Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Chemical Engineering Documents


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Carbon is part of every living
thing, and of everything that ever
lived. Union Carbide makes this
basic material into products es-
sential to the way we live: every-
thing from space-age fibers to
giant steel-making electrodes.
The steel industry's
electric arc fur-
naces feed elec-
tric power
electrodes ,
eight fee:
tall that .
amperes --
of cur-
rent. These~
furnaces make new steel from
scrap, so they help clean up the
countryside and cut pollution
while they save energy.

Many electric motors share a
basic problem: how to conduct
electric current between moving
and stationar. part-.The s- IIi-
tion, for mot.i r, a- ditc ric a:
your electric ini\er : in1 this 1 .].dilt
diesel electric CI line. I! a1 piccc
of manufactured c:lr :rn ca lled 4
a brush. No sub-lr.izutI cian d i
the job as well.

Soon, space shuttles like this
will carry satellites and scientific
cargo into orbit.The shuttle's
60-foot cargo doors are made of
Union Carbide's Thornel carbon
fiber amazingly light, yet so
strong it will stand up to re-
peated launches and reentries.
For a more down-to-earth appli-
cation, cars with Thornel carbon
fiber parts will weigh less and
use less gas than -.
today's models. _

Union Carbide Corporation, 270 Park Avenue. NewYork. NY 10017

An equal opportunity employer.

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
Editorial & Business Assistant:
Carole C. Yocum
(904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
Homer F. Johnson
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Vincent W. Uhl
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CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
WEST: R. W. Tock
Texas Tech University
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
William B. Krantz
University of Colorado
EAST: Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
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University of Pittsburgh
NORTHEAST: Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
NORTHWEST: Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Chemical Engineering Education

148 Horses of Other Colors-Some notes on
Seminars in a Chemical Engineering De-
partment, Rutherford Aris
152 Chemical Reactor Engineering, John B. Butt
and E. E. Peterson
158 Influential Papers in Chemical Reaction En-
gineering, Robert L. Kabel
164 A Graduate Course in Polymer Processing,
Stanley Middleman
168 Reactor Design From a Stability Viewpoint,
D. D. Perlmutter
172 The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal Systems,
Raj Rajagopalan
178 Coal Science and Technology, T. D. Wheelock
182 Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent,
Multiphase, Reacting Systems, R. G. Carbo-
nell and S. Whitaker

188 All a Chemical Engineer Does is Write,
M. E. Leesley and M. L. Williams, Jr.
194 Award Lecture, Part III: Discussions and
Conclusions, Robert C. Reid

198 Views and Opinions
Chemical Engineering Education Revisited,
Louis Theodore

147 Editorial
151 Letter to the Editor
163 In Memorium -Giuseppe Parravano
163, 199, 202, 206, Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877.
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1978 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

FALL 1978

Loren Schillinger
B.S.Ch.E. from Montana State University in 1975...
joined FMC's Industrial Chemical Group plant at
Pocatello as a process engineer in the technical
department... involved in pilot project working with
a fluid bed dryer to see whether a byproduct from
the plant's production process could be used to fuel
this vessel .. worked with production, maintenance
and engineering groups to gain better production
efficiency throughout plant .. promoted to unit
foreman, supervised hourly workers in the prepara-
tion department .. now planning analyst in the
Phosphorus Chemical Division at Industrial Chemi-
cal Group headquarters responsibilities include
working on economic analyses of plant expansion to
ensure that they are consistent with the Division's
long-range plan; also conducts feasibility studies on
the effect of proposed marketing changes on plant
production equipment says, "What really im-
presses me about FMC is the fact that a person is
judged both on technical competence and on ability
to work with others."





at FMC

As one of the nation's largest producers of chemicals,
FMC calls upon chemical engineers to make an impor-
tant contribution to the company's profits and growth.
Because of our diversity, we offer an unusually broad
range of career opportunities for top-flight graduates.

You can choose to apply your skills to a number of
rewarding projects-from applied research to on-line
production management.

We've highlighted the careers of some of our people to
give you an idea of how they've grown professionally,
what they're doing now, and how they feel about work-
ing with FMC. If you're looking for an organization that
will give you immediate technical challenge and long-
term career growth and flexibility, we invite you to con-
sider FMC.

If the challenges and opportunities we've described
match your interests, a career with FMC might prove to
be a rewarding experience, both for you and for us.

For more information, see our representative on cam-
pus or your Placement Director. Or, write to: Manager,
Training & Development, FMC Corporation, Industrial
Chemical Group, 2000 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
19103. An equal opportunity employer, m/f.


Mary Ann Pizzolato
B.S.Ch.E. from Rutgers University in 1976 ... joined
Industrial Chemical Group's Carteret plant as a pro-
cess engineer... worked as engineer for the acid
plant-did troubleshooting, process review and
some pilot and new project work ... promoted to
assistant area supervisor in production department
.. works directly with area supervisor to ensure
high quality and maximum production levels .. likes
having the opportunity to gain experience working
with management and hourly workers ... believes
that "with the pressure to get production out as
scheduled, you have to learn to work well with these
groups-it's the best kind of on-the-job-training.

A Letter to Chemical Engineering Seniors

This is the tenth Graduate Issue to be published by CEE
and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous
issues we include articles on graduate courses that are
taught at various universities and ads of departments on
their graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a
broad idea of the nature of graduate course work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue,
but also those in previous issues. A list of these follows. If
you would like a copy of a previous Fall issue, please write

Ray Fahien, Editor CEE




Blanch, Russell

Bailey & Ollis


Gates, et al.
Melnyk & Prober
Hamrin, et. al.


Fall 1977
"Fundamental Concepts in Surface In-
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Chemical Reaction Engineering Sci-
"Biochemical Engineering"
"Polymer Science and Engineering"
Fall 1976
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum Trans-
Fall 1975
"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"

Fall 1974
"Digital Computer Control of Process"
"Solid-State Materials and Devices"
"Multivariable Control and Est."
"Chemistry of Catalytic Process"
"Advanced Thermodynamics"
"Wastewater Engineering for ChE's"
"Enzyme and Biochemical Engr."
"Synthetic & Biological Polymers"
"Energy Engineering"
"History of Mass Transfer Theory"

Locke & Daniels


O'Connell, et. al.

Chao &

Curl & Kadlee

Kelleher & Kafes
Douglas &


Reid & Modell



Metzner & Denn
Toor & Condiff



Fall 1973
"Applied Chemical Kinetics"
"Corrosion Control
"Digital Computer Process Control"
"Economics of Chem. Processing Indus-
"Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal
"Polymer Processing"
"Staged Separations"
"Application of Molecular Concepts of
Predicting Properties in Design"
Fall 1972
"Process Heat Transfer"
"Equilibrium Theory of Fluids"

"Biological Transport Pnenomena and
Biomedical Engineering"
"Applied Surface Chemistry"
"Momentum, Energy and Mass Trans-
"Process and Plant Design Project"
"Engineering Entrepeneurship"

"How Industry Can Improve the Useful-
ness of Academic Research"
"Relevance of Grad. ChE Research"

Fall 1971
"Thermo: Theory & Applications"
"Transport Phenomena"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Computer Aided Process Design"
"Mathematical Modeling..."
"Noncatalytic Heterogeneous Reaction
"Statistical Analysis and Simulation"
"Optimization of Large Scale Systems"

Fall 1970
"Interfacial Phenomena"
"Kinetics of Chemical Processes"
"Process Control"
"Design of Air Pollution Control Sys-
"Fluid Mechanics"
"Separation Processes"
"Heat and Mass Transfer"
"Biochemical Engineering"
Pall 1969
"Why Mathematics?"
"Theories, Correlations & Uncertainties
for Waves, Gradients & Fluxes"
"Fluid Dynamics"
"Stat. Theories of Particulate Systems"
"Diffusional Operations"
"Optimal Control of Reaction Systems"
"Molecular Thermodynamics"
"Reactor Design"

FALL 1978




University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

ONE OF THE STAPLES of the graduate cur-
riculum in a ChE department is undoubtedly
the ChE seminars that the students would attend
during their graduate career. Their range and
quality as an index of the quality of the depart-
ment and their value, both to faculty and students,
is unparalleled. Though the stringent budgets of
recent years have often forced departments to cut
back on the number of outside speakers they can
afford to bring in, most departments make every
effort to introduce as many and varied speakers as
possible. Nor are the resources of industry to be
overlooked, for often an industrial speaker can,
with a good talk, give the students a much better
idea of the uses to which their ChE training will
be put than is possible under the pressures of
classroom curriculum. But there is also a case for
the student hearing an occasional seminar on
something even more interesting than ChE. This
can be accomplished by asking a speaker from
another department of one's own university or, on
occasion, by getting an outside speaker. There is
also the possibility of devoting the seminars of a
whole quarter or semester to subjects other than
ChE itself and this we have tried about every third
year at Minnesota. Arvind Varma has recently or-
ganized such a series at Notre Dame and the
Editor thought that the idea might be worth gen-
eral mention.

THE FIRST SUCH SERIES that we tried at
SMinnesota was, like many other good things
here, started with the blessing and encouragement
of Neal Amundson. It was held during the Winter
Quarter of 1964 under the general title of "A
Broader View of Research at the University." This
series was deliberately discursive though it started
with a hop, step and jump from classical times

into current research topics. It had the incompar-
able advantage of being launched by the late Mr.
Douglas Cuthbert Coloquon Young, the Reader
in Greek at St. Andrews University, who was
spending a sabbatical at Minnesota. A redoubtable
scholar of immense height and doughty mien, he
was quite liable to wear the kilt to a seminar,
though he did not, unfortunately, for his talk to
us on "How the Greeks Started in Science and
Why They Stopped." Commenting that one of the
earliest works of Greek Science was Hesiod's
"Works and Days," a work in verse, he remarked
that "It would be a hardship for a modern sci-
entist to have to present his Ph.D. thesis in verse.
But such compulsory academic verse might not
sound much worse than most modern scientific
prose, nor indeed worse than much modern poetic
verse." The second talk was on medieval scholas-
ticism and the third, on modern philosophy of sci-
ence, was given by Herbert Feigl, one of the last
surviving representatives of the Vienna circle.
From this three-stage launching the series became
quite discursive, ranging from archaeology and
physiology to mathematics and economics. The
Vikings as poets were discussed by one speaker
and the structure of theoretical physics by an-
In the Fall of '66 we had another series of
random topics under the title of "The Scope of
Scholarship." These ranged from ocean engineer-
ing and architectural design to the preservation
of organs and the plays of August Strindberg.

Skip Scriven suggested a series on
"Aspects of Technological Development and
Social Change.".... thanks to Scriven's vision we
were also able to bring in people from outside. These
included a director of a multinational
corporation, an international economics
consultant and a State Department
man from Washington ...


After a few years in chemical industry and a brief spell teaching
mathematics at the University of Edinburgh, Aris came to the University
of Minnesota in 1958 and has been in its Department of ChE ever since.
He particularly appreciates the lively intellectual atmosphere of the de-
partment and the excellent quality of students that it serves and has
endeavored to make some contribution to its good repute. His research
has centered on the mathematical models of chemical engineering, par-
ticularly those of chemical reactors. He is currently Regents' Professor
of ChE at the University of Minnesota.

Two would have needed audiovisual aids for a
proper record. One on the enthnomusicology of
Ecuador was enlivened by some excellent record-
ings, while another on the history and technique
of stage movement was dramatically illustrated by
the gambollings of the speaker. Walter Heller had
recently returned from his service in Washington
and was kind enough to speak on the "New Eco-
Under the rubric of "Varieties of Academic
Experience" another series was launched in the
Winter of 1970. This again was a series of diverse
and disconnected topics ranging, this time, from
ecology and cellular engineering to symmetry and
the psychology of speech perception. We again had
some classical archaeology from our Regents' Pro-
fessor of that predilection, William McDonald. He
had introduced the subject in 1964 and it was to
his kind interest that we had been indebted for the
suggestion of several speakers. We even had a
Vice-President for administration speak on the
perils, promise and perplexities of program plan-
ning budgets.
This illustrates one kind of seminar series that
can be tried, namely the random or desultory. The
essential thing is to find out who are the most
likely and interesting speakers on campus and to
give them their head as to the choice of topic. It
need hardly be added that this criterion must be
guarded with a sense for true scholarship, for
there are on many campuses a number of quite

lively, but perhaps more superficial, individuals
who from time to time surface with a great splash.
These will be heard in any case by those who wish
to and it is no service to the student to provide a
forum for anything less than that which can pass
the most exacting scholarly standards.


T HE OTHER FORM OF seminar series is that
which embroiders the talks around a general
theme. Thus one quarter we had a series called
"Research in the Industrial Context" in which we
deliberately tried to give the graduate students a
sense for the different conditions under which
many of them would operate in their research
once they found a job in the chemical industry.
Here we were fortunate in being able to attract
some of the top people of the profession such as
Tom Baron of Shell and Vern Weekman from
Mobil, but we were less fortunate in being able to
get manuscripts from them and so make a perma-
nent record of the series. Perhaps this was as well,
for the impact on the current student body was the
main intention and our industrial visitors were

"It would be a hardship for a
modern scientist to have to present his
Ph.D. thesis in verse. But such compulsory academic
verse might not sound much worse than most modern
scientific prose, nor indeed worse than
much modern verse.

able to speak more freely and refer to more cur-
rent topics when they were neither recorded nor
asked to provide a full script.
In the Spring Quarter of 1974, Skip Scriven
suggested a series on "Aspects of Technological
Development and Social Change." This was even
more thematic than anything we had attempted
before, yet we wanted to be sure it would not be
without its leaven of humanities. Our local expert
on ethnomusicology [among other things, for he is
a musicologist of vast range] Johannes Riedel
came again to talk about music and social change
and an anthropologist discussed the interaction of
growth and no-growth cultures. One of our leading
political scientists discussed the differences and
similarities in economic development in England
and France at the time of the Industrial Revolu-
tion and between China and Japan in more recent
history. A geographer spoke of the changing
metropolitan patterns of America while a visiting

FALL 1978

professor discussed the interaction on aesthetics
and politics in recent Latin American literature.
But thanks to Scriven's vision we were also able
to bring in people from outside. These included a
director of a multinational corporation, an inter-
national economics consultant and a State Depart-
ment man from Washington as well as Dr.
Jayaragan Chanmugam, a chemical engineer,
whose paper with George Box graces the first page
of I&EC Fundamentals and who now works with
the World Bank.
Last fall we again had a thematic series,
though the theme was very lightly-even meta-
phorically-treated at times. The current interest
in catastrophe theory seemed to be a good starting
point and indeed we were launched with a splendid
description of the elements of the mathematical
theory by Larry Markus of our Mathematics De-
partment. He was followed by Professor Holt, who
had three years before told us about the politics of
economic change and who now discussed his anal-
ysis of the beginnings of World Wars I and II in
the light of the categories of catastrophe theory.

There is also the possibility
of devoting the seminars of a whole quarter
of semester to subjects other than ChE itself and this
we have tried to do about every third
year at Minnesota.

Apart from a final "wayside dandelion without the
gate" which made some reference to catastrophe
theory in the context of chemical reactors, there
was little in the rest of the series which had any-
thing to do with catastrophe theory as such. In-
stead the term was used in a variety of meanings
and this freedom allowed us to invite an archaeo-
logical geologist to talk about Atlantis and an art
historian to show how the eruption of Vesuvius in
1631 helped date some of Carracciolo's later
frescoes. A classicist described the influence of the
plague in Athens in 430 B.C. on the thought of
Thucydides, while a psychologist talked of crisis
intervention psychology. The Director of our
Limnological Research Center raised the question
of whether a catastrophe was necessarily a catas-
trophe by showing that forest fires had a definite
value to the forest community in the longer per-
spective of the ecological cycle. The use of the
term catastrophe was even more metaphorically
used in a discussion of the rise of mounted shock
combat as one of the chief instruments of fuedal-

ism. Here the title "The Feudal Catastrophe"
really referred to the commonly received opinion
of our day that feudalism as such was a disaster.
Very thought-provoking were the remarks of a
Germanic philologist who suggested that in primi-
tive societies nothing short of a catastrophe broke
the chain of cyclical thinking and allowed man to
recognize the essential difference between past and
future. This linked catastrophe with the origin of
history as a science.

AS WAS MENTIONED above the great es-
sential for all these enterprises is the choice
of the liveliest and most vigorous of scholars, and
the advantage of a major university is that there
should be a sufficient number of these around. The
other essential is that some one, or perhaps two,
members of the ChE faculty should take it up as a
positive commitment. They will certainly benefit
from the suggestions of their colleagues, but it is
fatal to try and get a series like this run by a com-
mittee. Since there is generally a very small budget
for these things it is usually necessary to depend
on colleagues within one's own university to whom
one is not allowed to pay an honorarium and for
whom no expenses are required. Obviously where
there is money the series can be greatly enhanced
by invitations to people from farther afield. It is
generally well to line up the speakers at least nine
months in advance. They are usually eminently
pregnable when they think they can carry to full
term, forgetting, as is so often the case, that the
going may be more than a little laborious when
their hour has come. Beyond the usual administra-
tive reminders and provision of audiovisual equip-
ment, the occasion of the seminar often gives an
opportunity to get the faculty together for a lunch
with the speaker beforehand.
If the speakers are not being offered an
honorarium it is a little unfair to demand a manu-
script, though there are always some who like to
write out their talks. Thus, if a record of the
seminars is thought desirable, one must be pre-

.... we had another
series of random topics under
the title of "The Scope of Scholarship."
These ranged from ocean engineering and
architectural design to the preservation of organs
and the plays of August Strindberg.


Go4a'4"& in


Northwestern University
Evanston, IL 60201

University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720

rHE DEVELOPMENT OF chemical reaction
engineering as an identifiable area within
chemical engineering has led to renewed interest
and emphasis on courses dealing with chemical
reaction kinetics and chemical reactor design. The
basic issues concerning instruction in these areas
are probably not much different from those in-
volved in any other area of chemical engineering
insofar as fundamentals vs. applications, extent of
coverage, and similar factors. There is, however,
a chemical factor involved in this area that may
not appear quite so prominently in other endeav-
ors, and instruction at the undergraduate level
particularly may be sensitive to the contents of
current offerings in chemistry courses.
Certainly there is no lack of literature on all
aspects of the topic. In Table 1 is given an exten-
sive (but by no means comprehensive) list of ref-
erences dealing with chemical kinetics, engineer-
ing aspects of kinetics and reactor design, experi-
mental methods, catalysis, and several specialized
topics. Most of us are possibly familiar with the
offerings listed under engineering aspects, and a
quick glance at this tabulation might induce one to
think there is an enormous variation in what indi-
viduals conceive to be useful components of an
undergraduate course. It is interesting to see if
this is really so. Let us do this by comparing the
table of contents of three typical offerings from
the list, as shown in Table 2. Two of the books, by
Smith and Levenspiel, were chosen because they
are perhaps the most widely used undergraduate
texts. The third book, by Carberry, is a very recent
addition to the kinetic literature. In each case the
author has chosen to treat a number of funda-

*ASEE Summer School for ChE Faculty, Snowmass
Resort, Colorado, August, 1977.

mental topics, with more specialized applications
in later chapters. Descriptive kinetics and data
interpretation are, logically, accorded first place
on each list, followed by introductory material on
reactor design and analysis. The latter is largely
limited to ideal reactor models; the effect of tem-
perature is treated somewhat differently in an
organizational manner by the three authors, but
the level and extent of coverage is quite similar.
Concepts of selectivity as well as rate and conver-
sion are presented early in each case and main-
tained as an important factor in kinetics and re-
actor analysis throughout. Following this intro-
ductory material, each author then turns to prob-
lems associated with deviations from ideal reactor
performance. Here somewhat more variation is
apparent in organization and presentation but,
again, the net coverage and information is quite
The point is that, in terms of information
which might form the core content of a typical

John B. Butt is presently a Professor of ChE at Northwester Uni-
versity. He received his S.C. and B.S. from Clemson University and his
M.Eng. and D. Eng. from Yale University. He has had industrial ex-
perience with Humble Oil, Chevron Research and Exxon Research
Laboratories, and is presently a consultant for Argonne National Lab-
oratory and Illinois Inst. of Tech. Research. He was the recipient of
the AIChE Allan P. Colburn Award in 1968 and the AIChE Professional
Progress Award in 1978. (L)
Gene Petersen did his undergraduate and masters work at the Uni-
versity of Washington and obtained his Ph.D. in Fuel Science at Penn-
sylvania State University in 1953. He joined the faculty at the University
of California at Berkeley where he pursues research and teaches
kinetics, catalysis and reaction engineering. (R)


Selected References in Chemical Kinetics,
Catalysis and Reactor Design

Basic Material For Review:
E. L. King, "How Chemical Reactions Occur", Benjamin,
1964 (Paperback).
F. Daniels and R. A. Alberty, "Physical Chemistry",
Latham, J. L., "Elementary Reaction Kinetics", 2nd
ed., Butterworths (1969).

Introductory Texts Emphasizing Chemical Aspects Of Sub-
A. A. Frost and R. G. Pearson, "Kinetics and Mechan-
ism", 2nd ed., Wiley, 1969.
K. J. Laidler, "Chemical Kinetics", 2nd ed., McGraw-
Hill, 1965.
K. J. Laidler, "Reaction Kinetics", Volumes I and II,
Permagon Press, 1963 (Paperback).
C. N. Hinshelwood, "Kinetics of Chemical Change",
Clarendon Press, 1940 (Somewhat out of date, but
contains a good qualitative discussion of basics).
M. Boudart, "Kinetics of Chemical Processes", Prentice-
Hall, 1968.
I. Amdur and G. G. Hammes, "Chemical Kinetics", Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1966.

More Advanced Treatments:
H. S. Johnston, "Gas Phase Reactions", Prentice-Hall.
N. Semenov, "Some Problems in Chemical Kinetics and
Reactivity", Vol. I and II, trans. by M. Boudart,
Princeton Univ. Press, 1958, 1959.
S. W. Benson, "Foundations of Chemical Kinetics", Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1960.
V. N. Kondratiev, "Kinetics of Chemical Gas Reactions",
1958, trans. from the Russian, Permagon Press, 1964.
S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler and H. Eyring, "The Theory
of Rate Processes", McGraw-Hill, 1941.

Texts Emphasizing Engineering Aspects of Kinetics and
Reactor Design:
O. Levenspiel, "Chemical Reaction Engineering", 2nd
ed., Wiley, 1972.
J. M. Smith, "Chemical Engineering Kinetics", McGraw-
Hill, 2nd ed., 1970.
S. M. Walas, "Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engi-
neers", McGraw-Hill, 1959.
O. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, "Chemical Process
Principles", Vol. III, Wiley, 1947.
R. Aris, "Introduction to the Analysis of Chemical Re-
actors", Prentice-Hall, 1965.
K. G. Denbigh, "Chemical Reactor Theory", Cambridge
Univ. Press, 1966.
H. Kramers and K. R. Westerterp, "Elements of Chem-
ical Reactor Design and Operation", Academic Press,
D. A. Frank-Kamenetskii, "Diffusion and Heat Ex-
change in Chemical Kinetics", Trans. Ed. John P.
Appleton, 2nd ed., Plenum Press, 1969.
G. R. Gavalas, "Nonlinear Differential Equations of
Chemical Reacting Systems", Springer-Verlag, 1968.
J. J. Carberry, "Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engi-
neering", McGraw-Hill, 1976.

L. C. Lee and W. J. Thomas, "Chemical Engineering",
Vol. III, edited by J. F. Richardson and D. G. Pea-
cock, Chapters 1 and 2, Permagon, 1971.
C. G. Hill, Jr., "Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Re-
actor Design", Wiley, 1977.
Experimental Techniques:
H. W. Melville and B. G. Gowenlock, "Experimental
Methods in Gas Reactions", Macmillan, 1964.
S. L. Friess and A. Weissberger (Editors), "Investiga-
tions of Rates and Mechanisms of Reactions", Vol-
umes I and II (Volume 8, parts 1 and 2, of "Tech-
nique of Organic Chemistry"), Interscience, 1953
and 1963.
R. B. Anderson, "Experimental Methods in Catalytic
Research", Academic Press, 1968. Volumes I, II, and
Heterogeneous Catalysis:
J. M. Thomas and W. J. Thomas, "Introduction to the
Principles of Heterogeneous Catalysis", Academic
Press, 1967.
E. E. Petersen, "Chemical Reaction Analysis", Prentice-
Hall, 1965.
P. G. Ashmore, "Catalysis and Inhibition of Chemical
Reactions", Butterworths, 1963.
J. R. Anderson, "Structure of Metallic Catalysts", Aca-
demic Press, 1975.
R. Aris, "The Mathematical Theory of Diffusion and
Reaction in Permeable Catalysts", Volumes I and II,
Oxford, 1975.
C. N. Satterfield, "Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous
Catalysis", MIT Press, 1970.
G. C. Bond, "Heterogeneous Catalysis", Clarendon
Press, 1974.
G. C. Szabo (Editor), "Contact Catalysis", Elsevier,
1976, Volumes I and II.
Special Topics:
J. Szekely, J. W. Evans and H. Y. Sohn, "Gas Solid
Reactions", Academic Press, 1976.
D. Kunii and O. Levenspiel, "Fluidization Engineer-
ing", Wiley, 1969.
D. F. Othmer, "Fluidization", Reinhold, 1956.

undergraduate course, there is considerable agree-
ment on content and even order of presentation.
This is not to say that these texts, or others, are
all the same, for in the latter stages of each there
appears considerable variation in content and or-
ganization, indicative of individual interests and
perhaps specialized applications. The manner of
presentation varies considerably to reflect the
style of the author. This is shown in Table 3 which
presents the content of the basic undergraduate
courses at Berkeley and Northwestern. This di-
versity leads to what we believe to be a healthy
variation in individual undergraduate courses
around the country, in which the fundamentals are
fairly well agreed upon but many different ap-
proaches exist within presentation and the use of

FALL 1978


1. Introduction
2. Kinetics of Homogeneous
3. Interpretation of Batch
Reactor Data
4. Introduction to Reactor
5. Single Ideal Reactors
6. Design for Single Reactions
7. Design for Multiple
8. Temp. and Pressure Effect
9. Non-Ideal Flow
10. Mixing of Fluids
11. Introduction to Design for
Heterogeneous Reacting
14. Solid Catalyzed Reactions

Total pages:

Tables of Contents of Basic Material from Three Texts on
Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design

7 1. Introduction
2. Kinetics of Homogeneous
33 Reactions
3. Design Fundamentals
52 4. Homogeneous Reactor
Design: Isothermal
4 Conditions
27 5. Temp. Effects in
39 Homogeneous Reactors
6. Deviations from Ideal
47 Reactor Performance
43 7. Heterogeneous Reactions
8. Heterogeneous Catalysis
9. Kinetics of Fluid-Solid
Catalytic Reactions
10. External Transport
8 Processes in Heterogeneous
77 Reactions
-7 11. Reaction and Diffusion
Within Porous Catalysts:
Internal Transport


32 1. Introduction 11
2. Behavior of Chemical
65 Reactions 50
33 3. Behavior of Chemical
Reactors 66
4. Conservation Equations for
73 Reactors 51
5. Heterogeneous Reactions 50
40 6. Gas-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid
Systems 67
30 7. Fluid-Solid Non-Catalytic
9 Reactions 47
47 8. Heterogeneous Catalysis and
Catalytic Kinetics 100
28 Total pages: 442


Total pages: 464

specific examples to develop material beyond the
entry level. Historically this situation may be the
result of the fact that many current undergradu-
ate courses in reaction kinetics and reactor analy-
sis had their origins not too long ago at the gradu-
ate level. It is within recent memory that many
undergraduate curricula contained no courses (or
elective, at best) in this area.


ate education concerning kinetics and reaction
engineering that should be of current concern.
Interestingly, most of them deal with kinetics.
One has to do with the chemical part of chemical
kinetics. In most cases this is not treated in any
detail, if at all, with the result that the student's
analysis of kinetics is based purely on phenomono-

.... we feel strongly that
the undergraduate program in kinetics
should not be devoid of relevant experimentation in
an engineering context.

logical rate laws with little understanding of their
basis. Where does the Arrhenius law come from
anyway? If we are careful to use activities in
thermodynamic problems, shouldn't we use them
in kinetics? Certainly all of us could formulate
numerous questions similar to these and perhaps
even admit that they are not addressed in our
undergraduate course. Earlier, such problems may
not have been of quite so much concern, but cur-
rent undergraduate physical chemistry courses
differ from those taught 20 years ago. Increased
emphasis (if not total preoccupation) on spectro-
scopy and quantum theory has reshaped much of
the course content and the student may come away
with somewhat less chemical intuition regarding
reaction analysis than was formerly the case.*
A problem in developing suitable coverage is that
text material is distributed over a wide range of
sources, as indicated in Table 1.
A second factor of concern is the development
of suitable laboratory experiments in the area.
Too often relevant experimentation is found only
as one or two entrees in the undergraduate chem-

*Do you know what your Chemistry Department is doing tonight?


ical engineering laboratory menu, or an occasional
experiment in introductory or physical chemistry
laboratory. This is admittedly a difficult problem,
since the timing sequence of courses in kinetics in
many curricula does not make for convenient rela-
tion between classroom and laboratory experience.
Unfortunately we have no general solutions to set
forth for this problem, but we feel strongly that
the undergraduate program in kinetics should not
be devoid of relevant experimentation in an en-
gineering context. In fact, experiments on non-
trivial catalytic, kinetic and reactor design sys-
tems introduce the student to the real world and
focus attention on the enormous difficulties asso-
ciated with getting good data, interpreting them,
and using them to predict reactor behavior. An
undergraduate elective course, half lecture and
half laboratory, is available at Berkeley. The
course outline is shown in Table 4. A course with
a similar objective was developed some years ago
at Princeton and a laboratory manual detailing
several excellent experiments was prepared by
J. B. Anderson.

A second factor of concern is the development
of suitable laboratory experiments in the area. Too
often relevant experimentation is found only as one or
two entrees in the undergraduate chemical engineering
laboratory menu, or an occasional experiment in
introductory or physical chemistry laboratory.


T IS INTERESTING that an increasing num-
ber of schools throughout the country are offer-
ing two courses in this area at the undergraduate
level, either as a Junior-Senior sequence or by
making available the entering level graduate
course as a second offering for qualified under-
graduates. This, in turn, presents an interesting
problem as to what to offer students entering a
graduate program with such a background. Prob-
ably, any graduate program should include at least
one course beyond the entering level, and many do
considerably more. Often the advanced graduate

Undergraduate Kinetic Courses Compared

Northwestern University
4 hr/wk of lecture for 10 weeks
Week Content
1 Introduction, definition of rate and extent of reac-
Descriptive kinetics of simple and nearly complex
Elementary steps and chain reactions
2 Nonisothermal reactions
Interpretation of kinetic data
3 Collision theory, Lindemann theory
4 Midterm I (basic kinetics)
RRK theory, transition state theory
5 Reactions on surfaces
Mixing and segregation
Age distributions
6 Midterm II (rate theories)
Mixing models
7 Mixing and ideal reactor models (PFR,CSTR)-
conversion and selectivity
8 Temperature effects in ideal reactors
Nonideal reactor models: mixing cell and
9 Temperature effects in nonideal reactors
Reactions in two phases, mass transfer and
Midterm III (mixing and ideal reactors)
10 Introduction to some detailed simulation methods
Overview of course
Industrial example, catalytic cracking
Midterm IV (nonideal reactors) in lieu of final

California, Berkeley
3 hr/wk lecture and 1 hr tutorial for 10 wks
Week Content
1 Introduction to subject, references, purpose, rela-
tionship to other chemical engineering courses
Stoichiometric equations, simple and complex re-
Extent of reaction, rate of reaction
Elementary steps, sequences of reactions
2 Temperature coefficient, Arrhenius expression
Theories of reaction-collision theory and transi-
tion state theory
3 Finish transition state theory
Steady state approximation
4 Rate limiting step-meaning and utility
Examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous sys-
tems. HBr, HI, dehydrogenation of methyleyclo-
5 Plug flow reactor isothermal, adiabatic and non-
6 Midterm
CSTR equations for isothermal and non-isothermal
7 Multiple steady states in reaction systems
8 Examples of real reaction systems:
Chlorination of Benzene
Oxidation of naphthalene
Ammonia synthesis
9 Residence time distribution function, its utility and
Moving bed and fluidized reactors
10 External and internal diffusion in heterogeneous re-
action systems,

FALL 1978

... the student's analysis of kinetics is based purely on
phenomonological rate laws with little understanding of their basis. Where does the Arrhenius law come
from anyway? If we are careful to use activities in thermodynamic problems, shouldn't
we use them in kinetics?

