paul Emmett for his research in surface
chemistry and heterogeneous catalysis and the
famous B.E.T. theory on adsorption of gases.

THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
CONSISTENT WITH THE department's policy of
technical flexibility and adaptability, the
present undergraduate curriculum has been
developed to maintain a strong emphasis on the
physical and engineering sciences and to provide


Jeff Pitzer and Doug Larsen, seniors, working in
the Chemical Engineering Lab.

laboratory and design experiences in solving
today's practical engineering problems. A total of
204 term hours is required in the undergraduate
curriculum; this includes year sequence courses in
the engineering sciences of thermodynamics,
transfer and rate processes, mechanics of solids,
and electrical fundamentals as well as the more
traditional chemical engineering courses of stoi-
chiometry, applied fluid and heat transfer, mass
transfer operations, chemical reaction engineering,
process dynamics and control, and chemical plant
design. Elective courses are available from other
departments in specific engineering fields of air
pollution, pulp and paper processes and waste-
water engineering.
Computers have been an integral part of the


Chemical Engineering curriculum. Freshmen are
introduced to our computing facilities with an
extensive FORTRAN programming course; this
is followed with a computer-aided stoichiometry
course. Several of the other undergraduate courses
utilize the computer on either a required or op-
tional basis. Students have access to the depart-
ment's real-time and analog computers as well as
the university's computer system using depart-
mental terminals. Every office and classroom has
been wired so that the terminals can be made
readily accessible.
Also available is the senior project option
which typically involves the student in an on-going
departmental research project or in the develop-
ment on new computer methodology. Our faculty
believe this "hands on" experience in a specialized
field will help motivate the good students and
hopefully encourage them to continue their educa-
tion towards an advanced degree.
Considerable faculty effort is devoted to our
undergraduate program. This is evidenced by the
textbooks authored by members of our faculty.
Octave Levenspiel has written the following texts:
"Chemical Reaction Engineering," "Fluidization
Engineering," "The Chemical Reactor Minibook,"
and "The Chemical Reactor Omnibook." Jim
Knudsen has co-authored the textbook, "Fluid
Dynamics and Heat Transfer," and Charles Wicks
has co-authored a textbook with two other Oregon
State professors, "Fundamentals of Momentum,
Heat and Mass Transfer." Teaching does not take
second place to research; this is evidenced by the
honors and teaching awards won by our faculty.
Octave Levenspiel was honored as an outstanding
lecturer by the American Society for Engineering
Education. Both Bob Mrazek and Charles Wicks
have received the Carter Award for being the
most inspirational teachers in the School of Engi-
neering for a given academic year. In 1978, Bob
Mrazek was honored by the university with the
Elizabeth Ritchey Award as the university's out-
standing teacher and advisor. In 1979, Charles
Wicks was recognized by the OSU IFC as the
outstanding university teacher and Jim Knudsen
received the OSU Alumni Award as the most
distinguished professor.

THE GRADUATE PROGRAM

T HE OREGON STATE Chemical Engineering De-
partment offers programs leading to the M.S.
and Ph.D. degree, with either the thesis or non-
thesis option available at the master's level. The


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











An informal academic atmosphere
is maintained with opportunity for the graduate
students to give and take with the faculty and for
joint work with environmental engineering, earth
sciences, oceanography. and atmospheric sciences.


graduate student is provided with a broad selection
of courses in all areas fundamental to chemical
engineering. Course selection is made by the
student in consultation with the graduate student
advisor or with the major professor.
An informal academic atmosphere is main-
tained with opportunity for the graduate students
to give and take with the faculty and for joint
work with environmental engineering, earth
sciences, oceanography, environmental sciences
and atmospheric sciences. We believe that science
and technology have a responsibility to make this
a better world.
The environment of our graduate program also
provides a unique opportunity for cultural ex-
change. We are currently supporting students
from over a dozen countries with fellowships,
teaching assistantships, and research assistant-
ships.
Our graduate students carry out most of their
research work in their own individual laboratories
or in the four-story chemical engineering labora-
tory located in the departmental building. We are
fortunate to have the laboratories of the U.S.
Bureau of Mines, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, the OSU Forest Product Research
Center, the OSU Marine Science Center, and the
OSU Radiation Center nearby where some of our
students have conducted their research. These
interdisciplinary research projects will continue as
the technological problems facing society require
increasingly sophisticated solutions.
Beyond their usual interaction with the Oregon
State faculty, our graduate students have the op-
portunity to informally meet with and listen to
many visiting professors in our graduate seminars.
In recent years, distinguished chemical engineers
from the United States and many foreign
countries, such as Russia, England, Italy, Aus-
tralia, Italy, etc., have presented seminars to the
OSU faculty and students.
We are a small department, having only seven
full-time faculty members. By and large, we are
practically oriented, with a desire to make research
relevant to the needs of man. And perhaps it is
because we live in Oregon that we are concerned


about the environmental impact of what we do.
Our research projects include a study to find out
how rivers get supersaturated with nitrogen, re-
sulting in the death of migrating salmon, and how
coal can be efficiently burned without polluting
the atmosphere with sulfur dioxide, as well as the
more conventional studies in the areas of heat and
mass transfer, mixing, reactor design, corrosion,
thermodynamics, process control, systems optimi-
zation, fluidization, extractive metallurgy and
chemical reaction engineering.
As examples of current research, four of the
current research programs are described below:

Fluidization
In 1974, Octave Levenspiel and Tom Fitz-
gerald were approached by the Electric Power
Research Institute (EPRI) with the suggestion
of extending the correlations in his text, "Fluidiza-
tion Engineering," to larger particles and higher
velocities which could be used in designing
fluidized bed combustors. Large fluidized beds, ap-
proximately a square meter in cross section, were
constructed to fluidize gravel-sized particles at
velocities as high as 4 meters/second in the
presence of immersed tube bundles. Specialized
instrumentation systems were developed to make


Steve Crane, graduate student, collecting data from
one of the four fluidized beds within the department.


SUMMER 1980


105










A new reactor has been used to study simultaneous mass transfer and reaction
between two fluid phases under the direction of Octave Levenspeil. The
unique features of this reactor are the uniformity of composition of the
two phases and the ability to independently adjust the individual
phase resistances to mass transfer.


transient heat transfer and tube stress measure-
ments, and to trace the flow of solids and gas.
Parallel heat transfer studies were initiated in the
Mechanical Engineering Department by Jim
Welty. The research effort in fluidization at OSU
has led to comprehensive models for coal burning
in atmospheric fluidized bed combustors, for
elutriation of particles from high-velocity fluidized
beds and for predicting bed to tube heat transfer
coefficients. Current fluidized bed combustion re-
search is sponsored by the U.S. Department of
Energy, EPRI, Babcock and Wilcox and the Aero-
space Corporation.

Control
Saving energy in distillation is a major ques-
tion in our profession. Ferhan Kayihan is looking
into this problem from the controller design
aspect. He is using intermediate heat exchangers
on a specially designed laboratory column to
examine the relative merits of new control strate-
gies.
Because of Bob Mrazek's interest in determin-
ing physical properties and applying thermo-
dynamics to metallurgical processing, he is
currently involved with the complete instrumenta-
tion and computer interfacing of a low-tempera-
ture calorimeter. This project will permit com-
puter control and automatic data acquisition and
its reduction for measurements over a tempera-
ture range of 5 to 300K.

Heat and Mass Transfer
Under the joint sponsorship of National
Science Foundation and Heat Transfer Research
Institute, Jim Knudsen has been conducting ex-
tensive research on waterside fouling resistance
inside condenser tubes. This project has provided
fundamental information on fouling character-
istics of cooling tower water.
Charles Wicks is looking at cross-current con-
tactors as a means of saving energy in separa-
tion processes by reducing the pressure drop re-
quired for a specific thru-put and separation. In
other mass transfer projects, he has studied the
mass transfer of surface gases due to jet streams


plunging into a liquid pool; this study verified the
reasons why there were supersaturated nitrogen
levels in our rivers and provided the necessary in-
formation for optimizing an aeration pond.
A new reactor has been used to study simul-
taneous mass transfer and reaction between two
fluid phases under the direction of Octave Leven-
spiel. The unique features of this reactor are the
uniformity of composition of the two phases and
the ability to independently adjust the individual
phase resistances to mass transfer. Octave also
continues his work in the field of chemical reactor
design; his contributions in this special field were
recognized by A.I.Ch.E. when he was awarded the
1979 Wilhelm Award.

Combustion
Research in pyrolysis and combustion of
wood is the prime interest of Ferhan Kayihan.
Pyrolysis converts up to 80% of dry wood into
combustible gaseous products. The kinetics of re-
actions producing various volatile gases become
the critical part of any reactor model dealing with
the conversion of energy from wood. Experiments
under high heating rates have been conducted to
identify the kinetic behavior of different wood
types. It has been shown that the pyrolysis and
combustion phenomena are highly affected by, and
in turn alter, the porous structure of wood
particles.
Hopefully, the reader will not gain the impres-
sion that only work is involved in chemical engi-
neering at Oregon State. If you were to join the
faculty and graduate students on one of our
weekend jaunts to Octave Levenspiel's beach
cabin, you would encounter a spirited volleyball
game, chess tournaments and explorations of the
aquatic shorelines. Other excursions are taken in
the Cascades for cross-country skiing or weekend
camping and mountain climbing trips.
For three years, our graduates have remained
undefeated in the university intramural soccer
league. And whenever Oregon State has a home
basketball game, the department building empties
as the students forego their studying to root the
Beavers on to another victory. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






Monsanto Drive.
It takes you a very long way.


~..-


This sign marks the road that leads
into our International Headquarters in
St. Louis.
These words, "Monsanto Drive"
have another and more significant mean-
ing at Monsanto. It's a way of expressing
the special qualities of Monsanto people,
who have the will to meet challenges
head-on-to accomplish and succeed.
We offer bright and energetic people
with this drive the opportunity to help
solve some of the world's major problems
concerning food, energy, the environment
and others.
Challenging assignments exist for
engineers, scientists, accountants and


marketing majors at locations throughout
the U.S.
We offer you opportunities, training
and career paths that are geared for
upward mobility. If you are a person
who has set high goals and has an
achievement record, and who wants to
advance and succeed, be sure to talk
with the Monsanto representative when
he visits your campus or write to: Ray
Nobel, Monsanto Company, Professional
Employment Dept., Bldg. A3SB, 800
North Lindbergh, St. Louis, Mo. 63166.

Monsanto
An equal opportunity employer









LS educator


13 Valde4i1 1!







DENNIS THREADGILL*
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, TN 37235


For Bob Tanner, Associate Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at Vanderbilt University, educa-
tion has broad objectives. His ideas about the
purposes of education color every facet of his job.
He believes that a teacher's role is "to provide the
spirit, the motivation for continuous learning.
Education should be a life-long experience," he
explains.
"I think of my role as a teacher as having two
related functions. Of course I want to impart
specific knowledge and specific skills so that my
students can practice their profession; but I am
not teaching a trade. I am teaching a way of
learning and of approaching problems. The ulti-
mate learning situation I seek for all of my
students, graduate and undergraduate alike, is one

Nine seniors completed the laboratory work
and designed a plant which could provide enough
lysine-enriched yeast to meet all the protein needs
of the population of Nashville, plus enough by-product
alcohol to supply large-scale energy demands.


*The author acknowledges the special assistance of
Laura Hasselbring, formerly of the Vanderbilt Office of
Public Instruction, in the preparation of this paper.


of self-sufficiency. I try to lead them to that point
where they can begin to teach themselves. That is
the basis of life-long learning, and as in life itself,
it means learning from mistakes as well as
successes."
Creating a provocative educational climate in
which this kind of learning can best take place has
been a primary objective for Bob while at Vander-
bilt. He sees the university environment as special,
open surroundings in which new ideas are aired
and questions are encouraged.

ACTIVE STUDENT PARTICIPATION
O NE CLASSROOM example of this philosophy in
action developed into a senior plant design
project that earned the students and their instruc-
tor a place on the cover of Vanderbilt Alumnus in
June, 1976. Nine seniors completed the laboratory
work and designed a plant which could provide
enough lysine-enriched yeast to meet all the pro-
tein needs of the population of Nashville, plus
enough by-product alcohol to supply large-scale
energy demands. Additionally, it could produce
carbon dioxide to supply a dry-ice plant, while

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








the waste products generated could fertilize a
crop of tomatoes to be grown in five greenhouses.
According to their calculations, the whole opera-
tion would require a plant covering about ten
acres, and it would be profitable.
"I gave them a lot of freedom to define the
problem," Bob recalls, "and in the beginning they
floundered. They were being called upon to put
into use almost everything they had learned in
the previous three years of their chemical engi-
neering course work. At the semester's end, all of
us, the class-members, Professor Dennis Thread-
gill, the faculty member in charge of the plant
design course work, and I, were pleased with their
efforts."
Bob's interest in exposing students to new
ideas and to professional role models who stimu-
late the imagination, led him to develop a seminar
program for seniors and graduate students that
brought approximately fifty prominent outside
speakers to Vanderbilt in recent years. "I invited
people who like their work," he explains, "who are
excited about it, who like to talk about it, and who
open new vistas of experience for the students. I
sought fine practitioners, people who are outstand-
ing in their respective specialties, and asked them
to talk about how they approach problems and how
they deal with the problems they choose."
"It is gratifying to watch seniors come out of
a seminar excited by the speaker's enthusiasm for
his work," Bob remarks. "I hope that my students
will come to understand that learning through ex-
ploration is the best part of any job.

SPECIAL INTERESTS ARE VARIED

B OB'S OWN CURRENT RESEARCH interests reflect
a journey of personal exploration along varied
avenues of professional endeavor. He earned the
Ph.D. degree from Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity. From that environment he developed
two, long-term interests. His dissertation, under
the direction of Coleman Brosilow, taught him
sophisticated mathematical modeling techniques,
while a private conversation with Department
Chairman Robert Adler on the production of single
cell protein from hydrocarbons, sparked a continu-
ing interest in biochemical processes, particularly
fermentation. Today, Bob is primarily concerned
with modeling the dynamics of fermentation pro-
cesses.
His interests are diverse. An association with
Harry Broquist, Professor of Biochemistry and


Chairman of the Nutrition Division of the Bio-
chemistry Department at Vanderbilt, started Bob
thinking about a simple, exceptionally low-cost
way of increasing lysine content in yeast which
then could be used in breads and other foods as a
protein supplement.
By manipulating the temperature and acidity
during fermentation of baker's yeast or glucose,
the lysine content of yeast can be increased by 25
percent. Lysine is an essential amino acid needed
for correct nutrition and is deficient in corn and
many grains and their derived foods.
"By increasing the lysine content of yeast, less
yeast would be needed to obtain the minimum daily
requirement of lysine, thus avoiding some of the
nutritional problems associated with high amino
acid intake from single cell protein, namely uric
acid poisoning and gout," Bob points out.
This research opens the door to an easily
applied engineering approach to increase the nu-
tritional value of food and introduces an alterna-
tive to the genetic approach. Baker's yeast can be

A second area of interest which he has
been studying for ten years and which is
directly related to food and protein alternatives
is kinetic hysteresis in enzyme and
fermentation systems.

grown throughout the world on a variety of raw
materials.
A second area of interest which he has been
studying for ten years and which is directly re-
lated to food and protein alternatives is kinetic
hysteresis in enzyme and fermentation systems.
Hysteresis is defined in physics as "the failure of
a property that has been changed by an external
agent to return to its original value when the
cause of the change is removed." The word comes
from the Greek word, husteresis, a shortcoming.
"It has been shown that kinetic hysteresis can
be a useful tool in elucidating mechanisms in
both enzyme and fermentation systems," Bob re-
ports. Hysteresis may be particularly helpful in
suggesting the presence of an enzyme not pre-
viously suspected in a fermentation system. More-
over, as a tool for discrimination between models,
hysteresis can be used to imply the presence of
parallel pathways, of additional intermediate
states, and of proteases countering the primary
enzyme systems.
Hysteresis may even be used to infer rates of
enzyme induction, possibly suggesting constitutive


SUMMER 1980









and induced mechanisms. Used cautiously, in keep-
ing with the limitations of the data, hysteresis
curve analysis appears to aid in experimental
design by reducing the number of experiments
needed for the elucidation of fermentation mechan-
isms.

THE KUDZU QUEST

A THIRD AREA OF INTEREST, less pedantic than
either lysine-enriched yeast production or
kinetic hysteresis in fermentation systems, is
Bob's curiosity about kudzu, a tenacious, escaped
vine that is present throughout the rural South-
east.
Kudzu grows at a phenomenal rate and thrives
best in a climate defined by the hot, humid
summers and mild winters common to the South.
Originally introduced to the region as an answer to
soil erosion, kudzu has been known to grow as
much as a foot a day and seventy feet a summer.
The plant has been referred to as "King Kong
Kudzu, Menace to the South," and has received
attention in poetry, fiction, film and in numerous
articles.
The July 24, 1979 issue of The Wall Street
Journal reports:

"Kudzu has become a Southern joke, but the
laughter is tinged with bitterness. Southerners say
that kudzu is the only plant whose growth is
measured in miles per hour. They assert that the
beanstalk that Jack climbed wasn't a beanstalk, but
a kudzu stem. And farmers insist that the best way
to plant kudzu is to 'throw it over your shoulder
and run."'

The questions Bob hopes to answer concern
potential uses for the ubiquitous plant. He pro-
poses to use the starchy root as a fermentation

A third area of interest... is Bob's curiosity
about kudzu . Bob suggests that the woody
thicker vines may be used, along with coal, for the
production of steam in electric power plants.

medium in order to develop a commercial outlet
for kudzu, thereby adding a starch supplement to
our renewable food and fuel supplies. Preliminary
experiments indicate that the root provides a
vitamin-enriched source of starch for ethanol and
yeast fermentations. In addition to the traditional
use of kudzu for hay as an animal feed, Bob
suggests that the woody, thicker vines may be
used, along with coal, for the production of steam


Professor S. Y. Huang of the National Taiwan Uni-
versity shows Bob and his family how to relax Taiwan-
style.

in electric power plants. As a low-sulfur, fast-
growing renewable resource, kudzu plants could
provide a partial local solution to the twin
problems of environmental pollution (by blending
with high sulfur coal, the total sulfur content can
be reduced to meet air pollution regulations) and
an indigenous source of energy for the South.
Bob's interest in kudzu has made him an au-
thority on the vine, a position he views with
humor. The implications for the plant's potential
as a presently unused agricultural source for
alcohol-based fuels, however, are significant. He
receives regular inquiries from the media and
from research centers across the country for new
information.

