Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Chemical Engineering Documents


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c educatE o


Industrial Sponsors: The following companies donated funds for the
support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION during 1976-77.


Departmental Sponsors: The following 114 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1977.

University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alberta
Arizona State University
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas
Bucknell University
University of Calgary
California State Polytechnic
California Institute of Technology
University of California (Berkeley)
University of California (Davis)
University of California (Santa Barbara)
Carnegie-Mellon University
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University of Cincinnati
Clarkson College of Technology
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University of Colorado
Colorado School of Mines
Columbia University
University of Connecticut
Cornell University
University of Delaware
University of Florida
University of Houston
University of Idaho
University of Illinois (Urbana)
Illinois Institute of Technology
Institute of Gas Technology
Institute of Paper Chemistry
University of Iowa
Iowa State University
Kansas State University
University of Kentucky
Lafayette College
Lamar University
Lehigh University

Louisiana State University
University of Louisville
University of Maine
Manhattan College
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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University of Michigan
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Michigan Tech. University
University of Minnesota
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri, Rolla
Montana State University
University of Nebraska
University of New Brunswick
New Jersey Institute of Technology
New Mexico State University
University of New Mexico
City University of New York
Polytechnic Institute of New York
State University of N.Y. at Buffalo
North Carolina State University
University of North Dakota
University of Notre Dame
Nova Scotia Technical College
Ohio State University
Ohio University
University of Oklahoma
Oregon State University
University of Ottawa
University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania State University
Princeton University
Purdue University
Queen's University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

University of Rhode Island
University of Rochester
Rose-Hulman Institute
of Technology
Rutgers State University
University of South Carolina
University of Saskatchewan
South Dakota School of Mines
Stevens Institute of Technology
Syracuse University
Tennessee Technological University
University of Tennessee
Texas A&M University
Texas A&I University
University of Texas at Austin
Texas Technological University
University of Toledo
University of Toronto
Tri-State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
University of Tulsa
University of Utah
Vanderbilt University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Washington State University
University of Washington
Washington University
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
West Virginia University
University of Western Ontario
University of Windsor
University of Wisconsin
University of Wyoming
Yale University
Youngstown State University

TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your
department chairman to write CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Chemical Engineering Education


60 Undergraduate Curricula 1976, D. Barker

64 Computer Aided Curriculum Analysis,
W. Heenan and E. Henley

68 The Sciences and the Humanities,
M. Penn and R. Aris

74 Internship in Chemical Engineering Design,
T. Russell and H. Turner

78 ChE Education in Mexico-Methodology and
Evaluation, E. Martinez

86 On Teaching Problem Solving, Part 1: What
Is Being Done?, D. Woods


50 The Educator
"Skip" Scriven of the University of Minnesota

54 Departments of Chemical Engineering

53 Book Review

53, 96 Letters

53 News

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1977. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.



ShZa Scaiev

Prepared by his
Minnesota Colleagues
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455

NO ONE REALLY KNOWS what the L and
the E of Scriven's official name stand for,
since he invariably goes by the style of "Skip"
and to anyone who ventures, formally or in-
formally, in interpretation of those initials he
turns a bland countenance of ostensible incompre-
hension. This is the more remarkable since there
is virtually nothing else to which he turns his
attention which is not greeted with a 3 x 5 file
card and one of the most penetratingly compre-
hending minds of our profession. Whether it be
the curriculum or camping, surface phenomena or
South American education, whatever Skip takes
up he takes up with an intensity and dedication
that quickly masters it, so that, though he
resolutely refuses to acknowledge them, it is

It was his work with Sternling on the
Marangoni effect and the importance
of interfacial turbulence that won them the
Colburn Award for 1960. By this time he was
at Minnesota where with the zeal of a Calif-
ornian he introduced surface effects with
a movie showing tears of strong wine.

confidently believed by his friends that he does
indeed know his own names.
Many an unprepared undergraduate or gradu-
ate student misguidedly thinking he could get by
with sloppy work has met with so short a shrift
that he or she may have murmured to themselves
"The old dragon." As a matter of fact, Skip is an
Old Dragon (not, we hasten to add, at all the
same kind of creature as an Elk, Lion or Cootie)
in the proper sense of the word, for the years
just before the war found his family in England
and he attended the Dragon School at Oxford for
a spell. In his undergraduate and graduate
careers he is rumored once to have gotten a B-
no doubt an affliction sent to keep him humble-
but whatever the truth of the rumor it is certain
that he graduated as University Gold Medallist
at Berkeley in 1952. His doctoral work was done
at Delaware under Bob Pigford's direction and
concerned questions of mass transfer that led to
an interest in surface phenomena that has been a


leitmotiv of his research ever since and was the
topic of his 1968 Chemical Engineering Award
Lecture to ASEE. From Delaware he went to
Shell Development at Emeryville where the super-
vision of Tom Baron and John Beek and the more
immediate collaboration of Chuck Sternling
whetted his appetite for fundamental chemical
engineering research and extended his powers. It
was his work with Sternling on the Marangoni
effect and the importance of interfacial turbulence
that won them the Colburn Award for 1960. By
this time he was at Minnesota where with the
zeal of a Californian he introduced surface effects
with a movie showing tears of strong wine. Alas,
it had to be a movie, for the Laws of the University
of Minnesota forbad the opening of a bottle of
California port which graced his window ledge
for so many years that it is doubtful whether its
ultimate uncorking would have been very edifying.


as soon as he came to Minnesota for, as well
as diving into the stream of teaching, he
systematically attended other classes in mechanics
and fluid mechanics, laying the foundations for
his research and his growing mastery of the art
of teaching. To this period belongs his work with
John Dahler on fluids with internal angular
momentum which anticipated a great flurry of
interest by fluid mechanicists in the subject a
few years later. It was not many years before his
stature in the field of fluid mechanics was
recognized by the invitation to become an editor
of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics, an honor the
more real from the exacting standards of
Batchelor and his coeditors but a task the more
onerous by the conscientiousness with which it
was carried out. The same thoroughness showed
up again when Skip took up problems of biological
origin and there were more classes to attend and
much studying of developmental biology, mem-
brane and cell structure, not to mention group
theory, before he ventured to write or supervise
work on the origin of pattern and rhythm or
cellular locomotion. This line of work, though now
held in abeyance by the press of other things, was
fruitful of some significant papers (such as his
contribution to Waddington's conference "Toward
a theoretical biology") and played a role in the
forming of some excellent students who worked
with him. Hans Othmer, for example, has gone on

to do good work in mathematical biology and
cognate fields.
But Skip's research has breadth as well as
depth and has ranged over numerical methods-
variational principles (where his PhD supervision
stimulated the continued fine work of Bruce
Finlayson), Galerkin, finite elements, large
systems of equilibrium equations-mass transfer,
thermodynamics, coating flows, minimal surfaces
and menisci. At the moment he is collaborating
with Ted Davis on fundamental problems con-
nected with tertiary oil recovery, a program which
has attracted a number of our brightest graduate
students. Nor is it any light matter for a student
to be taken into such a group; there will be papers
to write and read to the weekly rump-seminar
and these will be rehashed and worked over until
they start to meet the proper standards. It is
these standards that keep Skip's publications few
but meaty; in the whole list of sixty or so there
is none that is trivial or tentative.
Every bit as important to him as graduate re-
search and teaching is the undergraduate curricu-
lum. Some five years ago he was unwise enough
to miss the wrong faculty meeting and returned
to find himself the Director of Undergraduate
Studies. Nevertheless he threw himself with en-

His doctoral work was done
at Delaware under Bob Pigford's
direction and concerned questions
of mass transfer that led to an interest
in surface phenomena that has been a
leitmotiv of his research ever since and was
the topic of his 1968 chemical engineering
Award Lecture to ASEE.

thusiasm into totally revamping the presentation
of the curriculum in a comprehensive student's
guide and adviser's handbook and devised a one-
page summary on which requirements of the
whole curriculum and the extent to which the
student had met them could be seen at a glance.
Woe betide the student who attempts to get by
with a minimal level: he soon realizes that a camel
can get through the needle's eye more easily than
a student can graduate with the bare minimum
of 191 credits. Skip is a staunch supporter (as
are we all) of the team teaching approach to the
core curriculum that Neal Amundson instituted
years ago at Minnesota. Under this scheme recita-
tion sections are not relegated to teaching assis-


tants but taught by faculty who participate with
the principal lecturer in the course. This arrange-
ment serves to integrate new faculty, whatever
their background, allows for an orderly, but re-
freshing, rotation of main responsibility and
generally promotes good teaching. Skip's devo-
tion to recitations has led him to take them in the
mathematics department as well as in most of the
core courses of chemical engineering and materials
science. The years that he taught thermodynamics
to the juniors are said to have heard a good many
extra groans as he led them down the path that
by tradition is as loud with the grumbling of

brought to the campus speakers from the World
Bank and State Department, a captain of multi-
national industry and an international consultant
as well as academics in the form of an anthro-
pologist, a political scientist, a musicologist and a
professor of Latin American literature.
Skip's travels have taken him in various direc-
tions: to South America and British Columbia, to
South Africa and Russia. A visit to the last and
the renewal of his acquaintance with Academician
Levich (he had met him at Minnesota in 1965
and before that had known him through editing
the English translation of his book) brought home

Skip's research has breadth as well as depth and has ranged
over numerical methods-variational principles, ... Galerkin finite elements,
large systems of equilibrium equations-mass transfer, thermodynamics, coating
flows, minimal surfaces and menisci. At the moment he is collaborating on
fundamental problems connected with tertiary oil recovery.

undergraduates as was the road to Beth-Shemesh
with the lowing of the milch kine. But if he was
demanding of them-and of his colleagues who
took the recitation sections-they also got to hear
Flanders and Swan's interpretation of that im-
portant law that C. P. Snow has compared to a
well-known play by Mr. Shakespeare.

