Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text

hmica engineerig e

cickhOw eia/ede s anad t k......




wiMt a doa4"itio't j dctaS.

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial & Business Assistant:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
WEST: R. W. Tock
Texas Tech University
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
William B. Krantz
University of Colorado
C. Judson King
University of California Berkeley
EAST: Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHEAST: Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
NORTHWEST: Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
James H. Hand
N.S.F., Washington, D.C.

Chemical Engineering Education

116 Chemical Process Systems: A Second Course
in Chemical Engineering, Richard M. Felder
and David B. Marsland

132 What is Problem Solving? D. M. Chorneyko,
R. J. Christmas, S. Cosic, S. E. Dibbs, C. M.
Hamielec, L. K. MacLeod, R. F. Moore, S. L.
Norman, R. J. Stankovich, S. C. Tyne, L. K.
Wong, D. R. Woods

The Educator
104 Gary Bennett of Toledo
Department of Chemical Engineering
110 Texas A&M
120 A Flexible Self-Paced Course in Process
Control, Franklin G. King
126 An Elective Course on Computer-Aided De-
sign, Jude T. Sommerfeld
138 A Combined Bachelors-Masters Program,
Pradeep B. Deshpande, Charles A. Plank

142 Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables-A
Laboratory Experiment, Richard D. Noble
147 A Modified Carnot Cycle, Y. K. Rao
103 Editorial
103 Letters
108-115 ChE News
109 Division Activities
131, 145, 146 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department. University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1979 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US TSSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


Departmental Sponsors: The following 138 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1979.

University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alberta
Arizona State University
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas
Auburn University
Brigham Young University
University of British Columbia
Bucknell University
University of Calgary
California State Polytechnic
California Institute of Technology
University of California (Berkeley)
University of California (Davis)
University of California (Santa Barbara)
Carnegie-Mellon University
Case-Western Reserve University
University of Cincinnati
Clarkson College of Technology
Clemson University
Cleveland State University
University of Colorado
Colorado School of Mines
Columbia University
University of Connecticut
Cornell University
University of Dayton
University of Delaware
U. of Detroit
Drexel University
University College Dublin
Ecole Polytechnique (Canada)
University of Florida
Georgia Technical Institute
University of Houston
Howard University
University of Idaho
University of Illinois (Urbana)
Illinois Institute of Technology
Institute of Gas Technology
Institute of Paper Chemistry
University of Iowa
Iowa State University
Kansas State University
University of Kentucky

Lafayette College
Lamar University
Laval University
Lehigh University
Loughborough University
Louisiana State University
Louisiana Tech. University
University of Louisville
University of Maine
Manhattan College
University of Maryland
University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
McMaster University
McNeese State University
University of Michigan
Michigan State University
Michigan Tech. University
University of Minnesota
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri (Columbia)
University of Missouri (Rolla)
Montana State University
University of Nebraska
University of New Brunswick
New Jersey Inst. of Tech.
University of New Hampshire
New Mexico State University
University of New Mexico
City University of New York
Polytechnic Institute of New York
State University of N.Y. at Buffalo
North Carolina State University
University of North Dakota
Northwestern University
University of Notre Dame
Nova Scotia Tech. College
Ohio State University
Ohio University
University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma State University
Oregon State University
University of Ottawa
University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania State University
University of Pittsburgh

Princeton University
University of Puerto Rico
Purdue University
Queen's University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
University of Rhode Island
Rice University
University of Rochester
Rutgers U.
University of South Carolina
University of Saskatchewan
South Dakota School of Mines
University of South Florida
University of Southern California
Stanford University
Stevens Institute of Technology
Syracuse University
Tennessee Technological University
University of Tennessee
Texas A&M University
Texas A&I University
University of Texas at Austin
Texas Technological University
University of Toledo
University of Toronto
Tri-State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
University of Tulsa
University of Utah
Vanderbilt University
Villanova University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
University of Virginia
Washington State University
University of Washington
Washington University
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
West Virginia University
University of Western Ontario
University of Wisconsin (Madison)
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
University of Wyoming
Yale University
Youngstown State University

TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your
department chairman to write CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida



Effective during June 1979, Bob Bennett has
retired from the ChE Department at the Uni-
versity of Florida and has resigned as Business
Manager of CEE. Bob became Business Manager
in 1967 when the University of Florida took over
the publication of CEE. It was his initial responsi-
bility to set up our financial records, open checking
and savings accounts, and to hire assistants to
keep the books. During those early days he shared
his own small office with student assistants whom
he had to train to keep the records and do the
bookkeeping. The workload of the Business Man-
ager was so immense at that time that after a
year or two he resigned. When, in order to assist
the Publications Board in locating a successor, he
listed his duties, the list required several single-
spaced typewritten pages! As a result, the Publi-
cations Board authorized additional secretarial
help and Bob agreed to continue as Business
Bob then hired two part-time assistants: one
a faculty wife and the other a mature student
wife. These positions were later consolidated into



one when he hired Bonnie Neelands as Staff
When Bob went on leave for two years to
teach in Algeria, Art Westerberg became Business
Manager. However, when Art left the University
of Florida, the duties of the Business Manager
were shared by the editor and Ms. Neelands, who
had been well-trained by Bob to perform many of
his duties. Upon Bob's return he again graciously
agreed to help out as Business Manager. His re-
newed presence became highly important during
the 1977-78 academic year when the editor was
on leave and it became necessary to replace Bonnie
Neelands, whose husband was graduating and
seeking employment outside of Gainesville. Bob
then secured for us the services of an outstanding
replacement in Carole Yocum.
CEE owes much to Bob Bennett, whose efforts,
along with those of Mack Tyner, who serves di-
ligently as Associate Editor, have often been over-
looked. It is hoped that this editorial will inform
our readers of some of the contributions he has
made to CEE.


We in Inverrness are prepared for all eventualities
What with the warrmth of the kilt, the abundance of
lassies, the beauty of the heather, the vapourrrs of the
NDSON still, and that bother in the Norrth Sea. I await your
apologetic rreply and remain yourrrr obedient and number
Dnn serrvant.


Dearr Sirr:
My Scots colleague A. MacPherrson RRutherrforrd ha
responded to the indignity perrpetrrated on my grrreat
grand nephew MacNeal and I should like to rreinforrce
the caprriciousness of this dastarrdly act of indescrretion.
MacNeal would never remonstrrate for he gives not a
haggis about such things (I think he has a smidgeon of
Irrish in him, on his mother's side of coursee. But, I,
sirr, am made of sterrnerr stuff and am prreparred to
pursue this villainy to its most bitter conclusion and
demand satisfaction on the field, St. Andrrews (the Old
Courrse, of course) with the chiefs of Glenlivet and
Pitlochrry in attendance. (I should really ask the
Anderrsons but those poor chaps could never learn to
spell the name of their own clan (Amundson), in spite
of the valiant efforts of (great)'6 grand uncle Knute
Knutson Amundson, but that is another storyy. If we do
not receive adequate rredrress and vows of no furrthurr
such intrrrancigences, we will be forced to convene an
emergency meeting of O*W*P*C (Orrganization of
Whiskey Prricing Clans) and of course you know what
that will mean. (We do this knowing full well our scion's
prrediliction for the spirrrits).

MacDougal MacNeal MacAmundson
B.A., G.C., K.G., V.D., F.R.H.S., etc., etc.

Dear Editor:
Recently the Chemical Engineering Education Projects
Committee of the AIChE received a copy of the "Codata
Bulletin #30 and Guide for the Presentation in the
Primary Literature of Physical Property Correlations and
Estimation Procedures" Dec. 1978. This six page report
was prepared by an international task group with Arnold
Bondi, Malcolm Chase and Ron Danner being our task force
members. Included are recommended statistical procedures
for evaluating and reporting physical properties (pro-
cedures, significance tests and methods of reporting re-
sults), and a 32 entry bibliography. This reference would
be of general interest to educators but of primary interest
to thermodynamicists and editors.
More information about this publication can be obtained
from Professor Edgar F. Westrum, Jr., Dept. of Chemistry,
Continued on page 115.



qOa4 ie~uwea

University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio 43606

eT WANT TO TALK to enough people to fill Michi-
Sgan Stadium," says Gary F. Bennett, Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Toledo. Quite a goal. At this point, Gary is
better than 10 percent along the way of speaking
to 103,000 people. Obviously, this does not count
the students taking his courses, but only those
attending his formal presentations, usually on en-
vironmental subjects.
According to the cover letter from national
AIChE which was sent to the local sections regard-
ing the AIChE speakers bureau, Gary is "among
the most popular speakers." Once again this year,
he is serving as a tour speaker on subjects such as:
environmental mythology, water reuse, hazardous
materials spills, oxygen transfer rates and regula-
tory control of chemicals and their emissions. To
date, he has made over 170 presentations to such
diverse groups as Rotarians, Kiwanians, high
school students, church groups, librarians,
chambers of commerce, college students, scouts,
researchers, engineers and chemists. Gary claims
to pattern his talks after his former department
chairman, Clyde Balch. This approach is exempli-
fied by use of the overhead projector, with humo-
rous slides and stories frequently interspersed.
Typically, Gary is heard to say, "It reminds me

As far back as
high school, Gary was nicknamed
"Professor" by fellow students since he had an
interest in teaching, and he was sought
out as a tutor by his friends.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

The Bennett's at home. Judy and Gary watch Ritchie
give a hug to Allison

of the time . ." or, "have you heard the one
about . ."
Gary hails from Canada and to this day has
not learned the American pronunciation of school
or schedule. As far back as high school, Gary was
nicknamed "Professor" by fellow students since
he had an interest in teaching and he was sought
out as a tutor by his friends. This interest in teach-
ing was furthered by a series of good teachers at
Queen's University, where he received his B.S.
in 1957. He was a classmate of Don Woods, now
a faculty member who has been featured in CEE.
From Queen's, Gary went to the University of
Michigan where he held a teaching fellowship in
the Department of Chemistry. This was fortuitous
because the University Chemistry Department's
philosophy was to have the very best professors
giving the major lecture, with the teaching fellows
handling the recitations and laboratory. The first
time a teaching fellow taught the course he was
required to sit in on the lectures and meet with
the major professor once a week to discuss
common problems and philosophy along with the
other fellows. In these sessions, the teaching
masters passed on to the graduate students their
philosophy of teaching and Gary was thus in-


spired to remain in the field. After three years of
teaching freshmen in engineering chemistry, in-
cluding a stint in nursing chemistry, he moved on
to the chemical engineering department where, in
his final year (1962-63), he was fortunate to teach
a course in chemical engineering with Lloyd Kemp
and a course in materials science with Lary Van
Vlack. In the former, he was a co-teacher with
Kemp and in the latter a teaching assistant with
Van Vlack. In both cases he worked with great
men absorbing teaching philosophy and ideas.
During his graduate days at Michigan, Gary
had the unique distinction of being hung in effigy
by the students in his dorm unit. It seems that
Gary was a dorm advisor and outlawed the use
of a small wading pool as unsafe. The student's
reaction was normal for the early 60's, but Gary's
order stuck. This was his first environmental

GARY AND JUDY HAVE two youngsters, Ritchie
and Allison, both of whom enjoy the family
excursions to a remote cottage in Canada. It never
fails that some urgent call comes through for
Gary while he is in Canada. Then we at UT start
the process of calling neighbors several miles away
in order to get the word through. "At least he tells
us that this is the way to reach him," the chemical
engineering secretary is heard to say. For one
consulting problem that came up where Gary was


Gary explaining a laboratory
set-up for measuring oxygen
transfer rates.

Gary and Judy have two youngsters,
Ritchie and Allison, both of whom enjoy the family
excursions to a remote cottage in Canada.

needed desperately, the operator asked: "Is Dr.
Bennett there?" and the farmer replied: "No."
The operator then asked, "When can he be ex-
pected?" and the reply was, "Maybe about mail
time." This certainly perplexed the urban operator
who had never before received such an informal
time reply.
The farm family and the Bennetts have become
fast friends, with Gary even returning to Toledo
with a sample of their water for testing their well.
They, in turn, allow him to help them "hay." One
of the joys of a city dweller is being in such a
clean environment and Gary and the family spend
much time bailing hay and moving it into the
Additional travels with their trailer have taken
them through Michigan in 1977, up the Eastern
shore to the Western side of Michigan. During
1978 they camped in many of the Canadian camps
in Sarnia, Parry Sound and Sault-Ste-Marie.
Gary notes that you really get to know your
family while in Sault-Ste-Marie since in the latter
part of the summer it gets cold and rains nine
days out of twelve.
Gary enjoys camping and canoeing, especially
in Canadian waters. However, one day last


summer when 31/2 inches of rain fell on Toledo
in a relatively short period of time and the storm
sewers backed up on Middlesex Drive, Gary was
observed canoeing up the street in front of his
Gary picked up his biggest fan while at UM;
namely, his wife, the former Judith Connable.
Gary likes to tell of their meeting: they were
introduced by a blind student on a blind date. Judy
graduated from Eastern Michigan University

Gary and Ritchie last summer on a camping trip to
Lake Superior.

about the same time that Gary finished his work
at Michigan. They moved to Toledo in the summer
of 1963 and she took a job with the Toledo schools,
teaching hearing-impaired children. Her first class
had over twenty students, spanning four grades
and six years of student-age difference and was
quite a formidable task for a young teacher. Her
fame was made, however, when the largest and
strongest boy in the class turned off the main
water valve in the school and she was forced to
paddle him. In the process the paddle broke and
her reputation was made throughout the school as
one not to be trifled with. Judy never did reveal
to her students that the principal, upon hearing
of the incident remarked, "Oh! you didn't use that
split paddle, did you?"


GARY TAKES TREMENDOUS pride in his partici-
pation in organizations concerned with en-
vironmental problems. While chairman of the
Toledo Section of AIChE, Gary organized a
"Pollution Solutions" group. At the time, they
were helping write local regulations and this

probably was instrumental in keeping them on a
national interest basis. Those of you active in the
Environmental Division of AIChE are familiar
with the vim and vigor approach he has for such
organizations. Some may recall that Gary was a
member of the ad hoc committee to study forma-
tion of the Division back in 1968 and he chaired
the committee to write its by-laws. He served as
vice-chairman in 1970-71 and chairman of the
Division in 1971-72. Subsequently, Gary was the
recipient of the Division's National Award in
1975. Tom Goodgame of Whirlpool (current
chairman of the Environmental Division) says:
"-- Gary is truly an inspiring individual with
limitless energy to tackle any organizational
problem. The Environmental Division is indeed
fortunate to have this person among its midst."
Of more recent interest is his activity with
hazardous spills. He has served as program direc-
tor for three of the International Conferences on
Hazardous Spills, held in San Francisco in 1974,
New Orleans in 1976, and Miami in 1978. In
each of those years, he edited the conference pro-
ceedings. Recently, a leaking drum of phospho-
rous trichloride in a box car in South Toledo
caused considerable alarm. When Gary was picked
up by the fire chief in his car, he expressed disap-
pointment by remarking, "The least they could
have done is pick me up with a ladder truck."
This particular problem is a typical example of the
type of involvement that Gary enjoys.
Gary has served as the AIChE representative
to the League for International Ford Education
(LIFE) for six years, and was chairman of the
Board of Directors in 1977. One enjoyable aspect
of the LIFE affiliation was when he traveled to

He served as ... Chairman of the
(Environmental) Division in 1971-72. Subsequently
Gary was the recipient of the Divisions
National Award in 1975.

Brazil to present a paper at the 5th Inter-Ameri-
can Conference on Chemical Engineering in 1973.
Over the years, Gary has directed 31 masters
theses. He refers to the students as part of his
family and tries to stay in touch with all of them.
For those of you reading this who have not corre-
sponded in recent years, drop Gary a line-it
will make his day and enable him to update his
log. Ten of these projects have been cooperative
ventures with local industry or governmental
agencies. According to John McKinney, Manager


of the Toledo Sun Refinery, "these projects usually
involve interesting problems that our full-time
engineers just do not have time to solve. We are
extremely fortunate to have academic people at
the University willing to work with us. At least
two of these projects have led to designs being
used in the refinery."
Most of the masters students have been sup-
ported by EPA training grants. In all, Gary has
had some $700,000 from 19 grants. The EPA train-
ing grants have been running for 12 consecutive
At UT, Gary has organized and taught just
about every imaginable topic in the environmental
field. He developed a series in Biochemical Engi-
neering Processes directed to the elimination of
water pollution. Industrial Waste Treatment and
Advanced Waste Treatment were developed pri-
marily for graduate students. Gary always in-
corporates plenty of library projects into his
courses. The students are given an opportunity to
use Gary's style of reporting their findings to the
class. Recently, Gary, in cooperation with the Civil
and Mechanical Engineering Departments, organ-
ized a three-quarter sequence in Air Pollution:
Causes, Effects and Instrumentation. In the future,
we look for a new course on Hazardous Spills.


GARY HAS BEEN EXTREMELY active in local com-
munity work because he thinks that people
ought to be involved in their community organiza-
tions. Beyond that, he thinks that people should
take a rational approach to the environment in
order to present a counterbalance to wild, exag-
gerated or biased arguments on both sides. He
has, therefore, been committed to committee work
both in Toledo and in the University. One im-
portant and typical committee is with the Toledo
Sanitary District. He has been a member of their
Board of Directors since 1969. One might think it
is a sewage committee, but in reality it is a mos-
quito-control group. Their friendly salute is a
swat on the cheek to kill the imaginary mosquito.
He has also been on the Northwest Ohio Health
Planning Association Board since 1972 and has
served as vice president since 1973. This committee
deals with a wide variety of both environmental
and medical health problems.
He has served as a consultant to the City of
Toledo on hazardous spills. He has also served
on the Advisory Board for the Port of Toledo

Those of you active in the
Environmental Division of AIChE are familiar
with the vim and vigor approach he has
for such organizations.

since 1973. Under the Board's direction, a $150,-
000 study of Maumee Bay has been conducted to
monitor the quality of the bay and to measure the
impact of a new dike dredged disposal facility on
the bay. This was an exhaustive two-year study
in 1974 before the dike construction and in 1976
after its construction. He is very pleased to point
out that the quality of Maumee Bay is still ex-
tremely high.
Gary served as chairman of a University Com-
mittee on Salaries, Promotions and Leaves in 1975-
77. This gave him an opportunity to observe how
the other half of the University community lives
(and survives).
In 1976, Gary was asked to chair the advisory
Committee to the City of Toledo on utility rates.
The concern was that proposed utility rates would
impact severely on the elderly. The City Council
wished to study this impact and see if there could
be some way of ameliorating it. Gary and his
committee authored a unique senior-citizens ex-
emption plan which would exempt senior citizens
earning less than the specified annual income from
the utility rate that was being proposed by the
Electric Company. The concept, developed by the
committee, was presented to City Council and
passed unanimously. It received national recog-
nition as being ano innovative approach to the
problem. The City Council honored Gary and
the committee with a resolution that contained
the words: "Whereas the Citizen Advisory Com-
mittee on Utilities issued a report that was ex-
tremely helpful to the Rate Negotiating Com-
mittee in completing their task, be it resolved that
the committee be officially and publicly com-
mended for their outstanding work in researching
the impact of electric utility rates upon the
citizenry and suggestions during the recent electric
rate negotiations.