Undergraduate Course, "Catalytic Reactor Design and
Catalysis", University of California, Berkeley 3 hr/wk
for 10 weeks.
Week Content
1 Course Organization
Laboratory organization
2 Tutorials*
Preparation of Catalysts
3 Preparation of Catalysts
Physical Characterization of Catalysts
4 Reactor Design Principles
5 Tutorials*
Reactor Design Problem
6 Reactor Design Problem
Rate Expressions for Catalysts
7 Tutorials*
Rate Expressions, contd.
8 Homogeneous Catalysis
NOx reduction
9 Tutorials*
Fluidized Reactors
10 Liquid-Liquid and Gas-Liquid Reactors
Student Reports
*Tutorials by appointment, individually arranged.
1. H2-D2 Exchange
H2-D2 exchange is measured on a fresh Ni film in a bulb
using mass-spectrometer to analyze the progress of the
reaction in a batch reactor.
2. Hydrogenolysis of Cyclopropane
The kinetics of hydrogenolysis are studied in an integral
packed bed reactor using Pt on y-alumina catalyst. The
objective is to determine experimentally reaction order
and activation energy.
3. Oxidation of Propylene
The objective is to determine activation energy for re-
action of a dilute mixture of ethylene in air to CO2 and
water on a Pt-alumina catalyst. This experiment is an
idealized model of an automobile catalytic converter.
4. Esterification of Butyl Alcohol with Acetic Acid
The purpose of this experiment is to study the kinetics
of esterification as affected by temperature, acidity, and
effects of reversibility.
5. Carbon-Carbon Dioxide Reaction
The reaction between graphite rods and CO2 is studied
at atmospheric pressure and at very high temperatures
in a glow-bar furnace. The objective is to show directly
the non-uniform reaction within the carbon rod.
6. Oxidation on a Platinum Foil
The reaction of CO and 0, is studied on an electrically
heated platinum foil in a flow reactor. Reaction rates are
determined from heat release on the catalyst. Reaction
mechanism and activation energies are determined.

7. Catalyst Characterization
BET surface area. Metal surface area.
8. Catalyst Preparation
A typical catalyst is prepared by impregnating an
alumina support with nickel salt. The nickel is reduced
and subsequently the catalyst pellet is observed to es-
tablish the metal distribution.
*Students do 2 experiments plus a catalyst characteriza-
tion in addition to a reactor design.

experience need not be in terms of formal lecture
courses, but may be in the form of research or
journal reading seminars, special topics courses
(whose content may vary from one year to the
next), intensive mini-courses, etc. It is perhaps
less appropriate here to become involved in a dis-
cussion of details of graduate courses at any level,
since these ordinarily are much more reflective of
the interests and experience of the instructor, and
variations in content within wide limits are possi-
ble. Nonetheless, when we originally compared
notes concerning the content of the entering level
graduate courses at Berkeley and Northwestern
we were struck by their similarity. These courses
are basically a continuation in depth of the under-
graduate courses, assuming background in de-
scriptive kinetics and some understanding of ideal
(PFR and CSTR) reactor models. One unifying
theme in both courses is the discard of pseudo-
homogeneous approximations and extensive treat-
ment of reactions involving two phases. Under this
cover we discuss heterogeneous catalysis, gas-
liquid reactions, heterogeneous (two phase) re-
actor models, and the theory of diffusion and re-
action. To our additional surprise, we found that
considerable effort is devoted in both North-
western and Berkeley courses to discussion of
what might be termed "industrial examples". At
Berkeley these include analysis of a FCC reactor-
regenerator system and a study of the chlorination
of benzene; at Northwestern kinetic lumping and
decay models for catalytic cracking are investi-
gated. Both courses also include a "sampler" on
reactor stability and parametric sensitivity and
introductory material on two-dimensional model-
ing. A syllabus of the Berkeley course is given in
Table 5.


Graduate Course, "Chemical Reaction Analysis",
University of California, Berkeley, 3 hr/wk
for 10 weeks.
Lecture Content
1 Orientation, organization, goals
2 Stoichiometry, minimum independent variable in
3 Conversion, definition of rate expression, conser-
vation equations
4 The problem of heterogeneous reactor design-
the pseudohomogeneous rate
5 Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics
6 Quasi-steady state methods
7 Thiele-Zeldovich problem
8 Falsification of kinetics by transport phenomena
9 Generalized treatment
10 Heat effects, complex reactions, criteria
11 Parameters of model: BET area, metal area,
12 diffusivity
13 Single pellet diffusion reactor
14 Models of poisoning
15 External mass transfer
16 Reactor design, residence time distribution
17 Residence time distribution
18 Application of RTD to reactor modeling
19 Reactor-regenerator; fouling
20 Examination
21 Chlorination of benzene: example
22 Stability: Van Heerden,
23 Bilous and Amundson
24 One-dimensional reactors
25 Stability: NH, synthesis, Grens problem
26 Two-dimensional reactors
27 Boundary conditions, hot spot example phthalicc
28 Fluidized reactors
29 Slurry reactors
30 Trickle-bed reactors

If this single example possesses any generality,
it would tend to indicate that a degree of consensus
exists concerning the lower level graduate course
similar to undergraduate courses. Beyond this
level, however, offerings become quite varied de-
pending on the interests and resources of indi-
vidual departments. Normally, one finds some
course dealing with various aspects of detailed
reactor design, such as two dimensional, two
phase fixed beds, fluidized beds, slurry, or trickle
bed reactors.
A final note concerning graduate education in

this field is the high potential value of individual-
ized seminar courses or research seminars. These
can be organized about special topics and made
complimentary to material presented in more
formal courses. At Northwestern, for example,
there is a rather sizeable group of individuals in
ChE, Chemistry, and Materials Science who are
involved in catalysis research. Faculty, students,
and visitors participate in a "Catalysis and Sur-
face Science" seminar approximately every other
week amid the munching of potato chips at Friday
noon. A typical schedule of speakers, affiliations,
and topics is given in Table 6. This seminar series
is a nice supplement to courses in advanced re-
action kinetics and catalysis which are generally
offered in the winter and spring quarters.
In summary, we see a large measure of agree-
ment on the content of undergraduate and enter-
ing level graduate courses in chemical reactor en-
gineering, as illustrated here. What of the future?
Assuming that current research interests are

Catalysis and Surface Science Seminars
Spring Quarter, 1977, Northwestern University
1. Professor J. J. Fripiat, C.N.R.S., Orleans, France (vis-
itor), "Aspects of Zeolite Catalysts: Evidence for
Hydrogen Spillover"
2. Dr. R. Bjorklund, Dept. of Chemistry, Northwestern
(post-doctoral fellow), "Properties of Ni/AlO, Cat-
alysts Prepared by Reaction of Ni(CO), with Alum-
3. Dr. M. Jarjoui, University of Lyons, France (post- doc-
toral fellow), "Partial Oxidation of Ethylene over
Silver Catalysts"
4. Dr. Y. Inoue, Department of Chemistry, University of
Tokyo (post-doctoral fellow), "The Reactivity of
Supported Pt with O2"
5. Professor J. B. Cohen, Department of Materials Science,
Northwestern, "EXAFS and Its Applications in Sur-
face Science"
6. Mr. D. M. Downing, Dept. of Chemical Engineering,
Northwestern (graduate student), "Modeling Ther-
mal and Mass Transport Interactions in Deactivated
Catalyst Particles"
7. Mr. P. Otero-Schipper, Dept. of Chemical Engineering,
Northwestern (graduate student), "Hydrogenation
and Hydrogenolysis on Supported Pt"

going to show up in higher level graduate courses
and thence diffuse downwards, we would expect to
see increasing emphasis on unsteady state models,
polyfunctional catalysis, catalyst deactivation,
stability and sensitivity problems of various types,
and lumping schemes for analysis of complex re-
action networks. Can we be blamed if this sounds
like a listing of our own research interests? [

FALL 1978

... a degree of consensus exists
concerning the lower level graduate course
similar to undergraduate courses.

4 Kietica eoMre*



Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

THIS PAPER DESCRIBES the genesis, devel-
opment, implementation, and evaluation of a
graduate level kinetics course based upon selected
influential papers in chemical reaction engineer-
ing. The starting point was the following letter of
January 1976.
This spring I will be teaching a graduate course
in Chemical Reaction Engineering. My thought is to
select ten to fifteen of the most influential research
papers in this area and to build the course around
them. Just to pick a couple of examples, consider
"Hougen, O. A., and Watson, K. M., "Solid Catalysts
and Reaction Rates," Ind. Eng. Chem. 35, 529-541
(1943) and Danckwerts, P. V., "Continuous Flow
Systems, Distribution of Residence Times," Chem.
Eng. Sci. 2, 1-13 (1953).
No doubt you have your own favorites. So I am
asking you along with a number of our colleagues to
send me the references to a few papers that you con-
sider to be of special importance.
One should not conduct a survey without sharing
the results with the respondents. Also you may be
interested in the cumulative opinion of your peers. So
I will send a tabulation of the responses to everyone
who contributes. Thank you for your help.
Twenty-two such letters were sent to individ-
uals prominent in chemical reaction engineering.
Sixteen responses were received including four
from the researchers surveyed outside of the
United States. All responses came from academic
researchers although one industrial person was
solicited. The list, shown in Table I, comprises the
suggestions of fourteen of the respondents. Two
respondents referred only to chapter bibliogra-
phies in their books. These responses, while use-
ful, would produce an even longer list. Papers are
listed first by frequency of mention and second by
date of publication.

*Presented at the Summer School for Chemical Engi-
neering Faculty held at Snowmass, Colorado, 1977.

List of Suggested Influential Papers
Thiele, E. W., "Relation Between Catalytic Activity and
Size of Particle," Ind. Eng. Chem. 31, 916-920 (1939).
Denbigh, K. G., "Velocity and Yield in Continuous Reaction
Systems," Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 352-373 (1944).
Wheeler, A., "Reaction Rates and Selectivity in Catalyst
Pores," Advances in Catalysis 3, 249-327 (1951).
Aris, R., and Amundson, N. R., "An Analysis of Chemical
Reactor Stability and Control I," Chem. Eng. Sci. 7,
121-131 (1958). See also parts II and III, pp. 132-155.
Weisz, P. B., and Hicks, J. S., "The Behaviour of Porous
Catalyst Particles in View of Internal Mass and Heat
Diffusion Effects," Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 265-275 (1962).
Hougen, O. A., and Watson, K. M., "Solid Catalysts and
Reaction Rates," Ind. Eng. Chem. 35, 529-541 (1943).
Van Krevelen, D. W., and Hoftijzer, P. J., "Kinetics of Gas-
Liquid Reactions Part I. General Theory," Rec. Trav.
Chim. Pays-Bas 67, 563-586 (1948). See also Part II pp.
Yang, K. H., and Hougen, O. A., "Determination of Mechan-
ism of Catalyzed Gaseous Reactions," Chem. Eng.
Progr. 46, 146-157 (1950).
Danckwerts, P. V., "Continuous Flow Systems-Distribu-
tion of Residence Times," Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 1-13
Weisz, P. B., and Prater, C. D., "Interpretation of Measure-
ments in Experimental Catalysis," Advances in Cataly-
sis 6, 143-196 (1954).
Wheeler, A., "Reaction Rates and Selectivity in Catalyst
Pores," in Catalysis, Vol. II, Emmett (ed.), 105-165
Van Heerden, C., "The Character of the Stationary State of
Exothermic Processes," Chem. Eng. Sci. 8, 133-145
Uppal, A., Ray, W. H., and Poore, A. B., "On the Dynamic
Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem.
Eng. Sci. 29, 967-985 (1974). Also "The Classification of
the Dynamic Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Re-
actors-Influence of Reactor Residence Time," Chem.
Eng. Sci. 31, 205-214 (1976).


Bodenstein, M., and Wolgast, K., "Reaktionsgeschwindig-
keit in Strimenden Gasen," Z. Physik. Chem. 61, 422-
436 (1903).
Liljenroth, F. G., "Starting and Stability Phenomena of
Ammonia-Oxidation and Similar Reactions," Chem.
Metal. Eng. 19, 287-293 (1922).
Hatta, S., Techn. Repts. Toh6ku Imperial Univ. 8, 1 (1928);
10, 119 (1932).*
Damkoehler, G., Chem. Eng. 46, 430 (1937).*
Frank-Kamenetskii, D. A., Zhur. Fiz. Khim. 13, 756
Voorhies, A., "Carbon Formation in Catalytic Cracking,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. 37, 318-322 (1945).
Denbigh, K. G., "Continuous Reactions Part II. The Kinetics
of Steady State Polymerization," Trans. Faraday Soc.
43, 648-660 (1947).
Bernard, R. A., and Wilhelm, R. H., "Turbulent Diffusion
in Fixed Beds of Packed Solids," Chem. Eng. Progr. 46,
233-244, (1950).
Eldridge, J. W., and Piret, E. L., "Continuous Flow Stirred-
Tank Reactor Systems," Chem. Eng. Progr. 46, 290-299
Singer, E., and Wilhelm, R. H., "Heat Transfer in Packed
Beds," Chem. Eng. Progr. 46, 343-357 (1950).
Danckwerts, P. V., "Gas Absorption Accompanied by
Chemical Reaction," AIChE Journal 1, 456-463 (1955).
Weller, S., "Analysis of Kinetic Data for Heterogeneous
Reactions," AIChE Journal 2, 59-62 (1956).
Boudart, M., "Kinetics on Ideal and Real Surfaces," AIChE
Journal 2, 62-64 (1956).
Bilous, O., and Amundson, N. R., "Chemical Reactor Stabil-
ity and Sensitivity," AIChE Journal 2, 117-126 (1956).
Yagi, S., and Kunii, D., "Studies on Effective Thermal Con-
ductivities in Packed Beds," AIChE Journal 3, 373-381
Danckwerts, P. V., "The Effect of Incomplete Mixing on
Homogeneous Reactions," Chem. Eng. Sci. 8, 93-102
Zwietering, T. N., "The Degree of Mixing in Continuous
Flow Systems," Chem. Eng. Sci. 11, 1-15 (1959).
Barkelew, C. H., "Stability of Chemical Reactors," Chem.
Eng. Progr. Symposium Series 55, 37-46 (1959).
Van Deemter, J. J., "Mixing and Contacting in Gas-Solid
Fluidized Beds," Chem. Eng. Sci. 13, 143-154 (1961).
Chu, C., and Hougen, O. A., "Optimum Design of a Cata-
lytic Nitric Oxide Reactor," Chem. Eng. Progr. 57,
51-58 (1961).
Bischoff, K. B., "A Note on Boundary Conditions for Flow
Reactors," Chem. Eng. Sci. 16, 131-133 (1961).

This paper describes the
genesis, implementation, and evaluation
of a graduate level kinetics course based upon
selected influential papers in chemical
reaction engineering.

Robert L. Kabel received his B.S. degree from The University of
Illinois in 1955 and his Ph.D. from The University of Washington in
1961. From 1961-1963 he served in the U.S. Air Force Space Systems
Division receiving the Commendation Medal for Meritorious Achieve-
ment. Since 1963 he has been at The Pennsylvania State University
where he is Professor of ChE. He was at The Technical University of
Norway (1971-72) and Pahlavi University in Iran (1978) as visiting pro-
fessor and lecturer, respectively. He has served recently as Chairman of
the AIChE's Chemical Engineering Education Projects Committee
(1976-77) and the Central Pennsylvania section of the American Chem-
ical Society (1970). His research centers around catalytic kinetics and
air pollution meteorology. He is active in industrial consulting, flying,
and squash.
Hougen, O. A., "Engineering Aspects of Solid Catalysts,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. 53, 509-528 (1961).
Yagi, S., and Kunii, D., "Fluidized-Solids Reactors with
Continuous Solids Feed-I. Residence Time of Particles
in Fluidized Beds; II. Conversion for Overflow and
Carryover Particles; III. Conversion in Experimental
Fluidized-Solids Reactors," Chem. Eng. Sci. 16, 364-371,
372-379, 380-391 (1961).
Yoshida, F., Ramaswami, D., and Hougen, O. A., "Tem-
peratures and Partial Pressures at the Surfaces of
Catalyst Particles," AIChE Journal 8, 5-11 (1962).
Wakao, N., and Smith, J. M., "Diffusion in Catalyst Pel-
lets," Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 825-834 (1962).
Wei, J., and Prater, C. D., "The Structure and Analysis of
Complex Reaction Systems," Advances in Catalysis 13,
203-392 (1962).
Liu, S-L., Aris, R., and Amundson, N. R., "Stability of
Nonadiabatic Packed Bed Reactors," IEC Fundam. 2,
12-20 (1963).
Liu, S-L., and Amundson, N. R., "Stability of Adiabatic
Packed-Bed Reactors," IEC Fundam. 2, 183-189 (1963).
Weisz, P. B., and Goodwin, R. B., "Combustion of Car-
bonaceous Deposits within Porous Catalyst Particles L
Diffusion-Controlled Kinetics," J. Catal. 2, 397-404
Levenspiel, O., and Bischoff, K. B., "Patterns of Flow in
Chemical Process Vessels," Advances in Chem. Eng. 4,
95-198 (1963).
Johnson, M. F. L., and Stewart, W. E., "Pore Structure
and Gaseous Diffusion in Solid Catalysts," J. Catal. 4,
248-252 (1965).
Karplus, M., Porter, R. N., and Sharma, R. D., "Exchange
Reactions with Activation Energy," J. Chem. Phys. 43,
3259-3287 (1965).

FALL 1978

Weisz, P. B., and Goodwin, R. B., "Combustion of Car-
bonaceous Deposits within Porous Catalyst Particles II.
Intrinsic Burning Rate," J. Catal. 6, 227-236 (1966).
Weisz, P. B., "Combustion of Carbonaceous Deposits within
Porous Catalyst Particles III. The CO2/CO Product
Ratio," J. Catal. 6, 425-430 (1966).
Masamune, S., and Smith, J. M., "Performance of Fouled
Catalyst Pellets," AIChE Journal 12, 384-394 (1966).
Carberry, J. J., "Yield in Chemical Reactor Engineering,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. 58, 40-53 (1966).
Thiele, E. W., "The Effect of Grain Size on Catalyst Per-
formance," Amer. Scientist 55, 176-184 (1967).
Satterfield, C. N., and Cadle, J., "Gaseous Diffusion and
Flow in Commercial Catalysts at Pressure Levels above
Atmospheric," IEC Fundam. 7, 202-210 (1968).
Kunii, D., and Levenspiel, O., "Bubbling Bed Model," IEC
Fundam. 7, 446-452 (1968); "Bubbling Bed Model for
Kinetic Processes in Fluidized Beds," IEC Proc. Des.
Devel. 7, 481-492 (1968).
Villadsen, J. V., and Stewart, W. E., "Solution of Boundary-
Value Problems by Orthogonal Collocation," Chem. Eng.
Sci. 22, 1483-1501 (1967). See also 23, 1515 (1968).
Hutchinson, P., and Luss, D., "Lumping of Mixtures with
Many Parallel First Order Reactions," Chem. Eng.
Journal 1, 129-136 (1970).
Szekely, J., and Evans, J. W., "A Structural Model for Gas-
Solid Reactions with a Moving Boundary," Chem. Eng.
Sci. 25, 1091-1107 (1970).
Mears, D. E., "Diagnostic Criteria for Heat Transport
Limitations in Fixed Bed Reactors," J. Catal. 20, 127-
131 (1971). See also "Tests for Transport Limitations
in Experimental Catalytic Reactors," IEC Proc. Des.
Devel. 10, 541-547 (1971) and "On the Relative Im-
portance of Intraparticle and Interphase Transport
Effects in Gas-Solid Catalysis," J. Catal. 30, 283-287
Weekman, V. W., Jr., "Laboratory Reactors and Their
Limitations," AIChE Journal 20, 833-840 (1974).
Finlayson, B. A., "Orthogonal Collocation in Chemical Re-
action Engineering," Catal. Rev. 10, 69-138 (1974).
Cordova, W. A., and Harriott, P., "Mass Transfer Resist-
ances in the Palladium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of
Methyl Linoleate," Chem. Eng. Sci. 30, 1201-1206
Weller, S., "Kinetic Models in Heterogeneous Catalysis,"
Adv. in Chem. Series No. 148, 26-49 (1975).
*These references were not located.


T HE RESULTS OF THE survey led to a very
nice course structure with very little artificial
juggling. The papers selected for the course in-
cluded all multiply mentioned ones except those
which overlapped other selected papers. For prac-
tical reasons, extremely long papers were omitted.
With one exception [Flory, P. J., "The Mechanism
of Vinyl Polymerization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59,
241-253 (1937)] all papers selected came from the
list of Table I. Table II presents the selected topics

The students were asked to
"Choose a chemical reaction of commercial
importance and, utilizing the decision process sug-
gested by Weekman, discuss the type of reactor best
suited to study the reaction." Toward the end of the
course, commercial reactors were considered.

and source papers in the order in which they were
taken up in the course. It can be seen that the
selected papers yield a reasonably coherent and
comprehensive course according to subject matter.
The most obvious omission is in the area of
fluidized beds where none of the papers appeared
to be quite suitable. Thermodynamics also is not
mentioned in Table II, but it does play a role in a
number of papers. Comments follow on the indi-
vidual papers selected and their roles in the course.
Hougen and Watson (1943) was treated first
for several reasons. Its emphasis on catalytic
kinetics was a good starting point. As a very com-
prehensive paper, it gave a good introduction to

Course Organization by Subject

Catalytic Kinetics and Reactors

Laboratory Reactors
Flow Reactors (esp. CSTR's)
Residence Time Distribution
Mass Transfere with
Chemical Reaction
Multiple Steady States and
Stability and Control

Pore Diffusion
Effectiveness Factors

Heat Transfer in Packed Beds

Coke Formation on Catalysts
Selectivity and Yield
Commercial Reactors


Hougen and
Watson (1943)
Weekman (1974)
Denbigh (1944)
Danckwerts (1953)
van Krevelen and
Hoftijzer (1948)
Flory (1937)
van Heerden (1958)

Aris and
Amundson (1958)
Thiele (1939)
Weisz and
Hicks (1962)
Singer and
Wilhelm (1950)
Voorhies (1945)
Carberry (1966)

Chu and
Hougen (1961)


much of what was to follow. Their original deriva-
tion of the plug flow reactor mass balance could
well have appeared later in the course sequence.
Nevertheless, it was desirable for me to present
this paper first to set an example for the students
and to allow them time to prepare their material
(see Class Organization).
Weekman (1974) discussed selection of labora-
tory reactors. This paper is perhaps not a classic
but it served well to introduce the various kinds
of reactors. The students were asked to "Choose
a chemical reaction of commercial importance
and, utilizing the decision process suggested by
Weekman, discuss the type of reactor best suited
to study the reaction." Toward the end of the
course commercial reactors were considered.
Denbigh (1944) is surely a landmark paper in
the quantitative treatment of flow reactors. We
used it especially in relation to continuous flow
stirred tank reactors; however, its treatment of
plug flow was compared to Hougen and Watson's.
Denbigh also analyzed by-passing effects, selec-
tivity and yield, and temperature programming
of reactors. These subjects all arose again in sub-
sequent papers.
Danckwerts' (1953) paper on residence time
distribution followed naturally after Denbigh's.
An important and unique class of heterogeneous
reactions, gas-liquid, was powerfully influenced
by van Krevelen and Hoftijzer (1948). To bring
in more kinetics and the important subject of
polymerization, we selected the 1937 paper by
Flory on the mechanism of vinyl polymerization.
Van Heerden's work on multiple steady states is
so well known that no further comment is required
to demonstrate its influence. No one in the class
discovered that 35-40 years earlier Liljenroth,
F. G., "Starting and Stability Phenomena of
Ammonia-Oxidation and Similar Reactions,"
Chem. Met. Eng. 19, 287-293 (1918) had made
many of the same points. Aris and Amundson
(1958) provided a culmination of the treatment
of homogeneous reaction systems with a seminal
paper in the area of reactor control.
The most mentioned paper was Thiele (1939)
on pore diffusion. This served as a basis for much

Some General Characteristics of
Chemical Reaction Engineering
I. Types of Technical Activity
A. Determination of Effect of Process Variables on Re-
actor Performance
1. Variables 2. Performance
Temperature Conversion
Pressure Yield
Composition 3. Analysis
Reactor Type Input + Process -- ?
B. Characterization of Reactions and Reactor Specifi-
1. Synthesis (Design)
Input + ? -) Output
C. Experimentation and Data Interpretation
1. Data Interpretation
? ? + Process -> Output
II. Some Related Subject III. Other Important Aspects
Areas A. Uniqueness
A. Thermodynamics B. Quality Specifications
B. Thermostatics C. Optimization
C. Stoichiometry D. Scale Up
D. Chemical Kinetics E. Communication
E. Economics F. Integration
F. Statistics and

of the work on the ubiquitous effectiveness factor
and its ramifications, of which the paper of Weisz
and Hicks (1962) is a foremost example. Way
ahead of their time were Singer and Wilhelm
(1950) on heat transfer in packed beds. This
paper was chosen for the course but a sister paper
[Bernard, R. A., and Wilhelm, R. H., "Turbulent
Diffusion in Fixed Beds of Packed Solids," Chem.
Eng. Progr. 46, 233-244 (1950)] should be
acknowledged. Voorhies (1945) was so successful
in correlating coke formation on catalysts that
very few papers appeared on this subject for
twenty years. You might call its influence adverse.
Carberry's (1966) article induced a good look
back over our earlier papers in addressing the
important and complex topic of selectivity and
yield. This moved the class closer to the considera-
tion of the details of commercial reactors. Finally
the paper of Chu and Hougen (1961), though not
very influential, served as a comprehensive ex-
ample of design and intuitive optimization.

In addition to the source material, another uncommon aspect
to this course was the designation of each student as a specialist with regard
to one of the central papers. The student was responsible for advance study of the
assigned article including references to earlier work.

FALL 1978

Quantitative Structure of
Chemical Reaction Engineering
I. Some preliminary considerations
A. Reaction stoichiometry
B. Determine thermodynamic feasibility
C. Heat effects
D. Physical and chemical properties
E. Analytical techniques
F. Mass balances
G. Energy balance
II. Kinetics
A. Reaction mechanism
B. Find rate equation
C. Effect of temperature and pressure
D. Experimentation
E. Data handling and error analysis
F. Flow ramifications
G. Selectivity
III. Engineering aspects
A. Catalyst selection
B. Select reactors) type (simple or combination)
C. Heat and mass transfer in heterogeneous and
homogeneous systems
D. Effectiveness factors
E. Residence time distribution
F. Process dynamics
G. Optimization
IV. Other aspects
A. Safety
B. Pollution control
C. Preprocessing and subsequent operations
D. Further recommendations
E. Admission of inadequacies

For each article there was
an introductory lecture of about 15 minutes
and assignment of homework. At the next class, the
specialist gave his main lecture, discussed the
homework, and made new assignments.

HE EARLY CLASSES were spent organizing
the course and discussing the nature of chem-
ical reaction engineering. Two results of these
discussions are shown in Tables III and IV. It can
be seen that most of these aspects could be ex-
pected to come up in the study of the central
papers and their literary kin.
In addition to the source material, another un-
common aspect to this course was the designation
of each student as a specialist with regard to one
of the central papers. The student was responsible
for advance study of the assigned article including
references to earlier work. In this way he would

The most mentioned paper was Thiele (1939)
on pore diffusion. This served as a basis for much of
the work on the ubiquitous effectiveness factor
and its ramifications...

understand the circumstances in which the article
appeared. Further by checking the citation index
and recent textbooks he could discover the influ-
ence of the assigned article on subsequent work.
With consultation with the instructor, the special-
ist prepared lectures and homework assignments
for the class.
For each article there was an introductory lec-
ture of about 15 minutes and assignment of home-
work. At the next class, the specialist gave his
main lecture, discussed the homework, and made
new assignments. In the following class period
about 30 minutes were devoted to wrapping up all
aspects of a given topic. The student also reviewed
(as did the instructor) the homework, providing
constructive criticism. Sometimes the specialist
would assign required or optional supplementary
reading. In this course structure each student
served as a specialist in one area, studied all of the
primary source papers and occasional supple-
ments, worked homework assignments, lectured
and reviewed homework papers, and took two
written exams prepared and graded by the in-
One final activity of the specialist was the
preparation of a summary of his area with special
attention to the documentation of key references.
These summaries were reviewed by the instructor,
typed, and distributed to the class. To give a more
concrete picture of the course; the assignments,
exam question, and summary relating to Hougen
and Watson (1943) are given as an appendix to
this article.

At the end of the term, class members were
asked to evaluate the course. Of the twelve re-
spondents, eight were enthusiastic about the
course structure (i.e. the use of student special-
ists), two preferred that the instructor handle it
in a conventional manner, and two were neutral.
Several students suggested that early in the term
(but after the specialty topics have been assigned)
instruction should be given in effective teaching.
The students were asked to indicate which two
Continued on page 200


Yn MeAfeowam

Qi4a4ep Pa4zcW ane

Giuseppe Parravano, Professor of Chemical
Engineering and of Materials & Metallurgical En-
gineering at the University of Michigan since
1958, died suddenly April 1, 1978 in his Ann Arbor
home. He was born in Florence, Italy, Dec. 17,
1917, received doctorates in both electrical engi-
neering and chemistry from the University of
Rome. He held appointments at Milan Polytechnic
Institute, Princeton University, University of
Rome, Franklin Institute and the University of
Notre Dame, before joining the U-M faculty in
1958. He was recognized for his research in the
field of catalysis of chemical reactions.
Paul J. Flory, Nobel Prize winner in chem-
istry, said of Parravano: "His work combines a
freshness of viewpoint and breadth of knowledge
in the fields of surface catalysis and electrochem-
istry that is unique. He has introduced important
elements of novelty and originality, both in sys-
tems investigated and methods applied."
Professor Parravano was pursuing some new
theories of catalytic behavior which have applica-
tion in energy conversion processes and in the de-
sign of anti-pollution devices in automobiles.
"With his broad knowledge of several disci-
plines he was instrumental in initiating and teach-
ing ten courses at the undergraduate and gradu-
ate levels," said Prof. Jerome S. Schultz, chairman
of the U-M department of chemical engineering.

His high standards of scholarship, creativity,
and intensity with which he approached his re-
search attracted students and researchers from
all over the world to visit and work in his labora-
tory. The collaborations have resulted in more
than 100 technical publications.
Prof. Parravano's interest was not limited to
science as he was intensely concerned with ethical
values in present society and served on the Cath-
olic Commission on International and Cultural
Always there to help others, his untimely death
will be a loss to his many friends in the Ann Arbor
He was a Fulbright Scholar at the University
of Innsbruck in 1976 and had held visiting ap-
pointments at the University of California at
Berkeley, Stanford University and the University
of Rome. In recent years he had periodically di-
rected a research group on surface catalysis at
the Donegani Institute in Novara, Italy.
Prof. Parravano is survived by his wife
Ernestina, four sons-Nicola, Carlo, Pietro and
Paul-and three grandchildren.

book reviews

O. Redlich, Elsevier, 1976
Reviewed by Kraemer D. Luks, University of
Notre Dame
Redlich's "Thermodynamics: Fundamentals,
Applications," on one hand, provides the reader
with insights and viewpoints that reflect the
author's experience in thermodynamics. These
Continued on page 187

FALL 1978

Rutgers U. seeks applicants for a tenure-track posi-
tion of Asst. Prof. effective July 1, 1979. Applicants
must have a recent Ph.D. in ChE. Expertise in any
of the mainstream areas of classical chemical (not
biochemical) engineering fundamentals, including
experimental research experience, is most desirable.
Send resume, names of at least three references, and
statement of research and teaching objectives, to
Prof. Burton Davidson, Chrm., Dept. of Chemical
and Biochemical Engr., Rutgers U., New Brunswick,
N.J. 08903. Rutgers is an equal opportunity/affirma-
tive action employer who encourages applications
from minorities and women.


University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003

W HILE THE polymer-related industries hold
a most significant position among chemical
industries today, and while a large fraction of both
B.S. and advanced degree holders in Chemical
Engineering today find employment in some area
of polymer production or fabrication, a relatively
small number of ChE departments provide an op-
portunity for substantial course and research work
in this field. Through its association with the
Polymer Science and Engineering (PSE) Depart-
ment of the University of Massachusetts, gradu-
ate students in ChE at U. Mass can elect from a
large selection of polymer-related courses which
make up the Ph.D. curriculum of the PSE Depart-

Major Course Offerings of the
Polymer Science and Engineering Department
501 Introduction to Polymer Science
502 Polymer Science Lab
503 Polymer Synthesis Lab
589 Chemistry of Macromolecules
670 Applied Polymer Science
720 Viscoelasticity
721 Polymer Microscopy and Morphology Lab
731 Polymer Properties
733 Polymer Reactions Induced by Stress
734 Degradation and Stability of Polymers
735 Interaction of Radiation with Matter
736 Applied Spectroscopy of Polymers
737 Polymer Reactor Engineering
740 Magnetic Resonance of Polymers
742 Biopolymers
790 Organic Polymerization Reactions
792 Polymer Rheology
793 Polymer Processing
798 Physical Chemistry of High Polymers
799 Physical Chemistry of High Polymers II

ment. Many of these courses cover engineering
aspects of the polymer field, and are taught by
members of the ChE faculty who hold joint ap-
pointments with PSE. This article focuses on one

Stanley Middleman is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, where he holds joint appoint-
ments in Chemical Engineering, and in Polymer Science and Engineer-
ing. His major research interests are in the areas of fluid dynamics,
especially rheology and polymer processing. He is the author of three
books: "The Flow of High Polymers," "Transport Phenomena in the
Cardiovascular System," and "Fundamentals of Polymer Processing."
His baccalaureate and doctoral degrees were both earned at The Johns
Hopkins University.

such course: Polymer Processing.
To put the course in the perspective of a
broader program, Table 1 shows the total course
offerings of the PSE Department. The Polymer
Processing course is required of all PSE students,
who normally take it in their second year of grad-
uate study. ChE graduate students may elect the
course at any time. Indeed, the nature of the
course is such that senior ChE majors can and do
take Polymer Processing as a technical elective. A
typical class "mix" is 20-25 PSE graduate stu-
dents, 6-10 ChE graduate students, and several

The student must learn that while
there can be clearly incorrect models, most
engineering processes allow for many levels of
modeling which, while not incorrect, do differ in
sophistication, ease of application, and detail
of correspondence to reality.


