Citation
Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

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Is the leg mightier than the atom?


Before you say no, keep in mind
that we know very little about many
forms of energy available to us.
Including good old muscle
power.
For too long a time we've relied
on oil and gas to serve our needs,
and failed to take full advantage of
other sources of power.
Including the atom.
But recent events make it clear
we must learn about all the options,
and how best to apply them.
At Union Carbide we're study-
ing a wide range of energy tech-
nologies and resources for the


Energy Research and Development
Administration.
From something as basic as bi-
cycling to the complexity of con-
trolling nuclear fusion.
For instance, we are learning
how to turn coal into oil and gas in
a way that is practical economically.
We're deeply involved in nuclear
research, particularly in finding
ways to make this important source
of energy safer and more efficient.
Our work in fusion power, at
Oak Ridge, Tennessee, offers the
most exciting possibility for the
future: the ultimate source of in-


exhaustible energy.
If we succeed, there will never
be another energy crisis.
But for the present, the answer
to our energy dilemma is not likely
to come from one source, but many.
All the way from the leg to the atom.





An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F













EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
Managing Editor: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
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CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
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WEST: George F. Meenaghan
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California Institute of Technology
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University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
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PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XI NUMBER 4 FALL 1977


GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES
160 Fundamental Concepts in Surface
actions, J. A. Dumesic


Inter-


164 Electrochemical Engineering, Jacob Jorne
168 Chemical Reaction Engineering Science,
David Retzloff
170 Biochemical Engineering, Harvey W. Blanch
and Fraser Russell
174 Polymer Science and Engineering,
Richard P. Chartoff

FEATURES
154 Technical Prose: English or Techlish?
H. C. Van Ness and M. M. Abbott
176 ChE Graduate Programs for Non-Chemical
Engineers, E. L. Cussler
181 Experience at One University, R. M. Bethea,
H. R. Heichelheim, A. J. Gully
185 Student Point of View, Ronald S. Christy,
Jerry D. Purkaple and Thomas E. Vernor
186 Graduate ChE Education on a Statewide
Closed-Circuit Television Network,
Thomas G. Stanford

DEPARTMENTS
147 Editorial
148 In Memorium-Leon Lapidus
150 Views and Opinions
The Interface Between Industry and the
Academic World, Reuel Shinnar

149 Letters
149, 167, 195 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1977. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


FALL 1977





For some people, the good life doesn't begin at
five p.m. And it's not measured in vacations and
weekends. Rather, it wakes up with them every
morning. It moves with them as they go about
their tasks.
These people work in an atmosphere of
growth without constraint. They set their own
goals based, on their own abilities. They use
their own judgment in helping to solve problems
that directly affect their own lives. Like assuring
an ample food supply. Ridding the environment
of pollution. Curing disease.
Because life is fragile, these people believe
it needs protection.


That's one reason they chose a career with
Dow. We need more people who think along
these lines and have backgrounds in science,
engineering, manufacturing and marketing.
If you know of students who are looking for
employment with enough meaning for their tal-
ents and enthusiasm, have them contact us. Re-
cruiting and College Relations, P.O. Box 1713,
Midland, Michigan 48640.
Dow is an equal opportunity employer-
male/female.


DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.
*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company


44 -11*1










Cddcvaal

A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS
This is the ninth Graduate Issue to be published by CEE and distributed to chemi-
cal engineering seniors interested in and qualified for graduate school. As in our
previous issues we also include ads of departments on their graduate programs and
some articles on graduate courses that are taught at various universities. However
this year we are including a larger number of general papers on graduate education
that we feel are of interest to both students and faculty and fewer courses. Therefore
in order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate course work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous


issues. A list of these follows. If you would like a copy of
please write CEE. Ray Fahien, Editor CEE
ChE, Dept., University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


a previous Fall issue,


AUTHOR


Alkire
Bailey & Ollis
DeKee
Deshpande
Johnson
Klinzing
Lemlich
Koutsky
Reynolds
Rosner



Astarita
Delgass
Gruver
Liu
Manning
McCoy
Walter


Corripio
Donaghey
Edgar
Gates, et al.
Luks
Melnyk & Prob
Tavlarides
Theis
Hamrin, et. al.
Sherwood


Merrill
Locke & Daniel
Moore
Wei

Hopfenberg

Fricke
Tierney
O'Connell, et. a

FALL 1977


F


TITLE
all 1976


"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum
Transport"

Fall 1975
"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"

Fall 1974
"Digital Computer Control of Process"
"Solid-State Materials and Devices"
"Multivariable Control and Est."
"Chemistry of Catalytic Process"
"Advanced Thermodynamics"
er "Wastewater Engineering for ChE's"
"Enzyme and Biochemical Engr."
"Synthetic & Biological Polymers"
"Energy Engineering"
"History of Mass Transfer Theory"

Fall 1973
"Applied Chemical Kinetics"
s "Corrosion Control
"Digital Computer Process Control"
"Economics of Chem. Processing
Industries"
"Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal
Materials"
"Polymer Processing"
"Staged Separations"
1. "Application of Molecular Concepts of
Predicting Properties in Design"


Fall 1972
Bell "Process Heat Transfer"
Chao & "Equilibrium Theory of Fluids"
Greenkorn
Cooney "Biological Transport Pnenomena and
Biomedical Engineering"
Curl & Kadlec "Modeling"
Gainer "Applied Surface Chemistry"
Slattery "Momentum, Energy and Mass
Transfer"
Kelleher & Kafes "Process and Plant Design Project"
Douglas & "Engineering Entrepeneurship"
Kittrell
Wei "How Industry Can Improve the Use-
fulness of Academic Research"
Tepe "Relevance of Grad. ChE Research"
Fall 1971
Reid & Modell "Thermo: Theory & Applications"
Theofanous "Transport Phenomena"
Weller "Heterogeneous Catalysis"
Westerberg "Computer Aided Process Design"
Kabel "Mathematical Modeling ..."
Wen "Noncatalytic Heterogeneous Reaction
Systems"
Beamer "Statistical Analysis and Simulation"
Himmelblau "Optimization of Large Scale Systems"

Fall 1970
Berg "Interfacial Phenomena"
Boudart "Kinetics of Chemical Processes"
Koppel "Process Control"
Leonard "Bioengineering"
Licht "Design of Air Pollution Control
Systems"
Metzner & Denn "Fluid Mechanics"
Powers "Separation Processes"
Toor & Condiff "Heat and Mass Transfer"
Tsao "Biochemical Engineering"

Fall 1969
Amundson "Why Mathematics?"
Churchill "Theories, Correlations & Uncertain-
ties for Waves, Gradients & Fluxes"
Hanratty "Fluid Dynamics"
Hubert "Stat. Theories of Particulate Systems"
Lightfoot "Diffusional Operations"
Lapidus "Optimal Control of Reaction Systems"
Prausnitz "Molecular Thermodynamics"
Dougharty "Reactor Design"









In Memorium


Professor Leon Lapidus, 52, chairman of the
Department of Chemical Engineering at Prince-
ton University, died suddenly in his office May 5,
1977.
He was the author of more than a hundred
technical publications including four textbooks:
Digital Computation for Chemical Engineers,
Optimal Control of Engineering Processes,
Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equa-
tions, and Mathematical Methods for Chemical
Engineers. Widely sought as a consultant, Lapidus
was a member of the National Academy of
Engineering, Sigma Xi, American Chemical
Society, American Institute of Chemical Engi-
neers, the Association of Computing Machinery,
and president of the New Jersey Tennis Associa-
tion.
The Princeton University Faculty adopted the
following memorial resolution at its June 1977
meeting:

MEMORIAL RESOLUTION
FOR PROFESSOR LEON LAPIDUS
Dr. Leon Lapidus first came to Princeton in
1951 as a Research Associate in Professor Richard
H. Wilhelm's program in chemical sciences on
what is now the Forrestal Campus. His previous
training included two degrees from Syracuse Uni-
versity in the city of his birth, a doctorate from
the University of Minnesota, where he was the
first of a long line of outstanding scholars under
the tutelage of Dr. Neal Amundson, and a post
doctoral fellowship at the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology.
In 1953 he became a member of the Chemical
Engineering faculty as an Assistant Professor.
He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958
and to Professor in 1962. In 1970 he was appointed


The Class of 1943 University Professor. From
1968 until his untimely death on May 5, 1977, he
served as Chairman of the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering. Throughout most of his tenure
as Chairman he was the elected member from
Division IV on the Faculty Advisory Committee
on Appointments and Advancements, making his
membership on that important committee one of
the longest in the history of the university.
A teacher-scholar in the best Princeton tradi-
tion, Professor Lapidus was also a skilled ad-
ministrator. Indeed, a colleague in another depart-
ment recently observed that Leon was the ultimate
exemplar of the ideal all-round faculty member
because his research productivity increased as his
administrative responsibilities grew.
With a rare gift of being able to communicate
often abstruse and difficult material clearly and
enthusiastically, Professor Lapidus gained a wide
reputation as lecturer, and student ratings of his
courses invariably placed them near the top of
all courses in the University. His contributions to
teaching were not limited to classroom instruction,
however, inasmuch as he authored or co-authored
four major textbooks, and in collaboration with
his first mentor, Dr. Amundson, he edited the
definitive work on chemical reactor theory,
written as a memorial to the late Richard H.
Wilhelm. In particular his books on digital com-
putation and on optimal control theory have wide-
spread use as teaching tools. The book on chemi-
cal reactor theory was published during the week
of his death.
In 1955, just two years after joining the
Princeton faculty, Professor Lapidus introduced
a new course in numerical methods of computa-
tion. This course marked the beginning of his pro-
fessional concentration on the application of
numerical analysis and computer techniques to


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









problems in chemical engineering. Over the years
he extended the breadth and depth of this applica-
tion with special attention to problems in the
simulation, control and optimization of chemical
process systems. More than fifty graduate
students participated in this work, many of whom
are now on major faculties throughout the world.
The fruits of this work, comprising five books and
some 135 articles in scientific journals, have had
a major impact on the way engineers in general,
and chemical engineers in particular, approach
problems.
Many awards went to Professor Lapidus for
his prodigious scholarship. He won the Profes-
sional Progress Award and the William H. Walker
Award of the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers. In 1976 he was electedto the National
Academy of Engineering, the third member of the
Princeton faculty so honored. He has been Chemi-
cal Engineering Lecturer for the American
lSociety for Engineering Education. Reilly
Lecturer for the University of Notre Dame, Lacey
Lecturer for the California Institute of Tech-
nology, Mason Lecturer for Stanford University,
DDistinguished Lecturer for the University of
Michigan, and Organization of American States
Lecturer at La Plata University in Argentina.
Widely sought as a consultant to industry, Pro-
fessor Lapidus also served on the editorial ad-
visory boards of the Journal of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, the International
Journal of Systems Science, The Chemical Engi-
neering Journal, and he was Editor of Control
Series, Blaisdell Publishing Company. He was also
a member of the Visiting Committee to the De-
partment of Chemical Engineering at the Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology.
He was an active player and a promoter of
tennis, especially among young people. At the time
of his death he was president of the New Jersey
Tennis Association. Furthermore, he transmitted
his enthusiasm for the game to his children, Mary
and Jay, both of whom he coached to tournament
calibre. Jay, who will enter Princeton in the fall,
is generally regarded as one of the most promising
tennis players in the United States.
A devoted husband and father, Leon Lapidus
most of all enjoyed those activities which in-
cluded his close-knit, immediate family circle:
his wife, the former Elizabeth Kalmes, whom he
met and married in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and
his children, Mary Kalmes and Jon Jay.
In addition to his immediate family he leaves a


sister, Mrs. Florence L. Goldman. He leaves, too,
a large number of friends and colleagues, who
will deeply miss those personal and professional
qualities that made so lasting an impact on his
profession, on Princeton University and on the
Department.

Ernest F. Johnson
William R. Showalter
Richard K. Toner


letters

FACULTY WORKLOAD CORRECTION
Sir:
In the interest of accuracy, I would like to state that
my paper in Chemical Engineering Education, Vol. II, No.
3, p. 134, 1977 should be entitled, "Faculty Workload
Measurement," and not "Faculty Workload Measurement
at NJIT."
I would appreciate having this fact brought to the at-
tention of your readers since the article is not how loads
are measured at NJIT. Thanks.
Deran Hanesian
New Jersey of Technology

EDITOR'S NOTE: CEE deeply regrets the error.


t P. book reviews

FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING IN THE
PROCESS INDUSTRY
by Donald R. Woods, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Engle-
wood Cliffs, N.J., 1975. 324 pp., $16.95.

Reviewed by Vincent W. Uhl, University of Vir-
ginia, Charlottesville, VA.
The treatment seems to go beyond the title; in
introductory chapters the books surveys two im-
portant areas related to financial decision making.
One is that of the professional making judgements
which affects society and the world we live in. The
other area is the overall business environment. By
this approach Woods manages to scan the full
sweep, the spectrum from the individual to so-
ciety. Then he concentrates on "process econom-
ics" in this setting.
Process economics constitutes the core of the
work. Basically the methodology delineated is
Continued on page 188.


FALL 1977









Nj views and opinions


THE INTERFACE BETWEEN INDUSTRY

AND THE ACADEMIC WORLD*


EDITOR'S NOTE: Prof. Shinnar's paper was presented at an Engineering
Foundation Conference on Chemical Process Control at Asilomar,
Pacific Grove, CA, Jan. 18-23, 1976. We thought it worthwhile reading
for students and faculty alike.

REUEL SHINNAR
The City University of New York
New York, New York 10031


I CAME TO THE academic profession quite
late, after many years in industry, and my
values and outlook were formed during my in-
dustrial career. Having worked in many fields and
having had a varied career gives one the ad-
vantage of an overlook, and one often sees things
that an insider cannot see. This paper is about
some of these impressions on the present status
of control.
Let me start with three episodes that happened
to me recently and induced me to choose this topic
for presentation. The first was a question asked of
me by the chairman of one of the top chemical en-
gineering departments in the United States. He
asked me if process control today is still an active
field of research in ChE and if it makes sense to
have somebody in this field. It was an honest ques-
tion, which is also asked by quite a few others,
even those who have been active in control in
recent years and are now leaving it. I'll try to
answer it later.
The second occurrence was a letter I received
from a former student of mine who obtained his
Ph.D. in the U.S. in the area of control. I sent him
a recent paper (1), and in commenting on it he
complained that our engineering profession is so
far backward in the application of novel ideas in
control that he has decided to go where the action
is and become an applied mathematician.
The third happening was a comment by a re-

*Reprinted by permission from AIChE Symposium
Series. Vol. 72, No. 159, p. 166.


Reuel Shinnar is Professor of Chemical Engineering at City College,
N.Y. He is known from his publications in reactor design, process
dynamics and control, crystallisation, fluid dynamics, and combustion.
A special interest of his is the application of probability and stochastic
processes in engineering. Professor Shinnar received his B.S. from the
Technion in Haifa, and his Ph.D. from Columbia University. Before
taking up an academic career he worked for ten years in industry
and still consults to the chemical and petroleum industry.


viewer that Vern Weekman received on a paper
of his. The reviewer complained that the authors
were unfairly criticizing the academic world, since
he questioned how an academic could know what
is and what is not implementable in industry. I
don't know who here was hard on whom. I can
hardly imagine a more severe condemnation of
our academic engineering profession than this
statement. If engineering professors have ceased
to know what can and cannot be implemented,
what are we teaching?
In these three episodes there is a reflection of
the whole sad state of research in process control
as well as an indication as to what needs to be
done.

THE STATE OF PROCESS CONTROL

LET US NOT avoid the issue; the state of proc-
ess control is rather sad. True, we have had


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








many important theoretical and mathematical ad-
vances in recent years, and, as Professor Athans'
paper [8] pointed out, quite a number of them
could be very significant, and I definitely agree
with him. But on the other hand, the application
of these advances in industrial practice has been
rather meager, and even those that are active in
designing controls for completely automated com-
plex plants complain that the publication of the
academic community seem to be irrelevant to any
conceivable needs. Furthermore, some of our best
people are leaving the field disenchanted, and it is
not attracting top students as often as previously.
This is happening just as exciting applications, are
starting finally to appear, and, there are definite
trends in industry that will require a better under-
standing of modern control.
But even in industry the love affair with proc-
ess simulation and control is cooling. The heat is
on almost all the research groups in the industry.
Maybe we started too early and promised more
than we could fulfill. But we could reasonably ex-
pect more understanding from industry. Let me
remind you that the total expense of any major
oil company on research in process control in any
given year is less than for one major television
commercial, and there is less evidence that com-
mercials sell gasoline.
Somehow I feel that some of the recent ad-
advances in control theory offer exciting possibil-
ities for better design, but there is very little
knowledge as to what these values really are,
where they can be successfully applied, and what
the pitfalls are, and there is no question a lot of it
is irrelevant.
Just look at the tremendous literature on Kal-
man filters. We listened to some top practitioners
and heard that only one had ever really used one
successfully. Listening to him, I realized that he
used it in a different way than it is presented in
the control literature, as a tool in interactive com-
puter-aided design in which the coefficients are
guessed and continuously adjusted by the results
of the simulation. Now I would like you to relook
at the literature on Kalman filters. How much of
it really deals with the basic problem, which is to
decide how to guess the structure of the covari-
ance and, furthermore, to decide in what cases it
is going to be useful.
Listening to the two sides of the arguments on
the usefulness of modern control reminded me of
two other episodes that happened to me. You have
to excuse my habit of telling stories. In my culture


it is a basic belief that a short story or joke often
replaces a thousand words.
During the Israel Independence War in 1948 I
was engaged in the manufacture of explosives and
ammunition. Once I faced the problem of design-
ing a simple small siren intended to be put on
small bombs, to increase their psychological effect.
I had no idea how one designs a siren and was
looking for some sketch to copy. To save time I
went to a professor I knew, and I still remember
him going to his shelf and giving me two volumes
of "Das Handbuch der Theoretischen Physik." I
was reminded of this story by the claim that mod-
ern control theory is there-just go and use it.
The second episode symbolizes for me the stand
of some of our industrial assessment members. In
the early 1950's a group of young engineers were
sitting in a house in Haifa and reminiscing about
the war. One fellow recounted his experiences in
the British Corps of Engineers. The British Army
instructions at that time required that prefab-
ricated pre-stressed concrete slabs should be rein-
forced in all four corners. Now, every compentent
engineer knows that we only need two reinforce-
ments, in the two corners on the lower side. One
guest was an old Englishman who had stayed in
Israel, and he commented that we were all a little
young and inexperienced and did not fully ap-
preciate the wisdom of the British Army. The
manual is intended for use by the average ser-
geant in the British Army, who as likely as not is
a Sikh with a minimum understanding of English.



There are probably
many really valuable results
hidden in the literature of modern
control that merit being brought to a
form useful for the control engineer. But
we need to extract them, test them, and bring them
to a form where they are useful tools in real
empirical design.


He might be the only one in the company who can
read that manual. You have to imagine him stand-
ing there with his curved knife in his mouth study-
ing the manual, and, when he takes out the knife
and starts to yell, you hope he'll know where to
put the slab. If you presume that he'll know which
side is up, you have lost in advance.
The Ziegler-Nichols tuning method of PI con-
trollers almost fulfills the same requirement. But


FALL 1977








modern process control is never going to have a
reinforcement in each corner. This is not its ob-
jective. It will need highly educated engineers to
use it for special applications where it is justified.
But it is also useless to tell industry, "There are
two thousand mathematical lemmas, and why
don't you use them?" As almost all assessment
reports agree, modern control theory is not in a
state where it is easily used.

ACADEMIC-INDUSTRIAL INTERFACE
THE PROBLEM IS really at the interface. The
information flow from academics to industry
and back is jammed, and the question is what we
can do about it.
It would be very valuable if the process in-
dustries would publish more about their successes
and failures. Some of the secrecy surrounding
control is really bordering on the ridiculous. But
it is rather hard to hope that they'll really do it in
a useful way. The aerospace industry has much
less of a problem, since much of the work is gov-
ernment financed and therefore published, and it
also employs a much larger number of theoret-
ically educated engineers.
If we want to improve that interface, it is the
engineering societies and, above all, the engineer-
ing faculties who can and should do this job.



I don't worry about
algorithms or computers eliminating
the engineer. Complex design algorithms need
a much higher degree of intellectual
input than present methods and increase
the need for highly trained personnel.



As a profession, engineering is not a science
but rather the knowledge of bringing scientific
development into useful practice, very often mak-
ing empirical advances before the scientist under-
stands them. Even design, which is much more
formalized, is only partly based on scientific calcu-
lations and relies heavily on intuition and experi-
ence. Part of it can be computerized and formal-
ized, but in the end judgment will play a large
role in the synthesis.
Now design or process development is not easy
to teach and much harder to do research on. To
promote good research we have more and more
gone over to focus our research on hard science,


picking up areas left by the physicists and chem-
ists, and slowly we have become a professional
taught by non-practitioners. Maybe we are the
only profession to do so. Can you imagine a med-
ical school where all professors are physiologists
and nobody is a clinician? Now medical research
is much less clean and less scientific than physi-
ology, but the latter would have no application
without the first.
I see nothing wrong in having a large part of
our research devoted to clearly definable scientific
problems, both theoretical and experimental, but
somehow we have to make an attempt to bring
engineering back to our research. Nowhere is this
more felt than in theoretical engineering and
especially in control.

PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN
T HERE ARE SEVERAL needs in engineering
design that good theoretical research can fulfill.
* The first is a need for straightforward algorithms, as,
for example, the measurement of kinetic parameters in
complex systems.
* The second is a need to better understand design de-
cisions. Theoretical work can contribute to that by
solving clearly defined cases, illuminating to the engineer
what the potential problems could be. A good example
of this is the theoretical work in reactor design, an area
in which I also contributed. Now, in very few industrial
cases would one expect an engineer to solve the type of
complex models that have been solved or discussed in
the literature. Hopefully, my own students do not in-
terpret their work this way. However, from such
theoretical modeling and related work we delivered
rather well-working principles for reactor design: how
to identify kinetic parameters in a simple way, how to
structure the experiments needed for scale-up, how to
identify reactors, and, most importantly, how to distin-
guish between simple problems and those which require
more advanced methods. This is the most fruitful area
for theoretical engineering research. But in order for it
to be really useful the results have to be explained to
the practicing engineer in a form he can understand.

There are other types of theoretical research
that I took part in. Some of the most difficult prob-
lems solved often only confirm that methods used
by the engineer have a sound basis, but they do not
lead to new insights.
Years ago when I worked in rheology, every-
body was busy for years trying to understand the
complex work of Coleman and Noll on constitutive
equations. I don't want to belittle the eloquence
and relevance of that work to continuum mechan-
ics as a theoretical science. But the insight that
we got from that to real rheology, and especially


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS FCC
(Other Loops Omitted for Clarity)


Regenerator


Reactor


To Ma
Fractii


Air Oil Feed

FIGURE 1. Schematic of conventional control sc


to problems of interest to the engineer, was r
small. We learned that a capillary rheo:
measures the same parameters as a cone and
viscosimeter and that it is impossible from
measurements to predict the behavior of the
in accelerating flows. We knew that long b
But we learned little about how to treat
more interesting cases and had to go ba
simpler and more ad hoc theories. I admit of
ing done similar things myself. It did not sta
that way.
The best way of describing such work fr
engineering point of view is maybe the expr
of Moliere's hero in the Bourgeois Gentilho
"I never knew I speak prose." There is soir
portance in knowing that one speaks prose
from a purely scientific point of view this is
very interesting. But the importance that wi
to such mathematical rigor in our engine
profession has little relation to its real va
the profession.
The fourth type of theory is the one that
nowhere. I remember a good example froi
time I was a graduate student. At that ti
fashionable pastime was to write down equ$
of mass transfer in multicomponent systems.
of these equations were tensors of the six
eighth order. There was no way that an
could ever measure that many coefficients or
design a hypothetical experiment to measure
The only thing we learned is that too much
will lead to unsolvable problems.


Now in engineering we start to give the high-
est ranking to the "I know prose" research and
much less to that which leads to real insights in
design. Nor do we insist that our results be pre-
tin sented in such a way that such insights to dirty
problems are made clear. We have to learn to ap-
preciate both types of research.
Consider for example the study of FCC control
set by Kurihara [2]. It is a very useful piece of work,
and let me therefore discuss it in more detail.
Kurihara took a fluidized bed cracker and de-
veloped a simple lumped parameter model for it.
He then took the standard industrial control
scheme which is given in Figure 1, taken from
Lee and Weekman [3], and looked at the connec-
tions between measured and manipulated varia-
bles. He then formulated an optimization problem
in the following way. The system is assumed to be
at a state X, different from the desired steady
:heme. state, and has to be brought back to the desired
steady state. At this desired steady state, all
ather manipulated inputs have a known value. The
meter feedback law is then written to minimize a per-
plate formance index using some values for costs of
such control action and for profits based on reducing
liquid the deviation from the desired steady state. It is
before. shown that a linearized analysis gives a very
those similar solution to the full non-linear optimization
ck to and furthermore, the control scheme given in
f hav- Figure 2 gives almost the same result.
rt out Now, there is much more in the thesis than I
Continued on page 191.
)m an
session MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS FCC
(Other Loops Omitted for Clarity)


ie im-
p, and
often
e give
eering
lue to

leads
.m the
ime a
nations
Some
;th or
ybody
Seven
them.
rigor


Regenerator


Reactor


To Main
Fractionator


Air Oil Feed


FIGURE 2. Schematic of Kurihara scheme.


FALL 1977












TECHNICAL PROSE: ENGLISH OR TECHLISH?


H. C. VAN NESS and M. M. ABBOTT
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, New York 12181

IF THE SENIOR CHEMICAL engineering stu-
dent feels burdened by report writing, he can
take no comfort from what lies ahead, for writing
will likely occupy an even greater proportion of
his time as a practicing engineer. Moreover, suc-
cess will depend as much on development of com-
munication skills as on technical ability.
One learns to write just as one learns to ride
a bicycle, to play a musical instrument, or to make
love. Bad performances are not only common, but
easily recognized. Remedial instruction is by
criticism and example. Unfortunately, professors
are seldom accomplished writers, and provide far
more bad examples than good. Thus by the time a
student is required to write a technical report he
slips naturally into a special written language,
which we call Techlish. Fortunately, it bears some
relation to English and a literate engineer can
often understand its general drift, if not its pre-
cise meaning.
Take a straight-forward English sentence: He
followed her in hot pursuit. Not one engineering
student in a hundred would put to paper any
thought so directly and so evocative of an image
of what is afoot. Translated into Techlish, it be-
comes, It was she who was followed by him in hot
pursuance, or perhaps, It seemed necessary that he
should heatedly follow her in a pursuit-type mode.

THE STUDENT REPORT
EXAMPLES OF FULL-BLOWN Techlish
abound in almost any student report, and we
quote verbatim in what follows from several that
were submitted in a process-design course. Con-
sider the punch line, the final sentence, of one re-
port: The finalized design appears promising and
the results of this study urges further pursuance.


One notes the ungrammatical combination, "the
results urges", wherein the subject and verb
do not agree in number. Although such errors are
common in student reports, they are not essential
to Techlish. The grammatically correct expression,
"the results urge," illustrates a basic charac-
teristic of Techlish, namely, the combination of
words which in common use do not belong to-
gether. Results do not urge; people urge: She
urged him on in hot pursuit. Other unhappy word
choices are "finalized" for "final" and "pursu-
ance" for "pursuit". Another characteristic of
Techlish is the total lack of assignment. To whom


Not only does habitual use
of the passive voice make for dull
writing; it forces a convoluted style almost
impossible for an engineer to make
concise, precise and grammatical.


does the design "appear promising"; who is to
pursue the matter further? But the crucial prob-
lem is that we are not sure what the author
means. The distinctive quality of Techlish is that
it always confronts the reader with this problem.
Translated directly into English, the sentence
reads, "The final design may not be final." How-
ever, as a sentence from a student's report its
true message is probably: "I hope the design is
reasonable; if not, further work should make it
so". The student is really suggesting to the teacher
that he deserves a good grade in either event.
We start with this last sentence of a report
because it points to a basic problem for the stu-
dent. He is asked in a design course to assume the
role of a practicing engineer writing a report for
his supervisor. In this role, his objective is to
provide information that will allow his super-
visor to make some sort of recommendation to
higher management. Large sums of money may be
involved; employee safety and public health may


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








be considerations. Such matters are not trivial,
and the author of the report is assumed expert
with respect to his subject. For a student to play
this role successfully, he must suppress his nat-
ural propensity to behave as a student whose sole
objective is to impress his teacher and to earn a
good grade. The transition from pupil to expert
is abrupt, and few students can believe it is ex-
pected, let alone respond properly. Thus student
reports are laced with all sorts of irrelevant ma-
terial that no supervisor would care to read, but
which is thought to impress a teacher. There are,
for example, long discussions of what was not
done, comments on the great difficulty or extent of
the calculations, narrative expositions of step-by-
step calculations, derivations of standard equa-
tions copied from readily available sources, and
convoluted excuses proffered in compensation for
an inadequate effort. One finds such gems as,
This is a close approximation, since the
whole process was designed by a series of
approximations.
The logic is of course absurd, but the student feels
he should suggest some reason for the teacher to
accept his result.
A report must be written with the intended
reader in mind. This is the cardinal rule of report
writing. A process-design report goes to the boss.
In a design course the student has no real boss,
but must imagine one. Although the teacher
grades the report, he is not the boss; he merely
judges the report with respect to its acceptability
to an imagined boss. When writing for the boss,
either real or imagined, one may safely assume
that:

1. He is busy, or at least believes he is, and
2. He has a general technical knowledge at
least equal to one's own.
The report is written to help the boss; it must
not waste his time. He is interested in the results
and their justification, and these must be the focus
of the report. They must occupy a prominent posi-
tion in a separate section or sections. They do not
belong in the abstract, the introduction, or the
conclusions. They must be stated concisely, with
authority, and without ambiguity. Figures and
tables are appropriately used to aid clarity and to
summarize and order results succinctly; each must
be numbered and referred to in the text. A process
description is always written with reference to a
carefully labelled diagram.


H. C. Van Ness is Distinguished Research Professor of Chemical
Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he has been a
faculty member since 1956. He is coauthor with J. M. Smith of
"Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics", 3rd. ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1975. (Left)
M. M. Abbott is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, with which he has been affiliated since
1969. Prior to that, he spent four years with Exxon Research and
Engineering Company in Florham Park, New Jersey. (Right)
Professors Abbott and Van Ness are coauthors of a number of
research papers on thermodynamics and of two books: "Schaum's
Outline of Theory and Problems of Thermodynamics", McGraw-Hill,
1972, and (with M. W. Zemansky) "Basic Engineering Thermodynamics",
2nd. ed., McGraw-Hill, 1975. They do not guarantee these works to be
free of Techlish, but have made a conscious effort to follow their
own rules.


Although the results of a report are presumed
the work of an expert, the boss will likely check
them at least in part. He must find this an easy
task through reference to an appendix, where all
calculations are carefully laid out and thoroughly
annotated.
No universal agreement exists as to the proper
format of a report, and we can suggest none. The
reasons are, first, that the nature of the report
should influence the format, and second, that the
style of a report and hence its format should re-
flect the individuality of the writer. However, an
abstract is essential, as it tells a prospective reader
what is in the report. An example of a suitable
abstract of a process-design report is:
A preliminary design of the heat-recov-
ery unit for a plant to produce shale oil is
described. Circulating gas picks up heat
from a moving packed bed of spent shale
and transfers it to raw shale in a similar
bed. Technical feasibility of the process is
demonstrated.
One needs no more than this to know what the
report is about. It is brief, to the point, and it


FALL 1977









stands by itself.
Unless it is very short, the body of a report is
divided into sections. Students are often given a
list of "standard" section headings, such as,
Introduction
Procedure
Results
Discussion
Conclusions and Recommendations
These may or may not be appropriate for a par-
ticular report prepared by a particular individual.
The report abstracted above might well be divided
according to the headings:
Process Description
Heat Recovery from Spent Shale
Preheating the Raw Shale
Auxiliary Equipment
Recommendations
Appropriate headings are also used with appended
material, such as notation, literature citations, and
calculations. In our view the introduction, which
simply sets the stage, needs no heading. What else
could the first several paragraphs of a report be?

PRINCIPLES OF WRITING
W E RETURN NOW to our main theme, the
language of a report, the writing of technical
prose. Engineering students often are convinced
of several misconceptions about writing:
1. Engineers are naturally poor writers.
2. Writing is not important for engineers.
3. The rules for writing technical prose are different
from those for non-technical prose.
The first two misconceptions tend to go together
with some sort of reciprocal justification, and we
simply contradict them. The third is a mistaken
impression gained from wide exposure to Techlish.
Here we can by example show the difference be-
tween Techlish and English. But first we offer a
few general principles designed to guide one away
from the most objectionable excesses of Techlish.
I. Be concise; be brief; eliminate "bull." Pro-
vided you recognize it when you see it, "bull" is
effectively pruned as follows: Write a first draft,
put it out of sight and mind for a day or two, then
rewrite it, cutting the length by 251% or more.
This process can usually be repeated.
II. Be precise; be specific; say what you mean;
avoid ambiguities. Your work is too important to
be misunderstood. Your sentences must make
literal sense. Read them aloud; change any that
sound ridiculous. You can gain experience with


whatever you read; an example is the following
sentence from an official university bulletin:
Faculty, staff, and students are asked to cut back
on energy waste by the President.
III. Prefer the active voice. The active voice re-
sults when the subject of the sentence carries out
the action implied by the verb:
We calculate density by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.
In contrast, the passive voice results when the
subject of the sentence receives the action implied
by the verb:
Density is calculated by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.



One learns to write
just as one learns to ride a
bicycle, to play a musical instrument,
or to make love. Bad performances are
not only common, but easily recognized.
Remedial instruction is by criticism and
example. Unfortunately, professors are seldom
accomplished writers, and provide far more
bad examples that good.



This sentence does not say who does the calcula-
tion; it is impersonal. Herein lies the origin of
Techlish. For many years the dominant attitude
with respect to scientific and technical writing
was that it should be impersonal, because science
and technology were said to be impersonal. This
forced adoption of the passive voice, and promoted
the lifeless syntax, the witless style, to say nothing
of the grammatical mistakes of technical prose.
We repudiate the whole of it. Not only does ha-
bitual use of the passive voice make for dull
writing; it forces a convoluted style almost im-
possible for an engineer to make concise, precise,
and grammatical. I and we are not four-letter
words; they are entirely acceptable in technical
reports and publications. We do not suggest that
every sentence start with I or mwe; one seeks
variety. If you are too humble or shy to bring
yourself to write I, use we, in the sense of you, the
reader, and I, the writer. One also has its place.
Do not think you can avoid responsibility for
what you write by adopting an impersonal style.
No way; your name is on the title page. Take some
pride in it; you are the expert.
IV. Write in the present tense, unless it is
clearly inappropriate. In some technical writing,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








changes of tense are nearly as numerous as sen-
tences. In student reports one often finds past,
present, and future tenses all in the same para-
graph, even in the same sentence. This confuses
the reader, and is usually senseless. The results
given in a design report are of course determined
in the past, but they still exist, and should be
presented and discussed in the present tense.
V. Avoid Techlishese. This heading covers a
variety of literary vices:
(a) Jargon, elongated or fancy words. For ex-
ample:
"Finalized" for 'final"
"Pursuance" for "pursuit"
"Utilize" or "utilization" or "usage" for "use"
"Systematize" for "order"
"Synthesize" for "make"
"Hypothesize" for "assume"


(b) "Using" (and its variants)
Examples:
Density is calculated using
equation.


as a preposition.

the ideal-gas


... by using ...
... by use of ...
... by utilizing...
... by utilization of...
... by making use of...
In each case the simple preposition by adequately
replaces the verbal expression.
(c) Possessives. Possession is usually associated
with living things: "the consultant's fee," "the
horse's mouth." An expression such as "the heat
exchanger's tubes" is at best graceless. To speak
of "Martha's tubes" might also be graceless, but
is syntactically proper.
Note also that "it's" is not a possessive, but a
contraction of "it is."
(d) "Due to" is not a synonym for "because of."
It means "caused by":
The fire was due to a weld rupture.
Compare the following sentences.
Techlish: Due to the fact that the pressure
was low, the ideal-gas equation is
used to calculate density.
English: Because the pressure is low, we cal-
culate density by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.
(e) "So" is not a co-ordinating conjunction, and
does not mean "therefore" in formal prose.
Techlish: The pressure is low, so we calculate
density ...
English: The pressure is low; therefore we
calculate density ...


Note the semicolon which separates the two inde-
pendent clauses of the second sentence; use of a
comma here is wrong.
VI. Shun the dangling modifier. A verbal
phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer
to the subject of the sentence:
Being hotly pursued, she saw the garden
ahead.
"She" is the subject of the sentence, and "she" is
being pursued. The logical relationship is more
evident if we transpose the verbal phrase:
She, being hotly pursued, saw the garden
ahead.
Note that we cannot put this verbal phrase at the
end of the sentence without producing an ab-
surdity:
She saw the garden ahead being hotly pur-
sued.
Forced to write in the passive voice of Techlish,
the engineer likely recasts this sentence into
something like:
Being hotly pursued, the garden came into
view.
Presumably the garden is not being pursued, but
we cannot tell that from the sentence. "Garden"
is the subject of the sentence, and the verbal
phrase, regardless of its location, refers to the
garden:
The garden, being hotly pursued, came into
view.
The garden came into view being hotly pur-
sued.
Do we find this sort of nonense in technical writ-
ing? In fact, we do, frequently. Consider:
To calculate the gas density, ideality is as-
sumed.
The subject of the sentence is "ideality"; the
verbal phrase "to calculate" must refer to it. Does
"ideality" do the calculation? Try it the other way:
Ideality is assumed to calculate the gas
density.
Even if we understand the sentence, it does not
reveal who does the calculation or who does the
assuming. The verbal phrase is said to dangle. In
contrast, we have the unambiguous statement in
the active voice:
To calculate the gas density, we assume
ideality.
There are other possibilities:
Techlish: Assuming ideality, the gas density is
calculated.
English: Assuming ideality, we calculate the
gas density.


FALL 1977









Entirely proper sentences can also be constructed
with the verbal phrase as the subject of the sen-
tence:
Assuming ideality allows calculation of the
gas density.
Calculating the gas density is simplified by,
the assumption of ideality.
The richness of English derives from the many
possible arrangements of words by which a mes-
sage may be expressed; however, we can suggest
nothing more direct or clearer than:
We calculate density by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.
We have stated an absolute rule respecting
verbal phrases at the beginning of a sentence, be-
cause that is the usual location of the most in-
sidious dangling modifier. However, verbal
phrases can dangle in other locations, and clarity,
if not grammar, requires that they be revised out
of technical prose. The test of whether a phrase
dangles is simple enough: If it is obvious from the
sentence who or what is doing what the verb im-
plies, the phrase does not dangle.
VII. Heed rules of particular importance to
technical writers.
(a) Units. Most numbers are associated with
units, and these must be clearly expressed. For
this purpose pick conventions and stick to them.
Many possibilities exist; for example:


4 (atm)
12 (cm)
17 (cm)
30 (ft) / (s)
24 (J) / (s) (cm) 2


or 4 atm.
or 12 cm.
or 17 cu.cm.
or 30 ft./s.
or 24 J./s.-cm.2


or 4 atm
or 12 cm
or 17 cu cm
or 30 ft/s
or 24 J/s-sq cm


(b) Symbols and numerals. Do not begin sentences
with them. The simplest reason is that one runs
into conflict with the capitalization rule for the
first letter of a sentence. How does one write an
upper-case 2?
Two liters of water are added.
Not
2 liters of water are added.
Is the symbol q capitalized at the head of a sen-
tence?
The symbol q represents heat.
Not
q (or Q ?) is the symbol for heat.
(c) Hyphens. Technical language abounds with
groups of words that serve as a single adjective;
hyphenation is required when such adjectives mod-
ify a noun:


ideal-gas equation
constant-presssure heat capacity
standard-state fugacity
2-inch pipe
heat-exchange fluid
220-volt circuit
4-foot-long duct
The hyphens connect all words which alone do
not modify the final noun. Thus in ideal-gas equa-
tion, we are writing about neither an "ideal equa-
tion" nor a "gas equation"; in constant -pressure-
heat capacity, "constant" modifies "pressure" and
the compound adjective "constant-pressure" mod-
ifies "capacity", which is also modified by "heat".
The reason for this rule is that without it one can-
not make the necessary distinctions between, for
example:
one armed bandit and one-armed bandit
a high school girl and a high-school girl
3 foot-long tubes and 3-foot-long tubes
(d) Bibliography. Reference is frequently made
in technical writing to outside sources of informa-
tion. The use of footnotes is not generally satis-
factory, and references are usually collected in a
separate section at the end. A consistent format
for all references is essential in this section; pick
one, and stick to it. The current trend is to include
the title of the reference. For example:
1. Seeder, A. B., and V. D. Chitnis, "Laser Technology
in Ancient Greece," J. Early Physics, 6, 4298 (1977).
In the text, reference is usually made to this entry
by a number in parentheses:
Seeder and Chitnis (1) report that...
Note that "in Perry" is not a proper reference to
the Chemical Engineers' Handbook, no matter
how widely known it may be. This volume is listed
in the Bibliography as:
2. Perry, R. H., and C. H. Chilton, editors. Chemical
Engineers' Handbook, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1973.

EXAMPLES OF STUDENT PROSE
CONSIDER NOW SOME typical examples of
student prose. Occasionally one finds a short,
plain sentence:
The number of tubes was economically de-
termined.
Unfortunately, brevity and simplicity are out-
weighed by faults. The passive voice and past
tense don't help, but the real problem is that the
sentence does not say what is meant and misses
the opportunity to convey important information.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The design of a heat exchanger obviously requires
determination (economically or otherwise) of the
number of tubes; it is this number that is im-
portant. The sentence should be replaced by:
The most economical number of tubes is
145.
This is a positive, definite statement devoid of
"bull".
Another short, plain sentence:
Make-up gas was calculated from energy
considerations.
This one is plain nonsense. Gas (make-up or any
other kind) cannot be calculated; calculation gives
an amount or a rate. "Energy considerations" is
too indefinite. What kind of considerations?
Again, the sentence should be replaced by a posi-
tive, specific statement, such as,
An energy balance yields the make-up-gas
flow rate.
One can understand the following sentence,
but it is pure Techlish:
Using the McCabe-Thiele method, 34 equi-
librium stages were necessary.



Thus, by the time a
student is required to write a
technical report he slips naturally into
a special written language which we call Techlish.



Who is "using the McCabe-Thiele method?" Cer-
tainly not the "34 equilibrium stages" as is im-
plied by the sentence structure. The 34 stages were
necessary. Is this true now? The sentence is easily
translated into English.
The number of equilibrium stages, calcu-
lated by the McCabe-Thiele method, is 34.
or
The McCabe-Thiele procedure yields 34
equilibrium stages.
"Using" (and its variants) is the most over-
worked word of Techlish; revision of a sentence
to exclude it almost always results in improve-
ment. This is true also of such common Techlish
expressions as "it was necessary" and "in order
to":
Techlish: In order to maintain isothermal
conditions it is necessary to cool the
reactor.
English: The isothermal reactor requires
cooling.


Techlish: In order to calculate the tower re-
quired, it was necessary to have
vapor-liquid equilibrium data. This
data was found by use of vapor
pressures and assuming ideal solu-
tions and ideal gas (Raoult's Law).
English: Raoult's law provides the vapor-
liquid equilibrium data required for
calculation of the number of trays
in the tower.
The last example of Techlish is so bad as to make
a complete list of faults impractical. We note the
following:
* Passive voice.
* Past tense.
* "to calculate" refers to "it," and is a dangling verbal
phrase.
* Evidently a tower is calculated. Absurd.
* Techlish: "In order to," "it was necessary," "by use of".
* "This data was ." "Data" is the plural of datum, and
requires plural modifiers and a plural verb:
"These data were .", or "these data are. .
* Non-parallel construction in the second sentence:
"by use of ... and assuming"
* An explanation of Raoult's law. Why insult the boss's
intelligence?
The following is an example of an inappropri-
ate narrative style:
In this design of this heat transfer system
we assume the moving bed to be a packed
bed throughout the duration of this opera-
tion. To assure we have a packed bed system
we had to find the superficial fluidization
velocity. Our fluidization velocity was equal
to 1905 ft/hr. When finding the dimensions
of the preheater and post-cooler we need
superficial velocities which were at most
75% of the fluidization velocity.
The translation into English:
Gas velocities through the moving packed
beds of the preheater and post-cooler are
no greater than 1430 ft/hr, about 75% of
the fluidization velocity.

The story-telling version is of course replete with
"bull", which when squeezed out reduces the
length by two-thirds. Other problems with the
Techlish text:
"this design," "this heat transfer system," "this opera-
tion." Is it clear what each "this" refers to?
Multiple changes in tense.
Lack of hyphens in "heat-transfer system" and "packed-
bed system."
Continued on page 173.


FALL 1977









47 Cetwe ie


FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

IN SURFACE INTERACTIONS


J. A. DUMESIC
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

A N IMPORTANT PART of chemical reaction
engineering is the "design" of heterogeneous
catalysts; and, in general, this design process
rests both on (1) experience (e.g. correlations of
catalytic activity and selectivity with the catalyst's
solid state and surface properties) and (2) a
fundamental understanding of the interaction of
surfaces with adsorbed species. While the former
aspect of catalyst design is already well estab-
lished in ChE graduate training, the concepts con-
tained in the latter are not usually encountered in
ChE graduate curricula. Instead, the student must
combine several courses-for example, in quantum
chemistry, statistical mechanics and solid state
physics-in order to cover the essential features
of surface interactions. Yet, this approach does
not provide the continuity that is necessary for
effective application of these concepts to catalytic
phenomena.
One possible solution to this problem is to de-
velop a one-semester introductory course to the
fundamentals of surface interactions and their
applications to adsorption and catalysis; by
stressing the physical, chemical and catalytic
breadth that is necessary for the understanding of
surface phenomena, the course can be given to
first-year graduate students without prerequisites.
Subsequent to this course, a student with special
interest in surface phenomena can take an inter-
disciplinary program to develop depth in various
areas. The advantage of this approach is that the
interrelation between the physical, chemical and
catalytic concepts is made at the outset, thereby
providing the necessary continuity. Furthermore,
this course would give a catalysis-related point of
view into surface interactions for students from


such areas as solid state physics, chemistry and
material science. What follows is a suggestion for
the scope and organization of such a course (based
on a new course in development at the University
of Wisconsin). In addition, the relationship of this
course to the University of Wisconsin curriculum
in chemical reaction engineering is shown in
Figure 1. As limiting cases, reaction engineering
is divided into (1) reactor engineering and design,
and (2) catalysis and catalyst design, since these
are the two major areas of specialization within
this field.

COURSE SCOPE
TN CONTEMPORARY SURFACE science and
catalysis research, there appears to be a gap
between developments in fundamental theories of
adsorption for simple species (e.g. H, CO), and

Undergraduate
Kinetics, Catalyso i and
Reactor Design



Reactor Design Kinetics and Catalysis in Surface Interactions

-__ :. -
i Interdisciplinary Studies
S(e.g. chemistry, physics, mathematics)


Seinr Cur.
(e.g. Liqid-Phase Reaction Engineering, Application
SChemil Principles o New Processes
.....4


FIGURE 1. Curriculum in Chemical Reaction Engineering.
FIGURE 1. Curriculum in Chemical Reaction Engineering.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


T__
_J









interpretations of reaction kinetics and adsorp-
tion behavior for catalytically interesting species
(e.g. hydrocarbons). This gap arises primarily
from the difficulty (computational, not funda-
mental) in treating "complex" adsorbed species
rigorously in the framework of the adsorption
theories. Yet, it seems reasonable (from both a
research and educational point of view) to develop
and use the concepts of the theories qualitatively
(for now) to aid in the understanding of these
"complex" adsorption and reaction phenomena.
This is, in fact, a major objective of the suggested
course.
The least that one must expect of a qualitative
theory of adsorption phenomena is that it be con-
sistent with the symmetry of the (absorbed
species-surface) system. Furthermore, it seems
reasonable to exhaust those concepts derivable
from symmetry alone (since this can be done
rigorously) before construction of a qualitative
theory. Therefore, the first part of the course deals
with group theory, and its application to surface
and chemical phenomena.
Before considering detailed calculations of the
electronic structure of the (absorbed species-
surface) system, it is convenient to treat the
adsorbed species and the solid at infinite relative
separation. That is, the next phase of the course
introduces molecular orbital theory and solid state
physics, respectively. Subsequently, the absorbed
species is allowed to interact with the surface,
leading to chemisorption.
In the final part of the course, the theoretical
concepts are applied to various topics in adsorp-
tion and catalysis. This demonstrates how the
general theory can be simplified to obtain mean-
ingful results for different types of catalysts and
reactions.
COURSE STRUCTURE
T HE OVERALL STRUCTURE of the course is
schematically shown in Figure 2, and it is seen
therein that there are four major divisions: sym-
metry, solid state, surface interactions, and ap-
plications to adsorption and catalysis. These are
discussed in greater detail below.

1. Symmetry
One begins with the concept of symmetry
operations (e.g. proper rotations, mirrors), and
the classification of molecular structure in terms
of point group symmetries. For a given point
group, representations for the group and the bases


for these representations are then considered.
Through appropriate manipulation, each repre-
sentation can be decomposed into a set of irreduc-
ible representations; this leads to the character
table for the group. With a minimum of abstract
derivation, group theory can be applied to chem-
ical phenomena; indeed, the different applications
result primarily from different choices of basis.
These applications include: (1) infrared and
Raman spectroscopies, (2) crystal field theory,
(3) hybridization, (4) ligand field theory, (6) the
Woodward-Hoffmann rules, and importantly (7)
molecular orbital theory.
Along with the above applications, one must
introduce the concept of matrix elements of op-
erators, since symmetry can be used to deduce



There appears to be a gap
between developments in fundamental
theories of adsorption for simple species
(e.g. H, CO), and interpretations of reaction
kinetics and adsorption behavior for catalytically
interesting species (e.g., hydrocarbons).



when various matrix elements must be identically
zero. Then it is shown that two states may "inter-
act" with each other when matrix elements be-
tween them are nonzero; depending on the sym-
metry of the interaction operator (e.g. the Hamil-
tonian) this imposes restrictions on the symmetry
of interacting states.
When translation is added to the point group
symmetry operations, then the two- and three-
dimensional space groups are generated. Special
sites in the unit cell are classified according to
their point group symmetries; for the two-
dimensional space groups, these sites become
adsorption sites on surfaces. However, the most
striking consequence of the translational sym-
metry is diffraction. As examples, x-ray diffrac-
tion (three-dimensional) and/or low energy elec-
tron diffraction can be discussed. This leads
naturally into the reciprocal lattice. When "ex-
ternal diffraction" is replaced by "internal elec-
tron diffraction," solid state electronic structure
is introduced.

2. Solid State
After a brief review of the Schrodinger equa-
tion and its implications in atomic structure (i.e.


FALL 1977








s-, p- and d-orbitals), the free electron gas model
for simple metals is derived. In so doing, k-space
(wavevector space) can be introduced, followed
by the computation of the density of states from
constant energy contours in k-space. The occupa-
tion of these states by the electrons is in accord
with Fermi-Dirac statistics. Next, the effect of
the periodic placement of the metal atoms is
"turned on," leading to "internal electron diffrac-
tion." As discussed in the symmetry part of the
course, diffraction can be described by the recip-
rocal lattice, and in this way k-space becomes
divided into the Brillouin zones. Furthermore, the
translational symmetry of the lattice requires that
the electron wavefunctions be written as Bloch
functions, and all Brillouin zones can then be
diffracted (translated in k-space) back into one
zone. This is the reduced zone scheme for display
of band structure.
Through the free electron gas model the basic
concepts of solid state physics have now been
introduced. Next, these concepts are used to dis-
cuss qualitatively the electronic structure of semi-
conductors. Of particular importance are (1)
doping of semiconductors (p- and n-type), (2)
conduction electrons and valence holes, and (3)
the bending of bands due to electron transfer.
Of special importance are transition metals
and the associated d-band. Because the d-orbitals
are not as diffuse as the outer valence s- and
p-orbitals (e.g. 3d orbitals are less diffuse than 4s
and 4p), the tight-binding approximation can be
used to describe the d-band; on the other hand, the
(nearly) free electron gas model seems adequate
to describe the broader (in energy) s- and p-bands
resulting from the valence s- and p-orbitals.
Qualitatively, at least, the electronic structure of
transition metals can now be simply represented.
Finally, the solid state portion of the course
can be supplemented by a discussion of defects
and defect reactions. An appropriate defect sym-
bolism should be introduced (e.g. Kr6ger sym-
bolism), allowing defect reactions to be written
consistent with the material balance, charge
balance and lattice site balance. Then problems in
for example non-stoichiometry, disorder type, and
controlled (through doping) valence and defect
concentration can be addressed.

3. Surface Interactions

One is now ready to consider the interaction
of adsorbed species with surfaces. To parallel the
solid state section, one may begin with adsorption


I. SYMMETRY
Point Group Symmetry
Representations/Bases
Character Tables
Applications
IR/Raman Spectros-
Crystal/Ligand Fields
Woodwa rd-Hoffmann
rules
Hylridization
Molecular Orbital Theory
Matrix Elements
Orbital "Interactions"
Space Group Symmetry
Translation
Diffraction
Reciprocal Lattice


II. SOLID STATE
Free Electron Gas
Density of States
Fermi-Dirac Statistics
Brillouin Zones
Bloch Functions
Semiconductors
Conduction Electrons
Val nce HoN d
Doping (p and n)

Transition Metals
s, p, and d-bands
Tight-Binding
Defect
Symbolism
Balances


III. SURFACE INTERACTIONS
Semiconductors
Boundary Layer Theory
Cumulative Adsorption
Depletive Adsorption
Photocatalytic Effects
"One-Dimensional Metal"
Surface States
Adatom Density of States
Bonding/Antibonding States
Surface Molecule

Real Metals
Green',s Functions
Level Width Function
Level Shift Function
Surface bands
Symmetry of
Adsorption


IV. APPLICATIONS TO ADSORPTION AND CATALYSIS

FIGURE 2. Structure of the Course: Fundamental Con-
cepts in Surface Interactions.



on semiconductors. Starting with boundary layer
theory one again encounters bending of the elec-
tron bands due to charge transfer at the surface.
This leads to the cases of cumulative and depletive
adsorption. As a more advanced example, one may
discuss photoadsorptive and photocatalytic effects
in semiconductor catalysis.
For adsorption on metals, a one-dimensional
model can be used to illustrate many of the phys-
ical principles pertinent to adsorption on real
surfaces. Specifically, a semi-infinite chain of
atoms is modelled in the tight-binding approxima-
tion to form a one-dimensional d-band. Of signif-
icance, is the density of states on the surface atom,
and in certain cases a localized surface state is
formed (i.e., the electron density of this state
decays exponentially from the surface into the
bulk). Then, an adatom is allowed to adsorbb" on
the surface end of the chain, and one calculates the
adatom density of states. For a sufficiently strong
interaction between the adatom and the surface,
localized bonding and antibonding states are
formed, leading to the concept of a surface mole-
cule.
The treatment of adsorption on two-dimen-
sional surfaces is facilitated by introduction of the
Green's function. It then follows that the metal
and adatom density of states (for the interacting
system of adatom plus metal) are readily de-
rivable from the Green's function. In particular,
the adatom density of states can be written in
terms of a level width function and a level shift
function. Then, in order to bring together all
aspects of the course: (1) a surface d-band is


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









constructed in the tight-binding approximation
(solid state), (2) matrix elements between the
absorbed species molecular orbitals and the sur-
face d-band are inspected (symmetry), and (3)
the adatom density of states is analysed (surface
interactions).