N ADDITION TO teaching and his extensive pro-
fessional society and community work, Gary
finds time to consult for industry. He has con-
sulted for about thirty companies in the fields of
pollution and hazardous spills.


Gary feels that
consulting, research and teaching are
a three-legged stool on which a professor sits.

One of the new, intriguing things that he is
doing right now is consulting for Diamond Sham-
rock on the development of a new material for
picking up hazardous materials. There are several
materials presently on the market for picking up
oil spills but few of these are compatible with
the wide range of chemicals that constitute
hazardous materials spills. Diamond Shamrock has
discovered an inorganic material called Diasorb
that will pick up a wide variety of hazardous ma-
terials and Gary is acting as a consultant on such
aspects as marketability, tests needed and po-
tential uses.
Gary was asked by Great Lakes Corporation
in Detroit to act as their environmental consultant.
This resulted in being environmental control di-
rector and staff for a multimillion dollar company
which has seven plants around the United States
from New Hampshire to Tulsa. This company
cleans and recycles steel barrels. Given this intro-
duction, the problems are obvious since steel
barrels contain almost anything, most of it ob-
noxious. Gary is on call to serve the plants and
solve their problems, a distinct departure from the
classroom. In the latter, pollution control is always
developed for the students. The real difference is
in the role of responsibility which business has to
assume. Gary tries to visit the plants during
breaks from the classroom and work with them at
other times by telephone and short visits during
the academic year.
Aside from the joy of solving real problems,
Gary is enthusiastic about what he can bring to
the classroom from this activity. Gary feels that
consulting, research and teaching are a three-
legged stool on which a professor sits. All these
legs ought to be balanced in some fashion. Gary
has been heard to make the statement that every
consulting activity he has had has been returned
more to him in knowledge and information to take
back to the classroom, than he has given to the
company in return for payment. Gary believes
that consulting is a two-way street-important for
his knowledge and for his class.
Gary is an ardent stamp collector. His collec-
tion started when he was about ten years old
when he was suffering from the measles and his

parents gave him a stamp book. Gary began, as
most young people do, with a general collection,
but in his college days he began to specialize in
Canadian stamps.
Because of his activity in Boy Scouts, he began
to collect Boy Scout stamps and now has an
almost complete collection. He is also proud of
his excellent collection of Canadian stamps. These
date back to the early 1890's. In deference to his
interest in pollution and his popular talk on En-
vironmental Mythology, Gary has begun to as-
semble a topical stamp collection on Environ-
mental Mythology. He has stamps that illustrate
cooling towers, thermal pollution and oil wells. Al-
though time is a premium, Gary hopes that he
will be able to complete this collection and get it
in shape to have an exhibition sometime. If you
know Gary, as we know Gary, start looking for
it. O


Lloyd Berg, upon reaching the mandatory retirement
age for administrators, retires on June 30 as Head of
the ChE Department at Montana State University, having
completed 33 years in this position. He celebrated the
event by completing the 26+ mile Montana Marathon in
slightly under five hours. He will continue to teach, re-
search (and run).

Dr. Yatish T. Shah has been appointed chairman of
the Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department,
University of Pittsburgh, effective March 1, 1979.
Dr. Shah, who received his B.S. degree in chemical
engineering from the University of Michigan and his
M.S. and Ph.D. in chemical engineering from MIT, joined
the Pitt faculty in 1969. Currently he is a professor of
chemical engineering, a rank he achieved in 1977. From
Nov., 1970, to May, 1971, he was a visiting scholar at the
University of Cambridge, England. In addition to his teach-
ing and research, Dr. Shah has obtained extensive con-
sulting experience with both industrial and governmental
agencies in the areas of coal liquefaction and reactor
design research.
Dr. Shah has published extensively and made major
contributions to the technical literature, particularly in
polymer processing and multiphase reaction engineering,
having just published a book on the latter subject. He is
a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
American Chemical Society, Tau Beta Pi, and Sigma Xi.





The 1979 ASEE Chemical Engineering Di-
vision Lecturer was Daniel Perlmutter of the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania. The purpose of this award
lecture is to recognize and encourage outstanding
achievement in an important field of fundamental
chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M
Company provides the financial support for this
annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lec-
ture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the
award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certifi-
cate. These were presented to this year's Lecturer
at the Annual Chemical Engineering Division
banquet, held at Louisiana State University on
June 27, 1979. Dr. Perlmutter's lecture was en-
titled, "A New Look at an Old Fossil."
Dan Perlmutter earned his Bachelor's Degree (Magna
Cum Laude) from New York U. and Doctorate in Chemi-
cal Engineering from Yale. From 1955 to 1958 he worked
for the Exxon (then Esso) Standard Oil Company. His
academic career began in 1958 at the U. of Illinois in
Urbana and moved to the U. of Pennsylvania in 1964.
Following a reorganization of the College of Engineering
and Applied Science, he became the first Chairman of the
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, a
position he held from 1972 to 1977. He has been a visiting
Professor at Harvard U., the U. of Manchester, the U.
of Zagreb, and the Hebrew U. of Jerusalem, in the ca-
pacity of a Fulbright Professor in England and Yugo-
slavia and as a Guggenheim Fellow in Cambridge.
He has developed new course materials in chemical
reactor control, optimization, and stability problems. His
textbook, Introduction to Chemical Process Control, was
one of the first available in its field, and was widely
adopted in the U.S. and abroad. His monograph on
Stability of Chemical Reactors provided a unified view
of a wide range of questions by combining some original
work with an integrated survey of material only avail-
able in scattered journal articles. His most recent research
has been on the kinetics of gas-solid reactions, prompted
especially by their connections with energy-related
problems in coal drying, oxidation, and gasification, as
well as reversible storage in the form of heat of reaction.

Funds are available to have Dr. Perlmutter

deliver his Award lecture at three locations in the
U.S. The locations are to be selected from schools
requesting the presentation of the lecture. Re-
quests for this outstanding lecture will be received
through the end of Sept. 1979. The request should
include suggested times, the audience to which the
lecture will be presented, and whether or not the
school could participate in some of the costs as-
sociated with a lecture tour. Funds are available
from 3M, but they are limited. Please send your
request with the required information to Dr. Dee
H. Barker, ChE Department, 350 CB, Brigham
Young, U., Provo, UT 84602.

The award is made on an annual basis with
nominations being received through Feb. 1, 1980.
The full details for the award preparation are con-
tained in the Awards Brochure published by
ASEE. Your nominations for the 1980 lectureship
are invited. They should be sent to Dr. Homer S.
Johnson, ChE Department, Univ. of Tennessee,
Knoxville, TN 37916.

James Couper, Head of the ChE Department
at the U. of Arkansas, has been elected Chairman-
Elect of the ChE Division of ASEE, and William
Beckwith of Clemson U. (now on leave at the U.
of Maine) has been elected to the Executive Com-
Effective July 1, 1979, John Biery of the U.
of Florida became Chairman of the Division, and
C. Judson King of the U. of California at Berkeley
became past chairman.
Bill Baasel of Ohio U. continues as Secretary-
Treasurer, and Angie Perna, of the New Jersey
Institute of Technology, and Warren Lux, of Union
Carbide, continue on the Executive Committee.
Phil Wankat of Purdue is Program Chairman fot
the 1980 meeting and John Sears of West Virginia
University is Program Chairman for 1981.

Two ChE professors received awards at the
annual meeting of ASEE at Baton Rouge, June
16-23, 1979. William Corcoran of the California
Institute of Technology received ASEE's highest
honor, the Lamm6 Award, and Tom Hanratty of
the U. of Illinois received the Vincent Bendix
Award. Professor J. J. Martin, U. of Michigan,
served as ASEE president for 1978-79.


'.. Il

ii I In

LJ,. A
Fmr1" 1

eL7UK 'f~

Enpj department

Zachry Engineering Center


R. E. WHITE and K. R. HALL
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843
visible professional group in Texas. Young
people searching for careers frequently encounter
chemical plants, petroleum refineries and natural
gas facilities. They are also likely to have some
contact with chemical engineers in their everyday
lives. Because of this visibility, many freshmen
entering universities in Texas choose chemical
engineering as a major course of study.
Other factors are also working at Texas A&M
to increase the chemical engineering enrollment
which has become one of the largest in the United
States. The State of Texas is increasing in popu-
lation and is currently the third most populous
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

in the country. In addition, Texas A&M has tra-
ditionally attracted large numbers of engineering
students and the university enrollment has doubled
over the past seven years. Fortunately, Texas
A&M has had the'resources to keep pace with
this enrollment increase.
Another growth factor at Texas A&M has
exceeded the enrollment increase-an explosion
of the research commitment. For the period
9/1/77 through 8/31/78, the research expendi-
tures were $60 million. This total places Texas
A&M well within the top twenty institutions on
the NSF list (18th for 1977) and makes our uni-
versity number one in the South and Southwest.
The Chemical Engineering Department has also
increased its research commitment both in terms
of funding and diversification.
This dynamic atmosphere makes Texas A&M
an exciting place to work or study. To be sure,


PrP PP"ii

there are problems associated with such phe-
nomenal growth, but they are challenges to be
met and overcome-often with active assistance
from concerned former students.

TEXAS A&M IS THE OLDEST public institution of
higher learning in Texas. Founded as a land
grant college in 1876, Texas A&M originally was
named the Agriculture and Mechanical College of
Texas. In its first century, Texas A&M built a rich
tradition and grew steadily in pride and achieve-
ments. In 1963, the Texas Legislature recognized
the diversified and expanded character of the
school and changed the name to Texas A&M Uni-
versity. In 1965, membership in the Corps of
Cadets became voluntary; also, women were ad-
mitted with restriction until 1971, when coeduca-
tion became official. Texas A&M still provides more
reserve officers than any other institution in the
nation. The University became one of the first Sea
Grant Colleges in 1971 in recognition of achieve-
ments in oceanographic and marine resources de-
At this time, the campus covers 5200 acres with
a physical plant valued at over $300 million. Fall
1978 enrollment was 30,901 including 4,731 gradu-
ate students and 10,563 women (including Miss
USA 1977). The library currently contains one
million volumes; however because of anticipated
enrollment pressure, the library is being expanded
and will, upon completion, provide space for two
million volumes.


ing was first offered at Texas A&M during the
school term 1908-09 as an option in the chemistry
program. The first two degrees were awarded in
June, 1911. In 1940, the Chemical Engineering
Department became a separate program and
moved from the College of Arts and Science to
the College of Engineering. Professor J. D.
Lindsay became the first department head and
served in that capacity until 1964 when he retired.

At that time, Dr. C. D. Holland assumed the posi-
tion of department head and continues to hold that
The Chemical Engineering Department
occupies about 37,000 square feet of the Zachry
Engineering Center. This space contains: faculty,

Weissenberg Rheogoniometer

student and departmental offices; a small machine
shop to complement the larger engineering fa-
cility; the unit operations laboratories (part of
which is a 40x60x20 foot bay area) ; and research
laboratories. The unit operations laboratories
contain all the usual undergraduate experiments
but some are rather large scale-35 feet tall ad-
sorption towers, for example. The large bay area
also contains research projects requiring long or
tall runs such as a methacoal flow project.
Our research laboratories contain many items
of specialized equipment including: a Weissenberg
rheogoniometer, a transient rheometer, two
Burnett PVT apparatuses, high pressure auto-
claves, gas and liquid chromatographs, solar
energy collectors, methanol-fueled vehicles, a Meta-
IV digital computer (equivalent to an IBM 1800),
potentiostats and a coulometer for electrochemical
studies, and several microcomputers for data ac-
quisition and manipulation. A time sharing system
provides on-line access to the University's Amdahl
470V/6 computer (a 4th generation machine with
about 21/2 times the memory and speed of an

Other factors are also working at Texas A&M to increase the chemical
engineering enrollment which has become one of the largest in the United States. Texas
A&M has traditionally attracted large numbers of engineering students and the university
enrollment has doubled over the past seven years.


IBM 370/168). In addition, space is available at
the Texas A&M University Annex, located about
10 miles from the main campus, for large scale
projects or for research projects requiring
specialized environments.
The department maintains close contact with
industry. We have offered an extension program
for several years in which engineers working in
industry may complete requirements for masters
degrees with minimal absence from their jobs.
The department also sponsors an annual Sym-
posium on Instrumentation for the Process In-
dustries at Texas A&M. This symposium attracts
about 700-800 attendees each year. In addition, we
gratefully accept monetary grants to the depart-
ment from thirty-two companies, foundations and
industries. Industrial acceptance of our graduates
has always been good and, at this time, about
thirty major oil and chemical companies have
executive officers (vice presidents and higher) who
are graduates of our department.


engineering for the fall semester 1978 was
847. We graduated 115 during 1978-79. The

Unit Operations Laboratory

The department also sponsors an
annual Symposium on Instrumentation for the
Process Industries at Texas A&M. This symposium
attracts 700-800 attendees each year.

average S.A.T. score for entering freshmen at
Texas A&M is about 200 points above the national
average (the university has not chosen to use this
as an excuse for grade inflation-in fact several
professional schools in the Texas area upgrade
Texas A&M grade point averages by 0.2). Chemi-
cal Engineering receives a "top cut" from these
people according to the university administration.
We feel justified in having pride in our graduates,
a feeling shared by industrial recruiters and their
The undergraduate program in chemical engi-
neering begins with a unique treat for our fresh-
men (as part of their introductory course).
During the second week of classes in the fall
semester, chemical engineering freshmen take a
plant trip to Dow Chemical Company in Freeport,
Texas. The students divide into groups of three
with a Dow engineer hosting each group for the
day. The Dow employee guides his group on a
tour of the plant, takes them to lunch, and
generally attempts to acquaint them with the re-
sponsibilities of a chemical engineer at Dow
Chemical. This activity influences the students'
concepts of chemical engineering in practice.
During their subsequent studies, the students can
recall this experience and relate classroom ma-
terial to chemical plant activities.
Our entire undergraduate curriculum empha-
sizes traditional, practical chemical engineering.
Because the vast majority of our graduates enter
industry, we feel that this approach is appropri-
ate. Our graduates complete a minimum of 139
semester hours that include: mathematics through
differential equations plus a numerical methods
course and a computer science course, chemistry
through physical chemistry (including quantita-
tive analysis), usual courses in physics and other
engineering disciplines, 12 hours of electives, and
32 hours of chemical engineering. Of course, re-
quired humanities courses are part of the curricu-
lum. Students anticipating graduate study may
use the electives to enhance their preparation.
The undergraduate program is periodically
under review by the faculty. Currently, we are
planning a major revision which should further
strengthen the curriculum. The final result will


be a student better prepared for industry or gradu-
ate school. Other features of the program are: an
industrial co-op option in which the student works
in industry every other semester (about 20% of
our students select this option), an active student
AIChE section to encourage professional develop-
ment, the largest Omega Chi Epsilon Chapter in
the United States, and a student chapter of S.W.E.
(Society of Women Engineers) to accommodate
the 160 women in our undergraduate program.
The overall program is flexible but rigorous and
produces a quality product-our graduates. As a
further indication of the lack of grade inflation
here, the average chemical engineering student
has a grade point average in chemical engineering
courses which is 0.3 lower than his overall aver-


The graduate program in chemical engineer-
ing offers students the opportunity to earn one or
more of four different degrees: Master of Science,
Master of Engineering, Doctor of Philosophy, and
Doctor of Engineering. At this time, the enroll-
ment in the graduate program is 78 students, of
which 59 are U.S. citizens.
The M.S. degree requirements consist of 24
semester hours of course work, submission of a
research thesis, and a final oral examination. The
time required to complete the requirements for this
degree is, typically, 16 to 20 months. The M.E. in
Chemical Engineering degree requirements consist
of 36 semester hours of course work, submission
of a written report on an engineering project, and
a final oral examination. Completion of the M.E.
requirements takes approximately 12 months.
The Ph.D. requirements are as follows: 30
semester hours of course work beyond the M.S.
requirements, a three hour technical writing
course, a preliminary examination with written
and oral sections, submission of a dissertation pro-
posal describing an original research project, com-
pletion of a dissertation, and a final oral examina-
tion. Students typically complete these require-
ments in three to four years. A non-research
doctorate, the D.E. in Chemical Engineering, can


(Left to right) C. D. Holland-Separation processes and
distillation; R. G. Anthony-Reaction kinetics, polymer
kinetics, coal liquefaction; J. A. Bullin-Lignite processing,
process analysis, atmospheric simulation; R. Darby-Fluid
mechanics, rheology, fuel cell technology; R. R. Davison-
Solar energy applications, fuel utilization, thermodynamics;
L. D. Durbin-Process dynamics and control; P. T. Eu-
bank-Thermodynamics of fluids, phase transitions, proper-
ties of coal; C. J. Glover-Polymer properties, tertiary
oil recovery; K. R. Hall-Thermodynamics, data reduction
techniques, properties of coal fluids; D. T. Hanson-Water
pollution abatement, biochemical engineering; W. B.
Harris-Flow through porous media, solar energy, me-
thanol automobile; J. C. Holste-Precise property measure-
ments, microprocessor applications, polymer thermody-
namics; A. D. Messina-Heat transfer; R. D. Ostermann-
Biomass applications; A. T. Watson-Tertiary oil recovery,
computer simulation; R. E. White-Electrochemical

The undergraduate enrollment in chemical engineering
for the fall semester 1978 was 847. The average S.A.T. score for
entering freshmen at Texas A&M is about 200 points above the national average.
Chemical Engineering receives a "top cut" from these people. ...


I" -

Methanol Fueled Truck

be earned by completing the following require-
ments: 96 semester hours of course work beyond
the B.S. degree (emphasizing engineering design
and business management courses), an internship
in industry (9-12 months), a written report de-
scribing the internship experience, and a final oral
The department also offers a special program
for students who hold B.S. degrees in disciplines
other than chemical engineering (primarily
chemists). These people must complete about 27
semester hours of undergraduate coursework
(usually in two semesters plus one summer term)
consisting of essentially all undergraduate chemi-
cal engineering courses plus two courses from
other engineering fields. Students completing
these courses with a "B" average or better enter
the M.S. program. Although this is difficult and
time-consuming (especially compared with pro-
grams at many other schools), we feel it is es-
sential to ensure a bona fide M.S. for the student
and a quality product for Texas A&M. Students
completing this program are accepted as M.S.
chemical engineers by industry.
Course work in the graduate program provides
the student with a well-rounded background in
chemical engineering beyond research expertise.
Of the courses listed in Table 1, those denoted
by are core courses which we feel are necessary
background material. They are offered yearly
while the other courses are offered upon demand
(usually every other year). The core courses are
part of the requirements for each degree: the
M.S. requires four core courses, the M.E. five, and
the Ph.D. all eight. Each graduate course is three
credit hours unless noted otherwise.

