Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00066

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien

Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial & Business Assistant:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
Vice Chairman:
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
SOUTH:
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University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
Ralph W. Pike
Louisiana State University
James Fair
University of Texas

CENTRAL:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Lowell B. Koppel
Purdue University

WEST:
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
William B. Krantz
University of Colorado
C. Judson King
University of California Berkeley
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
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University of Washington
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
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State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XIV NUMBER 2 SPRING 1980


54 Departments of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado, William Krantz
60 The Educator
William H. Corcoran of Caltech,
Winifred Veronda
66 Views and Opinions
The Importance of Teaching From an
Assistant Professors Point of View,
G. Michael Howard
72 ChE Lecture
Close Encounters of a Sparse Kind,
Arthur W. Westerberg
78 Laboratory
Utilization of the Recycle Reactor in
Determining Kinetics of Gas-Solid
Catalytic Reactions, Stephen C. Paspet,
Arvind Varma, James J. Carberry
88 Classroom
Using Trouble Shooting Problems, Edited
by Donald R. Woods: Contributors;
William K. Taylor, Charles C. Watson,
Howard S. Barrows, Victor R. Neufield,
J. W. Freighter, Geoff R. Norman
70 Class and Home Problems
The Prairie Dog Problem, Robert L. Kabel

FEATURES
84 What is CACHE? by the Trustees of
CACHE
94 Co-op Ph.D. Programme in Chemical Engi-
neering, Thomas Z. Fahidy
68, 71 Books Received
68 Letter to the Editor
98 ChE News
96, 99 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs. Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1980 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


SPRING 1980































U pn1 department


ChE running well at CU! From left to right: Profs.
Krantz, Clough, Ramirez, Brown, MacGregor, Falconer,
Peters and Timmerhaus.


ChE IS RUNNING WELL AT


COLORADO UNIVERSITY


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309

Of course ChE is running well at CU; or,
haven't you noticed which department has won
AIChE's Van Antwerpen Trophy for the Four
Mile Relay for the past two years? The "running"
analogy is an appropriate one for chemical engi-
neering at the University of Colorado. Indeed,
because of its unique environment, Boulder,
Colorado, has become known as "America's
,Running Capital." Just as Boulder's environment
,attracts the top runners in the U.S., it also
attracts top students and faculty to its University.
Boulder's high altitude provides a superb training
environment for world-class runners; analogously,
its proximity to major government research
laboratories, the nation's richest oil shale deposits
and vast coal resources, and to the alpine and

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


arctic climate zones of the Rocky Mountains, pro-
vides a stimulating environment for chemical engi-
neering research.
The running analogy can be carried further
yet. In running a relay race, each runner must per-
form to the best of his ability with little direct
help from his teammates; yet, it is the team that
wins the race. So, too, it is with our Department
at CU; each faculty member is contributing to
teaching, research, and national service to help
our team in the quest for "world-class" excellence
in chemical engineering education.

HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT
T HE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO opened its doors
in September, 1877, one year after Colorado
became a state. The School of Applied Science,
later to become the College of Engineering and
Applied Science, came into being in 1893. This
fledgling University was literally a product of its
uncommon environment. Its first buildings, as well


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









as those being added today, are constructed from
the pink sandstone quarried along the base of the
foothills immediately west of Boulder. This uni-
versity campus with its red tile roofs has an archi-
tectural integrity not found on many U.S.
campuses today. The University in its wisdom
still preserves and uses its first three major
permanent buildings.
The research effort at CU, even in these early
days of the University, was heavily focused on
energy. Dr. Charles S. Palmer of CU had invented
the thermal cracking process for making gasoline
from crude oil fractions. Subsequently, the oil test-
ing and coal analysis research conducted in the
Mechanical Engineering Department, led to the
development, in 1904, of a chemical engineering
curriculum as an option in that department. The
emergence of the chemical engineering curriculum
at CU intensified the research effort in energy-re-
lated areas. Early efforts concerned methods of
analysis for Colorado coal and efficient technolo-
gies for burning lignite. Chemical engineers at
CU were also cooperating with the U.S. Bureau of
Mines in operating a laboratory to investigate
methods for extracting oil from shale.
In 1936 Chemical Engineering became a sepa-
rate department under Dr. Henry A. Coles. After
his resignation in 1938, Dr. Carl W. Borgmann
became the department head. Borgmann's dy-
namic leadership attracted faculty such as Pro-
fessor George L6f, who is among the pioneers in
solar energy research, and Professor Charles H.
Prien, whose research concerned the hydrogena-
tion of coal and oil shale. The Department re-
sponded to the technical demands of World War II
by research centered on the production of acti-
vated carbon from soft coal for use in gas masks,
the improvement of oil shale processing, and other
war-related tasks. Early accomplishments also in-
cluded the development of a pilot plant which for
several years provided the only source of high
purity crystalline levulose in the world.
Professor B. E. Lauer assumed the headship
in 1947. Under his direction, the Department of
Chemical Engineering became, in 1948, the first


department in the College of Engineering to offer
the Ph.D. degree. Professor Lauer served as
editor of four volumes of Chemical Engineering
Laboratory Problems. These compilations of
laboratory experiments, contributed by ChE de-
partments from throughout the world, have helped
many ChE departments modernize their under-
graduate ChE laboratory courses. Professor Max
S. Peters joined the Department in 1962 and


An aerial view of CU looking west showing the
Engineering Center in the foreground.

served as Dean of the College of Engineering at
CU until his resignation in 1978. In 1963 Klaus
Timmerhaus became Associate Dean of the College
of Engineering, a position in which he continues
to serve.
Professor Barrick temporarily assumed the
chairmanship in 1963. He was succeeded in 1964
by Professor R. Curtis Johnson. Under Johnson's
leadership the Department began its efforts in
computers, controls, and bioengineering, and
continued to capitalize on its unique location by
expanding its research in environmental engineer-
ing. In 1966 Johnson directed the move of our De-
partment into its new facilities within the recently
constructed Engineering Center. This magnificent
structure, built at a cost of $8.5 million, comple-
ments the grandeur of its setting at the foot of
the Colorado Rockies. Chemical Engineering


... proximity to major government research laboratories,
the nation's richest oil shale deposits and vast coal resources, and to
the alpine and arctic climate zones of the Rocky Mountains, provides a stimulating
environment for chemical engineering research.


SPRING 1980









occupies 28,200 square feet of laboratory space
within the 440,000 square feet of the ten semi-
independent structures which comprise the Engi-
neering Center. Courts, fountains, pools, covered
walkways, and other amenities within the complex
provide an attractive study environment.
Professor W. Fred Ramirez succeeded Johnson
as chairman in 1972. Ramirez strengthened our
bio-engineering program by bringing Professors
R. Igor Gamow and Ronald J. MacGregor into the
Department. In addition, he negotiated with CU's
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environ-
mental Sciences (CIRES) to create a joint faculty
position in Chemical Engineering. In 1976 Pro-
fessor Robert L. Sani became the first CIRES
Fellow in the Department of Chemical Engineer-
ing. Professors Ramirez and David E. Clough
have been primarily responsible for the implemen-
tation of several on-line computer systems in our
ChE laboratories. These include a six-computer
network of Data General micro-Novas and central
Eclipse S/130 minicomputer acquired via a recent
NSF Engineering Research Equipment Grant to
provide distributed data acquisition and control
facilities for our research programs.
After resigning as chairman, Ramirez received
one of the first CU Croft Professorships in order
to pursue research full-time during 1980. He is
succeeded as chairman by Professor Lee F. Brown.

We... believe that this blend of
teaching quality, research productivity, and
professional service commitment is required for
world class "excellence" in chemical
engineering education.

The present faculty of the Department includes
Professors Paul L. Barrick, Lee F. Brown, R.
Curtis Johnson, William B. Krantz, Max S. Peters,
W. Fred Ramirez, Robert L. Sani, Klaus D. Tim-
merhaus, and Ronald E. West; Associate Pro-
fessors R. Igor Gamow and Ronald J. MacGregor;
Assistant Professors David E. Clough and John
L. Falconer; Professor Adjoint Howard J. M.
Hanley; and Professors Emeritus Frank Kreith
and B. E. Lauer.
CURRICULA

T HE B.S. DEGREE IN CHEMICAL engineering at CU
is a four-year program requiring 136 semester
credit hours. The 36 hours of required courses in
the ChE Department include computing, engi-
neering materials, stoichiometry, fluid flow and
heat transfer, mass transfer operations, thermo-


dynamics, engineering statistics, unit operations
laboratory, process dynamics, kinetics, and process
synthesis and design. The curriculum requires 26
hours of chemistry, 15 hours of mathematics, nine
hours of physics, and a minimum of 24 hours of
social-humanistic electives and 19 hours of techni-
cal electives. Bioengineering-premedical, environ-
mental engineering, and computers have been es-
tablished as curricular options. There are
presently 336 undergraduates enrolled in our De-
partment of Chemical Engineering.
The M.S. degree requires 27 semester hours of
graduate work including six hours of thesis work
and is normally completed within 18 months. There
are presently 34 students enrolled in the M.S. de-
gree program. The M.E. degree is a non-thesis
degree which is intended to meet the needs of
practicing engineers who are working full-time
outside the University. The Ph.D. degree requires
30 hours of graduate level courses beyond the B.S.
degree. There are presently seven students enrolled
in the Ph.D. program.

TEACHING QUALITY
T HE DEPARTMENT HAS STRESSED an undergradu-
ate curriculum oriented towards process de-
velopment since most of our undergraduates go di-
rectly into industry. It is a departmental policy
not to accept our own undergraduates into our
graduate program.
The quality which can be attained in a gradu-
ate curriculum depends in large part on the
students in the program. Boulder's stimulating en-
vironment and a solid fundamentally oriented
graduate curriculum have attracted outstanding
students into our ChE graduate program. The
median undergraduate grade point average of our
entering graduate students during the past five
years is 3.7/4.0.
We believe that the teaching quality in both
our undergraduate and graduate programs is out-
standing. There is significant tangible evidence
to support this claim. For example, the full-time
faculty in the Department have authored, co-
authored, or edited 64 books. Included among these
is the widely accepted text Plant Design and Eco-
nomics for Chemical Engineers by Peters and
Timmerhaus. In addition, several of our faculty
have won major awards for contributions to
teaching excellence in recent years. Professor Max
Peters received the 1973 Lamme Award of ASEE
and the 1979 Warren K. Lewis Award of AIChE.
Both Max Peters and Klaus Timmerhaus have won


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








ASEE's George Westinghouse Award. Professors
William Krantz and Ronald MacGregor have won
the University of Colorado Teaching Recognition
Award. In addition, Professors Krantz and
Ronald West have won the College of Engineering
Teaching Recognition Award. The excellent prepa-
ration which our students receive in process de-
sign is supported by having four of our students
receive national recognition in the AIChE Student
Design Problem Competition in recent years.
A most effective measure of a faculty's in-
fluence is the number of students who follow them
into the ranks of engineering education. A number
of our Ph.D. students are presently staffing chemi-
cal engineering departments throughout America.
These include: Adel Al-Taweel (New Brunswick) ;
Neil L. Book (Missouri-Rolla) ; Joseph N. Cannon
(Howard) ; David E. Clough (Colorado) ; Michael
B. Cutlip (Connecticut) ; H. Scott Fogler (Michi-
gan); Henry W. Haynes (Mississippi); Russell
F. Heckman (South Dakota School of Mines and
Technology) ; Hal L. Hutchinson (Wyoming) ;
David Kauffman (New Mexico) ; Robert L. Sand-
vig (South Dakota School of Mines and Techno-
logy) ; Jay J. Scheldorf (Idaho) ; and Richard L.
Zollars (Washington State).

RESEARCH PROGRAMS

T HE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO IS in close prox-
imity to five major national research facili-
ties: the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) ;
the National Center for Atmospheric Research
(NCAR) ; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA); DOE's Solar Energy
Research Institute (SERI) ; and DOE's Laramie
Energy Technology Center (LETC). In addition,
the presence of campus-based research institutes
provides support for our research programs.
These include the Cooperative Institute for Re-
search in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) and
the Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research
(INSTAAR). Colorado is also an energy-rich
state claiming the world's richest oil shale deposits,
estimated to contain more than two trillion barrels
of oil (this is more potential crude oil than is esti-
mated to exist in the entire Middle East!), some
230 billion tons of subbituminous and bituminous
coal, an estimated reserve of two billion barrels
of recoverable crude oil, and 8.3 trillion cubic feet
of recoverable natural gas. The presence of these
major research facilities, research institutes, and
enormous energy resources constitute a stimulat-
ing environment which has shaped the character


Gregory L. Klingler (left) of CU receiving the A. E.
Marshall Award for his solution in the 1979 Student
Contest Problem, and Max S. Peters receiving the 1979
Warren K. Lewis Award.
and promoted the quality of chemical engineering
research at CU. These research programs are
briefly described below:
Atmospheric and Geophysical Studies
In collaboration with Dr. Nelson Caine of CU's Institute
of Arctic and Alpine Research and Professor Robert D.
Gunn of Wyoming's Department of Chemical Engineering,
Professor Krantz is studying transport processes in perma-
frost. The alpine and arctic climate zones offered by the
Rocky Mountains are essential to this research. Professor
Sani is investigating small-scale atmospheric flows and
transport over general terrain, and is developing a finite
element two-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer
model. This research is being conducted in conjunction
with CU's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environ-
mental Sciences in which Professor Sani holds a joint ap-
pointment.
Bioengineering
Our bioengineering program focuses on an engineering
approach to sensory physiology and neuroscience. Pro-
fessor Gamow is attempting to deduce the molecular struc-
ture of the living cell wall by cataloging the reproducible
growth patterns of the giant unicellular fungus Phy-
comyces. His laboratory has shown that additional growth
patterns can be created by mechanically deforming the
living cell wall. These experiments have led to testable
molecular models that appear to account for the struc-
ture, growth, and regulation of the living cell wall. The
central thrust of Professor MacGregor's research on the
electrical activity of brain networks is the illumination
of how neuronal populations coordinate electrical signals
into meaningful global patterns. This work involves com-
puter simulation of large neural networks. He is also
attempting to guide micro-electrode experimentation con-
cerning the coordination of activity in neuronal populations.
Energy Engineering
Our most extensive graduate program concerns a broad
research effort in energy-related studies. Professor Brown
is studying the stimulation of coal gasification reactions
by nonequilibrium excitation of the reactants, the creation
of more active coal char by appropriate preparation


SPRING 1980































methods, the mechanisms of catalytically promoting low-
temperature gasification of coal, and the effect of diluent
gases on coal gasification reactions. Professor Clough is
studying the dynamics of fluidized-bed coal gasifiers. Pro-
fessor Falconer is investigating sulfur poisoning of the
catalysts used to make hydrocarbons from syngas. Pro-
fessor Krantz, in collaboration with Professor Robert D.
Gunn of Wyoming's Department of Chemical Engineering,
has a program in underground coal gasification which is
coordinated with the field tests of this technology being
conducted by DOE's Laramie Energy Technology Center
in Hanna, Wyoming. Professor Ramirez is studying the
mechanisms of dispersion, adsorption, and interfacial
tension insofar as they affect surfactant behavior in
tertiary oil recovery. Professor Timmerhaus' research in-
cludes economic studies of alternate energy resources, the
economic and thermodynamic evaluation of various cycles
for power generation, investigation of energy conserva-
tion alternatives, and determination of the thermodynamic
properties of liquefied natural gas and synthetic natural
gas.
Environmental Engineering
The current emphasis in Professor Peters' research in
heterogeneous catalysis is on the use of carbon-containing
polymers for catalysts or reactants for the reduction of
nitrogen oxides. He is also studying the reaction kinetics
of photochemical reactions involving chlorofluorocarbons
and nitrous oxide. Professor Ramirez is studying the leach-
ing of pollutants into ground water from spent oil-retorted
shale. Professor Sani is developing numerical techniques
for solving the complex fluid mechanical problems associ-
ated with pollutant transport in the planetary boundary
layer. Professor West's general area of research concerns
water pollution control processes, especially solid-liquid
separations.
Kinetics and Catalysis
In addition to his applied research in coal gasification
kinetics cited above, Professor Brown is studying gas-
adsorbate momentum and energy transfer in surface
diffusion and heterogeneous catalysis. In collaboration
with CU's Electrical Engineering Department, he is also
studying electric effects in semiconductor catalysis. Pro-
fessor Falconer is studying heterogeneous catalytic re-


The bioengineering program
at CU is focusing on an
engineering approach to
sensory physiology. Prof.
Igor Gamow is studying the
receptors in snakes whereby
they "taste" heat.







actions on supported metal catalysts in order to under-
stand reaction mechanisms and how they are influenced
by catalytic properties. Methanation, structure-sensitivity
of organic decompositions, and desorptions of molecules
from supported catalysts are being studied with transient
reaction techniques. He is also using ultrahigh vacuum
techniques and Auger electron spectroscopy to study
heterogeneous catalytic reactions on well-defined metals
and alloys.
Process Dynamics and Control
Characterization of the time-dependent behavior of
fluidized-bed processes is a focus of Professor Clough's re-
search efforts. Theoretical and experimental studies are
in progress which will lead to the development of dynamic
mathematical models which will be used in the design of
advanced control systems. Professor Clough is also con-
cerned with the adaptive multivariable control of distilla-
tion columns. Professors Ramirez and Clough, in a joint
effort, are investigating the on-line identification and
control of distributed parameter systems with particular
focus on the catalytic oxydehydrogenation of ethylbenzene
to form styrene monomer.
Surface Phenomena
Professors Brown and Falconer's research on the solid-
gas interface has been described elsewhere. Professor
Krantz is interested in mass transfer at gas-liquid inter-
faces, the properties of dynamic interfaces, and the
stability of flows having a free interface. Professor
Ramirez' research in tertiary oil recovery is discussed
above. Professor Sani is studying the stability of bounded
systems with an active interfacial region and is also in-
vestigating electrochemical deposition and isolated pit
initiation in corrosion.