the broad sense has been one of Skip's general
preoccupations and he has always been as ready
to put himself out for the benefit of any school
making the effort to build itself up as he has
been to give distinguished lectures, such as the
Wilhelm at Princeton and the Kelly at Purdue. A
particular concern for a non-exploitive relation-
ship with the South American countries has taken
him below the equator half a dozen times at least.
He has visited, taught or consulted with universi-
ties in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and
Venezuela and established a connection which has
brought many meritorious students to study in the
north and return to develop the south. (A report
of one of his early visits was given in these pages
-Impressions of Engineering Education in the
Southern Tier-CEE 5, 44.) The general problem
of finding a relationship between the developing
and developed nations which would not lead to the
exploitation of the former has exercised him
particularly and in 1975 he put together a seminar
series that addressed the question and led to a
lively discussion among faculty and students. It

to Skip the plight of the Jew in Russia and led
him to take the leading role in this country in the
movement to support Levich and work for his
freedom. Few people realize what Skip and his
wife, Doreen, have put into every aspect of this
effort and we would embarrass them by dilating
on it here. Suffice it to say that the proportions
of its visible and invisible parts are those tra-
ditionally ascribed to the iceberg.
Vacations are taken as vigorously as work and
handball by Skip and his family-Ellen, now at
Reed College, Terry at Dartmouth and Mark on
the verge of joining the college ranks. From their
Californian days they know back-packing in the
Sierras before the population explosion, but they
have also navigated the Snake River and roamed
the wilds of Wyoming, while in Minnesota a
summer cabin is being built by Doreen. Indeed,
Skip is the envy of his colleagues. For what could
be simpler at Christmas time than to pick out a
drill or circular saw for one's wife and who among
us can leave the making of a harpsichord or the
remodelling of a house so completely to his spouse?
The story that when he was spending a sabbatical
quarter at Penn, Skip was roused by a telegram
which read something like "Return immediately.
Living room wall collapsed with dire implications,"
is apocryphical-at least according to him.
What more can we say? So the initial 'L'
doesn't stand for Leibnitz, nor the 'E' for Euler.
Perhaps they are just the letters of the French
definite article. That suits and, in the spirit of
the Auld Alliance, we salute "The Scriven." 0



The letter by H. Y. Cheh and E. F. Leonard (Winter
Issue of CEE, page 3) discusses the productivity of
doctoral degrees from various chemical engineering
schools. I am constantly involved in convincing my Dean
that our department is very efficient, thus it was dis-
maying to note that the Cheh-Leonard table is in error.
For the 71-75 period listed, the University of Illinois
produced 28 Ph.D.'s and the faculty size averaged 8.75.
Thus the productivity was 0.800 doctoral degrees per
faculty per year. This would put us in fifth place in
the table rather than completely off. As a matter of fact,
if one takes the 10-year period 1966-1976, our average is
1.035, which is above all the schools in the Cheh-Leonard
J. W. Westwater
U. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

One curious feature of the proposed systems for rating
graduate programs has not received appropriate atten-
tion. This is the merit awarded for "productivity" as
measured by the number of Ph.D.'s granted per faculty
member. This is somewhat equivalent to ranking the
goodness of mothers by the number of offspring, or of
husbands by the number of wives. What makes it
curiouser and curiouser is the tendency to treat this
parameter in precisely the opposite sense when ranking
undergraduate programs, viz., large numbers of B.S.
graduates per faculty (high student/teacher ratios) are
considered negatively. Somewhat similar, but less con-
vincing, arguments could be made about productivity
measured by numbers of papers published per faculty.
It may be inappropriate for faculty to use such
standards on each other, but still be useful to suggest
them for use by Deans, Provosts and legislators. It may
suppress their natural inclination to judge us in purely
monetary terms, e.g., research income, or that ultimate
quantitative measure of academic excellence, overhead
recovery per faculty.
John C. Angus
Case Western Reserve University

N news

Donald K. Anderson, professor of chemical engineer-
ing and of engineering research, has been appointed
chairman of the department at Michigan State University.
Anderson, 45, who has been acting chairman of the
department, succeeds M. H. Chetrick, who died un-
expectedly in January of a heart attack. He holds the
B.S. from the University of Illinois and M.S. and Ph.D.
from the University of Washington and in 1973 he received
the MSU Distinguished Faculty ward. He has served as

chairman and secretary-treasurer of the chemical engi-
neering division of the 12,000-member American Society
for Engineering Education. He is the author of numerous
technical publications.

At press time CEE received word that Prof. Leon
Lapidus, 52, Chairman of the ChE Department Prince-
ton University, died suddenly in his office May 5. A
more complete obituary will be included in the next issue.

Prof. Howard Brenner of Carnegie-Mellon University
will become professor and chairman of the Chemical
Engineering Department at the University of Rochester
July 1.
Brenner won the 1976 Alpha Chi Sigma Award given
by the AIChE. In 1975 he was selected as a 1975-76
Sherman Mills Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology. In 1974 he was named a
Senior Visiting Fellow by the Science Research Council
of Great Britain. He was the recipient of the 11th Annual
Continued on page 96.

l book reviews

The Application of Mathematical Modelling to
Process Development and Design

By L. M. Roe
Halsted Press, 1974

Reviewed by C. A. W. DiBella

This book concerns itself with modelling in
the field of Chemical Engineering and of process
design in particular. In the Preface, the author
states that the book is written for the many
engineers who use programs, and not for the
few that write them. In this reviewer's opinion,
the book has few useful features for users of pro-
grams. If the book were to be used together with
large amounts of supplementary materials, it
might be useful to a mathematical modelling
Chapter 1 is an attempt to define mathematical
modelling and systems engineering and to explain
where they fit into a chemical company's organiza-
tion. In general, this chapter is much too long for
the value that can be gleaned from it, introduces
extraneous discussion of company structure, lacks
depth, and suffers from inadequate nomenclature
and references.
Chapter 2 discusses reactor models. By dis-
cussion and examples the author presents
Continued on page 95.




The College of Engineering complex is
in the foreground. Looking clockwise the
buildings are: the Hill Center for Mathematical
Sciences, Physics, Psychology, Pharmacy, Waksman
Institute of Microbiology, Medical Center,
Library of Science and Medicine Biology,
Alcohol Studies and Chemistry.

Rutgers-The State University
New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903
CHARTERED AS QUEEN'S College in 1776,
Rutgers was the eighth such institution
founded prior to the Revolutionary War. In 1825
the name was changed to Rutgers College in honor
of Colonel Henry Rutgers, a veteran of the Revolu-
tion, "in gratitude for his numerous services" to
the institution. Under the land-grant program of
1864, instruction in agriculture, engineering, and
military education was introduced and a program
leading to the Bachelor of Science degree was es-
tablished. The College of Arts and Sciences and of
Agriculture and Engineering, designated separate
units in 1914, were joined in 1918 by the New
Jersey College for Women. In 1917 the State Leg-
islature named the Rutgers Scientific School,
which included the Colleges of Agriculture and

Our dual focus graduate program
includes the traditional program in
ChE... and a second focus, a program in
bio-chemical engineering which features
two aspects: microbial and enzyme tech-
nology and chemical environmental engineering.


Engineering, as the State University of New
Jersey and in a similar action in 1945 all units of
Rutgers and the Agriculture Experiment Station
became truly the State University. Today, Rutgers
University on its three major campuses-New
Brunswick-Piscataway, Camden, and Newark-
along with some ten other research and teaching
locations, provides programs for 46,000 students
from 50 states and 86 foreign countries in its 19
degree granting schools and colleges.
Rutgers is the only institution in the country
to include in its heritage the colonial college of the
eighteenth century, the land-grant tradition of the
nineteenth century, and the development of the
modern state university.
The College of Engineering, as a coordinate
unit of the University, was created in 1914,
and Professor Alfred A. Titsworth became
the first Dean of Engineering. The initial
program, however, was established in 1863
by the action of the Board of Trustees. The
program was termed "mechanic arts,"
which in those days meant civil engineer-
ing. Just three years short of a century
later, at the January 6, 1960 meeting the
State Board of Education, final approval
was granted for the establishment within
the College of Engineering of a four-year
program in Chemical Engineering leading
to the Bachelor of Science Degree.


Professor Joseph D. Stett (Ph.D. Chemical En-
gineer from Columbia) was Chairman of the
Mechanical Engineering Department at Rutgers
prior to assuming his new responsibilities in the
Fall of 1960 as the first Chairman of Chemical
Engineering. Joe had argued for over a dozen
years to persuade the state and the university ad-
ministration to found a chemical engineering de-
partment at Rutgers. In rebuttal, he was greeted
with the all too familiar response that the needed
capital and space required for the extensive and
costly new facilities just were not to be found.
Fortunately, the passage of the 1959 College Bond
Issue, which was previously defeated in 1948 by
less than two votes per precinct, provided a sum of
five and one-half million dollars for a new en-
gineering building on the University Heights
campus (now called Busch Campus) and for re-
organization of existing facilities. Now retired
from the teaching profession, Joe still is active in
national AIChE affairs, where he is a fellow of the
Institute and a member of the Admission Commit-
tee. Elmer C. Easton was Dean of the College of
Engineering during this very crucial period of
growth and start-up of the department.
Dr. Frank W. Dittman was added to the de-
partment two years after matriculation of the first
ChE class in the Fall of 1960. With Joe's flair for
organization and teaching coupled with Frank's
all-around process design know-how, gained
through sixteen years of industrial experience, a
major effort was undertaken to implement an
accreditable curriculum and fully equip the three-
story undergraduate pilot plant laboratory in the
new facilities. The laboratory now includes a full
array of pilot scale equipment, such as distillation
columns (packed and bubble-cap), a liquid-liquid
extraction unit, a counter-current gas absorber, a
fluidization unit, a reverse osmosis desalination
set-up, and momentum and heat transfer units.
Accompanying the major laboratory equipment
items are about a dozen smaller units for solids
processing utilizing filtration, drying, etc. Also,
the laboratory has a 3-mode automatically con-
trolled chemical flow reactor system, and a 50-liter
jacketed stainless steel reactor.