The department provides 12 month appoint-
ments with stipends for all qualified students in
the M.S. and Ph.D. programs. These appointments
are either fellowships, research assistantships, or
in special cases, teaching assistantships. The
current stipend is $600/month; however, students
selected to teach regular courses (dependent upon
departmental needs and student qualifications) are
paid at a higher rate. Graduate students receiving
stipends are considered Texas residents and pay
tuition and fees amounting to about $200/se-
mester. Financial aid is not available for M.E. or
D.E. students.
Students on fellowships carry 12 hours of
course work and 4 hours of research per semester.
Those on assistantships carry 9 hours of course
work and 4 hours of research. Graduate assistants
are expected to assist the department with labora-
tory instruction or grading. Since 1940 when the
Chemical Engineering Department began grant-
ing graduate degrees, the totals for each cate-
gory are: M.S.-147, Ph.D.-57, M.E.-94, D.E.
National awareness of the quality of our pro-
gram has risen steadily over the past ten years.
This is reflected by our appearance in several
"graduate program quality" surveys . in the
one claiming to be "objective" we achieved the
83rd percentile. These rankings reflect our publi-
cation efforts (we are #21 in total publications
in the most recent ACS Directory of Graduate Re-
search) including five textbooks authored by mem-
bers of our faculty. We are able to maintain this
level of activity because our faculty attracts many
Graduate Courses
*Unit operations
*Heat transmission
Unsteady state processes
Corrosion and materials of construction
*Applications of thermodynamics
*Chemical engineering kinetics
*Transport phenomena
*Process dynamics
Theory of mixtures
Introduction to bioengineering
Electrochemical processes
Biochemical engineering
Enzyme engineering
Seminar (1 hr.)
Problems (variable credit)
Special topics (variable credit)
Research (variable credit)


research grants-this year totalling something
near $750,000.

OUR LARGE, GROWING AND diversified faculty
generates a research program with the same
qualities. The program is augmented by outstand-
ing facilities in the Zachry Engineering Center.
The remarkable quality of the research labora-
tories is due in part to the fact that they were de-
signed by the members of the faculty who origi-
nally utilized them.
The principle areas of research here are
thermodynamics, kinetics, catalysis, coal conver-
sion, rheology, electrochemical applications, pro-
cess control, pollution abatement, solar energy,
alternate fuel sources, heat transfer, separation
operations, biomass conversion, tertiary oil re-
covery, transport phenomena, and polymer studies.
The specialized equipment mentioned above forms
the hardware base for these projects. Specific
topics range from engineering practice and de-
velopment to fundamental theory and modelling.
In general, members of our faculty work together
on various projects. This cooperation increases
progress and reflects the congenial atmosphere in
the department.
Research efforts also take the form of special-
ized centers at Texas A&M. Two which receive
direct involvement by the Chemical Engineering
Department are: The Polymer Research Center
and the Thermodynamics Research Center. The
polymer group is a relatively recent grouping of
various faculty members from chemistry, physics
and chemical engineering. The thermodynamics
group is a well established and respected data
correlation and evaluation center best known,
perhaps, for its API-44 activities.

finally plateaued and we have stabilized the
faculty size at about 20 members. Our goal is to
maintain a permanent faculty of about 20 with
one or two visitors each year. We are still seeking
an increase in graduate enrollment. We hope to
have about 5 graduate students per faculty mem-
ber-we stress personal contact here and prefer
to keep the ratio small enough to assure faculty
interest and availability. We also expect a small
increase in numbers of postdoctoral associates-
currently there are six.

Two very important events will have a direct
bearing on the future of the Chemical Engineer-
ing Department at Texas A&M. The first will be
the newly announced J. D. Lindsay Lecture Series.
This activity will bring prominent men from our
profession to Texas A&M for personal contact
with faculty and students and for presenting
lectures to the academic community. The series
will honor our first department head as both a
chemical engineer and as a genuinely appreciated
person. The second major event will be construc-
tion of the Engineering Research Center. This
project will commence in 1981 and will add re-
search space equal in area to the Zachry Engineer-
ing Center.
Overall, faculty, students, research associates,
and staff are proud of both the Chemical Engi-
neering Department and Texas A&M University.
The department and the university are committed
to increased quality and productivity. This commit-
ment coupled with a traditional can-do attitude
promises a truly bright future. E

Continued from page 103.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
I hope that you will bring the availability of this
publication to the attention of the readers of Chemical
Engineering Education.
Dr. D. R. Woods, Chairman
Chem. Eng. Ed. Projects Committee


Dr. Robert L. Pigford, University Professor
of Chemical Engineering at the University of
Delaware, received the first Francis Alison
Faculty Award as the most outstanding member
of the faculty, at the university's 130th com-
mencement exercises held June 2.
Named in honor of the colonial scholar who
established the Academy of Newark to which the
university traces its origin, the new $5,000 prize
was established last year by the university's Board
of Trustees in recognition of the scholarship, pro-
fessional achievements and dedication of the
faculty of the university.
A native of Meridian, MS, he received his
bachelors from Mississippi State College and his
masters and doctoral degrees from the University
of Illinois.





North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27650

N 1976 THE UNDERGRADUATE chemical engineer-
ing curriculum at N. C. State was revised. The
changes involved mostly non-chemical-engineer-
ing course offerings, but a consequence of the re-
vision was that a block of four chemical engineer-
ing credits became available in the second term
of the sophomore year.
In designing a course to fill this block, our
primary goal was to provide an experimental back-
ground to complement and reinforce the calcula-
tion-oriented material presented in the stoichio-
metry course. At the same time, each of us had his
pet nomination for the "What this curriculum
needs more of is . ." sweepstakes; popular
entries included statistics, process instrumenta-
tion, physical property estimation, computer ap-
plications, technical report writing, and the
chapter on transient balances that the stoichio-
metry course never gets to. We therefore set out
to fill as many of these voids as we could with
the new course, without allowing the course to
degenerate into a grab bag of apparently unrelated
The result of this effort is CHE 225-Chemical
Process Systems. The course consists of three
lecture hours and one two-hour laboratory session
per week. It follows the stoichiometry course in
the curriculum and precedes the unit operations
and thermodynamics sequences. The lecture topics
covered in the course are listed in Table 1, and
the experiments performed are given in Table 2.

... our primary goal was to
provide an experimental background to
complement and reinforce the calculation-oriented
material presented in the stoichiometry course.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

Lecture Topics
MEASUREMENT METHODS. Temperature, pressure,
and flow-rate sensors. Review of DC instrumentation-
galvanometers, ammeters, voltmeters, null-point po-
tentiometers, Wheatstone bridge. DP cells and control
valves. (1 week)
tributions. True and sample means and standard de-
viations. The z and t distributions. Precision of
measured and calculated quantities. Propagation of
error. Calculation of confidence limits. Linear regres-
sion. (6 weeks)
ESTIMATION METHODS. Descriptive material
centered on the subject matter of Experiments 6-9
(Table 2). (2 weeks)
STEADY-STATE SYSTEMS. Setting up and solving
differential balances on simple lumped-parameter
systems, including batch and continuous-stirred-tank
reactors. (3 weeks)
MODELING. First-order processes and instruments;
determination of static sensitivity and time constant.
Qualitative behavior of second-order devices. Qualitive
introduction to control. (2 weeks)

The paragraphs that follow summarize the princi-
pal features of the course.

A S TABLE 1 INDICATES, the lecture material is
divided into several blocks. The subject areas
are process variable measurement methods, sta-
tistical data analysis, physical property measure-
ment and estimation, transient material and
energy balances, and introductory system dy-
namics. The relationships among these topics that
give the course coherence are conveyed primarily
through the homework, including the laboratory
data analysis.
Several sets of homework problems assigned
during the term illustrate the lecture material and
the calculations associated with the experiments.


Richard M. Felder is a Professor of CHE at N. C. State, where
he has been since 1969. He received his BChE at City College of
C.U.N.Y., and his Ph.D. from Princeton. He has worked, at the
A.E.R.E., Harwell, Exxon Corporation, and Brookhaven National Labo-
ratory, and has presented courses on chemical engineering principles,
reactor design, process optimization, and radioisotope applications
to various American and foreign industries and institutions. He is
coauthor of the text, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes
(Wiley, 1978). (L)
David B. Marsland is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
at N.C.S.U. Educated in the public schools of New Jersey, Pennsyl-
vania, Florida, and Virginia, he attended Cornell University from 1943
to 1958, with interruptions for service in the U. S. Navy. After finish-
ing his doctoral research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, he
spent three years at duPont's Engineering Research Laboratory. Since
turning to teaching in 1961, he has spent sabbatical years with Exxon
(as a Ford Foundation Resident) and with the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency; recent summers have been spent at Corning, Monsanto,
and the Research Triangle Institute. Dr. Marsland is a registered Pro-
fessional Engineer in North Carolina, and his interests are in process
instrumentation, plant design, air pollution control, and transport
phenomena. (R)

In addition, four computer problems are assigned
that incorporate several of the techniques intro-
duced in this course and in the stoichiometry
course. Problems given recently include trial-and-
error determination of a multicomponent vapor
dew point, calculation of an adiabatic flame
temperature using Newton's rule, forward integra-
tion of a transient material balance using Simp-
son's rule, and solution of material balance equa-
tions for a multistage separation process.


T HE LABORATORY IS organized into four blocks
of experiments (Table 2). The students work
in groups of three or four, with each group per-
forming one experiment per week. The groups ro-
tate through all the experiments in a block before
moving on to the next block, so that in a given
laboratory session as many as four different ex-
periments may be going on concurrently.


The experiments are all relatively simple; our
emphasis is on the analysis and interpretation of
data, and on technical report writing. The handout
for an experiment consists of a set of instructions
on what is to be done and what is to be calculated,
several discussion questions concerning the subject
of the experiment, and in some cases a supple-
mentary set of notes giving background informa-
tion not provided in the lectures. Group reports,
containing Procedure, Results, and Conclusions
sections with appendices for detailed calculations
and raw data, are due at the following laboratory
period. Quality of writing and organization are
given as much weight as technical content in
grading the reports.
The course generally provides the students
with their initial exposure to technical writing,
as their first reports make transparently clear. By
the end of the semester, however, most squads
catch on to the way the game is played: their re-
ports have clearly defined beginnings, middles, and
ends; figures are labeled; results are displayed
prominently in the Results section, rather than
being buried somewhere in the Procedure or Con-
clusions: detailed calculations are placed in ap-
pendices; and most prose is a reasonable approxi-
mation of standard English.
A good illustration of the approach taken in
the laboratory is provided by Experiment 6 (Table
2). The students carrying out this experiment are
presented with a Cottrell pump apparatus, includ-
ing a vacuum pump, water condenser, and mercury
manometer, and are instructed in its use by a
teaching assistant. They first measure the boiling
point of carbon tetrachloride at several pressures,
including atmospheric pressure; they then replace

The experiments are all relatively simple;
our emphasis is on the analysis and
interpretation of data, and on
technical report writing.

the 0-110C thermometer used in this part of the
experiment with a Beckmann thermometer, re-
measure the boiling point of pure carbon tetra-
chloride at atmospheric pressure, and finally mea-
sure the boiling points of three aliquots of a solu-
tion of an unknown solute in carbon tetrachloride.
(They are given the mass ratio of solute to
The required analysis, which they have a week
to complete, involves the following calculations:


The primary objective of this course is to
introduce the experimental side of chemical process technology.
The lectures and laboratories provide an understanding of how the variables and physical
properties that underlie all process calculations are measured.

1. Verify the validity of the Clausius-Clapeyron equa-
tion by plotting the vapor pressure data in a suit-
able manner.
2. Fit a line to a subset of the data close to atmos-
phere pressure by linear regression.
3. Estimate the heat of vaporization of carbon tetra-
chloride at 1 atm from the regression coefficient, and
calculate a 95% confidence interval for the estimate.
4. Compare the estimated value with tabulated values
from Felder and Rousseau [1] (the stoichiometry
text) and Perry's Handbook [2], and with values
estimated from Trouton's rule and Chen's equa-
tion [1].
5. Use the boiling point elevation data to estimate the
molecular weight of the unknown solute, and calcu-
late a 95% confidence interval for the estimate.
The function of the Cottrell pump and the as-
sumptions underlying the Clausius-Clapeyron
equation and the colligative solution property
formulas should all have been discussed in the
lectures prior to the experiment, and in addition
the pertinent material is summarized in handouts
made available in the laboratory. The required
statistical methodology is covered in lectures well
before the experiment is performed.
The experiments in Block III of Table 2 may
overlap in part with those performed in the
physical chemistry laboratory at some schools.
This is not a problem at N.C. State, since we have
replaced the traditional physical chemistry course
(on the grounds of excessive overlap with our
stoichiometry and thermodynamics courses) with
a special topics course in physical chemistry. De-
partments having a separate physical chemistry
laboratory course might wish to modify the ex-
periment selection to eliminate duplication.

Perhaps not surprisingly, no single reference
has been found suitable for the course as it is
currently constituted. We have used Holman [3]
and Graham [4], supplemented by readings in the
Chemical Engineers' Handbook [2], for material
on instrumentation and statistics, and we use
Felder and Rousseau [1] for transient material
and energy balances and some of the assigned
computer problems. Most lecture material on sta-
tistics, physical property measurement, and system
dynamics is summarized in class handouts, supple-

mented by suggested readings in Salzberg et al.
[5] and Reid et al. [6] for physical property deter-
mination and Spiegel [7] for statistics.

The primary objective of the course is to intro-
duce the experimental side of chemical process
technology. The lectures and laboratories provide
an understanding of how the variables and physi-
cal properties that underlie all process calculations
are measured, and how the measured values are
analyzed statistically and converted into forms
useful for process calculations. The students learn
extensions of the steady-state analysis presented in
the stoichiometry course, and they are introduced
to elementary notions of process and instrument
dynamics. They are also exposed to a variety of
computer applications, including off-line process
data analysis, process simulation, and on-line data
logging and control. Finally, they are sent into the
unit operations laboratory sequence with a good
introductory background in process instrumenta-
tion, data analysis, and technical report writing.

The students respond positively to the labora-
tory portion of the course; the only common re-
quests are for more independence and more back-
ground on the hybrid simulation and digital
control computer experiments. They, and we, are
reasonably satisfied with the mix of topics covered
in lectures, although several would prefer less
statistics and more systems analysis. Several have
commented that the lecture material on balances
and the computer problems enabled them to pull
together much of the material in the stoichiometry
course that they had not fully understood the first
time around. It will be interesting to ask the same
students, a year or two later, how the course
affected their perceptions of the rest of the chemi-
cal engineering curriculum. O

1. R. M. Felder and R. W. Rousseau, Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes, New York, John
Willey & Sons (1978).



constantan thermocouples using both carbon-arc
and mercury-arc weld methods. Calibrate both at
the steam point. Compare the mean emf with a
tabulated value. Use the statistician's t-test to see
whether the responses of the two thermocouples
are significantly different.
2. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT. Calibrate a bour-
don gauge against manometers and a deadweight
tester. Estimate the uncertainty associated with
the determination of an absolute pressure using
the bourdon gauge and a laboratory barometer.
Investigate hysteresis effects in the bourdon
3. FLOW-RATE MEASUREMENT. Calibrate a water
rotameter and an orifice meter. Fit a line to the
rotameter calibration curve by linear regression.
Estimate the discharge coefficient of the orifice
4. DC MEASUREMENTS. Use a Wheatstone bridge
to determine the internal resistance of a micro-
ammeter. Compare the precision of this measure-
ment with that of an indirect measurement using
a battery and a board-mounted resistor. Measure
the resistance of a platinum resistance ther-
mometer at two temperatures, and calculate the
temperature coefficient of resistance.

5. Use a digital process-control computer to monitor,
average, and print out (a) thermocouple readings,
(b) the transient response of a DP cell level indi-
cator in a tank being drained, and (c) the "noisy"
flow of liquid in a pipeline governed by a pneu-
matic control valve at several valve pressure

ELEVATION. Use a Cottrell pump apparatus to
determine the boiling point of carbon tetrachloride
at six or seven pressures. Use a Beckman ther-
mometer to determine the boiling point elevation
caused by the presence of a weighed amount of
an unknown solute. Use a semilog plot and the
Clausius-Clapeyron equation to calculate the heat
of vaporization of carbon tetrachloride, and com-
pare the results with tabulated and estimated
values; then calculate the unknown solute mo-

2. R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, Eds., Chemical Engi-
neers' Handbook, 5th Edition, New York, McGraw-
Hill (1973).
3. J. P. Holman, Experimental Methods for Engineers,
2nd Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill (1971).
4. A. R. Graham, An Introduction to Engineering
Measurements, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall

lecular weight and determine a 95% confidence
interval for the estimate.
7. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. Calibrate a gas
chromatograph to analyze liquid mixtures of
methanol and isopropanol. Study the effects of
carrier gas flow rate and sample volume on re-
tention time and resolution.
8. DENSITOMETRY. Using a Westphal balance,
measure the densities of distilled water at two
temperatures, of pure isopropanol, and of three
water-isopropanol mixtures. Compare the pure
component densities with tabulated values, esti-
mate the coefficient of thermal expansion of water
and calculate a confidence interval for the esti-
mate, and statistically test the hypothesis that the
density of a 50% water-isopropanol mixture is sig-
nificantly different from the value calculated as-
suming volume additivity.
specific and equivalent conductances of aqueous
solutions of potassium chloride and acetic acid.
Use the latter results to estimate the dissocia-
tion equilibrium constant of acetic acid.

10. STIRRED-TANK DYNAMICS. Feed cold water
into a well-stirred heated tank initially contain-
ing hot water, and withdraw water at the same
rate, monitoring the effluent temperature. Calcu-
late the heating rate from the final temperature,
and analyze the transient response to show that
the system functions as a first-order process. De-
termine the time constant, and from it the
throughput rate.
PROCESS. Study the performance of a first-order
process simulated on a hybrid computer. Verify
the exponential character of the response to step
forcing, and examine the dependence of the re-
sponse on the magnitude of the time constant.
Observe how the response changes if proportional
and integral control elements are added.
12. REACTION KINETICS. Carry out the saponifica-
tion of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide in a
batch reactor at 300C, beginning with the re-
actants in stoichiometric proportion and following
the progress of the reaction with a pH meter.
Confirm an assumed second-order rate law by the
method of integration, using linear regression to
estimate the rate constant, and determine a con-
fidence interval for the estimate.