Theory of Liquids and Thermophysical Properties
Professor Adjoint Howard Hanley, of the National
Bureau of Standards, is using computer simulation to study
the behavior and properties of pure fluids and mixtures in
equilibrium and in non-equilibrium. He is particularly in-
terested in the behavior of liquids under the influence of
high shear. The technique of corresponding states is being
applied to predict the properties of mixtures, especially at


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








a gas-liquid and liquid-liquid critical point. Professor
Timmerhaus is investigating the properties of insulation
systems for use in cryogenic applications.
These research programs have produced 305
technical publications during the past ten years.
This is an average rate of 2.4 publications per
year for each faculty member. The quality of our
research programs has also been recognized by
several major awards during recent years. Pro-
fessor Klaus Timmerhaus received AIChE's Alpha
Chi Sigma Award in 1968. Three Fulbright-Hays
Fellowships have been awarded to our faculty in
recent years: Professor William Krantz (1974) ;
Professor Fred Ramirez (1976); and Professor
Ronald West (1979). Professor Robert Sani was
awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1970 and
Professor Krantz an NSF-NATO Senior Fellow-
ship in Science in 1975. Two members of our
faculty, Max Peters and Klaus Timmerhaus, have
been named to the National Academy of Engineer-
ing.

COMMITMENT TO PROFESSIONAL SERVICE

T HE IMPORTANT ROLE OF professional service
was emphasized early in the history of our
College of Engineering. Milo S. Ketchum, Dean
of the College from 1905-1919, was among the
first Presidents (1917) of the Society for the
Promotion of Engineering Education (now
ASEE). In 1924 the University of Colorado sub-
sequently served as the host of the first Annual
Convention of the Society to be held in the West.
This tradition of service to the engineering
profession continues today. In particular, the
Chemical Engineering Department at CU is noted
for its commitment to professional service at the
national level. It is one of two departments in the
U.S. which can boast of having two former AIChE
National Presidents among its active faculty, Max
Peters (1968) and Klaus Timmerhaus (1976). In
addition, it is among relatively few departments
that have had two currently active faculty serve
in a temporary capacity as administrators for NSF
programs. Klaus Timmerhaus served as Head of
the Engineering Chemistry and Energetics Section
in 1972-73 and William Krantz served as Director
of the Thermodynamics and Mass Transfer Pro-
gram in 1977-78. Of the many advisory bodies on
which members of the CU faculty have served,
particularly noteworthy are Peters (1969-75) and
Timmerhaus' (1978-81) services as AIChE repre-
sentatives on the ECPD Board of Directors. Klaus
Timmerhaus has also rendered invaluable service


to Chemical Engineering Education as chairman
of its Publication Board.
Our Department is also active in service at the
international level. Professor R. Curtis Johnson,
former chairman of our Department, became the
first Dean of International Education at CU. He
has been effective in strengthening CU's study-
abroad programs and in promoting other cultural
and technical exchange programs with foreign uni-
versities. Professor Krantz is presently serving on
the Advisory Panel for the U.S. Council for the
International Exchange of Scholars which ad-
ministers the Fulbright-Hays Fellowship pro-
gram. Professor Howard Hanley has been involved
with the Marie Skladowska-Curie Program for
scientific cooperation between the U.S. and Poland.
This service in the interest of our profession
rendered by CU's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment has also been recognized by several major
awards. R. Curtis Johnson, Max Peters, and Klaus
Timmerhaus have been elected Fellows of the
AIChE. Peters and Timmerhaus have also received
the AIChE's Founders Award. Professor Hanley
has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute
of Chemistry. In addition, Professor Krantz re-
ceived Special Achievement and Outstanding Per-
formance Awards from NSF in 1978 for his
service as Program Director.

EPILOGUE
F ACULTY IN MOST ENGINEERING departments at
our major colleges and universities are evalu-
ated on the basis of their contributions to teach-
ing, research, and professional service. It is ap-
propriate then to evaluate the departments en-
compassing these faculty on the basis of these
same three criteria. We in the Department of
Chemical Engineering at the University of
Colorado believe that this blend of teaching
quality, research productivity, and professional
service commitment is required for "world-class"
excellence in chemical engineering education! O

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This article on ChE at CU would not be complete
without acknowledging the many companies and granting
agencies which have supported our program throughout
the years, and the present and past students, staff, faculty,
and administration at CU whose efforts have contributed
so much to the quality of our program. The author also
gratefully acknowledges Mr. Martin Barber of CU for his
assistance in providing the photographs used in this article,
and Miss Ellen Romig for her assistance in preparing the
final copy.


SPRING 1980









Educator


Willham 0. CoscoG4an







Prepared by
WINIFRED VERONDA
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125

W ILLIAM H. CORCORAN HAS collected enough
honors during his career as a chemical engi-
neer and educator to fill several pages on a resume.
But the award that means most to him is a hand-
some plaque hanging beside the door of his Cal-
tech office and enscribed: "To our fearless leader:
We promise to love, honor, and obey mass, energy,
and momentum balances throughout our lives.
Class of '77."
This plaque, enscribed with the names of all
the students in Bill's senior Optimal Design of
Chemical Systems course, is a token of the affec-
tion between him and his students; an affection
undiminished by the copious amounts of work that
he dispenses and the rigorous standards that he
requires them to meet.
Bill's work as a teacher affords him great
pleasure, but it is only one of the roles he has
filled during his 37 years as a chemical engineer.
He has been president of the American Institute
of Chemical Engineers, Caltech's vice president for
Institute relations and the executive officer of its
chemical engineering department, an executive in
the biomedical engineering field, and a consultant
to the biomedical industry (he has consulted for


He has been president of AIChE,
Caltech's vice president for Institute Relations
and the executive officer of its ChE department,
an executive in the biomedical engineering
field, and a consultant to the
biomedical industry.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


the American Hospital Supply Corporation since
1952). Now Caltech's Institute Professor of
Chemical Engineering, Bill has earned a reputa-
tion for energy and enthusiasm, hard work and
self-discipline, superb organization and keen in-
tegrity, compassion for human need, and a sense
of humor and a dry wit that include the ability
to laugh at himself.
He has been variously described by his col-
leagues as one who "is a prophet in the field of
chemical engineering" . "is overwhelmingly
supportive of people he believes in and never holds
a grudge" . "is dedicated to his students and
suffers when they suffer" . "possesses no toler-
ance for any kind of slop" .. "rewards you when
you do a job well by giving you more work" . .
"puts all he has into everything he does" . "is
decisive without being oppressive" .. "is a
wonderful colleague who's always helpful" . "is
an unguaranteed baritone" . and "is enormously
forthright and willing to give you his honest
opinion on most any issue (if you don't want it,
don't ask)."

THE EARLY YEARS
B ILL IS ONE OF THOSE rather rare individuals
in his generation who is actually a native of
Los Angeles. His father, a California farmer, died
when he was a year old and he was raised by his
mother, who worked as credit manager for a
wholesale grocery company, and his grandmother,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








a retired teacher whom he describes as "almost
a mother and father to me at that time."
He attended Los Angeles public schools, in-
cluding Norwood Grammar School a few blocks
from the University of Southern California. In
his neighborhood, at the vulnerable age of four,
he began to form what would become a lifelong
addiction to USC football.
His enthusiasm for the natural world, and his
fascination with the way things worked, were
stimulated at Fairfax High School by his biology
and physiology teacher, Doris Siddall. So keen was
her passion for nature, and so determined was
she to give her students' fresh insight into its
marvels, that she frequently would rise at 3 a.m.
to travel by Pacific Electric car to San Pedro to
collect fresh samples of sea life from the tide pools
to illustrate her lectures. "Her style was a tre-
mendous inspiration to me," says Bill. "She was
a living example of the impact of a teacher on her
students."
Last year, after what he terms "40 years of
thinking about it," he found Mrs. Siddall, now 87,
and brought her to Caltech for a reunion with
lunch and a look at the Institute's facilities.
Meanwhile he had had other reasons to recall his
high school days: In 1976 the Los Angeles School
District honored him as one of its 50 outstanding
graduates during the Bicentennial celebration. He
shared recognition in the field of science and
medicine with Nobel laureate Glenn Seaborg and
astronaut Walter Cunningham.
With college approaching, Bill weighed careers
in medicine and chemical engineering but chose
the latter. He believes he is fortunate in the de-
cision he made, although he has never lost his
keen interest in medicine and has worked ex-
tensively in biomedical engineering. "But if I had
become a doctor," he speculates, "I'd have lived
and died with every patient."
At Caltech Bill studied hard but also found
time to write for the school paper and to indulge
his love for sports. He played four years of inter-
collegiate baseball and participated in all of the
intramural sports, spending almost every after-
noon on the practice field. Here he deepened a
belief in the importance of keeping fit as es-
sential for an effective life, and in the influence
of physical vitality on emotional attitudes. This
perspective is one that he often expresses to
students whom he advises.
As a student, Bill found Caltech and its faculty
and student body fascinating ("one of the great


things about Caltech has always been the high
density of interesting people here") and he elected
to continue his graduate work at the Institute after
earning his BS degree in 1941. During his first
year as a graduate student he met Martha Rogers,
secretary to chemical engineering professor Bruce
Sage. The couple became engaged six weeks after
their first date and they were married on Sadie
Hawkins Day, exactly a year after that first date.
Bill notes that among the many desirable traits
that Martha brought to the marriage-including
intelligence, wit, charm, beauty, and a love of all
kinds of sports-she came equipped with a handy
knowledge of chemical engineering terminology,
thanks to her work in Sage's office.
Bill's graduate work was well under way
during the fall of 1941 when World War II
erupted to change the pattern. He joined Cutter


In 1976 the Los Angeles School District
honored him as one of its 50 outstanding
graduates ... He shared recognition ...
with Nobel laureate Glenn Seborg and
astronaut Walter Cunningham.


Laboratories in Berkeley as a development engi-
neer in biomedical-chemical engineering. But in
the fall of 1942 he was called back to the Caltech
campus to become a research supervisor and de-
velopment engineer for the National Defense Re-
search Committee of the Office of Scientific Re-
search and Development. He worked on processing
propellant and interior ballistics for artillery
rockets and for the Manhattan Project on the
firing mechanism for the atom bomb.
With the war at an end he returned to gradu-
ate studies, working toward his PhD as a Na-
tional Research Council Predoctoral Fellow. His
graduate work completed in 1948 (he was one of
the first two people to receive PhDs in chemical
engineering from Caltech), he and Martha again
left for Berkeley where he had accepted a position
as director for technical development for Cutter
Laboratories.
Predictably, Corcoran found work as a chemi-
cal engineer in industry to be exciting. "I love the
atmosphere of industry," he says. "It is creative
and there's an immediacy about the work that's
very gratifying, whether, for example, it's drying
blood plasma or manufacturing pharmaceuticals.
A chemical engineer in industry can go to the end
of the production line and see the product of his


SPRING 1980








efforts, and if that product makes a contribution
to society, then the work is doubly exciting. More-
over, the hours, the pay, the support staff, and
the equipment are usually better than at a uni-
versity. To turn away from all this requires a very
special reason."

AN ACADEMIC CAREER BECKONS
In 1952 he was asked to return to Caltech as
an associate professor. He accepted. Making the
decision was difficult, he acknowledges, but a very
special reason prevailed; he couldn't pass up the
opportunity to work with students. The rewards
from teaching bright, creative young people filled
with drive and enthusiasm and helping them de-
velop their talents were irresistible. (Bill made
just one more foray into industrial chemical engi-
neering. He worked from 1957 to 1959 as vice
president and scientific director for Don Baxter,
Inc., while retaining a professorial appointment at
Caltech.)
In addition to the chance to work with students,
he cherished the independence of an academic


Dr. Corcoran describes his studies of heart valves
at a seminar for alumni.

career. "My genes are very Irish," he explains,
"and in my soul I'm a free spirit. I relish the op-
portunity to be myself. In the industrial world, if
it becomes necessary for a company to make a 90-
degree turn in direction, then its engineers must
turn 90 degrees with it or get out. But at a uni-
versity there's more freedom to choose one's own
direction and little to block opportunities except
oneself."


Bill then began an academic career that would
carry him to the top of his profession. He com-
bined teaching, research, and consulting, and a
commitment to the evolution of the chemical engi-
neering profession. He has expressed his views,
and articulated his knowledge, via authorship or
coauthorship of two books and more than 85
papers.
His capacity for leadership, hard work, and
superb organization led to his becoming, at various
points in his career, president of the AIChE,
chairman of the council for the Engineers' Council
for Professional Development (ECPD) and a
member of its Board of Directors, national di-
rector of AIChE, chairman of the Engineering
Education and Accreditation Committee of the
ECPD, chairman of the Ad Hoc American Society
for Engineering Education Committee on Review
of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Studies, chairman of the Air Force Institute of
Technology Subcommittee Air University Board
of Visitors, chairman of the Education and Ac-
creditation Committee of the AIChE, a trustee
and member of the Executive Committee of the
Association of Independent California Colleges
and Universities, and associate editor of the
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radi-
ative Transfer.
He has also been a member of the Editorial Ad-
visory Committee of International Chemical Engi-
neering, the Editorial Committee of Engineering
Education, the Advisory Board of Industrial and
Chemical Engineering Fundamentals, and a
member of the Board of Directors of the Hunting-
ton Institute of Applied Medical Research.
His contributions have won him honors in-
cluding election as a fellow of the AIChE, the
Lamme Award of the ASEE for excellence in his
profession, the Western Electric Fund Award for
excellence in teaching, the Founders Award from
the AIChE for impact on his profession, and Edu-
cational Achievement Award from the California
Society of Professional Engineers, an award
from the Associated Students of Caltech for teach-
ing excellence, and election to the National
Academy of Engineering.
In 1969, in addition to a full load of teaching,
advising, and research, he became vice president
for Institute Relations with responsibility for Cal-
tech's development and public relations programs
at a time when universities throughout the
country were faced with skyrocketing costs and
the need for some painful belt tightening and ad-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









"I relish the opportunity to
be myself.., at a university there's more
freedom to choose one's own direction and little
to block opportunities except oneself."


ditional funds. He accepted the position with the
stipulation that he could continue to teach and do
research. This July, after a decade, he relinquished
that role to become Institute Professor of Chemical
Engineering and to be responsible for examination
of Caltech's and JPL's interactions in helping with
the United States' energy program.
As vice president for Institute Relations, Bill
guided Caltech toward the successful conclusion of
a $130 million development campaign and, as ad-
ministrative chief for a staff producing prodigious
amounts of written materials, he found ample op-
portunities to implement his views concerning the
need for clarity and precision in use of the English
language. "Please clean this up by getting to the
point," "Please eliminate 'tangible' as an adjective
in describing dollars," and "No self-respecting
grammarian would ever start any sentence with
the very ambiguous 'it'," were among directives
from him that were preserved and affectionately
presented to him in a scrapbook when he retired
from the position.

STUDENT CONTACT HAS TOP PRIORITY

T THROUGHOUT THIS PERIOD when he handled two
full-time careers, he maintained two offices,
one in Caltech's executive chambers and another
in the chemical engineering building where he
could be more easily accessible to the 30 or so
students that he advised. He frequently told them,
"Don't ever con me by telling me you can't find
me. I'm available all the time." His staff soon
learned that an appointment with an undergradu-
ate ranked equally in importance with an appoint-
ment with a major donor, and that a trustee could
be kept waiting if a student was undergoing a
genuine personal crisis and needed extra counsel-
ing time.
During this era, fund-raising responsibilities
often made it necessary for Bill to travel out of
town. On these occasions he left his senior engi-
neering class and his graduate students a number
where he could be reached, inviting them to call
him collect if they encountered a problem that
couldn't await his return. "Call me any time, day
or night," he always tells his students, adding,


"but if you call after midnight you'd better have a
relatively good question."
Because he believes in an effective counseling
program for effective undergraduate education, he
is known for his willingness to talk with his
students about any problem from confusion over
transport phenomena to a romance gone sour to
how to budget one's time at a rigorously demand-
ing academic institution. One student with a
problem in the latter area was advised to write
down a schedule showing how he planned to use
his time during the coming week. The schedule
revealed that the student was dating three girl
friends, and Bill advised him to go the painful
route of cutting down to one.
"I told him his first priority was to stay
healthy," Bill says, "and his second to attend to
his school work; that extracurricular activities
would have to come third if he was going to be
successful here."
As a teacher Bill is known for dispensing
prodigious amounts of work ("I can't help feeling
sorry for his students," says Martha, and a col-
league adds, "He teaches them to be well organ-
ized; they have to be, to get his assignments in
on time") and who tolerates no nonsense from
procrastinators or goof-offs. But he is equally
known for his willingness to give extensions of
time when a student has a genuine problem, to go
out of his way to make professional contacts for
his students and to help them find jobs, and even
to serve coffee and doughnuts on Friday mornings
at an 8 o'clock class. ("This isn't a bribe to get
you here," he'll tell them. "I just want to wake
you up.")


W. H. Corcoran with graduate students Ajit Yoga-
nathan and Russell Bone, examining measurements of
the fluid mechanics of heat valves. (Yoganathan, at
left, recently completed his PhD and is now an assistant
professor at Georgia Tech.)