N 1964, THE DEPARTMENT'S teaching line
faculty doubled with the addition of Robert C.
Ahlert and Burton Davidson. With Bob's ten years

of industrial research training and background in
transport phenomena and thermodynamics, and
Burt's experience with reactor engineering and
control theory, the department thus acquired crit-
ical teaching mass and the requisite balance in
expertise between classical (plant design, econom-
ics, and materials processing) and neo-classical
(transport phenomena and systems analysis)
ChE. These were the formative years where a
great deal of devoted effort to basic teaching and
future curriculum planning was expended.
By 1966, a Master's degree program in ChE
was implemented. Within two years there were
four M.S. degrees conferred and $146,000 of spon-
sored research had been performed. A portion of
the research dollars was used to acquire the de-
partment's two analog computers which were used
for research and teaching. The topics of these
early M.S. theses involved heterogeneous catalysis,
combustion dynamics and atmospheric dispersion,
and variational methods applied to the regenera-
tion of polluted streams. These latter two topics,
perhaps unnoticed at the time, marked the depart-
ment's first ventures into avant-garde interdis-
ciplinary research in the areas between established

Professors Bob Ahlert (second from left) and Burt
Davidson (far right) conduct a weekly review session
on interdisciplinary Water Resources Engineering.

disciplines; for example, Water Resources Engi-
neering, which represented a bridge between
chemical environmental engineering and at least
one related area such as computer science; and
Combustion Engineering, which represented a
hybrid between turbulence theory and transport
By the end of the 1967 academic year, Frank,
Bob, and Burt, with research aid from the newly
established Office of Water Resources Research


(OWRR) at Rutgers, were well into doing large
scale interdisciplinary water pollution research.
One of the most interesting projects dealt with a
field study of the mechanical instream aeration of
a portion of the Passaic River in New Jersey.
This project not only supplied answers to local

At the undergraduate level
students may follow either of the
two options, chemical or biochemical
engineering, leading to the B.S. degree
in engineering.

societal need problems, but through the mechan-
ism of technology "feedback" or "spin-off" pro-
vided some concrete ideas for future theoretical
research. The Passaic River was described by
someone, who shall remain nameless, as "being too
thin to plow and too thick to navigate."
With the assistance from two part-time co-
adjutant teachers from the local industries,
the first chemical engineering class, nine
students in all, was graduated in 1964.

IN 1968, TWO ADDITIONAL teaching line po-
sitions were added to the department. A crucial
decision was made to upgrade one of the positions
by filling it with a Chairman from outside. After
a period of interviewing numerous candidates,
Wolf Vieth from MIT was finally selected as the
department's second Chairman. Wolf's technical
background in polymer science, semipermeable
membranes, and applied surface chemistry nicely
meshed with the various other technical back-
grounds of the department members. Most im-
portantly, though, the really essential factor in the
selection of Wolf as our new Chairman was the
mutual philosophy he and the department shared
concerning the importance of interdisciplinary re-
search, particularly for a young and growing de-
partment seeking visibility without forsaking the
traditional role of a basic chemical engineering
As early as 1964 (When at MIT), Wolf be-
came convinced that enzyme catalysis was a
"worthwhile area of future research suitable for
introduction of a fundamental chemical engineer-
ing approach." Wolf's concept of enzyme catalysis
grew to mean biochemical engineering, encompass-
ing immobilized enzyme catalysis, microbial engi-

neering, fermentation, and waste treatment tech-
nology. These efforts were helped along consider-
ably by the staffing of the other teaching line in
1969 with Alkis Constantinides, a systems bio-
engineer out of Columbia University's biochemical
engineering program. With the addition of Alkis
to the teaching and research rolls, the Graduate
School formally approved our Ph.D. program in
1969. Two years later full accreditation of the de-
partment's undergraduate program was granted
by the ECPD.
In 1970, the biochemical engineering research
and educational programs of the department, now
encompassing both chemical environmental engi-
neering and enzyme and microbial technology, had
grown in importance to a point where a formal
name change to Chemical and Biochemical Engi-
neering was warranted and adopted. We were
doing a steady $150,000/year of outside sponsored
research, we had 25 full-time graduate students,
and we graduated 28 seniors. Rutgers University
was the first university in the nation to sanction
this change in name, thus giving the department
an opportunity to have a dual focus for more ef-
fective visibility and relevancy in the State. New
Jersey is the home of very large chemical and
pharmaceutical industries which, combined with
the State's needs for new environmental tech-
nology, provide a basis of broad interests in new
biotechnology research.
In the course of our own "Operation Boot-
strap," involving a large NSF research grant in
enzyme engineering and generous support from
industrial benefactors, and with the early success



Prof. Fred Bernath and graduate research assistant
Larry Olanoff prepare a healthy mongrel dog for
extracorporeal L-asparaginase reactor treatment.


Prof. Frank Dittman (R) and students view the center
room of the three-story process engineering lab.
of our total biochemical engineering program, the
University provided two additional faculty lines to
the department. These positions were previously
supported under the grant for a period of three
years. Thus, in 1971, Shaw Wang, a food scientist
and fermentation specialist, was added to the de-
partment, followed in the next year by Fred
Bernath, one of our own Ph.D. graduates and a
specialist in enzyme technology and its medical
Adding to and rounding out our present team
of seven line faculty are several key part-time and
co-adjutant research personnel. They are: Julian
Corman, a retired microbiologist from industry;
Dr. Ruth Berman Reisberg, a Biochemist from
the E. R. Johnstone Training and Research Center.
Allan Mogensen, a pilot plant specialist on part-
time loan from American Cyanamid Company;
Feng-Chi Hsieh, a specialist in reactor systems en-
gineering; and K. Venkatasubramanian, an en-
zyme and microbial technologist and one of our
recent doctoral students who is on part-time loan
from H. J. Heinz Company. In addition, from time
to time, we have in residence visiting scientists
from abroad who study here in one of our bio-
chemical engineering areas of specialization.
The department is fortunate to have a very
fine secretary, Gladys Dennsion, and a top-flight
technician, Nickolas Bosko. Together with the
part-time and co-adjutant people, they represent
team strength upon which the regulars must de-

pend for every day, vital assistance. Other do-it-
yourself success stories are not uncommon on the
banks of the Old Raritan.
". .The decade of the nineteen-seventies
will witness many interdisciplinary ties....
There will be a proliferation of programs
with the Life Sciences...."
Olaf A. Hougen
Bicentennial Lecture on Chemical
Engineering History
82nd National Meeting
Atlantic City, New Jersey
August, 1976


AT THE UNDERGRADUATE level, students
may follow either of the two options, chem-
ical or biochemical engineering, leading to the B.S.
degree in engineering. Since 1964, we have grad-
uated 254 B.S. chemical engineers. Projections
based on present enrollment figures indicate that
approximately 32 will graduate in June 1977, 62
in 1978, and 70 in 1979. Our B.S. graduates are
very well prepared to enter the engineering pro-
fession. Our senior year plant design course and
process engineering laboratory subjects supply

Research in the environmental
quality and management field involves
the application of ChE transport and
control theory to water quality analysis
in rivers, estuaries, and the coastal zone.

the necessary exposure to prototype process de-
sign problems. Some students elect to enroll in
our special projects course which is closely tuned
to the graduate research program. A noteworthy
point is the relatively large number of female stu-
dents in our program. In the classes of '77, '78,
and '79, approximately 15-20% of the students are
female. By comparison, the national average for
women undergraduate chemical engineering is
close to 5%. The reason why our program has
such a relatively large number of women in it is
attributed to the attraction of its "bio-" and "life
sciences" overtones.
Our alumni have found employment chiefly in
the industry and government of The State of New
Jersey, with its heavy concentration of chemical
and biochemical industries. Our program in Bio-
chemical Engineering provides a unique educa-


tional service to the State of New Jersey, which
occupies the number one position in the pharma-
ceutical industry. As indicators of the need for
biochemical engineers, several of our alumni are
employed with the New Jersey State Department
of Environmental Protection in the air and water
pollution divisions. Others have found extensive
and rewarding employment with such companies
as: Hoffmann-LaRoche, American Cyanamid,
Union Carbide, du Pont, Merck, Squibb, Johnson
and Johnson, Colgate-Palmolive, etc. Many of our
alumni have successfully completed M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees at leading Universities (e.g., Stan-
ford, Princeton, Michigan, Purdue, MIT, Minne-
sota, Cornell, Syracuse, Berkeley, IIT, Northwest-
ern, etc.). A number of the graduating seniors
have chosen to pursue other professional careers
in such fields as Medicine, Law, and Business.
"See the man. See the ball at all times.
Make sure you check out and go. Get your
tail into his hip. Be aggressive. Get the ball
to Jordan. Let's get good shots at the other
end. Run, run, and run. Get back on de-
-Tom Young,
Rutgers' basketball coach
31-2, 4th ranked nationally, 1975-76

Reviewing the concept of dual sorption are (L to R)
K. Venkatasubramanian, Prof. Wolf Vieth, Jeffrey
Howell and Dr. Mary Amini.

DURING THE LAST four years our graduate
research expenditures in the department have
averaged $225,000/year. Projections based on ex-
tensions of existing contracts plus approved new
contracts indicate that expenditures will top
$300,000/year for the 1977/78 fiscal year. At the
present time, there are 45 graduate students in the
program. Since the inception of our M.S. and

Ph.D. programs, we have graduated 45 students
with the M.S. degree, with thesis, and 15 with the
Ph.D. degree. Today, the department's graduate
program ranks among the top quarter of the
major colleges and universities in the United
States in the number of M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
granted annually in chemical and biochemical en-
Our dual focus graduate program includes the
traditional program in chemical engineering,
which consists of instructional offerings in ther-
modynamics, polymers, transport phenomena,
kinetics and catalysis, process control, applied
mathematics, and computer simulation, and as the
second focus, a program in biochemical engineer-
ing, which features two aspects: microbial and
enzyme technology and engineering, and chemical
environmental engineering. The instructional of-
ferings in the biochemical program include prin-
ciples of biochemical engineering, reactor analysis
applied to the environment, enzyme engineering,
semipermeable membranes, and applied surface
chemistry. The biochemical engineering program
is buttressed by the availability of strong instruc-
tional offerings of other departments in Rutgers
University, notably the biological and mathemat-
ical/computer sciences areas.
Research emphases are currently on biochem-
ical engineering science and technology and en-
vironmental quality and management analysis. In
the former, research is centered around the ma-
terials science and reaction engineering of im-
mobilized enzymes and microbial whole cells and
fermentation technology. A project of the former
type deals with leukemia therapy, while one new
project of the latter type focuses on the bio-oxida-
tion of organic chemicals. Another deals with
modeling and control of enzyme regulatory
mechanisms in fermentation. These projects are
supported by government agencies as well as
private industry. Application of these biochemical
engineering projects are in the areas of food
processing, pharmaceuticals, and medicine.
Research in the environmental quality and
management fields involves the application of
chemical engineering transport and control theory
to water quality analysis in rivers, estuaries, and
the coastal zone. Problems dealing with thermal
pollution, systems modeling and computer simula-
tion, non-linear distributed parameter identifica-
tion, mixing and dispersion of pollutants, and the
conflict between water supply, pollutant wash-out
and non-point sources of pollution from urban


centers are under active investigation. These proj-
ects are supported by NSF, the New Jersey Water
Resources Research Institute, and private indus-
try. Other sponsored research projects of the de-
partment are in the areas of structure-property
correlations for semipermeable membranes,
packed-bed water reaeration, the use of ultra-
filtration in raw sewage waste treatment, and a