Paramount to developing a
facility with modeling is examining
the correspondence of a model to reality.
Thus, the models are compared to
industrial or laboratory data to
the maximum extent possible.

seniors in the ChE department. In addition, we
often have a few (2-4) industrial employed en-
gineers who take the course.
Table 2 shows the major chapter headings of
the text used in this course, a book which I wrote
myself in response to needs I felt as a teacher for
an appropriate text in this area. The book reflects
a certain philosophy of education in this field
which I have developed from my experiences in
teaching, directing research, and consulting in the
field of polymer fluid dynamics.
In many ways I regard this course to be one in
applied fluid dynamics, with an emphasis on flow
processes dominated by viscous effects. As such, it
provides a useful follow-up to the usual under-
graduate course in fluid dynamics, which offers a
broad coverage of fluid flow analysis with, usually,
minimal depth of study of problems involving
highly viscous and non-newtonian fluids. In addi-
tion, the chapter on Heat and Mass Transfer (it-
self one hundred pages in length) provides an op-
portunity for reinforcement of the elements of
convective transport phenomena usually touched
on briefly in an undergraduate course.
Another goal of this course is the development
of the student's skill in formulating engineering
Contents of "Fundamentals of Polymer Processing," by
Stanley Middleman (Published by McGraw-Hill, 1977)
1. Polymer Processing
2. Modeling Philosophy
3. Continuum Mechanics
4. Dimensional Analysis in Design and Interpretation of
5. Simple Model Flows
6. Extrusion
7. Calendering
8. Coating
9. Fiber Spinning
10. Tubular Film Blowing
11. Injection Molding
12. Mixing
13. Heat and Mass Transfer
14. Elastic Phenomena
15. Stability of Flows


FALL 1978

models of a process. Much of undergraduate edu-
cation is occupied with learning to solve problems
which have correct solutions. Thus it is clear that
the derivative of sin x is cos x, and there is no
room for debate about this. In this Polymer Proc-
essing course I try to emphasize the concept of
modeling physical phenomena. The student must
learn that while there can be clearly incorrect
models, most engineering processes allow for many
levels of modeling which, while not incorrect, do
differ in sophistication, ease of application, and
detail of correspondence to reality. The task in
this course is to provide sufficient experience,
through discussion and problem solving, that the
student develops some facility and confidence in
formulating a model that is appropriate to the
goal at hand. It is very difficult to convince stu-
dents that in some cases the best model to use is
one that is so simple and sloppy that it appears, at
first thought, that one might be ridiculed for even
entertaining its use.
Another feature of this course arises from the
unusual "mix" of student backgrounds that I must
deal with. The bulk of the students are in the PSE
program, and two-thirds of them are graduates of
Chemistry programs. Thus, these students have
seen no fluid dynamics, no transport phenomena,

In many ways I regard this course
to be one in applied fluid dynamics, with
an emphasis on flow pressures dominated by
viscous effects. As such, it provides a useful follow-up
to the usual undergraduate course in fluid dynamics,
which offers a broad coverage of fluid flow analysis
with, usually, minimal depth of study of problems
involving highly viscous and non-newtonian fluids.

in many cases no mechanics at all. They have had
a science education, they believe in science, and
for them the concept of crude, approximate,
models is often an alien, disturbing, and offensive
concept. Thus, the course begins with discussion of
the philosophy of modeling and then turns to de-
velopment of the principles of mechanics as ap-
plied to the dynamics of viscous flow. A brief dis-
cussion of rheology is included here, since some of
the students will not have done the full semester
course we offer in that area.
Following this introduction of fundamental
concepts and tools, we turn to examining models
for a wide range of idealized flow situations and
then spend the bulk of the semester on applying

these models to a variety of polymer flow proc-
esses. Paramount to developing a facility with
modeling is examining the correspondence of a
model to reality. Thus, the models are compared to
industrial or laboratory data to the maximum ex-
tent possible. Below is a typical example from
Chapter 13 of the text, in which several models
are examined in the light of existing experimental
data. The assumptions inherent in the models are
reviewed, and then models which relax these as-
sumptions are developed.
Example: Comparison of measured and predicted Nusselt
numbers-Griskey and Wiehe present data for heat transfer
to molten polyethylene pumped through a 3/8-in heated
pipe. They present the data in terms of an "arithmetic av-
erage Nusselt number," shown plotted in Figure 1. Compare
the data with theory.
We begin by constructing the theoretical curve in terms
of the average Nusselt number Nua. For very small values
of U'rR2/arL = wC,/kL the Leveqque solution holds, and
since the extent of heat transfer is not great, we expect that
Nu, = Nu. If the Leveque equation is used for the local
Nusselt number, and if integration is carried out to obtain
the average, the result is found to be

Nu = Nu = 1.61(n
4n j

S4UR2 _1/3

1.75 n + 1 1/3 WC )1/3
\ 4n \ kL ]
It is much more tedious to carry out the same procedure
using the Graetz infinite series solution, and instead we ex-
amine the limiting behavior at the extreme where the fluid
is almost completely heated to the wall temperature. Under
those conditions we find
q = -wC,( T,) = -wCp(T, T,)
and, it follows that
Nn 2 wC (2)
r kL

Figure 1 shows this asymptotic relation, as well as the
Leveque limit [Eq. 1] for n = 0.7 (the value noted by Gris-
key and Wiehe). It is not very difficult to interpolate a
smooth curve between the two asymptotic limits.
The data of this example are seen to be in reasonably
good agreement with the theory. Other sets of experimental
data, obtained with polymer solutions, also bear out the gen-
eral validity of the models presented above. We must recall,

A second goal, and an
important one, is development of a coherent
set of principles of transport phenomena (fluid
dynamics, heat and mass transfer) as applied to the
design and analysis of highly viscous, often
non-newtonian, systems.

0 13 1 1 I II I I I1 1 1 11 1 1
0.5 1 10 60
FIGURE 1. Data of Griskey and Weihe compared to
theory (Eq. 1, using n = 0.7).*

however, that the models are subject to certain assumptions
which are not always met. In particular we have assumed:
1. The viscosity is independent of temperature.
2. The pipe wall is isothermal.
3. No viscous heat generation occurs.*

The example continues with an examination of
several additional models.
At present there is no laboratory experience
associated with this course. However, we are pres-
ently building a Polymer Process Fundamentals
Laboratory, and expect to integrate this facility
into the graduate teaching program.
In summary, then, while this course is nom-
inally one in the area of polymer transport phe-
nomena, it serves several more general roles as
well. Of greatest importance, I think, is the de-
velopment of the capacity to examine a process,
think about it in simple physical terms, and then
produce a mathematical model of the process that
represents the best compromise between simplicity
of solution and application, on the one hand, and
correspondence to reality, on the other. A second
goal, and an important one, is development of a
coherent set of principles of transport phenomena
(fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer) as ap-
plied to the design and analysis of highly viscous,
often non-newtonian, systems. Finally, of course,
the major polymer processes are discussed and il-
lustrated, thereby providing an introduction to an
area of engineering practice that is already of
major importance, and that continues to grow. 5

*Reproduced by permission from Middleman, S., "Fun-
damentals of Polymer Processing", McGraw-Hill-1977.


Individuals are alike.

Aren't they?

Obviously they're not. Everyone knows that each
individual is different. But, it's not always as obvious as
it sounds. Corporations seem to be trending towards
putting people into methodical boxes everyone in
box A is supposed to be like everyone else.
At Rohm and Haas we don't think people work creatively
when they're put in boxes.
We believe that everyone is more creative in an informal
organization of people working with people on the basis
of their own unique talents.
That's why we look for Chemical Engineering grad-
uates who are, first of all, individuals. Engineers whose
attitudes and motivation are leading them to excel in
both life and a career. Their sex or color doesn't make
any difference. They can be black or white; male or
female; but, one thing stands out, they all seem to know
where they're going in life.

When we find people like that we try to move them along
as rapidly as possible. We can do this because we're a
growing organization that sets high standards for our
We are a major U.S. chemical company with over 2500
products that are used in industry, agriculture and health
services. Therefore, we do require that you have a solid
academic grounding in Chemical Engineering that will
contribute to our mutual success. Openings are in
Manufacturing, Research and Technical Sales.
If this sounds like your type of future, write to: Rohm and
Haas Company, Recruiting and Placement #1578,
Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, Pa. 19105.
An Equal Opportunity Employer.



University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

IT MIGHT, IN ALL fairness, be asked what it is
in the subject of Chemical Reactor Design that
provides the central themes. On what basis, for
example, does one decide to include one topic and
exclude another? Are the subjects of mixing and
residence time distributions pertinent and im-
portant? They are in essence physical effects
rather than chemical, and could as well be pre-
sented in a context of transport processes. If
utilitarian needs are to provide the distinctions,
one might move to include selective material on
multiphase reactions, but such models are rather
complicated and still distant from practical use.
The decisions are often a reflection of the textbook
and expertise that happen to be available. Under
the circumstances, with a vast range of topics to
choose from, the dependence on an available ex-
pert may in fact be a fine basis for choice, even if


Daniel D. Perlmutter is Professor of ChE at the University of Penn-
sylvania since 1967. He served as Department Chairman from 1972 to
1977 and as Chairman of the Graduate Group in ChE from 1969 to
1972. Before that he was on the faculty at the University of Illinois,
and a visitor at Harvard, at the University of Manchester (England)
and at the University of Zagreb (Yugoslavia). He was twice a Fulbright
Fellow (1968, 1972) and received a Guggenheim award in 1964. He
has authored two textbooks and over 50 journal articles.

a bit arbitrary in nature.
One might focus on the same question from an-
other viewpoint. Should one not expect growth and
development from the subject matter in a course?
If the material of later weeks is interchangeable in
sequence with that of the early weeks in the series
and does not build upon it as a requisite, if there
is no unifying theme, then is there a legitimate
basis for claiming that the series of lectures form
a single course? A similar point could be made in
categorizing a textbook (or for that matter, any
book). It is often an excellent idea to publish an
anthology or a collection of short stories, but no
one would call such a book a novel.
The graduate reactor design course at the
University of Pennsylvania uses stability as a
central theme around which to organize a wide
range of reactor concerns. This approach brings
together the subject matter of catalyst particles
with that on well-stirred vessels and tubular re-
actor geometry. It emphasized the similarities
among the diverse models rather than their differ-
ences. It does, however, make distinctions between
lumped and distributed models, between algebraic
and differential equation models, and among the
assumptions that are commonly made in arriving
at numerical solutions from each starting point.
The course is built around the author's textbook
called "Stability of Chemical Reactors" (Prentice-
Hall, 1972).
Of the term stability, Richard Bellman has
said that it has an unstable definition. In the ChE
literature, for example, it has been used to mean
steady state multiplicity, as well as parametric
sensitivity. Even in its closer-to-mathematical
sense, the term has been used to refer to local be-
havior (in the "neighborhood") about a steady
state, and to trajectory motion in a large region
of state space. The clarification of such ambiguity
is an early objective of this course. It is handled by
means of a variety of examples that illustrate the
need for rigorous definitions. A detailed course
outline is presented as Table 1.


The graduate reactor design course ... uses stability as a central
theme around which to organize a wide range of reactor concerns. This
approach brings together the subject matter of catalyst particles with that on well-
stirred vessels and tubular reactor geometry.... It does, however, make distinctions between
lumped and distributed models, between algebraic and differential equation models, and among the
assumptions that are commonly made in arriving at numerical solutions from each starting point.

Chemical Reactor Design
Course Outline
A. What is reactor design: objectives and justification
B. Stability approach as a unifying theme
A. Nomenclature, CSTR equations, special cases
B. Volume and density changes
C. Unsteady state behavior
D. Batch reactor quadratures
E. Kinetics review: mechanisms and rate equations
A. Various definitions of stability
B. Uniqueness in an isothermal CSTR
C. Local stability criteria
D. Two-equation models
E. Is uniqueness good? Design questions.
F. Temperature variation
G. Techniques for simultaneous equations
A. Trajectories, isoclines, eigenvectors
B. Feedback control
C. Regions of stability
D. Liapunov stability
E. Gerschgorin's theorem
F. Practical stability
G. Tracking function graphical technique
A. Plug flow model, isothermal
B. Volume comparisons to CSTR
C. Simultaneous and sequential reaction
D. Staged reaction and cold-shot cooking
E. Maintenance and cooling considerations
F. Parametric sensitivity: Barkelew's correlation
G. Steady state operating curves
H. Adiabatic reactors
I. Harriot's and Wilson's Rules for cooling capacity
J. Effect on recycle on PFTR: multiplicity and stabil-
ity criteria
A. Characterization of dispersion in a tube
B. Danckwertz boundary conditions
C. Special cases of axial or radial dispersion
A. Effectiveness factors
B. Experimental tests
C. Multiple profiles and stability
D. Collocation technique

isothermal CSTR provides a vehicle for the
development of new ideas in the context of an
already familiar model. It is a surprise to some
students to learn that multiple steady states can
arise at all in an isothermal system. They explore
this idea as an outgrowth of kinetic forms and
carry the arguments to apply to free radical initia-
tions and to chemostat biochemical models. The
subject matter turns to temperature dependent
energy considerations, but by this time the stu-
dents have already handled the essential concepts
arising from multiplicity. They learn to draw van
Heerden diagrams and ignition and extinction
hysteresis loops as particular cases of phenomena
previously encountered in the isothermal systems.
In an analogous way, the techniques of lineari-
zation and eigenvalue analysis are introduced to-
gether with the simplest one-equation models.
Local stability and regions of stability are first
demonstrated for single-variable equations; they
are then developed for multidimensional models,

2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4
Feed condition, CpTo /AHCo
FIGURE 1. Steady-state operating curves for the
temperature-dependent CSTR with region of
Reprinted by permission from Daniel D. Perlmutter,
"Stability of Chemical Reactors", Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.

FALL 1978




2.5 2.6 2.7 28 2.9
Feed condition, Cp ro/a HC,

FIGURE 2. Steady-State operating curves for the PFTR.
Reprinted by permission from Daniel D. Perlmutter,
"Stability of Chemical Reactors", Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.

some including thermal effects, some with feed-
back control loops. This leads naturally into a re-
view of linear algebra and phase-plane analysis.
The results are used to consider trajectories dur-
ing start-up, physical interpretation and eigenvec-
tors, and direct methods for establishing stability.
Some time is devoted to Liapunov analysis in
part because of its applicability to nonlinear sys-
tems, but also because it provides an excellent
point of departure for questions of practicality in
engineering as well as numerical analysis. This
subject leads one to question the fundamental ob-
jectives of reactor design: Is multiplicity good or
bad in design? Should the designer prefer a large
stability region or a small one? What is a practical
stability criterion? When is a Liapunov-unstable
system acceptable for practical use, and when is
the stable system unacceptable?
Many of the numerical results of the CSTR
are summarized and presented as a set of steady
state operating curves, such as Figure 1. This
figure demonstrates multiplicity where the curves
bend back on themselves, it shows a relatively

large region in the parameter space where steady
states are unstable, and it includes a range of
parameter values for which a single, but unstable
steady state is found (a limit cycle).

of distributed models is the observation that a
plug-flow (PFTR) geometry can produce steady
state profiles with great parametric sensitivity,
but it does not exhibit any multiplicity or instabil-
ity for a given choice of design parameters. This
argument is developed in considerable detail by
discussion of the well-known work of Barkelew,
Harriot, and Amundson. It is shown pictorially by
Figure 2, where the lack of any sigmoid-shaped
curves corresponds to a lack of multiple intersec-
tions for a given feed condition.
A second major milestone in this part of the
course is the connection with feedback by recycle.
The technique is based on the simultaneous solu-
tion of a recycle equation of the form:
Co = (1-f) C + fCE (1)




CE 0.751



0 0.25 0.50

0.75 .00 1.25 1.50

FIGURE 3. Multiple steady states for an isothermal
PFTR-recycle system.
Reprinted by permission from Daniel D. Perlmutter,
"Stability of Chemical Reactors", Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.

Of the term stability, Richard Bellman has said that
it has an unstable definition. In the ChE literature, for example, it has been
used to mean steady state multiplicity, as well as parametric sensitivity. Even in its closer-to-mathematical
sense, the term has been used to refer to local behavior (in the "neighborhood") about a steady state,
and to trajectory motion in a large region of state space.


Recycle line //
for f=0.75

Reactor line /
- for L/u =20 /



./ / / o Regions of
S,, instability

04- --

2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20
Feed condition, CpTF/A HCF
FIGURE 4. Steady-state operating curves for PFTR-
recycle system with f = 0.5 (Reilly and Schmitz, 1966).
Reprinted by permission from Daniel D. Perlmutter,
"Stability of Chemical Reactors", Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.
with the PFTR isothermal mass conservation
L f dC (2)
When the latter equation is integrated to produce
an algebraic relation, the simultaneous solution is
most readily obtained from intersection points on
a CE vs Co graph.
An illustration is given in Figure 3, obtained
by postulating a rate equation of the form
R (1+KC) (3)
and choosing selected values of f, K, C,, and the
group (kL/u). The solution shows three steady

C o.

SI \ 0. 6\ 0
I /| ,.5 20

Re .

FIGURE 5. Steady-state operating curves for the TRAM
j --- -II:=r" -)--

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0
Feed condition, CpTl,/HC,
FIGURE 5. Steady-state operating curves for the TRAM
[a = D, (uL/D = 10] showing a region of instability.
Reprinted by permission from Daniel D. Perlmutter,
"Stability of Chemical Reactors", Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.

state solutions (profiles in the PFTR) and very
marked sensitivity to the choice of recycle rate.
From a presentation of results such as Figure 3,
it becomes apparent that multiplicity in these
systems must be associated with recycle (or mix-
ing), since even the isothermal PFTR reactor can
show multiple steady state profiles when some of
the product is appropriately recycled.
When this problem is extended to include adia-
batic and then temperature-dependent changes,
the recycle behavior can be described in terms of
sets of finite-difference equations. The similarity
to ordinary differential equations is noted as is
also the major point of difference in terms of
eigenvalue criteria. The results of a numerical

Feed condition, CpTF/dHCF

FIGURE 6. Steady-state operating curves for TRAM-
recycle system with f = 0.5, uL/D = uL/a = 100.
Reprinted by permission from Daniel D. Perlmutter,
"Stability of Chemical Reactors", Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.

study by Reilly and Schmitz are presented to il-
lustrate the essential features of this system (see
Figure 4).
The consideration of tubular reactor geometry
takes a more ambitious direction as dispersion
effects are introduced in terms of a Peclet number
and second derivative term. The need is estab-
lished for new boundary conditions, and it is dem-
onstrated that this mode of backmixing can also
lead to multiplicity and instability of solutions.
From this perspective the catalyst particle prob-
lem is viewed as merely a special case for which
no macroscopic flow term exists.
When it is appropriate to call for numerical
solutions to the distributed parameter models, they
serve as a natural bridge to a presentation of the
methods of weighted residuals. In particular, both
Continued on page 176

FALL 1978

The second talk was on medieval scholasticism and
the third, on modern philosophy of science, was given by Herbert Feigl,
one of the last surviving representatives of the Vienna circle. From this three-stage launching
the series became quite discursive, ranging from archaeology and physiology to
mathematics and economics. The Vikings as poets were discussed by one
speaker and the structure of theoretical physics by another.

pared to tape the lecture and transcribe from the
tape. It is incredible how incoherent in transcript
a perfectly good, or even really exciting, talk can
be. It is absolutely fatal to show the raw transcript
to the speaker. He or she will throw up their hands
in horror and that is the last you will see of it.
Therefore an intermediate stage of editing by the
organizer of the seminars, or colleagues, is ab-
solutely essential. Indeed it is this, and the prepa-
ration of suitable introductions for the speakers,
that constitutes the major part of the labor of such
a series. The burden of it is enormously lightened
if one is blessed, as we have been at Minnesota,
with highly intelligent secretaries. Marsha Riebe,
Laura Muellenbach and others here have been able
to produce transcripts that only take three or four
hours to edit. Without such intelligent transcrip-
tion it can take six or eight hours to turn into
grammatical and continuous form the eloquent
talk that one so much enjoyed when it was being
given. There is an occasional speaker who tran-
scribes into connected prose, such as the late Jacob
Bronowski, but these are the exception rather than
the rule and the labor of editing from transcript
should not be underestimated in planning to make
a record of such a seminar series. The edited tran-
script should then be typed up for the speaker to
go over and the organizer's work then consists in
hounding his speakers until the manuscripts are
returned. There is of course no need to make a
permanent record of such seminar series but we
have found it a great pleasure to do so when funds
The publications have more value, too, than as
a mere record and recollection of a series of enjoy-
able talks for they may be sent out with offer let-
ters to prospective graduate students. Here they
serve as a certain touchstone. If a student is put
off by them, their irrelevance to ChE and lack of
solemnity, then we are only too thankful-such a
person would hardly take to the atmosphere of a
good graduate school. On the other hand, if it tips
the balance of the decision in the favor of Minne-
sota as a graduate school we are appropriately

grateful. Of one aspect there has never been any
question: their popularity with the graduate stu-
dents is immense. It is not just a relief from the
strenuousness of ChE, but is a definite challenge
and opening of windows on wider perspectives. To
the faculty they also offer an opportunity for
wider contact within the university and have been
enthusiastically welcomed whenever we have been
able to arrange them. E


Dear Sir:
In the spring issue of C.E.E. you have published an
article by Professor Griskey that dealt with ratings of
Chemical Engineering Departments. I will not deal here
with the particulars of the article since several members
of the profession have done so in statements accompanying
it. The article, however, points unwittingly to two major
aspects of the current state of chemical engineering educa-
Indiscriminate comparisons of Chemical Engineering
Departments without regard to their emphasis and direc-
tion is ludicrous. Today there are departments which re-
semble applied mathematics; other departments act as
industrial appendices. Then we have those places which
emphasize bioengineering, physical chemistry, theoretical
chemistry, etc., etc. To rate all these together is like com-
paring "apples and oranges."
The second point of this letter derives directly from the
above notion. It is high time, I believe, to reexamine the
direction of the profession as an academic discipline.
Crouched somewhere between tenure, publications, and
personal prestige, we certainly need to rediscover relevance
in both teaching and research.
Some of Griskey's "top rated" institutions seem to for-
get that we are an applied discipline; that not all gradu-
ates intend to pursue academic careers; that there is such
a thing as undergraduate education. (Over 80% of the stu-
dents terminate their academic careers at the B.S. level).
Perhaps the accreditation of certain institutions which call
themselves Chemical Engineering Departments need to be
reexamined and reevaluated.
Michael Economides
Graduate Student
Stanford University

FALL 1978

4 Goa"Me in


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, New York 12181

THE TECHNOLOGICAL importance of the
study of colloidal dispersions and macro-
molecular solutions needs no special emphasis, as
even a casual glance at the flow charts and process
diagrams of numerous chemical, biochemical and
food processing operations will demonstrate. Aside
from their industrial importance, hydrocolloidal
suspensions (of even the simplest structure) can
serve as sufficiently reasonable models of rheolog-
ically complex fluids and deserve careful scrutiny.
Given this, one would readily agree to the addition
of a course in this general area to the ChE cur-
riculum. But what should it address? The topics
are numerous, their nuances different, and the
difficulties staggering; yet, one can easily identify
a few general areas that certainly deserve a place
in such, a course, viz, the transport properties of
the suspensions, which include the thermal and
theological behavior, the physicochemical prop-
erties, which include the stability and associated
problems, and certainly, processes where sols and
macromolecular solutions display unique behavior,
as for instance in membrane phenomena.
But the question of emphasis still remains.
ChE students rarely have the opportunity or the
encouragement to pursue a structured program in
this area, which has appropriately been called
"the world of neglected dimensions". Without
doubt, a general treatment of even one of the
above topics is perhaps too specialized and prob-
ably even too broad to form the subject of an
undergraduate course, but an expository introduc-
tion to colloidal interactions certainly belongs in
an undergraduate program in ChE. However, at
the graduate level the emphasis and contents rest
on one's philosophy and needs. If problems of im-
mediate industrial relevance dictate the emphasis,
a practical concoction along the lines of Soo's
monograph [7] will be probably satisfying in a
certain sense, but if one allows that a prime duty

Rai Rajagopalan, who had his graduate training at Syracuse Univer-
sity, has been with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute since the Fall
of 1976. He is currently active in research on colloidal phenomena,
interfacial transport, and lately, cytomorphology, and is a recipient of
the Outstanding Teacher Award of the Rensselaer Chapter of Tau Beta

of a strong graduate program is to foster a taste
for fundamental analyses, a rethinking seems to
be in order.

meant to provide a glimpse of the line of
thought that led to the course described here.
Designated as a "special topics" course and ad-
dressed to advanced graduate students (prefer-
ably, second year and beyond), the course is based
on the premise that a sound base in the mechanics
and electrokinetics of the dispersed phase is es-
sential for an understanding of the macroscop-
ically apparent behavior of such disperse systems.
In handling or processing colloidal or macromole-
cular systems, one observes, through appropriate
instrumentation or by other means, primarily the
macroscopic behavior of the system, viz., the con-
centration gradients, velocity gradients, stress,
and the like. These are observed on a scale over
which changes in these variables are resolvable,
spatially or temporally. This macrostructure, how-


ever, emerges from microscopic interactions
among the particles or macromolecules, at a scale
over which macroscopic properties such as con-
centration have no meaning. The deductive theo-
ries of such phenomena proceed on the premise
that one can, in principle, start with the descrip-
tion of the system at the microscale and build a
general theory step by step through the applica-
tion of well-established physical and chemical
principles. The philosophical basis of this ap-
proach is of course hardly new, although this route
is seldom emphasized in engineering curricula
despite the fact that in many cases it is the only
means of obtaining correct (qualitative, if not
quantitative) description at the macroscale. The
objective of the course, then, is to expose the
student to the microstructure of the dispersion*,
its electrokinetics, dynamics at the microscale and
how these combine to project the general features
that manifest at the macroscale.
What follows is a description of a course under
development along these lines at the Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, approximately in the form
in which it was presented last year.


course and a fairly detailed list of contents fol-
low in Figure 1 and Table 1, respectively.
The course begins with a brief outline of the under-
lying philosophy and clear definitions of the relevant
length scales and time scales, since subsequent develop-
ments depend critically on these concepts. A few simple,
but representative, examples can be presented to provide
an intuitive appreciation for these concepts and to motivate
more rigorous materials that will follow subsequently.
These could be the dumbbell models of polymeric liquids,
adsorption/desorption phenomena at interfaces or mem-
brane phenomena, but sufficient care is needed in this out-
line and it pays to break down these examples according

*Contrary to normal convention I have used the terms
'dispersion' and colloidd' in a loose sense, permitting them
to denote not only what they usually stand for but also
solutions of macromolecules.










FIGURE 1. Course Structure

to the structural format and details presented in Figure 1
and identify the individual segments and their logical inter-
action. Pedagogically, this overview forms a crucial intro-
duction to a course that rests essentially on an axiomatic
base, a relatively unfamiliar territory for most engineer-
ing students.


The above bird's-eye view of what is ahead prepares the
students for appreciating the lengthy introductions to the
background materials on physicochemical and hydrody-
namic interactions and stochastic dynamic systems that
follow. Despite the fact that usually few students have had
any prior exposure to electrokinetic phenomena and related
subjects, these and the hydrodynamics present little prob-
lem as the physical and mathematical concepts relevant
here are fundamental to the general structure of chemical
engineering programs currently in vogue. On the other
hand, the background material on random processes and
the attendant mathematical operations require some care.
While the information gained in previous sections (such as
electrokinetic interaction potentials and hydrodynamic

... the course is based on the premise that a sound base in the mechanics and electrokinetics
of the dispersed phase is essential for an understanding of the macroscopically apparent
behavior of such disperse systems. In handling or processing colloidal or macromolecular systems,
one observes, through appropriate instrumentation or by other means, primarily the macroscopic behavior
of the system, viz., the concentration gradients, velocity gradients, stress, and the like

FALL 1978



Section 1. The World of Neglected Dimensions
Definitions and examples of colloidal and macromolecular
Definition of length scales and time scales;
Definitions of the terminology and brief overview of course

Section 2. Physicochemical Interactions
London-van der Waals Forces Between Disperse Particles:
Forces between atoms and molecules; Forces between
macroscopic particles; London-Hamaker theory; Effect of
suspending medium on the dispersion energy; Effect of a
homogeneous adsorption layer on the dispersion energy;
Effect of electromagnetic retardation; Measurement of the
London-van der Waals force and the Hamaker constant;
Lipshitz theory and microscopic theory for Hamaker con-
stants; Tables of Hamaker constants.
Electrostatic Forces Between Disperse Particles:
Origin and nature of surface charges; Electrical double
layer and its historical development; Capacitor model of
the double layer; Debye-Huckel approximation; Gouy-
Chapman theory; Corrections for specific adsorption-the
Stern theory; Overlapping double layers and interparticle
repulsion; Deryaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory-
for sphere-plane systems and for spherical particles.
Electrophoresis and Other Electrokinetic Phenomena:
Electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, streaming potential; Ex-
perimental aspects and applications.
Section 3. Hydrodynamic Interactions
Basic Equations for Creeping Flow and Some General
Axisymmetric flow; Stream function; Properties of stream
functions; Boundary conditions satisfied by the stream
function; Flow past spheres, cylinders, oblate spheroids,
prolate spheroids, circular disks, and elongated rods.

Motion of a Rigid Particle in an Unbounded Liquid:
Translation; Rotation; Combined translation and rotation;
Resistance to motion; Forces and torques; Settling of
spherically isotropic and orthotropic bodies.
Interaction Between Particles:
Between spheres falling along their line of centers; Multi-
ple spheres; Spheroids.
Motion of Single Particles in Confined Regions:
Sphere moving in a cylinder; Sphere moving in the pres-
ence of a planar wall; Spheroid in a cylinder and in the
presence of a plane wall; Unsteady motion of a sphere near
a plane wall.

Particle Clusters:
Flow relative to dilute systems--with and without first
order interaction; Viscosity of such systems; Concentrated
suspensions; Packed beds and porous media models.
Section 4. Dynamic at the Microscale
Physical Nature of Motion at the Microscale:

Introduction to origin and nature of random fluctuations
and the tools necessary for examining them.

Fundamentals of Probability Theory:
Events, random variables, density functions, distribution
functions; Integrating theory, expectation, convergence
concepts; Products of probability spaces, independence,
limit theorems; Conditional expectations and conditional
probabilities; Random processes.

Fundamentals of Stochastic Processes:
Markov processes; Transition probabilities, the Chapman-
Kolmogorov equation; White noise, Wiener process, de-
rivatives and transformations of stochastic processes; Dif-
fusion processes, Kolmogorov backward and forward

Stochastic Differential and Integral Systems:
Stochastic differentials and integrals; Convergence; Ito
differential and integral; Solutions as Markov processes
and as diffusion processes.
Conceptual Difficulties in Stochastic Modeling and Ap-

Convergence of a non-Markovian noise to a Morkov proc-
ess; Stratonovich integral and differential, their relation
to the Ito systems; Wong-Zakai processes.

Section 5. Phenomenological or Direct Continuum Formula-
Evolution of Probability Distribution for unsteady-state
one-dimensional case:
Einstein's derivation; Mobility; Thermodynamic force;
Smoluchowski's extension.

General Treatment and Liouville Equation:
Introduction to p-space and F-space; Hamiltonian; En-
sembles; Derivation of Liouville equation; Poisson bracket.

Section 6. Microdynamical Formulation
One-Dimensional Linear Processes:
One-dimensional Langevin equation and its solution; Defi-
nitions of drift and diffusion coefficients; Ensemble av-
erages and transformation to Fokker-Planck equation;
Generalization by Uhlenbeck and Ornstein; Definition of
time scales; Brownian motion with inertia; Phase-space
Fokker-Planck Equation.

General Non-Linear Processes:
Non-linear white-noise-driven processes; Ito differential
systems; Ito and Stratonovich calculus; Transformation
to Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation; Drift coefficients
and diffusion coefficients; Extension to Phase-space Fokker-
Planck-Kolmogorov equation; Relation to Liouville Equa-


Section 7. Applications
Definition and Examples of Macrostructure.
Specific Applications:
Stability of colloidal systems; derivation of rate constants;
general population balances; Concentration-dependent dif-
fusion coefficient; possible models; Models of Polymeric


Liquids; Ultrafiltration and Membrane Phenomena; Chro-
matographic Separations; Adsorption/Desorption in Col-
loidal Systems; Surface Diffusion.

drags and torques) is required primarily for setting up the
equations of motion, the procedures presented in Section 4
are needed for both formulation and analysis of the equa-
tions. Consequently, simple examples (such as random walk
problems or simpler versions of Langevin equations) from
the general treatment that will follow in Part III are often
helpful and serve to maintain the continuity of the subject

Graduate education extends far
beyond the confines of the classroom, and
that is particularly true in a course of this type.
Firstly, there are no standard textbooks although a
substantial portion of the material can
be found in related books, monographs,
and technical articles.