SPRING 1980








In his teaching, Bill consistently reminds his
students that, through their impact on energy,
the environment, food production, medicine, and
so on, they are going to play roles as leaders in
society whether they want to or not. "I believe it's
my responsibility to remind them that they don't
live under a rock," he says, "that they can't simply
concentrate on chemical engineering and ignore
the rest of what's happening around them. They
should be able to read the Wall Street Journal, for
example, and to understand the significance of its
contents. They should be able to discern the
connections between a decision of the President
and the impact of that decision on engineering
design and ultimately on society. I believe they
get my point."
It was partly because of his desire to have
students understand the economic and sociological
aspects of engineering problems that Bill de-
veloped an introductory chemical engineering
course for sophomores that was built around the
study of problems based on hemodialysis and
artificial kidneys. It allowed introduction to
students of such basic concepts as mass, energy,
and momentum balances, and stoichiometry,
chemical equilibrium, and chemical kinetics, by
applying them to treatment of kidney failure.
About one-third of three class hours per week
was taught by a member of the chemical engi-
neering faculty on basic principles of chemical
engineering as applied to the problem of kidney
dialysis; another one-third of the hours was de-
voted to lectures by medical and professional
people on renal function and failure, the design
and function of equipment for dialysis, and the
social and economic problems of home and institu-
tional dialysis. The remaining class time was
spent on field trips to a hospital or manufacturing
company to illustrate applications of the informa-
tion presented in the course.
The artificial kidney demonstrates exception-
ally fine examples of chemical engineering
problems, Bill explains, and the costs of its
maintenance and efficient use provide a good focus
for the need to keep economics in mind while
:designing chemical systems. And finally, he adas,
in dealing with human beings, students gain new
insights into sociological needs and human
problems-highly important for individuals who
will make significant contributions to society
through their creations.
In his work with senior students, Bill stresses
the importance of an understanding of the nine


Along with the many other
responsibilities he's assumed, Bill has
also found some time for excursions
into musical comedy.

elements of design: economics, material, energy
and momentum transfer, chemical equilibrium,
chemical kinetics, the properties of materials, pro-
cess control, and safety. In the two terms of his
senior course, Optimal Design of Chemical
Systems, students apply these elements through
independent problems and case studies. In the
third term the course is entitled "Simulation and
Design of Chemical Systems." In that course, the
students simulate chemical processes, using Mon-
santo's FLOWTRAN programs. Bill doesn't give
mid-terms or finals, considering them unproduc-
tive in a course devoted to problem solving. He
says, "By the end of the year my students should
understand the elements of design so thoroughly
that they can explain the concepts to another
person in their own words in a clear, unambiguous
way. When they can do this, then they're ready to
be employed as beginning engineers or to go on
to graduate school."
Bill's selection of an artificial kidney as a
teaching device is symptomatic of his belief that
chemical engineers had been too parochial in the
scope of their efforts. "Chemical engineering is
concerned with the control of chemical reactions
to produce something useful for the benefit of
society," he says. "Chemical reactions take place
in many different places: in chemical plants, in
food processing, in human kidneys, in rocket
motors. And wherever these reactions occur, that's
where the chemical engineer should be. I believe
that members of the profession now recognize this,
and that chemical engineering is now doing what
it should be doing about diversifying its concerns."
Bill's own PhD work was associated with
heat transfer in fluids, and as a faculty member
at Caltech he worked on the experimental measure-
ment of the coefficients of diffusion for heat
transfer and momentum and on applied chemical
kinetics. He has conducted work on the pyrolysis
of hydrocarbons and is now working on the re-
action kinetics of the desulfurization of fuel oil
and coal. At the same time he continued work in
bioengineering and biomedical engineering and
was involved in the development of disposable
hospital equipment, fermentation processes for
penicillin and vaccines, and the development of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








mass parenteral solutions and peritoneal dialysis.
Most recently he has worked on the studies of
artificial heart valves. During his teaching career
he has counseled about 30 doctoral candidates who
have gone on into leading roles in academic and
industrial work.


SONG AND DANCE MAN-AND MORE

A LONG WITH THE MANY other responsibilities
he's assumed, Bill has also found time for
some excursions into musical comedy. He's been
a regular in the Caltech Stock Company, a sturdy
band of extroverted eggheads who lead double
lives as professors, faculty wives, and other
members of the Institute community. The musicals
generally have commemorated anniversaries, re-
tirements, and the awarding of Nobel prizes to
Caltech luminaries, and Bill, picked for a solid
baritone voice, has played such roles as a geologist,
an illegal alien, a trustee, and a social worker, belt-
ing out lyrics like these: "Gneiss is a laminated
metamorphic rock/the only stone a man can trust./
All the others are crude if not faintly lewd/They
fill a good man with disgust./You can't trap us
with your lapis/It's not gneiss."
"Some people think of Bill as an eminent edu-
cator," says Caltech's professor of English J. Kent
Clark, who wrote the lyrics for all stock company
productions. But to me, Bill will always be a song
and dance man. A tremendous talent was wasted
when he went into fund raising."
During the years that he's been deeply in-
volved in professional activities, Bill has always
remained close to his family. He and Martha have
two children: Sally, 32, a mathematician and
graduate of Pomona College and now the mother
of two, who lives in Solana Beach, California, with
her husband Ray Fisher, a plasma physicist from
Caltech and now working for General Atomic in
La Jolla; and their son, Bill, 29, who majored in
soil science at Purdue and now lives (coinci-
dentally) in Corcoran, California, where he is an
operations manager for the J. G. Boswell
Company. Bill and his wife, Leslie, are the parents
of two young sons. As a college student Bill Jr.
was a member of the Purdue football squad; Bill's
colleagues began to notice that whenever the young
man was to play in a Saturday game his father
made an effort to be called to the Midwest on a
speaking engagement that same weekend.
Bill's own love for sports-as spectator and
participant-has remained undiminished through-


out his career. He continues to follow USC foot-
ball religiously (one student being stalked by Bill
for an overdue paper claims to have diverted him
from his objective by launching into a discussion
of the fine points of Saturday's game), and he can
describe the contributions of a quarterback with
the authority he would use to explain which free
radical is essential in a chemical reaction.
On vacation in Hawaii for three weeks each
September he switches from sports spectator to
participant. He wallows in golf and swims over
a mile each day in the ocean. At home he enjoys
badminton, he bicycles with Martha occasionally,
and recently, intrigued with a burgeoning Cali-
fornia fad, he bought a pair of roller skates to
try around the neighborhood.
For many years, Bill revived his college base-
ball experience each year by pitching overhand
softball in the faculty-senior game. This annual
rite was eventually terminated, partly because of
student discouragement over the fact that the
faculty consistently won. He also kept his hand
in baseball while his son was a teenager by man-
aging Senior League and Babe Ruth League teams
for boys 13 to 20. During the same period he and
Martha taught high school Sunday school at St.
James Presbyterian Church where they are
members.
The Corcorans also have been involved in work-
ing on their avocado and lemon ranch near Fall-
brook, California, an endeavor in which their
children joined them when they were living at
home. This environment gives Bill the chance to
enjoy farming as a hobby and also to indulge a
serious interest in the technology of agriculture.
Bill's tendency to find life full of exciting
things to do has never diminished. And although
his schedule is brim full, there are other activities
he'd like to take on if he had the time. He'd like
to master a musical instrument, for example, and
to become proficient in Spanish (he's studied
Latin, French, Spanish, and German). He reads
for entertainment and would like to read more:
"I'd read every moment of every day if I could."
Bill feels activities like these he enjoys away from
Caltech are essential. "We all have to recharge
our batteries," he says. "If we don't, we miss
really important parts of living."
His feelings about all the diverse elements that
have characterized his interests, the challenges he
has met, the places he has met them, is simple:
"Everything that's happened to me has been good.
I don't know why I've been so damn lucky!" l


SPRING 1980









SIn views and opinions


THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING

FROM AN

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR'S POINT OF VIEW


G. MICHAEL HOWARD
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268

This paper was presented at the AIChE San
Francisco meeting on behalf of J. Q. Doe, an
Assistant Professor at Behemoth State University.
It was written based on conversations with many
Assistant Professors who each face some very hard
decisions on what the importance of teaching
should be in their career as a college professor.

I APOLOGIZE FOR NOT being here in person to
present my remarks on the importance of
effective teaching. However, discretion dictates
that I remain anonymous. I feel that I do get along
very well with the senior members of my depart-
ment and the department chairman but this is a
touchy subject and I could rub some of them the
wrong way. I am now in my third year at Behe-
moth U. I got my Ph.D. from a well-known Uni-
versity after having spent two years in process
development work in industry following my
undergraduate degree. During my graduate work
I did some paper grading as a teaching assistant
but had no real classroom teaching experience.
Various more peripheral experiences including
coaching and tutoring led me to think that I
would like to be a teacher and that I would enjoy
the lifestyle associated with college teaching. The
thoughts which are presented here are both
anecdotal and personal and have led to my opinions
on the importance of teaching.
I was fortunate to be looking for a teaching
job during a time when colleges were looking for

My opinion ... is that teaching
effectiveness is the most important
characteristic of a University

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


teachers. I had all the interview opportunities and
offers that I wanted. At each interview I presented
a seminar on my thesis research. I assume that this
was to see if I could speak at all and to give the
faculty a chance to find out if I knew a little bit
about the area. The informal discussions I had
were always about research interests, writing
proposals and equipment needs. There was occa-
sional discussion of my subject matter interest
and teaching loads. The latter almost always with
an implication of apologies for how much I would
have to teach. There were no discussions about
teaching style or methodology during the job
hunting process.
When I started I received no official instruc-
tions or advice about teaching or about classroom
policies. I was simply told the two courses to
which I was assigned. I got past outlines and
examinations from departmental files and one of
the faculty members did offer his problem solu-
tions and pointed out some of the sticky sections
of the book. This was very helpful, but there was
virtually no interest shown in the launching of
my teaching career by anyone except the same
faculty member. He, I discovered, had a reputation
for good teaching and seemed to be interested in
whether or not I was running into any real difficul-
ties. Since then, my teaching has developed
through my own concerns.
I have observed that teaching is not a subject
of general interest to the faculty. Lunchroom con-
versations, whether within the department or
with mixed groups, range over: University poli-
tics and budgets, state and national interests,
sports, money and investments, research projects
and grants, and occasionally major curriculum
issues. Teaching and what goes on in the class-
room are almost never discussed casually by the
faculty. Department seminars and school activi-
ties are also always of a technical or subject
matter orientation. To be fair, whenever I have


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








asked selected colleagues about aspects of teaching
they have been most responsive and helpful.
No one has come to observe my classroom
efforts. I saw the department head, and on another
occasion the dean, peeking in the back door of my
classroom to get a glimpse of what was going on.
There has been no review of my tests or grading
policy, but then I haven't done anything extreme
in this regard either. We do have a University-
wide rating form which is sent to the students
after each semester. About half of them return it.
The results are given to me and to the department
head and probably to the dean. I am now about a
seven out of ten in everything and that seems to
be fine with our head and the tenure committee.
No one has ever really officially discussed what
the results mean nor talked about using them to
improve any aspect of what I do.
It does turn out that student rating of teaching
is discussed every year when the results are re-
ceived. However, the results are not taken very
seriously. The usual kinds of "what do the students
know" comments are heard. One professor in
Economics gets some attention for his "lenient
grading equals good rating" exposition which is
made in the Faculty Senate every year. Many of
the other arguments tending to devalue student
ratings, such as those mentioned by McKeachie in
his article in the October 79 AAUP Bulletin, are
also heard. Emphasis here is on asking alumni
since "you don't know good teaching til you've
been out of school for awhile" and poor teaching
forces students to learn for themselves. Of course
no one has read the literature on evaluating teach-
ing.
The equivalent of Mole's Mystery Hour is sure
to be cited by someone as a final convincing
example. The mole taught a graduate chemistry
course. It is reported that some of his students
had never even seen his face. He shuffled into class
head down, opened his notebook on the front table,
turned his back to the class, and proceeded to
mumble toward the board while writing with his
right hand and simultaneously erasing with his
left. The students had little idea what he thought
he taught other than the general subject for the
day. Since he gave monsterous exams they were
forced to study prodigiously on their own in order
to be prepared for anything. As a result, those
students who did take his course learned a phe-
nomenal amount about the subject, typically at
the expense of progress on anything else during
that semester. Most students simply avoided the


The few people with great
interest in teaching that I found from
other departments would be overjoyed if
they could get their colleagues to what they
look upon as the engineering state of
enlightenment in this area.

course. This type of story doesn't tend to promote
good teaching.
The situation around the campus is even
worse. Engineers have long been interested in
their students even if teaching as such is not a
great concern. We do have ASEE and the various
education interests within our professional socie-
ties. The few people with great interest in teaching
that I found from other departments would be
overjoyed if they could get their colleagues to
what they look upon as the engineering state of
enlightenment in this area. There is an under-
funded teaching center on campus but it seems
to be largely ignored. I have also been warned
about a sad history of people who try to be visible
and active in the cause of good teaching but don't
get tenure. The School of Education, of course,
does some things with respect to teaching but they
are largely derided by the rest of the faculty.
I have argued that good teaching is not a very
visible subject on campus and in the department.
Clearly, it also is not a part of the reward system.
Research is the obvious part of the faculty role
that is all that teaching is not. There are so many
cliches on this contrast that I cannot avoid using
some of them. All of the non-tenured faculty re-
ceive letters from the dean and department head
advising us of our progress after the annual per-
formance review. My friends' experience is the
same as mine. Regardless of how much research
we seem to be doing we are urged and or
threatened to publish more and get research
grants. People seem to get tenure and promotions
for research and are not downgraded for weak
teaching performance. The converse is certainly
not true. The story I know about a University
letting go a very good researcher who was a
terrible and disinterested teacher has the sad
ending that the announcement of a prestigious re-
search grant caused the terminal appointment de-
cision to be reversed. Not surprisingly there had
been no student protests in support of this as-
sistant professor. The vice president's oft repeated
statement that we expect our faculty to be good
at both activities has a very hollow ring. In fact,


SPRING 1980









good research seems to lead to less and less teach-
ing and more and more time away from campus
and the students.
The publication system seems to make it
easier to recognize research by providing a con-
venient bean counting procedure. We seem to be
strangely reluctant to try to really evaluate teach-
ing. As a profession we're willing to categorize
colleagues as being poor researchers or uninter-
ested in research. It seems to be much harder to
acknowledge poor teaching. A psychology depart-
ment faculty evaluation system discussed at the
ASEE Summer School in 1977 showed this very
clearly. Department faculty rated their colleagues
over a full five point scale from 1.1 to 4.8 on re-
search but restricted their range to 3 to 4.5 on the
teaching evaluation. The poor teacher label is
clearly one which is neither given nor accepted
easily. Isn't this an anomaly in light of my earlier
discussion?
My opinion formed over years as a student,
alum, and now teacher is that teaching effective-
ness is the most important characteristic of a Uni-
versity. It determines the attitude and learning of
students which in turn determines the long term


letters

Dear Editor,
In the Winter 1980 issue ofCEE, Cassano [1] discusses
at length various "definitions" of the rate of reaction and
finally concludes that 'The rate of reaction expression is
the "sink" or "source" term in the continuity equation for
multicomponent systems which will take into account the
creation or destruction of the said species by chemical
reaction." The unnecessary inclusion of the word expres-
sion spoils this otherwise satisfactory statement.
If process rates are distinguished from rates of change,
the confusion regarding the "definition" of a rate, which
exists in much of the literature and which is not greatly
clarified by the above article, is easily avoided.
Process rates, such as the rate of a chemical reaction,
are conceptual and mechanistic. They depend on the local
environment, as described by the thermodynamic poten-
tials alone in the special case of a homogeneous reaction.
Process rates are ordinarily not measurable. Rather they
are inferred with some unavoidable uncertainty from
measured rates of change in space or time through the
equations of conservation.
This distinction is discussed and illustrated extensively
in my book [2]. It has also been noted by Dixon [3], Peter-
son (reference [16] of [1]) and many others.
The primary positive contribution of reference [1] is
the illustration of the reduction of the equation of con-
servation of species to several of the special cases which
are commonly used to infer rates of reaction from mea-


reputation of the University. Good teaching is also
the source of tremendous satisfaction to the
faculty. Sadly, the University reward system does
little to recognize and develop effective teaching
and in fact seems to actively discourage it. My own
strategy, evolved after very painful soul searching,
is to give teaching the minimum possible -amount
of my time. My teaching ratings should show me
to be competent and I do prepare for classes and
try to be friendly to the students. I try nothing
new or different and I have the minimum possible
number of office hours. These things take too much
time and effort. It goes without saying that com-
mittee assignments, advising and similar un-
rewarded time consumers are avoided like the
plague. I hope to let my interest in teaching come
to the surface in the future, after I'm over the
tenure-promotion hurdle. In the meantime I would
be glad to have you visit me in the lab to talk about
my research and maybe steering a few graduate
students my way. If I'm not in the lab look for me
in the library working on a proposal. Don't look
for me in my office during the day-students
might find me also and right now I can't take the
time to help them learn. O

sured rates of change.
1. Cassano, A. E., "The Rate of Reaction: A Definition
or the Result of a Conservation Equation?," Chem.
Eng. Educ., 14, 14 (1980).
2. Churchill, S. W., "The Interpretation and Use of Rate
Data: The Rate Process Concept", revised printing,
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, D.C.
(1979).
3. Dixon, D.C., Chem. Eng. Sci., 25, 337 (1970).
Best regards,
Stuart W. Churchill
The Carl V.S. Patterson Professor
University of Pennsylvania


^ [books received ]

"What Every Engineer Should Know About Patents,"
W. G. Konald, Bruce Tittel, D. F. Frei, and D. S. Stallard.
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1979, 136 pgs, $9.75
This book, written for engineers, outlines the law of
intellectual property with emphasis on patent law. Its
objective is to provide a perspective of patents, trade-
marks, trade secrets, and related matters, without
undue use of specialized legal language and termin-
ology.
"Principles and Applications of Electrochemistry," 2nd
ed., D. R. Crow, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979, 232
pages (paperback), $13.95.
This book presents in a simple and concise way the
basic principles of electrochemistry that students re-
quire and some of its applications.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








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--










jL['class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scott Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Our student readers, both graduate and undergraduate, are encouraged to submit their solution to the
following problem to Prof. Robert L. Kabel, ChE Dept., Pennsylvania State University, University Park,
PA 16802, before June 15, 1980 (please designate your student status on your entry). A complimentary
subscription to CEE will be awarded in each category, to begin immediately or, if preferred, after gradua-
tion, for the best solutions submitted. (Penn State students are not eligible.) We will publish Prof.
Kabel's solution in a subsequent issue.


PRAIRIE DOG PROBLEM


R. L. KABEL
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
Prairie dogs live in underground burrows
which are interconnected with tunnels as shown
in Fig. 1. An important question immediately
arises as to how the prairie dog architects provide
ventilation for underground living during seasons
of high activity and hibernation. You are re-
quested to propose an explanation supported by
calculations of how their tunnel ventilation system


Robert L. Kabel received his B.S. degree from The University of
Illinois in 1955 and his Ph.D. from The University of Washington in
1961. From 1961-1963 he served n the U.S. Air Force Space Systems
Division receiving the Commendation Medal for Meritorious Achieve-
ment. Since 1963 he has been at The Pennsylvania State University
where he is Professor of ChE. He was at The Technical University of
Norway (1971-72) and Pahlavi University in Iran (1978) as visiting pro-
fessor and lecturer, respectively. He has served recently as Chairman
of the AIChE's Chemical Engineering Education Projects Committee
(1976-77) and the Central Pennsylvania section of the American Chem-
ical Society (1970). His research centers around catalytic kinetics and
air pollution meteorology. He is active in industrial consulting, flying,
and squash.