Wolf R. Vieth: "Design and Analysis of Immobil-
ized Enzyme Flow Reactors," in Applied Biochem-
istry and Bioengineering, Vol. 1, pp. 221-327,
E. Katzir, L. Goldstein and L. Wingard, eds.,
Academic Press, 1976.
Frank W. Dittman: "Epitaxial Deposition of Sili-

As early as 1964, Wolf Vieth became convinced that enzyme
catalysis was a "worthwhile area of future research suitable for introduction
of a fundamental chemical engineering approach." Wolf's concept of enzyme
catalysis grew to mean biochemical engineering encompassing immobilized
enzyme catalysis, microbial engineering, fermentation, and waste treatment technology.

large interdisciplinary project on the fire hazards
of cellular plastics subjected to indirect heating,
sponsored by the Products Research Committee of
the National Bureau of Standards.
Having progressed this far in a relatively
short time, the department does not intend to rest
upon its laurels. Our enrollment is growing and we
will soon be recruiting two or three young faculty.
Our intention is to integrate into some promising
graduate research fields in chemical engineering
which, when added to our strength in biochemical
engineering, will help us in pursuit of our ultimate
objective .to round ourselves into a top-flight
State-supported Department of Chemical and Bio-
chemical Engineering.
"On film, Rutgers didn't look that good. On
the field, they're something else."
-Vince Gibson
Coach of the U. of Louisville Football
team commenting on their loss to Rutgers,
18-0 over two seasons, and nationally
ranked.-The N.Y. Times, Nov. 7, 1976


SOME OF THE OUTSIDE interests of our fac-
ulty include saltwater angling, and guitar
(Wolf) ; piano playing and municipal government
(Frank) ; raconteuring and small game hunting
(Bob) ; jogging and semi-professional tournament
tennis (Burt) ; photography and skiing (Alkis) ;
electric-organ playing and all racket sports
(Shaw); and wilderness camping and contact
sports (Fred) (-a former regular on Rutgers
Varsity Football team-). On the professional
side, the faculty have published in numerous tech-
nical journals. Listed below are representative
recent papers.

con in a Barrel Reactor," No. 133, Advances in
Chemistry .. Chemical Reaction Engineering II,
Ed. by H. M. Hulburt, Amer. Chem. Soc., Wash.,
D.C., 1974, pp. 463-473.
Robert S. Ahlert: "Stochastic Variation of
Water Quality of the Passaic River," Vol. 11, No.
2, pp. 300-308, Water Resources Res., April 1975.
Burton Davidson: "Modelling of Combined Mass
Transfer-Kinetic Effects in an Enzyme Membrane
Reactor System with a Direct Approach to the
Identification of Intrinsic Rate Parameters," J.
Appl. Chem. & Biotech., 26 pp. 1-14, 1976.
Alkis Constantinides: "Mathematical Modeling
& Optimization of Gluconic Acid Fermentation,"
AIChE Symposium Series No. 132, 69. 114 (1973).
"Enzyme Engineering-Part V: Modeling and
Optimizing Multienzyme Reactor Systems," Chem-
tech, Vol. 5, p. 438, July 1975.
Shaw S. Wang: "Enhancement of Wastewater
treatment by the Uncoupler 2,4-Dinitrophenol,"
J. Food Science, 40, p. 302 (1975).
Fred R. Bernath: "Reduction of Canine Serum
Asparagine Levels by L-Asparaginase Immobil-
ized on Collagen: A Potential Form of Cancer
Chemotherapy," Transactions of the American
Society for Artificial Internal Organs, 21: 156-163
K. Venkatasubramanian: a. "Mathematical Mod-
eling of Enzyme Biosynthesis in Microbial Cells,"
b. "Induction and Catabolite Repression of Glucose
Isomerase Synthesis by Streptomyces Venezuelae
in Continuous Culture," Fifth International
Fermentation Symp., Berlin (1976), pp. 97, 125,
169, 298. "The Influence of Environmental Factors
on the Regulatory Mechanisms of Enzyme Bio-


I a




Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602

the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
has carried out surveys of the undergraduate
curricula in Chemical Engineering since 1957
[1,2,3,4]. A survey was also made in 1972 and
the results were presented to the Department
Chairman's meeting in Los Angeles. However,
these data were never published, but are included
in the present report. The present survey was
undertaken during the Spring and Summer of
1976. The form used was similar to that used in
the past three surveys. Modifications were made to
reflect some of the changes in the emphasis in
Chemical Engineering. The respondents were re-
quested to use the curricula as of September 1,
The survey was carried out by mail and the
form was sent to each of the schools listed in the
1975-76 "Chemical Engineering Faculties" (a
publication sponsored by the Education Projects
Committee of the AIChE).

SI 14.7 11)
17. 2 (12)
18.1 (13)
20 (15)
S- 18.9 (14K

10 12 14 16 18 2 2,
FIGURE 2. Humanities SH (% of curriculum).


134. 3


100 110 120 130 140 150
FIGURE 1. Total in semester hours SH.

Usable replies were received from 94 schools.
The results were coded on IBM cards and analyzed
using standard statistical procedures. The results
of this survey are presented in the following
tables. For purposes of comparison, the same
format has been used as in the previous surveys.
In this way, a comparison can be made of the
changes taking place in the curriculum since 1957.
Table 1 presents the consolidated informa-
tion under the categories shown in previous re-
ports. This table is divided into three parts. The
first set of columns showing the average number
of semester hours offered including all 94 schools,
the second section shows the percentage of schools
offering the particular category and the third
section shows the average semester hours con-
sidering only those schools offering the particular
There are a number of trends apparent in
the undergraduate curricula and these are illus-
trated in Figures 1-4. Figure 1 shows the total
semester hours offered. As can be seen in Figure
1, there has been a gradual reduction in net
credit hours since 1957. It should be noted that
these are net credit hours and that the gross
credit hours has decreased much more than the
net credit hours. This is caused by the de-emphasis
on the military studies and physical education.
Figure 2 represents the changes in the humani-
ties and social sciences. The present ECPD and
AIChE minimum is one semester or 12.5 per-
cent of the overall effort. The effect of the
accreditation procedure is clearly evident. The
figures in parenthesis at the end of each bar
represent the percentage of the total devoted to
humanities and social sciences. As can be seen




I3 .

B. Ch.E. Curriculum
1957, 1961, 1968, 1972, 1976

6. Gross Credits, SH
7. Net Credits, SH


9. Written Communication
10. Oral Communication
11. Subtotal Items 9-10
12. Humanities, Required
13. Social Studies, Required
14. Other Req. Soc-Hum.
15. Non-technical Electives
16. Subtotal, Items 12-15
17. Physical Education, etc.
18. Military Studies
19. Other non-technical
20. Subtotal Items 17-19
21. Total Items 11, 16, 20

Avg. Number of SH
1957 1961 1968 1972 1976
147.0 146.2 136.8 133.1 132.5
136.9 138.2 134.3 131.7 131.2

6.5 5.9 4.9 3.5
1.1 1.0 0.8 0.6
7.6 6.9 5.6 4.3
4.0 5.4 4.9 4.9
3.1 2.7 2.5 2.9
1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5
6.4 7.6 9.8 10.2
14.7 17.2 19.1 20.0
1.8 1.9 1.2 0.9
3.1 2.9 0.8 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5
5.2 5.2 2.0 1.9
27.5 29.6 25.8 26.0

Schools Offering, %
1957 1961 1968 1972 1976

98.8 97.8 92.8 74.0 72.0
43.2 45.6 28.9 25.0 30.0
98.8 97.8 92.8 79.0 77.0
63.0 72.7 66.3 57.0 62.0
59.1 55.4 39.8 44.0 38.0
22.2 20.7 22.9 21.0 20.0
76.5 82.6 79.5 79.0 77.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
50.6 51.6 44.6 36.0 33.0
48.1 49.0 18.1 5.0 1.0
23.5 14.1 19.3 14.0 28.0
84.0 77.2 54.2 44.0 43.0
100.0 100.0 96.4 100.0 100.0


2. Intro. & Review Math.
24. Anal. Geom. and Calc.
25. Diff. Eq. & Other
26. Subtotal Items 23-25
27. General Chemistry
28. Physical Chemistry
29. Organic Chemistry
30. Quantitative Analysis
31. Qualitative Analysis
32. Other Chemistry
33. Subtotal Items 27-32
34. General Physics
35. Modern Physics

36. Subtotal Items 34-36
37. Total Items 26, 33, 36


39. Total Graphics

4.4 2.6 0.2 0.1
11.6 11.7 11.3 9.9
1.3 3.6 6.3 7.3
17.3 17.9 17.7 17.9
8.0 7.8 7.4 7.1
8.5 8.1 7.7 7.1
8.5 7.8 7.4 6.6
4.2 3.5 1.2 0.8
1.3 1.3 0.6 0.4
0.3 0.5 0.5 0.7
30.8 28.9 24.1 22.9
10.8 10.2 8.5 7.3
0.2 1.0 1.4 1.3

11.1 11.3 10.5 9.0
59.2 57.9 49.7

4.7 3.8 2.0 1.6


41. Economics, Princ. of 2.2 2.1 1.5 1.1
42. Economics, Engineering 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7
43. Bus. Law, Admin., etc. 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2
44. Total Items 41-43 3.4 2.7 2.2 1.9


