Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00055

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 97
    Jim White of the University of Tennessee
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Book reviews
        Page 103
    Brigham Young University
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    The role of waves in two phase flow: Some new understandings
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Experiments in undergraduate reaction engineering: Startup and transient response of CSTR's in series
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Stressing industrial implications in a polymer engineering course
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Faculty workload measurement at Penn State
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Faculty workload measurement at NJIT
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    On teaching problem solving, Part II: The challenges
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    News
        Page 144
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text








chmica ei n educa




There's a good deal more to enjoying the good
life than many people imagine.
For some of us, the good life means sharing
-our time, our talents, whatever it takes to solve
problems. Like making sure there's enough food
to feed a hungry world. Enough thick forests to
help house it. Enough care to rid it of pollution
and disease. And enough time left to enjoy it.
At Dow, we're dedicated to these and other
vital pursuits. Because we know life is fragile
and needs protection.
It is largely because of this concern that
many recent graduates with scientific, engineer-
ing, manufacturing and marketing backgrounds


have chosen a career with Dow. They've found
a life of growth without constraint. Of achieve-
ment based on their own ability and good
judgment.
If you know of students who are looking for
a career with enough meaning for their talent
and enthusiasm, put them in touch with us. Re-
cruiting and College Relations, P.O. Box1713-CE,
Midland, Michigan 48640.
Dow is an equal opportunity employer-
male/female.


DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.
*Tralemark of The Dow Chemical Company


To truly enjoy the good life,

v' ren .sh, it.


4 ~a0
0>f.y^













EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XI NUMBER 3 SUMMER 1977


FEATURES

108 1976 4&a'd PEecUe-
The Role of Waves in Two Phase Flow:
Some New Understandings, A. Dukler

118 Experiments in Undergraduate Reaction En-
gineering: Startup and Transient Re-
sponse of CSTR's in Series, D. Sundberg,
T. Carleson and R. McCollister

122 Stressing Industrial Implications in a Poly-
mer Engineering Course, J. Charrier

130 Faculty Workload Measurement at Penn
State, L. Eagleton

134 Faculty Workload Measurement at NJIT,
D. Hanesian

140 On Teaching Problem Solving: Part II
The Challenges, D. Woods

DEPARTMENTS

98 The Educator
Jim White of the University of Tennessee

104 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Brigham Young University

103, 138 Book Review
144 News


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1977. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


SUMMER 1977









educator


Tennessee's Apostle

Of Polymer Engineering




SUBMITTED BY HOMER F. JOHNSON
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

THE DEVELOPMENT of new engineering
materials from polymers in recent years has
been a tremendously exciting and dynamic area,
especially now when we are in the era that the
volume of polymers produced every year exceeds
that of metals. One can today produce synthetic
fibers with the strength of steel and injection
mold enormous sized rigid light weight parts.
The opportunities for the young polymer engineer
are fascinating." Jim White was talking with
characteristic enthusiasm of his views of polymer
engineering. "And, frankly, the most invigorating
place I know of to be right now is in our own
laboratories, classrooms and seminars."
Jim White, Professor-in-Charge of Polymer
Engineering at the University of Tennessee, has
spent much of the last decade building a research
and academic program in polymer engineering
which has won recognition for the university as
one of the world's major institutions in the
polymer discipline. Polymer engineering is a ma-
terials oriented discipline which emphasizes the
basic engineering sciences needed to specify the
fabrication, structure and performance of
polymers. It involves working knowledge of areas
as diverse as non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, x-


ray diffraction, organic and physical chemistry
and solid mechanics.
The University of Tennessee today offers
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy Pro-
grams in polymer engineering in a department
containing independent degree programs in chemi-
cal, metallurgical, and polymer engineering (and
having that name). Polymer engineering includes
six faculty members as of this writing, five of
them permanent, five research associates and
twenty-three graduate students. Generally four
graduate level courses in polymer engineering are
taught each quarter throughout the academic
year.
There is close contact with the three polymer
chemist members of the chemistry department
and the university textile community. In practice
this doubles the size of the effective polymer
faculty, making the University of Tennessee one
of the largest polymer centers in America.


Jim has long been an
enthusiastic history buff
especially of the industrial revolution.
He has traced the recorded steps of
James Watt through 18th century Glasgow
where Watt conceived the separate
condenser for his steam engine.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Largely through Jim White's efforts, the program
has developed strong industrial support from
most of America's leading polymer companies in-
cluding Allied Chemical, American Enka, Celanese,
Diamond Shamrock, Dow, DuPont, Gulf, Mon-
santo, Owens Corning, Phillips Petroleum, Ten-
nessee Eastman, Union Carbide and Whirlpool.
Support has also come from the National Science
Foundation and the U.S. Department of Defense.
Jim White has marched from professional
technical meetings to industrial research labora-
tories to university lecture halls as well as govern-
ment agencies on three continents, spreading the
message and accomplishments of the polymer pro-
gram of the University of Tennessee.
Traditionally, polymer based educational pro-
grams in the United States have been weak and
without government encouragement. Chemistry
departments have usually discouraged faculty
members from polymer interests and engineering
departments have regarded it as a narrow
specialty. It should not be surprising that the
major polymer science academic program is in
Japan at Kyoto University and in polymer engi-
neering in West Germany at the Institut fur
Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV) of the Technische
Hochschule of Aachen. Japan and Germany have
benefited enormously from these institutions
which act as intellectual resources and training
centers. American programs in polymer science
and engineering have developed in more recent
years and often in adverse circumstances. This
has, however, made them tough and aggressive.
They have generally developed as graduate pro-
grams. The University of Akron and Case-
Western Reserve University were the first to de-
velop, followed by the University of Massa-
chusetts in the late 1960s. The University of
Tennessee joined the ranks in the 1970s. It is the
only one of these polymer graduate programs with
a strong engineering emphasis.

BEGINNINGS IN BROOKLYN
JIM WHITE WAS BORN in Brooklyn in 1938,
the son and grandson of Scottish American
entrepreneurs who jointly ran a jobbing machine
shop. The Brooklyn he remembers was a com-
bination of ethnic neighborhoods, and his ac-
quaintances and friends were all the children of
immigrants from Scandinavia and eastern and
southern Europe. He grew up in a neighborhood
which he now considers "more Norwegian than
Oslo." He attended the public schools of Brooklyn


and the prestigious Brooklyn Technical High
School to which he traveled back and forth every
day in New York's subway system during "rush
hours." It was in this period that he first became
aware of polymers and their applications, largely
through the efforts of representatives of companies
such as DuPont, who lectured and gave demon-
strations conveying the development and excite-
ment in their laboratories.
Following his graduation he returned to the
subways and commuted to the Polytechnic Insti-
tute of Brooklyn, obtaining a Bachelor of Chemi-
cal Engineering degree (summa cum laude) in
1959. As a student, he was the editor-in-chief of
the college newspaper. His interests in polymers
were sharpened by the activities of Brooklyn
Poly's Polymer Research Institute led by Pro-
fessor H. Mark. He also had become fascinated
with the subject of non-Newtonian fluid behavior,
an area he determined to pursue in graduate


Jim White with Kyoto University polymer professors
Masao Horio, Hiromichi Kawai, Michio Kurata and
Shigeharu Onogi.

school. This led him as a senior into correspon-
dence with Profesor A. B. Metzner of the Uni-
versity of Delaware, one of the leading research-
ers of this area, and an eventual decision to attend
graduate school there.

THE DELAWARE YEARS
FOLLOWING HIS graduation, Jim worked for
three months with DuPont at its Pioneering
Research Laboratory in its Experimental Station


SUMMER 1977




-~


near Wilmington. This experience made a strong
impression and developed a strong permanent
interest in synthetic fibers. He was able to observe
some of DuPont's top chemists such as Paul
Morgan and Stephanie Kwolek, who were in
coming years to develop the Nomex and Kev-
lar fibers.
In September 1959, he entered the University
of Delaware, where in his graduate research he
worked with A. B. Metzner, now department
chairman there. His M.S. and Ph.D. research was
on the rheology and mechanics of viscoelastic
polymer fluids. This was the period in which this
subject passed from the mathematicians who had
initiated the area to engineers. White and Metzner
were in the forefront of the effort during the early
1960s. In the second half of the decade, researchers
from other universities were to become involved.
The key ideas developed by Jim White in this
period were the utility of a rheological model of
viscoelastic fluid behavior now called the White-
Metzner model and the introduction of a dimen-
sionless group known as the Weissenberg number
(for the late Karl Weissenberg) which repre-
sented the intensity of the viscoelastic character-
istics during flow.
Jim White's years at Delaware were, however,
distracted from purely academic studies. Dela-
ware was culturally a southern state and its racial
discrimination was incompatible with his concep-
tions of inalienable rights of equal opportunity.
Segregated restaurants were the most obvious
example of this and he was soon leading a student
group pressing for desegregation. This was the
age of the Civil Rights movement and Jim (to-
gether with Duane Nichols, another graduate
student who is now a faculty member at the
University of West Virginia) was in the midst
of the efforts, first in Newark, the home of the
university, and later throughout Delaware. Jim
received in this period a letter of support and
encouragement from the Kennedy White House.
These activities led, however, ultimately to his
arrest and jailing after a sit-in in Dover, the state
capital. The barriers to segregation gradually fell
throughout the state and the Civil Rights Law of
1964 successfully culminated the nationwide
struggle for equal rights.

U.S. RUBBER COMPANY
IN SEPTEMBER 1963, Jim White left the Uni-
versity of Delaware and joined the U.S. Rubber
Company (now Uniroyal) at their Research


At the birthplace of James Watt
land on the Firth of Clyde.


in Greenock, Scot-


Center in Wayne, New Jersey. He was hired to
work on the rheological behavior and processing
of elastomers. He was hired to continue U.S.
Rubber's traditions of strong efforts in rheology
begun by Melvin Mooney. This was to take up
most of his energies for the next four years.
Here he came into contact with the entire range
of the polymer industry from synthetic chemists
to design specialists to salesmen to factory trouble-
shooters. He saw and became involved in the
product development programs unique to the
polymer industry. Long hours were spent in
product and instrument development and follow-
ing manufacturing operations in the carbon black
mists of tire factory mill rooms from Chicopee,
Massachusetts to Opelika, Alabama to Los Angeles.
In 1966, Jim was transferred to the U.S. Rubber
Tire Company in Detroit where he first worked
on quality control and later became a group leader
in the area of new materials for tires.
It was in these years that Jim White came to
realize the weaknesses inherent in the traditional
engineering discipline. He found that while
engineering approaches were critically needed,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









he and others with engineering backgrounds were
trained to ask the wrong questions. Mechanical
engineers were unaware and frightened of chemis-
try and chemical structure. Chemical engineers
had no comprehension of materials and the ability
to develop structure in the solid state.
Jim White's closest colleague at U.S. Rubber
was Noboru Tokita, a polymer physicist from
Japan. Together they published several papers on
the theological characterization and processing of
rubber. Tokita introduced him to Yoko Masaki, a
Japanese Flower Arranger also from Sapporo
who was stationed in New York City by the
Sogetsu Ikebana school as their American repre-
sentative. She was to become Mrs. White in No-
vember 1966. Yoko is the daughter of a retired
medical professor at Hokkaido University. This
developed in him an interest in Japanese cuisine
and history. It was also from Tokita that Jim
White learned of the Japanese polymer com-
munity and met leading Japanese academic and
industrial polymer scientists.

GROWTH OF THE TENNESSEE POLYMER PROGRAM
IN THE SUMMER of 1967, Jim White left the
U.S. Rubber Company and joined the faculty
of the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical
Engineering at the University of Tennessee. Don
Bogue, a faculty member who had known him as
a fellow graduate student working on rheological
problems with Art Metzner at the University of
Delaware, was instrumental in bringing Jim White
to Tennessee. At Tennessee, the rheological re-
search now increasingly evolved to the study of
polymer melts. Jim White developed more broadly
based polymer research and laboratories. Seeing
the necessity of studying the processing product
performance problem, White induced Joe Spruiell,
a metallurgical engineering faculty member, to
help initiate studies of structure development in
fibers.


The key ideas developed
by Jim White were the utility
of a rheological model of viscoelastic
fluid behavior now called the White-Metzner
model and the introduction of a dimensionless
group known as the Weissenberg number
(for the late Karl Weissenberg) which
represented the intensity of the vico-
elastic characteristics during flow.


Jim put in an enormous effort developing
course sequences in polymers, and shortly a poly-
mer science and engineering specialization pro-
gram with the Department of Chemistry was
developed. The educational efforts eventually led
to the conceptualization and establishment of M.S.
and Ph.D. programs in Polymer Engineering. In
the early 1970s, Jim White organized a consortium
of polymer companies to support polymer activi-
ties at the university and began leading visits to


.. This was the age of the Civil Rights
movement and Jim was in the midst of
the efforts, first in Newark ... and later through-
out Delaware. Jim received ... a letter of
support from the Kennedy White House.
These activities led ultimately to his arrest and
jailing after a sit-in in Dover, the state capital.


major polymer suppliers and fabricators to obtain
financial support. Support and students began
to grow, and new faculty were hired. Jack Fellers
came from the Ford Motor Company to join the
faculty to lead research in polymerization and
mechanical properties of glassy plastics. Ed Clark
came from the DuPont Experimental Station to
do research on the influence of processing on the
crystalline morphology of polymer and crystal-
lography.
Contacts developed rapidly with the Japanese
polymer community following a visit of Bogue
and White to Japan in 1968 to attend an Inter-
national Rheological Congress. Bogue was later
to spend more than two years at Kyoto University
and White to make two subsequent three-week
visits. One of the best friends and supporters of
Bogue and White has been Kyoto University's Pro-
fessor Shigeharu Onogi, one of Japan's leading
polymer scientists. They later joined in supporting
Onogi and were among the founding members
of the Japanese Society of Rheology. Several dis-
tinguished Japanese scientists from universities
and industrial laboratories have come to Ten-
nessee as visiting professors, notably including
the late Misazo Yamamoto of Tokyo Metropolitan
University, Tadao Kotaka, now of Osaka Uni-
versity, and currently Yasushi Oyanagi of Koga-
kuin University. There have also been numerous
Research Associates from Japan. Onogi's Assis-
tant, Takayoshi Matsumoto, is currently among
the research associates. Relationships developed
with Japanese as well as American companies and


SUMMER 1977









led to research grants at the University of Ten-
nessee. Scientists from Fuji Photo Film, Japan
Synthetic Rubber Company, Ube Industries and
Unitika have come to Tennessee to do research
under Jim White's direction. The Tennessee
Polymer Engineering faculty is probably the only
American engineering faculty in which the
majority consider raw fish a delicacy and delight
in "sushi" and "sashimi."
Jim White has also made several trips to Eu-
rope where ties have been developed with scientists


.. .Jim White came to realize
the weaknesses inherent in the
traditional engineering discipline. He
found that while engineering approaches
were critically needed, he and others with
engineering backgrounds were trained
to ask the wrong questions.


in various countries. In recent years, R. S. Lenk
from England and A. Plochocki from Poland have
occupied senior research positions at Tennessee
where they have worked with Jim White. Jim
spent a week in Poland as the guest of the Polish
Chemical Ministry last year. Ties have been de-
veloped especially with West Germany's Institut
fur Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV) and Professor
George Menges at the Technische Hochscule of
Aachen. Research Associate Wolfgang Dietz from
Aachen is currently in the Tennessee laboratories.
Jim White will spend the latter half of 1977 at
the IKV in Aachen as a Humboldt Foundation
Senior Scientist.
The University of Tennessee has become in
the 1970's one of the major locations for important
polymer meetings with organizations such as the
Society of Plastics Engineers, the American
Chemical Society, the Society of Rheology and
the National Science Foundation, which have held
major polymer applications conferences. The
Fiber Society meets there in 1978 and the Society
of Plastics Engineers returns for a Divisional
Technical Conference in 1979.

RESEARCH PROGRAM

AT TENNESSEE, Jim White's areas of re-
search have covered a wide range of studies.
Much of his efforts have concentrated on polymer
processing, especially related to rheological and
structure development aspects of fiber and plastics


processing. The studies on fibers have been
carried out in recent years with Joe Spruiell and
currently involve Research Associates David Juist
and Toshio Kitao and a team of five graduate
students. These studies on fibers have included
the rheology of flow in spinnerettes to spinline
dynamics, orientation development during spin-
ning, and structural changes during drawing and
twisting processes. With Jack Fellers, Research
Associate Hiroshi Aoki and four students, studies
are being made on the related topic of polymer
liquid crystals and their fabrication. Together
with Ed Clark's researches on high strength fibers
and Don Bogue's work on rheology, these pro-
grams have led all the major American synthetic
fibers companies to keep in contact and financially
support the research. Gulf Chemicals and a
Japanese company Unitika have kept a research
engineer at the Tennessee laboratories during the
past year.
Research programs in plastics processing
emphasizing extrusion and injection molding
processes and studies of the influence of processing
on performance are being carried out by Jim
White with Ed Clark, Jack Fellers, Yasushi
Oyanagi and Research Associate Wolfgang Dietz
and a team of seven graduate students. Basic
studies of injection molding, structural foams,
and the development of new rubber modified
plastics. This program has also gained industrial
support.
Jim White has also carried out extensive re-
searches on the rheology and progressing of
elastomers and rubber compounds, especially
studying the influence of carbon black. His re-
search interests have also included polymer
characterization and polymerization.
Usually Jim White with colleagues co-author
about fifteen papers describing their researches
each year which appear in various American and
foreign polymer applications and rheological
journals.
Throughout the years, Jim White has received
the first M. E. Brooks Outstanding Professor
Award of the University of Tennessee College of
Engineering and has been appointed an Alumni
Distinguished Service Professor. He has been an
invited speaker at various national and inter-
national meetings and at universities, including
Alan P. Colburn Lecturer at the University of
Delaware. He recently was elected Fellow of the
Textile Institute of the United Kingdom.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









OTHER ACTIVITIES
JIM WHITE HAS SPENT large amounts of
time on the road attending meetings and visit-
ing companies. Through his wife Yoko's influence,
he has become a connoisseur of Japanese food
and because of his travel, of Japanese restaurants
in America. He rates New York and Honolulu as
tops, San Francisco as very good. Chicago has
some good places.
Active in polymer professional societies, he is
a member of the Board of Directors of the Engi-
neering Properties and Structure Division of the
Society of Plastics Engineers and is active in
various other societies including the Society of
Rheology and the Polymer Engineering section
within the AIChE. He is a member of numerous
foreign professional and technical societies. Jim
is a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal
of Applied Polymer Science, Transactions of the
Society of Rheology, and the Journal of Non-
Newtonian Fluid Mechanics.
Jim White has long been an enthusiastic
history buff, especially of the industrial revolu-
tion. He has sought out the locations and visited
sites of the plants and laboratories which created
the foundations of our present society including
the first rubber manufacturing plant which is



book reviews _

RATE PHENOMENA IN
PROCESS METALLURGY
by Julian Szekely and Nicholas J. Themelis
Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971
Reviewed by Ben. F. Oliver, U. of Tennessee

Rate Phenomena in Process Metallurgy is a
textbook for the senior level or first-year graduate
level. Actually, depending upon the subject being
covered, the text may be used as a reference text
both at lower and more advanced levels of Process
Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering.
The text is divided into three main parts: Part
I-the Review of Transport Phenomena, Part
II-Techniques of Process Analysis, and Part
III-Metallurgical Reaction Systems. This di-
vision is somewhat deceptive since the review in
Part I is most extensive covering fluid mechanics,
heat, diffusion and mass transfer. This review


still operating in Manchester, England and Robert
Owen's New Lanark Cotton Spinning Mills. He
has traced the recorded steps of James Watt
through 18th century Glasgow where Watt con-
ceived the separate condenser for his steam
engine. Many of his investigations have been pre-
sented at meetings or published in his papers.
His interests in history, though, go far beyond
this to studies of the history of the dark ages
and medieval period in Scotland and the German
Hansa cities and Meiji Japan. However, his
greatest interests have often been influenced by
his own family background in trying to develop
perspectives of Scottish history through the In-
dustrial Revolution to modern times. This has led
him through rainy Scotland and its moors, ancient
battlefields and graves of Celtic scints usually
accompanied by his wife Yoko who, essentially
more intelligent than her husband, brings an um-
brella.
This, then, is our enigmatic "Apostle of Poly-
mer Engineering." A refugee from Brooklyn's
subways to the bright sun of Tennessee, who
bursts with enthusiasm to develop a new engineer-
ing discipline and establishing his program at
Tennessee as a leading polymer education and re-
search center. F


takes up some thirteen quantitative chapters.
These chapters include important examples and
mathematical techniques. This provides a chemical
engineering base quite appropriate to the objec-
tives of the book. Numerous process examples of
a metallurgical nature are described and related
to quantitative basic transport examples. Tables
and graphs put the wide range of parameters,
such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, diffusivity,
etc., into a good perspective. While this reviewer
finds units used in the text both convenient and
comfortable, they certainly are not SI; but then
again, neither is the wealth of information from
which the book draws examples. There are numer-
ous specific numerical examples used throughout
the book. These put many things in proper per-
spective, including the problem of units.
The general format of the equations, notations
and text appear very comfortable and particularly
clear. The discussion of similarity and dimension-
less groups is complete but not overdone. The blast
furnace and BOF examples are both interesting
and informative.
Continued on page 139.