4. Applications
The course ends with the application of these
fundamental concepts to topics in adsorption and
catalysis. This can be done through formal lec-
tures or student special projects and reports. The
latter procedure was followed at the University of
Wisconsin, and below is a list of special projects
recently chosen by students.
Application of Woodward-Hoffmann rules to catalysis
Alloy catalysis
Electronic properties of metal clusters
Electronic and structural factors for adsorption on semi-
conductors
Surface diffusion in catalysis
Absorbed atomic species (oxygen on metal oxides)
Statistical mechanics of adsorption
Hydrogen adsorption on metals.

CONCLUDING REMARK

The primary objective of the course is to pro-
vide the physical and chemical breadth that is
necessary for a fundamental understanding of
adsorption and catalytic phenomena. As a result,
a significant fraction (ca. 30%) of the course en-
rollment at the University of Wisconsin has come
from students in physics, chemistry and material
science.
In the course, basic concepts pertinent to sur-
face interactions are introduced and synthesized
in various simple applications. The necessary pro-
ficiency in the use of the concepts for the interpre-
tation of reaction kinetics and adsorption phe-
nomena comes with further practice and study.
This can be accomplished by subsequently follow-
ing an interdisciplinary program of course study,
and/or reading the literature. E

REFERENCES
The following is a list of texts that have been
useful in various parts of the course.
I. Symmetry
1. Cotton, F. A., The Chemical Applications of Group
Theory. (Second Edition), John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1971.
2. Pearson, R. G., Symmetry Rules for Chemical Re-
actions, Orbital Topology and Elementary Proc-


esses, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976.
3. International Tables for X-ray Crystallography,
Vol. I, Kynoch Press, 1969.
II. Solid State
1. Kittel, C., Introduction to Solid State Physics
(Fourth Edition), John Wiley and Sons, New York,
1971.
2. Harrison, W. A., Solid State Theory, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1970.
3. KrUger, F. A., The Chemistry of Imperfect Crystals
(Second Edition), Vol. 2, North-Holland/American
Elsevier, New York, 1974.
III. Surface Interactions
1. NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series B: Physics,
Vol. 16, Electronic Structure and Reactivity of
Metal Surfaces (E. G. Derouane and A. A. Lucas,
editors), Plenum Press, New York, 1976.
2. The Physical Basis for Heterogeneous Catalysis
(E. Drauglis and R. I. Jaffee, editors), Plenum
Press, New York, 1975.
3. Clark, A., The Chemisorptive Bond, Basic Concepts,
Academic Press, New York, 1974.


ACADEMIC POSITIONS
For advertising rates contact Ms. B. J. Neelands, CEE
c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. 32611


RUTGERS
THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY

Department of Chemical and Biochemical
Engineering

FACULTY POSITIONS IN CHEMICAL AND BIO-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Rutgers University,
The State University of New Jersey, invites applica-
tions for several full-time faculty positions for
undergraduate and graduate teaching and research
in the fields of chemical and/or biochemical engi-
neering. One tenure track assistant Professorship is
open now to be filled in early 1978. It is expected
that one or more similar positions can start later
in the year. Applicants must have a doctoral degree
in chemical and/or biochemical engineering at the
time of the appointment and possess the dual
abilities to develop sponsored research programs
and teach in several areas of their field. Submit
resume, including at least three professional
references, a list of journal publications, and a brief
summary statement about your plans for research
and teaching. Send your application to the Chair-
person, Search Committee, Department of Chemical
and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers-The State
University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903.
Rutgers is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity
employer.


FALL 1977















ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


JACOB JORNE
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan 48202

"If a piece of zinc and a piece of copper be
brought in contact with each other, they will form a
weak electrical combination, of which the zinc will
be positive, the copper negative. This may be learned
by the use of a delicate condensing electrometer, or
by pouring zinc filings through holes in a plate of
copper upon a common electrometer; but the power
of the combination may be most distinctly exhibited
in the experiments, called Galvanic experiments, by
connecting the two metals, which must be in contact
with each other, with a nerve and muscle in the limb
of an animal recently deprived of life, a frog for in-
stance; at the moment the contact is completed, or
the circuit made, one metal touching the muscle, the
other the nerve, violent contractions of the limb will
be occasioned."
-Humphrey Davy, 1812, in
Elements of Chemical Philosophy,
London: J. Johnson and Company.

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE of Chemical
Engineers was founded in 1908 in response to
the growing industrial interest in electrochemical
processes such as chlorine, caustic, carborundum
and electroplating of copper and nickel. Electro-
chemical engineering is therefore no stranger to
the main stream of chemical engineering and is
taught presently in many leading American uni-
versities.
The primary objective of an electrochemical
engineer as well as of every chemical engineer is
to bring chemical processes to practical realiza-
tion and to operate them under optimal and eco-
nomical conditions. Electrochemical engineering
serves electrochemistry in the same way that ChE
interacts with chemistry.
Electrochemistry is the science which studies
the direct conversion between electricity and
chemical reactions. It is the oldest branch of phys-
ical chemistry and can be traced back to the
eighteenth century. There is even evidence of the
use of primitive batteries in antiquity. Ancient


iron-copper batteries were found in Iraq and evi-
dence of copper electroplating was found in Egypt.
Modern electrochemistry emerged from the pio-
neering discoveries of Volta, Galvani, Davy and
Faraday in the early nineteenth century.
Electrochemical engineering is a relatively
young field, which emerged in the beginning of
the twentieth century, and progressed rapidly in
the last thirty years with the expansion of the
electrochemical industry. Electrochemistry played
an important part in the scientific and technolog-
ical revolution of the twentieth century. Thomas
Edison can best be described as an electrochemical
engineer. His original laboratory, presently pre-
served in Greenfield Village near Detroit, is a
classical example of an electrochemical laboratory.
Today the electrochemical industry consumes
nearly 10 % of the total electrical power generated
in the United States. Many of the things taken for
granted in the pleasures and necessities of modern
living depend on electrochemistry. Few people are
aware of its role and importance. The most rec-
ognizable example is the battery. In the form of
dry cells, storage batteries and fuel cells electro-
chemistry provides the power for many devices.
From the tiny batteries of calculators, radio tran-
sistors and implanted heart pacemakers to the



Jacob Jorne is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Wayne State University. He obtained his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from the
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. from the
University of California at Berkeley, under the direction of Professor
Charles Tobias.
On the faculty of Wayne State University since 1972, Jacob
Jorne has developed a research program in electrochemical engi-
neering which includes the fundamental studies of the zinc-chlorine
battery, hydrogen fuel cells, nonaqueous electrochemistry, solar
electrochemical conversion and corrosion. He is consulting to various
electrochemical industries. He is currently engaged in studying both
theoretically and experimentally the role of population diffusion and
dispersion in ecological systems, and the stability of prey-predator
interacting populations.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









large fuel cells of the Gemini and Apollo space
flights, electrochemical energy conversion is the
only known way to convert and store electrical
energy directly.
Synthesis of essential chemicals can only be
accomplished by electrolysis. Most of the im-
portant metals are produced, or the impure form
refined, exclusively by electrolysis. All the alum-
inum, magnesium and nickel and a large portion
of the copper and zinc are produced or purified in
hundreds of thousands of tons per year by electro-
chemical processes. The aluminum production
processes alone consume a staggering 72 billion
KWhr annually. Chlorine, which is an extremely
important raw material in the plastic industry, is
produced electrochemically in the amount of sev-
eral thousand tons per day. Any improvement in
the current efficiency and overpotential of these
processes is of utmost importance. Plating, electro-
chemical machining of hard metals and desalina-
tion of sea water are all examples of electrochem-
ical processes which are conducted on remarkably
large scales throughout the world.
All of these processes have one principle in
common. They all depend on a chemical process
taking place at an electrically conducting surface
while simultaneously giving up or taking on one
or more electrons. Energy for the reaction comes
from pumping electrons into the reaction zone.
The emergence of electrochemical engineering
as an independent field is quite similar to that of
ChE. Both fields introduced the concept of trans-
port phenomena, especially mass transport, and
quantitative approaches. The importance of con-
vective diffusion in electrochemical systems is due
to their heterogeneous nature. Nernst introduced
in 1904 the concept of the film model which is no
more than a simplified stagnant diffusion bound-
ary layer. However, the importance of mass trans-
fer in electrochemical systems was fully recog-
nized from the original works of Benjamin Levich,
Carl Wagner and Charles Kasper in the 1940's;
this was later developed into a recognized aca-
demic program by Charles Tobias and John
Newman.
Today electrochemical engineering is an inte-
gral part of ChE and is taught in many ChE
programs in major American universities among
them: U.C. Berkeley, U.C. Davis, U.C.L.A., Illi-
nois, Case Western Reserve, Illinois Institute of
Technology, Northwestern, Connecticut, Oregon
State, Michigan, Wisconsin and Wayne State.
Electrochemical engineering is not limited to


the subject of transport phenomena. The main
stream of research includes energy conversion
and storage (batteries and fuel cells) ; scaling up;
current distribution, porous electrodes, organic
electrochemistry, photo-electrochemistry and the
utilization of solar energy, non-aqueous electro-
lytic solution and molten salts, electromachining



The heart of the course
is dedicated to the various over-
potentials and evaluating of cell potential
scaling up and design consideration
of electrochemical reactors.



and environmental aspects among others. The
central problems of electrochemical engineering
are to increase the productivity of electrochemical
reactors and to improve their energy efficiency.
Electrochemical systems are very complex and
their principles depend upon the understanding of
thermodynamics, kinetics, transport phenomena,
electricity and surface phenomena. Though we
have not yet arrived at a point where all can be
left to the computer, perhaps the electrochemical
industry is now emerging from an era of em-
piricism and becoming more quantiative.

COURSE DESCRIPTION
AT WAYNE STATE University a three hour
credit course in electrochemical engineering
is offered annually during the Winter quarter.
The course has been taught since 1973 and was
attended by approximately sixty students, both
graduate and seniors. The course is open to en-
gineers and chemists from the local Detroit in-
dustry and is scheduled every other year during
the evening hours to enable part-time students
and professionals to attend classes. The electro-
chemical engineering course is followed by a cor-
rosion course in the Spring quarter.
The course does not follow a particular text-
book, but rather a set of notes and homework
problems. A list of recommended books is given
in the reference section. The homework problems
are assigned weekly and the final grade is deter-
mined by two exams and a term paper. The stu-
dents usually select the subject of the termpaper
from a list of topics. The course outline is pre-
sented in Table 1 and a list of termpapers from


FALL 1977








TABLE I. Electrochemical Engineering
Course Outline

1. Introduction to Electrochemical Engineering
a. The Scope and Importance of Electrochemistry
b. The five "E": Electrochemistry, Engineering, En-
ergy, Environment and Economics.
c. Examples from the Electrochemical Industry
2. Faraday's Laws
3. The Electrolytic Solution
a. Conduction in Aqueous Solution-Debye-Huckel
Theory
b. The Concept of Electrical Potential
c. Conduction in Nonaqueous Solutions and Fused
Salts
d. Primary Current Distribution in Various Geo-
metrical Cells
4. Thermodynamics of Galvanic Cells
a. The Electromotive Force
b. Standard Potentials and the Nernst Equation
c. Application of Electrochemical Cells: Measure-
ments of Gibbs Free Energy, Entropy, Enthalpy,
Activity Coefficients, Standard Potentials and Sign
Convention
d. Reference Electrodes
5. Electrochemical Kinetics
a. The Electrical Double Layer
b. The Theory of Rate Processes Applied to Electro-
chemistry
c. The Tafel Equation
d. Charge Transfer Overpotential
6. Mass Transfer in Electrochemical Systems
a. Diffusion Controlled Electrochemical Reaction
b. The Importance of Convection and the Concept of
Limiting current
c. Mass Transfer Overpotential or Concentration
Polarization
d. Secondary Current Distribution
e. The Rotating Disk Electrode
7. Synthesis of the Principles and Applications
a. Evaluation of Cell Potential and Overpotential
b. The Combined Effect of Standard Potential,
Ohmic Resistance, Charge Transfer and Mass
Transfer Overpotentials
c. Industrial Examples: Batteries, Chlor-Alkali In-
dustry, Aluminum Production, Copper Refining,
Plating, Electrowinning, Corrosion
d. Modeling and Optimization of Electrochemical
Systems
e. Electrochemical Machining-Design Problem
f. The Chlor-Alkali Industry-Economical and En-
vironmental Evaluation, New Process Design
8. Students Presentation of Term Papers.
See Table II for examples


the last several years is presented in Table 2. The
course is not intended to cover the physical chem-
istry of electrolytic solutions or the principles of
electrochemistry, however many ChE students
have not studied enough electrochemistry in their
physical chemistry sequence. Consequently the


first three weeks are devoted to the survey of
Faraday's laws, ionization and electrolytic solu-
tions, the standard potential and the Nernst
equation. This is done in order to bring all the
students to the same level.
The heart of the course is dedicated to the
various over-potentials and evaluation of cell po-
tential, scaling up and design consideration of
electrochemical reactors.
The convenience of using electrochemical tech-
niques in mass transfer measurements is em-
phasized: the rate (current) and the driving force
(potential) can be easily controlled and measured.
However the complications due to electrical migra-
tion and non-uniform current distribution are
brought to the class attention. The concept of mass
transfer limiting current i, is introduced and the
ChE students are reacquainted with this electro-
chemical term which is directly related to the
familiar Sherwood number

Sh = iL.L / n-F-D-Cb

where F is the Faraday's constant, n the number
of electrons transferred in the electrochemical re-
action, D is the diffusion coefficient, L the char-
acteristic length, and Cb is the bulk concentration.
Measuring the limiting current is therefore an
easy way of establishing mass transfer correla-
tions.


TABLE II. Examples of Term Papers

1. Developmental Batteries For Electric Vehicles
2. Bioelectrochemistry of Membranes and Nerves
3. Ion Selective Electrodes
4. Decorative Electrodeposition: Copper, Nickel, Chrome
Plating
5. Feasibility of Making C12 and NaOH at Very High
Current Densities
6. Signal Transmissions in the Nerves
7. Energy Efficiency in Aluminum Production
8. Rotating Disk and Ring-Disk Electrodes
9. Pitting Corrosion-Electrochemical Aspects
10. Fuel Cells
11. Intermolecular Potentials and the Kinetics of Ionic
Solutions
12. Cathodic and Anodic Protections.
13. Electrochemical and Photochemical Responses in the
Eye
14. Low Pressure, Low Temperature Hydrogen-Oxygen
Fuel Cells
15. The Chlor-Alkali Industry
16. The Use of Dimensionless Groups in Electrochemical
Engineering
17. Electrochemical Machining
18. The Hydrogen Economy: Water Electrolysis and Fuel
Cells.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The last section of the course is devoted to ap-
plications, especially energy storage and conver-
sion and various important electrochemical proc-
esses, e.g. the chlor-alkali industry, aluminum
production and the proposed hydrogen economy.
Special topics of interest include bioelectrochem-
istry, membranes, electrodialysis, electrochemical
machining, porous electrodes and high energy
batteries.
An interesting class project is the technical
comparison and economical evaluation of the vari-
ous processes for chlorine-caustic production: the
mercury, diaphragm and the newly developed
membrane cells. The environmental impacts of the
three processes are discussed at length. A new
high current chlorine production process which
involves high. flow velocities is proposed as an
exercise and the students are asked to design the
process and to compare it to existing processes.
The novel technique of electrochemical machin-
ing is brought as an example of achieving very
high rates which were unheard of only 15 years
ago. In this technique the negative replica of the
cathode is reproduced in the anode piece by high
rate anodic dissolution. High current densities in
the order of 100 A/cm2 can be achieved by circu,
lating the electrolyte at high velocities (10 m/s)
through a very small gap (0.1-0.5mm). This is
an excellent example of incorporating ChE and
electrochemistry principles. The students are
asked to design an electrochemical machining sys-
tem using well known heat, mass and momentum
transfer correlations, and to evaluate the power
consumption.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
INDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMICAL processes
will no doubt increase in relative importance to
other chemical processes in the future. Increasing
electrical energy generation relative to petroleum
production will favor electrochemical processes
and will need new electrochemical storage and
conversion methods. Many known electrochemical
reactions will be re-examined and improved. New
membranes and new electrodes will be developed,
and electro-organic chemistry as well as metal
production by electrowinning will be expanded.
It is anticipated that careful application of elec-
trochemistry to biological problems will provide
new solutions and new techniques. It is predicted
that biological membrane research will expand.
Direct application of electrochemistry to thera-
peutic situations will increase fn the medical pro-
fession.


The role of the electrochemical engineer of the
future will be to bridge the gap between the sci-
entific discoveries and the yet unknown economic
reality of the future. The present trend in electro-
chemical engineering of better quantitative under-
standing, better cell design, scale up and optimiza-
tion insure that we are ready to fulfill the promis-
ing future of electrochemistry. O

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
1. Potter, E. C., Electrochemistry, Cleaver Hume Press,
London 1956.
2. Newman, J., Electrochemical Systems, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1973.
3. Bockris, J. O'M, and A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electro-
chemistry, Plenum Press, New York 1970.
4. Kortiim, G. F. A., Treatise on Electrochemistry, 2nd
ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, 1965.
5. MacInnes, D. A., The Principles of Electrochemistry,
Reinhold, New York, 1939.
6. Delahay, P., Double Layer and Electrode Kinetics,
Interscience, New York, 1965.
7. Vetter, K. J., Electrochemical Kinetics, Academic Press,
New York, 1967.
8. Mantell, C. L., Electrochemical Engineering, 4th ed.,
McGraw Hill, New York, 1960.
9. Kuhn, A. T., Industrial Electrochemical Processes,
Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, 1971.
10. Moore, W. J., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., Ch. 10 & 12,
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972.
11. Bard, A. J., ed., Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry of
Elements, vol. 1, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973.
12. Hampel, C. A., ed., The Encyclopedia of Electrochem-
istry, Reinhold, New York, 1964.

Book reviews

INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS SCIENCE
(SI EDITION)
by B. R. Schlenker
John Wiley & Sons Australiana Pty, 1974.
364 pages.
Reviewed by C. E. Birchenall, U. of Delaware
In the foreword to this book, Professor Hugh
Muir cites the need for all sorts of people to
develop a better feeling for material properties
and their efficient utilization as justification for
introducing materials science into high school
curricula. The author chose the contents to match
the New South Wales syllabus for one of the four
parts of an industrial arts curriculum. The result
is a descriptive survey of the wide variety of
materials employed in engineering, with fitting
emphasis on structure-properties relationships and
Continued on page 175.


FALL 1977














CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING SCIENCE


DAVID RETZLOFF
University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri 65201

THE FOCUS OF the Chemical Reaction Engi-
neering Science course at the University of
Missouri-Columbia is on the theoretical descrip-
tion and interpretation of the phenomenological
behavior of heterogenous catalysts. A student en-
tering this course is presumed to have had at least
a three hour course on chemical reaction engi-
neering which covered the following topics:
1) Rate equations for homogenous reactions
2) Isothermal and temperature effects in the
ideal batch, ideal plug flow, and the ideal stirred
tank reactors
3) Characterization of non-ideal reactor per-
formance by means of the residence time distribu-
tion, the dispersion model, the segregated flow
model, and the tanks in series model
4) Heterogenous reactions and
5) Fluidized bed reactors. The course begins
with a brief review of the batch, plug flow, and
stirred tank reactors using a unified approach via
the general material and energy balances ex-
pressed in terms of differential forms [1], i.e.-
L, A = f Navier Stokes Equation
i (v) L, A = i (v) f Energy Equation


dJ = 0


Conservation of Mass
Equations


The stability analysis and existence of bifurcation
points for the nonlinear isothermal and adiabatic
operation of the ideal reactors is made using the
degree of a map and surface curvature concepts
in the differential form language. The solutions
for these nonlinear problems is developed using
Green's function techniques. This approach has
the advantage of introducing at the beginning of
the course the general mathematical and physical
framework needed to analyze phenomenological
catalytic behavior.


At this point in the course the Langmuir-
Hinshelwood [2] description of fluid-solid catalytic
reactions is developed. The approach taken is to
first consider the situation in which one step
(mass transfer, adsorption, surface reaction, pore
diffusion or, desorption) is controlling the overall
reaction rate. The equations appropriate to each
case are developed. Mass and heat transfer corre-
lations are discussed where needed. When pore
diffusion is taken up both the Thiele modulus and
the effectiveness factor are defined. Various geo-
metric shapes of the catalyst as well as tempera-
ture gradients within the porous catalyst are dealt
with. Multiple controlling steps in the reaction
process are then reviewed and the appropriate de-
sign equations obtained. The uniqueness and sta-
bility of the various descriptions of catalyst be-
havior are analyzed using the mathematical tools


The stability analysis and
existence of bifurcation points for the
nonlinear isothermal and adiabatic operation
of the ideal reactors is made using the degree
of a map and surface curvature concepts
in the differential form language.


previously presented. Current papers in the cata-
lytic literature where these methods are used is
reviewed. It is pointed out at this juncture that
the Langmuir-Hinshelwood approach does not in
general lead to a unique physical interpretation of
the experimental data but generally provides ade-
quate design equations.

FURTHER INSIGHT
T O FURTHER DEVELOP an insight into the
physical process that occur during catalysis
four final topics are considered in this course.
They are: (1) geometric theory of catalysis, (2)
the electron band theory of catalysis deals with
Continued on page 189.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







If your middle name is

impatience,


maybe we can put things

on a first name basis.


At Celanese, we don't think patience is much of a virtue when it
comes to creativity or careers. We became a 2 billion dollar com-
pany by responding quickly and creatively to changing markets
and technologies. By giving our people the opportunity-and
responsibility-to respond to change, to develop, to take
initiatives.
That's why you won't find any lengthy training programs at
Celanese. Our management philosophy is to give our engineers
and chemists significant projects and responsibilities as soon as
possible. Give them as much to handle as their skills and dedica-
tion are up to in an unusually open working environment which
fosters creative decision-making at all levels.


It works for you because it gives you the opportunity to grow
rapidly. It works for us because it's what has made us a leader in
man-made fibers, with a solid position in chemicals, polymer
specialties and engineering resins.Without an impatient respon-
siveness, we wouldn't have pioneered triacetate, developed
Fortrel polyester or become a world leader in formaldehyde and
methanol production.
If you think you'd like working in this kind of an atmosphere, lets
get to know each other better. If you have a degree in engineer-
ing or chemistry, ask your placement officer to set up an interview
with us. Or write John D. Grupe, Celanese Building, 1211 Avenue
of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.


"Fortrel is a registered trademark of Fiber Industries, Inc.


Q6
CELANESE
An equal opportunity employer m/f


, ,j I f/r '' "















BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


HARVEY BLANCH and FRASER RUSSELL
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711

THE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEER is primarily
concerned with research, development, design,
construction and operation of processes involving
biological material. Current examples of these
processes include the production of antibiotics,
drugs, organic acids, foods, animal feeds, and
biological waste water pollution control.
Future activities include the possibility of
single cell protein production from unusual
sources (hydrocarbons, cellulosic materials), glu-
cose production from paper wastes, and microbial
oil recovery. The one semester (3 credits) course
offered in the graduate program at the ChE De-
partment at the University of Delaware serves
two purposes; to introduce the student rigorously
to microbial and enzyme kinetics, mass transfer
and biochemical processing, and secondly to de-
velop the skills necessary to analyze and design
fermentation systems, taking into account down-
stream processing constraints. The course is open
to advanced seniors and graduate students.
Biochemical engineering is interdisciplinary
and draws from many areas, but most strongly
from microbiology, biochemistry and chemical en-
gineering. There are major hurdles to overcome in
providing training for students coming from one
of these areas in the other two. This course is
taught to ChE students and provides them with
the skills necessary in the other two areas. No
attempts have been made to offer the course to
non-engineering majors, as it is based on a strong
background in kinetics, fluid mechanics and mass
transfer. The course is available to civil engineer-
ing graduate students in environmental engineer-
ing. Table I shows an outline of the topics and
lectures. A design project is introduced after the
section on mass transfer and class time is allo-
cated periodically to review problems arising in


TABLE I. Introduction and Scope of Biochemical
Engineering

Fundamentals of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Microbial taxonomy, growth requirements of micro-
organisms, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; electron
transport, replication and genetics

Kinetics of Microbial Growth
Constitutive expressions for growth, structured and
unstructured models, substrate inhibition, kinetics of
product formation, influence of the external environ-
ment

Batch and Continuous Culture
Mass balances for batch, CFSTR, tubular and multi-
vessel systems, the turbidostat, stability of reaction,
dynamics, equipment for batch and continuous cultures,
computer coupled fermentations

Mass Transfer
Fundamentals of two phase gas/liquid mass transfer,
predictions of kLa, aeration and agitation systems, air-
lift fermenters, novel devices, power requirements for
agitation, scale-up, non-Newtonian systems, microbial
film fermenters

Reactor Design
Design of tank type and tubular biochemical reacting
systems

Process Design
Influences of downstream processing constraints on
process design (extraction, filtration), medium sterili-
zation, air sterilization.

Mixed Microbial Cultures
Interactions between microorganisms, predator-prey
interactions, stability of mixed cultures, applications

Enzyme Engineering
Kinetics of single and multiple enzymes in solution,
enzyme reactors, immobilized enzymes, supports and
couplings, kinetics of immobilized enzyme reactors,
applications

Industrial Processes
Design project, biological wastewater treatment, de-
tailed analysis of a complete fermentation plant, sterili-
zation of medium, product extraction


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









the design. The design familiarizes the students
with the problems of scale-up of fermentations,
and the difficulties of sterile operation. Final de-
signs are presented orally at the conclusion of the
course.
A section on the fundamentals of microbiology
and biochemistry introduces the various types of
microorganisms encountered and their composi-
tion. Much of the material is taken from Aiba,
Humphrey, Millis [1], supplemented with refer-
ences to introductory microbiology texts. Carbo-
hydrate metabolism is examined using material
from Conn and Stumpf [2] and Aiba et al [1].
Anaerobic and aerobic pathways common to im-
portant fermentation products are covered, and
lipid metabolism and secondary metabolite path-
ways reviewed. The reproductive cycles of bac-
teria, viruses and fungi are described, and the
importance of mutation as a tool for increasing


tured and structured models, and the concepts of
balanced and unbalanced growth follow logically
from an examination of structured models. The
influence of external parameters, such as type of
substrate, temperature and pH is emphasized.
Using the previously developed rate expres-
sions, organism, substrate and product balance
equations are simply developed for a variety of
reactor configurations. The effect of various op-
erational parameters is investigated by solving
the algebraic or differential mass balance equa-
tions using a simulation language on the digital
computer. Both MIMIC and CSMP have useful
built-in plotting routines. This also allows a simple
numerical investigation of the stability of various
configurations (e.g. cell recycle) and rate expres-
sions; this supplements the analytical investiga-
tion of system stability to small perturbations.
Systems dynamics and various control strategies


There are several specific examples
in which unexpected results emerge from the coupling
of microbiological processes and reactor control. In one it is shown
that feedforward proportional derivative control of recycle sludge into an activated
sludge sewage treatment process, for variations in incoming waste flow, results in
control of the effluent waste carbon concentration, this being independent of the
expression used to describe the specific waste utilization rate.


product yields is emphasized. This comprises 8
hours of lectures.

MICROBIAL GROWTH KINETICS

T HE DEVELOPMENT OF constitutive kinetic
rate expressions for microbial growth com-
prises three hours of course time. Unstructured
models, such as the Monod relationship, are de-
veloped, and concepts of endogenous metabolism,
cell yield, models for product formation and sub-
strate inhibition introduced. The analogy between
constitutive expressions in chemical reacting sys-
tems and those in microbial systems is empha-
sized. In this way batch, chemostat and tur-
bidsotat systems are introduced in a natural
fashion. The distinction between the rate expres-
sion, being experimentally determined, and com-
ponent mass balances around the system, is not
always clear in the literature, especially that of
waste water and sanitary engineering. An article
by Fredrickson et al [3] overviews both unstruc-


can be easily introduced and modeled. The ap-
proach is outlined in a review article [4].
The equipment required to monitor and con-
trol fermentation systems is unique to the chem-
ical process industry in some respects, and im-
portant problems are discussed (e.g. the require-
ments of sterile operation, inoculum preparation,
pH and dissolved 02 probes). The newly develop-
ing area of computer-coupled fermentations is
emphasized. Aiba et al [1] and Nyiri [5] provide
useful background. Computer-coupled fermenters
are reexamined following the section on mass
transfer, including paramters such as kp, ap-
parent viscosity and rate of heat evolution.
There are several specific examples in which
unexpected results emerge from the coupling of
microbiological processes and reactor control. In
one it is shown that feedforward proportional-
derivative control of recycle sludge into an ac-
tivated sludge sewage treatment process, for vari-
ations in incoming waste flow, results in control of
the effluent waste carbon concentration, this being


FALL 1977








independent of the expression used to describe the
specific waste utilization rate. This has obvious
implications in the overall control of wastewater
treatment plants.

MASS TRANSFER
T HIS SECTION COMPRISES 10 lectures and
assumes an understanding of undergraduate
heat and mass transfer. Two phase gas-liquid
reactor design equations are developed for tank
type reactors, using the "ideal" reactor concept.
Plug-flow gas and well-mixed liquid phases and
both phases well-mixed are considered. The ma-
terial for this section is based on a series of
articles by Russell [6-8], which emphasize design,
based upon the fundamentals of fluid mechanics
and mass transfer. The parameters which must
then be evaluated follow naturally. Tubular sys-
tems are briefly reviewed. This provides a rational
basis for considering the problems of scale-up.
The available data for estimating interfacial area
a and the mass transfer coefficient k, are dis-
cussed, based on Russell [6], and various correla-
tions for kLa from the literature are reviewed [9].
The transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian
fermentation broths introduces the student to the
complexities of real systems. The power require-
ments necessary to obtain the desired degree of
mass transfer in both stirred tank and air-lift
fermentors are examined, as are mixing times and
shear rates. This then leads into a discussion on
bases for scale-up, and novel fermentation devices.

DESIGN PROBLEM
PON COMPLETION of the section on mass
transfer and scale-up, the class is presented
with a design problem, to be tackled in groups.
The problem is given only in simple terms, e.g., to
design a plant to produce 300 trillion units of
penicillin per year. The prime thrust is to obtain
suitable reactor configurations, mode of operation,
and sufficient oxygen transfer capabilities. Some-
what less time is spent in medium sterilization and
extraction. The design serves to further familiar-
ize the student with the literature and provide an
introduction to some of the differences between
pharmaceutical and traditional chemical process
industries. Longer holding times for example, are
typical of most microbial systems. Other designs,
emphasizing the two-phase nature of the problem,
may include biological wastewater facilities (see,
for example, Atkinson [10]. In the usual senior


design project, typically not a great deal of atten-
tion is paid to mixing and gas-liquid mass trans-
fer in stirred tank devices, so the material covered
in this section will, in general, supplement the
senior design course. The last week of the semester
is spent reviewing designs and discussing an ac-
tual complex fermentation plant.
Although not a great deal of consideration in
the past has been given to mixed cultures, their
importance is becoming more apparent. The vari-
ous types of interactions between microorganisms
can serve as a rather unique model system for



The one semester (3 credits) course
serves two purposes: to introduce the student
rigorously to microbial and enzyme kinetics,
mass transfer and biochemical processing, and
secondly to develop the skills necessary to analyze
and design fermentation systems, taking into account
downstream processing constraints.



other interacting ecosystems, in which energy is
transferred from lower to higher trophic levels.
Predatorprey interactions are analyzed in some
detail, and the stability of various systems is ex-
amined. The existence of experimentally observ-
able limit cycles in a protozoan-bacterium system
provides an interesting introduction to the vast
literature on oscillations of populations of higher
organisms. May's monograph [11] serves as a
source for many of these references, and provides
a readable discussion of limit cycles on a fairly
elementary level.

ENZYME ENGINEERING
N A COURSE SUCH as this, it is difficult to
spend as much time as one would like on vari-
ous areas, and enzyme kinetics and enzyme engi-
neering can only be fairly superficially covered.
The behavior of single and multiple enzymes in
solution is reviewed and the problems of diffusion
and reaction in immobilized enzyme systems dis-
cussed. Experimental methods of immobilization,
are reviewed, including how these methods may
alter the observed kinetics. Various reactor con-
figurations and applications are discussed. Atkin-
son [10] and Aiba et al [1] serve as reference
sources, and the student is given homework prob-
lems which direct him to the already vast litera-
ture here.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The course aims to present a rigorous and
formal introduction to biochemical engineering,
emphasizing the students' ChE background.
Analogies are drawn with reaction kinetics, heat
and mass transfer, and design learned at the
undergraduate level. The student is provided with
the elementary tools in biochemistry and micro-
biology, and a familiarity with current views and
literature in these areas. Clearly further course-
work in applied microbiology or biochemistry is
required for those students doing graduate work
in the area, and this is usually a component of
the graduate coursework for M.S. and Ph.D.
candidates. Throughout the course homework
problems are assigned to supplement the lecture
material. As there is no convenient text source of
problems, some of these are taken from fairly
recent literature articles. This helps to emphasize
the quantitative rather than descriptive nature of
the area. F]
REFERENCES
1. Aiba, S., Humphrey A. E., Millis, N. F., Biochemical

ENGLISH OR TECHLISH: Van Ness & Abbott
Continued from page 159.
The second sentence says that finding a velocity assures
a packed-bed system. Nonsense.
Not afraid of the first person, the author over-does a
good thing; "Our fluidization velocity" is inappropriately
personal.
Two final quotations and their translations
illustrate several of the points made earlier.
Techlish: To attain this area the heat ex-
changer contains 100 9 foot long
pipes with an inner diameter of one
inch.
English: A heat exchanger with 100 9-foot-
long, 1-inch-i.d. pipes provides the
required area.
Techlish: The shale preheater has a feed of
raw shale supplied to it between
60-90F which is to be heated to
600F and then fed into the reactor.
The exchanger is to utilize exhaust
gas from the reactor as its heat
transfer fluid.
English: Before entering the reactor, raw
shale is preheated from about 60F
to 600F. Exhaust gas from the re-
actor serves as the heat-exchange
fluid.
The "shale preheater" of the second quotation


Engineering, 2nd edition Academic Press, New York
1973.
2. Conn, E. E., Stumpf, P. K., Outlines of Biochemistry
2nd edition, Wiley, New York 1966.
3. Fredrickson, A. G., Megee, R. D., Tsuchiya, H. M.,
"Mathematical Models for Fermentation Processes"
in Adv. Appl. Microbial 13 419 D. Perman editor,
Academic Press, New York.
4. Blanch, H. W., Dunn, I. J., "Modeling and Simulation
in Biochemical Engineering" in Adv. Biochem. Engng.
3 128 (1973) Eds. Ghose, T., Fiechter, A., Blake-
borough, N.
5. Nyiri, L., "Applications of Computers in Biochemical
Engineering" in Adv. Biochem. Eng. 2 49 (1972) Eds.
Ghose, T., Fiechter, A., Blakeborough, N.
6. Shaftlein, R. W., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C. 60 (5) 13
(1968).
7. Cichy, P. T., Ultman, J. S., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C.
61 (8) 6 (1969).
8. Cichy, P. T., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C., 61 (8) 15 (1969).
9. Miller, D., AIChE Journal 20 3 (1974).
10. Atkinson, B., Biological Reactors, Pion Ltd., London
(1974).
11. May, R., Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosys-
tems, Princeton Univ. Press, 2nd edition (1974).


comes as a surprise; we would have expected steel
or perhaps cast iron.
Writing good technical prose is a difficult task;
few persons can do it easily or quickly. A first
draft is usually in need of substantial revision;
several rewritings are normally required. Some
expert help is provided by a good dictionary,
which should be consulted frequently for the
proper meanings (and spellings) of words. Espe-
cially useful is a little book, called "The Elements
of Style", by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White.
The second edition of this book, published by Mac-
millan, is printed in paper-back at under $2.00. In
78 pages the authors say all that need be said on
the subject. Every engineer should keep a copy at
hand.
Rather than supply our own ending to this
piece, we offer the closing words of a student re-
port:
Due to the small choice of alternatives re-
lated to this study, the complexity of our
conclusions remain at a minimum. In con-
clusion it is readily apparent that further
research would definitely pay off in the
form of further insight into this problem.
Who could disagree? E


FALL 1977








eaa4eA in


POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


RICHARD P. CHARTOFF
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221

T HE PRIMARY responsibility for the Polymer
Science and Engineering graduate course pro-
gram at the University of Cincinnati rests on four
faculty members: Professors F. J. Boerio and
R. J. Roe of the Department of Materials Science
and Metallurgical Engineering, Professor R. P.
Chartoff of the Department of Chemical and
Nuclear Engineering and Professor J. E. Mark



Through the experiments students are given
opportunities to become thoroughly
familiar with the various types
of instrumentation likely to be found
in any industrial or academic polymer laboratory


of the Department of Chemistry. When an in-
coming graduate student, enrolled in any one of
these departments, expresses the desire to pursue
polymer specialization, he or she is advised to
take a series of four one-quarter core courses
offered by the four faculty members. According
to the offering sequence, these are: "Introduction
to Polymer Science" taught by F. J. Boerio,
"Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials" by
R. J. Roe, "Polymer Configurations and Rubber-
like Elasticity" by J. E. Mark and "Polymer
Engineering" by R.P. Chartoff. These four courses
are designed to acquaint the students, in an orderly
sequence, with fundamentals of most major
aspects in polymer science and engineering in-
cluding preparation, characterization, structure,
properties and processing. Descriptions of the
courses are listed in Table 1. Topic coverage and
the sequence of offerings in all of the courses is


closely coordinated among the cooperating faculty
members.
The lecture courses are augmented by two one-
quarter laboratory course, "Polymer Characteriza-
tion" and "Polymer Engineering Techniques"
(see Table 1). All the four faculty members
simultaneously participate in these two laboratory
courses on a shared basis and offer a variety of
experimental topics according to the areas of their
expertise. From among 15 to 20 experimental
topics offered in each laboratory, students are
free to select any 8 according to their individual
interests. Within the two quarter period a student
can choose a series of lab experiences which pro-
vide a broad exposure to several different topic
areas. At the same time those who wish to can
narrow their selection to a minimum of different
areas and concentrate more in depth on any one,
such as polymerization or processing. The possi-
bilities available for individual selection are
illustrated in Figure 1. Since progress in polymer
science and engineering heavily depend on experi-
ment, the emphasis on laboratory experience for
graduate students is a most essential part of the
program. Through these experiments students are
given opportunities to become thoroughly familiar

Cher t1,l
Fil.^r^"'- : eacio'isF


FIGURE 1. Interactions between areas.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









with the various types of instrumentation likely
to be found in any industrial or academic polymer
laboratory. This is valuable for learning useful
techniques for their thesis research and gives
them an edge in obtaining future employment
after they finish their graduate study.
After completing the sequence of basic courses,
students are further encouraged to take other
elective courses on specialized topics in polymers.
These include "Transport Processes in Polymer
Systems", "Organic Synthesis of Polymers",
"Polymer Spectroscopy" and "Polymer Mor-
phology".
The Polymer Science and Engineering pro-
gram is a graduate program only at the present,
but undergraduate students interested in polymers
can become introduced to the basic aspects of
polymer science through two elective courses
"Polymeric Materials" and "Polymer Technology".
The two laboratory courses mentioned above
are also offered to advanced undergraduate
students. El

TABLE 1. Graduate Polymer Courses

Introduction to Polymer Science 3 credits, Lecture, Boerio,
Autumn
Preparation and Characterization of polymers; addi-
tion and condensation, molecular weight averages and
distributions.

Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials 3 credits, Lec-
ture, Roe, Winter
Solid state structure-property relationships in polymeric
materials. The glass transition, structure of crystalline
polymers, thermodynamics of polymer solutions and
compatibility.
Polymer Configurations and Rubber-like Elasticity 3
credits, Lecture, Mark, Spring or Summer
Configuration dependent properties and their interpre-
tation; statistics of chain dimensions; network forma-
tion in crosslinked polymers; thermodynamics and
mechanical properties of rubbers; statistical theories
of rubber-like elasticity.
Polymer Engineering 3 credits, Lecture, Chartoff, Spring
Fundamentals of polymer processing; design of pro-
cessing operations and relation to physical and
mechanical behavior in solid and molten states;
viscometric measurements and melt elasticity; applied
viscoelasticity.
Polymer Characterization 2 credits, Lab, Boerio, Roe,
Chartoff, Mark, Winter
Experimental investigations of structure and properties
of polymers; molecular weight averages and distribu-
tions, thermal and mechanical properties, transitions,
and crystallinity.
Polymer Engineering Techniques 2 credits, Lab, Chartoff,


Roe, Boerio, Mark, Spring
Measurements of viscoelastic properties, viscosity and
flow parameters necessary for design of polymer pro-
cessing equipment; relations between processing data
and polymer molecular structure with applications to
quality control.
Special Topics in Polymers 3 credits, Lecture, Staff, Winter
or Spring
Intensive coverage of specific topi csin polymer science
and technology at a research level. To be offered
irregularly three quarters in each two year period.
Future topics will include polymer spectroscopy,
transport phenomena in polymer systems, surface
properties of polymers, organic synthesis of polymers,
polymer spectroscopy, and polymer morphology. Offer-
ings to be coordinated between Chemical Engineering,
Materials Science, and Chemistry staff.

BOOK REVIEW: Schlenker
Continued from page 167.
brief summaries of methods of testing and
characterization of materials, and the shaping
and fabrication of objects. There are many
illustrations, but they are not always integrated
with and explained in the text. Many experiments
are suggested; some are self-explanatory, but
others are not clear with respect to purpose, pro-
cedure or significance. An instructor is necessary
to supply guidance-and to protect students and
equipment. Some statements are inaccurate or
misleading, but they are few and unemphasized
among the multitude; not much damage is likely
to result.
Professor Muir notes that, in spite of the title,
the text is about the phenomenology of materials
more than the principles and concepts of materials
science. The few gestures toward a quantitative
approach include a few mechanical testing equa-
tions and a statement of Bragg's law, together
with the geometric figure customarily used in its
derivation. The use of the lever rule is illustrated,
but even this mass conservation principle, using
only the simplest linear algebra, is not derived.
Should the study of materials be a part of
high school curricula? Surely it is more exciting
than bookkeeping, conveys more varied skills than
typing, and is a valuable adjunct to shop practice
or preparation for the building trades. This book
would be a suitable text, although injection of a
bit more of the formal structure of materials
science might make the subject easier to retain.
College-bound students should study science and
mathematics in high school so they can learn
materials science on a more systematic and
quantitative level. D1


FALL 1977








EDITOR'S NOTE: The following papers deal with the rapidly developing
graduate programs for students with a B.S. outside chemical engineering. The first
paper is a general survey paper, the second discusses a specific program, and
the third gives a student point of view.





ChE GRADUATE PROGRAMS

FOR NON-CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


E. L. CUSSLER
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213

WHEN TIMES ARE GOOD, college students
tend to be interested in education. They study
subjects because of inherent interest, without re-
gard for the utility of what is learned. When times
are unsettled, college students become much more
interested in professional training. They believe
that such professional education will facilitate em-
ployment. They often choose to study engineering
because it provides one of the fastest routes to a
professional degree.
Because times are currently unsettled, many
students who have majored in chemistry as under-
graduates are now interested in graduate study in
chemical engineering. Most of these students have
studied at private liberal arts colleges or at smaller
campuses of state university systems. Those in the
liberal arts colleges choose a more personal under-
graduate experience. They are often undecided
about a career or want additional time to mature.
Those at the small state colleges are most com-
monly there because education is inexpensive. At
both types of school, undergraduate engineering
is rarely offered.
At the same time, many ChE graduate pro-
grams could use more qualified students. This is a
consequence of the fact that there are more grad-
uate programs than engineering student demand
justifies. Many of these programs, which multi-
plied rampantly in the 1960's, have admitted huge
numbers of foreign students to justify their ex-
istence. Independent of the foreign students' qual-
ity, many departments would prefer to enroll more
North American natives. When departments see


the supply of chemists available, the lure is obvi-
ous: why not teach ChE to chemists?
This essay explores the ways in which this
teaching can be effectively accomplished. It ex-
plores what programs exist to do this, how they
are operated, and how they can be started. In
writing this essay, I have been strongly influenced
by our own experiences. Our experiences and in-
formation are not exhaustive. Part of the reason
is that there seem to be more programs for chem-
ists than there are chemists in the programs, so
that judging effectiveness is difficult. Another


... we have not been able to find
an effective text. The reason is that
ChE is almost completely taught in a sequential
fashion. As a consequence, we have had to write
a text, which we would be glad to make available
to others with similar problems.


problem is that many seem reluctant to discuss
efforts which have failed. In any case, before I
start, I apologize in advance for not mentioning
many specific experiences.

OPEN ADMISSIONS
T HE EDUCATION OF chemists as ChE's can
be roughly organized into three methods. In
the first method, one simply denies any difference.
One admits chemists as engineers and has them
take the same courses as engineering students.
Such flexibility has a long tradition: almost every
senior professor can remember a few individuals
in the 1930's and 1940's who made such a transi-
tion. Moreover, it has the tremendous appeal of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









requiring little extra work, either by faculty or
by the administration.
What is different now is the number of stu-
dents involved. During the past few years, I have
been surprised to discover that in a significant
number of ChE departments, chemists make up
the majority of North American graduate stu-
dents. These departments have bright faculty,
strong research support, and reasonable reputa-
tions. Since they seem to have operated success-
fully for at least five years, there may be no
problem.
However, I am concerned about this method
because I believe it significantly changes the edu-
cation of the graduates. If more than a third of my
graduate class is not trained in chemical engineer-
ing, the technical level of the material taught
drops. Moreover, because the current trend in
many departments is to reduce graduate course
requirements, one may certify "engineering"
graduates who know very little engineering. I
should emphasize that I cannot either support or
refute these opinions; I just feel concerned.


UNDERGRADUATE REMEDIAL WORK

THE COMMON ALTERNATIVE to open ad-
missions is a program which requires under-
graduate courses as part of the transition. While
the number of courses varies considerably (cf.
Table I), all include courses in transport phe-
nomena, and most require thermodynamics. After
completing these courses, the chemist enters the
conventional graduate program. The cost to the
university is minor, since no new courses are in-
volved. Such requirements certainly insure a solid
engineering education of both breadth and depth,
so that graduates can be fully employed as chem-
ical engineers. They are demanding; for example,
in the Texas A&M program, only 25-30% of the
students originally admitted qualify for graduate
study.
The characteristic of this type of program is
that it can have trouble attracting students. The
chemists whom we want to attract are bright,
aggressive, and individualistic. They often are
admitted to medical school but cannot afford to
go; they always are admitted to graduate school
in chemistry with full fellowships. They cannot
afford to undertake extensive remedial work at
their own expense, which is the common expecta-
tion. As a result, many of these programs may
attract only a small number of superior applicants.


We have preceded our special summer course with
a one-week mathematics review, taught by
people connected with our affirmative action
program. This has two results: it provides the
minority and returning student with the
necessary mathematics and it also
establishes firm friendships
between these two groups.



SPECIAL COURSES
T HE THIRD WAY of teaching ChE to chemists
is to require special courses giving an acceler-
ated synopsis of the undergraduate engineering
curriculum. This is the strategy we have used
here, and so is that with which I am most sym-
pathetic. The effective development of this ap-
proach here has been facilitated by generous
assistance from the Exxon Education Founda-
tion. Such special courses require additional fac-
ulty and administrative effort at an approximate
cost to date of $10,000/year. However, because of
this accelerated synopsis, the quality of other
graduate courses need not be compromised. Be-

TABLE I. Typical Remedial Programs
(All of these lead eventually to a masters degree)
University of Buffalo
Two courses in transport phenomena; one in unit op-
erations.
University of California, Berkeley
Variable; for example, courses in thermodynamics,
transport phenomena, kinetics, and design plus another
elective.
Clarkson College
Courses in fluids, thermodynamics, heat and mass trans-
fer, kinetics, control, and design.
University of Delaware
Courses in stoichiometry, thermodynamics, fluid me-
chanics, heat and mass transfer, kinetics, equilibrium
stages, and design; seminar; laboratory.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Courses in kinetics, design, control, and mass transfer;
some prerequisites in previous summer.
Rutgers University
Two courses in transport phenomena; one in design,
and in mathematical methods; audit in control.
Texas A&M
Courses in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mass
transfer, process control, kinetics, design, electrical
engineering, and materials; laboratory.


FALL 1977









cause of its speed, bright students with chemistry
backgrounds quickly qualify for research support
on government grants and contracts. Seventy per-
cent of the students entering complete their de-
grees. The major difference is that the graduates
are not conventional ChE's but a new breed,
armed with a new mixture of skills. The implica-
tions are explored below.
As the above paragraphs describe, the educa-
tional innovation in programs for teaching ChE
to chemists largely arises from the special courses
designed to give a prompt synopsis of ChE (cf.
Table II). As a result, these will be discussed in
more detail. Although accelerated, the Texas Tech
program is most similar to the remedial courses in
Table I. It takes a full year, and consists of ma-
terial taught at the same rate as the undergradu-
ate courses of the same description. The chief
difference is that the students in this course are
separated from the conventionally trained engi-
neers.

TABLE II. Accelerated Courses for Teaching
Chemical Engineering
Carnegie-Mellon University
Eight week summer course covering the following se-
quentially: stoichiometry, thermodynamics, equilibrium
stages, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer;
senior level design course required during the academic
year, and kinetics often taken as an overload.
Texas Tech University
One year course equivalent to stoichiometry, thermo-
dynamics, fluid mechanics, stages, heat and mass trans-
fer, kinetics, economics, mathematics, design.
University of Virginia
Nine week summer program of two parallel courses
consisting of 1) mathematics, fluid mechanics, and heat
transfer; and 2) heat transfer, mass transfer, and
kinetics.

The other two special courses, at Carnegie-
Mellon and Virginia, consume about eight weeks
of the summer before the masters year. They
commonly have three hours of lecture per day, five
days a week. They also have at least one problem-
solving session every day. These problem sessions
can run a long time. I had one at Carnegie-Mellon
that started at 3:00 p.m. and continued until mid-
night. In our program, tutors are available both
in the afternoon and in the evening. These tutors
are largely graduate students whose backgrounds
are in chemistry and who have already success-
fully completed the masters program. We rarely
assign individual tutors to specific students.


The content of these two special courses is
obviously a synopsis of undergraduate ChE. The
students joke that the freshman year takes one
week, the sophomore year two weeks, and the
junior and senior years about three weeks apiece.
Somewhat to my surprise, the plethora of topics
listed can be effectively covered. To test this, we
have given the same exams both to undergradu-
ates and to students in the program. The students
in the program easily outscored the undergradu-
ates. This is a result of the students' quality, their
maturity, and their dedication to making an effec-
tive transition.
TROUBLE WITH MATH AND THERMO
T HE CHEMISTS HAVE the most trouble in
two areas: mathematics and thermodynamics.
Mathematics presents a big problem. While most
students have studied differential equations, few
can apply what they've learned to physical situa-
tions. Virginia's program teaches mathematics
directly. Ours relies on graduate-level mathe-
matics courses taken in the fall semester.
In contrast, the student's deficiency in thermo-
dynamics is less expected and harder to rectify.
While most of the students in the programs in
Table II are graduates of ACS-accredited chem-
istry departments, and these departments do teach
a required thermodynamics course, most of the
students claim to have had little or no thermo-
dynamics. I think the truth is probably more
nearly what one student said, "Sure, I had all this
stuff but no one ever acted like it was important."
We have tried to remedy this deficiency in
thermodynamics by including material in the
summer course. We have not yet been able to
teach this material effectively, partly because an
extremely abstract subject is being presented at
a very rapid rate. After the summer, students do
not feel that they understand thermodynamics.
They are able to handle our graduate course in
thermodynamics in the fall semester, but the ex-
perience is trying, demanding, and unpleasant. I
know no simple way out of this problem.
The summer courses also contain no reference
to engineering design. Our program, and several
of the remedial ones, correct this by requiring
that students with chemical backgrounds take a
senior level design course. Our special students
work much harder than our seniors, do better, and
thus cause some resentment. I think pushing our
seniors this way is healthy.
We've had two other problems with our special


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








summer course which deserve mention. The first
is that we have not been able to find an effective
text. The reason is that ChE is almost completely
taught in a sequential fashion. Everyone who
studies sophomore thermodynamics intends to
take the junior-level transport phenomena courses
and the senior-level kinetics courses. This means
that there is no single text providing an abbrevi-
ated overview of essentials of ChE in relatively
simple terms. As a consequence, we have had to
write a text, which we would be glad to make
available to others with similar problems. We plan
to revise and publish this text soon.
The second problem we have had concerns
retaining minority students in the program. Both
they and students who have been out of college
three or more years find the mathematics re-
quired to be extremely difficult. As a result, we
have preceded our special summer course with a
one-week mathematics review, taught by people
connected with our Affirmative Action Program.
This has two results: it provides the minority and
the returning student with the necessary mathe-
matics and it also establishes firm friendships


... in a significant number
of ChE departments, chemists make
up the majority of North American
graduate students.


between these two groups. When the rest of the
class convenes, the black students do not isolate
themselves as frequently occurs in undergraduate
classes.
I should emphasize that special summer
courses are not substitutes for undergraduate
training in ChE. It merely facilitates the student's
ability to catch up throughout the regular aca-
demic year. Students whose backgrounds are in
chemistry do less well relative to their classmates
during the fall's courses. By spring, this difference
disappears. In other words, the special summer
course does not substitute for undergraduate
training, but does allow students with different
backgrounds to become competitive.