46. Mechanics 3.7 3.9 4.1 3.0
47. Mechanics of Materials 3.1 2.5 1.4 1.1
48. Total Items 46-67 6.8 6.4 5.1 4.2.


50. Elementary El. Eng.
51. Elementary Electronics
52. Total Items 50-51

4.7 4.0 2.8 2.4
0.3 0.9 1.5 0.8
5.0 5.0 4.3 3.2

0.2 79.0 53.3 6.0 4.0 5.0
9.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
8.1 44.4 81.5 98.8 95.0 100.0
17.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
7.3 100.0 100.0 97.6 99.0 97.0
6.7 100.0 98.9 97.6 99.0 96.0
6.8 100.0 98.9 98.8 98.0 99.0
0.7 98.8 94.6 36.1 31.0 29.0
0.2 44.4 39.2 25.3 15.0 13.0
1.5 9.9 9.8 18.0 20.0 32.0
23.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 100.0
7.3 100.0 100.0 98.8 95.0 90.0
1.1 8.6 38.0 38.6 34.0 26.0

9.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 98.0
49.0 100.0 100.0 85.5 100.0 100.0

1.3 97.5 94.6 67.5 59.0 50.0

1.0 55.6 58.7 39.8 33.0 32.0
0.8 23.5 22.8 27.7 29.0 36.0
0.3 18.5 8.7 2.4 4.0 10.0
1.8 70.4 68.5 55.4 53.0 52.0

1.8 97.8 97.5 90.4 78.0 72.0
1.1 97.5 80.4 47.0 41.0 40.0
4.0 100.0 97.8 90.4 85.0 84.0

2.2 98.8 93.5 77.1 73.0 66.0
0.7 9.9 38.0 49.4 28.0 26.0
2.9 100.0 95.7 88.0 79.0 74.0


54. Physical Metallurgy 1.2 0.6
55. Other Category A Courses 0.1 0.3
56. Metallurgy 0.4 0.6
57. Other Category B Courses 0.6 0.3
58. Total Items 54-57 2.3 1.9


60. Biology and Geology
61. Heat Power
62. Shop Practice
63. Other
64. Total Items 60-63


66. Material & Energy Bal.
67. Thermodynamics
68. Chemical Kinetics
69. Subtotal Items 66-68
70. Unit Operations Theory
71. Unit Operations Lab.
72. Subtotal Items 70-71
73. Ch.E. Design
74. Chemical Technology
75. Investigational Skills
76. Intro. to Ch.E.
77. Instrumentation
78. Unit Processes
79. Trips
80. Fuels and Lubricants
81. Other
82. Subtotal Items 73-80
83. Total Items 69, 72, 82


85. Total Tech. Electives

0.2 0.2
0.8 0.2
0.4 0.1
0.4 0.3
1.8 0.8

0.2 0.2
1.4 1.2
0.o 0.1
0.2 0.2
2.0 1.6

0.3 0.3
0.1 0.0
0.1 0.0
0.9 0.5
1.3 0.9

40.7 20.6
5.0 11.9
12.7 21.7
28.4 11.9
67.9 55.4

4.9 4.3
23.5 8.7
23.5 8.7
13.6 15.2
45.7 29.3

98.8 9.3
100.0 100.0
18.5 53.2
100.0 100.0
100.0 97.8
100.0 98.9
100.0 98.9
90.1 86.9
75.3 53.2
70.4 50.0
38.3 39.1
32.1 41.3
27.2 23.9
21.0 17.4
13.6 4.3
19.8 42.3
100.0 98.9
100.0 100.0

13.3 9.0 7.0
57.8 49.0 38.0
2.4 3.0 2.0
10.8 12.0 11.0
71.1 58.0 49.0

6.0 8.0 7.0
1.2 5.0 1.0
1.2 3.0 1.0
18.1 20.0 12.0
24.1 27.0 23.0

91.6 86.0 90.0
98.8 99.0 97.0
89.2 95.0 100.0
75.9 100.0 100.0
73.5 98.0 100.0
81.9 88.0 89.0
91.6 98.0 100.0
90.4 91.0 100.0
19.3 15.0 11.0
24.1 25.0 26.0
30.1 33.0 34.0
71.1 74.0 80.0
7.2 14.0 5.0
7.2 6.0 5.0
2.4 0.0 0.0
61.5 69.0 100.0
98.8 97.0 100.0
98.8 100.0 100.0

3.6 5.2 6.2 7.7 7.6 65.4 75.0 72.3 83.0 82.0 *

Avg. SH when Offered
1957 1961 1968 1972 1976

6.6 6.0 5.3 4.8 4.5
2.4 2.3 2.7 2.6 2.3
7.7 7.1 6.0 5.4 5.2
6.3 7.6 7.5 8.5 8.2
5.9 4.8 6.2 6.6 7.3
5.7 7.3 6.7 7.4 6.1
8.3 9.2 12.3 12.8 11.8
14.7 17.2 19.1 20.0 18.9
3.5 3.7 2.8 2.6 2.5
6.5 6.0 4.4 7.7 2.0
1.3 2.0 2.2 3.4 4.1
6.2 6.6 3.7 4.5 3.5
27.5 29.6 26.8 26.0 25.0;

5.6 4.9 2.8 2.3 3.1
11.6 11.7 11.3 9.9 9.8
2.8 4.3 6.3 7.6 8.1
17.3 17.9 17.7 17.9 17.9
8.0 7.8 7.5 7.2 7.6
8.5 8.2 7.9 7.2 6.8
8.5 7.8 7.5 6.7 6.9
4.2 3.7 3.3 2.6 2.3
3.0 3.3 2.3 2.3 1.9
3.3 5.5 .2.8 3.3 4.6
30.8 28.9 24.4 22.9 23.0
10.8 10.2 8.6 7.6 8.1
2.6 2.7 3.7 4.0 4.1

11.1 11.3 10.5 9.1 8.9
59.2 57.9 52.2 49.7 49.5:.

4.8 4.0 3.0 2.6 2.6

3.9 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.1
2.8 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.2
2.9 3.0 4.5 4.1 2.7
4.8 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.4

3.8 4.0 4.5 3.8 2.5
3.2 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.8
6.8 6.6 5.7 4.9 4.8

4.8 4.3 3.6 3.3 3.6
2.6 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.6
5.0 5.2 4.8 4.1 3.9

2.9 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.5
2.0 2.6 3.0 2.8 3.0
2.9 3.0 3.0 0.8 2.2
2.1 2.6 2.3 1.8 1.8
3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2

3.8 4.0 4.4 3.4 3.7
3.4 2.3 4.0 2.1 1.0
1.7 1.3 1.0 1.8 1.0
2.8 2.2 3.0 4.5 4.2
3.9 2.8 3.3 4.9 3.9

3.9 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.4
4.8 5.0 4.6 4.4 4.6
2.5 2.3 3.0 3.1 3.0
9.1 9.2 6.6 10.1 11.0
7.6 8.4 5.9 9.9 9.7
4.1 4.0 3.3 3.1 3.3
11.7 12.2 7.7 12.7 13.0
4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9 4.1
3.6 3.3 3.0 2.3 1.9
3.5 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.1
2.0 2.3 1.8 2.3 1.9
2.3 2.5 3.3 3.1 2.3
2.2 3.0 3.2 2.6 3.4
1.5 1.7 1.2 1.4 0.9
1.9 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.0
2.9 3.9 6.6 6.5 5.5
12.1 11.6 12.5 8.4 23.1
32.9 32.8 33.8 35.5 36.9

5.5 7.0 8.6 9.3 9.4


as an increase from 11 to 14 percent over the
period of the various surveys. However, there
has been a slight decrease since the 1972 survey.
Figure 3 shows the changes in the chemistry
part of the curricula. The figures in parenthesis
again represent the percentage of the total
offering. In 1957 22% of the curricula was
chemistry, while in 1976 only 18% represented
chemistry. This includes beginning chemistry as
well as advanced chemistry. There has been very
little change over the last eight years, but a
further decrease could be of concern to the
chemical engineer. Current AIChE minimums
require one semester or 12.5 percent chemistry
beyond the introductory chemistry.


PERHAPS ONE OF THE greatest areas of
concern is shown in Figure 4. This figure
presents the data relative to the percentage of

Dee Barker is professor and chairman of ChE at Brigham Young
University. Dee earned the B.S. and Ph.D. ('51) degrees from the
University of Utah. His industrial experience includes several years
with duPont in nuclear engineering and with Hercules, Inc., in
atmospheric pollution, heat transfer, and materials development. He
has served foreign assignments at Provo Institute of Technology and
Science at Pilani, Rajasthan, India and Birla Institute of Technology
and Science. Dee's fields of interest include nuclear engineering,
fluid dynamics, heat transfer, process control and environmental

of the actual course offerings under math,
mechanics, kinetics, etc. The form used in the
present survey asks for information relative to
30.8 (22)
28.9 (21) the different kinds of math, etc. These data are
1 24.4 (17) shown in Table 2. Under the math offerings intro-
| 22.9 (17)
23 ( i. duction and review is not included since only
5% of all schools reporting required any intro-
ductory or review math. Under unit operations
: .. 2, i 2 theory an attempt was made to differentiate
FIGURE 3. Chemistry SH (% of curriculum), between transport and the conventional unit
operations of heat transfer fluid flow and mass
transfer. As can be seen the curricula is almost
ols offering communications as part of their balanced in relationship to transport theory and
'icula. It should be noted that in 1957 98.8% unit operation theory. Under instrumentation it
he schools offered courses in communications, should be noted that most of the work deals with
is in written and oral communication. By process control. The analysis will be continued

1976 only 77% of the schools offered courses in
communications. In addition, the number of
semester hours has decreased from 7.7 to 5.2.
There is an obvious need for the ChE student to
be proficient in written and oral communications.
This part of the undergraduate ChE education
should be given attention by the ChE educators.
This does not mean to say that there needs to be
a formal course in oral or written communication,
but that these skills should be developed. It might
be possible that these skills are currently being
developed in seminars and laboratories.
The earlier surveys did not include an analysis

60 70 o 90 100
FIGURE 4. Communications % school offering.


