Citation

## Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

## Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

## Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

## UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

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Full Text

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Is the leg mightier than the atom?

Before you say no, keep in mind
that we know very little about many
forms of energy available to us.
Including good old muscle
power.
For too long a time we've relied
on oil and gas to serve our needs,
and failed to take full advantage of
other sources of power.
Including the atom.
But recent events make it clear
we must learn about all the options,
and how best to apply them.
At Union Carbide we're study-
ing a wide range of energy tech-
nologies and resources for the

Energy Research and Development
Administration.
From something as basic as bi-
cycling to the complexity of con-
trolling nuclear fusion.
For instance, we are learning
how to turn coal into oil and gas in
a way that is practical economically.
We're deeply involved in nuclear
research, particularly in finding
ways to make this important source
of energy safer and more efficient.
Our work in fusion power, at
Oak Ridge, Tennessee, offers the
most exciting possibility for the
future: the ultimate source of in-

exhaustible energy.
If we succeed, there will never
be another energy crisis.
But for the present, the answer
to our energy dilemma is not likely
to come from one source, but many.
All the way from the leg to the atom.

An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
Managing Editor: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
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CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
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WEST: George F. Meenaghan
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University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
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Oregon State University
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XI NUMBER 4 FALL 1977

GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES
160 Fundamental Concepts in Surface
actions, J. A. Dumesic

Inter-

164 Electrochemical Engineering, Jacob Jorne
168 Chemical Reaction Engineering Science,
David Retzloff
170 Biochemical Engineering, Harvey W. Blanch
and Fraser Russell
174 Polymer Science and Engineering,
Richard P. Chartoff

FEATURES
154 Technical Prose: English or Techlish?
H. C. Van Ness and M. M. Abbott
176 ChE Graduate Programs for Non-Chemical
Engineers, E. L. Cussler
181 Experience at One University, R. M. Bethea,
H. R. Heichelheim, A. J. Gully
185 Student Point of View, Ronald S. Christy,
Jerry D. Purkaple and Thomas E. Vernor
186 Graduate ChE Education on a Statewide
Closed-Circuit Television Network,
Thomas G. Stanford

DEPARTMENTS
147 Editorial
148 In Memorium-Leon Lapidus
150 Views and Opinions
The Interface Between Industry and the
Academic World, Reuel Shinnar

149 Letters
149, 167, 195 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per year,$7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1977. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

FALL 1977

For some people, the good life doesn't begin at
five p.m. And it's not measured in vacations and
weekends. Rather, it wakes up with them every
morning. It moves with them as they go about
their tasks.
These people work in an atmosphere of
growth without constraint. They set their own
goals based, on their own abilities. They use
their own judgment in helping to solve problems
that directly affect their own lives. Like assuring
an ample food supply. Ridding the environment
of pollution. Curing disease.
Because life is fragile, these people believe
it needs protection.

That's one reason they chose a career with
Dow. We need more people who think along
these lines and have backgrounds in science,
engineering, manufacturing and marketing.
If you know of students who are looking for
employment with enough meaning for their tal-
ents and enthusiasm, have them contact us. Re-
cruiting and College Relations, P.O. Box 1713,
Midland, Michigan 48640.
Dow is an equal opportunity employer-
male/female.

DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.
*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

44 -11*1

Cddcvaal

A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS
This is the ninth Graduate Issue to be published by CEE and distributed to chemi-
cal engineering seniors interested in and qualified for graduate school. As in our
previous issues we also include ads of departments on their graduate programs and
some articles on graduate courses that are taught at various universities. However
this year we are including a larger number of general papers on graduate education
that we feel are of interest to both students and faculty and fewer courses. Therefore
in order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate course work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous

issues. A list of these follows. If you would like a copy of
please write CEE. Ray Fahien, Editor CEE
ChE, Dept., University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

a previous Fall issue,

AUTHOR

Alkire
Bailey & Ollis
DeKee
Deshpande
Johnson
Klinzing
Lemlich
Koutsky
Reynolds
Rosner

Astarita
Delgass
Gruver
Liu
Manning
McCoy
Walter

Corripio
Donaghey
Edgar
Gates, et al.
Luks
Melnyk & Prob
Tavlarides
Theis
Hamrin, et. al.
Sherwood

Merrill
Locke & Daniel
Moore
Wei

Hopfenberg

Fricke
Tierney
O'Connell, et. a

FALL 1977

F

TITLE
all 1976

"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum
Transport"

Fall 1975
"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"

Fall 1974
"Digital Computer Control of Process"
"Solid-State Materials and Devices"
"Multivariable Control and Est."
"Chemistry of Catalytic Process"
"Advanced Thermodynamics"
er "Wastewater Engineering for ChE's"
"Enzyme and Biochemical Engr."
"Synthetic & Biological Polymers"
"Energy Engineering"
"History of Mass Transfer Theory"

Fall 1973
"Applied Chemical Kinetics"
s "Corrosion Control
"Digital Computer Process Control"
"Economics of Chem. Processing
Industries"
"Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal
Materials"
"Polymer Processing"
"Staged Separations"
1. "Application of Molecular Concepts of
Predicting Properties in Design"

Fall 1972
Bell "Process Heat Transfer"
Chao & "Equilibrium Theory of Fluids"
Greenkorn
Cooney "Biological Transport Pnenomena and
Biomedical Engineering"
Curl & Kadlec "Modeling"
Gainer "Applied Surface Chemistry"
Slattery "Momentum, Energy and Mass
Transfer"
Kelleher & Kafes "Process and Plant Design Project"
Douglas & "Engineering Entrepeneurship"
Kittrell
Wei "How Industry Can Improve the Use-
fulness of Academic Research"
Tepe "Relevance of Grad. ChE Research"
Fall 1971
Reid & Modell "Thermo: Theory & Applications"
Theofanous "Transport Phenomena"
Weller "Heterogeneous Catalysis"
Westerberg "Computer Aided Process Design"
Kabel "Mathematical Modeling ..."
Wen "Noncatalytic Heterogeneous Reaction
Systems"
Beamer "Statistical Analysis and Simulation"
Himmelblau "Optimization of Large Scale Systems"

Fall 1970
Berg "Interfacial Phenomena"
Boudart "Kinetics of Chemical Processes"
Koppel "Process Control"
Leonard "Bioengineering"
Licht "Design of Air Pollution Control
Systems"
Metzner & Denn "Fluid Mechanics"
Powers "Separation Processes"
Toor & Condiff "Heat and Mass Transfer"
Tsao "Biochemical Engineering"

Fall 1969
Amundson "Why Mathematics?"
Churchill "Theories, Correlations & Uncertain-
ties for Waves, Gradients & Fluxes"
Hanratty "Fluid Dynamics"
Hubert "Stat. Theories of Particulate Systems"
Lightfoot "Diffusional Operations"
Lapidus "Optimal Control of Reaction Systems"
Prausnitz "Molecular Thermodynamics"
Dougharty "Reactor Design"

In Memorium

Professor Leon Lapidus, 52, chairman of the
Department of Chemical Engineering at Prince-
ton University, died suddenly in his office May 5,
1977.
He was the author of more than a hundred
technical publications including four textbooks:
Digital Computation for Chemical Engineers,
Optimal Control of Engineering Processes,
Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equa-
tions, and Mathematical Methods for Chemical
Engineers. Widely sought as a consultant, Lapidus
was a member of the National Academy of
Engineering, Sigma Xi, American Chemical
Society, American Institute of Chemical Engi-
neers, the Association of Computing Machinery,
and president of the New Jersey Tennis Associa-
tion.
The Princeton University Faculty adopted the
following memorial resolution at its June 1977
meeting:

MEMORIAL RESOLUTION
FOR PROFESSOR LEON LAPIDUS
Dr. Leon Lapidus first came to Princeton in
1951 as a Research Associate in Professor Richard
H. Wilhelm's program in chemical sciences on
what is now the Forrestal Campus. His previous
training included two degrees from Syracuse Uni-
versity in the city of his birth, a doctorate from
the University of Minnesota, where he was the
first of a long line of outstanding scholars under
the tutelage of Dr. Neal Amundson, and a post
doctoral fellowship at the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology.
In 1953 he became a member of the Chemical
Engineering faculty as an Assistant Professor.
He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958
and to Professor in 1962. In 1970 he was appointed

The Class of 1943 University Professor. From
1968 until his untimely death on May 5, 1977, he
served as Chairman of the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering. Throughout most of his tenure
as Chairman he was the elected member from
Division IV on the Faculty Advisory Committee
on Appointments and Advancements, making his
membership on that important committee one of
the longest in the history of the university.
A teacher-scholar in the best Princeton tradi-
tion, Professor Lapidus was also a skilled ad-
ministrator. Indeed, a colleague in another depart-
ment recently observed that Leon was the ultimate
exemplar of the ideal all-round faculty member
because his research productivity increased as his
administrative responsibilities grew.
With a rare gift of being able to communicate
often abstruse and difficult material clearly and
enthusiastically, Professor Lapidus gained a wide
reputation as lecturer, and student ratings of his
courses invariably placed them near the top of
all courses in the University. His contributions to
teaching were not limited to classroom instruction,
however, inasmuch as he authored or co-authored
four major textbooks, and in collaboration with
his first mentor, Dr. Amundson, he edited the
definitive work on chemical reactor theory,
written as a memorial to the late Richard H.
Wilhelm. In particular his books on digital com-
putation and on optimal control theory have wide-
spread use as teaching tools. The book on chemi-
cal reactor theory was published during the week
of his death.
In 1955, just two years after joining the
Princeton faculty, Professor Lapidus introduced
a new course in numerical methods of computa-
tion. This course marked the beginning of his pro-
fessional concentration on the application of
numerical analysis and computer techniques to

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

problems in chemical engineering. Over the years
he extended the breadth and depth of this applica-
tion with special attention to problems in the
simulation, control and optimization of chemical
process systems. More than fifty graduate
students participated in this work, many of whom
are now on major faculties throughout the world.
The fruits of this work, comprising five books and
some 135 articles in scientific journals, have had
a major impact on the way engineers in general,
and chemical engineers in particular, approach
problems.
Many awards went to Professor Lapidus for
his prodigious scholarship. He won the Profes-
sional Progress Award and the William H. Walker
Award of the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers. In 1976 he was electedto the National
Academy of Engineering, the third member of the
Princeton faculty so honored. He has been Chemi-
cal Engineering Lecturer for the American
lSociety for Engineering Education. Reilly
Lecturer for the University of Notre Dame, Lacey
Lecturer for the California Institute of Tech-
nology, Mason Lecturer for Stanford University,
DDistinguished Lecturer for the University of
Michigan, and Organization of American States
Lecturer at La Plata University in Argentina.
Widely sought as a consultant to industry, Pro-
fessor Lapidus also served on the editorial ad-
visory boards of the Journal of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, the International
Journal of Systems Science, The Chemical Engi-
neering Journal, and he was Editor of Control
Series, Blaisdell Publishing Company. He was also
a member of the Visiting Committee to the De-
partment of Chemical Engineering at the Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology.
He was an active player and a promoter of
tennis, especially among young people. At the time
of his death he was president of the New Jersey
Tennis Association. Furthermore, he transmitted
his enthusiasm for the game to his children, Mary
and Jay, both of whom he coached to tournament
calibre. Jay, who will enter Princeton in the fall,
is generally regarded as one of the most promising
tennis players in the United States.
A devoted husband and father, Leon Lapidus
most of all enjoyed those activities which in-
cluded his close-knit, immediate family circle:
his wife, the former Elizabeth Kalmes, whom he
met and married in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and
his children, Mary Kalmes and Jon Jay.
In addition to his immediate family he leaves a

sister, Mrs. Florence L. Goldman. He leaves, too,
a large number of friends and colleagues, who
will deeply miss those personal and professional
qualities that made so lasting an impact on his
profession, on Princeton University and on the
Department.

Ernest F. Johnson
William R. Showalter
Richard K. Toner

letters

FACULTY WORKLOAD CORRECTION
Sir:
In the interest of accuracy, I would like to state that
my paper in Chemical Engineering Education, Vol. II, No.
3, p. 134, 1977 should be entitled, "Faculty Workload
Measurement," and not "Faculty Workload Measurement
at NJIT."
I would appreciate having this fact brought to the at-
tention of your readers since the article is not how loads
are measured at NJIT. Thanks.
Deran Hanesian
New Jersey of Technology

EDITOR'S NOTE: CEE deeply regrets the error.

t P. book reviews

FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING IN THE
PROCESS INDUSTRY
by Donald R. Woods, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Engle-
wood Cliffs, N.J., 1975. 324 pp., $16.95. Reviewed by Vincent W. Uhl, University of Vir- ginia, Charlottesville, VA. The treatment seems to go beyond the title; in introductory chapters the books surveys two im- portant areas related to financial decision making. One is that of the professional making judgements which affects society and the world we live in. The other area is the overall business environment. By this approach Woods manages to scan the full sweep, the spectrum from the individual to so- ciety. Then he concentrates on "process econom- ics" in this setting. Process economics constitutes the core of the work. Basically the methodology delineated is Continued on page 188. FALL 1977 Nj views and opinions THE INTERFACE BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND THE ACADEMIC WORLD* EDITOR'S NOTE: Prof. Shinnar's paper was presented at an Engineering Foundation Conference on Chemical Process Control at Asilomar, Pacific Grove, CA, Jan. 18-23, 1976. We thought it worthwhile reading for students and faculty alike. REUEL SHINNAR The City University of New York New York, New York 10031 I CAME TO THE academic profession quite late, after many years in industry, and my values and outlook were formed during my in- dustrial career. Having worked in many fields and having had a varied career gives one the ad- vantage of an overlook, and one often sees things that an insider cannot see. This paper is about some of these impressions on the present status of control. Let me start with three episodes that happened to me recently and induced me to choose this topic for presentation. The first was a question asked of me by the chairman of one of the top chemical en- gineering departments in the United States. He asked me if process control today is still an active field of research in ChE and if it makes sense to have somebody in this field. It was an honest ques- tion, which is also asked by quite a few others, even those who have been active in control in recent years and are now leaving it. I'll try to answer it later. The second occurrence was a letter I received from a former student of mine who obtained his Ph.D. in the U.S. in the area of control. I sent him a recent paper (1), and in commenting on it he complained that our engineering profession is so far backward in the application of novel ideas in control that he has decided to go where the action is and become an applied mathematician. The third happening was a comment by a re- *Reprinted by permission from AIChE Symposium Series. Vol. 72, No. 159, p. 166. Reuel Shinnar is Professor of Chemical Engineering at City College, N.Y. He is known from his publications in reactor design, process dynamics and control, crystallisation, fluid dynamics, and combustion. A special interest of his is the application of probability and stochastic processes in engineering. Professor Shinnar received his B.S. from the Technion in Haifa, and his Ph.D. from Columbia University. Before taking up an academic career he worked for ten years in industry and still consults to the chemical and petroleum industry. viewer that Vern Weekman received on a paper of his. The reviewer complained that the authors were unfairly criticizing the academic world, since he questioned how an academic could know what is and what is not implementable in industry. I don't know who here was hard on whom. I can hardly imagine a more severe condemnation of our academic engineering profession than this statement. If engineering professors have ceased to know what can and cannot be implemented, what are we teaching? In these three episodes there is a reflection of the whole sad state of research in process control as well as an indication as to what needs to be done. THE STATE OF PROCESS CONTROL LET US NOT avoid the issue; the state of proc- ess control is rather sad. True, we have had CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION many important theoretical and mathematical ad- vances in recent years, and, as Professor Athans' paper [8] pointed out, quite a number of them could be very significant, and I definitely agree with him. But on the other hand, the application of these advances in industrial practice has been rather meager, and even those that are active in designing controls for completely automated com- plex plants complain that the publication of the academic community seem to be irrelevant to any conceivable needs. Furthermore, some of our best people are leaving the field disenchanted, and it is not attracting top students as often as previously. This is happening just as exciting applications, are starting finally to appear, and, there are definite trends in industry that will require a better under- standing of modern control. But even in industry the love affair with proc- ess simulation and control is cooling. The heat is on almost all the research groups in the industry. Maybe we started too early and promised more than we could fulfill. But we could reasonably ex- pect more understanding from industry. Let me remind you that the total expense of any major oil company on research in process control in any given year is less than for one major television commercial, and there is less evidence that com- mercials sell gasoline. Somehow I feel that some of the recent ad- advances in control theory offer exciting possibil- ities for better design, but there is very little knowledge as to what these values really are, where they can be successfully applied, and what the pitfalls are, and there is no question a lot of it is irrelevant. Just look at the tremendous literature on Kal- man filters. We listened to some top practitioners and heard that only one had ever really used one successfully. Listening to him, I realized that he used it in a different way than it is presented in the control literature, as a tool in interactive com- puter-aided design in which the coefficients are guessed and continuously adjusted by the results of the simulation. Now I would like you to relook at the literature on Kalman filters. How much of it really deals with the basic problem, which is to decide how to guess the structure of the covari- ance and, furthermore, to decide in what cases it is going to be useful. Listening to the two sides of the arguments on the usefulness of modern control reminded me of two other episodes that happened to me. You have to excuse my habit of telling stories. In my culture it is a basic belief that a short story or joke often replaces a thousand words. During the Israel Independence War in 1948 I was engaged in the manufacture of explosives and ammunition. Once I faced the problem of design- ing a simple small siren intended to be put on small bombs, to increase their psychological effect. I had no idea how one designs a siren and was looking for some sketch to copy. To save time I went to a professor I knew, and I still remember him going to his shelf and giving me two volumes of "Das Handbuch der Theoretischen Physik." I was reminded of this story by the claim that mod- ern control theory is there-just go and use it. The second episode symbolizes for me the stand of some of our industrial assessment members. In the early 1950's a group of young engineers were sitting in a house in Haifa and reminiscing about the war. One fellow recounted his experiences in the British Corps of Engineers. The British Army instructions at that time required that prefab- ricated pre-stressed concrete slabs should be rein- forced in all four corners. Now, every compentent engineer knows that we only need two reinforce- ments, in the two corners on the lower side. One guest was an old Englishman who had stayed in Israel, and he commented that we were all a little young and inexperienced and did not fully ap- preciate the wisdom of the British Army. The manual is intended for use by the average ser- geant in the British Army, who as likely as not is a Sikh with a minimum understanding of English. There are probably many really valuable results hidden in the literature of modern control that merit being brought to a form useful for the control engineer. But we need to extract them, test them, and bring them to a form where they are useful tools in real empirical design. He might be the only one in the company who can read that manual. You have to imagine him stand- ing there with his curved knife in his mouth study- ing the manual, and, when he takes out the knife and starts to yell, you hope he'll know where to put the slab. If you presume that he'll know which side is up, you have lost in advance. The Ziegler-Nichols tuning method of PI con- trollers almost fulfills the same requirement. But FALL 1977 modern process control is never going to have a reinforcement in each corner. This is not its ob- jective. It will need highly educated engineers to use it for special applications where it is justified. But it is also useless to tell industry, "There are two thousand mathematical lemmas, and why don't you use them?" As almost all assessment reports agree, modern control theory is not in a state where it is easily used. ACADEMIC-INDUSTRIAL INTERFACE THE PROBLEM IS really at the interface. The information flow from academics to industry and back is jammed, and the question is what we can do about it. It would be very valuable if the process in- dustries would publish more about their successes and failures. Some of the secrecy surrounding control is really bordering on the ridiculous. But it is rather hard to hope that they'll really do it in a useful way. The aerospace industry has much less of a problem, since much of the work is gov- ernment financed and therefore published, and it also employs a much larger number of theoret- ically educated engineers. If we want to improve that interface, it is the engineering societies and, above all, the engineer- ing faculties who can and should do this job. I don't worry about algorithms or computers eliminating the engineer. Complex design algorithms need a much higher degree of intellectual input than present methods and increase the need for highly trained personnel. As a profession, engineering is not a science but rather the knowledge of bringing scientific development into useful practice, very often mak- ing empirical advances before the scientist under- stands them. Even design, which is much more formalized, is only partly based on scientific calcu- lations and relies heavily on intuition and experi- ence. Part of it can be computerized and formal- ized, but in the end judgment will play a large role in the synthesis. Now design or process development is not easy to teach and much harder to do research on. To promote good research we have more and more gone over to focus our research on hard science, picking up areas left by the physicists and chem- ists, and slowly we have become a professional taught by non-practitioners. Maybe we are the only profession to do so. Can you imagine a med- ical school where all professors are physiologists and nobody is a clinician? Now medical research is much less clean and less scientific than physi- ology, but the latter would have no application without the first. I see nothing wrong in having a large part of our research devoted to clearly definable scientific problems, both theoretical and experimental, but somehow we have to make an attempt to bring engineering back to our research. Nowhere is this more felt than in theoretical engineering and especially in control. PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN T HERE ARE SEVERAL needs in engineering design that good theoretical research can fulfill. * The first is a need for straightforward algorithms, as, for example, the measurement of kinetic parameters in complex systems. * The second is a need to better understand design de- cisions. Theoretical work can contribute to that by solving clearly defined cases, illuminating to the engineer what the potential problems could be. A good example of this is the theoretical work in reactor design, an area in which I also contributed. Now, in very few industrial cases would one expect an engineer to solve the type of complex models that have been solved or discussed in the literature. Hopefully, my own students do not in- terpret their work this way. However, from such theoretical modeling and related work we delivered rather well-working principles for reactor design: how to identify kinetic parameters in a simple way, how to structure the experiments needed for scale-up, how to identify reactors, and, most importantly, how to distin- guish between simple problems and those which require more advanced methods. This is the most fruitful area for theoretical engineering research. But in order for it to be really useful the results have to be explained to the practicing engineer in a form he can understand. There are other types of theoretical research that I took part in. Some of the most difficult prob- lems solved often only confirm that methods used by the engineer have a sound basis, but they do not lead to new insights. Years ago when I worked in rheology, every- body was busy for years trying to understand the complex work of Coleman and Noll on constitutive equations. I don't want to belittle the eloquence and relevance of that work to continuum mechan- ics as a theoretical science. But the insight that we got from that to real rheology, and especially CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS FCC (Other Loops Omitted for Clarity) Regenerator Reactor To Ma Fractii Air Oil Feed FIGURE 1. Schematic of conventional control sc to problems of interest to the engineer, was r small. We learned that a capillary rheo: measures the same parameters as a cone and viscosimeter and that it is impossible from measurements to predict the behavior of the in accelerating flows. We knew that long b But we learned little about how to treat more interesting cases and had to go ba simpler and more ad hoc theories. I admit of ing done similar things myself. It did not sta that way. The best way of describing such work fr engineering point of view is maybe the expr of Moliere's hero in the Bourgeois Gentilho "I never knew I speak prose." There is soir portance in knowing that one speaks prose from a purely scientific point of view this is very interesting. But the importance that wi to such mathematical rigor in our engine profession has little relation to its real va the profession. The fourth type of theory is the one that nowhere. I remember a good example froi time I was a graduate student. At that ti fashionable pastime was to write down equ$
of mass transfer in multicomponent systems.
of these equations were tensors of the six
eighth order. There was no way that an
could ever measure that many coefficients or
design a hypothetical experiment to measure
The only thing we learned is that too much
will lead to unsolvable problems.

Now in engineering we start to give the high-
est ranking to the "I know prose" research and
much less to that which leads to real insights in
design. Nor do we insist that our results be pre-
tin sented in such a way that such insights to dirty
problems are made clear. We have to learn to ap-
preciate both types of research.
Consider for example the study of FCC control
set by Kurihara [2]. It is a very useful piece of work,
and let me therefore discuss it in more detail.
Kurihara took a fluidized bed cracker and de-
veloped a simple lumped parameter model for it.
He then took the standard industrial control
scheme which is given in Figure 1, taken from
Lee and Weekman [3], and looked at the connec-
tions between measured and manipulated varia-
bles. He then formulated an optimization problem
in the following way. The system is assumed to be
at a state X, different from the desired steady
:heme. state, and has to be brought back to the desired
steady state. At this desired steady state, all
ather manipulated inputs have a known value. The
meter feedback law is then written to minimize a per-
plate formance index using some values for costs of
such control action and for profits based on reducing
liquid the deviation from the desired steady state. It is
before. shown that a linearized analysis gives a very
those similar solution to the full non-linear optimization
ck to and furthermore, the control scheme given in
f hav- Figure 2 gives almost the same result.
rt out Now, there is much more in the thesis than I
Continued on page 191.
)m an
session MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS FCC
(Other Loops Omitted for Clarity)

ie im-
p, and
often
e give
eering
lue to

leads
.m the
ime a
nations
Some
;th or
ybody
Seven
them.
rigor

Regenerator

Reactor

To Main
Fractionator

Air Oil Feed

FIGURE 2. Schematic of Kurihara scheme.

FALL 1977

TECHNICAL PROSE: ENGLISH OR TECHLISH?

H. C. VAN NESS and M. M. ABBOTT
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, New York 12181

IF THE SENIOR CHEMICAL engineering stu-
dent feels burdened by report writing, he can
take no comfort from what lies ahead, for writing
will likely occupy an even greater proportion of
his time as a practicing engineer. Moreover, suc-
cess will depend as much on development of com-
munication skills as on technical ability.
One learns to write just as one learns to ride
a bicycle, to play a musical instrument, or to make
love. Bad performances are not only common, but
easily recognized. Remedial instruction is by
criticism and example. Unfortunately, professors
are seldom accomplished writers, and provide far
more bad examples than good. Thus by the time a
student is required to write a technical report he
slips naturally into a special written language,
which we call Techlish. Fortunately, it bears some
relation to English and a literate engineer can
often understand its general drift, if not its pre-
cise meaning.
Take a straight-forward English sentence: He
followed her in hot pursuit. Not one engineering
student in a hundred would put to paper any
thought so directly and so evocative of an image
of what is afoot. Translated into Techlish, it be-
comes, It was she who was followed by him in hot
pursuance, or perhaps, It seemed necessary that he
should heatedly follow her in a pursuit-type mode.

