Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Chemical Engineering Documents


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mia en gi ng edcto

Chemical Engineering Monographs

edited by S. W. CHURCHILL

1, Polymer Engineering

2: Filtration Post-Treatment

3: Multicomponent Diffusion

4: Transport in Porous Catalysts

5: Calculation of Properties Using
Corresponding State Methods
6: Industrial Separators for Gas
7: Twin Screw Extrusion

8: Fault Detection and Diagnosis
in Chemical and Petrochemical

For a descriptive brochure giving full details
the publisher.

1975 x + 166 pages
US $20.00 / Dfl. 45.00

1975 xiv + 150 pages
US $31.00 / Dfl. 70.00
1976 x + 176ipages
US $29.00 / Dfl. 65.00
1977 x + 198 pages
US $29.80 / Dfl. 73.00

by Z. STERBACEK et al.
1979 In preparation

by O. STORCH et al.
1979 In preparation

by L. P. B. M. JANSSEN
1978 x+ 172 pages
US $34.75 / Dfl. 85.00

1978 x + 414 pages
US $59.50 / Dfl. 134.00

of these books, please contact

E LIP Box 211. 1000AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
52 Vanderbilt Ave.. New York. N Y. 10017
The Dutch guilder price is definitive US S prices are subject to exchange rate fluctuations

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
Editorial & Business Assistant:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
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CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
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WEST: R. W. Tock
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EAST: Thomas W. Weber
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NORTH: J. J. Martin
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Chemical Engineering Education

54 Department of Chemical Engineering
60 The Educator: R. Byron Bird
64 Piping Layout as a Laboratory Process,
Donald R. Woods and Robert W. Dunn

70 The Iceberg Problem, Robert L. Kabel
73 When is a Man Half a Horse?,
Joseph J. Martin

76 Examinations as a Method of Teaching,
Ralph Peck
88 A Course in Chemical Engineering Equip-
ment, William R. Wilcox
92 Material Balance Calculations with
Reaction: Steady-State Flow Processes,
James W. Lacksonen
96 The Analogy Between Fluid Flow and
Electric Circuitry, F. Rodriguez

80 M.I.T.'s Fossil Fuel Program, H. C. Hottel,
J. M. Beer, J. B. Howard, J. P. Longwell,
A. F. Sarofim, G. C. Williams
84 Practice School: The Industrialization of
Chemical Engineering Seniors, Thomas
R. Hanley and James M. Henry

63, 68, 91 Letters
86 Positions Available
86 Errata
94 Conferences
94 ChE News
69, 72, 75, 78, 87 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1979 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


lala"111 ^ ... '_ __

the ChE Building. Notice the sugar kettle in front.

i Ei department


Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803

NEAR THE ENTRANCE TO the Chemical Engineer-
ing Building at Louisiana State University
rests a large, overturned iron kettle. Along side
is the inscription:

Used by Jean Etienne de Bor6 in 1795 to granulate
sugar from Louisiana cane for the first time, thus
revolutionizing Louisiana's economy.
This kettle is a fitting symbol for the Department
of Chemical Engineering at LSU, a department
built on an agricultural economy which has de-

veloped to meet the changing economic needs of
our space age society.


T HE HISTORY OF THE Department of Chemical
Engineering at LSU is firmly rooted in the
technology of sugar processing. It was begun by
Dr. Charles Edward Coates, founder and coach of
LSU's first football team in 1893, Dean of the
Audubon Sugar School, and Dean of the College
of Pure and Applied Science until his retirement
in 1937. As dean of the sugar school, he formu-
lated one of the first courses in ChE offered in
the United States. Coates' work in the Audubon
Sugar School brought students to LSU from every
sugar producing country in the world and at-


The Graduate and Research Addition to

tracted worldwide attention from scholars in the
field. Coates established a tradition of flexibility
and service to industry, and his practical approach
to teaching survives today.
The tradition established by Charles Coates
was continued by his son, Jesse, a member of the
faculty from 1936 to 1973 and department head
from 1955 to 1967. Jesse Coates, who retired in
1973, still makes his home in Baton Rouge and
maintains the title of Alumni Professor Emeritus
of ChE.
Flexibility continues to be the keystone of the
department's development. Rather than adhering
to any narrow field of technical specialization, de-
partment leaders have sought to shift the technical
emphasis over the years without losing strength in
fields of excellence developed in the past. As the
cane fields along the banks of the Mississippi were
replaced in the 1940's and 1950's by the towers of
Louisiana's petrochemical industries, the depart-
ment's expertise in process design blossomed.
Then in the 1960's the race for space took LSU
chemical engineering research into computer
process control technology. The present depart-
ment retains the best of such expertise yet con-
tinues to develop through active research in en-
vironmental control, energy sources, and bioengi-

Ph.D. faculty, ChE awarded its first degree in
1908 and the university's first Ph.D. in 1935. The
department's philosophy has always incorporated
its role as one of the university's leadership
centers-with several faculty members rising to
high administrative positions in the university.
Paul Murrill, Head of the Department from 1967
to 1969 and now Chancellor of the Baton Rouge
campus of LSU, was recently cited by Change
magazine as one of the 100 "most respected
young leaders" in higher education today. Ralph
Pike is serving as Assistant Vice-Chancellor for
Research Coordination, and Bert Wilkins is
serving as Coordinator of Energy Research.
Bernard Pressburg, recipient of the third Ph.D.
awarded by the department, is Associate Dean of

Engineering. For five years, from 1972 to 1977,
Cecil Smith served as Chairman of the Depart-
ment of Computer Science at LSU. To complete
the cycle, Joe Polack, former Director of the
Exxon Research and Development Laboratories
in Baton Rouge, and Department Head from 1970
to 1976, is now Director of the Audubon Sugar


SHE CHE DEPARTMENT AT LSU is in a phase of
rapid growth. Recent national figures on ChE
enrollments show that LSU ranks, seventh and

Professor Farmer and graduate student Viroj
Vilimpac contemplate modifications to the detector on
the shock tube.
seventeenth in undergraduate and graduate en-
rollment respectively. But growth is not occurring
at the expense of quality. LSU chemical engineers
at all degree levels continue to make important
contributions in industrial, governmental and aca-
demic circles.
The undergraduate program, which has held
continuous accreditation since 1939, attracts the
best and brightest from Louisiana, the nation and
the world. Each year the LSU Alumni Federation
designates the "Top 100 Scholars" from among
the state's high school graduates. Fully 15% of
this year's "Top 100" have chosen a ChE major
at LSU. The latest university statistics shows the
average ChE student has an ACT score 21%
above the university average. In contrast to both


Flexibility continues to be the keystone of the department's development.
... department leaders have sought to shift the technical emphasis over the years without
losing strength in fields of excellence developed in the past.

Chemical Engineering Faculty

PHILIP A. BRYANT, Professor, Ph.D., 1966, Louisiana
State University. Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reacting
Systems in the Hydrocarbon Chemical Industry.
CLAYTON D. CALLIHAN, Professor, Ph.D., 1957,
Michigan State University. Microbial Conversion of
Cellulose to Useful Products.
RAMSAY L. S. CHANG, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., 1975,
Stanford University. Bioengineering, Membrane Trans-
JAMES B. CORDINER, Professor, Ph.D., 1941, University
of Washington. Properties of Materials, Nuclear Waste
ARMANDO B. CORRIPIO, Associate Professor, Ph.D.,
1970, Louisiana State University. Automatic Control,
Optimization, Simulation. (Currently on Sabbatical
RICHARD C. FARMER, Professor, Ph.D., 1962, Georgia
Institute of Technology. Combustion, Numerical Analy-
sis of Transport Phenomena.
FRANK R. GROVES, JR., Professor, Ph.D., 1955, Uni-
versity of Wisconsin. Automatic Control.
DOUGLAS P. HARRISON, Professor and Chairman, Ph.D.,
1966, University of Texas. Kinetics and Catalysis,
Pollution Control.
ADRAIN E. JOHNSON, JR., Professor, Ph.D., 1957, Uni-
versity of Florida. Dynamic and Steady State Model-
ing of Chemical Process Systems for Improvement
and/or Optimization of Process Performance In-
EDWARD MC LAUGHLIN, Professor, Ph.D., 1956, D.Sc.,
1974, London University (England). Transport Proper-
ties of Gases and Liquids, Thermodynamic Properties
of Solutions, Solar Energy.
PAUL W. MURRILL, Professor and Chancellor, Ph.D.,
1963, Louisiana State University.
RALPH W. PIKE, Professor and Assistant Vice-Chancellor
for Research Coordination, Ph.D., 1963, Georgia Insti-

national and university trends, the average ACT
score of LSU ChE's has increased steadily over
the last ten years.
The quality of the graduate program has also
long been recognized. In the 1970 evaluations
published by the American Council on Education,
LSU's ChE graduate program was placed in the
second highest category. Recently the Board of
Regents of the State of Louisiana, as part of a
statewide review of all doctoral programs,
officially commended the chemical engineering
doctoral program for the "distinguished level of
academic excellence." Only eight doctoral pro-
grams received such commendation.
Today, LSU chemical engineers are subject to
vigorous recruitment, not only by South Louisi-
ana's petrochemical industries but by industries
throughout the sun belt and the nation. Accord-

tute of Technology. Transport Phenomena, Optimiza-
tion, Chemical Reactor Design.
JOSEPH A. POLACK, Professor and Director of Audubon
Sugar Institute, Sc.D., 1948, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. Sugar Cane Processing.
BERNARD S. PRESSBURG, Professor and Associate
Dean of Engineering, Ph.D., 1941, Louisiana State Uni-
CECIL L. SMITH, Professor, Ph.D., 1966, Louisiana State
University. Process Control, Mathematical Modeling,
System Engineering, Minicomputers and Micropro-
ARTHUR M. STERLING, Associate Professor, Ph.D., 1969,
University of Washington. Fluid Mechanics, Heat
Transfer, Biomedical Engineering.
BERT WILKINS, JR., Professor and Coordinator of
Energy Research, Ph.D., 1965, Georgia Institute of
Technology. Transport Phenomena, Bioengineering,
Ecological Systems Analysis, Energy Planning.

Visiting Faculty
KUNIO KATAOKA, D. Engr., 1965, Kyoto University.
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.
ALEXIS VOORHIES, JR., M.S., 1926, Honorary D.Sc.,
1964, Loyola University. Heterogeneous Catalysis with
Crystalline Zeolites.

Adjunct Faculty (Part-Time)

GEORGE A. DANIELS, M.S., 1966, Louisiana State Uni-
versity. Senior Chemical Engineering Associate, Engi-
neering and Mathematical Sciences Section of the Re-
search and Development Department, Ethyl Corpora-
tion, Baton Rouge.
KENNETH L. RILEY, Ph.D., 1967, Louisiana State Uni-
versity. Staff Engineer, Exxon Research and Develop-
ment Laboratories, Baton Rouge.

ing to William F. Vaughn, Director of Profes-
sional Employment for the Chemical Division of
PPG (and a recruiter of LSU graduates for more
than 20 years), "you can count on the LSU chemi-
cal engineer to have a good, basic understanding
of the field and to move easily into positions of
responsibility." This year's B.S. candidates are re-
ceiving starting salaries at or above the national
average. Considering the relatively low cost of
living throughout the sun belt, a B.S. in ChE at
LSU is a rather wise investment.


T WENTY-THREE CHEMICAL engineers currently
hold faculty titles. University administrative
assignments, coupled with the part-time nature of
some appointments, reduce the current full-time


equivalent faculty to fourteen. The faculty is
supported by three technicians and an administra-
tive and secretarial staff of three. A new member
of the faculty (to begin next fall) has been added
and another is being sought. A complete listing
of the faculty and their research interests is given
in Table 1.
The department has two faculty positions de-
signated for visiting professors. One of these posi-
tions is held, on a renewing basis, by Alexis
Voorhies, Jr., who teaches graduate courses on
petroleum refining and petrochemical technology
and is pursuing research on heterogeneous cataly-
sis. Alexis was recently honored with the E. V.
Murphree Award by the American Chemical So-
ciety. The other position has been ably filled the
previous three years by Professor Jaime Wisniak
from Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel,
Mr. Edgar Bristol of the Foxboro Company, Fox-
boro, Massachusetts, and Professor Alexander
Burcat from The Technion, Haifa, Israel. This

Professor Chang and graduate student J. P. Merle
make final adjustments on the membrane separations

year we are fortunate to have with us Professor
Kunio Kataoka from Kobe University, Japan. The
success of the visiting professorships in the past
has encouraged us to continue with this program
for it has brought to the department fresh ideas
and new approaches to both teaching and research.


CONSISTENT WITH THE department's policy of
technical flexibility and adaptability, the under-
graduate program places strong emphasis on the
fundamentals of the physical and engineering

Recent national figures on ChE
enrollments show that LSU ranks seventh
and seventeenth in undergraduate and graduate
enrollment respectively.

sciences. Laboratory and design courses allow the
student to apply the fundamentals to the solution
of today's practical engineering problems. The
faculty is firmly convinced of the need to
strengthen the communication skills, both written
and oral of today's ChE student. Many courses
stress the quality of the student's presentation in
addition to the quality of the technical work. Oral
presentations have been video taped to permit
later playback and self-critique.
A total of 133 semester hours is required in
the undergraduate curriculum with a brief
summary shown in Table II. Proper choice of elec-
tive courses permits the student to minor in a
second field such as chemistry, pre-medicine or
business, or to obtain additional courses in the
primary field of ChE. One recently popular minor
field is that of petroleum engineering. Elective
courses in reservoir engineering, drilling and well
completion, and secondary recovery methods
permit the ChE graduate to compete and con-
tribute as a petroleum production engineer.
Senior ChE electives in such diverse topics as in-
dustrial pollution control, hybrid computation,
polymers, bioengineering, food engineering, and
process dynamics provide the opportunity to
supplement required courses. Students with an
interest in ChE graduate study are encouraged to
choose ChE electives.
Curriculum in Chemical Engineering

Required Courses
Chemical Engineering
Other Engineering
Computer Science

Elective Courses
Chemical Engineering
Humanities Electives
Free Electives
Approved Technical Electives

Semester Hours




Computers have long been an integral part of
ChE at LSU. Students follow an introductory
computer science course in FORTRAN program-
ming with a course in numerical solution to ChE
problems. Most of the other undergraduate
courses utilize the computer on either a required
or optional basis. Students have access to the de-
partment's as well as the university's computer

Both the Ph.D. and M.S.Ch.E. degrees are
awarded with either the thesis or non-thesis op-
tion available at the master's level. The graduate
student is provided with a broad selection of
courses in all areas fundamental to ChE. In a
typical semester, the student may choose from
among a dozen graduate credit courses.
No specific courses are required for either the
M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. Course selection is made
by the student in consultation with the major
professor and the advisory committee. Students
in the non-thesis M.S. option and the Ph.D. pro-
gram must pass comprehensive written examina-
tions, thus ensuring that the individual's program
includes a broad coverage of the most fundamental
Graduate enrollment is divided almost equally
between full- and part-time students. The con-
centration of refining and petrochemical industry
in the Baton Rouge area provides a large pool of
chemical engineers hoping to further their educa-
tion through part-time study. The department
caters to the needs of this group by offering many
of the graduate courses in the late afternoon and
early evening hours. It is possible to complete all
requirements for the M.S. degree solely through
part-time study. While such a program combin-
ing full-time work and normal family responsibili-
ties with part-time graduate study is both arduous
and time consuming, two or three students per
year complete all requirements and receive the
master's degree.
To supplement the normal classroom and re-
search components of the graduate program, the
department offers an extensive seminar program.
Ph.D. -students often present a departmental
seminar as part of their final dissertation defense.
Numerous speakers from local industry are invited
to present seminars. However, the key to the
seminar program is the presentations made by
faculty from other institutions. In recent years,

A practical experiment in heat transfer.

such distinguished ChEs as Neal Pings of Cal
Tech, Bob Bird of Wisconsin, Art Humphrey of
Penn, Bob Reid of MIT, and Skip Scriven of Min-
nesota have presented seminars to LSU's faculty
and students.


D DEPARTMENTAL RESEARCH interests are broad,
and range from A (automatic control) to Z
zeolitee catalysis). As examples of current re-
search, four of the most active research programs
are described below.

Heading research in automatic control is Cecil Smith,
author and co-author of ten books and many articles on
the application of computer and mathematical modeling
techniques to process control. Smith's program is directed
primarily toward the application of new techniques to
achieve improved control in process plants. Digital systems,
either mini-computer or microprocessors, are emphasized
to implement the control scheme. Future directions for
the work include analysis of dynamic interaction, integra-
tion of plant design and process control, new techniques
for control of distillation columns, and use of optimiza-
tion techniques for implementing supervisory computer
Housed in the ChE building is a Xerox Data Systems
Sigma 5-Electronics Associates Incorporated 680 hybrid
computer, which provides much of the computational
support for this program. But the university has recently
installed the powerful and efficient IBM 370/3033, the
first of its kind at any university in the country. This
system will provide unequalled computer capability for
process control research as well as for other research

Clayton Callihan, who heads the research in bio-
engineering has distinguished himself in cellulose research


and has gained international recognition for his work on
the conversion of cellulose waste products into, high-
protein food. His current research is directed primarily
towards conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid and
gaseous fuels. The normal pathway for nature to decom-
pose fallen trees, dead grasses, and other natural waste
materials, is to first hydrolyse the cellulose to glucose.
This is followed by conversion of glucose to volatile fatty
acids and finally conversion of the acids to gaseous
methane. The current work has two basic aims. The first
is to speed up the conversion of cellulose to glucose and
the second is to maximize production of the intermediate
volatile fatty acids. The result would be to create a pool
of organic acids that have high combustion temperatures,
and thus the potential to serve as liquid fuels. To date,
the results have been most encouraging, but a great deal
more research is waiting to be done.