SUMMER 1977









) department


ORIGHAM


YOUNG






^^^,^^


t1.


SUBMITTED BY DEE H. BARKER
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


B RIGHAM YOUNG ACADEMY was founded in
1875 in Provo, Utah, a small Mormon com-
munity. At that time, it was a small academy-
one of many founded by the Mormons in the newly
settled areas of the Great Basin. Its purpose was
to give the students from the small farm com-
munities in the area an equivalent of today's high
school education. Over the past one hundred years,
this small, local academy has grown to be the
largest church-affiliated university in the nation,
with an enrollment of about twenty-five thousand,
and with students from every state in the United
States and from about fifty foreign countries.
The growth has come in quality of education
and diversity of programs as well as in size. It
has grown from an academy to a teachers college
to a liberal arts college to a liberal arts university,
to a full-scale university. About twenty-five years
ago, engineering was added to the curriculum with
chemical engineering being one of these engineer-
ing programs. This program has grown from a
small division under the Chemistry Department


twenty-five years ago, to a vital high-quality de-
partment today.

DEPARTMENTAL HISTORY
C CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Science was first
announced in the school catalog in the fall of
1952 as a part of the Chemistry Department. Pro-
fessor Joseph K. Nicholes was the Chairman of
the Department of Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering. That fall, the first ChE students en,
rolled at Brigham Young University. The first
courses in ChE were taught to these students in
their third year by Dr. Angus Blackham of the
Chemistry Department and other chemistry pro-
fessors in 1954. In 1955, Dr. Billings Brown
joined the faculty. He was the first ChE professor
to join the Brigham Young University faculty.
He was joined in 1956 by Dr. Wendell Wiser, who
was also a chemical engineer. The Bachelor of
Engineering Science degree was first awarded to
six students in 1956. This degree required five
years to complete as it included more mathematics
and science courses than the typical engineering
degree. Dr. Brown served as coordinator for the
ChE program from 1955 to 1958 under the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Chemistry Department and then as department
chairman of the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment when it was formed as an independent de-
partment from 1958 until 1960, when Dr. James J.
Christensen, who joined the faculty in 1957,
became the department chairman. Since that
time, three men have served as department chair-
men: Dr. Dee H. Barker, Dr. Bill J. Pope, and
Dr. L. Douglas Smoot. The department has im-
proved and grown under each chairman. Today,
there are twelve faculty members in the depart-
ment.
The number of students enrolled and graduates
has increased with thirty-four students receiving
their bachelor's degree this year. In 1970, the
undergraduate degree was changed from a five
year Bachelor of Engineering Science (BES)
degree to a four-year Bachelor of Science (BS)
degree.

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
T HE UNDERGRADUATE program includes
core courses in the areas of unit operations,
chemical kinetics, thermodynamics and plant
design, and options that may be chosen by the
students. These options are the plant design and
operation option, management option, research
and development option, energy and environ-
mental option, applied mathematics and statistics
option, nuclear option, bioengineering and pre-
medicine option, and industrial option. Each of
these options include some required classes and
a list of classes from which the student may
choose, or, the student may choose other classes
subject to faculty approval to fill his own option.
This gives the student a wide choice, but also
insures that he gets a quality education.
During the freshman year, all the students are
required to take a class in the use of computers
and calculators. The department has two desk
model programmable calculators as well as access
to the university's three computers. The students
can then use these tools throughout the rest of
their education.
Since, in the past, many students had no feel
for engineering until their sophomore year, an-
other freshman class was added. This class is in
process synthesis and gives the students an idea
of what engineering is about in their freshman
year. During all four years, the student is required
to take a seminar course each semester. Here,
the students are exposed to many of the facets
of ChE from visiting experts, faculty, and other


Since, in the past, many
students had no feel for
engineering until their soph-
omore year, another freshman
class was added. This class is in
process synthesis and gives the stu-
dents an idea of what engineering
is about in their freshman year.


students. It also gives the student an opportunity
to give an oral presentation to the other students.
The department is particularly proud of the
unit operations laboratory. During the students'
senior year, they are required to take four
semester hours of lab. The laboratory contains
many experiments in transport, separations,
thermodynamics and kinetics. Many of the experi-
ments are carried out in glass equipment, so the
student can see what is going on. The laboratory
is used to help students gain skills in expressing
themselves orally and in writing as well as giving
them experience with pieces of equipment. The
students write a formal report, a short report, a
letter report and give an oral report on their
laboratory work each semester. The number and
quality of the experiments is increasing each year
as fast as finances allow. Many of the students,


Ralph Coates with early model coal gasifyer.


SUMMER 1977









both before graduation and after working several
years, express the feeling that the senior lab was
one of their most valuable educational experiences.
The undergraduate program has changed and
improved over the years, and hopefully, will con-
tinue to do so in order to improve the quality of
education and to meet the changing needs of the
students and industry. As the program has im-
proved, so has the quality of students. Since this
quality of students has improved over the years,
it is hoped this trend will continue. The graduates
have done remarkably well in graduate schools
and in industry.

GRADUATE PROGRAM
IN THE EARLY YEARS, no graduate degree
was offered and the amount of research done
was small. However, one of the requirements for
a BES degree was to write an undergraduate
thesis and a modest level of research was sus-
tained at that time. A Master of Science degree
program was initiated in 1962 and a Ph.D. pro-
gram was started in 1968. Since that time, fifty-
eight Masters degrees and four Ph.D. degrees
have been conferred. The number of Ph.D. degrees
has been small in the past, but at present, there
are fourteen Ph.D. candidates and one post-
doctoral student studying and conducting research
in the department. Hence, the number of doctoral
degrees conferred by the department should in-
crease substantially in the future.
At the master's level, a student may choose
to work toward a Master of Engineering (non-
thesis) or a Master of Science degree. This allows
the student some choice in the type of education
he wishes to pursue at the master's level. The
department has also offered a master's program
for students with an undergraduate degree in
chemistry. This was originally a two-year pro-
gram. However, a year ago, a new program was
initiated to accelerate the program. A special
course is now being taught during the summer for
those with a background in chemistry. It is a six-


hour course covering fluid mechanics, heat
transfer and separations together with the unit
operations laboratory. This enables these students
to complete a master's program in fifteen months
instead of the two years previously required.
Although only one year-old, the program has
proven to be successful in terms of attracting
graduate students and in educating the students.
As the graduate program has grown, so has
the amount of research conducted in the depart-
ment. Several years ago, the department faculty
members decided that a greater effort should be
made to increase the research productivity of the
department. This effort has paid off well. The
amount of funded research is approaching one
million dollars per year. About forty percent of
this amount has come from private industry with
the remainder coming from government agencies.
This funded research has allowed the department
to hire twelve faculty members which is con-
siderably more than the university would be
willing to support for 100% of their time. This
gives a wider spectrum of expertise within the
department than would be possible with a smaller
faculty.

FACULTY AND RESEARCH
T HE DEPARTMENT has always had a strong
thermodynamic research program. Dr. James
J. Christensen has been a real pioneer in the field
of solution calorimetry. He has developed and re-
fined a titration calorimeter and a heat of mixing
calorimeter. Due largely to his and his colleagues'
efforts, the Institute of Thermochemical Studies
was founded at the university. Dr. Christensen
and Richard W. Hanks are presently investigating
the relationship between the heat of mixing and
vapor liquid equilibria.
Dr. Grant Wilson has a worldwide reputation
for his expertise in collecting and correlating
thermodynamic data. His laboratory know-how
and knowledge of thermodynamics has led
companies to request him to do work for them


The department is particular proud of the unit operations
laboratory. The lab contains many experiments in transport, separations,
thermodynamics and kinetics. Many of the experiments are carried out in glass
equipment so the student can see what is going on. The lab is used to help
students gain skills in expressing themselves orally and in writing
as well as giving them experience with pieces of equipment.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I I ,









leave of absence to become the research director
of Mountain States Fuel.
Dr. L. Douglas Smoot together with Drs. M.
Duane Horton and Richard W. Hanks, is one of
the leaders in the combustion field. They have
been modeling the combustion of methane and
coal. Their research includes collecting data in
atmospheric and high pressure combustors and
the modeling of the complex processes that occur.
This work has direct application on coal combus-
tion and gasification and in better understanding
coal mine fires.
Dr. Calvin H. Bartholomew has been utilizing
his knowledge in the area of catalysis to study the
methanation of gas produced from coal. He has
been studying the effects of altering compositions
of the catalysts on such things as sulfur poison-
ing, selectivity and reactivity of the catalyst.


Above: two students with batch distillation
column. Right: Duane Horton and student
by high pressure press. Below: (I to r)
student, Duane Horton and Douglas Smoot
with combustion apparatus.


in collecting and understanding thermodynamic
data that are needed in industry. His areas of
special expertise are vapor liquid equilibria,
equations of state and the use of the computer to
predict the behavior of real fluids.
A large part of the research effort is directed
toward the utilization of coal. Dr. Ralph Coates
has developed an entrained flow coal gasification
system that promises to have many advantages
over the present generation of gasifyers. It has
a very high throughput per unit volume and has
a very simple ash removal system. His work has
attracted considerable interest and he is taking a


Drs. Bill J. Pope and Duane Horton have con-
ducted research in the area of high pressure
technology. They have worked with Dr. Tracy
Hall, who holds a joint appointment in chemistry
and chemical engineering. Dr. Hall is well-known
as the first man to make synthetic diamonds.
The other areas of research include fluid
mechanics directed by Dr. Richard Hanks; mineral
recovery from the Great Salt Lake and oil and
tar sand exploitation directed by Joseph Glassett;
trace metal analysis in humans directed by Dr.
Dee H. Barker and biomedical engineering studies
by Dr. Kenneth Solen.
The departmental research efforts are a vital
part of the program and are an aid in the educa-
tion of the student. Many of the undergraduate
students as well as all the graduate students, are
involved in this large effort. This helps the under-
graduates see what research is and since much
of it is related to industrial work, it helps them
see some of the needs of industry. It also helps
support them financially. EZ


SUMMER 1977










1976 4AwaAd .ectae



THE ROLE OF WAVES IN TWO PHASE FLOW:

SOME NEW UNDERSTANDINGS


This paper is the ASEE-CED Award Lecture
which was presented by this year's lecturer,
Abraham E. Dukler, at the 1976 ASEE meeting
at University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.
Dr. Dukler graduated from Yale in 1945 and
joined the Rohm and Haas Company in Philadel-
phia as a development engineer. In 1948 he entered
the graduate program at the University of Dela-
ware from which he received the M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees. He was employed by Shell Oil Company
as a research engineer in 1950 leaving there in
1952 to help start the new Department of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Hous-
ton. He served in the ranks of assistant to full
professor and chairman of the department. In
the fall of 1976 he assumed the position of Dean
of Engineering at Houston.
Dukler's research studies have centered on the
flow mechanics and transport processes associated
with gas-liquid systems. This work has included
modelling various aspects of this complex pheno-
mena combined with development of new measur-
ing methods and extensive experimental measure-
ments. A central them in this work has been the
generation and validation of models which are
based on physically realistic approximations to
the flow but which are simple enough to be of use
to the industrial designer of two phase flow pro-
cess equipment. The research has been supported
by over $1.5 million of grants from various federal
agencies and industry and the results have
appeared in over 45 papers.
At Yale Dr. Dukler was an Alfred Noyes
Scholar and at Delaware he held the Shell and
Research Corporation Fellowships. In 1967 he re-
ceived a National Science Foundation Senior Fel-
lowship Award and in 1970 the AIChE Alpha Chi
Sigma Award in Chemical Engineering Research.
He is a consultant to a number of companies as
well as Federal and State agencies and was one
of the organizers of the AIChE Design Institute
for Multiphase Processing.


A. E. DUKLER
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004

INTRODUCTION
R RESEARCH IN GAS-LIQUID flows has
flourished over the past 35 years. During that
time over 7,000 papers and reports have appeared!
It would be satisfying to be able to report that
as a result of all this work there exists even a
phenomenological understanding of just one
aspect of gas-liquid flow (say, momentum trans-
fer) equivalent to Prandtl's mixing length theory
for turbulent single phase flow. But such under-
standing is not yet at hand, despite the fact that
Prandtl had only 1/50th this number of papers
on which to draw. Two factors have contributed
to this plethora of publication.
A. Two phase flow exists in a wide variety of practical
operating situations of importance to government
and industry programs.* These groups have pro-
vided financial support for research with the ob-
jective of obtaining information to insure safer
operation of processes or more economical and re-
liable designs. In the absence of generalizing
principles, a great many studies have been carried
out on narrow parts of the problem which would


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









not have been necessary had the principles been
understood.
B. The field is rich in challenging fundamental
problems, the solutions to which could find rapid
application to practice.

This is, of course, an ideal situation for
nurturing engineering research: the identifica-
tion of need for improved designs, the definition
of good fundamental research problems embedded
in the design tasks and the availability of funding.
Why is it then that under this fruitful en-
vironment even first order generalizations have
been so elusive? In gas-liquid flow the manner in
which the two phases distribute in the pipe
changes with flow rates, fluid properties, pipe size
and inclinations. Thus, there are a variety of
complicated boundary conditions associated with
the location of the interface, its shape and motion.
These boundary conditions vary with the operat-
ing conditions mentioned above, cannot be in-
dependently specified and are, in general, not
known. As a demonstration of this problem, refer
to Figure 1 which shows the "flow regimes"
observed for air-water flowing in a 2-inch hori-
zontal pipe. At low liquid and gas rates the
liquid flows as a stratified layer with a smooth
interface. An approach to modelling transport
with this phase distribution is easy to visualize
once we know that stratified configuration exists
(Taitel & Dukler, 1976A). At a higher gas rate
the liquid is stratified but the interface is wavy.
The boundary conditions which are controlled by
wave shape and motion are not understood. At
still higher gas rates the liquid wraps around the
fall and flows as an eccentric annulus with the
gas flowing in the core. Again the interface is
wavy and in this case droplets flow with the gas.
Defining the boundary conditions requires (1)
knowing when annular flow exists (2) given that
it does exist, determining how the liquid flow
distributes between drops and film and (3) finding
the shape and motion of the wavy interface. At
different liquid and gas rates slug flow is observed

*Chemical and Petroleum Processing: Reboilers, con-
densers, gas-liquid flow reactors, trickle bed contractors,
absorbers.
Production of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Steam: Gas
lifts, offshore pipelines and gathering systems, geothermal
wells.
Nuclear Power: Emergency core cooling systems for
pressurized water (PWR) and boiling water (BWR) re-
actors.
Aerospace: Film cooling of high performance jet
engines.


Why is it then that under
this fruitful environment even
first order generalizations have
been elusive? In gas-liquid flow
the manner in which two phases distribute
in the pipe changes with flow rates,
fluid properties, pipe size and inclinations.


(high velocity liquid slugs flow down the pipe
followed by a wavy stratified liquid film over
which gas flows). At high liquid rates the gas
distributes in a continuous liquid phase. The
velocity at which these transitions take place will
differ with pipe size, inclination and fluid proper-
ties. Certain additional flow regimes are observed
for vertical upflow or downflow not seen in the
horizontal configuration. It thus becomes clear
that a root cause for the difficulties in modelling
two phase flows is the problem of predicting the
phase distributions or the location of liquid and
gas interfaces, given all the operating conditions.
It is only very recently that this has been
accomplished for horizontal pipes (Taitel &
Dukler, 1976B) and completely satisfactory
models for vertical upward flow are yet to appear.


WAVES ON THE INTERFACE AND THEIR EFFECT

0lVER A WIDE RANGE of flow rate space the
liquid-gas interface is continuous and is



DISPERSED FLOW
100oo
BUBBLE,
S ELONGATED SLUG
BUBBLE FLOW FLOW



-Nr,,.YL. MIST
FLOW

0o STRATIFIED FLOW

WAVE
-iFl ,'M

i. J I J I . . -!- . 1 ,


I 0 0 V
SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY,V5 G,FT/SEC


1000 5000


FIGURE 1. Flow Regime Transitions Air-Water in a
Horizontal 1" i. d. Pipe.


SUMMER 1977


... .
























FIGURE 2. Stratified Flow with a Wavy Interface.

covered with waves. For example, Figure 2 shows
a stratified wavy liquid with concurrent air flow;
Figure 3 is liquid falling as a thin film down a
vertical plate at a Reynolds number of about 900
in the absence of gas flow; Figure 4 displays an
axial view of upward annular flow of steam and
water. In all cases the interface is shown to be
covered with a well developed wave structure.
Now the question arises naturally: What is the
role of the waves in the transport of heat, mass
or momentum in the gas and liquid phases ? If the
effects can be shown to be negligible then, aside
from theoretical interest in the wavy motion, one
can proceed to model these transfer processes
ignoring the presence of the waves. However,
evidence is to the contrary:
Data for pressure drop in the gas phase
during concurrent downward isothermal flow of
water in a film with steam in the core appear
in Figure 5 (Dukler & Elliott, 1965). The flow


is in a 2-inch i.d. by 16-foot long smooth copper
tube under vacuum. The vacuum level at the exit
was held at 25 inches of mercury. This flow simu-
lates conditions in a falling film evaporator of a
type which has been investigated for water de-
salination. The broken, lowest, curve represents
data obtained in the absence of water flow. The
large increases in pressure drop (thus, in rate of
radial momentum transfer) in the gas phase is
apparent as water in the form of a wall film is
added. For example, at a steam rate of 100 lb/hr
the pressure drop doubles when 600 lb/hr of
liquid flows on the wall. This is a very low liquid
rate indeed for a 2-inch pipe and measurements
show that the area occupied for liquid flow is
negligible. So, the enhanced momentum transfer
results not from the increased velocity of the gas
in the presence of liquid, but is connected in some
way to the presence of this mobile interface.