Having established the required fundamentals, one is
now ready to develop the framework for describing the
evolution of microstructure, viz., temporal changes in the
distributions of the configurations and moment of the
particles. Two approaches are possible, each with its own
advantages and disadvantages, but both are necessary. The
first of these, which I shall call "the phenomenological
formulation" (over the objections of MacDonald [4])*,
relies on certain assumptions regarding the form of the
constitutive equations, such as the Fickian form of the
diffusive flux, and leads to the traditional derivation of the
Liouville equation of statistical mechanics. This is intro-
duced first despite its weaknesses, since this development
is merely a generalization of the familiar "continuity" and
"diffusion" equations. Moreover, when the more appropri-
ate dynamical systems are introduced later and resources
for in-depth analyses are at hand one can go back and re-
solve the questions regarding the accuracy of the assumed
forms of constitutive equations and demonstrate the dis-
tinct advantage of the latter formulation. Einstein's [2] or
Smoluchowski's [6] derivation of the familiar diffusion
equation (along with the associated concept of "thermody-
namic force") serves as a good starting point here before
the more general phase-space Liouville equation is intro-
The second of the two approaches, which I shall call
"the microdynamical formulation", is the more funda-

*Phenomenological in the sense that the formulation
rests on perceived rules, whether such perception answers
to reality or not. MacDonald prefers phenomenal, whose
other (and more common) usage, in the sense of remark-
able, extraordinary, or prodigious, 'is a sin against the
English language', according to Fowler (3), although as he
reluctantly concedes 'the consequences seem to be irremedi-

mental of the two and is based on a generalized Langevin
equation for the macromolecular motions. Since the previ-
ous section began with the simpler diffusion equation, it is
probably advisable to start this section with its micro-
dynamical analogue due to Langevin and Uhlenbeck and
Ornstein [8]. Aside from providing a logical transition, this
choice is particularly helpful in defining the relevant time
scales. One can now proceed to show the difficulties asso-
ciated with the formulation of the constitutive equation
for the diffusion of probability using the one-dimensional
Stratonovich equation (see Rajagopalan [6]). These also
show, through simple and familiar examples, how the ex-
act forms of drift and diffusion coefficients follow in a
straightforward manner from the underlying equations of
motion. The generalization of the above results to the
phase-space formulation of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov
equation now follows simply, and its relation to the Liou-
ville equation is evident.


The final part, on the structure resolvable at the usual
temporal and spatial scales, forms the heart of the course.
General and specific examples are discussed here, and the
students are encouraged to do further work on some specific
problems. For convenience, I have divided the applications
discussed here into two rough categories, under properties
and processes. The applications concerned with deriving
macroscopically observed properties of the system through
an examination of the microstructural details are grouped
under "properties". These may include the colloidal stabil-
ity problems, where the macroscopically observed kinetics
and the required kinetic rate expressions for population
balances depend on microdynamical formulations, or prob-
lems concerned with the derivation of the constitutive
relations for transport processes in dispersions and
macromolecular solutions. The latter group of applications
includes the important class of bulk theological phe-
nomena-a source of many good problems and examples
[1]. The second group of applications, under "processes",
forms a somewhat artificial classification and is motivated
by pedagogical reasons. The primary goal here is to em-
phasize those examples where the behavior of the sols or
solutions in the presence of some extraneous "objects" is
of interest. For instance, these may include ultrafiltration
or membrane phenomena, adsorption/desorption problems,

The objective of the
course, then, is to expose the
student to the microstructure of the
dispersion, its electrokinetics, dynamics at
the microscale and how these combine
to project the general features that
manifest at the microscale.

some of the newer chromatographic separations, or surface
theological problems. The difference between the former
group of applications (properties) and the latter is that in
the former one is essentially interested in phenomena
intrinsic to the liquid (e.g., suspension rheology), whereas

FALL 1978

in the latter the behavior is dependent on the nature of the
extraneous object or is induced by it (e.g., diffusion through
a membrane).


yond the confines of the classroom, and that is
particularly true in a course of this type. Firstly,
there are no standard textbooks although a sub-
stantial portion of the material can be found in
related books, monographs, and technical articles.
(A list of some useful references can be obtained
from me.) In addition, considerable amount of in-
dependent work and self-study is essential to keep
abreast of the lecture material, and this can be en-
couraged through appropriate exercises and term-
paper assignments (usually critiques of recent
technical articles)-a not-uncommon practice in
graduate-level courses. A few prerequisites, such
as first-level courses in real analysis and probabil-
ity theory, are desirable especially since a student
unfamiliar with the mathematical notions and
terminology is usually overwhelmed by the ana-
lytical techniques. Needless to say, while tech-
niques should be available at command, they
should never take precedence over the concepts.

Continued from page 171
Galerkin's method and collocation techniques are
introduced as a means of reducing partial differ-
ential equations to sets of simultaneous ordinary
differential equations. The latter lead smoothly to
the earlier lumped stability techniques, and make
available the wide range of prior methods in the
treatment of distributed systems.
It is pointed out that this approach can also be
used to compute complete numerical solutions to
the same equations, if they are needed in addition
to the stability finding.
Yet another demonstration of the use of stabil-
ity analysis as a unifying theme may be found in
Figure 5, where results are presented for a tub-
ular reactor with axial dispersion (TRAM). Here
again, one can detect regions of multiplicity and
instability introduced by the backmixing effect.
If the specific parameter values are chosen differ-
ently, this pattern of behavior can be modified to
approach either the CSTR or PFTR results as the
dispersive effect grows or diminishes with respect
to the other parameters. When a recycle stream is
added to the TRAM system, it serves to reinforce

Finally, it is not the intention of the course to
create, in the words of Bertrand Russell, an
ordered cosmos where pure thought can dwell
remote from human passions and remote from the
pitiful facts of nature. The intention certainly is
not the latter, and in fact I feel that the "pitiful
facts of nature" demand approaches of this type.
And, more importantly, a. prime objective of the
course is to emphasize not the special nature of the
subject matter but the synthesis of a set of diversi-
fied, yet structurally similar, classes of problems
and the need and the benefits of such a synthesis.
1. Bird, R. B., Hassager, O., Armstrong, R. C., and
Curtiss, C. F., Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids: Vol. 2.
Kinetic Theory, John Wiley, New York, NY, 1977.
2. Einstein, A., Investigations on the Theory of the
Brownian Movement, Dover, New York, NY, 1956.
3. Fowler, H. W., A Dictionary of Modern English Usage,
Second Edition, Oxford, New York, NY, 1965.
4. MacDonald, D. K. C., Noise and Fluctuations: An In-
troduction, John Wiley, New York, NY, 1962.
5. Rajagopalan, R., Powder Technology, 18, 65 (1977).
6. Smoluchowski, M.v., Annal der Physik, 21, 756 (1906).
7. Soo, S. L., Fluid Dynamics of Multiphase Systems,
Blaisdell, Waltham, MA, 1967.
8. Uhlenbeck, G. E., and Ornstein, L. S., Physical Review,
36, 823 (1930).

the backmixing that arises from the action of
dispersive flow, and the overall effect shows a
great resemblance to the CSTR result. Such op-
erating curves are presented in Figure 6 for a
typical set of parameters. E

C = reactant concentration
C, reactant concentration in reactor feed
CE = reactant concentration in reactor effluent
C, = reactant concentration in make-up feed
Cp = heat capacity
D dispersion coefficient
f = fraction recycled
h = heat transfer coefficient for PFTR
AH = heat of reaction
k kinetic rate constant
K = kinetic rate constant
L = reactor length
q = volumetric flow rate
R = reaction rate
TF = temperature of make-up feed
To = temperature of reactor feed
u = linear flow rate
U = overall heat transfer coefficient for CSTR
ac = thermal dispersion coefficient


How to outsmart

your identity crisis


It's a rare college graduate that hasn't had some long
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Counsellors counsel and advisors advise, but you still
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So if you're leery of having a corporation define you before you're
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you outsmart your identity crisis.
Typically, we have openings for chemical, mechanical, mining
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areas, see your Placement Office, or write to:
Mr. J. Ashley, College Relations and Recruitment,
Atlantic Richfield Company, Rm. 531,
515 S. Flower Street,
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Atlantic Richfield is a practicing equal opportunity employer.

FALL 1978





.,. -.~




~L~ci~' e


Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011

W ITH AN INCREASING public awareness of
the important role coal will play in our future,
it is not surprising that a new graduate course in
Coal Science and Technology attracted a number
of students when offered recently by the ChE De-
partment of Iowa State University. The course
was taught on an experimental basis during the
winters of 1974 and 1976 and was presented on a
regular basis during the winter of 1978. It has
attracted from 8 to 22 students each time offered
with the largest number enrolling most recently.
Although on the average 40 % of the enrollees have
been ChE graduate students, about one-fourth
have been graduate students in other engineering
and science disciplines and about one-third ad-
vanced undergraduates, mainly ChE's. Enrollment
has been limited to science and engineering stu-
dents who have taken courses in organic and phys-
ical chemistry as well as general chemistry.
The developers of the course are Professors
Allen Pulsifer and Thomas Wheelock. Both have
been involved in coal research for a number of
years and therefore have become familiar with
the general field of coal science and technology. In
addition, they are fortunate in being able to call
on other members of the Iowa State faculty and
the technical staff of the Ames Laboratory for
lectures dealing with certain specialized areas.
Because of the Iowa Coal Research Project which
was funded by a special appropriation of the State
Legislature in 1974 and other coal research sup-
ported by the federal Department of Energy, a
large reservoir of expertise has built up within
the University community to deal with the prob-
lems of producing, transporting, and utilizing coal.
This reservoir of knowledge is readily available
for use in the course.
The purpose of the new course is to introduce
graduate students and advanced undergraduates
to the general field of coal science and technology

T. D. Wheelock is a Professor of ChE at Iowa State University. He
received his BS and Ph.D. from Iowa State. His principal research in-
terests are the investigation of fluidized bed reactors, the application
of these reactors to various chemical treatment processes such as
coal gasification and mineral reduction, and the study of various
processes for removing sulfur from coal. He has had wide professional
and consulting experience, and is the author of over 20 publications
dealing with the development of fluidized bed reactors and processes
based on these reactors.

so that they will become familiar with the nature
and occurrence of coal, its principal chemical and
physical characteristics, methods of cleaning and
preparing coal, and processes for converting it
into clean solid, liquid and gaseous fuels as well as
coke. To achieve this purpose the one term course
is presented as a series of seventeen 90 minute
lectures (Table 1) and a tour of the Iowa State
University coal preparation plant (Figure 1).
Collateral reading is assigned as well as a term
paper. Since a suitable textbook is not available,
specific sections of certain reference books (Table
2) and a number of current technical papers are
assigned. Many of the papers have been authored
by the course lecturers. In addition, two movies
have been shown. One of these, "An American As-
set", is available from the National Coal Associa-
tion in' Washington, D.C., and provides a good
introduction to the subject because it touches on
almost every aspect of modern coal mining and
utilization. The other film, "The Last Pony Mine",
is available from the Iowa State University Film
Production Unit and provides a historical per-
spective since it shows how coal was once mined


by hand and transported by pony cart. Although
it does not describe current technology, it is a
masterpiece which creates great interest among
its viewers whether experienced with coal mining
or not.


T HE SERIES OF LECTURE topics is flexible
and has varied somewhat each time the course
has been offered. The most recent series (Table 1)
included several lectures at the beginning of the
course which dealt with the basic properties and
characteristics of different types of coal and the
genesis, nature, and extent of major coal deposits
so that the student would gain an appreciation of
the properties of the material and its availability.
These lectures were followed by a lecture on min-
ing, not only to acquaint the student with how coal
is produced but also to show how the methods of
production affect the properties of the material
such as size distribution and degree of contamina-
tion with foreign matter. Two lectures on coal
preparation were presented next to show how coal
is presently prepared and cleaned for use in com-
bustion and coking. The operating principles,
characteristics and limitations of various particle
separation methods used for cleaning coal were
discussed and current research and development
in this area of technology was reviewed. Following
these lectures, the class was given a' tour of the
coal preparation plant which is located on the
campus of Iowa State University (Figure 1).
Winter 1978 lecture topics in Coal Science
and Technology.


Introduction Wheelock, Chem. Engr.
Geology of coal Lemish, Earth Sci.
Microstructure Greer, Engr. Sci.
Petrography Biggs, Earth Sci.
Analytical Chemistry Bachman, Ames Lab
Surface mining Anderson, Ag. Engr.
Preparation and cleaning Wheelock, Chem. Engr.
Plant tour Grieve &
Birlingmair, Ames Lab
Chem. desulfurization Wheelock, Chem. Engr.
Chem. and phys. structure Markuszewski, Ames Lab
Carbonization and coking Pulsifer, Chem. Engr.
Gasification Pulsifer, Chem. Engr.
Chem. of liquefaction Markuszewski, Ames Lab
Liquefaction technology Wheelock, Chem. Engr.

The purpose of the new course is to
introduce graduate students and advanced
undergraduates to the general field of coal science
and technology so that they will become familiar with
the nature and occurrence of coal, its principal chemical
and physical characteristics, methods of cleaning and
preparing coal, and processes for converting it into
clean solid, liquid and gaseous fuels as well as coke.

Subsequent lectures dealt with the chemical struc-
ture of coal, important chemical reactions of coal,
and industrial processes for desulfurizing, coking,
gasifying and liquefying coal. In addition to re-
viewing state of the art technology, attention was
given to new processes under development as well
as the chemical reaction kinetics and thermody-
namic principles underlying these processes. In a
course of this type other topics could also be cov-
ered, such as coal combustion or coal storage and
transportation or environmental regulations.
The University's coal preparation plant pro-
vides a unique backdrop for the course. The prep-
aration plant can process up to 70 ton/hr. of coal
and is equipped for crushing, sizing, and heavy
media separation. It is also equipped with a
Deister table for cleaning smaller-size coal. Equip-
ment is being installed for demonstrating the
cleaning of fine-size and ultra-fine size coal by
hydroclones, froth flotation and selective oil ag-
glomeration. Since the latter will demonstrate new
technical features developed at the University, it
will be possible to show future classes how a
process is scaled up from lab bench to pilot plant.

THE TERM PAPER, which is an important
part of the course, is designed to familiarize
the student with some aspect of coal research and
its associated literature. Although a number of
topics are suggested to the class, each student is
free to choose his own topic and students are en-
couraged not to select identical topics. Each topic
should deal with an important question or problem
in the area of coal science, utilization, or conver-
sion. Ideally, the paper should define the problem,
present a careful analysis of it, describe and evalu-
ate alternate ways of solving it, indicate how
others may be trying to solve the problem, and
make recommendations. The following is an ex-
ample of a topic which might be the subject of a
term paper:

FALL 1978

Book list for the course in Coal Science
and Technology.
Casidy, S. M., (ed.), "Elements of Practical Coal Mining,"
Coal Division of SME-AIME, New York, 1973.
Leonard, J. W., and ID. R. Mitchell, (eds.), "Coal Prepara-
tion," AIME, New York, 1968.
Lowry, H. H., (ed.), "Chemistry of -Coal Utilization," Sup-
plementary Vol., Wiley, New York, 1963.
Meyers, R. A., "Coal Desulfurization," Dekker, New York,
Van Krevelen, D. W., "Coal," Elsevier, New York, 1961.
Wheelock, T. D., (ed.), "Coal Desulfurization, Chemical and
Physical Methods," ACS Symp. Series 64, Washington,
D.C., 1977.

* Determine the suitability of Iowa bituminous coal for
various types of industrial gasification processes.
* What are the properties of Iowa coal and its occurrence
which may either limit or promote its utilization for
* Considering the different characteristics of various gasi-
fication processes, which process may utilize Iowa coal
most effectively?
Needless to say, a topic such as this requires a
student to become quite familiar with the nature
of Iowa coal and the character and size of the Iowa
coal deposits. He should consider whether there is
enough coal to support a major gasification plant
or only a few, small, scattered plants and whether
the coal can be gasified efficiently and econom-
ically. He should also become familiar with the
various types of gasification processes to see
which can best match the characteristics of Iowa
coal and other local or regional conditions. In-
formation has to be gleaned from technical jour-
nals, government reports, and other sources. But
most importantly the student has to analyze the
situation, make judgements and synthesize a
solution on the basis of incomplete technical in-
For the overall course the students are graded
on the basis of two written exams and the term
paper. The exams are given at midterm and at the
end of the course. They consist mainly of essay
questions and some objective type questions.


SEVERAL WEEKS AFTER the last offering
of the course, the students were polled to de-
termine their reaction to the course and to see
what suggestions they might have for improve-
ment. A formal questionnaire was sent to each
student who responded voluntarily and anony-
mously. Among the 22 students who were polled,

15 or 68% returned the completed questionnaire.
All of the respondents considered the material
presented in the course to be relevant; 93% con-
sidered the information presented to be valuable
and the time spent beneficial. Only three indicated
that they would not have taken the course if they
had known what they were getting into. On a
scale of poor to excellent, 47% rated the course as

.- pa. *


FIGURE 1. The Iowa State University coal preparation
plant provides an interesting backdrop for the course in
Coal Science and Technology.

average, 40% as good, and 13% as excellent. All
but one of the respondents regarded the tour of
the University coal preparation plant as worth-
while and most thought that the two motion pic-
ture films made a valuable contribution. Some 70%
of the respondents thought the reading assign-
ments were "dull but informative", but about right
in length. Somewhat more than half thought the
course would have been better with fewer outside
lecturers. About a fifth of the respondents indi-
cated learning a lot about coal through working
on their term paper while the rest indicated learn-
ing a moderate amount and none reported learning
very little.
In the future the course will probably be of-
fered every other year unless increasing demand
causes it to be offered more frequently. Since the
field of coal science and technology is developing
and changing rapidly, the course must also evolve
and change. But keeping up with these changes
and new technical developments provides chal-
lenge and inspiration to the student and teacher
alike. O



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PPG: a Concern for the Future

FALL 1978

4 Cae ia



U.C. Davis
Davis, California 95616

M OST OF THE SYSTEMS that are of interest
to chemical engineers involve two or more
phases, several chemical components, and a strong
coupling between heat, mass and momentum trans-
port. A cursory examination of the classical re-
actor design and mass transfer operations en-
countered in ChE suggests that the course title
listed above would encompass a major segment of
all ChE processes. A quick survey of the currently
available texts designed for the training of gradu-
ate students in ChE reveals the need for a rigorous
treatment of multicomponent, multiphase systems.
With the exception of the excellent text by
Slattery (1972), the method of volume averaging
as a rational route to the transport equations for
multiphase systems is generally ignored. Although
the method is little more than a decade old
[Whitaker (1967), Slattery (1967)], we are rap-
idly approaching the point where the formalism is
sufficiently well understood so that it is suitable
for incorporation into our graduate courses. Under
the circumstances, we believe that the general
knowledge now available under the heading of
"transport phenomena" is ready to be extended to
include a rational treatment of multiphase sys-
One of the major strengths of the graduate
program in ChE at U.C. Davis is a series of core
courses available to the graduate students in
fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer and
chemical reactor design. These courses are taught
at a level consistent with texts by Aris (1962),
Whitaker (1968, 1977a), Bird, Stewart and Light-
foot (1960) and Smith (1970). These courses pro-
vide a sound introduction to the laws of con-
tinuum physics for single component systems and
deal with a variety of multiphase systems via
simplified models. To supplement and consolidate
this material, a course was instituted that would

concentrate on a rigorous development of the
multicomponent transport equations, boundary
conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-av-
eraged transport equations for multiphase react-
ing systems. The lecture notes represent the
origins of a graduate level text in chemical reactor
Reactor design texts uniformly assume a level
of sophistication below that of Bird, Stewart and
Lightfoot (1960) and have paid no heed to the
method of volume averaging given by Slattery
(1972). While these developments are perhaps
recent by engineering time scales, the subject of
fluid mechanics is ancient by comparison (Trues-
dell, 1968) and its incorporation into our studies
of reactor design is long overdue.
Reactor design is the one area that is purely
the province of the ChE, and it is the most ap-
propriate vehicle for describing the intricacies of
the coupling of momentum, heat and mass trans-
port for multicomponent multiphase systems. It
is not unusual to find reactor design texts (Smith,
1970; Carberry, 1976; Aris, 1969) that do not
mention the governing differential equations for
conservation of a given species, or the momentum
and thermal energy equation for multicomponent
systems, even though these equations govern all
transport processes in chemical reactors. The de-
velopment of appropriate governing differential
equations (via volume averaging) for transport
in multiphase systems (chemical reactors) is not
included. This is probably the major failure of
such texts. The normal procedure is to assume in
an ad-hoc fashion that the form of the transport
equations and fluxes in multiphase systems are the

It is not unusual to find reactor design texts
... that do not mention the governing differential
equations for conservation of a certain species,
or the momentum and thermal energy equation for
multicomponent systems, even though these equations
govern all transport processes in chemical reactors.


same as those for a homogeneous fluid but with
appropriate empirical parameters. The dependence
of these parameters on the structure of the porous
media and the physical properties of the com-
ponents and the chemical reaction rate is left un-
A good example of this approach is the govern-
ing equation usually proposed to describe diffusion
and chemical reaction within a catalyst pellet. The
catalyst pellet is treated as a homogeneous me-
dium, and diffusion in such pellets is assumed to
be governed by means of flux expression analogous
to Fick's Law of Diffusion with an effective intra-
particle diffusivity. However, using volume-av-
eraging techniques, it is possible to obtain differ-
ential equations for diffusion in a porous media
and a mathematical description of the dependence
of the intraparticle diffusivity on system param-
eters. One advantage of such an approach is that
it allows for a more thorough investigation of the
assumptions normally made regarding the magni-
tude of terms in the governing differential equa-
tion. Furthermore, an accurate mathematical de-
scription of transport parameters in multiphase
systems allows for the development of a more
rational experimental program aimed at unravel-
ing the magnitude of different contributions to
the transport parameters. Finally, this type of
analysis provides the student with a more rigorous
framework to carry on further studies and helps
to place in perspective within the student's mind
the interrelations between transport processes in
a homogeneous fluid and in a porous media.
In the paragraphs that follow, we outline the
content of this course and the way in which the
material is presented. We feel this provides a more
rational approach to the training of graduate
students in chemical engineering.


T HE FIRST THIRD OF the course is always
devoted to the essential theoretical elements of
transport in multiphase systems. The presentation
is based on the continuum point of view, thus the
laws of physics for multicomponent systems are
the first order of business. Here we follow the
approach of Truesdell and Toupin (1960) and
introduce the concept of a species body. The
kinematics, ie., time derivatives of point functions
and volume integrals, of species bodies are car-
ried over from previous studies of single com-
ponent systems. The general balance equation for
single component systems

Dt f dV = codA + o-dV (1)
Vm(t) Am(t) Vm(t)
is easily extended to the species body and the
axioms for mass are stated as
I. The mass postulate for the Ath species
Dt pdV = rAdV (2)

VA(t) V(t)
II. Conservation of total mass owing to chemical
rA = 0 (3)
Equation 2 quickly leads us to the species contin-

Stephen Whitaker (R) is a Professor in the ChE Department at the
University of California, Davis. Professor Whitaker received his under-
graduate training at the Berkeley campus of the University of California
(1954) and his M. S. (1956) and Ph.D. (1958) in ChE from the University
of Delaware. He began his professional career at the Engineering Re-
search Laboratory at E. 1. du Pont de Nemours Co. in Wilmington
where he worked on fluid mechanics problems from 1958 to 1961. He
then joined the faculty of the ChE Department at Northwestern Uni-
versity where he stayed until 1964 when he moved to Davis. He is the
author of numerous papers on fluid mechanics and transport processes
in porous media as well as three texts: Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
(1968), Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis (1976), and Fundamental
Principles of Heat Transfer (1977).
Ruben G. Carbonell (L) is an Assistant Professor in ChE at U.C.
Davis. He joined the faculty in 1973 after receiving his M. S. and Ph.D.
(1973) in ChE from Princeton University. Professor Carbonell did his
undergraduate work at Manhattan College where he received his B. S.
in ChE (1969). He has been active in research in quantum statistical
mechanics, enzyme engineering, separation processes and chemical
reactor design. Professor Carbonell has worked for the FMC Corpora-
tion at Princeton, N. J. in the applied mathematics group and is cur-
rently a consultant for Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the in-situ oil
shale recovery process. Presently he is interested in transport phenom-
ena in multicomponent, multiphase systems as it applies to chemical
reactor analysis.

FALL 1978

uity equation in terms of the species density and
mass average velocity,

Pz + V" (pAv) = -VjA + rA (4)
or in terms of the concentration and the molar av-
erage velocity

S+ V*(cAV*) = -VJA + RA (5)
The latter form is, of course, preferred by chem-
ical engineers because kinetic constitutive equa-
tions and phase equalibrium relations are most
conveniently stated in terms of molar quantities.
The presence of the mass average velocity in
Eq. 4 and the molar average velocity in Eq. 5
naturally raises questions about the determination
of these velocities by means of the laws of mechan-
ics. At this point the revised linear and angular
momentum postulates are introduced and the de-
rived species equations are summed to obtain

P = pb + V*T (6)

T = Tt (7)
Here the stress tensor consists of the sum of par-
tial stresses and species diffusive stresses. It is
consistent with the kinetic theory of dilute gases
to represent T in terms of the rate of strain
tensor; however, the idea of equipresence (Trues-
dell and Noll, 1965) is envoked in order to keep
the door open for more general constitutive equa-
The pattern of analysis is now established and
the revised energy axioms are presented for a
species body. The development is restricted to
what Bataille and Kestin (1977) refer to as
"strongly interacting mixtures", and the thermal
energy equation for the mixture is obtained by
summing the individual species equations leading

De A=N
P = -Vq- V. Y hAjA pV"v +
Dt A=l

-Vv:7 L (1 + diffusive terms of (
Negligible importance (8)

where e is the internal energy of the mixture de-
fined in the usual manner. The result is also pre-
sented in terms of the enthalpy for later use in
constructing boundary conditions at phase inter-
faces, and in terms of the temperature. The latter
form is, of course, useful for solving energy trans-

.... using volume averaging techniques,
it is possible to obtain differential equations for
diffusion in a porous media and a mathematical
description of the dependence of the intraparticle
diffusivity on system parameters.

port problems and gives rise to the source term
owing to chemical reaction. The diffusive terms in
Eq. 8 consist of the diffusive kinetic energy, diffu-
sive rates of working, etc., and order of magnitude
analysis (Whitaker, 1977) can be used to estab-
lish that these terms are negligible for practical

W ITH THE TRANSPORT equations for multi-
component systems at our disposal, we are
naturally led to consider the matter of boundary
conditions at phase interfaces. Following a route
similar to that proposed by Slattery (1972), we
develop a general surface transport equation. In
integral form this transport equation is repre-
sented as

Dt] dA + flds- SdA =
A.p(t) C Ap(t)

f [q(v'-w) -0(v'-w)]* dA + f(c-w')dA
A. (t) Asp(t) (9)

Here the upper case Greek letters denote the in-
trinsic surface quantities associated with the lower
case Greek letters in Eq. 1, the area A.,(t) repre-
sents a material surface element, ., represents the
unit normal vector pointing from the a-phase into
the p-phase, and w represents the velocity of the
At this point in the course, special forms of
Eq. 9 are considered, i.e., the surface element
A,~ (t) is fixed in space, or the surface is flat, or all
the terms on the left hand side are zero. These
severe restrictions are necessary because the
rigorous analysis leading to the surface transport
equation (Aris, 1962), makes use of the surface
divergence theorem and a general understanding
of differential geometry (McConnell, 1957). The
subject is of considerable interest to chemical en-
gineers (Rosner, 1976; Berg, 1970), but, as yet, a


simple route to the desired result has not yet been
found. Both Professor Rosner at Yale and Pro-
fessor Slattery at Northwestern are preparing
monographs on this subject, and their works will
certainly help us with the treatment of this aspect
of multiphase transport phenomena.
We avoid the vector form of Eq. 9 altogether,
and consider only special cases associated with
heat and mass transfer along with chemical re-
action at the interface. While the attack here is
obviously something less than what we would de-
sire, it does allow us to point out just how it is
that we go about constructing boundary condi-
tions at phase interfaces, ie., we make specific
statements about the left hand side of Eq. 9 based
on experimental observations. For example, if we
use the species form of Eq. 9 associated with the
mass postulate given by Eq. 2 and make the state-
A = constant (surface concentration is
fA = 0 (follows from Eq. 2)
SA = 0 (there is no surface reaction)
(A) (A)
A, (t) = A., (the Ath species surface element
is fixed in space)
we find that Eq. 9 leads us to continuity of mass
flux expressed as

a s a
pA(vA-w)'a = PA(VA-W)a (10)
This approach forces one to specifically identify
the characteristics of the surface en route to Eq.
10, as opposed to specifying continuity of mass
flux with either vague or non-existent references
to the properties of the surfaces.

With the multicomponent transport equations
and multiphase boundary conditions at our dis-
posal, we can proceed to the study of transport
phenomena in multiphase systems. Our prime
mathematical tool here is the spatial averaging
theorem [Slattery, 1967; Whitaker, 1967; Gray
and Lee, 1977; Bachmat, 1972] which can be stated

= V + f n.dA (11)
for a two phase system. Here the angular brackets
are used to denote the volume average which is
given by

= dV = -4 f dV
V V.(t)
where V represents the averaging volume
V = V,(t) + V (t)



The second of Eqs. 12 is obtained because is zero
in the p-phase.

Armed with the governing differential equa-
tions, a scheme for constructing boundary condi-
tions and the volume averaging theorem, we are
ready to explore a variety of phenomena. The
choice here depends on the students and instructor.
On the Davis campus there is a large Water Sci-
ence and Engineering group, and students from
that discipline are interested in the theoretical
underpinnings of d'Arcy's law (Gray and O'Neill,
1976), dispersion in porous media (Whitaker,
1967), and multiphase flow in porous media
(Slattery, 1970). Chemical engineering students
show an interest in these subjects provided one
mentions oil reservoir calculations, tertiary oil re-
covery processes and the moderate Reynolds num-
ber flows that occur in packed bed reactors. Re-
cent studies of trickle bed reactors (Herskowitz,
Carbonell and Smith, 1978) indicate the im-
portance of the hydrodynamics of two-phase flow
in packed bed reactors and this subject can be
attacked in a rational manner using the method
of volume averaging, although the contact line
phenomena escapes our understanding at the
moment. The hydraulics of distillation trays and
the mechanics of sediment transport are other
subjects that can be profitably analyzed using the
volume averaging method.
For chemical engineering students, the prob-
lems of heat and mass transfer in porous media
hold the most interest. In particular, the unravel-
ling of previous ad hoc developments of transport
processes in catalyst pellets has considerable ap-
peal and represents a challenging theoretical
problem. If one avoids the problem of Knudsen
and transition region diffusion and restricts one-

Chemical engineering students show an
interest in these subjects provided one mentions oil
reservoir calculations, tertiary oil recovery processes
and the moderate Reynolds number flows that
occur in packed bed reactors.

FALL 1978

self to linear adsorption isotherms and linear,
irreversible kinetics, one can volume average Eq.
5 to obtain

'. (1 + +Kaj Dc> + V.[a] +
C. at

V = V DAV -

DA f cAnaidA akK (14)
Here we are confronted with two unknown param-
eters cAv* and CA for which we need constitutive
equations. The route to be followed here has been
hinted at in prior publications (Whitaker, 1967,
1971, 1977b) but never fully exploited. Essentially,
it represents the closure problem of turbulence
(Launder, 1976) and requires that the transport
equations for CA and cAv* be derived. In the study
of turbulence the closure is obtained by proposing
constitutive equations for the higher order correla-
tions in the Reynolds stress transport equations;
however, this is impossible for the CA and cAv*
transport equations because the geometric details
of the porous media are unknown. Nevertheless,
the transport equations for CA and CAV* can be
used as a guide for the direct construction of con-
stitutive equations required in Eq. 14. This type of
approach leads to a transport equation for *
of the form

a 1i+ Kj + ( +

A)-Va = D V' +

SV(avkK") +

V-I eDAV'- e.DAB-V avkK-
Here the vector A and the second order tensor B
are functions of the reaction rate parameter avkK
thus suggesting that the effective diffusivity may
depend on the reaction rate and that the portion
of the dispersive term which appears in the con-
vective transport term also depends on avkK.
Equation 15 can be simplified for a variety of
special cases and compared to transport equations
in current use. Use of this method allows us to
clearly identify the origin of dispersion coefficients
and effective diffusivities and to say something

about the dependence of these quantities on system
parameters. It is important to notice that all the
terms in Eq. 14 are precisely defined and thus
susceptible to determination by the solution of
boundary value problems for model porous media.
Here we are thinking in terms of the work of
Snyder and Stewart (1966), Sorensen and
Stewart (1974), Payatakes et al, 1973, and forth-
coming works by Brenner (1978) on both flow and
mass transfer in spatially periodic porous media.
Other topics of interest in the reactor design
area that can be handled using the volume-averag-
ing approach include:
1. An analysis of flow distributions and flow
instabilities in chemical reactors, in particular,
trickle bed and fluidized bed reactors.
2. Determination of effective thermal conduc-
tivities for catalyst pellets and chemical reactors.
3. Determination of dispersion coefficients for
chemical reactors. These topics and many others
can be handled at the discretion of the instructor.
What we find most attractive about the ap-
proach followed in this course is that it provides
the student with a rigorous framework with which
to carry on further studies, and puts in perspective
the interrelation between transport processes in a
single phase and the analogous processes in multi-
phase systems.