STUDENT RECRUITMENT
WHILE GRADUATE PROGRAMS which
teach ChE to non-chemical engineers are
multiplying rapidly, these programs often do not


have large enrollment. In some cases, the faculty
time spent planning them may exceed the student
time in them. As a result, it is appropriate to ask
where the students in this program will come
from.
Most of the larger programs have found that
the best source of students is the small liberal
arts colleges located close to the university. These
small colleges commonly do not offer undergradu-
ate engineering programs. Moreover, because they
are close by, the universities' reputations are ex-
aggerated. The students recruited from these
colleges have already rejected graduate training
in chemistry. Considerable competition comes
from schools offering a masters in business ad-
ministration.
A second effective source has come from gen-
eral mailings to chemistry departments, again
largely at small colleges. We have been partic-
ularly successful with the minor campuses of
major universities like those of New York and
Ohio. We also receive good applications from high
school teachers and from employees of local in-
dustries. Advertisements in ACS student news-
letters and announcements in publications like
Chemical and Engineering News and Business
Week have not been effective.
One neglected aspect of these programs is
their potential for social action. Specifically, they
provide an opportunity to bring additional women
and minority students into engineering. We have
been very successful recruiting female teachers
from local high schools. They are eagerly recruited
by industry because their maturity and perspec-
tive makes them excellent candidates for middle
management positions. We have been much less
effective in recruiting blacks. Part of our trouble
is that qualified blacks in chemistry choose med-
ical school. Moreover, chemistry programs in pre-
dominantly black colleges sometimes have less
stringent requirements in mathematics than those
existing elsewhere. Nevertheless, we are convinced
that we can effectively recruit minority students
in the long term.
Once applications from qualified students come
in, one must decide on how to admit them. Ap-
plicants commonly fall into two sharp categories.
The first category are chemists with very weak
undergraduate records. They are grasping at
straws, desperate for any opportunity which
promises a better chance of employment. The
second category are students who are very good;
they have decided to go on to graduate school and


FALL 1977









are carefully weighing options.
The best predictor of student performance is
the quantitative aptitude part of the Graduate
Record Examination (GRE). We require scores of
at least 700 and preferably 750 to insure satisfac-
tory performance. GRE aptitude scores are also
useful in making a decision if the quantitative
aptitude score is marginal. GRE advanced chem-
istry scores are less reliable, and reflect more the
quality of the undergraduate institution than the
quality of the student. Grade point seems the hard-
est to interpret. Basically, we have discovered that



If more than a third of my graduate class is not trained
in ChE, the technical level of the material
taught drops. Moreover, because the
current trend in many departments
is to reduce graduate course
requirements, one may certify "engineering"
graduates who know very little engineering.



an entering chemist needs a (3.4/4.0) overall
grade point to be effective. This is higher than
that needed by entering ChE students.

WHAT DO GRADUATES REPRESENT?
NONE OF THE PROGRAMS outlined above
can produce students who are identical with
those trained completely in ChE. This can be
especially true when large numbers of students
are trained under the open admission strategy
described above. This strategy is so wide and
leads to such variation that generalizations seem
meaningless. On the other hand, if sufficient
remedial courses are required, the student should
certainly become more and more similar to those
trained completely in ChE.
The most intriguing question is, to what cate-
gory do the students who graduate from programs
built around rapid special courses belong? To
answer this question, we contacted graduates of
the special programs who are employed in in-
dustry. These graduates had more job offers at
slightly higher salaries than conventionally
trained masters engineers. Their reactions to the
positions they accepted, and their supervisors'
reactions to them are shown in Table III.
One conclusion is that those trained in chem-
istry have a more pragmatic attitude than those
trained in engineering. For example, these stu-


dents complain that the masters courses are too
theoretical, while students with an engineering
background feel the same courses are excessively
applied. Apparently, those who move from chem-
istry into engineering make a mature and con-
scientious decision that their future lies in an
industrial environment. They are very sensitive to
industrial demands and respond accordingly. On
the other hand, those trained in engineering go
to graduate school in part because they are anxi-
ous to learn more of the intellectual basis of their
discipline. This basis is more strongly represented
in universities than in industry.


TABLE III.
Job Performance of Graduates
FROM THE GRADUATE
1. How do you view yourself professionally?
A mixture of a chemical engineer and a chemist.
2. To what professional organizations) do you belong?
Most belong to both the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers and the American Chemical
Society.
3. Does your job provide adequate professional chal-
lenge?
Yes-both chemical engineering and chemistry
required.
4. Did the program provide you with the professional
training you expected?
Yes-worked effectively.
5. In your job, do you see any professional advantages
or disadvantages of your training compared with a
traditionally trained chemist or chemical engineer?
Advantages over chemist; often translator be-
tween chemists and engineers.
6. Do you have any other comments, suggestions or
observations about the program?
Many courses were too theoretical; Masters thesis
takes too long.

FROM THE SUPERVISOR
1. How do you regard the professional training the
graduate has?
Pleased so far.
2. Do you see any advantages of this type of program
over traditional majors?
A range of answers-from disadvantages to ad-
vantages to ignorance of program.
3. How would you rate the graduates initiative, flexi-
bility, maturity?
Much better than average on all points.
4. Do these graduates require more supervision?
Most require an average amount of supervision.
Those who require more do so because they are
more productive.
5. Do you have any other comments, suggestions or
observations?


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Positive comments with good advice: e.g., "stu-
dents should choose positions with a mixture of
chemical engineering, chemistry;" "student qual-
ity more important than education;" "should use
these people to replace chemistry Ph.D.'s."

A second conclusion which can be drawn from
Table III concerns the students' effectiveness. This
effectiveness is largely inherent in the students
themselves. If they are bright, smart and aggres-
sive before entering a program, they remain so
afterward. As a result, their performance has
more to do with their own character and ability
than with any educational gloss. These students
apparently perform a mixture of tasks. Certainly
industrial jobs require a continuum of skills:
they are not balkanized between science and engi-
neering as are the university departments. How-
ever, industry recruits within the departmental
structure and recruiters seek not specific indi-
viduals but people with specific types of certifica-
tion. The students are being hired as engineers,
but are working as hybrids.

AT YOUR UNIVERSITY .....
AS THE ABOVE paragraphs show, there is
now extensive experience on how to start a
graduate program for teaching ChE to non-
chemical engineers. If you decide to develop such
a program at your university, you should do three
things. First, decide on a strategy. If you plan to
use open admissions, be sure you assemble sensible
arguments defending the quality of your program.


If you decide to require a significant number of
remedial courses, think about how you plan to
attract and retain smart students. If you decide
to use special summer courses, you must discover
a source of money to pay the additional cost.
The second thing you need to develop is a
scheme for recruiting students. Any program
which has an enrollment of less than about half a
dozen will inevitably attract administrative crit-
icism in hard times. You must decide whether to
recruit locally or nationally. You should decide
whether you are more attractive as ChE depart-
ment or as a university. Moreover, the mailing list
that you use to attract students should take ad-
vantage of undergraduate chemistry newsletters
and local ACS meetings. Advertisements in Chem-
ical Engineering Education won't help because
chemists don't know this journal exists.
The third thing you should do is to talk to
others with experience. Most, if not all, of the
departments mentioned in this article are willing
to send to any who are interested detailed ma-
terial, including hour-by-hour course outlines, and
copies of lecture notes. It would be foolish not to
take advantage of the experience of others.
Finally, I wish you good luck. I find rigidly
structured departments a real discouragement to
free thought. I look forward to the time when it
is easier for students to move back and forth be-
tween disciplines to develop unique skills which
will make them professionally more interesting,
interested and effective. 5


EXPERIENCE


AT ONE UNIVERSITY



R. M. BETHEA, H. R. HEICHELHEIM,
A. J. GULLY
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, Texas 79409

AT THE HEART of our accelerated expansion
program lies the premise that the holder of any
baccalaureate degree has demonstrated intellectual
maturity, and, with sufficient motivation, should
be able to undertake almost any study of his


choice. If such study were to be at the graduate
level, he would have to have the background in-
formation to follow the advanced study, and,
equally important, he would have to have enough
"skill" in the discipline to compete at the gradu-
ate level with holders of the bachelor's degree in
that major. With the foregoing in mind, we
examined the course content of each departmental
undergraduate course required for the B.S. Ch.E.
to determine what topics a person entering our
graduate courses would need as an absolute mini-
mum. We also examined our undergraduate re-
quirements in science and mathematics in the same
light.
The chemical engineering component of our


FALL 1977


IIIIIIIIIN









TABLE 1. Ch.E. 5301 Analysis of Chemical
Engineering Problems
Course Content
A. Stoichiometrya
1. Units, dimensions, dimensional analysis
2. Basic laws: Raoult, gas laws, corresponding states,
Henry, Avogadro, non-ideal behavior
3. System/surrounding concepts
4. Driving forces/potentials
5. Chemical equations/stoichiometry with generation
and consumption rate expressions
6. Composition/flowrate units, fluxes
7. Accumulation/depletion expressions
8. Multistream systems with recycle, bypass, purge
9. Thermal variables: Cp, AHR, AHmo, Q, w


B. Fluid Flowb
1. General energy
balance
2. Pump work


3. Prime movers
4. Flow measurement
5. Fluid-solid systems


Course Schedulingc
A. 1-4, 1 week; A. 5, 1 week; A. 6-8, 1 week; A. 9, 2
weeks; B. 1-3, 2 weeks; B. 4, 1/2 week; B. 5, 1/2 week
a. Text: Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering, D. M. Himmelblau, 3rd Edition, Prentice-
Hall.
b. Text: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, W. L.
McCabe and J. C. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill.
c. Lectures 5 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours problem-
solving session.

accelerated program consists of twelve semester
hours presented in four three-hour courses. The
courses are designated as graduate courses, and
are suitable for use as a graduate minor. The first
six hours are offered in the fall semester in series.
The first course covers material and energy
balances and fluid flow. The second covers
equilibrium- and rate-controlled processes, includ-
ing separations techniques and heat transfer. The
second six hours are offered as two parallel
courses in the spring semester. One of them covers
thermodynamics and kinetics, while the other in-
cludes design and practice oriented topics ordi-
narily thought of as "design". viz., dynamic be-
havior, economic analysis, process simulation, and
optimization techniques. Course outlines are pre-
sented in Tables 1 through 4.
The chemistry, physics, and mathematics com-
ponents of our accelerated program do not vary
significantly from those of the B.S. Ch.E. require-
ments. Engineering physics, organic and physical
chemistry, and mathematics through differential
equations are required, and can be taken in
parallel with our accelerated ChE courses. Many
students converting to chemical engineering have


already had enough science and mathematics to
meet our requirements, e.g., the organic chemistry
requirement is waived for those who have had
biochemistry.
To compensate for the lack of ChE laboratory
work in our accelerated courses, the students in
this program are strongly urged (virtually re-
quired) to seek summer jobs in the chemical
process industry. This three-month "practicum",
combined with the previous year's work, embarks
the students on our structured M.S. program with
qualifications that we hope will enable them
effectively to compete with B.S. Ch.E.'s.
The students' need for background informa-
tion and skills to make them competitive with
B.S. Ch.E.'s in graduate courses are kept upper-
most in mind in teaching our accelerated courses.
The first course (stoichiometry and fluid flow)
is the first taste that most of the students have
had of any type of engineering course. Con-
siderable drill, both in study sessions and in home-



The chemical engineering component of our
accelerated program consists of twelve
semester hours presented in four
three-hour courses. The courses
are designated as graduate
courses and are suitable
for use as a minor.


TABLE 2. Ch.E. 5302 Analysis of
and Rate Operations


Equlibrium


Course Content
A. Equilibrium-Dependent Processesa
1. Phase equilibrium 3. Ideal contactor
2. Potentials versus concept
equilibrium 4. Multicomponent,
multistage contacting


B. Rate-Dependent Operationsb
1. Potentials and fluxes
2. Transfer coefficients
3. Analogies: heat,
mass, momentum


4. Mass applications
5. Energy applications


Course Schedulinge
A. 1-2, 1 week; A. 3-4, 1.5 weeks; B. 1-3, 2 weeks; B. 4,
1 week; B.5, 1.5 weeks
a. Text: Stagewise Process Design, E. J. Hanley and
H. K. Staffin, Wiley.
b. Text: Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, W. L.
McCabe and J. C. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill.
c. Lectures 5 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per week
discussion/problem-solving session.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 3. Ch.E. 5303 Analysis of Physical and
Chemical Behavior of Matter

Course Content
A. Thermodynamicsa
1. Philosophy and historical approach
2. Applications: minimum, maximum, available work
3. Chemical potential
4. Criteria for phase equilibria
5. Chemical equilibria
B. Chemical Reactionsb
1. Molecularity and rate expressions
2. Order of reactions
3. Mechanisms of reactions
4. Effects of temperature and pressure on reaction
rates
5. Continuous stirred-tank reactor and tubular reactor
6. Introduction to gradients and backmixing
7. Engineering design

Course Schedulinge
A. 1, 2 weeks; A. 2-5, 4 weeks; B. 1, 1 week; B. 2-3, 2
weeks; B. 4, 1 week; B. 5-6, 4 weeks; B. 7, 1 week.
a. Text: Theory and Problems of Thermodynamics, M. M.
Abbott and H. C. Van Ness, Schaum Outline Series,
McGraw-HilL
b. Text: Chemical Reactor Theory, K. G. Denbigh and
J. C. R. Turner, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University
Press.
c. Classes meet 3 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per
week discussion/problem-solving session.


work assignments, is utilized. The students became
at least familiar with, if not proficient at using,
the various systems of units employed in engineer-
ing calculations, and become aware of the im-
portance and significance of quantitative answers.
Computational skills are reinforced in the second
course (separations and heat transfer) but the
amount of drill is reduced.
The two courses offered in the spring semester
are taught on alternate days, the same as standard
three-hour academic courses. Whereas the second
of the fall-semester courses depended very heavily
on the first, the two spring-semester courses are
independent of each other. As it turned out, the
students seem to benefit from the forty-eight hour
stretch between classes which allows for mental
induction of the information covered in the
classes.

COURSE SCHEDULES

A TYPICAL SCHEDULE for a student with
prior credit in organic chemistry or bio-
chemistry for our accelerated expansion program
is shown in Table 5. The first year is tailored for


the requirements of each individual student. All,
however, take both of the accelerated ChE courses
each semester. At the conclusion of the first
academic year of the program and their summer's
experience in either industry or research, the
students are ready to enter the master's program
in our department. The core courses are shown in
the second year of the typical schedule in Table
5. The second fall term consists of the same
graduate courses in thermodynamics, heat
transfer, and applied mathematics for chemical
engineers as required of any master's candidate,
regardless of background. We also anticipate that
during the fall semester, each student will consult
with all of our faculty with regard to research
areas of mutual interest, and will select a major
professor and a specific research topic. The
student should complete any necessary literature
search before initiation of the experimental por-
tion of his program in late fall. During the spring
term, the student will enroll in graduate-level mass
transfer and fluid dynamics. He will also take a
graduate technical elective on a subject chosen by
his major advisor or graduate committee as being
most beneficial to his research and career objec-
tives. The experimental portion of his thesis will
be undertaken no later than the start of the spring
semester, and should be essentially complete by
the end of the following summer. He will also be
expected to take a graduate elective during the
summer, leaving him free to write his thesis


TABLE 4. Ch.E. Analysis
of Chemical Processes
Course Content


A. Economics
1. Time value of money
2. Profitability criteria
3. Amortization
B. Optimizationa
1. Single-variable
search
C. Unsteady Stateb
1. LaPlace transforms
2. System dynamics
3. Interacting systems
D. Simulationb
1. Streams and modules
2. Generalizations
A. 4 weeks; B. 3 weeks; C.
a. Text: Class notes.


4. Capital and other
costs


2. Multi-variable
search

4. Controllers
5. Stability criteria


3. Network analysis

5 weeks; D. 3 weeks.


b. Text: Process Systems Analysis and Control, D. R.
Coughanowr and L. B. Koppel, McGraw-Hill.
c. Classes meet 3 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per
week discussion/problem-solving session.


FALL 1977










Fall I
Calculus I
Physical
Chemistry I
Analysis of Ch.E.
Problems
Equilibrium and
Rate Operations


Fall II
*Thermodynamics
*Heat Transfer
*Applied Math
for Ch.E.'s
Thesis Research


Spring I
Calculus II
Differential
Equations
Physical and
Chemical
Behavior
Analysis of
Chemical
Processes
Spring II
*Mass Transfer
*Fluid Dynamics
Technical
Elective
Thesis
Research


Summer I
Job in CPI or
Research at TTU







Summer II
Technical Elective
Thesis Research


Fall III
Technical Elective
Write and Defend
Thesis
M.S. Ch.E. awarded

*Core graduate course required for any M.S. Ch. E. candi-
date.




Although many of them
may have had some calculus,
chemistry and physics, their thought
processes were definitely qualitative rather
than quantitative, as is required in
engineering education.



during the fall semester, simultaneously taking
his final course.
Participation in our accelerated expansion
program for the fall semesters of 1975 and 1976
is shown in Table 6, along with the backgrounds
from which the students came. The physical
chemists were in the accelerated courses for their
graduate minor.
While the accelerated expansion program was
developed with chemists and biologists in mind,
we genuinely hoped that some students from non-
technical fields would take advantage of it. The
music major came to us in the summer of 1975
after completing the mathematics, physics, and
chemistry courses usually needed for the B.S.
Ch.E. degree. He was elated when we apprised
him of the opportunity to earn the M.S. Ch.E. in
about 28 months.


TABLE 5. Typical Schedule


Major
General Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
Polymer Chemistry
Microbiology
Music
Physics
Pre-Medicine
Zoology
Industrial Engineerin1


Fall 1975 Fall 1976
2 5
2
2 1
1


Fall 1977
4
1
1


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


PROBLEMS AND PROGNOSTICATION

T HE GREATEST DIFFICULTY was the non-
quantitative background of most of the
students. Although many of them may have had
some calculus, chemistry, and physics, their
thought processes were definitely qualitative
rather than quantitative, as is required in engi-
neering education. Special care had to be given
in instructing these students in problem definition
and interpretation of the answers.
The necessity of making assumptions was a
difficult concept for many of these students. The
assumptions could take the form of simplifications
without which the problem was unsolvable, or of
values of physical properties needed to complete
the solution. In some cases, the students were
exceedingly reluctant to assume an answer and
then show that answer to be correct, or to use a
difference between a calculated and an assumed
value to predict a better assumed value, as is so
often required in trial solutions.
Abundance of information in the form of data
tables, graphs, equations, correlations, etc., as
they appear in textbooks, handbooks, and the
technical literature was a source of confusion.
Use of information sources was an integral part
of the course work.
Our experience with students from other fields
pursuing graduate study in ChE has been most
rewarding. Those who have completed the year of
accelerated work are now holding their own in our
regular graduate courses in thermodynamics, heat
transfer, and applied mathematics. We shall con-
tinue to publicize our program both among po-
tential students and potential employers. Nine
students have accepted assistantships to start in
the program this fall. 0



TABLE 6. Enrollment in Career
Expansion Program










A STUDENT


POINT OF VIEW


RONALD S. CHRISTY, JERRY D. PURKAPLE
AND THOMAS E. VERNOR
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, Texas 79409

IN RECENT YEARS, many graduates with
bachelor's degrees in the sciences and liberal
arts have experienced difficulty in obtaining pro-
fessional employment, and one means of arriving
at a rewarding career is through advanced train-
ing in chemical engineering.
We are among the first group of students to
participate in this innovative program, and have
now completed our second year. The authors feel
that, as a result of this program, we will be as
well prepared to practice engineering as those
students who receive both bachelor's and master's
degrees in ChE.

LEVELLING PROGRAM
THE PREVIOUS ADVANCEMENT program
required a minimum of three years of study,
including two years of levelling plus the same 30
hours of graduate courses required of all M.S.
candidates. Because of the long time span, this
format did not appeal to many students who were
interested in acquiring advanced technical skills.
The present program is much more attractive, and
is different only as the result of having condensed
the two years of levelling work into one, without
sacrificing the quality of instruction. The only dis-
advantage of the present structure is that the work
is very intensive, and little time is available for
relaxation and recreation.
Our professors realized that with such a fast
learning rate, it would be easy for us to get hope-
lessly behind in our studies very quickly. To be
sure that this situation did not develop, they were
always available to answer questions. In addition,
one afternoon per week was set aside as a time
for us to ask questions and clarify the material,
and this proved to be a valuable link in our learn-
ing process.
At the beginning of our studies, we needed to
learn to think quantitatively and communicate in
engineering terms. Consequently, we covered


material slowly and in great detail, working many
problems. As our competence improved, the prob-
lems became fewer in number but more complex.
Almost before we realized it, we were thinking like
engineers!
Because of the fact pace of our courses, there
was no time for the usual laboratory work. There
were also few opportunities to develop engineer-
ing judgment and common sense adequately, so
vital elements were missing from our education.
To rectify this situation, we were encouraged to
obtain summer employment in industry follow-
ing the year of levelling work. Those of us who
who did work gained the practical experience
that has made the remainder of our graduate
courses much more meaningful.

THE PRESENT-AND FUTURE
C COMPETING IN THE REGULAR graduate
courses with students who, for the most part,
have superior technical backgrounds has been a
challenge. Several students have B.S. degrees in
ChE plus several years of industrial experience.
They invariably understand the problems better
and fare better on tests. It is easy for those of
us who have participated in the career advance-
ment program to become discouraged when we
cannot understand the concepts as readily as those
with more experience. Our greatest satisfaction
is the realization that we have learned so much
about engineering in such a short time.
We are all engaged in research projects lead-
ing to the writing of theses, and have not found
that we are at a disadvantage in this regard. How-
ever, one problem that has been common to all
of us is finding enough time to devote to both our
course work and research projects.
In interviewing for jobs, we have found that
we are as acceptable to industry as students who
earn both B.S. and M.S. degrees in ChE. Our
opportunities for plant trips and our salary offers
have been comparable to those of other graduate
students.
Our educational experiences during the last
two years have been somewhat unique as well as
very exciting and challenging. It is our belief
that we will be well prepared graduate engineers,
and we look forward to the technical improve-
ments we can make during our professional
careers as chemical engineers. E


FALL 1977


C














GRADUATE ChE EDUCATION ON A STATEWIDE

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION NETWORK


THOMAS G. STANFORD
University of South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina 29208

THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, colleges and
universities are seeking to meet the educational
needs of today's mobile society. The medium of
television is being used most effectively to reach
people who cannot conveniently attend classes on
campus. The engineering community especially
finds need for such educational opportunities be-
cause of today's rapidly changing technology. To
provide the means by which practicing engineers
can continue to keep abreast of current trends, the
University of South Carolina (USC), in 1969,
started A Program of Graduate Engineering Edu-
cation (APOGEE).
Most of the chemical and related industry in
South Carolina is scattered throughout the state
and is not located near the USC campus in Co-
lumbia. Thus, a majority of the practicing chem-
ical engineers who desire an advanced degree in
Chemical Engineering would not be able to attend
regular on-campus classes. These engineers look
to APOGEE as a means of continuing career
growth. To meet this need, APOGEE offers grad-
uate courses in ChE at remote locations through-
out South Carolina via full-color video tapes and
closed-circuit television broadcasts. The locations
where APOGEE facilities are to be found are
listed in Table I.

THE APOGEE PHILOSOPHY

THERE ARE SEVERAL ways in which a state-
wide television network could be used to offer
courses for graduate credit. Professionally pro-
duced lectures, complete with rehearsals, video
tape editing, and specially prepared notes would
provide nearly perfect 'shows' for the student. In
some instances, this technique has been tried with


success. However, it is felt that student-teacher
contact, where the student is free to ask questions
during the lectures, is an important part of engi-
neering education. Also, student performance has
been found to be unaffected by imperfections in
the lecture presentation. Thus, the additional time
required for the making of professionally pro-
duced 'shows' is not time which is efficiently used
by the instructor.
The philosophy with which APOGEE courses
are prepared is one of keeping as much of the
regular classroom 'flavor' as possible. Classes for
the on-campus students are held in modified class-
room-studios. The off-campus students attend
classes in classrooms containing television mon-
itors and video tape players. Course lectures are
presented twice a week. One lecture is video taped
before the on-campus students in Columbia. The
video tapes are then distributed to the remote lo-
cations so that they may be viewed at the con-

TABLE I. Locations of APOGEE Facilities
Aiken, South Carolina
Barnwell, South Carolina
Camden, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina
Duke Power; Charlotte, North Carolina
Dupont Savannah River Plant, South Carolina
Florence, South Carolina
Georgetown, South Carolina
Greenville, South Carolina
Greenwood, South Carolina
Hartsville, South Carolina
North Augusta, South Carolina
Oconee, South Carolina
Orangeburg, South Carolina
Rock Hill, South Carolina
Savannah, Georgia
Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
Sumter, South Carolina
Spartanburg, South Carolina
Waterboro, South Carolina


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























Thomas G. Stanford received the BSChE degree from Wayne State
University in 1966, the MSE(ChE) degree and the MS(Math) degree
from The University of Michigan in 1968, and the PhD degree in
Chemical Engineering from The University of Michigan in 1977. He
has worked for Monsanto Company and Continental Oil Company as
a process chemical engineer. Since 1976, he has been Assistant Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering at the University of South Carolina.
His research interests are in the areas of chemical reactor engineering,
mathematical modeling of chemical systems, and thermodynamics.


venience of the off-campus student. The other
lecture is presented live on closed-circuit television
both to the on-campus students and to the stu-
dents at the remote locations. Because most of the
off-campus students are not able to attend classes
during regular business hours, this lecture is pre-
sented either on a weekday evening or on Saturday
morning. It is in 'talk-back' format so that each
student may talk freely with the instructor via
telephone. Several 'Saturday in Columbia' class
meetings are scheduled throughout the semester.
All of the students come to Columbia for these
sessions to take exams, to discuss homework, or
to do experiments. Students are also free to con-
tact the instructor by phone during regular office
hours if they have specific questions.

APOGEE DEGREE PROGRAMS
APOGEE OFFERS MASTER of Engineering
(ME) and Master of Science (MS) programs
in ChE. Any person who holds a baccalaureate de-
gree from an Engineers' Council for Professional
Development (ECPD) accredited engineering
school is eligible for admission to either of these
programs. Prospective students who hold degrees
from nonaccredited engineering schools will be
required to take the Graduate Record Examina-
tion (GRE) prior to admission into a degree pro-
gram. Under certain circumstances, persons hold-
ing degrees in related fields such as biology, chem-


istry, and pharmacy may be admitted into a de-
gree program. Admission of such persons will be
based on previous college studies, work experi-
ence, and any other factors deemed relevant.
The ME program requires a minimum of 30
semester hours of coursework for completion. The
course requirements are listed in Table II. A stu-
dent may elect to undertake a suitable engineer-
ing project in lieu of up to 6 semester hours of
FREE ELECTIVE credit. However, most persons
who wish to obtain an ME degree choose to do
coursework only. Because neither a research proj-
ect and thesis nor an engineering project is re-
quired for this degree, it lends itself well to the
APOGEE program.
The MS is a research degree. The student who
receives this degree must successfully conduct
research in a suitable area of ChE and document
his work with a written thesis. The coursework
requirements for the MS degree are identical to
those listed in Table II for the ME degree. The

TABLE II. Requirements for the ME Degree
in Chemical Engineering
A. Required Courses
Diffusional Operations 3
Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 3
Chemical Process Analysis 3
B. Required Electives 3
One course to be chosen from the following
Distillation (3)
Chemical Reactor Design (3)
Advanced Chemical Flow Systems II (3)
A 700 level control course such as
Dynamic Process Analysis (3)
Computer Control I (3)
Computer Control II (3)
Modern Control Theory I (3)
Modern Control Theory II (3)
C. Free Electives 18
Graduate courses at the 500 level or above in engi-
neering, mathematics, or chemistry. At least 6 of
these credit hours must be in courses at the 700 level.
Total Credit Hours 30

student must elect 6 semester hours of thesis
preparation (ENGR 799). These credit hours may
be counted as part of the FREE ELECTIVE re-
quirement for the degree. A student who chooses
to do so may complete his coursework via
APOGEE. Under special circumstances, the thesis
research may be completed at a location other
than the main USC campus in Columbia. This


FALL 1977









work would, of course, be conducted under the
supervision of a member of the ChE faculty.
APOGEE also offers those who do not wish
to pursue an advanced degree the opportunity to
keep abreast of the latest technology. The College
of Engineering at USC offers courses in energy
systems, air and water pollution, computer proc-
ess control, distillation, and chemical reactor de-
sign. In addition, the technical expertise of nation-
ally and internationally known scientists and en-
gineers is made available through video tape pro-
grams produced by the Association for Media-
Based Continuing Education for Engineers
(AMCEE) of which the College of Engineering
at USC is a charter member.

THE SUCCESS OF APOGEE
THE APOGEE PROGRAM has experienced
rapid growth since its inception in 1969. Table
III shows the number of on-campus and APOGEE
students in the graduate ChE program at USC
for each year since 1971. This indicates that
APOGEE has been well received by those chem-
ical engineers in industry who wish to pursue an
advanced degree in ChE.

TABLE III. On-Campus and APOGEE Students in
the Graduate Chemical Engineering Program
at USC

ME MS
On- On-
Year Campus APOGEE Campus APOGEE

1971 15 3 7 -
1972 14 12 8 2
1973 8 13 10 6
1974 4 23 11 4
1975 2 31 6 7
1976 1 31 6 4
1977* 0 25 8 4

*spring semester enrollment

The classroom performance of the off-campus
students is also an indication of the success of the
APOGEE program. It has been found that these
students do as well as or better than the students
Who attend the classes live. The video tapes of
lectures allow each student to go over certain
parts of the material several times. This 'play-
back' feature has been a beneficial teaching tool
both for off-campus and for on-campus students


in the APOGEE program. The 'talk-back' broad-
casts are well received by the students. These
sessions often deal only with student questions.
This student-teacher contact takes the place of
that which is normally available to the on-campus
student; contact which often teaches more than
any formal lecture could. Thus, the APOGEE
format of video taped lectures and live 'talk-back'
television lectures has provided the student-
teacher contact so important to engineering edu-
cation and, at the same time, places no more de-
mand on the instructor than preparation for a
regular class would. APOGEE also provides direct
interaction between the College of Engineering at
USC and the industry of South Carolina. This
interaction has not only stimulated discussions in
the classroom but also provided a way of intro-
ducing practical graduate engineering problems
into the coursework.
APOGEE has proven to be an unqualified suc-
cess for both students and teachers. Its rapid
growth and evolution make it a current and mean-
ingful program of graduate engineering educa-
tion. More information about the APOGEE pro-
grams in ChE at the University of South Carolina
may be obtained by writing to the APOGEE Pro-
gram Director, Dr. W. K. Humphries, at the
College of Engineering, University of South Caro-
lina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208. l


BOOK REVIEW: Uhl
Continued from page 149.

conventional for capital costs, operating costs and
profitability criteria. The emphasis in capital cost
estimation is for "order of magnitude" and fac-
tored estimates. The profitability methods include
discounted cash flow. Where this book differs
from other works is in the presentation; it is
terse and striking. There are many tables and fig-
ures to elucidate the concepts and examples to
illustrate them. Some new, useful compendia ap-
pear; these are the fruit of the prodigious labors
of Professor Woods. There is a survey of the
single (Lang) factor approach to compute capital
cost from the sum of the cost of the major pieces
of equipment. Also, there is an extensive critical
view of the various schemes for using more de-
tailed factors in capital cost estimates. Unfortu-
nately only passing mention is given to continuous
interest, uncertainty analysis (which is not men-
tioned as such), and sensitivity.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









In several places the progression from simple,
quick and rough to detailed time-consuming and
close estimates is dramatized. The laudable pur-
pose here is to inspire students to develop judge-
ment.
Also a note about the teaching of engineering
economics is in order. In his preface, Woods notes:
"many students undergo a long induction period
before they appreciate some of the concepts". My
experience confirms this view, but I would add
that practicing engineers grasp the concepts read-
ily, no doubt because they are familiar with busi-
ness background and practice.
The initial chapter, The Decision Makers, is a
vigorous view of the engineer in society, his re-
sponsibilities, and ethics in practice. Although the
tone is idealistic, and perhaps naive, it is praise-
worthy. A quote from the book is to the point "...
engineers are, by and large, the decision makers
in industry and technology ." (Actually we
should be more influential than we are, but by
nature we are less assertive than others, e.g.,
company managers).
The second chapter presents the economic en-
vironment. Basic economic concepts are covered:
supply, demand, competition, cash flow, allocation
of financial resources. Unfortunately, because of
its brevity the treatment serves only to stress the
need for such an overall perception.
The couching of the economic evaluation in
terms of accounting practice is commendable. For
cost data and for project authorization, we must
deal with accounting and financial types, so en-
gineers must speak the "accounting" language.
Outstanding merits of the work are the intro-
duction of pertinent material from other fields,
some novel approaches, homilies and examples de-
signed to evoke engineering judgment, useful
compendia of cost data, good specimen forms for
the preparation of cost estimates, provocative
problems, a valuable bibliography and an excel-
lent glossary of relevant terms.
The book is compact, perhaps excessively so
for the wealth of ideas, examples, tables, etc.,
which it contains. It has only 340 pages. For much
of the material an extended, amplified treatment
would be preferred, particularly in its service as a
textbook. Its classroom use may require expansion
on some topics in lecture by the instructor to de-
rive the maximum benefit. This unique, diverse,
rich, exciting book should also provide an excel-
lent review or an introduction to this subject for
practicing engineers. E


RETZLOFF: Reacti6n Engineering
Continued from page 168.
the multiple theory of Balandin [3] and the
premise that the catalytic activity is determined
by the compatability of the catalyst surface
geometry for the reaction being considered. The
key ingredients are the lattice parameters and the
arrangement of catalyst surface atoms which are
correlated with catalytic activity. The electron
band theory of catalysis [4] is principally applied
to transition metal and alloys and seeks to relate
catalysis, principally through the chemisorption
step, to the electronic properties of the bulk solid.
The subject of the electron theory of semicon-
ductor catalysts represents a review of the work
of F. F. Vol [1] Kenshtein [5] on the role of the
Fermi level in acceptor and donor reactions oc-
curring on a semiconductor catalyst surface. The
final topic, the charge transfer theory of catalysis,
starts with a review of the work of Hanffe [6] and
Lee [7, 8] on change transfer reactions. The effects
of D.C., symmetric A.C., and antisymmetric A.C.
capacitively applied electromagnetic fields on the
charge transfer catalytic reaction rate are dis-
cussed. The results of acoustically coupled phonon
excitations on these same reaction rates are de-
veloped. Within this general context the effects of
surface states (as distinct from the bulk energy
states) on the catalytic processes that occur on
transition metal oxides is considered [9, 10]. O

REFERENCES
1. D. G. Retzloff, Vortex Flows-A Unified Treatment
with Exact Solutions, 16th Annual A.I.Ch.E. Free
Forum 69th Annual A.I.Ch.E. Meeting-Chicago
(1976).
2. C. N. Hinshelwood, Kinetics of Chemical Change,
Oxford University Press, New York (1941).
3. A. A. Balandin, Advances in Catalysis, 10, 96 (1958).
4. C. G. Bond, Catalysis by Metals, Academic Press, New
York (1962).
5. F. F. Vol'kenshtein, The Election Theory of Catalysis
on Semiconductors, Pergamon Press, New York (1963).
6. K. Hanffe, Semiconductor Surface Physics, (R. H.
Kingston, ed.) University of Pennsylvania Press, Phil-
adelphia, Pennsylvania (1956).
7. V. J. Lee, J. Catal., 17, 178 (1970).
8. V. J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 55, 2905 (1971).
9. T. Wolfram, E. A. Kraut, and F. J. Morin, Phy. Rev.
B, 7, 1677 (1973).
10. T. Wolfram and F. J. Morin, Appl. Phys., 8, 125
(1975).


FALL 1977












CHEMICAL


ENGINEERS
Rohm and Haas Company is a major U.S. chemical
company with an excellent record of innovation and
growth. We produce over 2500 products that are used in
industry, agriculture and health services and we're
poised for significant growth both in the immediate and
long-term future.
Immediate openings exist for entry-level chemical engi-
neers in the following areas:
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Develop processes for new products and improve
processes for existing products. Will plan and execute
pilot plant studies for batch and continuous operations,
including preparation of cost estimates, design proposals
for large-scale equipment, environmental and safety
considerations. Positions require a BS/MS degree in
chemical engineering. Philadelphia and Bristol, PA
locations.
ENGINEERING DESIGN
Will be responsible for design of new plants, and for
production startup, including development of process
flow charts, specifications for equipment, and plant
testing to determine optimum design. Will also prepare
cost estimates for capital investment and products, and
supervise startup operation. Experience in computer
technology would be preferred. A BS/MS in chemical
engineering is required for these openings. Bristol, PA
location.
PRODUCTION
Responsible for startup operations in the introduction of
new processes, products and equipment; optimize pro-
ductivity. Other duties include process improvement
studies, troubleshooting and energy conservation. These
positions require a BS/MS in chemical engineering.
Houston, TX; Louisville, KY; Knoxville, TN; Philadelphia
and Bristol, PA locations.
MARKETING
Openings for individuals with a BS/MS in chemical
engineering or chemistry plus an aptitude for sales.
A three-phase training program includes company
and product orientation in the Philadelphia area, followed
by assignment to a sales office, working under the
direction of a district manager. Upon completion of
training, individual is assigned to a sales territory as a
technical representative.
We offer an excellent compensation and benefits pro-
gram, and an outstanding opportunity for career develop-
ment and advancement.
Send your resume, in confidence to:
Recruiting and Placement #.2477
Rohm and Haas Company
Philadelphia, Pa. 19105

ROHM

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19105
An Equal Opportunity Employer








SHINNAR: Interface Between Industry
and the Academic World
Continued from page 153.
just said. Kurihara also analyzes the information
flow in the unit and diagnoses the main difficulty
of control. The main parameter controlling the
performance is the level of coke on the catalyst
particle. This again depends both on the reactor
performances as well as on the regenerator condi-
tion. The time scale of the coke build-up is large,
on the order of an hour, whereas the residence
time of both oil and air flow in the unit is meas-
ured in seconds. This long time lag leads to diffi-
cult control.
What the scheme in Figure 2 really does is
minimize this interaction by keeping the regen-
erator conditions more constant. To do this we
need an additional measured variable on the regen-
erator to be kept constant.
But if one looks at the control scheme in Fig-
ure 2 from the viewpoint of an operator, an im-
mediate deficiency is apparent. The reactor, which
is the main part, has no control, and the operator
has no direct way to change the level of conversion
in the unit. Lee and Weekman [3] discuss this in
detail and show that this can be corrected by a
cascaded feedback loop, given in Figure 3.
The control scheme in Figure 3 is much
smoother and faster than the controller in Figure
1, which is a significant improvement. It has, how-
ever, some of the same deficiencies, namely, that
it does not have sufficient manipulated variables
to allow the operator to really achieve what he
needs to do, which is to be able to adjust the
steady state of the unit to meet varying process
requirements and varying constants. In the re-
finery we don't make money by reducing the level
of the control input needed. This is fixed when we
choose the manipulated variable. We make money
by being able to work close to a constraint, and
both our goal and the nature of the constraint
change with time.
In reality the operator does this or tries to do
this by using additional manipulated variables,
which don't appear in any scheme. He changes the
feed allocation between different units. Further-
more, he can change catalyst activity by adding
and withdrawing more or less catalyst or ordering
a different catalyst.
The fact that Kurihara's work did not lead to
a useful controller design does not detract from
the usefulness of his work. In fact, the complexity


MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS FCC
(Other Loops Omitted for Clarity)


Regenerator


Reactor


To Main
Fractionator


Air Oil Feed


FIGURE 3. Schematic of modified control scheme.

of the problem is such that one cannot expect
academia to do that, unless there is a real integra-
tion with an industrial project. But that is not
necessarily what we want from academia here. It
is sufficient that we understand in what way the
modern control theory used in the example could
be helpful in designing industrial controllers. And
the negative results of Kurihara's work are far
more illuminating and important than the positive
ones.

OPTIMAL CONTROL
I LEARNED FROM THIS example some of the
basic shortcomings of optimal control as well as
some of its advantages. For example, it makes
clear that the standard formulation of costs and
profits in optimal control, both deterministic and
stochastic, have very little to do with real costs
and profits and are only indirectly relatable.
Furthermore, complex chemical systems are often
not controllable in the full sense, and controllabil-
ity in the mathematical sense is not the same as in
the operational sense. I realized that those de-
cisions which are made before one writes the
algorithm, namely, which variables can be meas-
ured and which should be manipulated, are more
important than the choice of the algorithm itself
or the profit function. The main result of the
algorithm is in determining the dominant roots
and in decoupling the reactor and the regenerator.
This is rather insensitive to the profit function
used.


FALL 1977









We could have obtained some of the same re-
sults using the methods proposed by Rosenbrock
[4] for multivariable controller design. This il-
luminates one of the main paradoxes of optimal
control in process control application.
On the one hand it is clear that the term op-
timum is highly misleading. It is not a real op-
timum in any sense and can give rather unusable
controllers, as pointed out by Rosenbrock [4] and
myself [1]. It is also in no way a straightforward
design algorithm but depends on the skill and
understanding of the designer much more than
the Ziegler-Nichols method does.
On the other hand optimal control can provide
very useful information to the designer. But this
information must be integrated into a design pro-
cedure which checks the stability and sensitivity of
the total system and its overall performance. The
test of the algorithm is outside its formulation and
needs a good understanding of the system.
The properties of the algorithm are often less
important than the quality of the clues it can pro-
vide and the way it integrates with the designer's
knowledge, experience, and intuition.
But modern control literature is not written
this way. The unsuspecting reader gets the im-
pression that he really deals with a straight-
forward design algorithm. Even as great an ex-
pert as Rosenbrock attacks optimal control on
philosophical grounds; that is, he heads in a direc-
tion that minimizes the intellectual contribution
of the engineer. On the other hand we heard a re-
peated claim at this conference that successful use
of optimal control requires too much of a theoret-
ical knowledge.
Personally I don't worry about algorithms or
computers eliminating the engineer. Complex de-
sign algorithms need a much higher degree of in-
tellectual input than present methods and increase
the need for highly trained personnel. I feel
Rosenbrock attacks an image that modern control
literature projects more than a reality. The real
problem is that in the present state modern control
theory is not easily integrated with the way an ex-
perienced engineer designs a control system. We
have mathematically become so complex that even
professors have stopped understanding each other.
What we need is to translate the results of modern
control theory into the language of the practicing
engineer and to present the insights obtainable in
a simple form. When results and insight are pre-
sented in a simple form, they often look obvious,
but this does' not detract from their value. It


simplifies them.
For many purposes this is definitely possible.
The work that Prof. MacFarlane talked about at
Pacific Grove, California is a prime example of
what can be done to translate the work done in
one method to other mathematical languages
familiar to the engineer. Morton Denn showed
that a PID controller can be obtained from an
optimal formulation. Our own work at present
deals with this problem, and I'll mention here just
two items.
Consider, for example, the case of a simple
single-loop controller for an overdamped system,
with no inverse response. In most cases it is
sufficient to model this by a first order or second
order system with a delay in series.

G, (s) = e- (1)

or
e-S(
G,(s) = 1 + 27s + 2S 2

If we design an unconstrained deterministic op-
timum controller for Eq. (1) we will get a con-
troller of the form

G0(s) = e(1 + rs) (3)
1- e-(1 + rs)
which is really a proportional controller with a
dead time compensator very similar to the Smith
dead time compensator. The system is in practice
unstable as a small change in Gp (s) will lead to


Somehow we have to
make an attempt to bring engineering
back to our research. Nowhere is this more
felt than in theoretical engineering
and especially in control.


instability. We can make it stable by constraining
the control effort, but any experienced engineer
will reject the controller because his experience
tells him he does not want a proportional control-
ler with a small gain and a dead time compensator.
Using Eq. 2 for the model will add derivative
control action. There are several ways in which
we can force the algorithm to give us integral
action. One given by O'Connor and Denn [6] uses
constraint on the derivative of the control.
Denn also showed that by using a Pade ap-
proximation for the delay we will get a simple PID
controller and that a suitable constraint will even


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








lead to controller settings very similar to that ob-
tained using the Ziegler-Nichols method.
Unless we use very complex stochastic formu-
lation for the structure of the inputs, optimal
algorithms will always end up in controllers sim-
ilar and equivalent to those already is use, a
combination of P, I, and D control with a dead
time compensator and a smoothing filter. In that
sense optimal control has neither led to any sur-
prises nor to a design algorithm. In all cases we
have to evaluate the results in terms of stability,
sensitivity, and overall performance, and adding
more criteria is only doing the same thing in an
inverse way.
This does not mean the results are not very
interesting. The fact that we know our empirical
controller is very close to some clearly defined
unconstrained optimum is very useful. Further-
more, we can get clues on proper design and tun-
ing of dead time compensators.
On the other hand optimal control made some
very significant contributions to the design of
sample data controllers for the same case. I am
referring here to the work of Box and Jenkins on
control strategies suitable for human operators.
Take for /example the above case. A simple
suitable discrete model for the same process could
be

G, (B) W- WB Bk + (4)
( 1- SB
In their notation the output of the process Yt can
be written
Yt = Gp (B) ut + Nt
where Nt is the disturbance (or noise).
Box and Jenkins have an elaborate procedure
to identify the input using nonstationary models
for the noise. For most cases they recommend a
noise of the form
1 XB
Nt 1- B at (5)

Actually as McGregor [9] has shown this system is
equivalent in the state space description to the
following system


For an example, we will choose T = 1 and 0 =
0.5, and the sampling time T equal to 0.25. An un-
constrained optimization will give us the following
results (X = .5)
ut = -.5 (Aut- + Aut-2) + 2.26 (t -0.78et-1) (7)
where u, is the control action. Aut is the adjust-
ment in control action and E is the diviation of the
measurement from the desired value.
This is a simple controller which uses just two
measurements and two previous control actions.
However, it can be rewritten in a different form.
ut =-(1-) (ut- + ut-2) +

et + (1-8) C Et-i

which shows that this is really a PI controller
with a simple dead time compensator. The real
value of this work is that, with a very simple
strategy which an operator can easily handle, we
can approximate a sophisticated controller. Fur-
thermore, by 'adjusting the coefficients of these
four numbers we can even include a filter or a
lead compensator. The approximation is very good
and even has some advantages as it avoids, for
example, integral saturation.
But it is not straightforward. We note that the
gain, as well as the coefficient of the compensator,
depends on X. Theoretically, the noise parameter
X can vary between -1 and +1. But only values
between 0.5 and 1.0 will give controllers with ac-
ceptable stability margins for the gain. For others
we will again have to constrain the control action
to achieve stability, and if we look at the con-
strained controllers they are not sufficiently dif-
ferent from each other to justify any strong ef-
forts to differentiate between them.
Evaluating the designs for different X and
even for more complex structures of noise gives
very interesting and illuminating results, but the
final design must take into account the proper
stability margin, which is not part of the al-
gorithm. In many cases stability will be the over-
riding final constraint; in others the structure of


X[: t [1 1 : + [W AUt-k-1 + f(1 + X) Oat (6)

X t the noise might be more important. As this is not
Yt = [1 0] Xt + at a lecture on controller design, I will refer you to
I -our original paper [7].


FALL 1977








It is true that in some sense the results of Box
and Jenkins can be obtained both from classical
theory or from the state space formulation. But
this is hindsight. It is hard to guess that a noise
structure such as in Eq. 6 is really one of the few
that gives a good industrial controller. Nor did
anyone else come up with such simple effective
controllers for operators. But once we have them
there is an advantage to translate them to a more
familiar language.
This as an example of a really unforeseen re-
sult of optimal control that can be translated to
the language most control engineers are familiar
with. People with a background in quality control
will prefer the original formulation. People with
a long experience in classical process control will
prefer to talk about dead time compensators, PI
controllers, phase lag and phase lead compen-
sators, and filters.

SUMMARY
THERE ARE PROBABLY many really valu-
able results hidden in the literature of modern
control that merit being brought to a form useful
for the control engineer. But we need to extract
them, test them, and bring them to a form where
they are useful tools in real empirical design.
The academic world is probably the only one
that could do it and publish it, but we need not
only people who are ready to do it but also some
change in emphasis and value judgment in the
academic community, especially in the U.S.
A thesis like Kurihara's is not exactly the
prime example of what we value. It contains no
rigor, no experiments, and no new theory. If he
had spent five years and built a small FCC unit
and put a trivial controller around it, at least part
of our academic community would have admired
it. It would have been rather useless, since it is
very hard to build a small FCC with the same
dynamic behavior. In real design we would use
simulation anyway, and rigor would not help us
since this is not our problem. What would have
helped us if we would have pointed out what was
wrong with his results. Very few students would
today dare to do it.
This is sad. The value of theoretical work in
industry as well as in scientific work is much
greater in the failure mode than in the positive
case. If a good sensible theory fits the data or vice
versa, we learn rather little, especially if the
theory is known. An experienced theoretician can


guess the form of the result even without solving
it. But when a reasonable theory leads to strong
contradiction with experiments or our experience
we learn something.
,I learned this the hard way. When I started,
one of my first students studied non-Newtonian
liquid-into-liquid jets. We solved the equations for



We therefore have to create an inter-
face between the industrial practitioner and
the rigorous researcher, and the only way I
can see it is to start working on the funda-
mentals of our profession-trying to obtain an
understanding of the design process itself,
which never really is algorithmic but rather
interactive and intuitive and strongly
relying on informed judgment.



the power law fluid and were quite proud and tried
to confirm them. Our first experiments showed
some very strange effects, totally in contradiction
of what theory predicts. We dutifully recorded
them and finally found a set of narrow conditions
where the experiments agree with theory. If I had
had the sense to concentrate on the strange effects,
I would have had a first rate pioneering paper in-
stead of a rather standard one. But I learned my
lesson. When we studied atomization of non-
Newtonian fluids, we had a very solid linearized
stability analysis for any fluid and were able to
show that there are fluids for which the linearized
theory does not apply.
We have boxed ourselves in so much with pre-
conceived notions about how a good paper or
thesis should look that real engineering research
becomes rather hard. This is strange. Even the
hard sciences or mathematics feels less con-
strained as to what a paper should look like than
we do. And there is no part of engineering where
people are as ferociously prejudiced and con-
strained as in the academic control field in the
United States.
I admit the problem is not easy. A thesis like
Kurihara's or Kestenbaum's [5] is much harder to
judge and evaluate. The same applies to any work
dealing with dirty problems and with ill-defined
notions such as design. Furthermore, when com-
plex results are translated into simple language,
they often sound obvious and, to those without ex-
perience, sometimes trivial. But we are engineers
with all the advantages and disadvantages, and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









fleeing into sterile mathematics does not solve any-
thing. The relevance of such work is just as hard
to judge. Nor does such work necessarily make the
best preparation for a student's career.
We therefore have to create a climate in which
such work can flourish. We also need to create a
basis of financial support for it. Research on
servomechanisms is supported by NASA and
DOT, but real process control, just as most re-
search on process design, has no home either at
NSF or any other agency and very meager in-
dustrial support. This is again purely a question
of the intellectual climate. The needs and potential
for significant improvements in process control
are at least as big as those in many areas which
have ample support.
Let me make one thing clear. I do not want to
imply that what I outlined is the only research or
even the main research control engineers should
do. In process control we suffer already far too
much from preconceived notions of what the only
present thing to do is, and I do not want to add to
this. Sound rigorous theoretical work and well-
conceived experimentation can make significant
contributions to modern control. But the nature
of the problem is such that, unless we obtain a
better understanding of the design process itself,
many of the most valuable units of our work will
remain useless, and some of our theoretical work
will go into directions where no real need exists.
We therefore have to create an interface between
the industrial practitioner and the rigorous re-
searcher, and the only way I can see it is to start
working on the fundamentals of our profession-
trying to obtain an understanding of the design
process itself, which never really is algorithmic
but rather interactive and intuitive and strongly
relying on informed judgment. It will be a dif-
ficult but interesting and gratifying task.
Let me finish with another story relevant to
the present state of research in the engineering
profession. I read once a strategic analysis of the
Maccabean War, an important event of Jewish
history. The analyst showed that Judah, the
Maccabean, was a military genius, the inventor of
guerilla warfare, the first to be able to handle the
Greek phalanx. But having beaten the Greeks in a
historic battle, he forgot his lesson. He really
dreamed of becoming a Greek general leading his
army in a phalanx. Doing that he was sadly
beaten. His brothers followed his first lessons,
which led to final victory. I do not want to elab-
orate on this example. El


NOTATION
at = white noise variable
B = backward shift operator
G,(B) = plant discrete transfer function
G1,(s) = plant continuous transfer function
k = defined by 0 = k T + c T (k is an integer)
5 = defined by e-Tt
= noise parameter
Xt = state vector
Yt = output
r = filter time constant [Eq. (1)]
0 = time delay [Eq. (1)]
Et = deviation of output from setpoint
ut = control action at time t
T = sampling period
Wo = 1 -81-Nc
W01 8- 81-c
e = 9/T k

REFERENCES
1. Kestenbaum, A., R. Shinnar, and F. E. Thau, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Design Develop., 15, (1), (1976).
2. Kurihara, H., Ph.D. thesis, M.I.T. (1967); Gould,
L. A., L. B. Evans, and H. Kurihara, Automatica, 6,
695 (1970).
3. Lee, W., and V. W. Weekman, Plenary Lecture at the
1974 JACC, Austin, Texas (1974); AIChE., 22, 27
(1976).
4. Rosenbrock, H. H., Computer-Aided Control System
Design, Academic Press (1974).
5. Kestenbaum, A., Ph.D. thesis, C.U.N.Y. (1975).
6. O'Connor, G. E., and M. M. Denn, "Three Mode Con-
trol as an Optimal Control," Chem. Eng. Sci., 27, 121-
127 (1972).
7. Palmor, Z., and R. Shinnar, "Sampled Data Control
for Human Operator," to be published.
8. Athans, M., "Trends in Modern System Theory,"
AIChE Symposium Series, No. 159, Vol. 72, p. 4
(1976).
9. MacGregor, J. F., The Can. J. Chem. Eng. 51 p. 468
(1973).


j books received

TWENTY LECTURES ON
THERMODYNAMICS
By H. A. Buchdahl, Pergamon Press, 1975

These twenty lectures present a coherent,
bird's eye view of phenomenological and sta-
tistical thermodynamics. According to the author
they are largely elementary in character, peda-
gogic in purpose and proceed in a way, which here
and there, "allows physical intuition to take
precedence over mathematical niceties". Neverthe-
less the text is abstract and mathematical. Some
readers may prefer other approaches. El


FALL 1977











UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA
Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering


Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates; up to $7,500/year.
M.Sc. Candidates: up to $7,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Costs.
Tuition: $660/year.
Married students housing rent: $184/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $190/month.