FIGURE 4. Waves on a Rising Liquid Film.


Figure 6 shows some classical data for mass
transfer in the liquid phase (Emmert & Pigford,
1954). Experiments were made in situations where
the resistance to mass transfer in the gas was
negligible. Note that the ordinate varies inversely
as the mass transfer coefficient. Experiments were
conducted with falling liquid films in the presence
of natural waves of the type shown above and
also with these waves suppressed using surface
active agents. It is evident that the rate of mass
transfer in the liquid phase is enhanced by a factor
of 2-3 in the presence of waves.
Similar evidence is presented in Figure 7
(Kafesjian, et al, 1961) for the effect of waves
on rate of transfer in the gas phase. Shown are
the analyses of data from several sources for the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


FIGURE 3. Waves on a Falling Liquid Film.














10.0


/




PRESS
0 R AT



STEAM RATE LB/HR


FLOW


URE DROP
25" VAC.
2" TUBE


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
FIGURE 5. The Effect of Waves on Momentum Transfer
in the Gas.
evaporation of water from falling films into flow-
ing air. Of course, such a system exhibits no
resistance to transfer in the liquid, and in that
sense is the inverse of the situation displayed in
Figure 6. At any fixed gas phase Reynolds
number, increasing the liquid flow from a Reynolds
number of 40 where the wave motion is weak to
800 where a well-developed wave structure exists
results in a change in transfer rate in the gas
phase of about 50-75%. Since changes in the
velocity distribution in the liquid phase can have
no effect, one must conclude that in some way the
presence of a wavy interface is the cause of this


LIQUID REYNOLDS NUMBER
FIGURE 6. The Effect of Waves on Mass Transfer in
the Liquid.


Inn,


1 (1x000) 2 3 4 5 6 78 10


FIGURE 7. The
the


REYNOLDS NUMBER OF GAS
Effect of Waves on Mass Transfer in
Gas.


striking observation is the fact that there appear
to be two classes of waves; very large waves
exist which are separated by a very thin substrate
and which show randomness in separation time
and amplitude. The substrate and the large waves
are covered by a smaller, more regular wave
structure. This existence of a two-wave structure
suggests that characterizing each of these classes
of waves could provide insights into the role each
class plays in the processes of transport.
What are these characteristics? Analyses of
the amplitude vs time traces from multiple loca-
tions in the direction of flow using techniques
of random signal analysis provided the needed in-
formation of which the results of Figure 9 are
representative. This profile shown is very much


SUMMER 1977


observed result. In the calculation of these transfer
coefficients, the surface area of the undisturbed
film was used so that additional transfer area
associated with the waves could contribute to the
apparent increase. But it seems to have been con-
clusively demonstrated (Portalski, 1964) that the
increase in area is small compared to the increase
in coefficient.
A more quantitative description of these waves
can be found in Figure 8. These are time traces
of the height of the interface for a thin water
film falling down the inside of a 2-inch i.d. smooth
vertical tube. The measurements were based on
the use of changes in electrical conductance
which take place as the film thickness varies be-
tween two closely spaced probes mounted flush
with the wall (Chu & Dukler, 1974). The most


' [









out of proportion and it is of some use to see this
in perspective. Scale the substrate with a thick-
ness of one inch. The small waves display an
amplitude of about 1/10 inch but are 3 feet long.
The large waves project a distance of 6 inches
from the substrate, each wave is 35 feet long
and successive waves are separated by a distance
of 70 feet! The properties of the two classes of
waves are dramatically different in terms of
amplitude to base thickness, celebrities, wave
lengths and all other characteristics shown in the
accompanying table. It is also possible to con-

O.762 I sec ---
0.762
h 0.482
mm 0.203 ..---- ------h
0.102
Re = 0 ReL = 570

I sec
0.457
0.335
h 0.158 -
0.041

ReG 93,000 ReL= 570

I ------ I sec -I
0.457
0.335
mm 0.158 -.h)- -
0.041


ReG =93,000


ReL= 1600


FIGURE 8. Time Traces of Film Thickness.


clude from this picture that the added transfer
area contributed by the wavy surface is negligible
because the surface slopes are so small. Con-
sidering the fact that two successive large waves
70 feet apart must communicate pressure and
velocity information through a substrate only 1
inch thick strongly suggests that these "waves"
are of isolated character. Perhaps they should be
called liquid lumps rather than waves. Further-
more, these are mass-carrying or continuity waves.
It is easy to observe that the flow rate leaving
the bottom of the tube varies with time. Large
instantaneous flows are seen which correspond to
the passage of large lumps out of the tube.
In view of this picture, it is possible to deduce
that transfer processes in the films must depend
only on
* Substrate thickness
* Structure of the large waves
* Small wave structure


One concludes that transfer
in the gas phase is con-
trolled by the structure of the
small waves . which suggests that the
small waves act much as a roughness does
to a moving gas phase in single phase fow.


Now it is of interest to explore what is known of
each of these factors.

THE SUBSTRATE

W ITH TIME TRACES of film height such as
those of Figure 8 on magnetic tape, it is
possible to develop software which provides a
complete statistical description of each class of
waves. For example, the probability density of
the film thickness is shown in Figure 10 for a
liquid Reynolds number of 4500 in the absence
of gas flow. The circles represent the data. De-
composing the density into contributions due to
the large and small waves gives the results shown
(Chu & Dukler, 1974). Now it is possible to use
the probability density of the substrate thickness
to obtain other information of interest. For
example, the variation of the mean thickness of
the substrate, (the first moment of the
probability density) with gas and liquid rates
appears in Figure 11. Since the waves on the sub-
strate are of small amplitudes, as a first ap-




/I LARGE WAVE ON FILM
S SMALL WAVE ON LARGE
I WAVE

SUBSTRATE
SMALL WAVE ON
SUBSTRATE
/ --MEAN THICKNESS OF
I FILM
/ I --MEAN THICKNESS OF
l/ \, SUBSTRATE
/ I SOME WAVE PROPERTIES
I ReL = 1600
S. LARGE SMALL
S AMP.) 0812 0.051 mm
/ r (LGTH.>) 15.54 1.17 cm
I (SEP.> 32.54 1.17 cm
1.58 0.45 m/sec
<(AMP> 1.12 0.15
/ I

FIGURE 9. The Two Types of Waves.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I









proximation their presence can be ignored and
from these mean thicknesses the flow rates in
the substrate calculated. The surprising result
appears in Figure 12. Note, for example, that
when the total film Reynolds number is 1000 that
in the Reynolds number in the substrate is only
70, or 71% At a total liquid Reynolds number of
5000 the substrate flow, Res = 400.
This gives a rather different picture of flow
and of the related process of mass transfer in a
falling film. Figure 13 gives a revised view of
mass transfer from the gas into the film. A large
liquid lump, acting as a reservoir of fresh liquid,
moves rapidly downward sweeping up liquid from


0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7
ReL x 10-
FIGURE 11. The Mean Film Thickness.


o .. Qlump serves as a reservoir for the film so it
0/ o should be roughly equivalent to the situation
Y OO- -LARGE WAVES shown at the right. There we picture a plate
I/ ( drawn upward at the same velocity, Cw, from a
reservoir of liquid. The thickness of the liquid
film can be calculated from the theory of White
and Tallmadge (1965) for laminar flow with-
drawal and a comparison between values cal-
0 02 0.4 06 08 1.0
Shmm) culated this way. The measured substrate thick-
ness is shown in Figure 15. Except at the higher
10. Contributions of the Two Types of Waves substrate Reynolds numbers where the flow be-
e Probability Density of the Film Thickness. comes turbulent, the agreement is quite satis-
.. 1 .1 _- .. factory.


the him in iront and laying down a frehsii mm
behind. The initial concentration distribution is
uniform and the concentration distribution de-
velops with distance along the film behind the
lump. Thus, the rate of transfer is high just after
the lump passes and decays with time. This con-
tinues until the next lump arrives and a fresh film
is generated. Thus the process is one of renewal
and unsteady mass transfer rather than the usual
picture of steady state mass transfer.
The factors controlling transport in the liquid
film consistent with this model must be
* Substrate thickness which determines the velocity and
concentration distribution.
* Celerity of the large waves or lumps.
* Separation distance between these lumps.
A simple model for substrate thickness can
be arrived at by the considerations shown in
Figure 14. At the left is a sketch of the large
lumps flowing down over the slow moving sub-
strate at a celerity, Cw. As already shown, this


I I Res>


S' ReL


FIGURE 12. Comparison of Flow in the Substrate,
with Total Liquid Flow, ReL.


FIGURE
to th<


SUMMER 1977



















FIGURE 13. A Renewal Mechanism for Mass Transfer
into the Film.

Thus, we conclude that the substrate thickness
depends uniquely on the celerity of the large
waves. Since as indicated above the mass trans-
ferred into the liquid film is determined by the
substrate thickness as well as the celerity and
separation distance of the large waves (the re-
newal rate) and since the substrate thickness
depends only on the large wave celerity, it be-
comes apparent that the entire process of transfer
in the liquid is controlled primarily by the large
scale wave structure.

THE LARGE WAVES OR LUMPS
IT BECOMES OF interest to examine these large
isolated lumps and to evaluate what can be pre-
dicted of their character. Figure 16 is an expanded
view of a single lump with the measured time
scale replaced by distance using the measured
celerity. The amplitude scale is greatly expanded.
Note that the slope seldom exceeds 5%. The
amplitude is at least five times the substrate
thickness, the characteristic base dimension is 150
times the amplitude and the front of the wave
rises more steeply than does the back.
Procedures for modelling such waves fre-
quently use Fourier series to describe the shape of
the surface so it is of interest to examine the


c C


FIGURE 14. A Model for Determining
ness, .


Substrate Thick-





Substrate Thick-


number of terms necessary to make a reasonable
fit. The points in this figure result from the use of
eight coefficients for each of the sine and cosine
terms. Truncation after only 6 terms gives poor
agreement.
Modelling of the wave motion has proceeded
through a variety of approaches (Dukler, 1972).
Attempts have been made to directly solve the
equation of motion for the wavy film through use
of small perturbation expansions for the stream
function by making boundary layer type solutions
of the equations and by the use of integral
methods. In all of these approaches it is necessary
at some stage to describe the shape of the surface
29
I I I I I


04



03-



0.2 -


Re = 0
0 DATA
--THEORY


0o
^^0


/o


0 1 1I I I
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Re, x 10-3
FIGURE 15. Substrate Thickness: Theory vs Experiment.

in the course of the mathematical procedure. This
has been done in all cases using a Fourier series
with unknown coefficients and the objective of the
solution is to find these coefficients, thus making it
possible to describe the wave amplitude and shape.
Because of the complexity of the procedure, no
one has successfully developed a method which
includes more than three terms in the series.
A comparison of some of these attempts to
model the waves with data (Chu & Dukler, 1975)
appear in Figures 17-19. The comparison is made
both for the large and small waves and it is seen
that no theory adequately describes either wave
type. The source of the difficulty rests in the
attempt to use Fourier series to fit the waves.
Figure 16 shows that 8 terms in the series are
required. However, the theories developed to date
become impossible complex when over 3 terms are
used.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


114




















-3 -2 -1 0
DISTANCE, INCHES


2 31


M
h=- a Cos +b Sin 2N

N : I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
N : 0 -0.37 -012 0.18 013 0 -0.10 -0.06
bN : 0.58 0.12 -025 -0.12 0.08 0.14 0.06 -0.04
FIGURE 16. Fitting a Large Wave with a Fourier Series.

An alternative procedure is to use an ortho-
gonal series which can fit the shape of the wave
reasonably well using only a few terms. A Gram-
Charlier series accomplishes this end. Its use for
this purpose has recently been discussed (Chu,
1973) and further work is now in progress.
However, one can deduce some characteristics
of these large waves by the use of integral
balances. Consider a control volume consisting of
the front of a large wave shown in Figure 20
which flows down a vertical surface in the absence
of interfacial shear. The dimensions, If, hwm and
hem, as well as the celerity are all measurable as
discussed above. Permit the coordinate system to
translate downward at the velocity C. The integral
momentum and continuity equations are then
IrD[p (V.-C) hs] (V,-C) -
7rD[p (Vm-C) hwm] (Vwm-C) -F,+F = 0


3o
o


|0.1
im


OR ReL
FIGURE 17. Comparison of Data with Various Theories
for Wave Amplitude:
, Amplitude of Large, Small Waves
, = Thickness of Film, Substrate


yRe= 2040



E P Eh ( F R O ME
EXPERIMENT


o02


-I 0


10I 100
OR We


10' 10


FIGURE 18. Comparison of Data with Various Theories
for Wave Length:
X, X, = Length of Large, Small Waves.
We, Wes = Weber Number of Film, Substrate


a mixing vortex and separation at the wall in the
front of the wave. A comparison of the values
calculated from theory using these two assump-
tions and the data appear in Figure 21. The
reasonably good agreement with assumption (2) is
clear and the flow pattern one could deduce is
shown in Figure 22. Note how well this agrees
with the earlier speculation on the renewal
mechanism for mass transfer in the liquid film.


WAVES AND GAS TRANSPORT

T HE LARGE WAVES, control the process of
transfer in the liquid as has been demon-
strated above. Now it is of interest to determine
the role they play in causing the observed in-
crease in gas phase transport shown in Figure 5


SUMMER 1977


I I
I LEVICH 11962)
2 RUSHTON B DAVIS
Ist APPROX (1971)
3 KAPITZA (1964)
4 MASSOT ET AL (196S6)
--5 RUSHTON 8 DAVIS
2.d APPROX (1971)


A I i t 1


10 -- --
oo


[V.-C]hs = (V --C)

Combining, these two equations yield a relation-
ship for C.


glf 1 hwm Tw /2
C=v+ he h pgh,
1-- h
hwm

All the quantities in the square bracket are known
except the wall shear, Tw. In the absence of in-
formation we consider two possibilities: (1)
Tw = pgh, and (2) Tw = 0. The first assumes that
just after a wave overruns the substrate the
velocity gradients near the wall are unchanged
from those in the substrate and the second implies


,


t







M. 2


10'




101'


Ob ReS
FIGURE 19. Comparison of Data with Various Theories
for Wave Frequency:
f, f. = Frequency of Large, Small Waves

for momentum and Figure 7 for mass. Some im-
portant conclusions can be reached regarding the
role of large waves in the gas phase momentum
transfer or pressure drop by simultaneously
measuring the pressure fluctuation and wave
amplitude. The integration of this pressure dis-
tribution over the wave surface gives the form
drag for each wave. Taking the expected value of
this integral over many such waves per unit sur-
face area provides an expression for the apparent
shear due to form drag around these waves which
is (Chu & Dukler, 1975) :
1 lim 1 fT P dh h
---- -C T-oo 2T -T dt

The term in braces is the cross correlation at
zero delay time delay between the process P (h,t)


FIGURE 20. Momentum Balance on the Front Section
of a Large Wave.


- I. KAPITZA (19S4) 2
-2. MASSOT ET AL (1966)
3. RUSHTON & DAVIS (I197) SUBSTRATE LARGE
4. BERBENTE AND Re WAVES WAVES
RUCKENSTEIN (19S8) 9- 0 0 A
- 92,500 0 A -
4


-
.,..A>'*


62,500


92,000



113,000


3200
4200
7400
1600
3200
4200
7400
1600
3200
4200
7400
Total Interfacial
Shear Calculated
from Measured
Pressure Gradient


Inter-
facial
Shear
Due to
Large
Waves


pressure gradient through the equation

AP D 2A]
ri- AL 4

where A is the measured wave amplitude. Now
a comparison of experimentally determined TFD
with T- reveals the extent of the contribution of
these large waves to the rate of momentum
transfer in the gas phase. Simultaneous measure-
ments of h and P were made (Chu & Dukler,
1975) and the results of the calculations appear
in Table 1. It is quite evident that these large
waves contribute little to the transfer process in
the gas phase. Thus, one is led to conclude that
transfer in the gas phase is controlled by the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


and dh/dt, which at zero time is
d
d R,, (0)

where Rph(0) is the zero time delay cross correla-
tion between P and h. Thus,
1 d
TFD = d Rph(0)
C dr
Given simultaneous recording of P and h, it is a
simple computational matter to obtain the cross
correlation and the derivative. At the same time
the total shear stress at the interface can be
determined from a measurement of the actual

TABLE 1
Contribution to Interfacial Shear by the
Large Waves.

ReG ReL T1 T2 Ti/T2











Since the mass transferred
into the liquid film is determined
by the substrate thickness as well as
the celerity and separation distance of
the large waves and since the
substrate thickness depends only on
the large wave celerity, it becomes
apparent that the entire process of
transfer in the liquid is controlled
primarily by the large scale wave structure.


structure of the small waves. This result seems to
suggest that the small waves act much as a rough-
ness does to a moving gas phase in single phase
flow. However, the roughness is of a unique shape
and the usual relative roughness correlations
cannot be expected to apply.
With this understanding the approach to
modelling the enhanced gas phase transfer seems
clear. It is necessary first to model the size and
shape of these small waves more successfully
than has been done in the past. These small waves
are also skewed so that a Fourier series is not a
convenient tool to describe their shape. Perhaps a
Gram-Charlier series can be used. Then the form
drag associated with these special shapes must be
determined, probably through the use of drag co-
efficients. It will then be possible to estimate the
velocity distributions in the turbulent gas flow and
to calculate the pressure gradients associated with
those distributions. This work is now underway.

A SUMMARY
T HE DIFFICULTY of modelling gas liquid
flow results from the fact that the distribu-
tion of the two phases in the pipe are usually un-
known and vary with flow rates, fluid properties,
line size and inclination. The location, shape and
motion of these interfaces determine the boundary
conditions in the mathematical models.
Over much of the flow rate space the phases






\


FIGURE 21. Calculated vs Measured Celerity of the
Large Waves for Using Two Models for Wall Shear.


I a I


8- -

r0 0
S6-
C 0
ft/sec. E 0
5 o

S* EXPERIMENT
0 THEORY. r=pgh
3 o0 THEORY r = 0
3 *w -


0 1 2 3 4 5 6
REYNOLDS NUMBER X 10-3


7 8


FIGURE 22. Flow Pattern Deduced from the Results
of Figure 21.