of t

in a future survey so that trends can be noted.
It is of interest to compare the distribution
of course work as determined by the average of
this survey with the distributions of course work
under the AIChE minimum requirements; this
comparison is shown in Table 3. As can be seen
with the exception of chemistry, the present
average curriculum would meet ECPD and

B. Ch.E. Curriculum- 1976


Distribution of Course Work


Mathematics beyond Trigonometry
Basic Sciences [Show Advanced
Chemistry in ( )]
Engineering Sciences
Engineering Design, Synthesis,
and Systems
Humanities/ Social Sciences
Other Required Technical Courses
Other Required Courses (Non-Technical)
Other Technical Electives
Other Free Electives
Total of "Other"
TOTAL: Percent





Analytical Geometry
Differential Equation
Linear Algebra
Advanced Calculus
Computer Variables
Partial Differential Equations
Numerical Analysis
Digital Computing & Progr.
Analog Computations
Applied Engineering Math
Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Reactor Design
Transport Theory
Transport Lab
Equilibrium Stage
U.O. Theory
ChE Design
Process Synthesis
Process Control
Process Dynamics
Mathematical Modeling
Computer Applications in ChE
Biomedical Engineering
Polymer Processing
Nuclear Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Other ChE required
Chemical Engineering Electives

AIChE minimum requirements. However, chemis-
try is somewhat low and this could be of some
concern. It is not possible to make an entirely
accurate assessment since there may be chemis-
try included in other courses such as thermo-
dynamics. For the purpose of determining
engineering sciences, items 48, 52, 58, 66, 67, 68,
70 and 77 were included as fulfilling requirements
in engineering sciences. Since this division is
somewhat arbitrary, the actual curricula offerings
of the various schools may be somewhat different.
The survey requested the listing of the text-
book used in ChE courses. The reason for this
was to help decide which category to place the
actual course under. It was intended to list the
textbooks used in various courses. However, the
results were that not all schools listed their books.
In the areas of material and energy balance,
thermodynamics, kinetics and process control,
there is remarkable uniformity in the answers re-
ceived. The book by Himmelblau is used by 63
schools. The book by Levenspiel is used by 62
schools, and the book by Smith and Van Ness is
used by 54 schools. The book on process control
by Coughanowr and Koppel was used by 34
schools. Fifty-eight schools reported the text used
in design was that by Peters and Timmerhouse.
In addition to Smith and Van Ness in thermo-
dynamics, the book by Balzhiser was used by 16
of the schools reporting. And 18 schools used a
book in kinetics by Smith.
The major books used in the transport theory
and operations were those by McCabe and Smith
Continued on page 96.






University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004

itself with both object matter and with the
prerequisite knowledge a student needs to know
in order to learn a subject. In general, the pre-
requisite analysis should
* Identify a set of basic subjects needed to study a
specific subject
* Identify all of the sequences of subjects to learn a
specified subject
* Identify the optimal sequence to a specific subject where
the optimality criterion might be: a) minimum time;
b) minimum number of subjects; c) minimum effort.
This type of analysis could be of help to ad-
ministrators, teachers, and students in organizing
and optimizing courses, evaluating examination
results, student performance evaluations, etc.
In principle, it is possible to identify the pre-
requisite knowledge a student needs to learn a
new subject. Then for a given number of subjects,
each subject having a list of prerequisite subjects,
it is possible to construct a figure such as Figure
1, which represents this prerequisite information.
Figure 1 is a diagram for the subject matter of
the Material and Energy Balance self-study
modules being prepared for the CHEMI Project
[1] by the CACHE Corporation under the sponsor-
ship of the NSF Contract. Table 1 is a listing of
the individual topics (modules) and the number
associated with each topic in Figure 1. This listing
was formulated by Professor Dave Himmelblau.

Material and Energy Balances
1. Units and dimensions (including systems, conver-
sion factors)

*On leave from the University of Puerto Rico.

Professor Henley has been a professor of chemical engineering
at the University of Houston, since 1964. He received his Ph.D.
from Columbia University in 1953 and has been on the faculty
of Columbia University and Stevens Institute of Technology.

William Heenan is a visiting Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering for University of Houston at Victoria, Texas, on leave
from the University of Puerto Rico. Holder of a Ph.D. degree
from University of Detroit, he has been a consultant for Atomic
Power Development Corp., a process engineer for Monsanto Co.,
professor for University of Puerto Rico, and a consultant for CACHE
Corp. He is a member of AIChE, ASCE, and Tau Beta Pi.

2. Methods of analysis and measurement (density,
concentration, mole and weight fraction, specific
gravity, etc.
3. General guidelines for solving problems (including
selection of basis)
4. Temperature (measurement, scales, conversion)
5. Pressure (measurement, scales, conversion)
6. Sources of data for physical properties
7. Ideal gas laws for one component
8. Ideal gas mixtures (including partial pressure)
9. Real gas computations-equations of state
10. Real gas computations-compressibility charts
11. Real gas computations-mixtures
12. Vapor pressure
13. Saturation, humidity
14. Partial saturation, humidity
15. Phase phenomena (including phase rule)
16. Steady state material balances-algebra not required
17. Steady state material balances-algebraic solution
required (includes the components)


18. Steady state material balances-recycle, bypass,
19. Steady state material balances-involving vaporiza-
tion and condensation
20. Degrees of freedom in process specification
21. Steady state material balances-multiple process of
22. Solution of steady state material balances via the
computer, Part I
23. Solutions of steady state material balances via the
computer-Part II-effective numerical techniques
24. Solution of steady state material balances via the
computer-Part III
25. Concepts of energy and work (including heat, kinetic
energy, potential energy, state, enthalpy, property)
26. Heat capacity (definition, measurement, computa-
tion, prediction)
27. Enthalpy (computation, application, tables, charts)
28. Enthalpy for phase change
29. Steady state energy balance-principle and formula-
30. Steady state energy balance-application
31. Mechanical energy balance
32. Heat of formation, reaction, and combustion
33. Change of heat of reaction with temperature and
34. Incomplete reactions
35. Heats of solution and mixing
36. Steady state simultaneous material and energy
37. Steady state simultaneous material and energy
balances-applications to combustion
38. Steady state simultaneous material and energy
balances-applications to enthalpy concentration
39. Steady state simultaneous material and energy
balances-application to humidity charts and their
40. Steady state simultaneous material and energy
balances-application to .
41. Unsteady state balances-principles
42. Unsteady state balances-solution techniques for
ordinary differential equations

FIGURE 1. Material and energy balance modules.

43. Unsteady state balances-applications and examples
45. Module 45 is a dummy module since the algorithm
can only handle "and" and "or" statements, and
not combined and/or situations
46. Dummy module

Figure 1 is prepared by beginning with the
most fundamental or basic modules having no
prerequisites with respect to the other modules
and then proceeding to the other modules asking
the question whether the previous module is a
direct pre-prerequisite (an "and" statement) or
are there other direct prerequisite possibilities
(an "or" statement). Note, only direct pre-
requisites need be considered for the construction
of Figure 1. For this example, only module titles
and the authors' teaching experiences were used.
Once the modules are completed, it will be possible
to use the prerequisite listing prepared by the
module author to aid in the preparation of the
diagram. While there will be variation in Figure
1, depending on who and how the diagram is

A curriculum analysis
must concern itself with both
object matter and with the prerequisite
knowledge a student needs to know in
order to learn a subject... then for a given
number of subjects, each subject having
a list of prerequisite subjects, it is possible
to construct a figure which represents
this prerequisite information.

constructed, the computer analysis discussed later
provides a self-corrective method to help eliminate
the variation.
The diagram shows only direct prerequisite
relations of topics in a curriculum for a specified
field, and consists of topics (modules), nodes, flag
gates, and directed arrows. Nodes are used in
the diagram as in block diagrams. They are of
two types: input nodes and output nodes. They
are represented by dots. The directed arrows are
used to indicate the direction of flow in the
diagram. The flag gates are located in the top
half of the circle and topic number in the lower
half. There are three types of gates:

2 Represents an originating topic (module)-no pre-
requisite needed
1 Represents an or gate
0 Represents an and gate
The diagram indicates, for example, that if


one wants to study topic 2 one needs to study topic
1 first. On the other hand, if one wants to study
topic 4 there are alternatives. One could study
topic 1 and then go directly to 4, or one could
study topics 1, 2, 3 and then 4, or one could
study just topics 1, 3, and then 4, or 1, 2, and 4.


PROCEEDING TO HIGHER numbered topics,
we see that Figure 1 becomes somewhat
difficult to follow and analyze. Henley and
Caceres [2], and Henley and Longoria [3, 4] have
developed an algorithm which aids in the analysis
of this type of diagram. The algorithm, based on
graph theory [5], develops a path matrix of all
the possible paths to a given module or topic. This
path matrix is then transformed into a form
similar to a fault tree. Figure 2 is a typical output

** i---
*46* *5 *5*
AD 4o O05

6R 4* OR
AND o*, o ,A
r---I AND
04* 45. *5 4
I l **

--- r-- AND OR
---T---1 *'*

FIGURE 2. Prerequisite diagram.

where module 7 in Figure 1 was chosen as the
'Top Event.' Figure 2 enables one to clearly
identify all of the sequences of subjects to learn
topic 7, the ideal gas laws for one component. It
enables one to quickly determine the number of
different paths to the topic, the shortest path to
the topic (time optimal path), and the most re-
occurring prerequisite topics-those which appear
in all the different paths to a topic. Also, from
Figure 2, terminal topics and basic (beginning)
topics are easily identified.
As an example, consider the computer print-
out for module 1-Ideal Gas Laws for One Com-
ponent-shown in Figure 2. Examining Figure
2, we observe the following independent paths
leading to module 7:

Since the sequence of modules 4 and 5 can be
interchanged, there are 16 different ways of
approaching module 7. We see that path 7-46-4-5-1
is the shortest path to module 7 if all modules
involve the same time and effort. Ideally this is
the case for the CHEMI modules, since each is
designed to be equivalent to a one hour lecture.
However, should the time and effort of the modules
be different, the total time of each path could be
determined simply by assigning the specific time
to each module and then adding to arrive at the
total time.
The most reoccurring prerequisite modules,
that is-the modules which are near absolute pre-
requisites for a given topic are the same modules
which comprise the shortest path. For module 7
we see from the sixteen possible paths, that
modules 1-4 and 5 are required for each possible
Table 2 summarizes the analysis of all the
modules in the subject heading of Material and
Energy Balances with respect to two categories:
possible paths to a given modules, and the time
optimal path and/or the most reoccurring pre-
requisite modules.
The information in Table 2 can be used by both
the student and the professor. The student desiring
to learn given topics or modules can optimize his
time by choosing the time optimal path. The pro-
fessor, on the other hand, having a time constraint
on his course, can structure his course based on the
most reoccurring prerequisite modules, thereby
giving the student the most general or funda-
mental background for future studies. For
example, suppose only 16 hours of course time
were available, then only 16 CHEMI modules
could be studied. Which 16 should be taught?
From Table 2 it seems clear from observing the
most reoccurring module column, that we should
start with module 1, then 4, 5, 7, etc. until we
have 16 modules-skipping modules that are not
as fundamental as others. This process should,
however, not be followed blindly since higher
numbered modules of importance can be neglected.
Continued on page 95.