Department Size
13 Professors, 20 Research Associates
30 Graduate Students.
Applications
For additional information write to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6

Faculty and Research Interests
1. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and
Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De-
sign.
J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (Brit. Columbia): Transport Pheno-
mena, Numerical Analysis, In situ Recovery of Oil
Sands.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer,
Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ-
mental Engineering.
D. Quon, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Mathematics, Optima-
zation, Resource Allocation Model 5.
D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
dynamics.
J T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.


F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
tics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns,
Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circuits.

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
schools.
Enrollment of 19,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
non-denominational.
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river
valley.

Edmonton
Fast growing, modern city; population of 500,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper and Banff National Parks.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









S THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA





The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants,
Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate
Growth Kinetics.







Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It .
is a growing, modern city of
400,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.




For further information,
write to:
Dr. J. 0. L. Wendt
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation






UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA


RESEARCH FACULTY


ENERGY UTILIZATION

ENVIRONMENTAL

KINETICS AND CATALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESS DESIGN
AND DEVELOPMENT

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MATERIAL ENGINEERING


Alexis T. Bell
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Mitchel Shen
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermuelen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams


FLUID MECHANICS
AND RHEOLOGY


FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE:


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720










UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS

UC DAVIS OFFERS A COMPLETE PROGRAM OF GRADUATE
STUDY AND RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Electrochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena

Faculty
R. L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
RUBEN CARBONELL, Princeton University
Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum
Statistical Mechanics
ALAN JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
B. J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Chromatographic Proceses, Food Engineering,
Statistical Mechanics
F. R. McLARNON, University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering, Energy conversion and
storage
J. M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena
FALL 1977


Program
Davis is one of the major campuses of the Uni-
versity of California system and has developed great
strength in many areas of the biological and physical
sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering
emphasizes research and a program of fundamental
graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest
to chemical engineers. In addition, the department
can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas
in order to design individual programs to meet the
specific interests and needs of a student, even at the
M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of en-
vironmental engineering, food engineering, biochemi-
cal engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants. The
Department supports students applying for National
Science Foundation Fellowships.

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (1 1/2 to 2 hours from Davis).
These recreational opportunities combine with the
friendly informal spirit of the Davis campus to make
it a pleasant place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis is adjacent to the campus, and within
easy walking or cycling distance.




Information
For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400



































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further


advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor J. H. Seinfeld
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1978.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering;
air and water quality.
SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution;
biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif-
fusion and membrane transport.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor,
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical
mechanics.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.









Carnegie -Mellon University





0 SURFACES


-POLYMERS

SCOLLOIDS



I recovery 0



)KIIETICSO'


-DIFFUSIONdesign


* John L. Anderson
membrane transport, diffusion of macromolecules,
electrokinetic phenomena, hindered diffusion -
reaction in small pores
* Thomas W. Bierl
coal processing hydrodesulfurization and feeding
and agglomerating coals
* Ethel Z. Casassa
physical chemistry of colloids and polymers
* Edward L. Cussler
transport phenomena across membranes and in
bile, psychophysics of texture
* Anthony L. Dent
reaction kinetics, catalysis and surface chemistry
* D. Fennell Evans
rate processes affecting cholesterol gallstone forma-
tion, mechanism of detergency, selective separations
using liquid surfactant membranes, behavior of elec-
trolytes and hydrogen bonding solvents
* Tomlinson Fort, Jr.
adsorption, adhesion, catalysis, membranes, and
thin films, interfaces in composites, relationship of
surface to bulk properties of materials
* Howard L. Gerhart
coatings
* Kun Li
kinetics of gas/solid reactions and fine particle
technology


* Michael J. Massey
process development, air pollution and environ-
mental analyses of coal conversion technology
Clarence A. Miller
interfacial phenomena, tertiary oil recovery
Gary J. Powers
process synthesis, safety and reliability analysis of
chemical processes, and separations science
* Dennis C. Prieve
evaluation of double-layer forces between colloidal
particles and surfaces, computation of deposition
rates for Brownian particles, biochemical engi-
neering
* Stephen L. Rosen
polymeric materials, applied rheology and
polymerization reactions
* Robert R. Rothfus
fluid mechanics especially flow in conduits, heat
transfer and mass transfer, energy utilization and
process dynamics and control and fine particle
technology
* Eric M. Suuberg
energy conversion problems especially pyrolysis
of coal
* Herbert L. Toor
transport phenomena, heat and mass transfer and
diffusion-reaction kinetics
* Arthur W. Westerberg
computer aided process analysis, optimization and
synthesis for design in computer control


The Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering at Carnegie-Mellon University offers studies
toward the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. For detailed information write:
Graduate Chemical Engineering
Carnegie-Mellon University
Schenley Park
Pittsburgh, PA 15213


FALL 1977










Graduate Study
in Chemical Engineering


Clarkson


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Friendly Atmosphere
Freedom from Big City Problems
Personal Touch
Vigorous Research Programs Supported by
Government and Industry
Faculty with International Reputation
Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and
Other Recreation in the Adirondacks
Variety of Cultural Activities with Two
Liberal Arts Colleges nearby

Faculty Richard J. McCluskey
Der-Tau Chin Richard J. Nunge
Robert Cole Herman L. Shulman
David 0. Cooney R. Shankar Subramanian
E. James Davis Peter C. Sukanek
Marc D. Donohue Thomas J. Ward
Joseph Estrin William R. Wilcox
Joseph L. Katz Gordon R. Youngquist

Research Projects
are available in:
Energy
Materials Processing in Space
Multiphase Transport Processes
Health & Safety Applications
Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion
Polymer Processing
Particle Separations
Phase Transformations and Equilibria
Reaction Engineering
Optimization and Control
Crystallization
And More ....


Financial aid in the form of fellowships,
research assistantships, and teaching
assistantships is available. For more
details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676




























Ft


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TI


A


IL


THE UNIVERSITY
Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed in-
stitution with traditions of excellence in Engineering and
Applied Science since 1880. In 1967, Case Institute and
Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment,
endowment and faculty make Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity one of the leading private schools in the country.
The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's University
Circle, an extensive concentration of educational, scientific,
social and cultural organizations.



ACTIVE RESEARCH AREAS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Environmental Engineering
Control & Optimization
Computer Simulation
Systems Engineering
Foam & Colloidal Science
Transport Processes


Coal Gasification
Biomedical Engineering
Surface Chemistry & Catalysis
Crystal Growth & Materials
Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Chemical Reaction Engineering


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
The department is growing and has recently moved
to a new complex. This facility provides for innovations in
both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major
areas of Chemical Engineering are available. Case Chemical
Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and
petroleum companies and have made important technical and
entrepreneurial contributions for over a half a century.


FINANCIAL AID
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research As-
sistantships are available to qualified applicants. Applications
are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
Contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106






Chemical Engineering at


CORNELL

UNIVERSITY


A place to grow...

with active research in:
biochemical engineering
computer simulation
environmental engineering
heterogeneous catalysis
surface science
polymers
microscopy
reactor design
fluid flow and coalescence
physics of liquids
thermodynamics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students
arrange individual programs with a core of chemical
engineering courses supplemented by work in
outstanding Cornell departments in
chemistry
biochemistry
microbiology
applied mathematics
applied physics
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
and others

with outstanding recreational and cultural
opportunities in one of the most scenic regions of the
United States.
Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of
Engineering. (The M.Eng. is a professional,
design-oriented program.) Financial aid, including
several attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
George G. Cocks, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn,
Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill,
Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F Scheele, Michael L.
Shuler, Julian C. Smith, James F. Stevenson,
Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F
Wiegandt, Robert York.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to
Professor Peter Harriott
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853.















UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

Newark, Delaware 19711

The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and
practice in the art and science of chemical engineering:
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.
A Ph.D. degree.

The regular faculty are:
Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) R. L. Pigford
C. E. Birchenall T. W. F. Russell
K. B. Bischoff S. I. Sander
H. W. Blanch G. L. Schrader
M. M. Denn G. C. A. Schuit ('/2 time)
C. D. Denson J. M. Schultz
B. C. Gates L. A. Spielman
J. R. Katzer
R. L. McCullough Visiting Faculty
A. B. Metzner (Chairman) Hanswalter Giesekus
J. H. Olson L. P. B. M. Janssen
M. E. Paulaitis Susumu Kase
The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with in-
dustrial practice are:
L. A. DeFrate --.- single and multiphase fluid mechanics
R. J. Fisher -polymer processing and stability theory
P. J. Gill ---- Polymer reaction kinetics, optimal control
systems
P. M. Gullino, M.D. -- Biomedical engineering
H. F. Haug ..-------- Chemical engineering design
T. A. Koch ...... ...Catalysis
W. H. Manogue Catalysis, reaction engineering
F. Y. Pan -- -----Reaction engineering kinetics, separation and
-transport phenomena
F. E. Rush, Jr. _--- -Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction
R. J. Samuels-- Polymer science
A. B. Stiles .Catalysis
E. A. Swabb, M.D. ---Biomedical engineering
V.W. Weekman, Jr. --..Reaction engineering
K. F. Wissbrun _- Polymer engineering
For information and admissions materials contact:
M. M. Denn, Graduate Advisor


FALL 1977











university offlorida

offers you

Transport
Phenomena &
Rheology
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.


Optimization
& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.


Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.



andmuct more...


A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports


Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.


Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611












GRADUATE


STUDY


PAYS!


Ph.D. $1,867


M.S. $1,487


UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON

CULLEN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING





DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
NEAL R. AMUNDSON
AMIR ATTAR
JAMES E. BAILEY
JOSEPH R. CRUMP
ABRAHAM E. DUKLER
RAYMOND W. FLUMERFELT
ERNEST J. HENLEY
WALLACE I. HONEYWELL
CHEN-JUNG HUANG
ROY JACKSON
CHARLES V. KIRKPATRICK
DAN LUSS
RODOLPHE L. MOTARD
ALKIVADES PAYATAKES
H. WILLIAM PRENGLE,JR.
JAMES T. RICHARDSON
FRANK M. TILLER
FRANK L. WORLEY, JR.



w4eu& Chairman, Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004 (Ap OFZ
(713) 749-4407 L I <.


B.S. $1,380


MONTHLY
STARTING
SALARIES
FOR CHE'S
(CHEM. ENGR., 53)
3/28/77


Fra lnlL


-






GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH


The Department of Energy Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICADO CIRCLE




Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Faculty and Research Activities i n
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Head of the Department
David S. Hacker
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1954
Associate Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
Victor J. Kremesec, Jr.
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1975
Assistant Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Associate Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szipe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed
in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:


Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Chemical kinetics, mass transport phenomena, chemical
process design, particulate transport phenomena

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers

Multi-phase flow, flow in porous media, mass transfer,
interfacial behavior, biological applications of transport
phenomena, thermodynamics of solutions
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
cryobioengineering
Thermodynamics, biotransport, artificial organs,
biophysics

Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, optimization,
environmental and pollution problems


Professor S. C. Saxena, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680













SILLINOI

THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs with a strong
emphasis on creative research, either in fundamental engineering science or its application to the
solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be
achieved from the close one-to-one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de-
velop relevant scientific contributions.
STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re-
search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements.
Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available, not only in terms of equipment
and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel.
AREAS OF RESEARCH: Applied Mathematics
Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering
Catalysis
Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Reactor Dynamics
Corrosion
Electronic Structure of Matter
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Sources and Conservation
Environmental Engineering
Fluid Dynamics
Heat Transfer
High Pressure
Mass Transfer
Materials Science and Engineering
Molecular Thermodynamics
Phase Transformations
Process Control
Process Design
Reaction Engineering
Statistical Mechanics
Surface Science
Systems Analysis
Two-Phase Flow
FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS: Professor J. W. Westwater
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Adams Laboratory
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801
FALL 1977









THE FOREST PRODUCTS
INDUSTRY IS BASED ON
RENEWABLE RESOURCES

AND NEEDS M.S. AND PH.D. SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS


THE


INSTITUTE OF


PAPER CHEMISTRY

OFFERS INTERDISCIPLINARY
GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS
DESIGNED FOR B.S. CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS TO FILL THE NEEDS
OF THE FOREST PRODUCT INDUSTRY


A faculty of 45 engineers, chemists, physicists,
mathematicians, and biologists
Graduate student body of 100 students
Close connection and support by the forest products
industry
All U. S. & Canadian students supported by full fellow-
ships, $4800-$5000, and tuition scholarships
Industrial experience an integral part of the program


Current research activity
* Process engineering of pollution-free pulping
systems
* Simulation & control in the pulp & paper industry
* Surface & colloid chemistry of paper making systems
* Laser, Raman, & X-ray defraction studies in cellulose
* Cell fusion techniques & tissue culture of trees
* Environmental engineering
* Fluid mechanics, heat & mass transfer
* Polymer science and engineering


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE:
DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS
INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY
P. 0. BOX 1039
APPLETON, WISCONSIN 54911


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY

OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production,
Atomic Energy)
Renato G. Bautista
Lawrence E. Burkhart
George G. Burnet
Allen H. Pulsifer
Dean L. Ulrichson
Thomas D. Wheelock


Biomedical Engineering
(System Modeling,
Transport. process)
Richard C. Seagrave
Charles E. Glatz

Biochemical Engineering
(Enzyme Technology)
Charles E. Glatz
Peter J. Reilly

Polymerization Processes
Wiilliam H. Abraham
John D. Stevens

as well as
Air Pollution Control
Solvent Extraction
High Pressure Technology
Mineral Processing


GRADUATE STUDY and

GRADUATE RESEARCH

in

Chemical Engineering



Transport Processes
(Heat, mass & momentum transfer)
William H. Abraham
Renato G. Bautista
Charles E. Glatz
James C. Hill
Frank 0. Shuck
Richard C. Seagrave

Process Chemistry and
Fertilizer Technology
David R. Boylan
George Burnet
Maurice A. Larson


Crystallization Kinetics
Maurice A. Larson
John D. Stevens

Process Instrumentation
and System Optimization
and Control
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Kenneth R. Jolls


write to:
Prof. D. L. Ulrichson
Dept. of Chem. Engr. & Nuc. Engr.
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010







UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program


Petroleum Engineering
also
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
and
M.S. in Petroleum Managemeni


The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.



Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena
Fluid Flow in Porous Media
Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies
Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems


Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior


For Information and Applications write:
Floyd W. Preston, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922








Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $5,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502
FALL 1977


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER
HEAT TRANSFER
FLUID MECHANICS
THERMODYNAMICS
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SOLID MIXING
CATALYSIS
OPTIMIZATION
FLUIDIZATION
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM


213








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OYsj^^Q~LaJ wyLow 40gob\^(\M\


























* ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

* BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING


* TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

* CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

* SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY


* POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES

* ENERGY


Massachusetts
Institute
of Technology



DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING










For decades to come, the chemical engineer
will play a central role in fields of national
concern. In two areas alone, energy and the
environment, society and industry will turn
to the chemical engineer for technology and
management in finding process-related
solutions to critical problems. MIT has con-
sistently been a leader in chemical engineer-
ing education with a strong working relation-
ship with industry for over a half century.
For detailed information, contact Professor
James Wei, Head of the Department of Chemical
Engineering, Massachusetts Instiitute of Tech-
nology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge,
Massachusetts 02139.


Raymond F. Baddour
Janos M. Beer
Clark K. Colton
Lawrence B., Evans
Hoyt C. Hottel
Jack B. Howard
John P. Longwell
Herman P. Meissner
Edward W. Merrill
J. Th. G. Overbeek


FACULTY
Robert C. Reid
Adel F. Sarofim
Charles N. Satterfield
Kenneth A. Smith
J. Edward Vivian
Glenn C. Williams
Ronald A. Hites
Michael Modell
Preetinder S. Virk
James Wei


Robert C. Armstrong
Lloyd A. Clomburg
Robert E. Cohen
William M. Deen
Richard G. Donnelly
Christos Georgakis
Michael P. Manning
Frederick A. Putnam
Costas Vayenas











Chemical

Engineering

At The

University

Of Michigan


THE FACULTY


THE RESEARCH PROGRAM


Dale Briggs
Louisville, Michigan
Brice Carnahan
Case-Western, Michigan
Rane Curl
MIT
Francis Donahue
LaSalle, UCLA
H. Scott Fogler
Illinois, Colorado
James Hand
NJIT, Berkeley
Robert Kadlec
Wisconsin, Michigan
Donald Katz
Michigan
Lloyd Kempe
Minnesota
Joseph Martin
Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie
Giuseppe Parravano
Rome
John Powers
Michigan, Berkeley
Jerome Schultz, Chairman
Columbia, Wisconsin
Maurice Sinnott
Michigan
James Wilkes
Cambridge, Michigan
Brymer Williams
Michigan
Gregory Yeh
Holy Cross, Cornell, Case
Edwin Young
Detroit, Michigan


Surface Catalysis
Reservoir Engineering
Thrombogenesis
Sterilization
Applied Numerical Methods
Dynamic Process Simulation
Ecological Simulation
Electroless Plating
Electrochemical Reactors
Polymer Physics
Polymer Processing
Composite Materials
Coal Liquifcation
Coal Gasification
Acidization
Gas Hydrates
Periodic Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Transport In Membranes
Flow Calorimetry
Ultrasonic Emulsification
Heat Exchangers


For

Tomorrows

Engineers

Today.


THE PLACE
Department Of Chemical Engineering
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109

For Information Call 313/763-1148 Collect


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA

ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman


Day Programs



Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence Mixing and Drag Reduction
Studies-Dr. G. K. Patterson

(2) Electrochemistry and Reactions at Electrode
Surfaces-Dr. J. W. Johnson

(3) Heat Transfer Studies-Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.
and Dr. J. J. Carr

(4) Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes to
Methane-Dr. J. L. Gaddy


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees



In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:
(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Dr. J. L.
Gaddy
(b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies
-Dr. M. E. Findley
(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies and
Separation Processes-Dr. R. C. Waggoner
(d) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice
(e) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer
Applications to Process Control-Drs. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-
kamp


(f) Transport Properties, Kinetics, enzymes and
catalysis-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E.
Poling
(g) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley








Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.


FALL 1977






HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO

YOUR GRADUATE WORK

IN THE CULTURAL CENTER

OF THE WORLD?


, io
ij,,i,.,, ..
uI.L


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING


FACULTY
R. C. Ackerberg
R. F. Benenati
J. J. Conti
C. D. Han
S. H. Lin
R. D. Patel
E. M. Pearce
E. N. Ziegler


RESEARCH AREAS
Air Pollution
Biomedical Systems
Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors
Fluidization
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical Modelling
Polymerization Reactions
Process Control
Rheology and Polymer Processing


Polytechnic
Institute

Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Instltute Of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science.


Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and
Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research:
chemical engineering, polymer science and
engineering and environmental studies.


Fellowships and Research Assistantships
are available.
For further information contact
Professor C. D. Han
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201









university of


pennsylvania


chemical


and biochemical


engineering


FACULTY
Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan)
Elizabeth B. Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins)
William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania)
Eduardo D. Glandt (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia)
Mitchell Lift (Columbia)
Alan L. Myers (California)
Melvin C. Molstad (Yale)
Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale)
John A. Quinn (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider (Michigan)


RESEARCH SPECIALTIES
Energy Utilization
Enzyme Engineering
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Environmental and Pollution Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena


The faculty includes two members of the National Academy of Engineering and three recipients of the highest honors awarded by the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers. Staff members are active in teaching, research, and professional work. Located near one of the largest con-
centrations of chemical industry in the United States, the University of Pensylvania maintains the scholarly standards of the Ivy League and
numbers among its assets a superlative Medical Center and the Wharton School of Business.


PHILADELPHIA: The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University.
Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the New Jersey shore are within a two-
hour drive.
For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to Dr. A. L. Myers, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering / D3, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.


FALL 1977












LOOKING


WRITE TO
Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Fenske Laboratory
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802


for a

graduate education
in

Chemical Engineering ?

Consider


PENN STATE

Some Current M.S. & Ph.D.
General Research Areas:
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
Physiological Transport Processes
Newborn Monitoring
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
Gaseous and Particulate Control
Atmospheric Modeling
REACTOR DESIGN AND CATALYSIS
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Cyclic Reactor Operations
Catalyst Characterization
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Analytical and Numerical Solutions
Polymer Rheology and Transport
Convective Heating and Mass Transfer
Mass Transfer in Cocurrent Flow
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
Property Correlations
Statistical Mechanics
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
Nonlinear Stability Theory
Optimal and Periodic Control
APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND KINETICS
Industrial Chemical Processes
Complex Reaction Systems
PETROLEUM REFINING
Process Development
Product Conversion
TRIBOLOGY
Properties of Liquid Lubricants
Boundary Lubrication Fundamentals
INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA
Adsorption Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Monolayer and Membrane Processes
ENERGY RESEARCH
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Nuclear Technology
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






















GRADUATE STUDY
IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING



University


ofs

Pittsbmgh


Sixty graduate students,
along with 300 under-
graduates, pursue their
education on three floors
of Benedum Hall. The
facilities are modern and
excellently equipped.
Graduate applicants
should write:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical and Petroleum
Engineering Department
School of Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261
FACULTY
Charles S. Beroes
Alfred A. Bishop
Alan J. Brainard
Shiao-Hung Chiang
James T. Cobb, Jr.
Paul F. Fulton
George E. Klinzing
Chung-Chiun Liu
Alan A. Reznik
Yatish T. Shah
Edward B. Stuart
John W Tierney


UNIVERSITY OF
PITTSBURGH
The first school west of the
Allegheny Mountains to
offer engineering de-
grees, the University
granted its first under-
graduate engineering
degree in 1846 and
started the graduate
program in 1914. Today,
approximately 2,000
undergraduates and 600
graduate students are en-
rolled in the School of
Engineering. Students
have access to the
George M. Bevier En-
gineering Library of
38,000 volumes; University
libraries of over 2,500,000
volumes; libraries in 50
industrial research centers
and universities nearby.
University of Pittsburgh has
a comprehensive com-
puter system with both
batch and time-sharing


facilities to use in aca-
demic and research
investigations.
PROGRAMS
AND SUPPORT
Master of Science and
Doctor of Philosophy de-
grees in Chemical En-
gineering and Master of
Science degree in Petro-
leum Engineering are of-
fered. While obtaining
advanced degrees, stu-
dents may specialize in
Biomedical, Energy Re-
sources, Nuclear, and En-
vironmental areas. A joint
Master of Science degree
with the Department of
Mathematics is offered.
Teaching and Research
Assistantships and Fellow-
ships are available.


PITTSBURGH
The city leads a rich cul-
tural life in an exciting
geographic and social
setting. Pittsburgh Sym-
phony Orchestra, under
the direction of Andre
Previn, ranks high. A wide
range of musical events
rocks Heinz Hall. Pitts-
burgh Laboratory Theatre
and Pittsburgh Public
Theatre take innovative
approaches to drama.
Natural history displays at
Carnegie Museum and
art exhibits at the new
Sarah Scaife Gallery
draw over a million visitors
yearly. For sports followers,
Pittsburgh offers Pirates,
Steelers, Penguins. And
skiers find a variety of
slopes just a half-hour,
uphill drive from the city.


FALL 1977
















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Graduate Information
Chemical Engineering A
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907


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Graduate Study


in Chemical Engineering


at Rice University

Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in
the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the
student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary
proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various
areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint
program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available.

The Department has approximately 30 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several
post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers
12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio,
outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in
keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the leading 42 Chemical Engineer-
ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to recent
evaluations.


MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Chromatography
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
Blood Flow and Blood Trauma
Blood Pumping Systems
Biomaterials

Rice University
Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca-
tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac-
tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine
residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston.
There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800
graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a
complete university with programs in the various fields
of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer-
ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings.
The academic year is from August to May. As there
are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly
four months for research. The school offers excellent
recreational and athletic facilities with a completely
equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes
outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year-
round activities.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT
Full-time graduate students receive financial support
with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of
$400-460 per month.

APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION
Address letters of inquiry to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

Houston
With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.


FALL 1977











RUTGERS CHFENSTHE STATE UNIVERSITY
l TG4 1 d OF NEW JERSEY

M.S. and Ph.D.

PROGRAMS
IN THE DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL AND

BIOCHEMICAL

ENGINEERING
College of Engineering

AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
* THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY,
COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
* MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES BIOMATERIALS
* ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
* BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES
INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS FLAMMABILITY OF MATERIALS OCEANS AND ESTUARIES
ENZYMES IN THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE, PACKAGING QUALITY MANAGEMENT
PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSING POLYMER PROCESSING WASTES RECOVERY
AND WASTE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
FOOD PROCESSING
FELLOWSHIPS AND For Application Forms and Further Information Write To:
Dr. A. Constantinides, Graduate Director
ASSISTANTSHIPS Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
College of Engineering
ARE AVAILABLE Rutgers, The State University
New Brunswick, N.J. 08903


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


224











University of


SSouth



Carolina
The College of Engineering offers the M.S., M.E. and Ph.D.
in Chemical Engineering with strong interdisciplinary
support in chemistry, physics, math and computer science.
Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely
with the faculty on study and research projects. Research
and teaching stipends are available from $3000 to $6000.
The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of
23,800 is located in the capital city of Columbia. Offering a
variety of cultural and recreational activities, Columbia is
part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country.
The Chemical Engineering Faculty
B.L. Baker, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., North Carolina State
University, 1955 (Process design, environmental problems, ion transport)
M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951
(Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction,
waste treatment)
J.H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat
transfer, fluid mechanics)
F.P. Pike, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949, (Mass
transfer in liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria)
T.G. Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., The University of Michigan, 1976
(Chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical
systems, process design, thermodynamics)
G.B. Tatterson, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1977
(Process control, real time computing, mixing phenomena)
J.A. Trainham, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of California
(Berkeley), 1978 (Electrochemical systems)
V. Van Brunt, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974
(Mass transfer, computer modeling, fluidization)
For further information contact:
Prof. J.H. Gibbons
Chairman, Chemical Engineering Group
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina 29208


II I





























THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE

Graduate Studies in

Chemical, Metallurgical, and Polymer Engineering


Research


Programs for the degrees of Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy are
offered in chemical engineering,
metallurgical engineering and polymer
engineering. The Master's program may
be tailored as a terminal one with
emphasis on professional develop-
ment, or it may serve as preparation for
more advanced work leading tothe Doc-
torate.


Faculty


William T. Becker
Donald C. Bogue
Charlie R. Brooks
Duane D. Bruns
Edward S. Clark
Oran L. Culberson
John F. Fellers
George C. Frazier
Hsien-Wen Hsu
Homer F. Johnson, Department Head
Stanley H. Jury
Carl D. Lundin
Peter J. Meschter
Charles F. Moore
Ben F. Oliver, Professor-in-Charge
of Metallurgical Engineering
Joseph J. Perona
Joseph E. Spruiell
E. Eugene Stansbury
James L. White, Professor-in-Charge
of Polymer Engineering


Process Dynamics and Control

Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of
Packed Beds

Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge
Studies of Macromolecules

Development and Synthesis of New
Engineering Polymers

Fiber and Plastics Processing

Chemical Bioengineering

X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission and
Scanning Electron Microscopy

Solidification, Zone Refining

Welding

Cryogenic and High Temperature
Calorimetry

Flow and Fracture in Metallic and
Polymeric Systems

Corrosion
Solid State Kinetics


Financial Assistance

Sources available include graduate
teaching assistantships, research assis-
tantships, and industrial fellowships.


The University and
Surroundings

Close to the center of Knoxville, the 397
acre campus combines a spacious en-
vironment with urban convenience. The
proximity of the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory and the headquarters of the
Tennessee Valley Authority encour-
ages constructive interchange with the
activities of this 30,000 student campus.
The moderate Knoxville climate with
the nearby Great Smoky Mountain Na-
tional Park, Appalachian Trail, ski slopes
and TVA lakes provides year round
recreational challenges. The university
and area communities offer a substan-
tial program of cultural activities includ-
ing a symphony orchestra, several the-
ater companies and fine art museums as
well as a wide assortment of rock con-
certs, folk music, mountain festivals, etc.

Write

Department of Chemical, Metallurgical
and Polymer Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Programs


























M.S. and Ph.D.

Programs in

Chemical
Engineering
Faculty research interests
include Aerosol Technology,
Bioengineering, Combustion,
Computer-Aided Design,
Energy, Enviromental,
Kinetics and Catalysis,
Materials, Optimization,
Polymer Engineering,
Process Control,
Process Engineering,
Process Simulation,
Surface Phenomena,
Transport Processes.
for additional information:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712
FALL 1977













































UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
TORONTO, CANADA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
& APPLIED CHEMISTRY


The Department offers a wide range of research topics for the
creative student including:

* nuclear power engineering
* energy engineering, solar heating
" electrochemical engineering and corrosion
* polymer science and engineering
* plastics engineering and composite materials
* process modelling and optimal control
* fluid mechanics and pipeline transportation
* petrochemistry and tar sands development
* ceramics engineering
* heat, mass and momentum transport
* radiochemistry and radioanalysis
" analytical chemistry and instrumentation
* thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis
* applied organic chemistry
* environmental engineering
* biomedical engineering
* bioengineering and food synthesis
* pulp and paper chemistry
* occupational health engineering


The Department ranks as one of the largest chemical
engineering schools in the world with a total professorial
staff of 33 and an enrolment of 160 graduate students.
Interdisciplinary research is fostered through joint projects
with the Institute for Environmental Studies, the Institute
for Biomedical Engineering, the Centre for the Study of
Materials, the Systems Building Centre, and the Institute
for Aerospace Studies.
Admission to the School of Graduate Studies is based
solely on academic standing and availability of space and
facilities. A graduate brochure entitled "Graduate Research
and Career Development" which describes current research
programs is available on request. Adequate financial support
in the form of scholarships, fellowships or bursaries
is available to qualified students.
For further details write:
Professor R.T. Woodhams, Graduate Secretary
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Applied Chemistry
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M5S1A4








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010






11 12










A~


Chemical


Engineering
at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University ...
applying chemistry to the needs of man.

Study with outstanding professors in the land of
Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Lee. .. where
Chemical Engineering is an exciting art. Some current
areas of major and well-funded activity are,
Renewable Resources
chemical and microbiological processing,
chemicals made from renewable resources
Coal Science and Process Chemistry
Microprocessors, Digital Electronics, and Control
process measurements, interfacing, remote
data acquisition
Polymer Science and Engineering
processing, morphology, synthesis, surface
science, biopolymers
Engineering Chemistry
chemically pumped lasers, multiphase catalysis,
chernical micro-engineering, biological
regenerative cycles in pollution control
Biochemical Engineering
synthetic foods, food processing, antibiotics,
plant-cell tissue culture, fermentation processes
and instrumentation
VPI&SU is the state university of Virginia with 20,000
students and almost 5,000 engineering students ..
located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern
Virginia. White-water canoeing, skiing, backpacking, and
the like are all nearby, as is Washington, D. C. and
historic Williamsburg.
Stipends to $8,000 (tax free) plus all fees.
Write to: Dr. H. A. McGee, Jr., Department Head,
Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia
24061, or call collect (703) 951-6631.

Alchemic Symbols
1. Gold 8. White Arsenic
2. Silver 9. Lime
3. Copper 10. Vitriol
4. Nitre Flowers 11. Vinegar
5. Mercury 12. Cinnabar
6. Zinc 13. Amalgam
7. Aqua Vitae 14. Eggshells


FALL 1977















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CHEMICAL



ENGINEERING




DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D.
RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE:
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
PROCESS MODELING
IN: COAL GASIFICATION, CHEMICALS FROM WOOD, ECOSYSTEM
ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES
CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD
P. O. BOX G
University, Alabama 35486


AUBURN UNIVERSITY
A Land Grant University of Alabama


GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and PH.D. DEGREES


CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS:


LIQUID FUELS FROM COAL
POROUS MEDIA
CRYSTAL GROWTH KINETICS
ENZYME ENGINEERING

Financial Assistance:
Research and Teaching Assistantships,
Industrial Fellowships Are Available


PROCESS CONTROL
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

For Further Information, Write:
Head, Chemical Engineering Department
Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830


FALL 1977








DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY
SLEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837

For admission, address
Dr. George F. Folkers
Coordinator of Graduate Studies



* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* For the usual candidate with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation. Special programs
are arranged for candidates with baccalaureate degrees in the natural sciences.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* Typical interests of the faculty include the areas of: reaction kinetics and catalyst deactiva-
tion; thermodynamics; process dynamics and control, including direct digital control; computer-
aided design; science of materials, particularly metallurgy and polymer technology; numerical
analysis; statistical analysis; mathematical modeling; operations research.


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA


CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING


Gerald R. Cysewski
Henri J. Fenech
Husam Gurol
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp
Glenn E. Lucas


John E. Myers
George L. Nicolaides
G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker
Orville C. Sandall
Dale E. Seborg


For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











CINCINNATI f
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING

M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES

-Major urban educational center
-New, prize-winning laboratory building and
facilities-Rhodes Hall
-National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent
to campus
-Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid
-Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control,
polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction-
ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen-
eration, heat transfer.
Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head
Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering (0620)
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221



THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY
DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING
Sr4 MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

1964
AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Transport Processes Bioengineering Simulation Processes
Porous Media Zeolites
The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the
doctorate. Financial assistance is available.


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT:
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44115


FALL 1977














Graduate Study
in Chemical Engineering
Degrees Offered M.S. and Ph.D. Programs are available for persons in
Chemical Engineering or related fields.
Research Areas Energy Storage and Conservation Polymer Processing
* Environmental Pollution Control Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Reac-
tor Design Process Dynamics Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics *
Membrane Transport Processes Thermodynamics
Faculty F.C. Alley W.B. Barlage J.N. Beard W.F. Beckwith D.D.
Edie* J.M. Haile* R.C. Harshman S.S. Melsheimer* J.C. Mullins* W.H.
Talbott
Clemson University Clemson University is a state coeducational land-
grant university offering 76 undergraduate fields of study and 55 areas of
graduate study in its nine academic units which include the College of
Engineering. Present on-campus enrollment totals about 10,000 students
which includes about 1,900 graduate students. The campus, which com-
prises 600 acres and represents an investment of approximately $125
million in permanent facilities, is located in the northwestern part of South
Carolina on the shores of Lake Hartwell.
For Information For further information and a descriptive brochure, write
D.D. Edie, Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering,
Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


The University of Colorado offers excellent opportunities for graduate study and research leading to
the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering

Air Pollution
Bioengineering
Catalysis
Cryogenics
Design
Energy Applications
Environmental Applications
.7 0 Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Kinetics
Polymers
Process Control
r ?Thermodynamics
Water Pollution



For application and information,
0 .-. -write to:
Chairman, Graduate Committee
-- |Chemical Engineering Department
i' ---University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309
--.a = _.._^- -- -
., -^- -^^--^--B. ^^^^












th e



university


programs
M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England


We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268


DREXEL UNIVERSITY

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering


Faculty
D. R. Coughanowr
E. D. Grossmann
Y. Lee
R. Mutharasan
J. A. Tallmadge
J. R. Thygeson
C. B. Weinberger


Research Areas
Biochemical Engineering
Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering
Coal Conversion Technology
Mass and Heat Transport
Polymer Processing
Process Control and Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Systems Analysis and Optimization
Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis


Consider:
High faculty/student ratio
Excellent facilities
Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities
Full time and part time options

Write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA 19104


FALL 1977


faculty
J. P. BELL
C. 0. BENNETT
R. W. COUGHLIN
M. B. CUTLIP
A. T. DiBENEDETTO
G. M. HOWARD
H. E. KLEI
M. T. SHAW
R. M. STEPHENSON
L. F. STUTZMAN
D. W. SUNDSTROM










LEHIGH UNIVERSITY
Department of Chemical Engineering
Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015


FACULTY
Hugo S. Caram
Marvin Charles
Curtis W. Clump
Mohamed EI-Aasser
Donald D. Joye
William L. Luyben
Anthony J. McHugh
Laszlo K. Nyiri
Gary W. Poehlein
William E. Schiesser
Leslie H. Sperling
Fred P. Stein
Leonard A. Wenzel


RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS
Polymer Science & Engineering
Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering,
Biochemical Engineering
Process Simulation & Control
Catalysis & Reaction Engineering
Thermodynamic Property Research
Energy Conversion Technology
Applied Heat & Mass Transfer
Fluid Mechanics
SPECIAL PROGRAMS
M.Eng. Program in Design
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in
Polymer Science & Engineering
FINANCIAL AID
Of course.


WRITE US FOR DETAILS


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


II JGraduate Enrollment 60

S^Faculty 15







Bioengineering
Pollution Control
0 Process Dynamics
Computer Control
0 Kinetics and Catalysis
Thermodynamics
0 Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department Suear Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803




















THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS
R. B. Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) Catalysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
M. H. 1. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) Oscillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) Wastewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) Polymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) Optimization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simulation
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) Biological Fluid and Mass Transfer
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) Polymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
T. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) .... ... Heat Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Statistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) .... Mass Transfer, Corrosion
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) ... Polymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Processes
D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Interfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) Process Simulation and Control, Computer Control



DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman,
RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7






GRADUATE STUDY IN
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State University has assistantships and fellowships
available for students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these appointments it is possible
for a graduate student to obtain the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two additional years.
ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $522 per month to a student studying for the
M.S. degree and approximately $563 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the
subject covered by the research assistantship. Students must pay resident tuition, but the additional non-
resident fee is waived.
FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $4,000 plus tuition and fees.


CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS
D. K. Anderson, Chairman
Ph.D., University of Washington
Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio-
vascular Physiology
R. F. Blanks
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena in Macro-
molecular Systems
C. M. Cooper
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of Trans-
port Processes
For additional information write:


M. C. Hawley
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Porous Media Transport, Kinetics, Catalysis, Plasmas, and
Reaction Engineering
K. Jayaraman
Ph.D., Princeton University
Process Deynamics and Control, Nonlinear Rheological
Models of Polymeric Materials, Nonlinear System Theory
C. A. Petty
Ph.D., University of Florida
Turbulence, Stability and Transport in Fluidized Beds,
Separations
B. W. Wilkinson
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Re-
actor and Radioisotope Applications


Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
197 Engineering Building
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824


FALL 1977


McMASTER UNIVERSITY

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS









DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK AT MICHIGAN TECH...

WORK AND STUDY
... with a select faculty
... the best equipment
... surrounded by forests and lakes
DEGREES OFFERED:
M.S. in Chemical Engineering
studies in advanced thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, instrumentation, unit operations, and
chemical processing.
M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemistry
specialization in organic, inorganic, physical and analytical chemistry, and in biochemistry.



Financial assistance available in the form of fellowships and assistantships.

For more information write:
S H. El Khadem, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, Michigan 49931




Can you mesh rhe facut(y wfrh their inres- ~And yours?


Department of CaiUa fqineetinq C- Matris Scence, Univesity of4 Minnesota
minnapoUs, Minn. 5545,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









































UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA


OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH
LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. IN THE AREAS OF:


Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Crystallization
Food Processing
Kinetics


Mixing
Polymerization
Thermodynamics
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas


FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO:


Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508


FALL 1977


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D.
Degrees

Research Areas
Air Pollution Monitoring and Control
Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams
Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Energy Sources and Systems
Environmental Control Engineering
Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
Process Control and Modelling of Processes
Single-Cell Protein Research
Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids
Transport in Biological Systems
WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg.,
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201





































Graduate study
toward

M.S. degrees u
in C
chemical engineering


Major energy research center:


* solar
* bioconversion

Financial assistance available.


* petroleum
* geothermal


Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other
fields.
For applications and information:
Dr. John T. Patton, Head, Department of Chemical Engineer-
ing, Box 3805, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces,
New Mexico 88003.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

9 ? Offering Research Opportunities in
I Coal Gasification
,Desalination
"' Synthetic Fuels
Hydrogen Economy
Mini Computer Applications to
Process Control
-. .-- Process Simulation
Radioactive Waste Management
.. and more

Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque!

For further information, write:
Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131


I


240













NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Faculty and Research Activities:


S. G. Bankoff
G. M. Brown
J. B. Butt
S. H. Carr
W. C. Cohen
B. Crist
J. S. Dranoff
T. K. Goldstick
W. W. Graessley
H. M. Hulburt
H. H. Kung
R. S. H. Mah
J. C. Slattery
W. F. Stevens
G. Thodos


Boiling Heat Transfer, Two-Phase Flow
Thermodynamics, Process Simulation
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Catalysis
Solid State Properties of Polymers, Biodegradation
Dynamics and Control of Process Systems
Polymers in the Solid State
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chromatographic Separations
Biomedical Engineering, Oxygen Transport
Polymer Rheology, Polymer Reaction Engineering
Analysis of Chemical and Physical Processes
Catalyst Behavior, Properties of Oxide Surfaces
Computer-Aided Process Planning, Design and Analysis
Transport and Interfacial Phenomena
Process Optimization and Control, Computer Applications
Properties of Fluids, Coal Processing, Solar Energy


Financial support is available
For information and application materials, write:
Professor William F. Stevens, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois 60201


FALL 1977


GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS


* Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control
Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Rheology Unit Operations
Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Simulation
Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request


WRITE J. L. Zakin, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210










18 HE

niversitThe UNIVERSITY

nO F


OKLAHOMAA


WRITE TO:
THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069


* CATALYSIS
* CORROSION
* MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
* DESIGN
* POLYMERS
* METALLURGY
* THERMODYNAMICS
* RATE PROCESSES
* ENZYME TECHNOLOGY


OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs


FACULTY
T. J. Fitzgerald Control, Fluidization, Mathematical
Models
F. Kayihan Process Systems Simulation and
Analysis
J. G. Knudsen -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two-
Phase Flow
0. Levenspiel Reactor Design, Fluidization
R. E. Meredith Corrosion, Electrochemical Engineer-


ing
- Thermodynamics, Applied Mathe-
matics


C. E. Wicks Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment
An informal atmosphere with opportunity for give and take with faculty and for joint work with
the Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA), Metallurgical Research Center of the U.S.
Bureau of Mines, Forest Product Laboratory, Environmental Health Science Center and the School of
Oceanography. The location is good-in the heart of the Willamette Valley-60 miles from the rugged
Oregon Coast and 70 miles from good skiing or mountain climbing in the high Cascades.
For further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department,
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331


R. V. Mrazek


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


~wwgil~Pi~sg~




Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 < u ::> C w (!) z IX w w z (!) z w cc: 2 E 8 V) u.. 0 z 0 V) > C (!) z cc: w w z -C) z w ..... u w :I: u VO LUME XI NUMBER 4 graduate education issue features: FA L L 1977 INTERFACE BETWEEN INDUSTRY & ACADEMIA SHINNAR ENGLISH OR TECHLISH? . YAN NESS & ABBOTT STATEWIDE CLOSED CIRCUIT TV NETWORK STANFORD courses: BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING BLANCH & RUSSELL POLYMER SCIENCE . . CHARTOFF FUNDAMENTAL SURFACE INTERACTIONS DUMESIC ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING . JORNE CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING RETZLOFF also: CHE GRADUATE EDUCATION FOR NON-CHE 1 S CUSSLER BETHEA, HEICHELHEIM, GULLY CHRISTY, PURKAPLE, VERNOR

PAGE 2

Is the leg mightier than the atom? Before you say no, keep in mind that we know very little about many forms of energy available to us. Including good old muscle power. For too long a time we've relied on oil and gas to serve our needs, and failed to take full advantage of other sources of power. Including the atom. But recent events make it clear we must learn about a ll the options, and how best to apply them. At Union Carbide we're studying a wide ran 0 e of ener 0 y technolog1es and resources for the Energy R esearch and Development Administration From somethin g as basic as bi cycling to the complexity of con trolling nuclear fusion. For instance we are learnin g how to turn coal into oil and gas in a way th at is practical economically We're deeply involved in nuclear research, particularly in finding ways to make this important source of energy safer an d more efficient. Our work in fusion power, a t Oak Rid ge, Tennessee, offe rs the most excitin 0 possibility for the future: the ultimate source of inexhaustible ene r gy. If we succeed, there will never be ano th er energy crisis. Bur for the present, the answer co our energy dilemma is not likely to come from one source, but many. All the way from the leg co the acorn. Today, something we do will touch)Ollf life. An Equal Opport unity Employer M/F

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Business Manager: R B. Bennett Managing Editor: Bonnie Neelands (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: Darsh T. Wasan Illinois Institute of Technology SOUTH: Homer F. Johnson University of Tennessee V in cent W. Uhl University of Virginia CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti University of Toledo Camden A. Coberly University of Wisconsin WEST: George F. Meenaghan Texas Tech University William H. Corcoran California Institute of Technology Thomas W. Weber State University of New York L ee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University NORTH: J. J. Martin University of Michigan Edward B. Stuart University of Pittsburgh NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton University of Washington Charles E. Wicks Oregon State University PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania FALL 1977 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME XI NUMBER 4 FALL 1977 GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES 160 Fundamental Concepts in Surface Inter actions, J. A. Dumesic 164 Electrochemical Engineering, Jacob Jorne 168 Chemical Reaction Engineering Science, David Ret z loff 170 Biochemical Engineering, Harvey W. Blanch and Fraser Russell 174 Polymer Science and Engineering, Richard P. Chartoff FEATURES 154 Technical Prose : English or Techlish? H. C. Van Ness and M. M. Abbott 176 ChE Graduate Programs for Non-Chemical Engineers, E. L. Gussler ISi Experience at One University, R. M. Bethea, H. R. Heichelheim, A. J. Gully 185 Student Point of View, Ronald S. Christy, Jerry D. Purkaple and Thomas E. Vernor 186 Graduate ChE Education on a Statewide Closed-Circuit Television Network, Thomas G. Stanford DEPARTMENTS 147 Editorial 148 In Memorium-Leon Lapidus 150 Views and Opinions The Interface Between Industry and the Academic World, Reuel Shinnar 149 Letters 149, 167, 195 Book Reviews CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division. American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department. University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeL eon Springs, Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter circulation and changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates anil information are available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 82028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per year, $ 7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ABEE. Bulk s ubscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright 1 9 77. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society for Engineering Education, Ray Fabien, Editor. The statements and opinions e x pressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Di vision of the ASEE which body assumes no responsil>ility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days. The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical. 145

PAGE 4

For some people, the good life doesn t begin at five p m And it's not measured in vacations and weekends Rather, it wakes up with them every morning It moves with them as they go about their tasks These people work in an atmosphere of growth without constraint. They set their own goals basec:J. on their own abilities They use the i r own judgment in helping to solve problems that directly affect their own l ives Like assuring an ample food supply Ridding the environment of pollution. Curing disease. Because life is fragile these people believe it needs protection That's one reason they chose a career with Dow We need more people who think along these lines and have backgrounds in science engineering, manufactur i ng and marketing If you know of students who are looking for employment with enough meaning for thei r tal ents and enthusiasm have them c onta c t us Re cruiting and College Relations P.O Bo x 1713, Midland Michigan 48640 Dow is an equal opportunity employer male/female DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A. *Trad e mar k of Th e D o w Ch e m i cal Company

PAGE 5

Crliio."'i,a/, A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS This is the ninth Graduate Issue to be published by CEE and distributed to chemi cal engineering seniors interested in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous issues we also include ads of departments on their graduate programs and some articles on graduate courses that are taught at various universities; However this year we are including a larger number of general papers on graduate education that we feel are of interest to both students and faculty and fewer courses. Therefore in order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate course work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of these follows. If you would like a copy of a previous Fall issue, please write CEE. Ray Fahien, Editor CEE AUTHOR TITLE ChE, Dept., University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Fall 1976 Alkire Bailey & Ollis DeKee Deshpande Johnson Klinzing Lemlich Koutsky Reynolds Rosner "Electrochemical Engineering" "Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals" "Food Engineering" "Distillation! Dynamics & Control" "Fusion Reactor Technology" "Environmental Courses" "Ad Bubble Separation Methods" "Intro. Polymer Science & Tech." "The Engineer as Entrepeneur" "Energy, Mass and Momentum Transport" Fall 1975 Astarita Delgass Gruver Liu Manning McCoy Walter "Modern Thermodynamics" "Heterogeneous Catalysis" "Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control" "Digital Computations for ChE's" "Industrial Pollution Control" "Separation Process" "Enzyme Catalysis" Fall 1974 Corripio Donaghey Edgar Gates, et al. Luks Melnyk & Prober Tavlarides Theis Hamrin, et. al. Sherwood "Digital Computer Control of Process" "Solid-State Materials and Devices" "Multivariable Control and Est." "Chemistry of Catalytic Process" "Advanced Thermodynamics" "Wastewater Engineering for ChE's" "Enzyme and Biochemical Engr." "Synthetic & Biological Polymers" "Energy Engineering" "History of Mass Transfer Theory" Fall 1973 Merrill "Applied Chemical Kinetics" Locke & Daniels "Corrosion Control Moore Wei Hopfenberg Fricke Tierney O'Connell, et. al. FALL 1977 "Digital Computer Process Control" "Economics of Chem. Processing Industries" "Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal Materials" "Polymer Processing" "Staged Separations" "Application of Molecular Concepts of Predicting Properties in Design" Fall 1972 Bell Chao& Greenkorn Cooney Curl & Kadlec Gainer Slattery Kelleher & Kafes Douglas & Kittrell Wei Tepe "Process Heat Transfer" "Equilibrium Theory of Fluids" "Biological Transport Pnenomena and Biomedical Engineering" "Modeling" "Applied Surface Chemistry" "Momentum, Energy and Mass Transfer" "Process and Plant Design Project" "Engineering Entrepeneurship" "How Industry Can Improve the Use fulness of Academic Research" "Relevance of Grad. ChE Research" Fall 1971 Reid & Modell Theofanous Weller Westerberg Kabel Wen Beamer Himmelblau "Thermo: Theory & Applications" "Transport Phenomena" "Heterogeneous Catalysis" "Computer Aided Process Design" "Mathematical Modeling ... "N oncatalytic Heterogeneous Reaction Systems" "Statistical Analysis and Simulation" "Optimization of Large Scale Systems" Fall 1970 Berg Boudart Koppel Leonard Licht Metzner & Denn Powers Toor & Condiff Tsao "lnterfacial Phenomena" "Kinetics of Chemical Processes" "Process Control" ''Bioengineering" "Design of Air Pollution Control Systems" "Fluid Mechanics" "Separation Processes" "Heat and Mass Transfer" "Biochemical Engineering" Fall 1969 Amundson Churchill Hanratty Hubert Lightfoot Lapidus Prausnitz Dougharty "Why Mathematics?" "Theories, Correlations & Uncertain ties for Waves, Gradients & Fluxes" "Fluid Dynamics" "Stat. Theories of Particulate Systems" "Diffusional Operations" "Optimal Control of Reaction Systems" "Molecular Thermodynamics" "Reactor Design" 147

PAGE 6

In Memorium Professor Leon Lapidus, 52, chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering at Prince ton University, died suddenly in his office May 5, 1977. He was the author of more than a hundred technical publications including four textbooks: Digital Computation for Chemical Engineers, Optimal Control of Engineering Processes, Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equa tions, and Mathematical Met hods for Chemical Engineers. Widely sought as a consultant, Lapidus was a member of the National Academy of Engineering, Sigma Xi, American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engi neers, the Association of Computing Machinery, and president of the New Jersey Tennis Associa tion. The Princeton University Faculty adopted the following memorial resolution at its June 1977 meeting: MEMORIAL RESOLUTION FOR PROFESSOR LEON LAPIDUS Dr. Leon Lapidus first came to Princeton in 1951 as a Research Associate in Professor Richard H. Wilhelm's program in chemical sciences on what is now the Forrestal Campus. His previous training included two degrees from Syracuse Uni versity in the city of his birth, a doctorate from the University of Minnesota, where he was the first of a long line of outstanding scholars under the tutelage of Dr. Neal Amundson, and a post doctoral fellowship at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1953 he became a member of the Chemical Engineering faculty as an Assistant Professor. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958 and to Professor in 1962. In 1970 he was appointed 148 The Class of 1943 University Professor. From 1968 until his untimely death on May 5, 1977, he served as Chairman of the Department of Chemi cal Engineering. Throughout most of his tenure as Chairman he was the elected member from Division IV on the Faculty Advisory Committee on Appointments and Advancements, making his membership on that important committee one of the longest in the history of the university. A teacher-scholar in the best Princeton tradi tion, Professor Lapidus was also a skilled ad ministrator. Indeed, a colleague in another depart ment recently observed that Leon was the ultimate exemplar of the ideal all-round faculty member because his research productivity increased as his administrative responsibilities grew. With a rare gift of being able to communicate often abstruse and difficult material clearly and enthusiastically, Professor Lapidus gained a wide reputation as lecturer, and student ratings of his courses invariably placed them near the top of all courses in the University. His contributions to teaching were not limited to classroom instruction, however, inasmuch as he authored or co-authored four major textbooks, and in collaboration with his first mentor, Dr. Amundson, he edited the definitive work on chemical r eactor theory, written as a memorial to the late Richard H. Wilhelm. In particular his books on digital com putation and on optimal control theory have wide spread use as teaching tools. The book on chemi cal reactor theory was published during the week of his death. In 1955, just two years after joining the Princeton faculty, Professor Lapidus introduced a new course in numerical methods of computa tion. This course marked the beginning of his pro fessional concentration on the application of numerical analysis and computer techniques to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 7

~----------~ problems in chemical engineering. Over the years he extended the breadth and depth of this applica tion with special attention to problems in the simulation, control and optimization of chemical process systems. More than fifty graduate students participated in this w ork, many of whom are now on major faculties throughout the world. The fruits of this w ork, comprising five books and some 135 articles in scientific journals, have had a major impact on the way engineers in general, and chemical engineers in particular, approach problems. Many awards went to Professor Lapidus for his prodigious scholarship. He won the Profes sional Progress Award and the William H. Walker Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. In 1976 he was electedto the National Academy of Engineering, the third member of the Princeton faculty so honored. He has been Chemi cal Engineering Lecturer for the American ~ociety for Engineering Education. Reilly Lecturer for the University of Notre Dame, Lacey Lecturer for the California Institute of Tech nology, Mason Lecturer for Stanford University, DDistinguished Lecturer for the University of Michigan, and Organization of American States Lecturer at La Plata Uni v ersity in Argentina. Widely sought as a consultant to industry, Pro fessor Lapidus also served on the editorial ad visory boards of the Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the International Journal of Systems Science, The Chemical Engi neering Journal, and he was Editor of Control Series, Blaisdell Publishing Company. He was also a member of the Visiting Committee to the De partment of Chemical Engineering at the Cali fornia Institute of Technology. He was an active player and a promotor of tennis, especially among young people. At the time of his death he was president of the New Jersey Tennis Association. Furthermore, he transmitted his enthusiasm for the game to his children, Mary and Jay, both of whom he coached to tournament calibre. Jay, who will enter Princeton in the fall, is generally regarded as one of the most promising tennis players in the United States. A devoted husband and father, Leon Lapidus most of all enjoyed those activities which in cluded his close-knit, immediate family circle: his wife, the former Elizabeth Kalmes, whom he met and married in Minneapolis, Minnesota and his children, Mary Kalmes and Jon Jay. In addition to his immediate family he leaves a FALL 1977 sister, Mrs. Florence L. Goldman. He leaves, too, a large number of friends and colleagues, who will deeply miss those personal and professional qualities that made so lasting an impact on his profession, on Princeton University and on the Department. Ernest F. Johnson William R. Showalter Richard K. Toner t-Jb?I letters FACULTY WORKLOAD CORRECTION Sir: In the i nt eres t of acc ur a cy, I w ould like to s tate that m y pap er i n C h emica l E n g ineering E ducation Vol. II, No. 3 p. 134, 1977 s hould be e ntitled, "Fa c ulty Wo r kload Me as u r em e nt, and not "Facult y Workload Me a surement at NJIT." I w ould a ppre c iat e ha v in g this fact brought to the at tention of y our r eade r s s inc e the article is not how loads are measu re d at NJIT. Thanks. Deran Hanesian Ne w J er s e y of Technology EDITOR'S NOTE: CEE deeply regrets the error. [i) ;j a book reviews FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRY b y Do n ald R. Woods, P re nti c e-Hall, Inc., Engle w ood Cliffs, N.J 1975. 3 2 4 pp., $ 16.95. Reviewed by Vincent W. Uhl University of Vir ginia, Charlottesville, VA. The treatment seems to go beyond the title; in introductory chapters the books surveys two im portant areas related to financial decision making. One is that of the professional making judgements which affects society and the world we live in. The other area is the overall business environment. By this approach Woods manages to scan the full sweep, the spectrum from the individual to so ciety. Then he concentrates on "process econom ics" in this setting. Process economics constitutes the core of the work. Basically the methodology delineated is Continued on page 188. 149