5. H. W. Salzberg, J. I. Morrow and S. R. Cohen, Labo-
ratory Course in Physical Chemistry, New York,
Academic Press (1966).
6. R. C. Reid, J. M. Prausnitz and T. K. Sherwood, The
Properties of Gases and Liquids, 3rd Edition, New
York, McGraw-Hill (1977).
7. M. R. Spiegel, Statistics, Schaum's Outline Series,
New York, McGraw-Hill (1961).





Howard University
Washington, D.C. 20059

A REQUIRED PROCESS control course has been
taught for the past three years by a self-
paced instructional method [1]. The course content
consists of the traditional process control concepts
along with process dynamics, analog and digital
simulation, and a laboratory. In the past, many
students seemed to have difficulty achieving a
satisfactory grade in the course. Part of the reason
for the difficulty may have been the cumulative
nature of the course and the fact that it is a last
semester course when course work must compete
for a student's interest with the selection of a job
or graduate school.
Because of the cumulative nature of the course
content, it is imperative that the students master
virtually all of the material as they proceed. The

Franklin G. King received his B.S. degree from Penn State, his
masters in education from Howard University, his masters in chemical
engineering from Kansas State and his D.Sc. from Stevens Institute
of Technology. He has been teaching for the last 12 years at Howard
University and at Lafayette College. He has had industrial and con-
sulting experience with Uniroyal, American Cyanamid, Union Carbide,
General Foods, General Electric, Western Electric, Brookhaven Na-
tional Laboratory, and the National Institute of Health.
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

Because of the cumulative
nature of the course content, it is
imperative that the students master virtually all
of the material as they proceed. The mastery
learning requirement is the very core of
the Keller plan ...

mastery learning requirement is the very core of
the Keller plan or self-paced instruction. Students
are not allowed to proceed until they demonstrate
a mastery of the required course material. The
self-paced nature is also timely for seniors who are
often taking plant trips. In addition, the method
emphasizes learning separate from a lecture.
There were no lectures for this course, but audio
tapes were available for students that preferred
that mode of getting information.
Since most chemical engineers do not become
control or instrumentation engineers, it seemed
reasonable to allow students to select material
they wish to master. The course began with re-
quiring that all students acquire a mastery of La-
place transforms and process dynamics. The
student was then presented with a choice of se-
lecting the topics for the remainder of the course
from units in process control, analog simulation,
digital simulation or a laboratory project.


THE KEY FEATURES OF the Keller plan are listed
in Table I. All of these features were used.
Several of the difficulties in using the Keller plan
are student procrastination, a fixed curriculum,
the lack of available self-study materials for
chemical engineering courses and the time re-
quired for preparing multiple exams. Table II lists
the features used in the control course at Howard
An extensive amount of time was spent in
organizing the course into a hierarchy of modules
and in developing self-study materials.


Features of the Keller Plan
Modular Course Structure
Mastery Learning
Lectures for Motivation
Stress on Written Materials
Use of Peer Proctors
The material for each study unit consisted of
a study guide, an audio tape of lecture material
and supplementary material which varied among
the units. The study guide consisted of a title, a
set of objectives, the required work and a list of
skills to be mastered to complete the unit. The list
of skills was also important because it told the
student exactly what he was expected to learn. All
questions and problems on the criterion tests were
based on the required list of skills.
A key to instructor survival in any self-paced
course lies in estimating a student's readiness to
take a quiz. Since students could repeat quizzes
without penalty, it was imperative that a method
be devised to assure that students were prepared
before they took the quiz. The method used was
also designed to motivate the students to be well
prepared. As part of the required work on each
unit, each student was required to formulate and
solve a criterion test based on the skills to be
mastered in the unit. If the instructor determined
that the student's test showed both readiness and
mastery learning, the student was awarded an
exemption from a further test.
Students were allowed to take unit exams
whenever they had completed all the required
work satisfactorily. Students were asked to submit
their required materials on the day before they ex-
pected to take an exam so that the instructor or
proctor could check their work. If a student did
not receive a passing grade, generally an A, he was
allowed to repeat the exam as many times as
needed without penalty. Students were restricted
to taking one exam on any unit per day.
The final grades for the course were based on
the number of points each student accumulated by
the end of the semester. A student had to accumu-
late 90 points to receive an A, 80 points for a B,

etc. Most of the study units were worth four
points and the passing grade was an A. Students
were awarded full credit on units completed with
an A grade. On certain units, and laboratory re-
ports, the passing grade was B or C because pro-
gress through the course was not hampered by the
lower level of mastery. However, if a student
achieved a B, he was awarded only three points.
Two points were given if his passing grade was a
C. Students were encouraged to work on a number
of units simultaneously. They were told that they
should be working on a text unit, a computer unit,
a laboratory unit, and their project simultane-
One of the problems with self-paced instruc-
tion is procrastination. For the past two years in-
centive plans were used to motivate the students
and to reduce procrastination. In 1977, the plan
was in effect for a three week period. During the
time that the plan was in effect, a student was
penalized two points during each week they failed
to complete a unit. They were also awarded two
points or five points if they were able to complete

Process Control Course Features
All Features of Keller Plan
Course Graded By Accumulated Points
Flexible Curriculum
Detailed Module Information
Alternate Sources of Information
Audio Tapes
Motivational Tools

two or three units, respectively. The incentive
plan was modified in 1978 and was in effect for
the entire semester. The modified plan eliminated
the five point bonus and specified that a maximum
of ten bonus points could be earned.

T HE COURSE WAS divided into 36 units or study
modules and was based primarily on the text
"Process Systems Analysis and Control" [2]. The

As part of the required work on each unit, each student was
required to formulate and solve a criterion test based on the skills to be mastered
in the unit. If the instructor determined that the student's test showed both readiness and mastery
learning, the student was awarded an exemption from a further test.


flow of material parallels the text. In fact, many
of the units consisted of a chapter from the text.
Table III lists the study units that were used in
1978. A hierarchy of units is shown in Figure 1.
The units on Laplace transforms were supple-
mented by material from Strum and Ward [3].
The units on experimental determination of
dynamics and control loops heuristics were supple-
mented by material from Luyben (4] and Perl-
mutter [5]. Table IV gives sample study guides
for two of the units.
Since the method of instruction was new to
most of the students, the first unit consisted of

having them learn about the self-paced method
and how the course would be taught. The intro-
ductory unit was included as a motivational tool
and because of the topic's importance to the
course. The unit was designed to have the students
complete a unit quickly and begin earning points
on the very first class day.
During the course of the semester, several
movies on process control were shown along with
industrial presentations, and lectures on selected
topics. A movie summary unit was included. To
receive credit for the unit, a student had to submit
a written summary of the activity, in memo-

Process Control-Study Units, Spring 1978

Prereq. Min. Max.
No. Title Text: Ref. Unit Pass. Grd Pts.

Personalized System of Instruction
Laplace Transform
L.T.-Further Operations
L.T.-Disturbances and Building Functions
Intro. and First Order Sys.
Physical Examples
Sensor Dynamics Lab.
Mixing Tank Dynamics Lab.
Systems in Series
Higher Order Systems
Elements of Control Sys.
Ideal Controllers and
Block Diagrams
Transient Response of C.S.
Stab. and the Routh Test
Concept of Root Locus
Transient Response from RL
CS Design from RL
Computer Program-LOCUS
Frequency Response
CS Design by FR
Computer Program-BODE
Closed loop resp. using FR
Nyquist Stab. Criterion
Exp. Det'n. of Dynamics
Controller Tuning; Control
Intro. to Analogs
Analog Computer Scaling
Use of Analog Computer
Simulation of Dynamic Sys.
LEANS Simulation
Control System design study using
LEANS or Analog
Movies summaries
Spec. of Control Valves
Cascade Control
Laboratory Project
Oral Pres. of Unit 30 or 34
Course Improvement Paper

Notes; Ch 2
Ch 3, 4
Ch 1, 5
Ch 6
Ch 7
Ch 8
Ch 9, 10
Ch 10, Notes
Ch 11, 12
Ch 13
Ch 14
Ch 15
Ch 16
Ch 17
Ch 18, Notes
Ch 19
Ch 20
Ch 21

Handouts, Ch 30
Ch 32, Notes



18, 18A


11, 10
11, 25
10 and


4, 4




... the first unit consisted of having them learn about the self-paced
method and how the course would be taught.... The unit was designed to
have the students complete a unit quickly and begin earning
points on the very first class day.

randum form, within 24 hours after the movie
was scheduled. Students received up to two points
for each summary they chose to submit.


B Y FAR THE MOST significant result was that the
students were learning more process control
than they had in previous years using the lecture
method. Using final grades for the course as a
measure of achievement, the summary below indi-
cates the dramatic increase in learning as a result
of using the flexible, self-paced method:
A or B D orF

28 31

It is interesting to note that the one student who
failed to succeed with the method was an honor
student. The student failed the course because of
personal reasons and did not attempt to partici-
pate in the course.
Having students prepare and solve a criterion
test proved to be an effective motivational tool to
get students to be prepared for the unit exams. It
also was the means of controlling the number of
exams that had to be given. In 1977 there were 15
students in the class and 288 exams were given!
Over the past three years, 1.2 exams were given
per unit per student. In other words, approxi-
mately 80% of the time the student achieved an

Hierarchy of Units For Process Control

Cumulative Class Progress

A on the quiz and did not have to repeat the quiz.
Most students passed the quiz on the second try,
but there were several cases when a quiz had to be
repeated more than once.
During the past two years, 9% of the students
received exemptions from the quizzes. Many
students felt that an exemption was too difficult
to attain and appeared to stop trying. In the
course evaluation at the end of the semester, many
students felt that the requirement of having the
student prepare and solve an exam should be
dropped because it was too much work. Because
of the dual purpose of the procedure, however, I
plan on continuing the requirement.
Figure 2 is a curve which shows cumulative
class progress in the self-paced course over the
past three years. A curve for linear progress
toward a final grade of A is also included. The
carrot-and-stick incentive system was not used in
1976. The system was started in 1977 because the
students' progress was lagging behind that of the
previous year, mainly because of pressures by
other instructors. The incentive program had a
dramatic effect in productivity during the three
weeks it was in effect. During this period there
was nearly 200% increase in the number of units



1973-75 using the lecture
1976-78 using flexible,
self-paced method


completed per student per week. A word of
caution must be noted when using this type of pro-
gram. The students aim to earn bonus points. In
1977, several students earned as many as nine
bonus points and half of the class earned the full
ten points in 1978. The large number of bonus
points awarded "appears" to have the effect of in-

Study Units In Process Control
Study Unit 0, Spring 1977 (King)
TITLE: Introduction to PSI (personalized system of in-
struction) and Process Control
1. Listen to the tape on PSI.
2. Participate in a class discussion of the method as
applied to the PC course.
3. Study the general information for the PC course.
4. Prepare a written summary of the criterion test
items below.
5. Prepare a criterion test (with answers on a sepa-
rate page) of at least 3 questions.

1. Name author and title of course text.
2. Name the inventor of the PSI method.
3. Tell what PSI stands for.
4. List 5 characteristics of the PSI method.
5. Define: mastery learning, peer proctor, learning
6. How is the course graded?
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the student to the personalized
system of instruction and to learn how it will be used in
the process control course.

Study Unit 14
TITLE: Root Locus Methods
OBJECTIVES: To determine the actual roots of the
characteristic equation of a control system by a graphical,
root locus, procedure.
1. Read and outline chapter 15.
2. Prepare a criterion test with solution.
3. Complete the homework assignment: 15.1, 15.2a,

1. State and apply magnitude and angular criteria.
2. Identify: branch, loci, zero, pole.
3. List the rules of thumb concerning RL diagrams.
4. List the rules for rapid plotting of root locus
5. Plot the root locus diagram using the rapid
plotting rules.
6. Test a point using the magnitude and angular
criteria to determine if the point is on the root
locus diagram.

Teaching a course by the
self-paced method requires considerably
more instructor time than a lecture course.

creasing the students' point total by a full letter
grade. The actual effect was negligible, however,
since the earliest course curriculum contained four
units that were worth six points and were reduced
to four points during the years the incentive
systems were used.
Teaching a course by the self-paced method
requires considerably more instructor time than a
lecture course. When a self-paced course is being
developed, a great deal of time is required to de-
sign modules, construct exams and prepare tapes
and supplementary materials. It has been my ex-
perience that the self-paced process control course
requires three times as much time than when it
was taught by the lecture method. A significant re-
duction in instructor's time can be achieved by
having a proctor check materials, give exams and
grade exams. Since chemical engineering at
Howard University is undergraduate only at the
present time, I have been having selected juniors
take the course and then serve as proctors the
following year. Unfortunately, these peer proctors
have reduced the instructor's time only slightly be-
cause they generally are reluctant to evaluate their
classmate's work.
An important part of the success of a self-
paced course is the active participation of the in-
structor. The instructor must learn to thrive in his
role as an educational manager rather than the
usual role as a lecturer. In my experience I have
found that the students responded well when they
saw the instructor take an active role with
students in various stages of the course. A self-
paced course is doomed to failure if the instructor
sits back and waits for students to completely act
on their own. 0

1. Keller, F. S., "Good-Bye Teacher," J. Appl. Behavior
Anal., 1, 79 (1968).
2. Coughanowr, D. R. and L. B. Koppel, Process Systems
Analysis and Control, McGraw-Hill (1965).
3. Strum, R. D. and J. R. Ward, Laplace Transform
Solution of Differential Equations-A Programmed
Text, Prentice-Hall (1968).
4. Luyben, W. L., Process Modeling, Simulation, and
Control for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill (1973).
5. Perlmutter, D. D., Introduction to Chemical Process
Control, Wiley (1965).


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Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332

Georgia Tech is one of the largest in the
country and, over the past five years, has granted
around 70-80 undergraduate degrees annually.
Hence, there is the opportunity, as well as the
demand, for a variety of undergraduate elective
courses. Many of these elective courses are offered
as an integral part of the design program, which
has been described elsewhere [1]. By way of
example, presentations have been made of the
elective courses on pulp and paper technology [2]
and on project engineering [3]. A paper was also
presented several years ago, which described early
experiences with an elective course on computer-
aided process design [4]. The purpose of this article
is to summarize additional experience since then,
during which time there have been some interest-
ing developments in this particular area of chemi-
cal engineering education.


THIS COURSE ON computer-aided process design
was first conceived in 1972 and offered in the
spring quarter of 1973. Its purpose then and now
is to familiarize the student with the synthesis
and operation of large-scale computer systems for
steady-state simulation of chemical processes as a
design tool. This course is not a requirement in
the undergraduate chemical engineering curricu-
lum. Rather, it is an elective course intended for
undergraduate students (senior level) who are in-
terested in and likely to participate in process de-
sign, process engineering or process development
work after graduation. By way of background,
similar efforts in this area at other schools have
been described, for example, by Gaddy [5] and by
Westerberg [6].
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

Jude T. Sommerfeld has been a professor of ChE at Georgia
Tech since 1970. He teaches courses on process control, distillation,
reactor design and process design, and his research interests include
energy conservation. He has also served as a consultant to numerous
industrial organizations. Prior to 1970 he had eight years of engi-
neering and management experience with the Monsanto Company and
BASF-Wyandotte Corp. Dr. Sommerfeld received his B.Ch.E. degree
from the University of Detroit, and his M.S.E. and Ph.D. degrees in
chemical engineering from the University of Michigan.

The undergraduate program in chemical engi-
neering at Georgia Tech has traditionally been
very practice-oriented. More than 70% of the
graduates from this program accept their first
employment in industry. Less than 10% carry on
to graduate studies in chemical engineering.
Hence, this course on computer-aided process de-
sign, like most of the undergraduate chemical
engineering curriculum, is of a very practical
nature. Thus, the emphasis in this course is on the
structure and usage of computer-aided design
systems, with little or no sophisticated theory or
mathematical developments.

M OST OF THE STUDENTS who elect this course do
so in the final quarter of their senior year.
Thus, they are often taking this course together
with the required senior-level course on plant
design, which has been found to be of some value.
The amount and nature of the student enrollment
in the computer-aided process design course over
the past six years are summarized in Table I.
This elective course carries three quarter hours


of credit, and the weekly schedule consists of two
hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory.
The actual amount of course time devoted to the
modelling of specific items of process equipment
varies somewhat, depending upon the processes
selected for study. The laboratory time is devoted
to the development, debugging and discussion of
computer programs.
There are two one-hour quizzes which are
normally administered in this course. A tradition
at Georgia Tech is that graduating seniors are
exempt from all final examinations in their last
quarter. Since the great majority of students who
elect this computer-aided design course are gradu-
ating seniors, there is no final examination given
in this course.