THE STUDENT REPORT
EXAMPLES OF FULL-BLOWN Techlish
abound in almost any student report, and we
quote verbatim in what follows from several that
were submitted in a process-design course. Con-
sider the punch line, the final sentence, of one re-
port: The finalized design appears promising and
the results of this study urges further pursuance.

One notes the ungrammatical combination, "the
results urges", wherein the subject and verb
do not agree in number. Although such errors are
common in student reports, they are not essential
to Techlish. The grammatically correct expression,
"the results urge," illustrates a basic charac-
teristic of Techlish, namely, the combination of
words which in common use do not belong to-
gether. Results do not urge; people urge: She
urged him on in hot pursuit. Other unhappy word
choices are "finalized" for "final" and "pursu-
ance" for "pursuit". Another characteristic of
Techlish is the total lack of assignment. To whom

Not only does habitual use
of the passive voice make for dull
writing; it forces a convoluted style almost
impossible for an engineer to make
concise, precise and grammatical.

does the design "appear promising"; who is to
pursue the matter further? But the crucial prob-
lem is that we are not sure what the author
means. The distinctive quality of Techlish is that
it always confronts the reader with this problem.
Translated directly into English, the sentence
reads, "The final design may not be final." How-
ever, as a sentence from a student's report its
true message is probably: "I hope the design is
reasonable; if not, further work should make it
so". The student is really suggesting to the teacher
that he deserves a good grade in either event.
We start with this last sentence of a report
because it points to a basic problem for the stu-
dent. He is asked in a design course to assume the
role of a practicing engineer writing a report for
his supervisor. In this role, his objective is to
provide information that will allow his super-
visor to make some sort of recommendation to
higher management. Large sums of money may be
involved; employee safety and public health may

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

be considerations. Such matters are not trivial,
and the author of the report is assumed expert
with respect to his subject. For a student to play
this role successfully, he must suppress his nat-
ural propensity to behave as a student whose sole
objective is to impress his teacher and to earn a
good grade. The transition from pupil to expert
is abrupt, and few students can believe it is ex-
pected, let alone respond properly. Thus student
reports are laced with all sorts of irrelevant ma-
terial that no supervisor would care to read, but
which is thought to impress a teacher. There are,
for example, long discussions of what was not
done, comments on the great difficulty or extent of
the calculations, narrative expositions of step-by-
step calculations, derivations of standard equa-
tions copied from readily available sources, and
convoluted excuses proffered in compensation for
an inadequate effort. One finds such gems as,
This is a close approximation, since the
whole process was designed by a series of
approximations.
The logic is of course absurd, but the student feels
he should suggest some reason for the teacher to
accept his result.
A report must be written with the intended
reader in mind. This is the cardinal rule of report
writing. A process-design report goes to the boss.
In a design course the student has no real boss,
but must imagine one. Although the teacher
grades the report, he is not the boss; he merely
judges the report with respect to its acceptability
to an imagined boss. When writing for the boss,
either real or imagined, one may safely assume
that:

1. He is busy, or at least believes he is, and
2. He has a general technical knowledge at
least equal to one's own.
The report is written to help the boss; it must
not waste his time. He is interested in the results
and their justification, and these must be the focus
of the report. They must occupy a prominent posi-
tion in a separate section or sections. They do not
belong in the abstract, the introduction, or the
conclusions. They must be stated concisely, with
authority, and without ambiguity. Figures and
tables are appropriately used to aid clarity and to
summarize and order results succinctly; each must
be numbered and referred to in the text. A process
description is always written with reference to a
carefully labelled diagram.

H. C. Van Ness is Distinguished Research Professor of Chemical
Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he has been a
faculty member since 1956. He is coauthor with J. M. Smith of
"Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics", 3rd. ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1975. (Left)
M. M. Abbott is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, with which he has been affiliated since
1969. Prior to that, he spent four years with Exxon Research and
Engineering Company in Florham Park, New Jersey. (Right)
Professors Abbott and Van Ness are coauthors of a number of
research papers on thermodynamics and of two books: "Schaum's
Outline of Theory and Problems of Thermodynamics", McGraw-Hill,
1972, and (with M. W. Zemansky) "Basic Engineering Thermodynamics",
2nd. ed., McGraw-Hill, 1975. They do not guarantee these works to be
free of Techlish, but have made a conscious effort to follow their
own rules.

Although the results of a report are presumed
the work of an expert, the boss will likely check
them at least in part. He must find this an easy
task through reference to an appendix, where all
calculations are carefully laid out and thoroughly
annotated.
No universal agreement exists as to the proper
format of a report, and we can suggest none. The
reasons are, first, that the nature of the report
should influence the format, and second, that the
style of a report and hence its format should re-
flect the individuality of the writer. However, an
abstract is essential, as it tells a prospective reader
what is in the report. An example of a suitable
abstract of a process-design report is:
A preliminary design of the heat-recov-
ery unit for a plant to produce shale oil is
described. Circulating gas picks up heat
from a moving packed bed of spent shale
and transfers it to raw shale in a similar
bed. Technical feasibility of the process is
demonstrated.
One needs no more than this to know what the
report is about. It is brief, to the point, and it

FALL 1977

stands by itself.
Unless it is very short, the body of a report is
divided into sections. Students are often given a
list of "standard" section headings, such as,
Introduction
Procedure
Results
Discussion
Conclusions and Recommendations
These may or may not be appropriate for a par-
ticular report prepared by a particular individual.
The report abstracted above might well be divided
according to the headings:
Process Description
Heat Recovery from Spent Shale
Preheating the Raw Shale
Auxiliary Equipment
Recommendations
Appropriate headings are also used with appended
material, such as notation, literature citations, and
calculations. In our view the introduction, which
simply sets the stage, needs no heading. What else
could the first several paragraphs of a report be?

PRINCIPLES OF WRITING
W E RETURN NOW to our main theme, the
language of a report, the writing of technical
prose. Engineering students often are convinced
of several misconceptions about writing:
1. Engineers are naturally poor writers.
2. Writing is not important for engineers.
3. The rules for writing technical prose are different
from those for non-technical prose.
The first two misconceptions tend to go together
with some sort of reciprocal justification, and we
simply contradict them. The third is a mistaken
impression gained from wide exposure to Techlish.
Here we can by example show the difference be-
tween Techlish and English. But first we offer a
few general principles designed to guide one away
from the most objectionable excesses of Techlish.
I. Be concise; be brief; eliminate "bull." Pro-
vided you recognize it when you see it, "bull" is
effectively pruned as follows: Write a first draft,
put it out of sight and mind for a day or two, then
rewrite it, cutting the length by 251% or more.
This process can usually be repeated.
II. Be precise; be specific; say what you mean;
avoid ambiguities. Your work is too important to
be misunderstood. Your sentences must make
literal sense. Read them aloud; change any that
sound ridiculous. You can gain experience with

whatever you read; an example is the following
sentence from an official university bulletin:
Faculty, staff, and students are asked to cut back
on energy waste by the President.
III. Prefer the active voice. The active voice re-
sults when the subject of the sentence carries out
the action implied by the verb:
We calculate density by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.
In contrast, the passive voice results when the
subject of the sentence receives the action implied
by the verb:
Density is calculated by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.

One learns to write
just as one learns to ride a
bicycle, to play a musical instrument,
or to make love. Bad performances are
not only common, but easily recognized.
Remedial instruction is by criticism and
example. Unfortunately, professors are seldom
accomplished writers, and provide far more
bad examples that good.

This sentence does not say who does the calcula-
tion; it is impersonal. Herein lies the origin of
Techlish. For many years the dominant attitude
with respect to scientific and technical writing
was that it should be impersonal, because science
and technology were said to be impersonal. This
forced adoption of the passive voice, and promoted
the lifeless syntax, the witless style, to say nothing
of the grammatical mistakes of technical prose.
We repudiate the whole of it. Not only does ha-
bitual use of the passive voice make for dull
writing; it forces a convoluted style almost im-
possible for an engineer to make concise, precise,
and grammatical. I and we are not four-letter
words; they are entirely acceptable in technical
reports and publications. We do not suggest that
every sentence start with I or mwe; one seeks
variety. If you are too humble or shy to bring
yourself to write I, use we, in the sense of you, the
reader, and I, the writer. One also has its place.
Do not think you can avoid responsibility for
what you write by adopting an impersonal style.
No way; your name is on the title page. Take some
pride in it; you are the expert.
IV. Write in the present tense, unless it is
clearly inappropriate. In some technical writing,

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

changes of tense are nearly as numerous as sen-
tences. In student reports one often finds past,
present, and future tenses all in the same para-
graph, even in the same sentence. This confuses
the reader, and is usually senseless. The results
given in a design report are of course determined
in the past, but they still exist, and should be
presented and discussed in the present tense.
V. Avoid Techlishese. This heading covers a
variety of literary vices:
(a) Jargon, elongated or fancy words. For ex-
ample:
"Finalized" for 'final"
"Pursuance" for "pursuit"
"Utilize" or "utilization" or "usage" for "use"
"Systematize" for "order"
"Synthesize" for "make"
"Hypothesize" for "assume"

(b) "Using" (and its variants)
Examples:
Density is calculated using
equation.

as a preposition.

the ideal-gas

... by using ...
... by use of ...
... by utilizing...
... by utilization of...
... by making use of...
In each case the simple preposition by adequately
replaces the verbal expression.
(c) Possessives. Possession is usually associated
with living things: "the consultant's fee," "the
horse's mouth." An expression such as "the heat
exchanger's tubes" is at best graceless. To speak
of "Martha's tubes" might also be graceless, but
is syntactically proper.
Note also that "it's" is not a possessive, but a
contraction of "it is."
(d) "Due to" is not a synonym for "because of."
It means "caused by":
The fire was due to a weld rupture.
Compare the following sentences.
Techlish: Due to the fact that the pressure
was low, the ideal-gas equation is
used to calculate density.
English: Because the pressure is low, we cal-
culate density by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.
(e) "So" is not a co-ordinating conjunction, and
does not mean "therefore" in formal prose.
Techlish: The pressure is low, so we calculate
density ...
English: The pressure is low; therefore we
calculate density ...

Note the semicolon which separates the two inde-
pendent clauses of the second sentence; use of a
comma here is wrong.
VI. Shun the dangling modifier. A verbal
phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer
to the subject of the sentence:
Being hotly pursued, she saw the garden
ahead.
"She" is the subject of the sentence, and "she" is
being pursued. The logical relationship is more
evident if we transpose the verbal phrase:
She, being hotly pursued, saw the garden
ahead.
Note that we cannot put this verbal phrase at the
end of the sentence without producing an ab-
surdity:
She saw the garden ahead being hotly pur-
sued.
Forced to write in the passive voice of Techlish,
the engineer likely recasts this sentence into
something like:
Being hotly pursued, the garden came into
view.
Presumably the garden is not being pursued, but
we cannot tell that from the sentence. "Garden"
is the subject of the sentence, and the verbal
phrase, regardless of its location, refers to the
garden:
The garden, being hotly pursued, came into
view.
The garden came into view being hotly pur-
sued.
Do we find this sort of nonense in technical writ-
ing? In fact, we do, frequently. Consider:
To calculate the gas density, ideality is as-
sumed.
The subject of the sentence is "ideality"; the
verbal phrase "to calculate" must refer to it. Does
"ideality" do the calculation? Try it the other way:
Ideality is assumed to calculate the gas
density.
Even if we understand the sentence, it does not
reveal who does the calculation or who does the
assuming. The verbal phrase is said to dangle. In
contrast, we have the unambiguous statement in
the active voice:
To calculate the gas density, we assume
ideality.
There are other possibilities:
Techlish: Assuming ideality, the gas density is
calculated.
English: Assuming ideality, we calculate the
gas density.

FALL 1977

Entirely proper sentences can also be constructed
with the verbal phrase as the subject of the sen-
tence:
Assuming ideality allows calculation of the
gas density.
Calculating the gas density is simplified by,
the assumption of ideality.
The richness of English derives from the many
possible arrangements of words by which a mes-
sage may be expressed; however, we can suggest
nothing more direct or clearer than:
We calculate density by the ideal-gas equa-
tion.
We have stated an absolute rule respecting
verbal phrases at the beginning of a sentence, be-
cause that is the usual location of the most in-
sidious dangling modifier. However, verbal
phrases can dangle in other locations, and clarity,
if not grammar, requires that they be revised out
of technical prose. The test of whether a phrase
dangles is simple enough: If it is obvious from the
sentence who or what is doing what the verb im-
plies, the phrase does not dangle.
VII. Heed rules of particular importance to
technical writers.
(a) Units. Most numbers are associated with
units, and these must be clearly expressed. For
this purpose pick conventions and stick to them.
Many possibilities exist; for example:

4 (atm)
12 (cm)
17 (cm)
30 (ft) / (s)
24 (J) / (s) (cm) 2

or 4 atm.
or 12 cm.
or 17 cu.cm.
or 30 ft./s.
or 24 J./s.-cm.2

or 4 atm
or 12 cm
or 17 cu cm
or 30 ft/s
or 24 J/s-sq cm

(b) Symbols and numerals. Do not begin sentences
with them. The simplest reason is that one runs
into conflict with the capitalization rule for the
first letter of a sentence. How does one write an
upper-case 2?
Two liters of water are added.
Not
2 liters of water are added.
Is the symbol q capitalized at the head of a sen-
tence?
The symbol q represents heat.
Not
q (or Q ?) is the symbol for heat.
(c) Hyphens. Technical language abounds with
groups of words that serve as a single adjective;
hyphenation is required when such adjectives mod-
ify a noun:

ideal-gas equation
constant-presssure heat capacity
standard-state fugacity
2-inch pipe
heat-exchange fluid
220-volt circuit
4-foot-long duct
The hyphens connect all words which alone do
not modify the final noun. Thus in ideal-gas equa-
tion, we are writing about neither an "ideal equa-
tion" nor a "gas equation"; in constant -pressure-
heat capacity, "constant" modifies "pressure" and
the compound adjective "constant-pressure" mod-
ifies "capacity", which is also modified by "heat".
The reason for this rule is that without it one can-
not make the necessary distinctions between, for
example:
one armed bandit and one-armed bandit
a high school girl and a high-school girl
3 foot-long tubes and 3-foot-long tubes
(d) Bibliography. Reference is frequently made
in technical writing to outside sources of informa-
tion. The use of footnotes is not generally satis-
factory, and references are usually collected in a
separate section at the end. A consistent format
for all references is essential in this section; pick
one, and stick to it. The current trend is to include
the title of the reference. For example:
1. Seeder, A. B., and V. D. Chitnis, "Laser Technology
in Ancient Greece," J. Early Physics, 6, 4298 (1977).
In the text, reference is usually made to this entry
by a number in parentheses:
Seeder and Chitnis (1) report that...
Note that "in Perry" is not a proper reference to
the Chemical Engineers' Handbook, no matter
how widely known it may be. This volume is listed
in the Bibliography as:
2. Perry, R. H., and C. H. Chilton, editors. Chemical
Engineers' Handbook, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1973.

EXAMPLES OF STUDENT PROSE
CONSIDER NOW SOME typical examples of
student prose. Occasionally one finds a short,
plain sentence:
The number of tubes was economically de-
termined.
Unfortunately, brevity and simplicity are out-
weighed by faults. The passive voice and past
tense don't help, but the real problem is that the
sentence does not say what is meant and misses
the opportunity to convey important information.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

The design of a heat exchanger obviously requires
determination (economically or otherwise) of the
number of tubes; it is this number that is im-
portant. The sentence should be replaced by:
The most economical number of tubes is
145.
This is a positive, definite statement devoid of
"bull".
Another short, plain sentence:
Make-up gas was calculated from energy
considerations.
This one is plain nonsense. Gas (make-up or any
other kind) cannot be calculated; calculation gives
an amount or a rate. "Energy considerations" is
too indefinite. What kind of considerations?
Again, the sentence should be replaced by a posi-
tive, specific statement, such as,
An energy balance yields the make-up-gas
flow rate.
One can understand the following sentence,
but it is pure Techlish:
Using the McCabe-Thiele method, 34 equi-
librium stages were necessary.

Thus, by the time a
student is required to write a
technical report he slips naturally into
a special written language which we call Techlish.

Who is "using the McCabe-Thiele method?" Cer-
tainly not the "34 equilibrium stages" as is im-
plied by the sentence structure. The 34 stages were
necessary. Is this true now? The sentence is easily
translated into English.
The number of equilibrium stages, calcu-
lated by the McCabe-Thiele method, is 34.
or
The McCabe-Thiele procedure yields 34
equilibrium stages.
"Using" (and its variants) is the most over-
worked word of Techlish; revision of a sentence
to exclude it almost always results in improve-
ment. This is true also of such common Techlish
expressions as "it was necessary" and "in order
to":
Techlish: In order to maintain isothermal
conditions it is necessary to cool the
reactor.
English: The isothermal reactor requires
cooling.

Techlish: In order to calculate the tower re-
quired, it was necessary to have
vapor-liquid equilibrium data. This
data was found by use of vapor
pressures and assuming ideal solu-
tions and ideal gas (Raoult's Law).
English: Raoult's law provides the vapor-
liquid equilibrium data required for
calculation of the number of trays
in the tower.
The last example of Techlish is so bad as to make
a complete list of faults impractical. We note the
following:
* Passive voice.
* Past tense.
* "to calculate" refers to "it," and is a dangling verbal
phrase.
* Evidently a tower is calculated. Absurd.
* Techlish: "In order to," "it was necessary," "by use of".
* "This data was ." "Data" is the plural of datum, and
requires plural modifiers and a plural verb:
"These data were .", or "these data are. .
* Non-parallel construction in the second sentence:
"by use of ... and assuming"
* An explanation of Raoult's law. Why insult the boss's
intelligence?
The following is an example of an inappropri-
ate narrative style:
In this design of this heat transfer system
we assume the moving bed to be a packed
bed throughout the duration of this opera-
tion. To assure we have a packed bed system
we had to find the superficial fluidization
velocity. Our fluidization velocity was equal
to 1905 ft/hr. When finding the dimensions
of the preheater and post-cooler we need
superficial velocities which were at most
75% of the fluidization velocity.
The translation into English:
Gas velocities through the moving packed
beds of the preheater and post-cooler are
no greater than 1430 ft/hr, about 75% of
the fluidization velocity.

The story-telling version is of course replete with
"bull", which when squeezed out reduces the
length by two-thirds. Other problems with the
Techlish text:
"this design," "this heat transfer system," "this opera-
tion." Is it clear what each "this" refers to?
Multiple changes in tense.
Lack of hyphens in "heat-transfer system" and "packed-
bed system."
Continued on page 173.

FALL 1977

47 Cetwe ie

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

IN SURFACE INTERACTIONS

J. A. DUMESIC
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

A N IMPORTANT PART of chemical reaction
engineering is the "design" of heterogeneous
catalysts; and, in general, this design process
rests both on (1) experience (e.g. correlations of
catalytic activity and selectivity with the catalyst's
solid state and surface properties) and (2) a
fundamental understanding of the interaction of
surfaces with adsorbed species. While the former
aspect of catalyst design is already well estab-
lished in ChE graduate training, the concepts con-
tained in the latter are not usually encountered in
ChE graduate curricula. Instead, the student must
combine several courses-for example, in quantum
chemistry, statistical mechanics and solid state
physics-in order to cover the essential features
of surface interactions. Yet, this approach does
not provide the continuity that is necessary for
effective application of these concepts to catalytic
phenomena.
One possible solution to this problem is to de-
velop a one-semester introductory course to the
fundamentals of surface interactions and their
applications to adsorption and catalysis; by
stressing the physical, chemical and catalytic
breadth that is necessary for the understanding of
surface phenomena, the course can be given to
first-year graduate students without prerequisites.
Subsequent to this course, a student with special
interest in surface phenomena can take an inter-
disciplinary program to develop depth in various
areas. The advantage of this approach is that the
interrelation between the physical, chemical and
catalytic concepts is made at the outset, thereby
providing the necessary continuity. Furthermore,
this course would give a catalysis-related point of
view into surface interactions for students from

such areas as solid state physics, chemistry and
material science. What follows is a suggestion for
the scope and organization of such a course (based
on a new course in development at the University
of Wisconsin). In addition, the relationship of this
course to the University of Wisconsin curriculum
in chemical reaction engineering is shown in
Figure 1. As limiting cases, reaction engineering
is divided into (1) reactor engineering and design,
and (2) catalysis and catalyst design, since these
are the two major areas of specialization within
this field.

COURSE SCOPE
TN CONTEMPORARY SURFACE science and
catalysis research, there appears to be a gap
between developments in fundamental theories of
adsorption for simple species (e.g. H, CO), and

Undergraduate
Kinetics, Catalyso i and
Reactor Design

Reactor Design Kinetics and Catalysis in Surface Interactions

-__ :. -
i Interdisciplinary Studies
S(e.g. chemistry, physics, mathematics)

Seinr Cur.
(e.g. Liqid-Phase Reaction Engineering, Application
SChemil Principles o New Processes
.....4

FIGURE 1. Curriculum in Chemical Reaction Engineering.
FIGURE 1. Curriculum in Chemical Reaction Engineering.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

T__
_J

interpretations of reaction kinetics and adsorp-
tion behavior for catalytically interesting species
(e.g. hydrocarbons). This gap arises primarily
from the difficulty (computational, not funda-
mental) in treating "complex" adsorbed species
rigorously in the framework of the adsorption
theories. Yet, it seems reasonable (from both a
research and educational point of view) to develop
and use the concepts of the theories qualitatively
(for now) to aid in the understanding of these
"complex" adsorption and reaction phenomena.
This is, in fact, a major objective of the suggested
course.
The least that one must expect of a qualitative
theory of adsorption phenomena is that it be con-
sistent with the symmetry of the (absorbed
species-surface) system. Furthermore, it seems
reasonable to exhaust those concepts derivable
from symmetry alone (since this can be done
rigorously) before construction of a qualitative
theory. Therefore, the first part of the course deals
with group theory, and its application to surface
and chemical phenomena.
Before considering detailed calculations of the
electronic structure of the (absorbed species-
surface) system, it is convenient to treat the
adsorbed species and the solid at infinite relative
separation. That is, the next phase of the course
introduces molecular orbital theory and solid state
physics, respectively. Subsequently, the absorbed
species is allowed to interact with the surface,
leading to chemisorption.
In the final part of the course, the theoretical
concepts are applied to various topics in adsorp-
tion and catalysis. This demonstrates how the
general theory can be simplified to obtain mean-
ingful results for different types of catalysts and
reactions.
COURSE STRUCTURE
T HE OVERALL STRUCTURE of the course is
schematically shown in Figure 2, and it is seen
therein that there are four major divisions: sym-
metry, solid state, surface interactions, and ap-
plications to adsorption and catalysis. These are
discussed in greater detail below.

1. Symmetry
One begins with the concept of symmetry
operations (e.g. proper rotations, mirrors), and
the classification of molecular structure in terms
of point group symmetries. For a given point
group, representations for the group and the bases

for these representations are then considered.
Through appropriate manipulation, each repre-
sentation can be decomposed into a set of irreduc-
ible representations; this leads to the character
table for the group. With a minimum of abstract
derivation, group theory can be applied to chem-
ical phenomena; indeed, the different applications
result primarily from different choices of basis.
These applications include: (1) infrared and
Raman spectroscopies, (2) crystal field theory,
(3) hybridization, (4) ligand field theory, (6) the
Woodward-Hoffmann rules, and importantly (7)
molecular orbital theory.
Along with the above applications, one must
introduce the concept of matrix elements of op-
erators, since symmetry can be used to deduce

There appears to be a gap
between developments in fundamental
theories of adsorption for simple species
(e.g. H, CO), and interpretations of reaction
kinetics and adsorption behavior for catalytically
interesting species (e.g., hydrocarbons).

when various matrix elements must be identically
zero. Then it is shown that two states may "inter-
act" with each other when matrix elements be-
tween them are nonzero; depending on the sym-
metry of the interaction operator (e.g. the Hamil-
tonian) this imposes restrictions on the symmetry
of interacting states.
When translation is added to the point group
symmetry operations, then the two- and three-
dimensional space groups are generated. Special
sites in the unit cell are classified according to
their point group symmetries; for the two-
dimensional space groups, these sites become
adsorption sites on surfaces. However, the most
striking consequence of the translational sym-
metry is diffraction. As examples, x-ray diffrac-
tion (three-dimensional) and/or low energy elec-
tron diffraction can be discussed. This leads
naturally into the reciprocal lattice. When "ex-
ternal diffraction" is replaced by "internal elec-
tron diffraction," solid state electronic structure
is introduced.

2. Solid State
After a brief review of the Schrodinger equa-
tion and its implications in atomic structure (i.e.

FALL 1977

s-, p- and d-orbitals), the free electron gas model
for simple metals is derived. In so doing, k-space
(wavevector space) can be introduced, followed
by the computation of the density of states from
constant energy contours in k-space. The occupa-
tion of these states by the electrons is in accord
with Fermi-Dirac statistics. Next, the effect of
the periodic placement of the metal atoms is
"turned on," leading to "internal electron diffrac-
tion." As discussed in the symmetry part of the
course, diffraction can be described by the recip-
rocal lattice, and in this way k-space becomes
divided into the Brillouin zones. Furthermore, the
translational symmetry of the lattice requires that
the electron wavefunctions be written as Bloch
functions, and all Brillouin zones can then be
diffracted (translated in k-space) back into one
zone. This is the reduced zone scheme for display
of band structure.
Through the free electron gas model the basic
concepts of solid state physics have now been
introduced. Next, these concepts are used to dis-
cuss qualitatively the electronic structure of semi-
conductors. Of particular importance are (1)
doping of semiconductors (p- and n-type), (2)
conduction electrons and valence holes, and (3)
the bending of bands due to electron transfer.
Of special importance are transition metals
and the associated d-band. Because the d-orbitals
are not as diffuse as the outer valence s- and
p-orbitals (e.g. 3d orbitals are less diffuse than 4s
and 4p), the tight-binding approximation can be
used to describe the d-band; on the other hand, the
(nearly) free electron gas model seems adequate
to describe the broader (in energy) s- and p-bands
resulting from the valence s- and p-orbitals.
Qualitatively, at least, the electronic structure of
transition metals can now be simply represented.
Finally, the solid state portion of the course
can be supplemented by a discussion of defects
and defect reactions. An appropriate defect sym-
bolism should be introduced (e.g. Kr6ger sym-
bolism), allowing defect reactions to be written
consistent with the material balance, charge
balance and lattice site balance. Then problems in
for example non-stoichiometry, disorder type, and
controlled (through doping) valence and defect
concentration can be addressed.