Research in combustion is the primary interest of Dick
Farmer. Recent studies include a shock tube investigation
of aromatic pyrolysis and oxidation as well as bench scale
furnace modeling of bagasse combustion.
Aromatic combustion is of great current interest be-
cause increasing percentages of aromatics are being
blended into gasoline to maintain octane requirements in
unleaded fuel. Since aromatics have a strong tendency to
smoke, future engine and furnace designs must take into
account the concomitant heating and combustion inefficien-
cies caused by the soot. In collaboration with Richard
Matula, Dean of the College of Engineering, Farmer is
measuring combustion rates in shock tube experiments.
Pressure and spectrally resolved infrared radiation are
the diagnostics of this study. Gas chromotography and
computer processing of the large volume of thermo-
dynamic and kinetic data are used to complete the analysis.
The investigation of these aspects of combustion, as
well as an investigation of the effect of field dirt on
furnaces which burn bagasse, are essential to the ful-
fillment of one of the department's primary goals-finding
ways to save energy in tomorrow's as well as today's

The Audubon Sugar Institute, modern counterpart of
the Audubon Sugar School, indicates the seriousness with
which the department approaches an industrial need. For
example, ASI is involved in research in cutting natural
gas consumption in sugar mills through utilization of
bagasse-the cane residue which remains after the juice
is removed. Currently, bagasse combustion provides 70%
of the energy used in Louisiana sugar mills. According to
Institute Director, Joe Polack, this research is indicative
of the high degree of success that is possible in the area
of industrial energy conservation. The institute is
currently expanding its research on sugar cane processing
and by-product uses. New research areas include: crystal-
lization rates of dextran-containing sugar solutions, com-
bustion and drying studies of bagasse, mechanism of scale
formation in syrup evaporators, and process control
studies in evaporators and crystallizers. A substantial
effort is beginning in the biochemical engineering area.

The first such work involves the use of enzymes to
control troublesome polysaccharides in sugar juices.
The institute, whose facilities include a complete sugar
mill and extensive pilot scale laboratory equipment, directs
graduate research in almost every ChE aspect of sugar

L EST THE READER GAIN the impression that only
work is involved in ChE at LSU, let us con-
sider a few of the extracurricular activities which
also play an important role. At almost any time
heated discussions concerning the current and
future status of Tiger football and basketball
fortunes can be overheard in the halls and the
student lounge area. Somehow, most of the
students find time to forego studying for a few
hours on Saturday nights of home football games.
The student chapter of AIChE, while quite
active in professional roles, excels in planning
and executing social affairs. For many years the
annual crayfish boil has provided a much needed
break from academics near the end of the spring
semester. Approximately 500 pounds of Louisiana
crayfish, coupled with adequate supplies of beer,
are enjoyed by faculty and staff as well as the
graduate and undergraduate students. This event
also provides lower level students with perhaps
their first exposure to a practical heat transfer
problem. A steam jacketed stainless steel kettle
in the unit operations laboratory is used to con-
dense the steam, and incidentally, to cook the
crayfish. Needless to say, this piece of laboratory
equipment is maintained in top-notch operating
condition. In addition to the social aspects, the
annual crayfish boil provides a fitting forum for
the presentation of awards recognizing outstand-
ing accomplishments of ChE students.
The faculty-student tennis tournament is a
recent addition to activities occurring on the day
of the crayfish boil. In the first match, the faculty
defeated a combined team of graduate and under-
graduate students by a 5-4 score. The deciding
point was supplied by Professor Voorhies and
Dean Emeritus Roger Richardson who utilized
150 years of combined experience to defeat their
undergraduate opponents. Subsequent matches
have been three team affairs with separate scoring
for faculty, undergraduates, and graduate
students. In the most recent match, the gradu-
ate students emerged victorious and the faculty
immediately resolved that in the future the gradu-
ate students would be expected to devote longer
hours to their research projects. O


W S educator

?. A?"" 3?d

Prepared by his
Wisconsin Colleagues
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706

T O THE PROFESSION Bob Bird is known as an
author and researcher, to the students at the
University of Wisconsin as an excellent teacher
and to others as a companion on numerous wilder-
ness trips, a linguist and musician.
The son of a civil engineer, Bob received his
B.S. in chemical engineering at the University of
Illinois in 1947 and his Ph.D. in chemistry at the
University of Wisconsin in 1950. After post-
doctoral experience at the Instituut voor Theo-
retische Physica in Amsterdam, Holland, and The
Theoretical Chemistry Institute at the University
of Wisconsin, he joined the chemistry faculty at
Cornell University. In 1953 he returned to Wis-
consin to join the staff of the chemical engineer-
ing department where he has progressed through
the faculty ranks and served as department chair-
man (1964-1968).

B OB'S INTRODUCTION TO transport phenomena
began with his doctoral work with J. O. Hirsch-
felder at the University of Wisconsin on the cal-
culation of transport properties of gases from
intermolecular forces and post-doctoral research
with J. de Boer at the University of Amsterdam
on quantum effects in gases at low temperatures.
This phase of his career culminated in the publi-

A summer at the DuPont
Experimental Station convinced Bob of
the need for developing a textbook which would
help engineers and applied scientists to understand
and use the "equations of change"
of transport phenomena.

K"- '#'^

^s --K
a^ ^ ,.
.- *- I~i- '



Bob hiked for two weeks on Baffin Island,
north of the Arctic Circle.
cation of a 1200-page treatise: Molecular Theory
of Gases and Liquids by J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F.
Curtiss, and R. B. Bird (1954), which brought to-
gether information on transport properties (vis-
cosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity),
equation of state, and intermolecular forces. This
work was recently listed by Current Contents as
the fourth most-cited book in physics and chemis-
try for the period 1961-1972.


A SUMMER AT THE DuPont Experimental Sta-
tion convinced Bob of the need for develop-
ing a textbook which would help engineers and
applied scientists to understand and use the "equa-
tions of change" of transport phenomena (the
differential equations for conservation of mass,
momentum, and energy as applied to multi-com-
ponent fluids). After several years of research
devoted to non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, non-
Newtonian heat transfer, viscous dissipation heat
effects, and multi-component diffusion, work was
begun on the book Transport Phenomena (R. B.
Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, 1960); it
was to go through 21 printings and 100,000 copies




in 18 years and was to be translated into Spanish,
Italian, Czech, and Russian.


F ROM ABOUT 1958 onwards Bob specialized in
research on transport phenomena in polymeric
liquids. These fluids cannot be described by the
equations of classical fluid dynamics (i.e., the
Navier-Stokes equations) since they do not have
linear stress-rate-of-strain relations. This work
comprised two main areas: the development of
constitutive equations (i.e., expressions for the
stress tensor), and experimental and theoretical
studies of theological behavior and fluid dynamics
problems. The latter included flow in annuli, flow
around spheres, performance of rolling-ball and
falling-cylinder viscometers, viscous heating in
cone-and-plate viscometers, percolation through
porous media, squeeze-film lubrication, secondary
flows in a disk-cylinder system, elongational flows,
and converging flows. The long-range objective of
this work was to develop methods of solving poly-
mer flow problems utilizing fragmentary data on
theological properties obtained from viscometric
and other experiments. In about 1968 Bird helped

David R. Longmire
Richard M. Griffith
Arnold G. Fredrickson
John C. Slattery
Hsien-Wen Hsu
James R. Brock
Allyn J. Ziegenhagen
Donald W. McEachern
Thomas J. Sadowski
Donald M. Meter
Michael C. Williams
J. Lloyd Sutterby
Rafli M. Turian
John D. Huppler
Thomas W. Spriggs
Edward Ashare
Ian F. Macdonald
Pierre J. Carreau
Christopher T. Hill
Chien Bang Wang
Everette K. Harris, Jr.
James F. Stevenson
Harold R. Warner, Jr.
Robert C. Armstrong
Ole Hassager
Roger J. Grimm
Michael J. Riddle
Moshe Gottlieb
Robert K. Prud'homme
Alberto Co


FIGURE 1. Four former chairmen of the ChE depart-
ment gather together on Jan. 18, 1968,
for the 90th birthday of Professor Otte
Kowalke (seated). Standing (left to right)
are Professors Roland A. Ragatz, Olaf A.
Hougen and R. Bryon Bird.
to found the Rheology Research Center at the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin, along with A. S. Lodge, J. D.
Ferry, J. L. Schrag, and M. W. Johnson, Jr.
After 1968 Bird turned his attention to the
kinetic theory of polymer solutions in order to in-
vestigate the connection between macromolecu-
lar structure and theological properties. During
this period two lengthy research publications ap-
peared: the first (with H. R. Warner and D. C.
Evans) summarized and extended the kinetic

FIGURE 2. In the Aula of the Technical University of
Delft two honorary doctors of engineering
congratulate each other: RB2 (left) and Ir.
L. Schepers, formerly president of the Royal
Dutch Shell Group and ex-president of the
Board of Governors of the University
(January 1977).


.:_aE-F '-T--
I-T Q JE i~e te'

4, .e i .
iy~-^t~fL1 J

Bob Bird's
a four-part fugue.

theory of solutions where the polymer solute mole-
cules are modelled as elastic or rigid dumbbells;
the second (with C. F. Curtiss and 0. Hassager)
established a new phase-space statistical mechani-
cal theory for polymer solutions which then pro-
vided the basis for further theoretical develop-
ments and detailed calculations. These two
decades of research on continuum and molecular
theories of polymer rheology culminated in the
publication of an 850-page, two-volume mono-
graph: Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Volume 1
-Fluid Dynamics by R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong,
and 0. Hassager (1977) and Volume 2-Kinetic
Theory by R. B. Bird, O. Hassager, R. C. Arm-
strong, and C. F. Curtiss (1977).

major interest, namely, applied linguistics. Be-
cause of his research and teaching activities in
The Netherlands, he became interested in the
teaching of Dutch. This activity resulted in the
publication of a graded and annotated series of

.... then with this
information at hand he co-authored
the first English-language reader on scientific
Japanese: Comprehending Technical Japanese...

short stories, essays, and poems by Dutch authors:
Een Goed Begin-A Contemporary Dutch Reader,
by R. B. Bird and W. Z. Shetter (1963, 1971).
Then he turned his attention to the problems
facing the scientist or engineer who wishes to
translate technical material from Japanese to
English. He first made an extensive study of the
frequency of occurrence of various kanji (Chinese
characters) in technical Japanese writings; then
with this information at hand, he coauthored the
first English-language reader on scientific Japan-
ese: Comprehending Technical Japanese, by E. E.
Daub, R. B. Bird, and N. Inoue (1975).
For years Bob offered a course in the Dutch
language and administered the graduate examina-
tions in Dutch out of his office in the ChE Depart-
ment. Nearly every Japanese visitor to the college
is brought over to visit with this "gaijin" who
speaks Japanese.

SOB HAS RECEIVED wide recognition for his pro-
fessional contributions. At Wisconsin he was
named Burgess Professor in 1968 and then Vilas
Research Professor in 1972. He was a Fulbright
visiting professor and Guggenheim scholar at the
Technische Hogeschool in Delft, Holland (1958),
and a Fulbright lecturer at Kyoto and Nagoya
Universities in Japan (1962-63). He received
honorary doctor of engineering degrees from Le-


1 4
-P j r-j ra,

""b i _w 1- r fr t: i"

high University (1972), Washington University
(1973), and the Technische Hogeschool Delft
(1977). He was elected to the National Academy
of Engineering in 1969. He was elected a Fellow
of the American Physical Society in 1970 and
Fellow of the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers in 1972; he has received the William
H. Walker, Professional Progress, and Warren
K. Lewis Awards of the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers, the Bingham Medal of the
Society of Rheology, and the Curtis McGraw and
Westinghouse Awards of the American Society of
Engineering Education.
The undergraduate students in chemical engi-
neering twice elected Bob as the best instructor.


B OB REGULARLY SPENDS the weekends hiking in
the lovely country-side near Madison, usually
with a group of graduate students, a course called
ChE 1000 convening at Devil's Lake and Governor
Dodge State Parks. Often in midweek, he returns
to his favorite spot on the cliffs of Devil's Lake
to "recharge his batteries."
For nearly thirty years, Bob has spent part of
each summer canoeing in the wilderness lake
country of Ontario, Canada. Usually, these canoe
trips are with graduate students from the depart-
ment and occasionally with fellow professors in
need of airing out.

FIGURE 3. This is the "kinen-shashin" after a dinner
at Nanpuro Restaurant in Kyoto with the
U. of Kyoto ChE staff in October 1968.
From left to right: 1st row, Profs. Toel, Yo-
shida, RB2, Nagata, Linoya; 2nd row, Profs.
Eguchi, Ito, Hiraoka, Yasunishi; 3rd row,
Profs. Emi, Nakamura, Harada, Hotta and

Bob regularly spends the weekends
hiking in the lovely countryside near Madison,
usually with a group of graduate students, a course
called ChE 1000 convening at Devil's Lake
and Governor Dodge State Parks.

In 1971, Bob and five fellow canoeists travelled
down the Coppermine River in The North West
Territories of Canada, covering 320 miles of the
tundra from Lake Rawalpindi to the Arctic Ocean.
In 1977, Bob, Ed Crosby, Phil Leider and Jim
Welch hiked for two weeks in Pangnirtung Pass
on Baffin Island, north of the Arctic Circle.
Bob also enjoys music composition and per-
formance. The piano and organ provide him with
hours of relaxation. His latest composition is a
four-part fugue. (See Figure 4) O

[LtN letters

Dear Sir,
A friend sent me a copy of your article about the
notorious R. A. of Minnesota and I write in haste to
protest this latest outrage upon my person. Not content
with stealing half my accomplishments to bolster his
own he adds insult to injury by allowing me to be treated
as "mythical." Mythical, my foot! Why that's a picture
of me at the baseball wicket during my recent goodwill
tour of the colonies; it couldn't be Aris for he doesn't
know whether the bat should be thrown above the shoulder
and below the knee or vice versa, he thinks a sacrificial
punt is a theological concept and a strike has something
to do with industrial relations.
But I'm not writing chiefly to protest my authenticity
nor even to expose the real imposter-his biography in
Who's Who is pure fiction and his only real merit is that
he has some good friends-but to make a simple correc-
tion. Much as, no doubt, Aris would like to claim credit
for supervising Arvind Varma's Ph.D. work this would
be preposterous. Even I who truckle with mash rather
than mathematics and never fash myself about a proof
unless there's '100' in front of it, know that it was
Amundson with whom Varma worked-witness the long
series of papers on the tabular reactor amongst others.
Perhaps the confusion arose because Varma has been
known to help Aris out; in fact they're currently editing
a selection of Amundson's papers, a volume which I'm
glad to hear will contain the Chief's early work on dis-
In anticipation of the benefits of which,
I remain, Sir, your obedient servant,
Aris McPherson Rutherford
"The Sampling Port"
3a, Reflux Road
Glenlivet, Scotland


Do[o #laboratory


McMaster University
Hamilton, Ont., Canada

safety, piping, reading blueprints, appreciat-
ing specifications and model building,-yes, it
would be nice if we had room in our curriculum
for all these. Recently, we discovered how. We
provide the students with a partially built model;
give them 7 hours to decide if the model has been
built correctly and why the equipment is placed
where it is and wind up with a 5-hour project to
install "some piping on the model." This activity
is scheduled as one of our 12 hour laboratory
projects that students may elect to take instead
of a traditional unit operations experiment. This
laboratory is very popular with the students.


T HE OVERALL OBJECTIVES for the laboratory are
to provide an opportunity and a vehicle through
which we can consolidate theoretical and practical
considerations for the selection of pumps, pressure
vessels, heat exchangers and distillation columns;
to introduce factors used for equipment placement
and layout, and piping; to develop skill at trans-
lating information on drawings into three dimen-
sions and to develop psychomotor skill at model
building. More specifically these objectives are:
* To give the students some idea of what process equip-
ment looks like,
* To give the students some idea of the information given
on equipment specification sheets,
* To familiarize the students with some of the working
techniques for building models,
* To help students visualize the three dimensional layout
of equipment,
* To help students realize what factors influence the lay-
out of equipment,
* To provide actual model building experience,
* To help students learn how to translate information
from a diagram into three dimensional space,
* To give the students practice at laying in pipe on the

Robert Dunn was Senior Technician at the Welsh College of Ad-
vanced Technology, Cardiff, Wales, where he was part time lecturer
and technician. He has been Chief Technician in the ChE Dept. at
McMaster University since 1965. His special concerns are to develop
laboratory experiments and experiences that acquaint students with
the practical side of engineering and provide insight into the funda-
mental principles. He is an avid wilderness hiker, fisherman and out-
doorsman. (L)
D. R. Woods is a graduate of Queen's University and the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin (Ph.D.). For the past three years he has been
attending all undergraduate lectures along with the students to try
to discover what needs to be done to improve student's problem
solving skills. His teaching and research interests are in process
analysis, and synthesis communication skills, cost estimation, separa-
tions, surface phenomena and developing problem solving skills. He
is the author of "Financial Decision-Making in the Process Industry."
He received the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associa-
tion award for Outstanding Contribution to University Teaching. (R)

* To train the students to identify good and bad features
of piping layout on the model, on plant visits and as
shown in photographs.

T HIS LABORATORY WAS developed around the
Model Builder's Training kit [1] and manuals
[2, 3] developed by the Engineering Model Associ-
ates. This kit includes all the components needed
to build a 3/8" = 1 ft scale model of a single
rectification column. The unit consists of the
column, overhead condensers, reboiler, distillate
accumulation drum and four pumps. All the draw-
ings needed are given in the Training Manual
[2]. To build the complete model would require


about 200 hours. Since the laboratory time is very
limited we prefabricated all the process vessels,
the structural steel work, prepared the plot plan
and glued all the vessels on to the plot plan. This
required about 140 hours. Thus, in the terms of
model building we supplied the basic model. No
piping was laid out on the basic model when it was
given to the students.
To blend together the experience with the
model and the objectives, we prepared four sets of
notes and worksheets. Details are summarized in
Table 1. First of all, these summarize background
information and data about model building and
plant layout. Next they provide leading questions
that force the students to ask themselves questions
in sufficient depth that they achieve the objectives.
The students can answer the questions directly on
the worksheets. Some worksheets ask that the
students fabricate pipe and put it on the model.
Indeed, the laboratory activities can be divided
into two main types: understand the fundamental
reasons for the layout given, and actually put in
the pipe. The first topic is the focus for work-
sheets 1, 2 and 3, and takes about 7 hours, and,
in the view of the students, is a "super review
of all we have had and then some!" The topics
start with individual pieces of equipment, con-
sider horizontal and vertical layout of each, build
up to the pipe rack and the placement of equip-
ment about it, and end up considering overall site
layout. The second major activity has three parts
related to the actual model construction. The
students bend wire to represent a piping system
given on an isometric drawing. Then they learn
how to lay in a pipe when the isometric drawing
is not given. Indeed, the drawings that are
supplied provide insufficient details; engineering
judgment is needed to determine the piping route
for most pipes. Figure 1 shows two students dis-
cussing with the instructor the location of one
of the pipes. Thirdly, to provide insight to the
students as to how to create the basic model we
review how we went about fabricating the process
equipment, constructing the structural steel and

FIGURE 1: Students Suzanne Norman and Steven Cosic
adjust piping while Bob Dunn (right) looks

making the basic model. The purpose of this last
exercise is to give the students sufficient apprecia-
tion of model building that they could set up a
model shop, could interact effectively with an
existing model shop and are aware of the
strengths and weaknesses of modelling.
The role of the instructor is similar to that
played in any other laboratory: to be available
when the students get hopelessly stuck, to provide
enthusiasm for the activity when and if student
enthusiasm wanes, and in some activities to share
experience. We make available extensive resources
that range from a collection of reprints of
pertinent articles [4-13], to model building litera-
ture [14-19], to trade literature [20-25], to text
books [25-29], to photographs of plants that illus-
trate piping layout. These photographs are taken
from advertisements in, and covers of such maga-

The overall objectives for the laboratory are to provide an opportunity and
a vehicle through which we can consolidate theoretical and practical considerations
for the selection of pumps, pressure vessels, heat exchangers and distillation columns;
to introduce factors used for equipment placement and layout, and pipings; to
develop skill at translating information on drawings into three-dimensions
and to develop psychomotor skill at model building.