T HE TEXT USED IN THIS course in its first two
offerings was the book by Crowe and co-
authors [7] on chemical plant simulation. Chapters
1-3 and 5 of this text were normally covered, ir-
respective of the particular processes studied. The
selection of the remaining reading material from
this text was somewhat dependent upon the pro-
cesses selected for study. The students were
generally satisfied with the selection of this text-
book. The only regularly voiced criticism was that
this text is too heavily oriented toward the de-
scription and application of a system (PACER)
which was not easily available and hence not used
in this course. A suggested improvement was more
general discussion of computer-aided design
systems (including physical property systems)
and less examples of usage of the PACER system.
The year 1974 saw a major development in
chemical engineering education. Successful nego-
tiations between the CACHE (Computer Aids to
Chemical Engineering) Corporation and the Mon-
santo Company resulted in the installation and
maintenance of FLOWTRAN on a commercial
network for use by chemical engineering edu-
cators. FLOWTRAN is a large, general-purpose
simulator of chemical processes with extensive
facilities for physical and thermodynamic

Student Enrollment: Computer-Aided Process
Design Course

Year Student Enrollment
(Sp. Quarter) Undergraduate Graduate Total

1973 13 4 17
1974 15 3 18
1975 11 3 14
1976 11 2 13
1977 17 6 23
1978 19 5 24

property data handling and a large library of
equipment modules, including cost estimation cap-
ability. It was developed by the Monsanto
Company for internal use and was offered, for a
time, as a commercial service by Monsanto. A
cash grant was also provided by Monsanto to sub-
sidize the installation of FLOWTRAN on the
United Computing Systems, Inc. (UCS) com-
mercial network and the preparation of a text [8]
by the CACHE Corporation to aid users.
The FLOWTRAN system is installed on a CDC
6600 computer in Kansas City, headquarters of
UCS. There are two ways of accessing the system:
by slow-speed terminals (Remote Job Entry or
RJE) or by high-speed terminals (Remote Batch
Entry or RBE). In practice, most users have
found a high-speed terminal is more economical.
Details on the job control language procedures for
accessing FLOWTRAN from either type of ter-
minal are provided in a manual [9], also developed
by the CACHE Corporation.
The early history of this FLOWTRAN project
was documented in an article which appeared in
this journal [10]. More recently, the CACHE
Corporation completed the development of a
manual [11] of demonstration exercises in process
simulation using FLOWTRAN. This manual
contains 27 such exercises, and has been found
to be a very valuable instructional aid in provid-
ing useful and practical material for student as-
In its present form, roughly the first half of
this computer-aided design course is devoted to

The undergraduate program in chemical engineering
at Georgia Tech has traditionally been very practice-oriented.
Hence, this course on computer-aided process design,
is of a very practical nature . with little or no
sophisticated theory or mathematical developments.


study and usage of the FLOWTRAN system.
Thus, the formal student text for this part of the
course is the one developed by the CACHE
Corporation [8]. In theory, usage of the FLOW-
TRAN system requires no knowledge of any
source language such as Fortran. That is, input
data to this system consists of a process descrip-
tion, listing of chemical components present, phy-
sical properties options, equipment and operating
parameters, descriptions of feed streams and esti-
mates of recycle streams. A main or driver pro-
gram, which calls the various appropriate FLOW-
TRAN subroutines and functions for a particular
process simulation, is then constructed auto-
matically by the FLOWTRAN system on the basis
of the input data supplied.
In order to give the students a greater knowl-
edge and appreciation of how a system such as
FLOWTRAN works and what it actually does for
them, in the second half of this course process
simulation studies are performed by the students
using a very modest computer-aided process design
system developed here at Georgia Tech. This
system was developed primarily as a pedagogical
tool for instructional purposes and, while similar
in structure to FLOWTRAN, lacks many of the
sophisticated features common in other process
simulation systems. A brief description of this
small process design system appeared in a recent
compilation of computer programs for chemical
engineers [12]. When using this system, the
students must themselves construct the main
driver program and set up the input/output data
procedures, which are done automatically for them
when using the FLOWTRAN system. A user's

Topics Normally Covered in the Lectures
Structure of computer-aided design systems
Estimation and computation of physical properties:
Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria
Shortcut procedures for the design/simulation of distilla-
tion columns (Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland method)
Shortcut procedures for the design/simulation of ab-
sorbers and strippers (Edmister method)
Simulation of heat exchangers using the concept of heat
exchanger effectiveness and number of transfer
units (NTU)
Simulation of chemical reactors
Usage of graph-theoretic methods to identify:
Recycle loops in chemical processes
Candidates for co-sited manufacture in chemical plant
Development of design calculation precedence orders

A variety of example chemical
processes for laboratory exercises on
computer-aided design and simulation has been
employed in this course over the past six years.

manual [13] has also been prepared for this system.
Copies of this manual, which then serve as the
second student text in this course, are distributed
to the students.
Maintaining continuity of course materials
from one year to the next is always a problem in
undergraduate engineering courses, particularly
elective ones. This system is used sparingly be-
tween course offerings. It is also desirable to
minimize the amount of time required to familiar-
ize new students with the system and the coding
therein. Thus, all of the subprograms (unit opera-
tion building blocks and physical property utility
routines) are written in Fortran according to
rather rigid programming standards. These
standards have been described elsewhere [14].


A WIDE VARIETY OF topics, directly or indirectly
related to computer-aided process design, is
normally covered in the lecture periods of this
course. Some of these lectures cover various
(generally shortcut) design or simulation pro-
cedures for various chemical engineering unit
operations. Repetition of material presented in
earlier courses of the curriculum is generally
avoided. There is also considerable discussion of
methods for estimating and computing physical
properties, both thermodynamic and transport, of
chemical compounds. Some more specialized topics,
perhaps peripheral to computer-aided process de-
sign, are also generally presented (several of
these are discussed below). A summary of all of
the topics normally covered in the lectures of this
course is given in Table II.
Two of the specialized topics discussed in this
course are given at the bottom of Table II. Several
lecture periods are devoted to the development of
incidence, adjacency, reachability and intersection
matrices in conjunction with the identification of
recycle loops in chemical processes, as described
by Crowe and co-authors [7]. The usage of these
graph-theoretic methods to identify potential
candidates for co-sited manufacture in chemical
plant complexes is also treated [15]. Another topic
which is the subject of several lecture periods is


the development of process design calculation
precedence orders, as described by Rudd and Wat-
son [16] in their text on the strategy of process
engineering. While these supplemental topics do
not represent integral parts of the computer-aided
design systems used, student reaction to this rela-
tively new material has generally been quite good.


A VARIETY OF EXAMPLE chemical processes for
laboratory exercises on computer-aided design
and simulation has been employed in this course
over the past six years. Some of these, and their
sources, are listed in Table III. These range in
Process Simulation Exercises
Separation of a mixture of benzene, monochlorobenzene
and hydrogen chloride [8]
Multicomponent distillation of a hydrocarbon mixture [8]
Multiple process configurations for heating and mixing of
a mixture of hydrogen, methane and aromatic com-
pounds [11]
Isothermal flash of a hydrocarbon mixture with recycle
Disproportionation of toluene to benzene and xylenes [18]
Direct oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide [19]

complexity from relatively simple to exceedingly
complex. Thus, the exercises involved with multi-
component distillation of a hydrocarbon mixture
[8] and isothermal flash of a hydrocarbon mixture
with recycle [17] are generally completed with
relative ease by most students. On the other hand,
computer simulation of the processes of dispro-
portionation of toluene to benzene and xylenes
[18] and of the direct oxidation of ethylene to
ethylene oxide [19] represent extremely compre-
hensive and difficult exercises. Among other com-
plexities, such as a multiplicity of recycle loops,
simulation of these processes requires the con-
struction of specialized reactor subroutines, which
must be compatible with the process design system
employed, and incorporation of these subroutines
into the computer simulation. It has been found
useful to break such complex processes down into
smaller parts, and to assign only the simulation
of the resulting sub-processes as student exercises.
Student response to this course has been quite
good; lowerclassmen who have recently completed
their introductory computer programming course
often inquire about this elective course as a means
of pursuing advanced studies of computer appli-
cations. A number of graduates of this course are

now working in the area of computer-aided design
in industry. It is extremely valuable to the in-
structor if the teaching assistant and one or more
of the students in the course are intimately
familiar with the local computer center and its
operating procedures.


A S DISCUSSED ABOVE, this course has been offered
during the spring quarter at Georgia Tech for
each of the past six years. And, as a result, most
of the students who elect this course do so in the
final quarter of their senior year, and are thus
taking this course concurrently with their required
senior-level course on plant design. The original
rationale for this scheduling was that a pre-
requisite for this computer aided design course
should be chemical reactor design, which is
normally taken in the winter or second quarter of
a student's senior year. This scheduling has
basically been found to be a workable arrange-
ment. In recent years, however, a large number of
students have expressed the wish that this elective
course be offered in the winter quarter, before they
enter the plant design course. In this manner,
they would have their entire training with FLOW-
TRAN behind them before plant design. With
the present arrangement, the students are about
halfway through their plant design course before
they are reasonably facile with FLOWTRAN,
and as a result the latter tool is of little or no use
to them in plant design. Also, the course ex-
perience has been that, because of the complexities
involved and other topics covered, there is scant
opportunity to effectively work in computer simu-
lation of chemical reactors in this elective course
(see above discussion). Accordingly, beginning

Student response to this course
has been quite good; lower classmen who
have recently completed their introductory computer
programming course often inquire about this
elective course as a means of pursuing
advanced studies of computer applications.

with this academic year, this elective course is to
be offered during the winter quarter, and the
primary prerequisite course will be chemical
engineering thermodynamics. Again, course ex-
perience has been that thermodynamics, which
in timely fashion is normally taken by the students
in the first or fall quarter of their senior year, is


indeed perhaps the most important prerequisite,
at least insofar as it forms the basis for physical
property estimation and vapor-liquid equilibria
calculation procedures. By this time, most students
would also have completed their unit operations
sequence of courses (which would also be ob-
viously essential). There is no great loss with re-
spect to reactor design, since most students would
be taking the reactor design and computer-aided
process design courses concurrently.
One can look forward to future interesting and
exciting developments in the general area of com-
puters in chemical engineering education. The
CACHE Corporation has recently published a
prospectus [20] to explore the possibility of creat-
ing a library of large-scale computer programs for
use in chemical engineering education and re-
search. Some of the programs currently being
considered include: evaluation of alternate energy
recovery systems, computer-aided control system
design, computer package for the design and
rating of multi-product batch plants, computer
program for synthesis of flow sheets for con-
tinuous chemical processes, programs for comput-
ing vapor-liquid equilibria, and a physical
property data service. The hope is that these pro-
grams could be installed on a computer network,
similar to the mode of access to FLOWTRAN, and
made available at reasonable cost to academic
users. The ready availability of such programs
would impact favorably not only upon an elective
computer-aided process design course such as de-
scribed herein, but also upon many of the other
courses in the required chemical engineering cur-
ricula at most schools. O

1. Sommerfeld, J. T., Muzzy, J. D. and Ernst, W. R.,
"Design Programs at Georgia Tech," Paper Presented
at the 67th Annual AIChE Meeting, Washington, D.C.,
December, 1974.
2. Lightsey, G. R., "Georgia Tech's Pulp and Paper
Engineering Program," Paper Presented at the 67th
Annual AIChE Meeting, Washington, D.C., Decem-
ber, 1974.
3. Ernst, W. R., "A Course in Project Engineering,"
Paper Presented at the 79th National AIChE Meet-
ing, Houston, March, 1975.
4. Sommerfeld, J. T., "Computer-Aided Design at
Georgia Tech," Paper Presented at the 79th National
AIChE Meeting, Houston, March, 1975.
5. Gaddy, J. L., "The Use of Flowsheet Simulation Pro-
grams in Teaching Chemical Engineering Design,"
Chem. Engrg. Education, 124, Summer, 1974.
6. Westerberg, A. W., "A Course on Computer-Aided
Process Design," Chem. Engrg. Education, 180, Fall,

7. Crowe, C. M., Hamielec, A. E., Hoffman, T. W.,
Johnson, A. I., Woods, D. R. and Shannon, P. T.,
"Chemical Plant Simulation," Prentice-Hall, Engle-
wood Cliffs, N.J. (1971).
8. Seader, J. D., Seider, W. D. and Pauls, A. C., "FLOW-
TRAN Simulation-An Introduction," 2nd Edition,
CACHE, Cambridge, Mass. (1977).
9. Hughes, R. R., "CACHE Use of FLOWTRAN on
UCS," CACHE, Cambridge, Mass. (1974).
10. Clark, J. P. and Sommerfeld, J. T., "Use of FLOW-
TRAN Simulation in Education," Chem. Engrg. Edu-
cation, 90, Spring, 1976.
11. Clark, J. P., Editor, "Exercises in Process Simulation
Using FLOWTRAN," CACHE, Cambridge, Mass.
12. Peterson, J. N., Chen, C. C. and Evans, L. B., "Com-
puter Programs for Chemical Engineers: 1978-Part
1," Chem. Engrg., 145, June 5, 1978.
13. Brunk, M. F., Colbert, R. W. and Harrington, C. L.,
"User's Manual: Computer-Aided Design System,"
School of Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute
of Technology, Atlanta, December, 1977.
14. Perry, G. L. and Sommerfeld, J. T., "Fortran Pro-
gramming Aids," Software Age, 4, No. 10/11, 11
15. Sommerfeld, J. T., Sondhi, D. K., Spurlock, J. M. and
Ward, H. C., "Identification and Analysis of Potential
Chemical Manufacturing Complexes," J. Regional
Sci., 17, 421 (1977).
16. Rudd, D. F. and Watson, C. C., "Strategy of Process
Engineering," Wiley, New York (1968).
17. Monsanto Company, "An Introduction to FLOW-
TRAN," St. Louis, Missouri (1970).
18. Hengstebeck, R. J. and Banchero, J. T., "Dispropor-
tionation of Toluene," Amoco Chemicals Corp./Uni-
versity of Notre Dame (1969).
19. Woods, J. M. and Schriber, T. J., "Process Design of
an Ethylene Oxide-Ethylene Glycol Plant" in "Com-
puters in Engineering Design Education," Vol. II by
B. Carnahan, W. D. Seider and D. L. Katz, The Uni-
versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (1966).
20. Seider, W. D. and Westerberg, A. W., "Prospectus:
CACHE Library of Computer Programs for Chemical
Engineering Education and Research," CACHE,
Cambridge, Mass., April, 1978.


The Mathematics Research Center at the University
of Wisconsin-Madison will hold at Advanced Seminar on
Dynamics and Modelling of Reactive Systems, October
22-24, 1979. Lecturers will include N. R. Amundson, R.
Aris, D. G. Aronson, G. F. Carrier, M. Feinberg, E. D.
Gilles, P. S. Gough, L. N. Howard, J. B. Keller, D. Luss,
J. Rinzel, R. A. Schmitz, J. H. Seinfeld and F. A. Williams.
A detailed program will be available in August. Further
information may be obtained from Mrs. Gladys Moran,
Mathematics Research Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, 610
Walnut Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.


S3book reviews
Edited by Leon Lapidus and Neal R. Amundson
Prentice-Hall, 1977, ($28).
Reviewed by Arvind Varma,
University of Notre Dame
The preparation of this volume was under-
taken to suitably memorialize the late Professor
Richard Wilhelm of Princeton University. The
idea was to publish a state of the art work on
Chemical Reactor Theory-a subject whose
rational development in the U. S. was largely initi-
ated by the work of Wilhelm-with the royalties
contributed to augmenting the Wilhelm Fund in
Chemical Engineering at Princeton. Although not
meant to be exhaustive, it is a remarkably compre-
hensive and timely review of most of the important
topics in chemical and catalytic reactor analysis.
There are a total of thirteen chapters in the
volume, each on a different topic, written by
different authors. The editors selected the topic's
and the authors. Since each chapter was con-
tributed by experts in their subject matter, it is
difficult to adequately review the entire volume in
a short space and still do justice to it. However,
some flavor of the contents can be obtained by
examining the list of chapters.
The first chapter, by Feinberg on mathematical
aspects of mass action kinetics, is a general ex-
position of homogeneous and isothermal complex
reaction kinetics, mechanisms, equilibria and
dynamics set in the elegant, though at times tough
reading, framework of linear algebra. Chapter 2
by Varma and Aris, deals with a variety of
problems involving the steady state and dynamic
behavior of homogeneous CSTR and empty tubular
reactors. Carberry's Chapter 3 provides an intro-
duction to catalysis and catalytic kinetics, and in-
cludes a good discussion of deriving catalytic
kinetics from a reaction mechanism. Luss reviews
the steady state and dynamic behavior of a single
catalyst pellet in Chapter 4, and examines the
effects of transport processes on catalyst activity,
selectivity and dynamics. Chapter 5, by Szekely,
deals with reactions between porous solids and
gases, such as those encountered in combustion of
solid fuels, production of iron from iron ores, and
the like. Hlavacek and Votruba discusses the
variety and hierarchy of models for the steady
state design of fixed-bed and monolithic catalytic
reactors in Chapter 6.

Chapters 7 and 8 deal with biological systems.
Frederickson and Tsuchiya's Chapter 7 is a com-
prehensive account of microbial kinetics and dy-
namics, while Chapter 8 by Ollis is devoted to
various aspects in the design of biological reactor
systems. The area of polymerization reaction engi-
neering, including an introduction to polymeriza-
tion mechanisms and kinetics, is treated by Ray
and Laurence in Chapter 9. In Chapter 10, the
longest in this volume, Davidson, Harrison and
coworkers give a detailed account of the two-phase
theory of fluidization, and discuss some of its
applications to the design of chemical reactors.
These applications themselves are taken up by
Amundson and co-workers in Chapter 11, wherein
a systematic treatment of batch and continuous,
isothermal and non-isothermal fluid-bed reactors
is presented. Bailey's Chapter 12 on oscillation
phenomena is the only one in this volume devoted
entirely to a particular phenomena exhibited by
chemical reaction systems, and treats both free
and forced oscillatory operation of reactors involv-
ing conversion or selectivity reactions. The last
Chapter 13, by Padmanabhan and Lapidus, pre-
sents an excellent qualitative and quantitative de-
scription of various strategies for the control of
chemical reactors.
As is apparent from the above mere backbone
description, the coverage of the volume is very
broad indeed, and there is a great deal of useful
information present. As the title suggests, the
volume is intended to describe the theory of chemi-
cal reactors, and thus has a theoretical orientation,
although most chapters include experimental con-
firmation of the theory and concrete examples of
industrial applications.
In my view, it should be on the bookshelf of all
researchers in the field, and is something that is
ideally suited as text for advanced level courses
in chemical reaction engineering where the in-
structor might want to select the topics he covers.
This can be easily done, since each chapter es-
sentially stands by itself, with its own notation
and references. Incidentally, the Harvard system
of bibliography-with the title of the paper also
reported-employed here is very convenient, and
the book is rich with a healthy bibliography-
there are over twelve hundred references, some
works of course cited in several chapters. The fact
that each chapter is essentially complete in itself
has caused some duplication, but this does not
happen very much. A minor drawback is that it
does not contain a cumulative subject or author
Continued on page 145.


McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

PROBLEM SOLVING MAY be defined as an ac-
tivity whereby a best value is determined for
an unknown, subject to a specific set of conditions.
In this paper we provide an overview of the four
component parts of the activity of problem solving
(see Figure 1). These are the types of problems
to be solved, the necessary prerequisites, the stra-
tegies, the heuristics or hints, and the elements
used in applying the strategies.