BOB, THE COLLABORATOR

WHILE AT VANDERBILT, Bob has maximized the
opportunities for collaborative research
efforts with other faculty members. "I enjoy
sharing ideas with my colleagues," he explains,
"I like a situation with give-and-take. I gain new
insights when I work with people in other
disciplines, as well as with other chemical engi-
neers."
Bob and Philip Crooke, Associate Professor of
Mathematics, have collaborated on numerous
kinetic modeling studies. They have published
several papers jointly, and several more are
currently underway. Bob and Phil are the objects
of good-natured ribbing for their daily working
lunches by other members of the Math faculty
whose lunchtime conversations often reflect more
down-to-earth concerns.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


110









In addition, Bob's collaborative research at
Vanderbilt has included the investigation of the
surface chemistry behavior of crack detection
penetrant dyes for use in non-destructive testing
with Paul Packman, formerly a member of the Ma-
terials Science faculty, and presently Chairman
of the Department of Civil and Mechanical Engi-
neering, Southern Methodist University, and the
development of a rapid method for the identifica-
tion of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater
with George Malaney, Professor of Environmental
Biology. Bob is presently working with David
Wilson, Professor of Chemistry, on hysteresis in
adsorption processes, and with Donald Pearson,
also a Professor of Chemistry on a process to con-
vert alcohols into hydrocarbons.
In 1978, Bob was asked by the former Dean of
Engineering, Howard Hartman, to initiate a


A glance at the books on his
shelves shows Bob's eclectic nature.
Apart from engineering and related scientific
titles, he has volumes dealing with geology,
fibers, medicine, and China, as well
as magazines such as Mother
Earth News within reach.

collaborative energy research project between
Vanderbilt and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Today Bob both coordinates the research efforts
and administers the Department of Energy grant
to the University.
Bob has remained in contact with colleagues at
Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories,
where he worked for five years before joining the
Vanderbilt faculty. A continuing interest in
pharmacokinetics prompted an ongoing study with
Joseph Bondi of Merck's West Point facility that
applies dynamic modeling techniques to drug
metabolism.


TAIWAN TRIP SERVES DOUBLE PURPOSE
CONTRACTS MADE AT THE USA/Republic of China
Joint Seminar on Fermentation Engineering
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1978 led to a
very exciting plus for collaborative research. Bob's
conversations in Philadelphia with two members
of the Chinese delegation, S. Y. Huang, Professor
and Head of the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering at National Taiwan University, and C. H.
Lin, Professor and Chairman of the Department
of Chemical Engineering at Tunghai University,


resulted in the commitment to a mutual research
project. The groundwork for the project was
established in the summer of 1979 when Bob, his
wife Ruth, and their sons, David and Benjamin,
traveled to Taiwan to meet with his Chinese col-
leagues. While the family shared the excitement
of travel in the Far East, Bob and Professors
Huang and Lin agreed to study solid and semi-solid
fermentations, building on the Orient's special
knowledge of fermented foods. Additionally, one
of Professor Lin's graduate students, Chia-Jenn
Wei, is continuing his graduate training with Bob
at Vanderbilt.
"The trip was a wonderful experience for us,"
Bob recalls. "Not only did we leave Taiwan feeling
as though we had left family behind, so constant
was the Chinese warmth and hospitality, but I
found Professors Huang and Lin to typify the
energy and devotion of Taiwan's researchers to
developing and strengthening their country's
scientific and industrial base."
On the home front, Bob is an active participant
in technical societies. Currently, he serves as
Chairman of the Microbial and Biochemical
Technology Division of the American Chemical
Society. A personal interest in alcohol-based fuels
led him to invite a Brazilian researcher to the
Washington, DC meeting in September 1979 as a
distinguished speaker on his country's work on
gasohol.
Bob says that because he gets so much pleasure
from his job, he really doesn't separate "work"
from "outside activities." In Taichung, Taiwan,
while strolling through the open market, he
stumbled upon a Chinese medicine shop whose
youthful proprietor sold kudzu root as a medicinal


Bob, his wife Ruth and two sons do some sight-
seeing on their 1979 trip to Taiwan.


SUMMER 1980


:111












OE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DIVISION ACTIVITIES


EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS
The 1980 ASEE Chemical Engineering Di-
vision Lecturer was Klaus Timmerhaus of the Uni-
versity of Colorado. The purpose of this award
lecture is to recognize and encourage outstanding
achievement in an important field of fundamental
chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M
Company provides the financial support for this
annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lec-
ture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the
award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certifi-
cate. These were presented to this year's Lecturer
at the Annual Chemical Engineering Division
banquet, held at the University of Massachusetts,
Amherst, MA, on June 24, 1980. Dr. Timmerhaus'
lecture was entitled "Fundamental Concepts and
Applications of Cryogenic Heat Transfer."
Klaus Timmerhaus earned B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
from the University of Illinois, where he also competed in
three athletic sports: cross-country, hockey, and track. He
is still an occasional jogger and was a member of the Uni-
versity of Colorado Chemical Engineering Department's
four-mile relay team which captured the AIChE F. J. Van
Antwerpen trophy this past year.
After spending two years with Chevron as a process
design engineer, he joined the chemical engineering faculty
at the University of Colorado in 1953. He presently is as-
sociate dean of engineering for graduate and research ac-
tivities, director of the Engineering Research Center, and
professor of chemical engineering. During 1979-1980 he is
also serving as chairman of the Department of Aerospace
Engineering Sciences.
Over the past twenty-five years Dr. Timmerhaus has
edited the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering series and
has coedited the International Cryogenics Monograph
Series. His work has accounted for a total of 48 books and
some 70 refereed papers to-date.
He has served as director and president of AIChE,
served as chairman for the AIChE Dynamic Objectives
Study, and as chairman of several of AIChE's national
committees. He has also served as executive director and
chairman of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference Board
for 12 years. He is a member of the National Academy of
Engineering, and a Fellow of AIChE. During 1972 and
1973 he served as section head of the Chemistry and Ener-
getics Section of NSF's Engineering Division. He was a
charter member of NSF's Advisory Council.


He is the recipient of the S. C. Collins Award for out-
standing contributions to cryogenic technology, the ASEE
George Westinghouse Award for outstanding teaching, the
AIChE Alpha Chi Sigma Award and the AIChE Founders
Award.

LECTURE TOUR
Funds are available to have Dr. Timmerhaus
deliver his Award lecture at three locations in the
U.S. The locations are to be selected from schools
requesting the presentation of the lecture. Re-
quests for this outstanding lecture will be received
until September 1, 1980. The request should in-
clude suggested times, the audience to which the
lecture will be presented, and whether or not the
school could participate in some of the costs as-
sociated with a lecture tour. Funds are available
from 3M, but they are limited. Please send your
request with the required information to Dr.
Homer Johnson, ChE Department, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.

NOMINATIONS FOR 1981 AWARD SOLICITED
The award is made on an annual basis with
nominations being received through Feb. 1, 1981.
The full details for the award preparation are con-
tained in the Awards Brochure published by
ASEE. Your nominations for the 1981 lectureship
are invited. They should be sent to Dr. James E.
Stice, ChE Dept., U. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.

NEW DIVISION OFFICERS ELECTED
The newly elected ChE Division officers are:
James Couper, Chairman; John C. Biery, Past
Chairman; W. D. Baasel, Chairman Elect; Phillip
Wankat, Secretary-Treasurer; Dr. Dee H. Barker
and William Beckwith, Members at Large; and
James Townsend, Industrial Member at Large.

ChE'S RECEIVE HONORS
A number of ChE professors were honored
with awards a the ASEE meeting. William B.
Krantz of the University of Colorado was pre-
sented the George Westinghouse Award and Clark
K. Colton of MIT was awarded the Curtis W.
McGraw Research Award. The Distinguished
Service Citation was awarded posthumously to
Fred N. Peebles. Three Western Electric Fund
Awards were presented to Nicholas A. Peppas
(Purdue), Richard K. Toner (Princeton), and
W. Fred Ramirez, Jr. (Colorado). Phillip C.
Wankat (Purdue) received the Dow Outstanding
Young Faculty Award.


SUMMER 1980














HANDLING LARGE CLASSES:

ISN'T IT NICE TO BE POPULAR?*


R. NEAL HOUZE
Purdue University

M OST OF US ARE PERSONALLY aware of the large
increase in chemical engineering undergradu-
ate enrollments. A recent ECPD survey showed
an increase from about 15,000 undergraduates in
1974-75 to approximately 26,500 in 1977-78, a 74
percent increase. During this same period, infla-
tion and limited financial support, among many
factors, have prevented significant expansion of
faculties and facilities to handle the increased
loads, at least at pre-invasion levels. These, to-
gether with other pressures, have forced us to
cope as best we can with much larger classes
than we had previously experienced.
Many "challenges" and "opportunities" come
with these larger classes. Do large class sizes
automatically mean a poorer-quality educational
experience for our students? What differences
actually occur due to increased class sizes? How
do we maintain quality in the students' educa-
tional experiences? Can we take advantage of the
increased class sizes to actually improve learning?
How do we personalize what is perceived by many


1000


800

600

400

200


1974 1975 1976 1977


1978


FIGURE 1. Chemical Engineering Undergraduates.

*Presented at the 1979 ASEE meeting, Baton Rouge,


students as an increasingly impersonal process?
How can we more effectively utilize our facilities?
What instructional innovations could be employed
to counter the negative effects of large class sizes?
If we, as educators, have the great wisdom,
knowledge and foresight which our students hope
to discover in us, we might actually come up with
some possible solutions. In this matter, I suppose
we all qualify as experts, since we have all been
forced to cope with and adjust to increased class
sizes.
A group of concerned chemical engineering
educators gathered at the ASEE Annual Confer-
ence at Louisiana State University to consider
and discuss this very important problem. The
authors, having agreed in a weak moment to serve
as panelists, discussed what their respective insti-
tutions are doing to solve the problems encountered
by increasing enrollments, and the following is
the account of their presentations.
As a prelude to presenting the methods some
of us are using to cope, let's first consider the
magnitude of the problem. Figure 1 presents the
enrollment statistics for the four institutions
represented by the authors, Georgia Tech, Texas
A & M, University of Illinois-Urbana and Purdue
University. Over the past four years, the number
of undergraduate chemical engineering students
has more than doubled. Since the faculty sizes have
not increased proportionally, the result has been a
dramatic increase in class size and a strain on our
facilities, particularly in laboratory space. The
four institutions represented by the authors have
taken two basically different approaches to cope
with the increasing undergraduate classes. One is
to increase the faculty and the other is to accept
larger classes as a fait accompli and institute
various methods to attempt to reduce the problem
of insufficient student/faculty contact. The philoso-
phy and attempts of each institution to cope are
described in the following sections.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


SCHOOLS
1 TEXIIS R ND M
2 ILLINOIS
3 PURDUE
4 GEORBIR TECH






S1 1 1 1
23 3 2 3 2 3. 3









TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY
RESTRICTING CLASS SIZES

RON DARBY
Texas A & M University
College Station, TX 77843


Ron Darby came to Texas A&M University in 1965 and attained
the rank of Professor in 1970. He holds B.A., B.S. and Ph.D. degrees
from Rice University. His research and interests include heat transfer,
applied electrochemistry, fluid mechanics, polymer rheology, and
suspensions, and he is the author of a text on "Viscoelastic Fluids."
T HE PHILOSOPHY ADOPTED at A & M to handle
increasing enrollments has been to increase
the number of faculty and the number of classes
to maintain relatively small classes and a high de-
gree of student-instructor contact. Figure 2 il-
lustrates the results of this course of action. Prior
to faculty expansion in 1976, class sizes (students/
class) and the number of course sections (contact
hours/FTE) were increasing. As a result of
doubling the faculty (permanent plus visiting) in
three years, the average class size has stabilized
and the faculty work load (contact hours/FTE)
has been reduced from its maximum in 1975-76.
These small class sizes provide effective
student-instructor contact and we have thus been
able to maintain a traditional approach to each
individual class while providing the students with
the level of individual attention necessary for a
quality education. We have made a conscious effort
to maintain quality standards by requiring a mini-


mum grade of C in the first chemical engineering
course and enforcing a minimum grade point aver-
age to enroll in senior level chemical engineering
courses. Industrial recruiters will attest to the high
standards and absence of grade inflation and many
make upward adjustments in our students' grade
point averages when comparing them with gradu-
ates of other schools.
The average class size of 28 may be deceiving;
our laboratory class size is limited to 20, but the
freshman introductory course averages 90. We
must offer a large number of laboratory sections,
and have almost reached our capacity to handle
these courses without scheduling night sections.
All graduate students are required to serve a mini-
mum period as a lab instructor or teaching
assistant. With a faculty member coordinating a
number of lab sections, this provides an acceptable
method of offering a large number of laboratory
sections. Uniformity between multiple course
sections is improved by assigning a course co-
ordinator and, in some cases, giving common
examinations.
These approaches have helped us maintain a
quality educational experience for our students.
It has also helped us keep the faculty teaching load
to an acceptable level.

120
1 STUDENTS/CLRSS
2 F.T.E.
100 3 STUENTS/F.T.E.
4 CONTACT HRS./F.T.E.

80 -

60 -

40 -

20 1 1]
o 1 ,1

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978
FIGURE 2. Texas A and M Percent Increases From
Fall 1973.


SUMMER 1980


The average class size of 28 may be deceiving; our laboratory
class size is limited to 20, but the freshman introductory course averages 90.
We must offer a large number of laboratory sections, and have almost reached our capacity
to handle these courses without scheduling night sections.









PURDUE UNIVERSITY
HANDLING LARGE ENROLLMENTS IN LARGE CLASSES


R. NEAL HOUZE
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907


R. Neal Houze is Associate Professor of ChE at Purdue University.
He received his BSChE from Georgia Tech in 1960 and his MS and
PhD from the University of Houston in 1966 and 1968. He is the
Cooperative Engineering Education Coordinator for chemical engi-
neering and teaches in the areas of transfer and transport operations.
His current research is two-phase, gas-liquid turbulence and mass
transfer.

PURDUE HAS TRADITIONALLY HAD relatively large
chemical engineering enrollments as a result of
the large size of our total undergraduate engineer-
ing program. Although our student population has
not increased proportionately as much as some
other institutions, we have experienced some real
squeezes due to the popularity of our curriculum.
The lack of increased state funding has pre-
vented significant expansion of the permanent
faculty. The faculty size is the same as it was
ten years ago. In addition, increased emphasis on
research and graduate education has severely
limited the ability to increase faculty teaching
loads. Also, limitations in the number of graduate
students, and funds to pay them, have prevented
any significant increase in the number of teaching
assistants. At present, there is neither a mechan-
ism to restrict the number of students selecting
chemical engineering at the end of their freshman
year nor any grade point average restriction at
any point during the curriculum. These factors
have forced us to evolve techniques to handle
students in large single-section courses.
We have approached the problem (should I
say "challenge?") in two ways: We have at-
tempted to exert some influence on the total en-
rollment and we have attempted to provide better


individual contact for the students to ameliorate
the perceived impersonal nature of large classes.
The university has traditionally had 45-50%
out-of-state students in the Schools of Engineer-
ing. Admissions are now being limited, reducing
our out-of-state engineering student population to
a lower percentage (20-30%). As a state-supported
university, we cannot limit in-state admissions,
and these have been increasing during the past
few years. Consequently, we have experienced
continued increases in our total engineering en-
rollments. Additionally, chemical engineering has
increased in popularity, and a larger fraction of
the freshman engineering class has been choosing
our curriculum.
We have instituted a policy in our first chemi-
cal engineering course which we hope will help
limit the number of students continuing in the
program. The faculty has adopted the policy that
this first course should be challenging, with a
heavy work load consistent with the course credit.
The objective is to introduce the students to the
rigors of the curriculum and the chemical engi-
neering profession. As a result of this policy, we
find that a significant fraction of the incoming
sophomore students withdraw from the course and
transfer out of chemical engineering. We have
concluded that these students lack the motivation
and/or ability to accept the rather demanding
nature of the chemical engineering curriculum. In


The university has traditionally had
45-50% out-of-state students in the Schools
of Engineering. Admissions are now being limited,
reducing our out-of-state engineering student
population to a lower percentage (20-30%).

spite of this policy, we find that ever-increasing
numbers of students are entering chemical engi-
neering and are able to handle the subject matter
and the work load. We shudder whenever we
speculate what our student population would have
been had we not taken this action.
In an attempt to maintain adequate individual
attention for the students, we have introduced reci-
tation sessions into many of our large lecture
courses. The large class meets in small groups of
30 to 40 students once a week. The purpose of
these recitation sessions is to cover homework as-
signments and answer the students' questions
covering the course material. At present, these
recitations are staffed by faculty, not teaching
assistants, with the course instructor providing


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









coordination by specifying the subjects to be
covered during the recitations.
We are expanding the number of chemical
engineering elective courses offered each year. The
increased variety of these courses, as well as the
increased number, is intended to provide our
students with more opportunity to interact with
the faculty in small classes. The major limitation
on the number of electives which can be offered
is the size of the faculty and the required courses
which must be staffed.
Lectures in one of our required courses have
been video-taped. These lectures are broadcast on
the local TV cable system and the video cassettes
are available in our audio-visual center for the
students. The use of these video-recorded lectures
releases faculty for additional teaching. Selected
problem solutions have also been video-recorded
for our junior-level Transfer Operations course.
The students can view these solution tapes at their
convenience, alleviating some of the problems of
limited faculty time to answer questions.
We maintain relatively small laboratory
sections with a maximum of 24 students per
section. Our laboratory courses are designed to
provide the students with an opportunity to apply
engineering principles in a pseudo-industrial at-
mosphere and small groups are essential to the
achievement of our objectives in these courses.
The necessity of maintaining large lecture
classes has supplied the impetus to provide our
students with opportunities for quality learning
experiences. The techniques we have employed
have effectively ameloriated some of the negative
effects of expanding enrollments, but even larger
enrollments cannot be accommodated without sig-
nificant alterations in our curriculum, faculty and/
or facilities.




UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
IMPROVING LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES WITH PLATO
MARK STADTHERR
University of Illinois, Urbana
Urbana, IL 61801

DURING THE 1978-79 ACADEMIC year, enrollment
in our required courses was about 120 to 150.
In most cases we handle this in one large lecture
session, and then once a week break up into small
discussion or recitation sessions of about 25


Mark A. Stadtherr is Assistant Professor of ChE at the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He received his BChE from the
University of Minnesota and his Ph.D. from the University of Wis-
consin-Madison. He teaches courses in process design, process control,
mass transfer operations, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. His
research interests include computer-aided process simulation and design,
sparse matrix computations, and resource management.

students. Each session is handled by a graduate
student teaching assistant. In our laboratory
courses, a main problem is simply one of logistics.
We have begun remodeling our unit operations lab,
both to provide some new experiments and also to
restore others to working order. With more ex-
periments running simultaneously, more students
can be handled in a single laboratory section. The
logistical problem is particularly severe in our pro-
cess control laboratory, so we are undertaking
similar work there; in this case incorporating a
number of microprocessors.
A rather unique approach to some of the
problems presented by large classes is our use of
computer-aided instruction. We use the PLATO
computer system, developed at the University of
Illinois and now made available elsewhere by
Control Data Corp. The PLATO system provides
interactive self-paced instruction at a large
number of terminals around campus. It has proven
quite successful in teaching chemistry, physics,
and other subjects.
The use of the PLATO system in our chemical
engineering courses is due to the efforts of Pro-
fessor Charles A. Eckert, who began work about
three years ago to develop PLATO lessons for our
first chemical engineering course dealing with
material and energy balances. The use of these
lessons began in earnest several years ago and we
now have a full complement of lessons available
for this course. Last spring we also began using
PLATO lessons in our course on fluid mechanics
and heat transfer, and last fall began using them


SUMMER 1980









The use of PLATO in our ChE courses
is due to the efforts of Prof. Charles E. Eckert,
who began work about three years ago to develop
PLATO lessons for our first ChE course dealing
with material and energy balances.

in our thermodynamics course.
Each PLATO lesson consists of five or six
problems of the sort normally assigned on home-
work problem sets. The student sits at a terminal
and selects a particular problem. The problem
appears on the screen and, since PLATO terminals
have graphics capability, the student will typically
see a diagram of the system on which the problem
is based. The student is then asked for input; he
may be asked to enter an equation, a numerical
answer, or perhaps to touch the appropriate point
on a graph or diagram (PLATO terminals have
touch-sensitive screens). If the student makes a
mistake that the programmer was able to antici-
pate, he will get feedback indicating what he did
wrong. If the mistake was not one of those antici-
pated, or if the student is stumped at the outset
and cannot enter any answer, he can press the
HELP key and get a hint as to what he should do.
If this hint is insufficient, he can press the HELP
key again and again, each time getting a stronger
hint, until finally he is essentially told the answer.
These lessons are designed to allow students to
work homework problems and get immediate feed-
back, as if he were working through the problem
directly with the professor or teaching assistant.
It is this kind of direct contact that is becoming in-
creasingly infrequent because of large class size.
It should be emphasized that the PLATO ma-
terial does not take the place of any lecture ma-
terial, nor does it take the place of all the home-
work; conventional homework assignments must
still be handed in. The PLATO lessons may be
optional or required, at the option of the instruc-
tor. The students may work the PLATO problems
as often as they like; roughly one-third of the
PLATO time is used by students working problems
over again. This reflects the students' use of
PLATO to review for exams and to get help as
they work on the conventional homework assign-
ments. So, in a way, PLATO becomes a sort of
consultant to the student, somewhere he can go
for help in lieu of direct contact with the pro-
fessor or teaching assistant.
The PLATO material has been rather well
received by the students. The most common com-
plaint is one of logistics since students living off-


campus find it inconvenient to come to campus in
the evening to use the PLATO terminals. In
general, however, PLATO seems to have a positive
effect on student morale.
Though PLATO may help alleviate the problem
of less direct contact between student and instruc-
tor by providing an alternate means of direct and
immediate feedback, it does not make the course
any less impersonal. The increasingly impersonal
nature of teaching in chemical engineering is quite
disturbing, and there seems to be no readily
apparent solution.


GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
PROVIDING MORE FLEXIBILITY WITH OPEN LABS
ED HARTLEY
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332


Dr. E. M. Hartley is Associate Professor of ChE and chairman of
the Pulp and Paper Engineering Program at Georgia Tech. He has
been active in the reorganization and instruction of the unit opera-
tions laboratories.
UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORIES AT Georgia Tech
involving the use of equipment include two in
Transport Phenomena, two in Unit Operations,
one in Process Control and one in Polymer Science.
An undergraduate Kinetics laboratory will be in-
cluded in the near future. Laboratory courses have
been scheduled individually, usually for a 3 hour
period during one afternoon each week, with a
teaching assistant and faculty member assigned to
each lab, each quarter. The large enrollment has
resulted in several problems including an in-
creased strain on equipment maintenance, too
many students for the space and equipment, and
increased problems with scheduling due to con-
flicts with other courses. A general problem has


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The large enrollment has resulted
in . an increased strain on equipment maintenance,
too many students for the space and equipment,
and increased problems with scheduling due
to conflicts with other courses.


been a lack of continuity in lab maintenance and
supervision because of the quarterly change in
personnel responsible for any given lab. Our
summer program at the University College London
has helped to reduce the load. Each summer, 15-
20 students spend 5 weeks at UCL and the pro-
gram includes lab experiences that will satisfy re-
quirements for two or three of the five required
labs at Georgia Tech.
The "Open Lab Concept" represents our at-
tempt to deal with current problems. The labs will
be staffed by teaching assistants and will be open
from 1:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., five days a week. The
teaching assistants will report to a Laboratory
Coordinator who will be a member of the faculty,
although perhaps not in a tenure-track position.
The responsibilities of the teaching assistants will
include: scheduling of experiments, maintaining
supplies, maintaining order, reporting mainten-
ance needs to faculty and/or staff, referring
students to appropriate faculty members as re-
quired, enforcing safety and housekeeping re-
quirements, and security. The teaching assistants
will not be responsible for the technical nature of
the experiments or for grading the reports. With
the help of the teaching assistants, groups of three
or four students will schedule the dates and times
for their experiments at the beginning of the
quarter and will be responsible for completing the
experiments as scheduled. The faculty will approve
the schedule to insure that the correct number and
types of experiments are chosen. Each faculty
member will be assigned responsibility for one or
two experiments in an area of his interest for a
duration of two to three years. For these experi-
ments, the faculty will instruct teaching assistants
and students as required, coordinate maintenance
and grade reports.
One faculty member will be assigned to each
lab course, such as Transport Phenomena I, each
quarter as a course coordinator. He will determine
the final grade by tabulating the grades received
on each report from the faculty member responsi-
ble for the experiment. The course coordinator will
approve each group's schedule as mentioned above.
In determining their schedule, the student groups


will choose from a list of experiments with the re-
quirement that at least one experiment be done
from each of several areas. This system will
insure that the students will interact with several
faculty members during a lab course.
We are currently searching for a non-tenure-
track staff member. The person in this position will
serve as the laboratory coordinator, be in charge
of the machine shop and electronics lab, be re-
sponsible for lab equipment maintenance and will
possibly get involved in purchasing and safety.
Hence this person will be in an excellent position
to give the continuity to lab upkeep which has
been lacking in the past.

SUMMARY: R. Neal Houze
Many techniques can be used to cope with and
provide quality educational experiences for the
current large numbers of chemical engineering
students. The techniques employed by our institu-
tions are attempts to use our ingenuity and our
concern for our students to improve their ex-
periences. There are many challenges facing us in
the foreseeable future. We have met challenges in
the past, and we will continue to do so. The real
challenge is to help our students develop into ma-
ture, knowledgeable professionals. We are all in-
volved and responsible to meet this challenge. O









Ever been in the midst of research and realized that
easy access to U.S. Patents would be the answer to
your problems? U.S. Patents on microfilm from
Research Publications, Inc. offers to attorneys,
researchers, inventors, and librarians the largest
single body of scientific and technical information
in existence. RPI offers a complete retrospective
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as the Official Gazette and the CDR File. Access is
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SUMMER 1980








staple. The druggist's well-thumbed pharma-
ceutical index revealed that kudzu broth, made
from the dried root, quenches thirst and acceler-
ates perspiration in a feverish patient, combats
alcoholism and soothes headaches. "My 300 pur-
chase there was the best souvenir of our trip to
Taiwan I could buy," Bob admits with a smile.
"It's the kind of discovery that adds an extra
dimension of pleasure to my research."
Conversation reveals that Bob very much
enjoys local events. He has traveled around Ten-
nessee attending local festivities, such as old-time
fiddlers' contests and performances at bluegrass
music parlors. Civil War history also captures his
interest. He and his family particularly enjoy
visiting national and state parks, from battlefields
to Mississippian Indian digs and ante-bellum
homes ornamented with battlescars.
A glance at the books on his shelves shows
Bob's eclectic nature. Apart from engineering and
related scientific titles, he has volumes dealing
with geology, fibers, medicine, and China, as well
as magazines such as Mother Earth News within
reach. This eclectic approach to life and science
characterizes him as a scientist and researcher. O


Process

Flowsheeting

A. W. Westerberg, H. P. Hutchison,
R. L. Motard, and P. Winter

"From a definition of the process units and their
interconnection, the authors show how the com-
puter can be used to develop and solve equations
based on chemical components and operating
conditions and model the steady-state performance
of the plant by generating the heat and mass
balance. . It fills a gap in the literature and
gives a sound account of . the underlying
technology of process flowsheeting systems and
the mathematics needed for modelling a process."
Chemical Engineering. 139 tables and diagrams.
$27.50

Cambridge University Press
32 East 57th Street, New York, N.Y. 10022


-- POSITIONS AVAILABLE
Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
% page $50; each additional column inch $20.
TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY

Texas Tech University, Department of Chemical Engi-
neering, seeks applicants for a tenure-track position. Ph.D.
in Ch.E. required. Industrial experience is desirable but not
required. Candidates should have an interest and talent
for teaching and research, with the ability to develop a
self-supporting research program. An appointment effec-
tive January 1, 1981 is possible. Interested candidates
should submit resumes and references to: Chairperson,
Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 4679, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409. Texas Tech Uni-
versity is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.



Sla book reviews

TURBULENT MIXING IN NON-REACTIVE
AND REACTIVE FLOWS
Edited by S. N. B. Murthy
Plenum Press, New York (1975). 464 pages
Reviewed by William E. Ranz
University of Minnesota

This volume, intended to be a good sampling
of science and art in 1974, consists of twenty-four
papers by separate authors prepared as proceed-
ings of a Project Squid Workshop on Turbulent
Mixing in Non-reactive and Reactive Flows, held
at Purdue University, May 20-21, 1973. The work-
shop was sponsored by the Office of Naval Re-
search and the Air Force Office of Scientific Re-
search.
Content is dominated by continuing develop-
ments in statistical fluid mechanics, supported by
a modest amount of experimental measurement
and by engineering modeling. The next largest
group of papers represents rising interest in large
scale structures which persist at high Reynolds
numbers and resist analysis by probability con-
cepts. Edited discussions which follow each paper
help to unify the disparate presentations. They
also show a growing division between two schools
of thought, those who advocate probability dis-
tribution functions and those who chase eddies to
achieve better understanding of a mixed-up sub-
ject.
Species concentration, diffusion, variation,
and structure in mixing flows and with chemical
Continued on page 136.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING .EDUCATION


VI


! 1M









M classroom


EXPERIENCES IN A SENIOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MATERIALS COURSE*


JOHN P. O'CONNELL
TIMOTHY J. ANDERSON
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


W HEN CLASSES STARTED at the University of
Florida on September 5, 1966, the senior
author had precisely two days to prepare for his
inaugural teaching assignment: Materials Science
for Chemical Engineers. Since he had never had
such a course, nor settled his family in Gainesville,
and the scheduled meetings started the first day
at 7:30 AM, even a week's substitution by a col-
league could not prevent the rest of the 13 week
trimester from being a struggle to just keep ahead
of the students. Fortunately (?), most of them
were seniors with senior-itis (the course was one
of the requirements usually postponed to the last
term) and they did not really care as long as their
grades were adequate to graduate. It was found
that many of the "basic" concepts of the text were
understood by the students, so higher level content
could be covered at a faster rate. This made it
pleasant, but harder, for the instructor.
Thus began the evolution of a successful
course which we have retained in chemical engi-
neering, manpower permitting, despite an altern-
ate sophomore-junior course available in our ex-
cellent Materials Science and Engineering Depart-
ment. Its success in comprehensive coverage at a


Since ChE practice generally involves
fluids in reactions and separations there is little
emphasis on the solid state. Yet we believe a
strong case can be presented for incorporating
materials engineering on a permanent basis
into the ChE curriculum.


*Presented at the 1979 ASEE meeting, Baton Rouge


solid professional level hinges on two factors;
direct integration of concepts learned in prior
chemistry and engineering courses, and consider-
able interaction of the students and teacher using
visual aids. The result is an experience in reflec-
tion about natural phenomena and how descriptive
use of thermodynamics, kinetics, transport phe-
nomena, interfacial behavior and molecular theory
can make sense out of what may have happened,
and/or what probably would happen, to a sample
under changing environmental conditions of
temperature, concentration, mechanical forces and
electromagnetic fields. The objective is to prepare
the student to explain with proper language, to
himself and others, how such generalized method-
ology can qualitatively, and perhaps quantitatively,
unify the diverse behavior observed in systems
containing solids and to cope with new develop-
ments.

WHY A CHEMICAL ENGINEER'S MATERIALS COURSE?
The chemical engineering profession has been
expanding in breadth and depth, and the practic-
ing chemical engineer is now required to be
knowledgeable in many more diverse facets of
engineering science. Because only two to three
years are devoted to study in professional courses,
we must be as efficient as possible in assimilation
of knowledge and development of understanding.
Since chemical engineering practice generally
involves fluids in reactions and separations,
there is little emphasis on the solid state. Yet, we
believe a strong case can be presented for in-
corporating materials engineering on a permanent
basis into the chemical engineering curriculum.
First, the nature of solids makes them vital to the
chemical industries as containers for the fluids.
Pipes, reactors, distillation towers, tanks, etc., are
all essential to chemical processing. Also, polymer
processing has emerged as a major economic


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























John P. O'Connell is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Florida. He received his education at Pomona College
(A.B. 1961), M.I.T. (B.S. 1961, M.S. 1962) and the University of Cali-
fornia, Berkeley (PhD 1967). His area of research interest include
thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids, phase and reaction
equilibria, and interfacial behavior and microstructures of surfactant
solutions. (L)
Tim Anderson is an Assistant Professor at the University of Florida
in the department of ChE. He received his B.S. (1973) in ChE from
Iowa State University and M.S. (1975) and PhD (1979) from the
University of California, Berkeley in ChE. He is interested in the
chemical engineering problems associated with semiconductor pro-
cessing. (R)

factor in the industry, though it often receives
little or no attention in professional education.
Further, a growing proportion of the chemical
feedstocks are in the solid phase as are, for
example, coal, ores and wood. In addition, the solu-
tions to many of today's technological problems
in energy and pollution, where chemical engineers
are essential, pivot on an understanding of solid
state properties and materials handling. These are
illustrated by needs such as the development of a
viable fusion container, an economical photovoltaic
solar cell, a reliable reactor vessel for coal gasi-
fication and an understanding of fundamental
catalysis. Finally, our strongest argument for the
inclusion of a materials course in a chemical engi-
neering program can be found by examining the
end result of the educational process-the func-
tions the practicing engineer performs after
graduation. Increasingly, our chemical engineer-
ing graduates are placed into interdisciplinary,
solids-related activities that include polymer pro-
cessing, semi-conductor technology, biomedical ap-
plications and research in interfacial science.
While we cannot offer study in the depth of the
historically spawned disciplines such as nuclear,
environmental, polymer and metallurgical engi-
neering, materials is a fundamental engineering
science finding intense application in today's


engineering practice and it needs to be treated at
a sophisticated and integrative level for practical
professional use. For our purposes, it should not
just be a survey of catalogued behavior, memo-
rized structures and phenomena.
An important question involves the depart-
ment in which the course is taken. Though a ma-
terials science department is well qualified to pre-
sent such a course, the authors believe certain ad-
vantages exist in presenting the course within the
chemical engineering department to isolated
chemical engineering seniors. Assuming qualified
instructors are available, an internal course at the
senior level allows them to integrate previously
studied fundamental chemical engineering
sciences. In this respect the format presents the
student with the opportunity to "put it all to-
gether." In particular, this synergistic effect
brings in the chemical engineer's strong back-
ground in the chemistry and physics of equilibria
and rate processes coupled with chemical process-
ing knowledge. Differences found in the formula-
tion, notation and application of various engineer-
ing sciences are usually confusing to the student
though actual behavior is independent of our de-
scription. A chemical engineering instructor can
translate the commonly used formulations to
familiar terms and bridge these concepts to the

Though a materials science department
is well qualified to present such a course,
the authors believe certain advantages exist
in presenting the course within the chemical
engineering department to isolated
chemical engineering seniors.


students' basic background. For example, the
concept of the Fermi energy of electrons would be
foreign to most chemical engineering students,
while the "chemical potential" of electrons has
more meaning. In addition, an understanding of
materials problems found in industry are not
easily divorced from knowledge of the chemical
process involved. The junior author had the op-
portunity to investigate the continued failure of
trays in a palm oil distillation column. Without
knowledge of the distillation process, the problem
could not have been solved efficiently. Only chemi-
cal engineers can quickly appreciate the nature of
such relations. We find that other, more subtle,
benefits are also realized. Established student-in-
structor familiarity and commonality of objec-
tives, direct departmental control over content, in-


SUMMER 1980









tensity and scheduling, more accurate assessment
of class background and ability are all found. It
can be argued that there should be student inter-
action with other engineering departments, but we
feel there are more merits to an internal course.
We do invite several guest lectures from other de-
partments to augment our presentations.