111 11- I


Notes and Worksheets



Principles for building models, the in-
formation base, the criteria for layout

Tables of recommended horizontal and
vertical distances needed.

Set of questions pertaining to the
drum: its function, the drawings, the
specifications, the design principles
used, design alternatives and decisions
made, and horizontal layout.
Similar questions pertaining to the
heat exchangers, the pumps and the
distillation tower.

Analyze complete flow diagram to dis-
cover what is happening on this unit.
Identify model components and flow

Answer questions about specifications,
design and horizontal layout, based on
experience, courses, resource texts or
Compare drawing of drum with model
to discover any mistakes or omissions.


Articles on NPSH and reboiler piping
design considerations. Comments on
vertical layout considerations.

These provide an opportunity for the
student to consider notes, implications
and model details as they pertain to
the vertical placement.

Answer questions and do calculations
related to NPSH; measure vertical
distance and do some order-of-magni-
tude estimates.


Articles and notes about the pipe
rack, its placement on site, the re-
lationship between the pipe rack and
the process equipment, and the place-
ment of piping on the rack.
Horizontal distances between process
units, and other units on the plant
Description of the bending board and
methods of fabricating piping net-

The students relate what they observe
on the model to the suggestions given
in the notes.

Given two isometric drawings of pip-
ing for the model.

Compare model with theory.
Will need these ideas later when they
lay out the piping themselves.
Discuss with technician how the
model was made, what procedures
followed, what difficulties encountered.

To fabricate the piping network given
in one of the isometrics. The bending
board, pliers, cutters, piping and pipe
fittings are all supplied.


General suggestions from the model
building books (2)(3) on tagging
lines and laying them out.

Students are asked to select one pipe
(in addition to the one fabricated from
the isometric) and lay in the pipe.

To read the diagrams, determine where
the pipe goes, make decisions as to
placement of pipe when diagrams leave
off the details, fabricate the pipe in-
cluding supports, fittings and valves
and incorporate this onto the model.

zines as Chemical Engineering and Hydrocarbon


OUR LABORATORY course is a three-hour per week
composite laboratory to provide experiments
pertinent to all the senior level courses. Pairs of
students spend four such afternoons on any one
experiment. One professor coordinates the schedul-
ing of the experiments with about six others re-
sponsible for developing, supervising and evaluat-
ing the 15 experiments that make up the course.

Students select four out of the fifteen. The piping
layout laboratory is one of the choices. So far we
have handled only two students per model kit and
we run two model kits simultaneously. Thus, one
instructor can handle four students simultane-
Each pair of students receives the basic model,
scale ruler, pliers, bending board, glue, a small
cabinet of model parts, a parts catalogue [15] and
piping materials. The basic model and the parts
can be reused each year in that the parts are
clipped on and not glued. Each student receives a




set of 27 drawings pertinent to the model. These
are given in the EMA "Design Model Training
Manual." [2]
As the year progresses we leave on the model
the piping synthesized by the previous groups
(and remove for each new group the standard
piping configuration that we prepared from the
A complementary activity to this laboratory
is to ask students to visit the local boiler house
or pumping station, sketch the piping layout in a
section of the plant about 3 m x 3 m x 3 m and
comment on the appropriateness of the piping and

THE STUDENTS ARE evaluated 20% on the psy-
chomotor skills and quality of pipework added
to the model and 80% on the project report. In
the report, four aspects are worth equal marks.
The students are to show that they achieved ob-
jectives 1 and 2 by providing answers to the ap-
proximately 100 questions asked on the work-
sheets. Next, for objectives 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, they
should summarize the practical suggestions that
they have learned about building a model. The
third aspect of the report considers Objective 5:
plant layout. The students are expected to consult
articles and books other than those cited in the
bibliography and add additional information to
the notes on recommendations for the horizontal
and vertical layout of process equipment. Finally,
to satisfy Objective 9, the students should sum-
marize the good and bad practices illustrated for
the model they built, and for a photograph they
locate in the literature. This evaluation scheme
works well.
The students are enthusiastic about this
project; so enthusiastic that one might consider
extending the activity and introducing it earlier
in the program. We have noted with interest the
imaginative uses being made of models as fresh-
man projects [30]. Such use is very attractive to
us because it would complement our existing
freshman course in engineering graphics and de-
sign. The students could experience the strong
tie-in between engineering drawings, the model
and engineering practice. In addition such a proj-
ect would be highly motivating. However, we be-
lieve that the distillation model and the materials
we developed are inappropriate for use in the
freshman year. Our hope is to develop a project
to be handled similarly to the approach taken here

but for a small self-contained process such as a
flue gas desulfurization or sour gas scrubbing


B OTH FACULTY AND students have responded en-
thusiastically to the use of piping layout on a
plant model as a laboratory project. In this project
the students are given the basic model of a distilla-

Our hope is to develop a project to be handled
similarly to the approach taken here but
for a small self-contained process such
as a flue gas desulfurization or
sour gas scrubbing unit.

tion column and the pertinent engineering draw-
ings. They are expected to review the funda-
mentals used to design, select and lay out equip-
ment, and to gain experience adding pipe to the
model. Details are given of the objectives, the ma-
terials developed to make this project successful,
the mechanics for incorporating this project into
a traditional experimental laboratory course and
the method used to evaluate the students. E

We are grateful to the students for their useful
comments on how we could improve this laboratory. Mr.
Keith Day of EMA has been very helpful.

1. Engineering Model Associates; "Model Design Train-
ing Kit," EMA., Thornhill, Ontario.
2. Engineering Model Associates (1976): "Design Model
Training Manual," EMA., Los Angeles, Calif.
3. Engineering Model Associates (1976): "Model Pro-
cedure Manual," EMA., Los Angeles, Calif.
4. Judson, R. W., "What Information is Essential for
Good Piping Design?," Hydrocarbon Processing 45,
No. 10 (1966).
5. Kern, R., "Plant Layout and Piping Design for Mini-
mum Lost Systems?," Hydrocarbon Processing 45,
No. 10 (1966).
6. Kern, R., "How to Design Yard Piping," Petroleum
Refiner 39, No. 12, p. 139 (1960).
7. Maranick, J. V., "Suggested Practices for Unit Layout,"
Petroleum Refiner 37, No. 9, p. 339 (1958).
8. McGarry, J. F., "Checklist for Plant Layout," Petro-
leum Refiner 37, No. 10, p. 109 (1958).
9. Bush, M. J. and Wells, G. L., "Unit Plot Plans for
Plant Layout," Brit. Che. Eng. 16, No. 4/5, p. 325
10. Kern, R., "How to Design Piping for Pump Suction
Conditions," Chem. Eng. 82, No. 9, p. 119 (1975).


11. Kern R., "How to Design Piping for Reboiler Systems,"
Chem. Eng. 82, No. 16, p. 107 (1975).
12. Kern, R., "Control Valves in Process Plants," Chem.
Eng. 82, April 14, p. 85 (1975).
13. Spitzgo, C. R., "Guidelines for Overall Chemical Plant
Layout," Chem. Eng. 83, Sept. 27, p. 103 (1976).
14. EMA Newsletters.
15. Engineering Model Associates, (1977) Catalog from
16. Gysemans, E. E. (1967), "Scale Models in Construc-
tion," Chemical and Process Engineering, March p.
17. Rowland, J. R. (1971), "The Concepts, Principles, and
Function of the Engineering Model," Paper 60a at the
AIChE Meeting, San Francisco, November.
18. Steele, L. W. and Miller, R. E. (1971), "More Ways to
Use Engineering Models and Answers to some Con-
cerns," Paper 60b at the AIChE Meeting, San Fran-
cisco, November.
19. Utley, C.O. (1971), "Use of Models in the Design and
Construction for Foreign Projects," paper 60c at the
AIChE Meeting, San Francisco, November.
20. Patterson Kelley Inc. (1959), "Heat Exchangers
Manual 700-A," Patterson Kelley, East Strondsburg,
21. Glitsch, F.W. and Sons, Inc., (1969), "Ballast Tray
Design Manual," Bulletin 4900. P.O. Box 6227, Dallas,
22. Crane, Canada Ltd., (1969), "Flow of Fluids through
Valves, Fittings and Pipe," P.O. Box 2700, Montreal
379, P.Q.
23. Smart, Turner and Haywood Ltd., Pumps Catalog.

24. Unifin Ltd., "Engineering Data Book," London, On-
25. Ludwig, E. E. (1964), "Applied Process Design for
Chemical and Petrochemical Plants," Volumes 1, 2
and 3. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas.
26. Evans, F. L., (1971), "Equipment Design Handbook
for Refineries and Chemical Plants," Volumes 1 and
2, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas.
27. Rase, H. F. (1963), "Piping Design for Process
Plants," J. Wiley, New York.
28. Hellwig, A. J., Bercier, R. L. and Marion, P. N. (1978),
"Safety in Plant Design: University Presentation by
Esso Chemical Canada," Esso Chemical Canada, Sarnia.
29. Fire Protection Handbook, 14th ed. National Fire Pro-
tection Association (1976).
30. Ward, T. J. (1976), "Process Model-Building: An In-
troduction to Complex Design," Chem. Eng. Ed. X,
No. 3, p. 136.

-IM letters

In response to the question on chemical engineering
faculty who have run in a marathon (Winter 1979, p. 52),
I ran in the Cheyenne Frontier Days Marathon in July,
1978. I am planning to run in at least two during this
coming summer.
Rich Noble
University of Wyoming



M.S. and Ph.D. Programs

* Pulp & Paper Processing
Process Control
Food Processing

* Energy Sources & Conversion
Fluid Dynamics
Wood Conversion Reactions
Applied Surface Chemistry
Heat & Mass Transfer

Graduate Study Brochure Available on Request

WRITE: A. L. Fricke, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
115 Jenness Hall
University of Maine at Orono
Orono, ME 04473


I book reviews

By Peeter Kruus. Marcel Dekker, New York 1977
Reviewed by Keith Gubbins, Cornell University
Substantial advances have been made in both
the theoretical and experimental methods for
studying liquids over the past ten years. These
include, on the theoretical side, the development
of successful perturbation theories and integral
equation methods, and the application of these to
liquid mixtures; on the experimental side there
have been great improvements in both spectro-
scopic and scattering techniques, as well as much
careful and elegant work on phase equilibria and
properties near critical points. These advances
have been enhanced by the rapid development of
computer simulation techniques, and their applica-
tion to liquids of practical interest (water, hydro-
carbons, etc.). This situation has led to an out-
pouring of books on liquids recently. (A quick
perusal of my bookshelf showed nine such books
in the last few years, and this is by no means
inclusive). Thus the book by Peeter Kruus must
be viewed to some extent in the light of these other
The book is intended for seniors and graduate
students who have had some previous exposure to
thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics.
In the Preface the author states that the purpose
of the book is to give an overview of the various
theoretical and experimental methods used for
liquids, and thus prepare the reader for more ad-
vanced books and articles on the topic. This is a
laudable aim, but a difficult one. Unfortunately the
book does not achieve this goal as well as one
would hope. Beginners will be frustrated by the
lack of detailed explanations and derivations;
phrases such as "it can be shown that" occur with
irritating frequency, while in other cases equations
are merely written down and the reader is left
wondering whether or not he should understand
where they came from. At the same time, the book
is not particularly useful as a review for more
experienced readers, particularly since many of
the older methods (cell theory, significant struc-
tures, etc.) are included along with only rather
sketchy discussions of the modern approaches;
the whole is without any depth or critical appraisal
of the relative merits of different theories.
The book is divided into three parts. Section A

covers the theory of liquids, including inter-
molecular forces, cell theories, significant struc-
ture theory, and distribution function theory. Of
particular interest to chemical engineers will be
the chapters on liquid mixtures, electrolyte solu-
tions, and transport processes in liquids. Section B
covers experimental methods for studying liquids,
and includes chapters on thermodynamic, trans-
port property, ultrasonic absorption, dielectric re-
laxation, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, mag-
netic resonance and scattering (light, x-ray, and
neutron) measurements. Each chapter contains a
summary of the underlying theory for the method,
a description of the experimental techniques, and
results for some typical liquids of various classes
(monatomic liquids, organic, water, mixtures,
systems of biological interest, etc.). Section C is a
brief review of background material, and includes
chapters on thermodynamics, equilibrium statisti-
cal mechanics, nonequilibrium thermodynamics
and statistical mechanics, electromagnetism and
quantum mechanics.
The most useful part of the book is Section B.
This gives a helpful summary of many of the ex-
perimental methods used for liquids. Section A is
disappointing in that it attempts to cover too
much; by briefly describing a wide range of models
and theories (of varying degrees of usefulness)
the readers appetite is whetted, but not satisfied.
However, the references for further reading given
in this section are helpful.
The book has more than its share of conceptual
errors. Thus the very first sentence is incorrect,
where it is stated that the dynamics in liquids is
ultimately determined by the intermolecular
forces; the influence of molecular mass and mo-
ment of inertia is not mentioned. A further
example occurs on page 17, where an example of
three polar molecules (a, b and c) close together
is used to explain many-body forces; the fact
that the presence of c influences the orientations
of a and b is not necessarily an indication that
pairwise additivity of forces is invalid.
This book cannot be recommended as a text for
the beginner wishing to study liquids, although it
is of some use for an overview of the subject and
a source of references. The discussion of experi-
mental methods is also valuable, and the book can
be recommended to some readers on that basis.
However, the student wishing to get started in the
field of liquids would do better to study some of
the other recent books, for example Kohler's "The
Liquid State" or "Liquid State Chemical Physics"
by Watts and McGee. 5

[5 class and home problems for teachers

The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scott Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.


Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

A news report in The Wall Street Journal
(June 27, 1977), titled "Icebergs for Arabia May
Be Feasible; Executives Deplore Government
Rules," sparked my interest in the problem of
moving icebergs from the Antarctic to Saudi
Arabia as a source of fresh water. Later, Prince
Mohammad al Faisal, in an interview reported in
KAYHAN (April 25, 1978), described how ice-
bergs could be towed from Antarctica to Saudi
Our modeling class attempted to analyze this
problem (although not the economics). There are

Robert L. Kabel received his B.S. degree from The University of
Illinois in 1955 and his Ph.D. from The University of Washington in
1961. From 1961-1963 he served in the U.S. Air Force Space Systems
Division receiving the Commendation Medal for Meritorious Achieve-
ment. Since 1963 he has been at The Pennsylvania State University
where he is Professor of ChE. He was at The Technical University of
Norway (1971-72) and Pahlavi University in Iran (1978) as visiting pro-
fessor and lecturer, respectively. He has served recently as Chairman of
the AIChE's Chemical Engineering Education Projects Committee
(1976-77) and the Central Pennsylvania section of the American Chem-
ical Society (1970). His research centers around catalytic kinetics and
air pollution meteorology. He is active in industrial consulting, flying,
and squash.

endless fascinating considerations, most of them
amenable to evaluation by familiar chemical en-
gineering principles. For example we considered

* Ocean water temperature variation
* Solar radiation
* Sublimation of ice
* Heat transfer from air and water
* Fracture of the iceberg
* Effect of a shroud on top, sides, and bottom
* Drag reducing agents
* Subzero interior of the iceberg
* Effects of seasons and weather
* Effect of precipitation and sedimentation on iceberg
* Iceberg geometry
* Effect of pressure on melting point of ice
* Towing speed and ocean currents

Our conclusion was that the iceberg transport
idea is technically feasible. It may be quite a
different story economically and environmentally.
A drastically simplified problem was con-
structed for an exam. It and its solution are listed
below. Please view this problem as merely "the
tip of the iceberg."


Although this problem is an "iceberg problem,"
it is simply an opportunity to apply the principles
of modeling to a simple heat transfer problem.
It is proposed to move icebergs, initially weigh-
ing 1011 kg, from the Antarctic to Saudi Arabia
by towing with large tug boats. The 9000 km trip
will take 7 months at 0.5 mns-1. Consider a spheri-
cal iceberg at a uniform temperature of o0C and
assume that the main concern is the melting of ice
due to heat transfer from the surrounding waters,
wherein the temperature is also uniform at 15C.
A heat transfer coefficient has been calculated for
this situation to be 70 J'm-2-s-1'K-1. What fraction
of the original iceberg will remain upon arrival in
Saudi Arabia? If your calculations show that the


iceberg will melt completely, then tell how long
it took for the iceberg to melt completely.
In working this problem, begin with the ap-
propriate general equation or equations. Describe
all assumptions and approximations made in re-
ducing these equations to the final model. Describe
and justify any initial and boundary conditions
used. Characterize your model according to the
level of physicochemical detail (e.g., microscopic,
maximum gradient, etc.) and mathematical
nature. Finally, solve your model as indicated in
the previous paragraph.