IF WE ARE GOING to solve problems, then there
must be some problems to solve. We can classify
the problems according to three different methods:
what the unknown is, the difficulty, and what in-
formation is initially given. One basis for classi-
fication is "What the unknown is." For this basis
there are four types of problems. In the desigAn
type of problem, the unknown is a new process,

Left to Right: Claudia Wong, Stevan Cosic, Bob Moore,
Suzanne Norman, Reg Christmas, Sue Dibbs, Leslie
Macleod, Sue Tyne, Don Woods

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

working Backwards GENERALIZATION
CotridictionJ \
E C -- | feinitinr
Known Look Bae a oshn definition
Unknown Do It riggers
S ara __ p an ANALYSIS T/ riggers
Constraint Think About It CREATIVITY
criteria Define Synhesis criteria
........ HINTS 4,M k g methods
Kepner-Tregoe HINTS Deision Making
Polya I ELEMENTS (Knowledge
Three-Step) STRATEGY */ Comprehension
Seven-Step Degree of )Application
Others I PROBLEM Difficulty Analysis
SOLVING Synthesis
TYPES ( nFind Your Own
ry BoarPRRE ISITES information Determination
> KNOWLEDGE / Given Search
Beetle iagramne Combination
S Innovation
Collecting Data I \ sk New Process (Design)
\ Library M MOTIVATION /\ Lse-Cure
\ rr bMorale \ Cause-Cure
Lecture Meory Hember (Trouble Shooting)
Experiments hairersoWhy? (Understanding
Chairperson Structure and Function)
Budgeting Time Hypothesis/Discovery
FIGURE 1. An Analysis of Problem Solving

procedure or idea, e.g., design a plant to produce
30,000 tons/annum of fertilizer. The result will be
* A sequence of equipment (with size, construction de-
tails specified) and interconnecting piping and con-
veyors that . .
* Yields the specification quality and amount of
* Subject to the local site constraints . .
* And satisfying the criteria of financial, technical,
ethical, environmental and safety criteria. Some
example texts that emphasize this type of problem
include: Rudd, Powers and Siirola (1972); Dixon (1966);
Buhl (1960); Sherwood (1963) and Bodman (1968).
For the trouble shooting, diagnostic, clinical
or critical instant problem the unknown is a cause
of trouble that needs to be corrected and, in the
long term, prevented from occurring again. e.g.
"The product is black; it should be white. Get it
fixed." There are very few examples published
centering around this type of problem. Those that
are available include AIChE "Engineering Case
Problems" (1967), Doig (1977), and Kepner and
Tregoe (1965). One discipline which is dominated
by critical instant problems is the medical pro-
fession. Some elaboration on how to solve this
type of problem in this context is given by Barrows
and Tamblyn (1976) and Barrows and Bennett


In the understanding, anticipating or simula-
tion type of problem, the unknown is why an
existing process works. From this knowledge one
can anticipate future bottlenecks or difficulties.
Some work has been done on this type of problem
with the resources being King (1967), Woods
(1969) and Crowe et al (1971).
The final type of problem in this classification
has an hypothesis as the unknown. Often this ac-
tivity is called discovery or research and develop-
ment. The text by Wilson (1952) is an illustration
of this type of problem.
Another classification of the problem type
would be according to how difficult the problem is.
This classification is challenging to apply because
"difficulty" is only seen in the eyes of the problem
solver and not the poser of the problem. Neverthe-
less one could hypothesize that depending upon
what the problem solver is asked to do, one could
then hopefully identify degrees of difficulties that
both the poser of the problem and the solver agree
upon. From this standpoint, we use Bloom's
(1956) Taxonomy as the over-riding principle to
classify this type of problem. This classification
TYPE 1 COMPREHENSION: Given a familiar situa-
tion (i.e., a law, principle, subject area under discussion),
recall information and use it to solve a recognizable
EXAMPLE: Given the statement, all the pertinent data
and the necessary theory. Given Newton's second
law, calculate the acceleration of a 360 g mass sub-
jected to a force of 2 Newtons. Neglect all friction.
TYPE 2 APPLICATION: Given a new situation (i.e.,
where the law, principle, subject area under discussion are
not identified), identify memorized knowledge that applies
and solve the problem as though it were a Type 1
EXAMPLE: Given the statement, all the pertinent
data but not the necessary theory. Calculate the
acceleration of a 360 g mass subjected to a force
of 2 Newtons. Neglect all friction. (This example
may be too easy because most readers will im-
mediately recognize that we should use Newton's
second law. However, this illustrates the difference.)
TYPE 3 ANALYSIS: Identify relationships, omissions,
parts, pieces; recognize unstated assumptions; distinguish
fact from opinion, conclusions from evidence; recognize
what particulars are relevant to the validation of a
judgment; detect fallacies in logic, missing information,
incorrectly defined problems. Translate a real world
problem into a mathematical model problem. Then, when
the analysis is complete, this type becomes a Type 2
EXAMPLE: Given the statement, some data but not
all the pertinent data and not the necessary theory.
Calculate the acceleration of a Speedster Auto-
mobile if it has an 80 hp motor.

In the understanding,
anticipation or simulation type of problem, the
unknown is why an existing process works.

TYPE 4: SYNTHESIS: Creation of alternatives to satisfy
a given criterion. The integration of the parts to form a
whole. Once this is completed this becomes a Type 3
EXAMPLE: Given the statement, but data and theory
are missing. Design a comfortable car that will
have an acceleration of 10 ft/sec2.
TYPE 5 FIND YOUR OWN: Analysis of a situation
to identify a worthy or worthwhile problem. Once this is
completed this becomes a Type 4 problem.
EXAMPLE: Given a situation but no statement, data
or theory. Given today's transportation problems,
what problem, if any, exists?
A third classification, devised by Fuller (1974)
is based on what principal parts of information
are given initially to the problem solver. He classi-
fies the given information differently from that
based on Bloom's taxonomy. On this basis he
identifies eight different classes of problems.


N OW THAT WE HAVE looked at the types of
problems that one is trying to solve, we might
look at what sort of prerequisite information is
useful in solving problems. Here there are a
variety of sub-categories.
A first prerequisite might be that the solver
has the necessary knowledge, attitudes and manual
skills. These prerequisite skills are vital; indeed
some believe that one's inability to solve problems
occurs because the problem solver just does not
"understand the basic knowledge." We believe that
there is much more to solving problems than basic
knowledge, as this article attests, but at the same
time we acknowledge the need for a sound under-
standing of the knowledge as a prerequisite. Some
activities that have helped us to internalize basic
knowledge have been:
* To study how our memory works and try to use those
ideas to improve our memory. Buzan (1975) has sum-
marized this conveniently.
* To try various methods to discover the structure in a
subject. We have tried different classification tech-
niques-traditional point outline and the beetle diagram
approach of Buzan.
* To try to identify the minimum number of basic laws
and the relationships between those laws. Some of this
we displayed on a 'memory board' illustrated in Figure
3 of Woods et al (1975). Brown (1977) requests that
his students prepare a separate, personal memory
board book.


* To use Larkin's (1975) checklist method to help us
develop details about the major ideas.
* To try to identify cognitive learning preferences
within ourselves. Most material presented in a lecture
will have the cognitive preference of the instructor. A
personal awareness will help us identify why we might
be having difficulty understanding a given instructor
or a given subject. Once this is identified, we can
then seek or try to develop on our own the necessary
resources, information and viewpoint. Although there
are rather detailed methods available, as described, for
example, by Hill (1969) and Hoogasian (1971), we only
identified preferences for verbal, mathematical or
pictorial viewpoints. Details of this are available else-
where (see Moore et al (1977), Woods et al (1977a),
Woods et al (1977b)).
Next we need some experience which helps us
to develop judgment. This is different from the
cognitive skills in that this is a memorization of

A sixth prerequisite, required
if group problem solving is used, is "the ability
to work effectively in a group."

'how big is big' and 'how small is small.' Most
experience factors come from the numerical data
given in the various problems that we solve, the
numerical answers we calculate and any data that
we have to look up. To assist us, we prepare an
experience board or summary sheet periodically
throughout each year. We know that we need these
numbers to allow us to make judgments and to
solve approximations to the real problem during
the "Think About It" stage.
The third prerequisite could be 'learning skills.'
This is a deceptively simple idea; we need skill at
planning time, obtaining information and organiz-
ing that information into an internalized structure
of knowledge. Yet, we are beginning to suspect
that how we store the knowledge and experience
is a key factor in how well we can later retrieve
the information to solve problems. A major
portion of the freshman year was spent trying to
improve learning skills. One skill that we find
particularly challenging is how to take good lec-
ture notes. We tend to copy only that material
which is written on the board.
For example, one lecturer in freshman Chemistry said
"Consider now how we calculate the bond energies.
Such energies are very useful and important in
Chemistry. We focus first on the enthalpy changes that
occur when the bonds in a molecule are broken. For
example, consider the following reaction: gaseous
hydrogen chloride decomposes into gaseous hydrogen
and gaseous chlorine." This instructor's board work
was as follows.

"Bond Energies
Enthalpy changes
HCI (g) H(g) + Cl (g)"
All of us wrote down only what was on the board;
several of us even forgot to note the gaseous condi-
tion for the components in the reaction. However, from
an analysis such as this we could adjust to improve
our skill at taking lecture notes.
To help us organize our time we made a de-
tailed analysis of the total time available and the
demands on that time. Then we prepared our own
daily time schedules and long range calendars.
We attempted to use Critical Path Methods and
Gantt charts to help give us a sense of accomplish-
ment. However, we found this latter method too
complicated. The methods described under basic
knowledge were also used to improve our learning
skills. A required sophomore course on communi-
cation skills helped us to gain confidence in locat-
ing information in the library. To help us high-
light our experience, and what we have learned
about problem solving we try to complete a
standard form at the completion of each problem.
This form asks us to do three things:
* Dream up a sample problem that you think you could
solve based on the knowledge tested in this problem.
* What did you learn about problem solving from doing
this problem?
* Experience factors. Record the experience factors you
used or calculated in this problem.
A fourth prerequisite is desire or motivation
to solve the problem. Usually the requirement of a
mark for an assignment is sufficient motivation to
most students. However, the greatest hurdle is to
get started on a "difficult" problem. Sometimes
the hurdle is so great that we rationalize postpone-
ment. We have found that familiarity with a
strategy for solving problems is sufficient to over-
come this hurdle. For more details, see the student
comments at the end of each problem solving pre-
sentation day as summarized in Woods (1977b)
and our other papers, especially Moore et al
(1977). When we have solved the problem, we
must be able to communicate our results. A sixth
prerequisite, required if group problem solving is
used, is 'the ability to work effectively in a group.'
This means skills as facilitators and a willingness
for all in the group to develop task and group
building attributes.

organized strategy, approach, or set of tactics
is needed. Many strategies have been suggested.


One that we have become more familiar with is a
five step strategy: define, think about it, plan, do
it and look back. Other types include a four step,
three step, and a seven step strategy. Many of
these are reviewed by Woods (1977a). Others in-
clude Jones's (1974) three-six step strategy with
matrix moves. These are:
1. Analysis
1. Brief issued
2. Design situation explored
3. Problem structure perceived and transformed
4. Boundaries located sub-solutions described and
conflicts identified
2. Synthesis
5. Sub-solutions combined into alternative designs
3. Evaluation
6. Alternative designs evaluated and final design
An intriguing feature of Jones' approach is that
he allows one to move easily among the steps by

/ i ENT IF L'A ) \RING'(
1"%1 I -- l -- -- -

S LIIM \NAGIVI I ___ I EA "' I n r


FIGURE 3. Strategy for Developing Patient Care and
Self Study Skills
identifying techniques that can be used to go be-
tween any of the steps. Kepner and Tregoe (1965)
(1973) have developed four sequential strategies
to be applied to solving problems in industrial
operations. These strategies are
* Situation Analysis (SA) which is an attempt to break
down a complex problem so as to decide which of the
three following strategies should apply.
* Problem Analysis (PA) which is essentially to deter-
mine the cause.
* Decision Analysis (DA) which is to decide how to
correct the cause.
* Potential Problem Analysis (PAA) which is how to
prevent the cause, identified in step 2 (PA), from re-
Barrows and Tamblyn (1977) have developed
two interlinking strategies that solve clinical
problems and develop self study skills. This is il-
lustrated in Figure 3. Doig (1974) developed a de-
tailed elaboration on how to apply Polya's four

A fourth aspect to problem solving is what is
used when we apply a strategy.

step approach to the selection and design of engi-
neering equipment. An analysis of various strate-
gies has been given by Sears (1977).


A FOURTH ASPECT to problem solving is what is
used when we apply a strategy. In other
words, there are certain skills we use over and
over again when we go through the various steps
in the strategy. These skills we call elements.
There are four major elements: analysis, synthe-
sis, generation and decision making. Some authors
use these terms synonymously with "problem-
solving." For example, Riggs (1968) uses the term
decision-making to mean our word problem
solving. Hence, to avoid ambiguity we define each
of these terms in the present context.
Analysis: The act of dividing a whole into parts
so that there is a meaningful relationship among
the parts ("resolution into simple elements" Ox-
ford) (synonyms: critical study, critique, logical
Our attitude should be critical, looking for subtle
differences, careful scrutiny of something.
Major tools used during an analysis: logic
1 Identify the system to be analyzed.
2 Identify the objective of the, analysis-what
meaningful relationship are we seeking and how
do we know when we achieve this?
3 Identify and compare the elements in the system
to identify the basis for dividing the system into
parts. (May need some creativity to do this)
4 Divide the system into parts.
5 Look back. (May need some creativity to do this)
Example: Which of the following numbers do not
belong in this in this set? 3 5 7 9 11
Step 1. System of numbers.
Step 2. Meaningful-most numbers in this set have a
common property; at least one does not contain
that property.
Step 3. In looking at the set we can identify the follow-
ing attributes:
3 one digit, odd number, arabic, typed, integer,
rational, prime, open, curved lines.
5 one digit, odd number, arabic, typed, integer,
rational, prime, open, combined straight and curved
7 one digit, odd number, arabic, typed, integer,
rational, prime, open, straight lines.
9 one digit, odd number, arabic, typed, integer,
rational, not a prime number, closed, curved lines.
11 two digit, odd number, arabic, typed, integer,


Heuristics or hints are general suggestions
that lead to a successful solution to a problem or successful
completion of one step in the problem solution.

rational, prime, open, straight lines.
Hence, all have common properties except 9 which is
a non-prime number and 11 which has two digits in-
stead of one.
Step 4. There are two answers. 11 does not belong on
the basis of digits. 9 does not belong on the basis of
prime numbers.
Step 5. Both answers seem reasonable.
Synthesis: The act of putting pieces together to
form a whole in some unique way to satisfy a
purpose (combination of elements, putting to-
gether) (synonyms: creation, creativity, design)
Creativity: the act of generating ideas. Synthesis is a
combination of creativity and analysis. Creativity is
used to get different ideas about how things might
be put together; analysis is used to determine which
is a unique idea satisfying the purpose. Hence, since
analysis was discussed above, we emphasize the crea-
tive aspects of synthesis here.
Our attitude: should be imaginative, free from con-
straints, day dreaming, off-in-left-field.
Major tools used during synthesis: imagination
1 Identify the system to be studied.
2 Identify the objective of the synthesis-what
unique way?
3 Create ideas via brainstorming, attribute listing,
and triggers.
4 Evaluate the ideas by analysis.
5 Decide which ones meet the criteria.
6 Look back.
Hence, since synthesis is a combination of analysis,
creativity and decision-making only creativity is the
additional element needed.
Decision-making. Decision-making is the process
whereby one of many possible actions, ideas, or
objects is chosen as being the best. The process
includes calculating the criteria, comparing and
selecting the optimum to yield the "best." Al-
though good decision-making requires that a good
choice is made of the criteria, we do not include
the activity of choosing the criteria as being a
part of the decision-making process.
This activity is proceeded by analysis (to define the
problem and choice and method of measurement of
"best"), creativity (to generate ideas), and analysis
of these ideas to develop alternatives that are feasible.
Then, for each feasible idea, the criteria are calcu-
lated and compared to select the idea with the opti-
mum value.
Generalization: Generalization is the process by
which a relationship is identified that is possessed

by a number of things. It is deriving and deducing
from particulars. In this process we identify a
broad overall character without being limited,
modified or checked by narrow, precise considera-
tions. Furthermore, in this process we isolate a
common attribute and ignore other attributes
(Synonyms: abstraction, reverse of analysis)

1. Identify the purpose or focus for the generaliza-
2. Identify all the attributes of the given entity.
3. Based on the purpose of the generalization, identify
which attributes can be ignored and which at-
tributes relate to the purpose and therefore can-
not be ignored.
4. Create lists of other entities with similar attributes.
The lists should pertain to the purpose of the
5. Identify a name of the class of entities that share
the same attributes. Note that in this process some
differences between entities will be ignored.
6. Repeat the process based on the class of entities.

Thus, the four skills or elements we use when
we apply a problem-solving strategy are analysis,
creativity, decision making and generalization.
Heuristics or hints are general suggestions that
lead to a successful solution to a problem or
successful completion of one step in the problem
solution. The applicability and usefulness of such
suggestions cannot be proved precisely.
For example, "check the units," or "neglect
small terms" or "use crude approximations" are
some heuristics. Some that we used are described
elsewhere (32) (33). Other examples, are given
by Aris (34), Newell and Simon (35), Rubinstein
(36) and Polya (37). Simplification is the process
of reducing the complexity and the number of com-


PROBLEM SOLVING IS a general activity made up
of four components. First, we can classify the
type of problems we have to solve. Three different
classifications were reviewed. Next, we can
identify six prerequisites: knowledge, experience,
learning skills, motivation, communication and
group skills. Some details were given of how we
have tried to develop these prerequisite skills.


A wide variety of strategies for solving
problems have been presented in the literature.
We have highlighted some of these and empha-
sized similar features. Four elements are used in
applying the strategy: analysis, creativity, de-
cision-making and generalization. These elements
were defined and discussed briefly. O
This project was funded by the Ontario Universities
Program for Instructional Development and by McMaster
University. We are pleased to acknowledge the contribu-
tions of Professors C. M. Crowe, T. W. Hoffman, and J. D.
Wright of the ChE Department, McMaster University and
Dr. I. D. Doig of the ChE Department, University of New
South Wales, Australia.
1. AIChE (1967). Chemical Engineering Case Problems.
Published by the Chemical Engineering Education
Projects Committee of the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers, New York.
2. Barrows, H. S. and Bennett, K. S. (1972). "The Diag-
nostic (Problem Solving) Skill of the Neurologist"
Archives of Neurology 26 March p. 273 to 277.
3. Barrows, H. S. and Tambly, R. (1976). "Guide to the
Development of skills in Problem Based Learning
Clinical (Diagnostic) Reasoning," Monograph 1, Mc-
Master University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
4. Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Ob-
jectives: Cognitive Domain. David McKay Co., New
5. Bodman, S. W. (1968). "The Industrial Practice of
Chemical Process Engineering" the MIT Press.
6. Brown, J. M. (1977). Personal Communication,
Marionapolis College, Montreal Qu.
7. Buhl, H.R. (1960). Creative Engineering Design, Iowa
State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
8. Buzan, T. (1975). Use Your Head. BBC Publication,
London, England.
9. Crowe, C. M. et. al. (1971). Chemical Plant Simula-
tion Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
10. Dixon, J. R. (1966). "Design Engineering: Inventive-
ness, Analysis and Decision Making." McGraw-Hill,
New York.
11. Doig, I. D. (1974). Personal communication, Mc-
Master University, Hamilton.
11A. Doig, I. D. (1977). Chemeca 77, Canberra, Sept. 14
to 16. p. 144.
12. Fuller, O. M. (1974). Personal Communication, Mc-
Gill University, Montreal.
13. Hill, J. E. (1969). Cognitive Style As An Educa-
tional Science Oakland Community College, Bloom-
field Hills, Mich. unpublished manuscript.
14. Hoogasian, V. (1971). An Examination of Cognitive
Style Profiles As Indicators of Performance Asso-
ciated with a Selected Discipline. Oakland Community
College, Bloomfield Hills, Mich. unpublished manu-
15. Jones, J. C. (1970). Design Methods, Wiley Inter-
science, New York.
16. Kepner, C. H. and Tregoe, B. B. (1965). "The Ra-
tional Manager," McGraw-Hill.