FIGURE 1


works.
This problem illustrates a truism: The most
difficult part of solving a problem is defining it. In
formulating a ventilation mechanism you should
consider the following discussion on prairie dog
habits and habitats.
1. What is a prairie dog? (small rodent about
1/3 meter long)
2. Where do they live? (arid country, rather
barren, sandy soil, some grasses in the re-
gion for food, etc.)
3. What do they need to live? (food-grasses,
roots in burrows; water-not much; air)
4. How do they get their air? (molecular
diffusion through soil and passage ways,
going up to the top and breathing occasion-
ally; replenishment in passage by some
mechanism)
5. How much air do they need? (a single dog
in a typical burrow has a 5-10 hour oxygen
reserve)
6. What is the nature of burrow? (multiple
holes, one in mound leading to a tunnel;
spacing between mounds as shown in Fig.
1)
7. By what mechanisms could air be supplied?
a. A "pig in a pipeline" theory might be

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I









mentioned whereby prairie dogs moving
through the tunnel drive the air out ahead of
them and draw it in behind them. Every-
one is familiar with the "whoosh" effect
observed when subway trains come in. (My
thought is that a tight fitting, fast moving,
animal could well do this. But I expect that
the animal fills only about 1/2 of the tube
cross section. The tube radius is 5.64 cm
versus an animal diameter of about 8-9 cm.
Thus his sweeping efficiency may not be
too good and a fairly continuous circulation
might be required. Note also that this
mechanism would not work during hiber-
nation.)
b. The Bernoulli effect (high velocity, low
pressure, and vice versa) is mentioned with
no particular indication of the mechanism
of getting high and low velocities. Perhaps
there is a "mound" effect. There may be a
variety of misconceptions about static air
pressure; e.g., can the different elevations
of openings induce flow simply because of
Ap? In fact, Ap is balanced by gravity and
it is impossible to vent pollutants to the
vacuum of space.
c. A variety of chimney effects are
possible; e.g. sucking at all openings due to
wind across them and natural convection
due to animal warmth below. The day-night
cycle could give an effect similar to the
breathing cave phenomenon.
d. Finally, if a tube is held vertically just
above the ground, would there be flow
through it? There will be a flow upward




----- ,
|^


FIGURE 2. Boundary layer velocity distribution effect.

due to the boundary layer velocity distribu-
tion effect because of the low velocity and
high pressure at the bottom and the high
velocity and low pressure at the top. This
Ap is greater than that inferred from hydro-
statics.
You are now encouraged to use any of the
above points in your explanation of the tunnel
ventilation mechanism. O


- POSITIONS AVAILABLE |
Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
% page $50; each additional column inch $20.

UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering: Must have a
Ph.D., excellent academic background, strong interest in
teaching and research, and be a U.S. citizen or have
permanent residency certification. Responsible for teaching
undergraduate and graduate courses, supervising graduate
research starting September 1980 or January 1981. Send
resume, three references, transcripts, and statement of
interest to Dr. D. R. Paul, Chairman, Department of
Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712. Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity
Employer.

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
Assistant or Associate Professor Position. This is a tenure-
track position and will be approximately half-time teaching
and half-time research. We will help the successful candi-
date establish research by providing initiation funds, co-
investigation opportunities with senior faculty, and pro-
posal preparation-processing assistance from our Office
of Engineering Research. Candidates must possess an
earned Ph.D. degree from an accredited Department or
School of Chemical Engineering or have a Ph.D. degree
in related area and have strongly related qualifications.
We welcome applications from candidates with competen-
cies and interests in any field of chemical engineering, but
especially seek those with strengths in material sciences
or controls. The position is available as early as July, 1980.
Applications will be received thru June, 1980. Salary and
rank are commensurate with qualifications and experience.
If you are interested in joining an established School of
Chemical Engineering (in the pleasant Southwest) that
offers outstanding professional growth opportunities,
please send your resume and list of three references to:
Professor Billy L. Crynes, Head, School of Chemical En-
gineering, 423 Engineering North, Oklahoma State Univer-
sity, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, 405-624-5280. (Calls for
additional information invited.) OSU is an equal oppor-
tunity/affirmative action employer.


books received

"How to Find Chemical Information," R. E. Maizell, John
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979, 261 pages, $17.95.
Chemical information tools are in a constant state of
change. This book will show you how to efficiently
locate, use, and in some cases evaluate, chemical data.
"Fluid Catalytic Cracking with Zeolite Catalysts," P. B.
Venuto and E. T. Habib, Jr., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New
York, 1979 156 pages, $19.50
This book attempts to cover the broad scope of fluid
catalytic cracking (using zeolite catalysts), with em-
phasis on the highly-coupled interactions of the process
between the feedstock, the catalyst, the process hard-
ware, and the desired products. Workers in petroleum
refining and petro-chemical activities, and those in-
terested in catalysis in general, will use this book as' a
resource and necessary research tool.


SPRING 1980


f f f f f r


r f










MIM lecture


CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF A SPARSE KIND*


ARTHUR W. WESTERBERG
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213

The goal is to present methods for solving sets
of nonlinear algebraic equations, e.g.:

fi (X,X2.... Xn) = 0
f (xx2,.... X) 0
*

fm(XX2, ... Xn) = 0
Two cases are of interest
Square Case n = m
Nonsquare Case n > m
For the latter case n-m variables are degrees of
freedom for the problem. Their values must be
supplied from elsewhere.
We are interested in the case where the equa-
tions are sparse, i.e. each equation explicitly
contains only a few of the variables. The literature
contains two general approaches for solving:
Tearing (with convergence accelera-
tion).
Newton-Raphson with sparse matrix
methods.
Therefore we have two problems, n = m and
n > m, and two approaches to consider.
We shall first present an example problem, a
flash calculation. For it we shall apply the essential
ideas for solving by the tearing method and then
by using the Newton-Raphson method.

*This paper was presented as the first annual tutorial
lecture for the ASEE meeting held in Vancouver, British
Columbia, in June, 1978. The material appears in more
detail in the book Process Flowsheeting (Westerberg,
Hutchison, Motard and Winter (1977)). It has been taught
as part of an elective course on computer-aided process
design to both seniors and graduate students in chemical
engineering.


Yi ,V

zi ,F T.P

--g A xi,L


Fig. 1 A Flash Unit


EXAMPLE PROBLEM
A diagram for a flash unit appears in Figure
1. The model is as follows, where the physical
properties are treated very simply.
Material Balance
yiV + x1L = ziF i = 1,2,...c (1)
V + L = F (2)


Arthur W. Westerberg received his degrees in chemical engineer-
ing at Minnesota, Princeton, and Imperial College, London. He then
joined Control Data Corporation in their process control division for
two years. In 1967 he joined the University of Florida where he
remained for nine years. In 1976 he joined the faculty at Carnegie-
Mellon University. He was Director of the Design Research Center from
1978 to 1980 and just became Head of Chemical Engineering this
January.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Equilibrium
Yi = Kix, (3)
Physical Properties
PKi = Pio (Raoult's Law) (4)
Antoine's Equation
for Vapor Pressure
p, = 10 (A -Bi)/(Ci + T) (5)
Other
2xi y, = 0 (6)
=zi = 1 (7)
The problem we address next is to develop a solu-
tion procedure to solve these equations. We note
that, for c = 3 components, the number of equa-
tions is 15 (Equation (1)3 equations; (2)1; (3)3;
(4)3; (5)3; (6)1; (7)1; for a total of m = 15
equations). The variables for the problem are:
yi,x,,zj,Ki,Pj,i = 1,2,3 = 15 variables
V,L,F,T,P = 5 variables
For a total of n = 20 variables. Thus there are
five variables in excess of the number of equa-
tions or n m = 5 degrees of freedom for the
problem.

Deriving a Solution Procedure for Square Case
We need first to reduce our problem to 15
equations in 15 unknowns. To do this we add five
specifications. We shall set values for the five
variables zi,z2,P,T, and F, a set of specifications
corresponding to that for a so-called isothermal
flash calculation. Figure 2 is an "incidence matrix"
(or "occurrence matrix") for the 15 equations in
the remaining 15 variables.
Our first task is to partition the equations if
possible. For a sparse, square set of equations one
will often find that a subset of the equations can
be found which involves n, equations in precisely
n, unknowns. These n, equations in n, unknowns
can be solved first and by themselves. These ni
equations and n, variables may then be deleted
from the problem, leaving us with a set of n-n,
equations in n-n1 unknowns. We may again at-
tempt to locate within this reduced equation set a
further subset of n2 equation in precisely n2 un-
known. Again, these may be solved next and by
themselves. We can repeat this activity until no
further reduction in the problem is possible. This
task is known as partitioning the equations, and
the order in which we then solve these partitions
is called a precedence order. Solving a large
problem as a sequence of small problems is clearly
much easier to do.
The steps involved in partitioning a set of


We need first to reduce our
problem to 15 equations in 15 unknowns.
To do this we add five specifications. We shall
set values for the five variables zi,z2,P,T, and F,
a set of specifications corresponding
to that for a so-called isothermal
flash calculation.


equations are as follows. First, we assign a unique
variable to each equation. This assignment is
called an output assignment for the equations, and
the circled variables in Figure 2 are such an as-
signment. For a small problem finding an output
assignment can be done quickly by hand. For
larger problems one may reformulate the problem
as an assignment problem in linear programming
and solve using the very efficient algorithms avail-
able for that particular problem type. Note that
we have required an explicit output assignment
here, that is, one in which each assigned variable


FIGURE 2. Incidence Matrix for Square Case. Circled
incidences indicate an "output assignment"
for the equations.

must appear explicitly within the equation to
which it is assigned.
If an explicit output assignment has been
found for the equations, then one can use path
tracing algorithms to find the partitions and the
precedence order for the partitions. To implement
a path tracing algorithm we first establish a pre-
cursor list for the variables in our problem.


SPRING 1980









Precursors
V
V Calculates
Eqn.
flYl
L
FIGURE 3. Information Flow for an Equation.


Figure 3 illustrates the essential ideas behind this
precursor list. Figure 4 is a completed precursor
list for the flash problem. Note that each equa-
tion is identified by its assigned output variable.
The precursors to that variable are the other
variables occurring in the equation. For example,
equation f, has an assigned output variable y,.
The other three variables appearing in equation f,
are x,, V and L. In order to calculate yl using
equation f, we would need to have values x,, V and
L. With a precursor list for our equations we may
readily execute a path tracing algorithm to find
the groups of equations which form the partitions
for our equation set. We proceed as follows.


Variables
Precursors


Y1 2 Y3X x2 x3 z3 V L K1 K2 K3 P1oP2'P3

x1 x2 yYl 2 Y3 L y3 p p -
V V Y2L K2 K3 x3
L L x V
x2
S x3


involves more than one equation in one unknown.
For each partition we must then derive a solution
procedure. The last eight equations in eight un-
knowns require simultaneous solution.

Tearing Approach
Tearing is used to locate a solution procedure
which requires one to guess only a few (say t) of
the variables and then use n-t of the equations to
calculate directly the values of the remaining n-t
variables in terms of those guesses. The t unused
equations may then be used as error functions
which should be zero if our guesses are correct. If
not zero we need to reguess. If we assume that
each variable may readily be calculated in terms
of the remaining variables appearing in the equa-
tion, then the following algorithm may be used.

Algorithm (A quick and dirty, but effective, algorithm.)
1. Select as the next equation the one contain-
ing the fewest new variables. Repeat until
all equations selected.
2. Select strategically among new variables
introduced with each equation one to be
calculated by it. If no new variables are
introduced, select the latest variable intro-
duced earlier which remains unassigned and
which has a cause/effect relationship to new
equation.
Applying this algorithm gives the following re-
sult:


FIGURE 4. Precursor List for Flash Problem.


Path tracing involves tracing through the pre-
cursor lists, starting with any variable.
y, has precursor x, which has precursor yj
or
yl<-x <-y1
Clearly y1 and x, are in an "information" loop; i.e.,
they each require the other to be calculated. We
thus merge them and their precursor lists and
treat them as a single item on our list. Thus
(ylx.) <-V<-L<-y3 -yl
Clearly (yxi) VLys are also in a loop.
Continuing
(y1x1VLy3) <-K<-P1 no precursor.
Thus P1o may obviously be calculated first and by
itself. It is deleted from all lists and placed first
on our list of partitions. If we were to continue we
would ultimately find the partitioning and prece-
dence order implied by the reordered incidence
matrix in Figure 5. We note only the last partition


PO P2 Po z3 K K K Y x3 L
1 2 33 1 K K3 Y1 Y2 Y3 X1 X2 X3


[I]


1 l 11
l I l l
S111
1 1


f1 1 1
f 1 1 1
fl44 1 1 1 1 1

FIGURE 5. Partitions and their Precedence Order for
Flash Problem.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









NEW VARIABLES ASSIGNED VARIABLE
(Step 1) (Step 2)


CHOOSE EQUATION
(Step 1)
f4
fl1
f5
f2

f3
f7


7---
0-1
- I


J<-I
G-


which implies the following solution algorithm.


Guess V <-
Solve f4 for
Guess x,
Solve fl for
Evaluate f5
If f5 not zer
Guess x2
Solve f2 for
Evaluate f6
If f6 not zer


L


yl e

o, reguess x1 and iterate from 4-

Y2< ed

o, reguess x2 and iterate from 8
<-2


13. ditto for x3, Y3
14.
15. Evaluate f14
16. If not zero, reguess V and iterate from 2
One could also solve by saving the evaluation
of f, (Step 5), f6 (Step 9) and f, (Step 13) until
the end and evaluating all three with f14, then re-
guessing V, x1, x2 and x, simultaneously.
Note that equations (f1, f,) are linear in x,
and y, and could be solved directly as a pair of
linear equations. Thus the iteration in Step 6 is
not necessary. (f2, f,) and (fs, f,) are also linear
in (x2, y2) and (x3, ys), respectively.

Newton-Raphson With Sparse Matrix Methods

The Newton-Raphson method is to linearize
our equations about a current guess:

fl(x1 + AX1, x2 + AX2, . X + AXn) ,

fl(x1, X2, . Xn) + ~xf + . + AXn
Zx, ZXn
f2(x1 + AX, .. Xn + Ax,)

f2 (x, x2, ... .Xn) + -H 1 AX+ + .. AXn
ax, Zxil



etc

f(x + Ax) f(x) + ( XT)f
\x TA /


L, V
yl' Xl

Y2' X2

Y3' X3


af
axT


L V-
Xl Yl
x2 Y2
x3 y3
1 1


1
-1 -1


-K3
1 1 1


which is then evaluated in each iteration at the
current values of all the variables.
The essential idea in using sparse matrix
methods is to develop a pivot sequence for solving
the linear equations which creates the fewest new
nonzero elements in our coefficient matrix as we
solve the equations. Each nonzero coefficient re-
quires added work in terms of multiplies and adds
which we desire to avoid. A very quick and dirty
algorithm for finding a better pivot sequence is as
follows.

Algorithm (one of many)

1. Select row with fewest entries
2. Select in that row, column with fewest
entries
3. If selected element not almost zero, select
as next pivot and proceed.
Figure 6 shows this pivot selection algorithm
applied to our flash equations for the first two of


SPRING 1980


The approach is to find the change required in
x such that the linearized equations become zero
at f(x + Ax). We thus get the Newton-Raphson
equations:

f o\ AX = -f(x)

which are a set of linear equations. The solution
algorithm is as follows:
Algorithm
1. Guess x
2. Evaluate f(x) (which should be zero at
solution)

3. Evaluate Jacobian matrix fT) at x.

4. Solve NR eqns for Ax
5. Let x be replaced by x + ax and iterate
from (2) until f (x) is very small.
The Jacobian matrix has most coefficients equal
to zero; it is very sparse. It should be solved using
sparse matrix methods. For the flash equations
the Jacobian matrix is as follows.


-Yl Y2 Y3 X1 x2 x3










It is very easy to
solve several hundred to a
few thousand sparse linear equations.


x
x x


x
x x x


No fill


Y1 Y2 Y3 X1 x2 X3 V


TI3 x x x
f 5- 0x.
f x x
f 7 x x
f xl x x x" x x
No fill again!

FIGURE 6. The First Two Pivot Selection and Elimina-
tion Steps for Flash Problem.

the eight pivots selected. The check marks indi-
cate coefficients which are altered when using the
selected pivot to eliminate the nonzeros in the
pivot column during Gaussian elimination. The
first pivot selected is in the row for f. and in the
column for L. Gaussian elimination then requires
us to zero out all other nonzeros in the pivot
column. This elimination is done by subtracting
the appropriate multiple of the pivot row from all
rows having a nonzero in the pivot column. Only
those elements checked will be changed by this
step, and hopefully only a few of them will be
changed from zero to nonzero, i.e. "filled". Here
all changed elements are already nonzero and no
nonzeros "fill" in either step. If we continue we
would discover only one nonzero fills by the time
all eight pivot/elimination steps are completed.
One could count the numbers of multiplications
and additions needed to do the forward elimina-
tion here and discover the numbers are very small


I


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


relative to handling all the zero valued coefficients
too.
It is very easy to solve several hundred to a
few thousand sparse linear equations.

Solving Nonsquare Equation Sets
A simple approach is to skip all partitioning
and precedence ordering steps. Then the left over
variables (those never assigned or pivoted) be-
come the decision variables for the problem.

Other Topics
We have so far presented only a part of the
material needed to solve sparse nonlinear equa-
tions. We should also present material on each of
the following topics.
1. Methods to reguess tear variables, i.e.:
Secant Method (1 variable)
Generalized Secant Method (n variables)
Broyden's Method (n variables)
2. What to do if I Ifl does not decrease after a
step is taken in the N-R method, e.g.
take a smaller step in N-R direction.
n
use [ fl 12 = fi2 as an objective and
i=1
seek a new direction more in the direction
of steepest descent for this objective
while also taking a shorter step (Leven-
berg/Marquardt algorithm)
use "continuation" method which con-
verts N-R problem to one in integrating
ODE's.
3. Scaling
For each variable, determine a "nominal"
value, then
Scale each equation so a typical term
using nominal variable values is about
unity.
Scale each variable so its nominal value is
about unity.
4. Rewrite equations to avoid divisions (divi-
sion by zero is fatal), e.g.:
For eb/T T = 0, let y = b/T (a new vari-
able) and then replace the single equation
with the two equations
e- T = 0
yT b = 0
For In x x = 0
Use y = In x and replace equations with
e x = 0
y-x = 0









In this case In x does not itself involve division
but, when one forms the Jacobian element af/ax=
1/x 1, we have a division, which if x becomes
zero will destroy the N-R equations by giving an
infinite coefficient.