T =150C

0.5 ms-1
h=70 J*m-2.s- k-1

Antarctica Arabia
I 9000 km moth
k_--7 months

As the iceberg is transported it maintains its spherical
shape but it shrinks by melting of the external ice due
to heat transfer from the warmer water. The temperature
of the water is said to be uniform at 150C, so no internal
detail on the water is required. The temperature of the
iceberg is also constant, so no internal detail is required
there either. The concentrations are also constant in the
berg (pure ice) and the water, so no mass balance details
are required.
Still the problem is unsteady state in that melting
causes the iceberg to shrink. This might appear to be a
moving boundary problem however it is simplified by the
fact that no gradients are affected by the movement of
the ice-water interface.
Since there are no gradients involved it is clear that
only macroscopic balances are involved. Also, the nature
of the problem indicates that these balances should be
for the unsteady state.
The macroscopic mass balance for the ath species is

dt m.,tot = -A (pa s) + w0(m) + r0,avVtot

If we sum up over all species we get

d m t -A(p s) + w(m)
where the generation term disappears because there is no
gain or loss of total mass. Actually the two are identical
because the iceberg is a single component system. We
apply this balance to the iceberg with the boundary being
the solid-liquid interface.
There is no bulk flow in the system, hence =
0 and A (p s) = 0. This leaves
d w(m)

A news report... sparked my
interest in the problem of moving icebergs
from the Antarctic to Saudi Arabia as a source
of fresh water.

where m = total mass of spherical iceberg, kg
t = time, s
w = rate of transfer of water across the ice-
water interface, kg*s-1
Note w(m) was defined as positive when added to the
system. In our case it is leaving the system so its value is
negative. This is consistent with the idea that total mass,
m, must decrease with time. Thus dm is negative.
The momentum balance is of no importance here. The
energy balance is

d Etot A 1 A
dt A + 2

(p s) + Q-W + Q(m) + Sg

There is no work done on or by the system, so W = 0;
no generation or consumption of heat within the system
hence S1 = 0; and no bulk flow, hence = 0 and
- A [ ] = 0. The result is

d Etot + Q(m
Etot = m U + Ktot + Ptot = m U
where m is the total mass and U is the specific internal
energy and the kinetic and potential energy terms are
zero. Finally
d (mU) dU A dm dU
d Et m + U 0
t dt dt dt dt
A dm
dt Q(m)

Take as a datum temperature, Td = 0 and the ice state.
A A dm
Then U = 0 and U -- = 0 and the heat transferred
from liquid to solid is
Q = -Q(m) = heat lost from system by ice melting to
water and leaving system.

Q = h A (T, Ti)
Q(m) J.s-1 = w(m) kg.s-1 (X + Cp (Ti Ta)


where X = latent heat of fusion of ice and Ti = Td'
Q(m) = w(m) X = Q = h A (Ti T,)
h A dm
w(m) = (Ti T) =
X dt
To solve this equation we need an expression for the area,
A = f(m), and a numerical value for ice is Xie = 3.34 x
Asphere = 7r Do ; Vsphere 6

7r Do3
Mass of sphere = pVsphero = P m

The density of ice, pice = 900 kg'm-3

m rDp Do= )1/3
6 \ )rp
6 6 x 1011 1/3
x 900 = 596m
(This is a big iceberg and a deep port will be needed.)
(6 2/3 6m\2/3
A 02 =I = DO/2 1/3I_
A D\ p I \ P


/ 6 m 2/3
irv/3 ( m ) h (Ti T)
P p

= m2/3 P

_m_ = dt
All the terms on the right side are independent of time
and the equation can be integrated. The initial condi-
tion of m = mo at t = 0 is obvious from the problem
m t
f m-2/3 dm = Pf dt= pt
mno o
m1/3 m
3 -- = 3 (mo/3 m1/3) = lt

We see that mo > m and T, > Ti so both sides of this
equation are positive. Rearranging

mo/3 m1/3 m 1/3
m13 mo1/3 mo

= Pt
3 mo1/3

In I 1 t 1
mo 3 mo1/3
It is logical that as h, (Tw T,), and t go up, the fraction
remaining, m/mo, goes down. Also as there is more ice
initially, the ice is more dense, or it requires more heat to
melt a unit mass; the fraction remaining will increase.
Putting in actual numbers
30 day 24 hr 3600 sec
month day hr
= 1.81 x 107 s

m I
mo -

7r1/3 62/3 70 (15 0) x 1.81 x 1071 3
3 x 9002/3 x 3.34 x 105 (101) 1/3 J

= [1 0.21]3 = 0.49, less than half re-
mains but some ice does make it.
This calculation assumed that the area for heat transfer
is equal to the total area of the sphere. Of course only
0.9 of the iceberg is under water; however the part above
the surface is exposed to the air and to solar radiation
which may approximately compensate.
The model is macroscopic. No boundary conditions are
needed. And the model ends up as lumped parameter, un-
steady, ordinary differential equation, and is determinis-
tic. FO

*1 book reviews

Edited by J. W. Mullin,
Plenum Press, New York, 1976.
Reviewed by R. W. Rousseau,
North Carolina State University
This book is a collection of 44 papers on
crystallization presented at the 6th Symposium on
Industrial Crystallization held in September 1975.
The papers encompass secondary nucleation,
crystal growth kinetics, crystal habit modification,
crystallizer design, and case studies of industrial
crystallizer operations. A review paper leads off
all but the last section; research results are pre-
sented in each section. The quality of the papers
is not uniform but most are excellent.
Professor G. D. Botsaris begins the section on
secondary nucleation with an excellent review; its
only weak point is that much has happened in the
field since the paper was written. Professor
Botsaris discusses various nucleation models and
areas where further research is needed. Particu-
larly noteworthy in the remainder of the papers
on secondary nucleation are those by Bujac and
by Estrin and Youngquist. Bujac's paper presents
an interesting experimental concept concerning
the relationship between attrition and secondary
nucleation. Estrin and Youngquist postulate in
their paper that secondary nucleation and crystal
growth are mechanistically coupled, a concept
which is gaining in acceptance.
The review paper on crystal growth kinetics is
by Professor P. Bennema, who systematically dis-
cusses the major theories of surface incorporation-
controlled growth. The research areas emphasized
Continued on page 87.


g class and home problems for teachers


University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109

A bicyclist is pedalling along a level street in
Denver at a speed of 40 km/hr on a calm day when
the air temperature is 200C and the barometer
normal for that elevation. It is desired to calculate
the volume of air he breathes every hour and
compare it with the volume he would breathe if
he were doing the same thing on the same kind of
a day in New York City. The following data and
assumptions are to be used:
The cyclist's body is burning up essentially
sugar which may be taken as glucose.
The efficiency of his body as a thermodynamic
machine is 30% compared to a reversible
His lungs remove 20% of the oxygen from
the air passing through them. Air is taken
to be 21 mole % oxygen with a M.W. of
The air resistance of his body and the bi-
cycle is equivalent to a cylinder, 1/2 m in
diameter and 3/4 m long, moving with
the same velocity as the bicycle with the
major axis of the cylinder perpendicular
to the motion.
The road resistance to the tires and the fric-
tion in the bearings of the wheels, gears,
and chain vary directly as the velocity, and
are given by 0.05 N/(km/hr).
The elevation in Denver is 1650 m while that
in New York is 7 m.
Standard acceleration of gravity holds for
the latitudes and elevations involved.

The first step is to find the work done by the cyclist
in one hour. The force against which he is pushing is the

*Presented at the ASEE meeting in Vancouver, B.C.,
Canada, June 1978.

sum of the air resistance and the road resistance and
bearing friction. The latter is simply
0.05N*hr 40 km
Fr+b= km i-- = 2.ON
To get the air resistance, we employ the drag equation,

Fair = CApU2
where C is the drag coefficient, A is the frontal area of
the cylinder, p is the density of the air, and u is the velocity
of the air relative to the cylinder. For infinite cylinders
C = 1.2, but there is air leakage around the ends of a
short cylinder which reduces the drag coefficient a little,
so 1.1 is assumed. The density of air will be less in Denver
than at sea level and this may be calculated by the baro-
metric equation taken at a constant temperature of 200C.

I VdP = -gAZ
Assuming air as an ideal gas, V = RT/P, so

dP = RT I 101.325 = gAZ

In 101.325 RT
where g = 9.80665 m/s2, R = 8.3144 Pa.mS/gmoleeK, and
T = 293.15K. This formula estimates the normal baro-
metric pressure in Denver at 1650 m elevation as 83.58
kPa and in New York at 7 m elevation as 101.24 kPa.
Using these pressures in the ideal gas law, we find the
density of air is 994.44 g/ma in Denver and 1204.6 g/m3
in New York. The air resistance in Denver is calculated
from the drag equation as

Fair 1.11 1 m 3 m 994.44 kg
F airr = ------------ -
S2 2 L4 J 1000 m
[40 km 2 1 Ns2 [ Ihr 12
hr [ kg-m 3600s
S1000 mkm
km _J = 25.32 N


Joseph J. Martin is president of ASEE, past president of AIChE
and of Engineers Joint Council, and professor and acting director of
the Institute of Science and Technology at the University of Michigan.
He was graduated from Iowa State University (BS), University of
Rochester (MS) and Carnegie-Mellon University (DSc). His main area
of interest is thermodynamics.

Similarly, the air resistance in New York is calculated to
be 30.67 N.
Now, in one hour the cyclist's work output is the
product of total force and distance. In Denver the total
force is 2.0 + 25.32 = 27.32 N and the work output in one
hour is

W = (27.32 N) (40 km) [N-1
= 1092.8 kJ 0.41 HP in Denver.
In New York the total force is 2.0 + 30.67 = 32.67 N and
the work output in one hour is

W = (32.67 N) (40 km) I kJ
[ N'kmJ
= 1306.8 kJ 0.49 HP in New York.
The cyclist's air volume breathed every hour is related
to the glucose burning rate. For a reversible machine
-Wr = AGT
Thus we need AG for the combustion of glucose. This is
not given in any of the ordinary tables of thermochemical
properties, so the usual approach would be to estimate it
by a group contribution method applied to the glucose
Fortunately, it is not necessary to do this, as the bio-
medical literature* reports that the oxidation of glucose
is one of the few reactions whose AG has been measured
in living systems. The following is given:

*Vishniac, W., Horecker, B. L. and Ochou, S., Advan.
Enzymol. 19, 1, 1957.
Ingraham, L. L. and Pardee, A. B. "Free Energy and
Entropy in Metabolism," Metabolic Pathways, Vol. I, third
edition, Greenburg, D. M. Editor, Academic Press, New
York (1967).
Ostrand and Rodahl, Textbook of Physiology, McGraw-
Hill, New York (1970).

C,H,,,0 + 6 02 6 CO2 + 6 HO,
AG = -708 kcal/gmole
Thus, the amount of glucose consumed by the cyclist
operating at 30% efficiency in Denver is

S 1092.8 kJ gmole kcal
0.30 708 kcal 4.184 kJ

= 1.2297 gmole
The amount of oxygen required from combustion stoichi-
ometry is

no = 6(1.2297) = 7.3782 gmole
and the amount of air required (21% oxygen and 20% of
the oxygen absorbed by the body) is
nair = (0.21) (0.20) = 175.67 gmole
(0.21) (0.20)
From the ideal gas law the hourly volume of air breathed
in Denver at a pressure of 83.58 kPa is
V = 5.123 m3 in Denver
Since the bicyclist does more work pedalling in New
York, the glucose consumed there is

n 1 [ 0.30 J [708 kcal [4.184 kJ
= 1.4705 gmole
and the moles of air required are

6 (1.4705)
nar = ( .40) 210.07 gmole
(0.21) (0.20)
Thus, the ideal gas hourly volume of air in New York
at a pressure of 101.24 kPa is
V = P 5.057 m3
This is slightly less air volume than is required in Denver.
Note the work is more in New York, but air supplies
more oxygen because of its higher density. If sitting-up
exercises were being done, air resistance would not be a
factor, so the work in Denver would be practically identical
to the work in New York. Because of less dense air the
air volume required in Denver would then be much greater
than in New York.


This problem was designed to be realistic,
based on extensive discussions with doctors,
physiologists and athletes. If a similar problem is
designed by others, some of the restrictions should
be noted:
Regardless of respiration rate while exercis-
ing, the lungs absorb roughly 20% of the
oxygen passing through them.
It is only for rather rapid exercise that a


human being can get to 1/2 HP. For slow
lifting the power is less.
The air resistance of the bicycle and man is
very complex with pumping legs, but the
equivalence to a short cylinder is not a bad
assumption, though the drag coefficient
may be high.
At rest a man breathes about 0.007 m /min.
A few people can get to 0.12 m3/min, but
this appears to be a maximum. The bicyclist
in Denver is averaging 0.085 m3/min,
which is 12 times that at rest.
Some doctors feel that 3/4 pound glucose is
the most a body can handle in an hour. This
leads to efficiencies of the body as a thermo-
dynamic machine up in the 30%o range, or
too much glucose will be required, not to
mention air. In New York the bicyclist is
burning up a little more than one-half
pound of glucose in an hour. Ol

There have been eight ASEE Summer Schools for
Chemical Engineering Faculty to date, but complete
records only seem to exist for the 1977 and 1972 schools.
T.W.F. Russell and S. I. Sandler, ChE Department, Uni-
versity of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, the directors of
the 1982 Summer School are writing a history of the
summer schools and badly need any information our
readers may possess. They are particularly interested in
the following:
* Date of the summer school, location, and directors.
* Program and those presenting it.
* Number of participants and number of schools repre-
* Budget details.
* Any documentation, final reports, correspondence, etc.,
particularly with regard to the early efforts in 1931
(Univ. of Michigan) and 1939 (Penn State).

publishes a special Fall issue devoted to graduate educa-
tion. This issue consists mainly of articles on graduate
courses written by professors at various universities, and
of advertisements placed by ChE departments describing
their graduate programs. Anyone interested in contribut-
ing to the editorial content of the Fall 1979 special issue
should write to the Editor indicating the subject of the
paper and the tentative date the paper can be submitted.
This information should be sent to Ray Fahien, Editor,
Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida 32611.

SP book reviews

By Robert Kalvoda, Ellis Horwood Limited, 1975.
Reviewed by Kenneth R. Jolls
Iowa State University.

Dr. Kalvoda's book provides a relatively brief
but sufficiently thorough discussion of the opera-
tional amplifier, particularly as its use pertains
to electroanalytical instrumentation. For the
chemical engineer to whom modern electronics has
become important in his experimental work, con-
trol studies, or computer automation, the opera-
tional amplifier is an invaluable tool. It has become
so much the "black box," however, that many of
us lose sight of its limitations, its nontypical ap-
plications, and the ways in which its functions may
be modified through external circuitry. This book
attempts to cover these areas as well as the more
familiar ones.
The book is organized into eight chapters as
noted below:
I. The General Scheme of the Measuring Apparatus
II. The Operational Amplifier-an Introduction
III. Basic Operational Amplifier Circuits
IV. Further Circuits Using Operational Amplifiers
V. Important Parameters in Application of Operational
VI. Types of Operational Amplifiers
VII. Applications of Operational Amplifiers in Chemical
VIII. Operational Amplifier Module Kits
Chapter I describes the usual signal processing
scheme encountered in instrumentation. Chapter II
provides a brief history of the OA and some of its
important macroscopic characteristics. A detailed
analysis of the external feedback circuitry used to
implement operational amplifier functions is pre-
sented in chapter III. The current follower is ex-
plained with emphasis being given to the concepts
of virtual ground and input impedance. The in-
verting voltage amplifier naturally follows and is
discussed in terms of its transfer function de-
pendence upon resistance ratios and signal fre-
quency. Non-inverting circuits including the
simple follower and follower with gain are de-
scribed in adequate detail, and their higher input
resistances are noted. Several configurations of
differential amplifiers are discussed as are a
number of OA circuits for precise voltage and
current sources.
Continued on page 99.




Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois 60616

M ANY TEACHERS FEEL that imparting informa-
tion is only a small part of the function of
good teaching. After 40 minutes of lecture many
students may lose interest, some may not be pre-
pared for the level of the lecture, some may be
relaxed and sleepy, some may be daydreaming and
for many other reasons the time is not being used
in an efficient manner. That last ten minutes is a
fine time for a short quiz.
This examination may accomplish some of the
following objectives:
All sleeping and dreaming stop.
The student finds out if he can use the basic material
to solve problems in the subject.
The instructor finds out if the students are following
his lecture, or if the material is being covered too
Do the students have the proper prerequisites for this
level of the subject?
All these grades help the instructor determine the
standing of each student in the class.
When the student realizes that he is going to have to
solve a problem on the lecture at the end of the hour
with no other preparation, he is given considerable
stimulus to follow the lecture.
Students will try to predict exams by studying old
exams and other texts.
By making some of the exams quite difficult and
some relatively easy but new, all students learn some-
thing from the exams.
Questions from the students on the lecture material
are stimulated.
If the exams can be taken from real life problems
the student can see the usefulness of the material and
be stimulated to apply the material to other fields.
Open book and notes are recommended for all
examinations. This principle eliminates the memo-
rizing of material and emphasizes the application
of principles rather than the use of formulas.

*Presented at the ASEE Meeting, Vancouver, B.C.,
June, 1978.

The short exam at the end of a class also has
been tried in grammar school, and it was found
to be very effective for most students. The fact
that the class realizes that at the end of the lec-
ture they will be expected to know the material is
a very potent stimulus to pay attention. That they
won't be able to go home and study the material
means that their only way of understanding the
subject is to pay attention to the material being
covered in the class.
The instructor has to prepare all of these exams
and grade all the papers. As the problems must
be quite short, the time for grading is not ex-
cessive. For best results, the instructor must
grade these problems so that he can find out if
the students understood the material and if the
students have the proper prerequisites for the

A few examples of the exams will illustrate
the type of material that is recommended. After

The last ten minutes is
a fine time for a short quiz ... The fact
that the class realizes that at the end of the
lecture they will be expected to know the material
is a potent stimulus to pay attention.

a general discussion of heat capacities, an ele-
mentary exam could be:
Evaluate C, for CO, at 1100 psia and 90F
from a T-S chart.

A correct solution is C, = T -as where

(3)s is evaluated by the reciprocal of a tangent

to the constant pressure lines at 90F. After
working this problem, the student usually under-
stands that the equations for C, as a function of
T are good only for the ideal range. In this
problem, the C, (22.5 Btu/lb.oF) is 100 times


What is the critical velocity of CO, at 600 psia
and 70F (non-ideal gas).
The solution would. be

u= v -()
v ap

Ralph E. Peck is Professor Emeritus after 38 years of service at IIT.
He was educated at the University of Minnesota (BS, Ph.D.). He holds
numerous U.S. and foreign patents but is best known for his research
in thermodynamics, heat transfer and drying. His honors include
awards for excellence in teaching at IIT, the ASEE Western Electric
Fund, and Fellow in AIChE.

the ideal gas value (0.22 Btu/lb.F). If Cv is
evaluated, it will be found to be fairly constant
over most of the diagram, and equations of state
would give similar results.
A more advanced example would be an exam
after a lecture on fugacity and activity.
What is the fugacity of CO2 at 900 psia and
AG = RT In f- H,-Ho-T(S2-So).
If only five minutes is available, the question
would be:
What is the activity of CO2 at 900 psia and
The answer could be unity by selecting this point
as the standard state. Another problem which has
been used is:



dG:VdP + dh


G, G

FIGURE 1. Membrane problem

^-vi v( p)

S (.16)2 700-500 (144) (32.2)

= 682 ft/sec. = 208 m/s
The result can be compared with the velocity
of CO, if it were an ideal gas as given by

__ I 9.77 (2)
u = VkRT = / 7.77 44 778(530) (32.2)

= 871 in/sec = 265 m/s


A GOOD EXAM need not have a ready complete
solution. An example is the following problem.
(a) Set up the differential equation for the temperature
of a log floating on water. The log is half submerged
in water and half in air.
(b) Give the boundary conditions if ha and he are the
heat transfer co-efficients in the air and the liquid,
and the ta and te are the respective temperatures of
the fluids.