3. Surface Interactions

One is now ready to consider the interaction
of adsorbed species with surfaces. To parallel the
solid state section, one may begin with adsorption

I. SYMMETRY
Point Group Symmetry
Representations/Bases
Character Tables
Applications
IR/Raman Spectros-
Crystal/Ligand Fields
Woodwa rd-Hoffmann
rules
Hylridization
Molecular Orbital Theory
Matrix Elements
Orbital "Interactions"
Space Group Symmetry
Translation
Diffraction
Reciprocal Lattice

II. SOLID STATE
Free Electron Gas
Density of States
Fermi-Dirac Statistics
Brillouin Zones
Bloch Functions
Semiconductors
Conduction Electrons
Val nce HoN d
Doping (p and n)

Transition Metals
s, p, and d-bands
Tight-Binding
Defect
Symbolism
Balances

III. SURFACE INTERACTIONS
Semiconductors
Boundary Layer Theory
Cumulative Adsorption
Depletive Adsorption
Photocatalytic Effects
"One-Dimensional Metal"
Surface States
Adatom Density of States
Bonding/Antibonding States
Surface Molecule

Real Metals
Green',s Functions
Level Width Function
Level Shift Function
Surface bands
Symmetry of
Adsorption

IV. APPLICATIONS TO ADSORPTION AND CATALYSIS

FIGURE 2. Structure of the Course: Fundamental Con-
cepts in Surface Interactions.

on semiconductors. Starting with boundary layer
theory one again encounters bending of the elec-
tron bands due to charge transfer at the surface.
This leads to the cases of cumulative and depletive
adsorption. As a more advanced example, one may
discuss photoadsorptive and photocatalytic effects
in semiconductor catalysis.
For adsorption on metals, a one-dimensional
model can be used to illustrate many of the phys-
ical principles pertinent to adsorption on real
surfaces. Specifically, a semi-infinite chain of
atoms is modelled in the tight-binding approxima-
tion to form a one-dimensional d-band. Of signif-
icance, is the density of states on the surface atom,
and in certain cases a localized surface state is
formed (i.e., the electron density of this state
decays exponentially from the surface into the
bulk). Then, an adatom is allowed to adsorbb" on
the surface end of the chain, and one calculates the
adatom density of states. For a sufficiently strong
interaction between the adatom and the surface,
localized bonding and antibonding states are
formed, leading to the concept of a surface mole-
cule.
The treatment of adsorption on two-dimen-
sional surfaces is facilitated by introduction of the
Green's function. It then follows that the metal
and adatom density of states (for the interacting
system of adatom plus metal) are readily de-
rivable from the Green's function. In particular,
the adatom density of states can be written in
terms of a level width function and a level shift
function. Then, in order to bring together all
aspects of the course: (1) a surface d-band is

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

constructed in the tight-binding approximation
(solid state), (2) matrix elements between the
absorbed species molecular orbitals and the sur-
face d-band are inspected (symmetry), and (3)
the adatom density of states is analysed (surface
interactions).

4. Applications
The course ends with the application of these
fundamental concepts to topics in adsorption and
catalysis. This can be done through formal lec-
tures or student special projects and reports. The
latter procedure was followed at the University of
Wisconsin, and below is a list of special projects
recently chosen by students.
Application of Woodward-Hoffmann rules to catalysis
Alloy catalysis
Electronic properties of metal clusters
Electronic and structural factors for adsorption on semi-
conductors
Surface diffusion in catalysis
Absorbed atomic species (oxygen on metal oxides)
Statistical mechanics of adsorption
Hydrogen adsorption on metals.

CONCLUDING REMARK

The primary objective of the course is to pro-
vide the physical and chemical breadth that is
necessary for a fundamental understanding of
adsorption and catalytic phenomena. As a result,
a significant fraction (ca. 30%) of the course en-
rollment at the University of Wisconsin has come
from students in physics, chemistry and material
science.
In the course, basic concepts pertinent to sur-
face interactions are introduced and synthesized
in various simple applications. The necessary pro-
ficiency in the use of the concepts for the interpre-
tation of reaction kinetics and adsorption phe-
nomena comes with further practice and study.
This can be accomplished by subsequently follow-
ing an interdisciplinary program of course study,
and/or reading the literature. E

REFERENCES
The following is a list of texts that have been
useful in various parts of the course.
I. Symmetry
1. Cotton, F. A., The Chemical Applications of Group
Theory. (Second Edition), John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1971.
2. Pearson, R. G., Symmetry Rules for Chemical Re-
actions, Orbital Topology and Elementary Proc-

esses, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976.
3. International Tables for X-ray Crystallography,
Vol. I, Kynoch Press, 1969.
II. Solid State
1. Kittel, C., Introduction to Solid State Physics
(Fourth Edition), John Wiley and Sons, New York,
1971.
2. Harrison, W. A., Solid State Theory, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1970.
3. KrUger, F. A., The Chemistry of Imperfect Crystals
(Second Edition), Vol. 2, North-Holland/American
Elsevier, New York, 1974.
III. Surface Interactions
1. NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series B: Physics,
Vol. 16, Electronic Structure and Reactivity of
Metal Surfaces (E. G. Derouane and A. A. Lucas,
editors), Plenum Press, New York, 1976.
2. The Physical Basis for Heterogeneous Catalysis
(E. Drauglis and R. I. Jaffee, editors), Plenum
Press, New York, 1975.
3. Clark, A., The Chemisorptive Bond, Basic Concepts,
Academic Press, New York, 1974.

ACADEMIC POSITIONS
For advertising rates contact Ms. B. J. Neelands, CEE
c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. 32611

RUTGERS
THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY

Department of Chemical and Biochemical
Engineering

FACULTY POSITIONS IN CHEMICAL AND BIO-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Rutgers University,
The State University of New Jersey, invites applica-
tions for several full-time faculty positions for
undergraduate and graduate teaching and research
in the fields of chemical and/or biochemical engi-
neering. One tenure track assistant Professorship is
open now to be filled in early 1978. It is expected
that one or more similar positions can start later
in the year. Applicants must have a doctoral degree
in chemical and/or biochemical engineering at the
time of the appointment and possess the dual
abilities to develop sponsored research programs
and teach in several areas of their field. Submit
resume, including at least three professional
references, a list of journal publications, and a brief
summary statement about your plans for research
and teaching. Send your application to the Chair-
person, Search Committee, Department of Chemical
and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers-The State
University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903.
Rutgers is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity
employer.

FALL 1977

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

JACOB JORNE
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan 48202

"If a piece of zinc and a piece of copper be
brought in contact with each other, they will form a
weak electrical combination, of which the zinc will
be positive, the copper negative. This may be learned
by the use of a delicate condensing electrometer, or
by pouring zinc filings through holes in a plate of
copper upon a common electrometer; but the power
of the combination may be most distinctly exhibited
in the experiments, called Galvanic experiments, by
connecting the two metals, which must be in contact
with each other, with a nerve and muscle in the limb
of an animal recently deprived of life, a frog for in-
stance; at the moment the contact is completed, or
the circuit made, one metal touching the muscle, the
other the nerve, violent contractions of the limb will
be occasioned."
-Humphrey Davy, 1812, in
Elements of Chemical Philosophy,
London: J. Johnson and Company.

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE of Chemical
Engineers was founded in 1908 in response to
the growing industrial interest in electrochemical
processes such as chlorine, caustic, carborundum
and electroplating of copper and nickel. Electro-
chemical engineering is therefore no stranger to
the main stream of chemical engineering and is
taught presently in many leading American uni-
versities.
The primary objective of an electrochemical
engineer as well as of every chemical engineer is
to bring chemical processes to practical realiza-
tion and to operate them under optimal and eco-
nomical conditions. Electrochemical engineering
serves electrochemistry in the same way that ChE
interacts with chemistry.
Electrochemistry is the science which studies
the direct conversion between electricity and
chemical reactions. It is the oldest branch of phys-
ical chemistry and can be traced back to the
eighteenth century. There is even evidence of the
use of primitive batteries in antiquity. Ancient

iron-copper batteries were found in Iraq and evi-
dence of copper electroplating was found in Egypt.
Modern electrochemistry emerged from the pio-
neering discoveries of Volta, Galvani, Davy and
Faraday in the early nineteenth century.
Electrochemical engineering is a relatively
young field, which emerged in the beginning of
the twentieth century, and progressed rapidly in
the last thirty years with the expansion of the
electrochemical industry. Electrochemistry played
an important part in the scientific and technolog-
ical revolution of the twentieth century. Thomas
Edison can best be described as an electrochemical
engineer. His original laboratory, presently pre-
served in Greenfield Village near Detroit, is a
classical example of an electrochemical laboratory.
Today the electrochemical industry consumes
nearly 10 % of the total electrical power generated
in the United States. Many of the things taken for
granted in the pleasures and necessities of modern
living depend on electrochemistry. Few people are
aware of its role and importance. The most rec-
ognizable example is the battery. In the form of
dry cells, storage batteries and fuel cells electro-
chemistry provides the power for many devices.
From the tiny batteries of calculators, radio tran-
sistors and implanted heart pacemakers to the

Jacob Jorne is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Wayne State University. He obtained his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from the
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. from the
University of California at Berkeley, under the direction of Professor
Charles Tobias.
On the faculty of Wayne State University since 1972, Jacob
Jorne has developed a research program in electrochemical engi-
neering which includes the fundamental studies of the zinc-chlorine
battery, hydrogen fuel cells, nonaqueous electrochemistry, solar
electrochemical conversion and corrosion. He is consulting to various
electrochemical industries. He is currently engaged in studying both
theoretically and experimentally the role of population diffusion and
dispersion in ecological systems, and the stability of prey-predator
interacting populations.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

large fuel cells of the Gemini and Apollo space
flights, electrochemical energy conversion is the
only known way to convert and store electrical
energy directly.
Synthesis of essential chemicals can only be
accomplished by electrolysis. Most of the im-
portant metals are produced, or the impure form
refined, exclusively by electrolysis. All the alum-
inum, magnesium and nickel and a large portion
of the copper and zinc are produced or purified in
hundreds of thousands of tons per year by electro-
chemical processes. The aluminum production
processes alone consume a staggering 72 billion
KWhr annually. Chlorine, which is an extremely
important raw material in the plastic industry, is
produced electrochemically in the amount of sev-
eral thousand tons per day. Any improvement in
the current efficiency and overpotential of these
processes is of utmost importance. Plating, electro-
chemical machining of hard metals and desalina-
tion of sea water are all examples of electrochem-
ical processes which are conducted on remarkably
large scales throughout the world.
All of these processes have one principle in
common. They all depend on a chemical process
taking place at an electrically conducting surface
while simultaneously giving up or taking on one
or more electrons. Energy for the reaction comes
from pumping electrons into the reaction zone.
The emergence of electrochemical engineering
as an independent field is quite similar to that of
ChE. Both fields introduced the concept of trans-
port phenomena, especially mass transport, and
quantitative approaches. The importance of con-
vective diffusion in electrochemical systems is due
to their heterogeneous nature. Nernst introduced
in 1904 the concept of the film model which is no
more than a simplified stagnant diffusion bound-
ary layer. However, the importance of mass trans-
fer in electrochemical systems was fully recog-
nized from the original works of Benjamin Levich,
Carl Wagner and Charles Kasper in the 1940's;
this was later developed into a recognized aca-
demic program by Charles Tobias and John
Newman.
Today electrochemical engineering is an inte-
gral part of ChE and is taught in many ChE
programs in major American universities among
them: U.C. Berkeley, U.C. Davis, U.C.L.A., Illi-
nois, Case Western Reserve, Illinois Institute of
Technology, Northwestern, Connecticut, Oregon
State, Michigan, Wisconsin and Wayne State.
Electrochemical engineering is not limited to

the subject of transport phenomena. The main
stream of research includes energy conversion
and storage (batteries and fuel cells) ; scaling up;
current distribution, porous electrodes, organic
electrochemistry, photo-electrochemistry and the
utilization of solar energy, non-aqueous electro-
lytic solution and molten salts, electromachining

The heart of the course
is dedicated to the various over-
potentials and evaluating of cell potential
scaling up and design consideration
of electrochemical reactors.

and environmental aspects among others. The
central problems of electrochemical engineering
are to increase the productivity of electrochemical
reactors and to improve their energy efficiency.
Electrochemical systems are very complex and
their principles depend upon the understanding of
thermodynamics, kinetics, transport phenomena,
electricity and surface phenomena. Though we
have not yet arrived at a point where all can be
left to the computer, perhaps the electrochemical
industry is now emerging from an era of em-
piricism and becoming more quantiative.

COURSE DESCRIPTION
AT WAYNE STATE University a three hour
credit course in electrochemical engineering
is offered annually during the Winter quarter.
The course has been taught since 1973 and was
attended by approximately sixty students, both
graduate and seniors. The course is open to en-
gineers and chemists from the local Detroit in-
dustry and is scheduled every other year during
the evening hours to enable part-time students
and professionals to attend classes. The electro-
chemical engineering course is followed by a cor-
rosion course in the Spring quarter.
The course does not follow a particular text-
book, but rather a set of notes and homework
problems. A list of recommended books is given
in the reference section. The homework problems
are assigned weekly and the final grade is deter-
mined by two exams and a term paper. The stu-
dents usually select the subject of the termpaper
from a list of topics. The course outline is pre-
sented in Table 1 and a list of termpapers from

FALL 1977

TABLE I. Electrochemical Engineering
Course Outline

1. Introduction to Electrochemical Engineering
a. The Scope and Importance of Electrochemistry
b. The five "E": Electrochemistry, Engineering, En-
ergy, Environment and Economics.
c. Examples from the Electrochemical Industry
2. Faraday's Laws
3. The Electrolytic Solution
a. Conduction in Aqueous Solution-Debye-Huckel
Theory
b. The Concept of Electrical Potential
c. Conduction in Nonaqueous Solutions and Fused
Salts
d. Primary Current Distribution in Various Geo-
metrical Cells
4. Thermodynamics of Galvanic Cells
a. The Electromotive Force
b. Standard Potentials and the Nernst Equation
c. Application of Electrochemical Cells: Measure-
ments of Gibbs Free Energy, Entropy, Enthalpy,
Activity Coefficients, Standard Potentials and Sign
Convention
d. Reference Electrodes
5. Electrochemical Kinetics
a. The Electrical Double Layer
b. The Theory of Rate Processes Applied to Electro-
chemistry
c. The Tafel Equation
d. Charge Transfer Overpotential
6. Mass Transfer in Electrochemical Systems
a. Diffusion Controlled Electrochemical Reaction
b. The Importance of Convection and the Concept of
Limiting current
c. Mass Transfer Overpotential or Concentration
Polarization
d. Secondary Current Distribution
e. The Rotating Disk Electrode
7. Synthesis of the Principles and Applications
a. Evaluation of Cell Potential and Overpotential
b. The Combined Effect of Standard Potential,
Ohmic Resistance, Charge Transfer and Mass
Transfer Overpotentials
c. Industrial Examples: Batteries, Chlor-Alkali In-
dustry, Aluminum Production, Copper Refining,
Plating, Electrowinning, Corrosion
d. Modeling and Optimization of Electrochemical
Systems
e. Electrochemical Machining-Design Problem
f. The Chlor-Alkali Industry-Economical and En-
vironmental Evaluation, New Process Design
8. Students Presentation of Term Papers.
See Table II for examples

the last several years is presented in Table 2. The
course is not intended to cover the physical chem-
istry of electrolytic solutions or the principles of
electrochemistry, however many ChE students
have not studied enough electrochemistry in their
physical chemistry sequence. Consequently the

first three weeks are devoted to the survey of
Faraday's laws, ionization and electrolytic solu-
tions, the standard potential and the Nernst
equation. This is done in order to bring all the
students to the same level.
The heart of the course is dedicated to the
various over-potentials and evaluation of cell po-
tential, scaling up and design consideration of
electrochemical reactors.
The convenience of using electrochemical tech-
niques in mass transfer measurements is em-
phasized: the rate (current) and the driving force
(potential) can be easily controlled and measured.
However the complications due to electrical migra-
tion and non-uniform current distribution are
brought to the class attention. The concept of mass
transfer limiting current i, is introduced and the
ChE students are reacquainted with this electro-
chemical term which is directly related to the
familiar Sherwood number

Sh = iL.L / n-F-D-Cb

where F is the Faraday's constant, n the number
of electrons transferred in the electrochemical re-
action, D is the diffusion coefficient, L the char-
acteristic length, and Cb is the bulk concentration.
Measuring the limiting current is therefore an
easy way of establishing mass transfer correla-
tions.

TABLE II. Examples of Term Papers

1. Developmental Batteries For Electric Vehicles
2. Bioelectrochemistry of Membranes and Nerves
3. Ion Selective Electrodes
4. Decorative Electrodeposition: Copper, Nickel, Chrome
Plating
5. Feasibility of Making C12 and NaOH at Very High
Current Densities
6. Signal Transmissions in the Nerves
7. Energy Efficiency in Aluminum Production
8. Rotating Disk and Ring-Disk Electrodes
9. Pitting Corrosion-Electrochemical Aspects
10. Fuel Cells
11. Intermolecular Potentials and the Kinetics of Ionic
Solutions
12. Cathodic and Anodic Protections.
13. Electrochemical and Photochemical Responses in the
Eye
14. Low Pressure, Low Temperature Hydrogen-Oxygen
Fuel Cells
15. The Chlor-Alkali Industry
16. The Use of Dimensionless Groups in Electrochemical
Engineering
17. Electrochemical Machining
18. The Hydrogen Economy: Water Electrolysis and Fuel
Cells.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

The last section of the course is devoted to ap-
plications, especially energy storage and conver-
sion and various important electrochemical proc-
esses, e.g. the chlor-alkali industry, aluminum
production and the proposed hydrogen economy.
Special topics of interest include bioelectrochem-
istry, membranes, electrodialysis, electrochemical
machining, porous electrodes and high energy
batteries.
An interesting class project is the technical
comparison and economical evaluation of the vari-
ous processes for chlorine-caustic production: the
mercury, diaphragm and the newly developed
membrane cells. The environmental impacts of the
three processes are discussed at length. A new
high current chlorine production process which
involves high. flow velocities is proposed as an
exercise and the students are asked to design the
process and to compare it to existing processes.
The novel technique of electrochemical machin-
ing is brought as an example of achieving very
high rates which were unheard of only 15 years
ago. In this technique the negative replica of the
cathode is reproduced in the anode piece by high
rate anodic dissolution. High current densities in
the order of 100 A/cm2 can be achieved by circu,
lating the electrolyte at high velocities (10 m/s)
through a very small gap (0.1-0.5mm). This is
an excellent example of incorporating ChE and
electrochemistry principles. The students are
asked to design an electrochemical machining sys-
tem using well known heat, mass and momentum
transfer correlations, and to evaluate the power
consumption.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
INDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMICAL processes
will no doubt increase in relative importance to
other chemical processes in the future. Increasing
electrical energy generation relative to petroleum
production will favor electrochemical processes
and will need new electrochemical storage and
conversion methods. Many known electrochemical
reactions will be re-examined and improved. New
membranes and new electrodes will be developed,
and electro-organic chemistry as well as metal
production by electrowinning will be expanded.
It is anticipated that careful application of elec-
trochemistry to biological problems will provide
new solutions and new techniques. It is predicted
that biological membrane research will expand.
Direct application of electrochemistry to thera-
peutic situations will increase fn the medical pro-
fession.

The role of the electrochemical engineer of the
future will be to bridge the gap between the sci-
entific discoveries and the yet unknown economic
reality of the future. The present trend in electro-
chemical engineering of better quantitative under-
standing, better cell design, scale up and optimiza-
tion insure that we are ready to fulfill the promis-
ing future of electrochemistry. O

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
1. Potter, E. C., Electrochemistry, Cleaver Hume Press,
London 1956.
2. Newman, J., Electrochemical Systems, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1973.
3. Bockris, J. O'M, and A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electro-
chemistry, Plenum Press, New York 1970.
4. Kortiim, G. F. A., Treatise on Electrochemistry, 2nd
ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, 1965.
5. MacInnes, D. A., The Principles of Electrochemistry,
Reinhold, New York, 1939.
6. Delahay, P., Double Layer and Electrode Kinetics,
Interscience, New York, 1965.
7. Vetter, K. J., Electrochemical Kinetics, Academic Press,
New York, 1967.
8. Mantell, C. L., Electrochemical Engineering, 4th ed.,
McGraw Hill, New York, 1960.
9. Kuhn, A. T., Industrial Electrochemical Processes,
Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, 1971.
10. Moore, W. J., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., Ch. 10 & 12,
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972.
11. Bard, A. J., ed., Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry of
Elements, vol. 1, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973.
12. Hampel, C. A., ed., The Encyclopedia of Electrochem-
istry, Reinhold, New York, 1964.

Book reviews

INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS SCIENCE
(SI EDITION)
by B. R. Schlenker
John Wiley & Sons Australiana Pty, 1974.
364 pages.
Reviewed by C. E. Birchenall, U. of Delaware
In the foreword to this book, Professor Hugh
Muir cites the need for all sorts of people to
develop a better feeling for material properties
and their efficient utilization as justification for
introducing materials science into high school
curricula. The author chose the contents to match
the New South Wales syllabus for one of the four
parts of an industrial arts curriculum. The result
is a descriptive survey of the wide variety of
materials employed in engineering, with fitting
emphasis on structure-properties relationships and
Continued on page 175.

FALL 1977

CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING SCIENCE

DAVID RETZLOFF
University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri 65201

THE FOCUS OF the Chemical Reaction Engi-
neering Science course at the University of
Missouri-Columbia is on the theoretical descrip-
tion and interpretation of the phenomenological
behavior of heterogenous catalysts. A student en-
tering this course is presumed to have had at least
a three hour course on chemical reaction engi-
neering which covered the following topics:
1) Rate equations for homogenous reactions
2) Isothermal and temperature effects in the
ideal batch, ideal plug flow, and the ideal stirred
tank reactors
3) Characterization of non-ideal reactor per-
formance by means of the residence time distribu-
tion, the dispersion model, the segregated flow
model, and the tanks in series model
4) Heterogenous reactions and
5) Fluidized bed reactors. The course begins
with a brief review of the batch, plug flow, and
stirred tank reactors using a unified approach via
the general material and energy balances ex-
pressed in terms of differential forms [1], i.e.-
L, A = f Navier Stokes Equation
i (v) L, A = i (v) f Energy Equation

dJ = 0

Conservation of Mass
Equations

The stability analysis and existence of bifurcation
points for the nonlinear isothermal and adiabatic
operation of the ideal reactors is made using the
degree of a map and surface curvature concepts
in the differential form language. The solutions
for these nonlinear problems is developed using
Green's function techniques. This approach has
the advantage of introducing at the beginning of
the course the general mathematical and physical
framework needed to analyze phenomenological
catalytic behavior.

At this point in the course the Langmuir-
Hinshelwood [2] description of fluid-solid catalytic
reactions is developed. The approach taken is to
first consider the situation in which one step
(mass transfer, adsorption, surface reaction, pore
diffusion or, desorption) is controlling the overall
reaction rate. The equations appropriate to each
case are developed. Mass and heat transfer corre-
lations are discussed where needed. When pore
diffusion is taken up both the Thiele modulus and
the effectiveness factor are defined. Various geo-
metric shapes of the catalyst as well as tempera-
ture gradients within the porous catalyst are dealt
with. Multiple controlling steps in the reaction
process are then reviewed and the appropriate de-
sign equations obtained. The uniqueness and sta-
bility of the various descriptions of catalyst be-
havior are analyzed using the mathematical tools

The stability analysis and
existence of bifurcation points for the
nonlinear isothermal and adiabatic operation
of the ideal reactors is made using the degree
of a map and surface curvature concepts
in the differential form language.

previously presented. Current papers in the cata-
lytic literature where these methods are used is
reviewed. It is pointed out at this juncture that
the Langmuir-Hinshelwood approach does not in
general lead to a unique physical interpretation of
the experimental data but generally provides ade-
quate design equations.

FURTHER INSIGHT
T O FURTHER DEVELOP an insight into the
physical process that occur during catalysis
four final topics are considered in this course.
They are: (1) geometric theory of catalysis, (2)
the electron band theory of catalysis deals with
Continued on page 189.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

If your middle name is

impatience,

maybe we can put things

on a first name basis.

At Celanese, we don't think patience is much of a virtue when it
comes to creativity or careers. We became a 2 billion dollar com-
pany by responding quickly and creatively to changing markets
and technologies. By giving our people the opportunity-and
responsibility-to respond to change, to develop, to take
initiatives.
That's why you won't find any lengthy training programs at
Celanese. Our management philosophy is to give our engineers
and chemists significant projects and responsibilities as soon as
possible. Give them as much to handle as their skills and dedica-
tion are up to in an unusually open working environment which
fosters creative decision-making at all levels.