PAGE 8

1i)ij;lviews and opinions THE INTERFACE BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND THE ACADEMIC WORLD* EDITOR'S NOTE: Prof. Shinnar's paper was presented at an Engineering Foundation Conference on Chemical Process Control at Asilomar, Pacific Grove, CA Jan. 18-23, 1976. We thought it worthwhile reading for students and faculty alike. REUEL SHINNAR The City University of New York New York, New York 10031 I CAME TO THE academic profession quite late, after many years in industry, and my values and outlook were formed during my in dustrial career. Having worked in many fields and having had ai varied career gives one the ad vantage of an o v erlook, and one often sees things that an insider cannot see. This paper is about some of these impressions on the present status of control. Let me start with three episodes that happened to me recently and induced me to choose this topic for presentation. The first was a question asked of me by the chairman of one of the top chemical en gineering departments in the United States. He asked me if process control today is still an active field of research in ChE and if it makes sense to have somebody in this field. It was an honest ques tion, which is also asked by quite a few others, even those who have been active in control in recent years and are now leaving it. I'll try to answer it later. The second occurrence was a letter I received from a former student of mine who obtained his Ph.D. in the U.S. in the area of control. I sent him a recent paper (1), and in commenting on it he complained that our engineering profession is so far backward in the application of novel ideas in control that he has decided to go where the action is and become an applied mathematician. The third happening was a comment by a re*Reprinted by permission from AIChE Symposium Series. Vol. 72, No. 159, p. 166. 150 Reuel Shinnar is Professor of Chemical Engineering at City College, N.Y He is known from his publications in reactor design process dynamics and control, crystallisation, fluid dynamics, and combustion A special interest of his is the application of probability and stochastic proc esses in engineering Professor Shinnar received his S.S from the Technion in Haifa, and his Ph.D. from Columbia University. Before taking up an academic caree r he worked for ten years in industry and still consults to the chemical and petroleum industry viewer that Vern Weekman received on a paper of his. The reviewer complained that the authors were unfairly criticizing the academic world, since he questioned how an academic could know what is and ;what is not implementable in industry. I don't know who here was hard on whom. I can hardly imagine a more severe condemnation of our academic engineering profession than this statement. If engineering professors have ceased to know what can and cannot be implemented, what are we teaching? In these three episodes there is a reflection of the whole sad state of research in process control as well as an indication as to what needs to be done. THE STATE OF PROCESS CONTROL L ET US NOT avoid the issue; the state of proc ess control is rather sad. True, we have had CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 9

-------------~ many important theoretical and mathematical ad vances in recent years, and, as Professor Athans' paper [8] pointed out, quite a number of them could be very significant, and I definitely agree with him. But on the other hand, the application of these advances in industrial practice has been rather meager, and even those that are active in designing controls for completely automated com plex plants complain that the publication of the academic community seem to be irrelevant to any conceivable needs. Furthermore, some of our best people are leaving the field disenchanted, and it is not attracting top students as often as previously. This is happening just as exciting applications are starting finally to appear, and, there are definite trends in industry that will require a better under stand ing of modern control. But even in industry the love affair with proc ess simulation and control is cooling. The heat is on almost all the research groups in the industry. Maybe we started too early and promised more than we could fulfill. But we could reasonably ex pect more understanding from industry. Let me remind you that the total expense of any major oil company on research in process control in any given year is less than for one major television commercial, and there is less evidence that com mercials sell gasoline. Somehow I feel that some of the recent ad advances in control theory off er exciting possibil ities for better design, but there is very little knowledge as to what these values really are, where they can be successfully applied, and what the pitfalls are, and there is no question a lot of it is irrelevant. Just look at the tremendous literature on Kal man filters. We listened to some top practitioners and heard that only one had ever really used one successfully. Listening to him, I realized that he used it in a different way than it is presented in the control literature, as a tool in interactive com puter-aided design in which the coefficients are guessed and continuously adjusted by the results of the simulation. Now I would like you to relook at the literature on Kalman filters. How much of it really deals with the basic problem, which is to decide how to guess the structure of the covari ance and, furthermore, to decide in what cases it is going to be useful. Listening to the two sides of the arguments on the usefulness of modern control reminded me of two other episodes that happened to me. You have to excuse my habit of telling stories. In my culture FALL 1977 it is a basic belief that a short story or joke often replaces a thousand words During the Israel Independence War in 1948 I was engaged in the manufacture of explosives and ammunition. Once I faced the problem of design ing a simple small siren intended to be put on small bombs, to increase their psychological effect. I had no idea how one designs a siren and was looking for some sketch to copy. To save time I went to a professor I knew, and I still remember him going to his shelf and giving me two volumes of "Das Handbuch der Theoretischen Physik." I was reminded of this story by the claim that mod ern control theory is there-just go and use it. The second episode symbolizes for me the stand of some of our industrial assessment members. In the early 1950's a group of young engineers were sitting in a house in Haifa and reminiscing about the war. One fell ow recounted his experiences in the British Corps of Engineers. The British Army instructions at that time required that prefab ricated pre-stressed concrete slabs should be rein forced in all four corners. Now, every compentent engineer knows that we only need two reinforce ments, in the two corners on the lower side. One guest was an old Englishman who had stayed in Israel, and he commented that we were all a little young and inexperienced and did not fully ap preciate the wisdom of the British Army. The manual is intended for use by the average ser geant in the British Army, who as likely as not is a Sikh with a minimum understanding of English. There are probably many really valuable results hidden in the literature of modern control that merit being brought to a form useful for the control engineer. But we need to extract them, test them, and bring them to a form where they are useful tools in real empirical design. He might be the only one in the company who can read that manual. You have to imagine him stand ing there with his curved knife in his mouth study ing the manual, and, when he takes out the knife and :Starts to yell, you hope he'll know where to put the slab. If you presume that he'll know which side is up, you have lost in advance. The Ziegler-Nichols tuning method of PI con trollers almost fulfills the same requirement. But 151

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modern process control is never going to have a reinforcement in each corner. This is not its ob jective. It will need highly educated engineers to use it for special applications where it is justified. But it is also useless to tell industry, "There are two thousand mathematical lemmas, and why don't you use them?" As almost all assessment reports agree, modern control theory is not in a state where it is easily used. ACADEMIC-INDUSTRIAL INTERFACE T HE PROELEM IS really at the interface. The information flow from academics to industry and back is jammed, and the question is what we can do about it. It would be very valuable if the process in dustries would publish more about their successes and failures. Some of the secrecy surrounding control is really bordering on the ridiculous. But it is rather hard to hope that they'll really do it in a useful way. The aerospace industry has much less of a problem, since much of the work is gov ernment financed and therefore published, and it also employs a much larger number of theoret ically educated engineers. If we want to improve that interface, it is the engineering societies and, above all, the engineer ing faculties who can and should do this job. I don't worry about algorithms or computers eliminating the engineer. Complex design algorithms need a much higher degree of intellectual input than present methods and increase the need for highly trained personnel. As a profession, engineering is not a science but rather the knowledge of bringing scientific development into useful practice, very often mak ing empirical advances before the scientist under stands them. Even design, which is much more formalized, is only partly based on scientific calcu lations and relies heavily on intuition and experi ence Part of it can be computerized and formal ized, but in the end judgment will play a large role in the synthesis. Now design or process development is not easy to teach and much harder to do research on. To promote good research we have more and more gone over to focus our research on hard science, 152 picking up areas left by the physicists and chem ists, and slowly we have become a professional taught by non-practitioners. Maybe we are the only profession to do so. Can you imagine a med ical school where all professors are physiologists and nobody is a clinician? Now medical research is much less clean and less scientific than physi ology, but the latter would have no application without the first. I see nothing wrong in having a large part of our research devoted to clearly definable scientific problems, both theoretical and experimental, but somehow we have to make an attempt to bring engineering back to our research. Now here is this more felt than in theoretical engineering and especially in control. PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN THERE ARE SEVERAL needs in engineering design that good theoretical research can fulfill. The first is a need for straightforward algorithms, as, for example, the measurement of kinetic parameters in complex systems. The second is a need to better understand design de cisions. Theoretical work can contribute to that by so lving clearly defined cases, illuminating to the engineer what the potential problems could be. A good example of this is the theoretical work in reactor design, an area in which I also contributed. Now, in very few industrial cases would one expect an engineer to solve the type of complex models that have been solved or discussed in the literature. Hopefully, my own stu dents do not in terpret their work this way. However, from such theoretical modeling a nd related work we de livered rather well-working principles for reactor design: how to identify kinetic parameters in a simple way, how to structure the experiments needed for scale-up, how to identify reactors, and, most importantly, how to distin guish between simple problems and those which require more advanced methods. This is the most fruitful area for theoretical engineering research. But in order for it to be really useful the results have to be explained to the practicing engineer in a form he can understand. There are other types of theoretical research that I took part in. Some of the most difficult prob lems solved often only confirm that methods used by the engineer have a sound basis, but they do not lead to new insights. Years ago when I worked in rheology, every body was busy for years trying to understand the complex work of Coleman and Noll on constitutive equations. I don't want to belittle the eloquence and relevance of that work to continuum mechan ics as a theoretical science. But the insight that we got from that to real rheology, and especially CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS FCC (O ther Loops Omitted f o r Clari ty) Regenerator Flue Gas to CO Boiler ( p + ) + D) Set ~---Snorts Air I I I I I I I I I I I I _J Reactor To Main Fractionat or (P+l+D) --QJ-o Set I I I I I I I I ;------______ ...} I Riser Oil Feed FIGURE 1 Schematic of conventional control scheme to problems of interest to the engineer, was rather small. We learned that a capillary rheometer measures the same parameters as a cone and plate viscosimeter and that it is impossible from such measurements to predict the behavior of the liquid in accelerating flows. We knew that long before. But we learned little about how to treat those more interesting cases and had to go back to simpler and more ad hoc theories. I admit of hav ing done similar things myself. It did not start out that way. The best way of describing such work from an engineering point of view is maybe the expression of Moliere's hero in the Bourgeois Gentilhomme, "I never knew I speak prose." There is some im portance in knowing that one speaks prose, and from a purely scientific point of view this is often very interesting. But the importance that we give to such mathematical rigor in our engineering profession has little relation to its real value to the profession. The fourth type of theory is the one that leads nowhere. I remember a good example from the time I was a graduate student. At that time a fashionable pastime was to write down equations of mass transfer in multicomponent systems. Some of these equations were tensors of the sixth or eighth order. There was no way that anybody could ever measure that many coefficients or even design a hypothetical experiment to measure them. The only thing we learned is that too much rigor will lead to unsolvable problems. FALL 1977 Now in engineering we start to give the high est ranking to the "I know prose" research and much less to that which leads to real insights in design Nor do we insist that our results be pre sented in such a way that such insights to dirty problems are made clear. We have to learn to ap preciate both types of research. Consider for example the study of FCC control by Kurihara [2]. It is a very useful piece of work, and let me therefore discuss it in more detail. Kurihara took a fluidized bed cracker and de veloped a simple lumped parameter model for .it. He then took the standard industrial control scheme which is given in Figure 1, taken from Lee and W eekman [3], and looked at the connec tions between measured and manipulated varia bles. He then formulated an optimization problem in the following way. The system is assumed to be at a state X!, different from the desired steady state, and has to be brought back to the desired steady state. At this desired steady state, all manipulated inputs have a known value. The feedback law is then written to minimize a per formance index using some values for costs of control action and for profits based on reducing the deviation from the desired steady state. It is shown that a linearized analysis gives a very similar solution to the full non-linear optimization and furthermore, the control scheme given in Figure 2 gives almost the same result. Now, there is much more in the thesis than I Continued on page 191. MAJOR CO N TROL LOOPS FC C (Other Lo ops Omitt ed for Clarity) Regen e rat o r Flue Gas to CO Boiler Snort s I I I I I I A i r Oil Fee d FIGURE 2. Schematic of Kurihara scheme. To Main Fra ct i onator 153

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TECHNICAL PROSE: ENGLISH OR TECHLISH? H. C. VAN NESS and M. M. ABBOTT Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York 12181 JF THE SENIOR CHEMICAL engineering student feels burdened by report writing, he can take no comfort from what lies ahead, for writing will likely occupy an even greater proportion of his time as a practicing engineer. Moreover, suc cess will depend as much on development of com munication skills as on technical ability. One learns to write just as one learns to ride a bicycle, to play a musical instrument, or to make love. Bad performances are not only common, but easily recognized Remedial instruction is by criticism and example. Unfortunately, professors are seldom accomplished writers, and provide far more bad examples than good. Thus by the time a student is required to write a technical report he slips naturally into a special written language, which we call Techlish. Fortunately, it bears some relation to English and a literate engineer can often understand its general drift, if not its pre cise meaning Take a straight-forward English sentence: He followed her in hot pursuit. Not one engineering student in a hundred would put to paper any thought so directly and so evocative of an image of what is afoot. Translated into Techlish, it be comes, It was she w ho was follo w ed by him in hot pursuance, or perhaps, It seemed necessary that he should heatedly follow he r i n a pursuit-type mode. THE STUDENT REPORT EXAMPLES OF FULL-BLOWN Techlish abound in almost any student report, and we quote verbatim in what follows from several that were submitted in a process-design course Con sider the punch line, the final sentence, of one re port: The finalized design appears promising and the r esults of this study urges further pursuance 154 One notes the ungrammatical combination, "the results ... urges", wherein the subject and verb do not agree in number. Although such errors are common in student reports, they are not essential to Techlish. The grammatically correct expression, "the results ... urge," illustrates a basic charac. teristic of Techlish, namely, the combination of words which in common use do not belong to; gether. Results do not urge; people urge: She urged him on in hot pursuit. Other unhappy word choices are "finalized" for "final" and "pursu ance" for "pursuit". Another characteristic of Techlish is the total lack of assignment. To whom Not only does habitual use of the passive voice make for dull writing; it forces a convoluted style almost impossible for an engineer to make concise, precise and grammatical. does the design "appear promising"; who is to pursue the matter further? But the crucial prob lem is that we are not sure what the author means. The distinctive quality of Techlish is that it always confronts the reader with this problem. Translated directly into English, the sentence reads, "The final design may not be final." How ever, as a sentence from a student's report its true message is probably : "I hope the design is reasonable; if not, further work should make it so". The student is really suggesting to the teacher that he deserves a good grade in either event. We start with this last sentence of a report because it points to a basic problem for the stu dent. He is asked in a design course to assume the role of a practicing engineer writing a report for his supervisor. In this role, his objective is to provide information that will allow his super visor to make some sort of recommendation to higher management. Large sums of money may be involved ; employee safety and public health may CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EPUCATION

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be considerations Such matters are not trivial, and the author of the report is assumed expert with respect to his subject. For a student to play this role successfully, he must suppress his nat ural propensity to behave as a student whose sole objective is to impress his teacher and to earn a good grade. The transition from pupil to expert is abrupt, and few students can believe it is ex pected, let alone respond properly. Thus student reports are laced with all sorts of irrelevant ma terial that no supervisor would care to read, but which is thought to impress a teacher There are, for example, long discussions of what was not done, comments on the great difficulty or extent of the calculations, narrative expositions of step-by step calculations, derivations of standard equa tions copied from readily available sources, and convoluted excuses proffered in compensation for an inadequate effort. One finds such gems as, This is a close approximation, since the whole process was designed by a series of appro x imations. The logic is of course absurd, but the student feels he should suggest some reason for the teacher to accept his result A report must be written with the intended reader in mind. This is the cardinal rule of report writing. A process-design report goes to the boss. In a design course the student has no real boss, but must imagine one. Although the teacher grades the report, he is not the boss ; he merely judges the report with respect to its acceptability to an imagined boss. When writing for the boss, either real or imagined, one may safely assume that: 1. He is busy, or at least believes he is, and 2. He has a general technical knowledge at least equal to one's own. The report is written to help the boss; it must not waste his time. He is interested in the results and their justification, and these must be the focus of the report. They must occupy a prominent posi tion in a separate section or sections. They do not belong in the abstract, the introduction, or the conclusions. They must be stated concisely, with authority, and without ambiguity. Figures and tables are appropriately used to aid clarity and to summarize and order results succinctly; each must be numbered and referred to in the text. A process description is always written with reference to a carefully labelled diagram. FALL 1977 H C. Van Ness is Distingu i shed Research Professor of Chemical Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute where he has been a faculty member since 1956. He i s coauthor with J. M. Smith of "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics" 3rd. ed McGraw-Hill, 1975. (Left) M. M_ Abbott is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Renssela er Polytechnic Institute, with which he has been affiliated since 1969 Prior to that he spent four years with Exxon Research and Engineering Company in Florham Park New Jersey (Right) Professors Abbott and Van Ness are coauthors of a number of research papers on thermodynamics and of two books : "Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Thermodynamics ", McGraw-Hill 1972, and (with M. W Zemansky) "Basic Engineering Thermodynamics", 2nd. ed McGraw-Hill 1975 They do not guarantee these works to be free of Techlish, but have made a conscious effort to follow their own rules Although the results of a report are presumed the work of an expert, the boss will likely check them at least in part. He must find this an easy task through reference to an appendix, where all calculations are carefully laid ou~ and thoroughly annotated. No universal agreement exists as to the proper format of a report, and we can suggest none. The reasons are, first, that the nature of the report should influence the format, and second, that the style of a report and hence its format should re flect the individuality of the writer However, an abstract is essential, as it tells a prospective reader what is in the report. An example of a suitable ~bstracfof a process-design report is : A preliminary design of the heat-: r eco v ery unit for a plant to produce shale oil is described. Circulating gas picks up heat from a mo v ing packed bed of spent shale and transfers it to raw shale in a simila r bed. Technical feasibility of the process is demonst r ated. One needs no more than this to know what the report is about. It is brief, to the point, and it 155

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stands by itself. Unless it is very short, the body of a report is divided into sections. Students are often given a list of "standard" section headings, such as, l11troduction Procedure Results Discussion Conclusions and Recommendations These may or may not be appropriate for a par ticular report prepared by a particular individual. The report abstracted above might well be divided according to the headings : Process Description Heat Recovery from Spent Shale Preheating the Raw Shale Auxiliary Equipment Recommendations Appropriate headings are also used with appended material, such as notation, literature citations, and calculations. In our view the introduction, which simply sets the stage, needs no heading. What else could the first several paragraphs of a report be? PRINCIPLES OF WRITING WE RETURN NOW to our main theme, the language of a report, the writing of technical prose. Engineering students often are convinced of several misconceptions about writing: 1. Engineers are naturally poor writers. 2. Writing is not important for engineers. 3. The rules for writing technical prose are different from those for non-technical prose. The first two misconceptions tend to go together with some sort of reciprocal justification, and we simply contradict them. The third is a mistaken impression gained from wide exposure to Techlish. Here we can by example show the difference be tween Techlish and English. But first we offer a few general principles designed to guide one away from the most objectionable excesses of Techlish. I. Be concise; be brief; eliminate "bull." Pro vided you recognize it when you see it, "bull" is effectively pruned as follows: Write a first draft, put it out of sight and mind for a day or two, then rewrite it, cutting the length by 25 % or more. This process can usually be repeated. II. Be precise; be specific; say what you mean; avoid ambiguities. Your work is too important to be misunderstood. Your sentences must make literal sense. Read them aloud; change any that sound ridiculous. You can gain experience with 156 whatever you read; an example is the following sentence from an official university bulletin: Faculty, staff, and students are asked to cut back on ene r gy w aste by the P r esident. Ill. Pref er the active voice. The active voice re sults when the subject of the sentence carries out the action implied by the verb: We calculate density by the ideal-gas equa tion. In contrast, the passive voice results when the subject of the sentence receives the action implied by the verb: Density is calculated by the i deal-gas equa tion. One learns to write just as one learns to ride a bicycle, to play a musical instrument, or to make love. Bad performances are not only common, but easily recognized. Remedial instruction is by criticism and example. Unfortunately, professors are seldom accomplished writers, and provide far more bad examples that good. This sentence does not say who does the calcula tion; it is impersonal. Herein lies the origin of Techlish. For many years the dominant attitude with respect to scientific and technical writing was that it should be impersonal, because science a,nd technology were said to be impersonal. This forced adoption of the passive voice, and promoted the lifeless syntax, the witless style, to say nothing of the grammatical mistakes of technical prose. We repudiate the whole of it. Not only does ha bitual use of the passive voice make for dull writing; it forces a convoluted style almost im possible for an engineer to make concise, precise, and grammatical. I and we are not four-letter words ; they are entirely acceptable in technical reports and publications. We do not suggest that every sentence start with I or rw e; one seeks variety. If you are too humble or shy to bring yoursel to write I, use we in the sense of you, the reader, and I, the writer. One also has its place. Do not think you can avoid responsibility for what you write by adopting an impersonal style. No way; your name is on the title page. Take some pride in it; you are the expert. IV. Write in the present tense, unless it is clearly inappropriate. In some technical writing, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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changes of tense are nearly as numerous as sen tences. In .student reports one often finds past, present, and future tenses all in 'the same para graph, even in the same sentence. This confuses the reader, and is usually senseless. The results given in a design report are of course determined in the past, but they still exist, and should be presented and discussed in the present tense. V. Avoid Techlishese. This heading covers a variety of literary vices : (a) Jargon, elongated or fancy words. For ex ample: "Finalized" for 'final" "Pursuance" for "pursuit" "Utilize" or "utilization" or "usage" for "use" "Systematize" for "order" "Synthesize" for "make" "Hypothesize" for "assume" (b) "Using" (and its variants) as a preposition. Examples: Density is calculated using the ideal-gas equation. by using .. ... by use of .. ... by utilizing .. . by utilization of .. ... by making use of .. In each case the simple preposition by adequately replaces the verbal expression. (c) Possessives. Possession is usually associated with living things: "the consultant's fee," "the horse's mouth." An expression such as "the heat exchanger's tubes" is at best graceless. To speak of "Martha's tubes" might also be graceless, but is syntactically proper. Note also that "it's" is not a possessive, but a contraction of "it is." ( d) "Due to" is not a synonym for "because of." It means "caused by": The fire was due to a weld rupture. Compare the following sentences. Techlish : Due to the fact that the pressure was low, the ideal-gas equation is used to calculate density. English: Because the pressure is low, we cal culate density by the ideal-gas equa tion. (e) "So" is not a co-ordinating conjunction, and does not mean "therefore" in formal prose. Techlish: The pressure is low, so we calculate density ... English: The pressure is low; therefore we calculate density ... FALL 1977 Note the semicolon which separates the two inde pendent clauses of the second sentence ; use of a comma here is wrong. VI. Shun the dangling modifier. A verbal phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to the subject of the sentence: Being hotly pursued, she saw the garden ahead. "She" is the subject of the sentence, and "she" is being pursued. The logical relationship is more evident if we transpose the verbal phrase: She, being hotly pursued, saw the garden ahead. Note that we cannot put this verbal phrase at the end of the sentence without producing an ab surdity: She saw the garden ahead being hotly pur sued. Forced to write in the passive voice of Techlish, the engineer likely recasts this sentence into something like : Being hotly pursued, the garden came into view Presumably the garden is not being pursued, but we cannot tell that from the sentence. "Garden" is the subject of the sentence, and the verbal phrase, regardless of its location, refers to the garden: The garden, being hotly pursued came into view. The garden came into view being hotly pur sued. Do we find this sort of nonense in technical writ ing? In fact, we do, frequently. Consider: To calculate the gas density, ideality is as sumed. The subject of the sentence is "ideality"; the verbal phrase "to calculate" must refer to it. Does "ideality" do the calculation? Try it the other way: I deality is assumed to calculate the gas density. Even if we understand the sentence, it does not reveal who does the calculation or who does the assuming. The verbal phrase is said to dangle. In contrast, we have the unambiguous statement in the active voice: To calculate the gas density, we assume ideality. There are other possibilities: Techlish: Assuming ideality, the gas density is calculated English: Assuming ideality, we calculate the gas density. 157

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Entirely proper sentences can also be constructed with the verbal phrase as the subject of the : sen tence: Assuming ideality allows calculation of the gas density. Calculating the gas density is simplified by the assumption of ideality. The richness of English derives from the many possible arrangements of words by which a mes sage may be expressed; however, we can suggest nothing more direct or clearer than : We calculate density by the ideal-gas eq'lUJr tion. We have stated an absolute rule respecting verbal phrases at the beginning of a sentence, be cause that is the usual location of the most in sidious dangling modifier. However, verbal phrases can dangle in other locations, and clarity, if not grammar, requires that they be revised out of technical prose. The test of whether a phrase dangles is simple enough: If it is obvious from the sentence who or what is doing what the verb im plies, the phrase does not dangle. VII. Heed '.rules of particular importance to technical writers. (a) Units. Most numbers are associated with units, and these must be clearly expressed. For this purpose pick conventions and stick to th em. Many possibilities exist; for example: 4(atm) or 4 atm. or 4 atm 12(cm) or 12 cm. or 12 cm 17(cm) 8 or 17 cu.cm. or 17 cu cm 30 (ft) / (s) or 30 ft ./ s. or 30ft / s 24 (J) / (s) (cm) 2 or 24 J ./ s.-cm. 2 or 24 J / s-sq cm (b) Symbols and numerals. Do not begin sentences with them. The simplest reason jg that one runs into conflict with the capitalization rule for the first letter of a sentence. How does one write an upper-case 2? Two liters of water are added. Not 2 liters of water are added. Is the symbol q capitalized at the head of a sen tence? The symbol q represents heat. Not q ( or Q?) is the symbol for heat. (c) Hyphens. Technical language abounds with groups of words that serve as a single adjective; hyphenation is required when such adjectives mod ify a noun: 158 ideal-gas equation constant-presssure heat capacity standard-state fugacity 2-inch pipe heat-exchange fluid 220-volt circuit 4-foot-long duct The hyphens connect all words which alone do not modify the final noun. Thus in ideal-gas equa tion, we are writing about neither an "ideal equa tion" nor a "gas equation"; in constant 7 pressure heat capacity, "constant" modifies "pressure" and the compound adjective "constant-pressure" mod ifies "capacity", which is also modified by "heat". The reason for this rule is that without it one can not make the necessary distinctions between, for example: one armed bandit a high school girl 3 foot-long tubes and and and one-armed bandit a high-school girl 3-foot-long tubes ( d) Bibliography. Reference is frequently made in technical writing to outside sources of informa tion. The use of footnotes is not generally satis factory, and references are usually collected in a separate section at the end. A consistent format for all references is essential in this section; pick one, and stick to it. The current trend is to include the title of the reference. For example: 1. Seeder, A. B., and V. D. Chitnis, "Laser Technology in Ancient Greece," J. Early Physics, 6, 4298 (1977). In the text, reference is usually made to this entry by a number in parentheses: Seeder and Chitnis (1) report that ... Note that "in Perry" is not a proper reference to the Chemical Engineers' Handbook, no matter how widely known it may be. This volume is listed in the Bibliography as: 2. Perry, R. H., and C. H. Chilton, editors Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1973. EX A MPLES O F STUDE N T PROSE C ONSIDER NOW SOME typical examples of student prose. Occasionally one finds a short, plain sentence: The number of tubes was economically de termined. Unfortunately, brevity and simplicity are out weighed by faults. The passive voice and past tense don't help, but the real problem is that the sentence does not say what is meant and misses the opportunity to convey important information. CHEM;JCAL ENGINEERING EPUCATION

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--------The design of a heat exchanger obviously requires determination (economically or otherwise) of the number of tubes; it is this number that is im portant. The sentence should be replaced by: The most economical number of tubes is 145. This is a positive, definite statement devoid of "bull". Another short, plain sentence : Make-up gas was calculated from energy considerations. This one is plain nonsense. Gas (make-up or any other kind) cannot be calculated; calculation gives an amount or a rate. "Energy considerations" is too indefinite. What kind of considerations? Again, the sentence should be replaced by a posi tive, specific statement, such as, An energy balance yields the make-up-gas flow rate. One can understand the following sentence, but it is pure Techlish: Using the McCabe-Thiele method, 34 equi librium stages were necessary. Thus, by the time a student is required to write a technical report he slips naturally into a special written language which we call Techlish. Who is "using the McCabe-Thiele method?" Cer tainly not the "34 equilibrium stages" as is im plied by the sentence structure. The 34 stages were necessary. Is this true now? The sentence is easily translated into English. or The number of equilibrium stages, calcu lated by the McCabe-Thiele method, is 34. The McCabe-Thiele procedure yields 34 equilibrium stages. "Using" (and its variants) is the most over worked word of Techlish; revision of a sentence to exclude it almost always results in improve ment. This is true also of such common Techlish expressions as "it was necessary" and "in order to": Techlish: In order to maintain isothermal conditions it is necessary to cool the reactor. English: The isothermal reactor requires cooling. FALL 1977 Techlish: In order to calculate the tower re quired, it was necessary to have vapor -l iquid equilibrium data. This data was found by use of vapor pressures and assuming ideal solu tions and ideal gas (Raoult's Law). English: Raoult's law provides the vapor liquid equilibrium data required for calculation of the number of trays in the tower. The last example of Techlish is so bad as to make a complete list of faults impractical. We note the following: Passive voice. Past tense. "to calculate" refers to "it," and is a dangling verbal phrase. Evidently a tower is calculated. Absurd. Techlish: "I n order to," "it was necessary," "by use of". "This data was .. "Data" is the plural of datum, and requires plural modifiers and a plural verb: "These data were .. ", or "these data are .. Non-parallel construction in the second sentence: "by use of ... and assuming" An explanation of Raoult's law. Why insult the boss's intelligence? The following is an example of an inappropriate narrative style: In this design of this heat transfer system we assume the moving bed to be a packed bed throughout the duration of this opera tion. To assure we have a packed bed system we had to find the superficial ftuidization velocity. Our ftuidization velocity was equal to 1905 ft / hr". When finding the dimensions of the preheater and post-cooler we need superficial velocities which were at most 75 % of the ftuidization velocity The transiation into English: Gas v elocities through the moving packed beds of the preheater and post-cooler are no greater than 1430 ft/hr, about 75% of the ftuidization velocity. The story-telling version is of course replete with "bull", which when squeezed out reduces the length by two-thirds. Other problems with the Techlish text: "t his design," "this heat transfer system," "this opera tion." Is it clear what each "t his" refers to? Multiple changes in tense. Lack of hyphens in "heat-transfer system" and "packed bed system." Continued on page 173. ll59

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FUND AMENT AL CONCEPTS IN SURFACE INTERACTIONS J. A. DUMESIC Uni v ersity of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706 AN IMPORTANT PART of chemical reaction engineering is the "design" of heterogeneous catalysts; and, in general, this design process rests both on (1) experience (e.g. correlations of catalytic activity and selectivity with the catalyst's solid state and surface properties) and (2) a fundamental understanding of the interaction of surfaces with adsorbed species. While the former aspect of catalyst design is already well estab lished in ChE graduate training, the concepts con tained in the latter are not usually encountered in C h E graduate curricula. Instead, the student must combine several courses-for example, in quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and solid state physics-in order to cover the essential features of surface interactions. Yet, this approach does not provide the continuity that is necessary for effective application of these concepts to catalytic phenomena. One possible solution to this problem is to de velop a one-semester introductory course to the fundamentals of surface interactions and their applications to adsorption and catalysis; by stressing the physical, chemical and catalytic breadth that is necessary for the understanding of surface phenomena, the course can be given to first-year graduate students without prerequisites. Subsequent to this course, a student with special interest in surface phenomena can take an inter disciplinary program to develop depth in various areas. The advantage of this approach is that the interrelation between the physical, chemical and catalytic concepts is made at the outset, thereby providing the necessary continuity. Furthermore, this course would give a catalysis-related point of view into surface interactions for students from 160 such areas as solid state physics, chemistry and material science. What follows is a suggestion for the scope and organization of such a course (based on a new course in development at the University of Wisconsin). In addition, the relationship of this course to the University of Wisconsin curriculum in chemical reaction engineering is shown in Figure 1. As limiting cases, reacti on engineering is divided into (1) reactor engineering and design, and (2) catalysis and catalyst design, since these are the two major areas of specialization within this field. COURSE SCOPE JN CONTEMPORARY SURF ACE science and catalysis research, there appears to be a gap between developments in fundamental theories of adsorption for simple species ( e.g. H, CO), and Undcrgradua tc Kinetics Catalysi::i and Reactor Design Graduate Reactor Design Graduate fundamental Conc!'!pto Kinetic,; and Cataly::;io in Surface I nteractions ,1 !_ ,-1 I I __ Interdiociplinary Studies ( e g chemistry physics mathematics ) Seminar Cour3es { e g Liquid-Phase Reaction Engineering Applicat;i on of Chemical Princip l es to N e w Processes rbe!Dical Reaction Fnein'"'"rine / and Design --, I I I --, I I I _J FIGURE 1. Curriculum in Chemical Reaction Engineering. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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interpretations of reaction kinetics and adsorp tion behavior for catalytically interesting species (e.g. hydrocarbons). This gap arises primarily from the difficulty ( computational, not funda mental) in treating "complex" adsorbed species rigorously in the framework of the adsorption theories. Yet, it seems reasonable (from both a research and educational point of view) to develop and use the concepts of the theories qualitatively (for now) to aid in the understanding of these "complex" adsorption and reaction phenomena. This is, in fact, a major objective of the suggested course. The least that one must expect of a qualitative theory of adsorption phenomena is that it be con sistent with the symmetry of the (absorbed species-surface) system. Furthermore, it seems reasonable to exhaust those concepts derivable from symmetry/ alone (since this can be done rigorously) before construction of a qualitative theory. Therefore, the first part of the coul'se deals with group theory, and its application to surface and chemical phenomena. Before considering detailed calculations of the electronic structure of the (absorbed species surface) system, it is convenient to treat the adsorbed species and the solid at infinite relative separation. That is, the next phase of the course introduces molecular orbital theory and splid state physics, respectively. Subsequently, the absorbed species is allowed to interact with the surface, leading to chemisorption. In the final part of the course, the theoretical concepts are applied to various topics in adsorp tion and catalysis. This demonstrates how the general theory can be simplified to obtain mean ingful results for different types of catalysts and reactions. COURSE STRUCTURE THE OVERALL STRUCTURE of the course is schematically shown in Figure 2, and it is seen therein that there are four major divisions: sym metry, solid state, surface interactions, and ap plications to adsorption and catalysis. These are discussed in greater detail below. 1. Symmetry One begins with the concept of symmetry operations (e.g. proper rotations, mirrors), and the classification of molecular structure in terms of point group symmetries. For a given point group, representations for the group and the bases FALL 1977 for these representations are then considered. Through appropriate manipulation, each repre sentation can be decomposed into a set of irreduc ible representations; this leads to the character table for the group. With a minimum of abstract derivation, group theory can be applied to chem ical phenomena; indeed, the different applications result primarily from different choices of basis. These applications include: (1) infrared and Raman spectroscopies, (2) crystal field theory, (3) hybridization, (4) ligand field theory, (6) the Woodward-Hoffmann rules, and importantly (7) molecular orbital theory. Along with the above applications, one must introduce the concept of matrix elements of op erators, since :symmetry can be used to deduce There appears to be a gap between developments in fundamental theories of adsorption for simple species (e g. H, CO), and interpretations of reaction kinetics and adsorption behavior for catalytically interesting species (e.g., hydrocarbons). when various matrix elements must be identically zero. Then it is shown that two states may "int er act" with each other when matrix elements be tween them are nonzero ; depending on the sym metry of the interaction operator (e.g. the Hamil tonian) this imposes restrictions on the symmetry of interacting states. When translation is added to the point group symmetry operations, then the twoand three dimensional space groups are generated. Special sites in the unit cell are classified according to their point group symmetries ; for the two dimensional space groups, these sites become adsorption sites on surfaces. However, the most striking consequence of the translational sym metry is diffraction. As examples, x-ray diffrac tion (three-dimensional) and/or low energy elec tron diffraction can be discussed. This leads naturally into the reciprocal lattice. When "ex ternal diffraction" is replaced by "internal elec tron diffraction," solid state electronic structure is introduced. 2. Solid State After a brief review of the Schrodinger equa tion and its implications in atomic structure (i.e. 161

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s-, pand d-orbitals), the free electron gas model for simple metals is derived. In so doing, k-space (wavevector space) can be introduced, followed by the computation of the density of states from constant energy contours in k-space. The occupa tion of these states by the electrons is in accord with Fermi-Dirac statistics. Next, the effect of the periodic placement of the metal atoms is turned on," leading to "internal electron diffrac tion." As discussed in the symmetry part of the course, diffraction can be described by the recip rocal lattice, and in this way k-space becomes divided into the Brillouin zones. Furthermore, the translational symmetry of the lattice requires that the electron wavefunctions be written as Bloch functions, and all Brillouin zones can then be diffracted ( translated in k-space) back into one zone. This is the reduced zone scheme for display of band structure. Through the free electron gas model the basic concepts of solid state physics have now been introduced. Next, these concepts are used to dis cuss qualitatively the electronic structure of semi conductors. Of particular importance are (1) doping of semiconductors (pand n-type), (2) conduction electrons and valence holes, and (3) the bending of bands due to electron transfer. Of special importance are transition metals and the associated d-band. Because the d-orbitals are not as diffuse as the outer valence sand p orbitals ( e.g. 3d orbitals are less diffuse than 4s and 4p), the tight-binding approximation can be used to describe the d-band; on the other hand, the (nearly) free electron gas model seems adequate to describe the broader (in energy) sand p-bands resulting from the valence sand p-orbitals. Qualitatively at least, the electronic structure of transition metals can now be simply represented. Finally, the solid state portion of the course can be supplemented by a discussion of defects and defect reactions. An appropriate defect sym bolism should be introduced ( e.g. Kroge,r sym bolism) allowing defect reactions to be written consistent with the material balance, charge balance and lattice site balance. Then problems in for example non-stoichiometry, disorder type, and controlled (through doping) valence and defect concentration can be addressed. 3. Surface Interactions One is now ready to consider the interaction of adsorbed species with surfaces. To parallel the solid state section, one may begin with adsorption 162 I SYMMETRY II. SOLID STATE I II SURFACE INTERACTIONS Point Group Symmetry Free Electron Gas Semiconductors Representations/Bases Density of States Boundary Layer Theory Character Tables Fermi-Dirac Statistics Cumulative Adsorption Brillouin Zones Depletive Ad6orption Bloch Function::; Photocatalytic Effect::; Applic<'I. t ion::; IR/Ramai:i SpectresSemiconductors copies Crystal/Ligand fields Conduction Electrons Woodw ard-Hoffmann Valence Holes rules Doping ( p and n) Hybridization Molecular Orbital Theory Transition M etals M atrix Elements Orbital "Intera ctions s, p and d-bands Tight-Binding Space Group Symmetry Translation Diffraction Reciprocal Lattice Defects Symbolism Balances "One-Dim e nsional Metal Surface States Adatom Density of States Bonding/.i\ntibonding States Surface Molecule Real Metals Green s Functions Level Width Function Level Shift function Surface bands Symmetry of Adsorption IV APPLICATIONS ro ADSORPTION AND CATALYSIS FIGURE 2. Structure of the Course: Fundamental Con cepts in Surface Interactions. on semiconductors. Starting with boundary layer theory one again encounters bending of the elec tron bands due to charge transfer at the surface. This leads to the cases of cumulative and depletive adsorption. As a more advanced example, one may discuss photoadsorptive and photocatalytic effects in semiconductor catalysis. For adsorption on metals, a one-dimensional model can be used to illustrate many of the phys ical principles pertinent to adsorption on real surfaces. Specifically, a semi-infinite chain of atoms is modelled in the tight-binding approxima tion to form a one-dimensional d-band. Of signif icance, is the density of states on the surface atom, and in certain cases a localized surface state is formed (i.e., the electron density of this state decays exponentially from the surface into the bulk). Then, an adatom is allowed to "adsorb" on the surface end of the chain, and one calculates the adatom density of states. For a sufficiently strong interaction between the adatom and the surface, localized bonding and antibonding states are formed, leading to the concept of a surface mole cule. The heatment of adsorption on two-dimen sional surfaces is facilitated by introduction of the Green's function. It then follows that the metal and adatom density of states (for the interacting system of adatom plus metal) are readily de rivable from the Green's function. In particular, the adatom density of states can be written in terms of a level width function and a level shift function. Then, in order to bring together all aspects of the course : ( 1) a surface d-band is CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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constructed in the tight-binding approximation (solid state), (2) matrix elements between the absorbed species molecular orbitals and the sur face d-band are inspected (symmetry), and (3) the adatom density of states is analysed (surface interactions). 4. Applications The course ends with the application of these fundamental concepts to topics in adsorption and catalysis. This can be done through formal lec tures or student special projects and reports. The latter procedure was followed at the University of Wisconsin, and below is a list of special projects recently chosen by students. Application of Woodward-Hoffmann rules to catalysis Alloy catalysis Electronic properties of metal cluster s Electronic and structural factors for adsorption on semiconductors Surface diffusion in catalysis Absorbed atomic species (oxygen on metal oxides) Statistical mechanics of adsorption Hydrogen adsorption on metals. CONCLUDING REMARK The primary objective of the course is to pro vide the physical and chemical breadth that is necessary for a fundamental understanding of adsorption and catalytic phenomena As a result, a significant fraction ( ca. 30 % ) of the course en rollment at the University of Wisconsin has come from students in physics, chemistry and material science. In the course, basic concepts pertinent to sur face interactions are introduced and synthesized in various simple applications. The necessary pro ficiency in the use of the concepts for the interpre tation of reaction kinetics and adsorption phe nomena comes .with further practice and study. This can be accomplished by subsequently follow ing an interdisciplinary program of course study, and / or reading the literature. REFERENCES The following is a list of texts that have been useful in various parts of the course. I. Symmetry 1. Cotton, F. A., The Chemical Applications of Group Theory. (Second Edition), John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1971. 2. Pearson, R. G., Symmetry Rules for Chemical Re actions, Orbital Topology and Elementary ProcFALL 1977 esses, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976. 3. International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, Vol. I, Kynoch Press, 1969. II. Solid State 1. Kittel, C., Introduction to Solid State Physics (Fourth Edition), John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1971. 2. Harrison, W. A., Solid State Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970. 3. Kroger, F. A., The Chemistry of Imperfect Crystals (Second Edition), Vol. 2, North-Holland/American Elsevier, New York, 1974. III. Surface Interactions 1. NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series B: Physics, Vol. 16, Electronic Structure and Reactivity of Metal Surfaces (E. G. Derouane and A. A. Lucas, editors), Plenum J;'ress, New YQrk, 1976. 2. The Physical Basis for Heterogeneous Catalysis (E. Drauglis and R. I. Jaffee, editors), Plenum Press, New York, 1975. 3. Clark, A., The Chemisorptive Bond Ba s ic Concepts, Academic Press, New York, 1974. ACADEMIC POSITIONS For advertising rates contact Ms. B. J Neelands, CEE c / o Chemical Engineering Dept. University of Florida Gainesvi lie, FL. 32611 RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY POSITIONS IN CHEMICAL AND BIO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, invites applica tions for several full-time faculty positions for undergraduate and graduate teaching and research in the fields of chemical and/or biochemical engi neering. One tenure track assistant Professorship is open now to be filled in early 1978. It is expected that one or more similar positions can stai:t later in the year. Applicants must have a doctQral degree in chemical and/or biochemical engineering at the time of the appointment and possess the dual abilities to develop sponsored research programs and teach in several areas of their field. Submit resume, including at least three professional references, a list of journal publications, and a brief summary statement about your plans for research and teaching. Send your application to the Chair person, Search Committee, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. Rutgers is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity employer. 163

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ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING JACOB JORNE Wa yne Stat e Un iv e r s i t y Det r o i t, M ic h i gan 48202 "If a piece of zinc and a piece of copper be brought in contact with each other, they will form a weak electrical combination, of which the zinc will be positive, the copper negative. This may be learned by the use of a delicate condensing electrometer, or b y pouring zinc filing s through holes in a plate of copper upon a common electrometer; but the power of the combination may be most distinctly exhibited in the experiments, called Galvanic experiments, by connecting the two metals, which must be in contact with each other, with a nerve and muscle in the limb of an animal recently deprived of life, a frog for in stance ; at the moment the contact is completed or the circuit made, one metal touching the muscle the other the nerve, violent contractions of the limb will be occasioned." -Humphrey Da v y, 1812, in Elements of Chemical Philosophy, London: J. Johnson and Company. THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE of Chemical Engineers was founded in 1908 in response to the growing industrial interest in electrochemical processes such as chlorine, caustic, carborundum and electroplating of copper and nickel. Electro ~hemical engineering is therefore no stranger to the main stream of chemical engineering and is taught presently in many leading American uni versities. The primary objective of an electrochemical engineer as well as of every chemical engineer is to bring chemical processes to practical realiza tion and to operate them under optimal and eco nomical conditions. Electrochemical engineering serves electrochemistry in the same way that ChE interacts with chemistry. Electrochemistry is the science which studies the direct conversion between electricity and chemical reactions. It is the oldest branch of phys ical chemistry and can be traced back to the eighteenth century. There is even evidence of the use of primitive batteries in antiquity. Ancient 164 iron-copper batteries were found in Iraq and evi dence of copper electroplating was found in Egypt. Modern electrochemistry emerged from the pio neering discoveries of Volta, Galvani, Davy and Faraday in the early nineteenth century. Electrochemical engineering is a relatively young field, which emerged in the beginning of the twentieth century, and progressed rapidly in the last thirty years with the expansion of the electrochemical industry. Electrochemistry played an important part in the scientific and technolog ical revolution of the twentieth century. Thomas Edison can best be described as an electrochemical engineer. His original laboratory, presently pre served in Greenfield Village near Detroit, is a classical example of an electrochemical laboratory. Today the electrochemical industry consumes nearly 10 % of the total electrical power generated in the United States. Many of the things taken for granted in the pleasures and necessities of modern living depend on electrochemistry. Few people are a ; ware of its role and importance. The most rec ognizable example is the battery. In the form of dry cell s, storage batteries and fuel cells electro chemistry provides the power for many devices. From the tiny batteries of calculators, radio tran sistors and implanted heart pacemakers to the Jacob Jorne is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Wayne State University He obtained his B Sc. and M.Sc from the Technion Israel Institute of Technology and his Ph.D from the University of California at Berkeley under the direct i on of Professor Charles Tobias On the faculty of Wayne State University since 1972 Jacob Jorne has developed a research program in electrochemical engi neering which includes the fundamental studies of the zinc-chlorine battery, hydrogen fuel cells, nonaqueous electrochemistry, solar electrochemical conversion and corrosion. He i s consulting to various electrochemical industries He is currently engaged in studying both theoretically and experimentally the role of population diffusion and dispersion i n ecological sy s tems and the stability of prey predator interacting populations CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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large fuel cells of the Gemini and Apollo space flights, electrochemical energy conversion is the only known way to convert and store electrical energy directly. Synthesis of essential chemicals can only be accomplished by electrolysis. Most of the im portant metals are produced, or the impure form refined, exclusively by electrolysis. All the alum inum, magnesium and nickel and a large portion of the copper and zinc are produced or purified in hundreds of thousands of tons per year by electro chemical processes. The aluminum production processes alone consume a staggering 72 billion KWhr annually. Chlorine, which is an extremely important raw material in the plastic industry, is produced electrochemically in the amount of sev eral thousand tons per day. Any improvement in the current efficiency and overpotential of these processes is of utmost importance. Plating, electro chemical machining of hard metals and desalina tion of sea water are all examples of electrochem ical processes which are conducted on remarkably large scales throughout the world. All of these processes have one principle in common. They all depend on a chemical process taking place at an electrically conducting surface while simultaneously giving up or taking on one or more electrons. Energy for the reaction comes from pumping electrons into the reaction zone. The emergence of electrochemical engineering as an independent field is quite similar to that of ChE. Both fields introduced the concept of trans port phenomena, especially mass transport, and quantitative approaches. The importance of con vective diffusion in electrochemical systems is due to their heterogeneous nature. N ernst introduced in 1904 the concept of the film model which is no more than a simplified stagnant diffusion bound ary layer. However, the importance of mass trans fer in electrochemical systems was fully recog nized from the original works of Benjamin Levich, Carl Wagner and Charles Kasper in the 1940's; this was later developed into a recognized aca demic program by Charles Tobias and John Newman. Today electrochemical engineering is an inte gral part of ChE and is taught in many ChE programs in major American universities among them: U.C. Berkeley, U.C. Davis, U.C.L.A., Illi nois, Case Western Reserve, Illinois Institute of Technology, Northwestern, Connecticut, Oregon State, Michigan, Wisconsin and Wayne State. Electrochemical engineering is not limited to FALL 1977 the subject of transport phenomena. The main stream of research includes energy conversion and storage (batteries and fuel cells) ; scaling up; current distribution, porous electrodes, organic electrochemistry, photo-electrochemistry and the utilization of solar energy, non-aqueous electro lytic solution and molten salts, electromachining The heart of the course is dedicated to the various over potentials and evaluating of cell potential scaling up and design consideration of electrochemical reactors. and environmental aspects among others. The central problems of electrochemic'al engineering are to increase the productivity of electrochemical reactors and to improve their energy efficiency. Electrochemical systems are very complex and their principles depend upon the understanding of thermodynamics, kinetics, transport phenomena, electricity and surface phenomena. Though we have not yet arrived at a point where all can be left to the computer, perhaps the electrochemical industry is now emerging from an era of em piricism and becoming more quantiative. COURSE DESCRIPTION AT WAYNE STATE University a three hour credit course in electrochemical engineering is offered annually during the Winter quarter. The course has been taught since 1973 and was attended by approximately sixty students, both graduate and seniors. The course is open to en gineers and chemists from the local Detroit in dustry and is scheduled every other year during the evening hours to enable part-time students and professionals to attend classes. The electro chemical engineering course is followed by a cor rosion course in the Spring quarter. The course does not follow a particular text book, but rather a set of notes and homework problems. A list of recommended books is given in the reference section. The homework problems are assigned weekly and the final grade is deter mined by two exams and a term paper. The stu dents usually select the subject of the termpaper from a list of topics. The course outline is pre sented in Table 1 and a list of termpapers from 165