COURSE CONTENT AND STYLE

THE SENIOR LEVEL MATERIALS course currently
offered by the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Florida constitutes
three lectures and one recitation section per week
for three units of credit. Listed in Table 1 is a
summary of most of the topics which have been

TABLE 1
Summary of Lecture Topics
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF SOLID MATERIALS
Bonding
Structure and Packing
Microstructure and Processing
Point, Line and Interfacial Defects
Atomic Probes
Molecular Engineering
RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO ELECTRICAL FIELDS
Conductivity, Semiconductivity, and Super Conductivity
Dielectrics
RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO MAGNETIC FIELDS
Dia-, Ferro-, and Paramagnetic Materials
RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATION
Optical Properties
Radiation Damage
RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO TEMPERATURE
Thermal Properties
RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO SURFACE FORCES
Surface and Interfacial Phenomena
RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO MECHANICAL FORCE
Mechanical Tests and Elastic Properties
Plasticity and Flow
Strength and Fracture
RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO CHEMICAL FORCES
Chemical Gradients
Nucleation and Crystallization
Interaction with Reactive Materials
Transformations
Phase Diagrams and Processing
Electrochemistry and Corrosion Control
SELECTED TOPICS
Ceramics and Glasses
Composites
Biological Molecules and Materials


presented in the lectures over the years. The in-
augural two weeks supplement and review the
student's understanding of the relevant chemistry
and physics. Included is a review of quantum me-
chanics and chemical bonding, intermolecular
forces, polymer synthesis and chain conformation,
and melting phenomena. These topics have all
been introduced to the student in previous courses,
but, as usual, reminders are valuable. Then we
introduce supplemental solid state physics and
chemistry topics such as crystallography, defect
structure, microstructure, nucleation and growth,
all of which are natural extensions of the chemi-
cal engineer's background. For example, the
chemistry of imperfections is easily understood
when point defects are treated as chemical species,
allowing the student to apply understood chemical
kinetic and thermodynamic concepts. The re-
mainder of the course is organized to address
many questions of the "what?, how? and because"
format. First, the question of what does a ma-
terial do under various forces is posed. The
primary forces approached are mechanical, electri-
cal, chemical and thermal, while secondary empha-
sis is given to magnetic, optical and surface
properties. In presenting the material, exact cal-
culation of numbers and listing of comprehensive
property values is not stressed as this is not funda-
mental information which is likely to be applicable
to materials of twenty years in the future. The
students need little more experience with calcula-
tions, and reference/textbooks serve this purpose
well in any case. The utilization of the facts are
only illustrations of the general response of ma-
terials. The type of information discussed is order
of magnitude and direction, and a classification of
materials is used which depends on the relative
magnitude of response. We want to generate an
overview of the range of material properties so
the student can compare all materials and place
their potential applications in perspective.
Having established the general behavior of
materials to environmental stresses, attention is
turned to examining how it is that different classes
and samples respond differently to this stress.
The behavior is explained in terms of molecular
and atomic forces, structural arrangement of the
atoms and molecules, and, where appropriate,
microstructure. Very little emphasis is placed on
detailed mathematical calculations and use of
only simple models is made to describe primary
effects. Such an approach is intended to allow the
student to formulate a coherent view of solid state


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










behavior that is comfortable for the student and
to cultivate engineering judgment about the sig-
nificance of various effects. For example, in dis-
cussing transition temperatures in solids the lec-
ture shows the various types of transitions (struc-
tural) rearrangements in the solid, melting, sub-
limation, glass transition, etc.) and associated phe-
nomena (i.e., hysteresis, supercooling, limited
rates). We discuss the influence of strength and
angle dependence of attractive interparticle
forces, size and packing (repulsive forces),
flexibility of molecules on equilibrium and kinetic
phenomena. This is correlated with the observed
behavior in the different classes of materials
(metals, ionic crystals, simple organic, polymers,
etc.) which are covered in some detail. The effect
of chemical composition upon the glass, melting
or decomposition temperature of polymers, for
example, was treated according to the 5 broad
classes of molecular arrangement. For polymers
that contain chains with perfectly repeating units
and are characterized by their ability to crystal-
lize, order of magnitude and ranges of transition
temperatures are presented along with the rela-
tionships between the temperatures (e.g., Tg/Tm
- .5-.67). Next, a discussion of the reason for a
high or low transition temperature is presented
(chain stiffness e.g., polyethers vs alkyls; strength
of intermolecular forces, e.g., polyamides vs
alkyls, etc.) Similar treatment is given to the re-
maining 4 classes of polymers.


INTERACTION WITH STUDENTS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES familiar to the student
are used to reinforce the concepts. Besides the
usual diagrams and lists, in-class demonstrations
and samples are used in as many cases as possible.
The demonstrations include molecular and glued
ping-pong ball models for structures, stretched
and fractured tensile samples with actual data,
the "nylon-pulling" experiment for synthesis, an
operating solar cell for radiation effects, a geode
and mining and cave minerals for solidification
and wetting phenomena, corroded pipes for treat-
ment of corrosion, etc., and many plastic, metal
and ceramic items found in the home that students
touch, bounce, pull, and rearrange.
They have been sufficiently "turned on" that
they bring new ones back from trips and vaca-
tions. The familiar examples and demonstrations
vary the pace and promote student interest and
retention in the lectures.


The most intense interaction involves recita-
tion sections. The class is divided into small groups
(10 to 15) for weekly meetings. The overwhelm-
ing majority of time is spent in an instructor
question-student answer session. The instructor,
having a prepared list of questions directs a
question to, an individual student with the response
being graded. A typical list of questions that would
accompany the previous lecture example of transi-
tion temperature is given in Table 2. Samples are
TABLE 2

Typical Recitation Questions Concerning Transition
Temperatures in Materials
1. Why do we iron clothes with steam?
2. Estimate the glass and melting transition temperatures
of polyethylene terephthalate. (Give structure).
3. Explain the following behavior.

300 -
T C
m C I ^.- polyureas
I'-'-~-- -- DoIyamides
100 thane
l *"*-o1 eu ene
polyesters
14 36
Number of Chain Atoms in Repeating Unit
4. Is a silicon or carbon based polymer a better heat re-
sistant material?
5. Why is nylon so sensitive to water?
6. Describe the variation of the melting and glass temper-
ature as ethylene terephthalate is added to polyethy-
lene adipate. Give structures.
7. Explain the following table.


n-pentane 72 0 36
ethyl ether 74 1.18 35
n-butyl alcohol 74 1.63 118
n-butyl aldehyde 72 2.72 76
8. Which would you expect to have a higher melting
temperature: n-butane or isobutane? Why?
9. Explain the following graph.


H20 H2Te
Boiling
Point H2 Se
H2 H2Se

M.W. -r
10. Why does n-octane melt at -570C and tetramethyl
butane at 1000C?
11. Explain why TiC melts at 34100K.
12. If a drop of water is immersed in an immiscible oil,
the water can remain as a liquid at a temperature well
below 0C. Explain.


SUMMER 1980


Substance


Dipole Boiling
M.W. Moment Point, C










The demonstrations include molecular and glued ping-pong ball models for structures, stretched
and fractured tensile samples with actual data, the "nylon-pulling" experiment for synthesis, an operating
solar cell for radiation effects, a geode and mining and cave minerals for solidification and wetting phenomena,
corroded pipes for treatment of corrosion, etc., and many plastic, metal and ceramic items . .


also used when appropriate. The questions are
designed to require the student to apply and extend
the previous lecture material. Student feedback
on the success of these sessions indicated this was
the most positive aspect of the course. The success
and viability of such a format can be attributed to
several factors. We find the students are generally
motivated to be prepared for recitation by both
the grading policy and the "embarrassment"
factor if they were unable to answer. In addition,
the small size, informal nature and specific
questioning bring out contributions from all
present. The curiosity of the student is easily
awakened by the succession of discussion which
follows. In a typical case, the student addressed
produces at best a partially correct solution. The
instructor can then rephrase the question so as to
lead that student, or others, to a solution, examine
the defects of the response or open the original
question to the entire class. Such dialogue often
occupies 5-10 minutes per question and in many
instances generates new questions from the
students for the instructor to guide the class
to the answer. In addition to significant practice

TABLE 3
Textbooks and Supplemental Reading Used in
Past Courses
J. Wulif, et al., "Structure and Properties of Materials,"
Wiley, N.Y. Vol. I, II, III, IV (1965).
M. Kaufman, "Giant Molecules," Doubleday, Garden City
(1968).
T. Alfrey and E. F. Gurnee, "Organic Polymers," Prentice
Hall, 1967.
K. L. Watson, "Materials in Chemical Perspective,"
Halsted, New York (1975).
N. B. Hannay, "Solid State Chemistry," Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs (1967).
ARC Westwood, "Surface Sensitive Mechanical Properties,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. 56(9), 15 (1964).
A. X. Schmidt and C. A. Marlies, "Principles of High-
Polymer Theory and Practice," McGraw-Hill (1948).
F. W. Billmeyer, "Molecular Structure and Polymer Proper-
ties," J. Paint Tech., 41, 3(1969).
K. Kammermeyer, "Biomaterials," Chem. Tech., 719 (1971).
L. L. Hench, "Structure and Properties of Glass-Ceramics,"
Univ. of Fla. Technical Paper Series, #377, 21 (6),
2(1967).
A. S. Grove, "Mass Transfer in Semiconductor Tech-
nology," Ind. Eng. Chem., 58(7), 49 (1966).


in oral expression by the students, the extempo-
raneous format of the recitation provides the in-
structor with subtle, but valuable, feedback about
the success of the lectures and a gauge on the
learning processes of the students. Student evalua-
tions show that this is the most positive aspect of
the course. However, it might not be possible for
all instructors or all situations.
Home problems are assigned weekly, graded
and kept at a minimal amount. In general they
reflect the philosophy of the course in stressing
qualitative understanding and elucidation of
concepts. Examinations generally number two
midterms and a final. Again, they are always
phrased in a fashion which requires essay type
answers to questions as: Here's a common obser-
vation-how come? What would another sample
do? How would you cause a different effect? How
would you make a specimen with given proper-
ties? Thus homework and exams are not a re-
gurgitation of material or "find the number" type
but require the student to be creative and com-
municative with the tools recently acquired. We
believe such practice in written expression to be
important for seniors though it admittedly re-
quires more time from the teacher in developing
and grading.
Also required in the course is a term paper
covering a topic chosen by the student. Tutorially-
oriented initial references from Science, Scientific
American, Annual Reviews, etc., are offered to
the student in over one hundred topics. The paper
should be about five pages and should stress effec-
tive communication of understanding for the
chosen topic. Since it is impossible to cover the
entire spectrum of materials science (an entire
curriculum in itself) in a single course, the term
paper presents an opportunity for the student to
apply the concepts learned and to seek and com-
prehend a more detailed analysis of a particular
topic. This reinforces the utility of the course as
well as requiring practice in library use and
concise expression. Again, instructor time is re-
quired for appropriate feedback to the students.
One continuing problem of the course has
been finding a textbook that presents a consistent
Continued on page 148.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany
ARCO Petroleum Products Company <
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ANACONDA Industries A
Division of The ANACONDA Company
ARCO Transportation Company 10
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany

ARCO Chemical Company 1
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany

ANACONDA Copper Company 4
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ARCO International Oil and Gas Company <,
Division of AtlanticRichfieldCompany

ARCO Coal Company NO
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- ..........-M










lecture


MOLECULAR THEORY OF FLUID MICROSTRUCTURES


H. TED DAVIS
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455
M ANY OF THE CURRENT courses on the statistical
thermodynamics are restricted to bulk phase
phenomena. However, interfacial and colloidal
phenomena are involved in important ways in
engineering processes and products. Associated
with and perhaps even determinant of interfacial
and colloidal properties are what we call fluid
microstructures. A fluid microstructure is a region
in a fluid in which densities and/or compositions
vary appreciably over distances of the order of
magnitude of the range of molecular forces.
Examples of fluid microstructure include fluid-
fluid interfaces, fluid-solid interfaces, multiphase
contact regions, thin films, drops and bubbles,
micelles, microemulsions, liquid crystals, lipid bi-
layers, vesicles, emollients, foams, spinodally de-
veloping density variations, and gels.


H. Ted Davis received his B.S. from Furman Univ. (1959) and his
Ph.D. from the Univ. of Chicago (1962). He joined the ChE depart-
ment at the University of Minnesota in 1963 and is the author of
over 100 publications in scientific and engineering journals and edited
books. His research interests include statistical mechanics of equi-
librium and transport processes, experimental and theoretical investi-
gation of the physico-chemical processes in flow in porous media as
related to petroleum recovery, interfacial and colloid science, mathe-
matical modelling of transport, reaction and mechanical properties of
disordered media, liquid electronics, and heat and water movement
in food systems. Professor Davis recently became head of the De-
partment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science.


Fluid microstructures are ubiquitous in the
products and uses of products of the emollient,
detergent, coating, and processed foods industries.
Foams, bubbles, drops, films (membranes), gels,
and microporous solids are frequently involved in
separation and reaction processes of the chemical
industry as well as pollution control and water
treatment industry, and the natural processes of
biological systems. Capillarity, wettability, and
multiphase flow in porous media are controlled
to a great extent by fluid microstructures-
multiphase flow phenomena in porous media are
involved in natural and induced ground water
movement, solution mineral leaching, petroleum
recovery, processes, and wood fiber treatment and
manufacturing processes. Emulsion polymeriza-
tion is a well established industrial process now.
Micellar or microemulsion reaction processes are
under investigation for their ultimate practical
utility. And liquid crystals are commonplace as
watch dials and thermometers. The importance
of bilayers in cellular structure, and the organiza-
tional and transport processes of living matter is
thoroughly established although incompletely
understood. Vesicles are under active investigation
as potential vessels for drug delivery to specific
sites in living organisms. The foods industry is
also researching vesicle behavior for future appli-
cation.
The list of processes and systems in which
fluid microstructures are consequential goes on
and on and will not be produced here. What is
relevant to this paper is the fact that in spite
of the wide involvement of fluid microstructures
in technological and natural processes and
products and even though interfacial science is
an old classical subject, the fundamental basis for
understanding the behavior of fluid microstruc-
tures still forms an exciting and developing
subject. Among the objects of current theoretical
interest are the local density and stress (pres-
sure) distributions associated with the fluid micro-
structures; interfacial tension and other stress
moments; contact angle of three phase contact

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The theory illustrated here for a one component fluid is developed in the course for
multicomponent fluids and for fluid-solid microstructures. Electrostatic effects are also
included so that double-layer and electrostriction phenomena are accounted for. Meniscus
shapes, disjoining pressures, and contact angles are investigated also.


lines; film tensions, stability, and disjoining pres-
sure; and contact angle and meniscus shape. The
course deals with the modern theory of such
objects. In the remainder of this article we shall
try to exhibit the spirit of the theory developed
in the course introduced in a previous article.*
In an inhomogeneous system, the thermo-
dynamic functions depend on the density distribu-
tion n(r). For example, for the pair potential
model, the average attractive energy is
1
-J J n(r) n(r') g(r,r') uA(Ir-r']) d3r d3ar
(1)
To simplify the theory, we assume as in the VDW
theory that g depends only on Ir'-r, expand
n(r') about r in the integrand of Eq. (1), and
truncate the series after third order in gradients
of n to obtain

= ([-n2 a (r) V2n(r)]d3r, (2)

where V is the gradient operator, a is the Van der
Waals energy parameter, and
1
c --I s2 UA (s) g(s) d3s. (3)

The so-called gradient theory represented by Eq.
(2) yields quite good results for planar inter-
faces [2, 3, 4, 5]. In the rigorous developments
[2], c depends on density and temperature, but
the dependence is weak [4] and will be ignored here.
The Helmholtz free energy of inhomogeneous fluid
can be expressed in the form F = S f(r) d3r,
where f(r) is the Helmholtz free energy density
at position r in the fluid. With arguments similar
to those supporting the VDW theory of homo-
geneous fluid, Equation (3) leads to

F = S [f(n) c V2 n] d3r, (4)
2
where fo (n) is the Helmholtz free energy density
of homogeneous fluid. The chemical potential, de-
termined from Eq. (4) as the change in F per
unit material added by changing the fluid density
locally at constant T and V, of inhomogeneous

*CEE, Fall 1979, page 198.


fluid is
L = =o (n) -c V2n. (5)
/o(n) is the chemical potential of homogeneous
fluid at density n.
At equilibrium / is constant throughout the
system so that Eq. (5) becomes a partial differ-
ential equation determining those fluid micro-
structures allowed at equilibrium. The factors in
the equation determining the nature of a micro-
structure are the chemical potential of homo-
geneous fluid, ~o(n), which dictates the existence
of a particular microstructure, and the influence
parameter c, which determines the length scale
of the microstructure. The kind of microstruc-
ture predicted will depend on the temperature
and chemical potential set and on the nature of
any boundary conditions set. This will be illus-
trated now with some examples.
Consider a planar interface whose normal is
in the x-direction and cross-sectional area is A.
In one dimension the Laplacian V2n becomes
simply the second derivative d2n/dx" of density.
Equation (5) can be rearranged by multiplica-
tion by dn/dx into an integrable form and then
integrated to yield

1 dn 1]2
12- d = w(n) + K;
2 dx

d2 dn/ y/s(n) + K
2
(6)
where K is a constant of integration and
a (n) = fo(n) -n/ (7)
The boundary conditions of a planar interface
are n(x) rn, as x - oo and n(x) -> ng as x
-> oo, where n, and ng are the bulk phase liquid
and vapor density, respectively. The boundary
conditions are equivalent to the conditions of
thermodynamic equilibrium:
J = io(ng) = 1o (ni) ;
-K = ((ng) = o(ni) = -PN, (8)
where PN is the bulk phase pressure (which is
also equal to the normal component of pressure,
which is constant throughout the planar system).