Material and Energy Balances


1. Units and Dimensions
2. Methods of analysis and measurement
3. General Guidelines for solving problems
4. Temperature
5. Pressure
6. Sources of data for physical properties
7. Ideal Gas laws for one component
8. Ideal Gas mixtures
9. Real Gas Computations eqs. of state
10. Real Gas computations compressibility
11. Real Gas computations mixtures
12. Vapor Pressure
13. Saturation, humidity
14. Partial saturation
15. Phase phenomena
16. Steady state material balances-all, not req.
17. Steady state material balances-all req.
18. Steady state material balances, bypass, surge
19. Steady state material balances involving vap. and cond
20. Degrees of freedom
21. Steady state material balances multiple process
22. Solution of Steady state material balances-
via computer-Part I
23. Solution of Steady state material balances-
via computer-Part II
24. Solution of Steady state material balances-
via computer-Part III
25. Concepts of energy and work
26. Heat capacity
27. Enthalpy
28. Enthalpy for phase change
29. Steady state energy balance
30. Steady state energy balance application
31. Mechanical energy balance
32. Heat of formation, reaction and combustion
33. Change of heat of reaction with temp.
and pressure
34. Incomplete reactions
35. Heats of solution and mixing
36. Steady state simultaneous material and
energy balances-principles
37. Steady state material and energy balances-
38. Steady state material and energy balances-
enthalpy concentration charts
39. Steady state material and energy balances -
humidity charts
40. Steady state material and energy balances-
41. Unsteady state balances principles
42. Unsteady state balances solution techniques for
ordinary differential eq.
43. Unsteady state balances applications
and examples














no prerequisite
no prerequisite
no prerequisites














4 Pnpocded eoude.


University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

SOME CONSIDERATION of the relationship
of the sciences to the humanities should have
a place in the education of an engineer. It is a
perennial issue and underlies many others that
come to the surface in different forms at different
times and flourish for a season. The question of
the social responsibility of the engineer, for
example, which has rightly attracted a lot of atten-
tion in the last few years, is rooted in the whole
question of morality of knowledge, scientific or
humanistic, and hence of their relationship to
one another. "The Sciences and the Humanities"
can indeed be the title for and the subject of a
complete course, but it is also suitable for a more
discursive seminar, perhaps promoted informally
within a department, where it can be a valuable
and healthy ventilation of ideas. However, since
little but turbulence may result from throwing
all the windows open at once and even the most
informal of styles requires some underlying struc-
ture, the following outline of ideas is adumbrated
in the hope that it may be serviceable. It does
not attempt to lay out a topic by topic syllabus,
for this, as we shall show, would be inappropriate,

If the 'opening gambit'
of this course is to make the
student aware of the complexity
and seriousness of the problem and
the'middle game' to deepen this by his-
torical insight, it must not be thought
that the 'end game' will be a neat
and ingenious solution in which
white is to mate in three moves.

but it does try to examine some of the considera-
tions which the first author's experience in teach-
ing such a course over the last 14 years has shown
to be cardinal and which the second author's
attempt to grasp has proved to be slippery.
An inescapable feature of the course which
we propose is that it does not have the type of
content that many have come to expect from
courses in the established subject areas. This
does not mean that it is devoid of "content" but
rather that it does not have the customary, or
"normal" content. It does not enhance the kind
of educational talent which impresses the general
public. Students do not emerge from it as better
engineers or researchers nor do they acquire a
deeper appreciation of political or legal process,
or find their esthetic sensibilities elevated. The
absence of normal content may at first be disturb-
ing for the course does not, to put it bluntly, seem
to be about anything. It does not impart informa-
tion about the gene or atom or instruct the student
in the subtleties of literary expression or sharpen
his ability to manage the practical problems of
life. A course in the Sciences and the Humanities
is not "science," nor is it "humanities." But
neither should it be another adventure in random
curricular hybridization or an interdisciplinary
pastiche of materials drawn from the two sectors
in the hope of attaining a grand and ultimate
fusion of knowledge. What, then, is it?
It is perhaps helpful to distinguish between
two general kinds of course content. The one,
with which we are the most familiar, possesses
what might be called "first-order" content. In
such a course the emphasis is on the orderly
transfer of information. This may be empirical
information concerning natural processes or
social systems or theoretical information such as
the structure of a mathematical theory. There
are other courses whose content is of the first
order even though their content cannot so readily


be formulated as a series of testable propositions.
For example, a course which focuses system-
atically upon certain themes, such as the rise of
positivism in the nineteenth century, or on certain
questions such as the comparative development
of Greek and Babylonian astrology. These do not
engage the student at the level of cumulative
empirical information but require that he grasp
complex, and often highly abstract, issues and
ideas. It is characteristic of courses with first-
order content that they are about something.
They may transmit significant information or in-
cisively shape our understanding of a complex
issue but they have little, if anything, to say that
pertains to the broader curricular context in
which their content plays its distinctive role.


rather like maps, whose usefulness depends
upon the extent to which they resemble the
regions that they depict. Undoubtedly, all maps
reflect the theoretical understanding and inten-
tions of their makers, but their success in order-
ing our perceptions and movements does not re-
quire our having learned how they were devised,
nor the geographical theory upon which they rest.
Of course, if we are curious enough we may under-
take a serious study of the cartographer's craft,
or probing deeper, we may question the implicit
idea of verisimilitude. But in that case we would
be doing something fundamentally different from
simply following the map. Thus, courses with first-
order content are intended to organize our think-
ing and refine the competency of our actions with
respect to some specific purpose or goal. This
purpose may be to illuminate an ancient text or
increase our knowledge of a particular class of
natural processes; it may be to introduce the
student to programs and policies whose goal is
maximizing health, industrial output or the ability
to wage war. Such courses are like first-order
maps which "resemble" the world rather than,
let us say, second-order maps which examine the
nature of map making, that is, depict the several
features of the curriculum within which they are
set. Thus, the professor of literary criticism does
not have to contend with the question-assuming
it could be plausibly framed-of whether his work
is "the same" or "different" from the investiga-
tive activities of the professor of chemistry. The
accuracy and value of his analysis of a work of

literature in no way depends upon the place of
his course with respect to those in the fine arts
or the sciences.
Nevertheless, there are aspects of first-order
content with require consideration. The notion
that courses of this type are like maps which bear
an assumed likeness to the regions which they
represent requires further comment. It is con-
ceivable that maps depicting the same region may
differ significantly and yet be sound and useful
maps. Maps of different regions will clearly be
different but how they may systematically cohere
is also a problem. Furthermore, the inhabitants
may possess their own account of the place they
occupy which is at odds with the renditions of an
alien geographer. Now there is a sense in which,
comparably speaking, the student comes to the

An inescapable feature
of the course which we propose
is that it does not have the type of
content that many have come to expect
from courses in the established subject areas.

course in chemistry or moral philosophy armed
with indigenous and exclusive visions of man and
nature which, like first-order curricular maps,
are believed to "resemble" the world. It would
be foolhardy to ignore the role played by the
electronic and cinematographic media in shaping
her or his moral and philosophical outlook. The
disheartening claim that "our students don't
read" is less a symptom of their intellectual
ankylosis than of the fact that the higher
curriculum is not a dominant source for inquiry
into problems of individual and social existence.
The traditional view that what we have called
"first-order" content may critically revise the
roughly hewn "pre-scientific" or "unreflective"
attitudes and beliefs of everyday life seems no
longer tenable. The student is assailed with be-
wildering interpretations of the human condition
drawn from ethnic folklore, popular sociology,
lurid occultism, animadversions to "the bank-
ruptcy of western rationalism," etc., which have
brought the adequacy of first-order content into
question. In such a climate a course of second-
order content may well have the merit of making
both student and teacher sit back and take stock
of the value of the educational enterprise in which
both are taking part.


The first level of reflection sends us to the
dictionary to enquire what it is that each of the
sciences and each of the humanities takes for its
subject. Perhaps from these it will be possible
to extract a definitional element which will allow
us to see the relationship. Thus Prior [1] in

It is helpful to distinguish between two
general kinds of course content... one
possesses what might be called 'first-order'
content. In such a course the emphasis
is on the orderly transfer of information.

searching for just such a common element among
the various types of work usually regarded as
humanistic sees them as united in their concern
with "the human responses to all forms of ex-
perience and therefore primarily with those
aspects of human experience 'that cannot be re-
solved into either natural processes common to
all men and animals or into impersonal forces
affecting all members of a given society' [2]. As
a starting point for a definition of science, Prior
takes Nagel's claim that "it has been the perennial
aim of theoretical science to make the world in-
telligible by disclosing fixed patterns of regularity
and orders of dependence in events." [3]. On the
one hand, the sciences are concerned with lawful
regularities and objective facts, while on the other,
the humanities are concerned with values, indeed
with the values that may ultimately shape science.