Existing models for predicting this wave
structure are shown to be inadequate to describe
the waves observed in experiment and the reason
for the failure of all the existing theories is shown
to be the attempts to use Fourier series to de-
scribe the shape of the wave. An alternate
approach is suggested.
Possible directions for predicting the relation
between small wave structure and gas phase
transport are discussed. D

REFERENCES
1. Anshus, B. E., PhD Dissertation, Univ. of Calif.,
Berkeley (1965).
2. Berbente, C. P. and E. Ruckenstein, AIChE J., 14
774 (1968).
3. Chu, K. J., PhD Dissertation, Univ. of Houston (1973).
4. Chu, K. J. and A. E. Dukler, AIChE J., 20, 695 (1974).
5. Chu, K. J. and A. E. Dukler, AIChE J.,21, 583 (1975).
6. Dukler, A. E. and L. C. Elliot, Proc. First Int. Symp.
on Water Desalination, U. S. Dept. of Interior, Wash-
ington, D. C. (1965).
7. Dukler, A. E., Progress in Heat and Mass Transfer,
Continued on page 138.


SUMMER 1977


distribute in such a way that axially continuous
interfaces exist and these are usually covered
with waves. It is demonstrated that the waves
cause substantial increases in transport of mass,
energy and momentum in both the gas and liquid
phases.
The interface is covered by two type of waves.
Large isolated waves or lumps of fluid carrying
most of the mass of the system are separated by
long substrates. A small wave structure exists on
these substrates and on top of the large waves.
The process of transfer in the liquid phase is
shown to be controlled by the large wave struc-
ture while the enhanced transfer in the gas is
due to the small waves.









;W laboratory


EXPERIMENTS IN UNDERGRADUATE

REACTION ENGINEERING:

Startup And Transient Response Of CSTR's In Series


D. C. SUNDBERG, T. E. CARLESON
and R. D. McCOLLISTER
University of Idaho
Moscow, Idaho 83843

T LABORATORY WORK HAS been integrated
-into most of the undergraduate chemical
engineering courses at Idaho for the past 5 or 6
years. There are mixed feelings on the part of
the faculty as to whether or not this has been
a positive change from the concept of a separate
course in experimentation or unit operations. It
does however allow the students to get "hands-
on" experience with the subject matter con-
sidered in each course as they are learning it.
This article deals with the laboratory portion of
the senior level course in chemical reaction
engineering.
The experimental portion of the course en-
compasses two laboratory sessions, each requiring
4-5 hours of work for a team of three students.
Class lectures are usually cancelled during the
week of the lab. The first lab deals with batch re-
actions and is intended to generate kinetic data
which will yield reaction rate expressions and
rate constants. This information is then utilized
to determine the least time consuming method of
startup of a series of two continuous stirred tank
reactors (CSTR's) and also the transient response
of these reactors to a sudden change in flow rate
after the initial steady state operation has been
achieved. These predictions, or approximations,
are then compared to the actual data generated
from the reactors while operated in the above
manner.
The purpose of the particular experimental se-


quence is severalfold, one of the most important
being that the student develops an appreciation
of the concept of steady state. In classroom dis-
cussions it often seems that steady state operation
is rather trivial (sometimes magical) and it is
important to leave the student with the impression
that bringing reactors up to steady state and
keeping them there requires a certain amount of
thought and effort. Other benefits of this lab se-
quence are that it provides for an application of
unsteady state material balances to flow reactors,
it involves elementary process and experimental
design, as well as data and mathematical model
evaluation, interpretation and comparison.


This type of lab allows for
development of rate expressions and
rate constants; treatment of startup,
steady state and transient behavior of
CSTR's, and use of mathematical model
predictions via computer simulation to guide
the development of experimental procedures.


REACTION SYSTEM
T HE REACTION STUDIED in these experi-
ments is the saponification of ethyl acetate by
sodium hydroxide in water solution. This system
has been discussed in the literature [1-4] and has
been used as an example of irreversible second
order kinetics in physical chemistry texts [5,6]).
The reaction does appear to follow second order
irreversible kinetics throughout the reaction when
the initial concentration of the base is significantly
higher than that of the acetate. When the two


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























Donald C. Sundberg joined the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment at the University of Idaho in 1974. He received his B.S. from
Worcester Tech and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Delaware. Before
coming to Idaho he spent five years with Monsanto Company
working in the area of polymer process development. He con-
tinues his interest in polymers through both teaching and research
with the current research emphasis in the area of emulsion
polymerization.
Thomas E. Carleson is presently a graduate student in the
Chemical Engineering Department at Idaho. He received his
B.S. in Chemistry from Oregon State in 1966 and then spent four


years in the U.S. Army. He currently holds the rank of captain
in the U.S. Army Reserve. Prior to entering graduate school, he
spent five years with the Eimco Division of Envirotech, with the
last two years serving as laboratory manager for pilot plant testing.
Russell D. McCollister received his B.S. in Chemistry from Eastern
Oregon State College in 1973 and his M.S. in Chemical Engineering
from the University of Idaho in 1976. Prior to his graduate work he
held positions with Borden Chemical Company and the Environ-
mental Protection Agency in Region X. He is now working with
Crown Zellerbach Corporation in Camas, Washington as a chemical
engineer.


initial concentrations are equal, the apparent
second order rate constant decreases as the re-
action continues. This has clearly been shown in
our laboratory efforts and has been noted by
others [2,4]. Tsujikawa and Inoue claim that this
can be explained by a sequential reaction mechan-
ism passing through an addition complex.
0"
H3c-c=o + OH" H3C-C-OH- t H3C-C=O + C2H50 C2H50H + CH3CO00
6C H5 oc2H5 OH
Here, the reverse rate of the addition complex
becomes more apparent as the sodium hydroxide
level decreases to low values and results in a
lowering of the apparent second order rate
constant. Although this variation in performance
with choice of starting conditions may seem too
complicated for a short laboratory experience, it
is actually a useful tool in developing laboratories
of varying complexity with the same reaction
system. In this paper we have chosen to discuss
the results of a laboratory session which deals
with the more complicated case using equal con-
centrations of sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate
in the feed stream.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
THE REACTION BETWEEN sodium hy-
droxide and ethyl acetate is quite fast and
necessitates the use of low concentrations of these


reactants in order to generate a reasonable labora-
tory exercise. We have chosen to work with 0.05
Molar feed streams which, when mixed in equal
portions, yield initial reactant concentrations of
0.025 moles/liter. This level of dilution, combined
with a 10-20C reaction temperature, allows the
students about 3 hours over which to gather 'data
in the range of 0.80% conversion.
The reactions are carried out in one (for batch
runs) or two (for CSTR operation) 30 liter re-
actors which are equipped with agitators, heat
exchangers for temperature control, and level
control devices for CSTR operation. The size of
the equipment presents no problem and serves to
give the engineering student a "pilot plant" feel-
ing versus a chemistry lab impression.
Samples are withdrawn directly from the re-
actor and quenched in prepared quantities of HCl
solution. The strength of the acid solution is pre-
determined such that the HC1 is in excess of any
possible quantity of NaOH contained in the
sample. In our work we used 0.05 Molar HC1 and
used 25 ml. of this acid solution to quench '25 ml.
of reactor solution. The excess HC1 is then back
titrated with 0.05 Molar NaOH solution using
phenolphthalein* indicator. The concentration of
NaOH in the sample is then calculated from stoi-
chiometry and a simple material balance. The
speed of the acid-base reaction is so fast that
essentially none of the titrating NaOH is allowed


SUMMER 1977









to react with the remaining ethyl acetate in the
sample.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
T HE EMPHASIS OF THIS paper is on startup
and transient response of a series of CSTR's
and as such, discussion of the batch reactor results
will be limited. In order to avoid the complexities
of the mechanism suggested by Tsujikawa and
Inoue, the students are allowed to work with a
simple bimolecular reaction mechanism and allow
the apparent rate constant to vary with time if
necessary. Raw data is converted to fractional
degree of conversion of NaOH, X, and then plotted
in the form suggested by the integrated reaction
rate expression. For irreversible, second order
kinetics this takes the form of X/ (1 X) versus
time, and the slope of the curve is proportional
to the apparent rate constant. The results for
batch runs at 10 and 20'C are plotted in Figure
1 and show two distinct sections, each of which
is pretty well characterized by a constant, but
different, value of the rate constant. For the 20C
case this procedure yielded rate constants of 1.90
liters/ (mole, min.) for conversions less than 53%
and 0.46 liters/ (mole, min.) above 53% con-
version.
Some students endeavor to account for the
drop off in rate at higher conversions by assum-
ing a reversible, second order reaction mechanism.
The data plot up much better with this assump-
tion but a check on the equilibrium constant cal-
culated from standard free energies (K -- 1018)

3.00 I


I X-

..S_ ,----

1.00 0/
I-x .


t oo
',/ o 10

I/
0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TIME, SEC. X o-3
FIGURE 1. Rate constant determination by method of
integration.

*We chose phenolphthalein instead of bromothymol
blue because of the clarity of the end point.


Student response:
"A good learning experience
was achieved as the problem under
consideration was a more true to life situation
than usually encountered in laboratory situations."




quickly persuades them that this is not at all
probable.
The purpose of the second lab is to develop
a startup method for two CSTR's in series which
will minimize startup time and off-grade (not at
desired conversion level) product production. This
coupled with the requirement of analyzing the
response of both reactors to an upset in flow
conditions after initial steady state operation has
been achieved. Both goals are accomplished by
applying unsteady state material balances to the
reactor sequence. Since these differential equa-
tions are coupled (input to second reactor equal
to output of first reactor), they are solved via a
canned computer program called Continuous Sys-
tem Modeling Program (CSMP) which is avail-
able from IBM. This provides a simple and handy
way of integrating computer usage into the course
and does not involve very much program de-
bugging at all. The procedural section of this
program has to be written in such a way as to
handle different values of the rate constant de-
pending upon the level of conversion reached in
each reactor. During the startup period, the second
reactor is required to reach a conversion level of
about 70 % so that at steady state it will be operat-
ing in the area of the lower rate constant. This
means that the first reactor in the series will be
operating in the conversion range characteristic
of the higher rate constant. After operating at
steady state for a period of time, the flow condi-
tions are changed to such an extent that the new
steady state operating level of the second reactor
will be 50%, thus requiring a shift in rate con-
stants during the transient period. Although this
may sound complex for the student, it is very
easily handled within the computer program with
an IF statement, and all students readily ac-
complish this.
Two alternative startup procedures are
quickly arrived at without any assistance from
the instructor. These are: 1) batch startup with
onset of flow when the conversion level reaches
that required for steady state operation and 2)
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









continuous flow startup with the startup period
being assessed for a 95% approach to final steady
state conversion. Although the choice between
methods is an obvious one, it is good to have the
students calculate the anticipated time difference
between the two. For the system of interest here,
this comes out to be a factor of two in favor
of batch startup, which in itself takes about 1-1/2
hours. This time difference coupled with no off-
grade product production causes all of the students
to choose the batch startup method. Each reactor
in the series must now be started at different
times to assure that each is at its own steady
state conversion level at the same point in time
so that flow operation can begin. With this method
there is the added opportunity of collecting two
more sets of batch rate data to check repro-
ducibility of the first lab session and to provide a
better estimate of the rate constant. However, not
all the students take advantage of this un-
announced opportunity.
Having started up the reactor system and
commenced continuous flow, the system is allowed
to operate at steady state for 30-45 minutes. At
that time the students are asked to make a change
in the flow conditions which will result in a new
steady state conversion of 50% in the second
reactor. The CSMP program is used to predict
the time necessary to reach the new steady state
levels for both reactors and to help plan the
sampling times from both reactors during the
transient period. The use of theoretical concepts
as aids in determining approximate experimental
procedures is a positive point to be worked into
the overall lab experience.
Figure 2 is a plot of the transient and steady
state operating data for the second reactor at
200C. Predicted behavior, based on rate constants
determined from the first lab, is shown to be in
fairly good agreement with the actual results.
However not all student groups obtain such a
match. The majority of groups that experience
a significant lack of agreement actually assess
their own problems as being either poor estima-
tions of rate constants from the first lab, or
simple errors of coordinating activities of starting
up two reactors in the sequence. Other sources of
error are incorrect calculations of flow rates for
the two steady state cases and simple equipment
failure during the transients. In general, good
preparation on the part of both student (careful
calculations, well defined procedures and good
group communications) and instructor (readi-


ness of materials and proper equipment
maintenance) leads to a successful laboratory ex-
perience.

STUDENT FEEDBACK
T TYPICAL OF INDIVIDUAL responses from
a group, the feedback from students on this lab
sequence has ranged from "It doesn't strike me
that the learning experience is enhanced when a
reaction that should be second order just isn't,"
to "A good learning experience was achieved as
the problem under consideration was a more true
to life situation than usually encountered in
laboratory situations." In general about 70% of

-- THEORY
0.8 n6 DATA FROM
SECOND REACTOR
0.7 AA A IN SERIES AT
0A7 A __ A A 20 C
0.6 A
x 0.5 A A
0.4

BATCH STEADY TRANSIENT AND
0.2 START UP STATE NEW STEADY STATE
BEGIN FIRST BEGIN NEW
0 1 I FLOW FLOW
2 4 5 6 7 9 10 I 12
TIME, SEC. xIO-3
FIGURE 2. Transient and steady-state operation of the
second reactor.

the students felt that the lab was a positive ex-
perience. Most of them thought it was a difficult
set of labs and it is the instructor's opinion that
this was because of the open ended nature of the
second lab. Those students having had previous
industrial experience liked the fact that they were
treating a non-ideal system (more typical of their
experience) while those with purely academic
backgrounds felt somewhat uncomfortable in this
situation.
From an instructor's viewpoint, this type of
a lab allows for the integration of several
features of reaction engineering R&D into one
activity: 1) development of rate expressions and
rate constants, 2) treatment of startup, steady
state and transient behavior of CSTR's, and 3)
use of mathematical model predictions via com-
puter simulation to guide the development of ex-
perimental procedures. Another positive point is
Continued on page 139.


SUMMER 1977









SPe classroom


STRESSING INDUSTRIAL IMPLICATIONS IN A

POLYMER ENGINEERING COURSE


J.-M. CARRIER
McGill University
Montreal, Quebec
Canada


A POLYMER ENGINEERING course generally
covers three main areas: the nature and
chemical manufacture of polymeric resins, their
properties and their processing into finished parts.
To achieve good academic standards, the basic ob-
jectives of such a course must be the satisfactory
coverage of fundamental and quantitative aspects
of polymer engineering. It is felt, however, that
students should also develop a good practical feel
for common polymeric materials and processes,
should learn about the industrial aspects of the
field and should be given the opportunity to ap-
ply the acquired knowledge in a creative manner.
The need for these important additional objectives
has long been stressed by practicing engineers.
To achieve these additional objectives, a poly-
mer engineering course with original features has
been developed. The discussion of these features
can only be done in the context of the conventional
aspects of the course and it is felt that these
aspects of a university-taught polymer engineer-
ing course have not been sufficiently described in
the literature. The conventional aspects of the
present course will therefore be described and il-
lustrated with specific examples and it is expected
that this will invite constructive criticism from
practicing engineers and open useful discussions.
The additional objectives were pursued by
introducing several special activities. To permit
useful references in the subsequent detailed cov-
erage of the course material, a qualitative intro-
ductory survey of all three areas of polymer en-
gineering was presented first. Demonstrations and
discussions of samples of polymeric resins and
parts were used extensively throughout the course.


Jean-Michel Charrier is an Associate Professor of Chemical engi-
neering at McGill University. He received his E.N.S. from Arts &
Metiers in Paris and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the Institute of Polymer
Science in Akron, Ohio. His teaching and research interest include
processing and properties of polymeric systems. He is presently on
sabbatical leave in France.


The use of technical journals and of our own ex-
tensive collection of commercial literature was
promoted through special assignments. Team proj-
ects involving the study of the manufacture of
certain polymeric parts and the selection of suita-
ble commercial resins and processing equipment
led to very effective technical visits of correspond-
ing industrial plants and discussions with their
engineers.
While the concept of the activities introduced
to fulfill the additional objectives may well have
been used elsewhere, it is felt that since their suc-
cessful implementation rests on a careful organi-
zation it is desirable to discuss organizational de-
tails and specific examples. Once again it is ex-
pected that this will arouse the interest of prac-
ticing engineers and that their comments will
lead to further improvement of the efficiency of
these activities.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









MODIFICATION FOR GRADUATE LEVEL


T HE COURSE DESCRIBED here is primarily
intended as an undergraduate course for stu-
dents in the last two years of the undergraduate
curriculum. In view of the wide range of topics
involved it is felt that the course could not easily
be upgraded as a full-fledge graduate course. A
modified version, however, could serve as an intro-
ductory graduate course followed, in a compre-
hensive polymer engineering graduate program,
by the following sequence of courses:
* Advanced chemical engineering of polymers concen-
trating on physical chemistry and reactor design which
would be particularly suited to ChE or chemistry stu-
dents.
* Advanced physical processing of polymers with em-
phasis on phase transitions and heat, mass and mo-
mentum transfer in the fluid state which would be
particularly suited to chemical and mechanical engineer-
ing students.
* Advanced engineering properties of polymers with em-
phasis on the physical structure and mechanical and
transport properties in the solid state which would be
particularly suited to chemical and mechanical engineer-
ing students.

For some students the course will be their one
and only formal training in polymer engineering
as full-time students. Some of these will never be-
come directly involved with polymers, while others
will work in this field in industry and will further
their knowledge through day-to-day experience
and, possibly, continuing education. Other stu-
dents will enter graduate schools where they will
receive further extensive academic and research
training. It is felt that all of them have a common
need which is the acquisition of a sufficient basic
background to benefit from the reading of spe-
cialized technical and scientific literature in the
field of polymer engineering.
It could be feared that the introduction of ad-
ditional objectives, however useful they may be,
must lead to an undesirable reduction in the cov-
erage of the basic objectives. Every effort was
made to avoid this and it is felt that success rested
on two factors which will be emphasized in the
paper:
* High motivation in the special activities which increased
the work input.
Thorough organization of both basic and additional ob-
jectives which enhanced the efficiency.

The selection of the course basic program and
the depth of coverage are influenced by a number
of factors including the following:


* Feedback information, recommendations or requests
from industry, the main user of graduates, in the form
of personal communications, published surveys, etc. [1]
to [5].
* The instructor's experience or knowledge of other similar
courses or textbooks, his own ideas, interests and intui-
tion [6].
* The student's background.
* The student's interest.

A questionnaire was used at the very begin-
ning of the course to obtain information on the
last two points. Fifty-five percent of the students
answered that they had no background in poly-
mers, about four percent had acquired some back-
ground through courses, fifteen percent through
industrial employment and twenty-six percent
through personal interest. Fifteen percent of the
students indicated a primary interest in the prop-
erties and use of polymeric materials, thirty-seven
percent in the production of polymeric resins and
forty-eight percent in their transformation into
finished products.
The total duration of the course was about
fourteen weeks (one semester) with three one-
hour class meetings per week.
Some details of the course basic program
(parts I, II and III) are given in table I. It would
be too long to describe its content in detail but a
good measure of the depth of coverage will be
provided by the examination of a few representa-
tive problems assigned to the students.



... the basic objective of the
course must be the satisfactory
coverage of fundamental and quanti-
tative aspects of polymer engineering
.. students should also develop a good
practical feel for common polymeric
materials and processes, should learn
about the industrial aspects of the field and
should be given the opportunity to apply
the acquired knowledge in a creative manner.