Aris, R., Vectors, Tensors, and the Basic Equations of
Fluid Mechanics, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1962.
Aris, R., Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis, Prentice-
Hall, Inc. 1969.
Bachmat, Y., "Spatial Macroscopization of Processes in
Heterogeneous Systems," Israel J. Tech. 10, 391 (1972).
Bataille, J. and J. Kestin, "Thermodynamics of Mixtures",
J. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics 2, 49 (1977).
Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, 1960.
Berg, J. "Interfacial Phenomena", Chem. Eng. Ed. 4, 162
Brenner, H., "Dispersion Resulting From Flow Through
Spatially-Periodic Porous Media", to be published 1978.
Carberry, J. J., Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineer-
ing, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976.
Gray, W. G. and K. O'Neill, "On the General Equations for
Flow in Porous Media and Their Reduction to Darcy's
Law", Water Resources Research 12, 148 (1976).
Gray, W. G. and P. C. Y. Lee, "On the Theorems for Local
Volume Averaging of Multiphase Systems", Int. J.
Multiphase Flow 3, 333 (1977).
Herskowitz, M., R. G. Carbonell and J. M. Smith, "Effec-
tiveness Factors and Mass Transfer in Trickle-Bed Re-
actors", submitted to AIChE Journal, 1978.
Launder, B. E., "Heat and Mass Transport by Turbulence",
in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 12, P. Bradshaw,


editor, Springer-Verlag, 1976.
McConnell, A. J., Applications of Tensor Analysis, Dover
Pub., 1957.
Payatakes, A. C., C. Tien and R. M. Turian, "A New Model
for Granular Porous Media: Part I. Model Formula-
tion", AIChE Journal 18, 58 (1972).
Rosner, D. F. "Energy, Mass and Momentum Transport,"
Chem. Eng. Ed. 10, 190 (1976).
Slattery, J. C., "Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids Through Porous
Media", AIChE Journal 13, 1066 (1967).
Slattery, J. C., "Two-Phase Flow Through Porous Media",
AIChE Journal 16, 345 (1970).
Slattery, J. C., Momentum, Energy and Mass Transfer in
Continue, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1972.
Smith, J. M., Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw-Hill,
Snyder, L. J. and W. E. Stewart, "Velocity and Pressure
Profiles for Newtonian Creeping Flow in Regular
Packed Beds of Spheres", AIChE Journal, 12, 167
Serensen, J. P. and W. E. Stewart, "Computation of Forced
Convection in Slow Flow Through Ducts and Packed
Beds", Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 811 (1974).
Truesdell, C. and R. Toupin, "The Classical Field Theories",
Handbuch der Physik, Vol. III, Part 1, edited by
S. Fliigge, Springer-Verlag, 1960.
Truesdell, C., Essays in the History of Mechanics, Springer-
Verlag, 1968.
Truesdell, C. and W. Noll, "The Non-Linear Field Theories
of Mechanics", Handbuch der Physik, Vol. III, Part 3,
edited by S. Fliigge, Springer-Verlag, 1965.
Whitaker, S., "Diffusion and Dispersion in Porous Media",
AIChE Journal, 13, 420 (1967).
--, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Prentice-
Hall, Inc. 1968.
"On the Functional Dependence of the Dis-
persion Vector for Scalar Transport in Porous Media,"
Chem. Eng. Sci. 26, 1893 (1971).
Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer,
Pergamon Press, 1977a.
"Simultaneous Heat, Mass and Momentum
Transfer in Porous Media: A Theory of Drying", Ad-
vances in Heat Transfer, Vol. 13, Academic Press, 1977b.

BOOK REVIEW: Thermodynamics
Continued from page 163
features made the book a treat to review. On the
other hand, the book has an unevenness about its
presentation, in its continuity and its definition of
some concepts. These shortcomings would make
its use as an undergraduate text quite difficult;
at the graduate level, a competent teacher would
be required to aid the student in "reading between
the lines" and filling in what this reviewer feels
are gaps in the unified presentation of thermo-
dynamics. There are very few problems to solve
in the text except for the later chapters. The
price of this book will probably discourage wide-
spread course adoption as well.

In all fairness, however, the book is con-
structed from the viewpoint of an eminent
thermodynamicist and, in that context, will satisfy
the scientist or engineer who has had some ex-
perience or is presently working in the area of
applied thermodynamics. Such an individual
would find this book an enlightening refresher
course on the fundamentals, with a broad enough
selection of applications (presented in the form
of examples) to satisfy most readers' particular
interests. Those seriously interested in thermo-
dynamics per se or the instruction of thermody-
namics owe themselves more than a casual perusal
of this book.
Chapter 3 on pure phases is a strong chapter
particularly in its discussion of equations-of-state.
Unfortunately, such an area is constantly under-
going change, and current workers will find the
content somewhat outdated, a risk that every
writer in this area runs. This chapter is preceded
by thoughtful and challenging chapters on physics
and the two laws of thermodynamics. This re-
viewer was impressed by Chapters 5-7 on phase
equilibria and solutions; the author employs a
kind of "case method" in the sense of using
examples prior to the complete statement of what
concept he has in mind demonstrating. The
examples are quite interesting and often probe
deeper into certain well-known thermodynamic
phenomena than one is accustomed in a text (e.g.,
the inflection in the vapor pressure curve of a pure
substance; the discussion of azeotropy; vapor-
liquid criticality, although this topic is preceded
by only a shallow attempt at explaining phase
stability). Chapter 8 on electrolytes and Chapter
10 on work modes other than those of compression
or expansion (entitled "various phenomena") are
unique in comparison with existing texts and
quite well done. Chapter 9 on chemical reactions
is basically a collection of examples of the author's
This reviewer, although finding more than an
occasional "gem" of insight in this book, had the
feeling that the text was for the most part com-
posed of material which significantly predates its
publication date. The author appears influenced
by the text of Lewis and Randall. The book lacks
the "freshness" one finds in, e.g., the book by
Modell and Reid, who are more successful in
unifying the field of thermodynamics. Despite the
shortcomings mentioned above, Redlich's book can
reward the diligent reader with a sound perspec-
tive of thermodynamics and its practice. El

FALL 1978


University of Texas at Austin
Austin, Texas 78712

W E HAVE JUST STARTED teaching a course
called "ChE 302: Introduction to Engineer-
ing" in which we teach freshman ChE's something
of what engineering is and try to instill in them
the pride that engineers feel in carrying out their
profession. In addition, we teach them to write
FORTRAN and to appreciate the use of the com-
puter as yet one more useful engineering tool. We
also teach them to communicate, the subject of this
article, by setting homework assignments on engi-
neering topics discussed in class. For essay titles
we choose such subjects as "The Role of Engineers
in Society" and "The Scope of Chemical Engineer-
ing." We also discuss their curriculum and then
assign essays on each future class we discuss, such
as "Unit Operations" or "Thermodynamics."
Eight essays and three computer programs are the
only set work; there are no tests and no final ex-
amination. Thus, their final grades depend solely
on their developing skills in written communica-
tion and their acquired computer skills.
The essays are graded by experts in composi-
tion and technical writing from the English De-
partment. Because of the guidance they receive
from the engineering faculty in class, the feedback
in their homework from the English Department
graders, and the threat of reduction of their final
grades, the students take more time with their
written work and, hopefully, learn that it is just as
easy to write well as it is to write poorly after a
few fundamentals and a respect for the language
have been learned. They leave the class able to
produce work they are proud of and, ideally, with
the ambition to continue to practise what they
have learned. This is the story of how it came

eral worsening of their students' written work
and a lowering of standards. About two years ago,
the point was reached when some corrective action

was necessary to improve performance and stand-
ards. It was decided to modify the freshman engi-
neering class (ChE 302) to improve communica-
tion as an engineering skill. This should not have
been necessary, and the faculty knew it. The stu-
dents had already taken English in high school and
had had some composition training at the Univer-
sity, but they were not writing good English in
technical reports in upper-division classes. Gram-
mar, spelling, and style varied from mediocre to
abysmal with few exceptions. Sentences were con-
structed weakly and mechanically, without force,
clarity, or variety, and in many cases, paragraphs
were composed almost entirely of buzz words,
jargon, and cliches. There was no individualism
and little evidence of sincere interest in the lan-
And yet, any of the students, when asked,
would reply that they were aware of the pride that
exists among engineers. We would then point out
the contradiction: "How can you speak of pride in
engineering and yet put your names on such poor
written work?" "That's different," they would
answer, "writing is not engineering."
We remind them of the old joke about how God
was designing Man and the professions. Aware
that future squabbles would exist between chem-
ists and ChE's, He said to His typist, "All a chem-
ical engineer does is right." Unfortunately, the
typist mis-spelled the last word. It certainly is like
that in ChE. In fact, we get quite good at writing.
And when we do, we find that we enjoy it.
In class, we tell the freshman that in their first
few months of work they will spend about 30% of
their time doing their engineering and 70% of
their time writing about it. Soon the ratio will be
20% to 80% and, thereafter, will slowly dwindle
to 0% to 100%, except in exceptional circum-

We discovered that around half
the class resisted the idea that clarity of
communication was any more than a minor talent
compared to the skills of engineering.


Dr. Leesley graduated from the Department of Fuel Technology and
Chemical Engineering in Sheffield, England with B.Sc.Tech. and Ph.D.
He has worked in the steel and mining industries. He headed the ChE
Group at the Computer-Aided Design Centre, Cambridge, England,
where he developed a number of software systems including CONCEPT
and PDMS. In 1974 he immigrated to U.S.A. and joined the faculty at
the University of Texas at Austin. He is a member of the AIChE, the
Institution of Chemical Engineers (UK) and the Institute of Fuel (UK).
He holds a Royal Charter to practice engineering in Great Britain.
(C.Eng.). (L)
Marvin L. Williams, Jr., a resident of Texas for over 25 years, re-
ceived his B.A., M.A. and Ph.D. in English from the University of
Texas at Austin. Besides technical and literary editorial work, Dr.
Williams has published articles in both literary and bibliographical
journals. He is a member of the Bibliographical Society and the
Modern Language Association. (R)

stances. They don't believe us of course; not at
first anyway.
One of them told of how he went home and,
incredulously, repeated this story to his father.
His father, a nationally-known ChE, said, reflec-
tively, that it was true; furthermore, he said that
the engineering content of what he wrote had also
dwindled. It was perhaps when the class was
startled into knowing that they are going to have
to write often and well and that they might as well
get used to it and make the best of it, that they
settled down and began to take pride in their writ-
We tell them that the people who read their
written work in the future will either want to or
have to. In the first case, it is as well to keep the
reader interested. In the second case, an interest-
ing message will be brought home far more
strongly to those who are forced by whatever cir-
cumstances to read the letter, report, or article.
We tell them that they have to give their reader
staying power. They must quickly establish a cer-
tain ethical appeal that causes the reader to take
both the author and his message seriously. They
will accomplish this by logical thinking, careful

planning, and the avoidance, by proofreading and
revision, of careless errors in punctuation, gram-
mar, and spelling which, if left in, may irritate the
reader and take his attention away from the
The students often ask for suggestions on how
to capture and sustain the interest of the reader.
We suggest that they read as much material as
they possibly can and criticize as they read. It is
unlikely that graceful and effective style will be
recognized, if it has never been noticed or even
We discovered that around half the class re-
sisted the idea that clarity of communication was
any more than a minor talent compared to the
skills of engineering. They preferred to believe
that the engineering aspects of a project far out-
weighed its comprehensive documentation. Their
stubbornness, at least in part, is because of their
non-engineering viewpoint of what engineering is.
Perhaps they imagine that engineering is making
money out of applying to community problems the
laws of nature and the laws of man, i.e., the codes
of practice. Although this is not a complete defini-
tion of engineering, let us look at it for a start.

We remind them of the old joke about how God
was designing Man and the professions. Aware that
future squabbles would exist between ChE's, He said
to His typist, "All a chemical engineer does is right."
Unfortunately the typist mispelled the last word.

In order for them to know all of these laws,
they have to read about them, which means that
someone has had to write them down with suf-
ficient clarity and accuracy that they can be under-
stood by others. Some of these laws are quite dif-
ficult to understand. In ChE, there are concepts of
incredible complexity. Therefore, the engineers
that prepare our reference books and texts have to
bestow upon their readers ample staying power or
the desire and the ability to follow and to under-
stand what is written.
We suggest to the students, as another learning
device, that every time they encounter a difficult
concept, it would improve their own writing and
communication if they, after having finally
grasped the concept, go back to the difficult pas-
sage and decide how they would have written it in
order to lead the reader more quickly to compre-
Of course, the application of laws is not the

FALL 1978

We began to ask teachers at all levels what they felt about
this problem. Every group of teachers wanted to blame the group of teachers
immediately before them in the student's academic careers. The few kindergarten teachers with whom
we spoke were convinced that television was the major problem.

whole of an engineer's job. Also, of great im-
portance are self-satisfaction, creativity and the
ability to interact with others of varied talents
and backgrounds. For every engineering problem
there are an infinite number of situations. Hope-
fully, the engineer's training and experience will
lead him by instinct to pick out the best few for
examination by himself and the other members of
his team. Some of his ideas will be simple, some
complex. In any event, he has to transplant these
ideas into the heads of his colleagues using, to a
large degree, reports and drawings. There is
hardly an engineer alive who doesn't succumb at
least occasionally to the spell of the drawing board.
The fact that most engineers are fair draftsmen
ensures their enjoyment and satisfaction when
drawing and gives them pride in the finished
On the other hand, most engineers are, at best,
average writers. Perhaps this is why, often, the
engineer feels little enjoyment, satisfaction, or
pride in the finished pages. We wondered why this
seemed, in the experience of one of the authors, to
be worse in America than in Britain. We began to
ask teachers at all levels what they felt about this
problem. It was odd. Every group of teachers
wanted to blame the group of teachers immedi-
ately before them in the students' academic
careers. It seemed that upstream teachers do not
do their jobs properly. The few kindergarten
teachers with whom we spoke were convinced that
television was the major problem.
A colleague on a year's sabbatical leave from
Scotland, horrified at the low intellectual level of
most American television, spent his visit without
television. When he was about to go back to Scot-
land, he remarked that he had decided not to buy
one upon their return. Both his children had be-
come avid readers and, consequently, their spell-
ing, grammar, and general writing ability had
improved immeasurably. The significance of tele-
vision on educational development can be debated
elsewhere, but what needs to be noted here is that
everyone agreed that a problem exists.
Most professors have their own horror story.
Mine concerns a student who, having struggled

from spelling mistake, to misplaced comma, to
verbless sentence for over four pages, managed,
on the last page, to make a spelling mistake in
every single line and in some more than one. I am
certain that most students do not read their essays
through after writing them. I deduced this once
when a student laboriously printed out, capital
letter after capital letter, a story in which he told
me that "a professional engineer is one whose
work comes under the pubic (sic) eye."
Such writing just won't do. We have a need to
express our ideas to each other as engineers and
the better we can make our message understood,
the quicker we can interact, cooperate, and finish
the job. Bad grammar leads to incomprehensible
sentences, misleading statements and, finally, to a
reader sufficiently confused and irritated to lose
the flow of the argument. Thus, no communication
takes place. We must learn to improve our writing
in order to, first, give our readers the staying
power that is necessary if communication is to be
possible. Second, we must adhere to principles of
brevity and economy, that is, get our message
down into as few words as possible without sacri-
fice of meaning. Hopefully, a third benefit will be
that we become good at doing this and, then, we
will enjoy writing, be satisfied by it, and take pride
in it, as we do our other engineering skills. Our
initial task with ChE 302 was to determine how
we could transfer this philosophy to the students
and yet still meet the conventional objectives of
the course.
ments at this University have a course called
"Introduction to Engineering" which is used to
teach freshmen the nature of their academic
career in their chosen engineering discipline and,
in some cases, to teach FORTRAN and familiarity
with the university computer system. In ChE, it
was decided to upgrade the course and, keeping the
same general objectives, to include an emphasis on
good written communication also. The course was
first taught in this revised form in Fall 1976.
The objectives of the expanded course are: to


introduce freshmen to the idea that ChE is a pro-
fession and to explain to them exactly what the
profession involves; to give a brief description of
the mainstream courses between ChE 302 and
graduation in order that freshmen will have a
basis upon which to affirm or reject ChE as their
major at an early stage; to encourage the fresh-
men to take an early pride in their written work;
and to teach FORTRAN as a programming lan-
guage and give them familiarity with the com-
puter by setting meaningful FORTRAN program-
ming exercises.
There is insufficient time to meet all of the
above objectives singly, and in the level of detail
required, unless some considerable overlap pro-
cedure is employed. This was in fact the case,
and students were asked to carry out written work
assignments on subjects related to ChE which
were discussed in class. Each topic to be discussed
was considered to be a distinct help to their aca-
demic career. Essay titles were chosen to enable
the professor to discuss ChE as a profession and
follow with non-technical lectures on various in-
dustries and the main-stream topics the students
need in this major.
The class discussions which preceded each
essay were just as important as the essays them-
selves. The class was encouraged to discuss the
problem and make suggestions which could be in-
corporated into their essays. In some cases, for
example during discussion of the heat exchanger,
we started off with a basic problem definition. The
students were asked to consider the problem of re-
covering heat from the output stream of a reactor
and transferring it to the input stream. By in-
volving all the class, it was possible to let the
principle of a heat exchanger evolve in the class
period. It was astonishing that the students
evolved the heat exchanger principle to an in-
credibly high degree. It was they who decided that
a multi-tubular device would be needed, that multi-
pass heat exchangers would be preferable, that
baffling would be required, that a floating head
was desirable, and that horizontal heat exchangers
were preferable to vertical ones. They decided that
straight tubes were better than tortuous-path
tubes because of cleaning and that space must be

I deduced this once when a
student laboriously printed out.... a story
in which he told me that a "professional engineer is one
whose work comes under the pubic (sic) eye."

allowed beside the heat exchanger for tube-bundle
removal. In fact, the class conceived the principle
of the heat exchanger when most of them had
never seen or heard of a heat exchanger before.
They then wrote an essay on the subject. During
the semester, they wrqte eight essays on engineer-
ing topics, each essay carrying a maximum of ten
Thus, the essays served three purposes. First,
they were a means of introducing a discussion in
class about the scope of ChE and its implications
as a profession. Second, and also in class, topics
related to their academic future were discussed.
Finally, there was feedback on writing strengths
and weaknesses from the English department
The students were given specific instructions
about their audience for these writing assign-

Perhaps they imagine that engineering is making
money out of applying to community problems the laws
of nature and the laws of man, i.e., the codes of practice.

ments. They were told to write to a generally edu-
cated audience with no knowledge of the heat ex-
changer or whatever else the specific topic hap-
pened to be. The instruction to the grader was "if
you fail to understand the topic by the end of an
individual's essay, then the individual has failed
to communicate." Of course, spelling, grammar,
sentence construction and style were also evalu-
The teaching of FORTRAN in ChE 302 can be
approached in two ways. Either the self-paced ap-
proach could be used or the students could be
taught the syntax of FORTRAN formally and be
left to learn the "tricks of usage" by practice.
Having had to learn many different computer lan-
guages in his career, the first author chose the
latter method since he knew that, like tennis, the
rules are easy to learn, but it is the actual use that
makes the learner proficient. FORTRAN sections
were given in six one-hour lectures and two prob-
lems were set.
The first problem was a solution of 'n' simul-
taneous equations with test data for four un-
knowns, and the second was a curve-fitting pro-
gram in which they were encouraged to try a
hyperbolic, a logarithmic, and an exponential
curve, to a set of 36 data points (which, in fact,
were the burning away data for carbon in a
flame). Both problems were difficult, and gave

FALL 1978

some students trouble at first. But with an oc-
casional FORTRAN clinic in class and a FOR-
TRAN grader available five hours a week, all stu-
dents reached the point where they were proficient
in FORTRAN. There were no exceptions to this;
all students finished the course with their pro-
grams written.
The final essay the students wrote was entitled
"How to Approach the Teaching of ChE 302."
This was set (at some considerable risk!) in order
to obtain far more feedback than the usual teacher
evaluation system would provide. In the discussion
period which preceded this assignment, the stu-
dents were advised that they should take whatever
view they felt appropriate, whether it be highly
constructive, highly destructive or somewhere in
between. They were assured of a fair grade as
long as they were able to defend their views. As it
turned out, all of the students had to say that even
though the work had been hard, they were deeply
aware that their writing had improved. They
could hardly say, in a well-written essay, that it
hadn't! However, there were one or two minor
criticisms, such as that the work load was high,
but most of the students recognized that good
writing and a crisp individual style will only come
with practice and, reluctantly, they admitted that
this was the best course. On the subject of teach-
ing FORTRAN, however, their attitude was dif-
ferent. They reported that the class sessions were
quite sufficient for the formal syntax of FOR-
TRAN, but they felt that the two set problems
were difficult and about 90% of the students said
that they wished a simple program had been set
first in order that they could learn the protocol of
using the university computer system and "get
their feet wet" more gradually. We agreed with
this criticism and adjusted the schedule for the
following semester's class accordingly.
The experience gained in the initial class ex-
periment has been invaluable in redesigning the
class. The number of essays has been reduced to

The Scope of Chemical Engineering
Transport Phenomena
Unit Operations
Reactor Design
Process Plant Design
Project Development and Economic Evaluation
Computer-Aided Design in Chemical Engineering

The FORTRAN classes are now given early in
the semester in order to maximize the time allowed

for the students to write the programs. Three com-
puter problems are now set. The first is a simple
exercise in reading a list of numbers, summing
them and their squares, roots and squared devia-
tions, and printing out the answers. The second
and third programs will be more difficult and
chosen so that they will be useful to them in their
ChE careers. There will also be exercises in com-
puter output manipulation and effective use of the
full capabilities of FORTRAN. However, they will
be no more difficult than those set in the first
The key to our success was the strong support
from the English department grader. During dis-
cussions between the ChE and English depart-
ments, a way was found to utilize Teaching As-
sistants with extensive experience in grading all
types of essays in English composition courses,
and, as a result, two English graders, both final
year PhD candidates, have been retained for ChE
302, and two upper division courses. Also, the
Harbrace College Handbook has been chosen as
an additional text for the course in order to intro-
duce the abbreviated Harbrace grading system as
a method of increasing communication between
grader and student.


WE HOPE THAT OUR graduating engineers
will be better than engineers from other uni-
versities where this training has not yet been in-
corporated into the curriculum. We hope that the
word will get around and that more companies
will seek and employ University of Texas ChE's
because, among other things, they communicate
more easily and more carefully. We have this hope
for many reasons.
First, other universities may copy us when
they see our success. This will benefit all of us be-
cause the standards in written English in the en-
gineering fields will gradually rise and, therefore,
text books, scientific papers, reports, codes of
practices, scientific journals, policy statements,
and construction details will all be easier to read
and understand. Second, we will begin to see the
re-appearance of writing that gives its readers
the staying power to read and re-read, not only
to gain an increased understanding of the topic,
but for sheer pleasure. Third, we will show that
academic engineers are entitled to as much pride
in their finished products, even though they are
from the classroom rather than the factory or
plant. El


Chemical Engineers play

key role at General Foods'

Research & Development

C ente s. preserve and improve it, change its Ch.E. STUDENTS

Chemical Engineers have a key role
to play in research at General
Foods Corporation, the nation's
leading package grocery products
company. Food is no longer the
simple thing it was to our fore-
fathers. Most of us no longer pro-
duce our own food; but rely on
others to process and package it,

form, and get it to us with all its
nutritive and taste values intact.
An accelerated worldwide need to
supplement traditional agricultural
food sources with technology-
based foods has created an unprec-
dented need for chemical engineer-
ing skills of a high order.

For students who want to put their
chemical engineering training to
work, General Foods Corporation
needs almost all elements of the
unit operations background...
such as: dehydration, extrusion,
heat and mass transfer and extrac-
tion and separation.

At General Foods, chemical
engineers work in small teams
where each team member can make
a large contribution...and will
receive due recognition. The
atmosphere is informal, yet profes-
sional. And for the.chemical engi-
neer who wants to obtain an
advanced degree while pursuing a
full-time career, General Foods
reimburses employees close to 100
per cent of expenses for such after
hours studies.

If you are interested in a career with
a leading processor of packaged
convenience foods who markets
over 400 familiar brand products
WHIP and many more...

Contact your placement office
or write to:
Technical Careers Dept. T12-3

250 North Street
White Plains New York 10625
An Equal Opportunity Employer, M/F/Hc.

FALL 1978

f977 A4lwud .Heclte




Part 3: Discussion and Conclusions

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139


jected water into molten sodium chloride
under carefully controlled laboratory conditions
(Figure 19). The vertical force resulting from the
explosion was monitored with a transducer as
shown. High speed motion pictures were also ob-
tained. The key results are:
* explosions could begin in the bulk salt or at points on the
crucible wall touched by the water jet,
* the water jet was coherent and separated from the salt
by a vapor film until the explosion occurred,
* no freezing of the salt was noted.
* there were delay times of a few ms to a few hundred ms
between injection and explosion,
* the explosion step developed very rapidly. Even wtih the
highest framing speed (65 ps/frame), the explosion oc-
curred between successive frames.
In a later study, to explore larger scale inter-
actions, water columns were allowed to fall upon a
molten-salt surface (Anderson et al., 1975). Sur-
prisingly, no coherent explosions were noted. High
speed photographs showed, however, that the co-
herent water column was always preceded by a
few drops of water. As the authors noted: "The
contact of these leading water droplets with the
salt caused minor explosions of sufficient magni-
tude to either break the apparatus or reverse the
motion of the water column and prevent major
contact between the molten salt and water."
Throughout, we have continued to suggest
vapor explosions may occur when the volatile fluid
superheats, nucleates, and fragments both the hot
and cold liquids thus sustaining and enhancing the
violence of the ultimate explosion. Yet Anderson
and Armstrong's careful experiments force us to
re-examine this model. Refer to Figure 20 from

their paper. This bar graph indicates the im-
portant temperature levels of the NaC1-water sys-
tem. Water at 20C contacts salt at 1000C. At the
water-vapor film boundary, the temperature is pre-
sumably close to 100C while in the salt-vapor
boundary it is between 800 and 1000C. The
calculated interface temperature using a two-slab,
perfect-contact theory* is 691C-a value exceed-
ing the minimum film boiling temperature of
500C (Henry, 1972). The critical temperature of
water is 373C, and the homogeneous nucleation
temperature is -300C. These values indicate that
liquid-liquid contact should not be possible as the
resulting interface temperature would cause im-
mediate film boiling of water and freezing of the
Similar temperature bar-graphs could have
been constructed for the titanium-water, smelt-
water, and aluminum-water cases described in
Part 2. Similar conclusions could also be drawn;
how can superheating and homogeneous nuclea-
tion processes play a role in such cases?
A valuable observation is provided by Ander-
son and Armstrong (1973) : "Reinspection of the
. .. NaCl-HO movies show that every explosive
case was initiated by an external force which
tended to drive the two liquids across the insulat-
ing vapor film into near or actual contact with
each other." The external force may be due to in-
stabilities in the film, external causes, etc. How-
ever, as noted "(if) the fluids actually come into

*Eq. (11), Part 2.

We know superheated liquids
exist. In the laboratory they behave as
expected from theoretical considerations and
distintegrate violently when heated to their
superheat limit temperature.


contact, the theory would predict immediate sur-
face vapor production which, in turn, would in-
hibit further heat transfer between liquids."
Anderson and Armstrong proposed this "dy-
namic impact heating model" and indicated that,
when the hot and cold liquids are in close prox-
imity, the heat transfer rate may be high enough
to vaporize water in a short period of time. This



vapor production then causes (somehow) other
near contacts and the explosion propagates.
Perhaps there is a critical impacting force. If
too small, then, as the liquids approach, the in-
crease in vapor generation opposes the force and
the gap widens. On the other hand, for impacting
forces greater than the critical value, very close
contact may be achieved. Evaporation increases
rapidly but may there be a limit to this rate?
Kinetic theory suggests that the limit would occur
when the flux (1/4) pv. p is the mass density of
the vapor in the film and v the average molecular
velocity. The maximum evaporating flux is then

qeva, = (1/4) pv AHv

The energy flow into the water is given as

qin = (k/8) (AT)

with k the average thermal conductivity in the
film of thickness 8. Using the NaCl-H1O system as

an example, when qi, = qvq.p, 8 0.3 jm. If the
film thickness should become less than this value,
energy is conducted into the bulk water to raise its
temperature above 100C. Should temperature of
-~300C be attained, homogeneous nucleation
would result and intense, local shock waves de-
velop. These, in turn, could provide the force to
propagate the microevent to a macroexplosion.
The critical impacting force should vary from
system to system and should increase as the tem-
perature of the hot fluid increases. Experiments
involving impinging drops of a volatile liquid onto
a hot surface (preferably liquid) could be of value
in testing this hypothesis. Unfortunately, most
such experiments have employed small drops with
sufficient drag to limit the impact velocity. How-
ever, if the hot fluid is only slightly above the
homogeneous nucleation temperature of the cold
liquid, then a less drastic model may suffice.
Waldram et al. (1976) obtained vapor explosions
with drops of many organic liquids on hot silicone


are not confined to systems involving water,
one need only cite the results obtained at the
Argonne National Laboratory where the system
molten sodium-molten uranium oxide has been
studied. Obviously, these experiments were mo-
tivated by concern should a nuclear reactor ac-


900 --


. 600



BETWEEN 1000* NoCI AND 100 H20


400 -
200 -



FALL 1978


cident in the LMFBR lead to this type of liquid-
liquid contact.
The facts indicate that if liquid sodium is in-
jected into molten UO2, vapor explosions are con-
sistently produced (Armstrong et al., 1975; Henry
et al., 1974). Sodium temperatures have ranged
from the melting point to above 600C with UO0
temperatures up to 3200C. Injection velocities
varied from 0.35 to 35 m/s.
The important temperatures for this system
are shown in Figure 21 (Fauske, 1977) assuming
the sodium is initially at 400C and the UO2 at
3200C. There are some significant differences
between this case and the NaC1-H.O case discussed
First, the very high temperature required for
film boiling indicates that contact between liquid
sodium and liquid U02 would result in nucleate
boiling-assuming that sufficient nucleation sites
are available. Thus, the problem of heat transfer
through a thin vapor sodium film is not present.
However, if these two liquids do come into con-
tact, and if boiling is suppressed, the theoretical
two-slab interface temperature is only 10820C;
this is below the temperature required for the
homogeneous nucleation of sodium, so it would
appear unlikely that a vapor explosion could re-
sult in a simple contact experiment.
Yet vapor explosions do seem to occur when
liquid sodium is injected into molten UO,!
The model proposed by Fauske (1973, 1974)
assumes that the injected sodium breaks up (at
least partially) to form some small liquid sodium
drops. A Weber number criterion of about 10*

"The contact of these leading
water droplets with the salt caused minor
explosions of sufficient magnitude to either break the
apparatus or reverse the motion of the water
column and prevent contact between
the molten salt and water."

indicates that stable drop radii can be as small as
20 um. With a drop of this size, the theoretical two-
slab interfacial temperature in Figure 21 is not
relevant and the drop tries to heat up to the bulk
UOz temperature. When the homogeneous nuclea-
tion temperature is reached, it explodes and the

*Nwe= pr2V2/o- with p the sodium density, r the stable
drop radius, V the relative velocity of the sodium-U02, and
o- the interfacial tension.





local shock waves propagate the reaction by caus-
ing further fragmentation. In this model a delay
is predicted between injection and explosion and
this prediction is confirmed by experiment.

WE KNOW SUPERHEATED liquids exist. In
the laboratory they behave as expected from
theoretical considerations and disintegrate vio-
lently when heated to their superheat limit tem-
We also know of numerous instances where
discrete masses of hot and cold liquids have been
contacted (on purpose or as the result of an acci-
dent) and where this contact has resulted in an
explosion. Of course, we must also admit that in
a number of other similar cases contact led to no
In this paper we have taken a biased position
in an attempt to link superheated liquids to vapor
explosions. This is a minority position and the
field is active and in ferment as new theories and
experiments appear and demand to be given their
due before any general explanation is accepted.
There may, in fact, be no single, universal cause
for vapor explosions and each particular situation
should then be examined separately. We have re-
jected this hypothesis since there are too many
commonalities in the various events reported. It
is true, however, that in various vapor explosions
there may be different parameters which assume
primary importance in determining if a coherent
vapor explosion will occur.
In the past decade, numerous theories have
been proposed which do not involve superheated
Continued on page 203


PROCTER & GAMBLE is looking for

in R&D/Product

This organization is responsible for the
creation and improvement of new and
existing products, together with developing
the associated technology advances and
solving technical problems.
While this organization encompasses the full
range of scientific and engineering
backgrounds, the primary need at the BS/MS
level is for Chemical Engineers and
MBAs with a chemical or engineering
undergraduate degree.
Your initial responsibilities in the organization
would be primarily technical, with varying
degrees of interactions with P&G's
Engineering, Manufacturing and Marketing
divisions. As you advance, your career could
evolve along technical and/or management
routes. This evolution will include progressive
assignments, exposure to other divisions, and
in many cases a transfer to another
R&D/Product Development division, or
where appropriate to an Engineering,
Manufacturing or Marketing division.
The R&D/Product Development organization
is headquartered in Cincinnati, consists of
over 20 divisions, focuses on U.S. consumer
and industrial products, conducts P&G's basic
research, and provides technical support for
our international operations and technical
centers. (This technical support includes
international travel by certain of our
U.S.-based division personnel.)