It works for you because it gives you the opportunity to grow
rapidly. It works for us because it's what has made us a leader in
man-made fibers, with a solid position in chemicals, polymer
specialties and engineering resins.Without an impatient respon-
siveness, we wouldn't have pioneered triacetate, developed
Fortrel polyester or become a world leader in formaldehyde and
methanol production.
If you think you'd like working in this kind of an atmosphere, lets
get to know each other better. If you have a degree in engineer-
ing or chemistry, ask your placement officer to set up an interview
with us. Or write John D. Grupe, Celanese Building, 1211 Avenue
of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.

"Fortrel is a registered trademark of Fiber Industries, Inc.

Q6
CELANESE
An equal opportunity employer m/f

, ,j I f/r '' "

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

HARVEY BLANCH and FRASER RUSSELL
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711

THE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEER is primarily
concerned with research, development, design,
construction and operation of processes involving
biological material. Current examples of these
processes include the production of antibiotics,
drugs, organic acids, foods, animal feeds, and
biological waste water pollution control.
Future activities include the possibility of
single cell protein production from unusual
sources (hydrocarbons, cellulosic materials), glu-
cose production from paper wastes, and microbial
oil recovery. The one semester (3 credits) course
offered in the graduate program at the ChE De-
partment at the University of Delaware serves
two purposes; to introduce the student rigorously
to microbial and enzyme kinetics, mass transfer
and biochemical processing, and secondly to de-
velop the skills necessary to analyze and design
fermentation systems, taking into account down-
stream processing constraints. The course is open
to advanced seniors and graduate students.
Biochemical engineering is interdisciplinary
and draws from many areas, but most strongly
from microbiology, biochemistry and chemical en-
gineering. There are major hurdles to overcome in
providing training for students coming from one
of these areas in the other two. This course is
taught to ChE students and provides them with
the skills necessary in the other two areas. No
attempts have been made to offer the course to
non-engineering majors, as it is based on a strong
background in kinetics, fluid mechanics and mass
transfer. The course is available to civil engineer-
ing graduate students in environmental engineer-
ing. Table I shows an outline of the topics and
lectures. A design project is introduced after the
section on mass transfer and class time is allo-
cated periodically to review problems arising in

TABLE I. Introduction and Scope of Biochemical
Engineering

Fundamentals of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Microbial taxonomy, growth requirements of micro-
organisms, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; electron
transport, replication and genetics

Kinetics of Microbial Growth
Constitutive expressions for growth, structured and
unstructured models, substrate inhibition, kinetics of
product formation, influence of the external environ-
ment

Batch and Continuous Culture
Mass balances for batch, CFSTR, tubular and multi-
vessel systems, the turbidostat, stability of reaction,
dynamics, equipment for batch and continuous cultures,
computer coupled fermentations

Mass Transfer
Fundamentals of two phase gas/liquid mass transfer,
predictions of kLa, aeration and agitation systems, air-
lift fermenters, novel devices, power requirements for
agitation, scale-up, non-Newtonian systems, microbial
film fermenters

Reactor Design
Design of tank type and tubular biochemical reacting
systems

Process Design
Influences of downstream processing constraints on
process design (extraction, filtration), medium sterili-
zation, air sterilization.

Mixed Microbial Cultures
Interactions between microorganisms, predator-prey
interactions, stability of mixed cultures, applications

Enzyme Engineering
Kinetics of single and multiple enzymes in solution,
enzyme reactors, immobilized enzymes, supports and
couplings, kinetics of immobilized enzyme reactors,
applications

Industrial Processes
Design project, biological wastewater treatment, de-
tailed analysis of a complete fermentation plant, sterili-
zation of medium, product extraction

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

the design. The design familiarizes the students
with the problems of scale-up of fermentations,
and the difficulties of sterile operation. Final de-
signs are presented orally at the conclusion of the
course.
A section on the fundamentals of microbiology
and biochemistry introduces the various types of
microorganisms encountered and their composi-
tion. Much of the material is taken from Aiba,
Humphrey, Millis [1], supplemented with refer-
ences to introductory microbiology texts. Carbo-
hydrate metabolism is examined using material
from Conn and Stumpf [2] and Aiba et al [1].
Anaerobic and aerobic pathways common to im-
portant fermentation products are covered, and
lipid metabolism and secondary metabolite path-
ways reviewed. The reproductive cycles of bac-
teria, viruses and fungi are described, and the
importance of mutation as a tool for increasing

tured and structured models, and the concepts of
balanced and unbalanced growth follow logically
from an examination of structured models. The
influence of external parameters, such as type of
substrate, temperature and pH is emphasized.
Using the previously developed rate expres-
sions, organism, substrate and product balance
equations are simply developed for a variety of
reactor configurations. The effect of various op-
erational parameters is investigated by solving
the algebraic or differential mass balance equa-
tions using a simulation language on the digital
computer. Both MIMIC and CSMP have useful
built-in plotting routines. This also allows a simple
numerical investigation of the stability of various
configurations (e.g. cell recycle) and rate expres-
sions; this supplements the analytical investiga-
tion of system stability to small perturbations.
Systems dynamics and various control strategies

There are several specific examples
in which unexpected results emerge from the coupling
of microbiological processes and reactor control. In one it is shown
that feedforward proportional derivative control of recycle sludge into an activated
sludge sewage treatment process, for variations in incoming waste flow, results in
control of the effluent waste carbon concentration, this being independent of the
expression used to describe the specific waste utilization rate.

product yields is emphasized. This comprises 8
hours of lectures.

MICROBIAL GROWTH KINETICS

T HE DEVELOPMENT OF constitutive kinetic
rate expressions for microbial growth com-
prises three hours of course time. Unstructured
models, such as the Monod relationship, are de-
veloped, and concepts of endogenous metabolism,
cell yield, models for product formation and sub-
strate inhibition introduced. The analogy between
constitutive expressions in chemical reacting sys-
tems and those in microbial systems is empha-
sized. In this way batch, chemostat and tur-
bidsotat systems are introduced in a natural
fashion. The distinction between the rate expres-
sion, being experimentally determined, and com-
ponent mass balances around the system, is not
always clear in the literature, especially that of
waste water and sanitary engineering. An article
by Fredrickson et al [3] overviews both unstruc-

can be easily introduced and modeled. The ap-
proach is outlined in a review article [4].
The equipment required to monitor and con-
trol fermentation systems is unique to the chem-
ical process industry in some respects, and im-
portant problems are discussed (e.g. the require-
ments of sterile operation, inoculum preparation,
pH and dissolved 02 probes). The newly develop-
ing area of computer-coupled fermentations is
emphasized. Aiba et al [1] and Nyiri [5] provide
useful background. Computer-coupled fermenters
are reexamined following the section on mass
transfer, including paramters such as kp, ap-
parent viscosity and rate of heat evolution.
There are several specific examples in which
unexpected results emerge from the coupling of
microbiological processes and reactor control. In
one it is shown that feedforward proportional-
derivative control of recycle sludge into an ac-
tivated sludge sewage treatment process, for vari-
ations in incoming waste flow, results in control of
the effluent waste carbon concentration, this being

FALL 1977

independent of the expression used to describe the
specific waste utilization rate. This has obvious
implications in the overall control of wastewater
treatment plants.

MASS TRANSFER
T HIS SECTION COMPRISES 10 lectures and
assumes an understanding of undergraduate
heat and mass transfer. Two phase gas-liquid
reactor design equations are developed for tank
type reactors, using the "ideal" reactor concept.
Plug-flow gas and well-mixed liquid phases and
both phases well-mixed are considered. The ma-
terial for this section is based on a series of
articles by Russell [6-8], which emphasize design,
based upon the fundamentals of fluid mechanics
and mass transfer. The parameters which must
then be evaluated follow naturally. Tubular sys-
tems are briefly reviewed. This provides a rational
basis for considering the problems of scale-up.
The available data for estimating interfacial area
a and the mass transfer coefficient k, are dis-
cussed, based on Russell [6], and various correla-
tions for kLa from the literature are reviewed [9].
The transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian
fermentation broths introduces the student to the
complexities of real systems. The power require-
ments necessary to obtain the desired degree of
mass transfer in both stirred tank and air-lift
fermentors are examined, as are mixing times and
shear rates. This then leads into a discussion on
bases for scale-up, and novel fermentation devices.

DESIGN PROBLEM
PON COMPLETION of the section on mass
transfer and scale-up, the class is presented
with a design problem, to be tackled in groups.
The problem is given only in simple terms, e.g., to
design a plant to produce 300 trillion units of
penicillin per year. The prime thrust is to obtain
suitable reactor configurations, mode of operation,
and sufficient oxygen transfer capabilities. Some-
what less time is spent in medium sterilization and
extraction. The design serves to further familiar-
ize the student with the literature and provide an
introduction to some of the differences between
pharmaceutical and traditional chemical process
industries. Longer holding times for example, are
typical of most microbial systems. Other designs,
emphasizing the two-phase nature of the problem,
may include biological wastewater facilities (see,
for example, Atkinson [10]. In the usual senior

design project, typically not a great deal of atten-
tion is paid to mixing and gas-liquid mass trans-
fer in stirred tank devices, so the material covered
in this section will, in general, supplement the
senior design course. The last week of the semester
is spent reviewing designs and discussing an ac-
tual complex fermentation plant.
Although not a great deal of consideration in
the past has been given to mixed cultures, their
importance is becoming more apparent. The vari-
ous types of interactions between microorganisms
can serve as a rather unique model system for

The one semester (3 credits) course
serves two purposes: to introduce the student
rigorously to microbial and enzyme kinetics,
mass transfer and biochemical processing, and
secondly to develop the skills necessary to analyze
and design fermentation systems, taking into account
downstream processing constraints.

other interacting ecosystems, in which energy is
transferred from lower to higher trophic levels.
Predatorprey interactions are analyzed in some
detail, and the stability of various systems is ex-
amined. The existence of experimentally observ-
able limit cycles in a protozoan-bacterium system
provides an interesting introduction to the vast
literature on oscillations of populations of higher
organisms. May's monograph [11] serves as a
source for many of these references, and provides
a readable discussion of limit cycles on a fairly
elementary level.

ENZYME ENGINEERING
N A COURSE SUCH as this, it is difficult to
spend as much time as one would like on vari-
ous areas, and enzyme kinetics and enzyme engi-
neering can only be fairly superficially covered.
The behavior of single and multiple enzymes in
solution is reviewed and the problems of diffusion
and reaction in immobilized enzyme systems dis-
cussed. Experimental methods of immobilization,
are reviewed, including how these methods may
alter the observed kinetics. Various reactor con-
figurations and applications are discussed. Atkin-
son [10] and Aiba et al [1] serve as reference
sources, and the student is given homework prob-
lems which direct him to the already vast litera-
ture here.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

The course aims to present a rigorous and
formal introduction to biochemical engineering,
emphasizing the students' ChE background.
Analogies are drawn with reaction kinetics, heat
and mass transfer, and design learned at the
undergraduate level. The student is provided with
the elementary tools in biochemistry and micro-
biology, and a familiarity with current views and
literature in these areas. Clearly further course-
work in applied microbiology or biochemistry is
required for those students doing graduate work
in the area, and this is usually a component of
the graduate coursework for M.S. and Ph.D.
candidates. Throughout the course homework
problems are assigned to supplement the lecture
material. As there is no convenient text source of
problems, some of these are taken from fairly
recent literature articles. This helps to emphasize
the quantitative rather than descriptive nature of
the area. F]
REFERENCES
1. Aiba, S., Humphrey A. E., Millis, N. F., Biochemical

ENGLISH OR TECHLISH: Van Ness & Abbott
Continued from page 159.
The second sentence says that finding a velocity assures
a packed-bed system. Nonsense.
Not afraid of the first person, the author over-does a
good thing; "Our fluidization velocity" is inappropriately
personal.
Two final quotations and their translations
illustrate several of the points made earlier.
Techlish: To attain this area the heat ex-
changer contains 100 9 foot long
pipes with an inner diameter of one
inch.
English: A heat exchanger with 100 9-foot-
long, 1-inch-i.d. pipes provides the
required area.
Techlish: The shale preheater has a feed of
raw shale supplied to it between
60-90F which is to be heated to
600F and then fed into the reactor.
The exchanger is to utilize exhaust
gas from the reactor as its heat
transfer fluid.
English: Before entering the reactor, raw
shale is preheated from about 60F
to 600F. Exhaust gas from the re-
actor serves as the heat-exchange
fluid.
The "shale preheater" of the second quotation

Engineering, 2nd edition Academic Press, New York
1973.
2. Conn, E. E., Stumpf, P. K., Outlines of Biochemistry
2nd edition, Wiley, New York 1966.
3. Fredrickson, A. G., Megee, R. D., Tsuchiya, H. M.,
"Mathematical Models for Fermentation Processes"
in Adv. Appl. Microbial 13 419 D. Perman editor,
Academic Press, New York.
4. Blanch, H. W., Dunn, I. J., "Modeling and Simulation
in Biochemical Engineering" in Adv. Biochem. Engng.
3 128 (1973) Eds. Ghose, T., Fiechter, A., Blake-
borough, N.
5. Nyiri, L., "Applications of Computers in Biochemical
Engineering" in Adv. Biochem. Eng. 2 49 (1972) Eds.
Ghose, T., Fiechter, A., Blakeborough, N.
6. Shaftlein, R. W., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C. 60 (5) 13
(1968).
7. Cichy, P. T., Ultman, J. S., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C.
61 (8) 6 (1969).
8. Cichy, P. T., Russell, T. W. F., I.E.C., 61 (8) 15 (1969).
9. Miller, D., AIChE Journal 20 3 (1974).
10. Atkinson, B., Biological Reactors, Pion Ltd., London
(1974).
11. May, R., Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosys-
tems, Princeton Univ. Press, 2nd edition (1974).

comes as a surprise; we would have expected steel
or perhaps cast iron.
Writing good technical prose is a difficult task;
few persons can do it easily or quickly. A first
draft is usually in need of substantial revision;
several rewritings are normally required. Some
expert help is provided by a good dictionary,
which should be consulted frequently for the
proper meanings (and spellings) of words. Espe-
cially useful is a little book, called "The Elements
of Style", by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White.
The second edition of this book, published by Mac-
millan, is printed in paper-back at under $2.00. In 78 pages the authors say all that need be said on the subject. Every engineer should keep a copy at hand. Rather than supply our own ending to this piece, we offer the closing words of a student re- port: Due to the small choice of alternatives re- lated to this study, the complexity of our conclusions remain at a minimum. In con- clusion it is readily apparent that further research would definitely pay off in the form of further insight into this problem. Who could disagree? E FALL 1977 eaa4eA in POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RICHARD P. CHARTOFF University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 T HE PRIMARY responsibility for the Polymer Science and Engineering graduate course pro- gram at the University of Cincinnati rests on four faculty members: Professors F. J. Boerio and R. J. Roe of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Professor R. P. Chartoff of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering and Professor J. E. Mark Through the experiments students are given opportunities to become thoroughly familiar with the various types of instrumentation likely to be found in any industrial or academic polymer laboratory of the Department of Chemistry. When an in- coming graduate student, enrolled in any one of these departments, expresses the desire to pursue polymer specialization, he or she is advised to take a series of four one-quarter core courses offered by the four faculty members. According to the offering sequence, these are: "Introduction to Polymer Science" taught by F. J. Boerio, "Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials" by R. J. Roe, "Polymer Configurations and Rubber- like Elasticity" by J. E. Mark and "Polymer Engineering" by R.P. Chartoff. These four courses are designed to acquaint the students, in an orderly sequence, with fundamentals of most major aspects in polymer science and engineering in- cluding preparation, characterization, structure, properties and processing. Descriptions of the courses are listed in Table 1. Topic coverage and the sequence of offerings in all of the courses is closely coordinated among the cooperating faculty members. The lecture courses are augmented by two one- quarter laboratory course, "Polymer Characteriza- tion" and "Polymer Engineering Techniques" (see Table 1). All the four faculty members simultaneously participate in these two laboratory courses on a shared basis and offer a variety of experimental topics according to the areas of their expertise. From among 15 to 20 experimental topics offered in each laboratory, students are free to select any 8 according to their individual interests. Within the two quarter period a student can choose a series of lab experiences which pro- vide a broad exposure to several different topic areas. At the same time those who wish to can narrow their selection to a minimum of different areas and concentrate more in depth on any one, such as polymerization or processing. The possi- bilities available for individual selection are illustrated in Figure 1. Since progress in polymer science and engineering heavily depend on experi- ment, the emphasis on laboratory experience for graduate students is a most essential part of the program. Through these experiments students are given opportunities to become thoroughly familiar Cher t1,l Fil.^r^"'- : eacio'isF FIGURE 1. Interactions between areas. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION with the various types of instrumentation likely to be found in any industrial or academic polymer laboratory. This is valuable for learning useful techniques for their thesis research and gives them an edge in obtaining future employment after they finish their graduate study. After completing the sequence of basic courses, students are further encouraged to take other elective courses on specialized topics in polymers. These include "Transport Processes in Polymer Systems", "Organic Synthesis of Polymers", "Polymer Spectroscopy" and "Polymer Mor- phology". The Polymer Science and Engineering pro- gram is a graduate program only at the present, but undergraduate students interested in polymers can become introduced to the basic aspects of polymer science through two elective courses "Polymeric Materials" and "Polymer Technology". The two laboratory courses mentioned above are also offered to advanced undergraduate students. El TABLE 1. Graduate Polymer Courses Introduction to Polymer Science 3 credits, Lecture, Boerio, Autumn Preparation and Characterization of polymers; addi- tion and condensation, molecular weight averages and distributions. Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials 3 credits, Lec- ture, Roe, Winter Solid state structure-property relationships in polymeric materials. The glass transition, structure of crystalline polymers, thermodynamics of polymer solutions and compatibility. Polymer Configurations and Rubber-like Elasticity 3 credits, Lecture, Mark, Spring or Summer Configuration dependent properties and their interpre- tation; statistics of chain dimensions; network forma- tion in crosslinked polymers; thermodynamics and mechanical properties of rubbers; statistical theories of rubber-like elasticity. Polymer Engineering 3 credits, Lecture, Chartoff, Spring Fundamentals of polymer processing; design of pro- cessing operations and relation to physical and mechanical behavior in solid and molten states; viscometric measurements and melt elasticity; applied viscoelasticity. Polymer Characterization 2 credits, Lab, Boerio, Roe, Chartoff, Mark, Winter Experimental investigations of structure and properties of polymers; molecular weight averages and distribu- tions, thermal and mechanical properties, transitions, and crystallinity. Polymer Engineering Techniques 2 credits, Lab, Chartoff, Roe, Boerio, Mark, Spring Measurements of viscoelastic properties, viscosity and flow parameters necessary for design of polymer pro- cessing equipment; relations between processing data and polymer molecular structure with applications to quality control. Special Topics in Polymers 3 credits, Lecture, Staff, Winter or Spring Intensive coverage of specific topi csin polymer science and technology at a research level. To be offered irregularly three quarters in each two year period. Future topics will include polymer spectroscopy, transport phenomena in polymer systems, surface properties of polymers, organic synthesis of polymers, polymer spectroscopy, and polymer morphology. Offer- ings to be coordinated between Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, and Chemistry staff. BOOK REVIEW: Schlenker Continued from page 167. brief summaries of methods of testing and characterization of materials, and the shaping and fabrication of objects. There are many illustrations, but they are not always integrated with and explained in the text. Many experiments are suggested; some are self-explanatory, but others are not clear with respect to purpose, pro- cedure or significance. An instructor is necessary to supply guidance-and to protect students and equipment. Some statements are inaccurate or misleading, but they are few and unemphasized among the multitude; not much damage is likely to result. Professor Muir notes that, in spite of the title, the text is about the phenomenology of materials more than the principles and concepts of materials science. The few gestures toward a quantitative approach include a few mechanical testing equa- tions and a statement of Bragg's law, together with the geometric figure customarily used in its derivation. The use of the lever rule is illustrated, but even this mass conservation principle, using only the simplest linear algebra, is not derived. Should the study of materials be a part of high school curricula? Surely it is more exciting than bookkeeping, conveys more varied skills than typing, and is a valuable adjunct to shop practice or preparation for the building trades. This book would be a suitable text, although injection of a bit more of the formal structure of materials science might make the subject easier to retain. College-bound students should study science and mathematics in high school so they can learn materials science on a more systematic and quantitative level. D1 FALL 1977 EDITOR'S NOTE: The following papers deal with the rapidly developing graduate programs for students with a B.S. outside chemical engineering. The first paper is a general survey paper, the second discusses a specific program, and the third gives a student point of view. ChE GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR NON-CHEMICAL ENGINEERS E. L. CUSSLER Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 WHEN TIMES ARE GOOD, college students tend to be interested in education. They study subjects because of inherent interest, without re- gard for the utility of what is learned. When times are unsettled, college students become much more interested in professional training. They believe that such professional education will facilitate em- ployment. They often choose to study engineering because it provides one of the fastest routes to a professional degree. Because times are currently unsettled, many students who have majored in chemistry as under- graduates are now interested in graduate study in chemical engineering. Most of these students have studied at private liberal arts colleges or at smaller campuses of state university systems. Those in the liberal arts colleges choose a more personal under- graduate experience. They are often undecided about a career or want additional time to mature. Those at the small state colleges are most com- monly there because education is inexpensive. At both types of school, undergraduate engineering is rarely offered. At the same time, many ChE graduate pro- grams could use more qualified students. This is a consequence of the fact that there are more grad- uate programs than engineering student demand justifies. Many of these programs, which multi- plied rampantly in the 1960's, have admitted huge numbers of foreign students to justify their ex- istence. Independent of the foreign students' qual- ity, many departments would prefer to enroll more North American natives. When departments see the supply of chemists available, the lure is obvi- ous: why not teach ChE to chemists? This essay explores the ways in which this teaching can be effectively accomplished. It ex- plores what programs exist to do this, how they are operated, and how they can be started. In writing this essay, I have been strongly influenced by our own experiences. Our experiences and in- formation are not exhaustive. Part of the reason is that there seem to be more programs for chem- ists than there are chemists in the programs, so that judging effectiveness is difficult. Another ... we have not been able to find an effective text. The reason is that ChE is almost completely taught in a sequential fashion. As a consequence, we have had to write a text, which we would be glad to make available to others with similar problems. problem is that many seem reluctant to discuss efforts which have failed. In any case, before I start, I apologize in advance for not mentioning many specific experiences. OPEN ADMISSIONS T HE EDUCATION OF chemists as ChE's can be roughly organized into three methods. In the first method, one simply denies any difference. One admits chemists as engineers and has them take the same courses as engineering students. Such flexibility has a long tradition: almost every senior professor can remember a few individuals in the 1930's and 1940's who made such a transi- tion. Moreover, it has the tremendous appeal of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION requiring little extra work, either by faculty or by the administration. What is different now is the number of stu- dents involved. During the past few years, I have been surprised to discover that in a significant number of ChE departments, chemists make up the majority of North American graduate stu- dents. These departments have bright faculty, strong research support, and reasonable reputa- tions. Since they seem to have operated success- fully for at least five years, there may be no problem. However, I am concerned about this method because I believe it significantly changes the edu- cation of the graduates. If more than a third of my graduate class is not trained in chemical engineer- ing, the technical level of the material taught drops. Moreover, because the current trend in many departments is to reduce graduate course requirements, one may certify "engineering" graduates who know very little engineering. I should emphasize that I cannot either support or refute these opinions; I just feel concerned. UNDERGRADUATE REMEDIAL WORK THE COMMON ALTERNATIVE to open ad- missions is a program which requires under- graduate courses as part of the transition. While the number of courses varies considerably (cf. Table I), all include courses in transport phe- nomena, and most require thermodynamics. After completing these courses, the chemist enters the conventional graduate program. The cost to the university is minor, since no new courses are in- volved. Such requirements certainly insure a solid engineering education of both breadth and depth, so that graduates can be fully employed as chem- ical engineers. They are demanding; for example, in the Texas A&M program, only 25-30% of the students originally admitted qualify for graduate study. The characteristic of this type of program is that it can have trouble attracting students. The chemists whom we want to attract are bright, aggressive, and individualistic. They often are admitted to medical school but cannot afford to go; they always are admitted to graduate school in chemistry with full fellowships. They cannot afford to undertake extensive remedial work at their own expense, which is the common expecta- tion. As a result, many of these programs may attract only a small number of superior applicants. We have preceded our special summer course with a one-week mathematics review, taught by people connected with our affirmative action program. This has two results: it provides the minority and returning student with the necessary mathematics and it also establishes firm friendships between these two groups. SPECIAL COURSES T HE THIRD WAY of teaching ChE to chemists is to require special courses giving an acceler- ated synopsis of the undergraduate engineering curriculum. This is the strategy we have used here, and so is that with which I am most sym- pathetic. The effective development of this ap- proach here has been facilitated by generous assistance from the Exxon Education Founda- tion. Such special courses require additional fac- ulty and administrative effort at an approximate cost to date of$10,000/year. However, because of
this accelerated synopsis, the quality of other
graduate courses need not be compromised. Be-

TABLE I. Typical Remedial Programs
(All of these lead eventually to a masters degree)
University of Buffalo
Two courses in transport phenomena; one in unit op-
erations.
University of California, Berkeley
Variable; for example, courses in thermodynamics,
transport phenomena, kinetics, and design plus another
elective.
Clarkson College
Courses in fluids, thermodynamics, heat and mass trans-
fer, kinetics, control, and design.
University of Delaware
Courses in stoichiometry, thermodynamics, fluid me-
chanics, heat and mass transfer, kinetics, equilibrium
stages, and design; seminar; laboratory.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Courses in kinetics, design, control, and mass transfer;
some prerequisites in previous summer.
Rutgers University
Two courses in transport phenomena; one in design,
and in mathematical methods; audit in control.
Texas A&M
Courses in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mass
transfer, process control, kinetics, design, electrical
engineering, and materials; laboratory.