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TABLE I. Electrochemical Engineering Course Outline 1. Introduction to Electrochemical Engineering a. The Scope ;and Importance of Eleetroehemistry b. The five "E": Eleetroehemistry, Engineering, En ergy, Environment and Economies. e. Examples from the Electrochemical Industry 2. Faraday's Laws 3. The Electrolytic Solution a Conduction in Aqueous Solution-Debye-Huekel Theory b. The Concept of Electrical Potential e. Conduction in Nonaqueous Solutions and Fused Salts d. Primary Current Distribution in Various Geo metrical Cells 4. Thermodynamics of Galvanic Cells a. The Electromotive Foree b. Standard Potentials and the Nernst Equation e. Application of Electrochemical Cells: Measure ments of Gibbs Free Energy, Entropy, Enthalpy, Activity Coefficients, Standard Potentials and Sign Convention d. Reference Electrodes 5. Electrochemical Kinetics a. The Electrical Double Layer b. The Theory of Rate Processes Applied to Electro chemistry e. The Tafel Equation d. Charge Transfer Overpotential 6. Mass Transfer in Electrochemical Systems a. Diffusion Contro!led Electrochemical Reaction b. The Importance of Convection and the Concept of Limiting current e. Mass Transfer Overpotential or Concentration Polarization d. Secondary Current Distribution e. The Rotating Disk Electrode 7. Synthesis of the Principles and Applications a. Evaluation of Cell Potential and Overpotential b. The Combined Effect of Standard Potential, Ohmie Resistance, Charge Transfer and Mass Transfer Overpotentials e. Industrial Examples: Batteries, Chlor-Alkali In dustry, Aluminum Production, Copper Refining, Plating, Eleetrowinning, Corrosion d. Modeling and Optimization of Electrochemical Systems e. Electrochemical Machining-Design Problem f. The Chlor-Alkali Industry-Economical and En vironmental Evaluation, New Process Design 8. Students Presentation of Term Papers. See Table II for examples the last several years is presented in Table 2. The course is not intended to cover the physical chem istry of electrolytic solutions or the principles of electrochemistry, however many ChE students have not studied enough electrochemistry in their physical chemistry sequence. Consequently the 166 first three weeks are devoted to the survey of Faraday's laws, ionization and electrolytic solu tions, the standard potential and the Nernst equation. This is done in order to bring all the students to the same level. The heart of the course is dedicated to the various over-potentials and evaluation of cell po tential, scaling up and design consideration of electrochemical reactors. The convenience of using electrochemical tech niques in mass transfer measurements is em phasized: the rate (current) and the driving force (potential) can be easily controlled and measured. However the complications due to electrical migra tion and non-uniform current distribution are brought to the class attention. The concept of mass transfer limiting current iL is introduced and the ChE students are reacquainted with this electro chemical term which is directly related to the familiar Sherwood number where F is the Faraday's constant, n the number of electrons transferred in the electrochemical re action, D is the diffusion coefficient, L the char acteristic length, and Cb is the bulk concentration. Measuring the limiting current is therefore an easy way of establishing mass transfer correla tions. TABLE II. Examples of Term Papers 1. Developmental Batteries For Electric Vehicles 2. Bioeleetrochemistry of Membranes and Nerves 3. Ion Selective Electrodes 4. Decorative Eleetrodeposition: Copper, Nickel, Chrome Plating 5. Feasibility of Making Cl 2 and NaOH at Very High Current Densities 6. Sig nal Transmissions in the Nerves 7. Energy Efficiency in Aluminum Production 8. Rotating Disk and Ring-Disk Electrodes 9. Pitting Corrosion-Electrochemical Aspects 10. Fuel Cells 11 Intermolecular Potentials and the Kinetics of Ionic Solutions 12. Cathodic and Anodic Protections. 13. Electrochemical and Photochemical Responses in the Eye 14. Low Pressure, Low Temperature Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cells 15. The Chlor-Alkali Industry 16. The Use of Dimensionless Groups in Electrochemical Eng:ineering 17. Electrochemical Machining 18. The Hydrogen Economy: Water Electrolysis and Fuel Cells. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The last section of the course is devoted to ap plications, especially energy storage and conver sion and various important electrochemical proc esses, e.g. the chlor-alkali industry, aluminum production and the proposed hydrogen economy. Special topics of interest include bioelectrochem istry, membranes, electrodialysis, electrochemical machining, porous electrodes and high energy batteries. An interesting class project is the technical comparison and economical evaluation of the vari ous processes for chlorine-caustic production: the mercury, diaphragm and the newly developed membrane cells. The environmental impacts of the three processes are discussed at length. A new high current chlorine production process which involves high flow velocities is proposed as an exercise and the students are asked to design the process and to compare it to existing processes. The novel technique of electrochemical machin ing is brought as an example of achieving very high rates which were unheard of only 15 years ago. In this technique the negative replica of the cathode is reproduced in the anode piece by high rate anodic dissolution. High current densities in the order of 100 A / cm 2 can be achieved by circu,.. lating the electrolyte at high velocities (10 m/s) through a very small gap (0.l-0.5mm). This is an excellent example of incorporating ChE and electrochemistry principles. The students are asked to design an electrochemical machining sys tem using well known heat, mass and momentum transfer correlations, and to evaluate the power consumption. CONCLUDING REMARKS I NDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMICAL processes will no doubt increase in relative importance to other chemical processes in the future. Increasing electrical energy generation relative to petroleum production will favor electrochemical processes and will need new electrochemical storage and conversion methods. Many known electrochemical reactions will be re-examined and improved. New membranes and new electrodes will be developed, and electro-organic chemistry as well as metal production by electrowinning will be expanded. It is anticipated that careful application of elec trochemistry to biological problems will provide new solutions and new techniques. It is predicted that biological membrane research will expand. Direct application of electrochemistry to thera peutic situations will increase fn the medical pro fession. FALL 1977 The role of the electrochemical engineer of the future will be to bridge the gap between the sci entific discoveries and the yet unkown economic reality of the future. The present trend in electro chemical engineering of better quantitative under standing, better cell design, scale up and optimiza tion insure that we are ready to fulfill the promis ing future of electrochemistry. RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. Potter, E C., Electrochemistry, Cleaver Hume Press, London 1956. 2. Newman, J., Electrochemical System s, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1973. 3 Bockris, J. O'M, and A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electro chemistry, Plenum Press, New York 1970. 4. Kortiim, G. F A., Treatise on Electrochemistry, 2nd ed ., Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, 1965. 5. Macinnes, D. A ., The Principles of Electrochemistry, Reinhold, New York, 1939. 6. Delahay, P ., Double Layer and Electrode Kinetics, Interscience, New York, 1965. 7. Vetter, K J., Electrochemical Kinetics, Academic Press, New York, 1967. 8. Mantell, C. L., Electrochemical Engineering, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, New York, 1960 9. Kuhn, A. T., Industrial Electrochemical Processes, Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, 1971. 10. Moore, W. J., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., Ch. 10 & 12, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972. 11. Bard, A. J., ed., Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry of Elements, vol. 1, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973. 12. Hampel, C. A., ed., The Encyclopedia of Electrochem istry, Reinhold, New York, 1964. ti Na book reviews INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS SCIENCE (SI EDITION) by B. R. Schlenker John Wiley & Sons Austra liana Pt y, 1974. 364 pages. Re viewed by C. E. Birchenall, U. of Delaware In the foreword to this book, Professor Hugh Muir cites the need for all sorts of people to develop a better feeling for material properties and their efficient utilization as justification for introducing materials science into high school curricula. The author chose the contents to match the New South Wales syllabus for one of the four parts of an industrial arts curriculum. The result is a descriptive survey of the wide variety of materials employed in engineering, with fitting emphasis on structure-properties relationships and Continued on page 175. 167

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CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING SCIENCE DAVID RETZLOFF Uni v ersity of Missouri Columbia, Missou r i 65201 THE FOCUS OF the Chemical Reaction Engineering Science course at the University of Missouri-Columbia is on the theoretical descrip tion and interpretation of the phenomenological behavior of heterogenous catalysts. A student en tering this course is presumed to have had at least a three hour course on chemical reaction engi neering which covered the following topics : 1) Rate equations for homogenous reactions 2) Isothermal and temperature effects in the ideal batch, ideal plug flow, and the ideal stirred tank reactors 3) Characterization of non-ideal reactor per formance by means of the residence time distribu tion, the dispersion model the segregated flow model, and the tanks in series model 4) Heterogenous reactions and 5) Fluidized bed reactors. The course begins with a brief review of the batch, plug flow, and stirred tank reactors using a unified approach via the general material and energy balances ex pressed in terms of differential forms [l], i.e.N a vier Stokes Equation i(v) L v A = i(v) f Energy Equation dJ = 0 Conservation of Mass Equations The stability analysis and existence of bifurcation points for the nonlinear isothermal and adiabatic operation of the ideal reactors is made using the degree of a map and surface curvature concepts in the differential form language. The solutions for these nonlinear problems is developed using Green's function techniques. This approach has the advantage of introducing at the beginning of the course the general mathematical and physical framework needed to analyze phenomenological catalytic behavior 168 At this point in the course the Langmuir Hinshelwood [2] description of fluid-solid catalytic reactions is developed. The approach taken is to first consider the situation in which one step (mass transfer, adsorption, surface reaction, pore diffusion or, desorption) is controlling the overall reaction rate. The equations appropriate to each case are developed. Mass and heat transfer corre lations are discussed where needed. When pore diffusion is taken up both the Thiele modulus and the effectiveness factor are defined. Various geo metric shapes of the catalyst as well as tempera ture gradients within the porous catalyst are dealt with. Multiple controlling steps in the reaction process are then reviewed and the appropriate de sign equations obtained. The uniqueness and sta bility of the various descriptions of catalyst be havior are analyzed using the mathematical tools The stability analysis and existence of bifurcation points for the nonlinear isothermal and adiabatic operation of the ideal reactors is made using the degree of a map and surface curvature concepts in the differential form language. previously presented Current papers in the cata lytic literature where these methods are used is reviewed. It is pointed out at this juncture that the Langmuir-Hinshelwood approach does not in general lead to a unique physical interpretation of the experimental data but generally provides ade quate design equations. FURTHER INSIGHT TO FURTHER DEVELOP an insight into the physical process that occur during catalysis four final topics are considered in this course. They are: (1) geometric theory of catalysis, (2) the electron band theory of catalysis deals with Continued on page 189. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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If gour middle name is impatience, I I } Ni/{/////(/ (/II I 11 '" magbe we can put things on a first name basis. At Celanese, we don't think patience is much of a virtue when it comes to creativity or careers. We became a 2 billion dollar com pany by responding quickly and creatively to changing markets and technologies. By giving our people the opportunity-and responsibility-to respond to change, to develop, to take initiatives. That's why you won't find any lengthy training programs at Celanese Our management philosophy is to give our engineers and chemists significant projects and responsibilit i es as soon as possible. Give them as much to handle as their skills and dedica tion are up to in an unusually open working environment which fosters creative decision-making at all levels It works for you because it gives you the opportunity to grow rapidly It works for us because it's what has made us a leader in man-made fibers, with a solid position in chemicals, polymer specialties and engineering resins Without an impatient respon siveness we wouldn't have pioneered triacetate, developed Fortrel polyester or become a world leader in formaldehyde and methanol production. If you think you'd like working in this kind of an atmosphere let's get to know each other better If you have a degree in engineer ing or chemistry, ask your placement officer to set up an interview with us Or write John D. Grupe, Celanese Building 1211 Avenue of the Americas New York N Y 10036 Fortrel is a registered trademark of Fiber Industries Inc CEIANESE An equal opportunity employer m/f

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BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING HARVEY BLANCH and FRASER RUSSELL Uni v ersity of Delawa r e Newa r k, Delaware 19711 THE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEER is primarily concerned with research, development, design, construction and operation of processes involving biological material. Current examples of these processes include the production of antibiotics, drugs, organic acids, foods, animal feeds, and biological waste water pollution control. Future activities include the possibility of single cell protein production from unusual sources (hydrocarbons, cellulosic materials), glu cose production from paper wastes, and microbial oil recovery The one semester (3 credits) course offered in the graduate program at the ChE De partment at t he University of Delaware serves two purposes; to introduce the student rigorously to microbial and enzyme kinetics, mass transfer and biochemical processing, and secondly to de velop the skills necessary to analyze and design fermentation systems, taking into account down stream processing constraints. The course is open to advanced seniors and graduate students. Biochemical engineering is interdisciplinary and draws from many areas, but most strongly from microbiology, biochemistry and chemical en gineering. There are major hurdles to overcome in providing training for students coming from one of these areas in the other two. This course is taught to ChE students and provides them with the skills necessary in the other two areas. No attempts have been made to off er the course to non-engineering majors as it is based on a strong background in kinetics, fluid mechanics and mass transfer. The course is available to civil engineer ing graduate students in environmental engineer ing. Table I shows an outline of the topics and lectures. A design project is introduced after the section on mass transfer and class time is allo cated periodically to review problems arising in 170 TABLE I. Introduction and Scope of Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals of Biochemistry and Microbiology Microbial taxonomy, growth requirements of micro organisms, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; electron transport, replication and genetics Kinetics of Microbial Growth Constitutive expressions for growth, structured and unstructured models, substrate inhibition, kinetics of product formation, influence of the external environ ment Batch and Continuous Culture Mass balances for batch, CFSTR, tubular and multi vessel systems the turbidostat stability of reaction, dynamics, equipment for batch and continuous cultures computer coupled fermentations Mass Transfer Fundamentals of two phase gas/liquid mass transfer, predictions of k La aeration and agitation systems, air lift fermenters, novel devices, power requirements for agitation, scale-up non-Newtonian systems, microbial film fermenters Reactor Design Design of tank type and tubular biochemical reacting systems Process Design Influences of downstream processing constraints on process design (extraction, filtration), medium sterili zation, air sterilization. Mixed Microbial Cultures Interactions between microorganisms, predator-prey interactions, stability of mixed culture s, applications Enzyme Engineering Kinetics of single and multiple enzymes in solution, enzyme reactors, immobilized enzymes, supports and couplings kinetics of immobilized enzyme reactors, application s Industrial Processes Design project, biological wastewater treatment, de tailed analysis of a complete fermentation plant, sterili zation of medium, product extraction CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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the design. The design familiarizes the students with the problems of scale-up of fermentations, and the difficulties of sterile operation Final de signs are presented orally at the conclusion of the course A section on the fundamentals of microbiology and biochemistry introduces the various types of microorganisms encountered and their composi tion. Much of the material is taken from Aiba, Humphrey, Millis [l], supplemented with refer ences to introductory microbiology texts. Carbo hydrate metabolism is examined using material from Conn and Stumpf [2] and Aiba et al [1]. Anaerobic :and aerobic pathways common to im portant fermentation products are covered, and lipid metabolism and secondary metabolite path ways reviewed. The reproductive cycles of bac teria, viruses and fungi are described and the importance of mutation as a tool for increasing tured and structured models, and the concepts of balanced and unbalanced growth follow logically from an examination of structured models. The influence of external parameters, such as type of substrate, temperature and pH is emphasized. Using the previously developed rate expres sions, organism, substrate and product balance equations are simply developed for a variety of reactor configurations. The effect of various op erational parameters is investigated by solving the algebraic or differential mass balance equa tions using a simulation language on the digital computer. Both MIMIC and CSMP have useful built-in plotting routines. This also allows a simple numerical investigation of the stability of various configurations (e.g. cell recycle) and rate expres sions; this supplements the analytical investiga tion of system stability to small perturbations. Systems dynamics and various control strategies There are several specific examples in which unexpected results emerge from the coupling of microbiological processes and reactor control. In one it is shown that feedforward proportional derivative control of recycle sludge into an activated sludge sewage treatment process, for variations in incoming waste flow, results in control of the effluent waste carbon concentration, this being independent of the expression used to describe the specific waste utilization rate. product yields is emphasized. This comprises 8 hours of lectures MICROBIAL GROWTH KINETICS THE DEVELOPMENT OF constitutive kinetic rate expressions for microbial growth com prises three hours of course time. Unstructured models, such as the Monod relationship, are de veloped, and concepts of endogenous metabolism, cell yield, models for product formation and sub strate inhibition introduced. The analogy between constitutive expressions in chemical reacting sys tems and those in microbial systems is empha sized. In this way batch, chemostat and tur bidsotat systems are introduced in a natural fashion. The distinction between the rate expres sion, being experimentally determined, and com ponent mass balances around the system, is not always clear in the literature, especially that of waste water and sanitary engineering. An article by Fredrickson et al [3] overviews both unstrucFALL 1977 can be ,easily introduced and modeled. The ap proach is outlined in a review article [ 4] The equipment required to monitor and con trol fermentation systems is unique to the chem ical process industry in some respects, and im portant problems are discussed ( e.g. the require ments of sterile operation, inoculum preparation, pH and dissolved 0 2 probes). The newly develop ing area of computer-coupled fermentations is emphasized. Aiba et al [1] and Nyiri [5] provide useful background. Computer-coupled f ermenters are reexamined following the section on mass transfer, including paramters such as k i:JP, ap parent viscosity and rate of heat evolution. There are several specific examples in which unexpected results emerge from the coupling of microbiological processes and reactor control. In one it is shown that feedforward proportional derivative control of recycle sludge into an ac tivated sludge sewage treatment process for vari ati ons in incoming waste flow results in control of the effluent waste carbon concentration, this being 171

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independent of the expression used to describe the specific waste utilization rate. This has obvious implications in the overall control of wastewater treatment plants. MASS TRANSFER THIS SECTION COMPRISES 10 lectures and assumes an understanding of undergraduate heat and mass transfer. Two phase gas-liquid reactor design equations are developed for tank type reactors, using the "ideal" reactor concept. Plug-flow gas and well-mixed liquid phases and both phases well-mixed are considered. The ma terial for this section is based on a series of articles by Russell [6-8], which emphasize design, based upon the fundamentals of fluid mechanics and mass transfer. The parameters which must then be evaluated follow naturally. Tubular sys tems are briefly reviewed. This provides a rational basis for considering the prol;>lems of scale-up. The available data for estimating interfacial area a and the mass transfer coefficient kL are dis cussed, based on Russell [6], and various correla tions for kLa from the literature are reviewed [9]. The transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian fermentation broths introduces the student to the complexities of real systems. The power require ments necessary to obtain the desired degree of mass transfer in both stirred tank and air-lift fermentors are examined, as are mixing times and shear rates. This then leads into a discussion on bases for scale-up, and novel fermentation devices. DESIGN PROBLEM U PON COMPLETION of the section on mass transfer and scale-up, the class is presented with a design problem, to be tackled in groups. The problem is given only in simple terms, e.g., to design a plant to produce 300 trillion units of penicillin per year. The prime thrust is to obtain suitable reactor configurations, mode of operation, and sufficient oxygen transfer capabilities. Some what less time is spent in medium sterilization and extraction. The design serves to further familiar ize the student with the literature and provide an introduction to some of the differences between pharmaceutical and traditional chemical process industries. Longer holding times for example, are typical of most microbial systems. Other designs, emphasizing the two-phase nature of the problem, may include biological wastewater facilities (see, for example, Atkinson [10]. In the usual senior 172 design project, typically not a great deal of atten tion is paid to mixing and gas-liquid mass trans fer in stirred tank devices, so the material covered in this section will, in general, supplement the senior design course. The last week of the semester is spent reviewing designs and discussing an ac tual complex fermentation plant. Although not a great deal of consideration in the past has been given to mixed cultures, their importance is becoming more apparent. The vari ous types of interactions between microorganisms can serve as a rather unique model system for The one semester (3 credits) course serves two purposes: to introduce the student rigorously to microbial and enzyme kinetics, mass transfer and biochemical processing, and secondly to develop the skills necessary to analyze and design fermentation systems, taking into account downstream processing constraints. other interacting ecosystems, in which energy is transferred from lower to higher trophic levels. Predatorprey interactions are analyzed in some detail, and the stability of various systems is ex amined. The existence of experimentally observ able limit cycles in a protozoan-bacterium system provides an interesting introduction to the vast literature on oscillations of populations of higher organisms. May's monograph [11] serves as a source for many of these references, and provides a readable discussion of limit cycles on a fairly elementary level. ENZYME ENGINEERING JN A COURSE SUCH as this, it is difficult to spend as much time as one would like on vari ous areas, and enzyme kinetics and enzyme engi neering can only be fairly superficially covered. The behavior of single and multiple enzymes in solution is reviewed and the problems of diffusion and reaction in immobilized enzyme systems dis cussed. Experimental methods of immobilization, are reviewed, including how these methods may alter the observed kinetics. Various reactor con figurations and applications are discussed. Atkin son [10] and Aiba et al [l] serve as reference sources, and the student is given homework prob lems which direct him to the already vast litera ture here. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The course aims to present a rigorous and formal introduction to biochemical engineering, emphasizing the students' ChE background. Analogies are drawn with reaction kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and design learned at the undergraduate level. The student is provided with the elementary tools in biochemistry and micro biology, and a familiarity with current views and literature in these areas. Clearly further course work in applied microbiology or biochemistry is required for those students doing graduate work in the area, and this is usually a component of the graduate c9ursework for M.S. and Ph.D. candidates Thoroughout the course homework problems are assigned to supplement the lecture material. As there is no convenient text source of problems, some of these are taken from fairly recent literature articles. This helps to emphasize the quantitative rather than descriptive nature of the area. REFERENCES 1. Aiba, S., Humphrey A. E., Millis, N. F. Biochemical ENGLISH OR TECHLISH: Van Ness & Abbott Continued from page 159. The seco nd sentence says that finding a vel ocity assures a packed-bed system. Nonsense. Not afraid of the first person, the author over-does a good thing; "O ur fluidization velocity" is inappropriately personal. Two final quotations and their translations illustrate several of the points made earlier. Techlish: To attain this area the heat ex changer contains 100 9 foot long pipes with an inner diameter of one inch. English: A heat exchanger with 100 9-foot long, 1-inch-i.d. pipes provides the required area. Techlish: The shale pre heater has a feed of raw shale supplied to it between 60-90 F which is to be heated to 600 F and then fed into the reactor. The exchanger is to utilize exhaust \gas from the reactor as its heat transfer fluid. English: Before entering the reactor, raw shale is preheated from about 60 F to 600 F. Exhaust gas from the re actor serves as the heat-exchange fluid. The "shale preheater" of the second quotation FALL 1977 Engineering, 2nd edition Academic Press, New York 1973. 2 Conn, E E., Stumpf, P. K., Outlines of Biochemistry 2nd edition, Wiley, New York 1966. 3. Fredrickson, A. G. Megee, R. D., T s uchiya, H. M., "Mathematical Models for Fermentation Processes" in Adv. Appl. Microbial 1 3 419 D. Perman editor, Academic Press, New York. 4. Blanch, H. W., Dunn, I. J "Modeling and Simulation in Biochemical Engineering" in Adv. Biochem. Engng. 3 128 (1973) Eds. Ghose, T., Fiechter, A., Blake borough, N. 5. Nyiri, L., "Applications of Computers in Biochemical Engineering" in Adv. Biochem. Eng, 2 49 (1972) Eds. Ghose, T., Fiechter, A., Blakeborough, N. 6 Shaftlein, R. W., Russell, T. W F. I.E.C. 60 (5) 13 (1968). 7. Cichy, P T., Ultman, J. S., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C. 61 (8) 6 (1969) 8 Cichy, P. T., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C 61 (8) 15 (1969) 9. Miller, D., AIChE Journal 2 0 3 (1974). 10. Atkinson, B., Biological Reactors, Pion Ltd., London (1974). 11. May, R., Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosys tems, Princeton Univ. Press, 2nd edition (1974). comes as a surprise; we would have expected steel or perhaps cast iron. Writing good technical prose is a difficult task; few persons can do it easily or quickly. A first draft is usually in need of substantial revision; several rewritings are normally required. Some expert help is provided by a good dictionary, which should be consulted frequently for the proper meanings (and spellings) of words Espe cially useful is a little book, called "The Elements of Style", by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White. The second edition of this book, published by Mac millan, is printed in paper-back at under $2.00. In 78 pages the authors say all that need be said on the subject. Every engineer should keep a copy at hand. Rather than supply our own ending to this piece, we offer the closing words of a student re port: Due to the small choice of alternatives re lated to this study, the complexity of our conclusions remain at a minimum. In con clusion it is readily apparent that further research would definitely pay off in the form of further insight into this problem. Who could disagree? 173

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POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RICHARD P. CHARTOFF University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 THE PRIMARY responsibility for the Polymer Science and Engineering graduate course pro gram at the University of Cincinnati rests on four faculty members : Professors F. J. Boerio and R. J. Roe of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Professor R. P. Chartoff of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering and Professor J. E. Mark Through the experiments students are given opportunities to become thoroughly familiar with the various types of instrumentation likely to be found in any industrial or academic polymer laboratory of the Department of Chemistry. When an in coming graduate student, enrolled in any one of these departments, expresses the desire to pursue polymer specialization, he or she is advised to take a series of four one-quarter core courses offered by the four faculty members. According to the offering sequence, these are: "Introduction to Polymer Science" taught by F. J. Boerio, "Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials" by R J. Roe, "Polymer Configurations and Rubber like Elasticity" by J. E. Mark and "Polymer Engineering" by R.P. Chartoff. These four courses are designed to acquaint the students, in an orderly sequence, with fundamentals of most major aspects in polymer science and engineering in cluding preparation, characterization, structure, properties and processing. Descriptions of the courses are listed in Table 1. Topic coverage and the sequence of offerings in all of the corses is 174 closely coordinated among the cooperating faculty members. The lecture courses are augmented by two one quarter laboratory course, "Polymer Characteriza tion" and "Polymer Engineering Techniques" (see Table 1). All the four faculty members simultaneously participate in these two laboratory courses on a shared basis and off er a variety of experimental topics according to the areas of their expertise. From among 15 to 20 experimental topics offered in each laboratory, students are free to select any 8 according to their individual interests. Within the two quarter period a student can choose a series of lab experiences which pro vide a broad exposure to several different topic areas. At the same time those who wish to can narrow their selection to a minimum of different areas and concentrate more in depth on any one, such as polymerization or processing. The possi bilities available for individual selection are illustrated in Figure 1. Since progress in polymer science and engineering heavily depend on experi ment, the emphasis on laboratory experience for graduate students is a most essential part of the program. Through these experiments students are given opportunities to become thoroughly familiar / ?.h~l c.i gy Chern.cal Reactions in Polyirers / J:.C:lt \ '----r-----' ~-~ Physical Properties FIGURE 1. Interactions between areas. ~:echanical Properties 0:UEMlCAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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with the various types of instrumentation likely to be found in any industrial or academic polymer laboratory. This is valuable for learning useful techniques for their thesis research and gives them an edge in obtaining future employment after they finish their graduate study. After completing the sequence of basic courses, students are further encouraged to take other elective courses on specialized topics in polymers. These include "Transport Processes in Polymer Systems", "Organic Synthesis of Polymers", "Polymer Spectroscopy" and "Polymer Mor phology". The Polymer Science and Engineering pro gram is a graduate program only at the present, but undergraduate students interested in polymers can become introduced to the basic aspects of polymer science through two elective courses "Polymeric Materials" and "Polymer Technology". The two laboratory courses mentioned above are also offered to advanced undergraduate students. TABLE 1. Graduate Polymer Courses Introduction to Polymer Science 3 credits, Lecture, Boerio, Autumn Preparation and Characterization of polymers; addi tion and condensation, molecular weight averages and distributions. Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials 3 credits, Lec ture, Roe, Winter Solid state structure-property relationships in polymeric materials. The glass transition, structure of crystalline polymers, thermodynamics of polymer solutions and compatibility. Polymer Configurations and Rubber-like Elasticity 3 credits, Lecture Mark, Spring or Summer Configuration dependent properties and their interpre tation; statistics of chain dimensions ; network forma tion in crosslinked polymers; thermodynamics and mechanical properties of rubbers; sta~istical theories of rubber-like elasticity. Polymer Engineering 3 credits, Lecture, Chartoff, Spring Fundamentals of polymer processing; design of pro cessing operations and relation to physical and mechanical behavior in solid and molten states; viscometric measurements and melt elasticity; applied viscoelasticity. Polymer Characterization 2 credits, Lab, Boerio, Roe, Chartoff, Mark, Winter Experimental investigations of structure and properties of polymers; molecular weight averages and distribu tions, thermal and mechanical properties, transitions, and crystallinity. Polymer Engineering Techniques 2 credits, Lab, Chartoff, FALL 1977 Roe, Boerio, Mark, Spring Measurements of viscoelastic properties, viscosity and flow parameters necessary for design of polymer pro cessing equipment; relations between processing data and polymer molecular structure with applications to quality control. Special Topics in Polymer s 3 credits, Lecture, Staff, Winter or Spring Intensive coverage of specific topi csin polymer science and technology at a research level. To be offered irregularly three quarters in each two year period. Future topics will include polymer spectroscopy, transport phenomena in polymer s ystems, surface properties of polymers, organic synthesis of polymers, polymer spectroscopy and polymer morphology. Offer ings to be coordinated between Chemical Engineering, Materials Science and Chemistry staff. BOOK REVIEW: Schlenker Continued from page 167. brief summaries of methods of testing and characterization of materials, and the shaping and fabrication of objects. There are many illustrations, but they are not always intergrated with and explained in the text. Many experiments are suggested; some are self-explanatory, but others are not clear with respect to purpose, pro cedure or significance. An instructor is necessary to supply guidance-and to protect students and equipment. Some statements are inaccurate or misleading, but they are few and unemphasized among the multitude; not much damage is likely to result. Professor Muir notes that, in spite of the title, the text is about the phenomenology of materials more than the principles and concepts of materials science. The few gestures toward a quantitativ~ approach include a few mechanical testing equl;l, .. tions and a statement of Bragg's law, together with the geometric figure customarily used in its derivation. The use of the lever rule is illustrated, but even this mass conservation principle, using only the simplest linear algebra, is not derived. Should the study of materials be a part of high school curricula? Surely it is more exciting than bookkeeping, conveys more varied skills than typing, and is a valuable adjunct to shop practice or preparation for the building trades. This book would be a suitable text, although injection of a bit more of the formal structure of materials science might make the subject easier to retain. College-bound students should study science and mathematics in high school so they can learn materials science on a more systematic and quantitative level. 175

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EDITOR'S NOTE: The following papers deal with the rapidly developing graduate programs for students with a B.S. outside chemical engineering. The first paper is a general survey paper, the second discusses a specific program, and the third gives a student point of view. ChE GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR NON-CHEMICAL ENGINEERS E. L. GUSSLER Carnegie-Mellon Unive r sity Pittsburgh, Pennsyl v ania 15213 W HEN TIMES ARE GOOD, college students tend to be interested in education. They study subjects because of inherent interest, without re gard for the utility of what is learned When times are unsettled, college students become much more interested in professional training. They believe that such professional education will facilitate em ployment. They often choose to study engineering because it provides one of the fastest routes to a professional degree. Because times are currently unsettled, many students who have majored in chemistry as under graduates are now interested in graduate study in chemical engineering. Most of these students have studied at private liberal arts colleges or at smaller campuses of state university systems. Those in the liberal arts colleges choose a more personal under graduate experience. They are often undecided about a career or want additional time to mature. Those at the small state colleges are most com monly there because education is inexpensive. At both types of school, undergraduate engineering is rarely offered. At the same time, many ChE graduate pro grams could use more qualified students. This is a consequence of the fact that there are more grad uate programs than engineering student demand justifies. Many of these programs, which multi plied rampantly in the 1960's, have admitted huge numbers of foreign students to justify their ex istence. Independent of the foreign students' qual ity, many departments would prefer to enroll more North American natives. When departments see 176 the supply of chemists available, the lure is obvi ous : why not teach ChE to chemists? This essay explores the ways in which this teaching can be effectively accomplished. It ex plores what programs exist to do this, how they are operated, and how they can be started. In writing this essay, I have been strongly influenced by our own experiences. Our experiences and in formation are not exhaustive. Part of the reason is that there seem to be more programs for chem ists than there are chemists in the programs, so that judging effectiveness is difficult. Another ... we have not been able to find an effective text. The reason is that ChE is almost completely taught in a sequential fashion. As a consequence, we have had to write a text, which we would be glad to make available to others with similar problems. problem is that many seem reluctant to discuss efforts which have failed In any case, before I start, I apologize in advance for not mentioning many specific experiences. OPEN ADMISSIONS THE EDUCATION OF chemists as ChE's can be roughly organized into three methods. In the first method, one simply denies any difference. One admits chemists as engineers and has them take the same courses as engineering students. Such flexibility has a long tradition: almost every senior professor can remember a few individuals in the 1930 s and 1940's who made such a transi tion. Moreover, it has the tremendous appeal of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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requiring little extra work, either by faculty or by the administration. What is different now is the number of stu dents involved. During the past few years, I have been surprised to discover that in a significant number of ChE departments, chemists make up the majority of North American graduate stu dents. These departments have bright faculty, strong research support, and reasonable reputa tions Since they seem to have operated success fully for at least five years, there may be no problem. However, I am concerned about this method because I believe it significantly changes the edu cation of the graduates. If more than a third of my graduate class is not trained in chemical engineer ing, the technical level of the material taught drops. Moreover, because the current trend in many departments is to reduce graduate course requirements, one may certify "engineering" graduates who know very little engineering. I should emphasize that I cannot either support or refute these opinions; I just feel concerned. UNDERGRADUATE REMEDIAL WORK T HE COMMON ALTERNATIVE to open ad missions is a program which requires under graduate courses as part of the transition. While the number of courses varies considerably (cf. Table I), all include courses in transport phe nomena, and most require thermodynamics. After completing these courses, the chemist enters the conventional graduate program. The cost to the university is minor, since no new courses are in volved. Such requirements certainly insure a solid engineering education of both breadth and depth, so that graduates can be fully employed as chem ical engineers. They are demanding; for example, in the Texas A&M program, only 25-30 % of the students originally admitted qualify for graduate study. The characteristic of this type of program is that it can have trouble attracting students. The chemists whom we want to attract are bright, aggressive, and individualistic. They often are admitted to medical school but cannot afford to go; they always are admitted to graduate school in chemistry with full fellowships. They cannot afford to undertake extensive remedial work at their own expense, which is the common expecta tion. As a result, many of these programs may attract only a small number of superior applicants. FALL 1977 We have preceded our special summer course with a one-week mathematics review, taught by people connected with our affirmative action program. This has two results: it provides the minority and returning student with the necessary mathematics and it also establishes firm friendships between these two groups. SPECIAL COURSES THE THIRD WAY of teaching ChE to chemists is to require special courses giving an acceler ated synopsis of the undergraduate engineering curriculum. This is the strategy we have used here, and so is that with which I am most sym pathetic. The effective development of this ap proach here has been facilitated by generous assistance from the Exxon Education Founda tion. Such special courses require additional fac ulty and administrative effort at an approximate cost to date of $10,000 / year. However, because of this accelerated synopsis, the quality of other graduate courses need not be compromised. BeT ABLE I. Typical Remedial Programs (All of these lead eventually to a masters degree) University of Buffalo Two courses in transport phenomena; one in unit op erations. University of California, Berkeley Variable; for example, courses in thermodynamics, transport phenomena, kinetics, and design plus another elective. Clarkson College Courses in fluids, thermodynamics, heat and mass trans fer, kinetics, control, and design. University of Delaware Courses in stoichiometry, thermodynamics, fluid me chanics, heat and mass transfer, kinetics, equilibrium stages, and design; seminar; laboratory. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Courses in kinetics, design, control, and mass transfer; some prerequisites in previous summer. Rutgers University Two courses in transport phenomena; one in design, and in mathematical methods ; audit in control. TexasA&M Courses in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mass transfer, process control, kinetics, design, electrical engineering, and materials; laboratory. 177

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cause of its speed, bright students with chemistry backgrounds quickly qualify for research support on government grants and contracts. Seventy per cent of the students entering complete their de grees. The major difference is that the graduates are not conventional ChE's but a new breed, armed with a new mixture of skills. The implica tions are explored below. As the above paragraphs describe, the educa tional innovation in programs for teaching ChE to chemists largely arises from the special courses designed to give a prompt synopsis of ChE (cf. Table II). As a result, these will be discussed in more detail. Although accelerated, the Texas Tech program is most similar to the remedial courses in Table I. It takes a full year, and consists of ma terial taught at the same rate as the undergradu ate: courses of the same description. The chief difference is that the students in this course are separated from the conventionally trained engi neers. TABLE II. Accelerated Courses for Teaching Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University Eight week summer course covering the following se quentially: stoichiometry, thermodynamics, equilibrium stages, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer; senior level design course required during the academic year, and kinetics often taken as an overload. Texas Tech University One year course equivalent to stoichiometry, thermo dynamics, fluid mechanics, stages, heat and mass trans fer, kinetics, economics, mathematics, design. University of Virginia Nine week summer program of two parallel courses consisting of 1) mathematics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer; and 2) heat transfer, mass transfer, and kinetics. The other two special courses, at Carnegie Mellon and Virginia, consume about eight weeks of the summer before the masters year. They commonly have three hours of lecture per day, five days a week. They also have at least one problem solving session every day. These problem sessions can run a long time. I had one at Carnegie-Mellon that started at 3 :00 p.m. and continued until mid night. In our program, tutors are available both in the afternoon and in the evening. These tutors are largely graduate students whose backgrounds are in chemistry and who have already success fully completed the masters program. We rarely assign individual tutors to specific students. 178 The content of these two special courses is obviously a synopsis of undergraduate ChE. The students joke that the freshman year takes one week, the sophomore year two weeks, and the junior and senior years about three weeks apiece. Somewhat to my surprise, the plethora of topics listed can be effectively covered. To test this, we have given the same exams both to undergradu ates and to students in the program. The students in the program easily outscored the undergradu ates. This is a result of the students' quality, their maturity, and their dedication to making an effec tive transition. TROUBLE WITH MATH AND THERMO THE CHEMISTS HA VE the most trouble in two areas: mathematics and thermodynamics. Mathematics presents a big problem. While most students have studied differential equations, few can apply what they've learned to physical situa tions. Virginia's program teaches mathematics directly. Ours relies on graduate-level mathe matics courses taken in the fall semester. In contrast, the student's deficiency in thermo dynamics is less expected and harder to rectify. While most of the students in the programs in Table II are graduates of ACS-accredited chem istry departments, and these departments do teach a required thermodynamics course, most of the students claim to have had little or no thermo dynamics. I think the truth is probably more nearly what one student said, "Sure, I had all this stuff but no one ever acted like it was important." We have tried to remedy this deficiency in thermodynamics by including material in the summer course. We have not yet been able to teach this material effectively, partly because an extremely abstract subject is being presented at a very rapid rate. After the summer, students do not feel that they understand thermodynamics. They are able to handle our graduate course in thermodynamics in the fall semester, but the ex perience is trying, demanding, and unpleasant. I know no simple way out of this problem. The summer courses also contain no reference to engineering design. Our program, and several of the remedial ones, correct this by requiring that students with chemical backgrounds take a senior level design course. Our special students work much harder than our seniors, do better, and thus cause some resentment. I think pushing our seniors this way is healthy. We've had two other problems with our special CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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summer course which deserve mention The first is that we have not been able to find an effective text. The reason is that ChE is almost completely taught in a sequential fashion. Everyone who studies sophomore thermodynamics intends to take the junior-level transport phenomena courses and the senior-level kinetics courses. This means that there is no single text providing an abbrevi ated overview of essentials of ChE in relatively simple terms. As a consequence, we have had to write a text, which we would be glad to make available to others with similar problems. We plan to revise and publish this text soon. The second problem we have had concerns retaining minority students in the program. Both they and students who have been out of college three or more years find the mathematics re quired to be extremely difficult. As a result, we have preceded our special summer course with a one-week mathematics review, taught by people connected with our Affirmative Action Program. This has two results : it provides the minority and the returning student with the necessary mathe matics and it also establishes firm friendships in a significant number of ChE departments, chemists make up the majority of North American graduate students. between these two groups. When the rest of the class convenes, the black students do not isolate themselves as frequently occurs in undergraduate classes. I should emphasize that special summer courses are not substitutes for undergraduate training in ChE. It merely facilitates the student's ability to catch up throughout the regular aca demic year. Students whose backgrounds are in chemistry do less well relative to their classmates during the fall's courses. By spring, this difference disappears. In other words, the special summer course does not substitute for undergraduate training, but does allow students with different backgrounds to become competitive STUDENT RECRUITMENT W HILE GRADUATE PROGRAMS which teach ChE to non-chemical engineers are multiplying rapidly, these programs often do not FALL 1977 have large enrollment. In some cases, the faculty time spent planning them may exceed the student time in them. As a result, it is appropriate to ask where the students in this program will come from. Most of the larger programs have found that the best source of students is the small liberal arts colleges located close to the university. These small colleges commonly do not off er undergradu ate engineering programs. Moreover, because they are close by the universities' reputations are ex aggerated. The students r ecruited from these colleges have already rejected graduate training in chemistry. Considerable competition comes from schools offering a masters in business ad ministration. A second effective source has come from gen eral mailings to chemistry departments, again largely at small colleges. We have been partic ularly successful with the minor campuses of major universities like those of New York and Ohio. We also receive good applications from high school teachers and from employees of local in dustries. Advertisements in ACS student news letters and announcements in publications like Chemical and Engineering News and Business Week have not been effective One neglected aspect of these programs is their potential for social action. Specifically, they provide an opportunity to bring additional women and minority studients into engineering. We have been very successful recruiting female teachers from local high schools. They are eagerly recruited by industry because their maturity and perspec tive makes them excellent candidates for middle management positions. We have been much less effective in recruiting blacks. Part of our trouble is that qualified blacks in chemistry choose med ical school. Moreover, chemistry programs in pre dominantly black colleges sometimes have less stringent requirements in mathematics than those existing elsewhere Nevertheless, we are convinced that we can effectively recruit minority students in the long term. Once applications from qualified students come in, one must decide on how to admit them. Ap plicants commonly fall into two sharp categories. The first category are chemists with very weak undergraduate records. They are grasping at straws, desperate for any opportunity which promises a better chance of employment The second category are students who are very good; they have decided to go on to graduate school and 179

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are carefully weighing options. The best predictor of student performance is the quantitative aptitude part of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). We require scores of at least 700 and preferably 750 to insure satisfac tory performance. GRE aptitude scores are also useful in making a decision if the quantitative aptitude score is marginal. GRE advanced chem istry scores are less reliable, and reflect more the quality of the undergraduate institution than the quality of the student. Grade point seems the hard est to interpret. Basically, we have discovered that If more than a third of my graduate class is not trained in ChE, the technical level of the mate.rial taught drops. Moreover, because the current trend in many departments is to reduce graduate course requirements, one may certify "engineering" graduates who know very little engineering. an entering chemist needs a (3.4 / 4.0) overall grade point to be effective. This is higher than that needed by entering ChE students. WHAT DO GRADUATES REPRESENT? N ONE OF THE PROGRAMS outlined above can produce students who are identica l with those trained completely in ChE. This can be especially true when large numbers of students are trained under the open admission strategy described above. This strategy is so wide and leads to such variation that generalizations seem meaningless. On the other hand, if sufficient remedial courses are required, the student should certainly become more and more similar to those trained completely in ChE. The most intriguing question is, to what cate gory do the students who graduate from programs built around rapid special courses belong? To answer this question, we contacted graduates of the special programs who are employed in in dustry. These graduates had more job offers at slightly higher salaries than conventionally trained masters engineers. Their reactions to the positions they accepted, and their supervisors' reactions to them are shown in Table III. One conclusion is that those trained in chem istry have a more pragmatic attitude than those trained in engineering. For example, these stu180 dents complain that the masters courses are too theoretical, while students with an engineering background feel the same courses are excessively applied. Apparently, those who move from chem istry into engineering make a mature and con scientious decision that their future lies in an industrial environment. They are very sensitive to industrial demands and respond accordingly. On the other hand, those trained in engineering go to graduate school in part because they are anxi ous to learn more of the intellectual basis of their discipline. This basis is more strongly represented in universities than in industry. TABLE III. Job Performance of Graduates FROM THE GRADUATE 1. How do you view yourself professionally? A mixture of a chemical engineer and a chemist. 2. To what professional organization(s) do you belong? Most belong to both the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the American Chemical Society. 3. Does your job provide adequate professional chal lenge? Yes-both chemical engineering and chemistry required. 4. Did the program provide you with the professional training you expected? Yes-worked effectively. 5. In your job, do you see any professional advantages or disadvantages of your training compared with a traditionally trained chemist or chemical engineer? Advantages over chemist; often translator be tween chemists and engineers. 6. Do you have any other comments, suggestions or observations about the program? Many courses were too theoretical; Masters thesis takes too long. FROM THE SUPERVISOR 1. How do you regard the professional training the graduate has? Pleased so far. 2. Do you see any advantages of this type of program over traditional majors? A range of .answers-from disadvantages to ad vantages to ignorance of program. 3. How would you rate the graduates initiative, flexi bility, maturity? Much better than average on all points. 4. Do these graduates require more supervision? Most require an average amount of supervision. Those who require more do so because they are more productive. 5. Do you have any other comments suggestions or observations? CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Positive comments with good advice: e.g., "stu dents should choose positions with a mixture of chemical engineering, chemistry;" "student qual ity more important than education;" "should use these people to replace chemistry Ph.D.'s." A second conclusion which can be drawn from Table III concerns the students' effectiveness. This effectiveness is largely inherent in the students themselves. If they are bright, smart and aggres sive before entering a program, they remain so afterward. As a result, their performance has more to do with their own character and ability than with any educational gloss. These students apparently perform a mixture of tasks. Certainly industrial jobs require a continuum of skills: they are not balkanized between science and engi neering as are the university departments. How ever, industry recruits within the departmental structure and recruiters seek not specific indi viduals but people with specific types of certifica tion. The students are being hired as engineers, but are working as hybrids. AT YOUR UNIVERSITY ..... A S THE ABOVE paragraphs show, there is now extensive experience on how to start a graduate program for teaching ChE to non chemical engineers. If you decide to develop such a program at your university, you should do three things. First, decide on a strategy. If you plan to use open admissions, be sure you assemble sensible arguments defending the quality of your program. EXPERIENCE AT ONE UNIVERSITY R. M. BETHEA, H. R. HEICHELHEIM, A. J. GULLY Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 AT THE HEART of our accelerated expansion program lies the premise that the holder of any baccalaureate degree has demonstrated intellectual maturity, and, with sufficient motivation, should be able to undertake almost any study of his FALL 1977 If you decide to require a significant number of remedial courses, think about how you plan to attract and retain smart students. If you decide to use special summer courses, you must discover a source of money to pay the additional cost. The second thing you need to develop is a scheme for recruiting students. Any program which has an enrollment of less than about half a dozen will inevitably attract administrative crit icism in hard times. You must decide whether to recruit locally or nationally. You should decide whether you are more attractive as ChE depart ment or as a university. Moreover, the mailing list that you use to attract students should take ad vantage of undergraduate chemistry newsletters and local ACS meetings. Advertisements in Chem ical Engineering Education won't help because chemists don't know this journal exists. The third thing you should do is to talk to others with experience. Most, if not all, of the departments mentioned in this article are willing to send to any who are interested detailed ma terial, including hour-by-hour course outlines, and copies of lecture notes. It would be foolish not to take advantage of the experience of others. Finally, I wish you good luck. I find rigidly structured departments a real discouragement to free thought. I look forward to the time when it is easier for students to move back and forth be tween disciplines to develop unique skills which will make them professionally more interesting, interested and effective. choice. If such study were to be at the graduate level, he would have to have the background in formation to follow the advanced study, and, equally important, he would have to have enough "skill" in the discipline to compete at the gradu ate level with holders of the bachelor's degree in that major. With the foregoing in mind, we examined the course content of each departmental undergraduate course required for the B.S. Ch.E. to determine what topics a person entering our graduate courses would need as an absolute mini mum. We also examined our undergraduate re quirements in science and mathematics in the same light. The chemical engineering component of our 181

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TABLE 1. Ch.E. 5301 Analysis of Chemical Engineering Problems Course Content A. Stoichiometrya 1. Units, dimensions, dimensional analysis 2. Basic laws: Raoult, gas laws, corresponding states, Henry, Avogadro, non-ideal behavior 3. System/surrounding concepts 4. Driving forces/potentials 5. Chemical equations/stoichiometry with generation and consumption rate expressions 6. Composition/flowrate units, fluxes 7. Accumulation/depletion expressions 8 Multistream systems with recycle, bypass, purge 9. Thermal variables: CP, 6HR, 6HM 0 Q, w B. Fluid Flowb 1. General energy balance 2. Pump work 3. Prime movers 4. Flow measurement 5. Fluid-solid systems Course Schedulingc A. 1-4, 1 week; A. 5, 1 week; A. 6-8, 1 week; A. 9, 2 weeks; B. 1-3, 2 weeks; B. 4, 1/2 week; B. 5, 1/2 week a. Text: Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, D. M. Himmelblau, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall. b. Text: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, W. L. McCabe and J. C. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill. c. Lectures 5 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours problem solving session. accelerated program consists of twelve semester hours presented in four three-hour courses. The courses are designated as graduate courses, and are suitable for use as a graduate minor. The first six hours are offered in the fall semester in series. The first course covers material and energy balances and fluid flow. The second covers equilibriumand rate-controlled processes, includ ing separations techniques and heat transfer. The second six hours are offered as two parallel courses in the spring semester. One of them covers thermodynamics and kinetics, while the other in cludes design and practice oriented topics ordi narily thought of as "design". viz ., dynamic be havior, economic analysis, process simulation, and optimization techniques. Course outlines are pre sented in Tables 1 through 4. The chemistry, physics, and mathematics com ponents of our accelerated program do not vary significantly from those of the B.S. Ch.E. require-: ments. Engineering physics, organic and physical chemistry, and mathematics through differential equations are required, and can be taken in parallel with our accelerated ChE courses: Many students converting to chemical engineering have 182 already had enough science and mathematics to meet our requirements, e.g., the organic chemistry requirement is waived for those who have had biochemistry. To compensate for the lack of ChE laboratory work in our accelerated courses, the students in this program are strongly urged (virtually re quired) to seek summer jobs in the chemical process industry. This three-month "practicum", combined with the previous year's work, embarks the students on our structured M.S. program with qualifications that we hope will enable them effectively to compete with B.S. Ch.E.'s. The students' need for background informa tion and skills to make them competitive with B.S. Ch.E.'s in graduate courses are kept upper most in mind in teaching our accelerated courses. The first course (stoichiometry and fluid flow) is the first taste that most of the students have had of any type of engineering course. Con siderable drill, both in study sessions and in homeThe chemical engineering component of our accelerated program consists of twelve semester hours presented in four three-hour courses. The courses are designated as graduate courses and are suitable for use as a minor. TABLE 2. Ch.E. 5302 Analysis of Equlibrium and Rate Operations Course Content A. Equilibrium-Dependent Processes 11 1. Phase equilibrium 3. Ideal contactor 2. Potentials versus concept equilibrium 4. Multicomponent, B. Rate-Dependent Operationsb 1. Potentials and fluxes 2. Transfer coefficients 3. Analogies: heat, mass, momentum multistage contacting 4. Mass applications 5. Energy applications Course Scheduling 0 A. 1-2, 1 week; A. 3-4, 1.5 weeks; B. 1-3, 2 weeks; B. 4, 1 week; B.5, 1.5 weeks a. Text: Stagewise Process Design, E. J. Hanley and H. K. Staffin, Wiley. b. Text: Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, W. L. McCabe and J. C. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill. c. Lectures 5 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per week discussion/problem-solving session. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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-----------------------~ TABLE 3. Ch.E. 5303 Analysis of Physical and Chemical Behavior of Matter Course Content A. Thermodynamicsa 1. Philosophy and historical approach 2. Applications: minimum, maximum, available work 3. Chemical potential 4. Criteria for phase equilibria 5. Chemical equilibria B. Chemical Reactionsb 1. Molecularity and rate expressions 2. Order of reactions 3. Mechanisms of reactions 4. Effects of temperature and pressure on reaction rates 5. Continuous stirred-tank reactor and tubular reactor 6. Introduction to gradients and backmixing 7. Engineering design Course Scheduling 0 A. 1, 2 weeks; A. 2-5, 4 weeks; B. 1, 1 week; B. 2-3, 2 weeks; B. 4, 1 week; B. 5-6, 4 weeks; B. 7, 1 week. a. Text: Theory and Problems of Thermodynamics, M. M. Abbott and H. C. Van Ness, Schaum Outline Series, McGraw-Hill. b. Text: Chemical Reactor Theory, K. G. Denbigh and J. C R. Turner, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press. c. Classes meet 3 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per week discussion/problem-solving session. work assignments, is utilized. The students became at least familiar with, if not proficient at using, the various systems of units employed in engineer ing calculations, and become aware of the im portance and significance of quantitative answers. Computational skills are reinforced in the second course (separations and heat transfer) but the amount of drill is reduced. The two courses offered in the spring semester are taught on alternate days, the same as standard three-hour academic courses. Whereas the second of the fall-semester courses depended very heavily on the first, the two spring-semester courses are independent of each other. As it turned out, the students seem to benefit from the forty-eight hour stretch between classes which allows for mental induction of the information covered in the classes. COURSE SCHEDULES A TYPICAL SCHEDULE for a student with prior credit in organic chemistry or bio chemistry for our accelerated expansion program is shown in Table 5. The first year is tailored for FALL 1977 the requirements of each individual student. All, however, take both of the accelerated ChE courses each semester. At the conclusion of the first academic year of the program and their summer's experience in either industry or research, the students are ready to enter the master's program in our department. The core courses are shown in the second year of the typical schedule in Table 5. The second fall term consists of the same graduate courses in thermodynamics, heat transfer, and applied mathematics for chemical engineers as required of any master's candidate, regardless of background. We also anticipate that during the fall semester, each student will consult with all of our faculty with regard to research areas of mutual interest, and will select a major professor and a specific research topic. The student should complete any necessary literature search before initiation of the experiental por tion of his program in late fall. During the spring term, the student will enroll in graduate-level mass transfer and fluid dynamics. He will also take a graduate technical elective on a subject chosen by his major advisor or graduate committee as being most beneficial to his research and career objec tives. The experimental portion of his thesis will be undertaken no later than the start of the spring semester, and should be essentially complete by the end of the following summer. He will also be expected to take a graduate elective during the summer, leaving him free to write his thesis TABLE 4. Ch.E. Analysis of Chemical Processes Course Content A. Economics 11 1. Time value of money 2. Profitability criteria 4. Capital and other costs 3. Amortization B. Optimization a 1. Single-variable search C. Unsteady Stateb 1. LaPlace transforms 2. System dynamics 3. Interacting systems D. Simulationb 2. Multi-variable search 4. Controllers 5. Stability criteria 1. Streams and modules 3. Network analysis 2. Generalizations A. 4 weeks; B. 3 weeks; C. 5 weeks; D. 3 weeks. a. Text: Class notes. b. Text: Process Systems Analysis and Control, D. R. Coughanowr and L. B. Koppel, McGraw-Hill. c. Classes meet 3 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per week discussion/problem-solving session. 183