SUMMER 1980









The surface tension y of the interface, computed
from the thermodynamic relation
y = (aF/DA)T,V,N,
is given by


00
-oo
0= c
--00


dn n
d dx= [cA (n)]n/dn,
dx n


(9)
where the second formula is obtained by eliminate.
ing dx with the aid of Eq. (6). Ao (n) = w(n) -
aw(nz).
Equation (9) illustrates the fact that the
broader an interface, i.e., the slower the density
change across the interface, the smaller the
tension. And, by referring to Fig. 1 in which the
function Aw (n) is shown as a function of n, one
sees that low tensions occur as the temperature
approaches the critical point and the free energy
surface of homogeneous fluid flattens out between
the minimal characteristic of phase equilibria.
For a planar system, gradient theory yields
the following relationship between the transverse
pressure P, (measured with a transducer whose
normal lies in the interfacial plane) and the
normal pressure PN (measured with a transducer
whose surface lies in the interfacial plane) :
1 2
PT= I PN+ 2 P(n) (10)

Po(n) is the pressure of homogeneous fluid at
density n. The tension can also be computed from


fo(n)


ng n,
n ----


FIGURE 1. Illustration of tension determining function
A&(n) = w(n) co(n) of a one-component fluid. fo(n)
is the Helmholtz free energy density of homogeneous
fluid.


--j--_-----

.6

.5 I



-11
.4 \

.3

.2 \ p.



-2 0 2 4 \ 6 / 10 12


>7


X*--


FIGURE 2. Profiles of density, normal pressure, and
transverse pressure across a planar interface of a Van
der Waals fluid at T* = 0.223. n* = nb, P* Pb2/a,
and x* = xV/a/c.

the formula


r






I


o00
7 = (PN-PT)dx
-00


In Fig. 2, the density profile and the pressure
component profiles are shown for a planar inter-
face of a VDW fluid. From the curves we observe
that the interfacial zone is under tension (PT
actually negative) on the dense side of the inter-
facial zone and is under compression (PT > PN)
on the dilute side of the zone. This behavior
seems typical of low temperature fluids for which
the pressure isotherm Po (n) goes through nega-
tive values in the Van der Waals loop. Experi-
mentally, the magnitude of tension and the fact
that it increases with decreasing temperature
imply that PT has to have a region of negative
values at sufficiently low temperatures. Formula
(10) brings out the fact that the values of
Po(n) in the spinodal region are physically
meaningful and contribute importantly to inter-
facial structure and tension.
Other fluid microstructures can be obtained
by using different boundary conditions. For
example, planar thin films result with the bound-
ary conditions dn/dx = 0 at x = 0 and n nB as
x -+ oo. Liquid crystals result from periodic
boundary conditions. Drops and bubbles are ob-
tained by assuming n to depend only on the radial
distance r from their centers. For this case

Continued on page 145.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


(11)











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classroom


USING TROUBLE SHOOTING PROBLEMS*

Edited by
DONALD R. WOODS
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Trouble shooting problems are used as a learning experience in a wide variety of contexts. The for-
mat varies and several methods were described in the Spring 1980 issue of GEE. Additional methods are
discussed here.
Sometimes a problem is presented as a computer simulation, sometimes as a situation described on a
piece of paper. Students can gather information and solve a problem by sampling and performing experi-
ments from a given set of possibilities, or the students can choose/ask questions. The emphasis can be on
getting the answer or on the methodology used, or both. Some advantages and disadvantages of using
trouble shooting problems are explored in the two installments and hints on how to troubleshoot are
given.


TROUBLE-SHOOTING SYSTEMS AND
EXPERIENCES AT NEW SOUTH WALES

IAN D. DOIG
University of New South Wales
Kensington, Australia

A T NEW SOUTH WALES two different modes are
used in which the student interacts either with
the computer or with an instructor.

COMPUTER BASED SYSTEMS
For the computer-student interactive pro-
grammes, the performance of a malfunctioning
plant is simulated, and the student calls for a
series of ad-hoc spot measurements until he can
identify the cause and location of the fault. A
student first studies a plant manual which contains
a process flowsheet, details of all plant items (in-
cluding the sizes and geometry of all lines, details
of all valves, pumps, blowers including per-
formance specifications), physical data for all com-
ponents and streams, a list of over 100 possible

*This is the second installment of a two-part article.
The first installment appeared in the Spring 1980 issue
of CEE.


causes (with location) of plant malfunction, and a
set of normal values for the routine samples
measurements of plant performance (input and
output streams properties and flowrates plus a
few intermediate measurements indicative of plant
behaviour).
On logging in to the computer, the student is
presented with a corresponding set of current
routine measurements which differ significantly
from the normal values and show that a fault
exists. The student calls for additional samplings
and measurements until his assembled information
can be positively linked to one of the causes listed


FIGURE 1. Flowsheet for revised Syschem Plant.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























FIGURE 2. Flowsheet for ABSR (Acid Absorption
Section).

in the plant manual. For each ad-hoc sampling and
measurement ordered the student is charged a
representative (but imaginary) expense; the
student endeavours to successfully locate and
identify the fault at a minimum 'cost' in national
dollars. Other features of the system are that a
randomly generated Gaussian distributed error is
contained in all measured values reported and the
student can be asked to resolve two simultaneous
malfunctions (usually chosen to be noninter-
active). Details of the system have been presented
by Doig [5].
Three programmes are used. The first is a
simplified version of Figure 1 developed initially
by Pelloni and Rippin [6]. This uses a mass balance
















D. R. Woods is a graduate of Queen's University and the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin (Ph.D.). For the past three years he has been
attending all undergraduate lectures along with the students to try
to discover what needs to be done to improve student's problem
solving skills. His teaching and research interests are in process
analysis, and synthesis communication skills, cost estimation, separa-
tions, surface phenomena and developing problem solving skills. He
is the author of "Financial Decision-Making in the Process Industry."
He received the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associa-
tion award for Outstanding Contribution to University Teaching.


For the computer-student interactive
programmes, the performance of a malfunctioning
plant is simulated, and the student calls for a series
of ad-hoc spot measurements until he can identify
the cause and location of the fault.


simulation and requires an identification of the
faulty unit only. The second is the plant illustrated
in Figures 1 and 2 using simulated real models
for all parts of the system (including valves,
service and process piping) and mass, energy and
pressure balancing; the third is a 20 plate multi-
component fractional distillation set.
Malfunctions used can be broadly categorised
as either:

Type 1. Impurities: Leaking of oil or water into the
process or impurity entering with feed.
Type 2. Leaks: Significant material imbalance indi-
cating loss of fluid by leakage.
Type 3. Composition incorrect: Product (or other
stream) composition significantly different
from normal due to a maufunctioning of a re-
actor, separator or controller.
Type 4. Throughput incorrect: Product (or other
stream) flowrate significantly different from
normal due to a restriction, bypassing, or
pump, blower or valve malfunctioning, or feed
stream deficiency.
Type 5. Process producing correctly but inefficient:
Defect within plant causing excessive pres-
sure(s) or flowrate(s), or excessive use of
steam or cooling water. Conversely, in-
adequacies in steam or cooling water system
may be cause of inefficient abnormal opera-
tion. Alternatively, process correct but instru-
ment(s) reading incorrectly.

In general, solution difficulty increases from
type 1 to 5. Impurities and leaks are the easiest
plant faults to locate and resolve.

Findings

The absence of a real process which would
allow visual, audio, and olfactory observations is
an obvious shortcoming: for example, students find
the need to detect significant leaks by mass
balancing faintly ridiculous. Many malfunctions
in practice are unsteady, but only unsteady faults
of long periodicity can presently be simulated and
keep computer response times sensible for class
exercises. Until recently, the programme went
through the entire simulation for each student,
and response time on time-share terminals has
been much too slow. With current programmes,
stream matrices corresponding to encoded mal-


SUMMER 1980









functions will be simulated, placed in a mass
storage file and accessed using the random access
option provided by the Extended Fortran Com-
piler.
Experience has shown the first programme
(an extension of that initially developed by Pelloni
and Rippin) is best suited for introducing first
year students to chemical engineering while the
two more sophisticated programmes are best
suited to teaching at the fourth (final) year level.

INSTRUCTOR STUDENT INTERACTIVE EXERCISES
Trouble-shooting exercises developed by Woods
[2] have been used as case studies in instructor-
student or instructor-class situations since 1969.
They have proved particularly valuable in present-
ing unsteady-state (usually liquid surging)
problems typical of distillation, evaporation, steam
trapping and venting processes and continue to
provide a valuable adjunct to the computer inter-
active exercises. A particular benefit is that
students become used to approaching pseudo-real
problems in a methodical and imaginative manner.
Particular problems are:
1. Number of students, that can be handled in in-
dividual exercise by one instructor should not exceed
five, or, where a whole class is tackling a common
exercise, the number should not exceed ten.
2. Sketches used in presenting exercises must be brief
for clarity and artificially avoid the distractions of
a real plant situation.
3. To provide proper responses to student questions,
the instructor needs real plant experience and a
lively imagination. Few academics are inclined to
simulate the practical situation to the extent re-
quired.



TROUBLE-SHOOTING CASES AT

McGILL UNIVERSITY
O. MAYNARD FULLER
McGill University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
A T MCGILL WE HAVE PRESENTED a course that
combines chemical reaction engineering and
problem-solving skills. Trouble-shooting case
problems are one of the types of problems that

Judging from the . student papers,
most (around 80%) of the students learn the
process of trouble shooting reasonably well.


are used in this course. The course is presented
in a modified PSI format that has been described
by Weber and Fuller [7].
The approach is similar to the P4 card deck
used by the McMaster Faculty of Health Sciences
[8].* The student receives a brief statement of the
background of a situation and the existence of
some troublesome symptom. In addition, he re-
ceives a set of questions that is divided into subsets
that may be put to plant engineers and operators,
answered by direct observation, answered from
technical files and handbooks, or answered by lab
tests and experiments. The answers are printed on
slips of paper that are stacked and stapled, printed
side down, into file folders. The answer slips and
question lists are coded so that the student can
quickly locate the stack of answer strips that
corresponds to any question. The student writes
the reason that he wants the answer to a specific
question and the code symbol of the question. He
walks to the file folders (one set for every 6 or 8
students) and tears out a slip of paper from the
stack that corresponds to his question. He returns
with this slip of paper, studies the answer, makes
any calculations that he wishes, draws his conclu-
sions, and proceeds to the next question. A correct
diagnosis that is obtained with a number of
questions that is less than, or equal, to a given
maximum is marked "pass"; all other outcomes
are marked "fail" and result in a retest on a new
problem.
The specifics of the problems are contained in
the answers. By changing answers, the teacher
can produce different problems, i.e. different
causes, that use the same question set. When
several sets of answers are used simultaneously,
the student must be told which set to use. Calcula-
tion problems may be imbedded in a trouble-shoot-
ing problem by replacing an answer with data
from which the desired answer may be calculated.
It is also possible to give a cost and time delay
for each answer. Limits on cost and time may then
be substituted for a limit on the number of
questions asked.
Two class meetings are devoted to a lecture
on the strategy for solving this type of problem
and an example. A student's paper gives a protocol
of his process of problem solving. Students who
have difficulty are given individual coaching using
these protocols.
The student has access to three times the

*Described in Vol. XIV, No. 2, of CEE.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









number of questions required, in principle, to
solve the problem and he is permitted to ask 1.5
to 1.7 (depending on difficulty) times the minimum
number of questions. The question set contains a
modest number of imprecise, redundant, and ir-
relevant questions. Although the student does not
pose the questions to be asked, he must be able to
recognize questions that are likely to be helpful.
Judging from the protocols (student papers),
most (around 80%) of the students learn the
process of trouble-shooting reasonably well.
Student acceptance of these exercises is excellent.
In the most recent year, 17 of 18 students who re-
sponded to an anonymous questionnaire wanted the
use of this type of problem to be continued.


TROUBLE- SHOOTING PROBLEMS AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,

BERKELEY
C. JUDSON KING and SCOTT LYNN
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720

T ROUBLE-SHOOTING PROBLEMS ARE used in Chemi-
cal Engineering at Berkeley as parts of a
senior elective course and a course taken by most


Trouble-shooting problems are used
at Berkeley as parts of a senior elective course
and a course taken by most graduate students.

graduate students. The problems are mostly of the
same nature as those developed by Woods at Mc-
Master University [2], although we have created
a number of additional problems based upon our
own experience. The problems typically occupy
about four hours of class time, with most of this
being spent by the students working on problems
individually. The student is given a problem state-
ment and a blank solution sheet, on which he indi-
cates what he wants to do and how much it will
cost. Then there is a space for the result of the
action to be filled in by the instructor (hereinafter
called "oracle"). The student consults the oracle
after each proposal.
We have found it most useful to proceed the
trouble-shooting problems with a short lecture on
appropriate strategies, including discussion and
development of a systematic attack for an example
problem. One aspect stressed is the importance of
discerning whether or not the process ever worked,
since that is useful for distinguishing between
design errors and malfunctions. We have also
found it helpful to present on the board a table


FIGURE 3. Trouble Shooting Problem :Ethylene Product Vaporizer.


ETHYLENE / I I
14O0F.. 5NOPSIG




1, STORAGE

CONDENSATE RETURN
Our New Jersey petrochemical complex includes an
ethylene plant which supplies 15,000 lb/hr of ethylene
through a pipeline to various consumers. It is important
that we maintain a steady flow of ethylene to these users,
and as a result our plant contains a large storage sphere
for liquid ethylene. The ethylene must be a vapor, how-
ever, when it enters the pipeline and must be at a tempera-
ture close to ground temperature in order to avoid thermal
stresses. For these reasons we have installed an ethylene
vaporizer (shown in the drawing) between the sphere and


the pipeline. The ethylene is vaporized by condensing n-
butane, which in turn is vaporized by steam. The cascade
vaporization system is required so as to avoid undue
thermal stresses across heat exchange surfaces.
Under normal operation, a small amount of ethylene
(about 3500 lb/hr) is sent through the vaporizer, but the
vaporizer is frequently called upon to provide more, or all,
of the total ethylene supply. Before the vaporizer, the
liquid ethylene is pumped up to 630 psig and metered
through a flow control valve; the ethylene pressure in the
vaporizer is roughly pipeline pressure (550 psig).
The butane pressure controller set point can correspond
to anywhere from 70 to 125 psig. A set point of 100 psig
has been used successfully at all ethylene flow rates during
the past year, although the outlet ethylene temperature has
been slow to recover following a change in ethylene flow
rate.
In the last few months we have found it necessary to
increase the PIC set point. Even so, we found yesterday
when the ethylene unit came down that the vaporizer can-
not handle the full-ethylene flow without tripping the low
temperature shut off switch at the pipeline entry, which
is set at 350F. This situation will cost us $600 per hour plus
inestimable customer good will if we stop flow, or else it
may well necessitate expensive and time-consuming pipe-
line repair if we continue.


SUMMER 1980









of costs for various services-pipefitter, analytical
laboratory, etc. Most students are strongly im-
pressed at the thought of assigning costs to the
tests they propose. In grading problems we do not
relate the grade directly to the money spent by
the student in his solution, but instead grade
qualitatively on a 0-1-2-3 basis determined in a re-
flective fashion upon reviewing all solutions to-
gether after class.
We have large numbers of students, typically
thirty or more in a class. This is handled by
having about one oracle per eight students, so that
student proposals can be judged and quick re-
sponses given. We found it best when a particular
problem is handled by a single oracle, since this
promotes consistency and is less mind-addling to
the oracles. We also use a procedure where differ-
ent students start on different problems. This
serves to equalize the load among oracles and
greatly reduces the possibility that the "fault of
the day" for a given problem will be leaked
around the classroom. There is a particular se-
quence of problems, with different students start-
ing at different points in the sequence. We find
that as a rule students can complete two to four
problems in an 80-minute class period.
Two basically different types of problems are
shown in Figures 3 and 4. In Figure 3 any of many
different malfunctions, operator errors, etc., can
be at fault. In the double-boiler type of ethylene


8 FT.
CAUSTIC WASTE -
200 GPM INNSTE T2-IN. PIPE
MIXING TEE

PH CONC.
20 FT. IC HC1
(VERTICAL) 2000 GAL.



%-IN. PIPE (PVC)
CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP


TO EFFLUENT
TREATMENT


FIGURE 4: Trouble Shooting : the pH Control Unit.
Concentrated hydrochloric acid is being used to neutralize
caustic wastes being fed to a newly-built effluent treat-
ment plant. The volumetric flow of the wastes is approxi-
mately constant, but due to the nature of their source the
concentration varies from 1 to 10 g/L equivalent NaOH.
The average is about 5 g/L. Control is usually good, but at
times it becomes erratic and occasionally the acid flow
stops altogether. Turning off and restarting the acid feed
control system usually serves to get the acid flow going
again, but this mal-function threatens to shut down the
entire plant.
You are given the job of finding the bug and getting
rid of it.


vaporizer the flaws could include impurities in the
shell, a low liquid-level in the shell, leaks in the
header, a faulty temperature shut-off switch, etc.
In the other type of problem (Figure 4) there is
a basic design flaw. The student should recognize
this from the symptoms and deduce the nature of
the flaw; in the problem shown it is vapor-binding
of the pump. For problems of the first type, the
flaw is changed from year to year and from one
class to another, but is kept the same within a
class to reduce confusion for the oracle and help
equality in judging the performances of different
students on the same problem.
We have found no reason not to use the same
problems repeatedly from year to year, often with
the flaw changed. In this way we can use problems
that have proven to work well through repeated
experience.