No comprehensive typed course notes were
handed in by the instructor; students wrote their
own notes on the material covered in class and a
limited amount of typed notes was handed in in
special cases only. It was felt that in view of the
number of assignments, students should not be
held responsible for fundamental material not
covered in class.


SUMMER 1977










TABLE I
POLYMER ENGINEERING
Course Outline
COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION
(about two weeks or 13 %)
General Structure of Polymers
Classes of Polymeric Materials
Effect of Temperature on Physical State
Applications and Testing
Processing Techniques
PART I: STRUCTURE, CHEMICAL PROCESSING
(about four weeks or 29%)
Chemical Structure, Physical Chemistry
Polymerization and Copolymerization Prin-
ciples
Polymerization Techniques (Bulk, Solution,
Suspension, Emulsion)
PART II: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
(about four weeks or 29%)
Physical States: Amorphous, Semi-crystal-
line
Special Cases: Copolymers, Plasticizers,
Fillers ...
Mechanics (Static)
Temperature Effects
Time Effects (Viscoelasticity)
Time-Temperature Superposition
Melt Rheology
PART III: PHYSICAL PROCESSING
(about four weeks or 29%)
Basic (Extrusion, Injection Molding, Film
Blowing, Fiber Spinning)
Others (ex: Blow Molding, Thermoforming

Special Techniques


A supporting textbook [7] was selected which
represents a good compromise for quality and cost.
Its purpose was to offer equivalent or supplemen-
tary information on much of the fundamental ma-
terial (theoretical treatments, examples, refer-
ences, etc.). Its contents (Table II) do not match
the course outline (Table I), however, particularly
in the area of processing.
Other more expensive textboks cover large
parts of the course program [8] to [11]. Three
classical advanced texts [12], [13] and [14] spe-
cifically relate to parts I, II and III respectively.

PROBLEM SETS ASSIGNED

A TOTAL OF about thirty problems distributed
among seven weekly problem sets was as-
signed, allowing a variety of aspects to be dealt
with. Six examples, representative of several
aspects are given in appendix II.


* Problems A, B, C and D, relative to part I of the course,
form a sequence dealing with basic aspects of the poly-
merization of polymethylmethacrylate which must be
understood before proceeding to engineering applications.
Emphasis is placed on the generation of relationships
rather than isolated results in order to enhance discus-
sion. Scaled graph paper was supplied in order to guide
students and save them time (see Figure 1).
* Problem E, relative to part II of the course illustrates
in a concrete manner the application of fundamental
concepts and data of visco-elasticity and time-tempera-
ture superposition to the solution of an engineering
problem of vibrations and heat build-up.
* Problem F is relative to part III of the course. While
most problems on this part led to numerical results,
problem F involves the analytical application of funda-
mental concepts to a problem similar to but simpler than
the screw extrusion case discussed in class.
Students had to submit even incomplete solu-

TABLE II
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF
POLYMERIC MATERIALS
FOR PRACTICING ENGINEERS
by S. L. ROSEN
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION (about 1%)


SECTION 1:









SECTION 2:


POLYMER FUNDAMENTALS
(about 32%)
- Types of polymers
- Bonding in polymers
- Stereoisomerism
- Crystallinity in polymers
- Characterization of molecular weight
- Polymer solubility and solutions
- Transitions in polymers
POLYMER SYNTHESIS
(about 23%)
- Polycondensation reactions
- Free-radical addition polymerization
- Non-radical addition polymerization
- Copolymerization
- Polymerization practice


SECTION 3: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
POLYMERS (about 31%)
Rubber elasticity
Purely viscous flow
Viscometry and tube flow
Introduction to continuum mechanics
Linear viscoelasticity
SECTION 4: POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
(about 14%)
Processing
Plastics
Rubbers
Synthetic fibers
Surface finishes
Adhesives


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









tions according to the established schedule but,
after the discussion of the problems in class, they
could upgrade their marks by resubmitting im-
proved solutions. The exercise proved valuable as
a preparation for the tests.

ASSESSMENT THROUGH TESTS
PERFORMANCE TESTING is an inevitable
part of the course. Properly devised testing is
in fact very useful to the students in providing an
incentive for thorough study and understanding of
the material and a check for progress and achieve-
ment of stated objectives. It is also useful to the
instructor in assessing the efficiency of his teach-
ing in general and of specific methods or tech-
niques in particular. The relative weights were
distributed in the following way: homework as-
signments and problem sets, fifteen percent; tests,
sixty percent and design project, twenty-five per-
cent.
Each of the three tests on parts I, II and III
of the course outline consisted of two separate ex-
ercises.
Short answers had to be provided in a re-
stricted space in thirty to forty-five minutes for
five to ten closed book (and notes) questions. Ques-
tions B, C and D given in appendix I are represen-
tative examples of these largely basic and qualita-
tive questions.
* Question B implies a sufficient knowledge of the four
polymerization techniques to undertake a comparison.
Question C, in addition to an understanding of the con-
sequences of copolymerization, stresses the use of graph-
ical representation which is so common in scientific and
technical papers.
Question D intends to verify that basic definitions are
sufficiently well known and understood to be applied to
a simple practical situation.
Students could not use textbooks but had ac-
cess to their personal course notes and their solu-
tions to the assignments and problem sets for the
second exercise. It consisted of two or three "open
notes" problems similar in scope and difficulty to
those in problem sets. The time available, however,
was restricted to between sixty and ninety minutes
and the effort was necessarily strictly personal.

COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION
MANY BASIC ASPECTS of the rather special
nature, behavior and processing of poly-
meric materials are generally largely unknown to
students entering a polymer engineering course
despite the fact that they have been in contact
SUMMER 1977


with such materials in everyday life for years.
Polymer engineering courses usually start with a
very brief introduction and move on to funda-
mental engineering material.
It was felt that it is not convenient to go
through the sequence of fundamental engineering
topics without a good qualitative preview of the
whole field. It is difficult, for instance, to discuss


The additional objectives were
pursued by introducing several
special activities: a qualitative intro-
ductory survey of all three areas of
polymer engineering-demonstrations
and discussions of samples of polymeric
resins and parts, the use of technical
journals and commercial literature...


the advantages and disadvantages of polymeriz-
ing a material as a thin powder or in bulk with-
out reference to the use of powders or pellets in
various processing techniques. It is equally dif-
ficult to justify the study of the visco-elasticity of
polymer melts without reference to film blowing,
blow molding or thermoforming processes. In the
discussion of fundamental questions, it is also
very desirable to be able to refer to specific ob-
jects whose constitutive materials and manu-
facturing processes have been introduced earlier.
The comprehensive introduction (see Table I)
was a thorough preview of most of the course ma-
terial with emphasis on qualitative and practical
aspects. It accounted for about two weeks or
thirteen percent of the course and was found by
the students to be very useful and motivating. The
following are a few representative examples of
material covered.
* After monomers, monomeric units and polymeric mole-
cules are defined, the basic difference between homo-
polymers and the various types of copolymers is il-
lustrated with examples.
* Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate,
etc. are described as non-crystallizing thermoplastics
while epoxies and unsaturated polyesters are described
as catalyst-curing rigid thermosets.
Tensile, impact, fatigue, tear and abrasion tests are de-
scribed and shown to serve different purposes.
Main features and applications of the film blowing proc-
ess are discussed with the help of diagrams.
Throughout the comprehensive introduction,
very extensive and systematic use was made of
125









hundreds of polymeric samples which the instruc-
tor has collected. Samples were demonstrated and
discussed in class which frequently led to fruitful
out of class discussions. A list of samples related
to polyvinyl chloride is given in Table III with a
list of other selected examples; they illustrate the
comprehensiveness and the variety of the samples.
If such demonstrations are limited to the compre-
hensive introduction, they can be rapidly forgotten
and serve only part of their purpose; instead,
samples were shown, when appropriate, through-
out the course. This practice proved largely worth
the time involved and was extremely well received
by the students.

INTRODUCTORY ASSIGNMENTS
IT WAS FELT that very early in the course
students should become aware of the industrial
and commercial aspects of polymer engineering.
In particular they should know about trade pub-
lications, commercial and technical literature, the
economics of the field, etc. Introductory assign-
ments were designed to provide an organized and
practical framework for achieving these objectives


TABLE III
EXAMPLES OF SAMPLES DEMONSTRATED
AND DISCUSSED IN CLASS
Samples related to Polyvinyl chloride PVC
unplasticized PVC (powder, pellets)
plasticizer (liquid dioctyl phtalate DOP)
plasticized PVC (10%, 20%, 30% DOP) powdered
and roll-milled
plastisol
rigid PVC extrudates
plasticized PVC sheets (flat and embossed)
PVC coated fabrics
plasticized PVC tubing (plain and braid-reinforced)
plasticized PVC electric wire insulation
injection molded electric plug insulation
injection molded automotive trimming
PVC-based blow molded bottles
rotation molded dolls
Other selected examples
Automobile tire
Compression molded fiber-reinforced plastic FRP
automobile bumper
Laminated FRP skis
Injection molded Polyurethane ski boot
Injection molded automobile interior door pannel
Extruded foamed elastomer automobile seal
Injection molded integral skin rigid foam typewriter
cover
Compression molded baby bottle nipple
Phenolic automobile distributor cap
Cast polyurethane foam automobile arm rest


while motivating the students and reducing to a
minimum nonproductive searching time.
The first introductory assignment dealt with
polymeric materials and the second one with proc-
essing equipment. Two lists of polymers and proc-
esses are given in Table IV; entries in the second
group are somewhat less well known than those
in the first group. Students were asked to choose
three entries in each group and gather informa-
tion corresponding to questions appearing on
forms. In order to set clear limits to the amount
of work involved, students were given one blank
form for each polymeric material or processing
equipment which provided limited space for an-
swering each question, this also allowed the easy
comparison or reproduction of these data forms.
Sources of information recommended to the
students were two-fold. Physical sciences and en-
gineering libraries have most of the trade publi-
cations listed as references [15] to [27] as well as
many relevant handbooks. Commercial literature
is not normally easily accessible however. Prior to
this course, the instructor obtained from over a
hundred North American or European companies
the material for a very extensive commercial
literature file (advertising brochures, technical
data sheets, specification sheets, price lists, etc.)
which was placed in a mobile filing cabinet; the
file was located in a room accessible to the students
for the duration of the course. The file was also a
primary source of information for the design
projects to be discussed later.
Early testing was carried out after the com-
prehensive introduction using closed book (and
notes) questions. It was felt that some essential
material should be remembered for later reference
in the course but emphasis was placed on the de-
termination of answers by deductive reasoning
rather than strict memorization. Question A (see
appendix I) is a representative example of such
questions. Student's response confirmed the ex-
pectations.

DESIGN PROJECTS
STUDENTS IN GROUPS of two (teams) were
asked to study the industrial production of a
polymeric object of their choice referred to here
as an item (a list of items is given in Table V).
They had to select suitable commercial polymeric
material and processing equipment and fully
justify their choice. In order to ensure steady and
efficient progress on the design projects, work was
divided in three four-week stages.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE IV
Introductory Assignments
POLYMERIC MATERIALS
First group
Low density polyethylene
Styrene-butadiene rubber
Polyvinyl chloride
Polystyrene
High density polyethylene
Unsaturated polyester
Second group
Nylon 6-6
Polycarbonate
Silicone rubber
Polyimide
Polyurethane
Polychloroprene
PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
First group
Injection molding of thermoplastics
Wire coating
Extrusion of tubes
Sheet calendering
Compression molding of thermosets
Film blowing
Second group
Extrusion-blow molding
Glass fiber-resin spraying
Thermoforming
Fluidized bed coating
Rotational casting
Styrofoam sheeting

An analysis of the item and its intended use
leads to the determination of constraints on the
choice of material and process. These constraints
correspond to the dimensions and shape of the
item, the properties required, the volume of pro-
duction, the optimum cost, etc. On the basis of
knowledge acquired through the comprehensive
introduction of the course and the introductory as-
signments, a preliminary selection of one or sev-
eral suitable types of polymeric materials and
processes was made. A preliminary report was
written which contained a description of all steps
which led to the preliminary selection and included
detailed references. The preliminary report was
critically examined by the instructor who made
written comments, suggestions and/or criticisms.
Specific technical and commercial literature on
suitable material (s) and processing equipment
was selected from our commercial literature file or
other sources. Contacts were established with ma-
terials suppliers and manufacturers of similar or
related items in view of technical advice and a
subsequent industrial visit. In order to develop


their initiative, students were asked to establish
these contacts on their own using, for example,
the commercial pages (yellow pages) of the tele-
phone directory or names and addresses in our
file. The instructor was prepared to back up their
requests when necessary. Details of progress ac-
complished during the second stage were described
in a progress report which was discussed at a
meeting with the instructor.
By then the students had built up enough back-
ground on their design project to expect much
benefit from an industrial visit. Each team had to
make all arrangements for the industrial visit but
the instructor normally participated in the actual
visit, providing transportation when necessary.
He ensured that the opportunity was used to see
all polymer engineering activities in the plant
which, although not directly related to the design
project, were covered in the course. The very
small groups helped make these visits most inter-
esting and the hosts were invariably extremely
cooperative and helpful. No re-writing of previ-
ously reported information was requested in the
final report but emphasis was placed on present-
ing the details of the final choice for the polymeric
material and the processing equipment proposed
for the manufacture of the item (companies, spe-
cifications, models or numbers, delivery dates,
prices, etc.) and a rational justification for the
choice.
The work done by each group can benefit all
students in the course and oral presentations can
be the most effective way of communicating the
acquired knowledge if they are carefully organ-
ized. It is not wise to schedule more than about six
presentations at a time and in view of the total
number of items each oral presentation was
strictly limited to five minutes with a maximum of

TABLE V
POLYMERIC ITEMS FOR DESIGN PROJECTS
Handle for cooking utensil
Elastic band
Light yogurt container
Vinegar bottle
Ski boot outer shell
Screw and nut
Garden hose
Cord electrical switch
Motorbike seat
Glass fiber-reinforced plastic canoe
Garbage bag
Milk pouch
Stiff yogurt container
Hockey stick


SUMMER 1977










five more minutes for questions. The short dura-
tion of each presentation called for a careful prep-
aration. Each team had to prepare a 150-250 word
abstract of their project supplemented by a few
important references; copies of the abstract sheets
were available to all students in the course prior
to the oral presentations. Drafts for two overhead
transparencies had to be prepared also, one being
normally for a presentation of the item and the
constraints, the second one for the material and
the equipment selected. The drafts were examined
by the instructor extensive changes being often
needed to produce satisfactory final transpar-
encies. An example is given in Figure 3. The re-
action of students to the oral presentations of the
design projects was sought in individual ques-
tionnaires. The response for individual projects
provided a valuable rating of their quality which
agreed with the instructor's rating. The overall
response :provided an assessment of the design
projects by the students. Fifty-three percent of
the students indicated that they knew very little
about the topics before the presentations and
thirty-one percent indicated that they came to
the presentation with a very strong interest;
thirty percent found the presentations excellent
in all respects and sixty percent rated them good.

CONCLUSION

It is hoped that the somewhat detailed descrip-
tion of a polymer engineering course stressing in-
dustrial implications will draw a response from
both practicing engineers and educators. A com-
parison of views should lead to further improve-
ment of the quality and usefulness of polymer
engineering education to suit the needs of indus-
trial production as well as research and develop-
ment. E

The course described here was developed and taught
by the author (J.-M. Charrier) in place of the regular
polymer engineering course while its instructor, Professor
M. R. Kamal, was on sabbatical leave.



APPENDIX I

QUESTION A. A list of ten polymers is given below with
a temperature T* in degrees Celsius (C). This tempera-
ture T* corresponds to one of the three following charac-
teristic temperatures: glass transition (Tg), melting of
semi-crystalline material (Tm) and onset of serious chem-
ical degradation (Td). Remembering that water freezes at
0C and boils at 1000C and normal room temperature is
about 20C, associate in a table the given temperature T*


SKI BOOT OUTER SHELL





average thickness = 1/4in.
maximum weight 5lb.
CONSTRAINTS
constant flexibility (50F to 3(F)
high extension at break (300%)
resistance to moisture
thermal insulation
colors
molding properties


POLYMERIC MATERIAL
Estate 5740 Xl B.F.Goodrich
thermoplastic polyurethane $1.50/Ib.
molding temperature 175C
PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
special injection molding unit
capacity 80 oz.
clamping force SOOT.
mold size 26 in x 26in.
r NATCO 500HS
related $ A.R.Williams
in)j. unit = $100,000


FIGURE 3. Overhead transparencies for oral presenta-
tion (ski boot outer shell).



to Tg, Tm or Td for each polymer. The polymers are:
polypropylene (T* = -200C), polystyrene (T* = 1000C),
polytetrafluoroethylene (T* = 3250C), silicone (T* =
-1000C), polypropylene (T* = 1750C), natural rubber (T*
= -700C), polyvinyl chloride (T* = 2000C), nylon (T* =
250C), styrene-butadiene rubber (T* = 1500C) and poly-
imide (T* = 5000C).

QUESTION B. For each of the four basic polymerization
techniques B (Bulk), So (Solution), Su (Suspension) and
E (Emulsion), indicate in a table the rating +, 0 or -
which best corresponds to each of the following charac-
teristics: 1 = ease of control (generally easy: +, difficult:
-), 2 = process technology (generally simple: +, compli-
cated: -), 3 = polymer yield per reactor volume (high: +,
low: -) and 4 = purity of product (generally high: +,
low: -). Briefly justify your answers for the following
combinations: 1/B, 2/Su, 3/So and 4/E.

QUESTION C. Using a logarithmic modulus scale from 1
psi to 100 psi, represent the modulus versus temperature
curves for the following five materials: Polybutadiene PB
which has a glass transition temperature Tg ~ -850C,
Polystyrene PS which has a glass transition Tg 100C,
a random copolymer PSB containing 85% of Styrene and
15% of Butadiene, a random copolymer PBS containing
70% of Butadiene and 30% of Styrene and a blend PSB/
PBS containing 50% of PSB and 50% of PBS. Briefly
justify the use of PSB in paints. Briefly comment of the
expected properties and applications of PBS. Briefly com-
ment on the physical structure of PSB/PBS.

QUESTION D. With the help of an illustrated sketch and
suitable symbols, define shear stress, shear rate and viscos-
ity for a viscous fluid. A viscous liquid is sheared in the gap
between two concentric cylinders. End effects are neglected
and the gap thickness t is much smaller than the diameter
d. A tangential force F is applied to the inner cylinder
while the outer cylinder is held stationary. N is the speed
of rotation. Express the relationship between the force F,
the system dimensions a, t and d, the viscosity lM and the
speed of rotation N.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










APPENDIX II

PROBLEM A. The rate of decomposition of an initiator
for free radical polymerization can be expressed as the
time for decomposition of 50% of the original charge (half-
life tl/2 for first order reaction). For benzoyl peroxide:
tl/2 = 43 hours at 600C. Determine the decomposition rate
constant at 600C in liters/mole/sec. Prepare a simple
graph giving the fraction of benzoyl peroxide decomposed
as a function of time.