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TABLE 5. Typical Schedule Fall I Spring I Summer I Calculus I Calculus II Job in CPI or Physical Differential Research at TTU Chemistry I Equatio n s Analysis of Ch.E. P h ysical an d Problems Chemical Equilibrium and Be h avior Rate Operations Analysis of C h emical Processes Fall II Spring II Summer II Thermodynamics Mass Transfer Tech n ical Elective Heat Transfer *Flui d Dynamics Thesis Research Applied Math for Ch.E.'s Thesis Research Fall III Technical Elective Write and Defend Thesis M.S. Ch E. awarded Technical Elective Thesis Research Core graduate course required for any M S. Ch. E. candi date. Altho u gh many of t hem may hav e had some calculus chemis tr y and physics the i r thought proces s e s were definitely qual i tat i ve rather than quantitative a s is requi r ed in engineer i ng education during the fall semester, simultaneously taking his final course. Participation in our accelerated expansion program for the fall semesters of 1975 and 1976 is shown in Table 6, along with the backgrounds from which the students came. The physical chemists were in the accelerated courses for their graduate minor. While the accelerated expansion program was developed with chemists and bi o logists in mind, we genuinely hoped that some students fr om n o technical fields would take advantage of it The music major came to us in the summer of 1975 after completing the mathematics, physics, and chemistry courses usually needed for the B .S. Ch.E. degree. He was elated when we apprised him of the opportunity to earn the M.S. Ch.E. in about 28 months. 184 PROBLEMS AND PROGNOSTICATION T HE GREATEST DIFFICULTY was the nonquantitative background of most of the students. Although many of them may have had some calculus, chemistry, and physics, their thought processes were definitely qualitative rather than quantitative, as is required in engi neering education. Special care had to be given in instructing these students in problem definition and interpretation of the answers. The necessity of making assumptions was a difficult concept for many of these students. The assumptions could take the form of simplifications without which the problem was unsolvable, or of va l ues o f physical properties needed to complete the solution. In some cases, the students were exce e dingly r e luctant to assume an answer and then show that answer to be correct, or to use a differenc e between a calculated and an assumed value to predict a better assumed value, as is so often required in trial solutions. Abundance of information in the form of data tables, graphs, equations, correlations, etc., as they appear in textbooks, handbooks, and the technical literature was a source of c o nfusion. Use of information sources was an integral part of the c o urs e work. Our experience with students from other fields pursuing graduate study in ChE has been most rewarding. Those who have completed the year of accelerated work are now holding their own in our regular graduate courses in thermodynamics, heat transfer, and applied mathematics. We shall con tinue to publicize our program both among po t e ntial students and potential emp l oyers. Nine students hav e accepted assistantships to start in the pr o gram this fall. TABL E 6. E nrollment i n Career E x pan s i o n Pr o gram Maj o r Fall 1975 Fall 1976 General Chemistry 2 5 O rga n ic Ch em istry 2 P h ysical C h e m istry 2 1 Po l ymer C h emistry 1 Micro b io l ogy 1 Music 1 Physics Pre-Me d ici n e 1 Z oo l o gy 1 In du strial Engineering 1 Fall 1977 4 1 1 1 2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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A STUDENT POINT OF VIEW RONALD S. CHRISTY, JERRY D. PURKAPLE AND THOMAS E. VERNOR Te x as Tech Uni v ersity Lubbock, Te x as 79409 JN RECENT YEARS, many graduates with bachelor's degrees in the sciences and liberal arts have experienced difficulty in obtaining pro fessional employment, and one means of arriving at a rewarding career is through advanced train ing in chemical engineering. We are among the first group of students to participate in this innovative program, and have now completed our second year. The authors feel that, as a result of this program; we will be as well prepared to practice engineering as those students who receive both bachelor's and master's degrees in ChE. LEVELLING PROGRAM THE PREVIOUS ADV AN CEMENT program required a minimum of three years of study, including two years of levelling plus the same 30 hours of graduate courses required of all M.S. candidates. Because of the long time span, this format did not appeal to many students who were interested in acquiring advanced technical skills. The present program is much more attractive, and is different only as the result of having condensed the two years of levelling work into one, without sacrificing the quality of instruction. The only dis advantage of the present structure is that the work is very intensive, and little time is available for relaxation and recreation. Our professors realized that with such a fast learning rate it would be easy for us to get hope lessly behind in our studies very quickly To be sure that this situation did not develop, they were always available to answer questions. In addition, one afternoon per week was set aside as a time for us to ask questions and clarify the material, and this proved to be a valuable link in our learn ing process. At the beginning of our studies, we needed to learn to think quantitatively and communicate in engineering terms. Consequently, we covered FALL 1977 material slowly and in great detail, working many problems. As our competence improved, the prob lems became fewer in number but more complex Almost before we realized it, we were thinking like engineers! Because of the fact pace of our courses ; there was no time for the usual laboratory work. There were also few opportunities to develop engineer ing judgment and common sense adequately, so vital elements were missing from our education. To rectify this situation, we were encouraged to obtain summer employment in industry follow ing the year of levelling work. Those of us who who did work gained the practical experience that has made the remainder of our graduate courses much more meaningful. THE PRESENT-AND FUTURE C OMPETING IN THE REGULAR graduate courses with students who, for the most part, have superior technical backgrounds has been a challenge. Several students have B.S. degrees in ChE plus several years of industrial experience. They invariably understand the problems better and fare better on tests. It is easy for those of us who have participated in the career advance ment program to become discouraged when we cannot understand the concepts as readily as those with more experience. Our greatest satisfaction is the realization that we have learned so much about engineering in such a short time. We are all engaged in research projects lead ing to the writing of theses and have not found that we are at a disadvantage in this regard. How ever, one problem that has been common to all of us is finding enough time to devote to both our course work and research projects. In interviewing for jobs, we have found that we are as acceptable to industry as students who earn both B.S. and M.S. degrees in ChE. Our opportunities for plant trips and our salary offers have been comparable to those of other graduate students. Our educational experiences during the last two years have been somewhat uni q ue as well as very exciting and challenging. It is our belief that we will be well prepared graduate engineers and we look forward to the technical improve ments we can make during our professional careeers as chemical engineers. 185

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GRADUATE ChE EDUCATION ON A STATEWIDE CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION NETWORK THOMAS G. STANFORD University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina 29208 THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, colleges and 'Universities are seeking to meet the educational needs of today's mobile society. The medium of television ;is being used most effectively to reach people who cannot conveniently attend classes on campus. The engineering community especially finds need for such educational opportunities be cause of today's rapidly changing technology. ITo provide the means by which practicing engineers can continue to keep abreast of current trends, the University of South Carolina (USC;), in 1969, started A Program of Graduate Engineering Edu cation (APOGEE). Most of the chemical and related industry in South Carolina is scattered throughout the state and is not located near the USC campus in Co lumbia. Thus, a majority of the practicing chem ical engineers who desire an advanced degree in Chemical Engineering would not be able to attend regular on-campus classes. These engineers look to APOGEE as a means of continuing career growth. To meet this need, APOGEE offers grad uate courses in ChE at remote locations through out South Carolina via full-color video tapes and closed-circuit television broadcasts. The locations where APOGEE facilities are to be found are listed in Table I. THE APOGEE PHILOSOPHY T HERE ARE SEVERAL ways in which a state wide television network could be used to offer courses for graduate credit. Professionally pro duced lectures, complete with rehearsals, video tape editing, and specially prepared notes would provide nearly perfect 'shows' for the student. In some instances, this technique has been tried with 186 success. However, it is felt that student-teacher contact, where the student is free to ask questions during the lectures, is an important part of engi neering education. Also, student performance has been found to be unaffected by imperfections in the lecture presentation. Thus, the additional time required fon the making of professionally pro duced 'shows' is not time which is efficiently used by the instructor. The philosophy with which APOGEE courses are prepared is one of keeping as much of the regular classroom 'flavor' as possible. Classes for the on-campus students are held in modified class room-studios. The off-campus students attend classes in classrooms containing television mon itors and video tape players. Course lectures are presented twice a week One lecture is video taped before the on-campus students in Columbia. The vide o tapes are then distributed to the remote lo cations so that they may be viewed at the conTABLE I. Locations of APOGEE Facilities Aike n, South Carolina Barnwell, South Carolina Camden, South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina Duke Power; Charlotte, North Carolina Dupont Savannah River Plant, South Carolina Florence, South Carolina Georgetown, South Carolina Greenville, South Carolina Greenwood, South Carolina Hartsville, South Carolina North Augusta, South Carolina Oconee, South Carolina Orangeburg, South Carolina Rock Hill, South Carolina Savannah, Georgia Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Sumter, South Carolina Spartanburg, South Carolina Waterboro, South Carolina CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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----------------~ Thomas G Stanford received the BSChE degree from Wayne State University in 1966, the MSE(ChE) degree and the MS(Math) degree from The University of Michigan in 1968 and the PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from The University of Michigan in 1977 He has worked for Monsanto Company and Continental Oil Company as a process chem i cal engineer. Since 1976, he has been Assistant Pro fessor of Chemical Engineering at the Univers i ty of South Carolina His research interests are in the areas of chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems, and thermodynamics. venience of the off-campus student. The other lecture is presented live on closed-circuit television both to the on-campus students and to the stu dents at the remote locations. Because most of the off-campus students are not able to attend classes during regular business hours, this lecture is pre sented either on a weekday evening or on Saturday morning. It is in 'talk-back' format so that each student may talk freely with the instructor via telephone. Several 'Saturday in Columbia' class meetings are scheduled throughout the semester. All of the students come to Columbia for these sessions to take exams, to discuss homework, or to do experiments. Students are also free to con tact the instructor by phone during regular office hours if they have specific questions. APOGEE DEGREE PROGRAMS APOGEE OFFERS MASTER of Engineering (ME) and Master of Science (MS) programs in ChE. Any person who holds a baccalaureate de gree ~rom an Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD) accredited engineering school is eligible for admission to either of these programs. Prospective students who hold degrees from nonaccredited engineering schools will be required to take the Graduate Record Examina tion (GRE) prior to admission into a degree pro gram. Under certain circumstances, persons hold ing degrees in related fields such as biology, chemFALL 1977 istry, and pharmacy may be admitted into a de gree program. Admission of such persons will be based on previous college studies, work experi ence, and any other factors deemed relevant. The ME program requires a minimum of 30 semester hours of coursework for completion. The course requirements are listed in Table II. A student may elect to undertake a suitable engineer ing project in lieu of up to 6 semester hourse of FREE ELECTIVE credit. However, most persons who wish to obtain an ME degree choose to do coursework only. Because neither a research proj ect and thesis nor an engineering project is re quired for this degree, it lends itself well to the APOGEE program. The MS is a research degree. The student who receives this degree must successfully conduct research in a suitable area of ChE and document his work with a written thesis. The coursework requirem ents for the MS degree are identical to those listed in Table II for the ME degree. The TABLE II. Requirements for the ME Degree in Chemical Engineering A. Required Courses Diffusional Operations Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Chemical Process A naly sis B. Required Electives One course to be chosen from the following Distillation Chemical Reactor Design Advanced Chemical Flow Systems II A 700 level control course such as Dynamic Process Analysis Computer Control I Computer Control II Modern Control Theory I Modern Control Theory II C. Free Electives Graduate courses at the 500 level or above in engi neering mathematics, or chemistry. At least 6 of these credit hours mu st be in courses at the 700 level. 3 3 3 3 (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) 18 Total Cre dit Hours 30 student must elect 6 semester hours of thesis preparation (ENGR 799). These credit hours may be counted as part of the FREE ELECTIVE re quirement for the degree. A student who chooses to do so may complete his coursework via APOGEE. Under special circumstances, the thesis research may be completed at a location other than the main USC campus in Columbia. This 187

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work would, of course, be conducted under the supervision of a member of the ChE faculty. APOGEE also offers those who do not wish to pursue an advanced degree the opportunity to keep abreast of the latest technology. The College of Engine ering at USC offers courses in energy systems, air and water pollution, computer proc ess control, distillation, and chemical reactor de sign. In addition, the technical expertise of nation ally and internationally known scientists and en gineers is made available through video tape pro grams produced by the Association for Media Based Continuing Education for Engineers (AMCEE) of which the College of Engineering at USC is a charter member. THE SUCCESS OF APOGEE T HE APOGEE PROGRAM has experienced rapid growth since its inception in 1969. Table III shows the number of on-campus and APOGEE students in the graduate ChE program at USC for each year since 1971. This indicates that APOGEE has been well received by those chem ical engineers in industry who wish to pursue an advanced degree in ChE. TABLE III. On-Campus and APOGEE Students in the Graduate Chemical Engineering Program at USC ME MS OnOnYear Campus APOGEE Campus APOGEE 1971 15 3 7 1972 14 12 8 2 1973 8 13 10 6 1974 4 23 11 4 1975 2 31 6 7 1976 1 31 6 4 1977 0 25 8 4 *spring semester enrollment The classroom performance of the off-campus students is also an indication of the success of the APOGEE program. It has been found that these students do as well as or better than the students who attend the classes live. The video tapes of lectures allow each student to go over certain parts of the material several times. This 'play back' feature has been a beneficial teaching tool both for off-campus and for on-campus students 188 in the APOGEE program. The 'talk-back' broad casts are well received by the students. These sessions often deal only with student questions. This student-teacher contact takes the place of that which is normally available to the on-campus student; contact which often teaches more than any formal lecture could. Thus, the APOGEE format of video taped lectures and live 'talk-back' television lectures has provided the student teacher contact so im,portant to engineering edu cation and, at the same time, places no more de mand on the instructor than preparation for a regular class would. APOGEE also provides direct interaction between the College of Engineering at USC and the industry of South Carolina. This interaction has not only stimulated discussions in the classroom but also provided a way of intro ducing practical graduate engineering problems into the coursework. APOGEE has proven to be an unqualified suc cess for both students and teachers. Its rapid growth and evolution make it a current and mean ingful program of graduate engineering educa tion. More information about the APOGEE pro grams in ChE at the University of South Carolina may be obtained by writing to the APOGEE Pro gram Director, Dr. W. K. Humphries, at the College of Engineering, University of South Caro lina; Columbia, South Carolina 29208. BOOK REVIEW: Uhl Continued from page 149. conventional for capital costs, operating costs and profitability criteria. The emphasis in capital cost estimation is for "order of magnitude" and fac tored estimates. The profitability methods include discounted cash flow. Where this book differs from other works is in the presentation; it is terse and striking. There are many tables and fig ures to elucidate the concepts and examples to illustrate them. Some new, useful compendia ap pear; these are the fruit of the prodigious labors of Professor Woods. There is a survey of the single (Lang) factor approach to compute capital cost from the sum of the cost of the major pieces of equipment. Also, there is an extensive critical view of the various schemes for using more de tailed factors in capital cost estimates. Unfortu nately only passing mention is given to continuous interest, uncertainity analysis (which is not men tioned as such), and sensitivity. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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. In several places the progression from simple, quick and rough to detailed time-consuming and close estimates is dramatized. The laudable pur pose here is to inspire students to develop judge ment. Also a note about the teaching of engineering economics is in order. In his preface, Woods notes: "many students undergo a long induction period before they appreciate some of the concepts". My experience confirms this view, but I would add that practicing engineers grasp the concepts read ily, no doubt because they are familiar with busi ness background and practice. The initial chapter, The Decision Makers is a vigorous view of the engineer in society, his responsibilities, and ethics in practice. Although the tone is idealistic, and perhaps naive, it is praise worthy. A quote from the book is to the point ... engineers are, by and large, the decision makers in industry and technology ." (Actually we should be more influential than we are, but by nature we are less assertive than others, e.g., company managers). The second chapter presents the economic en vironment. Basic economic concepts are covered: supply, demand, competition, cash flow, allocation of financial resources. Unfortunately, because of its brevity the treatment serves only to stress the need for such an overall perception. The couching of the economic evaluation in terms of accounting practice is commendable. For cost data and for project authorization, we must deal with accounting and financial types, so en gineers must speak the "accounting" language. Outstanding merits of the work are the intro duction of pertinent material from other fields, some novel approaches, homilies and examples de signed to evoke engineering judgment, useful compendia of cost data, good specimen forms for the preparation of cost estimates, provocative problems, a valuable bibliography and an excel lent glossary of relevant terms. The book is compact, perhaps excessively so for the wealth of ideas, examples, tables, etc., which it contains. It has only 340 pages. For much of the material an extended, amplified treatment would be preferred, particularly in its service as a textbook. Its classroom use may require expansion on some topics in lecture by the instructor to de rive the maximum benefit. This unique, diverse, rich, exciting book should also provide an excel lent review or an introduction to this subject for practicing engineers. FALL 1977 RETZLOFF: Reaction Engineering Continued from page 168. the multiplet theory of Balandin [3] and the premise that the catalytic activity is determined by the compatability of the catalyst surface geometry for the reaction being considered. The key ingredients are the lattice parameters and the arrangement of catalyst surface atoms which are correlated with catalytic activity. The electron band theory of catalysis [ 4] is principally applied to transition metal and alloys and seeks to relate catalysis, principally through the chemisorption step, to the electronic properties of the bulk solid. The subject of the electron theory of semicon ductor catalysts represents a review of the work of F. F. Vol [1] Kenshtein [5] on the role of the Fermi level in acceptor and donor reactions oc curring on a semiconductor catalyst surface. The final topic, the charge transfer theory of catalysis starts with a review of the wor~ of Hanffe [6] and Lee [7, 8] on change transfer reactions. The effects of D.C., symmetric A.C., and antisymmetric A.C. capacitively applied electromagnetic fields on the charge transfer catalytic reaction rate are dis cussed. The results of acoustically coupled phonon excitations on these same reaction rates are de veloped. Within this general context the effects of surface states (as distinct from the bulk energy states) on the catalytic processes that occur on transition metal oxides is considered [9, 10]. REFERENCES 1. D. G. Retzloff, Vortex Flo ws -A Unified Treatm ent with Exact Soluuions, 16th Annual A.I.Ch.E. Free Forum 69th Annual A I.Ch.E. Meeting-Chicago (1976). 2. C. N. Hinshelwood, Kinetic s of Chemi ca l Change, Oxfo rd University Press, New York (1941). 3. A. A. Balandin, Advances in Catalysis, 10, 96 (1958). 4 C. G. Bond, Cataly sis by Metals, Academic Press, New York (1962). 5. F. F. Vol'kenshtein, Th e Election Theory of Catalysis on Semiconductors, Pergamon Press, New York (196 3 ). 6. K. Hanffe, Semiconductor Surface Phys ics, (R. H. Kingston, ed.) University of Pennsy,lvania Press, Phil adelphia, Pennsylvania (1956). 7. V. J. Lee, J. Cata!., 17,178 (1970). 8. V. J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 55, 2905 (1971). 9. T. Wolfram, E. A. Kraut, and F. J. Morin, Phy. Rev. B, 7, 1677 (1973). 10. T. Wolfram and F. J. Morin, Appl. Phys. 8 12 5 (1975). l89

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Rohm and Haas Company is a major U S chemical company with an excellent record of i nnovation and growth We produce over 2500 products that are used i n industry agriculture and health services ... and we re poised for sign i f i cant growth both i n the immediate and long term future Immediate openings exist for entry-level chemical engineers in the following areas : PROCESS ENGINEERING Develop processes for new products and i mprove processes for existing products Will plan and execute pilot plant studies for batch and continuous operations including preparation of cost estimates design proposals for large-scale equipment environmental and safety considerations Positions require a BS / MS degree in chemical engineer i ng Philadelphia and Bristol PA locations ENGINEERING DESIGN Will be responsible for design of new plants and for production startup includ i ng development of process flow charts specifications for equipment and plant testing to determine optimum design Will also prepare cost est i mates for cap i tal i nvestment and products and supervise startup operation Exp e r i ence in computer technology would be preferred A BS / MS i n chemical engineering is required for these opening s. Br i stol PA l ocation PRODUCTION Responsible for startup operations in the introduction of new processes products and equipment ; optimize pro ductivity Other duties include process improvement studies troubleshooting and energy conservation These positions require a BS / MS in chemical engineering Houston TX ; Louisville KY ; Knoxville TN ; Philadelphia and Bristol PA locations MARKETING Openings for individuals with a BS / MS in chemical engineering or chemistry plus an aptitude for sales A three-phase training program includes company and product orientation in the Philadelphia area followed by assignment to a sales office working under the direction of a district manager Upon completion of training individual is assigned to a sales territory as a technical representative We offer an excellent compensation and benefits pro gram and an outstanding opportuni t y for career develop ment and advancement. Send your resume in confidence to : Recruiting and Placement# 2477 Rohm and Haas Company Philadelphia Pa 19105 RDHMD iHAAS~ P HIL A DEL P HI A, PA 1910 5 An Equal Opportunity Employer

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SHINNAR: Interface Between Industry and the Academic World Continu~d from page 153. just said. Kurihara also analyzes the information flow in the unit and diagnoses the main difficulty of control. The main parameter controlling the performance is the level of coke on the catalyst particle. This again depends both on the reactor performances as well as on the regenerator condi tion. The time scale of the coke build-up is large, on the order of an hour, whereas the residence time of both oil and air flow in the unit is meas ured in seconds. This long time lag leads to diffi cult control. What the scheme in Figure 2 really does is minimize this interaction by keeping the regen erator conditions more constant. To do this we need an additional measured variable on the regen erator to be kept constant. But if one looks at the control scheme in Fig ure 2 from the viewpoint of an operator, an im mediate deficiency is apparent The reactor, which is the main part, has no control, and the operator has no direct way to change the level of conversion in the unit. Lee and Weekman [3] discuss this in detail and show that this can be corrected by a cascaded feedback loop, given in Figure 3. The control scheme in Figure 3 is much smoother and faster than the controller in Figure 1, which is a significant improvement. It has, how ever, some of the same deficiencies, namely, that it does not have sufficient manipulated variables to allow the operator to really achieve what he needs to do, which is to be able to adjust the steady state of the unit to meet varying process requirements and varying constants. In the re finery we don't make money by reducing the level of the control input needed. This is fixed when we choose the manipulated variable. We make money by being able to work close to a constraint, and both our goal and the nature of the constraint change with time. In reality the operator does this or tries to do this by using additional manipulated variables, which don't appear in any scheme. He changes the feed allocation between different units. Further more, he can change catalyst activity by adding and withdrawing more or less catalyst or ordering a different catalyst. The fact that Kurihara's work did not lead to a useful controller design does not detract from the usefulness of his work. In fact, the complexity FALL 1977 Set Snorts Air MAJOR CONTRO L LOOPS FCC (Other Loops Om i tted for Clarity) Regenerator Flue Gas to CO Boiler Set r---------------{t} I 0~ I -T ----, ( P l I I I I I I I I -J (p,.I) Oil Feed To Mai n Fractionator FIGURE 3. Schematic of modified control scheme. of the, problem is such that one cannot expect academia to do that, unless there is a real integra tion with an industrial project. But that is not necessarily what we want from academia here. It is sufficient that we understand in what way the modern control theory used in the example could be helpful in designing industrial controllers. And the negative results of Kurihara's work are far more illuminating and important than the positive ones. OPTIMAL CONTROL I LEARNED FROM THIS example some of the basic shortcomings of optimal control as well as some of its advantages. For example, it makes clear that the standard formulation of costs and profits in optimal control both deterministic and stochastic, have very little to do with real costs and profits and are only indirectly relatable. Furthermore, complex chemical systems are often riot controllable in the full sense, and controllabil ity in the mathematical sense is not the same as in the operational sense. I realized that those de cisions which are made before one writes the algorithm, namely, which variables can be meas ured and which should be manipulated, are more important than the choice of the algorithm itself or the profit function. The main result of the algorithm is in determining the dominant roots and in decoupling the reactor and the regenerator. This is rather insensitive to the profit function used. 191

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We could have obtained some of the same re sults using the methods proposed by Rosenbrock [ 4] for multi variable controller design. This il luminates one of the main paradoxes of optimal control in process control application. On the one hand it is clear that the term op timum is highly misleading. It is not a real op timum in any sense and can give rather unusable controllers, as pointed out by Rosenbrock [4] and myself [1]. It is also in no way a straightforward design algorithm but depends on the skill and understanding of the designer much more than the Ziegler-Nichols method does. On the other hand optimal control can provide very useful information to the designer. But this information must be integrated into a design pro cedure which checks the stability and sensitivity of the total system and its overall performance. The test of the algorithm is outside its formulation and needs a good understanding of the system. The properties of the algorithm are often less important than the quality of the clues it can pro vide and the way it integrates with the designer's knowledge, experience, and intuition. But modern control literature is not written this way. The unsuspecting reader gets the im pression that he really deals with a straight forward design algorithm. Even as great an ex pert as Rosenbrock attacks optimal control on philosophical grounds ; that is, he heads in a direc tion that minimizes the intellectual contribution of the engineer. On the other hand we heard a re peated claim at this conference that successful use of optimal control requires too much of a theoret ical knowledge. Personally I don't worry about algorithms or computers eliminating the engineer Complex de sign algorithms need a much higher degree of in tellectual input than present methods and increase the need for highly trained personnel. I feel Rosenbrock attacks an image that modern control literature projects more than a reality. The real problem is that in the present state modern control theory is not easily integrated with the way an ex perienced engineer designs a control system. We have mathematically become so complex that even professors have stopped understanding each other. What we need is to translate the results of modern control theory into the language of the practicing engineer arid to present the insights obtainable in a simple form. When results and insight are pre sented in a simple form, they often look obvious, but this does not detract from their value. It 192 simplifies them. For many purposes this is definitely possible. The work that Prof. MacFarlane talked about at Pacific Grove, California is a prime example of what can be done to translate the work done in one method to other mathematical languages familiar to the engineer. Morton Denn showed that a PID controller can be obtained from an optimal formulation. Our own work at present deals with this problem, and I'll mention here just two items. Consider, for example, the case of a simple single-loop controller for an overdamped system, with no inverse response. In most cases it is sufficient to model this by a first order or second order system with a delay in series. (1) or (2) ~f we design an unconstrained deterministic op timum controller for Eq. (1) we will get a con troller of the form e 9 (1 + TS) G c (s) = l e -e
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lead to controller settings very similar to that ob tained using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Unless we use very complex stochastic formu lation for the structure of the inputs, optimal algorithms will always end up in controllers sim ilar and equivalent to those already is use, a combination of P, I, and D control with a dead time compensator and a smoothing filter. In that sense optimal control has neither led to any sur prises nor to a design algorithm In all cases we have to evaluate the results in terms of stability, sensitivity, and overall performance, and adding more criteria is only doing the same thing in an inverse way. This does not mean the results are not very interesting. The fact that we know our empirical controller is very close to some clearly defined unconstrained optimum is very useful. Further more, we can get clues on proper design and tun ing of dead time compensators. On the other hand optimal control made some very significant contributions to the design of sample data controllers for the same case. I am referring here to the work of Box and Jenkins on control strategies suitable for human operators. Take for example the above case. A simple suitable discrete model for the same process could be G (B) > = W o W B B k+ i P 1-8B (4) In their notation the output of the process Y t cari be written Y t = G p (B)u t + N t where N t is the disturbance ( or noise) Box and Jenkins have an elaborate procedure to identify the input using nonstationary models for the noise. For most cases they recommend a noise of the form 1->..B N t = 1 B CX t (5) Actually as McGregor [9] has shown this system is equivalent in 'the state space description to the following system For an example, we will choose r = 1 and 0 = 0.5, and the sampling time T equal to 0.25. An un constrained optimization will give us the following results (>.. = 5) U t = .5 (L\U t-1 + L\U t-2 ) + 2.26 (E t -0.78E t-1 ) (7) where U t is the control action. L\u t is the adjust ment in control action and E is the diviation of the measurement from the desired value. This is a simple controller which uses just two measurements and two previous control actions. However, it can be rewritten in a different form. U t = (1-A) (U t-1 + U t-2 ) + 1->.. [ W o E t + (1-o) which shows that this is really a PI controller with a simple dead time compensator. The real value of this work is that, with a very simple strategy which an operator can easily handle, we can approximate a sophisticated controller. Fur thermore, ,by 'adjusting the coefficients of these four numbers we can even include a filter or a lead compensator. The approximation is very good and even has some advantages as it avoids, for example, integral saturation. But it is not straightforward. We note that the gain, as well as the coefficient of the compensator, depends on >... Theoretically, the noise parameter >.. can vary between 1 and + 1. But only values between 0.5 and 1.0 will give controllers with ac ceptable stability margins for the gain : For others we will again have to constrain the control action to achieve stability, and if we look at the con strained controllers they are not sufficiently dif ferent from each other to justify any strong ef forts to differentiate between them. Evaluating the designs for different >.. and even for more complex structures of noise gives very interesting and illuminating results, but the final design must take into account the proper stability margin, which is not part of the al gorithm. In many cases stability will be the over riding final constraint; in others the structure of [ i :: :::] = [ l+~ ~ ][ i ::: J + [ : : J L\u t-k-1 + [ a(i-;>..) ] a t ( 6 ) [ J the noise might be more important. As this is not Y t = [ 1 OJ X i,t + a t a lecture on controller design, I will refer you to X 2 t our original paper [ 7 ]. FALL 1977 193

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It is true that in some sense the results of Box and Jenkins can be obtained both from classical theory or from the state space formulation. But this is hindsight. It is hard to guess that a noise structure such as in Eq. 6 is really one of the few that gives a good industrial controller. Nor did anyone else come up with such simple effective controllers for operators. But once we have them there is an advantage to translate them to a more familiar language. This as an example of a really unforeseen re sult of optimal control that can be translated to the language most control engineers are familiar with. People with a background in quality control will prefer the original formulation. People with a long experience in classical process control will prefer to talk about dead time compensators, PI controllers, phase lag and phase lead compen sators, and filters. SUMMARY T HERE ARE PROBABLY many really valu able results hidden in the literature of modern control that merit being brought to a form useful for the control engineer. But we need to extract them, test them, and bring them to a form where they are useful tools in real empirical design. The academic world is probably the only one that could do it and publish it, but we need not only people who are ready to do it but also some change inemphasis and value judgment in the academic community, especially in the U.S. A thesis like Kurihara's is not exactly the prime example of what we value. It contains no rigor, no experiments, and no new theory. If he had spent five years and built a small FCC unit and put a trivial controller around it, at least part of our academic community would have admired it. It would have been rather useless, since it is very hard to build a small FCC with the same dynamic behavior. In real design we would use simulation anyway, and rigor would not help us since this is not our problem. What would have helped us if we would have pointed out what was wrong with his results. Very few students would today dare to do it. This is sad. The value of theoretical work in industry as well as in scientific work is much greater in the failure mode than in the positive case. If a good sensible theory fits the data or vice versa, we learn rather little, especially if the theory is known. An experienced theoretician can 194 guess the form of the result even without solving it. But when a reasonable theory leads to strong contradiction with experiments or our experience we learn something 1 1 learned this the hard way. When I started, one of my first students studied non-Newtonian liquid-into-liquid jets. We solved the equations for We therefore have to create an inter face between the industrial practitioner and the rigorous researcher, and the only way I can see it is to start working on the funda mentals of our profession-trying to obtain an understanding of the design process itself, which never really is algorithmic but rather interactive and intuitive and strongly relying on informed judgment. the power law fluid and were quite proud and tried to confirm them. Our first experiments showed some very strange effects totally in contradiction of :what theory predicts. We dutifully recorded them and finally found a set of narrow conditions where the experiments agree with theory. If I had had the sense to concentrate on the strange effects, I would have had a first rate pioneering paper in stead of a rather standard one. But I learned my lesson. When we studied atomization of non Newtonian fluids, we had a very solid linearized stability analysis for any fluid and were able to show that there are fluids for which the linearized theory does not apply. We have boxed ourselves in so much with pre conceived notions about how a good paper or thesis should look that real engineering research becomes rather hard. This is strange. Even the hard sciences or mathematics feels less con strained as to what a paper should look like than we do. And there is no part of engineering where people are as ferociously prejudiced and con strained as in 'the academic control field in the United States ; I admit the problem is not easy. A thesis like Kurihara's or Kestenbaum's [5] is much harder to judge and evaluate. The same applies to any work dealing with dirty problems and with ill-defined notions such as design ~ Furthermore, when com plex results are translated into simple language, they often sound obvious and, to those without ex perience, sometimes trivial. But we are engineers with all the advantages and disadvantages, and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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fleeing into sterile mathematics does not solve any thing. The relevance of such work is just as hard to judge Nor does such work necessarily make the best preparation for a student's career. We therefore have to create a climate in which such work can flourish. We also need to create a basis of financial support for it. Research on servomechanisms is supported by NASA and DOT, but real process control, just as most re search on process design, has no home either at NSF or any other agency and very meager in dustrial support. This is again purely a question of the intellectual climate. The needs and potential for significant improvements in process control are at least as big as those in many areas which have ample support. Let me make one thing clear. I do not want to imply that what I outlined is the only research or even the main research control engineers should do. In process control we suffer already far too much from preconceived notions of what the only present thing to do is, and I do not want to add to this. Sound rigorous theoretical work and well conceived experimentation can make significant contributions to modern control. But the nature of the problem is such that, unless we obtain a better understanding of the design process itself, many of the most valuable units of our work will remain useless, and some of our theoretical work will go into directions where no real need exists. We therefore have to create an interface between the industrial practitioner and the rigorous re searcher, and the only way I can see it is to start working on the fundamentals of our profession trying to obtain an understanding of the design process itself, which never really is algorithmic but rather interactive and intuitive and strongly relying on informed judgment. It will be a dif ficult but interesting and gratifying task. Let me finish with another story relevant to the present state of research in the engineering profession. I read once a strategic analysis of the Maccabean War, an important event of Jewish history. The analyst showed that Judah, the Maccabean was a military genius, the inventor of guerilla warfare, the first to be able to handle the Greek phalanx. But having beaten the Greeks in a historic battle, he forgot his lesson. He really dreamed of becoming a Greek general leading his army in a phalanx. Doing that he was sadly beaten. His brothers followed his first lessons, which led to final victory. I do not want to elab orate on this example. D FALL 1977 NOTATION at = white noise variable B = backward shift operator G 1 ,(B) = plant discrete transfer function Gl'(s) = plant continuous transfer function k = defined by 0 = k T + c T (k is an integer) 8 = defined by e-T t >.. = noise parameter Xt = state vector Yt = output T = filter time constant [Eq. (1)] 0 = time delay [Eq. ( 1)] t = deviation of output from setpoint u t = con trol action at time t T = sampling period W O= 1-5 1>c Wl = 8-81 ->c c = 0 / Tk REFERENCES 1. K es t enba um, A., R. Shinnar, and F. E. Thau, Ind. Eng. Chem P rocess D esign Develop 15 (1), (1976). 2. Kurihara, H., Ph D. thesis, M.I.T. (1967); Gould, L. A., L. B. Evans, and H. Kurihara, Automatica, 6, 695 (1970). 3. Lee, W and V. W. Weekman, Plenary Lecture at the 1974 JACC, Austin, Texas (1974); AIChE., 22, 27 (1976). 4. Ros enbroc k, H H Computer-Aided Control System Design, Academic Press (1974). 5. K esten baum, A., Ph.D. thesis, C .U .N .Y (1975). 6. O'Connor, G. E., and M. M. Denn, "Three Mode Con trol as an Optimal Control," Chem. Eng. Sci., 27, 121127 (1972). 7. Palmor, Z., and R. Shinnar, "Sampled Data Control for Human Operator," to be published. 8. Athans, M. "Trends in Modern System Theory," AIChE Symposium Series; No. 159, Vol. 72 p. 4 (1976). 9 MacGregor, J. F., Th e Can. J. Chem Eng. 51 p. 468 (1973). [iJ Na books received TWENTY LECTURES ON THERMODYNAMICS By H. A. Buchdahl, Pergamon Press, 1975 These twenty lectures present a coherent, bird's eye view of phenomenological and sta tistical thermodynamics. According to the author they are largely elementary in character, peda gogic in purpose and proceed in a way, which here and there, "allows physical intuition to take precedence over mathematical niceties". N everthe less the text is abstract and mathematical. Some readers may prefer other approaches. D 195

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UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA Gradu ate Programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Ph.D Candidates; up to $7,500 / year. M.Sc Candidates : up to $7,000 / year. Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships and limited travel funds are available. Costs. Tuition : $660/year. Married students housing rent: $184 / month. Room and board, University Housing: $190 / month. Department Size 13 P r ofessors, 20 Research Associates 30 Graduate Students. Applications For additional information write to: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 Faculty and Research Interests I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota) : Kinetics Hetero geneous Catalysis. D. G. Fisher, Ph D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De sign J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (Brit Columbia): Transport Pheno mena Numerical Analysis, In situ Recovery of Oil Sands A. E Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan) : Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics. W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap plied Mathematics. F. D. Otto (Chairman), Ph D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ mental Engineering D. Quon Sc D. (M.I.T.): Applied Mathematics, Optima zation, Resource Al location Model 5 D. B. Robinson Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo dynamics. J T. Ryan Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy Economics and Supply. 196 F. A. Seyer, Ph.D (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo logy of Complex Fluids S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine tics. R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern) : Process Dynamics and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns, Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circui ts. The University of Alberta One of Canada's largest universities and engineering schools. Enrollment of 19,000 students. Co-educational, gov~rnment-supported, non-denominational. Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river valley. Edmonton Fast growing, modern city; population of 500,000 Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra, professional sports Major chemical and petroleum processing centre. Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains and Jasper and Banff National Parks. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA The Chemica l Engineering Department at the Un i versity of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph D. graduate programs Financial support is available through gov ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships traineeships and industrial grants The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineer i ng. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc Professor Ph.D Oregon State University, 1973 Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys tems Blood Processing JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head Ph.D., Purdue University 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology JOST O.L. WENDT Assoc Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollut i on, Nitrogen and Sul fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody namics lnterfacial Phenomena THOMAS W. PETERSON, A s s t Professor Ph D California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollu tan t Transport Particulate Growth Kinetics. Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It i s a grow i ng, modern city of 4 00 000 tha t retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information write to: D r J 0. L. W en dt G ra d ua te Stud y Comm i tt e e D ep a r t ment of Ch emic al E ngineerin g Un i versity o f A riz o na T u c son, A r i zona 85721 DON H WHITE, Professor Ph.D ., Iowa State l/niversity, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy Microbial and Enzymatic Processes ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D ., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Des i gn of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena Part ic ulate Processes, Explo sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph.D. University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, P r ocess Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Applied Design JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor Ph D. University of Wisconsin, 1968 Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumen t ation and Con trol, Model Building and Simulation

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA RESEARCH ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MATERIAL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE: FACULTY Alexis T Bell Alan S Fos s Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N. Hanson C. Judson King (Chairman) Scott Lynn David N. Lyon John S Newman Eugene E Petersen John M Prausnitz Clayton J Radke Mitchel Shen Charles W. Tob i as Theodore Vermuelen Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS UC DAVIS OFFERS A COMPLETE PROGRAM OF GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied /\Aa thematics Electrochemical Engineering Process Dynamics Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Faculty R. L. BELL, Universi t y of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedi c al Applications RUBEN CARBONELL, Princeton University Enzyme Kinetics, Appli~d Kinetics, Quant um Statistical Mechanics : ALAN JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering Transport Phenomena B. J. McCOY, University of Minnesota Chromatographic Proceses, Food Engineering, Statistical Mechanics F. R. McLARNON, University of California, Berkeley Electrochemical Engineering Energy conversion and storage J.M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware Fluid Mechanics lnterfacial Phenomena FALL 1977 Program Davis is one of the major campuses bf the Uni versity of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a program of fundamental g raduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers In addition, the department c an draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of en vironmental engineering, food engineering, biochemi cal engineering and biomedical engineering. Excellent laboratories, compu tation center and electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants. The Department supports students applying for National Science Foundation Fellowships. Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20 mim.ite drive from Sacramen ~ o and just over an hour away from the San Fra ncisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water spOrts at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (1 l / 2 to 2 hours from Davis). These recreational opportunities combine with the friendly informal spir i.f of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished oneand two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Davi$ is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance Information For further details on gradu~te study at Davis, please write to: Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-0400 199

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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his progr~m of study. In this way a student can properly pre pare himself for a productive career of research, develop ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding technological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research or an integrated design p roject, is a newly added feature to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduat e students are sup ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during poth the academic year and the summer months. A sthdent may carry a full load of graduate study and rese arch in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Professor J. H. Seinfeld Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It is advisable to submit applications before Ferruary 15, 1978 FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice President for Institute Relations Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering; air and water quality. SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution; biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif fusion and membrane transport. GEORGE R. GAV ALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization; coal gasification. L GARY LEAL, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor, Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical mechanics. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Control and estimation theory; air pollution. FRED H. SHAIR, Professor Ph D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemi stry and physics; tracer studies of various environmental problems. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Profe s sor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure property relations in polymers. ROBERT W. VAUGHAN Professor Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois Solid state and surface chemistry. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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FALL 1977 Carnegie -Mellon University SURFACES~ sPOLYMERS..-,4 !! COLLOIDS~ oil recoveryO Ul(llliTltS 0 _DIFFUSIONdesign John L. Ander so n memb r a n e tr a n s port, diffu s i on of m ac rom o l ecu l es, e l ec trokin e tic ph e n ome n a, hind ere d d i ffus i on r e action i n s m a ll por es Th omas W Bie.rl I coal processing h y drod esu l furi za ti o n a n d fee din g a n d agglome r at in g coa l s Ethel Z Casassa ph ys i ca l c h e mi s tr y of co ll o i ds a n d po l y m e r s Edw ard L. Cu ss l er transport phenor:n e n a ac r oss m e mbranes a nd i n bi l e, ps yc hoph ys ic s of te x t ure A n t hony L Dent r eact i o n ki n e ti cs, ca t a l ys i s a nd s u rface c hemistr y D Fennell E va n s rat e pr ocesses affect in g c h o le s t e r o l ga ll stone fo r ma tion I m echa nism of d ete r ge n cy se l ect i ve separations using liquid s urf acta nt membra n es, b e h av ior of e l ec tro l y t es a nd h yd r oge n bonding so l ven t s Tomlin so n Fort Jr a dsorption, a dhes i o n, cata l ys i s, m e mbr a n es a n d thin fi l m s int e r faces in co mp osi t es, r e lationsh i p of s ur face t o bu l k prop e rti es of m a ter i a l s H oward L. Gerhart coa tin gs Kun Li kinetics of gas/so lid re ac ti o n s a nd fi n e parti c l e tec hn o l ogy Micha e l J Massey proc ess d eve lopm e nt, a ir pollution a nd e n v i ro me n ta l a n a ly ses of coa l c o n versio n t echnology Cla r e n ce A Miller int e r facia l phenomena, terti a ry o il r ecove r y Gary J Pow e r s process sy nth esis, safety a nd rel i ab ilit y ana l ysis of chem i ca l processes, a n d sepa r at ion s scie n ce Denni s C. Prieve eva lu at ion of doub l e -l aye r forces b e tw ee n co ll o id a l p ar ti c l es a n d s ur faces, co mput a tion of d epos iti o n rates for Brow n ian particl es bi oc hemi ca l e n g n ee rin g Step h e n L R ose n po l yme ri c m a t e ri als, app l ied rh eo l ogy a n d pol y m e ri za tion r eac ti o n s R obert R Rothfu s fluid m ec h a ni cs espec i a ll y flow in co nduit s, heat t r a n s fer a nd m ass tran sfe r, e n e r gy utili za tion a nd pro cess dy n a mi cs a nd co n trol a n d fine p a rticle techno l ogy Eri c M Suuberg e n ergy co n ve r sio n pr o bl e m s es p ec i a ll y pyrolysi s of coa l H e r be rt L. T oo r t ranspo rt ph e n o men a, h ea t a nd m ass t r a n sfe r a n d d i ff usion-r eac ti on k in e ti cs Arthur w W es terb erg com put e r a i ded pro cess a n a lysis optimizat i o n a nd sy nth es i s for d es i g n in compute r co ntrol The Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering at Carnegie-M e llon University offers studies toward the M.S and Ph.D degrees For detailed inform at ion write : Graduate Chemical Engine e ring Carnegie-Me ll on University Schenley Park Pittsburgh PA 15213 201

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Cl8.rkson M.S. and Ph D. Programs Friendly Atmosphere Freedom from Big City Problems Personal Touch Vigorous Research Programs Supported by Government and Industry Faculty with International Reputation Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and Other Recreation in the Adirondacks Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts Colleges nearby Faculty Der-Tau Chin Robert Cole David 0. Cooney E. James Davis Marc D Donohue Joseph Estrin Joseph L. Katz Richard J. McCluskey Richard J. Nunge Herman L. Shulman R. Shankar Subramanian Peter C. Sukanek Thomas J. Ward William R. Wilcox Gordon R. Youngquist Research Projects are available in : Energy Materials Processing in Space Multiphase Transport Processes Health & Safety Applications Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion Polymer Processing Particle Separations Phase Transformations and Equilibria Reaction Engineering Optimization and Control Crystal! ization And More .. .. Financial aid in the form of fellowships, research assistantships, and teaching assistantships is available. For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson College of Technology Potsdam, New York 13676

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M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY THE UNIVERSITY Case Institute of Technology is a pr i vately endowed i n stitution with trad i tions of excellence in Engineer i ng and Applied Scienc e since 1880 In 1967 Case Institute and Western Reserve Un i versity joined together The enrollment endowment and fa c ulty make Case Western Reserve Un versity one of the leading private schools i n the country The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland 's University Circle, an extensive concentration of educ at i onal scientific social and cultural organizations ACTIVE RESEARCH AREAS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Environmental Engineering Control & Optimization Computer Simulation Systems Engineering Foam & Colloidal Scienc e Transport Processes Coal Gasification Biomedical Engineering Surface Chemistry & Catalys is Crystal Growth & Materials laser Doppler Velocimetry Chemic al Reaction Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT T he department i s growing and has recently moved to a new complex This facility provides for innovations in both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major areas of Chemical Engineering are available. Case Chemical Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and petroleum companies and have made important technical and en trepreneur i al cont r ibutio ns for over a half a century FINANCIAL AID Fellowships Teaching Assistantships and Research As sistantships are available to qualified applicants. Applications are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chem ic al Engineering. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Co nta c t : Graduate Student Advisor Chemical Engineer i ng Department Case Western Reserve University Cle veland Ohio 44106

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Chemical Engineering at CORNELL UNIVERSITY A place to grow ... with active research in : biochemical engineering computer simulation environmental engineering heterogeneous catalysis surface science polymers microscopy reactor design fluid flow and coalescence I physics of l i quids thermodynamics with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange indiv i dual programs with a core of chemical en gineering courses supplemented by work in outstanding Cornell departments in chemistry biochemistry microbiology applied mathematics applied physics food science materials science mechanical enginee r ing and others with outstanding recreational and cultural opportunities in one of the most scenic reg i ons of the United States Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Science and Master of Engineering (The M Eng. is a professional design-oriented program.) Financial aid, including several attractive fellowships is available. The faculty members are: George G. Cocks Claude Cohen Robert K. Finn Keith E. Gubbins Peter Harriott Robert P. Merrill Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler, Julian C Smith, James F. Stevenson Raymond G. Thorpe Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt Robert York. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to Professor Peter Harriott Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, New York 1485 3

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~-------------------------------, FALL 1977 UNIVERSIT'I OF DELA WARE Newark, Dela.ware 19711 The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and practice in the art and science of chemical engineering: An M.Ch.E degree based upon course work and a thesis problem. An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of i n dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the Delaware Valley chemical process industries. A Ph.D. degree. The regular faculty are: Gianni Astarita time) C. E. Birchenall K B Bischoff H. W. Blanch M. M Denn C D Denson B C. Gates J. R. Katzer R. L. McCullough A. B Metzner (Chairman) J. H. Olson M. E. Paulaitis R. L. Pigford T. W. F. Russell S. I. Sandler G. L. Schrader G. C. A. Schuit time) J. M. Schultz L. A Spielman Visiting Faculty Hanswalter Giesekus L. P B M Janssen Susumu Kase The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association dustrial practice are: L. A DeFrate _____ single and multiphase fluid mechanics R. J Fisher ______ polymer processing and stability theory with inP. J Gill Polymer reaction kinetics, optimal control systems P. M. Gullino, M.D. ____ __ __ __ Biomedical engineering H. F. Haug _____ Chemical engineering design T. A. Koch _____ Catalysis W. H Manogue ____ Catalysis, reaction engineering F Y. Pan ____ _____ _____ Reaction engineering kinetics separation and transport phenomena F. E. Rush, Jr. _____ Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction R. J Samuels _____ Polymer science A. B. Stiles ---~-Catalysis E. A. Swabb, M.D ___ Biomedical engineering V.W Weekman Jr. ___ ___ Reaction engineering K. F. Wissbrun ____ Polymer engineer i ng For information and admissions materials contact : M. M. Denn, Graduate Advisor 205

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~iversity of florida Transport Phenomena & Rheology Drag-reducing polymers greatly modify the familiar bathtub vortex, as studied here by dye injection offers you Thermodynamics& Statistical Mechanics llfustrating hydrogen-bondin g force s between water molecules and mucJimore .. A young, dynamic faculty Wide c ourse and program selection Excellent facilities Year-round sports Optimization & Control Part of a computerized distillation control system Biomedical Engineering & /nterfacial Phenomena Oxygen being extracted from a s ubstance similar to blood plasma. Write to: Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227 University of Florida Gainesville Florida 32611

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Ph.D. $1,867 M.S. $1,487 B.S. $1,380 MONTHLY START I NG SALARIES FOR CHE'S (CHEM ENGR .. 53) 3/28/ 77 STUDY PAYS! UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON CULLEN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NEAL R. AMUNDSON AMIR ATTAR JAMES E. BAILEY JOSEPH R. CRUMP ABRAHAM E. DUKLER RAYMOND W. FLUMERFELT ERNEST J. HENLEY WALLACE I. HONEYWELL CHEN-JUNG HUANG ROY JACKSON CHARLES V. KIRKPATRICK DAN LUSS RODOLPHE L. MOTARD ALKIVADES PAYATAKES H. WILLIAM PRENGLE, JR. JAMES T. RICHARDSON FRANK M. TILLER FRANK L. WORLEY, JR. qrn uvi,de, Chairman, Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Houston Houston, Texas 77004 (713) 7 49-4407

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Graduate Programs in The Department of Energy Engineering leading to the degrees of MASTER OF SCIENCE and D OCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Stephen Szepe of Technology., 1966 .. Associate ProfeBSor ,& __ The MS program, with its optional thesis, can be completed in one year. Evening M.S. can be completed in three years. The department invites applications. for admission and support from all qualdied candidates. Special fellowships are available for minority students. To obtain application forms or to request further information write: 11111 Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence, chemically reacting flow s C hemical kinetics, mas s transport phenomena, chemical proces s de sig n, particulate transport phenomena Kinetics of gas reactions, energy tran sf er processes molecular la se r s Multi-phase flow flow in porou s media, ma ss transfer, interfacial behavior, biological applications of transport phenomena, thermodynamics of so lution s Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluid s, so lid s, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions, cryobioen g ineering Thermodynamics, biotran s port artificial organs, biot>hysic s Tran s port properties of fluids and solids, heat and ma ss transfer, i s otope s eparation fixed and fluidized bed combustion Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering optimization, environmental and pollution problem s Professor S. C. Saxena, Chairman The Graduate Committee Department of Energy Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Circle Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680

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THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M S and Ph.D. programs with a strong emphasis on creative research, either in fundamental engineering science or its application to the solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be achieved from the close one-to-one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de velop relevant scientific contributions. STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements. Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available not only in terms of equipment and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel. AREAS OF RESEARCH: Applied Mathematics Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering Catalysis Chemical Kinetics Chemical Reactor Dynamics Corrosion Electronic Structure of Matter Electrochemical Engineering Energy Sources and Conservation Environmental Engineering Fluid Dynamics H eat Transfer High Pressure Mass Transfer Materials Science and Engineering Molecular Thermodynamics Phase Transformations Process Control Process Design Reaction Engineer i ng Statistical Mechanics Surface Science Systems Analysis Two-Phase Flow FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS: Professor J. W. Westwater Department of Chemical Engineering 113 Adams Laboratory University of Illinois Urb~na, Illinois 61801 FALL 1977 209

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THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IS BASED ON RENEW ABLE RESOURCES AND NEEDS M.S. AND PH.D. SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY OFFERS INTERDISCIPLINARY GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS DESIGNED FOR B.S. CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TO FILL THE NEEDS OF THE FOREST PRODUCT INDUSTRY A faculty of 45 engineers, chemists, physicists, mathematicians, and biologists Current research activity Process engineering of pollution-free pulping Graduate student body of 100 students Close connection and support by the forest products industry All U. S. & Canadian students supported by full fellow ships, $4800-$5000, and tuition scholarships Industrial experience an integral part of the program systems Simulation & control in the pulp & paper industry Surface & colloid chemistry of paper making systems Laser, Raman, & X-ray defraction studies in cellulose Cell fusion techniques & tissue culture of trees Environmental engineering Fluid mechanics, heat & mass transfer Polymer science and engineering FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE: 210 DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY P. 0. BOX 1039 APPLETON, WISCONSIN 54911 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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---------------------~ IOWA STATE UNIVERSIT'I Biomedical Engineering (System Modeling, Transport. process) Richard C. Seagrave Charles E. Glatz Biochemical Engineering (Enzyme Technology) Charles E. Glatz Peter J. Reilly Polymerization Processes Wiilliam H. Abraham John D. Stevens as well as Air Pollution Control Solvent Extraction High Pressure Technology Mineral Processing write to: OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Energy Conversion (Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production, Atomic Energy) Renato G. Bautista Lawrence E. Burkhar t George G. Burnet Allen H. Pul s ifer Dean L. Ulrich s on Thomas D. Wheelock Crystallization Kinetics Maurice A. Larson John D. Steven s Process Instrumentation and System Optimization and Control Lawrence E. Burkhart Kenneth R. Joll s Prof. D. L. Ulrich.son Dept. of Chem. Engr. & N uc. Engr. Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50010 GRADUATE STUDY and GRADUATE RESEARCH in Chemical Engineering Transport Processes (H ea t, m ass & momentum transfer) Will iam H. A braham Ren at o G. Ba uti s ta C h ar l e s E. G latz J a me s C Hill Fra nk 0. Shu c k R i c h a rd C S eagrave Process Chemistry and Fertilizer Technology Dav id R. Bo y lan G eor ge B urnet M a ur ice A Lar s on

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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering M S. and Ph D. Programs in Chemical Engineering M.S. Program in Petroleum Engineering also Doctor of Engineering (D.E.) and M.S. in Petroleum Managemen 1 The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro leum Industry. Research Areas Transport Phenomena Fluid Flow in Porous Media Process Dynamics and Control Water Resources and Environmental Studies Mathematical Modeling of Complex Physical Systems Reaction Kinetics and Process Design Nucleate Boiling High Pressure, Low Temperature Phase Behavior Financial assistance is available for Research Assistants and Teaching Assistants For Information and Applications write: Floyd W. Preston, Chairman Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas, 66044 Phone (913) UN4-3922

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Up to $5,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State Un i versity Manhattan Kansas 66502 FALL 1977 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER HEAT TRANSFER FLUID MECHANICS THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE SOLID MIXING CATALYSIS OPTIMIZATION FLUIDIZATION PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 213

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,.._\)\\.\.VU~.~\.~ c\ \(_\l\_u._c.. J)L1a."--\~u~\ o\ ~~'AA.\L~ ~U\n~.\.~ ~-~:-~ ~1)t~oi\lA~~, \.~t__~~ '-~\t.__~'-~ s\uA>' ~: E.~_~ Lo~\ 4t..oo\. c.c"'~U > \.\ ~~~~c'c._"..~Qn.\: ,Qp~~\.\v~ Vc \.\u..'"'" Co"'\.~\ "'-s'f{t~\U.. tt>u..\~\ <\')..~ tkn"'-'-'"')\ !)'-\\us'-ou, \AA()A.~\\'-"~ o\ G...R~~ a._\_~~,\~R~ \,Jo.\i:_\.e.. ~o\\u.\.u,~ Co\A.\.\"\i,\ ~A.'IA'-\n~ 'v.J~~ \_~~\1'4i:_\A:\ "W~R ~C.~~o.\u-~ D~~~'-' o\ ,~';\i\.t-o .\ 4 ~\?L-~~

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ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES ENERGY FACULTY Raymond F. Baddour Robert C. Reid Janos M. Beer Adel F. Sarofim Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For decades to come, the chemical engineer will play a central role in fields of national concern. In two areas alone, energy and the environment, society and industry will turn to the chemical engineer for technology and management in finding process-related solutions to critical problems. MIT has con sistently been a leader in chemical engineer ing education with a strong working relation ship with industry for over a half century. For detailed information, contact Professor James Wei, Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts lnstiitute of Tech nology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Robert C. Armstrong Lloyd A. Clomburg Clark K. Colton Charles N. Satterfield Robert E. Cohen Lawrence B, 1 Evans Kenneth A. Smith William M. Deen Hoyt C. Hottel J. Edward Vivian Richard G. Donnelly Jack B Howard Glenn C Williams Christos Georgakis Jcohn P. Longwell Ronald A. Hites Michael P. Manning Herman P. Meissn er Michael Medell Frederick A. Putnam Edward W. Merrill Preetinder S Virk Costas Vayenas J. Th. G. Overbeek James Wei