The examination is quite elementary, so for a
good class it was changed to let the log slowly roll
in the wind with an angular velocity of a. The
exact solution to the differential equation later
was solved and published by one of the students
in conjunction with another member of the staff.
The stimulation obtained from such a problem is
far greater than from one that had a ready solu-


A SIMPLE PROBLEM which leads to a great deal
of discussion was the following: (see Figure
Given water in a beaker. Set up an expression for the
free-energy between the surface and the bottom. If
dG = -SdT + Vdp and T is constant, AG = S Vdp =
VAP and not zero. What is wrong with this conclu-
sion? The answer is that dG = -SdT + VdP + dh,
where h is the elevation which was neglected in the
calculation. AG is zero for water in the beaker. The
only way AG is not constant is if T is a variable and
then flow may take place.
The above simple problem led to a problem on
desalination published in the ASEE Journal.


A student gets the maximum
out of a problem if he has to work on
its solution before the subject is discussed.

A pipe was lowered into the sea with a semipermeable
membrane at the bottom. Fresh water would rise in
the pipe. The density of the salt water is greater than
that of pure water. If the unit were lowered deep
enough into the sea, the pressure difference would
exceed the osmotic pressure, and water would flow
out of the pipe. What is wrong with this conclusion?
The answer is that AG is zero over the sea water, and
zero over the pure water. Also AG across the mem-
brane is independent of the depth and never would be
This problem is the same problem as the beaker
problem, only more verbose. An article on de-
salination where the sea water on the bottom is
less salty than at the surface was proposed to
produce fresh water. This idea led to a method
of using the pipe to desalinate water due to a
concentration gradient. What started as a single
short quiz ended with a real process and helped
educate a great many people in the process.


HOMEWORK PROBLEMS are quite vital in any
course. These problems should be thought-
provoking and not merely require substitution
into equations that are derived in books.
The osmotic head of a 0.35% NaC1 solution is
about 95 ft. When desalinating water, the head
needed (410 ft.) is much greater as illustrated
by the following problem:
A perfect membrane is to be used to produce water
from a NaCl solution.
P = r+ 1 P = Atm
--- > Pump Membrane --> Turbine
700F i
0.35% NaCl
P = 1 Atm
Calculate the minimum energy required to produce a
pound of water if the compressor and expander have
an efficiency of 70% each.
Two interesting homework problems would be
as follows:
1. Given dry air at 900F. It is desired to keep a room
at 700F with a Freon 12 air conditioner. 400 BTU/
minute is the desired heat load.
(a) Draw a flow diagram for a satisfactory unit as-



suming reasonable operating conditions.
(b) Account for all the extra horse power required
over the needed reversible work. Give the HP loss for
each unit in your flow diagram.
2. Estimate how fast a penny will sink through a
field of ice which is at 320F.


A STUDENT GETS the maximum out of a problem
if he has to work on its solution before the
subject is discussed. The best course that I took
in thermodynamics was one where we had to solve
all the problems without class discussion. I feel
that the above approach is especially productive
for graduate courses, but I have used the above
method on juniors in college with excellent
The quiz method of teaching is productive
from elementary school through high school,
undergraduate and graduate-college courses. In
place of cramming for one or two large examina-
tions, students are kept aware of their progress in
the subjects from day to day.
When the learning process is distributed over
a long period, the retention of the principles is
much better than if that same material were
crammed into a couple of weeks before a big
exam. D

n book reviews

By R. S. Ramalho,
Academic Press, Inc., 1977 ($22.50).
Reviewed by Robert C. Ahlert,
Rutgers State University

My initial, superficial reaction to Professor
Ramalho's book was quite positive. His plan was
well conceived. The subject matter is of great pro-
fessional interest to several disciplines, especially
at an elementary level. The sequential develop-
ment of topics in the text is very appropriate,
while the tutorial technique employing illustrative
examples is effective as a teaching tool and as a
model for independent design.
A second reading, in depth, dampened my en-
thusiasm. What is the audience for this text? It
is clearly prepared for use as an undergraduate
engineering text or as the basis for a nonprofes-
Continued on page 95.


Modern technology-much of it
developed by Union Carbide-
transforms oil and natural gas
into thousands of vital petrochem-
ical products: synthetic fabrics,
plastics, even medicines.
Yet, sadly, most oil and nat-
ural gas are burned up, as fuel.
Onlyfourpercent goes into
petrochemicals. At Union Car-
bide, we're working on ways to
make thatfourpercentgo as far
as we can, to build a better future
for more of the world's people.
Mr A

The purity of the medicines
you depend on may well begin
with Union Carbide ingredients.
We provide basic materials for
everything from aspirin to
sedatives and antibiotics.

Increasingly, we're using oil to
save gas by turning it into
strong, light plastics that trim
cars' weight and boost their
mileage. Union Carbide also
supplies automakers with petro-
chemicals for everything from
resilient urethane bumpers to
polyethylene electrical insula-
tion. We even make Prestone IIW
Your carefree synthetic
fabrics are petrochemicals, too.
Union Carbide makes one of
the basic ingredients in polyester,
the most popular
synthetic of all.

Union Carbide pesticides are
registered for control of a wide
variety of crop-destroying
pests. Around the world,
they're helping increase -
yields of rice, soybeans
and other basic foods.

Millions of pounds

Union Carbide Corporation, 270 Park Avenue, NewYork, N.Y. 10017

'I E curriculum


Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139

RESEARCH AND INSTRUCTION related to the manu-
Jfacture and use of fuels has traditionally been
a strong part of the M.I.T. Chemical Engineering
Department's program. While the separation and
catalytic processes involved in manufacture of
useful fuels from petroleum and coal are a
standard part of the normal ChE curriculum, the
M.I.T. program has been somewhat unusual in
its additional focus on the science and engineer-
ing problems involved in the combustion of fuels
and in their high temperature thermal processing.
This area involves high temperature heat transfer
and kinetics with strong interaction with fluid me-
chanics, transport processes and thermodynamics,
and thus involves the major ChE skills. Studies in
fuels-related areas have proven to offer excellent
training in ChE and, conversely, application of
ChE skills to these problems has been extremely
effective in advancing the science and technology
of this important area.
Before World War II, research and instruc-
tion focused on the physical aspects of combus-
tion including pioneering studies of diffusion
flame droplet combustion, atomization and radia-
tive heat transfer. During and after World War
II, development of the gas turbine and ramjet
called for major advances in understanding of
high-output combustion systems. Application of
reaction engineering principles to these problems
of combustion system stability and output did
much to accelerate development and to establish

understanding of the relative roles of fluid me-
chanics and kinetics in these systems.
More recently, the environmental impact of
steadily increasing fuel use and the growing need
to turn from use of petroleum to other resources
such as coal, oil shale and biomass has focused
attention on understanding and control of by-
products such as nitric oxide, soot, submicron in-
organic particulates and polynuclear aromatics as
well as the processes of pyrolysis and char burn-
out encountered when burning solid fuels. This
has necessitated detailed studies of kinetics of
pyrolysis of solid and liquid fuels, heterogeneous
reactions and gas phase chain reactions.
Research and instruction in these areas has
recently been greatly augmented by formation of
the M.I.T. Energy Laboratory-a multidisciplin-
ary center which focuses on a broad spectrum of
energy-related problems and which undertakes
large integrated programs which would ordinarily
be beyond the scope of an academic department.
Examples of such programs are: a large effort in
coal burning MHD systems, a major modeling
study of fluidized bed combustion, and construc-
tion and operation of pilot plant-size facilities for
study of combustion of coal and synthetic fuels.
There is substantial faculty and student involve-
ment in these programs, greatly increasing the
scope of instruction and research and the contact
with other engineering and science disciplines.

S PECIAL TRAINING IN the combustion and pro-
duction of fuels in the Chemical Engineering
Department is considered to be an extension of
the core ChE skills. Consequently, this program
is closely interwoven into the ChE curriculum.

While the separation and catalytic processes involved in manufacture
of useful fuels from petroleum and coal are a standard part of the normal ChE
curriculum, the M.I.T. program has been somewhat unusual in its additional focus on the
science and engineering problems involved in the combustion of fuels and
in their high temperature thermal processing.




Special courses offered include:
Energy Technology, Hottel and Howard, "New Energy
Technology," plus notes.
Principles of Combustion, Beer and Chigier, "Combustion
Aerodynamics," plus notes.
Radiative Transfer, Hottel and Sarofim, "Radiative
Seminar on Fuel Conversion and Utilization
Coal Science and Technology, Notes (planned)
Undergraduate Research; B.S. Thesis; M.S. Thesis; Doc-
toral Thesis; Post Doctoral Research
Principles of Combustion offers training in the
basic concepts and applications of combustion, in-
cluding ignition and flame propagation, turbulent
flames, flame stabilization, flame chemistry, pollu-
tant formation and control, pulverized coal com-
bustion and fluidized bed combustion of coal. This
course offers the basis for specialized study and
research in a chosen aspect of combustion and also
offers the basis for dealing with the energy con-
version problems encountered in chemical engi-
neering practice.
The course in radiative transfer offers inten-
sive training dealing with the high temperature
heat transfer characteristics of surfaces, gases,
and particle clouds. Analytical approaches are
combined with empirical techniques to produce
approximations of engineering utility.
Energy Technology offers a broad study of
energy and energy conversion systems. Considera-
tion is given to energy supply/demand patterns,
and economic and environmental problems asso-
ciated with energy production and consumption.
The technology of conversion of raw fossil fuels
to clean gaseous and liquid fuels and use of both
nuclear and solar energy sources are studied.
Efficiency, cost and environmental effects are
used to place these various facets of energy into a
consistent framework. Emphasis is placed on


techniques for gaining perspective and of com-
paring the merits of various energy alternatives.
The weekly Seminar in Fuel Conversion and
Utilization offers the opportunity for participants
in this program to present a discussion of their
ongoing research or results of special studies in
which they may be engaged. Guest speakers round
out the program by bringing in current results
and viewpoints from outside the group. Two new
courses are also planned on coal science and tech-

Research is a major component
of the fuels program, with a wide variety
of opportunities by students at all levels....

nology and on experimental techniques in com-
bustion which will take advantage of the extensive
experimental facilities available at M.I.T.

RESEARCH IS A MAJOR component of the fuels
program, with a wide variety of opportunities
for participation by students at all levels from
undergraduate research through a masters degree
program, a doctoral program and a substantial
post doctoral and visiting scientist program.
Areas of current active interest are:
Pyrolysis-Profs. Howard, Longwell, Virk and
Pyrolysis (decomposition by heating) is a
basic process that occurs in fossil fuel gasifica-
tion, liquefaction and combustion. Yields and com-
position of liquids and gas can vary widely de-
pending on the manner in which the reaction is
carried out. These processes have great potential
for optimizing future use of fossil fuels and offer
many opportunities for contributions from re-
search. Research is currently active on:


* Basic kinetics and diffusional effects in coal and biomass
pyrolysis, including effects of hydrogen pressure.
Composition and post-pyrolysis reactions of coal and
biomass pyrolysis liquids.
Catalytic effects of mineral matter in pyrolysis and
Effects of CO, and HS acceptors on composition of
pyrolysis liquids and gas.
Partition of fuel nitrogen between the solid liquid and
gaseous products in high temperature.
Hydrogen transfer reactions in coal liquefaction.
Pyrolysis product distribution in liquid hydrocarbon
Combustion Generated Pollutants-Profs. Be6r,
Elliot, Georgakis, Hites, Howard, Longwell, Saro-
fim, Thilly, and Williams.
Studies of the mechanism of formation and
methods of control are an increasingly important
element of combustion research. Significant pro-
gress is required because of the combination of
increasingly stringent control of emissions and
the increasing use of "dirty" fuels such as coal
and liquids produced from coal and shale. Current
research programs include:
The flame chemistry of fixed nitrogen compounds under
rich mixture conditions.
Nitric oxide formation and destruction in droplet com-
Nitric oxide formation and destruction in fluidized-bed
combustion of coal.
Reduction of pollutant emission from turbulent diffusion
flames with strong swirl.
Chemistry and physics of soot and polynuclear aromatic
formation and destruction in idealized and in practical
combustion systems.
Composition and mutagenicity of combustion-generated
polynuclear aromatics.
Chemistry and thermodynamics of formation and in-
halation toxicology of submicron inorganic particulates
in high temperature coal combustion.
Rate of reaction of H2S and SO, with calcined dolomite.
Combustion Systems-Profs. Beer, Georgakis,
Longwell, Williams and Sarofim.
Combustion systems combine the chemistry of
combustion with fluid mechanics to generate one
of the most fascinating and important areas of
reaction engineering. In practical equipment the
flow is generally turbulent, with a sufficiently
large scale to strongly favor working with large
equipment so that the scaling problem involving
reactive and radiating turbulent flows is mini-

Combustion systems combine the
chemistry of combustion with fluid mechanics to
generate one of the most fascinating and important
areas of reaction engineering.

mized. The M.I.T. fuels research program is
fortunate in having a fully instrumented mega-
watt (4 ft x 4 ft cross section) furnace suitable
for studies of combustion of a wide variety of
liquid and solid fuels and also a 2 ft x 2 ft cross
section fluidized bed combustor as well as systems
suitable for studying gas turbine combustion
under pressurized conditions. Active programs in-
* An extensive study of modeling of fluidized bed com-
bustors in cooperation with the Energy Laboratory.
Theoretical and experimental studies of NOx formation
and destruction reactions in fluidized bed combustion.
Experimental studies of nitric oxide reactions in the
freeboard zone above a fluidized bed.
Combustion of coal-oil slurries.
Soot and polynuclear aromatic formation with coal and
shale liquids.
Assessment of pollutant formation potential of ad-
vanced power generation cycles. (In cooperation with
the Energy Laboratory).
Fluid mechanic and fuel effects on soot formation in
gas turbine combustors.

Undergraduate participation in fuels research
is through the undergraduate Research Oppor-
tunities Program (UROP) which can be taken for
credit or pay. A limited number of paid summer
positions are also available. The bachelors thesis
is optional and is credited toward laboratory
course requirements during the senior year. Re-
search may be independent or may be carried out
in collaboration with graduate students working
toward more advanced degrees.
Graduate work offers a variety of opportuni-
ties for students with a strong training in chemis-
try and/or engineering science. Through an in-
tensive combination of course work and research,
beginning in the spring term and continuing
through summer, the requirements for a M.S. de-
gree can be completed in one calendar year, offer-
ing an excellent background for an industrial
career or for continuation in a doctoral program.
Candidates for the doctor's degree must pass a
qualifying examination covering the core ChE
subjects as well as demonstrate the ability to
carry out a major individual research program.
Overall, the M.I.T. fossil fuels program in ChE
offers excellent training for addressing many of
the pressing energy-related problems facing
future engineers. Opportunities for contribution
in this area are increasing rapidly and graduates
from these programs are found in teaching, in-
dustrial research, operations and management
positions and in many government activities. f


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Le curriculum



Tulane University
New Orleans, LA 70118

current industrial methods and equipment is a
continuing problem in the training of chemical
engineering undergraduates. Universities have
tried many different ways of making their engi-
neering training relevant to industry's needs.
Undergraduate laboratories in general are not
capable of adequately preparing the new engineer
for the scale and pace of industrial operations.
Co-op programs at some schools are good in this
respect. Established in 1951, the ChE Practice
Division at Tulane University offers one method


Thomas R. Hanley is an Assistant Professor of ChE at Tulane Uni-
versity. He holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in ChE from Virginia
Tech and an M.B.A. in management from Wright State University.
Prior to joining Tulane in 1975, he served as a development engi-
neer in the areas of polymer characteristics and space system lubri-
cants at the Air Force Materials Lab. at Wright Patterson AFB. His
areas of research interest include reactor mixing analysis, high
temperature polymers, and biopolymer transport processes. (L)
Jim Henry received his B.S. in ChE from Rice University and his
Ph.D. from Princeton University. He has been a faculty member at
Prarie View A & M, Yale and Tulane Universities. Prior to his ap-
pointment at Tulane, he was with the Pittsburgh Energy Technology
Center of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. His interests are in areas of
energy and air pollution. (R)

for the student to obtain this experience and
relevant training. Practice School, as it is com-
monly known, enables second-semester seniors the
opportunity to perform in an industrial environ-
ment under the guidance of both an industrial and
an academic advisor.
During the fall semester the Practice School
director solicits engineering problems from the
local industry. Participating faculty and industrial
representatives then select the needed problems on
the basis of timeliness, company urgency, faculty
interest, and probability of completion in the time
constraints. Faculty and industrial advisors are
assigned, and two-student teams are selected for
work on each specific problem.
The 1977 Practice School utilized problems
from E.I. duPont, Shell Oil, Shell Chemical, Mon-
santo, Union Carbide, and Chevron Chemical com-
panies. The specific companies involved will vary
from year-to-year. Past practice schools have
utilized other local industry and a government
research lab, as well as a local hospital to accom-
modate students interested in medical applica-
The arrangements with industry are entirely
informal. Plant identification cards are issued to
the student workers to allow access to operating
areas, but there is no formal or monetary obliga-
tion or commitment on either party. With the
government lab a no-cost contract was obtained to
allow the work, but otherwise arrangements were
similar to those with industrial firms.
Eight semester hours, or half of the students'
Spring semester course load, are devoted to Prac-
tice School. The remaining course work (a tech-
nical elective and a humanities elective) is sched-
uled to allow at least two full days per week for

... the Practice School offers one
method for the student to obtain ...
practical exposure to current industrial
methods and equipment...