TROUBLE -SHOOTING PROBLEMS AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO
PETER L. SILVESTON
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
E EVOLUTION OF THE USE OF these problems at
Waterloo since the publication of "Chemical
Engineering Case Problems" [3] has been toward
a conventional exercise designed to illustrate a pro-
cedure; in this case the solution of ill defined,
open ended problems. Our objective continues to
be encouraging students to acquire an orderly
train of thought in tackling the trouble shooting
problems so typical of engineering practice.
Secondary objectives have been to foster a critical
attitude toward technical information or data, and
to instill an appreciation of the cost and effort of
obtaining information. There has been a reduction
of the time allotted from about 13 class hours to
only 3 or 4 within a 13 week course. The case
study-problem discussion approach originally used
has given way to discussion of a problem solution,
similar to the way a solution to a thermodynamics
or fluid flow problem might be handled.
Time table pressures killed the original final
term course which contained problem solving. An
abbreviated treatment of problem solving has been
incorporated into a seventh term lecture-problem
course dealing with equipment and process design.
Justification of this de-emphasis in the Waterloo
curriculum is that trouble shooting is a skill
quickly learned in industry. Since Waterloo engi-
neering is entirely cooperative, many of our final


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Evolution of the use of these problems at Waterloo since the publication of
"Chemical Engineering Case Problems" has been toward a conventional exercise designed to
illustrate a procedure; in this case the solution of ill defined, open ended problems.


year students will have faced open ended problems
during their terms in the chemical industry.
Waterloo's equipment and process design
course is offered twice each year and its teaching
rotates among four faculty members, each of
whom handles the mechanics of the course in a
different way. Only two extremes in these me-
chanics will be discussed here.* In one, the course
is offered as credit/no credit. In the trouble shoot-
ing portion (now just 1/8 of the course), solutions
to two of the five or so trouble shooting problems
distributed to students must be submitted. These
are assessed as being satisfactory or unsatis-
factory; if unsatisfactory, solutions must be re-
submitted. A student must have a specified
fraction of his solution acceptable for credit. In
the other extreme, the course is given in a self-
paced format in which four skill tests must be
passed and the grade given is a mean of those
achieved on these tests. Tests can be retaken in
the usual self-paced manner, but an earlier test
must be passed before proceeding to the next one.
Tests are either drawn from the course problems
or are quite similar to them. A short trouble
shooting problem forms half of one of these tests.
Regardless of course mechanics, trouble shoot-
ing is handled in the classroom in about the same
way. We employ about an hour long lecture to de-
scribe the morphology of problem solving and the
procedures it leads to when applied to different
types of problems, such as equipment failures,
design, or economic decisions. The morphology we
use is given in an earlier description of our use of
case type problems [3] [4].
We generally give about five problem state-
ments to our students and ask that they develop
written solutions to two. In our self paced course
solutions can be submitted by groups of students.
They are examined and commented upon, but not
graded. A detailed, annotated solution to a trouble
shooting problem is distributed to students when
their solutions are returned or at the time of the
morphology lecture. Two one-hour lecture periods,
at most, are used to discuss a solution to one of

*Further details of mechanics, problems used and
material distributed to students can be obtained by writing
to the author.


the problems the students submit. A student solu-
tion should be used as the basis for the discussion,
but time pressures usually require producing a
blackboard solution based largely on the instruc-
tor's solution, with students contributing by re-
sponding to questions. Unfortunately, it is seldom
possible to use a case study procedure whereby the
reasons for a suggestion or the purpose of a step
in the analysis are discussed. Nonetheless, we try
to show how each step in the trouble shooting
solution relates to the solution morphology. Par-
ticular emphasis is given to the cost and time
needed to gather information as the solution pro-
cedure develops.
Examples of problems used are given in our
previous paper [3]. In the eight years that trouble
shooting problems have been used, about one-third
of them have been replaced. This casual rate of
change can be explained by the non-competitive
nature of our equipment and process design course.
We encounter no passing on of problem solutions
from class to class.
Unlike other uses of trouble shooting
problems [1] [2], we do not employ student-
instructor interaction to provide further informa-
tion. Consequently, a solution to the "problem"
cannot be achieved by our students. What we
want as a "solution" is a strategy for solving a
problem that might actually be encountered in an
industrial environment. That is, we want the se-
quence of steps a student proposes to gather in-
formation, to undertake measurement and to
order corrective action. As part of the develop-
ment of his sequence, a student must justify each
step in terms of its relevance to the information
available, its chance of success and the cost and
time needed for a measurement or gathering of in-
formation if unavailable. We have given an
example of a satisfactory "solution" previously
[3].
Student reaction to the trouble shooting
problems has been neutral. We have encountered
neither substantial belly-aching or wild enthusi-
asm. The problems seem to be accepted, like other
course problems, as illustrations of a procedure
and no more. Some students complain each year
about the artificiality of the problems. This is
understandable because we attempt to create an


SUMMER 1980









industrial atmosphere, but restrict the problem
statements to one page. Statements, therefore, are
sometimes awkward and problems often appear to
be artificial. Furthermore, we tacitly assume a
level of knowledge about equipment or processes
which not all students have. As a result, the quality
of the solutions submitted varies widely.
From an instructor's standpoint, the disad-
vantage of this brief treatment of problem solving
is that we cannot develop adequate problem solving
skills. At best we can only pass on the flavour of
problem solving. We do give notice that orderly
trouble shooting-problem solving procedures
exist. We also illustrate how these procedures are
applied. We believe that this is sufficient to justify
trouble shooting in our curriculum. ED

REFERENCES
1. Woods, D. R. (1966). "Complement to Design:
Trouble-Shooting Problems." Chem. Eng. Education.
Jan. p. 19-23.
Woods, D. R. (1968). "Trouble-Shooting Problems:
Problem Specifications" and (1973) Teacher's Guide.
McMaster University, Hamilton.
2. Woods, D. R. (1967). "The Use of Short Trouble
Shooting Problems." Chapt. 3 in "Chemical Engineer-
ing Case Problems," C. J. King, editor. AIChE, New
York.
3. Silveston, P. L. (1967). "Trouble Shooting Problems
as Teaching Aids." Chapt. 4 in "Chemical Engineer-
ing Case Problems," C. J. King, editor. AIChE, New
York.
4. Silveston, P. L. and Woods, D. R. (1966). "Use of
Trouble-Shooting Problems in Undergraduate Chemi-
cal Engineering Design Courses." Paper presented at
the CSChE Conference, Windsor, Ont. Oct. 19.
5. Doig, I. D. (1977). "Training of Process Plant Mal-
function Analysts." Chemeca 77, Canberra, 14-16 Sept.
p. 144-148.
6. Pelloni, L. (1973). "Entwicklung eines Computer-
programs Zur Simulation von Ausfaellen," Dip. Ing.
Thesis, E.T.C. Zurich. Supervisor D. Rippon.
7. Weber, M. E. and Fuller, 0. M. (1973). "Problem
Solving in PSI." McGill Journal of Education 8, 179.
8. Barrows, H. S. (1976). "The P4 Deck." Faculty of
Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton.

BOOK REVIEW: Turbulent Mixing
Continued from page 112
reaction are not particularly emphasized. These
subjects appear in a context of fluid mechanical
or heat transfer analogs and as additions to
analysis of fluid mechanical mixing in turbulent
shear flows. As might be expected there are no
discussions of laminar shear or mixing in periodic
flows.
This volume can be recommended for discover-


ing the state of research and for reading what
workers in the area think about the topics pre-
sented. It tends to discourage a casual reader by
showing great complexity, but at the same time
it lays out a considerable portion of the problem
for consideration by those who may not yet be
lost in a maze of eddies. Of particular value are
the experimental papers which give enough
sampling of direct observation for a reader to
ponder his own explanations and make his own
uses of the information. Results from several
types of novel experiments are presented, and
these evoke interest not so much by the heuristic
explanations given but by the nature of the experi-
mental results. As with most proceedings the re-
port is more valuable than the comment.
A review paper by the editor with an extensive
bibliography and lists of references enhance the
volume's purpose as a statement of position of a
field of research and study. However, reading of
this group of papers leaves the impression that
mixing is not yet a discipline and that many of
the approaches to quantitative understanding are
giving diminishing returns for more effort. 0


M book reviews

ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF
CHEMICAL PROCESSES
By R. M. Fielder and R. W. Rousseau
John Wiley & Sons 1978, 576 pp, $21.95
Reviewed by John D. Stevens
Iowa State University

This textbook by R. M. Felder and R. W.
Rousseau of North Carolina State University is
aimed at traditional mass and energy balance
courses and contains heavy emphasis on engineer-
ing techniques used to solve process-related
problems. This book has already made considerable
inroads on the market most recently dominated by
Himmelblau's stoichiometry text.
The book is divided into fourteen chapters.
Part 1 consists of the first four chapters which
introduce basic concepts on units, variables and
data representation. Some sections of this, par-
ticularly Chapter 4 on data representation and
analysis, may be skipped depending on the
students' background. Part 2 covers material
balances and Part 3 covers energy balances. Part
4 (Chapters 12-14) consists of three case studies
Continued on page 146.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








rec.og.ni.tion\ rek-ig-'nish-an,
-ag-\ n 1 : the action of recognizing; the state of being
recognized; as a : ACKNOWLEDGMENT 2 : special notice
or attention.





rec.og.ni.tion\ as we see it\
1 : the primary motivation to do creative work for an out-
standing company 2 : ACKNOWLEDGMENT of the quality of
that work; as a : self-satisfaction and pride b : respect
from peers and associates c : opportunity for advancement
3 : to recognize the challenge of the world today 4 : to be
recognized for doing something to meet those challenges
tomorrow.




If you know of qualified graduates in engineering or the
sciences, or with an interest in marketing, finance or computer
science, we hope you will encourage them to write us: Re-
cruiting and College Relations, P.O. Box 1713-CE, Midland,
Michigan 48640. Dow is an equal opportunity employer -
male/female. 'Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

common/uncommon
sense chemistry
Dow Ad No. 80-1802
Page-7 x 10 inches-B&W
Journal of Placement(J) (offset)-April, 1979
Chemical Engineering Education (CE) -Spring-April, 1979
Printed in U.S.A.
D'ARCY-MacMANUS & MASIUS
8128-H6-4-5-79-225724


SUMMER 1980









mM classroom


WE CAN DO PROCESS SIMULATION: UCAN-II


PHILIP M. HITTER
DAVID B. GREENBERG
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221

STUDENTS TRADITIONALLY introduced to chemical
engineering through exercises in beginning
subjects such as stoichiometry or related courses
learn the intricacies of mass and energy balances,
usually through steady-state approximations.
However, these procedures generally do not reveal
the true dynamic nature of process operation.
Progressive educators have recognized the pa-
rochial nature of the steady-state approach to this
subject matter. Moreover, dependence on analyti-
cal methods for solving significant differential
equations, usually beyond the capabilities of sopho-
more students, severely limits the treatment of dy-
namic systems in beginning courses.
The availability of computers as a classroom
tool has helped change this situation. Through
simulation of basic mathematical models the be-
ginning student can now be taught to visualize
the dynamic behavior of process units, before de-
tailed formal training in their analytical solution.
Herewith the student develops a working facility
for formulating, solving, and analyzing differen-
tial equations. The approach to mass and energy
balances can now be made more realistic, as it is
no longer restricted to the special case of steady-
state behavior. The first course becomes an intro-
duction to system design, through which the
student is made aware of the optimization and
control problem aspects of process equipment. [1]
In terms of classical engineering methodology,
analog computer solution of differential equations
enables the student to focus attention on forming
and evaluating mathematical models, rather than

S. dependence on analytical
methods for solving significant differential
equations, usually beyond the capabilities of sophomore
students, severely limits the treatment of
dynamic systems in beginning courses.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


on the details of solving them. Graphical computer
output helps the student to visualize the dynamic
behavior of process variables better than do tabu-
lated results. Also, the ease of parameter adjust-
ment and analysis helps to instill in the student
the concept of parametric "cause and effect" re-
lationships which forms the basis for a "design
orientation." This approach, thus, becomes the
foundation for more comprehensive study in ad-
vanced coursework. Specifically it has led to the
hand-in-hand relationship between the course
Process Simulation and the simulation language,
UCAN-II, in chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Cincinnati.

THE COURSE
P PROCESS SIMULATION AS A course has evolved in
a most unique fashion over the past several
years. It is an elective taught annually to a limited
enrollment selected from among chemical engi-
neering juniors, seniors, and first year graduate
students. The premier purpose of the course is to
encourage students to expand their quantitive
skills in systems analysis through the development
and evaluation of process models. Adjunct to this
objective is the review and introduction of perti-
nent mathematical techniques as necessary to ac-
complish this task.
Academically approached in tutorial fashion,
which is unconventional (at least) for this depart-
ment, the course, along with the language UCAN-
II, has become popular among the "computer
buffs" and the more mathematically oriented
students in chemical engineering. After an initial
period and several subsequent practice sessions to
initiate the class to UCAN-II, as well as its imple-
mentation on the University Computer System, the
course begins in earnest.
Problems are presented by the instructor to the
group for discussion purposes at the first of two 90
minute meetings. At this time the problem receives
a preliminary analysis by various student volun-
teers after queries are raised and answered by
group members themselves, or by the instructor
as a last resort.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


138




















-> // ,- :
p


Philip Hittner, who earned his BSChE at Drexel University and
his MSChE at the University of Cincinnati, is a programmer/analyst
with PEDCo. Environmental, Inc. of Cincinnati, Ohio. Refinements and
additions to the U.C. Analog Simulator were the basis for his
masters thesis. (R)
Dave Greenberg has been Professor and Head, Department of
Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of Cincinnati since 1974.
He has a BS from Carnegie Tech (CMU now), and MS from Johns
Hopkins, and his Ph.D. from Louisiana State University. Prior to joining
U. C. Dave spent the previous 14 years on the faculty of LSU, except
for 1972-73 at which time he served as program manager in the
Engineering Division of N.S.F. Dave's current research interests include
computation, applied math, and laser applications in chemistry, bio-
chemistry, and biomedicine. (L)

Often the problems are posed in a most general
manner, and early in the course such "ill-defined"
problems are somewhat unsettling to many
students who, are often critically tuned to the
usually well delineated exercise and coordinated
specific response found among the more conven-
tional courses. This uneasiness is often amplified
in the initial stages because the instructor does
not provide further problem quantification but,
rather, attempts to guide student thinking along
fruitful channels to allow each to define for him-
self or herself the problem parameters. When
students begin to realize that the "outside world"
functions very often in such vague and "ill-
defined" ways, the pain of discovery begins to ease
immeasurably.
At this point there sometimes arises a fierce
competition among students to determine whose
solution satisfies the teacher's criteria. Subsequent
class periods devoted to student solution presenta-
tions and critiques become quite spirited. More
often than not the class becomes polarized with
the graduates against the undergrads. In such
cases the instructor becomes a referee. Enlighten-
ment occurs when students comprehend that "real"
problems are multi-faceted, the solution obtained
is a function of the problem definition, and that


there are often several "best" answers depending
on the methodology and the tools used to obtain
that solution.

UCAN-II

E ACH TYPE OF SIMULATOR has advantages and
disadvantages which is why examples of all
levels are still in use today. UCAN has its heritage
in LEANS, an acronym for the LEhigh ANalong
Simulator, which was developed by Morris and
Schiesser in the 1960's at that institution. From a
later version of that language, one of the authors
(DBG) worked on an abridged version called
LOUISA that was to be a hybrid debug language
for the LSU hybrid computer system. LOUISA
was never made fully functional and the project
died when the author left the department. It has
had a recent resurgence, however, as UCAN at the
University of Cincinnati in 1976 and now UCAN-
II in 1978. This illustrious history is briefly
chronicled in Table I.

UCAN-II AS A TEACHING RESOURCE
CAN-II IS A BLOCK-ORIENTED analog simulation
program, as was its predecessors. Such digital
programs have the advantage of requiring no
amplitude or time scaling as do analog programs,
and are easy to store and re-use. As an academic
aid, a digital simulation language such as UCAN-
II has a number of advantages over other method-
ologies. This is especially true in an engineering
curriculum where it may be introduced as a
problem solving tool in place of or before analog
computers are normally introduced since digital
programs, in general, require minimal user pro-
gramming experience. In fact, one may learn to
solve many problems with a digital simulator
before he could effectively solve them in any other
way.
When block oriented programs, as is UCAN-II,
are general in nature they provide the user with a
sense for the equation solution protocol that the
computer actually follows. This is a valuable asset

TABLE 1: History
1965-LEANS (originfl)-Morris/Scheisser
1967-LEANS (Syracuse version)-Jelinek
Calcomp plotting added
1970-LOUISA (LSU LEANS update)-Jeffcoat/Green-
berg hybrid interactive
1976-UCAN (LOUISA update)-Shields/Greenberg
expanded functional operation
1978-UCAN-II (UCAN update)-Hittner/Greenberg
added logic, improved plotting


SUMMER 1980









TABLE It
UCAN-II Computing Elements


MATH


LOGIC


PARALLEL LOGIC SPECIAL FUNCTIONS


Constant Summation Relay And Arbitrary Function
Ind. Variable Multiplication Bang-Bang Not Generator
Integration Division Delay Inclusive Or Convergence
Derivative Exponentiation Dead Space Exclusive Or Reset
Nat. Log Limiter User Defined Functions
Power Store Master Block
Trig Fns. Abs. Val.
Arc Trig Fns. Clippers
Eng


when the program is being used to teach the
mathematics and simulation development, as
opposed to being used strictly as a tool to study
a particular system of interest. In terms of
classical chemical engineering, the solution of
differential equations via analog techniques helps
the student to focus attention on the form and
evaluation of mathematical models, vis-a-vis the
details of solving the equations.
In addition to the standard computing elements
derived from LEANS, UCAN-II has a number of
unique features, some of which had been developed
earlier as part of UCAN [8] and refined in UCAN-
II. Among these features are the "Reset" block,
which permits the solution of two-point boundary
value problems, a "convergence" block to force
the breaking of implicit function loops, and user-
defined blocks which allow the user to define special
non-analytic functions via FORTRAN subroutines.
New to UCAN-II is a pre-processing "master-
block" option which identifies a MACRO, a group
of various blocks called a "master" set. This is


UCAN-1I EXAMPLE
PROBLEM
HYDRAULIC TRANSIENT





/ Al
XAL


FIGURE 1.


used for computational redundancies or other
special programming purposes. Mathematic blocks,
logic blocks, and other special blocks give UCAN-
II considerable flexibility for simulating dynamic
systems. Moreover, new Boolean operator blocks
make it possible to implement logically-controlled
switching operations in a simulation. See Table II.