SUMMARY

Advantages/Disadvantages of Tearing vs. N-R
with Sparse Matrix Methods
* Tearing is the more commonly used method.
* Tearing requires much less computer storage,
usually.
Tearing can be made quite efficient, particularly
if all variables to be iterated are converged to-
gether, rather than solved with loops imbedded
inside loops.
* Newton-Raphson approach is really very good
if done correctly. We regularly solve hundreds
of equations in 5 to 10 iterations total.
* The AERE Harwell subroutine MA28* is
readily available to perform all the sparse
matrix-equation solving portion of the problem.
* N-R requires Jacobian elements be evaluated or
estimated. We find this easy to do because we
add new variables to keep the algebra simple.
* Newton-Raphson approach permits sensitivity
calculations to be performed easily and for little
computational effort. O

REFERENCE
Westerberg, A. W., H. P. Hutchison, R. L. Motard, P.
Winter, Process Flowsheeting, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, England (1979).

*Contact: Numerical Analysis Group, Bldg. 8.9, AERE
Harwell, OX11RA, England. The routine MA28 is part
of the Harwell library of scientific routines which is
available for 150. (Very cheap at that price.)





JOHN D. STEVENS
John D. Stevens, professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Iowa State University, died April 1,
1980, after a short illness. He was a faculty mem-
ber at Iowa State for 15 years, during which time
he received several teaching awards including the
Western Electric Fund Award. He had served as
National President of Omega Chi Epsilon. Dr.
Stevens published several papers in the area of
emulsion polymerization and crystallization.


JnI "conferences
PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR ENGINEERS
July 7-11, University of Michigan
Quantitative presentation of the terminology, anatomy, and
performance of mammalian physiological systems. Es-
pecially for engineers and other scientists with little formal
training in biological science. For further information:
Engineering Summer Conf., 300 Chrysler Center, N.
Campus, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MODELING, SIMULATION,
AND OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES
July 21-30, M.I.T.
Basic principles and techniques for computer-aided design
and control of industrial-scale chemical processes. Topics:
steady state process simulation, process optimization, dy-
namic modeling and simulation of chemical processes, com-
puter-aided process synthesis, comprehensive problem-
oriented computing systems for chemical process design.
For further information: Dir. Summer Session, MIT, Rm.
E19-356, Cambridge, MA 02139.
ADVANCES IN EMULSION POLYMERIZATION AND
LATEX TECHNOLOGY
June 9-13, Lehigh University
For further information: Dr. M. S. El-Aasser, ChE Dept.,
Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015
SHORT COURSES ON EMULSION POLYMERS
August 18-22, Davos, Switzerland
For further information: Dr. Gary Poehlein, ChE Dept.,
Georgia Institute of Tech., Atlanta, GA 30332










Ever been in the midst of research and realized that
easy access to U.S. Patents would be the answer to
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Research Publications, Inc. offers to attorneys,
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SPRING 1980









l laboratory


UTILIZATION OF THE RECYCLE REACTOR

IN DETERMINING KINETICS OF

GAS-SOLID CATALYTIC REACTIONS


STEPHEN C. PASPEK, ARVIND VARMA
AND JAMES J. CARBERRY
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556

CATALYSIS AND REACTION modeling comprise a
substantial portion of many reaction engineer-
ing courses, as well as being subjects of consider-
able industrial interest. Classroom lectures in this
area of instruction are, with greater frequency,
being supplemented by laboratory experiments.
Several experiments, suitable for an undergradu-
ate laboratory course, have previously been de-
scribed. These have included both homogeneous
reactions (typical examples being saponification
reactions [16, 17], and the popular reaction of


,4
LI-1,


The conservatively clad Arvind Varma (left), received his PhD at
Minnesota under the direction of Neal Amundson. Varma also im-
mersed himself in experimental work at the University of Minnesota
under Aris McPherson Rutherford, noted distillation expert. The
chap dozing on the right is J. J. Carberry (PhD, Yale), who is no
doubt contemplating his co-authorship with Aris McPherson Ruther-
ford of the monograph "Aquinas, Boethius and their Indebtedness to
the Gill Report" to be published by the University of Houston Athletic
Department. The fellow in the middle who did all the work reported
here is Steve Paspek (PhD, Notre Dame 1979). This paper is based
upon Steve's undergraduate senior year project. Steve is now with
SOHIO where it is hoped that their equipment and instrument budget
is commensurate with his Ambrosian tastes which nearly bankrupted
Notre Dame.


NaS20A with H20O for demonstration of reactor
stability described by Schmitz [13]) and hetero-
geneous reactions (of which hydrocarbon or
methanol oxidation on Pt wire [1, 6], alcohol de-
hydration on alumina in a batch [9] or fixed bed
reactor [11], and ethylene hydrogenation on a Pt
coated tube wall [2] are typical examples.)
While experiments involving homogeneous
liquid phase reactions are relatively routine,
formidable difficulties exist in the accurate
modeling of solid catalyzed gas phase reactions.
The majority of these problems can be attributed
to gradients of temperature and concentration
within the catalyst pellet and the reactor; such
gradients frequently mask kinetic data to the
point of rendering it useless. While it is difficult
to design a perfect laboratory scale reactor to de-
termine the kinetics of a gas-solid catalytic re-
action, this paper indicates that an external re-
cycle reactor will economically eliminate gradients
for a number of gas-solid heterogeneous systems.

COMMON BENCH SCALE REACTORS

R ACTORS IN LABORATORY use fall into four
general categories: fixed bed reactors (includ-
ing integral and differential types), pulsed re-
actors, agitated reactors, and recycle reactors.
Excellent reviews of the various reactor types and
their merits are given by Weekman [15] and by
Doraiswamy and Tajbl [8]. Some serious difficul-
ties inherent to the first three categories of re-
actors are presented below.
The integral packed bed reactor can rarely be
operated in an isothermal fashion. At even moder-
ate enthalpies of reaction, substantial amounts of
heat are generated, creating both radial and axial
temperature gradients. Zoned heat control, as il-
lustrated by Viselov et al. [14] can minimize axial
temperature profiles, but cannot mitigate radial
gradients. Furthermore, the change of gas com-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










While it is difficult to design a perfect laboratory scale reactor
to determine the kinetics of a gas-solid catalytic reaction, this paper
indicates that an external recycle reactor will economically eliminate gradients for
a number of gas-solid heterogeneous systems.


position with bed depth leads to severe concentra-
tional gradients, making the acquisition of mean-
ingful kinetic data very difficult.
Use of the differential packed bed reactor is an
attempt to minimize gradients by operating at ex-
tremely low conversion levels. This effectively
limits the amount of heat generated, allowing near-
isothermal operation. However, as noted by
Weekman [15], extremely precise analytical tech-
niques are required to measure the minute differ-
ences between the feed and effluent streams. For
multicomponent systems this problem is intensi-
fied.
The pulse reactor yields differential results at
relatively large conversion levels. However, the
results are characteristic of only the initial cata-
lytic response; the reactor cannot be operated in
steady state. Furthermore, Makar and Merrill
[10] note that the concentration of reactant species
upon the catalyst surface changes as the pulse is
forced through the reactor by the inert carrier,
thus masking the true rate-concentration function-
ality.
Agitated reactors include the spinning-basket
configurations developed by Carberry [12] and
Doraiswamy [7], as well as internal recycle con-
figurations popularized by Berty [3] and Bennett
[4]. By virtue of severe agitation within the re-
action vessel, the gas phase is mixed to a uniform
composition and temperature. In the internal re-
cycle reactors, the stationary catalyst bed allows
direct measurement of the catalyst temperature.
However, in the spinning basket design, the actual
catalyst temperature cannot be measured; it must
be inferred from the rate of reaction, the heat of


FEED


EFFLUENT


reaction, and the rates of heat and mass transfer
within the reactor. Unfortunately, the actual gas
velocity relative to the catalyst pellet cannot be
determined, and the standard correlations for heat
and mass transfer rates cannot be applied to the
system. Furthermore, both the spinning basket and
internal recycle configurations involve a rather
elaborately machined (and hence expensive) re-
actor vessel, as well as high temperature rotating
seals.

EXTERNAL RECYCLE REACTOR
T HE EXTERNAL RECYCLE REACTOR (Fig. 1)
consists of a small isothermal tubular reactor
coupled with a bellows-type recycle pump. The
per pass conversion in the tubular reactor is quite
low, approaching that of a differential reactor,
and minimizing the amount of heat generated.
However, by recycling a large portion of the
effluent through the fixed catalyst bed many times,
the overall conversion level is raised to that of an
integral reactor. The reactor construction, detailed
below, involves only readily available stainless
steel tubing and Swagelock fittings; no machining
is required.
The gas velocity relative to the catalyst parti-
cles can be easily determined, allowing the use of
standard heat and mass transfer correlations for
fixed beds. In addition, above a certain minimum
rate, the gas velocity can be varied to suit the re-
action system without effecting kinetic measure-
ments. The recycle ratio R is defined as the ratio
of the volumetric flow rate of recycled effluent/
feed; as R increases, the reactor behavior ap-
proaches that of a CSTR.
A material balance around a recycle reactor
for a first order reaction yields the expression


Cae
Rate = Co 1
0


Recycle Pump
FIGURE 1: Schematic of external recycle reactor
system.


exp(-kj/R + 1)
(1 + R) -Rexp(--k/R + 1)


(1)
where Co is the reactant concentration in the feed,
k is the rate constant, and 0 is the holding time
(i.e., catalyst bed volume/volumetric feed rate).
In the limit of R -> oo, this expression reduces to


SPRING 1980






























50 60 70


FIGURE 2: Plot of relative error between CSTR m
and recycle reactor model for finite rec
ratios.

the CSTR rate expression
Rate = (Co C)/0
The error between these two rate express
is plotted in Fig. 2 for finite values of R.
general, the error is less than 1% for values
R greater than 25.
The instructional merit of the recycle rea
is that by operating with recycle ratios from
over 25, plug flow to CSTR behavior beco
manifest, although complete isothermality is
guaranteed at recycle ratios less than 25.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS


Order = +1
Co. 1.0











0.I
-K = 0.01


o

ctor
0 to
mes
not


T HE REACTION VESSEL AND the preheater are
1.25 x 35 cm. SS tubes. The reactor tube is
packed with active catalyst, while the preheater
tube is filled with inert alumina pellets to pro-
mote mixing. Both tubes are held at constant
temperature in individually controlled electric tube
furnaces. Thermocouples are inserted into the
gas stream at the exit of the preheater and the
reactor through standard Swagelock fittings.
The recycle pump* is a metal bellows pump

*Recycle pump available from Metal Bellows Corpora-
tion, 1075 Providence Highway, Sharon, Mass. 01067.
Model MB-158HT was used in the apparatus.


The external recycle reactor
consists of a small isothermal tubular
reactor coupled with a bellows-type recycle pump.
The per pass conversion in the tubular reactor
is quite low, approaching that of a
differential reactor, and
minimizing the amount
of heat generated.


feed and effluent lines, which periodically ad-
mitted samples to a gas chromatograph. The feed
concentration was varied by coupling a small 1
RPM motor to a standard 10 turn needle valve. A
cam timer activated the motor for a fixed period
of time (i.e., 10 seconds) resulting in a fractional
opening or closing of the valve, with the subse-
quent change in feed composition. The net reactor
flow rate was continuously monitored by an elec-
tronic mass flow meter. However, the flow rate
could also be measured with a soap film meter,
and assumed constant for small changes in the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


designed for high temperature operation, with a
nominal capacity of 600 sec/sec. A standard ar-
rangement of valves, rotameters, etc. is employed
to control the reactor feed, admitted to the pre-
heater at room temperature and atmospheric pres-
sure.
Cooling coils quench the reactor effluent to re-
duce pump wear. Both the reactor feed and
effluent compositions are determined via gas
chromatography. The effluent sample is taken from
the discharge side of the recycle pump; due to the
pump's high suction, the inlet pressure is too low
to allow flow through the chromatograph sample
valve. Volumetric flow rates are determined by a
mass flow meter or a soap film meter.
The recycle reactor can be easily automated
by the addition of several cam timers, solenoid
valves, and automatic needle valves. To determine
isothermal kinetics, one must measure the reaction
rate at a number of different reactant concentra-
tions. This involves setting a feed rate and con-
odel
yle centration, allowing the system to stabilize and
equilibrate, and then sampling the feed and
effluent streams to accurately determine their com-
positions. The reaction rate is calculated as the
difference in composition divided by the holding
(2) time. A new feed composition or net flow rate is
ions then selected, and the process is repeated.
In Automatic operation was achieved by in-
,, stalling timer controlled solenoid valves on the


SK = 1.0


- K8 = 0.5


KS=


0 10 20 30 40
Recycle Ratio










minor reactant flow rate.
A schematic of the apparatus appears in Fig.
3.

APPLICATION OF THE RECYCLE REACTOR
TO CO OXIDATION KINETICS

T HE CATALYTIC OXIDATION of CO to CO2 over
noble metals is an interesting reaction because
of the curious dependence of rate upon CO con-
centration (in excess O0) :

kC
Rate = (1 + KC) (3)

The kinetics, then, are of positive order for low
CO concentrations, and change to negative order
at CO concentrations greater than approximately
1%. Typical data for supported platinum are
shown in Fig. 4.
Rate constants are easily determined by a
least-squares fit of the rearranged rate expression:


PRE-HEATER
TEMPERATURE
CONTROLLER


02 H20 CO2
SOURCE TRAP TRAP


PRESSURE
REGULATOR




CO H20 CO2
SOURCE TRAP TRAP


PRESSURE
REGULATOR


The recycle reactor can be
easily automated by the addition of
several cam timers, solenoid valves, and
automatic needle valves.



V C KC 1
Rate V + (4)

By assuming the Arrhenius form of the rate
constants, and determining their values at several
temperatures, the activation energies can be de-
duced. Results for platinum, shown in Fig. 5, are
in excellent agreement with current literature
data.

INTERPHASE GRADIENTS

Concentration and temperature gradients
between the catalytic surface and the bulk gas
phase depend upon two parameters as defined by


REACTOR
TEMPERATURE
CONTROLLER


REACTOR
PRESSURE


RECYCLE
PUMP


TO
EXHAUST


MASS
FLOW METER


"' (cCOOLING
COIL











0 CHECK VALVE
SOLENOID VALVE
0 NEEDLE VALVE

- AUTOMATIC NEEDLE
VALVE


TO GAS C ROTAMETER
CHROMATOGRAPH


FIGURE 3: Details of Notre Dame automated recycle reactor system.


SPRING 1980









Carberry (5):

S Rate
kgaC
-A HC
pCTLe2/3

where kg is the external mass transfer coefficient,
a is the surface to volume ratio of the catalyst
pellet, AH is the enthalpy of reaction, T is the
reaction temperature, Le is the Lewis number
(usually one for gases), p is the gas density, C,
is the gas heat capacity, and C is the reactant con-
centration in the reactor (which is equal to the
effluent reactant concentration at high values of
R). Then, the dimensionless ratios of surface to
bulk values are defined as:

C
= 1-1 rDa
T,
S= 1 + f Da

Gradients of less than 1% will not significantly
effect kinetic data. In this investigation, gradients
were less than 0.2% for all operating conditions.

INTRAPHASE GRADIENTS

T HE RIGOROUS EVALUATION of concentration and
temperature profiles within a single catalyst


2.1

0
1.75
o
a,

S1.40
E

-J


0
o 1.05
.Lo_

S0.70
0
0
" 0.35


0.00


2 4 6
% CO


8 10


FIGURE 4: Plot of reaction rate vs. % CO for sup-
ported platinum catalyst.


CHEMETRON 0.1% Pt
CO Pretreatment


E= 18.6 KCAL/MOL













Ea =2.1 KCAL/MOL


It


I I I
120 110 100 0C
I I I
2.50 2.60 2.70 103/K
FIGURE 5: Plot of log k and log K vs. inverse tempera-
ture for supported platinum catalyst.


particle involves the simultaneous solution of two
coupled second order differential equations de-
scribing the heat and mass transport within the
pellet. However, the maximum temperature
difference between the center and surface of the
pellet can be readily calculated (5) :


where


T- p(1 Da)
T

-AH DC
3= ~ XT


and D is the diffusivity of the reactant in the
pellet, while X is the pellet thermal conductivity.
This assumes that the reactant concentration is
equal to zero at the pellet center, and is equal to
(1 '7 Da) at the pellet surface. While the recycle
reactor does nothing to eliminate this gradient,
for small pellets, the internal temperature gradi-
ents are minimal. The gradients can be further
limited, as in this investigation, by depositing
active metal only on the external geometric surface
of the pellet. The pellet center is then inert, and
in the absence of reaction, remains near the
surface temperature.

Continued on page 100.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


CO Pretreatment
CHEMETRON
0.1% Pt on y A1203






1200C





1 000


I I III



































The people behind these products


still remember looking for


their first job.


They were people who wanted a
good job with a good company. A
chance to show what they could
do. And to be recognized for
doing it.
They were people like you.
The products they researched,
produced and marketed have
already touched every part of your
life. Food wrapping, herbicides,
antifreeze, medicine, packing mate-
rial, home insulation, paper, photo-
graphic chemicals, fertilizers, and
carpet backing, just to name a few.


The careers they took with Dow
gave them a chance to do some-
thing. To take responsibility. To
set their own goals and plan their
own schedules. And evaluate the
results.
It's an environment for people
to develop themselves. And to
develop the 2,200 products and
services we offer.
We need more people like that.
Help us get in touch with them.
Because if you know one of the
people we're looking for, we've


0Trademark oi The Dow Chemlcal Company


probably got the job he-or she-
is looking for.
If you know of qualified graduates
in engineering or the sciences,
or with an interest in marketing,
finance or computer science, we
hope you will encourage them to
write us:
Recruiting and College Relations,
P.O. Box 1713-CE, Midland, Mich-
igan 48640. Dow is an equal oppor-
tunity employer-male/female.



common/uncommon
sense/chemistry














WHAT IS CACHE?


By the
TRUSTEES OF CACHE*


CACHE is a nonprofit organization whose
purpose is to promote cooperation among uni-
versities, industry, and government in the de-
velopment and distribution of computer related
and/or technology based educational aids for the
chemical engineering profession.

HOW DID CACHE GET STARTED?
N THE 1960'S THE rapid growth of computer
technology led to the development of many types


Even in those cases where
well documented and debugged programs
were prepared, most ChE departments were not
equipped for... maintaining program libraries
on the digital computer and providing
consultation services and
program maintenance.


of software packages that were quite useful in
chemical engineering education. These packages
in general were developed by university research-
ers, who welcomed the opportunity to explore a
new computational method, but were less than
enthusiastic about preparing and disseminating
well-documented and debugged products. As a
result, many programs which were developed at
different sites were essentially not transferable.
Even in those cases where well documented and
debugged programs were prepared, most chemical
engineering departments were not equipped for,
nor disposed toward, maintaining program li-
braries on the digital computer and providing
consultation services and program maintenance.
This somewhat anarchistic state of develop-
ment led Warren Seider and Bryce Carnahan to

*Submitted by D. M. Himmelblau, University of Texas,
Austin, TX 78712.