Students Marco Gutierrez (left) and Joe Powe in
one of the participating oil refineries.

on-site industrial work. The student groups are
encouraged to develop a schedule of plant work
best suited to the needs and nature of the specific
problem. Student work in the plant has varied
from one-half to two days per week.
AT THE BEGINNING of the semester the
academic advisor from the departmental
faculty, the industrial advisor, and the practice
school director meet at the plant site. The problem
is presented, with the industrial advisor orienting
the group. The industrial advisor also arranges
future plant access for the students and explains
plant safety procedures. The remainder of the
industrial advisor's responsibility, in addition to
day-to-day contact, involves providing access to
company literature, other personnel, and, if neces-
sary, laboratory and computer facilities.
The industrial advisor is encouraged to allow
the student group to have a chance at coming to a

solution themselves. This does not necessarily get
the project accomplished in the shortest time, but
is a beneficial experience for the students. If the
project is proprietary, the students are advised of
their responsibility to preserve company informa-
The academic advisor assists the group in de-
fining the problem and beginning the study. His
main responsibility, however, is to coordinate with
the industrial advisor and direct the student's ef-
forts into productive channels. Since the group
members spend the majority of their time at the
university, the academic advisor will typically
make several observation visits to the plant during
the semester.
To supplement the industrial experience, lec-
turers are invited from industry to speak on prac-
tical engineering subjects. During 1977 two hours
of lecture concerning practical process control and
industrial safety were presented in Practice
Practice School generally meets in one three-
hour session per week. The supplemental lectures
and student progress reports are presented during
this period. During the semester three oral re-
ports, generally twenty to thirty minutes in length,
are presented by each group to the entire class and
the faculty. All presentations are critiqued, first
by another student group and then by the faculty.
A final oral report is presented at the company
during the final week of the semester. Accompany-
ing this oral report is a formal written report de-
tailing the problem, the findings, and recommenda-
tions. The specific format of the academic portion
will vary somewhat depending on the decision of
the director. The format presented here is a typ-

The industrial advisor is
encouraged to allow the student
group to have a chance at coming to a
solution themselves. This does not necessarily
get the project accomplished in the
shortest time, but is... experience
for the students.

ical one and is the one which was used in the
Spring of 1977.
Three grades are awarded. A four-hour grade
is determined by the academic advisor, the indus-
trial advisor and the director based on the overall
performance of the group. A two-hour grade is
based on the quality of the written project report
as judged by the academic advisor and the direc-


Students Ray Hunting (left) and Randy Boudreaux
in one of the participating chemical plants.
tor. Another two-hour grade is based on oral re-
port grades and the semester exam. The semester
exam includes questions on all projects and the
supplemental lectures.

THE BENEFITS OF SUCH a program to the
student are numerous. Industrial exposure ob-
tained certainly prepares the engineer for job
entrance. Participation in plant activities, consul-
tation with practicing engineers, and observation
of company procedures provide a clearer picture
of the industrial scene. As most of the seniors are
in the job selection process during Practice School,
this experience gives each student a better chance
of making a personally satisfying selection.
The criticism by peers and faculty during the
oral reports improves both the student's writing
and speaking abilities. He also can observe other
students' methods and incorporate their strengths
with his own.
The greatest benefit to the student, however, is
the problem-solving exercise. The group must de-
fine the problem and, in most cases, redefine the
problem. Usually several solutions are proposed,
leading the group to consider conservation, eco-
nomics, environmental impact, timeliness, etc., in
finding a "best" solution. Feedback from students,
faculty and industry generally create confidence in
each person's ability to produce in an industrial
Fortunately, industry and the university also
benefit. The company receives assistance, some-
times quite valuable, on problems which otherwise

might be left until later. The company obtains
exposure and closer working relationships with
the academic sector. The company employees who
come in contact with the students and faculty gain
a greater appreciation for education and its prob-
lems. The faculty are exposed to current engineer-
ing problems which can do nothing but improve
the quality and currency of instruction.
The Department of Chemical Engineering at
Tulane is indeed fortunate to have the industrial
cooperation to make such a program succeed. The
faculty feels Practice School is an integral part of
our undergraduate program and feels certain it
will continue to improve and serve the engineering
community. O

Use CEE' reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
% page $50; each additional column inch $20.

The Department of Chemical Engineering has an open-
ing for a full-time faculty member in the tenure system
in Chemical Engineering. A Ph.D. in Chemistry with at
beginning September 1979. Applicants should have a Ph.D.
least three years industrial experience will also be con-
sidered. An enthusiasm for teaching and a strong commit-
ment to research with the ability to develop an outstand-
ing research program is expected. Michigan State Uni-
versity is an Affirmative Action-Equal Opportunity Em-
ployer and encourages applications from women or
members of minority groups. Send applications and names
of references to: Chairman, Department of Chemical Engi-
neering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michi-
gan 48824.

Models for Turbulent Transport Processes
James C. Hill, Iowa State U.
Vol. 13, No. 1, page 37.

The ChE Lecture by Hill ("Models for Turbu-
lent Transport Processes") appearing in the
Winter 1979 issue of CEE contains the following
The left hand side of the equation immediately
following Eq. (7) should be deleted. This should
be followed by
same as Eq. (6).


BOOK REVIEW: Crystallization
Continued from page 72.
in this section include computer simulation of
crystal growth, growth kinetics in various systems,
and a particularly important paper by Janse and
DeJong on growth dispersion. The key concept of
growth dispersion is that crystals in a magma do
not grow uniformily, and in developing a popula-
tion balance this factor may be important in de-
scribing what is going on within the system. Janse
and DeJong do a particularly good job in describ-
ing the phenomenon and its influence on crystal
size distribution.
Professor R. Boistelle is the author of the re-
view on crystal habit modification. Habit modifica-
tion almost always requires a trial-and-error ex-
perimental program and, accordingly, there are
few general models or concepts applicable to
broad categories of solvent-solute combinations. A
review of this subject is, therefore, seldom satis-
factory. Professor Boistelle has nevertheless
written a short, well organized and thoughtful re-
view of the field. The research results presented
in this section are excellent but most likely one
must be interested in the specific system in-
vestigated in order to make use of the results.
The section on crystallizer design is outstand-
ingly good, particularly the review presented by
Professor J. W. Mullin. Professor Mullin gives a
good state-of-the-art presentation of design re-
quirements, basic crystallizer types and laboratory
or pilot plant experiments required to obtain de-
sign data. He also presents a good list of research
topics which should challenge crystallization re-
searchers. Toussaint and Fortuin present an ex-
cellent discussion on the variables that play a key
role in the design of draft tube and baffle
crystallizers. Toyokura presents graphical design
techniques and Asselbergs and DeJong discuss the
relationships among mass, energy and population
balances, heat transfer and other variables which
affect crystallizer design. There are also papers
on batch crystallizer design and crystal size dis-
tribution analysis.
No comprehensive review is attempted for the
section on crystallizer operation and case studies.
This section, however, should be very valuable for
researchers who do not have direct access to in-
plant experience with crystallizers and for those
teaching crystallization operations. Among the
manuscripts on operation characteristics are
papers dealing with design models for transient
behavior, stability, classification, fractional

crystallization and direct contact cooling. Case
studies on NaCl and KC1 plants are presented.
In summary this book covers a broad field but
gives in-depth coverage to selected topics. As with
all compilations of research papers, the lack of a
uniform set of nomenclature could cause the
reader difficulty. It is not intended to be a teaching
text; Professor Mullin's book Crystallization or
the book by Randolph and Larson, Theory of
Particulate Processes, are more useful for this
purpose. Researchers and practitioners should
find the book to be a useful compilation of
relevant papers, reviews and experiences. O


book reviews


by Z. D. Jastrzebski. 2nd ed., Wiley,
Reviewed by James L. White
University of Tennessee

NY (1976).

Most undergraduate chemical, mechanical,
etc. engineering curricula contain courses in ma-
terials science. These are generally developments
from early metallurgy courses in which the funda-
mentals of crystal structure, polymorphism, phase
transformations and crystal deformation behavior
has been introduced together with material on
polymers and ceramics. At first the inclusion was
token but has been increased through the years.
This is, of course, reasonable in an age when the
volume of polymers produced exceeds that of
This book is typical of books of this type which
aim towards a junior or sophomore level curricu-
lum. A very wide range of topics are covered. It
does have some excellent features not treated in
much depth in most books of this type. The dis-
cussion of particulate matter and disperse systems
is noteworthy. As with most books in this area,
the treatment of material related to metals es-
pecially steel is much better done than that re-
lated to polymers and ceramics. Some of the
contents of this and related books seem illogical.
There is no discussion of refining metals from
ores, but yet there is a full chapter on polymeriza-
tion and a second on the chemistry of crosslinking.
Certainly this is out of proportion. A major reason
why books on materials science do not handle
Continued on page 95.


r m classroom

A Course In


Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676

IN 1976 CLARKSON sent a questionnaire to its
alumni classes of 1959, '64, '69 and '74. Of the
123 chemical engineers that responded, 64% in-
dicated that they thought their education should
have included more applied practice and less
theory. About 27% thought that their training
was weakest in communication skills. No con-
sistent trend in the responses was noted over the
years of graduation.
The strong message to emphasize applications
generated considerable discussion here. The sci-
ence faculty interpreted this as a need for more
science laboratory work, while bur dean saw it as a
call for more design work, and some faculty as an
indication that the alumni didn't really know what
was best. Consequently another survey was made
of industrial recruiters, seniors, faculty, and
alumni classes of 1952, '57, '62 and '67. They were
asked to evaluate the importance of 14 educational
parameters to career "success". "Laboratory as-
signments" was ranked last by the engineering
alumni and llth by the engineering recruiters,
thereby killing that interpretation of the earlier
survey. The alumni ranked "learning of com-
munication skills" a very strong first, while the
recruiters rated it equally high but exceeded
slightly by "learning of technical knowledge."
"Technical knowledge" was ranked 2nd by the
alumni. Both groups ranked "learning to solve
problems independently" as 3rd and "project ex-
ercises" as 4th. It is also interesting to note that
"success" by members of the two older classes cor-
related most strongly with high ratings for the
importance of "communication skills." The corre-
lation coefficient was about 0.32. A negligible
correlation was found for the two younger classes.
In considering how one might respond to the
above results in ChE, I concluded that one applied
area that has been increasingly neglected is the
specification and selection of equipment. This is

Bill 'Wilcox is Professor and Chairman of the ChE Department at
Clarkson College of Technology. He received his B.E. from the Uni-
versity of Southern California in 1956 and Ph.D. in Chemical Engi-
neering from U.C. Berkeley in 1960. He then spent 2 years at TRW
Semiconductors and 6 years at the Aerospace Corp. Prior to coming to
Clarkson in 1975 he was Professor of Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science at USC.

particularly distressing when it is realized that
nearly all engineers are involved in the purchase
of equipment at some time in their careers. The
problem in teaching a course in equipment is that
the modern Ph.D.-holding and research-oriented
faculty member is seldom really qualified to do so.
Rarely have we had any real experience in
specifying and selecting industrial-scale equip-
ment. It is virtually impossible to become familiar
with the literature dealing with all types of equip-
ment, much less to stay current with unpublished
developments and innovations. Therefore, a course
was designed in which roughly half of the class
time was devoted to presentations by industrial
equipment vendors and half to presentations by

representatives from companies which manu-
facture and market equipment. Topics are sum-
marized in Table 1. Naturally each speaker em-
phasized the advantages and strengths of his
equipment and his company, but this was not done
in an objectionable or overly biased fashion. Most


speakers recognized that the students knew little
about their equipment and first introduced general
operating principles. Some speakers presented
economic comparisons of different types of equip-
ment. The presentations most enjoyed by the stu-
dents were those involving motion picture films,
actual pieces of equipment, or working models of
equipment. The presentations tended to run over
1 1/2 hours, which was too long for most students.
In retrospect a 15 minute break would have helped
to maintain interest.
Several "fringe benefits" accrued from having
these visits by representatives from industry. In
most cases they had been unfamiliar with Clark-
son, and this served as an introduction not only to
our department but also to Clarkson's Industrial
Distribution program, which prepares students for
careers in technical sales. (This introduction is
especially meaningful when it is noted that most of
the speakers held very responsible positions-one
was president and part owner of his company, 3
were vice 'presidents, 9 were sales managers, and
4 were chief engineers or the equivalent.) An-
other benefit was to demonstrate to our chemical
engineering students that technical sales is a re-
spectable career. (Previously they appeared to re-
gard technical sales as about the same as selling
used cars.) During the course of the semester each
of the 36 students was given the opportunity to
have lunch with a speaker, thereby permitting in-
formal career discussions. Added fringe benefits
were discussions of the importance of foreign
sales of equipment, the growing usage of stainless
steel and other expensive materials, methods of
interacting with vendors, ethics and legal aspects
of equipment sales and performance, and OSHA
regulations, especially those dealing with noise
generated by equipment. In addition, some of the

Subjects Covered by Industrial Speakers
Agitation & mixing equipment
Air filters (dust & particle removal)
Compressors, fans and pneumatic conveyors
Evaporators and crystallizers
Filtration equipment
Heat exchangers
Particle sizing equipment
Pressure and temperature regulators
Vacuum pumps and dryers
Water analysis

I concluded that one applied
area that has been ... neglected is the
specification and selection of equipment. This
is ... distressing when it is realized that
nearly all engineers are involved
in the purchase of equipment
at some time ...

speakers spoke to our student AIChE chapter or
presented a graduate seminar.
In attempting to more closely simulate an in-
dustrial environment, I wanted to avoid quizzes
and examinations. The problem then was to ensure
that the students would both attend the presenta-
tions and be attentive to the speakers. This was
effectively accomplished by basing 1/4 of the
grade on attendance and 1/4 on questions asked
of the speakers. No attempt was made to grade
the quality of the questions. This was greatly re-
sented by those few students too self-conscious to
expose themselves to ridicule for asking "dumb
questions." The outside speakers were universally
impressed by the interest shown by the students
(they were not told that the students' grades de-
pended on asking questions). Indeed it turned out
to be necessary to limit the students to one ques-
tion each per class period. Nevertheless a few
students :soon, found that they actually enjoyed
asking questions and would habitually exceed their
"quota." In retrospect I believe it would have been
better to grade the questions and to quiz the stu-
dents later on material presented.

manual on specification and selection of a dif-
ferent class of equipment (Table II). They were
told to contact vendors via listings and advertise-
ments in Thomas Register, Chemical Engineering
Progress, the Chemical Equipment Catalog, and
Instrument and Apparatus News. Subsequently
each mail delivery brought great quantities of
literature, much to the delight of the students.
Additional information was obtained from books
and from current magazines, such as Chemical
Engineering. They were asked to include in their
manuals descriptions of the different types of
equipment, discussions of advantages and disad-
vantages, methods for sizing the equipment, a
logic net for selecting the type of equipment, and
an example selection and specification. Price data
were also desired, but were generally not supplied


by the vendors, especially for custom-made equip-
ment. Some assigned topics proved to be too broad
and were accordingly reduced in scope at the dis-
cretion of the students.
I believe that feedback is vitally important for
development of communications skills. Therefore
the students were encouraged, but not required,
to submit :drafts of their manuals early and then
to revise them for improved grades. The first
drafts were disorganized, incomplete, and full of
misspellings and incomprehensible sentences. Over
70% of the students did revise their manuals, at
the very least correcting organizational and gram-
matical problems. However, because of the ex-
cessive procrastination of the students, most of the
first drafts were submitted so late in the semester
that little time remained in which to add new ma-
terial. Seven of the students had no time in which
to make even simple revisions. Two found excuses
to delay preparation of their manuals until next
semester. In retrospect I should have required
frequent submission of portions of the manuals.
One of our communications faculty has 100% suc-
cess in having his students revise papers-he re-
fuses to assign a grade until a paper is satisfac-
As you can imagine, a great deal of my time
was expended in marking these manuals. This
time could have been reduced by:
* More specific directions on how to organize and present
a report, especially the proper format for citing refer-
ences and for preparing a table of contents.
* Standard notation of marking papers, with a guide being
given to each student. For example, a misspelled word
could simply be circled, and a question mark used to
denote an incomprehensible sentence or phrase.


which to present his or her manual and 5
minutes in which to respond to questions. An
evaluation form was used by the other students
and by me to judge the quality of each presenta-
tion. Most of the students took this evaluation pro-
cedure very seriously. Among other items, they
judged how well the speaker held their interest,
the clarity and probable utility of the material

Topics Covered in Students' Manuals

* Agitators and mixers
* Boilers and heaters
* Classifiers
* Compressors and fans
* Controllers
* Conveyors
* Crystallizers
* Distillation columns
* Distillation columns
* Dryers
* Drying & filtration of
* Dust collection & particle
* Evaporators
* Filtration equipment
* Flow measurement and
* Gas chromatography
* Grinding, pulverizing,

* Heat exchangers (air
* High pressure equipment
* High temperature equip-
* Level measurement &
* Motors, gears, controllers
* Piping, tubing, joints
* Pollution control (SO2)
* Polymer extruders
* Pressure measurement
* Pumps
* Refrigerators & cooling
* Safety equipment
* Tanks & vessels
* Temperature measure-
* Valves (gases)
* Valves (liquids)
* Water purification

presented, and the English, confidence, and en-
thusiasm of the speaker. These evaluations of the
oral presentations constituted 15% of each stu-
dent's grade.
In addition to the specific points of evaluation
made for each speaker, the audience was invited
to make written comments on the backs of the
evaluation forms. The students often detected
faults that I had missed in the presentations. Oc-
casional comments were made on personal appear-
ance, although I had not specified dress for the
Since a few students did not take the evalua-
tions seriously, in the future I plan to have each
evaluator sign his name at the top of the form. To
maintain anonymity the signatures will be cut off
before the forms are given to the speaker.


DURING THE LAST WEEK of classes a form
was made available by which the students
could evaluate the course anonymously. Eighteen
(50%) responded.

.... students who had done well in other Clarkson courses
tended not to like this course as well as those who did poorly, although those
doing well in this course tended to like it. I was delighted at this outcome since the course had,
in fact, been designed for the average student who dislikes theory and
who will work in industry without attending graduate school.