FALL 1977

cause of its speed, bright students with chemistry
backgrounds quickly qualify for research support
on government grants and contracts. Seventy per-
cent of the students entering complete their de-
grees. The major difference is that the graduates
are not conventional ChE's but a new breed,
armed with a new mixture of skills. The implica-
tions are explored below.
As the above paragraphs describe, the educa-
tional innovation in programs for teaching ChE
to chemists largely arises from the special courses
designed to give a prompt synopsis of ChE (cf.
Table II). As a result, these will be discussed in
more detail. Although accelerated, the Texas Tech
program is most similar to the remedial courses in
Table I. It takes a full year, and consists of ma-
terial taught at the same rate as the undergradu-
ate courses of the same description. The chief
difference is that the students in this course are
separated from the conventionally trained engi-
neers.

TABLE II. Accelerated Courses for Teaching
Chemical Engineering
Carnegie-Mellon University
Eight week summer course covering the following se-
quentially: stoichiometry, thermodynamics, equilibrium
stages, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer;
senior level design course required during the academic
year, and kinetics often taken as an overload.
Texas Tech University
One year course equivalent to stoichiometry, thermo-
dynamics, fluid mechanics, stages, heat and mass trans-
fer, kinetics, economics, mathematics, design.
University of Virginia
Nine week summer program of two parallel courses
consisting of 1) mathematics, fluid mechanics, and heat
transfer; and 2) heat transfer, mass transfer, and
kinetics.

The other two special courses, at Carnegie-
Mellon and Virginia, consume about eight weeks
of the summer before the masters year. They
commonly have three hours of lecture per day, five
days a week. They also have at least one problem-
solving session every day. These problem sessions
can run a long time. I had one at Carnegie-Mellon
that started at 3:00 p.m. and continued until mid-
night. In our program, tutors are available both
in the afternoon and in the evening. These tutors
are largely graduate students whose backgrounds
are in chemistry and who have already success-
fully completed the masters program. We rarely
assign individual tutors to specific students.

The content of these two special courses is
obviously a synopsis of undergraduate ChE. The
students joke that the freshman year takes one
week, the sophomore year two weeks, and the
junior and senior years about three weeks apiece.
Somewhat to my surprise, the plethora of topics
listed can be effectively covered. To test this, we
have given the same exams both to undergradu-
ates and to students in the program. The students
in the program easily outscored the undergradu-
ates. This is a result of the students' quality, their
maturity, and their dedication to making an effec-
tive transition.
TROUBLE WITH MATH AND THERMO
T HE CHEMISTS HAVE the most trouble in
two areas: mathematics and thermodynamics.
Mathematics presents a big problem. While most
students have studied differential equations, few
can apply what they've learned to physical situa-
tions. Virginia's program teaches mathematics
directly. Ours relies on graduate-level mathe-
matics courses taken in the fall semester.
In contrast, the student's deficiency in thermo-
dynamics is less expected and harder to rectify.
While most of the students in the programs in
Table II are graduates of ACS-accredited chem-
istry departments, and these departments do teach
a required thermodynamics course, most of the
students claim to have had little or no thermo-
dynamics. I think the truth is probably more
nearly what one student said, "Sure, I had all this
stuff but no one ever acted like it was important."
We have tried to remedy this deficiency in
thermodynamics by including material in the
summer course. We have not yet been able to
teach this material effectively, partly because an
extremely abstract subject is being presented at
a very rapid rate. After the summer, students do
not feel that they understand thermodynamics.
They are able to handle our graduate course in
thermodynamics in the fall semester, but the ex-
perience is trying, demanding, and unpleasant. I
know no simple way out of this problem.
The summer courses also contain no reference
to engineering design. Our program, and several
of the remedial ones, correct this by requiring
that students with chemical backgrounds take a
senior level design course. Our special students
work much harder than our seniors, do better, and
thus cause some resentment. I think pushing our
seniors this way is healthy.
We've had two other problems with our special

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

summer course which deserve mention. The first
is that we have not been able to find an effective
text. The reason is that ChE is almost completely
taught in a sequential fashion. Everyone who
studies sophomore thermodynamics intends to
take the junior-level transport phenomena courses
and the senior-level kinetics courses. This means
that there is no single text providing an abbrevi-
ated overview of essentials of ChE in relatively
simple terms. As a consequence, we have had to
write a text, which we would be glad to make
available to others with similar problems. We plan
to revise and publish this text soon.
The second problem we have had concerns
retaining minority students in the program. Both
they and students who have been out of college
three or more years find the mathematics re-
quired to be extremely difficult. As a result, we
have preceded our special summer course with a
one-week mathematics review, taught by people
connected with our Affirmative Action Program.
This has two results: it provides the minority and
the returning student with the necessary mathe-
matics and it also establishes firm friendships

... in a significant number
of ChE departments, chemists make
up the majority of North American
graduate students.

between these two groups. When the rest of the
class convenes, the black students do not isolate
themselves as frequently occurs in undergraduate
classes.
I should emphasize that special summer
courses are not substitutes for undergraduate
training in ChE. It merely facilitates the student's
ability to catch up throughout the regular aca-
demic year. Students whose backgrounds are in
chemistry do less well relative to their classmates
during the fall's courses. By spring, this difference
disappears. In other words, the special summer
course does not substitute for undergraduate
training, but does allow students with different
backgrounds to become competitive.

STUDENT RECRUITMENT
WHILE GRADUATE PROGRAMS which
teach ChE to non-chemical engineers are
multiplying rapidly, these programs often do not

have large enrollment. In some cases, the faculty
time spent planning them may exceed the student
time in them. As a result, it is appropriate to ask
where the students in this program will come
from.
Most of the larger programs have found that
the best source of students is the small liberal
arts colleges located close to the university. These
small colleges commonly do not offer undergradu-
ate engineering programs. Moreover, because they
are close by, the universities' reputations are ex-
aggerated. The students recruited from these
colleges have already rejected graduate training
in chemistry. Considerable competition comes
from schools offering a masters in business ad-
ministration.
A second effective source has come from gen-
eral mailings to chemistry departments, again
largely at small colleges. We have been partic-
ularly successful with the minor campuses of
major universities like those of New York and
Ohio. We also receive good applications from high
school teachers and from employees of local in-
dustries. Advertisements in ACS student news-
letters and announcements in publications like
Chemical and Engineering News and Business
Week have not been effective.
One neglected aspect of these programs is
their potential for social action. Specifically, they
provide an opportunity to bring additional women
and minority students into engineering. We have
been very successful recruiting female teachers
from local high schools. They are eagerly recruited
by industry because their maturity and perspec-
tive makes them excellent candidates for middle
management positions. We have been much less
effective in recruiting blacks. Part of our trouble
is that qualified blacks in chemistry choose med-
ical school. Moreover, chemistry programs in pre-
dominantly black colleges sometimes have less
stringent requirements in mathematics than those
existing elsewhere. Nevertheless, we are convinced
that we can effectively recruit minority students
in the long term.
Once applications from qualified students come
in, one must decide on how to admit them. Ap-
plicants commonly fall into two sharp categories.
The first category are chemists with very weak
undergraduate records. They are grasping at
straws, desperate for any opportunity which
promises a better chance of employment. The
second category are students who are very good;
they have decided to go on to graduate school and

FALL 1977

are carefully weighing options.
The best predictor of student performance is
the quantitative aptitude part of the Graduate
Record Examination (GRE). We require scores of
at least 700 and preferably 750 to insure satisfac-
tory performance. GRE aptitude scores are also
useful in making a decision if the quantitative
aptitude score is marginal. GRE advanced chem-
istry scores are less reliable, and reflect more the
quality of the undergraduate institution than the
quality of the student. Grade point seems the hard-
est to interpret. Basically, we have discovered that

If more than a third of my graduate class is not trained
in ChE, the technical level of the material
taught drops. Moreover, because the
current trend in many departments
is to reduce graduate course
requirements, one may certify "engineering"
graduates who know very little engineering.

an entering chemist needs a (3.4/4.0) overall
grade point to be effective. This is higher than
that needed by entering ChE students.

WHAT DO GRADUATES REPRESENT?
NONE OF THE PROGRAMS outlined above
can produce students who are identical with
those trained completely in ChE. This can be
especially true when large numbers of students
are trained under the open admission strategy
described above. This strategy is so wide and
leads to such variation that generalizations seem
meaningless. On the other hand, if sufficient
remedial courses are required, the student should
certainly become more and more similar to those
trained completely in ChE.
The most intriguing question is, to what cate-
gory do the students who graduate from programs
built around rapid special courses belong? To
answer this question, we contacted graduates of
the special programs who are employed in in-
dustry. These graduates had more job offers at
slightly higher salaries than conventionally
trained masters engineers. Their reactions to the
positions they accepted, and their supervisors'
reactions to them are shown in Table III.
One conclusion is that those trained in chem-
istry have a more pragmatic attitude than those
trained in engineering. For example, these stu-

dents complain that the masters courses are too
theoretical, while students with an engineering
background feel the same courses are excessively
applied. Apparently, those who move from chem-
istry into engineering make a mature and con-
scientious decision that their future lies in an
industrial environment. They are very sensitive to
industrial demands and respond accordingly. On
the other hand, those trained in engineering go
to graduate school in part because they are anxi-
ous to learn more of the intellectual basis of their
discipline. This basis is more strongly represented
in universities than in industry.

TABLE III.
Job Performance of Graduates
FROM THE GRADUATE
1. How do you view yourself professionally?
A mixture of a chemical engineer and a chemist.
2. To what professional organizations) do you belong?
Most belong to both the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers and the American Chemical
Society.
3. Does your job provide adequate professional chal-
lenge?
Yes-both chemical engineering and chemistry
required.
4. Did the program provide you with the professional
training you expected?
Yes-worked effectively.
5. In your job, do you see any professional advantages
or disadvantages of your training compared with a
traditionally trained chemist or chemical engineer?
Advantages over chemist; often translator be-
tween chemists and engineers.
6. Do you have any other comments, suggestions or
observations about the program?
Many courses were too theoretical; Masters thesis
takes too long.

FROM THE SUPERVISOR
1. How do you regard the professional training the
graduate has?
Pleased so far.
2. Do you see any advantages of this type of program
over traditional majors?
A range of answers-from disadvantages to ad-
vantages to ignorance of program.
3. How would you rate the graduates initiative, flexi-
bility, maturity?
Much better than average on all points.
4. Do these graduates require more supervision?
Most require an average amount of supervision.
Those who require more do so because they are
more productive.
5. Do you have any other comments, suggestions or
observations?

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Positive comments with good advice: e.g., "stu-
dents should choose positions with a mixture of
chemical engineering, chemistry;" "student qual-
ity more important than education;" "should use
these people to replace chemistry Ph.D.'s."

A second conclusion which can be drawn from
Table III concerns the students' effectiveness. This
effectiveness is largely inherent in the students
themselves. If they are bright, smart and aggres-
sive before entering a program, they remain so
afterward. As a result, their performance has
more to do with their own character and ability
than with any educational gloss. These students
apparently perform a mixture of tasks. Certainly
industrial jobs require a continuum of skills:
they are not balkanized between science and engi-
neering as are the university departments. How-
ever, industry recruits within the departmental
structure and recruiters seek not specific indi-
viduals but people with specific types of certifica-
tion. The students are being hired as engineers,
but are working as hybrids.

AT YOUR UNIVERSITY .....
AS THE ABOVE paragraphs show, there is
now extensive experience on how to start a
graduate program for teaching ChE to non-
chemical engineers. If you decide to develop such
a program at your university, you should do three
things. First, decide on a strategy. If you plan to
use open admissions, be sure you assemble sensible
arguments defending the quality of your program.

If you decide to require a significant number of
remedial courses, think about how you plan to
attract and retain smart students. If you decide
to use special summer courses, you must discover
a source of money to pay the additional cost.
The second thing you need to develop is a
scheme for recruiting students. Any program
which has an enrollment of less than about half a
dozen will inevitably attract administrative crit-
icism in hard times. You must decide whether to
recruit locally or nationally. You should decide
whether you are more attractive as ChE depart-
ment or as a university. Moreover, the mailing list
that you use to attract students should take ad-
vantage of undergraduate chemistry newsletters
and local ACS meetings. Advertisements in Chem-
ical Engineering Education won't help because
chemists don't know this journal exists.
The third thing you should do is to talk to
others with experience. Most, if not all, of the
departments mentioned in this article are willing
to send to any who are interested detailed ma-
terial, including hour-by-hour course outlines, and
copies of lecture notes. It would be foolish not to
take advantage of the experience of others.
Finally, I wish you good luck. I find rigidly
structured departments a real discouragement to
free thought. I look forward to the time when it
is easier for students to move back and forth be-
tween disciplines to develop unique skills which
will make them professionally more interesting,
interested and effective. 5

EXPERIENCE

AT ONE UNIVERSITY

R. M. BETHEA, H. R. HEICHELHEIM,
A. J. GULLY
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, Texas 79409

AT THE HEART of our accelerated expansion
program lies the premise that the holder of any
baccalaureate degree has demonstrated intellectual
maturity, and, with sufficient motivation, should
be able to undertake almost any study of his

choice. If such study were to be at the graduate
level, he would have to have the background in-
formation to follow the advanced study, and,
equally important, he would have to have enough
"skill" in the discipline to compete at the gradu-
ate level with holders of the bachelor's degree in
that major. With the foregoing in mind, we
examined the course content of each departmental
undergraduate course required for the B.S. Ch.E.
to determine what topics a person entering our
graduate courses would need as an absolute mini-
mum. We also examined our undergraduate re-
quirements in science and mathematics in the same
light.
The chemical engineering component of our

FALL 1977

IIIIIIIIIN

TABLE 1. Ch.E. 5301 Analysis of Chemical
Engineering Problems
Course Content
A. Stoichiometrya
1. Units, dimensions, dimensional analysis
2. Basic laws: Raoult, gas laws, corresponding states,
Henry, Avogadro, non-ideal behavior
3. System/surrounding concepts
4. Driving forces/potentials
5. Chemical equations/stoichiometry with generation
and consumption rate expressions
6. Composition/flowrate units, fluxes
7. Accumulation/depletion expressions
8. Multistream systems with recycle, bypass, purge
9. Thermal variables: Cp, AHR, AHmo, Q, w

B. Fluid Flowb
1. General energy
balance
2. Pump work

3. Prime movers
4. Flow measurement
5. Fluid-solid systems

Course Schedulingc
A. 1-4, 1 week; A. 5, 1 week; A. 6-8, 1 week; A. 9, 2
weeks; B. 1-3, 2 weeks; B. 4, 1/2 week; B. 5, 1/2 week
a. Text: Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering, D. M. Himmelblau, 3rd Edition, Prentice-
Hall.
b. Text: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, W. L.
McCabe and J. C. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill.
c. Lectures 5 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours problem-
solving session.

accelerated program consists of twelve semester
hours presented in four three-hour courses. The
courses are designated as graduate courses, and
are suitable for use as a graduate minor. The first
six hours are offered in the fall semester in series.
The first course covers material and energy
balances and fluid flow. The second covers
equilibrium- and rate-controlled processes, includ-
ing separations techniques and heat transfer. The
second six hours are offered as two parallel
courses in the spring semester. One of them covers
thermodynamics and kinetics, while the other in-
cludes design and practice oriented topics ordi-
narily thought of as "design". viz., dynamic be-
havior, economic analysis, process simulation, and
optimization techniques. Course outlines are pre-
sented in Tables 1 through 4.
The chemistry, physics, and mathematics com-
ponents of our accelerated program do not vary
significantly from those of the B.S. Ch.E. require-
ments. Engineering physics, organic and physical
chemistry, and mathematics through differential
equations are required, and can be taken in
parallel with our accelerated ChE courses. Many
students converting to chemical engineering have

already had enough science and mathematics to
meet our requirements, e.g., the organic chemistry
requirement is waived for those who have had
biochemistry.
To compensate for the lack of ChE laboratory
work in our accelerated courses, the students in
this program are strongly urged (virtually re-
quired) to seek summer jobs in the chemical
process industry. This three-month "practicum",
combined with the previous year's work, embarks
the students on our structured M.S. program with
qualifications that we hope will enable them
effectively to compete with B.S. Ch.E.'s.
The students' need for background informa-
tion and skills to make them competitive with
B.S. Ch.E.'s in graduate courses are kept upper-
most in mind in teaching our accelerated courses.
The first course (stoichiometry and fluid flow)
is the first taste that most of the students have
had of any type of engineering course. Con-
siderable drill, both in study sessions and in home-

The chemical engineering component of our
accelerated program consists of twelve
semester hours presented in four
three-hour courses. The courses
are designated as graduate
courses and are suitable
for use as a minor.

TABLE 2. Ch.E. 5302 Analysis of
and Rate Operations

Equlibrium

Course Content
A. Equilibrium-Dependent Processesa
1. Phase equilibrium 3. Ideal contactor
2. Potentials versus concept
equilibrium 4. Multicomponent,
multistage contacting

B. Rate-Dependent Operationsb
1. Potentials and fluxes
2. Transfer coefficients
3. Analogies: heat,
mass, momentum

4. Mass applications
5. Energy applications

Course Schedulinge
A. 1-2, 1 week; A. 3-4, 1.5 weeks; B. 1-3, 2 weeks; B. 4,
1 week; B.5, 1.5 weeks
a. Text: Stagewise Process Design, E. J. Hanley and
H. K. Staffin, Wiley.
b. Text: Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, W. L.
McCabe and J. C. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill.
c. Lectures 5 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per week
discussion/problem-solving session.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

TABLE 3. Ch.E. 5303 Analysis of Physical and
Chemical Behavior of Matter

Course Content
A. Thermodynamicsa
1. Philosophy and historical approach
2. Applications: minimum, maximum, available work
3. Chemical potential
4. Criteria for phase equilibria
5. Chemical equilibria
B. Chemical Reactionsb
1. Molecularity and rate expressions
2. Order of reactions
3. Mechanisms of reactions
4. Effects of temperature and pressure on reaction
rates
5. Continuous stirred-tank reactor and tubular reactor
6. Introduction to gradients and backmixing
7. Engineering design

Course Schedulinge
A. 1, 2 weeks; A. 2-5, 4 weeks; B. 1, 1 week; B. 2-3, 2
weeks; B. 4, 1 week; B. 5-6, 4 weeks; B. 7, 1 week.
a. Text: Theory and Problems of Thermodynamics, M. M.
Abbott and H. C. Van Ness, Schaum Outline Series,
McGraw-HilL
b. Text: Chemical Reactor Theory, K. G. Denbigh and
J. C. R. Turner, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University
Press.
c. Classes meet 3 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per
week discussion/problem-solving session.

work assignments, is utilized. The students became
at least familiar with, if not proficient at using,
the various systems of units employed in engineer-
ing calculations, and become aware of the im-
portance and significance of quantitative answers.
Computational skills are reinforced in the second
course (separations and heat transfer) but the
amount of drill is reduced.
The two courses offered in the spring semester
are taught on alternate days, the same as standard
three-hour academic courses. Whereas the second
of the fall-semester courses depended very heavily
on the first, the two spring-semester courses are
independent of each other. As it turned out, the
students seem to benefit from the forty-eight hour
stretch between classes which allows for mental
induction of the information covered in the
classes.

COURSE SCHEDULES

A TYPICAL SCHEDULE for a student with
prior credit in organic chemistry or bio-
chemistry for our accelerated expansion program
is shown in Table 5. The first year is tailored for

the requirements of each individual student. All,
however, take both of the accelerated ChE courses
each semester. At the conclusion of the first
academic year of the program and their summer's
experience in either industry or research, the
students are ready to enter the master's program
in our department. The core courses are shown in
the second year of the typical schedule in Table
5. The second fall term consists of the same
graduate courses in thermodynamics, heat
transfer, and applied mathematics for chemical
engineers as required of any master's candidate,
regardless of background. We also anticipate that
during the fall semester, each student will consult
with all of our faculty with regard to research
areas of mutual interest, and will select a major
professor and a specific research topic. The
student should complete any necessary literature
search before initiation of the experimental por-
tion of his program in late fall. During the spring
term, the student will enroll in graduate-level mass
transfer and fluid dynamics. He will also take a
graduate technical elective on a subject chosen by
his major advisor or graduate committee as being
most beneficial to his research and career objec-
tives. The experimental portion of his thesis will
be undertaken no later than the start of the spring
semester, and should be essentially complete by
the end of the following summer. He will also be
expected to take a graduate elective during the
summer, leaving him free to write his thesis

TABLE 4. Ch.E. Analysis
of Chemical Processes
Course Content

A. Economics
1. Time value of money
2. Profitability criteria
3. Amortization
B. Optimizationa
1. Single-variable
search
C. Unsteady Stateb
1. LaPlace transforms
2. System dynamics
3. Interacting systems
D. Simulationb
1. Streams and modules
2. Generalizations
A. 4 weeks; B. 3 weeks; C.
a. Text: Class notes.

4. Capital and other
costs

2. Multi-variable
search

4. Controllers
5. Stability criteria

3. Network analysis

5 weeks; D. 3 weeks.

b. Text: Process Systems Analysis and Control, D. R.
Coughanowr and L. B. Koppel, McGraw-Hill.
c. Classes meet 3 hours per week plus 2 to 4 hours per
week discussion/problem-solving session.

FALL 1977

Fall I
Calculus I
Physical
Chemistry I
Analysis of Ch.E.
Problems
Equilibrium and
Rate Operations

Fall II
*Thermodynamics
*Heat Transfer
*Applied Math
for Ch.E.'s
Thesis Research

Spring I
Calculus II
Differential
Equations
Physical and
Chemical
Behavior
Analysis of
Chemical
Processes
Spring II
*Mass Transfer
*Fluid Dynamics
Technical
Elective
Thesis
Research

Summer I
Job in CPI or
Research at TTU

Summer II
Technical Elective
Thesis Research

Fall III
Technical Elective
Write and Defend
Thesis
M.S. Ch.E. awarded

*Core graduate course required for any M.S. Ch. E. candi-
date.

Although many of them
may have had some calculus,
chemistry and physics, their thought
processes were definitely qualitative rather
than quantitative, as is required in
engineering education.

during the fall semester, simultaneously taking
his final course.
Participation in our accelerated expansion
program for the fall semesters of 1975 and 1976
is shown in Table 6, along with the backgrounds
from which the students came. The physical
chemists were in the accelerated courses for their
graduate minor.
While the accelerated expansion program was
developed with chemists and biologists in mind,
we genuinely hoped that some students from non-
technical fields would take advantage of it. The
music major came to us in the summer of 1975
after completing the mathematics, physics, and
chemistry courses usually needed for the B.S.
Ch.E. degree. He was elated when we apprised
him of the opportunity to earn the M.S. Ch.E. in
about 28 months.

TABLE 5. Typical Schedule

Major
General Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
Polymer Chemistry
Microbiology
Music
Physics
Pre-Medicine
Zoology
Industrial Engineerin1

Fall 1975 Fall 1976
2 5
2
2 1
1

Fall 1977
4
1
1

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PROBLEMS AND PROGNOSTICATION

T HE GREATEST DIFFICULTY was the non-
quantitative background of most of the
students. Although many of them may have had
some calculus, chemistry, and physics, their
thought processes were definitely qualitative
rather than quantitative, as is required in engi-
neering education. Special care had to be given
in instructing these students in problem definition
and interpretation of the answers.
The necessity of making assumptions was a
difficult concept for many of these students. The
assumptions could take the form of simplifications
without which the problem was unsolvable, or of
values of physical properties needed to complete
the solution. In some cases, the students were
exceedingly reluctant to assume an answer and
then show that answer to be correct, or to use a
difference between a calculated and an assumed
value to predict a better assumed value, as is so
often required in trial solutions.
Abundance of information in the form of data
tables, graphs, equations, correlations, etc., as
they appear in textbooks, handbooks, and the
technical literature was a source of confusion.
Use of information sources was an integral part
of the course work.
Our experience with students from other fields
pursuing graduate study in ChE has been most
rewarding. Those who have completed the year of
accelerated work are now holding their own in our
regular graduate courses in thermodynamics, heat
transfer, and applied mathematics. We shall con-
tinue to publicize our program both among po-
tential students and potential employers. Nine
students have accepted assistantships to start in
the program this fall. 0

TABLE 6. Enrollment in Career
Expansion Program

A STUDENT

POINT OF VIEW

RONALD S. CHRISTY, JERRY D. PURKAPLE
AND THOMAS E. VERNOR
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, Texas 79409

IN RECENT YEARS, many graduates with
bachelor's degrees in the sciences and liberal
arts have experienced difficulty in obtaining pro-
fessional employment, and one means of arriving
at a rewarding career is through advanced train-
ing in chemical engineering.
We are among the first group of students to
participate in this innovative program, and have
now completed our second year. The authors feel
that, as a result of this program, we will be as
well prepared to practice engineering as those
students who receive both bachelor's and master's
degrees in ChE.

LEVELLING PROGRAM
THE PREVIOUS ADVANCEMENT program
required a minimum of three years of study,
including two years of levelling plus the same 30
hours of graduate courses required of all M.S.
candidates. Because of the long time span, this
format did not appeal to many students who were
interested in acquiring advanced technical skills.
The present program is much more attractive, and
is different only as the result of having condensed
the two years of levelling work into one, without
sacrificing the quality of instruction. The only dis-
advantage of the present structure is that the work
is very intensive, and little time is available for
relaxation and recreation.
Our professors realized that with such a fast
learning rate, it would be easy for us to get hope-
lessly behind in our studies very quickly. To be
sure that this situation did not develop, they were
always available to answer questions. In addition,
one afternoon per week was set aside as a time
for us to ask questions and clarify the material,
and this proved to be a valuable link in our learn-
ing process.
At the beginning of our studies, we needed to
learn to think quantitatively and communicate in
engineering terms. Consequently, we covered

material slowly and in great detail, working many
problems. As our competence improved, the prob-
lems became fewer in number but more complex.
Almost before we realized it, we were thinking like
engineers!
Because of the fact pace of our courses, there
was no time for the usual laboratory work. There
were also few opportunities to develop engineer-
ing judgment and common sense adequately, so
vital elements were missing from our education.
To rectify this situation, we were encouraged to
obtain summer employment in industry follow-
ing the year of levelling work. Those of us who
who did work gained the practical experience
that has made the remainder of our graduate
courses much more meaningful.