17. Kepner, C. H. and Tregoe, B. B., (1973). "Genco II,
Advance Material," Kepner-Tregoe, Inc., Princeton,
18. Kepner, C. H. and Tregoe, B. B., (1973). "Problem
Analysis and Decision Making," Kepner-Tregoe, Inc.,
Princeton, N.J.
19. Kepner, C. H. and Tregoe, B. B., "Genco II, On the
Job Application," Kepner-Tregoe, Inc.
20. King, C. J. (1967) in AIChE Case Problem Collec-
tion (1967).
21. Larkin, J. H. (1975). "Developing Useful Instruc-
tions in General Thinking Skills." Paper J.L010276.
Group in Science and Mathematics Education, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, Calif.
22. Moore, R. F. et. al. (1977). Developing Style in
Solving Problems. Dept. of Chemical Engineering,
McMaster University, Hamilton.
23. Riggs, J. L. "Economic Decision Models for Engi-
neers and Managers," McGraw-Hill, New York.
24. Rudd, D. F., G. J. Powers, and J. J. Siirola. (1972).
Process Synthesis Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
25. Sears, J. T. (1977). Alternatives to the Lecture:
Group-paced Individualization. Workshop at the 1977
Summer School for Chemical Engineering Faculty,
August 1 to 5 Snowmass, Colorado, sponsored by the
ASEE Chemical Engineering Division.
26. Sherwood, T. K. (1963). A Course in Process Design.
MIT Press.
27. Wilson, E. B., Jr. (1952). An Introduction to Scien-
tific Research McGraw-Hill, New York.
28. Woods, D. R. (1969). A Chemical Engineer in Plant
Operations, Design and Research and Development.
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University,
29. Woods, D. R., J. D. Wright, T. W. Hoffman, R. K.
Swartman, and I. D. Doig. (1975). Teaching
Problems Solving Skills. Annals of Engineering
Education 1, No. 1, p. 238 to 243.
30. Woods, D. R., C. M. Crowe, J. D. Wright, and T. W.
Hoffman. (1977a). "Matching the Varying Needs of
Problem Solvers," Department of Chemical Engi-
neering, McMaster University.
31. Woods, D. R., C. M. Crowe, T. W. Hoffman, and J. D.
Wright (1977b). How Can One Teach Problem
Solving? Ontario Universities Program for Instruc-
tional Development Newsletter, c/o Queen's Uni-
versity, Kingston, Ontario, May p. 1 to 3.
32. Woods, D. R. (1977a). in "Problem Solving Skills-A
Workshop." D. R. Woods and A. C. Blizzard, pre-
pared for a workshop at Concordia University,
Montreal, May.
33. Woods, D. R. (1977b). Teaching Problem Solving
Skills: experiences as a freshman 1974-75, as a
sophomore 1975-76, as a junior 1976-77.
34. Aris, R. (1976). How to get the most out of an
Equation without Really Trying. CEE. Summer, p.
114 to 124.
35. Newell, A. and Simon, H. A. (1972). Human Problem
Solving Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
36. Rubinstein, M. F. (1975). Patterns in Problem
Solving. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
37. Polya, G. (1957). "How to Solve It." 2nd. ed. Double-
day Anchor, Garden City, New York.

ww curriculum


University of Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky 40208

T HIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES the undergraduate
chemical engineering curriculum at the Speed
Scientific School of the University of Louisville.
We are motivated to write this short article de-
scribing the curriculum to bring out some of its
interesting features which lead to a regular supply
of research students during their final year. In
these days of diminishing supply of graduate
students, the foregoing fact has been very helpful
in maintaining a reasonable level of research effort
in the department.

THE SPEED SCIENTIFIC School, the college of
engineering at the University of Louisville,
began operations in 1925 with an endowment from
the James Breckenridge Speed Foundation. First
degrees in chemical engineering were awarded in
1929. The school offers academic programs in
chemical engineering, environmental engineering,
civil engineering, electrical engineering, engineer-
ing management and industrial engineering, and
mechanical engineering.
From its inception in 1925 through 1970 the
chemical engineering department offered the
B.Ch.E. degree. Graduate work at the Masters
level was begun in 1934 and at the Doctorate level
in 1955. The concept of cooperative internships
with industry was an integral part of the under-
graduate program from the beginning. With the
exception of several years during World War II
all students in the baccalaureate program were
required to spend several periods, totaling one
calendar year, with industrial organizations.
In 1970 the Speed Scientific School initiated a
new five-year program leading to the graduate
professional degree, Master of Chemical Engineer-
ing, but retaining the required cooperative intern-
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

ship in the first four years. While a student re-
ceives a B.S. in Applied Science at the end of
four years, it is the Master of Chemical Engineer-
ing degree which is accredited by E.C.P.D. All
students with a grade point average of 2.5 (on a
4.0 point scale), at the end of their fourth year,
are eligible to enter the final year of the chemical
engineering program. The M.S. and Ph.D. pro-
grams remained unaltered.
The department also offers a separate pro-
gram leading to the degree of Master of Environ-
mental Engineering. There is, however, consider-
able interaction between both programs. Many
chemical engineering students take some of their

Pradeep Deshpande is currently Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Louisville. He has several years of
academic and full-time industrial experience in process control. He
has served as a consultant to Mobil Research & Development
Corporation and to other companies in the areas of dynamic simu-
lation and computer control. He is engaged in collaborative research
with E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. and Rohm & Haas Co. in
modeling, simulation, and automatic control. Dr. Deshpande has
published numerous articles in these areas and is a registered
control systems engineer in California. (L)
Charles A. Plank is Professor and Chairman of the Department
of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of
Louisville. He has been a ChE Educator for more than twenty years
and has also served as the Director of Interdisciplinary Programs in
Engineering and a member of the Board of Trustees at the University
of Louisville. He is a consultant to several chemical and design
companies and has worked for The Olin Corporation. He is the
author of numerous technical papers in Mass Transfer. (R)


electives from the environmental engineering
offering while some of the environmental engi-
neering students opt to take some of the Unit
Operations courses. Although the chemical engi-
neering and environmental engineering programs
are separate, their format with regard to coopera-
tive internships, thesis requirements, etc. is the


A listing of the courses in the chemical engi-
neering curriculum is shown in Table I. The
curriculum is divided into divisions of pre-engi-
neering, basic studies and a division of higher
studies. The first two academic years of the cur-
riculum are, in general, common to all engineer-
ing students. The first cooperative internship falls
in the summer after the student completes these
first two years at Speed School. Thereafter, he/
she spends every other semester in industry and
so by the end of four years the student completes
three cooperative internship periods in industry.
At the end of four years the student receives
a B.S. degree in Applied Science and has the

In 1970 the Speed Scientific School
initiated a new five-year program leading
to the graduate professional degree Master of
Chemical Engineering but retaining the required
cooperative internship in the first four years.

option of leaving the program (or going to Gradu-
ate School, here or elsewhere) or continuing for
one calendar year and earning the Master of
Chemical Engineering degree. Those students who
choose the latter option (and over 80% of all
qualified students do) are provided an elaborate
list of thesis topics at the beginning of their fifth
year. These topics are provided by the faculty
members of the department and represent their
research interests. Every year these topics include
several projects sponsored by major local and re-
gional industries. Most projects are of the applied
research nature.
As shown in Table I, the department offers
the required General Chemistry and Physical
Chemistry courses and laboratories. Organic
Chemistry and an Advanced Chemistry elective



Mechanics 2 3 Engineering Process Control 3
C" Electromagnet~E Economics 3 Process Control
J Phenomena1 3 Cooperative Thermodynamics 3 Laboratory 2
Mathematics 3 4 Internship 2 Heat Transfer 3 Design of
Heat Transfer Experiments 3
Laboratory '1 M. Eng. Seminar 1
M. Eng. Thesis 1

Computer Programing 1 Physical Chemistry 2 3
Engineering Drawing 1 Differential Equations 3 PhysicalChemistry Process Design 3
General Chemistry 1 3 Active & Passive Laboratory I Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry 1 Networks 3 Fluid Dynamics 3 Cooperative Elective 3
J. Laboratory 1 Organic Chemistry 1 3 Fluids Laboratory 1 Internship 2 Chemical Engineering
Mathematics 1 4 Organic Laboratory 1 1 Probability & Statistics 3 Elective 3
English 1 3 Physical Chemistry 1 3 Free Elective 3 Chemistry Elective 3
Humanities / Humanities/ Humanities/ M. Eng. Thesis 2
Social Science Elective 3 Social Science Elective 3 Social Science Elective 3
Separation Operations 3
Computer Programing 1 Numerical Calculus 3 Mass Transfer Chemical Engineering
The Profession 1 Material Science 3 Principles 3 Elective 3
S General Chemistry 2 3 Organic Chemistry 2 3 Cooperative Reaction Kinetics 3 Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry 2 Material & Energy Internship 2 Mass Transfer Elective 3
(A Laboratory 1 Balances 4 Laboratory 1 M. Eng. Thesis 5
Mathematics 2 4 Humanities / Free Elective 3 Humanities /
English 2 3 Social Science Elective 3 Humanities/ Social Science Elective 3
Mechanics 1 3 Social Science Elective 3
CREDIT HOURS 32 74 95 123 161


are taught by the chemistry department of the
Arts and Sciences College. A faculty member of
the chemical engineering department whose
academic training is in both chemistry and chemi-
cal engineering is mainly responsible for our
courses. This arrangement offers the obvious ad-
vantage of control of course content for these
basic courses as well as allowing us to provide
financial assistance to more of the graduate or
M.Eng. students in the form of additional teach-
ing assistantships. This in turn strengthens the
M.Eng., M.S. and Ph.D. programs.
Student enrollment, of course, fluctuates de-
pending on the strength of the job market and
the department has graduated, one year, as few as
six students. Leaving this phenomena (which
affects all departments) aside, the fifth year pro-
gra mhas provided a large number of research
students (for a department of our size). All of
these students have one year of industrial ex-
perience in the form of cooperative internships.
Many of the better students do graduate-level re-
search with no difficulty. In these days of diminish-
ing supply of graduate students this feature of the
curriculum has been most helpful in maintaining

At the end of four years
the student receives a B.S. degree in
Applied Science and has the option of leaving the
program (or going to Graduate School here or
elsewhere) or continuing for one calendar
year and earning the Master of
Chemical Engineering degree.

a reasonable level of research effort in the depart-
During the fifth year, the student takes, among
other things, courses in process control and pro-
cess design. For the past several years, process
design has been offered jointly by a full-time
faculty member of the department and an ex-
perienced chemical engineer at DuPont, Louisville
Works. In addition to these courses the student
usually takes one or more advanced or graduate
level courses which are offered in the department
every semester.


THE SUCCESS OF AN academic program can be
gauged by several factors; What kind of
companies offer employment to the graduates?,
How do the salary levels compare with the
national average?, How have the graduates per-

Comparison: Salary Data of Speed Graduates in ChE
with the National Average

Year High Low Average






*Compiled by Mr. Joseph Pierce, Office of Cooperative
Education and Placement, Speed Scientific School, Uni-
versity of Louisville.
**These data are for 5-year Cooperative Program Gradu-
ates. The information is available from "CPC Salary
Surveys" published every year by the College Place-
ment Council, P.O. Box 2263, Bethlehem, PA 18001.
***This figure represents M.S. salary levels. CPC has now
discontinued gathering salary data for 5-year Co-opera-
tive Program Graduates.

formed in their jobs? An indication of the
answers to these questions may come from the
fact that a large number of industrial and govern-
ment organizations recruit at Speed every year.
Included among these are numerous major em-
ployers of chemical engineers who are known to
have a preference for the "best from the lot." A
comparison of the salary data of Speed graduates
(Table II) with the data representing national
average shows that Speed graduates have fared
better. In fact, Speed graduates have done pro-
gressively better over the past 3 years. Since the
same employers, generally, recruit on campus
each year, it is tempting to conclude that Speed
graduates have done better in their jobs also. The
fact that Speed graduates have one year of co-
operative internship experience, have completed
a comprehensive thesis, and have taken several
graduate level courses has separated them, we be-
lieve, from the graduates of a traditional coopera-
tive department.
It would be an untruth if we claimed that the
program had no weaknesses. The curriculum does
have some weaknesses but we believe that
strengths far outweigh the weaknesses. For
example, the B.S. graduate of the department who
does not qualify to enter the M.Eng. program
because of low grade point average, leaves the
program without having taken courses in process
design and process control. But note that a vast
majority of the students do qualify for entrance
to the M.Eng. program. Since the B.S. degree is
Continued on page 144.

*tion\ rek-ig-'nish-on,
-3g-\ n 1 : the action of recognizing; the state of being
recognized; as a : ACKNOWLEDGMENT 2 : special notice
or attention.\ as we see it\
1 : the primary motivation to do creative work for an out-
standing company 2 : ACKNOWLEDGMENT of the quality of
that work; as a : self-satisfaction and pride b : respect
from peers and associates c : opportunity for advancement
3 : to recognize the challenge of the world today 4 : to be
recognized for doing something to meet those challenges

If you know of qualified graduates in engineering or the
sciences, or with an interest in marketing, finance or computer
science, we hope you will encourage them to write us: Re-
cruiting and College Relations, P.O. Box 1713-CE, Midland,
Michigan 48640. Dow is an equal opportunity employer--
male/female. DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.
S *Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company





University of Wyoming
Laramie, Wyoming 82071
THERE ARE SEVERAL persistent problems with
which an instructor must deal when develop-
ing a laboratory experiment. There is the matter
of available space, cost of equipment, educational
objectives and quality of the data produced. An ex-
periment concerned with the freeze-drying of
fruits and vegetables will be described which can
address these problems.
Referring to Figure 1, the experimental appa-
ratus covers a bench top with surface dimensions
of 65 cm. by 200 cm. The apparatus is portable
and can be stored when not in use.
The only piece of equipment considered ex-
pensive would be the vacuum pump. The other
items are inexpensive and the vacuum pump
represents by far the largest expenditure.
The educational objectives of this experiment
are to expose the students to two subjects; the

Richard D. Noble received his B.E. degree in 1968 and M.E. degree
in 1969 from Stevens Institute of Technology. In 1976, he received
his Ph.D. degree from the University of California, Davis. From 1968-
71, he worked as a design engineer for National Starch and Chemical
Co. His research interests include oil shale pyrolysis, biological waste
water treatment, and teaching of problem solving skills.

FIGURE 1. Experimental Apparatus
principles of drying and simultaneous heat and
mass transfer. Sufficient time is also allocated so
the students can write a group report which effec-
tively communicates the knowledge and results ob-
tained in the experiment.
Referring to Figure 2, a typical moisture
content versus time graph for different materials
is shown. As can be seen, the small degree of
scatter makes analysis and interpretation of the
data consistent with theory.
An additional benefit obtained is that the
students can visually observe the progress of the
experiment by observing the condition of the ma-
terial being freeze-dried and the weight loss as
time progresses. This gives students a feeling that
the experiment is proceeding successfully and they
are more inclined to be enthusiastic about it.


A SCHEMATIC OF the experimental apparatus is
shown in Figure 3. The material to be freeze-
dried is first cut into slices of rectangular or
circular cross-section approximately 0.3 cm. thick.
The regular cross-section allows easy computation
( Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979




o 30

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 6 Is 20 24
FIGURE 2. Total Moisture Content of Sample vs. Time
For Various Materials Being Freeze-Dried

of exposed surface area. The material is then
frozen. The previous steps can be accomplished the
day before the start of the experiment.
The frozen material (approx. 100 grams) is
loaded onto a coarse mesh screen. This is done so
that both material surfaces are exposed. This
combination is then placed on a simple weighing
scale with visual readout. This can then be placed
inside a transparent vacuum chamber. A ther-
mometer is mounted on the scale to record the
ambient temperature inside the chamber.
This vacuum chamber is combined in series
with a McLeod gauge for observing system
pressure, a condenser immersed in a dry-ice-
isopropanol bath to remove evolved water, and
vacuum pump.
Once the frozen material is placed in the
vacuum chamber, the vacuum pump is turned on.
The students record system pressure, system


FIGURE 3. Experimental Apparatus

temperature, and remaining weight of material as
a function of time. This data collection is done
hourly for a 24 hour period.


A TYPICAL MOISTURE content vs. time graph is
shown in Figure 2. These curves were ob-
tained from data taken in this experiment and
show three distinct regions of drying. It is
assumed that the equilibrium moisture content is
negligible. These are the initial (preliminary)
period, constant drying rate period, and falling
drying rate period. The students are asked to
discuss the physical significance of each region.
For the constant drying rate period, the
students calculate the drying rate and mas flux
(Nw) from Figure 2. This information can then
be used to calculate the heat flux (q)

(1) q = AHSNw
where AH, is the heat of sublimation of water. An
overall heat (U) and mass (K) transfer coefficient
can now be calculated assuming an interior solid
temperature (-30oC was used). The necessity of
this assumption will be corrected in the future by

An additional benefit obtained
is that the students can visually observe
the progress of the experiment by observing
the condition of the material being freeze-
dried and the weight loss as time progresses.

placing a thermocouple in the frozen material and
monitoring the temperature.
The students then determine operating pa-
rameters for a large scale continuous process.
This includes determining the amount of water
that will be removed per hour per kg. of material
charged, speed of conveyor system, and pumping
capacity needed.

Data (carrots)
Chamber temperature, Ta = 210C
Chamber pressure, Pa = 0.168 torr
Interior carrot temperature, Ti = -300C
Total surface area of carrots, A = 433 cm2.
From Fig. 2, the slope is -5.2 g/hr during the
constant drying rate period. Therefore, the drying
rate (D) is 5.2 g/hr.


K N _

. this experiment is a good
learning experience. This is ... demonstrated
by the fact that (it) is always chosen
by one group for an oral presentation
at the end of the semester.