USING UCAN-II
T SOLVE A PROBLEM with UCAN-II, one must
first derive the equations that model the process
exactly as he would before solving the problem
analytically. This includes specifying boundary
conditions and all numeric constants, as well as
converting all variables into consistent units. Con-
sider as an example the problem presented below.
After the mathematical description of the problem
has been developed a block diagram is prepared,
showing all mathematical and logical operations
that must be performed, as well as the order and
flow of information. Using this block diagram, a
program listing is made which identifies the
UCAN-II blocks to be called and the inputs to
each. From the listing a computer card deck is
assembled along with the appropriate JCL (Job
Control Language) cards and, as required, addi-
tional data cards. This deck is run as a typical
batch submission.*

PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE: HYDRAULIC TRANSIENTS
The following example of a UCAN-II problem
solution has been abstracted from a report by a
senior [12] in Process Simulation, Spring, 1979.
It is a modification of a problem taken from a
recently used text [7] in the process simulation
course.
*Interested readers may obtain the UCAN II Pro-
gramming Manual and information on the program by
contacting the author.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


BASIC


PUMP 3









A certain plant has been operating for five
years. A project to expand capacity has been sub-
mitted and approved. The scope of the work calls
for installation of new process equipment and
alteration of some of the existing facilities. One
of the engineers at the plant has requested an
analog study of the "tank and pipeline" process
described below.
Figure 1 shows the process schematically.
Waste liquid is pumped from the production area
by two existing pumps into a tank. From the
tank, the liquid flows by gravity through a long
line which discharges into the nearby river. The
pumps operate in accordance with the buildup of
waste liquid in the production area and are not
controlled by conditions in the tank.
Under steady-state conditions, inflow equals
outflow, and the height of the liquid in the tank
remains constant. The mathematical relationships
governing this process are:


MASS BALANCE

(pAT) = (pN)QA (p)QL

FORCE BALANCE
(L) dQ G
AH ,T p
ALGo dT Go


PARAMETERS
AT = 470 FT.2
AL = 12.6 FT.2
L = 665 FT.
H = 9.5 FT.


VARIABLES
N = NO. OF PUMPS
H, = HT. OF LIQUID
QL = OUTFLOW
Hp = FLUID HEAD


The UCAN-II block diagram is shown in Figure 2.
The scope of the work calls for the addition of
one more pump, identical to the two existing
pumps, to handle the increased effluent from the
expanded facilities. The engineer who proposed
the analog study was afraid that the tank might
overflow shortly after the third pump turned on.
At first he encountered some resistance, based on
the argument that the above equation gives a
value of Hp less than the height of the tank for
a QL equal to the maximum pumping rate (three
pumps running). The engineer pointed out that
the head might build up to overflowing before the
mass of water in the outlet line could accelerate
to the final discharge rate. Inspection of the exist-


UCAN-II BLOCK DIAGRAM HYDRAULIC TRANSIENT


FIGURE 2.
ing installation showed that every time the second
pump turned on, the liquid level surged up con-
siderably higher than the final steady-state level
for two pumps. The level then oscillated up and
down for a considerable period of time before
settling down to its steady-state height. The engi-
neer's proposal to study the dynamic behavior of
the tank and pipeline through analog simulation
was approved.
The UCAN-II solution block diagram is given
in Figure 2. Typical computer output is available
both in tabular and graphical form. Figure 3 pro-
vides the optimal solution to the problem in terms
Continued on page 148.


160
LAG TIME, PUMP No.2 (Sec.)
FIGURE 3.


SUMMER 1980










laboratory


VIRGINIA TECH'S STUDY-TRAVEL PROGRAM


GEORGE B. WILLS
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

W E WISH TO DESCRIBE our experiences with
what we believe is a novel and highly effec-
tive Study-Travel Scholarship Program that we
have developed for our rising seniors. In addition
we would like to acquaint you with our university,
since some of you may be uncertain of our geo-
graphical location, and many of you will be unsure
of our official name.

BACKGROUND AND HISTORY

THE UNIVERSITY WAS FOUNDED in Blacksburg,
Virginia in 1872 as Virginia's land grant uni-
versity and at that time we were called the Vir-
ginia Agricultural and Mechanical College. Later
we became the Virginia Polytechnic Institute or
V.P.I. In 1970, our name was changed to the Vir-
ginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
or V.P.I. & S.U. More simply and popularly, we
are known as "Virginia Tech".
The University has 8 colleges and a full-time
student enrollment of about 20,000, with about
5400 enrolled in the College of Engineering. This
makes us about the sixth largest engineering
college in the United States. With a non-student
population of 35,000, Blacksburg is located in
southwestern Virginia in the backbone of the Ap-
palachian Mountains. Our elevation of 2200 feet
not only furnishes us with magnificent scenery
but also gives us a superb summer climate of mild

To address these problems of quantity and
quality of the undergraduates, in 1975 we initiated
what we labeled a "Freshman Merit Scholarship
Program." . this (Study-travel Program)
evolved from this earlier
scholarship program.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


George B. Wills received a B.S. degree from M.I.T. in 1954 and a
M.S. from the University of Wisconsin in 1955. After several years
at the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works in St. Louis, Missouri, he returned
to Wisconsin where he received a Ph.D. in 1962. He was then with
the Phillips Petroleum Company in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, until joining
the faculty of V.P.I. & S.U. in 1964. His research interests have been
in mass transfer and heterogeneous catalysis. He is currently Professor
of Chemical Engineering and Chairman of the Departmental Scholar-
ship Committee.

temperatures and low humidity.
Prior to 1937, Chemical Engineering was a
part of our Chemistry Department. In 1937 we
became an independent department with Dr.
Frank Vilbrandt as the first Head. At the time of
our founding the department was unique in the
College of Engineering in having a graduate pro-
gram to the Ph.D. level. The second Ph.D. awarded
at the university was in Chemical Engineering,
the first such degree being awarded in Chemistry.
Since 1937 we have been a substantial department
with graduating classes ranging from 25 to 90.

ORIGIN OF THE PROGRAM
W ITH THIS INTRODUCTION we now turn our at-
tention to the main subject of describing a
study-travel scholarship program that has been
developed for our rising seniors. This pro-
gram evolved from an earlier scholarship program
that we established at the freshman level six years
ago. At that time our enrollments had reached an


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


ChwE









all-time low with the graduating class numbering
only in the low twenties. Furthermore, there was
a problem with the quality of students that we
were attracting. For example, there was a sharp
rise in the mortality rate in Physical Chemistry,
particularly in the quarter devoted to quantum me-
chanics, and within the department we noted a
disturbing loss in student aptitude and motiva-
tion. These low enrollments were of course a part
of the national trend at that time, although per-
haps we were somewhat harder hit than some
other universities.
To address these dual problems of quantity and
quality of the undergraduates, in 1975 we initi-
ated what we labeled a "Freshman Merit Scholar-
ship Program." Its purpose was to recruit out-
standing high school seniors into our program.
The awards were for full in-state tuition for the
freshman year and these awards were made solely
on the basis of academic merit. No statements of
financial need were required and a simple written
statement of interest in Chemical Engineering and
enrollment in the engineering school were the
only requirements for consideration. Selection of
awardees was primarily on the basis of class rank
and SAT scores, both of which we expected to be
in the upper 10%. The program was financed
solely by gifts from industrial sponsors and it
was highly successful in addressing both the
problems of low enrollments and of attracting a
high quality student body. In the fourth year of
our freshman program, the dean of engineering
started a similar college-wide program. Our pro-
gram was incorporated into the college-wide pro-
gram and this released the funds that we had
been using for freshman scholarships. We decided
to divide the available funds into two parts: about
half of the funds was to be used for merit scholar-
ship awards at the sophomore level, and the re-
mainder was to be used in a junior level scholar-
ship program, with the nature of this junior level
program at first undefined.
There was considerable discussion within the
department as to how best use the funds that had
become available. An obvious choice was simply
to extend the merit scholarship awards into the
junior year. However, there was also considerable
sentiment for developing what we for a while
termed an "opportunity award". Suggested alter-
natives were expense-paid trips to national AIChE
meetings, special short courses which might be
available only at off-campus sites, a "retreat" for
students which would allow the faculty and invited


guests to interact with the students in an informal
atmosphere, and finally, a study-travel experience
of some sort. We elected to try the latter proposal
and the Dean agreed to help with the funding of
an experimental program of this type. The think-
ing was that many of our fine students had
traveled little and that a trip to Europe, coupled
with some involvement with educators there,
would be a valuable experience. The junior level
was particularly suitable because of the structure
of our Unit Operations Laboratory. It is a full-
time course of five weeks duration taught during
the summer. Since summer work opportunities
for students are usually difficult to obtain for the
remaining half of the summer, a study-travel
award for the uncommitted part of the summer
was not deemed a serious interference with plans
for summer employment.

THE STUDY-TRAVEL PRIZE PROGRAM
TN THE SUMMER OF 1978 we organized an experi-
mental study-travel program. Those completing
their junior year requirements by the end of
summer school were invited to apply. We asked


The Student Party of 1978 with Dr. David Harrison
on the right.
each applicant to submit a biographical, sketch
together with a short essay outlining how they
would prepare for such a trip and what benefits
they expected to gain from such an experience.
We visited several universities in the United King-
dom, and after some negotiations we arranged for
a group of six students to spend a little over a
week at the University of Cambridge, to be
followed by a week's stay at the University College
of Swansea (a part of the University of Wales,


SUMMER 1980









The thinking was that many of our fine
students had traveled little and that a trip to
Europe, coupled with some involvement with
educators there, would be a
valuable experience.

located in Swansea, Wales.) At Cambridge, the
students studied fluidization with Dr. David
Harrison. They were housed in the dormitories of
Pembroke College (one of the colleges making up
Cambridge University) and their meals were also
taken there. The academic work consisted of lec-
tures, laboratory experiments, and the independent
study of the pertinent literature.
Following the Cambridge visit, the group
traveled to Swansea, Wales, where they spent a
week studying metallurgical processes. This study
culminated in a report which the group pre-
sented orally to faculty and students in residence.
Their tutor at Swansea was Dean D. W. Hopkins,
an authority on metallurgical processes. They also
had extensive contacts with Professor J. P.
Richardson and other members of the chemical
engineering faculty. At Swansea, they and a Swan-
sea graduate student were housed in an off-campus
student house consisting of 8 bedrooms and its own
kitchen, living room, etc. Their noon meals were
taken at the university cafeteria and they prepared
their own breakfast and dinner.


Punting on the River Cam at Cambridge.


After the visits to the universities, the group
members were free to do as they liked for the
remaining two weeks of their stay. Two traveled
extensively in France, two toured Germany and
Switzerland, and the remaining two spent two
weeks hiking and backpacking in the British Isles.
The department paid all on-campus expenses
as well as the transatlantic fares. In addition,
we furnished each member of the group with a
30-day Britrail pass. The cost to the students for
the two weeks on their own ranged from a low of
$200 to a high of $800. Our costs were a little
over $6000, or about $1000/student, and this was
borne equally by the department and the Dean.
A point of interest might be the composition
of this first group. It consisted of four women and
two men. This is a fine tribute to the very able
group of young women who were recruited in our
freshman merit program in previous years, since
their representation in the travel group greatly
exceeds their representation in the class.
Following the return of the group to the
campus, we received most laudatory reports from
their tutors. For example, from Cambridge, "Let
me say at once what a great pleasure it was to
have them in Cambridge. . The students were
interested and competent, open and apprecia-
tive... ," and from Swansea, "It has been a great
pleasure to have your six students with us . .
we were very pleased with the work which they
did on the project ... I would like to add that we
enjoyed meeting your students socially . ."
We of course interviewed the returning
students and their reactions were clear: they felt
that the experience was a superb one. One student
wrote, "The education I received both inside and
outside of the classroom is one I'll never forget
and will always cherish." For some students it was
the first time they had traveled independently
with the responsibility for making all of the
arrangements themselves. This was particularly
true of the women. Several of the group had
traveled but little, and for one it was the first
time on an airplane. Later in the year the group
gave a lecture-slide show for the student body and
another presentation for aspirants to the continua-
tion of the program. For those of us attending
these presentations, the impact of the experience
was evident.

CONTINUATION OF THE PROGRAM
T WAS DECIDED TO continue the program for an-
other year and this past summer another group


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









of six students returned to the United Kingdom.
They spent about a week at the University College
of Swansea and another week at Imperial College
in London. This year's group consisted of four
men and two women. As before, two weeks were
available for independent travel. At Swansea the
group's tutor was again Dean Hopkins and this
year's topic was an evaluation of competing zinc
smelting processes. At Imperial College the
group's tutor was Dr. Stephen Richardson (no re-
lation to Professor Richardson at Swansea) and
there they were concerned with a computer
controlled set of adsorption-desorption columns.
We plan to continue the program again this
year, keeping the group size at about five or six.
This seems to be an ideal size. It is large enough
so that the tutor can lecture without feeling
foolish, and at the same time it is small enough to
be invited into someone's home. The students are
unchaperoned and no academic credit is given.
This format obviously places a high level of re-
sponsibility upon the individual student and calls
for initiative and good judgment on their parts.


THE DEPARTMENT'S ASSESSMENT
WE FEEL THAT THE PROGRAM allows our students
to penetrate the veneer of ordinary tourism
and to interact in a meaningful way with teachers
and students from a different culture. To be
successful, a program such as this requires a
group of highly capable students and we currently
have these in unprecedented abundance. We are
happy to be able to give recognition to these very
fine students and we think that our funds are very
wisely spent. O


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
By way of acknowledgment, we wish to thank our
industrial sponsors for their generous support. They have
been enthusiastic in support of our use of a fraction of
their awards for this program. The supporting firms have
been: Diamond Shamrock, Du Pont, Mobil, Ethyl, Shell,
Celanese, Exxon, Union Camp, and Union Carbide. Dean
Paul Torgersen has generously supported the program
from his discretionary funds. Dr. Henry McGee, the de-
partment head, has been an enthusiastic supporter of the
program as has Dr. Peter Rony, a member of our depart-
mental honorifics committee. Dr. Rony received an award
of a somewhat similar type as an undergraduate at Cal-
tech, and he has been an enthusiastic and valuable re-
source in the planning of our programs. Finally, we would
recognize the very fine students who have received the
awards. We have placed great confidence in them and
'they have acquitted themselves well.


MOLECULAR THEORY
Continued from page 128
2 d2n 2 dn
V2 n + r r and the boundary condi-
dr2 r dr
dn
tions for Eq. (5.5) are dr = 0 at r = 0 and

n -. na as r oo. In the limit of large drops and
bubbles the pressure difference AP between in-
side and outside obeys the Young-Laplace equa-
tion AP = 2 'y/R, R being the drop radius. As
the drops become smaller the above theory shows
that this relationship fails, the pressure difference
being greatly overestimated by the Young-Laplace
equation.
The theory illustrated here for a one com-
ponent fluid is developed in the course for multi-
component fluids and for fluid-solid microstruc-
tures. Electrostatic effects are also included so that
double-layer and electrostriction phenomena are
accounted for. Meniscus shapes, disjoining pres-
sures, and contact angles are investigated also.

REFERENCES
1. H. T. Davis, Chemical Engineering Education, Vol.
13, No. 4, 198 (Fall 1979).
2. V. Bongiorno, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, J. Coll.
Int. Sci. 57, 462 (1976).
3. V. Bongiorno and H. T. Davis, Phys. Rev. A12, 2213
(1976).
4. B. S. Carey, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, AIChEJ.
24, 1076 (1978).
5. B. S. Carey, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, J. Chem.
Phys. 6,9, 5040 (1978).


Yn Menowiat


4q'ed A. PeeSes

Dean Peebles was born on April 4, 1920, in Paris, TN.
His technical education started at Memphis Technical
High School and advanced through bachelors, masters and
Ph.D. degrees in ChE at the University of Tennessee. He
served engineering education extraordinarily well as pro-
fessor, department chairman and dean at the U. of Ten-
nessee. During his career, he received numerous awards
for his contributions to the University, the community and
the engineering profession. He was a member of numerous
professional and honorary societies and was the author
of many scientific articles. His generosity of spirit infused
his institutions' commitment to expanding dramatically
the opportunities for minorities to enter the engineering
profession. Loved by faculty and students alike, Fred gave
unstintingly of himself in assuring their proper develop-
ment and personal well-being.


SUMMER 1980










In class and home problems


In the Spring 1980 issue of GEE, Professor Robert L. Kabel presented the "Prairie Dog Problem"
and our student readers were encouraged to submit their solution to him at the ChE Department, Pennsyl-
vania State University, University Park, PA 16802, by June 15th, 1980. This deadline for entries has
now been extended to September 5th, 1980, and Professor Kabel's solution to the problem, will be pub-
lished in the Fall 1980 issue of GEE. A complimentary subscription to CEE will be awarded to the best
solution submitted in both graduate and undergraduate categories (please designate your student status
on your entry.)