When asked how the course held their interest
in comparison to other Clarkson courses, 58% re-
plied "better", while 22% responded "less". In-
terestingly the correlation coefficient r with the
prior grade point averages of the students was
-0.44, and with midterm grades for this course
+0.47. In other words, students who had done
well in other Clarkson courses tended not to like
this course as well as those who did poorly, al-
though those doing well in this course tended to
like it.* I was delighted at this outcome since the
course had, in fact, been designed for the average
student who dislikes theory and who will work in
industry without attending graduate school.
A similar result was obtained when the stu-
dents were asked how useful they thought the
course would be in their careers. About 78%
thought it would be more useful than other
courses, while only 1 student thought it would be
less useful. The correlation with prior GPA was
-0.40 and with midterm grades +0.35. When
asked if they would recommend that other stu-
dents take this course in the future, 72% said
"yes", 22% were undecided and only the 1 said
"no". The correlation of this response with prior
GPA was -0.33 and with midterm grades 0.35.
About 61% of the students indicated that this
course required about the same amount of time as
other Clarkson courses, while only the one student
spent less time. About 38% thought the speakers
from industry were more interesting than Clark-
son faculty, while 22% found them less interest-
ing. The student speakers were rated as about the
same as the faculty. When asked to name their
favorite speakers from industry, all but three in-
dustrial speakers were chosen by at least one
student. Not surprisingly, 44% of the students
were opposed to giving an exam while 28% were
in favor. Those in favor tended to be those who
most disliked being graded for asking questions in
When asked to rank the value of the different
parts of the course, the best rankings were ob-
tained by "Preparing your manual," and a close
second by "Making your own oral presentation."
"Outside lecturers" ranked next, followed by
"Listening to other students' presentations" and
"Asking questions of speakers." By no means,
however, was there agreement on the rankings.

*Nevertheless when the final grades were computed,
the correlation with prior grade point average was +0.53.
The average grade given in this class was 2.5/4.0 compared
to an incoming GPA of 2.69/4.0.

Individual rankings for "Preparing your manual"
ranged from first to fifth, for example. As might
be expected the correlation r with prior GPA was
-0.54 with number of absences, +0.31 with the
number of questions asked, and + 0.48 with grades
on the manual. It was a bit surprising to see that
the correlation with scores on oral presentations
was -0.15, i.e. there was a slight tendency for the
poorer students to make better presentations!
Finally, I would like to quote some of the
favorable remarks made by the students. (The un-
favorable ones have been summarized in the fore-
"This course was definitely the best ChE course I've
taken. I feel that it might be of some use in my future." "It
was one of the most informative courses that I have taken,
since it was about the only course which is practical in-
stead of all theory. There should be more courses that are
not based on theory only, since I have no idea what some
of the equipment looked like, even though I might have
designed some of it." "I think the course is an excellent
idea for developing oral and written communication skills
for chemical engineers. Very little attention has been
given to these skills in previous courses. It would be a
big mistake for the Chemical Engineering Department to
drop this course,* for communication is necessary in in-
dustry. Even if the student were to take a speech course
his ability to give technical talks would not improve."
"More lunches with speakers." ]
*We will offer this course every two years as an elec-
tive for both junior and senior engineering students.


Dear Sir:
Following the premature death of George L. Standart,
we have taken over the editorship of CHEMICAL ENGI-
This journal will continue publishing full-length re-
search articles and invited review papers, but particular
emphasis will be placed on printing short communications
and letters giving preliminary announcements of new
theoretical concepts, new experimental data, innovative
experimental techniques or novel concepts in data correla-
tion. All conventional areas of chemical engineering will
be considered as well as topics in bioengineering, fluid me-
chanics, the molecular theory of equilibrium and transport
properties, applied mathematics and computer-aided de-
We wish to facilitate and encourage a prompt and
lively exchange of ideas emanating from diverse areas of
chemical engineering since we feel that this will help
to sustain the vitality of the chemical engineering pro-
William N. Gill and Jaromir J. Ulbrecht
Room 307, Clifford C. Furnas Hall
State University of New York at Buffalo
Amherst, NY 14260


SDl classroom



Steady-State Flow Processes

University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio 43606

MM ANY BEGINNING chemical engineering students
have difficulty with recycle calculations, par-
ticularly for reacting systems. After several years
of attempting various methods to explain these
calculations in introductory courses, I have de-
veloped the following approach. Since the greatest
difficulty occurs with reacting processes, the
method presented here will be for these kinds of
Basis for solution: At steady-state we can
write for each component the following molar
* Reactants: moles out = moles in moles of what reacts
* Products: moles out = moles in + moles of what forms
* Inerts: moles out = moles in
Since we are concerned with reacting systems,
it is more direct to use moles rather than mass
since the stoichiometry is in terms of moles. Also
note that, although the above statements are
classically written as: 0 = in out reaction,
the suggested re-arrangement has been found to
be psychologically more appealing to students.
Consider the following general chemical re-
action: aA + bB -- cC + dD and define species A
as the limiting reactant. Let Fyo be the molar flow
rate of specie Y into the process, Fy be the molar
flow rate of Y out, and Fi be the molar flow rate
of inerts.


FAo, FBo,
FCo, FDo, Fi

SRea out FA, FB,
i- Reactor FC, FD, FI

Define degree of conversion of limiting reactant
A, XA = (FAo FA)/FAO which is also known as

James Lacksonen received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. (1959) and Ph.D.
(1964) degrees in ChE from the Ohio State University. He has worked
industrially as a research engineer and a project engineer for Battelle
Memorial Institute, the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. and the General
Tire & Rubber Co. before going to the University of Toledo in 1967.
He is an active consultant for Owens-Illinois, Inc. After serving as
Assistant Dean of the College of Engineering for 5 years, he returned
to full-time teaching and research and is now active in doing research
on accelerated aging of paper, with particular reference to problems
in art. He also is a professional watercolor artist and is an avid
cross-country skier and jogger.

the overall degree of conversion, as then we have:
FA = FAo FAo XA Fc = Fco + FAo XA c/a
FB = FBo FAOXA b/a FD = FDo + FAo XA d/a
Fi = Fi
Summing these equations:
Total molar flow rate out = Fi + FAo + FBo +
Fco + Fo, + (FAo XA An)/a
where: An = (c + d) (a + b).
Note that the term (FAo XA An) /a determines
whether the number of moles out is greater or
less than the number of moles in.

Let R be the total molar flow rate of the re-
cycle stream and RA be the molar flow rate of the
limiting reactant A in the recycle.


FAo, FBo, in Reactor t F F, Fi
SDCo, Ri of A
Total Recycle

Define once-through degree of conversion of limit-
ing reactant A, XA = (FAo FA) / (FAo + RA),
and then we have:

FA = FAo [FAo + RA] XA
FB = FBO [FAo + RA] XA b/a
Fc = Foo + [FAo + RA] XA c/a
F, = Fo + [FAo + RA] XA d/a
Fi = Fi
Summing these equations:
Total molar flow rate out = Fi + FAo + FBo +
Fco + Fo + [(FAo + RA) XA An]/a
where: An = (c+d) (a+b) as before.
The term (FAo + RA) XA An/a represents the
increase or decrease in the molar flow rate out
compared to in. Note that the expression [FAo +
RA] XA is a repeating element in the calculations.

The reaction 2A + 5B -- 3C + 6D is con-
ducted at steady-state in a recycle reactor. The
fresh feed is A and B. A is 30% excess. The once-
through conversion of B is 60% and its overall
conversion is 95%. After coming out of the re-
actor, a portion of pure B is separated and re-
cycled. Find the recycle ratio R/F (molar basis)
where F = fresh feed rate = FAo + FBo.

Basis: FAo = (2) (1.3) moles A/time and FBo = 5
moles B/time
Balance on limiting reactant B:
FB = FBo [Flo + R,] X, (from once-
through conversion definition)
But: [FBo FB]/FBo = 0.95 from over-all conversion
definition. Noting that RB = R = total recycle stream:
0.05 FBo = FBo [FBo + R] XB; (0.05)(5) = 5 -
(5 + R)(0.6)
Solving for R: R = 2.92 moles B/time recycled.
Thus: R/F = R/(FAo + FBo) = 2.92/7.6 = 0.38

The following steady-state process is con-
ducted in a recycle reactor:
3 C, H1OH + 2 Na, Cr,07 + 8 H2SO, -,
3 CHCOOH + 2 Cr2 (SO4), + 2 Na, SO, + 11 H20
The process flow diagram is:
C2H50H Reactor P (100% CH3COOH)

F2 w waste
H2S04 + Na2Cr207

Information about process:
* 90% over-all conversion of CHsOH.
* 85% once-through conversion of limiting re-
actant C2HOH.
* On an over-all molar basis, HS04O is 20% excess
and NaCr,O, is 10% excess.
* All the CHICOOH formed comes out stream P.
* R contains C2HsOH and H2SO only.
* R/F, = 1 (molar basis).
1. Moles of waste stream W out if F, = 3
moles/time input.
2. Mole % composition of recycle stream.
3. Over-all and once-through conversions of

Basis: 3 moles/time of CHOH = F,.
Then: Na Cr, OC in = 3 (2/3) (1.1) = 2.2 moles/time
H.,SO, in = 3 (8/3) (1.2) = 9.6 moles/time
Since C,HOH is the limiting reactant, let it be species A.
C2HOH balance (define as FA)
Overall conversion = 0.9 = (FAo F)FAo = (3 F)/3
FA = 3 2.7 = 0.3 moles/time C,HOH out in W.
Once-through conversion = 0.85 = (FAo FA)/(FAo +
RA) = (3--0.3)/(3 + RA) RA = [2.7- (3)(0.85)]/ 0.85 =
[2.7 2.55]/0.85 = 0.176 moles A/time
Since the term (FAo + RA) XA is repeated in the material
balance calculations, it is often convenient to evaluate it
for future use, as
(FAo + RA) XA = (3 + 0.176) (0.85) = 2.7
HSO, balance (define as F,)
F, = F (FAo + RA) XA (s/a) = 9.6- 2.7 (8/3)
= 2.4 moles/time H.,SO out in W.

The methodology for handling steady-state recycle
calculations presented here is not meant to be a panacea nor a replacement
for thinking. However, beginning students often need (and welcome)
a clear, consistent approach to solving
these kinds of problems.



Na,Cr207 balance (define as F,)
F, = Fo (FAo + RA) XA (c/a) = 2.2 2.7 (2/3)
= 0.4 moles/time Na2CRO07 out in W.
CHCOOH balance (define as F,).
F, = Fno + (FAo + RA) XA (d/a) = 0 + 2.7 (3/3)
+ 2.7 moles/time CHCOOH out in P.
Cr,(SO,)3 balance (define as FE).
FE = FEo + (FA + RA) XA (e/a) = 0 + 2.7 (2/3)
= 1.8 moles/time Cr,(S04), out in W.
NaSO, balance (define as FF).
Fp = Fro + (FAo + RA) XA (f/a) = 0 + 2.7 (2/3)
= 1.8 moles/time Na2SO, out in W.
HO0 balance (define as F,).
Fw = Fwo + (FAo + RA) XA (w/a) = 0 + 2.7 (11/3)
= 9.9 moles/time HO out in W.
Recycle stream analysis
R/F = 1- R = F = 3 moles/time
RA + R, = R -> R3 = 3 0.176 = 2.824 moles/time
HSO, in R.
We can now find:
1. Moles of waste stream W out.
W = FA+ F, + FE + F + Fw
W = 0.3 + 2.4 + 0.4 + 1.8 + 1.8 + 9.9 = 16.6 moles/
time of W.
2. Mole % composition of recycle stream.
% CHOI = (0.176/3) 100 = 5.9 mole %
% H2SO = 100 5.9 = 94.1 mole%
3. Over-all conversion of H,SO4 = [(Fs Fs)/Fso] =
(9.6 2.4)/9.6 = 0.75 or 75%
Once-through conversion of H2SO4 = [(Fso F,)/
(Fso + Rs)] = (9.6-2.4)/[9.6 + (3- 0.176)] = 0.58
or 58%
A total over-all material balance shows that

moles out -moles in = (W +. P) (F1 + F2)
time time = 16.6 + 2.7 3 (2.2 + 9.6) = 4.5

Comparing this with the term [FA + RA) XA An]/a =
[(3 + 0.176) (0.85)] [(3 + 2 + 2 + 11) (3 +
2 + 8)]/a = 4.5
which emphasizes its equality to the change in moles for
the over-all process. Also, weight compositions or flow rates
are readily obtainable by using the molecular weights of
the various species.


The methodology for handling steady-state re-
cycle calculations presented here is not meant to
be a panacea nor a replacement for thinking. How-
ever, beginning students often need (and wel-
come) a clear, consistent approach to solving these
kinds of problems. Based on my teaching ex-
perience in this area, I have found this approach
to be direct and appealing to the students. It in-
corporates the chemical stoichiometry and the
fundamental definition of the once-through degree
of conversion of limiting reactant which are re-
peating elements in the material balance calcula-
tions. O

L4nP o news

Dr. Warren E. Stewart of the University of Wisconsin
at Madison, has been named the Kelly Lecturer for 1979
by Purdue University. Stewart has been an outstanding
contributor to ChE literature and his contributions in the
area of approximate methods have had a profound impact
on many diverse areas of chemical engineering. He has
published, lectured and consulted extensively on transport
phenomena, reactor modelling and numerical methods.

The 1979 recipient of the Donald L. Katz Lectureship
Award, presented annually by the University of Michi-
gan, is Dr. Robert S. Schechter of the University of Texas
at Austin. Dr. Schechter has served in a number of ad-
ministrative capacities during his career and has authored
or co-authored more than 100 technical publications and
three books in the areas of applied surface science and
irreversible thermodynamics.

O Conferences

The Mathematics Research Center at the University
of Wisconsin-Madison will hold an Advanced Seminar on
Dynamics and Modelling of Reactive Systems, October
22-24, 1979. Lecturers will include N. R. Amundson, R.
Aris, D. G. Aronson, G. F. Carrier, M. Feinberg, E. D.
Gilles, P. S. Gough, L. N. Howard, J. B. Keller, D. Luss,
J. Rinzel, R. A. Schmitz, J. H. Seinfeld and F. A. Williams.
A detailed program will be available in August. Further
information may be obtained from Mrs. Gladys Moran,
Mathematics Research Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, 610
Walnut Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.

July 23 August 1: "New Developments in Modeling,
Simulation and Optimization of Chemical Processes," at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For further infor-
mation, contact: Director, Summer Session, M.I.T., Room
E19-356, Cambridge, MA 02139.

1979 Engineering Summer Conferences at the Uni-
versity of Michigan include:
June 25-29: "Applied Numerical Methods"
July 9-13: "Physiological Systems for Engineers"
July 9-10: "Solar Energy Measurements and
For further information, contact: Continuing Engineering
Education, 300 Chrysler Center, North Campus, University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.


BOOK REVIEW: Waste-Water
Continued from page 78.

sional, graduate level, survey course. There are
few undergraduate curricula or options in Sani-
tary and/or Environmental Engineering in the
United States. However, for these it is relatively
well suited. Teachers and students alike will
recognize that this text is indeed an introduction
and must be followed by further study or an
apprenticeship in design before actual professional
plant design can be contemplated. As a supple-
mentary text for Chemical Engineering process
or plant design courses the book is admirable.
The larger audiences may be in undergradu-
ate Environmental Science and graduate Planning,
Management Science, Urban Policy, etc. For these
user groups, the text is too quantitative, lacking
the descriptive material to place unit processes and
overall treatment in proper overall community or
industrial context. It may even create a false sense
of intellectual security leading to attempts at in-
dependent design or design critiques that are con-
troversial and counterproductive. In short, it lacks
the clarity and comprehensive coverage that
survey material aimed at managers and decision
makers requires. If the author's goal is to "train
the reader to evaluate any wastewater treatment
problem so that he may properly select the pro-
cesses and the design of the required equipment,"
he falls far short with the first audience and has
an inappropriate goal with the second.
As an undergraduate engineering text, Pro-
fessor Ramalho's book has some defects in detail.
His references are outdated; the latest reference,
that of Metcalf and Eddy (1972), should be one
of the earliest. The last 5-10 years have been a
period of great reorganization and reinterpreta-
tion of wastewater treatment technology. As a
glaring example, there are no citations of USEPA
manuals, yet many are good compendiums of de-
sign data and procedures. In addition, any design
of consequence must meet the USEPA review
criteria from which these manuals evolved. The
other agencies concerned with "water" have ex-
cellent material available, also.
The use of a mixture of metric and English
units is disconcerting. In most instances, there is
unnecessary reliance on pounds for total loads and
milligrams for concentration units. The letter M
is used ubiquitously for million, as MGD, yet
current metric usage of M for "kilo" and MM as

the 106 multiplier notation is recognized widely.
Rate constants on a per hour basis are not useful.
A discomfort and tentativeness with desirable
depth of design detail is apparent in several
chapters. I will use Chapters 3 and 5 as examples.
Chapter 3 begins with a good elementary theory
section, lacking only a clear distinction between
settling and thickening. The real process design
actually commences with the section on Flocculent
Settling. This section, i.e. 3.5, devotes many pages
to "cook book" procedure that is not direct or un-
ambiguous, lacks adequate theory and uses
language that places more emphasis on jargon
than on clarity. Section 3.6 fails to draw distinc-
tions between clarification and thickening and,
similarly has little substance in an important
design case study. Section 3.7 is of practical
concern and is much too brief.
Chapter 5 requires rework for a second edition.
It is a mixture of modeling, design and microbial
ecology. It attempts too much and achieves too
little. Why? Figure 5.1 and Table 5.1 are one
reason. The number of variables stated is very
large and of interest only to advanced modelers.
This is an awesome introduction to activated
sludge. The use of THOD as a design basis is
questionable. The description of laboratory rate
measurement experiments is best left to a graduate
laboratory manual or kinetics text. There is too
much jargon; is MLNVSS really necessary? An
overconcern for detail in this chapter leads to
cluttered displays, e.g. Figures 5.16 and 5.17, that
serve to distract rather than to inform.
All-in-all, I am in sympathy with Professor
Ramalho's effort and interests. However, the
result has a narrow audience and does not com-
pete with the Metcalf and Eddy text in conjunc-
tion with a set of USEPA manuals.