D 5.2 g/hr 0.012 g
S A 433cm2 cm2 hr.
AH, = 2838 J/g (reference 2)

q = AHsN, = (2838 J/g) (0.012 gC ) =
cm2~ hr)
cm2 hr

U q 34.1 J/cm2 hr
(T.- Ti) [21C (-30C)]
Saturated vapor pressure above ice -30C:
P, 0.2859 torr (reference 4)

0.012 g/cm2 hr
(0.2859 torr 0.168 torr)

= 0.102 g
cm2 hr torr


THE LABORATORY IS scheduled for two 3-hour
periods per week and the students are given 2
semester hours credit. The reason for the addi-
tional hours per week and credit is that emphasis
is placed on communication skills, both written and
oral, as well as technical competence in the labora-
tory procedure and data analysis.
For this particular experiment, the students
are given four 3-hour laboratory periods to com-
plete the experiment and the written report. The
first laboratory period is spent in instructing the
students in the use of the equipment and choosing
a material to be freeze-dried. The following morn-
ing the students start the experiment and take
hourly data for the next 24 hours. The remaining
periods are used by the students to study the
reference material and write a group report
which effectively communicates the desired in-
The students indicate that this experiment is a
good learning experience even though the time re-
quired for taking data is relatively long. This is
further demonstrated by the fact that this experi-
ment is always chosen by one group for an oral
presentation at the end of the semester. One
reason for good student response is the fact that
the experiment "works". The data they obtain

gives reasonable results and they can visually
observe the success of the experiment. This
eliminates the frustration associated with poor
One improvement in the experiment would be
to place a thermocouple in a larger frozen slab
with the vacuum chamber to obtain the core
temperature. This would eliminate any assump-
tion of this value. This will be done in future
In conclusion, a laboratory experiment for
freeze-drying fruits and vegetables has been de-
scribed. It utilizes a small amount of space, is
relatively inexpensive, and gives reasonable
results. The experiment is very useful for present-
ing the concepts associated with drying and com-
bined heat and mass transfer. Ol

1. Bennett, C. 0. and J. E. Myers, "Momentum, Heat,
and Mass Transfer," McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,
Second Edition, Chap. 36.
2. Geankoplis, C. J., "Transport Processes and Unit
Operations," Allyn and Bacon Publishing Co., Chap. 7.
3. Goldblith, A. A., L. Rey, and W. W. Rothmayr,
"Freeze Drying and Advanced Food Technology,"
Academic Press (1975).
4. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical
Rubber Co., 58th Edition, 1977-78, p. D-179.
5. McCabe, W. L. and J. C. Smith, "Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering," McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,
Third Edition, Chap. 25.

Continued from page 140.

not accredited by ECPD, persons obtaining only
this degree find it impossible to become licensed
professional engineers in a few states.
The starting salaries of M.Eng. graduates are
not significantly lower than those of the M.S.
graduates and it generally takes longer to com-
plete the M.S. thesis. As a result, most students
prefer the M.Eng. route. This, we believe, may
have adversely affected the size of our M.S. and
Ph.D. programs. We hasten to add that this effect
must necessarily be a modest one since the number
of American students enrolling in Ph.D. programs
in most universities these days is small.
In summary, we believe that the M.Eng. con-
cept is a beneficial one, in the current situation. It
is not without problems but the severity of the
problems can be dealt with to preserve the
strengths of the program. O


REVIEW: Chemical Reactor Theory
Continued from page 131.
index at the end.
The book is produced by photostat of the typed
manuscripts; this has kept both the price within
bounds, and the production relatively error-free.
Finally, the editors are to be congratulated on
performing the herculean task of carrying this
work through to print. It is tragic that Leon
Lapidus met his untimely death just before the
volume actually appeared in print-this is a work
he would be rightly very proud of. ]

By Sidney W. Benson, John Wiley, New York,
1976 ($22.50).
Reviewed by Robert D. Tanner,
Vanderbilt University
The rate constants for 7 out of the 19 most
important reactions proposed to model the de-
struction of ozone in the stratosphere were not
accurately known in 1976. [1] The first direct
measurement of the reaction rate of nitric oxide
with the hydroperoxyl radical, a critical reaction
in the chemistry of ozone in the upper atmos-
phere, was not reported until the next year. [2]
That report, of a rate 10 to 40 times faster than
had been estimated, led to the conclusion that
chloroflurocarbon aerosols may by 35% more de-
structive of the earth's ozone layer than had been
previously predicted, while supersonic aircraft
may be only half as destructive. [2] Since under-
standing the estimation techniques for such im-
portant gas-phase reactions are timely, it is ap-
propriate to examine the general status of estimat-
ing rate constants in Benson's revised book on
Thermochemical Kinetics. How accurate for
example, are the most recent developments of the
classical transition-state theory and collision
theory in predicting rate constants, a priori, from
thermochemical data? Can we tell beforehand, as
Levenspiel [3] states, whether the predicted rate
will "match the experiment by a factor of two" or
will be off by a factor of 106? Unhappily, as the
hydroperoxyl radical example illustrates, the most
recent estimation methods still deviate by more
than a factor of two, and Benson's text doesn't
help us deal with this problem.
What seems to be needed, after recognizing
that the collision theory may generally be used to
estimate the upper reaction rate bound, [3] is a
lower bound estimate. When information is avail-

able to apply the transition state theory, the pre-
dicted rates are generally closer to experimental
rates than that predicted by the collision theory.
[3] Nevertheless, the transition state predicted
rate does not provide the desired lower bound. We
therefore need to simultaneously develop definite
upper and lower bounds for predicting rates of
specified reactions, and sharpen the predicting
tools for each bound, thereby reducing the pre-
dicted maximum errors.
A recent review by Rossini [4] aptly covers the
topics in the five chapters of Benson's book and,
thus, will not be repeated here. What seems to be
important in Benson's book, from an engineering
point of view, is its potential to help us predict
the behavior of such reactions as pyrolysis, crack-
ing, hydrogenation, oxidation, and polymerization
in new processes, such as those being developed
for coal gasification. Extensions of the predictive
methods covered by Benson to the condensed
phases (liquids) are beyond the scope of his text,
but are presently under development. It is hoped
that Benson's book will be the inspiration for
one which will eventually cover methods, for not
only predicting liquid phase reaction rates, but
for those of reactions governed by both homo-
geneous and heterogeneous catalysts. O

1. Maugh, T. H., II, Science, (October 8, 1976), 170.
2. C & EN, (June 13, 1977), 16.
3. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd
ed., Wiley, New York (1972), 23-29.
4. Rossini, F. D., Chem. Engin., (May 9, 1977), 12.

By Moshe F. Rubenstein, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
Prentice Hall, Inc., 1975
Reviewed by Richard M. Cyert,
Carnegie-Mellon University
This book is, in one sense, misnamed. I looked
forward to reading it because I thought from the
title that it would be an application of some of the
recent research in psychology. In fact, only the
first chapter attempts that type of approach. The
rest of the book could best be described as an
introduction to operations research. Nevertheless,
the book is an interesting one for the person who
wants a quick introduction to such diverse topics
as Boolean algebra, Bayesian analysis, the central
limit theorem, random walk, utility theory,
linear programming and sequential analysis. The
book is a potpourri of techniques.

Rubenstein is a professor of engineering at
UCLA and developed the book from a course on
problem solving. The course was apparently a
campus wide course and those techniques were
selected that had the highest probability of attain-
ing immortality.
On balance, I liked the book and believe that
it can be a useful book for self-study. It would
not be as useful as a text book because the author
attempts to cover too much ground. He also demon-
strates a lack of real understanding of many of
the areas. He obviously did some reading and then
attempted to teach the particular technique he had
just "learned." The elements are not getting put
together to facilitate understanding of any process.
I will illustrate my point with the subject of
decision making under uncertainty. In a real sense
the most important case in the study decision
making, if not the only one, is decision making un-
certainty. Rubenstein does several things to con-
fuse that point and in doing so makes it clear that
he understands his material as a student not as a
practicing professional.
In discussing decision making in Chapter 7,
he accepts the distinction between risk and un-
certainty that Frank Knight first made in 1920
in his book, Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Risk
was used by Knight to define situations where it
is possible to compute an objective probability and
uncertainty refers to those situations in which
an objective probability cannot be computed. This
distinction was useful historically in thinking
about certain decision-making problems, but it is
a distinction that is not meaningful since L. J.
Savage's, Foundations of Statistics. (This book
is not listed in the extensive bibliography of books
listed on pages 522 to 528. Since the list is not
alphabetical, I might have missed it). Savage
resuscitated Bayes and demonstrated that a
Bayesian always has a probability for an event.
Rubenstein does show that he is aware of the
existence of subjective probabilities but never ties
together their existence with Bayesian analysis.
Rather he reduces the subjective probability case
to the case of risk since probabilities exist. This
reduction is wrong since a Bayesian would behave
differently and, in fact, Rubenstein has shown such
behavior, 158 pages earlier, in his development of
decision tries.
In addition Rubenstein discusses sequential
analysis in isolation from decision making under
uncertainty. Yet for those who understand de-
cision making behavior from either a positive or

a normative point of view, sequential analysis is
acknowledged to be the most effective approach
to decision making under uncertainty. It is also
the most commonly used approach.
In other words, I am warning the reader that
the author is a talented amateur. Thus much can
be gained from the book, but it should be recog-
nized that one is jumping from the tip of one ice-
berg to another. It is important for real under-
standing to stay on one iceberg (properly defined)
and get to the part that is submerged.
Nevertheless the book is interesting as an in-
troduction to a large number of techniques as well
as to the jargon used in many disciplines. One has
to admire the aplomb which Rubenstein demon-
strates in Chapter 5 in discussing models. He has
one section on "Models of History." In that sec-
tion Freud is handled in one short paragraph
while Spengler and Toynbee take one long and
two short paragraphs. In this chapter he de-
scribes not models in history but also models of
the universe, the atom, the brains and others. That
chapter alone is worth the price of the book.
The book is well written. It has problems at
the end of chapters and answers at the end of the
book. Professor Rubenstein's knowledge is so vast
that any reader will learn something. To go more
deeply into any of the subjects he mentions more
work is necessary. O

A short course on Emulsion Polymerization and
Latex Technology will be offered August 27-31,
1979, in Davos, Switzerland. Additional informa-
tion can be obtained from: Dr. Gary W. Poehlein,
ChE Department, Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332.

The first annual one-week short course,
"Physics and Chemistry of Printing Inks," will
be offered at Lehigh University during the week
of October 29 November 2, 1979. This course is
designed for engineers, chemists, other scientists,
and managers who wish to acquire background in
this subject. Further information can be obtained
from: Dr. Mohamed S. Al-Aasser, ChE Depart-
ment, Whitaker Lab. No. 5, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, PA 18015.




Division of Metallurgical Engineering,
University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington 98195


Show that upon incorporating an irreversible
step into an otherwise reversible Carnot cyclic
process there results a diminution of thermody-
namic efficiency and a simultaneous augmentation
of the entropy of the universe. Exact expressions
are to be developed for the thermodynamic
efficiency and the entropy change of the universe
for such a cyclic process.

The conventional Carnot cycle consists of four re-
versible steps [1]. These are: adiabatic compression (I), iso-
thermal expansion (II), adiabatic expansion (III), and iso-
thermal compression (IV). We shall consider a modified
cyclic process in which an irreversible step II' is interposed
between steps II and III. The details of the modified cyclic
process are shown on a P-v diagram in Figure 1. In-
tuitively we may anticipate the efficiency of the heat
engine operating on the modified cycle to be less than
that of an engine operating on the strict Carnot cycle.
Furthermore, there may be an increase in the entropy of
the universe each time the working substance is taken
through the modified cycle. For simplicity, we may choose
ideal gas as the working substance. The additional step
introduced here is an adiabatic free expansion process;
this step is clearly an irreversible step [2]. The practical
details of how one might carry out Step II', in the context
of the modified cycle, are elaborated in Figure 2. As shown
in Figure 2A, at the completion of Step II all the gas is
on the right side of the thin diaphragm which separates
the gas from an evacuated chamber on the left side. After
the cylinder and piston arrangement is thoroughly insu-
lated, let us suppose that at an opportune moment the
diaphragm is ruptured whereupon the gas rushes into the
evacuated chamber. At the conclusion of Step II, then, the
gas would occupy the entire space in the cylinder, as
shown in Figure 2B. During the adiabatic free expansion,
an ideal gas should experience no change whatsoever in
its temperature [2]. Thus, at the completion of Step II' the
thermodynamic state of the system is defined as P,', v,'
and T,. The remainder of the modified cycle consists of
two reversible adiabatics (I and II') and two reversible
isothermals (II and IV). The amount of heat absorbed,
the change in the entropy of the system and the work
done in each of these steps can be determined easily.
( Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1979

Y. K. Rao is an Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engineering
at the University of Washington, Seattle. He received his Ph.D. de-
gree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1965. For three years
thereafter he worked in industry. He joined the Columbia University
in 1968 as Assistant Professor of Mineral Engineering and became
Associate Professor of Mineral Engineering in 1972. He has been
with the University of Washington since 1976. His research interests
are thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and their applications to
extractive metallurgy.

Step I:
Heat absorbed, Q, = 0;
Entropy change, AS, = 0;
Work done, W, -AU, = C,(T1-T,)



Evacuated diaphragm ideal gas piston

P3 3 2 [


ruptured diaphragm

pV3, T2
3 2

ideal gas
Step II:
Heat absorbed, Q, = RT2 In (v,/v) =
Entropy change, ASi, = R In (v,/v2)
Work done, W, = Q,1 = RT2 in (v2/v2)
Step II': (1)
Heat absorbed, Qn, = 0; Work done, Wj, = 0
The entropy change can be calculated by assuming
a reversible isothermal process between thermo-
dynamic states 3 and 3' ASn,, R In (v3'/v,)
Step III':
Heat absorbed, Qm, = 0;
Entropy change, AS1u, = 0;
Work done, Wm1, = -AU m, = Cv(T,-T1)
Step IV: (2)
Heat absorbed, Qiy = RTU In v,/v4' = Q
Entropy change, ASj, = In v,/v4';
Work done, Wv = Qv = RT1 In vT/v,'
For the entire cyclic process:
W = sWi = Q2 + Q1, = RT. ln(v2v2) + RT1 ln(v1/v4,)
AScy,,e = R In (v,/v2) + R In (v,/v,,) + R In (v,,/v,)
By considering the two reversible adiabatic steps, viz., I
and III', we can show that
V3'/v2 = V4'/V1 (5)
Upon substituting equation (5) into equation (4) we shall
AS,,,e =R In 1 = 0 (6)
By combining equations (3) and (5) we find:
W = [R n(v/v2)] [T2 T1 RT1 In (v,'/v) (7)
The efficiency of the modified cycle is given by:
S= T: RT, In (v,'/v3)
T2 RT, in (v3/v2)
Since v,' is greater than either v, or v2, the third term on
the right side is a negative quantity. Hence it follows
that q' is less than Carnot efficiency 7. The ,atter is de-
fined as follows:
= 1 (9)
The diminution in the efficiency of the modified cycle is
directly inked to the presence of the irreversible step II',

The greater the departure of v3, from v. the larger the
decrease in the efficiency.
In order to determine the entropy change of the uni-
verse, due to the modified cyclic process, we need to cal-
culate the entropy changes of the surroundings. The hot
reservoir "lost" an amount of thermal energy equal to
-Q,. The cold reservoir "gained" an amount of heat which
is equal to -Q'-.
Entropy change of hot reservoir = -Q2, T2 = R In (v,/v,)
Entropy change of cold reservoir = -Q1, = -R In (vl/v4,)
Summation yields:
ASsurroundings = -R In (Vs/v2) R In (vl/v4') (12)
Upon combining equation (12) with equation (5), we shall
find that:
ASsurroundings = R In (v,'/v2) (13)
Since v,' > vs, this quantity is positive. The entropy change
of the universe is given by:
ASuniverse = 0 + R In (v3'/v.) (14)


In conclusion it may be said that the presence of an
irreversible step in an otherwise reversible cyclic process
will cause a diminution of the efficiency of a heat engine
operating on that cycle; furthermore, there will be an
augmentation of the entropy of the universe each time the
cycle has been completed.
Thus, unlike the strict Carnot cycle, the modified cycle
causes an increase in the entropy of the universe.


1. Darken, L. S. and R. W. Gurry, "Physical Chemistry
of Metals," McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New
York, 1953.
2. Sears, F. W. and G. L. Salinger, "Thermodynamics,
Kinetic Theory and Statistical Thermodynamics,"
3rd edn., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Read-
ing, Mass., 1975.

LC conferences
The Second International Symposium on Innovative
Numerical Analysis in Applied Engineering Science will
be held at the Ecole Polytechnique in Montreal, Canada,
from June 16-20, 1980. Over 100 papers, covering a range
of disciplines from solid mechanics (elasticity, fracture,
visco-elasticity, elasto-plasticity) and structure to fluid
mechanics (aerodynamics, free surface flow, acoustics)
and fluid-structure interaction to diffusion, electromagnetic
and biological problems, have been accepted. An equally
wide range of numerical techniques (finite differences,
finite elements, boundary integral equations, etc.) will
be represented, with all papers published in proceedings
to be available at the meeting. Keynote addresses are
scheduled to be presented by 0. Zienkiewicz of the U.K.,
J. Hess, G. Fix of the U.S.A., J. Nedelec of France and
M. Fortin of Canada. Further information may be ob-
tained from A.A. Lakis, Mechanical Engineering Dept.,
Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, Station A.,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3A7.




The earth is rich in ores and
minerals, like the rocks
above-but not so rich we can
use them recklessly. That's
why Union Carbide does
more than mine, process and
sell metal alloys. We also
find new ways to stretch
these precious natural re-
sources, through imagina-
tion and responsible

Uranium is known chiefly as a source
of power. But the atom's energy has
provided a tremendous bonus: the
new science of nuclear medicine.
Nearly one out of every three hospi-
tal patients has been helped by
radioisotopes, often in diagnostic
tests. Union Carbide mines and
processes uranium ore. Then, in our
own reactor, we produce the
isotopes doctors use to help diag-
nose illnesses. But our contributions
to nuclear medicine include ad-
vanced technology as well as raw
materials. For instance, we have de-
veloped imagers and body scanners
that let the doctor see what's hap-
pening functionally inside your body.

Nature never thought of stain-
less steel. Technology created
it, and it's almost everywhere.
It resists corrosion in chemi-
cal plants. It's used wherever
food is professionally prepared.
And for hospital use, it's easy
to sterilize. Union Carbide's
chromium alloys make steel

satellites and
geologists working
on every continent except
Antarctica help us locate
new sources of vitally need-
ed manganese, chromium,
uranium, tungsten, silicon,
vanadium and asbestos.

Union Carbide Corporation, 270 Park Avenue, NewYork, N.Y. 10017 *

SAn Equal Opportunity Employer


At Celanese,

we won't force you into a mold.

The challenge of being part of a large, growing
corporation could be offset by the fear of being swal-
lowed up, forced to conform to the company's way of
At Celanese, we didn't get to be successful by
sticking to the traditional way of doing things. Our un-
usually open working environment, our flexible handling
of responsibilities have won us a solid position in the
production of chemicals, fibers, plastics and polymer
When you come to work at Celanese, you'll be
assigned to a project right away. You can put your cre-
ativity and decision-making skills to good use. We won't
waste your time in lengthy training programs- we won't
waste your mind by forcing you to fit into a corporate

mold. You'll have the freedom and the opportunity for
rapid growth and advancement at Celanese.
We're looking for people who are still growing, and
want to be part of an expanding industry. You just might
fit in your way- at Celanese.
If you have a degree in engineering or chemistry,
and would like to learn more about us, write Tom Clark,
Celanese Building, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New
York, N.Y 10036.

An equal opportunity employer m/f

Full Text