President of CACHE

David M. Himmelblau,
University of Texas


arrange a meeting of 14 chemical engineering
educators in April of 1969. This meeting resulted
in the formation of the CACHE (Computer Aids
for Chemical Engineering Education) Committee.
After considerable discussion, it was decided
that the principle goal of the Committee would be
to "accelerate the integration of digital computa-
tion into the chemical engineering curriculum by
inter-university cooperation in the preparation of
recommendations for curriculum and course out-
lines, and the development of new computing
systems." The purpose of the Committee was to
encourage individuals at various universities to
prepare software, to avoid duplication of effort, to
achieve as much compatibility as possible, and to






Vice President of CACHE

Richard R. Hughes,
University of Wisconsin:


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











... the principle goal of the Committee would be to
"accelerate the integration of digital computation into the chemical
engineering curriculum by inter-university cooperation in the preparation of
recommendations for curriculum and courts out-lines, and
the development of new computing systems."


adhere to standards for documentation and distri-
bution.
During the next year and a half, the CACHE
Committee organized several task forces to carry
out specific activities. From 1971 to 1975 the
CACHE Committee obtained sponsorship from the
Commission on Higher Education of the National
Academy of Engineering, and obtained funding
from the National Science Foundation to support
its work. In 1975, after several successful projects
had been completed, CACHE was incorporated as
a not-for-profit corporation to serve as the ad-
ministrative umbrella for the consortium activi-
ties.

HOW IS CACHE ORGANIZED?

T HE CORPORATION IS directed by up to 21
Trustees who are elected for three year terms.
Nominations can be made by any of the chemical
engineering departments in the United States and
Canada. In addition to the Trustees, three repre-
sentatives from industry serve as CACHE
members, and an Advisory Committee has been
organized composed of five distinguished academic
representatives. The names of the current Trus-
tees, Industrial members, and Advisory Commit-
tee members, together with their affiliations are
listed in Table 1.
In addition, each department of chemical engi-
neering in the United States and Canada has a
local CACHE representative (approximately 150
in all), and 21 representatives have been appointed
in 12 other countries throughout the world. These
representatives serve as the focal point for com-
munication with CACHE. They also provide feed-
back to CACHE on the needs of their depart-
ments.
CACHE activities are carried out by task
forces organized to accomplish specific objectives.
The chairman of each task force is a Trustee of
the CACHE corporation, but members of the task
force typically include other engineering educators
and representatives from industry. The Trustees
of the CACHE corporation meet twice yearly for
three days to coordinate task force activities. All


participants in the task forces are volunteers who
might (or might not) otherwise work alone. For
special projects, such as writing a module or
editing a volume of computer codes, very modest
fees have been paid if funds are provided by the
agency providing the financial support for the
Task Force.

WHAT HAS CACHE ACCOMPLISHED?

Some of the major activities of CACHE are as
follows:
Standards for computer programs. CACHE
developed and published mechanisms for standard-
ization of computer programs, system conventions,

TABLE 1

Trustees of Cache


D. M. Himmelblau, Pres.
Richard R. Hughes, V-Pres.
Richard S. H. Mah, Sec.
Lawrence B. Evans, Treas.
Brice Carnahan
Thomas F. Edgar
Scott Fogler
Ernest J. Henley
Duncan A. Mellichamp
Rodolphe L. Motard
G. V. Reklaitis
J. D. Seader
Warren D. Seider
George Stephanopoulos
Arthur W. Westerberg
James W. White
Joseph D. Wright


Univ. of Texas at Austin
Univ. of Wisconsin
Northwestern Univ.
M.I.T.
Univ. of Michigan
Univ. of Texas at Austin
Univ. of Michigan
Univ. of Houston
U. of Calif. (S. Barbara)
Washington Univ.
Purdue Univ.
Univ. of Utah
Univ. of Pennsylvania
Univ. of Minnesota
Carnegie-Mellon Univ.
Univ. of Arizona
McMaster Univ.


Industrial Members


Theodore L. Leininger

Edward M. Rosen
Louis J. Tichacek


E. I. duPont de Nemours
& Co.
Monsanto Company
Shell Oil Company


Advisory Committee


William H. Corcoran
James R. Fair
Donald L. Katz
W. Robert Marshall
John J. McKetta


California Inst. of Tech.
U. of Texas
Univ. of Michigan
Univ. of Wisconsin
Univ. of Texas at Austin


SPRING 1980










CACHE developed and published
mechanizations for standardization of
computer programs, system conventions,
documentation and terminology so as to
facilitate inter-university exchange of
computer-based instructional materials.


documentation, and terminology so as to facili-
tate inter-university exchange of computer-based
instructional materials. Standards were es-
tablished for programming, documenting and test-
ing self-standing computer programs and sub-
programs.
Computer programs for core chemical engi-
neering courses. From 1971-73, under the direction
of Ernest J. Henley, 125 computer programs were
published for use in seven core chemical engineer-
ing courses, namely stoichiometry, kinetics,
control, transport phenomena, thermodynamics,
design, and stagewise computations. These pro-
grams, written by approximately 100 professors,
were small, containing approximately 50-500 state-
ments. Most solved particular problems in a course
typical of programming assignments for home-
work. The programs are now in their fourth
printing.
Physical property data bases (information
systems). CACHE has promoted the exchange of
information on the design and implementation of
academic and industrial physical property infor-
mation systems. We are presently negotiating to
purchase PPDS, a physical properties package
that can be placed on a network and shared by all
chemical engineering departments.
Modular instructional materials for core chemi-
cal engineering courses. A complete set of 250
modules has been prepared for six core chemical
engineering courses. Each module represents
roughly one lecture in a conventional course and
contains, in addition, study questions and home-
work problems. The seven curriculum areas are
control, transport, stagewise processes, material
and energy balances, kinetics, and thermo-
dynamics. This project has been supported by the
National Science Foundation. Publication of the
modules is being initiated by the AIChE.
Real time computing. To promote the introduc-
tion of real-time computing material into the
undergraduate curriculum, CACHE conducted
workshops on real-time computing, prepared
course outlines, developed standards for real-time
computing programs, developed and compiled


fully documented prototype experiments, and has
published a set of introductory monographs on
the subject.
FLOWTRAN for educational use. CACHE
with the help of the Monsanto Company has made
FLOWTRAN available on a national network for
use by students. As members of the Large Scale
Systems Task Force considered methods to share
subsystems, it became clear that industrial
systems, such as Monsanto's FLOWTRAN, which
was one of the best available commercial chemical
process simulation and design programs, offered
(1) a more complete collection of subsystems to
permit solution of more practical problems, and
(2) well-tested and maintained software. Further-
more, computer networks permitted installation
of this proprietary program on a single com-
puter for use at remote sites throughout the
United States.
Since 1974, 45 different schools have used
FLOWTRAN on UCS. Table 2 shows that the

TABLE 2
Summary of FLOWTRAN Usage


1974-75
No. of Schools* 18
Annual Amount Spent $15,700
Avg. per Schoolt $870
Approx. No. of Students 360
Avg. Cost per Student $43
Book Sales 900


1975-76
24
$21,700
$765
480
$38
400


1976-77 1977-78
23 25
$31,900 $36,800
$710 $670
460 500
$34 $33
870


*That spent over $100/yr.
tExcluding schools that spent over $3,000/yr.

number of schools spending over $100 per year
has leveled at approximately 24, whereas total
usage is climbing, but the average expenditure
per school (excluding schools that expend over
$3,000 per year, a usage presumed to reflect gradu-
ate research rather than teaching) is decreasing.
We believe that most schools expending less than
$3,000 per year are using FLOWTRAN for
coursework; on this basis, and assuming 20
students per school (in a senior design course),
the average cost per student is decreasing slowly.
Three publications related to the use of FLOW-
TRAN have been published, and over 2000
volumes of "FLOWTRAN Simulation" by Seader
and Pauls have been sold.
Computer Graphics. Surveys and a study of
available software and hardware have been com-
pleted and published.
Continued on page 98.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Corn


needs room


to grow.




So do


people.


In the Corn Products Unit of CPC North
America, we realize that our people need
a wide-open environment to thrive and
grow to their full potential.
To promote such growth, we try to provide
employees with both the right blend of
career nutrients and nurturing work conditions.
And it works, too. With their help, we've
become one of the nation's leaders in the
research, process and manufacture of
corn-based industrial and home products.
Each year the Unit recruits some of the
nation's brightest and most promising
students to work for us. This year,
we're looking for people with Chemical
Engineering and Microbiology backgrounds.
Perhaps you qualify.
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER M/F


If you do, we'll give you a chance to experience
a wide variety of job assignments and
challenges. And through the coming years,
we'll offer professional career counseling and
on-the-job training to help you keep
exploring your needs, goals and dreams.
Because the employee turnover rate at CPC
is very low, we feel we're successful at
meeting our people's expectations. You
might say now we're reaping the benefits
of their growth!
If you think you'd like to grow with us,
write to:
Mrs. Marianne Vukosovich
Personnel Services/Labor Relations
Corn Products, a Unit of
CPC North America
P.O. Box 345
Argo, Illinois 60501


SPRING 1980










r P classroom


USING TROUBLE SHOOTING PROBLEMS*


Edited by
DONALD R. WOODS
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Professional engineers must be good at solving a variety of problems. A type of problem that profes-
sionals encounter often is the trouble shooting or diagnostic problem. In such problems, an unexpected
difficulty has arisen; something is wrong that must be corrected immediately, safely, and with a mini-
mum of cost. Here is an example: "For the past 10 minutes the product has been off-specification; get
this corrected because we are losing $2000 for every hour we produce this unsaleable product!" The
problem can be caused by technical mistakes, people mistakes, or misunderstandings. The data required
to solve the problem usually have to be collected. This type of problem can provide a very effective ve-
hicle for motivating students and improving their skill at solving problems. It can be, used to train
undergraduates, graduates, and professionals in industry. Some examples of how these trouble shooting
problems can be used have been given previously [1, 2, 3, 4]. The purpose of this article is to extend the
ideas presented in those early articles and to illustrate the variety of approaches that can be used.


TROUBLE-SHOOTING AT
CANADIAN INDUSTRIES LIMITED
WILLIAM K. TAYLOR
Canadian Industries Ltd.
Courtright, Ontario, Canada

The following comments describe not how
trouble-shooting cases are used as a training aid,
but how trouble-shooting in general fits into an
industrial environment and how an engineer can
take advantage of the problem solving opportuni-
ties facing him. Some ground rules are then offered
that hopefully will aid readers in avoiding some of
the common pitfalls of problem solving. The
comments pertain to a heavy industrial site con-
sisting of several chemical plants of different
types.
The trouble-shooting technique has been de-
scribed elsewhere and we will not go into detail
here. Basically, it can be described as the use of
the scientific method and sound engineering princi-
ples to solve problems. The four basic steps in the

*This is the first installment of a two-part series. The
second installment will appear in the Summer 1980 issue
of CEE.


problem solving process are:
1. Realize something is wrong.
2. Define the problem; collect data.
3. Make conclusions; evaluate possible solutions.
4. Implement the solution.

TYPES OF PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
In heavy industry, problems can arise at
several levels of sophistication ranging from
simple mechanical failures to innovative de-
bottlenecking studies. The same trouble-shooting
techniques can be used over this whole range of
problem solving activities.
At the basic level, problems will be encountered
with operating plants and Step #1 in the above-
mentioned method will be quite easy: the product
is off-spec., a pump does not work, production rate
or efficiency is below normal, etc. You do not need
anyone to tell you something is wrong; it is quite
obvious. The fault, however, may not be so easy
to find. It may be easy to determine what is wrong
with a pump, but, diagnosing that a heat ex-
changer has an internal leak might be considerably
more difficult. These trouble-shooting problems are

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























D. R. Woods is a graduate of Queen's University and the UUni-
versity of Wisconsin (Ph.D.). For the past three years he has been
attending all undergraduate lectures along with the students to try
to discover what needs to be done to improve student's problem
solving skills. His teaching and research interests are in, process
analysis, and synthesis communication skills, cost estimation, separa-
tions, surface phenomena and developing problem solving skills. He
is the author of "Financial Decision-Making in the Process Industry."
He received the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associa-
tion award for Outstanding Contribution to University Teaching.

generally handled by plant operating personnel
but in some cases they may need help. The engi-
neer, whatever his responsibilities, should make an
effort to get involved in these problems. He will
gain valuable experience in dealing with practical
problems, and even if he is not directly involved
he should assure himself that the proper trouble-
shooting procedures are being followed. Because
Step #1 is "given", this is also the type of
problem that can be used in the case study/class-
room method of instruction.
At the next level of sophistication the term
trouble-shooting gives way to the more general
term problem solving. Also, Step #1, the realiza-
tion that something is wrong, is by no means
obvious.
At this level, looking for and finding problems
is the key and the engineer should play a dominant
role. Plant operating personnel are generally very
familiar with their equipment, its operating
characteristics and limitations. They will operate
their equipment to the best of their and the
equipment's ability. They will come up with ideas
to improve things, but they are not plant design-


ers and may not recognize design errors. An
example of this type of problem is a high pressure
drop in piping system that limits the output of a
pump or compressor. As far as the plant operator
is concerned, it is not a problem as long as it
works. The engineer, however, should be able to
recognize this as a problem (Step #1) and then
collect data, check the calculations, design data,
etc., before reaching a conclusion. This type of
problem will command attention when produc-
tion is limited (the squeaky wheel gets the grease
syndrome) but otherwise just how many similar
problems are waiting to be discovered? Another
type of example in this category is that of equip-
ment and instrumentation systems that are too
corr.plicated to do a simple job; the result can
be poor operations and a lot of effort expended to
make something work when the real solution is to
simplify the installation and eliminate unnecessary
equipment (provided, of course, that safety and
reliability standards are maintained). Clearly the
ability to recognize, as well as solve, problems is a
key asset for any engineer. The techniques for find-
ing problems are similar to those used for solv-
ing them. By asking the right questions (of him-
self, the plant designers, the plant operators, etc.)
and by remaining somewhat of a skeptic the engi-
neer is sure to uncover problem areas. In the de-
velopment of a new engineer, the ability to recog-
nize problems can often be a key turning point.
We are now overlapping into the next level of
problem solving; that is optimization, de-bottle-
necking and even innovation. The same techniques
apply as for basic trouble-shooting. At this level
the problem definition (Step # 2) and evaluation
of alternatives (Step # 3) will require substantial
engineering input. In the past few years, as
energy costs have soared, opportunities have
arisen to make existing plants more efficient. In a
general sense this can be considered a problem
solving activity. Many of the solutions to optimiza-
tion, de-bottlenecking, and energy-related
problems are considered innovative but they are
really just the result of a lot of hard work and
are a logical extension of the application of
trouble-shooting techniques.
To summarize, demonstrated problem solving


SPRING 1980


The engineer, whatever his responsibilities, should make an effort to get
involved in these problems. He will gain valuable experience in dealing with practical
problems, and even if he is not directly involved he should assure himself that the proper
trouble-shooting procedures are being followed.










A major source of trouble-shooting problems
should be our industrial colleagues. This is true especially now,
when many, if not most, faculty members have had little or no industrial experience.


ability is a valuable asset for any engineer. The
ability to recognize and solve problems is the key
to a successful career for many engineers and the
engineer who is good at solving problems is also
likely to be considered an innovative engineer.

GROUNDRULES FOR TROUBLE-SHOOTING
The following is offered as a partial list of
guidelines in order to avoid some of the common
pitfalls of trouble-shooting.
1. It goes without saying that there is no substi-
tute for a knowledge of fundamentals, whether
it be fluid flow, process control, distillation
theory, etc.
2. Similarly, there is no substitute for knowledge
of the process/plant/equipment/etc. having
the problem.
3. When defining a problem (Step #2), do not
confuse someone's interpretation of what is
wrong with the observations. Human nature
being what it is, people will tend to give their
theories or conclusions as to what is wrong,
instead of reporting observations. Perhaps they
are right but their conclusions may not be
supported by the facts. A common mistake is
to jump to a conclusion that a particular thing
is at fault because this is a common type of
failure. Many, or most, people are guilty of
these tendencies, including engineers.
4. While working on a problem an engineer may
want to collect plant data, conduct test runs,
have samples analyzed, etc. It is important that
the engineer collect the data himself, be present
when the data is collected, or otherwise assure
himself that the job is being done properly.
Many needless hours have been wasted on poor
data resulting from uncalibrated plant instru-
ments, mislabelled sample bottles, missed readings,
etc.
When relying on non-routine lab tests the
engineer should have an understanding of the an-
alytical techniques used and whether or not they
will tell him what he wants to know. Accuracy
and reproducibility of the tests should be known.
If the lab technique is dependent on the use of
known standards then the number, age, condition
and range of the standards should be known. If


you are analyzing for 2% component x and the
only standard contains 50% component x then all
the results may be meaningless. It has also been
known for standards to be wrong and using two
or three standards can eliminate this possibility.
5. Be aware of any assumptions you make when
solving problems. Be prepared to re-examine
assumptions and to discard them when neces-
sary.


TROUBLE-SHOOTING
THE UNIVERSITY OF
CHARLES C. WATSON
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI


AT
WISCONSIN


We have used a few trouble-shooting problems;
however our main emphasis has been on the more
structured and synthesis type of problem, in the
form of developing a reasonably near optimum
design to fit a given need. From our experience
here are some thoughts about the advantages and
disadvantages of using trouble shooting problems.
Advantages
1. Student introduction to the type of situation
he (or she) will meet in pilot plant operation,
production, sales and service, etc. (most
students confess they have no idea how what
they are learning will translate into profes-
sional life. Only a few of our students will
graduate with adequate industrial summer
work experience, to judge from recent observa-
tions.)
2. Experience gained in the sort of practical
reasoning which is important in industrial
work. Standard theory courses can afford
neither the time for this nor the distraction
from the orderly development of theoretical
principles which such problems would entail.
3. Showing the student, by actual demonstration,
that there may be more than one way to reason
through a problem.