BOOK REVIEW: Engineering Materials
Continued from page 87.

plastics and rubber particularly well is that they
spend too much space on synthetic chemistry. It
would be better spent discussing solid state struc-
ture, crystalline morphology, mechanical proper-
ties and performance. If one can accept copper and
steel without saying much of how they are made,
can't we do the same for polyethylene?
In summary, this volume is a reasonably well
done intermediate level undergraduate text in
materials science. O


J classroom



Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14853

T HE BEHAVIOR OF fluids in pipe networks re-
sembles that of currents in electric circuits. Of
course, in the area of Process Control, extensive
use has been made of the parallels between control
systems and electric circuits. Also, the analogy
between thermal conductivity and electric con-
ductivity is often invoked to introduce or rein-
force concepts of conductive heat transfer. How-
ever, none of the texts usually used by chemical
engineers appears to have used electric circuitry
as a tool for teaching fluid flow.
Most college students encounter fluid flow for
the first time as sophomores or juniors, long after
they have been introduced to Ohm's and Kirch-
hoff's Laws. In fact, many have had a multiple
exposure to the concepts of electrical circuitry in
high school and in freshman college physics.
The analogy is most useful in dealing with
pipe networks with laminar flow, but it has some
advantage even in turbulent flow. A factor favor-
ing the use of the analogy is the growing adop-
tion of SI units which make the parallel between
mechanical and electric systems more obvious.
One common misunderstanding which the analogy
helps to clear up comes from the usual form of
the mechanical energy balance for a flowing fluid.
The friction term in energy per unit of flowing
mass often becomes identified by students as a
resistance whereas it is, in fact, in the nature of a
potential. Perhaps because engineers often ex-
press the friction term as "head" in feet or meters
(where force and mass units have been cancelled
out), the image of a barrier or resistance seems
to occur naturally.
In Table 1, the identification of kg in a mass
flow system is made with coulombs in the electric
circuit. When the familiar volts, ohms, and am-
peres are expressed as joules, coulombs, and
seconds, the analogy becomes more apparent. The

Ferdinand Rodriguez received degrees from Case Institute (B.S.
1950; M.S. 1954) and Cornell (Ph.D 1958) and has taught at Corneli
since 1958. In addition to journal articles he has published a text,
Principles of Polymer Systems. His publications also include five gospel
songs for church and Sunday School. During his sabbatical leave
(1978-79) Prof. Rodriguez is working in the Synthetic Polymer De-
velopment Section, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y.

usual mechanical energy balance for a fluid flow
process is:
AV2 Ap gAz
+ + + hf +
2gc p ge

t W,, = 0 (1)
where the last two terms represent contributions
of turbines and pumps. The term hf represents
frictional dissipation of energy. In the absence
of pumps or turbines, and with negligible changes
in kinetic energy:
Ap +gAz (2)
-h, = + Ke (2)
P gc
The identification of hi as a potential rather than
as a resistance should be obvious from equation
2, but, as previously noted, the common units may
confuse some students.

N THE ELEMENTARY CASE (Table 2) of parallel
resistances, almost every student has been told


The Fluid Flow-Electric Current Analogy


Physical system:

Flowing unit:
Flow rate:
(Laminar flow)


Ohm's Law:


Pipe: <-Ap, Az, hf-

<- L,D ->
mass, kilogram
m, kg/s
hf, J/kg
(32) / (D2p2g), kg2

Resistor: <- E ->

rtr tr-

electricity, C
I, C/s (A)
E, J/C (V = W/A)
p', (ohm-m)

32 4L1 2 J-RpL/A 4 J-s
R,= (32) rD /(D2p2ge), kg R = p'L/A = p' D 1'2 (hm)
(o A

hf = Rf(m)

P = h,(m) = Rf(m)2

E = R(I)

P = E(I) = R(I)2

that an equivalent resistance, Re, is given by the
reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the
individual resistances R, and R,. It is a simple
consequence of Kirchhoff's laws. The potential E
across each resistance is the same, but the total
current, I, is given by the sum of the individual
currents I, and 12. Thus,
E = Rje = RdIl = R2, and I = I + I1 (3)
Rearrangement gives
I I, I I,
I = and R (4)
R, R, R, Re
Combining equations 4 and 3 to eliminate currents
(Re) = (R1)-1 + (R2)-1 (5a)
The general case for n resistances in parallel is


The power (energy/time) to cause the flow is
given by the product of total flow and the friction
term (equation 1-4, Table 1).


S TATEMENT: A stream of 18 m3/hr is split into
three pipes, A, B, and C, with diameters of 20,
30, and 40 mm respectively and lengths of 50 m
each. What power is dissipated as friction?

(R)-1 = (R)-

Data: ,L = 0.10 Pa-s, i.e. (1 poise),
p = 1 Mg/m3, i.e. (1 g/cm3)

m = 5.0 kg/sec
Resistances calculated from equation 1-2
(Table 1) :
Rf = 12.7 kJ-s/kg2
Rfb = 2.51 kJ-s/kg2
Rfe = 0.794 kJ-s/kg2
Equivalent resistance, Rfe, from equation 2-2
(Table 2) :
Re, = 0.576 kJ-s/kg2
Potential, hf, from equation 1-3 (Table 1) :
hf = 0.576 x 5.0 = 2.88 kJ-/kg
Power, p, from equation 1-4 (Table 1) :
P = 2.88 x 5.0 = 14.4 kW
Individual streams calculated from
mi = hf/(Rfi) :
mi = 0.23 kg/s,
m2 = 1.15 kg/s,
m, = 3.63 kg/s

Individual Reynolds numbers from equation
3-2 (Table 3) :
(Nre) = 146, (Ne), = 488, (Nre)3 = 1155







Branched Flows




m I = m, I = Ii
1 1
Requiv Ri





T HE RESISTIVITY IN turbulent flow varies with
the flow rate (Table 3). In laminar flow, the
resistivity is a function only of /A, p, and D. In
turbulent flow, the friction factor f decreases in
non-linear fashion as the Reynolds number in-
creases. For smooth pipes at Nre above about
5x104 the behavior is approximated by equation
3-2 (Table 3). A modified resistance Mr can be
defined (Table 3) so as to be independent of flow
rate. The analogy with equations 3, 4, and 5 can
be extended to give:

hf = Mfe(m)1-8 = Mf,(m1)1-.8 = M12(rm1)1.8 (6)
for two pipes with modified resistances M, and
Mfr and individual flows of mi and m2, respec-
tively. The result for the general case where i =
1, 2, etc. is:

(Mfe)-0-.6 = (Mfi)-.O55o


STATEMENT: Same conditions as in previous,
laminar case except that p. = 1.0 mPa*s (that
is, 1.0 centipoise)
Modified resistances calculated from equation
3-3 (Table 3) :

Turbulent Flow

32 f m L
Resistance: R, = hf/m = gejT2D5P2

If f = 0.046(Nr)-0.2 and N re = (4m)/(IrDt)

Then R, = "421()'" L (m) = M (m)0.8
ge (D)48 p2




Ma = 255.0 (J/kg) (s/kg)1.8
Mn, = 36.4 (J/kg) (s/kg) 1-
Mr, = 9.16 (J/kg) (s/kg)1-
Equivalent modified resistance from eq. 7:

Mfe = (same units)
Potential, h,, from eq. 3-1, 3-3 (Table 3):

he = 3.84 x (5.0)1-8 = 69.6 J/kg
Power, P, from equation 1-4 (Table 1) :
P = 69.6 x 5.0 = 348 W
Individual streams calculated from

mi = (hf/Mi)0.556:

mi = 0.49 kg/s
m2 = 1.43 kg/s
mn = 3.09 kg/s
Individual Reynolds numbers from equation
3-2 (Table 3):

T HE EMPHASIS HERE has been on the use of
electric circuits as analogs in teaching con-
cepts of pipe flow in networks. Extensive com-
puter programs have evolved for handling com-
plex circuits. These can be adapted for fluid-
handling systems, also. O

D, Diameter, m
E, Electric potential, volt ( = J/C)
g, Acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 m/s2
g0, Proportionality constant, 1.00, dimensionless in
SI system
hy, Energy loss in pipe flow, J/kg
I, Electric current, ampere (C/s)
m, Mass flow rate, kg/s
Mf, Modified resistance term, equat. 3-3, Table 3,
(J/kg) (s/kg) .8
Nre, Reynolds number
Ap, Pressure drop, Pa
P, Power, W
R, Electric resistance, ohm (= (J-s)/C2)
Rf, Fluid flow resistance, (J-s)/kg2
V, Fluid velocity (average), m/s
Wp, Energy supplied to system by pumps, J/kg
W,, Energy taken from system by turbines, J/kg
Az, Change in elevation, m.
71p, Pump efficiency
1tp, Turbine efficiency
p, Density, kg/m3
p', Electric resistivity, ohm-m
u, Viscosity, Pa-s


BOOK REVIEW: Amplifiers
Continued from page 75.
The all important operational amplifier inte-
grator is explained briefly along with several
device parameters that influence the quality of
the integration. An excellent discussion of the OA
differentiator is given with an example of a
practical circuit to control frequency response.
Figure 3-25 presents the gain function during
either integration or differentiation in a manner
that readily characterizes the response of the cir-
cuit. The remainder of chapter III treats
logarithmic circuits and the operational amplifier
Somewhat less familiar OA circuits are de-
scribed in chapter IV. The use of zener diodes to
produce limited or otherwise bound circuits is
noted followed by a brief description of constant
amplitude phase shifting. Operational amplifier
active filters for passing or rejecting selected
frequency bands are discussed, and commercially
available units are listed. The rectification of low
level ac signals and its use in phase-selective detec-
tion are also treated for OA-based circuits. The
chapter concludes with a discussion of function
generators and oscillators, sample-and-hold cir-
cuits for analog memories, and operational ampli-
fier regulators that offer PID action. I found a
surprising lack of figures to support the rather
complex ideas introduced in this chapter, and I
frequently had to sketch the circuit myself in
order to follow the author's reasoning.
Chapter V deals with the extensive and often
subtly differentiated list of parameters that
characterize modern operational amplifiers. Offset
and drift along with circuit models of these effects,
circuits to measure them, and circuits to compen-
sate for them are presented in excellent detail.
Difference amplifier properties are also noted.
Noise that originates both within the operational
amplifier and from external sources is discussed
and classified as to frequency. Several standard
techniques for minimizing the noise problem are
suggested. A rather lengthy section on frequency
response, dynamic properties and amplifier sta-
bility completes the chapter. Some of this material
would be tedious for the non-electrical engineer,
but certain properties such as unity gain band-
width, slewing rate, and full power response need
to be understood.
Chapter VI lists the specifications of several
commercial operational amplifiers (current to
1975) and distinguishes between bipolar and FET-
input units. Other specialized devices that are

discussed include the chopper-stabilized, electro-
metric, programmable gain, and the so-called in-
strumentation amplifiers. Again, a more liberal
use of figures would have made the reading go
more rapidly.
Chapter VII is devoted to applications mainly
in the field of electro-analytical chemistry. It pro-
vides an excellent review of the ways in which
these interesting and powerful devices have been
used to control, detect and measure physico-
chemical properties in systems that also concern
chemical engineers. The applications cited are well
referenced to the literature and provide a broad
base for further utilization of operational ampli-
fiers in chemical instrumentation.
Chapter VIII discusses some of the com-
mercially available modular OA systems that
permit the user to construct his own OA-based
instrumentation array. Unfortunately, the Malm-
stadt-Enke system is no longer available as noted,
but to my knowledge, the other American-made
systems can still be obtained in a form similar
to that described. With the wide availability of
both discrete component and integrated circuit
operational amplifiers in today's electronics
market, many educators and experimentalists are
assembling their own modular systems with
excellent results.
For the experimentally oriented chemical
engineer who deals with chemical instrumenta-
tion and who feels the need to understand the
applications of operational amplifiers in detail,
this book provides excellent resource material,
and I certainly recommend it. For the most part
its content is well within the grasp of any engi-
neer, scientist or educator with a modest back-
ground in basic electronics, and the nearly 200
references to the literature permit considerable
study beyond the scope of the book. Since the book
is oriented to applications in electrochemistry, the
chemical engineer would occasionally have to re-
apply the same operational amplifier principles to
systems more common to his own work.
The translation from the original Czech is
generally well done. One occasionally finds a non-
idiomatic expression or a term that has been
translated too literally. There are very few actual
errors and a correspondingly small number of
typographical errors. More figures would have
helped in the comprehension as well as certain re-
peated figures that would save the reader from
constantly paging back through the text. My
overall impression of the book is quite good, and
I think the author has done an excellent job. E

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Full Text


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~ Create, construct and control vour career with MIWKEN We provide an expanding range of opportunities to accelerate yOUr managerial and professional career devek>pmeot M1lliken s commitment to technological leader ship in providing new prodvcts. processes and eQu ,pm e nt is exempli!ied by the Mill i tron ma chine, a computer controlled, ie t-i nje(:lion dyeing systemcreatedanddevelopedbyMillikenengi neersandscientistsforthe prOOuctionof multi colofedcarpetrugsanduph()lsteryproducts The men and women we need have open minds, Open enough to let us exPOSe you to the details of the Milliken challeoge When we select eachother horizonsbroadenforbolholus ""'A"'m ,, ~ ~,j;" MILLIKEN ii:':::1'/t'J\1/llm'


PRACTICE SCHOOL THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS THOMAS R. HAli!.I hav,, triI many di!fu,nl way, of ma~inrtheiOtlti Divioion a \Tul>.DOUniv.roityo!l'ersooomothOO .. --.. """ 0 ,-u .. ..... _..._.__ ., .,...., .............. -..... ....... _,_ .. ,.,~ .. ---_., ... .. __ -........ ,__,..__, -_., ____ .., . .... __ ... ___ ., ......... _._. ........ ""_ .._ .. ,_ ___ ...... _, __ ....., .. _,,.._, ... _. ,._ .......... .. ,-. ... -... ,_., .. u ............... ___ ., forthostudenttoobt>.inthi1uperi oocoa nd ~;:~::!~~.~~~~~ .. -:::..:,.ro,: PPortunityto perfonn inL11indu,trialen,iron murin1U..r,11.....,.,-,u,,p,...;-,.$ohool dirtorooliullOOu,tryand o rovel'tllMol ,_,.n:h l ab .u.,ell ua k>ulh""pltal1<>0tt0m. ~:t, ot ud

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      ""3M classroom A Course In CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT WILLIAM R WILCO X Clo,bo!tod to p ,_ nta\ion, by il>dmtri o l :::;:;:i-.nd,1r ,o ndha/rtop-,totioosby N 1 !7.!!~':.~~!~:it~~~1~:=~ "'::.~ faetur< o ndrnark
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      PAGE 42

      l!ii!?l classroom MATERIA L BALANCE CALCU L ATIONS W ITH REACT I ON St e ady State Flow Praceue5 j"lil~W U. C K SO )IES u..-,-,T_ T -.OJ,ioC60I M :~ ":"m::1~::;:c1,::i:,..:.,-:.~ u,.,Lo1Vforl'NOmolar_.Talooflbo i;,,.;u..,,_,...,,.1,u....,n1<.

      PAGE 43

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      PAGE 45

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      PAGE 46

      @D c l ass room THE ANA L OGY B ET W EE N FLUID FLO W AND ELE CTRIC CIRCU IT RY r .RO DRIO Ul:Z fi r::.%:!--::! ,. ------..... .... --~...-,...... --~ __ .. ____ ._ ... _... ..... .. __ ... ___ ... _ ... ... ____ __ ,,,..,. _ ..... __ .... ______ ... ~ w ~ .-o ,......,,,u,.,1 .. ,1""0te""""'",_.,1_,trii..1ion& ofturt:ol .. u.d pu"' ... Tho\ermh,....,,_,,t,. frictl-aldlaoipati.,.01-...,.! ot_,..,.,urbl-.&><1"1th-llribl<-_. la1ll..UC:rv: ~-4 ~ [0r:..:t:S.7-=E

      PAGE 47

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      PAGE 48

      GL'I ~ -i:, 1 ,Mno,.rate (Tat,leS). l" 'i!: i nu~o,. ;.,. ~"';::,;::~.,'!,;t dtt-:! :: ;:;!:.~~!...,..=: ;i;. .=be.'..! 6&11>'U.. ...... rio,iooppn,.,j.,.tedby~ 1-l(Toblol).A-itlod... lol n.nbo -(Toblol)ooootobol.....__tol me.n......., .. tioaol. O .&lldl,ao bou-l0.-1 .. : 1o,->1 .. 1M1"->1 ,. hi. 1 .. ->1 ,. 1..:..1 u 1,,....i lol,.ond l...tlolduol llow.olra, ud ,. ,. ,_poo ~.7'".:ic.'":::,_11 r tho _.-..1 cue -..1 (11.,f ..__ l(ll.,j -A ,.U,.,., II OfU l. t"HIO TUIIU ll MT"OW ~~;:::::::: ... i.. --::,;~ U ...... (>l ,. J / . ~f 1 ..... ... o. ~ :~;.'.-;t(.;., .. _,.,,.;., .. )I,. U&.O(JkzJ( ka-l .. )I N.-l(J / kcH tz) u 111 ,. 1 11/J / ka-)ttzl u F,.,n.....__......,.._,,_..,_1 111 .. -c ...... ..,; .. l'ot.Htlol,k .fNM .... 3.-l,S-3(Tablel): lo, U .0V '9.6Jt,: l'o,,er,l.r.....,., .. ,...,l_.(Toblol) l' n. s ,U-H8W ln ................. ..... ... .. . : ... ...... .... ;: . :\ ... .... ~7. ~;_,::; "::"-::'..!...,=' .. ,,,. ..... ..-, ,._. T --, ,. ,_.,, .. . f ~ ..... .., .... ........

      PAGE 49

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      PAGE 50

      At Celanese, -won't force you into a mold. Tl>o~olt>tingPortol lat11<1,IIK"'""G ~couldbo-byN'-olt>tlng -~ -IO-m10lhocomparl'/' 1 wyol ~Celoo>He.wtl90'r,bo__,, SlickinglOlho-wayolg"'""' Ou<.,._ USlo"""'""'G o1, __ ,__, .. ..,..,Po0iliooinlhe = .. -.-..planes-~ -youoomolO_..,C.-,l'O'l l bo ~10ptojo,c1,lgl,tw"1'.loocanpu1y,:,.,,..._ alivilyand-,_mok;,,g l09'<":lu M .We"""''t -inltng lhy~"'""IJ----W OS .. 'f()'Jfrnioobylor<:irlSi)'OUIOM ""'>aOloPPO
      PAGE 51

      ACKN OWLEDGMENT S D e partm e ntal Spon s or 5: T hefollowir.g 131>departmenncon1r ibuted to t he suppor1 of CHEMICAL E N G I NEERING EDUCA TI ON i n 1979. '1 " ri<,111 ..... ,l(C olHW. } . .. ....... ,,( .... .. ) u,...... ... ... s ,., ~, ot n o. u, ,,,,..,,,. .. c, .. ,.., y ., .., ... .... ... ..... ,.. ..... ,,., ,. u, +, .,. ,..,., ,. N ., ,. ,,_ _, ... .. .. :,,.,+, S w

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