If you are interested in this area, please send
a resume to Procter & Gamble, R&D
Recruiting Coordination Office, Ivorydale
Technical Center, Spring Grove and June
Avenues, Cincinnati, Ohio 45217.


N 1 views and opinions


Manhattan College
Riverdale, New York 10471

LAST YEAR, Joe Reynolds-my department
Chairman and long-time friend-approached
me about the possibility of my attending the Sum-
mer School Workshop for Chemical Engineering
Faculty. He felt the trip would do me good since
most of my professional interests and consulting
activities in the last six years have been in air
pollution. In addition, my wife was excited about
the possibility of another trip to the Colorado area.
The Workshop, conducted in Snowmass, Colorado,
provided the right atmosphere for a conference of
this nature. A total of 36 sessions were offered in
the program with topics varying from Unified
Rate Concepts to Workload Evaluation.
After some manipulation, I had Mike Williams,
one of the Workshop Directors, assign me to the
following sessions on kinetics:

Louis Theodore received his B.Ch.E. from the Cooper Union in 1955
and his M.Ch.E. (1957) and Eng.Sc.D. (1964) from New York University.
He is presently Director of Research for Manhattan College's ChE De-
partment. Dr. Theodore has had wide experience as an industrial con-
sultant and lecturer, and is the author or co-author of numerous pub-
lications and texts. Two main areas of interest are in air pollution and
computer application.

1. Applied Chemical Kinetics.
2. Catalysts and Physical Chemistry of Catalyst Sys-
3. Chemical Reaction Engineering.
I specifically requested these sessions because I
teach Chemical Reactor Design, a required senior-
level course in ChE at Manhattan College. I had
always felt that the course suffered somewhat in
that I did not provide enough practical applica-
tions. I hoped that attending these sessions would
help alleviate this problem. Unfortunately, this
proved not to be the case. The lectures, which
primarily centered on program curricula and
course content, emphasized the theoretical rather
than the design or pragmatic approach to ChE.
For example, Session (1): Applied Chemical
Kinetics, contained no applications, at least not as
I have come to know the meaning of that term as
an engineer. As another colleague at the workshop
commented: the use of the word "applied" by this
professor was an insult to any engineer's intelli-
gence. These sessions served to substantiate the
fears of a good number of ChE professors and in-
dustrial personnel: education in ChE programs at
so many of the "big-name" schools has gone off
the deep end. Course content seems to emphasize
the professor's research and/or professional in-
terests with little or no regard for the real needs
of a ChE student. So much time is apparently
spent on material that will serve no use to the
practicing engineer. For example, the emphasis
on the presentation at Session 1 was on kinetic
theory. Yet, I would defy anyone to provide me
with a case study where a reactor was designed
using kinetic theory. Much of this useless ma-
terial could be removed from course offerings if
the professor would simply ask (and answer) the
following question before entering class: Will the
student ever use this material?
The same criticisms of the kinetics course of-
ferings can also be leveled at so many other
courses. I say this because of the recent prolifera-


tions of texts in ChE that have emphasized the
fundamental rather than the engineering ap-
proach. Texts seem to be written by professors for
their colleagues rather than their students. This
has caused several of us at Manhattan to use
earlier editions of ChE publications.
I would issue a call to those responsible indi-
viduals in ChE education to put an end to this
nonsense. Something has to be done, and it must
be done soon.

1. CEP, August 1976, pages 13-16.

S91book reviews

By P. Mac Berthouex and Dale F. Rudd,
John Wiley and Sons, 1977.
Reviewed by Noel de Nevers, University of Utah.

This book is very similar in organization, style,
and contents to "Process Synthesis" by Rudd,
Powers and Siirola, Prentice-Hall, 1973. It has
the same basic organization and style and borrows
several large sections verbatim from that book.
Those who like that book will like this one.
In this book, Professor Rudd has teamed with
Professor Berthouex, who is an expert on waste
water treatment and water supply, to produce a
book which might better be named, "Process
Synthesis, Rewritten to Emphasize Water Pollu-
tion Control."
In both books, a very brief and sketchy treat-
ment is given of conservation of mass, conserva-
tion of energy, equilibrium relationships, and rate
equations. The subjects are illustrated by numer-
ous excellent examples.
It is interesting to speculate what the audience
for this book will be. The reviewer has personally
used "Process Synthesis" as a text for an "Intro-
duction to Chemical Engineering for Freshman"
course. The response seems to be that the pro-
fessor likes the book and the students don't. It is,
to some extent, over their heads. However, it does
not seem to fit logically into the Chemical Engi-
neering curriculum anywhere else. Similarly,
"Strategy of Pollution Control" seems to have no
obvious place in the Chemical Engineering curricu-
lum. The emphasis is very heavily upon waste

water treatment. As a Chemical Engineer who
does not know a great deal about waste water
treatment, the reviewer found the discussions and
examples there very interesting. But he scarcely
feels competent to teach a course on waste water
treatment based on the availability of this text-
book (and knowing the obvious jurisdictional con-
flict with the active water pollution control group
in our Civil Engineering Department).
The best part of this book (as is the best part
of "Process Synthesis") is the abundance of well-
worked out and very interesting examples. In both
books, these are truly outstanding, and justify the
purchase of the book by many engineers merely
to have the opportunity to study these interesting
The reviewer has several minor criticisms;
first, the title of the book is misleading. Very little
is said about the strategy of pollution control.
Mostly, the discussion is about internal optimiza-
tion of waste water treatment facilities given a
set of externally applied constraints which the
engineer has relatively little to say about.
"Strategy of Pollution Control" implies a global
view of what we ought to be doing in the pollu-
tion control field, given our limited resources and
limited knowledge of the true effects of various
pollutants on ourselves and other parts of the eco-
system. Second, although the authors have pro-
vided some literature references, they are not as
careful in citing sources for their material as
they should be. For example, figures 7.5.8 and
7.5.17 are direct copies of figures 5.82 and 20.99
of Perry "Chemical Engineers Handbook," Fifth
Edition. This is not mentioned at all in the place
where these figures are introduced, and the only
clue the reader is given that these might be from
that source is a reference in the bibliography at
the end of that chapter to Perry's as a general
reference source in this area. Third, the three-
page, double-spaced index is inadequate.
In summary, chemical engineers who wish to
see a chemical engineer's view of the whole waste
water treatment problem, with various other
pieces of information about other pollution
problems appended, will find this a very interest-
ing and useful book. The reviewer sees no place
where it will fit in as a textbook in any standard
chemical engineering course except if there is a
faculty member who is strongly involved in waste
water treatment, and who can teach this subject
without jurisdictional conflict with the civil engi-
neers. ]E

FALL 1978


Continued from page 162
articles they liked best and which two they liked
least. The results are given in Table V. Perhaps
there is a message here, perhaps not.
My opinion is that the course was less ef-
ficient than a conventional textbook course in
teaching facts, concepts, methods, etc. Still it was
much more effective in conveying a comprehensive
view of chemical reaction engineering than antici-
pated. The dynamics of history are not so easily
and dramatically conveyed via technical texts.
Also, with this course format, it was natural to
bring each topic right up to date. With one or two
exceptions only, these "influential papers" were
excellently written. The students enjoyed a real-
istic teaching experience. Because of the nature of

Article Preference

Hougen & Watson
Weisz & Hicks
van Krevelen & Hoftijzer
van Heerden
Singer & Wilhelm
Aris & Amundson
Chu & Hougen

(most least = net)
(6 0 = 6)
(3-0 = 3)
(3-1 2)
(3 -1 = 2)
(2- 0 = 2)
(2- 0 = 2)
(2- 0 = 2)
(1-0 = 1)
(1-1= 0)
(1-2 =-1)
(1 2 =-1)
(1 4 = -3)
(0 6 = -6)
(0 9 = -9)

their involvement, they were surely provided with
a strong feeling for the flow of research and tech-
There is much more to be said about the
central and related papers than can be accom-
modated by this article. At the suggestion of one
respondent, Michel Boudart, it is my intention to
prepare an annotated collection of "Influential
Papers in Chemical Reaction Engineering." Your
suggestions on papers to be included will be ap-


I would like to acknowledge the contributions
of the respondents to the original survey and the
students in the course. Special thanks go to Mr.
Deepak Perti for his assistance in the large

amount of library work necessary to develop this
course and for his service as a specialist in an
area where he had unique expertise. E

Monday 28 March 1977
Read Hougen and Watson (1943)
Work #1 and 2 below.
Wednesday 30 March 1977
Read Weller (1956) and Boudart (1956). Photocopies of
these two articles are available in the ChE Reading
Room and on reserve in the Physical Sciences Library.
In addition the AIChE Journal is available in both of
these locations.
Optional reading-Weller (1975) gives excellent up-to-
date perspective on the topic of catalytic kinetics.
Copies of this article are also located in the reading
room and the library.
Work #3 and 4 below.

1. The vapor phase hydrogenation of ethylene (C2H4 + H2
-> C2,H) on a well dispersed platinum catalyst (0.05%
Pt on SiO2) is described by Sinfelt, J. Phys. Chem., 68,
856 (1964). The overall reaction is virtually irreversible
and is considered to occur according to the following
C2H, + I C2,H,. (1)
H2 + 21 ; 2 H*l (2)
C2H4 + H*l -> C2H.I + (3)
C2H,*l + H-l-> C2H6 + 21 (4)
Reaction (4) is very rapid. Reaction (3) is the rate de-
termining step.
a) Use the methods of Hougen and Watson (1943) to
derive an equation for the rate of reaction of ethylene.
The equation should contain only rate and equilibrium
constants and partial pressures of the reaction com-
b) It is known that hydrogen adsorption, although signif-
icant (KH is finite) and necessary, is slight. Use this
information to simplify your rate equation.
c) At rather low temperatures the rate of reaction at
constant ethylene partial pressure will be directly
proportional to the square root of the hydrogen partial
pressure and at constant hydrogen partial pressure
will be inversely proportional to the ethylene partial
pressure. Explain why these experimental observa-
tions are consistent with your rate equation from part
2. Write a three dimensional, unsteady state mass balance
on a differential element of a fixed bed catalytic reactor.
Show how to reduce this equation to the one dimensional,
steady state form for a plug flow reactor, given by equa-
tion (56) in Hougen and Watson (1943).
3. Refer back to the system of problem #1. For experi-
ments conducted at constant PH2 but over a wide range
of PC2H4, sketch a graph of log r vs log PC2H4. Indicate
quantitative features on the graph where you can.



4. Akers and White, Chem. Eng. Progr. 44, 553 (1948) re-
ported the following data for the synthesis of methane
from CO and H2 over a nickel-kieselguhr catalyst at 1
atm and approximately 300C with a feed gas contain-
ing 44.5% CO, 53.9% H2, 0.4% CO2 and 1.2% inert.
lb catalyst-hr/mol feed mol CH, in product/mol feed
7.13 0.187
2.97 0.154
1.68 0.120
0.38 0.045
Determine the specific rate and tabulate as a function of
the mol CH4/mol feed.
Examination #1 (Take home)
1. In Hougen and Watson (1943)* equation (12) gives the
rate of a catalytic reaction in terms of adsorbed phase
concentrations and the concentration of vacant sites, c1.
In equation (14) the adsorbed phase concentrations are
gone and fluid phase concentrations appear. During our
study of this paper, one student asserted that there was
an error in equation (14). Show in complete detail how
equation (14) is obtained from equation (12). If there is
an error in equation (14), give the correct result and
compare it to equation (14).


This excellent paper was a remarkably comprehensive,
trendsetting, and futuristic paper. It dealt effectively with
many of the topics which have proved to be important in
the more than thirty years since its appearance. Among
these are catalytic kinetics, catalyst deactivation, effective-
ness factors, external mass transfer, and fixed bed reactor
analysis and design. One can see that many of the topics
now considered crucial in research, teaching, and practice
of chemical reaction engineering were anticipated by
Hougen and Watson. This review chooses those two items in
which the impact of this 1943 paper has been greatest:
catalytic kinetics and the tubular reactor mass balance,
r p, dV = FdxA.
The above equation provided a quantitative basis for
rational tubular reactor design. Before its appearance semi-
quantitative scale up procedures were used. A rather so-
phisticated illustration of this earlier mode of thought can
be provided by reference to an article by Emmett and
Kummer (1943). There they give 9 graphs of % NH, in
the exit gas versus space velocity for three temperatures,
three pressures, and three N2:H2 feed ratios. From such
graphs (which might come from the laboratory or pilot
plant) encompassing the processing conditions of interest,
one can find the space velocity to achieve a specified con-
version. With the assumed analogy between tubular and
batch reactors, the intuitive argument that the space veloc-

*Some errata in Hougen and Watson (1943) are as follows:
Eqn (9), CA should be CA'
p. 531, left side, line 1, CA should be CA',
Eqn (14), KA CAt C, should be KA aAi C,
p. 533, left side, line 3, 25 should be 2'7
p. 533, left side, line 10, unabsorbed should be unadsorbed
p. 538, right side, line 4b, absorption should be adsorption

My opinion is that the course was less
effective than a conventional textbook course in
teaching facts, concepts, methods, etc. Still it was much
more effective in conveying a comprehensive view
of chemical reaction engineering than anticipated.

ity is inversely proportional to the contact time (imperfect
for reactions like ammonia synthesis in which there is a
change in the total moles), and the hypothesis that only
contact time determines the conversion, the pilot plant could
be scaled up directly by calculating the commercial reactor
volume from the space velocity and the specified commercial
feed rate. It would remain to determine the reactor shape
(usually characterized by the length to diameter ratio)
from previous experience with similar systems. Major fac-
tors in this determination would be catalyst characteristics
and heat transfer. Among other things, it was the physical
processes like heat and mass transfer and mechanical char-
acteristics of catalysts and reactors that made scale up from
small to large reactors so uncertain.
Apart from its design application, the tubular flow re-
actor mass balance enabled the isolation of reaction kinetics
from reactor characteristics. This in turn allowed much
better reaction rate data to be obtained in catalytic reactions
and led ultimately to improved characterizations (rate equa-
tions) of catalytic kinetics.
Probably the earliest attempts to write rate equations
for heterogeneous catalytic reactions followed the equation
forms which had proved satisfactory in homogeneous re-
action rate studies. Empirical use of such equations con-
tinues today with a vigorous endorsement in a prominent
textbook (Levenspiel, 1972). At the same time the ap-
proach of Hougen and Watson finds wide application among
academic and (more significantly) industrial practitioners.
The catalytic rate equations of Hougen and Watson stem
directly from a classical paper by Langmuir (1922) in which
he proposed a number of catalytic mechanisms based upon
his monolayer theory of chemisorption. Hinshelwood (1940)
applied Langmuir's treatment to a large number of reac-
tions. This approach has become known as the Langmuir-
Hinshelwood model of heterogeneous catalysis. Hougen and
Watson (1943) rather independently developed, extended,
and popularized this model for chemical engineering use.
Yang and Hougen (1950) systematized the previous work
bringing together the rate equations for many situations
and putting them into a generalized form. So influential
were these works that the model became known as "Hougen
and Watson rate equations" and its use and abuse ex-
ploded. In 1956, back-to-back articles by Weller and
Boudart appeared. Weller suggested that the Langmuir-
Hinshelwood, Hougen-Watson approach does not have the
theoretical validity commonly attributed to it and that, lack-
ing theoretical validity, it is unnecessarily complex for use
as an empirical equation when compared for simplicity to
the common power function (homogeneous) type of equa-
tion. Boudart supported the rational use of the L-H, H-W
approach with his discussion of the limitations and strengths
of that theory. Kabel and Johanson (1962) made an experi-
mental attempt to reconcile the argument using the ion ex-
change resin catalyzed dehydration of ethanol. They found
that the Langmuir equilibrium adsorption constants de-

FALL 1978

rived from a Hougen and Watson kinetic analysis of the
rate data agreed quite well with the corresponding constants
obtained directly from independent adsorption experiments.
Their results generated other papers by Lapidus and Peter-
son (1965), Kabel (1968), and Mezaki and Kittrell (1968).
Almost 20 years after his original article Weller (1975)
has written a very comprehensive analysis of the state of
catalytic kinetics. It is recommended reading for those
wishing an up-to-date perspective.

Hougen, O. A., and Watson, K. M., "Solid Catalysts and
Reaction Rates," Ind. Eng. Chem., 35, 529-541 (1943).
Emmett, P. H., and Kummer, J. T., "Kinetics of Ammonia
Synthesis," Ind. Eng. Chem., 35, 677-683 (1943).
Levenspiel, 0., "Chemical Reaction Engineering," 2nd ed.,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1972.
Langmuir, I., "The Mechanism of the Catalytic Action of
Platinum in the Reactions 2CO + 0, = 2CO2 and 2H2 +
02 = 2H20," Trans Faraday Soc., 17, 621 (1922).
Hinshelwood, C. N., "The Kinetics of Chemical Change,"
Oxford University Press, New York, 1940.
Yang, K. H., and Hougen, 0. A., "Determination of Mechan-
ism of Catalyzed Gaseous Reactions," Chem. Eng. Prog.,
46, 146 (1950).
Weller, S., "Analysis of Kinetic Data for Heterogeneous
Reactions," AIChE Journal, 2, 59 (1956).
Boudart, M., "Kinetics on Ideal and Real Surfaces," AIChE
Journal, 2, 62 (1956).
Kabel, R. L., and Johanson, L. N., "Reaction Kinetics and
Adsorption Equilibria in the Vapor Phase Dehydration
of Ethanol," AIChE Journal, 8, 621-628 (1962).
Lapidus, L., and Peterson, T. I., "Analysis of Heterogeneous
Catalytic Reactions by Nonlinear Estimation," AIChE
Journal, 11, 891 (1965).
Kabel, R. L., "Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Rate
Equations for Catalytic Reactions," AIChE Journal, 14,
358 (1968).
Mezaki, R. and Kittrell, J. R., "Nonlinear Least Squares for
Model Screening," AIChE Journal, 14, 513 (1968).
Weller, S., "Kinetic Models in Heterogeneous Catalysis,"
Adv. in Chem. Series, No. 148, 26-49 (1975).

1 111book reviews i

By K. D. Chandrasekaran and D. Venkateswarlu
Indian Institute of Technology
Madras, India. June 1974.
Reviewed by G. R. Youngquist
Clarkson College of Technology
This paperbound four-chapter handbook pre-
sents a summary of the SI system of units, con-
version factors, and tables of numerical data in
SI for physical and thermal properties. The first
chapter briefly but adequately introduces the SI
system along with conventions for its use and

provides an extensive list of derived units which
are of interest to chemical engineers. The second
chapter is devoted to SI units for quantities
commonly used in chemical engineering practice.
Fifty-five tables listing the preferred SI unit,
recommended multiples, and conversion factors
for quantities such as mass transfer coefficients,
heat flux, viscosity, thermal conductivity and the
like are given. The third chapter consists of 88
tables of physical constants, physical properties
of solids, liquids, and gases, and thermochemical
and thermodynamic properties of selected sub-
stances. These are more extensive than found in
a typical textbook, but quite naturally less com-
plete than other handbook sources. The final
chapter provides 20 example problems.
The background information presented is con-
cise and should be sufficient for most users of SI.
The conversion tables are convenient, and the
tables of data serve a useful purpose in the
absence of other sources which use SI. The book
is suitable for desk reference or as a textbook
supplement. An annoying feature of the book was
the poor quality of the binding. Even the brief use
encountered in the course of this review caused
several pages to detach. O

By Angus McDougall, Halstead Press, a division of
John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y. 1976.
Reviewed by Robert D. Walker, University of
This small book of thirteen chapters presents
a reasonably adequate discussion of the major
aspects of fuel cells at a quite elementary level.
It will be useful, therefore, for introducing new
students or casual readers to the subject without
confusing them with unnecessary details. In spite
of this advantage, however, it appears to this re-
viewer that the book suffers from a number of
shortcomings. In the first place, the author in-
cludes no references to sources of the data used;
indeed, there are no references to any other publi-
cations. The reader is, therefore, left with no
suggestions as to more advanced literature.
Secondly, the case for fuel cells as energy sources
is consistently presented too optimistically; the
efficiency and performance described are sub-
stantially in excess of those achieved practically.
Finally, the usefulness of the book for the
American reader is diminished by the author's dis-
cussion of British fuel cells alone; no American
(or other) fuel cells are described. O


Continued from page 196
liquids. Most have been rejected as new data ac-
cumulate. We discuss the major ideas below and
show that few are still viable.
Entrapment/Entrainment Theory. When hot
and cold liquids are contacted, fragments of the
cold (volatile) liquid are assumed to be entrapped
or entrained in the hot liquid (Groenveld, 1972;
Brauer et al., 1968). Rapid vaporization results
and the hot liquid is dispersed. The resultant large
area for heat transfer then leads to an explosion.
Variations in this hypothesis consider a crust
forming on the hot liquid so that any entrained
cold liquid, while vaporizing, develops a high
pressure. Rupture, when it occurs, leads to the
fragmentation of the hot liquid. Another, similar
theory, assumes that the cold liquid is trapped on
a wall or bottom by the hot fluid and, as noted
above, boils so violently that immediate dispersal
of the hot fluid results.
As evidence against the entrapment theory,
Anderson and Armstrong (1972b) injected water
into molten NaCl and reported that, from high-
speed movies, there existed a gas layer "between
the two liquids during the injection and remained
there until the explosion." The explosion duration
was less than 65 Mm and no salt crust formed.
There is no evidence of any stray water droplets
encapsulated in the molten salt. Also, in all the
hydrocarbon-water tests where the cryogen was
spilled on water, there was no indication that
entrapment or entrainment occurred.
One method suggested for entrainment of cold
liquid is that it would be drawn through voids in
the surface crust as the interior hot liquid cools
and contracts. This explanation does not seem
viable since explosion-fragmentations have also
been observed with hot mercury (which did not
solidify) and with molten bismuth (which ex-
pands rather than contracts upon freezing).
Finally, in some experiments (Witte et al., 1973),
where there were several molten metal fragments
near each other, a vapor explosion or fragmenta-
tion in one would trigger like events in those

nearby. This behavior is not indicative of an
Weber Instability Theory. Another theory
often mentioned as a partial explanation for vapor
explosions is the hydrodynamic instability asso-
ciated with the jetting of one liquid into another
under conditions where inertial forces exceed sur-
face tension forces. In such cases there will be a
spontaneous fragmentation of the jetted stream
into smaller fragments. The increase in area has
been cited as a possible trigger to initiate rapid
vapor production, further fragmentation, and
finally an explosion.
While this instability is well known and may
occur in some experiments, vapor explosions have
been observed in many cases where this phenome-
non could not play a part. No Weber instability
was evident in the high speed movies of Anderson
and Armstrong (1972b) when they jetted water
into molten NaCl. Also, the spill tests in the
cryogen-water studies could have had no such
initial fragmentation. Witte et al. (1970, 1973)
conclude that, even if the critical Weber number
were exceeded, and some break-up has occurred,
this process has little or no effect on the probabil-
ity of a vapor explosion occurring at the same or
at a later time. McCracken (1973) discounts any
Weber number effect as his experiments with in-
jection of molten metals into water indicated a
sharp transition between explosions and no-ex-
plosions as the coolant temperature was varied
over only a few degrees. Such a variation would
have little effect on Weber instabilities.
Henry and Armstrong (1976) studied the re-
action of single drops of organic liquids in water
when exposed to shock waves generated by an
exploding wire. Even though the conditions were
such as to greatly exceed the drop's critical Weber
number for a few xs, no drop fragmentation was
noted. Thus, extreme local interactions would not
seem to be important in fragmenting drops via a
Weber instability.
It is, therefore, now generally accepted that
this hydrodynamic effect, though it may occur in
certain experiments, plays no major important
role in vapor explosions.

In this paper we have taken a biased position
in an attempt to link superheated liquids to vapor explosions. This
is a minority position and the field is active and in ferment as new theories and experiments
appear and demand to be given their due before any general explanation is accepted. There may, in fact, be no
single, universal cause for vapor explosions and each particular situation should then be examined separately.

FALL 1978


Another theory.... is the hydrodynamic
instability associated with the jetting of one liquid
into another under conditions where inertial
forces exceed surface tension forces.

Transition Boiling. In this hypothesis, the cold
liquid begins to vaporize in the film boiling regime,
but as the temperature difference between the two
liquids decreases, the Leidenfrost point is reached
and transition boiling begins. In this regime, there
is some liquid-liquid contact as the vapor bubbles
form and leave; if the cold liquid is sub-cooled, the
bubbles may even collapse as the turbulence in the
interface region increases. It is further postulated
that the violence of boiling in this regime is suf-
ficient to fragment the liquids so as to expose ex-
tensive area for heat transfer; if this fragmenta-
tion is sufficient, an explosion results.
This explanation was first proposed by Swift
(1965) and is discussed in detail by Stevens and
Witte (1972) and Witte et al. (1970). But, in
later papers (Witte and Cox, 1971; Witte et al.,
1973), the transitional boiling hypothesis is re-
jected since the oscillations associated with this
regime are in the ms time scale range, much too
long unless the very initial contact between liquids
is all that is necessary for rapid fragmentation.
Brauer et al. (1968) saw no evidence of violent
boiling prior to explosions when high speed photo-
graphs were studied, but McCracken (1973) feels
that the sensitivity of metal-water explosions to
water temperature is in agreement with the tran-
sition boiling hypothesis.
A number of analyses have been made to pre-
dict the temperature difference between fluids
when the minimum flux is attained and transition
boiling could begin (Henry, 1972; Berenson, 1961;
Spiegler et al. 1963; Baumeister and Simon, 1973;
Sciance and Colver, 1970; Bell, 1967). Some are
based on hydrodynamic and heat transfer models
while others are related to thermodynamic stabil-
ity. No correlation fits all the data with much ac-
curacy; of course, there is a wide spread in some
experimental measurements and this indicates
that probably there exists a temperature range
over which there is a transition from film to tran-
sitional boiling. It is also interesting to note
(Baumeister and Simon, 1973) that for organic
liquids or low-boiling inorganic cryogens, a good
estimate of the Leidenfrost point is often given by
the hot surface temperature, Tr, where T. is the

expected value where for the cold liquid, (dP/dV)T
= 0. This is the same criterion introduced in Part
1 to obtain the superheat-limit temperature for
pure components.
Most investigators now reject the transition-
boiling hypothesis as the major cause of vapor ex-
plosions. It is granted that in this boiling regime,
the interactions at the surface are rather violent
and chaotic; however, this wetting/vaporization/
wetting cycle is believed to operate on too long a
time scale to cause the very rapid phenomenon of
vapor explosions. Also, no one has noted the onset
of transitional boiling before a vapor explosion
occurred. Rather, there is sometimes a stable film
boiling process which, for some reason, ceases, the
film collapes very fast and an explosion follows al-
most simultaneously.
Chemical Reaction Theory. Basically, this con-
cept envisages a rapid (usually exothermic) chem-
ical reaction occurring at the interface. No evi-
dence is available to suggest this is a viable con-
Inertial Theory. This model is the most difficult
to describe in simple terms. A hot and cold liquid
are assumed to contact over a limited surface area.
Some vapor is formed in the cold but volatile
liquid. This vapor film begins to grow but is re-
strained by the inertia of the bulk liquid phase.
The pressure rises. The expansion, while slow
initially, accelerates and the bounding liquid is
forced away from the interface. The inertial move-
ment of this liquid continues even as the pressure
of the vapor drops-and, in fact, can proceed so
far as to produce a very low pressure in the vapor
film. The bounding liquid then springs back and at
this point there are several different theories, all

Most investigators now
reject the transition-boiling hypothesis
as the major cause of vapor explosions.

of which predict further oscillations leading even-
tually to violent gross mixing, fragmentation, and
explosive boiling.
It is difficult to find compelling reasons either
to reject or accept the inertial theory. It may, in
fact, be integrated into the superheat-limit theory
by providing the mechanism to bring the hot and
cold liquids into contact (or near contact).
Board et al. (1974) suggest a somewhat similar
concept but they propose that upon film collapse a


jet of liquid is driven across the thin vapor film;
fragmentation that results leads to a repeating
chain mechanism that is noted in its entirety as an


BOARD AND CALDAROLA (1977) have re-
viewed the extensive data of importance to
fuel-coolant interactions in fast reactors and, in
addition, discussed much of the available informa-
tion concerning molten metal-water explosions.
From this detailed study, they conclude that ener-
getic vapor explosions always involve three se-
quential stages:

a relatively quiescent mixing phase where there is
formed a coarse mixture of the hot and cold liquids. The
"dwell" time corresponds to this period. The hot and
cold liquid fragments are believed to be separated by a
vapor film.
a trigger of short duration (which may be highly local-
ized) that leads to the collapse of the vapor film.
a propagation step where the interaction rapidly spreads
throughout the mixture.

One may infer that vapor explosions could be
prevented by eliminating either or both of the first
two steps. As stated by Board and Caldarola, ". .
it is difficult to determine the true explosive po-
tential of a material pair from experiments in
which the initial mixing or triggering conditions
are left to chance".
Few careful experiments have been carried out
to study each of these steps. The R-22 studies by
Anderson and Armstrong (1977) do, however,
provide some support.
In our work with light hydrocarbons on water,
we have possibly neglected the importance of hav-
ing an initial coarse mixing step and emphasized
only the trigger-which we have associated with
the cold cryogen film adjacent to the water attain-
ing the superheat-limit temperature. In our direct
pours of light hydrocarbons into water, there may
indeed have been significant mixing and frag-
mentation prior to any trigger. But, we also
have contacted LNG by tangentially skimming the
cryogen over the surface and, even here, we have
noted vapor explosions in the same compositional
ranges as those found in direct pour experiments.
Also, we have possibly been in error in neglect-
ing the mixing step as being of prime importance
because we have been able to obtain or prevent
vapor explosions by relatively small changes in
either the composition of the LNG or the initial
water temperature. We assumed that such minor

changes would have an insignificant effect on the
mixing step and only affect the trigger. An active
or inactive trigger could be explained well by
superheated liquid theory for either variations in
LNG composition or water temperature. As
pointed out by Anderson (1977), however, the
LNG composition and water temperature effects
may also affect the film boiling characteristics of
the system and this effect could be more important
than that involving homogeneous nucleation of a
superheated liquid. This critique is important be-
cause if superheating plays no real role in the
triggering step, then one must (as Anderson
states) "recognize the possibility of an explosion
in a system where a gas or vapor film is present
even when the interface or hot liquid is below the
homogeneous nucleation temperature".
More definitive research is needed to clarify
the mechanisms) for vapor explosions. It is,
nevertheless, important that any acceptable theory
should consider all the facts and experimental
data. We still believe that homogeneous nucleation
of superheated liquids plays an important role and
may even explain the old Blacksmith's adage as
told by Dr. Beall:
"When you spit on a piece of red hot iron, it dances
around in a little ball. If you hit the ball with your
hammer, the explosion will throw the hammer over the
barn and blow a hole in the iron!" l

Discussions with R. P. Anderson and D. R.
Armstrong were very helpful in preparing this
Financial support for research grants in this
area were provided by the National Science
Foundation and the American Gas Association.

Anderson, R. P. and D. R. Armstrong, "Experimental Study
of Vapor Explosions", LNG-3, Session VI, Paper 3,
Washington, D. C. (1972).
Anderson, R. P. and D. R. Armstrong, "Comparison between
Vapor Explosion Models and Recent Experimental Re-
sults", Paper presented at the AIChE-ASME National
Heat Transfer Conf., Atlanta, GA, 1973.
Anderson, R. P., D. R. Armstrong, L. Bova, and R. H.
Gebner, "Report on Large Scale Experiments Using a
Molten NaCl-H20 System", ANL/RAS 75-5, Feb., 1975.
Anderson, R. P. and D. R. Armstrong, "R-22 Vapor Ex-
plosions", Paper presented at the Winter Annual ASME
Meeting, 1977.
Armstrong, D. R., G. T. Goldfuss and R. H. Gebner, "Ex-
plosive Interaction of Molten U02 and Liquid Sodium",
ANL/RAS 75-4, February, 1975.