BOOK REVIEW: Chemical Processes
Continued from page 136
of industrial processes. The book contains almost
600 problems, including many computer problems,
at the end of chapters. In general, the text content
is similar to Himmelblau's.
The strength of this text is in the authors' use
of clear, concise language and carefully chosen
examples to convey concepts to the reader. This
text is obviously written with students in mind.
To aid in the students' learning, important points
are italicized and "Test Yourself" questions are
scattered throughout the reading material.
Answers to all "Test Yourself" questions plus
some homework problems are given in the Ap-
pendix. In Parts 1 and 2, SI units seem to be used
in about one-half of the examples and homework
problems. However, in Part 3 the emphasis on SI
units increases. Conversion tables on the inside
cover make conversion factors readily available.
The physical property tables in the appendix are
quite complete although in some problems the
authors also force the student to become familiar
with Perry's Handbook as an information re-
source. However, the psychrometric charts are a
disappointment. They have been reduced to 4.5 x
6" charts and are practically impossible to read.
Most instructors will want to supply supplemental
psychrometric charts.
Some instructors will also disapprove of the
authors' decision to adopt the convention of posi-
tive work as that work done on a system by the
surroundings. Thus, in the First Law the heat
and work side of the energy equation becomes
Q + W. While this convention has been adopted
as an international standard, most current texts
still use the opposite sign convention.
Nevertheless, this text appears to have many


more positives than negatives. The case studies
offer the opportunity of assigning term-long, com-
prehensive problems to help tie course concepts to-
gether. Alternatively, the instructor can choose
to emphasize computer aspects and assign pro-
gramming problems. The authors have gone to
considerable lengths to help instructors use this
text. The problem solution manual is almost error-
free and includes four suggested course outlines
for either a semester course or a two quarter se-
quence. Complete solutions to the case studies are
supplied. The text is flexible enough to offer an
instructor the opportunity to design an introduc-
tory stoichiometry course to suit that instructor's
own objectives.
The bottom line is whether this text is accepted
by students. In our initial experience we found the
students' acceptance to be exceptional. Quite
simply, the students find the text readable and
easy to learn from. They find the problems under-
standable and worthwhile.
In summary, this text merits serious considera-
tion by any instructor who teaches an introductory
chemical engineering course. 0


AIR POLLUTION-3RD EDITION VOL. IV-
"ENGINEERING CONTROL OF AIR
POLLUTION"
Edited by Arthur C. Ster
Academic Press, Inc., N.Y.
Reviewed by William Licht
University of Cincinnati

In 1970 Professor Arthur C. Stern was pre-
sented the Richard Beatty Mellon Award of the
Air Pollution Control Association because (in
part) he was "the man who wrote the book!" The
reference was to the monumental "Air Pollution"
already in its second edition (1968) of three


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I


m









volumes. Professor Stern conceived the grand de-
tailed plan, wrote some sections himself, edited
the many contributions written by others, and
was the guiding spirit required to bring it to
completion.
Now we have the third edition, expanded to
five volumes of nearly a thousand pages each, but
again organized and edited by Stern. The work
attempts to deal with every aspect of air pollution
and its control. It must run hard to attempt to
keep up with the flood of technical literature of
the last decade.
Volume III of the second edition dealt with:
Sources of Air Pollution, Control Methods and
Equipment, and Air Pollution Control (legisla-
tion and administration). Volume IV, under re-
view here, is the corresponding part of the new
edition with regard to the first two areas, but the
subject of Air Quality Management has been
moved to a separate Volume V. Each of the
twenty one chapters is written by different
authors, specialists in the topic of the chapter.
The first third of Volume IV deals with general
control concepts and the principles of control
devices as applied to stationary sources for the re-
moval of particulate matter and gases. General
principles of operation, description of equipment,
and principles of selection and evaluation are
given for mechanical collectors, filters, electro-
static precipitators, scrubbers (all kinds), mist
eliminators, adsorption beds, and combustion
processes.
The remainder of the Volume is devoted to
specific categories of sources and their control:
Fuels and combustion products of all kinds (in-
cluding motor vehicles), agricultural and forest
products, mineral and petroleum processing, the
chemical industries, and metallurgical operations.
Flow charts and process descriptions are given to
indicate the source and amount of emissions and
typical present methods of control.
The book is excellent for a general introduction
or survey of any of the topics presented. For the
in-depth knowledge needed in design work, more
specialized references must be consulted, especially
in regard to the theoretical aspects of the control
equipment performance. The volume is hand-
somely printed and well-documented with original
references. It is an inevitable risk in a work of
this scope that the various chapters may be un-
even in quality of writing and in being up to date.
Professor Stern has succeeded in minimizing (al-
though not eliminating) this risk. 0


BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY-PRINCIPLES,
TECHNIQUES, AND APPLICATIONS
By Alan G. Marshall
(University of British Columbia)
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978, 812 pages.
Reviewed by D. O. Cooney
Clarkson College

This book is a meticulous, thorough, and lucid
exposition of biophysical chemistry. The clarity of
presentation, the choice of examples and illustra-
tions, and its precise (yet not stifling) attention
to detail are all very strong features of this text.
Moreover, along the way the scientific bases and
applications of nearly every important modern
type of biophysical measurement techniques are
clearly presented (including affinity chromato-
graphy, laser light scattering, ultrasonic imaging,
ion-selective electrodes, and many more). In addi-
tion, the same clear treatment is given to tradi-
tional subjects, such as the thermodynamics and
chemistry of biological systems (electrochemical
potentials, semipermeable membranes, macro-
molecular solubility, enzyme kinetics, pharmaco-
kinetics, etc.). Techniques involving electrophore-
sis, sedimentation, polarography, radioactive
tracers, and a wide array of spectroscopic and
scattering phenomena (NMR; x-ray scattering;
neutron diffraction; visible, UV, and IR spectro-
scopy; fluorescence, etc.) are explained, and in-
teresting examples of their uses are presented.
The most novel and valuable feature of the
book, however, is its arrangement into six major
sections, in each of which processes or phenomena
having the same types of mathematical bases are
grouped. For example, one section treats all kinds
of growth and decay processes, and another treats
all processes based on probability (e.g., random
walk processes like diffusion, radioactive count-
ing methods). The advantage of this approach is
that, once a basic type of mathematical model is
presented, subsequent applications of the model
to other processes having the same kind of physi-
cal basis consists simply of changing the names
of the mathematical variables.
How useful this book might be to academic
chemical engineers is another matter; however,
for those having a biomedical or biochemical
interest I would recommend this as a volume that
might be valuable as a source of many ideas that
could be injected here or there into a bio-related
course. O


SUMMER 1980


'147









UCAN II
Continued from page 141
of the shortest timing sequence related to the
safe maximum liquid level in the tank. It was pre-
pared from an extensive series of UCAN-II runs
in which the lag times for engaging pumps 2 and
3 were varied in systematic fashion.

SUMMARY

L EARNING TO USE A block-oriented simulation
language such as UCAN-II may be achieved
with practice and a brief initial period of instruc-
tion, supplemented by studying the USER'S
GUIDE. Often students can begin solving problems
of reasonable mathematical complexity the first
day they encounter UCAN-II. In many ways
UCAN-II is as easy to learn and use as a pocket
calculator; only limited previous computer
knowledge is necessary. Beyond the material in
the manual, the user need only learn how to key-
punch cards and submit his program, or how to use
a remote terminal, and how to access the UCAN-
II program.
Through computer simulation of basic mathe-
matical models the sophomore or pre-junior
student can learn to visualize the dynamic be-
havior of process equipment even before being
taught the analytical solution of equations relating
to the equipment. In introductory stoichiometry
courses typical problems demonstrate the con-
servation of mass and energy, usually under
steady-state conditions. These principles must be
taught thoroughly as they form the basis of chemi-
cal engineering, but with a tool such as UCAN-II
problems involving dynamic behavior may also be
taught, and the approach to mass and energy
balances can now be more reflective of "real-
world" situations. Even before secondary level
courses, such as process control, a student can gain
an appreciation of the optimization and control
aspects of process equipment. O0


REFERENCES
1. Jelinek, Robert V., and Luker, James A., Introduction
to Chemical Engineering Design via Analog Com-
puter, presented at the 153rd Nat'l. Meeting of the
American Chemical Society, Div. of Industrial and
Engineering Chem., Miami Beach, April 10, 1967.
2. Brennan, R. D., "PACTOLUS-A Simulation
Language Which Makes a Digital Computer Feel
Like an Analog Computer," Simulation, 3, 13 (1964).
3. Franks, R. G. E., and Schiesser, W. E., "The Evolu-


tion of Digital Simulation Programs," C. E. P., 63, 68
ff (1967).
4. Harnett, R. T., Sansom, F. S., and Warshawsky, L. M.,
"Midas-An Analog Approach to Digital Computa-
tion," Simulation, 3, 17 (1964).
5. Morris, Stanley M., The Lehigh Analog Simulator,
(M.S. Thesis), Lehigh University, 1965.
6. Petersen, H. E., Sansom, F. J., and Warshawsky,
L. M., "MIMIC-A Digital Simulator Program,"
SESCA Internal Memo 65-12, Wright-Patterson Air
Force Base, Ohio (1964).
7. Ramirez, Fred W., "Process Simulation," Lexington,
Massachusetts, D.C. Heath and Company (1976), pp
90-91.
8. Schlesinger, S. L., and Sashkin, L., "EASL-A Digital
Computer Language for Hands-on-Simulation," Simu-
lation, 6, 110 (1966).
9. Shields, John, The University of Cincinnati Analog
Simulator, (M.S. Thesis), University of Cincinnati,
1977.
10. Syn, W. M., and Linebarger, R. N., "DSL/90-A
Digital Simulation Program for Continuous System
Modeling," Proc. Spring Joint Comput. Conf., 165 ff
(1966).
11. "1130 Continuous System Modeling Program," IBM
Application Program 1120-0209-0 (1966).
12. Dearwater, J. G., "Hydraulic Transients," Process
Simulation Report, University of Cincinnati, Spring
(1979).

ChE MATERIALS COURSE
Continued from page 124
picture with ours. As a result, several textbooks
have been experimented with and they have been
generously supplemented with outside reading
(see Table 3). We have come to believe there is
educational value in requiring that the student
consult multiple sources for information. Students
often considered the quantity of reading too ex-
tensive, but they usually adapted to reading at the
proper level and became efficient.

CONCLUSION
N RETROSPECT, WE BELIEVE the students have
found this course to be a valuable integrative
experience. While quite challenging, they can
easily discern their own growth in understanding
of the world around them and in effectively com-
municating the most important aspects of a situa-
tion. We think the success of the course can be
principally attributed to the efficient coverage of
considerable material at a professional level
through use of the unique background of the
chemical engineer and significant teacher/student
interaction in oral and written considerations
about real world phenomena and relationships. E


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Departmental Sponsors: The following 135 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1980.


University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alberta
Arizona State University
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas
Auburn University
Brigham Young University
University of British Columbia
Bucknell University
University of Calgary
California State Polytechnic
California Institute of Technology
University of California (Berkeley)
University of California (Davis)
University of California (Santa Barbara)
Carnegie-Mellon University
Case-Western Reserve University
University of Cincinnati
Clarkson College of Technology
Clemson University
Cleveland State University
University of Colorado
Colorado School of Mines
Columbia University
University of Connecticut
Cornell University
University of Dayton
University of Delaware
U. of Detroit
Drexel University
Ecole Polytechnique (Canada)
University of Florida
Georgia Tech
University of Houston
Howard University
University of Idaho
University of Illinois (Urbana)
Illinois Institute of Technology
Institute of Gas Technology
Institute of Paper Chemistry
University of Iowa
Iowa State University
Kansas State University
University of Kentucky


Lafayette College
Lamar University
Lehigh University
Loughborough University
Louisiana State University
Louisiana Tech. University
University of Louisville
University of Maine
University of Maryland
University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
McMaster University
McNeese State University
University of Michigan
Michigan State University
Michigan Tech. University
University of Minnesota
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri (Columbia)
University of Missouri (Rolla)
Monash University
Montana State University
University of Nebraska
University of New Brunswick
New Jersey Inst. of Tech.
University of New Hampshire
New Mexico State University
University of New Mexico
City University of New York
Polytechnic Institute of New York
State University of N.Y. at Buffalo
North Carolina State University
University of North Dakota
Northwestern University
University of Notre Dame
Nova Scotia Tech. College
Ohio State University
Ohio University
University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma State University
Oregon State University
University of Ottawa
University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania State University
University of Pittsburgh
Princeton University


University of Puerto Rico
Purdue University
Queen's University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
University of Rhode Island
Rice University
University of Rochester
Rutgers U.
University of South Carolina
University of Saskatchewan
South Dakota School of Mines
University of South Florida
University of Southern California
Stanford University
Stevens Institute of Technology
Syracuse University
Tennessee Technological University
University of Tennessee
Texas A&M University
Texas A&I University
University of Texas at Austin
Texas Technological University
University of Toledo
University of Toronto
Tri-State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
University of Tulsa
University of Utah
Vanderbilt University
Villanova University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
University of Virginia
Washington State University
University of Washington
Washington University
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
West Virginia University
University of Western Ontario
University of Windsor
University of Wisconsin (Madison)
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
University of Wyoming
Yale University
Youngstown State University


TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your
department chairman to write CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611.










NEW AND BEST-SELLING

BOOKS FROM

WILEY-INTERSCIENCE

APPLIED SYMBOLIC LOGIC
Edward P. Lynch
This book offers students a basic foundation in applied symbolic logic as
a powerful communications tool. The author explains three applications
of the logic: the use of Boolean algebra in graphic form to show the
relationships in any system of on-off events; a new development
involving implication and inference; and the use of symbolic logic in fault
tree analysis.
approx. 272 pp. (1-06256-1) Sept. 1980 $36.00
CHEMISTRY OF COAL UTILIZATION
Second Supplementary Volume
Edited by Martin A. Elliott
This new supplement brings up to date information in the original two-
volume reference published in 1945 under the editorship of H H. Lowry,
and the First Supplement issued in 1963. References in this new volume
are made to the (still available) earlier volumes, This second supplement
updates the literature on the science and technology of coal utilization.
New topics include coal research and development, coal resources, and
environmental health and safety implications of increased coal utilization.
approx. 2600 pp. (1-07726-7) Aug. 1980 $150 (tent.)
FERMENTATION AND ENZYME TECHNOLOGY
Daniel I.C. Wang, Charles L. Cooney, Arnold L. Demain,
Peter Dunnill, Arthur E. Humphrey, & Malcolm D. Lilly
A practical, up-to-date introduction to fermentation and enzyme
technology. It outlines the fundamental microbiological, biochemical,
genetic, and engineering aspects of fermentation-presenting advanced
methods of fermentation and control. Covers the isolation of enzymes,
especially those found in intracellular contents of microorganisms.
Discusses enzyme immobilization and the factors influencing the use of
enzymes in reactors.
374 pp. (1-91945-4) 1979 $28.95
CORROSION OF STAINLESS STEELS
A. John Sedriks
Designed to provide a perspective and introduction for students entering
the fields of corrosion, materials selection, and component and plant
maintenance. The book bridges the gap between texts dealing with
metallurgy, fabrication, and other aspects of stainless steels where
corrosion discussion is limited, and those dealing at length with narrow
and specialized aspects of their corrosion.
282 pp. (1-05011-3) 1979 $32.00
PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
Chris A. Clausen Ill & Guy Mattson
This book uses process development as a general theme to provide
chemistry students with information that previously has been acquired
only through on-the-job training. It presents concepts in unit operation
and their application, and traces an industrial chemical process from the
idea stage to a fully operational plant. Covers material accounting,
energy accounting, mass transport, heat transfer, principles of kinetics,
separation methods, and instrumentation.
412 pp. (1-02774-X) 1978 $22.50
DIFFUSIONAL MASS TRANSFER
A.H.P Skelland
This volume presents an integrated treatment of diffusive and convective
mass transfer, and describes a representative selection of topics, many
of which are common to a wide variety of applications. The derivation of
important or exemplary relationships is given in sufficient detail to enable
a clear understanding of practical applications.
510 pp. (1-79374-4) 1974 $40.95
Books under consideration as classroom texts are available for 60-day
free examination. Write to Jules Kazimir.
Order through your bookstore or write to Nat Bodian, Dept. 092 7762
TO ORDER BY PHONE call toll free 800-526-5368.
In New Jersey, call collect (201) 797- 7809.
SWWILEY-INTERSCIENCE
a division of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue
New York, N.Y 10016
In Canada: 22 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario
Prices subject to change without notice. 1-7762


KINETICS OF COAL GASIFICATION
The late James Lee Johnson
Now, the major works of James Lee Johnson-who, until his untimely
death in November, 1977, was one of the leading authorities in this area
-are available in this single volume. By presenting a series of Dr.
Johnson's publications, this book traces the development of coal
gasification kinetics-providing the best description of coal gasification
reactions available. The book puts gasification kinetics into perspective
for reactor design through discussions of gasification thermodynamics,
fluidized beds, and the physical characterization of coals and coal chars
for estimating gasification reactivity.
324 pp. (1-05575-1) 1979 $23.50
THE EXERGY METHOD OF ENERGY
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
John E. Ahern
This book applies the second law of thermodynamics to energy-related
systems as an aid to improving plant and system performance and to
reducing energy expenditure in plant design and operation. Simplifies
the procedure for making an exergy analysis-with data from
conventional first law heat balance providing the input to the exergy
calculation-to determine the real energy changes in the work of the
system, process by process.
295 pp. (1-05494-1) 1980 $27.50
AN INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS DYNAMICS
AND CONTROL
Thomas W. Weber
Presents a balanced picture of the theoretical and practical aspects of
process control and dynamics. Examines the most common methods of
control-open loop, feedback, feedforward, and environmental
methods-and describes the standard controller actions (on-off,
proportional, reset, and derivative), explaining which should be used for
given processes and how much control should be used.
434 pp. (1-92330-3) 1973 $36.95
NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR SAFETY
E.E. Lewis
Discussing nuclear safety as it pertains to power reactor accidents that
may lead to releases of radioactive materials into the environment, this
book emphasizes situations with potential for causing significant public
health problems. The interdisciplinary nature of reactor safety is stressed,
as is the interaction of neutronic, thermal-hydraulic materials phenomena
during reactor transients. Materials on the modeling of reactivity
feedback, hydraulic behavior, and other aspects of transient analysis are
also included.
630 pp. (1-53335-1) 1977 $43.50
OPTIMIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL
EXPERIMENTATION
William E. Biles & James J. Swain
The unification of the theory and methodology of optimization with well-
known statistical and experimental methods is the focus of this book. It is
directed toward situations where experimentation is the only way to
characterize a system, where such experimentation is implicitly
expensive, and optimization is desired. As a textbook for senior or
graduate level courses in Experimental Optimization, the book requires
only mathematical maturity in calculus and matrix algebra.
368 pp. (1-04244-7) 1980 $32.50
PULP AND PAPER
Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3rd Ed.,
Vols. 1, 2, & 3
James P. Casey
Here's an in-depth look at the chemistry and chemical technology
involved in the manufacture of pulp and paper, the properties of paper,
and the uses for paper. The new edition contains contributions by forty
recognized authorities in the field. Emphasizing the underlying science
and technology, this edition reviews, in detail, chemical and engineering
principles. Includes numerous tables, illustrations, and a complete
bibliography.
Vol. 1: 820 pp. (1-03175-5) 1980 $55.00
Vol. 2: approx. 768 pp. (1-03176-3) Nov. 1980 $39.95 (tent.)
Vol. 3: approx. 700 pp. (1-03177-1) Nov. 1980 $48.50 (tent.)
SYNTHETIC FUELS FROM COAL
Larry L. Anderson and David A. Tillman
A timely, detailed description of the principles, processes and products
of coal conversion systems. Weighs the need for alternatives to gas and
oil, and the prospects of coal conversion, its costs, and its environmental
consequences, providing a managerially-oriented perspective on the.
technical and economic realities of producing synthetic fuels from coal.
158 pp. (1-01784-1) 1979 $16.95




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