PROBLEM B. Representative values of the rates of propa-
gation (kp) and termination (kt) for the free radical poly-
merization of polymethylmethacrylate, are given in liter/
mole/sec. at 300C (kp = 251 and k, = 21 x 106) and at
80C (kp = 800 and kt = 30.5 x 106). Determine the activa-
tion energies Ep and E, for propagation and termination in
kcal/mole. Determine the rate constants kP and kt at 60C
(a graphical method may be used).

PROBLEM C. An initial charge for a polymerization in
solution contains 10 g of methylmethacrylate monomer and
0.1 g of benzoyl peroxide initiator per 100 milliliters of
benzene. Assuming a constant initiator concentration, de-
termine the time needed to polymerize fifty per cent of the
charge at 600C, the corresponding instantaneous number
average molecular weight, the corresponding overall num-
ber average molecular weight, the times needed for 25%
and 75% conversion at 600C (a graphical method may be
used) and represent the conversion curve at 600C. Taking
into account the initiator decomposition, determine the
time needed to polymerize fifty per cent of the charge at
600 C and the maximum attainable conversion at 600C.

PROBLEM D. The heat of polymerization of methyl-
methacrylate is HPZN = 13.5 kcal/gmole. The heat ca-
pacities of methylmethacrylate, polymethylmethacrylate
and benzene are approximately Cp 0.5 cal/g/C. For a
bulk polymerization of methylmethacrylate the initial tem-
perature is around 200C. Estimate the final temperature
if the polymerization takes place in adiabatic conditions.
Estimate the total amount of heat to be removed (cal/g
and Btu/lb) to keep the temperature below the boiling
temperature of methylmethacrylate (Tb = 1000C). For a
solution polymerization of methylmethacrylate the initial
charge contains 10 g of methylmethacrylate monomer and
a small amount of benzoyl peroxide initiator per 100 mil-
liliters of benzene solution. The initial temperature is


G tcgs)


1 10 100 1000 F (Hz)
1 ---I ---------
tan s 20'C
0.1
0.1 -

0.01 10 100 1000 f (Hz)

FIGURE 1. Viscoelastic data (storage modulus and loss
angle) for problem E (Appendix II).


around 200C. Estimate the final temperature if the poly-
merization takes place in adiabatic conditions. Estimate
the total amount of heat to be removed (cal and Btu) to
keep the system from boiling.

PROBLEM E. The vibrations of an apparatus are con-
trolled by rubber units. The rubber units are submitted to
sinusoidal shear strains of maximum amplitude To = 1%.
The frequency of the vibrations is f = 10,000 cycles per
minute. The density of the rubber is p 0.92 g/cm3, its
heat capacity is Cp 0.5 Btu/lb/R and its glass transi-
tion temperature is Tg ~ -70C. Viscoelasticity data are
in Figure 1 at 20C. Assuming that the energy loss, con-
verted into heat, is not conducted away from the rubber,
estimate the rate of temperature rise (C per second) in
the units around 0C.

PROBLEM F. A special extruder is being designed for the
production of plastic film. A schematic cross-section of the








B D C

N h



FIGURE 2. Sketch of the special extruder for problem
F (Appendix II).

extruder is shown on Figure 2. The solid polymer, in pellets
or powder form, is fed in a slot (A) and entrained by a
cylinder of diameter D and width W rotating at a speed
N. Between A and B, the polymer is heated and sheared;
when it reaches B, it is molten but not pressurized. The
molten polymer is then entrained at a uniform tempera-
ture into a thin gap of uniform thickness h extending over
half of the cylinder circumference (B-C). In the case
where region C is open to the atmosphere, express analyt-
ically the volumetric flow rate QM of molten polymer
emerging as a function of W, h, D and N. In the case
where the outlet at point C is blocked off, express analyt-
ically the pressure Pm at point C as a function of W, h, D,
N and g/ (viscosity of the polymer melt assumed to be
Newtonian). The extruder is normally fitted with a slit
die of width W, gap thickness t and gap length 1. Express
analytically the volumetric flow rate Q, of molten polymer
in the following form: Q, = Qm x (a function of h, D, t
and 1).

REFERENCES

1. Education Committee, Society of Plastics Engineers.
2. Education Committee, Plastics Institute of America.
3. Education Committee, Polymer Chemistry Division,
American Chemical Society.
4. Material Science Division, National Science Founda
tion.
Continued on page 144.


SUMMER 1977










84th

Annual 00

Conference


Editor's Note: The two papers following were presented as part of a
symposium at the Annual Conference of the ASEE at the University
of Tennessee; Knoxville, Tennessee; June 1976.


FACULTY WORKLOAD MEASUREMENT AT

PENN STATE


LEE C. EAGLETON
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania 16802
T HE PURPOSE OF THIS paper is to describe
the Faculty Workload Formula developed in
the Department of Chemical Engineering at Penn
State during the past 5 years. We started with a
scheme developed by the college administration
that was carefully thought out but not tested. Also,
the department previously had a form used by
faculty for reporting activities of all kinds and
another format for organizing material in faculty
resumes. A small committee selected the types of
activities to be included in the workload formula,
estimated the effort required for each item, and
produced an initial formula. The entire faculty
discussed the weighting or credit for each activity
and the initial formula was thus established. The
formula was tried for the 1971-1972 academic
year by having a single faculty member compute
the workload for everyone else based on data
supplied by the individual faculty member. Next,
the department head scheduled a half hour meet-
ing with each faculty to discuss the changes that
should be made to have the workload come closer
to representing the work accomplished. On the
basis of notes of these conferences, the faculty
was able to agree on a "final" formula. Over the
past several years minor changes have been made
in an attempt to correct inequities, and pre-
sumably small changes could continue into the
indefinite future. At present the workload is com-
puted once a year for the previous 3 terms ex-


cluding the summer. Penn State has 3 terms
during the academic year, and the formula was
developed for a school on the term system. The
formats presented at the end of this paper for
the semester and quarter formats were adapted
from the term formula but have not been tested.
Recently we have given up the concept that
the workloads should be computed entirely by a
single individual. A faculty member (but it could
be a secretary or administrative aide) converts
the data for our courses into points for each of
the faculty. Information on graduate and under-
graduate student advising is also entered on a
form. The percent of each person's salary that


Lee C. Eagleton studied chemical engineering at MIT and Yale.
After a postdoctoral position at Columbia, he joined the chemical
engineering department at the University of Pennsylvania and moved
to Penn State in 1970. He was Chairman of the Chemical Engineering
Division of ASEE in 1971-72.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








is on research funds is also noted. Each faculty
member is then asked to complete the form by
including the items that he alone can provide
such as time spent on papers, proposals, graduate
student advising that duplicates sponsored re-
search, etc. Somewhat more reliable or uniform
results would result if someone then looked over
all workload computation to spot instances of non-
uniformity or, suspiciously inflated claims for
certain activities. However, until it is clear that
workload numbers are going to be used for some
purpose, additional effort to achieve maximum
accuracy or uniformity is probably not warranted.

OBJECTIVES OF A WORKLOAD ANALYSIS
C ONSTRUCTING A MEANINGFUL workload
measurement scheme involves considerable and
continuing effort that can be justified only if im-
portant objectives are met. The objectives usually
given are listed below.
* For use outside the department and, particularly, out-
side the university to show what work is undertaken
by the faculty.
* For use by the department head or individual faculty
in an attempt to show that the department on average
or particular faculty are either "overloaded," "under-
worked," or about right.
* Use by the department head in attempting to balance
workloads among faculty members through assignment
of tasks.
* Use by the individual in optimizing his time. That is,
the individual faculty member may neglect those activi-
ties which receive little or no credit in the workload
analysis.
The utility of workload formulas has probably
not been established sufficiently that a criterion
for a successful formula is known. In other words,
anyone can construct a workload formula that
might be superior to the one presented here or
elsewhere in this session. There are a few decisions
that need to be made and rather subtle points to
be resolved. Some of these are discussed briefly
here.
Work in the various categories occurs at
different times throughout the year but we desire
an average over some particular period. For
example, at first we thought that an average work-
load for the entire year would be most desirable
but have since realized that individuals and ad-
ministrators would like to compare workloads for
each term or semester. We do not compute work-
loads for the summer.
There are a number of choices for the units
to be used in reporting workload. We attempted


to avoid controversy by using "points." Points for
a "full load" can be made anything, but there
is psychological advantage in a scheme in which
most faculty achieve 100 points or more. Another
approach would be to use "points" with an implied
meaning such as teaching credit equivalence or
standard or nominal hours per week. In deciding
the number of points to be awarded for a
particular task, it is difficult to avoid relating the
points to a certain number of hours of work. If
points are to be totaled for a period such as a
term, there is the need to assume how many hours
of work occur in a week or a term. By assuming
there are 40 hours of work in a week even though
faculty work longer hours, the number of points
in a workload will be somewhat greater than one
might expect from the relationship between points
and hours that have been chosen.




We hope that all faculty will
spend an appreciable amount of
time keeping up with the literature in
his field. Unfortunately, no rational scheme
has been suggested for evaluating this activity.
There is no easily recognized output for
the work and no one seems interested
in asking the faculty to estimate
hours spent reading the literature.




PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING A FORMULA
DEALLY, A WORKLOAD formula should prob-
ably measure the work accomplished instead
of the amount of time spent. Unfortunately, there
is no simple way to assign points to a particular
activity without either simply relating points to
time spent or else establishing some arbitrary re-
lationship that might be inappropriate in many
cases. Probably the teaching activity is about as
well understood as any other. It is recognized that
some courses are easier to teach than others.
Therefore one could attempt to assign a certain
number of points to each course after consulting
with those who have taught it. Our formula simply
bases the points for a course on the number of
credits, number of students, where undergraduate
or graduate, whether a laboratory or not, and
whether the course is a new one. The influence
that each of these factors has on the points for a
course is little more than an educated guess, and


SUMMER 1977









no simple formula can be appropriate for all
courses. For such activities as preparing papers
and other scholarly work, it is recognized that the
work required varies tremendously depending
upon the details of the activity. Presumably no
formula would be sufficiently complete to more or
less automatically account for these many factors.
We simply allow a range of points and ask the
faculty member to select the appropriate amount.
The faculty member may be tempted to select the
maximum number of points allowed in each
category.
The concept of released time for sponsored re-
search is well established. Therefore, it is attrac-
tive to relate points in a workload formula to the
percent of salary covered by research funds. When
this is done, the assumption is made that the
amount of work is related to the salary distribu-
tion, which, of course, is not necessarily the case.
For example, it is customary to cover a certain
percentage of a salary on a particular grant for
a year without bothering to make adjustments
for the fact that during some periods work on the
project is much more extensive than during
others. When the percent of salary on a particular
project is included in a workload formula, one
should attempt to adjust the salary distribution
each term or semester in order to reflect changes
in research effort at different times of the year.
In any event, a serious disadvantage of including
research funding in a formula is that duplication
is inevitable unless specifically avoided. That is,
any complete workload formula will include points
for time spent directing graduate research. If the
research is also supported by research funds, the
same research advising activity will be counted
twice.
In view of the fourth item of the list of ob-
jectives, it would be possible to award fewer
points than might be appropriate for some tasks
and more points for others in an effort to en-
courage faculty to allocate their efforts in certain
desired areas. The formula presented here does
not employ that tactic. Instead, an effort is made
to assign the points for each activity in proportion
to the work that would be involved.
Some desirable activities are rather nebulous.
For example, we hope that all faculty will spend
an appreciable amount of time keeping up with
the literature in his field. Unfortunately, no
rational scheme has been suggested for evaluating
this activity. There is no easily recognized output
for the work and no one seems interested in


42 44 46 48 50 St 5S4 a 38 60 b6Z 64
ESTIMATED HOURS WORKED, HOURS/WEEK
FIGURE 1. Workload vs hours worked.


asking the faculty to estimate hours spent reading
the literature. On the other hand, when the
activity is part of a sponsored research project,
credit may be awarded indirectly through item
II.4. of the formula. Therefore, one inequity that
has not been resolved is the credit for this type
of scholarly work for some faculty and not for
others. As a matter of fact, in general it appears
that those with a substantial amount of sponsored
research obtain more points than those equally
busy but without these grants and contracts.

TYPICAL RESULTS
T HE ATTACHED WORKLOAD formula was
applied to each faculty member of the depart-
ment for the 3 terms during the academic year
1975-76. The average of the 3 terms is shown in
Figure 1. At a time not related to the workload
analysis, faculty are asked to estimate the hours
per week devoted to University related work. In
plotting the average workload points against the
hours claimed, there is no intention to imply that
a correlation exists. Figure 1 is simply a way of
showing the workload points obtained. It is known
that faculty estimates of the time they spend are
quite unreliable. Very few faculty record their
various activities and the time spent. Therefore,
when asked for the amount of time worked per
week, most faculty simply guess. There is also a
problem in the definition of what type of activity
is working and what is more or less overhead re-
lated to routine daily activities. The 12 faculty in


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Figure 1 represent everyone on campus during
the year except the department head. The most
striking feature of the workloads shown in Figure
1 is the large spread in values obtained. This
phenomenon probably reflects a number of
different factors. We have clearly not succeeded
in developing a formula in which the total points
are linearly dependent on the amount of time or
work expended, and perhaps there is no reason
that a formula should have this property. We know
that faculty will take on various activities to fill
the time available. For example, a faculty member
with one course and no other activities could
probably spend most of his time on the course plus
reading in the literature. He would have a very
low workload as measured by our formula and
would be quite busy. Presumably this course
would be more successful than others, but our
data do not suggest a correlation between work-
load and instructor or course acceptance by the
students. That is, we ask the students in each
class to rate the course and the instructor. It is
not true that the instructors who are rated the
best have the lowest workload as measured by
our formula or by vice versa. Those with high
workloads are spending less time on some tasks
than are those with lower workloads in view of
the fact that the total time spent by the faculty
does not show a large variation. Either some
faculty are more efficient than others or they are
doing a poorer job by cutting corners (or some
of both).


the faculty. Since the meaning of the numbers
remains to be established, it is not possible to say
whether a particular faculty member with a
certain workload is overworked or not. On the
other hand, there is undoubtedly a significance to
the fact that some faculty have workloads of 150
and more while others are nearer 100 or slightly
less.
One has a feeling that it should be possible to
measure the work accomplished by faculty. We
feel that it remains to be shown that this objective
can be reached in a practical way.
The following comments were recognized early
in our efforts and were reported at the ASEE
meeting in 1973. They seem equally applicable
today in spite of the considerable effort made in
the past 3 years.

* The subject of workload analysis is not popular with
most faculty members. Some resent the concept.
Others, realizing that efforts toward quality teaching
(for example) do not show, worry about "inequities."
Although it is made clear that workload analysis is
not the same as faculty evaluation, faculty with low
workload "scores" worry that they will be evaluated
as subpar in productivity.
* Data for workload analyses must come from individual
faculty. Ideally, a single faculty member should cal-
culate all workloads in a department, but it is time
consuming for one individual to assemble the needed
information. It seems inevitable that the faculty
member will, to a large extent, compute his own work-
load.
* Because we all schedule work to fill the time available,
a workload analysis cannot be based principally on


Recently we have given up the concept that the workloads should be
computed entirely by a single individual. A faculty member converts
the data for our courses into points for each of the faculty. Each faculty
member is then asked to complete the form by including items he alone
can provide: time spent on papers, proposals, graduate student advising ...


CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENTS
A LTHOUGH WE HAVE been experimenting
with a workload formula for five years, the
benefits, if any, remain to be demonstrated. We
are simply still gaining experience. A review of
the four objectives listed earlier suggests that
none have been attained. That is, no one outside
the department has asked to see our workloads.
Although the department head could use the work-
load numbers in assigning teaching duties, these
assignments can be made just as well by simply
thinking about the major activities for each of
SUMMER 1977


statements by faculty regarding the time spent on
various jobs. Yet, only the individual knows the magni-
tude of some important activities.
* A workload scheme represents a compromise between
the complexity accepted, and the validity of the
results.
* Many workload formulas, including the one presented
here, do not give adequate credit for professional de-
velopment items such as reading books and papers.
* Because of the third item above and other factors, it
does not seem possible to construct a workload scheme
that gives numbers that are in some way linear in the
amount of work being performed.
A table follows showing the calculations of fac-
ulty workload for a semester calendar. O









TABLE 1. FACULTY WORKLOAD
For Schools with Semester Calendar
Basis: Sixteen week semester (640 hrs.) 1 point for 6.4
hrs. of work
Full Load = about 100 points/semester
I. TEACHING AND ADVISING
1. Undergraduate Advising, 0.12 per semester per
advisee (0.8 hr.)
2. Instruction
A 3 credit course meets three 50 minute
periods per week for 15 weeks plus a
final exam period.
UG-7.3 x c (1 + (n-25)/100)
c = credits, n = no. of students
Grad-10 x c (1 + (n-15)/100)
Lab-Multiply UG by 1.5
New Course to department-All 5.3 x c
New Course to instructor-Add 3.3 x c
Independent study or research (undergraduate
or non-thesis graduate), 4 x no. of projects,
one-three students/project
2-3 credits of Design involving meetings with
groups of 2-5 students-4 x number of groups

II. RESEARCH AND GRADUATE STUDY
1. Graduate Research Adviser
Each of students 1 & 2-8
Each of students 3 & 4-6
Each of students 5 & 6-4
2. Research Proposals-4 to 12 (3 day to 10 day)*
3. Papers-4 to 12 (3 day to 10 day)*
4. Sponsored Research Administration, Super-
vision, and Technical Reports-% salary


support reduced by credit under 1, 2, 3 if
applicable.
5. M.S. Committees-0.6 (1 day/2 semesters)
(Chm. credit is given under 1.)
6. Ph.D. Committees-0.8 (1-1/2 day/2 semesters)
(Chm. credit is given under 1.)
III. SERVICE TO UNIVERSITY, PROFESSION,
AND PUBLIC
1. Committees and Offices
University, College, and Department-2-5
(13-32 hrs.) according to workload plus
2-5 if chairman. Ignore minor or inactive
committees.
Professional Organizations-2-5 according
to work involved plus 2-5 if chairman.
2. Dept. Administration-assigned duties, variable
credit*
3. Seminar Presentation-off campus 2.5 (2 day)
-on campus 1.2 (1 day)
4. Meeting Paper Presentation and Preparation
4-7.5 (3-6 day)*
5. Technical Meeting Symposium Chairman-4-6
(3-5 day)*
IV. SCHOLARSHIP AND PROFESSIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
1. Meeting Attendance-4 each (3 day) or as ap-
propriate for length of meeting*
2. Paper and Proposal Reviews-0.6 to 1.3 (1/2
day 1 day)*
3. Literature Reading-no specific credit
*Credit determined after evaluation of work involved in
consultatation with the individual faculty member.