FALL 1978



Baumeister, K. J. and F. F. Simon, "Leidenfrost Tempera-
ture-Its Correlation for Liquid Metals, Cryogens, Hy-
drocarbons, and Water", J. Heat Trans., May, 1973, p.
Bell, K. J., "The Leidenfrost Phenomenon: A Survey", Heat
Trans. with Phase Change, CEP Symp. Ser., 63, (79) 73
Berenson, P. J., "Film-Boiling Heat Transfer From a Hori-
zontal Surface", J. Heat Trans., Aug., 1961, p. 351.
Board, S. J., R. W. Hall, and G. E. Brown, "The Role of
Spontaneous Nucleation in Thermal Explosions: Freon/
Water Experiments", Central Elec. Generating Board,
Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories, June, 1974, RD/B/N-
Board, S. J. and L. Caldarola, "Fuel-Coolant Interactions
in Fast Reactors", Paper presented at the Annual ASME
Meeting, New York, Nov., 1977.
Brauer, F. E., N. W. Green, and R. B. Mesler, "Metal-Water
Explosions", Nuc. Sci. Eng. 31, 551 (1968).
Fauske, H. K., "On the Mechanism of Uranium Dioxide-
Sodium Explosive Interactions", Nuc. Sci. Eng. 51, 95
Fauske, H. K., "Some Aspects of Liquid-Liquid Heat Trans-
fer and Explosive Boiling", Proc. Fast Reactor Safety
Meeting, Beverly Hills, CA, Conf. 740401-P2, 992, April
2-4, 1974.
Fauske, H. K., Private Communication, 1977.
Groenveld, P., "Explosive Vapor Formation", J. Heat Trans.
94,236 (1972).
Henry, R. E., "A Correlation for the Minimum Wall Super-
heat in Film Boiling", Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 15(1), 420
Henry, R. E., J. D. Gabor, I. O. Winsch, E. A. Spleha, D. J.
Quinn, E. G. Erickson, J. J. Heiberger, and G. T. Gold-
fuss, "Large Scale Vapor Explosions", Proc. Fast Re-
actor Safety Meeting, Beverly Hills, CA, Conf.
740401-P2, 922, April 2, 1974.
Henry, R. E. and D. R. Armstrong, "Shock-induced Drop
Breakup in Liquid-Liquid Systems" ANL-RDP-56, Dec.,
McCracken, G. M., "Investigation of Explosions Produced
by Dropping Liquid Metals into Aqueous Solutions",
Safety Research Bulletin No. 11, United Kingdom
Atomic Energy Authority (1973).
Sciance, C. T. and C. P. Colver, "Minimum Film-Boiling
Point for Several Light Hydrocarbons", J. Heat Trans.,
Nov., 1970, p. 659.
Spiegler, P. et al., "Onset of Stable Film Boiling and the
Foam Limit", Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 6, 987 (1963).
Stevens, J. W. and L. C. Witte, "Transient Vapor Film Be-
havior During Quenching", Trans. Am. Nude. Soc. 15,
418 (1972).
Swift, D., Argonne National Laboratory, Chem. Eng. Div.
Semi-Annual Report, ANL-7125, July-Dec. 1965, p. 192.
Witte, L. C. and J. E. Cox, "Nonchemical Explosive Inter-
action of LNG and Water", ASME Preprint 71-WA/
HT-31, Paper presented at ASME Winter Annual Meet-
ing, Washington, D. C., Nov. 28 to Dec. 2, 1971.
Witte, L. C., J. E. Cox and J. E. Bouvier, "The Vapor Ex-
plosion", J. Metals 22 (2), 39 (1970).
Witte, L. C., T. J. Vyas and A. A. Gelabert, "Heat Transfer
and Fragmentation During Molten-Metal/Water Inter-
actions", J. Heat Trans. 95, 521 (1973).

gOlbook reviews
Edited by N. Corey Cahoon and George W. Heise.
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York
(1976). 528 pages, $37.50.
Reviewed by Irwin B. Weinstock
General Electric Company
This is the second in a 2-volume set planned
to present a comprehensive view of the primary
battery field. It consists of eleven papers covering:
Leclanche and zinc chloride cells; magnesium
cells; aluminum cells; organic cathodes and
anodes; low temperature systems; thermal
batteries; water-activated batteries, standard
tests for primary batteries; reversability of
battery systems; measurement and interpretation
of internal resistance; and a survey of energy
sources and conversion mechanisms.
The individual chapters are well written, and
contain much information which should be of value
to serious workers in the field. The large amount
of detail, however, makes the book hard to read.
Readers with little or no background in the battery
field may find it difficult to sort through this large
amount of detail in order to discover the general
principles governing the operation of the specific
battery system being described.
The coverage of the field is, moreover, re-
stricted, with heavy emphasis on the Leclanche
cell and its analogs. Not only is the paper de-
scribing this system by far the longest in the
book (147 pages), but most of the discussion in
the chapters on battery testing and measurement
of internal resistance is focused on this system.
Similarly, the chapter on low temperature systems
is almost exclusively devoted to a review of modi-
fications to the Leclanch6 cell (non-aqueous
systems were covered in Volume 1 of the series)
and the discussion of organic depolarizers is
largely limited to those potentially useful as re-
placements for manganese dioxide. A further re-
striction on the comprehensiveness and up-to-
dateness of the book is the lack of any discussion
of cells with lithium anodes which have been the
subject of extensive development over the past 15
Nonetheless, the complete 2-volume set should
serve well as an authoritative reference on pri-
mary battery technology. The factors listed above,
however, will in the opinion of the reviewer, limit
the usefulness of this volume as a textbook on the
subject. E


A major aromatics complex is one of many processing facilities designed and built by Braun.

Creative Engineering at Braun

For nearly 70 years, C F Braun & Co has provided engineering and construction services to
the process and power industries. We have designed and built petroleum refineries, chemical
plants, ore-processing facilities, and power-generating stations. Many of these were first-of-
a-kind facilities utilizing new processes never before employed on a commercial scale.
Recently, we have become involved in alternative energy sources such as coal gasification,
shale oil recovery, and geothermal energy. Our engineers have also pioneered in the develop-
ment of modular engineering and construction techniques for building process plants in such
remote areas as Alaska and Saudi Arabia.
Challenging assignments and opportunities for professional growth and advancement exist at
Braun in an environment designed for creative engineering.

FALL 1978


Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates; up to $7,500/year.
M.Sc. Candidates: up to $7,000/year.
Commonwealth and Industrial Scholarships are
Tuition: $692/year.
Married students housing rent: $204/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $228/month.
Department Size
13 Professors, 20 Research Associates
30 Graduate Students.
For additional information write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6

Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and
Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De-
C. Kiparissides, Ph.D. (McMaster): Polymer Reactor Engi-
neering, Optimization, Modelling, Stochastic Control,
Transport Phenomena.
J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (Brit. Columbia): Transport Pheno-
mena, Numerical Analysis, In situ Recovery of Oil
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer,
Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ-
mental Engineering.
D. Quon, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Mathematics, Optima-
zation, Resource Allocation Model 5.
D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
J T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.

S. Shah, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear Systems Theory, Adap-
tive Control, System Identification.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns,
Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circuits.

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
Enrollment of 20,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river

Fast growing, modern city; population of 500,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper and Banff National Parks.




The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,

JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants,
Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate
Growth Kinetics.

Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It t 2
is a growing, modern city of
400,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.

For further information,
write to:
Dr. A. D. Randolph
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721

DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation,
Distillation, Applied Design

Packed Column

JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation

The University of Calgary

Program of Study

The Department of Chemical Engineering provides unusual opportunities for research and study leading to the M.Eng., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees.
This dynamic department offers a wide variety of course work and research in the following areas: Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Environ-
mental Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering, Rheology and Thermodynamics. The University operates
on an eight-month academic year, thus allowing four full months per year for research.
The requirements for the M.Eng. and M.Sc. degrees are 6 to 8 courses with a B standing or better and the submission of a thesis on a
research project.
The requirements for the Ph.D. degree are 8 to 12 courses and the submission of a thesis on an original research topic.
The M.Eng. program is a part-time program designed for those who are working in industry and would like to enhance their technical educa-
tion. The M.Eng. thesis is usually of the design type and related to the industrial activity in which the student is engaged. Further details of this
program are available from the Department Head, or the Chairman of the Graduate Studies Committee.
Research Facilities

The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies one wing of the Engineering Complex. The building was designed to accommodate the
installation and operation of research equipment with a minimum of inconvenience to the researchers. The Department has at its disposal an
EA1 690 hybrid computer and a TR48 analog computer and numerous direct access terminals to the University's CDC Cyber 172 digital com-
puter. In addition, a well equipped Machine Shop and Chemical Analysis Laboratory are operated by the Department. Other major research
facilities include a highly instrumented and versatile multiphase pipeline flow loop, an automated pilot plant unit based on the Girbotol Process
for natural gas processing, an X-ray scanning unit for studying flow in porous media, a fully instrumented adiabatic combustion tube for
research on the in-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands, a laser anemometer unit, and environmental research laboratories for air
pollution, water pollution and oil spill studies.
Financial Aid

Fellowships and assistantships are available with remuneration of up to $6,000 per annum, with possible remission of fees. In addition, new
students may be eligible for a travel allowance of up to a maximum of $300. If required, loans are available from the Federal and Provincial
Governments to Canadian citizens and Landed Immigrants. There are also a number of bursaries, fellowships, and scholarships available on a
competition basis to full-time graduate students. Faculty members may also provide financial support from their research grants to students
electing to do research with them.
Cost of Study

The tuition fees for a full-time graduate student are $625 per year plus small incidental fees. Most full-time graduate students to date have
had their tuition fees remitted.
Cost of Living

Housing for single students in University dormitories range from $172/mo. for a double room, to $205/mo. for a single room, including board.
There are a number of new townhouses for married students available, ranging from $177/mo. for a 1-bedroom, to $193/mo. for a 2-bedroom
and to $209/mo. for a 3-bedroom unit, including utilities, major appliances and parking. Numerous apartments and private housing are within
easy access of the University. Food and clothing costs are comparable with those found in other major North American urban centres.
Student Body

The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe. The current enrolment is about 12,000 with ap-
proximately 1,000 graduate students. Most full-time graduate students are currently receiving financial assistance either from internal or
external sources.
The Community

The University is located in Calgary, Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of 570,000 combines the traditions of
the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and
the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of
the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in
the community at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations
of engineering activity in the country.
The University

The University operated from 1945 until 1966 as an integral part of the University of Alberta. The present campus situated in the rolling hills
of northwest Calgary, was established in 1960, and in 1966 The University of Calgary was chartered as an autonomous institution by the
Province of Alberta. At present the University consists of 14 faculties. Off-campus institutions associated with The University of Calgary include
the Banff School of Fine Arts and Centre of Continuing Education located in Banff, Alberta, and the Kananaskis Environmental Research Station
located in the beautiful Bow Forest Reserve.

The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4



PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further

advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. G. Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1979.


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering;
air and water quality.
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical
JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.

FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.














Alexis T. Bell
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Mitchel Shen
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermuelen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
Berkeley, California 94720




Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Electrochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Transport Phenomena

R. L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
RUBEN CARBONELL, Princeton University
Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum
Statistical Mechanics
ALAN JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
B. J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Chromatographic Proceses, Food Engineering,
Statistical Mechanics
F. R. McLARNON, University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering, Energy conversion and
J. M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena

Davis is one of the major campuses of the Uni-
versity of California system and has developed great
strength in many areas of the biological and physical
sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering
emphasizes research and a program of fundamental
graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest
to chemical engineers. In addition, the department
can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas
in order to design individual programs to meet the
specific interests and needs of a student, even at the
M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of en-
vironmental engineering, food engineering, biochemi-
cal engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants. The
Department supports students applying for National
Science Foundation Fellowships.

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (1 1/2 to 2 hours from Davis).
These recreational opportunities combine with the
friendly informal spirit of the Davis campus to make
it a pleasant place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis is adjacent to the campus, and within
easy walking or cycling distance.

For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400

FALL 1978


Ever think of Grad School

as an Adventure?


Graduate Chemical Engineering
Carnegie -Mellon University


6. -A
" --- *--'*^''*-^*(* N .... ........

- '~ a4.~c




1 1,
\"'''r ~s
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1 111
i.i ''

a -0

Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed in-
stitution with traditions of excellence in Engineering and
Applied Science since 1880. In 1967, Case Institute and
Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment,
endowment and faculty make Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity one of the leading private schools in the country.
The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's University
Circle, an extensive concentration of educational, scientific,
social and cultural organizations.


Environmental Engineering
Control.& Optimization
Computer Simulation
Systems Engineering
Foam & Colloidal Science
Transport Processes

Coal Gasification
Biomedical Engineering
Surface Chemistry & Catalysis
Crystal Growth & Materials
Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Chemical Reaction Engineering

The department is growing and has recently moved
to a new complex. This facility provides for innovations in
both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major
areas of Chemical Engineering are available. Case Chemical
Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and
petroleum companies and have made important technical and
entrepreneurial contributions for over a half a century.

Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research As-
sistantships are available to qualified applicants. Applications
are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chemical
Contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106

; 'JW e

Graduate Study
in Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Friendly Atmosphere
Freedom from Big City Problems
Personal Touch
Vigorous Research Programs Supported by
Government and Industry
Faculty with International Reputation
Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and
Other Recreation in the Adirondacks
Variety of Cultural Activities with Two
Liberal Arts Colleges nearby

Faculty Richard J. McCluskey
W. L. Baldewicz Richard J. Nunge
Der-Tau Chin D. H. Rasmussen
Robert Cole Herman L. Shulman
David O. Cooney R. Shankar Subramanian
Marc D. Donohue Peter C. Sukanek
Joseph Estrin Thomas J. Ward
Sandra Harris William R. Wilcox
Joseph L. Katz Gordon R. Youngquist

Research Projects are available in:
Materials Processing in Space
Multiphase Transport Processes
Health & Safety Applications
Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion
Polymer Processing
F Phase Transformations and Equilibria
Reaction Engineering
Optimization and Control
And More....

Financial aid in the form of fellowships,
research assistantships, and teaching
assistantships is available. For more
details, please write to:

Chemical Engineering at



A place to grow...

with active research in:
biochemical engineering
computer simulation
environmental engineering
heterogeneous catalysis
surface science
reactor design
fluid flow and coalescence
physics of liquids

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students
arrange individual programs with a core of chemical
engineering courses supplemented by work in
outstanding Cornell departments in
applied mathematics
applied physics
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
and others

with outstanding recreational and cultural
opportunities in one of the most scenic regions of the
United States.
Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of
Engineering. (The M.Eng. is a professional,
design-oriented program.) Financial aid, including
several attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
George G. Cocks, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn,
Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill,
Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele, Michael L.
Shuler, Julian C. Smith, William B. Street,
Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F.

Professor Keith Gubbins
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853.


Newark, Delaware 19711

The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and
practice in the art and science of chemical engineering:
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.
A Ph.D. degree.

The regular faculty are:
Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) T. W. F. Russell
C. E. Birchenall S. I. Sander
K. B. Bischoff (Chairman) G. L. Schrader
M. M. Denn G. C. A. Schuit (/2 time)
C. D. Denson J. M. Schultz
B. C. Gates L. A. Spielman
J. R. Katzer
R. L. McCullough Visiting Faculty
A. B. Metzner J. M. Dealy
J. H. Olson J. Moulijn
M. E. Paulaitis A. Teja
R. L. Pigford M. Teramoto
The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with in-
dustrial practice are:
R. J. Anderson .__ --- Reaction engineering, process design
L. A. DeFrate __ __ Single and multiphase fluid mechanics
A. W. Etchells __- __--Mixing, fluid mechanics
R. J. Fisher ___-_.--- ---- Polymer processing and stability theory
P. J. Gill -______ --.. Polymer reaction kinetics, optimal control
P. M. Guillino, M. D. _--Biomedical engineering
H. F. Haug ---- .- Chemical engineering design
H. S. Kemp -__- -__-Transfer operations, distillation
T. A. Koch ___.----- Catalysis
J. C. W. Kuo ____Catalysis reaction engineering
W. H. Manogue -___-- Catalysis, reaction engineering
F. E. Rush, Jr. -_____- -- Mass transfer-distillation, absorption,
R. J. Samuels __----Polymer science
E. G. Scheibel --__--- Mass transfer, separation process
A. B. Stiles ____ ------Catalysis
E. A. Swabb, M. D. _-------Biomedical engineering
V. W. Weekman, Jr. ------_Reaction engineering
K. F. Wissbrun __- Polymer engineering
For information and admissions materials contact:
M. M. Denn, Graduate Advisor



university offlorida

offers you ._. ,--I

Phenomena &
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.

& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.

Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.

andmuck more...

A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports

Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.

Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

'TECf -T
T T.p a r

Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering...


Chemical Engineering

Center for Disease Control
Commercial Center of the South
High Museum of Art
All Professional Sports
Major Rock Concerts and
Recording Studios
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow Skiing within two hours
Stone Mountain State Park
Atlanta Symphony
Ten Professional Theaters
Rambling Raft Race
White Water Canoeing within
one hour

Air Quality Technology
Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis and Surfaces
Energy Research and Conservation
Fine Particle Technology
Interfacial Phenomena
Mathematical Modeling
Mining and Mineral Engineering
Polymer Science and Engineering
Pulp and Paper Technology
Reactor Design
Stagewise Processes
Transport Phenomena

For more information write:
Dr. Gary W. Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332





Ph.D. $2,023

M.S. $1.564




udte Chairman, Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004 C\'OFP
(713) 749-4407

B.S. S1,489

(CHEM. ENGR.,85)
9 111/7k

FALL 1978 22

1b.4" "11%


Institute of Technology

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Inter-
disciplinary Areas of Polymer Science, Biochemical and Food
Engineering, Gas Engineering, Biomedical Engineering,
and Particle Technology.



Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics
Environmental Control and Process Design
Electrochemical Engineering and Energy Conversion
Process Dynamics and Controls
Biochemical Engineering and Reactor Engineering
Polymer Science and Transport Phenomena
Mass Transfer and Surface and Colloid Phenomena
Chemical Reaction Engineering Analysis

D. T. Wasan
Chemical Engineering Dept.
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd St.
Chicago, IL 60616



The Deparlment ol Energy Engineering


Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of



Faculty and Research Activities in
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Head of the Department
David S. Hacker
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1954
Associate Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Victor J. Kremesec, Jr.
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1975
Assistant Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Associate Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Stephen Szipe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed
in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:

Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Chemical kinetics, mass transport phenomena, chemical
process design, particulate transport phenomena

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers

Multi-phase flow, flow in porous media, mass transfer,
interfacial behavior, biological applications of transport
phenomena, thermodynamics of solutions
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
Thermodynamics, biotransport, artificial organs,

Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, optimization,
environmental and pollution problems

Professor S. C. Saxena, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680



The Department is deeply committed to teaching and research. Everyone
is expected to maintain an active, first-class research program. Administrators
or "older members" are not exceptions. The standards are high. A third of
the faculty are members of the National Academy of Engineers or the
National Academy of Sciences. The Department prides itself on the large
number of major national or international awards its members have won,
an average of 3.6 awards per tenured faculty member.
Even so, the faculty is accessible. The Department views research as the
highest form of teaching, where students and faculty work together on a
joint project. It is not unusual to find faculty members in the lab, and
doors are always open for questions, comments or help.

The Department, as a part of the School of Chemical Sciences maintains
some of the most up-to-date facilities in the country, including for example
a multichannel analyser capable of counting the nanosecond range, and
pressure and vacuum equipment giving a useful operating range of 105 to
10-13 atm. The School has extensive service facilities including a glass shop,
electronic shop, machine shop, electronic design facility, analytical and laser
'labs. The shops are some of the best in the country, and the analytical and
laser labs are truly exceptional. The campus library is one of the largest in
a major university with over 5,000,000 items in its collection including
more complete run journals in the chemical sciences than can be found
in any other education institution. The School is committed to keeping its
equipment up to the state of the art, and so for example, we are currently
in the process of purchasing a replacement for our IBM 1800, and have
requested money to add NMR capabilities beyond our 220 MHZ machine.

Applied Mathematics Heat Transfer
Biological Application of High Pressure
Chemical Engineering Interfacial Phenomena
Catalysis Mass Transfer
Chemical Reactor Dynamics Materials Science and Engineering
Computer-Aided Process Molecular Thermodynamics
Simulation and Design Phase Transformations
Corrosion Process Control
Electronic Structure of Matter Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering Resource Management
Energy Sources and Conservation Statistical Mechanics
Environmental Engineering Surface Science
Fluid Dynamics Two-Phase Flow

Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Adams Laboratory
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801







A faculty of 45 engineers, chemists, physicists,
mathematicians, and biologists
Graduate student body of 100 students
Close connection and support by the forest products
All U. S. & Canadian students supported by full fellow-
ships, $6,000, and tuition scholarships
Industrial experience an integral part of the program

Current research activity
* Process engineering of pollution-free pulping
* Simulation & control in the pulp & paper industry
* Surface & colloid chemistry of paper making systems
* Laser, Raman, & X-ray defraction studies in cellulose
* Cell fusion techniques & tissue culture of trees
* Environmental engineering
* Fluid mechanics, heat & mass transfer
* Polymer science and engineering

P. O. BOX 1039

FALL 1978




Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production,
Atomic Energy)
Renato G. Bautista
Lawrence E. Burkhart
George Burnet
Allen H. Pulsifer
Dean L. Ulrichson
Thomas D. Wheelock

Biomedical Engineering
(System Modeling,
Transport. process)
Richard C. Seagrave
Charles E. Glatz

Biochemical Engineering
(Enzyme Technology)
Charles E. Glatz
Peter J. Reilly

Polymerization Processes
William H. Abraham
John D. Stevens

as well as
Air Pollution Control
Solvent Extraction
High Pressure Technology
Mineral Processing




Chemical Engineering

Transport Processes
(Heat, mass & momentum transfer)
William H. Abraham
Renato G. Bautista
Charles E. Glatz
James C. Hill
Frank O. Shuck
Richard C. Seagrave

Process Chemistry and
Fertilizer Technology
David R. Boylan
George Burnet
Maurice A. Larson

Crystallization Kinetics
Maurice A. Larson
John D. Stevens

Process Instrumentation
and System Optimization
and Control
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Kenneth R. Jolls

write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011

i _____~


Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-

Financial Aid Available
Up to $6,000 Per Year
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502
FALL 1978



Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program
Petroleum Engineering
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
M.S. in Petroleum Managemeni

The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.

Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena
Fluid Flow in Porous Media
Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies
Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems

Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior

For Information and Applications write:

Floyd W. Preston, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66045
Phone (913) 864-3922

University of Kentuck

M.S. & Ph.D. Programs
Including Intensive Study in:
Synthetic fuel process research
Chemical coal desulphurization
Thermochemical hydrogen production
Air pollutant dispersion modeling
Water and air pollution control processes
Physico-chemical separations: indus. wastes
Chemical reactor design
Diffusional mass transfer
Process control and applied math. etc.

form of graduate fellowships E traineeships.
You will find Lexington to be a truly delightful
place to live and to study.

Write to:
R. B. Grieves, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Dept.
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506


of chemical


FALL 1978


:nvnilnhln in thn

Fyyp(lpnt finAnri~J Ri~ iC





..'FIN AT M.I.T.


Energy Conversion Processes Polymer Chemistry and Engineering

Environmental Quality Process Dynamics and Process Control

Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Computer Aided Design

Transport Phenomena Surface and Colloid Chemistry

Chemical Reactor Engineering Applied Chemistry

Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Combustion

R. C. ARMSTRONG, Ph.D. (1973); Assistant Professor, E. W. MERRILL, Sc.D. (1947); Professor,
R. F. BADDOUR, Sc.D. (1951); Professor, M. MODELL, Sc.D. (1964); Associate Professor,
J. M. BEER, D.Sc. (1968); Professor, AND CATALYSIS
R. A. BROWN, Ph.D. (1978); Assistant Professor,
R.E. COHEN, Ph.D. (1972); Associate Professor, R. C. REID, Sc.D. (1954); Professor,
C. K. COLTON, Ph.D. (1969); Professor,
W. M. DEEN, Ph.D. (1973); Assistant Professor COMBUSTION
C. N. SATTERFIELD, Sc.D. (1946); Professor,
CHEMISTRY, THERMODYNAMICS S. M. SENKIN, Sc.D. (1977); Assistant Professor,
K. A. SMITH, Sc.D. (1962); Professor,
C. G. VAYENAS, Ph.D. (1977); Assistant Professor,
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY P. S. VIRK, Sc.D. (1967); Associate Professor,
H. C. HOTTEL, S.M. (1924); Professor Emeritus,
RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER, COMBUSTION, SOLAR ENERGY J. E. VIVIAN, Sc.D. (1945); Professor and Executive Officer,
J. P. LONGWELL, Sc.D. (1943); Professor, J. WEI, Sc.D. (1955); Professor and Department Head,
M. P. MANNING, Sc.D. (1976); Assistant Professor, P, BL


University of Massachusetts at Amherst



Polymer Science and

William J. MacKnight, Prof. and Head
Richard J. Farris, Associate Prof.
James C. W. Chien, Professor
Allen S. Hay, Adjunct Professor
S. L. Hsu, Assistant Professor
Frank E. Karasz, Professor
Robert L. Laurence, Professor
Robert W. Lenz, Professor
Stanley Middleman, Professor
Edward P. Otocka, Adjunct Professor
Roger S. Porter, Professor
Isaac Sanchez, Adjunct Professor
Richard S. Stein, Commonwealth Professor
Edwin L. Thomas, Associate Professor
Otto Vogl, Professor


For information contact
Dr. Richard J. Farris
Graduate Program Director
Dept. of Polymer Science & Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts 01003

Chemical Engineering

Ch. E.
W. Leigh Short, Prof. and Head
David C. Chappelear, Adjunct Associate
Michael F. Doherty, Assistant Prof.
James M. Douglas, Professor
John W. Eldridge, Professor
Robert S. Kirk, Associate Prof.
James R. Kittrell, Professor
Robert L. Laurence, Professor
Robert W. Lenz, Professor
E. Ernest Lindsey, Emeritus Prof.
Thomas J. McAvoy, Professor
Stanley Middleman, Professor
Marcel Vanpee, Professor


For information contact
Dr. R. L. Laurence
Graduate Program Director
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts 01003

FALL 1978





At The


Of Michigan



Dale Briggs
Louisville, Michigan
Brice Carnahan
Case-Western, Michigan
Rane Curl
Francis Donahue
LaSalle, UCLA
H. Scott Fogler
Illinois, Colorado
Erdogan Gulari
Roberts, Cal Tech
James Hand
NJIT, Berkeley
Robert Kadlec
Wisconsin, Michigan
Donald Katz
Lloyd Kempe
Joseph Martin
Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie
John Powers
Michigan, Berkeley
Jerome Schultz, Chairman
Columbia, Wisconsin
Maurice Sinnott
James Wilkes
Cambridge, Michigan
Brymer Williams
Gregory Yeh
Holy Cross, Cornell, Case
Edwin Young
Detroit, Michigan

Laser Light Scattering
Reservoir Engineering
Applied Numerical Methods
Dynamic Process Simulation
Ecological Simulation
Electroless Plating
Electrochemical Reactors
Polymer Physics
Polymer Processing
Composite Materials
Coal Liquefaction
Coal Gasification
Gas Hydrates
Periodic Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Transport In Membranes
Flow Calorimetry
Ultrasonic Emulsification
Heat Exchangers






Department Of Chemical Engineering

For Information Call 313/763-1148 Collect


I a

Department of Chemical Engineering



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman

Day Programs

Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence Mixing and Drag Reduction
Studies-Dr. G. K. Patterson and Dr. X. B.

(2) Electrochemistry and Reactions at Electrode
Surfaces-Dr. J. W. Johnson

(3) Heat Transfer Studies-Dr. J. J. Carr

(4) Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes to
Methane-Dr. J. L. Gaddy and Dr. N. L. Book

(5) Polymers and Polymeric Materials-Dr. H. K.

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:
(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Dr. J. L.
(b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies
-Dr. M. E. Findley
(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies and
Separation Processes-Dr. R. C. Waggoner
(d) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice
(e) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer
Applications to Process Control-Drs. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-

(f) Transport Properties, Kinetics, enzymes and
catalysis-Dr. O. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E.
(g) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley

Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.

FALL 1978

RALEIGH, N.C. f y t7

Dr. James K. Ferrell, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27650


Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at



M.S., Ph.D., and D. Eng. programs are available at Northeastern University to
qualified students with B.S. degrees in Chemical Engineering from accredited
institutions. The M.S. programs are available on the Coop plan of alternate
periods of work and study. Faculty research interests include energy conservation
and conversion, process dynamics and control, light induced reactions, environ-
mental control, process development and modeling simulation. Some financial
support is available.

Location-Northeastern University is located in dynamic Boston close to major
cultural, recreational, sports, and learning areas.

For further information please contact

Dean George W. Hankinson
Graduate School of Engineering
Northeastern University
Boston, Mass. 02115

FALL 1978



Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Fenske Laboratory
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802

for a

graduate education

Chemical Engineering ?



Some Current M.S. & Ph.D.
General Research Areas:
Physiological Transport Processes
Newborn Monitoring
Gaseous and Particulate Control
Atmospheric Modeling
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Cyclic Reactor Operations
Catalyst Characterization
Analytical and Numerical Solutions
Polymer Rheology and Transport
Convective Heating and Mass Transfer
Mass Transfer in Cocurrent Flow
Property Correlations
Statistical Mechanics
Nonlinear Stability Theory
Optimal and Periodic Control
Industrial Chemical Processes
Complex Reaction Systems
Process Development
Product Conversion
Properties of Liquid Lubricants
Boundary Lubrication Fundamentals
Adsorption Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Monolayer and Membrane Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Nuclear Technology


university of



and biochemical


Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan)
Elizabeth B. Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins)
William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania)
Eduardo D. Glandt (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia)
Mitchell Litt (Columbia)
Alan L. Myers (California)
Melvin C. Molstad (Yale)
Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale)
John A. Quinn (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider (Michigan)

Energy Utilization
Enzyme Engineering
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Environmental and Pollution Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques
Transport Phenomena

The faculty includes three members of the National Academy of Engineering and three recipients of the highest honors awarded by the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers. Staff members are active in teaching, research, and professional work. Located near one of the largest con-
centrations of chemical industry in the United States, the University of Pennsylvania maintains the scholarly standards of the Ivy League and
numbers among its assets a superlative Medical Center and the Wharton School of Business.

PHILADELPHIA: The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University.
Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the New Jersey shore are within a two-
hour drive.
For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to Dr. A. L. Myers, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, 220 S. 33rd Street, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

FALL 1978





Sixty graduate students,
along with 300 under-
graduates, pursue their
education on three floors
of Benedum Hall. The
facilities are modern and
excellently equipped.
Graduate applicants
should write:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical and Petroleum
Engineering Department
School of Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261
Charles S. Beroes
Alfred A. Bishop
Alan J. Brainard
Shiao-Hung Chiang
James T. Cobb, Jr.
Paul F. Fulton
George E. Klinzing
Alan A. Reznik
Yatish T. Shah
Edward B. Stuart
John W. Tierney

The first school west of the
Allegheny Mountains to
offer engineering de-
grees, the University
granted its first under-
graduate engineering
degree in 1846 and
started the graduate
program in 1914. Today,
approximately 2,000
undergraduates and 600
graduate students are en-
rolled in the School of
Engineering. Students
have access to the
George M. Bevier En-
gineering Library of
38,000 volumes; University
libraries of over 2,500,000
volumes; libraries in 50
industrial research centers
and universities nearby.
University of Pittsburgh has
a comprehensive com-
puter system with both
batch and time-sharing

facilities to use in aca-
demic and research
Master of Science and
Doctor of Philosophy de-
grees in Chemical En-
gineering and Master of
Science degree in Petro-
leum Engineering are of-
fered. While obtaining
advanced degrees, stu-
dents may specialize in
Biomedical, Energy Re-
sources, Nuclear, and En-
vironmental areas. A joint
Master of Science degree
with the Department of
Mathematics is offered.
Teaching and Research
Assistantships and Fellow-
ships are available.

The city leads a rich cul-
tural life in an exciting
geographic and social
setting. Pittsburgh Sym-
phony Orchestra, under
the direction of Andre
Previn, ranks high. A wide
range of musical events
rocks Heinz Hall. Pitts-
burgh Laboratory Theatre
and Pittsburgh Public
Theatre take innovative
approaches to drama.
Natural history displays at
Carnegie Museum and
art exhibits at the new
Sarah Scaife Gallery
draw over a million visitors
yearly. For sports followers,
Pittsburgh offers Pirates,
Steelers, Penguins. And
skiers find a variety of
slopes just a half-hour,
uphill drive from the city.


-. *c~Lr



~' "

,. I






4J~L -^"**^ '^^ie ^ *- **T **B ** <~-~c *i3Snti~P ~cr3; ..


R. C. Ackerberg
R. F. Benenati
J. J. Conti
C. D. Han
W. H. Kapfer
S. H. Lin
J. S. Mijovic
E. M. Pearce
P. F. Schubert
E. N. Ziegler

Air Pollution
Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors
Fermentation and Food Processing
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical Modelling
Mechanical Behavior of Polymers
Morphology of Polymers
Polymerization Reactions
Process Control
Rheology and Polymer Processing


Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science.

Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and
Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research:
chemical engineering, polymer science and
engineering and environmental studies.

Fellowships and Research Assistantships
are available.