THE PRESENT-AND FUTURE
C COMPETING IN THE REGULAR graduate
courses with students who, for the most part,
have superior technical backgrounds has been a
challenge. Several students have B.S. degrees in
ChE plus several years of industrial experience.
They invariably understand the problems better
and fare better on tests. It is easy for those of
us who have participated in the career advance-
ment program to become discouraged when we
cannot understand the concepts as readily as those
with more experience. Our greatest satisfaction
is the realization that we have learned so much
about engineering in such a short time.
We are all engaged in research projects lead-
ing to the writing of theses, and have not found
that we are at a disadvantage in this regard. How-
ever, one problem that has been common to all
of us is finding enough time to devote to both our
course work and research projects.
In interviewing for jobs, we have found that
we are as acceptable to industry as students who
earn both B.S. and M.S. degrees in ChE. Our
opportunities for plant trips and our salary offers
have been comparable to those of other graduate
students.
Our educational experiences during the last
two years have been somewhat unique as well as
very exciting and challenging. It is our belief
that we will be well prepared graduate engineers,
and we look forward to the technical improve-
ments we can make during our professional
careers as chemical engineers. E

FALL 1977

C

GRADUATE ChE EDUCATION ON A STATEWIDE

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION NETWORK

THOMAS G. STANFORD
University of South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina 29208

THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, colleges and
universities are seeking to meet the educational
needs of today's mobile society. The medium of
television is being used most effectively to reach
people who cannot conveniently attend classes on
campus. The engineering community especially
finds need for such educational opportunities be-
cause of today's rapidly changing technology. To
provide the means by which practicing engineers
can continue to keep abreast of current trends, the
University of South Carolina (USC), in 1969,
started A Program of Graduate Engineering Edu-
cation (APOGEE).
Most of the chemical and related industry in
South Carolina is scattered throughout the state
and is not located near the USC campus in Co-
lumbia. Thus, a majority of the practicing chem-
ical engineers who desire an advanced degree in
Chemical Engineering would not be able to attend
regular on-campus classes. These engineers look
to APOGEE as a means of continuing career
growth. To meet this need, APOGEE offers grad-
uate courses in ChE at remote locations through-
out South Carolina via full-color video tapes and
closed-circuit television broadcasts. The locations
where APOGEE facilities are to be found are
listed in Table I.

THE APOGEE PHILOSOPHY

THERE ARE SEVERAL ways in which a state-
wide television network could be used to offer
courses for graduate credit. Professionally pro-
duced lectures, complete with rehearsals, video
tape editing, and specially prepared notes would
provide nearly perfect 'shows' for the student. In
some instances, this technique has been tried with

success. However, it is felt that student-teacher
contact, where the student is free to ask questions
during the lectures, is an important part of engi-
neering education. Also, student performance has
been found to be unaffected by imperfections in
the lecture presentation. Thus, the additional time
required for the making of professionally pro-
duced 'shows' is not time which is efficiently used
by the instructor.
The philosophy with which APOGEE courses
are prepared is one of keeping as much of the
regular classroom 'flavor' as possible. Classes for
the on-campus students are held in modified class-
room-studios. The off-campus students attend
classes in classrooms containing television mon-
itors and video tape players. Course lectures are
presented twice a week. One lecture is video taped
before the on-campus students in Columbia. The
video tapes are then distributed to the remote lo-
cations so that they may be viewed at the con-

TABLE I. Locations of APOGEE Facilities
Aiken, South Carolina
Barnwell, South Carolina
Camden, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina
Duke Power; Charlotte, North Carolina
Dupont Savannah River Plant, South Carolina
Florence, South Carolina
Georgetown, South Carolina
Greenville, South Carolina
Greenwood, South Carolina
Hartsville, South Carolina
North Augusta, South Carolina
Oconee, South Carolina
Orangeburg, South Carolina
Rock Hill, South Carolina
Savannah, Georgia
Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
Sumter, South Carolina
Spartanburg, South Carolina
Waterboro, South Carolina

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Thomas G. Stanford received the BSChE degree from Wayne State
University in 1966, the MSE(ChE) degree and the MS(Math) degree
from The University of Michigan in 1968, and the PhD degree in
Chemical Engineering from The University of Michigan in 1977. He
has worked for Monsanto Company and Continental Oil Company as
a process chemical engineer. Since 1976, he has been Assistant Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering at the University of South Carolina.
His research interests are in the areas of chemical reactor engineering,
mathematical modeling of chemical systems, and thermodynamics.

venience of the off-campus student. The other
lecture is presented live on closed-circuit television
both to the on-campus students and to the stu-
dents at the remote locations. Because most of the
off-campus students are not able to attend classes
during regular business hours, this lecture is pre-
sented either on a weekday evening or on Saturday
morning. It is in 'talk-back' format so that each
student may talk freely with the instructor via
telephone. Several 'Saturday in Columbia' class
meetings are scheduled throughout the semester.
All of the students come to Columbia for these
sessions to take exams, to discuss homework, or
to do experiments. Students are also free to con-
tact the instructor by phone during regular office
hours if they have specific questions.

APOGEE DEGREE PROGRAMS
APOGEE OFFERS MASTER of Engineering
(ME) and Master of Science (MS) programs
in ChE. Any person who holds a baccalaureate de-
gree from an Engineers' Council for Professional
Development (ECPD) accredited engineering
school is eligible for admission to either of these
programs. Prospective students who hold degrees
from nonaccredited engineering schools will be
required to take the Graduate Record Examina-
tion (GRE) prior to admission into a degree pro-
gram. Under certain circumstances, persons hold-
ing degrees in related fields such as biology, chem-

istry, and pharmacy may be admitted into a de-
gree program. Admission of such persons will be
based on previous college studies, work experi-
ence, and any other factors deemed relevant.
The ME program requires a minimum of 30
semester hours of coursework for completion. The
course requirements are listed in Table II. A stu-
dent may elect to undertake a suitable engineer-
ing project in lieu of up to 6 semester hours of
FREE ELECTIVE credit. However, most persons
who wish to obtain an ME degree choose to do
coursework only. Because neither a research proj-
ect and thesis nor an engineering project is re-
quired for this degree, it lends itself well to the
APOGEE program.
The MS is a research degree. The student who
receives this degree must successfully conduct
research in a suitable area of ChE and document
his work with a written thesis. The coursework
requirements for the MS degree are identical to
those listed in Table II for the ME degree. The

TABLE II. Requirements for the ME Degree
in Chemical Engineering
A. Required Courses
Diffusional Operations 3
Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 3
Chemical Process Analysis 3
B. Required Electives 3
One course to be chosen from the following
Distillation (3)
Chemical Reactor Design (3)
Advanced Chemical Flow Systems II (3)
A 700 level control course such as
Dynamic Process Analysis (3)
Computer Control I (3)
Computer Control II (3)
Modern Control Theory I (3)
Modern Control Theory II (3)
C. Free Electives 18
Graduate courses at the 500 level or above in engi-
neering, mathematics, or chemistry. At least 6 of
these credit hours must be in courses at the 700 level.
Total Credit Hours 30

student must elect 6 semester hours of thesis
preparation (ENGR 799). These credit hours may
be counted as part of the FREE ELECTIVE re-
quirement for the degree. A student who chooses
to do so may complete his coursework via
APOGEE. Under special circumstances, the thesis
research may be completed at a location other
than the main USC campus in Columbia. This

FALL 1977

work would, of course, be conducted under the
supervision of a member of the ChE faculty.
APOGEE also offers those who do not wish
to pursue an advanced degree the opportunity to
keep abreast of the latest technology. The College
of Engineering at USC offers courses in energy
systems, air and water pollution, computer proc-
ess control, distillation, and chemical reactor de-
sign. In addition, the technical expertise of nation-
ally and internationally known scientists and en-
gineers is made available through video tape pro-
grams produced by the Association for Media-
Based Continuing Education for Engineers
(AMCEE) of which the College of Engineering
at USC is a charter member.

THE SUCCESS OF APOGEE
THE APOGEE PROGRAM has experienced
rapid growth since its inception in 1969. Table
III shows the number of on-campus and APOGEE
students in the graduate ChE program at USC
for each year since 1971. This indicates that
APOGEE has been well received by those chem-
ical engineers in industry who wish to pursue an
advanced degree in ChE.

TABLE III. On-Campus and APOGEE Students in
the Graduate Chemical Engineering Program
at USC

ME MS
On- On-
Year Campus APOGEE Campus APOGEE

1971 15 3 7 -
1972 14 12 8 2
1973 8 13 10 6
1974 4 23 11 4
1975 2 31 6 7
1976 1 31 6 4
1977* 0 25 8 4

*spring semester enrollment

The classroom performance of the off-campus
students is also an indication of the success of the
APOGEE program. It has been found that these
students do as well as or better than the students
Who attend the classes live. The video tapes of
lectures allow each student to go over certain
parts of the material several times. This 'play-
back' feature has been a beneficial teaching tool
both for off-campus and for on-campus students

in the APOGEE program. The 'talk-back' broad-
casts are well received by the students. These
sessions often deal only with student questions.
This student-teacher contact takes the place of
that which is normally available to the on-campus
student; contact which often teaches more than
any formal lecture could. Thus, the APOGEE
format of video taped lectures and live 'talk-back'
television lectures has provided the student-
teacher contact so important to engineering edu-
cation and, at the same time, places no more de-
mand on the instructor than preparation for a
regular class would. APOGEE also provides direct
interaction between the College of Engineering at
USC and the industry of South Carolina. This
interaction has not only stimulated discussions in
the classroom but also provided a way of intro-
ducing practical graduate engineering problems
into the coursework.
APOGEE has proven to be an unqualified suc-
cess for both students and teachers. Its rapid
growth and evolution make it a current and mean-
ingful program of graduate engineering educa-
tion. More information about the APOGEE pro-
grams in ChE at the University of South Carolina
may be obtained by writing to the APOGEE Pro-
gram Director, Dr. W. K. Humphries, at the
College of Engineering, University of South Caro-
lina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208. l

BOOK REVIEW: Uhl
Continued from page 149.

conventional for capital costs, operating costs and
profitability criteria. The emphasis in capital cost
estimation is for "order of magnitude" and fac-
tored estimates. The profitability methods include
discounted cash flow. Where this book differs
from other works is in the presentation; it is
terse and striking. There are many tables and fig-
ures to elucidate the concepts and examples to
illustrate them. Some new, useful compendia ap-
pear; these are the fruit of the prodigious labors
of Professor Woods. There is a survey of the
single (Lang) factor approach to compute capital
cost from the sum of the cost of the major pieces
of equipment. Also, there is an extensive critical
view of the various schemes for using more de-
tailed factors in capital cost estimates. Unfortu-
nately only passing mention is given to continuous
interest, uncertainty analysis (which is not men-
tioned as such), and sensitivity.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

In several places the progression from simple,
quick and rough to detailed time-consuming and
close estimates is dramatized. The laudable pur-
pose here is to inspire students to develop judge-
ment.
Also a note about the teaching of engineering
economics is in order. In his preface, Woods notes:
"many students undergo a long induction period
before they appreciate some of the concepts". My
experience confirms this view, but I would add
that practicing engineers grasp the concepts read-
ily, no doubt because they are familiar with busi-
ness background and practice.
The initial chapter, The Decision Makers, is a
vigorous view of the engineer in society, his re-
sponsibilities, and ethics in practice. Although the
tone is idealistic, and perhaps naive, it is praise-
worthy. A quote from the book is to the point "...
engineers are, by and large, the decision makers
in industry and technology ." (Actually we
should be more influential than we are, but by
nature we are less assertive than others, e.g.,
company managers).
The second chapter presents the economic en-
vironment. Basic economic concepts are covered:
supply, demand, competition, cash flow, allocation
of financial resources. Unfortunately, because of
its brevity the treatment serves only to stress the
need for such an overall perception.
The couching of the economic evaluation in
terms of accounting practice is commendable. For
cost data and for project authorization, we must
deal with accounting and financial types, so en-
gineers must speak the "accounting" language.
Outstanding merits of the work are the intro-
duction of pertinent material from other fields,
some novel approaches, homilies and examples de-
signed to evoke engineering judgment, useful
compendia of cost data, good specimen forms for
the preparation of cost estimates, provocative
problems, a valuable bibliography and an excel-
lent glossary of relevant terms.
The book is compact, perhaps excessively so
for the wealth of ideas, examples, tables, etc.,
which it contains. It has only 340 pages. For much
of the material an extended, amplified treatment
would be preferred, particularly in its service as a
textbook. Its classroom use may require expansion
on some topics in lecture by the instructor to de-
rive the maximum benefit. This unique, diverse,
rich, exciting book should also provide an excel-
lent review or an introduction to this subject for
practicing engineers. E

RETZLOFF: Reacti6n Engineering
Continued from page 168.
the multiple theory of Balandin [3] and the
premise that the catalytic activity is determined
by the compatability of the catalyst surface
geometry for the reaction being considered. The
key ingredients are the lattice parameters and the
arrangement of catalyst surface atoms which are
correlated with catalytic activity. The electron
band theory of catalysis [4] is principally applied
to transition metal and alloys and seeks to relate
catalysis, principally through the chemisorption
step, to the electronic properties of the bulk solid.
The subject of the electron theory of semicon-
ductor catalysts represents a review of the work
of F. F. Vol [1] Kenshtein [5] on the role of the
Fermi level in acceptor and donor reactions oc-
curring on a semiconductor catalyst surface. The
final topic, the charge transfer theory of catalysis,
starts with a review of the work of Hanffe [6] and
Lee [7, 8] on change transfer reactions. The effects
of D.C., symmetric A.C., and antisymmetric A.C.
capacitively applied electromagnetic fields on the
charge transfer catalytic reaction rate are dis-
cussed. The results of acoustically coupled phonon
excitations on these same reaction rates are de-
veloped. Within this general context the effects of
surface states (as distinct from the bulk energy
states) on the catalytic processes that occur on
transition metal oxides is considered [9, 10]. O

REFERENCES
1. D. G. Retzloff, Vortex Flows-A Unified Treatment
with Exact Solutions, 16th Annual A.I.Ch.E. Free
Forum 69th Annual A.I.Ch.E. Meeting-Chicago
(1976).
2. C. N. Hinshelwood, Kinetics of Chemical Change,
Oxford University Press, New York (1941).
3. A. A. Balandin, Advances in Catalysis, 10, 96 (1958).
4. C. G. Bond, Catalysis by Metals, Academic Press, New
York (1962).
5. F. F. Vol'kenshtein, The Election Theory of Catalysis
on Semiconductors, Pergamon Press, New York (1963).
6. K. Hanffe, Semiconductor Surface Physics, (R. H.
Kingston, ed.) University of Pennsylvania Press, Phil-
adelphia, Pennsylvania (1956).
7. V. J. Lee, J. Catal., 17, 178 (1970).
8. V. J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 55, 2905 (1971).
9. T. Wolfram, E. A. Kraut, and F. J. Morin, Phy. Rev.
B, 7, 1677 (1973).
10. T. Wolfram and F. J. Morin, Appl. Phys., 8, 125
(1975).

FALL 1977

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERS
Rohm and Haas Company is a major U.S. chemical
company with an excellent record of innovation and
growth. We produce over 2500 products that are used in
industry, agriculture and health services and we're
poised for significant growth both in the immediate and
long-term future.
Immediate openings exist for entry-level chemical engi-
neers in the following areas:
PROCESS ENGINEERING
Develop processes for new products and improve
processes for existing products. Will plan and execute
pilot plant studies for batch and continuous operations,
including preparation of cost estimates, design proposals
for large-scale equipment, environmental and safety
considerations. Positions require a BS/MS degree in
chemical engineering. Philadelphia and Bristol, PA
locations.
ENGINEERING DESIGN
Will be responsible for design of new plants, and for
production startup, including development of process
flow charts, specifications for equipment, and plant
testing to determine optimum design. Will also prepare
cost estimates for capital investment and products, and
supervise startup operation. Experience in computer
technology would be preferred. A BS/MS in chemical
engineering is required for these openings. Bristol, PA
location.
PRODUCTION
Responsible for startup operations in the introduction of
new processes, products and equipment; optimize pro-
ductivity. Other duties include process improvement
studies, troubleshooting and energy conservation. These
positions require a BS/MS in chemical engineering.
Houston, TX; Louisville, KY; Knoxville, TN; Philadelphia
and Bristol, PA locations.
MARKETING
Openings for individuals with a BS/MS in chemical
engineering or chemistry plus an aptitude for sales.
A three-phase training program includes company
and product orientation in the Philadelphia area, followed
by assignment to a sales office, working under the
direction of a district manager. Upon completion of
training, individual is assigned to a sales territory as a
technical representative.
We offer an excellent compensation and benefits pro-
gram, and an outstanding opportunity for career develop-
ment and advancement.
Send your resume, in confidence to:
Recruiting and Placement #.2477
Rohm and Haas Company
Philadelphia, Pa. 19105

ROHM

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19105
An Equal Opportunity Employer

SHINNAR: Interface Between Industry
and the Academic World
Continued from page 153.
just said. Kurihara also analyzes the information
flow in the unit and diagnoses the main difficulty
of control. The main parameter controlling the
performance is the level of coke on the catalyst
particle. This again depends both on the reactor
performances as well as on the regenerator condi-
tion. The time scale of the coke build-up is large,
on the order of an hour, whereas the residence
time of both oil and air flow in the unit is meas-
ured in seconds. This long time lag leads to diffi-
cult control.
What the scheme in Figure 2 really does is
minimize this interaction by keeping the regen-
erator conditions more constant. To do this we
need an additional measured variable on the regen-
erator to be kept constant.
But if one looks at the control scheme in Fig-
ure 2 from the viewpoint of an operator, an im-
mediate deficiency is apparent. The reactor, which
is the main part, has no control, and the operator
has no direct way to change the level of conversion
in the unit. Lee and Weekman [3] discuss this in
detail and show that this can be corrected by a
cascaded feedback loop, given in Figure 3.
The control scheme in Figure 3 is much
smoother and faster than the controller in Figure
1, which is a significant improvement. It has, how-
ever, some of the same deficiencies, namely, that
it does not have sufficient manipulated variables
to allow the operator to really achieve what he
needs to do, which is to be able to adjust the
steady state of the unit to meet varying process
requirements and varying constants. In the re-
finery we don't make money by reducing the level
of the control input needed. This is fixed when we
choose the manipulated variable. We make money
by being able to work close to a constraint, and
both our goal and the nature of the constraint
change with time.
In reality the operator does this or tries to do
this by using additional manipulated variables,
which don't appear in any scheme. He changes the
feed allocation between different units. Further-
more, he can change catalyst activity by adding
and withdrawing more or less catalyst or ordering
a different catalyst.
The fact that Kurihara's work did not lead to
a useful controller design does not detract from
the usefulness of his work. In fact, the complexity

MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS FCC
(Other Loops Omitted for Clarity)

Regenerator

Reactor

To Main
Fractionator

Air Oil Feed

FIGURE 3. Schematic of modified control scheme.

of the problem is such that one cannot expect
academia to do that, unless there is a real integra-
tion with an industrial project. But that is not
necessarily what we want from academia here. It
is sufficient that we understand in what way the
modern control theory used in the example could
be helpful in designing industrial controllers. And
the negative results of Kurihara's work are far
more illuminating and important than the positive
ones.

OPTIMAL CONTROL
I LEARNED FROM THIS example some of the
basic shortcomings of optimal control as well as
some of its advantages. For example, it makes
clear that the standard formulation of costs and
profits in optimal control, both deterministic and
stochastic, have very little to do with real costs
and profits and are only indirectly relatable.
Furthermore, complex chemical systems are often
not controllable in the full sense, and controllabil-
ity in the mathematical sense is not the same as in
the operational sense. I realized that those de-
cisions which are made before one writes the
algorithm, namely, which variables can be meas-
ured and which should be manipulated, are more
important than the choice of the algorithm itself
or the profit function. The main result of the
algorithm is in determining the dominant roots
and in decoupling the reactor and the regenerator.
This is rather insensitive to the profit function
used.

FALL 1977

We could have obtained some of the same re-
sults using the methods proposed by Rosenbrock
[4] for multivariable controller design. This il-
luminates one of the main paradoxes of optimal
control in process control application.
On the one hand it is clear that the term op-
timum is highly misleading. It is not a real op-
timum in any sense and can give rather unusable
controllers, as pointed out by Rosenbrock [4] and
myself [1]. It is also in no way a straightforward
design algorithm but depends on the skill and
understanding of the designer much more than
the Ziegler-Nichols method does.
On the other hand optimal control can provide
very useful information to the designer. But this
information must be integrated into a design pro-
cedure which checks the stability and sensitivity of
the total system and its overall performance. The
test of the algorithm is outside its formulation and
needs a good understanding of the system.
The properties of the algorithm are often less
important than the quality of the clues it can pro-
vide and the way it integrates with the designer's
knowledge, experience, and intuition.
But modern control literature is not written
this way. The unsuspecting reader gets the im-
pression that he really deals with a straight-
forward design algorithm. Even as great an ex-
pert as Rosenbrock attacks optimal control on
philosophical grounds; that is, he heads in a direc-
tion that minimizes the intellectual contribution
of the engineer. On the other hand we heard a re-
peated claim at this conference that successful use
of optimal control requires too much of a theoret-
ical knowledge.
Personally I don't worry about algorithms or
computers eliminating the engineer. Complex de-
sign algorithms need a much higher degree of in-
tellectual input than present methods and increase
the need for highly trained personnel. I feel
Rosenbrock attacks an image that modern control
literature projects more than a reality. The real
problem is that in the present state modern control
theory is not easily integrated with the way an ex-
perienced engineer designs a control system. We
have mathematically become so complex that even
professors have stopped understanding each other.
What we need is to translate the results of modern
control theory into the language of the practicing
engineer and to present the insights obtainable in
a simple form. When results and insight are pre-
sented in a simple form, they often look obvious,
but this does' not detract from their value. It

simplifies them.
For many purposes this is definitely possible.
The work that Prof. MacFarlane talked about at
Pacific Grove, California is a prime example of
what can be done to translate the work done in
one method to other mathematical languages
familiar to the engineer. Morton Denn showed
that a PID controller can be obtained from an
optimal formulation. Our own work at present
deals with this problem, and I'll mention here just
two items.
Consider, for example, the case of a simple
single-loop controller for an overdamped system,
with no inverse response. In most cases it is
sufficient to model this by a first order or second
order system with a delay in series.

G, (s) = e- (1)

or
e-S(
G,(s) = 1 + 27s + 2S 2

If we design an unconstrained deterministic op-
timum controller for Eq. (1) we will get a con-
troller of the form

G0(s) = e(1 + rs) (3)
1- e-(1 + rs)
which is really a proportional controller with a
dead time compensator very similar to the Smith
dead time compensator. The system is in practice
unstable as a small change in Gp (s) will lead to

Somehow we have to
make an attempt to bring engineering
back to our research. Nowhere is this more
felt than in theoretical engineering
and especially in control.

instability. We can make it stable by constraining
the control effort, but any experienced engineer
will reject the controller because his experience
tells him he does not want a proportional control-
ler with a small gain and a dead time compensator.
Using Eq. 2 for the model will add derivative
control action. There are several ways in which
we can force the algorithm to give us integral
action. One given by O'Connor and Denn [6] uses
constraint on the derivative of the control.
Denn also showed that by using a Pade ap-
proximation for the delay we will get a simple PID
controller and that a suitable constraint will even

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

lead to controller settings very similar to that ob-
tained using the Ziegler-Nichols method.
Unless we use very complex stochastic formu-
lation for the structure of the inputs, optimal
algorithms will always end up in controllers sim-
ilar and equivalent to those already is use, a
combination of P, I, and D control with a dead
time compensator and a smoothing filter. In that
sense optimal control has neither led to any sur-
prises nor to a design algorithm. In all cases we
have to evaluate the results in terms of stability,
sensitivity, and overall performance, and adding
more criteria is only doing the same thing in an
inverse way.
This does not mean the results are not very
interesting. The fact that we know our empirical
controller is very close to some clearly defined
unconstrained optimum is very useful. Further-
more, we can get clues on proper design and tun-
ing of dead time compensators.
On the other hand optimal control made some
very significant contributions to the design of
sample data controllers for the same case. I am
referring here to the work of Box and Jenkins on
control strategies suitable for human operators.
Take for /example the above case. A simple
suitable discrete model for the same process could
be

G, (B) W- WB Bk + (4)
( 1- SB
In their notation the output of the process Yt can
be written
Yt = Gp (B) ut + Nt
where Nt is the disturbance (or noise).
Box and Jenkins have an elaborate procedure
to identify the input using nonstationary models
for the noise. For most cases they recommend a
noise of the form
1 XB
Nt 1- B at (5)

Actually as McGregor [9] has shown this system is
equivalent in the state space description to the
following system

For an example, we will choose T = 1 and 0 =
0.5, and the sampling time T equal to 0.25. An un-
constrained optimization will give us the following
results (X = .5)
ut = -.5 (Aut- + Aut-2) + 2.26 (t -0.78et-1) (7)
where u, is the control action. Aut is the adjust-
ment in control action and E is the diviation of the
measurement from the desired value.
This is a simple controller which uses just two
measurements and two previous control actions.
However, it can be rewritten in a different form.
ut =-(1-) (ut- + ut-2) +

et + (1-8) C Et-i

which shows that this is really a PI controller
with a simple dead time compensator. The real
value of this work is that, with a very simple
strategy which an operator can easily handle, we
can approximate a sophisticated controller. Fur-
thermore, by 'adjusting the coefficients of these
four numbers we can even include a filter or a
lead compensator. The approximation is very good
and even has some advantages as it avoids, for
example, integral saturation.
But it is not straightforward. We note that the
gain, as well as the coefficient of the compensator,
depends on X. Theoretically, the noise parameter
X can vary between -1 and +1. But only values
between 0.5 and 1.0 will give controllers with ac-
ceptable stability margins for the gain. For others
we will again have to constrain the control action
to achieve stability, and if we look at the con-
strained controllers they are not sufficiently dif-
ferent from each other to justify any strong ef-
forts to differentiate between them.
Evaluating the designs for different X and
even for more complex structures of noise gives
very interesting and illuminating results, but the
final design must take into account the proper
stability margin, which is not part of the al-
gorithm. In many cases stability will be the over-
riding final constraint; in others the structure of

X[: t [1 1 : + [W AUt-k-1 + f(1 + X) Oat (6)

X t the noise might be more important. As this is not
Yt = [1 0] Xt + at a lecture on controller design, I will refer you to
I -our original paper [7].