FACULTY WORK LOAD

MEASUREMENT

AT NJIT


D. HANESIAN
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Newark, New Jersey 07102
T HIS STUDY WAS undertaken by the Faculty
Council of New Jersey Institute of Technology
in the Spring 1971 to gather data pertinent to
the faculty loads at various schools. The survey
was made involving 101 universities of which 66
replied.
In order to collect as much data as possible a
preliminary letter with six questions was sent to
101 schools. A month and a half later, a follow up


letter was sent to those schools who didn't reply.
A total of 66 schools finally replied. After initial
analysis of the data a third letter was sent to 46
schools of the 66 who had attempted to answer
the questions initially asked.
The results of the survey are summarized in
Tables 1-4. Table 1 shows that 65.3% (66 schools)
contacted returned replies. Of these 69.6% (46
schools) answered the questions asked and hence
45.6% (46 schools) of the total survey (101
schools) were tabulated in Table 2. Of the schools
who sent general replies and could not be tabu-
lated (20 schools or 19.8% of total survey), most
indicated load reductions are granted. About
97% of all schools surveyed indicate some load
reduction. Table 2 shows the distribution of the
schools based on the questions asked.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























Dr. Deran Hanesian is professor of chemical engineer
chairman of the department of chemical engineering and c
at New Jersey Institute of Technology. He is a graduate of
University where he majored in chemical engineering and di
studies in physical chemistry, organic chemistry and polym
trials. He is a specialist in chemical reactor engineering.
joining the NJIT faculty in 1963 he had been associated wi
du Pont de Nemours as a chemical engineer doing product
development work in a nylon intermediate process and lat
research leader developing new marketable materials in th
carbon area. Dr. Hanesian is a member of a number of lead
fessional societies and has played a leadership role in b
North Jersey and national organization of the AIChE. He s
a member of the advisory board of AIChE's journal, Inter
Chemical Engineering.

ADMINISTRATOR LOAD REDUCTION

T HE LARGE PERCENTAGE in the "c
category resulted from responses indict
hours of reduced load without indicating wh
normal teaching load is. This clarification
sought in a follow up survey. In general,
the initial survey it appears that the ma

TABLE 1. Summary of Survey


1. Number of Schools Surveyed
Number of Replies ...-.-.----
% Replies -----..... ---


2. Number of Replies ----- ---
Number which answered
Survey and were Tabulated
% of Replies in Tabulation
% of Survey in Tabulation ---
3. Number of General Replies -
% of Replies which are general -
% of Survey which is general --
Number of General Replies
Indicating Load Reduction --
Number with No Load Reduction
4. % of Total Survey Indicating
Load Reductions .
% of Total Survey giving
No Reduction --


ng and
chemistry
Cornell
id other
eric ma-
Before
ith E. I.
ion and
er as a
e fluor-
ing pro-
oth the
serves as


of schools reduce the load of chairmen from 25
to 50%.
In the follow up survey, the 46 schools tabu-
lated in Table 2 were asked for clarification on
what is considered a normal load and the load
reduction for department administration. Of these
schools 78.3% replied to the second survey.
The results in Table 3 and 4 indicate that
about 39.5% consider 9 hours a normal load but
almost an equal number 45.5% consider 12 hours
as a normal load.
Of these schools tabulated 34.2% reduce the
chairman's load 50% while 25.8% reduce the
load 33%. It therefore seems that the chairman's
work load is reduced about 33-50% in most cases.
Whether this amounts to a one or two course re-
duction depends upon what is considered a normal
load for the school (9 or 12 hours).
Only a small number of schools reported the
existence of associate chairmen (19.5%) and
assistant chairmen (8.3%). For these positions
when they exist load reduction is about 20-25%.

ADVISEMENT COMMITTEES


national ABOUT 96% of the schools reported no load re-
AUduction for advisement of college organiza-
tions. The majority (70%) indicate no reduction
in load for new course and laboratory develop-
>ther" ment. Some schools give financial support over the
eating summer for new course development. Half of the
at the schools indicate no reduction in teaching load for
was advisement of Ph.D., M.S. and senior students in
from projects or theses. However, many of these (ca
jority 70%) are on a normal load which is either a 6
or a 9 hour schedule. In general it appears that a
reduction of one course is the rule. Differential
101 Weighting of Graduate versus Undergraduate
66 Courses is similar to student advisemen. Although
65.2% indicate no reduction, many (ca 60%) of
66 these are on a 6-9 hour teaching schedule and the
46 weighting factor has essentially been considered
69.6% in establishing the load.
45.6% Most schools (91.2%) do not reduce loads for
committee work. In special cases involving much
30.4% work such as Faculty Council Chairmen or Col-
19.8% lege Senate Presidents, loads are reduced 25%.
Occasionally when special studies are undertaken
18 for the school, these studies require a reduction
2 in load. In general, the feeling seems to be that
committee work is a necessary part of the job
97 and that everyone should be equally involved.
Therefore, this aspect of work load will tend to
3 even out as reported in some letters.


SUMMER 1977


---- -----------









TABLE 2. Summary of Tabulated Results for
Load Reduction (46 schools, 46% of Survey)

Number % of Tabulated
of Schools Results

1. Load Reduction
for Chairmen,
Administration


0.0
4.4
0.0
19.6
13.0
17.4
10.9
34.7
100.0



4.4
95.6
100.0



2.2
6.5
69.5
21.8
100.0


Reduction 100%
75%
67%
50%
33%
25%
0
Other1
TOTAL
2. Advisement of College
Organizations
Reduction 25%
0%
TOTAL
3. Development of New
Courses and Laboratories
Reduction 33%
25%
0%
Other2
TOTAL
4. Advisement of PhD,
M.S. and Senior
Students in Thesis
or Project
Reduction 50%
33%
25%
0%
Other3
TOTAL
5. Differential Weighting
of Graduate Versus
Undergraduate Courses
50%
33%
25%
0
Other4
TOTAL
6. College Committees
25%
0%
Other5
TOTAL


4.4
2.2
10.9
50.0
32.5
100.0


2.2
4.4
15.1
65.2
13.0
100.0


6.6
91.2
2.2
100.0


FOOTNOTES:
1. 25% if less than 10 faculty; 385% if greater than 10;
Individual Judgment; 0-1 course; 1 dept head/25 fac-
ulty; Set by Chairman; 6-9 hours load; 1, 2, or 3 course
load; Proportionate reduction; 1/3 2/3! Dept. Admin-
istration gets total 1/2 time; 40% for chairman, 25%
Asst.; Chairmen for large depts.; If less than 21 fac-
ulty, 1/3 reduction; If 21 41, 2/3 reduction; If greater
than 60, 100%; If more than 9 faculty, 50% reduction,
less than 9, 25% reduction; 3-9 hour loads.
2. Varies; Only occasional reduction.
3. 1/8 hour credit non thesis M.S.; 1 credit for thesis M.S.,
2 credits for PhD; 2-4 students equals a 3 hr. course;
No Grduate Work; 1 hr. for PhD; M.S. gets 1 hr.
credit, PhD gets 2 hrs credit; Reduction based on credit
hours/35; 1/2 credit hr per student; 4 M.S. students is
equal to 1 hr.
4. No graduate work; Upper division-2 x lower division,
Graduate division-4 x lower division.
5. Only temporary reduction in load for committee work.


FORMULA BUDGETING


T SING DATA available in the 1973 Annual Di-
rectory of the ASEE, Engineering College Re-
search and Graduate Study, and enrollment figures
for Fall 1972 from the Engineering Joint Council,
student-faculty and student-teacher ratios were
calculated and are shown in Figure I. The study
was made by a joint committee represented by
deans, department chairmen and Faculty Council
chairmen from Rutgers College of Engineering
and NJIT and a representative of the Department
of Higher Education, State of New Jersey.
The relationship shown in Figure 1 is not
completely linear since larger schools can cover
essential programs with larger student-faculty
ratio but smaller schools need a smaller student-
faculty ratio to cover the same essential program
areas.
It was proposed that to stabilize faculties, no
terminations or additions be made unless the
15% limits of the correlations were exceeded. At
that time the principle pressure was to terminate
faculty because of a drop in engineering enroll-
ments. Today with enrollments in engineering in-
creasing, the pressures are in the direction of
operation with higher student-faculty ratios be-
cause of fiscal problems everywhere in the United
States.

COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS
SNLY GENERAL CONCLUSIONS resulted
from this particular investigation, and cur-
rently in New Jersey, other methods of financing
post secondary education are under study. It is my


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Figure 1
Fi1uTre T qiiv-tl+ F-.ulty
Full Time Equivalent Students


TABLE 4. Administrator Load Reduction


ASSOC. ASST.
CHAIRMAN CHAIRMAN CHAIRMAN

1. Number
Reported 35 7 3


S2. % of
/ / Schools
I Replying


3. Load
Reduction


/ /
/

/
,'
/

!/ /

// /
' /

I / /
* ]
I/


National Averg --
5, i s ......
F 6.641 + 0.00139

6.641 + 0.00139 s

F FTE Faculty
S f FTE Studlltns
T Teah_'e
O T tt.nT.cm s


Full Time I'0ui~alnl tidc its

500 1000 1500 2000 2500


personal opinion that the ASEE must determine
some proper faculty load system, get more active
in enforcing these standards for engineering
education, and obtain general acceptance of
engineering as a professional education. The
American Medical Association has gained this
professional acceptance for its medical schools and
as engineering professionals we should not com-
promise for less. Some general conclusions follow.


TABLE 3. Normal Teaching Load


Schools Surveyed
No Replies
% Replies
Normal Teaching Load


15 hours
12 hours
9 hours
6 hours
3 hours
Other


46
36
78.3

% of Replies


0.0
3.0
TOTAL 100.0


100%
75
67
50
33
25
0
Other
Total


Percent of Reported


5.7
5.7
34.2
25.8
8.6
5.7
14.3
100.0


14.3
71.4

14.3
100.0


33.3


67.3
100.0


* Normal teaching loads seem to range from 9 to 12
hours. For heavy graduate programs this load drops
to 6 hours and in one case to 3. Seldom are loads en-
countered above 12 hours. A 12 hour teaching load is
high for those involved in graduate programs and re-
search.
* Load reductions for departmental supervision involving
chairmen, associate chairmen and assistant chairmen
indicate that the reduction of loads by 75% or 100%,
by permission, for chairmen of large departments is
seldom encountered. Load reduction seems to be about
50%. The factor of auxiliary departmental support
was not included in this study and is important.


TABLE 5. Ratios Recommended for Quality Engi-
neering Education. (Mid America State Universi-
ties Association Peters, Eng. Ed. 61, No. 7, 840-
843, 1971)


FTE STUDENT/
TEACHING LEVEL FTE FACULTY*


Lower Division 12 to 1
Upper Division 9 to 1
Master's Program-Course Work Only 8 to 1
Master's Program-Thesis Required 6 to 1
Doctorate Program 4 to 1


*A Full Time Equivalent Undergraduate Student is one
taking 15 credit hours per semester.
*A Full Time Equivalent Graduate Student is one taking
12 credit hours per semester.
A Full Time Equivalent Faculty is not defined but is pre-
sumably one who teaches 12 semester credit hours.


SUMMER 1977


IU I-


250 L


100









* No reduction in load is granted for advisement of col-
lege organizations.
Most schools do not grant release time for new course
and laboratory development.
About one half the schools do not give release time for
advisement of senior projects, M.S. and Doctoral
Students. About 70% of these, however, are on a 6-9
hour teaching load rather than a 12 hour base load.
* Differential weighting of graduate versus under gradu-
ate courses is not the rule in most schools. It can be
included in an adequate overall reduction in load for
the graduate program. In schools with graduate pro-
grams, the base load is 6-9 hours rather than 12 hours
and a reduction has already been considered.
* No reduction in load is granted for college committee
work since most replies seem to feel that committee
assignments even out.
* An average correlation of FTE Faculty (F) and FTE
Students (S) is

F- S
6.641 + 0.00139 S

TABLE 6. Auxiliary Departmental Personnel.
(Mid America State Universities Association
Peters, Eng. Ed. 61, No. 7, 840-843, 1971)

FTE FACULTY REQUIRED
PER FTE OF EACH
TYPE OF PERSONNEL TYPE OF PERSONNEL

Teaching Assistants 2
Secretarial Assistance
Lower Division 10
Upper Division 6
Master's Program 3
Doctoral Program 2
Recommended 4
Technician Assistance
Lower Division 10
Upper Division 6
Master's Program 3
Doctoral Program 2
Recommended 4



books received

GLOSSARY OF CHEMICAL TERMS
C. A. Hampel and G. G. Hawley
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976, 281 pp., $14.95.

This glossary is a reference for students of
chemistry and chemical engineering and profes-
sionals in other sciences who need basic definitions
of chemical technology. It contains 2,000 entries
including terms used in the several subdivisions of
chemistry and chemical engineering and those in
common usage in the chemical industries.


BOOK REVIEW

PETROLEUM AND THE CONTINENTAL
SHELF OF NORTH WEST EUROPE-Volume 2
Environmental Protection
Edited by H. A. Cole,
Halsted Press, 1975. 126 pages.
Reviewed by James D. Wall, HYDROCARBON
PROCESSING, Houston, Texas

This work is a compilation of articles and floor
discussion from a meeting involving geologists
associated with the North Sea. Thirteen articles
discuss definition of the pollution problem in pro-
ducing oil offshore, the general effects of oil pollu-
tion on elements of the environment and isolated
requirements for control involving political and
monitoring considerations.
The work is disappointing for those familiar
with the oil industry and the environment. It
suffers from lack of depth in review for those
familiar with the subjects. Particularly does it
suffer from lack of significant association to the
problems in the North Sea. Most of the work
could have been written for any offshore operation
or any oils-water situation.
For those unfamiliar with oil production or
environmental protection, the work does give a
review of part of the data such that an opinion
could be developed relative to the significance of
the problems encountered. l


DUKLER: Role of Waves
Continued from page 117.
6, 207 (1972).
8. Emmert, R. T. and R. L. Pigford, Chem. Eng. Prog.,
50, 87 (1954).
9. Gjevik, B., Phy. Fluids, 13, 1918 (1970).
10. Javdani, K. and S. L. Gorlu, Progress in Heat and
Mass Transfer, 6 (1972).
11. Kafesjian, R. C., C. A. Plank and E. R. Gerhard,
AIChE J., 7, 464 (1961).
12. Kapitza, P. L., Collected Papers of P. L. Kapitza,
MacMillan, N. Y. (1964).
13. Lee, J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 1309 (1960).
14. Levich, V. G., Physiochemical Hydrodynamics, Pren-
tice Hall, New Jersey (1962).
15. Portalski, S., Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 3, 49 (1964).
16. Rushton, E. and Q. A. Davis, AIChE J., 17, 671 (1971).
17. Taitel, Y. and A. E. Dukler, A, Int. J. Mult. Flow, 2,
591 (1976).
18. Taitel, Y. and A. E. Dukler, B, AIChE J., 22, 47
(1976).
19. White, D. A. and J. A. Tallmadge, Chem. Eng. Sci.,
20, 33 (1965).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION














CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

[a L DIVISION ACTIVITIES





Annual Lectureship Award to Robert Reid


The 1977 ASEE ChE Division Lecturer is Dr. Robert
Reid of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Bestowed
annually on a distinguished engineering educator who de-
livers the Annual Lecture of the Chemical Engineering
Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an engraved
certificate. These will be presented to Dr. Reid at the
ASEE Summer School for Chemical Engineering Faculty
July 31-August 5, 1977 at Snowmass, Colorado. Dr. Reid's
lecture is entitled "Superheated Liquids: A Laboratory
Curiosity and An Industrial Curse". A paper based on his
lecture will be published in CEE. During the 1977-78
academic year, Dr. Reid will visit three universities yet to
be selected to speak on topics related to the subject matter
of his award lecture. The 3M Company is supporting this
activity in addition to the award itself.
Professor Reid spent his youth in Denver, Colorado and
attended the Colorado School of Mines. After a four-year

BOOK REVIEW
Continued from page 103.
There are some disadvantages to using this
book as a text. There are no problems besides the
examples. This is not an unsurmountable problem
in that the notational format is quite standardized
and clear and problems are readily formulated in
a consistent context. To offset this, the use of the
book as a reference text in an area that brings
together classical chemical engineering and proc-
ess metallurgy could be quite advantageous. The
techniques of process analysis are applied to
standard chemical process problems but can be
carried over nicely to Part III, Metallurgical Re-
action Systems.
This most certainly is a valuable book to have
as a reference text and quite useable as a supple-
mentary advanced text. I think it would have to
be carefully used in any course based on a quarter
system. If it were used in successive quarters, the
book would be an excellent introductory text to
bridge the technique of chemical engineering and
process metallurgy. 0


interruption during the second world war, he transferred
to Purdue University where he obtained both a B. S. and
M. S. in chemical engineering. His doctoral studies were
carried out at M. I. T. after which he joined the faculty as
Director of the Engineering Practice School at Oka Ridge,
Tenn. He has been active in the AIChE and served as a
Director from 1969-71 and as editor of the AIChE Journal
from 1970 to 1976. He was the Institute Lecturer in 1968
and received the Warren K. Lewis award in 1976.
His research interests have covered a wide range of
subjects including kinetics, boiling heat transfer, life sup-
port systems, crystallization, properties of materials,
cryogenics and thermodynamics. Books include texts on
crystallization growth rates from solution, thermodynamics
and the estimation and correlation of the properties of
gases and liquids.



REACTION ENGINEERING: Sundberg,
Carleson and McCollister
Continued from page 121.
that the reaction system employed is quite
flexible and allows the instructor to vary the
degree of complexity of the lab without changing
the materials, equipment or method of analysis. El

REFERENCES
1. Potts, E. and Amis, E. S., J. Am. Chem. Soc.,71,
2112 (1949).
2. Davies, G. and Evans, D., J. Chem. Soc. London,
339 (1940).
3. National Bureau of Standards, Supplement 1 to
Standards Circular 510, November 14, 1956.
4. Tsujikawa, H. and Inoue, H., Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan,
39, 1837 (1966).
5. Rose J., "Dynamic Physical Chemistry," pp. 182, 669,
J. Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1961).
6. Daniels, F. and Alberty, R. A., "Physical Chemistry,"
2nd ed., p. 303, J. Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York
(1962).


SUMMER 1977











curriculum


ON TEACHING PROBLEM SOLVING

Part II: The Challenges


DONALD R. WOODS
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario

A SURVEY OF HOW various individuals or
institutions teach problem solving skills has
been reviewed [83]. What are the challenges or
difficulties encountered in trying to improve a
student's skills in solving problems and what are
some ideas for overcoming these challenges?
The overall challenge in general is well de-
scribed by Hilko [60]t, a student from University
of Waterloo, and by Hupert [61], a professor from
De Paul University. Hilko says that using prob-
lem solving to test or give practice in knowledge
gained does not necessarily give training in how
to think. The need is to provide formal descrip-
tions of problem solving, the strategy and the ele-
ments therein, so as to make explicit what many
have learned consciously or subconsciously and
emphasize universality of approach. Hupert
comments that there are two sides to every
academic discipline: (a) knowledge and (b) skill
(including problem solving). An academic course
which does not handle both sides is a half-baked
enterprise and does not fulfill its objective.
The specific challenges according to the re-
spondees are a mixture of four:
* difficulties with students' backgrounds, abilities and
attitudes, (the prerequisites),
* difficulties with the subject,
* difficulties students have with the subject of problem
solving,
* difficulties instructors have in teaching it.
Each is discussed in turn.

tReferences continue from those given in Part I [83].