Disadvantages and precautions
1. Some trouble-shooting problems are such that
it is not reasonable to expect inexperienced


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








people to reason from effect to cause. There
may even be more than one chain of events
which would lead to the observed effect, or
effects, so the cause cannot really be deter-
mined. Even an experienced engineer can be
misled.
2. Supposing that we devise problems with an
unique and correct result from such backward
reasoning, there is danger in tempting the un-
wary student to generalize, and to believe this
will always be the case with real life problems.
The keen student is going to be suspicious of
what seems to him (or her) a cooked-up
problem, and will wonder if such exercises
really lead to practical proficiency.
The above difficulties can, of course, be
handled by careful presentation and adequate dis-
cussion and summing-up by the instructor; they
can be made to contribute to the practical instruc-
tion of the students, particularly if they are given
an adequate role in these discussions and allowed
a measure of discovery of the character of trouble-
shooting problems. But the problems used have to
be either real ones, or very carefully thought-
through synthetic ones.
A major source of trouble-shooting problems
should be our industrial colleagues. This is true
especially now, when many, if not most, faculty
members have had little or no industrial ex-
perience. Of course, good consulting experience
can provide problems, too.
Trouble-shooting may well be approached more
efficiently by applying some rational analysis,
when time permits. One may thus be more success-
ful, especially when there is a complex chain of
consequences from an original fault in a system,
with secondary faults, etc. Applications of fault-
free analysis, as is done in reliability studies,
might even be programmed for computer solution
so that a large number of failure patterns can be
examined. Observations which indicate potential
trouble, or which follow actual system failure,
could then be matched to the analyses and the
probable cause inferred. Dale Rudd and his
students have done fruitful work in this area
[6, 7]. Long ago, we concluded that there was a
structure to disaster, which behooves the engineer
to study carefully.

We are now overlapping into the
next level of problem solving; that is optimization,
de-bottlenecking and even innovation.


TROUBLE SHOOTING CASES AT
McMASTER HEALTH SCIENCES
HOWARD S. BARROWS,
VICTOR R. NEUFELD,
J. W. FREIGHTER AND
GEOFF R. NORMAN
Dept. of Medicine
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

In the Faculty of Health Sciences, we have
centred our educational program around the bio-
medical or health care problem. Our conviction
is that the students learn best when they choose
what they need to learn. The problem is in the
vehicle for learning. These problems are en-
countered in the regular work of a Medical
Doctor, and so it is natural that our emphasis is
on this type of problem. Primarily we use one
format: small groups of five students together
with a tutor identify the issues in any problem,
discover what they need to know, learn that in-
formation through self study, determine the
underlying mechanisms and propose short and
long term corrective actions. The structure of these


The problems . provide opportunities
for the students to learn the necessary background
knowledge to function successfully as an M.D.

problems is modelled on extensive research done
on the diagnostic process in medicine.
The distinctive characteristics of our approach
are:
1. Students obtain information on their own and
share it with other student members in the
group,
2. The tutor's role is supportive and aimed at de-
veloping productive group and problem solving
skills,
3. The students prepare their own objectives and
questions they wish to explore, within the
general framework for a particular 10-week
unit,
4. The student is guided through the stages of
cues-hypothesis-inquiry strategy and decisions
as well as through the self directed studies.
The problems are carefully selected to provide
opportunities for the students to learn the neces-
sary background knowledge to function success-
fully as an M.D.
What format is used for the problem state-


SPRING 1980









ment? We use at least two major formats (the
box problem, and the paper case protocol) with en-
richment available through simulated patients,
and the P4 card deck computer simulations.
The problem box provides the student with the
initial problem statement, and a self-paced set of
key questions relating to the topics to explore. The
box may include pertinent slides, audio tape of an
M.D. interviewing the patient, X-rays and labora-
tory test result sheets. This additional information
will be needed as the students work through the
problem. In the simulated patient format, a well-
trained, healthy patient portrays an actual patient
with a given illness and can thus respond to the
students with appropriate answers and systems.
In the computer simulation format, various
systems of the body are simulated on the digital
computer. Faults with the system are programmed
in and the student is expected to discover the faults
by asking the right questions and interpreting the
output data. This approach is similar to that used
by Doig [5]; however, here we are dealing with a
simulation of a medical system.
In the P4 card format, the student is given a
deck of cards, based on an actual patient problem,
from which he selects the card most likely to him
to identify the fault and prescribe a cure. An
initial card poses the problem. He may select from
about 50 "questions I must ask the patient". Each
card asks the student to state to himself where
this question (or card) fits into the problem de-
finition, the hypotheses he is developing, and the
information he needs. On the back of each card is
the answer to the question. Another possible set of
cards provides the answers to examination tests
the students might wish to do. This set provides
about 25 alternatives.
The student may choose from about 30 labora-
tory tests he might want done or he may choose to
bring in one of 20 different expert consultants.
From the student's selection of cards from these
four sources of information he should be able to
identify the fault. He then chooses one of our
forty medications or patient care prescriptions.
The exercise is completed by means of a closure
card. Experienced diagnosticians have made their
choice of cards and the "good" choices are coded
so that the student receives instant feedback as to
the quality of his choice: +2 if his choice coincides
with that of the expert and -2 if he makes a poor
choice. A problem box and P4 deck have been
developed for this type of problem. The Problem
Box consists of charts, photograph, x-rays, and


We have an initial
set of 15 (problems) ... Now
our former students send us sufficient
industrial problems each year to supply
new situations and challenges
for subsequent classes

written data. The P4 deck consists of five different
sets of cards from which the problem solver can
select those that he/she feels are pertinent. More
details of the complete program are described
elsewhere [8, 9, 10].

TROUBLE SHOOTING AT McMASTER
DONALD R. WOODS
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

At McMaster three different formats have
been used:
1. Students work on their own to determine
the cause, and pose short and long term
corrective action.
2. Students work as a group to determine the
cause, and pose short and long term correc-
tive action.
3. Students work on own to outline cause
finding strategy.
The first two formats are similar and will be
the main emphasis described here. The third for-
mat is used on examinations and is similar to that
used at the University of Waterloo [3, 4].
The distinctive characteristics of our approach
are:
1. Students obtain information from the in-
structor by asking questions about past ex-
perience, results of calculations, and results
of experiments that the student wants per-
formed.
2. Students do not do any calculations.
3. Students are charged a cost related to the
downtime and direct costs incurred because
of their questions.
4. The "best" solution is that where the
problem is solved with the minimum total
cost.
5. Students are not limited in the types of
questions they can ask.
With the individual format the students write
down the question they want answered or experi-
ment they want performed, raise their hand and
Continued on page 96.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










YOU SEE THIN AIR.


UNION CARBIDE SEES MORE...


Thin air. To the people at Union
Carbide, the air around us pro-
vides a limitless resourcefor
products and systems to benefit
everyone. For Union Carbide,
finding new ways to stretch our
precious natural resources,
through imagination and re-
sponsible technology, is the most
important thing we do.

AN INDUSTRY BUILT ON THIN AIR.
At the Linde Division of Union
Carbide, highly sophisticated
systems liquefy air and distill it
into pure oxygen, nitrogen
and rare gases like argon,
neon and xenon.
To transport these
gases, w\e developed a
super-insulated tank truck
that can carry them from
coast to coast in liquid
form. For hydrogen,
_r- that means at a
temperature of
g' g minus 4200 E


An equal opportunity empi,ir


FRESH OR FROZEN?
Ever wonder how those "fast-
food" hamburgers get to you
tasting so fresh and juicy?
Liquid nitrogen freezes them
so fast that their molecular
structure remains intact. It
happens at 320 below zero-
easy with Union Carbide's
liquid nitrogen, impossible for
any kind of home freezer.


ENERGY-SAVING NEW WAYS
TO MAKE STEEL.
When the U.S. steel industry
developed more efficient
steelmaking processes, using
oxygen, Union Carbide came
up with ways to supply the
vast amounts needed: on-site
oxygen plants and pipeline
systems.


SYSTEMSTOTURN SEWAGE INTO FISHABLE,
SWIMMABLE WATER.
More than 150 towns and cities use Union Carbide's
UNOX wastewater treatment system. Pure oxygen
helps billions of microorganisms consume waste
j quickly and cheaply. Sludge left over from
UNOX, as well as plain old garbage, can then
be converted into usable fuel gas by our
Spollution-free PUROX"system. So we're
making cleaner water and providing
needed fuel... right out of thin air.


UO
WORKING WITH NATURE TODAY,
FOR THE RESOURCES WE'LL NEED TOMORROW.
Union Carbide Corporation, 270 Park Avenue, NewYork, N.Y. 10017










4 Pew Ventae in quadae Cdaeaition:


CO-OP PH.D. PROGRAMME

IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
THOMAS Z. FAHIDY
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Canada


S SINCE WE INTRODUCED ourselves to CEE readers
some years ago [1], our cooperative system has
continued to enjoy unperturbed growth. While
ten years ago several hundred industrial and
governmental employers participated in the co-op
scheme of undergraduate education, this year their
total number is about 5,000, and about 1,800 are
employers of engineering students. With roughly
one-half of our student population (6,600) in the
co-op programme, Waterloo is now the second
largest fully cooperative engineering school in
North America and the largest in Canada, where
Sherbrooke, Memorial, Regina and Victoria also
have cooperative arrangements.
Much of this success is due to the efforts of
our Coordination Department which is engaged
full-time in arranging recruiting interviews and
in looking after students on their work terms;
there are twelve full-time engineering coordina-
tors (all graduate engineers) devoted entirely to
the engineering contingent of the programme.
They are very busy.
The graduate arm of engineering education
at Waterloo has grown essentially in a classical
pattern and the "full-time-research-on-campus"
scheme has been predominant especially in the
Ph.D. programme, whose normal maximum dura-
tion past the M.A.Sc. degree is four years. While
special arrangements may be made for part-time
and off-campus Ph.D. studies, the advantages of
the cooperative scheme, amply documented on the
undergraduate level, have not yet been explored
sufficiently in our post-graduate education. The
co-op Ph.D. programme is, in our opinion, the
first significant step in this direction with two
major goals in mind:
* To enable participating students to attain important
practical experience, discipline and organizational
ability in an industrial environment during the ex-
ternal period and to prepare for a comprehensive
effort on their chosen research topic.
* To provide participating employers (industrial and
governmental) with an enhanced opportunity to be-


Thomas Z. Fahidy received his B.Sc. (1959) and M.Sc. (1961) at
Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario) and Ph.D. (1965) at the
University of Illinois (Champaign-Urbana) in chemical engineering.
He is Professor and Associate Chairman of Graduate Studies in
the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo
(Canada) where he teaches courses mostly in applied mathematics
to engineering students and conducts research in electrochemical
engineering. His major research areas are magnetolectrolysis and the
development of novel electrochemical reactors, where he is the
author of numerous scientific articles. Fellow of the Chemical Institute
of Canada and one of the (two) associate editors of the Canadian
Journal of Chemical Engineering, he is also a member of a number
of professional associations and a registered Professional Engineer in
the province of Ontario.
come acquainted with the qualifications and the
scholarship of Ph.D. candidates.
The structure of the Co-op Ph.D. programme
is shown in Table 1. Canadian citizens and landed
immigrants who possess a Bachelor's degree in
Chemical Engineering from a recognized uni-
versity and have a minimum average final grade
of 78 % are admissible; the grade minimum is five
per cent higher than the minimum requirement
for the standard Ph.D. programme and the
citizenship/immigration status is required by
current government regulations of financial
support and employment conditions. Each appli-
cation is individually evaluated by the Associate
Chairman of Graduate Studies and the depart-
mental Graduate Review Committee before
recommendation is formally made to the Associ-
ate Dean of Graduate Studies of the engineer-
ing faculty. The minimum average grade obtained
in graduate courses taken in the programme must
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1980


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










TABLE 1
Structural Characteristics of the Co-op Ph.D. Scheme

PHASE AND DURATION FUNCTION FINANCIAL ASPECTS REMARKS

1. Preparatory; two con- Six graduate courses. Teaching assistantships, Entry in any of the Winter,
secutive terms Teaching Assistantship departmental bursaries and Spring and Fall terms. Strict
duties. Interviews with external scholarships admission requirements. High
prospective employers for minimum course average to
employment in the second be maintained.
phase.

2. Industrial; three Practical (research) ex- Market-level salaries. Employment obtained via
consecutive terms perience in a nonacademic services of the Co-ordination
environment. Preparation Department.
of a comprehensive work
report describing the off-
campus professional
activities.

3. Research; minimum two Two graduate courses. On- As in phase 1. High minimum course
years campus research project, average and high quality of
Comprehensive oral examina- research performance to be
tion. Submission of Ph.D. maintained.
thesis and oral defence.


be 75% at any given time (also five per cent
higher than the minimum requirement in the
standard Ph.D. programme) ; this is a prime con-
dition for maintaining a candidate's satisfactory
status, apart from specific conditions pertaining
to each of the three phases.
The work period and the work report form
a crucial component of the programme. In the
industrial phase candidates acquire not only ma-
terial and disciplinal experience in industry but
they are also expected to derive special skills and
motivation which will enable them to carry out
original and high-quality research in the third
phase. The work report should demonstrate to
the employer a candidate's ability to do lucid and
concise technical writing, and it should also serve
as a "mini-rehearsal" for the research thesis.
Higher than normal intramural earnings in the
work period constitute the pecuniary benefits of
the second phase.
The research phase resembles to a large extent
its counterpart of the standard Ph.D. programme.
The thesis topic is chosen via consulting with an
officially appointed faculty supervisor who will
advise and direct the candidate throughout the
research project. The comprehensive oral exami-
nation of the proposal by a faculty-appointed com-
mittee is to be passed not later than six months
after return to campus and the oral thesis defence


is to be passed upon submission of the doctoral
thesis.
There is no Master's degree in this scheme;
it leads directly to the Doctor's degree. We feel
that this feature is attractive to those who are
determined to seek the highest degree of formal
education while defying the risks of a shorter un-
conventional path.
We at Waterloo believe that this scheme is a
rewarding challenge to highly mature and self-
disciplined students by offering, apart from the
technical knowledge and aptitudes accumulated in
both academic and off-campus periods, a wider
perspective of the chemical engineering profes-
sion and of personal career development. One
additional benefit that may accrue from the en-
hanced mutual awareness and cooperation between
the University and employers of chemical engi-
neers, which this effort necessitates, is the
emergence of Ph.D. thesis topics with an aca-
demically respectable and yet industrially practic-
able substance.
A flyer and further details of the programme
are available from the Department of Chemical
Engineering, University of Waterloo.

REFERENCES
1. M. Moo-Young, "Ch.E. Department: Waterloo",
Chem. Engrg. Educ. IX (5), 4 (1975).


SPRING 1980









TROUBLE SHOOTING PROBLEMS
Continued from page 92.
receive a written answer immediately from the in-
structor. With the group format, the students
choose a chairman whose role is to focus discussion
on what question they want answered and forward
the question through to the instructor for his re-
sponse. About one tutor or instructor is required in
the room for every ten students.
What problems do we use? We have an initial
set of about 15 that we developed from our in-
dustrial experience. Now our former students
send us sufficient industrial problems each year to
supply new situations and challenges for subse-
quent classes. A set of such problems is available.
We are currently exploring the appropriateness
of running these sessions at the plant in a local
industry, using problems they encountered and
interacting with plant personnel.
The advantages of this approach are that the
students begin to appreciate the cost implications
of their decisions, and they can ask any question
they like. There are two extreme approaches to
solving these problems: the Kepner Tregoe ap-
proach (where the focus is on discovering when
in time some change was made to cause the fault
[11, 12, 13] and the hypothesis generation ap-
proach where all the current evidence is analyzed,
alternative causes are created and most likely
alternatives are tested. This format allows the
student to use either method or a combination of
these methods to solve the problem.
The main difficulties the students have are that
they cannot accurately estimate the time required
(and hence the cost) to answer some of their
questions, they usually are not very organized in
their approach to solving this type of problem,
and they rely almost entirely on the hypothesis
generation approach. To overcome some of these
difficulties we have listed time and cost estimates
for many commonly performed analyses, experi-
ments or equipment modifications. To try to dis-
cover how to improve their approach to solve
problems we have started a separate project.
Details of this approach are available elsewhere
[14, 15]. O

REFERENCES
1. Woods, D. R. (1966). "Complement to Design:
Trouble-Shooting Problems." Chem. Eng. Education.
Jan. p. 19-23.
Woods, D. R. (1968). "Trouble-Shooting Problems:
Problem Specifications" and (1973) Teacher's Guide.


McMaster University, Hamilton.
2. Woods, D. R. (1967). "The Use of Short Trouble
Shooting Problems." Chapt. 3 in "Chemical Engineer-
ing Case Problems," C. J. King, editor. AIChE. New
York.
3. Silveston, P. L. (1967). "Trouble Shooting Problems
as Teaching Aids." Chapt. 4 in "Chemical Engineering
Case Problems," C. J. King, editor. AIChE, New York.
4. Silveston, P. L. and Woods, D. R. (1966). "Use of
Trouble-Shooting Problems in Undergraduate Chemi-
cal Engineering Design Courses." Paper presented at
the CSChE Conference, Windsor, Ont. Oct. 19.
5. Doig, I. D. (1977). "Training of Process Plant Mal-
function Analysts." Chemeca 77, Canberra, 14-16
Sept. p. 144-148.
6. Rivas, J. B., Rudd, D. F. and Kelly, L. R. (1974).
"Computer-aided Safety Interlock Systems," AIChE
Journal 20, No. 2, p. 311.
7. Rivas, J. R. and Rudd, D. F. (1974). "Synthesis of
Failure-Safe Operations." AIChE Journal 20, No. 2,
p. 320.
8. Barrows, H. S. and Tamblyn, R. (1977). "Guide to
the Development of Skills in Problem Based Learning
and Clinical (diagnostic) Reasoning." 53 p. Monograph
NA.1., McMaster University, Faculty of Health
Sciences, Hamilton.
9. Barrows, H. S. and Bennett, K. S. (1972). "The
Diagnostic (Problem Solving) Skill of the Neurolo-
gist." Archives of Neurology 26, p. 273-277. March.
10. Neufeld, V. R. and Barrows, H. S. (1974). "The 'Mc-
Master Philosophy': An Approach to Medical Educa-
tion." J. Medical Education 49, p. 1040-1050.
11. Kepner, C. H. and Tregoe, B. B. (1965). "The Rational
Manager." McGraw-Hill.
12. Kepner, C. H. and Tregoe, B. B. (1973). "Genco II."
Kepner-Tregoe Inc., Princeton, N.J.
13. Kepner, C. H. and Tregoe, B. B. (1973). "Problem
Analysis and Decision Making." Kepner-Tregoe Inc.,
14. Woods, D. R., Crowe, C. M., Hoffman, T. W. and
Wright, J. D. (1977). "What is the Problem in Teach-
ing Problem Solving?" To appear in the ASEE mono-
graph on Problem Solving.
15. Woods, D. R., Crowe, C. M., Hoffman, T. W. and
Wright, J. D., (1978). "56 Challenges to Teaching
Problem Solving." McMaster University, Hamilton.