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THE FACULTY Dale Briggs Louisville, Michigan Brice Carnahan Case-Western, Michigan Rane Curl MIT Francis Donahue LaSalle, UCLA H. Scott Fogler Illinois, Colorado James Hand NJ IT, Berkeley Robert Kadlec Wisconsin, Michigan Donald Katz Michigan Lloyd Kempe Minnesota Joseph Martin Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie Giuseppe Parravano Rome John Powers Michigan, Berkeley Jerome Schultz, Chairman Columbia, Wisconsin Maurice Sinnott Michigan James Wilkes Cambridge, Michigan Brymer Williams Michigan Gregory Yeh Holy Cross, Cornell, Case Edwin Young Detroit, Michigan 216 Chemical Engineering At The University Of Michigan THE RESEARCH PROGRAM Surface Catalysis Reservoir Engineering Thrombogenesis Sterilization Applied Numerical Methods Dynamic Process Simulation Ecological Simulation Electroless Plating Electrochemical Reactors Polymer Physics Polymer Processing Composite Materials Coal Liquifcation Coal Gasification Acidization Gas Hydrates Periodic Processes Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport In Membranes Flow Calorimetry Ultrasonic Emulsification Heat Exchangers THE PLACE Department Of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109 For Tomorrows Engineers Today. For Information Call 313 / 763-1148 Collect CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Established fields of specialization i n which re search programs are in progress are : (1) Fluid Turbulence Mixing and Drag Reduction Studies-Dr. G K. Patterson (2) Electrochemistry and Reactions at Electrode Surfaces-Dr J W Johnson (3) Heat Transfer Studies Dr. E L. Park, Jr. and Dr. J. J Carr (4) Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes to Methane Dr. J. L. Gaddy In addition, research projects are being carried out in the following areas: (a ) Optimiza t ion of Chemical Systems Dr. J. L. Gaddy (b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies Dr. M. E. Findley (c) Multi component Distillation Efficiencies and Separation Processes Dr. R. C. Waggoner (d ) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques Dr. H H. Grice (e) Process Dynamics and Control ; Computer Applications to Process Control-Ors M E. Findley, R. C. Waggoner and R. A. Mollen kamp (f) Transport Properties, Kinetics, enzymes and catalysis Dr 0. K Crosser and Dr. B. E Poling (g) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Dr. D. B. Manley Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. FALL 1977 217

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? : .. ~/ ,_ ......... ---~:;..;.. ,s~ -;'.'.:J : ~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY R C. Ackerberg R. F. Benenati J. J. Conti POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING RESEARCH A!lEAS Air Pollution Biomedical Systems C. D. Han S. H. Lin R. D. Patel E. M. Pearce E. N. Ziegler Polvtechnic lnsfitute @~~Wwt Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and New York University School of Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research: chemical engineering, polymer science and engineering and environmental studies. Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Flu id ization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Mathematical Modelling Polymerization Reactions Process Control Rheology and Polymer Processing Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available. For further information contact Professor C. D. Han Head, Depa r tment of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Institute of New York 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, New York 11201

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university of pennsylvania chemical and biochemical eng1neer1ng FAC U L TY Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan) Elizabeth B Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins) William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania) Eduardo D. Glandt (Pennsylvania) David J. Graves (M.I.T ) A. N o rman Hixson (Co l umbia) Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia) Mitchell Litt (Columbia) Alan L. M yers (California) Melvin C. Molstad (Yale) D aniel D. Perlmutter (Yale) John A. Quinn (Princeton) Warren D Seider (Michigan) RES E ARCH S PECI AL T I E S Energy Utilization Enzyme Engine e ring Bi o chemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Computer-Aided Design Chemical Reactor Analysis Environmental and Pollution Control P o lymer Engineering Pr o cess Simu l ation Surface Phenomena Separations Techniques Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena The faculty includes two members of the National Academy of Engineering and three recipients of the highest honors awarded by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Staff members are active in teaching, research, and professional work. Located near one of the largest con centrations of chemical industry in the United States, the University of Pensylvania ma i ntains the scholarly standards of the Ivy League and numbers among its assets a superlative Medical Center and the Wharton School of Business. P H I L AD E LPHIA : The cultural advantages historical assets and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand The Pocono Mountains and the New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive. For further information on graduate studies in th i s dynamic setting, write to Dr A. L. Myers, Chairman Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering / D3, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA 19104 FALL 1977 219

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LOOKING 220 WRITE TO Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head 160 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pa. 16802 for a graduate education in Chemical Engineering ? Consider PENN STATE Some Current M.S. & Ph.D. General Research Areas: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Physiological Transport Processes Newborn Monitoring ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Gaseous and Particulate Control Atmospheric Modeling REACTOR DESIGN AND CAT ALYS IS Heterogeneous Catalysis Cyclic Reactor Operations Catalyst Characteri z ation TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Analytical and Numerical Solutions Polymer Rheology and Transport Convective Heating and Mass Transfer Mass Transfer in Cocurrent Flow THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Property Correlations Sta tistical Mechanics PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Nonlinear Stability Theory Optimal and Periodic Control APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND KINETICS Industrial Chemical Processes Complex Reaction Systems PETROLEUM REFINING Process Development Product Conversion TRIBOLOGY Properties of Liquid Lubricants Boundary Lubrication Fundamentals INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA Adsorption Thermodynamics and Kinetics Monolayer and Membrane Processes ENERGY RESEARCH Tertiary O i l Recovery Nuclea r Technology CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING University Pith ______ ,._.._ Sixty graduate students, along with 300 under graduates pursue their education on three floors of Benedum Hall. The facilities are modern and excellently equipped. Graduate applicants should write: Graduate Coordinator Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261 FACULTY Charles S Beroes Alfred A Bishop Alan J. Brainard Shiao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb Jr. Paul F Fulton George E. Klinzing Chung-Chit.in Liu Alan A Reznik Yatish T. Shah Edward B Stuart John W. Tierney FALL 1977 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH The first school west of the Allegheny Mountains to offer engineering de grees the University granted its first under graduate engineering degree in 1846 and started the graduate program in 1914. Today, approximately 2,000 undergraduates and 600 graduate students are en rolled in the School of Engineering. Students have access to the George M. Bevier En gineering Library of 38 000 volumes; University libraries of over 2 500 000 volumes ; libraries in 50 industrial research centers and universities nearby University of Pittsburgh has a comprehensive com puter system with both batch and time-sharing / facilities to use in aca demic and research investigations PROGRAMS AND SUPPORT Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy de grees in Chemical En gineering and Master of Science degree in Petro leum Engineering are of fered. While obtaining advanced degrees stu dents may specialize in Biomedical Energy Re sources Nuclear, and En vironmental areas A joint Master of Science degree with the Department of Mathematics is offered. Teaching and Research Assistantships and Fellow ships are available 1 PITTSBURGH The city leads a rich cul tura I life in an exciting geographic and social setting. Pittsburgh Sym phony Orchestra, under the direction of Andre Previn, ranks high. A wide range of musical events rocks Heinz Hall Pitts burgh Laboratory Theatre and Pittsburgh Public Theatre take innovative approaches to drama. Natural history displays at Carnegie Museum and art exhibits at the new Sarah Scaife Gallery draw over a million visitors yearly For sports followers Pittsburgh offers Pirates Steelers, Penguins And skiers find a variety of slopes just a half hour uphill drive from the city. 221

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Albright Barile Chao Delgass Eckert Emery Greenkorn Hanneman Houze Kessler Koppel Lim Peppas Ramkrishna Reklaitis Squires Theofanous Tsao Wankat Graduate Information Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette Indiana 47907

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M-D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available. The Department has approximately 30 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the leading 42 Chemical Engineer ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to recent evaluations MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization, Stability, and Process Control Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Polymer Science BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma Blood Pumping Systems Biomaterials Rice University Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca tional university It occupies an architecturally attrac t i ve, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine r esidential area 3 miles from the center of Houston. There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800 graduate students The school offers the benefits of a complete university with programs in the various fields of science and the humanit i es, as well as i n engineer ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings. The academic year is from August to May As there are no summer classes graduate students have nearly four months for research. The school offers excellent recreational and athletic facilities with a completely equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes outdoor sports, such as tennis golf and sailing year round activities. FALL 1977 FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of $400-460 per month. APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION Address letters of inquiry to: Houston Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Rice University Houston Texas 77001 With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the largest metropolitan financial and commercial center in the South and Southwest It has achieved world wide recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and recreational attractions It has a well-known resident symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse H Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann Park with its free zoo, golf course Planetarium, and Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astra dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers and the site of many other events. 223

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=>~(\~ RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY College of Engineering M .s. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AND CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY, COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES BIOMA TE RIALS ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS ENZYMES IN THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE, PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSING AND WASTE TREATMENT FOOD PROCESSING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE 224 FLAMMABILITY OF MATERIALS OCEANS AND ESTUARIES PACKAGING QUALITY MANAGEMENT POLYMER PROCESSING WASTES RECOVERY PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS For Application Forms and Further Information Write To : Dr. A Constantinides, Graduate Director Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering College of Engineering Rutgers The State University New Brunswick, N.J. 08903 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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University of south Carolina The College of Engineering offers the M.S M E. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering with strong interdisciplinary support in chemistry, physics, math and computer science. Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely with the faculty on study and research projects Research and teaching stipends are available from $3000 to $6000. The University of South Carolina with an enrollment of 23 800 is located in the capital city of Columbia Offering a variety of cultural and recreational activities Columbia is part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country. The Chemical Engineering Faculty B.L. Baker, Distinguished Professor Emeritus Ph D ., North Carolina State University 1955 (Process design environmental problems ion transport) M.W Davis Jr ., Professor Ph D ., University of California ( Berkeley) 1951 ( Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis solvent extraction waste treatment) J : H. Gibbons Professor, Ph D. University of Pittsburgh 1961 (Heat transfer fluid mechanics) F.P. Pike Professor Emeritus Ph D ., University of Minnesota 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria) T.G Stanford Assistant Professor Ph D ., The Un iversity of Michigan 1976 (Chemical reactor eng i neering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems process design thermodynamics) G B. Tatterson Assistant Professor Ph D. Ohio State University, 1977 ( Process control, real time computing mixing phenomena) J.A. Trainham Assistant Professor Ph D ., University of California ( Berkeley) 1978 ( Electrochemical systems) V. Van Brunt Assistant Professor, Ph D University of Tennessee 1974 (Mass transfer, computer modeling fluidization) For further information contact: Prof. J.H Gibbons Chairman Chemical Engineer i ng Group College of Engineering University of South Carolina Columb ia South Carolina 29208

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THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE Graduate Studies in Chemical, Metallurgical, and Polymer Engineering Programs Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are offered in chemical engineering metallurgical engineering and polymer engineering. The Master's program may be tailored as a terminal one with emphasis on professional develop ment or it may serve as preparation for more advanced work leading to the Doc torate Faculty William T Becker Donald C Bogue Charlie R Brooks Duane D. Bruns Edward S. Clark Oran L. Culberson John F Fellers George C Frazier Hs ie n-Wen Hsu Homer F Johnson, Department Head Stanley H Jury Carl D Lundin Peter J. Meschter Charles F Moore Ben F Oliver Professor-in-Charge of Metallurgical Engineering Joseph J Perona Joseph E. Spruiell E Eugene Stansbury James L White Professor-in-Charge of Polymer Engineering 226 Research Process Dynamics and Control Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of Packed Beds Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge Studies of Macromolecules Development and Synthesis of New Engineer i ng Polymers Fiber and Plastics Processing Chemical Bioengineering X-Ray Diffraction Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy Solidification Zone Refining Weld i ng Cryogenic and High Temperature Calorimetry Flow and Fracture in Metallic and Polymeric Systems Corrosion Solid State Kinetics Financial Assistance Sources available include graduate teaching assistantships research assis tantships and industrial fellowships The University and Surroundings Close to the center of Knoxville the 397 acre campus combines a spacious en viron ment with urban convenience. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the headquarters of the Tennessee Valley Authority encour ages constructive interchange with the activities of this 30 000 student campus The moderate Knoxville climate with the nearby Great Smoky Mountain Na tional Park Appalachian Trail, ski slopes and TVA lakes provides year round recreational challenges The university and area communities offer a substan tial program of cultural activities includ ing a symphony orchestra, several the ater companies and fine art museums as well as a wide assortment of rock con certs folk music mountain festivals etc Write Department of Chemical Metallurgical and Polymer Engineering The University of Tennessee Knoxville Tennessee 37916 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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---FALL 1977 M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty research interests include Aerosol Technology, Bioengineering, Combustion, Computer-Aided Design, Energy, Env-iromental, Kinetics and Catalysis, Materials, Optimization, Polymer Engineering, Process Control, Process Engineering, Process Simulation, Surface Phenomena, Transport Processes. /or additional information: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 227

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: -:::-::-::-:::::....... w ::-:,:-:-: :-:-:-:-:-: '~_] ], :: :~. : _. ::: : ._::{ \ ., .-~ UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO TORONTO, CANADA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED CHEMISTRY The Department offers a wide range of research topics for the creative student including: nuclear power engineering energy engineering, solar heating electrochemical engineering and corrosion polymer science and engineering plastics engineering and composite materials process modelling and optimal control fluid mechanics and pipeline transportation petroct,emistry and tar sands development ceramics engineering heat, mass and momentum transport radiochemistry and radioanalysis analytical chemistry and instrumentation thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis applied organic chemistry environmental engineering biomedical engineering bioengineering and food synthesis pulp and paper chemistry occupational health engineering The Department ranks as one of the largest chemical engineering schools in the world with a total professorial staff of 33 and an enrolment of 160 graduate students. Interdisciplinary research is fostered through joint projects with the Institute for Environmental Studies, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering, the Centre for the Study of Materials, the Systems Building Centre, and the Institute for Aerospace Studies Admission to the School of Graduate Studies is based solely on academic standing and availability of space and facilities. A graduate brochure entitled Graduate Research and Career Development" which describes current research programs is available on request. Adequate financial support in the form of scholarships, fellowships or bursaries is available to qualified students. For further details write : Professor R.T. Woodhams, Graduate Secretary Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario Canada M5S 1A4 I

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11 14 FALL 1977 -----Chemical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University applying chemistry to the needs of man. Study with outstanding professors in the land of Washington Jefferson, Henry and Lee .. where Chemical Engineering is an exciting art. Some current areas of major and well-funded activity are Renewable Resources chemical and microbiological processing chemicals made from renewable resources Coal Science and Process Chemistry Microprocessors, Digital Electronics, and Control process measurements, interfacing remote data acquisition Polymer Science and Engineering processing morphology synthesis, surface science biopolymers Engineering Chemistry chemically pumped lasers multiphase catalysis, c hemical micro engineering, biological r e generativ e cycles in pollution control Biochemical Engineering syntheti c foods food processing, antibiotics plant cell tissue culture fermentation processes and instrumentation VPI&SU is th e state university of Virginia with 20,000 students and almost 5 000 engineering students ... located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern Virginia White-water canoeing skiing backpacking, and the like are all nearby as is Washington D C. and historic Williamsburg Stipends to $8,000 (tax free) plus all fees. Write to: Dr. H A McGee, Jr ., Department Head, Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 or call collect (703) 951-6631. Alchemic Symbols L G o l d 8. W h i t e Ar se ni c 2. Silv e r 9. Lim e 3. Copp er 10 Vitri ol 4. N i tr e Fl owe r s 11. Vin egar 5. M e r c ur y 12. C i nnabar 6. Zin c 13 A m alga m 7. A qua Vi tae 1 4 E ggshe l ls 229

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Chemical Engineering Energy Engineering Coal Conversion Combustion Conversion of Solid Wastes to Low BTU Gas Environmental Engineering Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering S02 Scrubbing River & Lake Modeling Economic Impact of Environmental Regulations West Vlrg1n1a Un1vers1ty Other Topics Optimization Chemical Kinetics Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Polymer Processing Fluidization Bioengineering Transport Phenomena Utilization of Ultrasonic Energy M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write: Dr J. D. Henry Department of Chemical Engineering West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D. RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE: HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL PROCESS MODELING IN: COAL GASIFICATION, CHEMICALS FROM WOOD, ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD P. 0. BOXG University, Alabama 35486 AUBURN UNIVERSITY A Land Grant University of Alabama GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and PH.D DEGREES CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS: LIQUID FUELS FROM COAL POROUS MEDIA CRYSTAL GROWTH KINETICS ENZYME ENGINEERING Financial Assistance: Research and Teaching Assistantships, Industrial Fellowships Are Available FALL 1977 PROCESS CONTROL BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION TRANSPORT PHENOMENA For Further Information, Write: Head, Chemical Engineering Department Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830 231

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232 DEPARTMENT o F CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837 For admission, address Dr. George F. Folkers Coordinator of Graduate Studies Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering For the usual candidate with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation. Special programs are arranged for candidates with baccalaureate degrees in the natural sciences. Assistantships and scholarships are available. Typical interests of the faculty include the areas of: reaction kinetics and catalyst deactiva tion; thermodynamics; process dynamics and control, including direct digital control; computer aided design; science of materials, particularly metallurgy and polymer technology; numerical analysis; statistical analysis; mathematical modeling; operations research. Gerald R. Cysewski Henri J. Fenech Husam Gural Owen T. Hanna Duncan A. Mellichamp Glenn E. Lucas UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING John E. Myers George L. Nicolaides G. Robert Odette A. Edward Profio Robert G. Rinker Orville C. Sandall Dale E. Seborg For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara 93106 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CINCINNATI DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES -Major urban educational center -New, prize-winning laboratory building and facilities-Rhodes Hall -National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent to campus -Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid -Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control, polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen eration, heat transfer Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering (0620) University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Transport Processes Porous Media Bioengineering Simulation Processes Zeolites The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the doctorate. Financial assistance is available. FALL 1977 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: Department of Chemical Engineering The Cleveland State University Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street Cleveland Ohio 44115 233

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234 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Degrees Ottered M.S. and Ph.D. Programs are available for persons in Chemical Engineering or related fields Research Areas Energy Storage and Com;ervation Polymer Processing Environmental Pollution Control Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Reac tor Design Process Dynamics Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Membrane Transport Processe s Th e rmodynamic s Faculty F C Alley W.B Barlage J N Beard W.F Beckwith D.D Edie J M Haile R C Harshman S S Mel s heimerJ C Mullins W H Talbott Clemson University Clemson University is a state coeducational land grant university offering 76 undergraduate fields of study and 55 area s of graduate study in its nine academic units which include the College of Engineering Present on-campus enrollment totals about 10 000 students which includes about 1 900 graduate students The campus which com prises 600 acres and represents an investment of appro x imately $125 million in permanent facilities is located in the northwestern part of South Carolina on the shores of Lake Hartwell. For Information For further information and a de s criptive brochure write D.D Edie Graduate Coordinator Department o f Chemical Engine e ring Clemson University Clemson SC 29631 The University of Colorado offers excellent opportunities for graduate study and research leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering Air Pollution Bioengineering Catalysis Cryogenics Design Energy Applications Environmental Applications Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Kinetics Polymers Process Control Thermodynamics Water Pollution For application and information, write to: Chairman, Graduate Committee Chemical Engineering Department University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 80309 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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faculty J. P. BELL C. 0 BENNETT R W. COUGHLIN M. B. CUTLIP A. T. DiBENEDETTO G. M HOWARD programs M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering most aspects of Chemical Engineering Research projects concentrate in four main areas: KINETICS AND CATALYSIS H E. KLEI M. T. SHAW R M. STEPHENSON L F STUTZMAN POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING D W SUNDSTROM financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut, convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities for an education at UCONN, please write to: Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06268 DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty D R. Coughanowr E. D. Grossmann Y. Lee R. Mutharasan J. A. Tallmadge J. R Thygeson C. B. Weinberger Consider: High faculty / student ratio Excellent facili ties Research Areas Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reactor / Reaction Engineering Coal Conversion Technology Mass and Heat Transport Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options Write to: Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 FAL L 1977 235

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FACULTY Hugo S. Caram Marvin Charles Curtis W Clump Mohamed EI Aasser Donald D. Joye William L. Luyben Anthony J. McHugh Laszlo K. Nyiri Gary W. Poehlein William E. Schiesser Leslie H. Sperling Fred P. Stein Leonard A. Wenzel LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS Polymer Science & Engineering Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering, Biochemical Engineering Process Simulation & Control Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Thermodynamic Property Research Energy Conversion Technology Applied Heat & Mass Transfer Fluid Mechanics SPECIAL PROGRAMS AA Eng. Program in Design M.S and Ph.D. Programs in Polymer Science & Engineering FINANCIAL AID Of course. WRITE US FOR DETAILS Bioengineering Pollution Control Process Dynamics Graduate Enrollment 60 Faculty 15 Computer Control Kinetics and Catalysis Thermodynamics Ecological Modeling Write: Chemical Engineering Department Suear Technology Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 236 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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McMASTER UNIVERSITY Hamilton, Ontario, Canada M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS R. B Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) M. H. I. Baird (Ph.D Cambridge) A Benedek (Ph.D ., U of Washington) J L. Brash (Ph.D ., Glasgow) C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) I. A. Feuerstein (Ph D ., Massachusetts) A. E. Ham ielec {Ph.D., Toronto) T. W. Hoffman (Ph D., McGill) J F. MacGregor {Ph D. Wisconsin) K L. Murphy (Ph.D W i sconsin) L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) J. Vlachopoulos (D Sc., Washington U .) D. R. Woods (Ph D ., W isc ons i n ) J D Wright ( Ph D ., Cambr idge) Catalysis, Adsorpt i on Kinetics Oscillatory Flows Transport Phenomena Wastewat er Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques Polymer Chemistry Use of Polymers in Medicine Optim izati on Chemical React ion Engineering, Simulation B i olog ical Fluid and Mass Transfer Polymer Reactor Engineering, Transp ort Processes Heat Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr ., Simulation Statistical Methods i n Pro cess Analysis, Computer Control Wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations Mass Transfer, Corrosion Polymer R h eology and Processing, Transport Processes lnt erfacial Phenomena, Par ticulate Systems Proce ss Simulation and Control Computer Control DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 4L7 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering of Mich i gan State University has assistantships and fellowships available for students wishing to pursue advanced study With one of these appo intment s it is possible for a graduate student to obtain the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph D in two additional years. ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assis tantships pay $522 per month to a student studying for the M S degree and approximately $563 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject covered by the research assistantship Students must pay resident tuition, but the addi tional non resident fee is waived. FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $4,000 plus tuition and fees CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS M. c. Hawley D K. Anderson Chairman Ph D ., University of Washington Transport Phenomena Bio medica l Engineering Cardio vascular Physiology R. F Blanks Ph.D., University of California B erkeley Thermodynamics and Transport Phenom e na in Macro molecular Syst ems C. M Cooper Sc D ., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynam ics and Phase Equ i libr ia, Modeling of Tr a ns port Proces ses For additional information write: Ph D ., Michigan State University Po rous Media Transport Kinetics Catalysis Plasmas, and Reaction Eng i neering K Jayaraman Ph D ., Princeton University Pro cess Deynamic s and Control Nonlinear Rheological Mod e ls of Polymeric Materials Nonlinear System Theory C. A. Petty Ph.D ., University of Florida Turbulence, Stability and Transport in Fluidized Beds Separations B W Wilkinson Ph D ., Ohio S t ate University Energy Systems and Environmental Control Nuclear Re actor and Radioisotope Applications Dr Donald K. Anderson, Chairman Depa,:tment of Chemical Engineering 197 Engineering Building Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 4 8824 FALL 1977 237

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DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK AT MICHIGAN TECH ... 238 WORK AND STUDY .. with a select faculty ... the best equipment ... surrounded by forests and lakes DEGREES OFFERED : M.S. in Chemical Engineering studies in advanced thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, instrumentation, unit operations and chemical processing. M S and Ph.D. in Chemistry specialization in organic, inorganic, physical and analytical chemistry, and in biochemistry Financial assistance available in the form of fellowships and assistantships. For more information write : H. El Khadem, Head Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Studies Leading to M.S. and PhD. Degrees Research Areas Air Pollution Monitoring and Control Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Energy Sources and Systems Environmental Control Engineering Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Process Control and Modelling of Processes Single-Cell Protein Research Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gase.; and Liquids Transport in Biological Systems WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg., University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201 FALL 1977 UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. IN THE AREAS OF : Biochemical Engineering Computer Applications Crystallization Food Processing Kinetics Mixing Polymerization Thermodynamics Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics and other areas FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO; Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 239

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240 THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Offering Research Opportunities in Coal Gasification Desalination Synthetic Fuels Hydrogen Economy Mini Computer Applications to Process Control Process Simulation Hydro-Metallurgy Radioactive Waste Management ... and more Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque! For further information, write: Chairman Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 Graduate study toward M.S. degrees in chemical engineering Major energy research center: solar petroleum bioconversion geothermal Financial assistance available. Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other fields. For applications and information : Dr. John T. Patton, Head, Department of Chemical Engineer ing, Box 3805, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Faculty and Research Activities: S. G Bankoff G. M Brown J B. Butt S. H Carr W C Cohen B Crist J. S. Dranoff Boiling Heat Transfer Two-Phase Flow Thermodynamics Process Simulation Chemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Catalysis Sol i d State Properties of Polymers Biodegradation Dynamics and Control of Process Systems Polymers in the Sol i d State T K. Goldstick W W Graessley H. M Hulburt Chemical Reaction Engineering Chromatographic Separations Biomedical Engineering, Oxygen Transport Polymer Rheology, Polymer Reaction Engineering Analysis of Chemical and Physical Processes H H Kung R S. H Mah J. C. Slattery W F. Stevens G. Thodos Catalyst B ehavi or, Properties of Ox ide Surfaces Computer-Aided Process Planning Design and Analysis Transport and lnterfacial Phenomena Process Optimization and Control, Computer Applications Propert ies of Fluids, Coal Processing Solar Energy Financial support is available For information and application materials, write : Professor William F. Stevens, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60201 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE OHIO ST A TE UNIVERSITY M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control Reaction Kin~tics Polymer Engineering Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Rheology Unit Operations Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Simulation Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request WRITE J. L. Zakin, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 FALL 1977 241

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242 J-IE UNIVERSITY OF 0Klt4HOMA CATALYSIS WRITE TO: CORROSION THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE The University of Oklahoma Engineering Center 202 W Boyd Room 23 Norman, Oklahoma 73069 DESIGN POLYMERS METALLURGY THERMODYNAMICS RA TE PROCESSES ENZYME TECHNOLOGY OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs ,.. FACULTY "r: T. J. Fitzgerald Control, Fluidization, Mathematical Models F. Kayihan Process Systems Simulation and Analysis J. G. Knudsen -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two Phase Flow 0. Levenspiel Reactor Design, Fluidization R. E. Meredith Corrosion, Electrochemical Engineer ing R V Mrazek Thermodynamics, Applied Mathematics C. E. Wicks Mass Tral')sfer, Wastewater Treatment An informal atmosphere w i th oppor t unity fo r g i ve and take with faculty and for joint work with the Pacific Northwest Environmen t al Research Laborato r y (EPA), Metallurgical Research Center of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Forest Product Labo r atory E n v i ronmen t al Health Science Center and the School of Oceanography The location i s good in the hear t of the Willame t te Valley 60 miles from the rugged Oregon Coast and 70 m i les from good sk ii ng or mounta i n cli m bing in the h i gh Cascades For further information write: Chemical Engineering Department, Oregon State University Corvallis Oregon 97331 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Princeton University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS Atmospheric Aerosols; Biochemical Engineering; Ca talysis; Chemical Reactor / Reaction Engineering; Computer-Aided Design ; Energy Conversion and Fusion Reactor Technology; Engineering Physiology; Environmental Studies; Fluid Mechanics and Rheology; Mass and Momentum Transport; Molecular Beams; Polymer Materials Science and Rheology; Process Control and Optimization; Thermodynamics and Phase Changes. FACULTY Ronald P. Andres, Robert C. Axtmann, Robert L. Bratzler, Joseph M Calo, John K. Gillman, Carol K. Hall, Ernest F. Johnson, Morton D. Kostin, Leon Lapidus (1924-77), Bryce Maxwell, Robert G. Mills, David F. Ollis, Robert K Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld, William B. Russel, Dudley A. Saville, William R. Schowalter. WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08540 Qgeenrs University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D. w. Bacon PhD { W i sconsin) H.A. Becker scD 1M1T> D. H. Bone PhD { London) S.C. Cho PhD i Princeton) R.H. Clark PhD ( Imperial College> R.K. Code PhD (Cornell) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) J.E. Ellsworth PhD (Princeton) c.c. Hsu PhD !T e x as) J. D. Raal P h D !Tor onto ) T. R. Warriner Sc D (Johns Hop k ins ) B.W. Wojciechowski PhD ( Otta w a ) FALL 1977 Waste Processing water and waste treatment applied microbiolog y biochemical engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering catalysis statistical design polymer studies Transport Processes combustion fluid mechanics heat & mass transfer Write: Dr. Henry A. Becker Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Canada 243

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THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AUBURN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CENTER 244 GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS: Applied Mathematics Biomedical Environmental Porous Media Rheology Polymer Processing Transport Processes FINANCIAL AID: Teaching Research Assistantships Fellowships Available Competitive Stipends FULL AND PART-TIME ENROLLMENT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON AKRON OHIO 44325 RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING offe r s graduate study programs leading to M S and Ph D degrees with opportunities for specialization in: THERMODYNAMICS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDIZATION WATER RESOURCES AIR POLLUTION POLYMER MATERIALS POLYMER PROCESSING PROCESS DYNAMICS SOLID WASTES CATALYSIS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA FLUID-PARTICLE SYSTEMS Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute established in 1824 for the application of science to the common purposes of life ," h as g ro wn from a sc hool of engineering and appl ied science i nto a technological university, serving s ome 3500 undergrad uate s and over 1000 graduate s tudents It is lo c ated in Troy, New York, about 150 mile s no rth of Ne w York Cit y and 180 mi l es west of Boston. Troy Alban y, and Sc hene ctady together comprise the heart of N ew York 's Capital Di stric t, an upstate metro po lita n area of about 600,000 population These his toric c itie s and th e surro unding cou ntrys i de provide the a ttractions of both urban and and rura l l i fe For full details write Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12181. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 14627 MS & PhD Programs H. Brenner T. L. Donaldson R F. Eisenberg M R Feinberg J. R Ferron J. C. Friedly R H. Heist K C. D. Hickman H. J. Palmer H Saltsburg W. D Smith Jr. G. J. Su Fluid Mechanics, Transport Processes Enzymes, Biotechnology, Mass Transfer Corrosion, Physical Metallurgy Complex Reactio n Systems, Continuum Mechanics Molecular Transpor.t Processes, Applied Mathematics Process Dynamics, Control, Cryogenics Nucleation, Solid State, Atmospheric Chemistry Boiling & Condensation Phenomena, Distillation lnterfacial Phenomena, Mass Transfer Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering Catalysis & Reactor Design, Computer Applications Colloidal & Amprorous States, Glass Science For information write : H Brenner, Chairman FACULTY : ANDREAS ACRIVOS (Ph.D ., 1954, Minnesota) Fluid Mechanics MICHEL BOUDART (Ph.D., 1950, Princeton) Kinetics & Ca ta lysis CURTIS W FRANK (Ph D., 1972, Illinois) Polymer Science. GEORGE M. HOMSY (Ph.D., 1969 Illinois) Fluid Mechanics & Stability. ROBERT J. MADIX (Ph.D., 1964 U. Cal-Berkeley) Surface Reactivity DAVID M. MASON (Ph.D., 1949, Cal Tech) Applied Thermodynamics & Chemical K i netics ALAN S. MICHAELS, (Sc.D., 1948, M 1.T.) Membrane Separation Processes CHANNING R. ROBERTSON (Ph.D 1969, Stanford) Bioengineering. LECTURERS & CONSULTING FACULTY : RICHARD E. BALZHISER, E P.R.I., Palo Alto, CA (Ph D., _1961, Michigan) Heat Transfer & Thermodynamics. ROBERT H. SCHWAAR, S.R.I., Menlo Park, CA (Ph.D ., 1956 Princeton) Technological Development & Process Design FALL 1977 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY Stanford University offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering with a number of financially attractive fellowships and as sistantships available to outstanding students pursuing either program. For further information and application blanks, write to: Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305. ,.-~ ;j : ~ .... ,, Y. ~ /I ..._ v ;,., ,. "'-Closing date for applications is Feb. 15, 1978. 245

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HOW ABOUT COMING TO BUFFALO! The Department of Chemical Engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo is proud to have the only State-supported chemical engineering pro gram in New York. In 1978 the Department will move into Furnas Hall on the new Amherst Campus on the outskir t s of Buffalo The build i ng i s ten stories and contains 75,000 square feet of offices and labora tories. This 1200acre campus represents a $650 million investment in education. While it is part of a large university, Chemical Engineer i ng at Buffalo is a highly personal educational experience. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. R Brutva, ~-----------P. Ehrlic, ,__ ___________ W N Gill ____________ R. J. Good ... ---------A. E. Ham i elec (Adjunct ) _______ K M Kiser _________ E Ruc k enstei, ,__ __________ M Rya ~-----------P Stroeve T. W Weber ___________ S W. Weller _____ _____ D. Zabrisk i e _____ _____ Staged operat i ons Polymeric materials thermodynamics D i sper s ion reverse osmo si s Surface phenomena adh esi on Polymer synthes i s and r e actor e ng i n e e r ing Blood flow turbul e nc e, pollution i n la k es Catalys i s ,interfacial phenomena b i o e ngineeri n g Polymer rheology process opt i mization Biological transport b i omedical e ng i n e er i ng Process control dynam i cs of adsorption Catalysis catalytic r eac t ors Biochemical engineer i ng fermentation For further information please write or call: Chairman 246 Chemical Engineering Department State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, N.Y. 14214 (716) 831-3105 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY IN SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AREAS Water Renovation Biomedical Engineering Membrane Processes Desalination Transport Phenomena Separation Processes Mathematical Modeling Fluid-Particle Separation FACULTY Allen J Barduhn Robert Shambaugh Philip A. Rice S. Alexander Stern Gopal Subramanian Chi T i en Raffi M. Turian Chiu-Sen Wang Syracuse University is a private coeducational universi1y located on a 640 acre campus situated among the h i lls of Central New York State A broad cultural climate which e ncourage s interest i n engineering science, the social sciences and the humanities exists at the university The many d i ve r s i fied act i v i t i es conducted on the campus provide an i deal env i ronment for the attainment of both s pecific and general educationa l goals. As a part of this medium s i zed research oriented un i vers i ty the Department of Chemical Eng i neer i ng and Mater i als Science offers graduate education which cont i nually reflects the broaden i ng i nterest of the faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research independent study and the general atmosphere with i n the Department engender i ndividual st i mulat i on FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1977-78 For Information: Contact: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineer'ing and Materials Science Syracuse University Syracuse New York 13210 Stipends: Stipends range from $3 000 to $5,500 with most students receiving at least $4,200 per annum in addition to remit ted tuition privileges. C HEMICAL ENGINEERIN G EDUCATION

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FALL 1977 The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships Available CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EPA Traineeships in Water Supply and Pollution Control. For more details write: Dr Leslie E. Lahti Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS TUFTS UNIVERSITY CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS Metropolitan Boston RHEOLOGY OPTIMIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION POLYMER STUDIES MEMBRANE PHENOMENA CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY BIO-ENGINEERING MEC HANO-CHEMISTRY PROCESS CONTROL FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF. K. A. VAN WORMER, CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155 247

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STUDY WITH US AND ENJOY NEW ORLEANS TOO! DEPARTMENT OF CHEM ICAL ENGINEERING TULANE UNIVERSITY A Vigorous Faculty Meaningful Research Excellent Facilities The Good Life For Additional Information, Please Contact Robert E. C. Weaver, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Tulane University New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 THE FACULTY: Raymond V. Bailey Ph D (LSU) -~ ystems Engineering Applied Math Energy Conversion Neil L. Book Ph.D (Colorado) ---~ rocess Design and Economics Optimization, Modeling and Simula tion of Ecological Systems Alternative Energy Sources Thomas R. Hanley, Ph.D (Virginia Kinetics and Reactor Design, Polymer Polytechnic Institute & State ----Systems Wastewater Control University) Energy Recovery Systems James M. Henry, Ph D (Princeton) Chemical Kinet i cs Chemical Reactor Analys i s, Process Energy Efficiency, Advanced Energy Conversion Daniel B Killeen, Ph.D. (Tulane) ----Use of Computers in Engineering Education Victor J Law, Ph.D. (Tulane) ----Opt i mization Control, Agrisystems Danny W. McCarthy Ph D. (Tulane) --Computer Control, Optimization, Deterministic Modeling Samuel L. Sullivan, Jr., Ph.D (Texas A&M) -Separation Process, Transport Phenomena Numerical Methods Robert E C Weaver, Ph D. (Princeton) -------Resource Management, Operations Research and Control, Biomedical Engineering Lynn J. Groome, Ph D (Florida) ---Thermodynamics, Biomedical Engineering GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Tulsa 248 THE FACULTY M.S., Master of Engineering Management, Ph.D. A. P. Buthod F. S. Manning W C. Philoon N. D. Sylvester Petroleum refining, petroleum phase behavior, heat transfer Industrial pollution control Corrosion, process design Enhanced oil recovery, environmental protection, fluid mechanics, reaction engineering R. E. Thompson Oil and gas processing, computer-aided process design D U. von Rosenberg Process simulation, numerical solution t echniques, enhanced oil recovery FURTHER INFORMATION If you would like additional information concerning specific research areas, facilities, and curriculum contact the Chairman of Chemical Engineering (Prof. Thompson). Inquiries concerning admissions and financial suppor t should be directed to the Dean of the Graduate School. The University of Tulsa 600 S. College Tulsa, OK 7410 4 (918) 939-6351 The University of Tulsa has an Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Program for students and employees. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. AND Ph.D. DEGREE PROGRAMS W. Wesley Eckenfelder Kenneth A. Debelak Thomas M. Godbold Thomas R. Harris Knowles A. Overholser John A. Roth Karl B Schnelle, Jr. Biological and Advanced Waste Water Treatment Processes Gasification and Liquifaction of coal,, Energy Environmental Systems, Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Processes. Process Dynamics and Control, Mass Transfer Physiological Systems Analysis, Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Tracer Analysis Combustion Physics, Biorheology Reaction Kinetics and Chemical Reactor Design, Gas Chromatography, Industrial Waste Management and Control Air Pollution, Instrumentation and Automatic Control, Dispersion Studies Robert D. Tanner Enzyme Kinetics, Fermentation Processes and Kinetics, Pharmacokinetics, Microbial Assays W. Dennis Threadgill Unit Operations, Food and Dairy Industry Waste Treatment FURTHER INFORMATION : W Dennis Threadgill, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Box 1821, Station B, Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee 37235 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chemical Engineering BF-10, Seattle, Washington 98195 GRADUATE STUDY BROCHURE AVAILABLE ON REQUEST FALL 1977 249

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250 WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY AIR POLLUTION: ENERGY: TRANSPORT PHENOMENA: Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Submicron Particulate Collection/High Temperature Catalysis/ Global Monitor ing & Meteorological Interaction/ Atmospheric Chemistry & Trace Analyses / Odor Perception/ Phytotoxicity Combustion & NO x SO x Control / Coal Minerals Recovery / Petrochemical Substitutes From Coal/Process Development & Design Laser-Doppler Velocimetry /Single& Multi-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer / Foam Flow NUCLEAR ENGINEERING: Radioactive Waste Management/Fuels Reprocessing/LMFBR Technology / Radiocarbon Dating / Neutron Activation Analyses POLYMER ENGINEERING : Electroiniated Polymerization/Polymeric Encapsulation BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING: BIOCHEMICAL Biorheology ENGINEERING: Fermentation Kinetics Several Fellowships, Assistantships and Full-time Summer Appointments Available Contact: J. A. Brink, Jr., Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Wa. 99164 / Tel. 509-335-4332. WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Washington University is located on a park-like campus at the St. Louis City limit Its location offers the cultural and recreational opportunities of a major metropolitan area combined with the convenience of a University surrounded by pleasant residential areas with many apartment houses where single and married graduate students can obtain housing at reasonable rates The Department of Chemical Engim!ering occupies a modern building with well-equipped laboratory facilities for research in a large variety of areas. There is close interaction with the research and engineering staffs of major St. Louis chemical companies and also ex tensive collaboration with the faculty of the Washington University School of Medicine in the biomedical engineering research activities. PRINCIPAL RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical Engineering Process Dynamics and Control Chemical Reaction Engineering Rheology Modeling and Simulation Thermodynamics Polymer Science Transport Phenomena For application forms, a catalog, and a brochure which describes faculty research interests, research projects and financial aid write to: Dr. J. L. Kardos, Acting Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Washington University St. Louis, Missouri 63130 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FALL 1977 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. R. Fisher PhD thermodynamics-process design kinetics-molecular lasers electrochemical engr. -fuel cells environmental engr. -kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr. process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments multi-phase flows-environmental engr. J. Jorne, PhD R. H.Kummler, PhD C. B. Leffert, PhD R. Marriott, PhD J. H. McMicking, PhD R. Mickelson, PhD P. K. Roi, PhD E.W. Rothe, PhD S. K. Stynes, PhD FOR FURTHER INFORMATION on admission and financial aid contact: Dr Ralph H. Kummler Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 251

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IIIPI WORCESTER POLYTECHN I C INST I TUTE 11 The Innovative School" Annual research support in chemical engineering exceeds $250,000 for projects in : Adsorption Diffusion Catalysis Biochemical Engineering Energy Conversion The Depa r tment enjoys an i nternational reputation i n molecular siev e s re s earch An advantageous location in medium sized city close to scientif i c and cultural centers The Department includes 10 faculty members Degrees gran t ed in 1976 : 2 PhD, 7 MS, 42 BS -". Address inquiries to: Dr. lmre Zwiebel, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA Iowa City M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering En ~ phasis on Materials Engineering Rheology Transport Processes Cherne-mechanics Stress Corrosion Irreversible Thermodynamics Membrane Processes Surface Effects Reaction Kinetics Radiation Effects ECOLE POL YTECHNIQUE AFFILIEE A L'UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Research assistantships are available in the following areas: POLYMER ENGINEERING RHEOLOGY RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS FLUIDISATION REACTION KINETICS PROCESS CONTROL AND SIMULATION INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL PROFITEZ DE CETTE OCCASION POUR PARFAIRE VOS CONNAISSANCES DU FRANCAISI VIVE LA DIFFERENCE! Some know l edge of the French la n guage is required For information, wr i te t o: Assistantships are available. Write: D r Andre R olliu, p repose a l 'ad m iss i on, 252 Chairman Chemical Engineering Program University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 D epartement d u Genie C h imiq u e, Eco l e Po l ytec hni que C P 6079 S t ation A Mo n trea l H 3C 3A7 CANA D A CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Lake Huron Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De partment offers M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post doctoral programs in: *Biochemical and Food Engineering *Environmental and Pollution Control *Extractive and Process Metallurgy *Polymer Science and Engineering *Mathematical Analysis, Control and Statistics *Transport Phenomena and Kinetics with an option in Occupational Health Engineering Financial Aid: Competitive with any other Canadian University Academic Staff: E. Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (Berkeley); I. F. Macdonald Ph.D. (Wisconsin); T L. Batke, Ph.D (Toronto); J J. Byerley, Ph.D. (UBC); K. S. Chang, Ph D. (Northwestern); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (UBC); T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (lllinois);R.Y-M. Huang, Ph.D (Toronto); R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D. (Princeton); K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D., (Princeton); D. C. T. Pei, Ph.D. (McGill); P. M. Reilly, Ph.D. (London); A. Rudin, Ph.D. (Northwestern), D S. Scott, Ph.D. (Illinois); P. L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich); D. R. Spink, Ph.D. {Iowa State); G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Manchester); B. M. E van der Hoff, Ir. (Delft); M Moo-Young, Ph D. (London); L. E. Bodnar, Ph.D. (McMas.ter); C. M. Burns, Ph.D (Polytechnic Inst., Brooklyn); K. Enns Ph.D. (Toronto) ; J. D. Ford, Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E. Gall, Ph.D. (Minn.); G S. Mueller, Ph.D. (Manchester); G. L. Rempel, Ph D. {UBC); J R. Wynny ckyji, Ph D. (Toronto); J. M. Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsyl vania). To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G 1 Further information: See CEE, p. 4, Winter 1975 FALL 1977 MONT ANA ST A TE Degrees earned, 1970 77 M.S. 53 Ph D. 17 Current Projects: Clean Distillate Fuels from Coal Coal Liquefaction Extractive Distillation Flow Properties of Human Blood Fluidized Bed Heat Transfer NO x Abatement Pumping Properites of Coal Slurries Separations with Membranes Department of Chemical Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, MT 59717 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY : Thes i s and non-Thesis programs leading to the M S degree are available. A full time student can com plete the program in a calender year Research and Teaching assistantships are available. PROJECT LIGNITE: UND's Chemical Engineering Department i s engaged in a major research program under the U S Energy Research and Development Administration on conversion of lignite coal to upgraded energy products A pilot plant has been built for a coal liquefaction process Students may participate in project-related thesis problems, or be employed as project workers wh i le taking course work i n the depart ment. ERDA: The Department of Chemical Engineering and the Grand Forks Energy Resear c h Center offer a cooperative program of study related to coal technology. Course work i s taken at the Un i versity and thesis research performed at the Center und e r ERDA staff members Fellowships are available to U.S cit i zens FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58201 253

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M.S. NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEWARK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR AND IN CHEMICAL ENGINfERING Sc.D DEGREES Biomedical Engineering Basic Studies-Chemical Biochemical Engineering Engineering Environmental Engineering Basic Studies-Applied Polymer Science and Chemistry Engineering Process and Design Studies For details on applications and financial aid, write: Dean Alex Bedrosian Graduate Division New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 High Street Newark, New Jersey 07104 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TEXAS TECH Join a rapidly accelerating department (research funding has increased an average of 26 % per year for the last three years) Graduate research projects available inPROCESS ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY Texas Tech Chemical Engineering graduates are among the most sought-after by industry in the country. Be one of them! For information brochure and application mate rials, write 254 Dr. R. M. Bethea Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 University of Rhode Island Graduate Study Chemical Engineering MS, PhD Nuclear Engineering MS AREAS OF RESEARCH Adsorption Biochemical Engineering Boiling Heat Transfer Catalysis Corrosion Desalination Dispersion Processes Distillation Fluid Dynamics Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics Liquid Extraction APPLICATIONS Mass Transfer Materials Engineering Membrane Diffusion Metal Fin ishing Metal Oxidat ion Metallurgy Nuclear Technology Pha se Equilibria Polymers P r o cess Dynamics Thermodynamics Water Resources X-ray Metallography Apply to the Dean of the Graduate School Uni versity of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881. Applications for financial aid sh ould be re ceived not later than February 15. Appointments will be made about April. ------------------UNIVERSITY OF UTAH ENERGY RESEARCH This is a small ad, directed at people who understand that bigger isn't necessarily better. The University of Utah has a small chemical engi neering department (8 faculty members), where the emphasis is on quality, not quantity. For the fall of 1977, we are adding three new faculty members whose research interests are strongly in the energy area. Our state is a major source of coal, oil, gas, and uranium and will be a source of oil shale and tar sands. Active research is being conducted in coal, oil shale, and tar sand use in our department, and that research is rapidly ex panding. If you are interested in a small, high-quality chemical engineering department with a variety of research interests and a strong and growing energy research area, located in one of the world's most pleasant cities, write for more in formation to: Professor Noel de Nevers Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDIES M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engi neering. Chemical Engineering with a Biomedical / Biochemical Minor is available RESEARCH INTERESTS : Mass transfer phenomena surface chemistry, fluid mechanics and rheology, fluid i za tion, parameter estimation, process dy nam i cs and control, solar energy convers i on, crys tallization, air pollution control, fermentation proc esses, immobilized biomolecules, biological mass transfer and disease, and modeling of biological processes FOR ADMISSION AND FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 y Yale Chemical Engineer i ng D e p a rtment of E n gi n e e r in g a nd Applied Science FALL 1977 WYOMING ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT We offer exciting opportunities for research in many ENERGY-related areas, such as coal and oil shale. We also offer research relating to ENVIRONMENT, such as in situ processes and water resources. These and many other oppor tunities are available to those with ENERGY who w i sh to work in a pleasant ENVIRONMENT, both academically and geographically Take a moment and write for more i nforma tion. Dr. D. L. Stinson Mineral Engineering Department University of Wyoming P. 0. Box 3295, University Station Laramie, Wyoming 82071 Financial aid is available and all aid recipients pay only resident fees. M.S. in ChE at OHIO UNIVERSITY in Scenic Athens, Ohio Master's level research emphasizing experimental, industrially-related research. Current grants from N S.F ., O E.R.D.A. and industrial sources. For further information contact: Dr. John R. Collier Chemical Engineering Dept. Ohio University Athens, Ohio 45701 614 / 594-6267 255

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Graduate Studies CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO LONDON, ONT ARIO, CANADA The Chemical and Biochemical Group offers M E.Sc M Eng., and Ph.D. degrees for Engineering and Science graduates. Financial support is available for qualified students in the a mount of $4 500 to $6,000 per year. The Department A medium sized Chemical and Biochemical Eng i neering Department with 11 professors, 7 post-doctoral fellows, 9 Ph.D. students, 18 M.E.Sc. students 6 M.Eng. students and 95 undergraduates. Well equipped laboratories with excellent computing and machine shop facilities are available. Areas of Research Areas of research in Chemical Engineering include: fluidization and particulate studies environmental studies, air and water pollution, catalysis and reactor design, systems control engineering, process simulation and optimization, mass transfer and mixing in reactors, process deveiopment studies. Research areas in Biochemical Engineering inclu de : food engineering, new products development, food perservation, pro tein production, microbial process and product development, microbial surfactants for oil extraction, enzyme engineering, bio energy production microbial kinetics bacterial aerosol studies, bioleaching of minerals, extracellular protein production, enzymatic hydrolys is of cellulose, novel bioreactor design, in dustrial waste utilization and wastewater treatment design of wastewater treatment facilities, etc. Applications and Enquiries-For more information write to: Dr. N. Kosaric, Chairman Chemical and Biochemical Engineering The University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, Canada Telephone: (519) 679-3309 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION DURING 1977: 3M COMPANY 1/ue al.4o tli(i;H,~ tl,,e I 3JJ. (1~ C~ee!U#Uj ~eptvd wl,,o ~id to tl,,e d.uppcvd al ecc m 1977! 256 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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GiveThemA Strong Preparation Tomorrow's chemical engineers must acquire a strong foundation of knowledge. These new Wiley texts help you give it to them ... CHEMICAL ENGINEERING KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Charles G. Hill, Jr., University of Wisconsin Heres a balanced discussion of chemica l kinetics and c hemical r eactor design at an introductory level. In-depth coverage includes the analysis and interpretation of ki n etic data reaction mecha nisms adsorption phenomena and heterog eneous catalysis and acid-base and enzyme catalysis reactions in liquid solution. The illustrative exam ples and problems throughout the text emphas i ze the analysis of r ep resentativ e data from the kinetics literatur e and th e us e of such data in preliminary reactor design calc ulations (0 471 39609-5) approx. 608 pp 1977 $21.95 (tent.) ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES Richard M. Felder, [, Ronald W. Rousseau, both of North Carolina State University A comprehensive and up-to-date introdu ct ion t o c h emica l e ngin ee ring principles and problem solving techniqu es. Hundr eds of exa mpl es and problems and several extended case studies of industrial processes illustrat e the scope of activities encompassed by chemica l engi n eeri ng both in the traditional ar eas of c h e mi ca l processing and in such related fields as e nv ironmenta l science energy conve rsion technology and biom edicine. (0 471 74330-5) approx. 576 pp. 1978 $19.95 (tent.) CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Stanley I. Sandler, University of Delaware This modern thermodynamics book-emphasiz ing a wide range of phase and chemical eq uilibria is an ideal text for giving undergraduate stu dents a thermodynamics background relevant to courses in mass transfer operations plant design and chemical reactor analysis Students acquire an understanding of thermodynamics principles and their application to the solution of e n e rg y fl ow ~d equilibrium probl e ms. (0 471 01774-4) approx. 592 pp. 1977 $21.00 To be considered for complimentary @ examination copies, write to Art Beck, Dept. AS 150-12. Please include course name, enrollment, and title of present text. DYNAMICS OF POLYMERIC LIQUIDS Vol. 1: Fluid Mechanics, Byron R. Bird, University of Wisconsin, Robert C. Armstrong, Massachu setts Institute of Technology, [, Ole Hassager, lnstituttet for Kemiteknik Vol 2 : Kinetic Theory, Byron R. Bird, Ole Has sager, Robert C. Armstrong, S Charles F. Curtiss, University of Wisconsin Vol. 1 describes th e exper im enta l and theoretical fluid mechanical methods of c haracterizing and predicting polymer flow b e havior on the basis o f measurable material properties. Its extensive coverage and range of viewpoints make it unique in its field. Volume 2 presents kinetic theory methods for exp laining and predicting the fluid mechanical be havior of polymers on th e basis of molecular models. It includ es an elementary introduction to the kinetic theory of macromolecular solutions a thorough discussion of the classical Rouse-Zimm molecular theories of dilute macromolecular so lutions and a short treatm en t of the molecular network theory of polymer melts. Vol. 1: (0 471 07375-X) 576 pp. 1977 $29.95 Vol. 2: (0 471 01596-2) 304 pp. 1977 $26.95 FUNDAMENTALS OF MOMENTUM, HEAT,AND MASS TRANSFER, 2nd Ed. James R. Welty, Charles E. Wicks, [, Robert E. Wilson, all of Oregon State University Revises and updates with c urr ent technology the unified treatment of transport processes. Mor e de tails hav e been added, and areas where students hav e shown weakness have b een strengthened by further discussion. New to this e dition is the in co poration of SI units in a balan ce d tr eat ment that includ es English units as well. Applications c hap ters provide a basic knowledge of eq uipm ent. Th e t ext is id ea l for junior-level eng in ee ring students with backgrounds in mechanics mathematics, and introductory chemistry and physics. (0 471 93354 6) 789 pp. 1976 $23.95 JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc. 605 Third Avenue New York, N.Y. 10016 In _Ca nada : 22 Wor c este r R _o ad R ex dale Ontario AS l SO l Pri ces subJect t o c hang e w ith o ut noti ce.

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Career Opportunities in Engineering, Design, Resear c h and Construction For more than 65 years C F Braun & Co has bee n inv o lved in worldwide engin e ering and construction. We have designed and built hundreds of facilities for the c h em i ca l, petroleum, ore processing and power industries. Today we are also actively engaged i n the newe r fi e l ds o f nucle a r energy and coal gasification. Our rapid growth has opened up many caree r p os iti o ns. C hallenging assignments and opportunities for pro fessional growth are available at Braun in an env i ron m en t de s igned for creative engineering. Positions are available at our engineering headqua rt e r s in A lhambra, C alifornia and at our eastern engineering center in Murray Hill, New Jersey For further i nformation write to C F Braun & Co Department K, A l hambra California 91802 or Murray Hill, New Jersey 0797 4. CF BRAUN & Co Engineers Constructors AN E Q U A L O PPOR TUNITY EMP L OYER