BACKGROUNDS, ABILITIES AND ATTITUDES
N PART I, I tried to limit this survey to those
efforts being made to improve problem solving
and not those to improve the host of prerequisite
skills. Yet, here we must face any difficulties
students have with the prerequisites. The re-
spondees said that the students
* are weak in the basic technical knowledge( scientific
or medical)
* lack elementary skills in logic (do not draw appropri-
ate conclusions from the information they have, and
cannot correctly reason deductively,
* are weak in communication skills,
* have acquired bad habits for solving problems, or do
not recognize that they have any problem solving
skill. (This was expressed as 'we expect to acquire
problem solving techniques somewhere, but they don't,
students jump in and follow a gut feeling instead of
taking a more systematic approach, students do not
examine alternative strategies or cannot think up
alternatives students are not aware of what they are
doing when they solve problems),
* lack the motivation. (This was expressed as 'the
students won't grasp opportunities to improve them-
selves and they want to collect type problems instead
of applying basic knowledge to solve new situation
problems on their own),
* fail to recognize that problem solving in itself is a
legitimate educational goal,
* do not emulate good problem solving.
Some difficulties are training and convincing
faculty that problem solving is in itself a legiti-
mate educational goal. As a personal aside, just
about everyone thinks that they "teach problem
solving"; everyone is an expert. If one tries to
do something about teaching problem solving
skills, then we must be prepared for a wide variety
of comments. Some ask "Who is he that he thinks
he knows how to teach problem solving?" Some


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


[gg3(









say, "It can't be taught." Some say "Everyone's
doing it so why make a big deal out of it?" An-
other difficulty is in identifying or specifying an
algorithmic approach for each strategy that
identifies the discrete skills and behaviors to be
performed. Respondees said it was difficult to
identify the necessary skills and to test for them.
And last they found difficulty in convincing
students that the extra effort required to learn
a procedure or new terminology (such as a meta
language) is worth the effort.

PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
T HERE ARE A HOST of different listings of
the steps that make up the overall strategy for
solving problems. Some of these are listed in Table
1. Some respondees identified the steps or activi-
ties that gave the most difficulty to be:
subsystem identification and relationships among the
subsystems,
relating subsystems to theory and the question asked,
translating physical problem into a mathematical de-
scription,
simplifying complex problem or making good assump-
tions,
being creative,
asking general questions first; asking specific ques-
tions later,
creating a hypothesis,
how to ask the right questions,
anything to do with analysis.


more specifically as difficulty in posing problems so
that students develop understanding of general
principles and general problem solving strategy rather
than memorizing solutions to specific "type" prob-
lems; posing problems appropriate to students' skills
and sufficiently modest to enable the student to have
adequate success with them, and finding the time re-
quired to prepare good problems,
* to find the time to prepare the lecture notes, the
problems or other materials; It is interesting that
most have developed their own set of notes or
problems.
* to get students to see the underlying problem solving
process


CONCERNING THE METHOD

Teaching problem solving offers challenges in
the area of method.
The challenges cited are:
One challenge cited was keeping the course
interesting and moving especially after the
students realize that they are not going to get
answers to all their real life problems.
Challenges as discussion leader include:
* pacing the discussion so that all participate,
* structuring the discussion so that all see a logical struc-
ture,
not overstructuring the problem solving learning situa-
tion,
knowing when to intervene and when to let the
students go out on a limb,
controlling the sessions, keep the group on track


One challenge cited was keeping the course interesting and moving
especially after the students realize that they are not going
to get answers to all their real life problems. Another challenge involved
in the methods of teaching problem solving is to give the students sufficient
practice that they have confidence in applying a problem solving strategy.


Most of the challenges listed by the respondees
concerned how to teach it. One needs to over-
come the reluctance of instructors to give such
an open-ended course, to try to describe how they
solve problems, to try to solve problems they have
not seen before and when they might fail. One
should get the experience into the curriculum at
the right time, or to match the education program
with problem solving strategies used in actual
practice.
Some of the difficulties given by the respondees
in regard to content preparation are listed below.
* to locate a good text that is acceptable by the students,
or to locate good resource people,
* to get good problems to work on. This was described


and to prevent students from bringing in personal
problems for the other students to solve,
* as an instructor, avoiding philosophizing and lectur-
ing, but to set the ground rules,
* not squashing creativity,
* as an instructor, refraining from becoming part of the
problem or of the solution,
* knowing when to stop because the problem is giving
diminishing returns for learning about problem
solving; especially when they want to continue brain-
storming,
* getting effective groups that work together and where
everyone participates.
Another challenge involved in the methods of
teaching problem solving is to give the students
sufficient practice that they have confidence in
applying a problem solving strategy and to get


SUMMER 1977








TABLE 1: SOFE STRATEGIES FOR SOLVING PRUBLMS

D'ZURILLA & GOLDFRIED2 BLOOM & BRODER74 WALLAS (1926) KINGSLEY & GARRY (1957) DOUGLAS21
[see DAVIS1 p.16] [see DAVIS1 p. 16]

1. General orientation 1. Understand nature 1. Preparation 1. Difficulty felt 1. Idea generation
(recognize problem of problem or identify
exists & be positive problem
in approach)

2. Problem definition 2. Understand ideas 2. Incubation 2. Problem clarified 2. Initial screen
& formulation contained in & defined
problem
3. Generation of 3. Procedures used 3. Search for clues 3. Complete the
alternatives 3. Inspiration is made problem state-
ment & define
critical steps

4. Translate

5. Sketch a diagram

6. Sketch to guess
better answer
4. Various suggestions
appear & are tried 7. List assumptions
tried out & try simplest
analysis
4. Decision making 5A. Suggested solution
is accepted 8. Estimate
solution
5. Verification 4. Attitudes toward 4. Verification 6. The solution is 9. Evaluate &
the solution tested explore
implications




POLYA5 WOODS et al81 RICHARDS14 SMALL15 AUBEL82 EASTBURN51 FULLER27

1. Define 1. Define 1. Identify 1. Observe/ 1. Set up 1. Fact 1. Choose point
objectives gather problem finding of view
information 2. Problem 2. Compose problem
finding
2. Think 2. Identify 2. Formulate 2. Analysis: 3. Assess composed
about it important hypothesis physics 3. Idea finding problem
2. Plan 3. Plan variables 4. Choose most
3. Use dimensional valuable problem
analysis 3. Design test to try to solve
4. Identify 3. Analysis: 5. Sort out
apparatus math information
to be used 6. Propose
5. Plan tests potential
6. Plan data solutions
3. Carry out 4. Carry out recording 4. Solution
the plan the plan activities 4. Interpret data finding

Interpret
control curves 5. Is hypothesis
confirmed? 5. Acceptance- 7.. Evaluate
4. Look back 5. Look back decide how results confirmed? 5. Acceptance- 7. Evaluate
should be reported, finding 8. Recommend action
what results mean
ask "is test fin-
ished?" "am I
finished?"




STAGER34 MAGAZINE50

1. Recognize problem 1. Problem formulation


2. State basic objective

3. Gather information

4. State constraints,
facts assumptions

5. Generate possible
solutions


6. Evaluate and
make decision

7. Analysis, synthesis &
evaluation of solution

8. Report results &
recommend action


2. Data collection

3. Abstraction

4. Quantitative model

5. Deduction

6. Analysis


7. Interpretation

8. Data collection
& verification


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


142







the students to translate a problem solving skill
from one problem to another, or from a problem
solving course to their "other" courses, or from
academic problems to their personal problems.
There is also a challenge to provide consistent in-
formation to each group (when having many
groups doing the same problem).
Two challenges in evaluation are: measuring
and evaluating student performance; and evaluat-
ing what we have done.

IDEAS FOR THE FUTURE
H ERE ARE SOME ideas for discussion based
on the responses summarized in this report.
Small group tutorial-The advantages of the
small group tutorial as a means of teaching
problem solving seem to have been emphasized.
If this is the way for us to proceed then for the
large introductory classes, this required a large
faculty commitment and good tutors. Is there any
other way we can achieve these advantages? or
can we afford to take this approach or perhaps;
can we afford not to?
Everyday homework base-Many seem to have
imaginative courses for solving the large open-
ended problems. Have we provided sufficient basis
for good problem solving habits for those students
entering such courses? Are the students learning
anything about problem solving from the usual
everyday assignments? What should or could be
done to provide students with good habits for
solving the everyday assignments?
Overcoming learning skills deficiencies-Many
students are not proficient at self learning or at
collecting and evaluating information for them-
selves. They have difficulty identifying the key
ideas of knowledge nor can they see how these
ideas are interrelated. These are necessary pre-
requisites to being good problem solvers. When
and how can these be taught?
When-Those who have a special problem solving
emphasis in the more senior years get student
response: "we wish that we had this sooner."
When should different elements of problem solving
be taught? What should the relationship be
between the university and college and the high
school programs?
Translation of skills-Those who have courses
primarily on problem solving find that the
students have difficulty translating what they have
learned to other courses and situations. How can
we overcome this problem?


Communication-The literature on problem
solving and creativity is extensive, and it is diffi-
cult to discover resources that are pertinent to
individual needs. Some references have been listed
in the bibliography. Some additional resources
that might be useful include:
* In the area of engineering design:
Jones [62], Dixon [63], Krick [64], Asimow [65] and
Buhl [66].
In the area of mathematics:
Jenson and Jeffreys [67], Chapter 1 and especially
p. 21, and Himmelblau and Bischoff [68], Chapter 1.
In the area of business:
Achoff [69], Two very interesting little example books
are the UNESCO publications, Servais and Varga
[70] and Lewis [71].
In the area of puzzles:
Fixx [72] and Sobol [73].
* In the area of thinking and problem solving:
Bloom and Broder [74], Buzan [75], Survival Prob-
lem [76].
Despite the apparent differences in discipline and
in approach there are great similarities in the
types of problem and in the method of solving
it. A challenging question is how can those in-
terested in teaching problem solving maintain
contact and share ideas?



Some difficulties are training
and convincing faculty that problem
solving is in itself a legitimate educational
goal. As a personal aside, just about everyone
thinks that they "teach problem solving";
everyone is an expert.



SUMMARY
The challenges to presenting a course in
problem solving cited by the respondees were
summarized as difficulties with the student's back-
ground, with the subject, with the student's under-
standing of the subject and with teaching it.
Some suggested follow up questions are posed
and some answers given.
As a postscript, at McMaster we are comple-
menting this survey with a four year experiment
to try to discover specific approaches that we
should take to improve our student's ability to
solve problems. This work is described elsewhere
[79, 80, 81].
This survey was part of a project on teaching problem
solving skills funded by the Ontario Universities program


SUMMER 1977










for Instructional Development and McMaster University.
I am grateful to S.J. Anderson, P. Johnstone, C.M. Crowe,
T.W. Hoffman and J.D. Wright, McMaster University; Eric
Hewton, Nuffield Foundation and Paul Black, University of
Birmingham who helped me in on way or another to pre-
pare this summary. FI


REFERENCES

60. Hilko, B., personal communication, University of
Waterloo.
61. Hupert, J.J., personal communication, De Paul Uni-
versity.
62. Jones, J.C. (1970), Design Methods, Wiley Inter-
science.
63. Dixon, J.R. (1960), Design Engineering: Inventive-
ness Analysis and Decision Making, McGraw-Hill,
New York.
64. Krick, E.V. (1965), An Introduction to Engineering
and Engineering Design, Wiley, New York.
65. Asimow, M. (1962), Introduction to Engineering
Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
66. Buhl, H.R. (1960), Creative Engineering Design,
Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
67. Jenson, V. G. and Jeffries, G. V. (1963), Mathe-
matical Methods in Chemical Engineering, Academic
Press, New York.
68. Himmelblau, D.M. (1967), Basic Principles and Calcu-
lations in Chemical Engineering, 2nd edition, Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
69. Ackoff, R.L. (1962), Scientific Method, Wiley, New
York.
70. Servais, W. and Varga, T. (1971), "Teaching School
Mathematics," Penguin Books-Unesco.
71. Lewis, J.L. (1972), "Teaching School Physics,"
Penguin Books-Unesco.
72. Fixx, J.F. (1972), Games for the Superintelligent,
Doubleday.
73. Sobol, D.J. (1971), More Two-Minute Mysteries.
Scholastic Book Services, New York. (paperback).
74. Bloom, B.S. and Broder, L. (1950), "Problem Solving
Processes of College Students," Supplementary Edu-
cational Monograph No. 73, University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
75. Bonzan, T., (1974), "Use Your Head," BBC Publica-
tion.
76. Experimental Learning Methods. Survival Problems,
39819 Plymouth Rd., Plymouth, Mich. 48170.
77. Royal Bank of Canada monthly letter.
78. Falmagne, "Reasoning: Representation and Process."
79. Woods, D.R., Wright, J.D., Hoffman, T. W., Swart-
man, R.K. and Doig, I.D. (1975), "Teaching Prob-
lem Solving Skills," Annals of Engineering Educa-
tion, 1, No. 1, p. 238.
80. Leibold, B.G., et al, (1976), "Problem Solving: A
Freshman Experience," ASEE, Fall.
81. Woods, D.R. (1976), "Teaching Problem Solving
Skills: Experiences as a Freshman (1974-75) as a
Sophomore (1975-76)," McMaster University, Hamil-
ton.
82. Aubel, J.L., personal communication, University of
South Florida.
83. Woods, D.R., Chem. Eng. Ed. (Part I).


POLYMER ENGINEERING: Charrier
Continued from page 129.
5. Lesson Plan for Plastics Courses, Plastics Engineering,
July 1974.
6. A. L. Fricke, A Course Sequence in Polymer Process-
ing, Chem. Eng. Education, Fall 1973.
7. S. L. Rosen, Fundamental Principles of Polymeric Ma-
terials for Practicing Engineers, Barnes and Noble,
Inc., N.Y., 1971.
8. F. Rodriguez, Principles of Polymer Systems, McGraw
Hill Co., N.Y., 1970.
9. D. J. Williams, Polymner Science and Engineering,
Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971.
10. L. E. Nielsen, Mechanical Properties of Polymers and
Composites, Vol. 1, Marcel Dekker Inc., N.Y., 1974.
11. E. C. Bernhardt, ed., Processing of Thermoplastic
Materials, Reinhold Publ. Co., N.Y., 1959.
12. P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Cornell
University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1953.
13. J. D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, 2nd
ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N.Y., 1970.
14. J. M. McKelvey, Polymer Processing, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., N.Y., 1962.
15. Canadian Plastics
16. Progressive Plastics
17. Plastics Technology Magazine
18. Modern Plastics
19. Plastics World
20. Plastics Engineering
21. Materials Engineering
22. Rubber World
23. Rubber Age
24. Rubber and Plastics News
25. European Plastics News
26. Plastiques Modernes et Elastomdres
27. Revue Ginerale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques



Il news


DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR TITLE TO LARSON

AMES, IOWA-Maurice A. Larson, professor of
chemical engineering at Iowa State University has been
awarded the Anson Marston Distinguished Professor-
ship in Engineering.
Larson, born in Mirrouri Valley, was graduated from
high school at Ayrshire in 1944. He received his B.S.
(1951) and Ph.D. (1958) degrees from Iowa State and
was a chemical engineer with Dow Corning in Midland,
Michigan, 1951-1954. In 1954 he became a teaching
assistant at ISU, was named an instructor a year later
and has been on the faculty since then. In 1970 he re-
ceived the Western Electric Fund Award for excellence
in teaching. In 1967 he had received ISU's Webber Teach-
ing Award for inspired teaching in chemical engineering,
and in 1972, received the Faculty Citation. In 1971-72
Larson was a visiting professor at University College,
London, England. He was an AID-NSF science educa-
tion consultant in India in 1968.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Industrial Sponsor: The following company donated funds for the
support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION during 1976-77.

3M COMPANY

Departmental Sponsors: The following 129 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1977.


University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alberta
Arizona State University
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas
Brigham Young University
Bucknell University
University of Calgary
California State Polytechnic
California Institute of Technology
University of California (Berkeley)
University of California (Davis)
University of California (Santa Barbara)
Carnegie-Mellon University
Case-Western Reserve University
University of Cincinnati
Clarkson College of Technology
Clemson University
Cleveland State University
University of Colorado
Colorado School of Mines
Columbia University
University of Connecticut
Cornell University
University of Detroit
Drexel University
University College Dublin
Ecole Polytechnique (Canada)
University of Delaware
Georgia Technical Institute
University of Florida
University of Houston
University of Idaho
University of Illinois (Urbana)
Illinois Institute of Technology
Institute of Gas Technology
Institute of Paper Chemistry
University of Iowa
Iowa State University
Kansas State University
University of Kentucky
Lafayette College
Lamar University
Lehigh University


Louisiana State University
Louisiana Technical University
University of Louisville
University of Maine
Manhattan College
University of Maryland
University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
McGill University
McMaster University
McNeese State University
University of Michigan
Michigan State University
Michigan Tech. University
University of Minnesota
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri, Rolla
Montana State University
University of Nebraska
University of New Brunswick
University of New Hampshire
New Jersey Institute of Technology
New Mexico State University
University of New Mexico
City University of New York
Polytechnic Institute of New York
State University of N.Y. at Buffalo
North Carolina State University
University of North Dakota
University of Notre Dame
Nova Scotia Technical College
Ohio State University
Ohio University
University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma State University
Oregon State University
University of Ottawa
University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania State University
University of Pittsburgh
Princeton University
University of Puerto Rico
Purdue University
Queen's University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute


University of Rhode Island
Rice University
University of Rochester
Rose-Hulman Institute
of Technology
Rutgers State University
University of South Carolina
University of Saskatchewan
South Dakota School of Mines
University of Southern California
Stevens Institute of Technology
Syracuse University
Tennessee Technological University
University of Tennessee
Texas A&M University
Texas A&I University
University of Texas at Austin
Texas Technological University
University of Toledo
University of Toronto
Tri-State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
University of Tulsa
University of Utah
Vanderbilt University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Washington State University
University of Washington
Washington University
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
West Virginia University
University of Western Ontario
University of Windsor
University of Wisconsin
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
University of Wyoming
Yale University
Youngstown State University


TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your
department chairman to write CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611.















































Hold your breath for 60 seconds.


Try this little experiment and
chances are you'll find the last few sec-
onds unbearable.
That desperate, terrifying sensa-
tion is caused by a lack of oxygen and
an excess of carbon dioxide.
People with emphysema or other
lung diseases know the feeling well.
They live with it 24 hours a day.
Oxygen therapy can help many of
them. But it can also sentence them
to a bleak existence -living in fear,
bound to heavy, bulky oxygen tanks.
Union Carbide has developed a
portable oxygen system.
We call it the Oxygen Walker.


It's small enough to be carried on
a shoulder strap and weighs only 11
pounds full. Yet, incredibly, this
handy pack can supply over 1000 li-
ters of oxygen gas -enough for 8
hours or more, depending on individ-
ual flow rates.
Taking the Oxygen Walker with
them, patients are free to leave their
homes. Free to go walking, shopping,
fishing... many have even returned
to work.
The Oxygen Walker is only one
of the things we're doing with oxy-
gen. We supply more of it than any-
one else in the country. For steelmak-


ing, hospitals, wastewater treatment
and the chemical industry.
But, in a way, the Walker is the
most important use of our oxygen.
Because to the people who use it, it
is the breath of life.





Today, something we do
will touch yourlife.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F




Full Text