FALL 1977

It is true that in some sense the results of Box
and Jenkins can be obtained both from classical
theory or from the state space formulation. But
this is hindsight. It is hard to guess that a noise
structure such as in Eq. 6 is really one of the few
that gives a good industrial controller. Nor did
anyone else come up with such simple effective
controllers for operators. But once we have them
there is an advantage to translate them to a more
familiar language.
This as an example of a really unforeseen re-
sult of optimal control that can be translated to
the language most control engineers are familiar
with. People with a background in quality control
will prefer the original formulation. People with
a long experience in classical process control will
prefer to talk about dead time compensators, PI
controllers, phase lag and phase lead compen-
sators, and filters.

SUMMARY
THERE ARE PROBABLY many really valu-
able results hidden in the literature of modern
control that merit being brought to a form useful
for the control engineer. But we need to extract
them, test them, and bring them to a form where
they are useful tools in real empirical design.
The academic world is probably the only one
that could do it and publish it, but we need not
only people who are ready to do it but also some
change in emphasis and value judgment in the
academic community, especially in the U.S.
A thesis like Kurihara's is not exactly the
prime example of what we value. It contains no
rigor, no experiments, and no new theory. If he
had spent five years and built a small FCC unit
and put a trivial controller around it, at least part
of our academic community would have admired
it. It would have been rather useless, since it is
very hard to build a small FCC with the same
dynamic behavior. In real design we would use
simulation anyway, and rigor would not help us
since this is not our problem. What would have
helped us if we would have pointed out what was
wrong with his results. Very few students would
today dare to do it.
This is sad. The value of theoretical work in
industry as well as in scientific work is much
greater in the failure mode than in the positive
case. If a good sensible theory fits the data or vice
versa, we learn rather little, especially if the
theory is known. An experienced theoretician can

guess the form of the result even without solving
it. But when a reasonable theory leads to strong
contradiction with experiments or our experience
we learn something.
,I learned this the hard way. When I started,
one of my first students studied non-Newtonian
liquid-into-liquid jets. We solved the equations for

We therefore have to create an inter-
face between the industrial practitioner and
the rigorous researcher, and the only way I
can see it is to start working on the funda-
mentals of our profession-trying to obtain an
understanding of the design process itself,
which never really is algorithmic but rather
interactive and intuitive and strongly
relying on informed judgment.

the power law fluid and were quite proud and tried
to confirm them. Our first experiments showed
some very strange effects, totally in contradiction
of what theory predicts. We dutifully recorded
them and finally found a set of narrow conditions
where the experiments agree with theory. If I had
had the sense to concentrate on the strange effects,
I would have had a first rate pioneering paper in-
stead of a rather standard one. But I learned my
lesson. When we studied atomization of non-
Newtonian fluids, we had a very solid linearized
stability analysis for any fluid and were able to
show that there are fluids for which the linearized
theory does not apply.
We have boxed ourselves in so much with pre-
conceived notions about how a good paper or
thesis should look that real engineering research
becomes rather hard. This is strange. Even the
hard sciences or mathematics feels less con-
strained as to what a paper should look like than
we do. And there is no part of engineering where
people are as ferociously prejudiced and con-
strained as in the academic control field in the
United States.
I admit the problem is not easy. A thesis like
Kurihara's or Kestenbaum's [5] is much harder to
judge and evaluate. The same applies to any work
dealing with dirty problems and with ill-defined
notions such as design. Furthermore, when com-
plex results are translated into simple language,
they often sound obvious and, to those without ex-
perience, sometimes trivial. But we are engineers
with all the advantages and disadvantages, and

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

fleeing into sterile mathematics does not solve any-
thing. The relevance of such work is just as hard
to judge. Nor does such work necessarily make the
best preparation for a student's career.
We therefore have to create a climate in which
such work can flourish. We also need to create a
basis of financial support for it. Research on
servomechanisms is supported by NASA and
DOT, but real process control, just as most re-
search on process design, has no home either at
NSF or any other agency and very meager in-
dustrial support. This is again purely a question
of the intellectual climate. The needs and potential
for significant improvements in process control
are at least as big as those in many areas which
have ample support.
Let me make one thing clear. I do not want to
imply that what I outlined is the only research or
even the main research control engineers should
do. In process control we suffer already far too
much from preconceived notions of what the only
present thing to do is, and I do not want to add to
this. Sound rigorous theoretical work and well-
conceived experimentation can make significant
contributions to modern control. But the nature
of the problem is such that, unless we obtain a
better understanding of the design process itself,
many of the most valuable units of our work will
remain useless, and some of our theoretical work
will go into directions where no real need exists.
We therefore have to create an interface between
the industrial practitioner and the rigorous re-
searcher, and the only way I can see it is to start
working on the fundamentals of our profession-
trying to obtain an understanding of the design
process itself, which never really is algorithmic
but rather interactive and intuitive and strongly
relying on informed judgment. It will be a dif-
ficult but interesting and gratifying task.
Let me finish with another story relevant to
the present state of research in the engineering
profession. I read once a strategic analysis of the
Maccabean War, an important event of Jewish
history. The analyst showed that Judah, the
Maccabean, was a military genius, the inventor of
guerilla warfare, the first to be able to handle the
Greek phalanx. But having beaten the Greeks in a
historic battle, he forgot his lesson. He really
dreamed of becoming a Greek general leading his
army in a phalanx. Doing that he was sadly
beaten. His brothers followed his first lessons,
which led to final victory. I do not want to elab-
orate on this example. El

NOTATION
at = white noise variable
B = backward shift operator
G,(B) = plant discrete transfer function
G1,(s) = plant continuous transfer function
k = defined by 0 = k T + c T (k is an integer)
5 = defined by e-Tt
= noise parameter
Xt = state vector
Yt = output
r = filter time constant [Eq. (1)]
0 = time delay [Eq. (1)]
Et = deviation of output from setpoint
ut = control action at time t
T = sampling period
Wo = 1 -81-Nc
W01 8- 81-c
e = 9/T k

REFERENCES
1. Kestenbaum, A., R. Shinnar, and F. E. Thau, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Design Develop., 15, (1), (1976).
2. Kurihara, H., Ph.D. thesis, M.I.T. (1967); Gould,
L. A., L. B. Evans, and H. Kurihara, Automatica, 6,
695 (1970).
3. Lee, W., and V. W. Weekman, Plenary Lecture at the
1974 JACC, Austin, Texas (1974); AIChE., 22, 27
(1976).
4. Rosenbrock, H. H., Computer-Aided Control System
Design, Academic Press (1974).
5. Kestenbaum, A., Ph.D. thesis, C.U.N.Y. (1975).
6. O'Connor, G. E., and M. M. Denn, "Three Mode Con-
trol as an Optimal Control," Chem. Eng. Sci., 27, 121-
127 (1972).
7. Palmor, Z., and R. Shinnar, "Sampled Data Control
for Human Operator," to be published.
8. Athans, M., "Trends in Modern System Theory,"
AIChE Symposium Series, No. 159, Vol. 72, p. 4
(1976).
9. MacGregor, J. F., The Can. J. Chem. Eng. 51 p. 468
(1973).

j books received

TWENTY LECTURES ON
THERMODYNAMICS
By H. A. Buchdahl, Pergamon Press, 1975

These twenty lectures present a coherent,
bird's eye view of phenomenological and sta-
tistical thermodynamics. According to the author
they are largely elementary in character, peda-
gogic in purpose and proceed in a way, which here
and there, "allows physical intuition to take
precedence over mathematical niceties". Neverthe-
less the text is abstract and mathematical. Some
readers may prefer other approaches. El

FALL 1977

UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA
Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates; up to $7,500/year. M.Sc. Candidates: up to$7,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Costs.
Tuition: $660/year. Married students housing rent:$184/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $190/month. Department Size 13 Professors, 20 Research Associates 30 Graduate Students. Applications For additional information write to: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 Faculty and Research Interests 1. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero- geneous Catalysis. D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De- sign. J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (Brit. Columbia): Transport Pheno- mena, Numerical Analysis, In situ Recovery of Oil Sands. A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics. W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol- lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap- plied Mathematics. F. D. Otto, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ- mental Engineering. D. Quon, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Mathematics, Optima- zation, Resource Allocation Model 5. D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu- metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo- dynamics. J T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy Economics and Supply. F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo- logy of Complex Fluids. S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine- tics. R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns, Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circuits. The University of Alberta One of Canada's largest universities and engineering schools. Enrollment of 19,000 students. Co-educational, government-supported, non-denominational. Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river valley. Edmonton Fast growing, modern city; population of 500,000. Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra, professional sports. Major chemical and petroleum processing centre. Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains and Jasper and Banff National Parks. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION S THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov- ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973 Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys- tems, Blood Processing JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me- chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul- fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody- namics Interfacial Phenomena THOMAS W. PETERSON, Asst. Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics. Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It . is a growing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to: Dr. J. 0. L. Wendt Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo- sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Applied Design JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968 Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con- trol, Model Building and Simulation UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA RESEARCH FACULTY ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MATERIAL ENGINEERING Alexis T. Bell Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N. Hanson C. Judson King (Chairman) Scott Lynn David N. Lyon John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Mitchel Shen Charles W. Tobias Theodore Vermuelen Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE: Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS UC DAVIS OFFERS A COMPLETE PROGRAM OF GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied Mathematics Electrochemical Engineering Process Dynamics Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Faculty R. L. BELL, University of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications RUBEN CARBONELL, Princeton University Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum Statistical Mechanics ALAN JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena B. J. McCOY, University of Minnesota Chromatographic Proceses, Food Engineering, Statistical Mechanics F. R. McLARNON, University of California, Berkeley Electrochemical Engineering, Energy conversion and storage J. M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena FALL 1977 Program Davis is one of the major campuses of the Uni- versity of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a program of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition, the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of en- vironmental engineering, food engineering, biochemi- cal engineering and biomedical engineering. Excellent laboratories, computation center and electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants. The Department supports students applying for National Science Foundation Fellowships. Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just over an hour away from the San Francisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (1 1/2 to 2 hours from Davis). These recreational opportunities combine with the friendly informal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Davis is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance. Information For further details on graduate study at Davis, please write to: Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-0400 PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech- nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his program of study. In this way a student can properly pre- pare himself for a productive career of research, develop- ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding technological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com- pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de- gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup- ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Professor J. H. Seinfeld Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It is advisable to submit applications before February 15, 1978. FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice- President for Institute Relations Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering; air and water quality. SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution; biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif- fusion and membrane transport. GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization; coal gasification. L. GARY LEAL, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor, Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical mechanics. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Control and estimation theory; air pollution. FRED H. SHAIR, Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies of various environmental problems. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure- property relations in polymers. ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Professor Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois Solid state and surface chemistry. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis. Carnegie -Mellon University 0 SURFACES -POLYMERS SCOLLOIDS I recovery 0 )KIIETICSO' -DIFFUSIONdesign * John L. Anderson membrane transport, diffusion of macromolecules, electrokinetic phenomena, hindered diffusion - reaction in small pores * Thomas W. Bierl coal processing hydrodesulfurization and feeding and agglomerating coals * Ethel Z. Casassa physical chemistry of colloids and polymers * Edward L. Cussler transport phenomena across membranes and in bile, psychophysics of texture * Anthony L. Dent reaction kinetics, catalysis and surface chemistry * D. Fennell Evans rate processes affecting cholesterol gallstone forma- tion, mechanism of detergency, selective separations using liquid surfactant membranes, behavior of elec- trolytes and hydrogen bonding solvents * Tomlinson Fort, Jr. adsorption, adhesion, catalysis, membranes, and thin films, interfaces in composites, relationship of surface to bulk properties of materials * Howard L. Gerhart coatings * Kun Li kinetics of gas/solid reactions and fine particle technology * Michael J. Massey process development, air pollution and environ- mental analyses of coal conversion technology Clarence A. Miller interfacial phenomena, tertiary oil recovery Gary J. Powers process synthesis, safety and reliability analysis of chemical processes, and separations science * Dennis C. Prieve evaluation of double-layer forces between colloidal particles and surfaces, computation of deposition rates for Brownian particles, biochemical engi- neering * Stephen L. Rosen polymeric materials, applied rheology and polymerization reactions * Robert R. Rothfus fluid mechanics especially flow in conduits, heat transfer and mass transfer, energy utilization and process dynamics and control and fine particle technology * Eric M. Suuberg energy conversion problems especially pyrolysis of coal * Herbert L. Toor transport phenomena, heat and mass transfer and diffusion-reaction kinetics * Arthur W. Westerberg computer aided process analysis, optimization and synthesis for design in computer control The Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering at Carnegie-Mellon University offers studies toward the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. For detailed information write: Graduate Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University Schenley Park Pittsburgh, PA 15213 FALL 1977 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Clarkson M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Friendly Atmosphere Freedom from Big City Problems Personal Touch Vigorous Research Programs Supported by Government and Industry Faculty with International Reputation Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and Other Recreation in the Adirondacks Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts Colleges nearby Faculty Richard J. McCluskey Der-Tau Chin Richard J. Nunge Robert Cole Herman L. Shulman David 0. Cooney R. Shankar Subramanian E. James Davis Peter C. Sukanek Marc D. Donohue Thomas J. Ward Joseph Estrin William R. Wilcox Joseph L. Katz Gordon R. Youngquist Research Projects are available in: Energy Materials Processing in Space Multiphase Transport Processes Health & Safety Applications Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion Polymer Processing Particle Separations Phase Transformations and Equilibria Reaction Engineering Optimization and Control Crystallization And More .... Financial aid in the form of fellowships, research assistantships, and teaching assistantships is available. For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson College of Technology Potsdam, New York 13676 Ft :p; 11111 '-' r * Viz TI A IL THE UNIVERSITY Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed in- stitution with traditions of excellence in Engineering and Applied Science since 1880. In 1967, Case Institute and Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment, endowment and faculty make Case Western Reserve Uni- versity one of the leading private schools in the country. The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's University Circle, an extensive concentration of educational, scientific, social and cultural organizations. ACTIVE RESEARCH AREAS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Environmental Engineering Control & Optimization Computer Simulation Systems Engineering Foam & Colloidal Science Transport Processes Coal Gasification Biomedical Engineering Surface Chemistry & Catalysis Crystal Growth & Materials Laser Doppler Velocimetry Chemical Reaction Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The department is growing and has recently moved to a new complex. This facility provides for innovations in both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major areas of Chemical Engineering are available. Case Chemical Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and petroleum companies and have made important technical and entrepreneurial contributions for over a half a century. FINANCIAL AID Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research As- sistantships are available to qualified applicants. Applications are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Contact: Graduate Student Advisor Chemical Engineering Department Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 44106 Chemical Engineering at CORNELL UNIVERSITY A place to grow... with active research in: biochemical engineering computer simulation environmental engineering heterogeneous catalysis surface science polymers microscopy reactor design fluid flow and coalescence physics of liquids thermodynamics with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange individual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in outstanding Cornell departments in chemistry biochemistry microbiology applied mathematics applied physics food science materials science mechanical engineering and others with outstanding recreational and cultural opportunities in one of the most scenic regions of the United States. Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering. (The M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program.) Financial aid, including several attractive fellowships, is available. The faculty members are: George G. Cocks, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F Scheele, Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, James F. Stevenson, Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F Wiegandt, Robert York. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to Professor Peter Harriott Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, New York 14853. UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Newark, Delaware 19711 The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and practice in the art and science of chemical engineering: An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem. An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in- dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the Delaware Valley chemical process industries. A Ph.D. degree. The regular faculty are: Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) R. L. Pigford C. E. Birchenall T. W. F. Russell K. B. Bischoff S. I. Sander H. W. Blanch G. L. Schrader M. M. Denn G. C. A. Schuit ('/2 time) C. D. Denson J. M. Schultz B. C. Gates L. A. Spielman J. R. Katzer R. L. McCullough Visiting Faculty A. B. Metzner (Chairman) Hanswalter Giesekus J. H. Olson L. P. B. M. Janssen M. E. Paulaitis Susumu Kase The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with in- dustrial practice are: L. A. DeFrate --.- single and multiphase fluid mechanics R. J. Fisher -polymer processing and stability theory P. J. Gill ---- Polymer reaction kinetics, optimal control systems P. M. Gullino, M.D. -- Biomedical engineering H. F. Haug ..-------- Chemical engineering design T. A. Koch ...... ...Catalysis W. H. Manogue Catalysis, reaction engineering F. Y. Pan -- -----Reaction engineering kinetics, separation and -transport phenomena F. E. Rush, Jr. _--- -Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction R. J. Samuels-- Polymer science A. B. Stiles .Catalysis E. A. Swabb, M.D. ---Biomedical engineering V.W. Weekman, Jr. --..Reaction engineering K. F. Wissbrun _- Polymer engineering For information and admissions materials contact: M. M. Denn, Graduate Advisor FALL 1977 university offlorida offers you Transport Phenomena & Rheology Drag-reducing polymers greatly modify the familiar bathtub vortex, as studied here by dye injection. Optimization & Control Part of a computerized distillation control system. Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces between water molecules. andmuct more... A young, dynamic faculty Wide course and program selection Excellent facilities Year-round sports Biomedical Engineering & Interfacial Phenomena Oxygen being extracted from a substance similar to blood plasma. Write to: Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227 University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 GRADUATE STUDY PAYS! Ph.D.$1,867

M.S. $1,487 UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON CULLEN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NEAL R. AMUNDSON AMIR ATTAR JAMES E. BAILEY JOSEPH R. CRUMP ABRAHAM E. DUKLER RAYMOND W. FLUMERFELT ERNEST J. HENLEY WALLACE I. HONEYWELL CHEN-JUNG HUANG ROY JACKSON CHARLES V. KIRKPATRICK DAN LUSS RODOLPHE L. MOTARD ALKIVADES PAYATAKES H. WILLIAM PRENGLE,JR. JAMES T. RICHARDSON FRANK M. TILLER FRANK L. WORLEY, JR. w4eu& Chairman, Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Houston Houston, Texas 77004 (Ap OFZ (713) 749-4407 L I <. B.S.$1,380

MONTHLY
STARTING
SALARIES
FOR CHE'S
(CHEM. ENGR., 53)
3/28/77

Fra lnlL

-

GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH

The Department of Energy Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICADO CIRCLE

Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Faculty and Research Activities i n
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Head of the Department
David S. Hacker
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1954
Associate Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
Victor J. Kremesec, Jr.
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1975
Assistant Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Associate Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szipe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed
in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:

Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Chemical kinetics, mass transport phenomena, chemical
process design, particulate transport phenomena

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers

Multi-phase flow, flow in porous media, mass transfer,
interfacial behavior, biological applications of transport
phenomena, thermodynamics of solutions
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
cryobioengineering
Thermodynamics, biotransport, artificial organs,
biophysics

Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, optimization,
environmental and pollution problems

Professor S. C. Saxena, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680

SILLINOI

THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs with a strong
emphasis on creative research, either in fundamental engineering science or its application to the
solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be
achieved from the close one-to-one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de-
velop relevant scientific contributions.
STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re-
search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements.
Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available, not only in terms of equipment
and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel.
AREAS OF RESEARCH: Applied Mathematics
Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering
Catalysis
Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Reactor Dynamics
Corrosion
Electronic Structure of Matter
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Sources and Conservation
Environmental Engineering
Fluid Dynamics
Heat Transfer
High Pressure
Mass Transfer
Materials Science and Engineering
Molecular Thermodynamics
Phase Transformations
Process Control
Process Design
Reaction Engineering
Statistical Mechanics
Surface Science
Systems Analysis
Two-Phase Flow
FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS: Professor J. W. Westwater
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Adams Laboratory
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801
FALL 1977

THE FOREST PRODUCTS
INDUSTRY IS BASED ON
RENEWABLE RESOURCES

AND NEEDS M.S. AND PH.D. SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS

THE

INSTITUTE OF

PAPER CHEMISTRY

OFFERS INTERDISCIPLINARY
GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS
DESIGNED FOR B.S. CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS TO FILL THE NEEDS
OF THE FOREST PRODUCT INDUSTRY

A faculty of 45 engineers, chemists, physicists,
mathematicians, and biologists
Graduate student body of 100 students
Close connection and support by the forest products
industry
All U. S. & Canadian students supported by full fellow-
ships, $4800-$5000, and tuition scholarships
Industrial experience an integral part of the program

Current research activity
* Process engineering of pollution-free pulping
systems
* Simulation & control in the pulp & paper industry
* Surface & colloid chemistry of paper making systems
* Laser, Raman, & X-ray defraction studies in cellulose
* Cell fusion techniques & tissue culture of trees
* Environmental engineering
* Fluid mechanics, heat & mass transfer
* Polymer science and engineering

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE:
DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS
INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY
P. 0. BOX 1039
APPLETON, WISCONSIN 54911

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY

OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production,
Atomic Energy)
Renato G. Bautista
Lawrence E. Burkhart
George G. Burnet
Allen H. Pulsifer
Dean L. Ulrichson
Thomas D. Wheelock

Biomedical Engineering
(System Modeling,
Transport. process)
Richard C. Seagrave
Charles E. Glatz

Biochemical Engineering
(Enzyme Technology)
Charles E. Glatz
Peter J. Reilly

Polymerization Processes
Wiilliam H. Abraham
John D. Stevens

as well as
Air Pollution Control
Solvent Extraction
High Pressure Technology
Mineral Processing

GRADUATE STUDY and

GRADUATE RESEARCH

in

Chemical Engineering

Transport Processes
(Heat, mass & momentum transfer)
William H. Abraham
Renato G. Bautista
Charles E. Glatz
James C. Hill
Frank 0. Shuck
Richard C. Seagrave

Process Chemistry and
Fertilizer Technology
David R. Boylan
George Burnet
Maurice A. Larson

Crystallization Kinetics
Maurice A. Larson
John D. Stevens

Process Instrumentation
and System Optimization
and Control
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Kenneth R. Jolls

write to:
Prof. D. L. Ulrichson
Dept. of Chem. Engr. & Nuc. Engr.
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program

Petroleum Engineering
also
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
and
M.S. in Petroleum Managemeni

The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.

Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena
Fluid Flow in Porous Media
Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies
Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems

Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior

For Information and Applications write:
Floyd W. Preston, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922

Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $5,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66502 FALL 1977 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER HEAT TRANSFER FLUID MECHANICS THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE SOLID MIXING CATALYSIS OPTIMIZATION FLUIDIZATION PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 213 0\ kWkxkL\AT e^uvVww&Vsu 0f KeAwtwA ook i\x cw CA:k\A Sc O w kw 4,uwA o AS.la c 14<(oak L4 ra o 'iAms MA, H~ 0\ awhesb s 0usj VE L Uitted D ceL SLL twks-. ExCOal \AM^StwO suppocM Id on OS < *Suh. ^JQl^t L \ Q(S Ad- LL^Q\ ks((Ab kw.dAo C~ovk o TS^vc c\dwvaV OYsj^^Q~LaJ wyLow 40gob\^(\M\ * ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY * BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING * BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING * TRANSPORT PHENOMENA * CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS * SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY * POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES * ENERGY Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For decades to come, the chemical engineer will play a central role in fields of national concern. In two areas alone, energy and the environment, society and industry will turn to the chemical engineer for technology and management in finding process-related solutions to critical problems. MIT has con- sistently been a leader in chemical engineer- ing education with a strong working relation- ship with industry for over a half century. For detailed information, contact Professor James Wei, Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Instiitute of Tech- nology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139. Raymond F. Baddour Janos M. Beer Clark K. Colton Lawrence B., Evans Hoyt C. Hottel Jack B. Howard John P. Longwell Herman P. Meissner Edward W. Merrill J. Th. G. Overbeek FACULTY Robert C. Reid Adel F. Sarofim Charles N. Satterfield Kenneth A. Smith J. Edward Vivian Glenn C. Williams Ronald A. Hites Michael Modell Preetinder S. Virk James Wei Robert C. Armstrong Lloyd A. Clomburg Robert E. Cohen William M. Deen Richard G. Donnelly Christos Georgakis Michael P. Manning Frederick A. Putnam Costas Vayenas Chemical Engineering At The University Of Michigan THE FACULTY THE RESEARCH PROGRAM Dale Briggs Louisville, Michigan Brice Carnahan Case-Western, Michigan Rane Curl MIT Francis Donahue LaSalle, UCLA H. Scott Fogler Illinois, Colorado James Hand NJIT, Berkeley Robert Kadlec Wisconsin, Michigan Donald Katz Michigan Lloyd Kempe Minnesota Joseph Martin Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie Giuseppe Parravano Rome John Powers Michigan, Berkeley Jerome Schultz, Chairman Columbia, Wisconsin Maurice Sinnott Michigan James Wilkes Cambridge, Michigan Brymer Williams Michigan Gregory Yeh Holy Cross, Cornell, Case Edwin Young Detroit, Michigan Surface Catalysis Reservoir Engineering Thrombogenesis Sterilization Applied Numerical Methods Dynamic Process Simulation Ecological Simulation Electroless Plating Electrochemical Reactors Polymer Physics Polymer Processing Composite Materials Coal Liquifcation Coal Gasification Acidization Gas Hydrates Periodic Processes Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport In Membranes Flow Calorimetry Ultrasonic Emulsification Heat Exchangers For Tomorrows Engineers Today. THE PLACE Department Of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109 For Information Call 313/763-1148 Collect CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman Day Programs Established fields of specialization in which re- search programs are in progress are: (1) Fluid Turbulence Mixing and Drag Reduction Studies-Dr. G. K. Patterson (2) Electrochemistry and Reactions at Electrode Surfaces-Dr. J. W. Johnson (3) Heat Transfer Studies-Dr. E. L. Park, Jr. and Dr. J. J. Carr (4) Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes to Methane-Dr. J. L. Gaddy M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees In addition, research projects are being carried out in the following areas: (a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Dr. J. L. Gaddy (b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies -Dr. M. E. Findley (c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies and Separation Processes-Dr. R. C. Waggoner (d) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques- Dr. H. H. Grice (e) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer Applications to Process Control-Drs. M. E. Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen- kamp (f) Transport Properties, Kinetics, enzymes and catalysis-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E. Poling (g) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium -Dr. D. B. Manley Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. FALL 1977 HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? , io ij,,i,.,, .. uI.L CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg R. F. Benenati J. J. Conti C. D. Han S. H. Lin R. D. Patel E. M. Pearce E. N. Ziegler RESEARCH AREAS Air Pollution Biomedical Systems Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Mathematical Modelling Polymerization Reactions Process Control Rheology and Polymer Processing Polytechnic Institute Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Instltute Of Brooklyn and New York University School of Engineering and Science. Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research: chemical engineering, polymer science and engineering and environmental studies. Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available. For further information contact Professor C. D. Han Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Institute of New York 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, New York 11201 university of pennsylvania chemical and biochemical engineering FACULTY Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan) Elizabeth B. Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins) William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania) Eduardo D. Glandt (Pennsylvania) David J. Graves (M.I.T.) A. Norman Hixson (Columbia) Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia) Mitchell Lift (Columbia) Alan L. Myers (California) Melvin C. Molstad (Yale) Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale) John A. Quinn (Princeton) Warren D. Seider (Michigan) RESEARCH SPECIALTIES Energy Utilization Enzyme Engineering Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Computer-Aided Design Chemical Reactor Analysis Environmental and Pollution Control Polymer Engineering Process Simulation Surface Phenomena Separations Techniques Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena The faculty includes two members of the National Academy of Engineering and three recipients of the highest honors awarded by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Staff members are active in teaching, research, and professional work. Located near one of the largest con- centrations of chemical industry in the United States, the University of Pensylvania maintains the scholarly standards of the Ivy League and numbers among its assets a superlative Medical Center and the Wharton School of Business. PHILADELPHIA: The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the New Jersey shore are within a two- hour drive. For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to Dr. A. L. Myers, Chairman, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering / D3, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. FALL 1977 LOOKING WRITE TO Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head 160 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pa. 16802 for a graduate education in Chemical Engineering ? Consider PENN STATE Some Current M.S. & Ph.D. General Research Areas: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Physiological Transport Processes Newborn Monitoring ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Gaseous and Particulate Control Atmospheric Modeling REACTOR DESIGN AND CATALYSIS Heterogeneous Catalysis Cyclic Reactor Operations Catalyst Characterization TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Analytical and Numerical Solutions Polymer Rheology and Transport Convective Heating and Mass Transfer Mass Transfer in Cocurrent Flow THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Property Correlations Statistical Mechanics PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Nonlinear Stability Theory Optimal and Periodic Control APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND KINETICS Industrial Chemical Processes Complex Reaction Systems PETROLEUM REFINING Process Development Product Conversion TRIBOLOGY Properties of Liquid Lubricants Boundary Lubrication Fundamentals INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA Adsorption Thermodynamics and Kinetics Monolayer and Membrane Processes ENERGY RESEARCH Tertiary Oil Recovery Nuclear Technology CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING University ofs Pittsbmgh Sixty graduate students, along with 300 under- graduates, pursue their education on three floors of Benedum Hall. The facilities are modern and excellently equipped. Graduate applicants should write: Graduate Coordinator Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261 FACULTY Charles S. Beroes Alfred A. Bishop Alan J. Brainard Shiao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb, Jr. Paul F. Fulton George E. Klinzing Chung-Chiun Liu Alan A. Reznik Yatish T. Shah Edward B. Stuart John W Tierney UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH The first school west of the Allegheny Mountains to offer engineering de- grees, the University granted its first under- graduate engineering degree in 1846 and started the graduate program in 1914. Today, approximately 2,000 undergraduates and 600 graduate students are en- rolled in the School of Engineering. Students have access to the George M. Bevier En- gineering Library of 38,000 volumes; University libraries of over 2,500,000 volumes; libraries in 50 industrial research centers and universities nearby. University of Pittsburgh has a comprehensive com- puter system with both batch and time-sharing facilities to use in aca- demic and research investigations. PROGRAMS AND SUPPORT Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy de- grees in Chemical En- gineering and Master of Science degree in Petro- leum Engineering are of- fered. While obtaining advanced degrees, stu- dents may specialize in Biomedical, Energy Re- sources, Nuclear, and En- vironmental areas. A joint Master of Science degree with the Department of Mathematics is offered. Teaching and Research Assistantships and Fellow- ships are available. PITTSBURGH The city leads a rich cul- tural life in an exciting geographic and social setting. Pittsburgh Sym- phony Orchestra, under the direction of Andre Previn, ranks high. A wide range of musical events rocks Heinz Hall. Pitts- burgh Laboratory Theatre and Pittsburgh Public Theatre take innovative approaches to drama. Natural history displays at Carnegie Museum and art exhibits at the new Sarah Scaife Gallery draw over a million visitors yearly. For sports followers, Pittsburgh offers Pirates, Steelers, Penguins. And skiers find a variety of slopes just a half-hour, uphill drive from the city. FALL 1977 .4- *1 Koppel Lim Peppas Ramkrishna Reklaitis Squires Theofanous Tsao Wankat Weigand AN-wi a. r~4 -IN-1 1' .;> ^flu - .%rc Graduate Information Chemical Engineering A Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 4* 4 Albright Barile Chao Delgass Eckert Emery Greenkorn Hanneman Houze Kessler krI L. S. L j Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available. The Department has approximately 30 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the leading 42 Chemical Engineer- ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to recent evaluations. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization, Stability, and Process Control Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Polymer Science BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma Blood Pumping Systems Biomaterials Rice University Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca- tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac- tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston. There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800 graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a complete university with programs in the various fields of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer- ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings. The academic year is from August to May. As there are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly four months for research. The school offers excellent recreational and athletic facilities with a completely equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year- round activities. FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of$400-460 per month.

APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION
Address letters of inquiry to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

Houston
With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.

FALL 1977

RUTGERS CHFENSTHE STATE UNIVERSITY
l TG4 1 d OF NEW JERSEY

M.S. and Ph.D.

PROGRAMS
IN THE DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL AND

BIOCHEMICAL

ENGINEERING
College of Engineering

AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
* THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY,
COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
* MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES BIOMATERIALS
* ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
* BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES
INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS FLAMMABILITY OF MATERIALS OCEANS AND ESTUARIES
ENZYMES IN THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE, PACKAGING QUALITY MANAGEMENT
PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSING POLYMER PROCESSING WASTES RECOVERY
AND WASTE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
FOOD PROCESSING
FELLOWSHIPS AND For Application Forms and Further Information Write To:
Dr. A. Constantinides, Graduate Director
ASSISTANTSHIPS Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
College of Engineering
ARE AVAILABLE Rutgers, The State University
New Brunswick, N.J. 08903

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

224

University of

SSouth

Carolina
The College of Engineering offers the M.S., M.E. and Ph.D.
in Chemical Engineering with strong interdisciplinary
support in chemistry, physics, math and computer science.
Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely
with the faculty on study and research projects. Research
and teaching stipends are available from $3000 to$6000.
The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of
23,800 is located in the capital city of Columbia. Offering a
variety of cultural and recreational activities, Columbia is
part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country.
The Chemical Engineering Faculty
B.L. Baker, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., North Carolina State
University, 1955 (Process design, environmental problems, ion transport)
M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951
(Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction,
waste treatment)
J.H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat
transfer, fluid mechanics)
F.P. Pike, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949, (Mass
transfer in liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria)
T.G. Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., The University of Michigan, 1976
(Chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical
systems, process design, thermodynamics)
G.B. Tatterson, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1977
(Process control, real time computing, mixing phenomena)
J.A. Trainham, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of California
(Berkeley), 1978 (Electrochemical systems)
V. Van Brunt, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974
(Mass transfer, computer modeling, fluidization)
For further information contact:
Prof. J.H. Gibbons
Chairman, Chemical Engineering Group
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina 29208

II I

THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE

Graduate Studies in

Chemical, Metallurgical, and Polymer Engineering

Research

Programs for the degrees of Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy are
offered in chemical engineering,
metallurgical engineering and polymer
engineering. The Master's program may
be tailored as a terminal one with
emphasis on professional develop-
ment, or it may serve as preparation for
more advanced work leading tothe Doc-
torate.

Faculty

William T. Becker
Donald C. Bogue
Charlie R. Brooks
Duane D. Bruns
Edward S. Clark
Oran L. Culberson
John F. Fellers
George C. Frazier
Hsien-Wen Hsu
Homer F. Johnson, Department Head
Stanley H. Jury
Carl D. Lundin
Peter J. Meschter
Charles F. Moore
Ben F. Oliver, Professor-in-Charge
of Metallurgical Engineering
Joseph J. Perona
Joseph E. Spruiell
E. Eugene Stansbury
James L. White, Professor-in-Charge
of Polymer Engineering

Process Dynamics and Control

Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of
Packed Beds

Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge
Studies of Macromolecules

Development and Synthesis of New
Engineering Polymers

Fiber and Plastics Processing

Chemical Bioengineering

X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission and
Scanning Electron Microscopy

Solidification, Zone Refining

Welding

Cryogenic and High Temperature
Calorimetry

Flow and Fracture in Metallic and
Polymeric Systems

Corrosion
Solid State Kinetics

Financial Assistance

Sources available include graduate
teaching assistantships, research assis-
tantships, and industrial fellowships.

The University and
Surroundings

Close to the center of Knoxville, the 397
acre campus combines a spacious en-
vironment with urban convenience. The
proximity of the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory and the headquarters of the
Tennessee Valley Authority encour-
ages constructive interchange with the
activities of this 30,000 student campus.
The moderate Knoxville climate with
the nearby Great Smoky Mountain Na-
tional Park, Appalachian Trail, ski slopes
and TVA lakes provides year round
recreational challenges. The university
and area communities offer a substan-
tial program of cultural activities includ-
ing a symphony orchestra, several the-
ater companies and fine art museums as
well as a wide assortment of rock con-
certs, folk music, mountain festivals, etc.

Write

Department of Chemical, Metallurgical
and Polymer Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Programs

M.S. and Ph.D.

Programs in

Chemical
Engineering
Faculty research interests
include Aerosol Technology,
Bioengineering, Combustion,
Computer-Aided Design,
Energy, Enviromental,
Kinetics and Catalysis,
Materials, Optimization,
Polymer Engineering,
Process Control,
Process Engineering,
Process Simulation,
Surface Phenomena,
Transport Processes.
for additional information:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712
FALL 1977

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
TORONTO, CANADA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
& APPLIED CHEMISTRY

The Department offers a wide range of research topics for the
creative student including:

* nuclear power engineering
* energy engineering, solar heating
" electrochemical engineering and corrosion
* polymer science and engineering
* plastics engineering and composite materials
* process modelling and optimal control
* fluid mechanics and pipeline transportation
* petrochemistry and tar sands development
* ceramics engineering
* heat, mass and momentum transport
* radiochemistry and radioanalysis
" analytical chemistry and instrumentation
* thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis
* applied organic chemistry
* environmental engineering
* biomedical engineering
* bioengineering and food synthesis
* pulp and paper chemistry
* occupational health engineering

The Department ranks as one of the largest chemical
engineering schools in the world with a total professorial
staff of 33 and an enrolment of 160 graduate students.
Interdisciplinary research is fostered through joint projects
with the Institute for Environmental Studies, the Institute
for Biomedical Engineering, the Centre for the Study of
Materials, the Systems Building Centre, and the Institute
for Aerospace Studies.
Admission to the School of Graduate Studies is based
solely on academic standing and availability of space and
facilities. A graduate brochure entitled "Graduate Research
and Career Development" which describes current research
programs is available on request. Adequate financial support
in the form of scholarships, fellowships or bursaries
is available to qualified students.
For further details write:
Professor R.T. Woodhams, Graduate Secretary
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Applied Chemistry
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M5S1A4

1 2

3X 4

5 6

7 8

010

11 12

A~

Chemical

Engineering
at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University ...
applying chemistry to the needs of man.

Study with outstanding professors in the land of
Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Lee. .. where
Chemical Engineering is an exciting art. Some current
areas of major and well-funded activity are,
Renewable Resources
chemical and microbiological processing,
chemicals made from renewable resources
Coal Science and Process Chemistry
Microprocessors, Digital Electronics, and Control
process measurements, interfacing, remote
data acquisition
Polymer Science and Engineering
processing, morphology, synthesis, surface
science, biopolymers
Engineering Chemistry
chemically pumped lasers, multiphase catalysis,
chernical micro-engineering, biological
regenerative cycles in pollution control
Biochemical Engineering
synthetic foods, food processing, antibiotics,
plant-cell tissue culture, fermentation processes
and instrumentation
VPI&SU is the state university of Virginia with 20,000
students and almost 5,000 engineering students ..
located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern
Virginia. White-water canoeing, skiing, backpacking, and
the like are all nearby, as is Washington, D. C. and
historic Williamsburg.
Stipends to $8,000 (tax free) plus all fees. Write to: Dr. H. A. McGee, Jr., Department Head, Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, or call collect (703) 951-6631. Alchemic Symbols 1. Gold 8. White Arsenic 2. Silver 9. Lime 3. Copper 10. Vitriol 4. Nitre Flowers 11. Vinegar 5. Mercury 12. Cinnabar 6. Zinc 13. Amalgam 7. Aqua Vitae 14. Eggshells FALL 1977 t. I at *1 -m m r I 4 s~ I:, K- Ii A *0 -. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D. RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE: HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL PROCESS MODELING IN: COAL GASIFICATION, CHEMICALS FROM WOOD, ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD P. O. BOX G University, Alabama 35486 AUBURN UNIVERSITY A Land Grant University of Alabama GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and PH.D. DEGREES CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS: LIQUID FUELS FROM COAL POROUS MEDIA CRYSTAL GROWTH KINETICS ENZYME ENGINEERING Financial Assistance: Research and Teaching Assistantships, Industrial Fellowships Are Available PROCESS CONTROL BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION TRANSPORT PHENOMENA For Further Information, Write: Head, Chemical Engineering Department Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830 FALL 1977 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY SLEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837 For admission, address Dr. George F. Folkers Coordinator of Graduate Studies * Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering * For the usual candidate with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester- hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation. Special programs are arranged for candidates with baccalaureate degrees in the natural sciences. * Assistantships and scholarships are available. * Typical interests of the faculty include the areas of: reaction kinetics and catalyst deactiva- tion; thermodynamics; process dynamics and control, including direct digital control; computer- aided design; science of materials, particularly metallurgy and polymer technology; numerical analysis; statistical analysis; mathematical modeling; operations research. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA BARBARA CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING Gerald R. Cysewski Henri J. Fenech Husam Gurol Owen T. Hanna Duncan A. Mellichamp Glenn E. Lucas John E. Myers George L. Nicolaides G. Robert Odette A. Edward Profio Robert G. Rinker Orville C. Sandall Dale E. Seborg For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara 93106 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION CINCINNATI f DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES -Major urban educational center -New, prize-winning laboratory building and facilities-Rhodes Hall -National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent to campus -Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid -Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control, polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction- ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen- eration, heat transfer. Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering (0620) University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING Sr4 MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 1964 AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Transport Processes Bioengineering Simulation Processes Porous Media Zeolites The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the doctorate. Financial assistance is available. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: Department of Chemical Engineering The Cleveland State University Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street Cleveland, Ohio 44115 FALL 1977 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Degrees Offered M.S. and Ph.D. Programs are available for persons in Chemical Engineering or related fields. Research Areas Energy Storage and Conservation Polymer Processing * Environmental Pollution Control Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Reac- tor Design Process Dynamics Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics * Membrane Transport Processes Thermodynamics Faculty F.C. Alley W.B. Barlage J.N. Beard W.F. Beckwith D.D. Edie* J.M. Haile* R.C. Harshman S.S. Melsheimer* J.C. Mullins* W.H. Talbott Clemson University Clemson University is a state coeducational land- grant university offering 76 undergraduate fields of study and 55 areas of graduate study in its nine academic units which include the College of Engineering. Present on-campus enrollment totals about 10,000 students which includes about 1,900 graduate students. The campus, which com- prises 600 acres and represents an investment of approximately$125
million in permanent facilities, is located in the northwestern part of South
Carolina on the shores of Lake Hartwell.
For Information For further information and a descriptive brochure, write
D.D. Edie, Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering,
Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

The University of Colorado offers excellent opportunities for graduate study and research leading to
the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering

Air Pollution
Bioengineering
Catalysis
Cryogenics
Design
Energy Applications
Environmental Applications
.7 0 Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Kinetics
Polymers
Process Control
r ?Thermodynamics
Water Pollution

For application and information,
0 .-. -write to:
Chairman, Graduate Committee
-- |Chemical Engineering Department
i' ---University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309
--.a = _.._^- -- -
., -^- -^^--^--B. ^^^^

th e

university

programs
M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England

We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268

DREXEL UNIVERSITY

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Faculty
D. R. Coughanowr
E. D. Grossmann
Y. Lee
R. Mutharasan
J. A. Tallmadge
J. R. Thygeson
C. B. Weinberger

Research Areas
Biochemical Engineering
Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering
Coal Conversion Technology
Mass and Heat Transport
Polymer Processing
Process Control and Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Systems Analysis and Optimization
Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis

Consider:
High faculty/student ratio
Excellent facilities
Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities
Full time and part time options

Write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA 19104

FALL 1977

faculty
J. P. BELL
C. 0. BENNETT
R. W. COUGHLIN
M. B. CUTLIP
A. T. DiBENEDETTO
G. M. HOWARD
H. E. KLEI
M. T. SHAW
R. M. STEPHENSON
L. F. STUTZMAN
D. W. SUNDSTROM

LEHIGH UNIVERSITY
Department of Chemical Engineering
Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015

FACULTY
Hugo S. Caram
Marvin Charles
Curtis W. Clump
Mohamed EI-Aasser
Donald D. Joye
William L. Luyben
Anthony J. McHugh
Laszlo K. Nyiri
Gary W. Poehlein
William E. Schiesser
Leslie H. Sperling
Fred P. Stein
Leonard A. Wenzel

RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS
Polymer Science & Engineering
Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering,
Biochemical Engineering
Process Simulation & Control
Catalysis & Reaction Engineering
Thermodynamic Property Research
Energy Conversion Technology
Applied Heat & Mass Transfer
Fluid Mechanics
SPECIAL PROGRAMS
M.Eng. Program in Design
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in
Polymer Science & Engineering
FINANCIAL AID
Of course.

WRITE US FOR DETAILS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

II JGraduate Enrollment 60

S^Faculty 15

Bioengineering
Pollution Control
0 Process Dynamics
Computer Control
0 Kinetics and Catalysis
Thermodynamics
0 Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department Suear Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS
R. B. Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) . Catalysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
M. H. 1. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) . Oscillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) Wastewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) . Polymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) . Optimization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simulation
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) Biological Fluid and Mass Transfer
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) . Polymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
T. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) .... ... Heat Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . Statistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . Wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) .... Mass Transfer, Corrosion
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) ... Polymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Processes
D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . Interfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) . Process Simulation and Control, Computer Control

DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman,
RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7

GRADUATE STUDY IN
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State University has assistantships and fellowships
available for students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these appointments it is possible
for a graduate student to obtain the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two additional years.
ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $522 per month to a student studying for the M.S. degree and approximately$563 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the
subject covered by the research assistantship. Students must pay resident tuition, but the additional non-
resident fee is waived.
FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to \$4,000 plus tuition and fees.

CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS
D. K. Anderson, Chairman
Ph.D., University of Washington
Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio-
vascular Physiology
R. F. Blanks
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena in Macro-
molecular Systems
C. M. Cooper
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of Trans-
port Processes
For additional information write:

M. C. Hawley
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Porous Media Transport, Kinetics, Catalysis, Plasmas, and
Reaction Engineering
K. Jayaraman
Ph.D., Princeton University
Process Deynamics and Control, Nonlinear Rheological
Models of Polymeric Materials, Nonlinear System Theory
C. A. Petty
Ph.D., University of Florida
Turbulence, Stability and Transport in Fluidized Beds,
Separations
B. W. Wilkinson
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Re-
actor and Radioisotope Applications

Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
197 Engineering Building
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824

FALL 1977

McMASTER UNIVERSITY

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS

DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK AT MICHIGAN TECH...

WORK AND STUDY
... with a select faculty
... the best equipment
... surrounded by forests and lakes
DEGREES OFFERED:
M.S. in Chemical Engineering
studies in advanced thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, instrumentation, unit operations, and
chemical processing.
M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemistry
specialization in organic, inorganic, physical and analytical chemistry, and in biochemistry.

Financial assistance available in the form of fellowships and assistantships.

For more information write:
S H. El Khadem, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, Michigan 49931

Can you mesh rhe facut(y wfrh their inres- ~And yours?

Department of CaiUa fqineetinq C- Matris Scence, Univesity of4 Minnesota
minnapoUs, Minn. 5545,

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA

OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH
LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. IN THE AREAS OF:

Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Crystallization
Food Processing
Kinetics

Mixing
Polymerization
Thermodynamics
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas

FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO:

Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508

FALL 1977

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D.
Degrees

Research Areas
Air Pollution Monitoring and Control
Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams
Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Energy Sources and Systems
Environmental Control Engineering
Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
Process Control and Modelling of Processes
Single-Cell Protein Research
Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids
Transport in Biological Systems
WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg.,
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201

Graduate study
toward

M.S. degrees u
in C
chemical engineering

Major energy research center:

* solar
* bioconversion

Financial assistance available.

* petroleum
* geothermal

Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other
fields.
For applications and information:
Dr. John T. Patton, Head, Department of Chemical Engineer-
ing, Box 3805, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces,
New Mexico 88003.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

9 ? Offering Research Opportunities in
I Coal Gasification
,Desalination
"' Synthetic Fuels
Hydrogen Economy
Mini Computer Applications to
Process Control
-. .-- Process Simulation
Radioactive Waste Management
.. and more

Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque!

For further information, write:
Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131

I

240

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Faculty and Research Activities:

S. G. Bankoff
G. M. Brown
J. B. Butt
S. H. Carr
W. C. Cohen
B. Crist
J. S. Dranoff
T. K. Goldstick
W. W. Graessley
H. M. Hulburt
H. H. Kung
R. S. H. Mah
J. C. Slattery
W. F. Stevens
G. Thodos

Boiling Heat Transfer, Two-Phase Flow
Thermodynamics, Process Simulation
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Catalysis
Solid State Properties of Polymers, Biodegradation
Dynamics and Control of Process Systems
Polymers in the Solid State
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chromatographic Separations
Biomedical Engineering, Oxygen Transport
Polymer Rheology, Polymer Reaction Engineering
Analysis of Chemical and Physical Processes
Catalyst Behavior, Properties of Oxide Surfaces
Computer-Aided Process Planning, Design and Analysis
Transport and Interfacial Phenomena
Process Optimization and Control, Computer Applications
Properties of Fluids, Coal Processing, Solar Energy

Financial support is available
For information and application materials, write:
Professor William F. Stevens, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois 60201

FALL 1977

GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS

* Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control
Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Rheology Unit Operations
Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Simulation
Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request

WRITE J. L. Zakin, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210

18 HE

niversitThe UNIVERSITY

nO F

OKLAHOMAA

WRITE TO:
THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069

* CATALYSIS
* CORROSION
* MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
* DESIGN
* POLYMERS
* METALLURGY
* THERMODYNAMICS
* RATE PROCESSES
* ENZYME TECHNOLOGY

OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs

FACULTY
T. J. Fitzgerald Control, Fluidization, Mathematical
Models
F. Kayihan Process Systems Simulation and
Analysis
J. G. Knudsen -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two-
Phase Flow
0. Levenspiel Reactor Design, Fluidization
R. E. Meredith Corrosion, Electrochemical Engineer-

ing
- Thermodynamics, Applied Mathe-
matics

C. E. Wicks Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment
An informal atmosphere with opportunity for give and take with faculty and for joint work with
the Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA), Metallurgical Research Center of the U.S.
Bureau of Mines, Forest Product Laboratory, Environmental Health Science Center and the School of
Oceanography. The location is good-in the heart of the Willamette Valley-60 miles from the rugged
Oregon Coast and 70 miles from good skiing or mountain climbing in the high Cascades.
For further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department,
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331

R. V. Mrazek

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Full Text