For further information contact
Professor C. D. Han
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201


io :,._. .) -: -_ :


6- '

'~ Barile
1 Emery



Graduate Information
Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Ps i




( I|N cI


D. J. Nicklin (Cambridge) Column Flotation, Mass and Heat The Department occupies its own new building and is
Two-phase Flow, Fluidization Transfer, Adsorption well supported by research grants and modern equip-
P. C. Brooks (M.I.T.) R. H. Weiland (Toronto) ments including a multi-purpose Varian mini-computer
Process Dynamics and Control Fluid Dynamics, Mass and Heat system. It has maintained an active postgraduate pro-
P. F. Greenfield (N.S.W.) Transfer gramme, which involves course work and research
Biochemical and Enzyme Engineering, E. T. White (Imperial College) leading to M. Eng. Studies, M. Eng. Science and Ph.D.
Mass Transfer and Catalysis, Waste Crystallization, System Analysis, degrees.
Treatment Computer Control THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY
G. J. Kelly (Tasmania)
Corrosion, Electrochemical R. J. Wiles (ueensland) The University is one of the largest in Australia with
Technology Particulate Conveying, Rheology more than 18,000 students. Brisbane, with a population
L. S. Leung (Cambridge) R. Y. K. Yang (Princeton) of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and
Fluidization, Gas-solid Flow, Thermo- Reaction and Enzyme Engineering, attractive coasts which extend northward into The
dynamics Numerical Methods, Stability Analysis Great Barrier Reef.

O@ R| For further information write to:
Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical w
SIM FO RM ATI N Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Old. 4067,

Advanced Study
and Research Areas

Heat Transfer
Fluid-Particle Systems
Interfacial Phenomena
Polymer Materials
Polymer Processing
Biochemical Systems
Air Pollution Control
Atmospheric Chemistry
Water Resources
Environmental Studies




M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in Chemical Engineering

The Faculty

Michael M. Abbott Ph.D., Rensselaer
Elmar R. Altwicker Ph.D., Ohio State
Donald B. Aulenbach Ph.D., Rutgers
Georges Belfort Ph.D., California-Irvine
Henry R. Bungay III Ph.D., Syracuse
Chan I. Chung Ph.D., Rutgers
Nicholas L. Clesceri Ph.D., Wisconsin
Dady B. Dadyburjor Ph.D., Delaware
Charles N. Haas Ph.D., Illinois
David Hansen Ph.D., Rensselaer
Arland H. Johannes Ph.D., Kentucky
Clement Kleinstreuer Ph.D., Vanderbilt
Peter K. Lashmet Ph.D., Delaware
Howard Littman Ph.D., Yale
Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D., Wisconsin
Rajamani Rajagopalan Ph.D., Syracuse
George P. Sakellaropoulos Ph.D., Wisconsin
William W Shuster D.Ch.E., Rensselaer
Sanford S. Sternstein Ph.D., Rensselaer
Hendrick C. Van Ness D.Eng., Yale
Peter C. Wayner, Jr. Ph.D., Northwestern
Stephen W Yerazunis D.Ch.E., Rensselaer

For full details write
Dr. David Hansen, Chairman
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York 12181



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INFLUENTI A L PAPERS IN CHEMICAL REACT I ON ENGINEERING llOBUTI...KABJ;:L p.,....,in,,;,,s1o1ou..-,. U!d_,..1Jhrlr,PA16802 l ~~"i!~.!!~...iu.. e::,. ~IO-lllaotliclMlo~-in.-;..J-eql-,lq. Si,I_ ,_,;n,1 b1d..U... IOl 0< .. .. ...... c.,.,,.,..._._.-..,_ .... .............. ,.,<-~ -. ~--., __ .. _.......,.,_.,.,._ ...... ... .. -.............. c..._................ ,._ ..,, ..... ...._ .. ..... .... ,,.., .. .,. ............ ._. ............ .. c.i.,., .. ,....., .,c,,-:,.p_,._,,.,.1 ... 1 .. v .. 11 -.c.--n..c.. ......... .. ... ,._,,5,., ... ,.,.., .. ,,.k1,.,c,,,. .,.,.&< 1 u. 11 1 U~ .._.,, .... N ... .._. ...... ...,_ ... .... .,k ........... ,:-, .. _...,..,..._.__, __ .... ......... .... 0 .. 0 ...... --n..-., ..... ........ ,.k- ..... -_ .. ,_..._. ... .. ____ __ -. .... ,, ....... <,.,.).


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A G RA DUATE COURS E IN PO L YMER PROCESSING \V !/1:!.T:il!i=:=-: !!,";'=mi: ind trio,o!OO>y,andhHobrpfl'ldiooth J!.3. a nd a d,anld point""'nuwithl'SE Thi, o rtk lo f0< ,,_ .,.,..,. ____ _,_ ..... _______ ,. __ ~-... --.. ... ----~ ... _., __ __ ... __ ... ____ .,_ ____ ,, __ ... __ ... --~-.. -. .. .__ ... ______ ,,,._ o ul,.,.,r...,.,_;,... To put tho KltMin lho puapectiveofa broodotM otl'orin,..oflho!'Sf:0."">tmon\ Thad u1< atud

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Individuals are alike. Aren't they? :g~:~~1 ~.,.::~~--:=1tnNlP90ll!ov,,irllton""\>osis That't-wolooklorChemicalE~ngg,..,. :L~-E::~~~:C.'!:"~~~ .,,,_,....,e.Tr>oycan1>eD1KKor..,,t,ile:male0< ""'1ole;l>ul,OMll'lingl!a...,.o,;tll'IO'yOl-,nto,,_ -ey"lo .W..condolhisbecau .., ,.. aa :.:~01ootna1oe1,t,y,st1100fl r dloreu< :~:=~~~=~1:.:.~::r.!.S: oervicn.The<-.weoorequwolhOtyoor.oveo""" ~~""""'11;,,Chefflico l EngneoringtMld contril>.rtelOw< ..... UOISUC<:0'$$.{)p@ningtO

REACTOR DESIGN FROM A STABILITY V IEWPOINT D.D.Pf.RLMUTIER u,.;,..,.,;1~of p,. ,..,-1.., .:.. PAitaddpJtid,PAl9104 ~nM,:;.;l !~.; j~t !;==~~-;.:i:,,t ~! p,o,id<,othent,.lth.,,....,Onhatbuis.for enrnpl .d -onedtdim pOrtant! They ar, in ..... ,. phyalcal olrpubliohan ::.~11~;:f.:~:~2 ~~~::;; n\n,lthorp,,i..,aw ide raopof.....,,l<>r>..,.mo This a pproo.ohbrinp =i:~~tu:! ~/1~:::~~ ...... ~:r~:i~1c: actor r,ometry It emph.u.i...:I tho l.i milar:ibM amon1tll ed i, e,...modelara lherllu.nthoirdHl'e,.. --lt.00 ....,.,,, ,mak odi,ti,,ct;..,,be\w.,... lumoed a oddiatr:iOOtedmodelo,bel w .. n a l~raio andditreN:ntialoqu a lionmodelo,and&m<>ngthe ~=!=~;;~=l~~r= ::n' ~ tlity of Chornieal R -1<>ro" ( r,,.._ ::1~;~~f~:~t;~:~ .,,..itivity.El'fflinitaclootT-to-""'thematical .....,,tllot,m,h.ui-,,uH<11<>...terl<>loealb& hi<>r (in th e "ntrajtorymotioninalarg,e~on f:~i;~}~;f~ ou\linoisp.-nteduTabl

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........... .. ...................... ..... ... .... ,-.. -.. -<_ ... __ G kAD UATE I WUCATIONEXTEl'iDS(arbo ,-dtho--ollM--.ondU.. t la 1111rtiaowt,tr1Ml--oftlti,itypo.finl1T. tlooN.,.o,o-..danlluu-boJ"""-'lfloOIII,. Ola>lllalpoo"tiooooltho"'"teri.olcanbor"" relolodbooka.-,.i>ht.ondtoNondtern> ll"Pt' -1r n ,,,.nla (110ual(, crltlll ry dlff orutLol""uotlono.Thola t te r ltad N'l'IOOlhb-to ll>aou ll o rluml)Od lltytoawlth,T ll A M ,yo tom,lt oe rv eo toffinfo r<>< _.>;!."'1~::..=:-;=~~:=.7.":: ---pu, ,_.,,_~----.....-r .... u,o pitllolf-ofNtu ... ~Ullaltioat-!>dtllt.. ofM>tCS TR .... ult.SothOJ> """""''" P ...... ll i nVi glll'

AtlanticRichfieldCompany <> A, ,_ ...... ,,,octl

COAL SC IENCE AN D TECHNOLOG Y T D. WIIY. E LOCK l o1NS/014Ul,.,d1 A-.1 --.00 11 w ~~:~~=;;r:~;.r;:~ itloaot .. ........... ~u,--1 C-.J ~Md,-.,;,,-.,. ottracted ...... olotodeo,....i..,,o...,,,;1,-,,\lyl:,ytheChEDe po.runtnlol l owoS,..u,U.,;,..,,u,.TM..,..l"N ,....l&u_lhtonanf"peri.,,...ta l buuduri111et~ wlnletooll974 a ndl 976 andw .. p ,_ n\edon a ~.::..i ~!,,d~';;~ ~~.::~:! ~~,;! wllll Ille la,_""""II ,_,,11,.. Alu-,t, .... u..oven .. .o,-oftho"'""'-hll"' ChE ~teot-~ _,...,ni. 11o ... -~-lai --.i-ru1 ---pli-&adobout-lllll"docl v_..i........,._i._malol:,Cllr.o. r. Nl-t U&-lialledto.,;,,,--rlMWl-. .ie,,i,w1>o ... .,.tam-.,-J orp,1k""",i.1ca1.....,,..,.., n .. ,,..,.ra1chotni.t 17 =1~E~=:~.~. J~!-~ ,-roondtMttfo,.hllveboa>rnef.,,,ll o r wi lll the,-rall'oeldof_l .. ioeoloo' --.. """""'"' .................. _.... ......... ._ ___ .., __ ... _____ .,.__ ... .. ....... _,. _____ .. ______ ..... .. _.., ___ _._ ......... __ ----~--.. --_____ _, ___ ... __ ooU..tll..,-wln-tomiliarwlththo...WN Mdooct1rftllNOf ...... l1-0priarip&lcl>omioi..otomlnolo Im(Tablo IJ andato,i,of\Jlo l on.!ltolo Uaivenitr Ne! pNp&ntlooo planl ( Fl ,:uN I). (;.ilolenf t cllqla.....-...iiN&l.on .,._ __ !Ji_, .. ,lablo-lo-nllll>if. .,.,,u1<-ol.......i ,m_..booka(TM1a Jl...d ol,.rtt1111t uhjtbeca ... lttoo.ehOII alnloolt .,...,. o i-t of ,-ltm coal mialn r Md :b!::i~ ~:: : :~-:-1<1~1=:~ =/i:::.tW:.-=-' .. r.:.i


i,,,-...i,_,......ii,,,-eort.AI-.., K-oot-rillo .. ....., ...i.......,.Kloa ~wt,1<11,.-..-,1,,:::::!::'"'"-"........,..twltlloooJlalq T ~ :!t;!!t 0 ~~~h~= 1 ~ n;::~ ha0l:,10~ntthe-wltll""""eoal \op,a,d,,NdbutaloolO--the--of ..,..,....,.,lrtthepr,,perllfUM ... ~I .. hMliNdi,tributionond0I p,_ra!IGO ,..,..p,_,,ted MXI to"'" """"'"I i. 0 ,_..u,o.--rod&ndeioaMUco ... limlt.ollolllllot .. .-portl-..-, ........... 1,.1111.u.. ...... iertopb-..ldalooboorod.,uoeh .. -1......,.otK>ftoroooJ...,,,......i ........... .,..,, .. ,1..,., .... 1a1.-.s,, 1 ,11o11o 'Thollnlwnll,'oooolo...,,., .. u..,01.on vi<1t,oonlq.,.boekd,oplOTUw,...,,....n.prop .. t...,olu\..,._uplOffllorl/11.r.ofoooJ u,d io -;..,,..i ,., ....... 1 ... 111:iot:. ud boa-.J --ralloll.llirooioo.ppodwlllio -.-, ... .-1 ... --oooJ.Zqai -l>ftlaol>Hodl-ot:lllo ..,.; ra_ ... ""......,._-'"7' ~--f..U,_Md_ftoll .. ,.-,.,1o11.8i-U,.,1& ... w1n.. 1o ...i, 0 ;,aifN!u .. ~ottll

.... ... i.. .. -..1oc-w _, ........., .,_,_ ..... ,...,.._._c. ..... .......... ,,_,....,_,., .__.._J w __ ,..__,_,_._ ..._ ... U ,,.-,.,_,_ ,-.,. N .11.,(...,_ .................. ., ___ .. -.---~--., ...... A.-C.O -.... ,.... .. .. ...... .... _...,_,. __ ... _,.. .. .. '' ) ....... __ .... .,......, ... .. ..... ,..,-,ar,-~....,. ... ,......_.., .. ..... .... .......... ,. ....... .. .. ....... .......... .. ...... .. .. .. .. .. _. .... .. ,_ ..... _H --,-.. ..-. "'"" "" ,.. ....... .... ~ ........... _... .. ........ .. .. ... ,._... ~-_ ..... _, s_..,..,,.,.....-i. .. 11o1t""'lllirM :=:..~:.:.=i::.=:... ~= _,......., .. _____ ~_, ..... _.,-Jorrul--plan :.-::::::.i-=~11== 1,,t.Jly. H "-ld ..... _famlli& r ,riU.tho ~:"' .. !':: ::.::~:.=o1"' 1 ,.: -11odOlll<"lo.lJ<,o, ..,i.,pem"""tNl"',t,,,odothe ... ,,,... Bo t ._,1moort1ntlyllt-""'th.u lo 1 n oiy>otho ;,2_;:;..~.,!.~,,:..;;::.-:.:i,~;--l:. .. ri==-~~~::.::-..:~ --n.teumo,,.'"""atmidtttaondattho _.,u.. ... -n..:,-..,aa;a1r"'..-..... --,Jeet1 .. ----S BVEIA~ WH.KB AFTER tho lu< offeri-. ...... :.-:.:. .. :-i: =:..pol.::: .. --t11o,-ralrt,,tbo .. 1 ... 1m_.. :=t :s:~a=1~ =. = 16 ... .. ,., r.i .-tho"""'plelod_,......I.._ "'"'".._.i,.to_tllo __ _..,.1,111o_,_..,i,,,--...,,n ,., -. -...111oi.r __ ..,,...,1:,o.,..._ ;:~~:tl%~


AT PPG, CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AREA CRITICAL RESOURCE Since before the turn of the century PPG Industries has recognized the value of chemical engineers. That's how long we ve been in the chemical business Our Chemical Group and our Coatings & Resins Divi sion in particular rely heavily on chemical engineers to develop produce market and manage the high tech nology products for which PPG Industries has become justly famous. And you ll find these chemical engineers at all levels from the recent graduate to highest corporate management PPG also is a leader in the production of flat glass and fiber glass We operate a total of 72 manufacturing location s around the world 43 of them in the United States If you would like to know more about PPG Industries you may receive a copy of our Career Opportunities brochure by writing to : Joseph Schewe Manager Pro fessional Employment PPG Industries, One Gateway Center, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15222 PPG: a Concern for the Future


TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN MULTICOMPONENT MULTIPHASE, REACTING SYSTEMS R.C. CA RBONELL and 8.WKITAK l':R U.C.V.N IMN,C~IIWII _, ......... _......._.toltho ... __ ,..._.._,_,_,, __ .,,._lolerf_...t.-~<.....,.it-..,n--t..--'ti,._,_ ~-=-~ .. _--:-..,:-~ _.....,.lullNll....i,,....._ ....... o1...,i,;.,1a,,1o11-U..tofBinl.St.w&rl.o.nd llplfoot IINO) &l>d "-" ,-id oo hood to tho meoo(T, cltli, 19'1) ...i lll 1_,...,.,.,. loto ou, <>f -dti,ip io ...... .......tuo. ........... ..... .. ,..,..,.,ri-ott1,oca,1:,o-,1;,1o11,o-~ p..,..WO_fw_lliaa...... .-ot tl,o-oliuot_, __ ..,..,,,_.._ ...,.r.,. ___ ,..iu,-..--.11 ---.. ---ptuU(!lollU.. 1t70:ca-..,.,lt'll:Ario,111$f)thal

.. -, ... ..__ffolcl ... twilli ....,...... .. ..,i,1ricol.......--.Thl..__ oru-...-,,,..,u..a1noc10 .. oftho=~':.==::.. :1o":n":: A rood tumploofth.ia o p...-h la tho_,.. 1.,.o,,oa\ionu1oall1prn~to-ribtdlfl'uolopelletala-. ...... to bo-b)<"-'>lofftu,ex~analopua tori.ntq,oof....t,uop-~latll.&t ltallowafora...,.,.lhore _..._., ot o n1tlooaluporim.ta1pros,-t,m._ot __ ,.,..._ l...tho _,,1t"" ot dil'l-t _,.,...,1ou to thot..__n.Fi..,b-.lhlotypoof analToiaP_lloo_twltl,a-.ri f,-lltocal'l"l'.., h,rtherlltothet111lnln1of1rad .. 1<1 .. .. -i ~~"'~m:!~:-:~= tho -& v} ,:tdVi tV l!,"""~loaoftot&LlaMI"""'--"'-.. ---""'---_ .. _______ .. ,, ______ ..... .. ., ................ ""_..., .. ,,..., .......... ....... .. .. ______ .. ___ ,, .. .. _""_._ ______ ............ __ .. ._ ....... ___ _______ .__ ............ _., _________ -----------~--_ ._ ., ____ ............ -.....,_ .. ,.,. __ ,,.,,, .. "" _____ .. ... ______ ,,_ ....... _._. .. "'"""_ .. ______ ______ ... ____ .__ ...... .,.,,_ ___ ... ..... ___ .... ___ .., ___ .... .. ____ ... .. __ ----..


ui1Toca .. t1oo1ltem.ofU..opol11aad ---tr. -t! +V<,. )'i7J.+r. wlnt:.q.4...d\homolara-V'llodtylnEq.l oaturodb'rala.ql>Mbollo...t\ho... u.. ol~-ltlooby-oflhol&nofmoclu.n ld""""lar "'"""tuml)OO!ulatooa,-introdooodandthode ri,...iapto5-t(Juatl..,.,,,..unHnobtt.ln Po'10..obltrnoa!>d~, ... rue10U..-.-i.rm owin110omlul-.tioo.Thro ::::11a":'i. -:::":: :: -.,...,&'IJ'lai...,..;-.mixlu,_",aadlhotloonu.l _,..,oq.,.U..f01nioobl&lnodb7 :--'-. tho lndivid....i ""'"-!lo. -.01 ~17 V .l_, h J pV-,.+ ""!u+J~r;ri:.:1::,i~-i ( 8 ) wlle,-e I tho !n"'.,... .,..,.,. of the n>IIturo do,. ~Mdlo lheUOIW ID&IUIOr.Tho ,-ltl olao -tod ln ton 110flhee,,tlwpy fo, l ter I ....,,..,,11-.,t:...i ry-;U....atplt.-l>t1&r f-"""lto.-.oflho1Ocial fona&of Eq oro 011,ul

.... ,.._ .. t&lloo-...i ... 1t1oat-~,.......__....., ___ ,r.., ............ ,_ .. ,...,.111:,; _,,,, _....., ... th;........,._ ......... ,_"'11 ffrtOlnt,-holp .. wiU,ll,o\NOt-,,t.,fll,loMPld ofrnoltlftloNt,...port~ W o""'1t11<1.-fonnofl' d--l V + ~1r\~-..,IA (ll) ~:=::-~i:_eo:!'".:::i.u:: r1-1:oT f f.Od~f.lo .. int he ,8-J)hut A......Switlltbo-nDqdil!-,!&!O(t.,._ ,__ __ __ ...,.u-._,,, __ -........ -ffn,rioc-- .. .....,_1,o.,,....,.,oariot,,-of,....__TM __ ._. ................... ;.,._,,.,_ 0.tlleDa""'--u..r.laala,s,,WalerSd _, ..... l': rl- --f, lhat di,ociplino .. 1 ... 1n u.. -rpln inn<10'Nolll, :~~;: !':r:1~ i;:-1;,,!.,~I=~~ (S~tt< l'J', 1910), Ct>ernl<&len,rlrin., .otuderttt ol,.,... nlnl-."'bjo

aolltoH~..U...-...tlineor, ~r::=:;-kl...U...----1",. ._ ( I + K :) l)<;:>~ + 171.>< >] + V<; .;' > -V-{..0,17< .. >l ;.... } -a. kK < .. > 11 ...,.,., .. ..,.f....,tedwl \ht ,.., unk .., wn p&ram. tte ..... .... lo,w h ic h ,.. _CON1tltut1 .. "'l""tlono.Tllo..,.t.tobo follo ...dhtTt h ., bott, h lnt edat! n pri oo bli< t lono (WM ,ako r, 1967 ll'11 l i77b)bUl-e r f ul lyuplo,ted F ....,,tla lly, 1, ..,,,_.i.thooloou,,ble,n of t u rt.. i< nco (~ -. 1 '1t)ond;oqul,. \ ho tt hot,.,..port ::'.::'i.!:f~...::::!"=::::..-: _11,u ... oq .. u..1 ... u..~i.---. .. -~--oqU..: --~laloba ...... fU..~-~;. .. ....... ... _... ....... .,,.,. __ ., __ s ...u..i-. ~-:::::-.~~ :" .! olllotl .. OQ .. t--lnoli11Eq l 4.'Tlllol7po., :,~!,,,t ootn..,..-toq .. f or<<,Y ,. ( 1 + K :) ll<.r+>+ A ) V<.>-vJ.::,c< >V<<,>" + ~ >17.>" (o. kK ) + 11-!-..D.V.>'-..O .! V.>!-o..k 0: <<,;: 6 ) 11 ..., ... ,,, _, ____ .! ..,.,_-,11,o--.mopa.-..o.k K ll> ~ll>ottllooll'octiNor ...... otlolo-'loU..,_,..,clooip ~.:.;::!:;::::;,led .... ,U..vol--1 Ao onolJola of ftow d lo \ ribotlom ud no. :~_~E":.,~.:i:; 1 ~ .. : ~ ::1 : tMtleofo, .. \alyUl)tllotoondofdlopttai<,owlfl'l

... ... ..... .. ,. N "'-l( A.J. A .-,oiwt;.,., 1 r A -o ...... ... .., A C C. T1ooaod R.N.T .,1M ,AN N_ Cn _, ,._ r.,, I ... .... y .,_,._ b" ,AI C,, ~J .. ...i i,. AU0"11 ) "~ .. 'SJ-" ... ,. __ """"E .. Ed.JO, l .. 0 0,0 ) si.,,..,., .c .. .,_., v ~,_.,._ """ "' A! C,, EJ .. ,.. l eled lrom t ho vi wpo;ot of o em i Oi:cllo,,._ ,. ..,oh,, an dtl,e\ ....,lo w ,ofU..nnodyn ml co .Thl o ,.. view<,.... ;mpr....d h r Chopt, ,o ~7 on p;.... lily, lt!>oup th io topic io p.--lod l,yonlyo ah a l lowatt

Al l A CHEM I CA L ENGINEER DOES IS WR ITE l,I. E. LEt:SLEY &l>d M. L. Wll.LIAMS, J R ~~':;~~~111.t ... c;,. w ~ll~~-~~1!?t~~~~~t:;:..~ lnr" In ~ hich ., ,-h frMhmon ChE'-"inr ofwMtonrln.,.,;nri nd\l'J'toind.lllintl>1 putp""'d i 5.For-..ytit leo ,... .....,_,uth..,bita .. "'ThtmkalF.nrl_,._ inr."W o al .. di>wo di>< ... ,neh unilO....,.lion<""'"'Tbonno,:lyn om k Eigl,t -,..andth->mput,r p_,..,...,,,.u.. only..t,'Onotffloondooftn,lu. ominot;o.i T1n1 s, th',..,."""'..,.,. tionaodlo-fthe,ruidanU,.,..-i, o r;;";"i.,;u;"=~=~l;.;~'t:~=~ ,rraden.,,1<, frod..tionofth1 .,.klyandmluonlo a lly,withootf o =, ,1anty,or1 a .-iety,ondin"'"">',-,po.ruraoho ,...,.. rom-i 1moo..,u .. 1yofbo11word,., ~:~t:'!:~1~.:-'i::n!~~~vi t: : \ 1 .:: Andy,t,anyoftheoludtn,.,wbtnaak

i ~Hf!'HiJB (l'PlHHi ii 1 ;;, .. ~ 1 :,1~ thw:,u, 1 ij,h 1 ,H f,, urr.,, h uigt!!i,,f~ lli!i!!h ,, ,,._,. j,lu,i,. I ~1r:1:~5""fHf 6 i'i[li :t i:2. 3 i!11miw1 HuiW=~ I h~p!mih Hhjl~!1 i :i;,f;MjH fH~r.P~f mwrn,a Htrmlh t l~li!H,tr'f!iHrl! i ~-'" u a ~ :. Ii l 1 .tao [tH"oiP!, fp,;t f!!!hihh'in! i i,~;Wti'i,;f!:if a ,4 .. Lt ~J ii;ii..h~i. f ur;i' iu,na, 2. ~loi,fc a.H;f~~;i~ a i !;l ,i ~llri !Jf,, oit~i;t sli 1:nif l ia.,..i:="f i ,~;,.~ ... ,,.,_ d,f ... ,, I i ;~&.a

1 Wl!mr.u;anr1W1iH!~fil"mUH~}H llf1a.jiJrJilffL!ro:_ .f~: !!~u~,hH!"oh 1 1 trP 1 ,i!liH 1!Jllfi[:1 1 fiH !h[i.11;r~p!1fs, ; ,u.,,, 1 ,f~!'lj r 1 H i [ H!m1 1 ,hm~ 1 H:Hi1P ~1Jilh,~1 1 1uJlt. 1 rll H';/&.,, 1 ,d ;tpct1i-p," r .,! 1 i 1 rh1H ih f~~ihU1ml i!lfiimwt ~t~hJhHmmt !i"UH!s U!~-fr :H! ~!~ 1 lr!lJ il!:rii h ifw,,dh t1,Uu!?,,,J t.H;;:ulr~1Hn ii!Hji!i l Hf~HfHJl=P!EFj !'Ht Wt! IitiH1H~ IHr:!'ifr 1!t;m1i,[1:r-Hi1i H1 1 H,!1~.~ 1Hr!I!,JI 1 i 1 1 1 w::m1itl1r11; ,i,i 1 Hig,~ 1 i,,;,iH 1 ,i,l';,,J HJ{ifHfi.!~ n?HlffH;f;i~iH'l!Jl! HiHs IM[s!Mri thl~id~t1lw;h11!:!HmaJl mir!W~ig t!H!~l1 1 i .11im-l1fjiti.hfi}l i2 ,lt.t 11",hlt~H"ht l i-ll s hf;;.~J.J;-[~ uHe-Jr;I. ulfH!HhB lid h s iHf !Ii' lnl Hli iH t-11 d J1l f' ff f I t


inlrodUllteiduthatChle:isool'<> f__,. .,,d 1<>t:xoloin 1<> th < mHa ua p~mminclan ~:\ ; "!,:; ; .';;.."':in 1 ,"::: 1 ~~~:l~ ~= Thero is iwmffloienltimotome,etallofthe ~;i~:1fi~J~:]fa~:; aw..,mentaon,objtar<1ldbei n .~:i~~~E:~1 """"rin t heatrr<)mtheootpot t .... mof a rdbooidoU..l>Nt~fortobe--l,o n d l e """"'O ] .lnf .. ~llle lt.a >ntth'odllteprinciple ,.:-: 1.;"~~,..o~ :~,'::~ !,.~!~ Theyth,nwrote a o.....,.onthoaobj :o;:do:..._ k ,_ f'"' tho Eor1;,;, dtou\ ment i,.,,,~,i:~.dt:~,:= fo;"~=~~~:r::: :=~~:.%:;;~~'t:::.:~:. : .r:i:."~,-:: lum""n>dill'e,...tcompt,rlan. r:: ~h:i =~ : ::: rul.1-tha\ m,.k .. th e lM,...rprollciILF-O R 'fRANoedi"' ;::::;:.;:o.i,trya =i~ .:i ::r"st:.:;.\.:: ;;h;:'.":~:'. nro\ he burninJrawaydM&for ca rbonlna 1\srno).Bothproblma-rodillltult,ot>d p. v,


--1a-ft~llotwlUl .. oo ......... roRTRANollnol_ ..... -. ............ =::t!::=E~t.;~~ ..-ohutioo.oy,wo..-ouldprovid<.ln\l,odloe=:~===~ ............... _...,.-1a ... .-11bolqlob' --w.lllcl>IJ'-....u .. .,._....,,m 11o< ..... n..,...... -roc1..r.w,,.. i~@i~~ '"1Uorandoeonl .. rslty<0mpuW.oy,...,.ond" thoi, f.t -sn,dually. W o q-retd wllll lofOl'IM 'on;:,"!.:'Z":":" =-~ ~-= ;::: i! __ ,,.,... ... .... ._ ... ... -~ ...... ... ..,_,,A.._.1 ...... co, ... ,1 .... _,~ ThtFOllTRAN-ro-,r\l'fflMri)'h, lllt-1-to-ll>otlatolfo,llltlt-latoritellltp_n,..,._ "",...,.,_,.,...,,.. ... _,,.. .... 1o.ouop1o oxerMbtra,oommlnr ; :~'?.:E:t::=:~=:~~ ~~-=:i.":...~,.J~ :::: ,.i.. ..... ,.._,,...., .. _.., ____ ., .... :,:11::0::!~:!..~~~~Al~:7. ::! no.\:n1lioll

CA RU : R RUl'..Mt :N Ct : ,r ,.,..., .. ...., .. ... ca,..,w;,~ =::',.,_o{fla I _C.....,"". Tl l-l --Y ot I ~ --"'


SUP E RH E A T ED LIQU ID S A L A BORA TORY CUR I OS I TY A N D, POSSIBLY, AN I N DU S T R I A L CURS E Part 3, Discussion and Conclusions R OB t :RTC.REID Jt.....,i.-,u, .. m.i.o/T"""'w c.,.bridg,,Jt.,...,i...,.,.,02139 A ~~;!s~:u~\~,t!!~. R ~t!'~:~n':; undM (Fu;unl~) Thovuticalfom,,.. u lt!.orfromlhe ""p l ook.,,umoo"tor,dw lh a traMd u r M ol>o,rn ,H lfh..-lmotionoiowed.ho....,,.. U..ttht.,,. horent .. ateT> l umn ,.. .. -.,,.. o-.ntactofth-loo.dinrwat,,-dl"OJll va po ,e>oioh,,<>OUld 1u,.., ~!1~~2t~E:~ri A, a lu oble -rv. l ionloprovidodl>)'Andor _,,ndA,,,..lron~{1973):" Roin o J><-:tionol\he ~;i)~1:~~Itz~:~ otobm!l.,lnlheft l m.e,t,,...lcou-ot<. H ow ''''unot<,d"(lf)theflul

_,taMl[,.nalfl'btt><-llquldo." A...s.roaMtl -"udlodleoi.dthat. -\1,oll,otaa,d =: ~ ".!" ,;:7!~:~~:c'.!t~:~'. ,,_in,..,,. _,.\ion optho ro..,. and tboppwl-.Or,U..otborhand,lorlmp,octln.1 r.,...,,..,.,,11ao1hoerttkalol1>t,vt17 r~n. Tbo __ .......... w.-i.~q ~ {k /l )(~'t) ..;u,ttMa,_thennal_rilYtM ftlao .na1-. ...........,_,. ollntorJ" tho .,.i... ~:S===~:e.i::..::; t ,. ....... ,, .. ,., .. ~ ::;; :;: "::'.;.'::;"' r _----=--= =":.:::


=I = I.Joll'6R I<> Ws '"' ot !;quid. no. f..U I_,_ lluot If llqaid oodi<1111 l,o la~~~;i:=!EtS :;:1 ... :::~~-=~ no. lpo,ta.ot ...,,.._,~,_ for Wa op, .,. ohowll !o -,,,..,. 21 {l"o111b, 1!7'1) -,nlnr ~~:f!"==~~;?Ni!~~= 1'1r1t,1 ..,,...,.h !irt,Lornpotaturoroqu!rodfo, l"' bolll01lndkotootha lconla

PROCTER & GAMBLE is looking for In R&D / Product Development -_..-..,__"".,.. -rcl~Ol-.--.g~...,...__,~ .... -lM'-W$1ht ... '""II'"'---~ ~.,.._,,_ .. .,..IS/...s -illo,&u',_ ,.......,,_...,~---"" -~----..

titf?l views a.nd opinions I CH E M I CA L E NG INEE R I NG EDUC AT ION REVISITE D LOU l .!IT H OO OOJU ; :!:!~,t:!'::.i. o m -.... .._ .. ._-~ .... .............. ....., .. ......,,.....,_ __ ... __ _,_.,._,_, ..... ...... -------------'.... ____ ___ ., ___ >_ .. ,. : :: "" .. .. c,, .. ,,.. -. ~ l 1po,lll<&ll1 .... -lllll _..,... __ .. t-!,O..,,,klll-]/sp a ,oqu i Nld ... io< IM,I ...,,.. In Chi-: a\ l,l a nh&ll&II Collolloo-.Tholof-woo&11looulttoooym,;i,_,.-,lnlolll ...,..,n,.,_,_.,,....Jlooui.tantla,.,ho IM,.of rood num,.,,ofO, E p ror_,..olldln d1Utriolpo,-no l: odu,atlonlCh E pros,.nua\ .. n1&eyof t .. 0d / or p rot-.1 Uli lltlloor no ro,rard fo,the ,..I_, ofoCIIEot.-t.So,li meia....,._Uy ,..., 1 .. materiallhatm""'-IOtho -'

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