Book reviews

CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING THERMO-
DYNAMICS
By Stanley I. Sandler
John Wiley & Sons, N.Y.
Reviewed by C. M. Thatcher
University of Arkansas
Prof. Sandler sets forth two specific objectives
in the preface to his book. The first is to provide
a modern textbook, particularly relevant to other
courses in the curriculum, for an undergraduate
course in chemical engineering thermodynamics.
The first part of this objective, at least, has been


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








met in a most commendable fashion: The subject
matter is up-to-date and the coverage is im-
pressively thorough.
The desired relevance is also evident, though
subject to one's own interpretation of relevance
at the undergraduate level. Specifically, the text
includes two appendices which treat pertinent
principles from the microscopic viewpoint en-
countered in transport phenomena. It also presents
the familiar balance equations in time-derivative
form. And, finally, it relates thermodynamics to
reaction kinetics and mass transfer to a some-
what greater degree than do most other, similar
texts already on the market.
This leaves the question of the text's suit-
ability for undergraduate use and of Prof.
Sandler's stated objectives pertinent thereto:
To organize and present the material in such a
way that the student might obtain both a good
understanding of principles, and proficiency in
applying these principles to the solution of practi-
cal problems. Hopefully, he meant to imply the
book's use by a competent instructor to achieve
this objective. The typical undergraduate student
would not get very far by self-study alone.
The first five chapters take up the thermo-
dynamics of pure fluids. The material is well-
organized, and includes numerous example
problems. However, a few familiar topics-such
as the Rankine cycle and turbine efficiency-
appear only in end-of-chapter problems. Perhaps
this exemplifies the statement that "Steady-state
processes are of only minor interest in this book."
The prevalence of such processes in industry
makes this statement really surprising in a text
which claims relevance as an objective.
It is the remaining four chapters, devoted to
the thermodynamics of multi-component systems,
which perhaps reveal Prof. Sandler's primary in-
terest and orientation. Here, one finds extensive
theoretical discussion and mathematical deriva-
tion, with but few of the illustrative problems
which characterize Chaps. 1 through 5. For
example, fugacity is first introduced on page 337,
and an f/P plot appears on page 349; but the first
of only two illustrative problems involving fu-
gacity is on page 375. It is also noteworthy that
most of the end-of-chapter problems for Chaps. 6
and 7 are of the "prove," "derive," or "show that"
variety. Practical application is largely deferred
to the Chap. 8 and 9 problems.
The order of theoretical development has in-
teresting consequences with respect to some topics


which are conventionally treated as being closely
related. Henry's Law, for example, is introduced
in Chap. 6, while Raoult's Law first appears in
Chap. 7. Similarly, heat of reaction calculations,
developed in Chap. 6, are finally applied to
adiabatic reaction temperature problems in the
concluding pages of Chap. 9. The only end-of-
chapter problems involving heat of reaction are
also to be found in Chap. 9, not in Chap. 6.
A few additional, specific observations may be
of interest. (1) The existence of SI units is
acknowledged initially but then essentially ignored
thereafter. (2) Tables and charts are scattered
throughout the book, making them hard to locate
for reference purposes. (3) The extensive use of
functional notation-e.g., H (T,P) vs simply H-
tends to obscure the significance of relationships
in which it appears. (4) Computer algorithms
might have been offered for some practical appli-
cations-e.g., flash vaporization-which, instead,
are dismissed with little or no consideration be-
cause the calculations are "quite tedious."
In summary, the text is not just a new version
of the conventional approach to chemical engi-
neering thermodynamics. It is distinctly different,
and gives one considerable insight into the par-
ticular approach favored by its author-i.e., em-
phasis on rigorous theoretical development.
Among those who espouse the same approach,
the book may well be hailed as a long-awaited
solution to the textbook problem. Only their post-
use reactions, and those of their students, can
establish the extent to which Prof. Sandler has
actually achieved his stated objectives.
Unfortunately, there seems to be little con-
sensus among thermodynamics instructors re-
garding the approach-and therefore the text--
which is most likely to produce optimum levels of
student understanding and proficiency. It follows
that Prof. Sandler's text is not likely to be widely
adopted by those who strongly prefer a more prag-
matic approach to thermodynamics, nor will it
prove wholly suitable to all who may adopt it,
with reservations, on a trial basis.
Prof. Sandler should be prepared for the
distinct possibility of disappointment if he was
seeking popularity as evidenced by widespread
adoption. One suspects, though, that he sought
instead to write a good book to meet the needs of
those, however many or few they be, who share his
views re the most desirable approach to teaching
chemical engineering thermodynamics. This he
has done. O


SPRING 1980









WHAT IS CACHE?
Continued from page 86.

WHAT LIES IN THE FUTURE?
N THE FACE OF RAPIDLY changing technology,
CACHE continually seeks to improve its on-
going activities and undertake new initiatives.

Setting up a Network. CACHE is attempting
to arrange a network to serve as a reservoir for
programs and data bases of benefit to educators.
The network will provide billing facilities, instruc-
tions and services for programs, and local connec-
tions to gain entrance to the network.
Computer Aided Instruction. The computer-
based PLATO educational system which provides
interactive, self-paced instruction to large
numbers of students has been widely used in
physics, chemistry, and a variety of other fields
with success. Professor Eckert and other faculty
have been developing PLATO lessons for approxi-
mately two years starting with a series of lessons
for use in the first chemical engineering course.
CACHE hopes to assist in the preparation and
dissemination of material of this type.

Personal Computing. The proliferation of pro-
grammable hand-held calculators and personal
mini-computers is creating an environment for
widespread collaboration in the preparation of pro-
grams and associated lessons. Already under way,
under CACHE auspices, is a project to develop
programs to allow chemical engineering students
to carry out calculations for unit operations and
the design of equipment.

Data Base Management Systems. The role and
scope of integrated data base systems for plant
design, construction and operation is being studied.

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR CACHE activities comes
from donations by over 80 departments of
chemical engineering in the U.S. and Canada,
overhead from grants and contracts from govern-
mental agencies such as the National Science
Foundation, and industrial grants. The Monsanto
Company has provided direct grants to CACHE
to cover expenses in making FLOWTRAN avail-
able to educators, and has budgeted considerable
internal personnel time to cover the cost of in-
stalling and maintaining FLOWTRAN. The Exxon


and Shell Foundations have also provided financial
support to CACHE.

SUMMARY
CACHE has succeeded in (1) stimulating
interest in developing new computer based ma-
terials to be used in chemical engineering educa-
tion, (2) avoiding the duplication of effort via
cooperative projects and the sharing of resources,
and (3) promoting new methods of distributing
educational materials. It also has served as a
model for similar organizations in other profes-
sions. We have found by experience that volunteer
participants must be active in their own schools
in developing and using computer based tools, not
just sympathetic to the cause. We also have
learned that projects of merit take a long time to
evolve and must be vigilantly pursued if they are
to reach fruition.
CACHE would be glad to hear from any
faculty member who would like to participate in
existing CACHE activities or initiate a new ac-
tivity. Write to CACHE, Room 66-309, M.I.T., 77
Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts
02139. O


I "l5news

CACHE AWARDS GIVEN
Two persons from Monsanto Company have
been honored by CACHE for their contributions to
chemical engineering education. CACHE president
David Himmelblau awarded plaques to F. E.
Reese, Senior V. Pres., Facilities and Materiel,
and Dr. James R. Fair, director, engineering
technology. CACHE cited the two men for their
efforts in making the company's FLOWTRAN
system available to the organization.

BERG RUNS ON ... AND ON
A recent newspaper release states that
although Lloyd Berg has retired from his record-
breaking 33 years as chairman at Montana State,
he has not retired from jogging. Both he and his
wife continue their "running ways" and train for
and enter marathons at the drop of a jogging
shoe, often setting records in the process. Berg
also stays active in the ChE arena through teach-
ing a full load and through his research projects
in solvent-refined coal.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









book reviews

AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGI-
NEERING KINETICS IN A REACTOR DESIGN
By Charles G. Hill, Jr.
John Wiley and Sons, 1977
Reviewed by Kenneth J. Himmelstein
University of Kansas
This text is intended to be an introductory text
to Chemical Reactor Kinetics and Reactor Design.
It covers in detail the thermodynamic and kinetic
considerations that enter into the reactor design
process.
The major subjects which need to be included
in such a text are done well, including the use of
concepts in reactor and chemical kinetics, basic
development of reactor design, as well as covering
such topics as non-ideal flow, thermodynamic con-
siderations, and optimization techniques.
The book combines some of the best features
of its most recent predecessors in reaction engi-
neering textbooks. The development of the key
concepts of the book are considered in greater
detail and based on a more "first principles" ap-
proach than previous texts. Yet, it avoids the very
abstract A -> B approach by combining the de-
tailed derivations and presentations with concrete
examples which are based on data from real situa-
tions. This combined approach allows the author
to present more deeply those concepts which the
student should take from any introductory course
to be applied in future years, while at the same
time allowing the student to feel that he is study-
ing real chemical engineering as opposed to some
abstract classroom exercise. The attention to
detail in this book is outstanding and gives the
student a significant feel for problems associated
with design of chemical reactors. This text is
richly illustrated and documented, well referenced,
and provides appropriate thermochemical data.
The major problem with the book is its or-
ganization. The first seven chapters (forty per-
cent of the book) are devoted to chemical kinetics,
while the last eight chapters are largely devoted
to design of chemical reactors. Thus, there is
marked division between analysis and synthesis.
The student is not introduced to the concept of a
reactor except very briefly until the book has used
approximately 250 pages. This is undesirable in
that the art of synthesis is best appreciated when
the science the student learns is immediately
applied practically. For instance, some of the basic
SPRING 1980


concepts of heterogenous catalysis covered in
the section on chemical kinetics are not used until
much later. The student looses the chance to
employ the details presented by the authors and
must go back and review or relearn the material.
There is an additional problem of organization in
that the determination of reaction rate expres-
sions is covered in the third chapter while the
basic concepts of chemical kinetics (the molecular
interpretations of kinetic phenomena) is not
covered until the fourth. Thus, the student is left
to guess at rate expression forms without any
knowledge of why those forms are appropriate.
Finally, as a concluding chapter to the book,
the author includes two illustrated problems of
extended length and detail in reactor design. These
extended problems are extremely valuable and
offer significant improvement over the previous
texts, in that it certainly considers the widely vary-
ing considerations that one must include in a com-
plete reactor design.
In conclusion this book is a well detailed,
somewhat deeply developed, treatment of chemi-
cal kinetics and reactor design to be used as an
introductory text. It does its job well except for
organizational problems. It is excellent an basis
for a one or two semester course in chemical re-
actor engineering. L

INTRODUCTION TO OPTIMIZATION THEORY
By B. S. Gottfried and J. Weisman
Prentice-Hall, 1978
Reviewed by Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
This book is written as a formal exposition of
optimization theory. As such, it does not appear
to be suitable for the first exposure to the subject
of optimization, either for an undergraduate
student or a practicing engineer. Although this
text probably could be used in a graduate course
in optimization, the subject matter is more heavily
slanted towards the operations researcher than
towards the chemical engineer.
Introduction to Optimization Theory does not
present a point of view which differs significantly
from that available in existing tests. There are
very few new insights or approaches used in the
authors' development of optimization theory or
algorithms. Therefore the selection of this textbook
over others will rest upon how well it matches
the specific topics to be covered and the depth of
coverage of a given course.
The chapters cover necessary and sufficient








conditions for an optimum, one-dimensional opti-
mization, unconstrained optimization, linear pro-
gramming, nonlinear (constrained) optimization,
staged system optimization, and optimization
under uncertainty and risk. The last topic is the
only unconventional chapter in the book. The
chapter on linear programming takes a reasonably
fresh, although rigorous, viewpoint. The LP
presentation is not based on a cookbook manipula-
tion but on vector-matrix manipulations. It is pre-
cisely this pedagogy, however, which makes the
book non-introductory in nature.
The book will not help bridge the gap between
theory and practice; very few complicated or real-
world examples are worked out and presented.
Another deficiency is that very few numerical de-
tails are provided, which would help the reader
understand the computer "behavior" of various
algorithms. Very few direct comparisons of com-
parable algorithms via common problems are
drawn. At the end of several chapters, the authors
give their recommendations on which methods to
use for different types of problems, but their
comments tend to be superficial and to ignore the
many studies on optimization algorithms that have
been undertaken. For example, the authors state
that it is not possible to generalize upon the per-
formance of existing nonlinear programming al-
gorithms, a point with which I disagree. The
authors devote only one paragraph to Powell's
non-derivative method; it certainly deserves more.
They also fail to point out some obvious deficiencies
of some algorithms; e.g., the fact that the David-
son-Fletcher-Powell method becomes disadvanta-
geous for large problems.
This book, like several others published re-
cently, also includes a chapter on optimization of
functionals. I have mixed feelings about including
such a topic, since a single course on optimization
must by necessity devote 95%o or more of the
lectures to static optimization. Therefore, such a
topic is of dubious value in a book like this, except
for limited self-study. In order to gain the proper
perspective and background for optimization of
functionals, the interested student or professional
should take a course or read a book devoted ex-
clusively to optimal control.
In summary, Introduction to Optimization
Theory is a noble effort to use a rigorous, inter-
disciplinary approach for developing various op-
timization techniques. Its notation is clear, but to
most chemical engineers the material and
examples presented will seem a little sterile. 0


RECYCLE REACTOR
Continued from page 82.
APPLICATIONS

E QUILIBRATION TIMES WERE determined by con-
tinuously monitoring the effluent composition
with an infrared CO, analyzer. Steady state was
generally realized in 30-60 minutes. Consequently,
a large amount of data can be obtained in a rela-
tively short time, making this system ideal for
both undergraduate catalyst characterization ex-
periments and graduate level research. Further-
more, catalyst beds can be easily changed, allow-
ing the ready investigation of many different types
of catalyst.

CONCLUSIONS
No laboratory reactor is truly ideal; neverthe-
less, the recycle reactor appears to offer a practical
and educational solution to many of the problems
which plague heterogeneous catalytic investiga-
tions, insofar as it offers isothermal operation at
easily measured conversion levels. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge financial support in form
of an NSF Graduate Fellowship (SCP) and an NSF In-
structional Scientific Equipment Program grant.

REFERENCES
1. Anderson, J. B., Chem. Eng. Edn. 5, 78 (1971).
2. Baiker, A. and W. Richarz, Chem. Eng. Edn. 12, 112
(1978).
3. Berty, J. M., Chem. Eng. Prog. 70 (5), 78 (1974).
4. Brown, C. E. and C. 0. Bennett, AIChE Journal 16,
817 (1970).
5. Carberry, J. J., "Chemical and Catalytic Reaction
Engineering," McGraw-Hill, New York (1976).
6. Cardoso, M. A. and D. Luss, Chem. Eng. Sci. 24, 1699
(1969).
7. Choudhary, V. R. and L. K. Doraiswamy, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Proc. Des. Dev. 11, 420 (1972).
8. Doraiswamy, L. K. and D. G. Tajbl, Cat. Rev.-Sci. &
Eng. 10, 177 (1974).
9. Gates, B. C. and J. D. Sherman, Chem. Eng. Edn. 9,
124 (1975).
10. Makar, K. and R. P. Merrill, J1. Catalysis 24, 546
(1972).
11. Peiffer, C., Chem. Eng. Edn. 4, 138 (1970).
12. Tajbl, D. G., J. B. Simons and J. J. Carberry, Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fundls. 5, 171 (1966).
13. Vejtasa, S. A. and R. A. Schmitz, AIChE Journal
16, 410 (1970).
14. Viselov, N. G., et. al., Int. Chem. Eng. 14, 48 (1974).
15. Weekman, V. W., AIChE Journal 20, 833 (1974).
16. Weller, S. W., Chem. Eng. Edn. 10, 74 (1976).
17. Williams, R.D., Chem. Eng. Edn. 7, 148 (1973).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Departmental Sponsors: The following 133 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1980.


University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alberta
Arizona State University
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas
Auburn University
Brigham Young University
University of British Columbia
Bucknell University
University of Calgary
California State Polytechnic
California Institute of Technology
University of California (Berkeley)
University of California (Davis)
University of California (Santa Barbara)
Carnegie-Mellon University
Case-Western Reserve University
University of Cincinnati
Clarkson College of Technology
Clemson University
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University of Colorado
Colorado School of Mines
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University of Dayton
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U. of Detroit
Drexel University
Ecole Polytechnique (Canada)
University of Florida
Georgia Tech
University of Houston
Howard University
University of Idaho
University of Illinois (Urbana)
Illinois Institute of Technology
Institute of Gas Technology
Institute of Paper Chemistry
University of Iowa
Iowa State University
Kansas State University
University of Kentucky


Lafayette College
Lamar University
Lehigh University
Loughborough University
Louisiana State University
Louisiana Tech. University
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McMaster University
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Montana State University
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University of New Hampshire
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Princeton University
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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Rice University
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Rutgers U.
University of South Carolina
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Worcester Polytechnic Institute
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Yale University
Youngstown State University


TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your
department chairman to write CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611.


---~






Monsanto Drive.
It takes you a very long way.


This sign marks the road that leads
into our International Headquarters in
St. Louis.
These words, "Monsanto Drive"
have another and more significant mean-
ing at Monsanto. It's a way of expressing
the special qualities of Monsanto people,
who have the will to meet challenges
head-on-to accomplish and succeed.
We offer bright and energetic people
with this drive the opportunity to help
solve some of the world's major problems
concerning food, energy, the environment
and others.
Challenging assignments exist for
engineers, scientists, accountants and


marketing majors at locations throughout
the U.S.
We offer you opportunities, training
and career paths that are geared for
upward mobility. If you are a person
who has set high goals and has an
achievement record, and who wants to
advance and succeed, be sure to talk
with the Monsanto representative when
he visits your campus or write to: Ray
Nobel, Monsanto Company, Professional
Employment Dept., Bldg. A3SB, 800
North Lindbergh, St. Louis, Mo. 63166.

Monsanto
An equal opportunity employer


WNWI




Full Text