P RIOR'S BOOK, "Science and the Humanities:
An Essay in Definition" is an excellent example
of a second-order curriculum map in the making.
His overall position is that though the sciences
and the humanities may share certain characteris-
tics, they are in the most fundamental sense un-
alterably different. There can be no question that
we need to delineate the essential ways in which
they differ but this cannot be done by studying
the persons and thought of scientists and
humanists-there is altogether too much varia-
tion and irrelevance in that respect-rather must
we concentrate on the characteristic properties
of their typical productions. On the one hand,
these are value-neutral descriptions of states-of-
affairs; on the other, value-laden representations
of the actions and inner states of individuals.
The scientist's effort is to establish general natural

regularities on objective evidential grounds; the
humanist deals with the unique, personalized
vision of the human mind. Excising the polemical
content of Prior's analysis, we are left with a
second-order map, for his account of properties
and products contains statements about science
and the humanities and he assumes that there are
such entities, with their own inherent character-
istics, which can, indeed should, be demarcated.
Prior's "map" is a typical, initial (often im-
passioned) response to the science-humanities and
this not only from students-deans, department
heads and the like hang onto to it for dear life!
But the student needs to be made aware that
(a) we already have such a "map" in the deeply
rooted attitudes which we have already acquired,
perhaps unconsciously, along with our first-order
learning, and (b) that there are alternative maps.
Discussion of Prior's map should raise questions
about his basic assumptions and his suggested
characterizations. For example: is his notion of a
"product" well defined? In one place he asserts
that the mental processes that lead to theories
are the products of science, in another it is the
theories themselves. But what of the physical
products and instruments-the cloud chambers,
vaccines or bombs? Similarly, with sonnets and
symphonies, treatises and tapestries as the
products of the humanities, we have a collection
so diverse and confusing as to make his concept
of "products" incoherent. He assumes that there
is a single, unified "Science" and an intrinsically
unified "Humanities" which may be delineated by
their inherent characteristics. But the gaps be-
tween the sciences themselves may be as vast and
puzzling as that between the sciences and the
humanities. Moreover, the relationships between
the sciences may not be analogous to those between
humanistic disciplines, a unified scheme of which,
in spite of Foucault [4], Cassirier [5], and
Langer [6], is still far on the distant conceptual
With such considerations the course should
persuade the student of the importance of
examining his own, and other, second-order maps
and make him aware of the diverse complexity
of the issues. It brings us to the point where a
limited survey of historical perspectives is
profitable. This allows the student to follow the
salient views of the recent past as they achieve
their contemporary form and heightens the
credibility of the problem of showing the pattern
of its development.



C P. SNOW'S Rede Lecture in 1959, "The two
cultures and the scientific revolution," seems
to have served as spark for much of the discussion
of recent years, some of which has been more in-
flammatory than illuminating [7]. Yet the Snow-
Leavis controversy is but a contemporary mani-
festation of an ongoing debate, and it is useful
to back up a century or so and listen to T. H.
Huxley and Matthew Arnold discussing the same
issues. In delivering an address [8] at the opening
of Sir Josiah Mason's Scientific College in
Birmingham on October 1, 1880, T. H. Huxley
took the opportunity of defending the stipulation
of the founder that no provision should be made
for "mere literary instruction and education." He
noted that the introduction of scientific education
had been continually resisted by traditionalists-
"Levites in charge of the ark of culture and
monopolists of liberal education" he called them-
who believed in the efficacy of classical education,
and by the practical men, who worshipped their
own god-the rule of thumb-who had "been the
source of past prosperity" and would "suffice for
the future welfare of the arts and manufacture."
The latter he regarded as already defeated by the
evidence of the value of science to popular
progress, but the former he acknowledged to be

ties and its limitations"), he dissented from the
assumption that literature alone was able to supply
it. He took the traditional viewpoint to be a carry-
over from the Middle Ages when the Latin tongue
was the entrance to all knowledge surviving even
when the medieval worldview-"conclusions in
accordance with ecclesiastical decrees" "deduced
from the data furnished by theologians"-was
quite discredited. Loudly as he acclaimed the
victory of the Renaissance humanists over this
superstition, he deplored the fact that their
revival of classical studies had become ossified
into a reactionary resistance to the spread of
"natural knowledge," the distinctive feature of
the times, the shaping of the present life and
hope of future prosperity [9].
Huxley was taking issue with Arnold's claim
that the proper intellectual "outfit" for the
nations of the civilized world was "a knowledge
of Greek, Roman and Eastern antiquity, and of
one another." Arnold complained [10] that Huxley
took this to mean "literature" in the narrow
sense of "belles lettres" and joined him in con-
demning "superficial humanism." In proposing
that we should learn all "the best that has been
thought and said in the world," Arnold would
certainly have included "the great results of the
modern scientific study of nature" with literature
and art. However, he demurred at the claim that

Prior's overall position is that though the
sciences and the humanities may share certain
characteristics, they are in the most fundamental sense
unalterably different Excising the polemical content of
Prior's analysis, we are left with a second-order map, for
his account of properties and products contains statements
about science and the humanities and he assumes that there are such
entities with their own inherent characteristics, which can and should be demarcated.

less easily extirpated, dug in as they were in the
trenches of Latin and Greek and the foxholes of
Philosophy. Huxley held that real culture could
be attained at least as effectually by a purely
scientific education as by an exclusively literary
one and that the discipline and subject matter
of a classical education were of too little direct
value to be worth the time of the student of
physical science. Agreeing with Arnold that the
essence of culture is "a criticism of life" (that
is, as he later put it, "a complete theory of life,
based upon a clear knowledge alike of its possibili-

it was desirable to be able to follow the processes
by which scientific results were reached and
beyond acknowledging that "in natural science
the habit gained of dealing with facts is a most
valuable discipline" he would not go. To show
that "natural knowledge" was not suited to have
the "chief place in the education of the majority
of mankind" he put forward an interesting view.
There are certain powers that go into the building
up of human life; "the power of conduct, the
power of intellect and knowledge, the power of
beauty and the power of social life and manners"



was his rough enumeration. With these powers
certain cultural pursuits are associated, as when
in following the power of knowledge we acquire
certain information. But beyond them lies the
desire to relate the different powers and their
pursuits to one another and "in this desire lies
the strength of the hold which letters have upon

knowledges" as those which cannot be made
to serve this integrative instinct directly though
they lead on to other knowledge which can so
serve. The natural sciences seem to stand for
him on this second tier, but even when they bring
us to what Huxley calls the great "general con-
ceptions of the universe forced upon us by the
physical sciences," they still fall short and because
the knowledge they give is not put in relation to
our sense for conduct or beauty, because it is un-
touched by emotion it becomes after a while un-
satisfying and wearying. Arnold is not concerned
with the social issues nor does he explain how the
development of culture as he sees it is to be
articulated, but on one thing he is emphatic-
that the threatened dominance of science would
be stifling and stultifying.
It is a debate conducted with the amplitude of
Victorian prose and a generosity of spirit that
later encounters often lack. Arnold calls Huxley
"a man of science who is also an excellent writer

... the course should persuade the student of
the importance of examining his own,
and other, second-order maps and
make him aware of the diverse
complexity of the issues.

and the very prince of debaters"; Huxley says
he is "too well acquainted with the generous
catholicity of spirit, the true sympathy with
scientific thought which pervades the writings
of our chief apostle of culture" to identify him
with the opinion that a liberal education con-
sists only in a little Latin and less Greek. It is a
far cry from Leavis' "as a novelist Snow doesn't
begin to exist" which betrays, as Snow retorts,
"a psychological compartment" in which he has no
desire to join him. But fireworks aside, the Snow-

Leavis debate is little more than an updating of
the Huxley-Arnold. Leavis does not speak of
powers but of discourses or languages, for which
literature plays the same integrative role as being
the best exemplification of discourse. Snow's claim
is that the humanist has ignored the social con-
dition of man by focussing his attention on the
tragedy of the individual and has thus become
insensitive to the needs of the very "humanity"
he claims to represent. The scientist by contrast,
having "the future in his bones," is basically
optimistic even though he is just as sensitive as
the humanist to the plight of the individual. It
is when Snow claims that the scientific edifice is
the most beautiful collective work of the mind of
man that he really drives Leavis up the wall.
Leavis' reply, in effect, is that science is not self-
validating and gives no entree into what is
ultimately valuable to man. The ultimate is seen
by all four debaters in what might be called
humanist terms for all are as remote as could
be from the medieval view of man "sub specie
aeternitatis." Arnold and Huxley in the dawn of
the post-Christian era rejoice in the liberating in-
fluences of experience and scientific knowledge
respectively-"is it so small a thing to have
enjoy'd the sun ?" [11]. Snow and Leavis a
century later are flowers of the anthropocentrism
that was budding in the Victorian age, children
of a world view held together by Coulombic
forces rather than compassed about by the
battlements of eternity.
Snow is sometimes read as if he were con-
cerned with the synthetic vision of culture, and
one of the aims of such a course as this is to
elucidate his intention. Is he a Colossus with one
foot in the world of physics, the other in the
world of the novel and his hands in the realm of
affairs and politics or is he a "portent" (the very
word has a hollow sound) as Leavis claims? More
important is it to ask the question of whether he
is trying to find a unified outlook or whether, in
spite of some indications to the contrary, he is
advancing a view of culture in which the scientist
is in the ascendency. What is undoubtedly new
with Snow is his preoccupation with power and
the realization (absent in early writers of scien-
tific background such as H. G. Wells) that the
decisions of the modern world cannot be made
apart from an understanding of scientific advance.
It is the drama of man in power-rather than
man as creature or man's tragic condition-that
animates Snow's novels and gives them an interest


that carries one through their somewhat stilted
conversations. It is interesting that Martin
Green (whose "Science and the shabby curate of
poetry" [12] is perhaps the most balanced and
perceptive reflection published on the two-cultures
controversy) sensed this in his Cambridge seniors
when he was there as an undergraduate in the
latter '40's. "They could believe," he says, "in the
beauty and value and use of power. Oxford and
Cambridge are full of that awareness of power
to come."

Huxley held that real culture
could be attained at least as effectively
by a purely scientific education as by
an exclusively literary one and that the
discipline and subject matter of a classical
education were of too little direct value
to be worth the time of the student
of physical science.


F THE "OPENING GAMBIT" of this course is
to make the student aware of the complexity
and seriousness of the problem and the "middle
game" to deepen this by historical insight, it
must not be thought that the "end game" will be
a neat and ingenious solution in which white is
to mate in three moves. For there is nothing in-
evitable about the moves in such a discussion,
nor even an existence, let alone a uniqueness,
proof of a solution. There are, of course, plenty
of avenues to explore as the list of references
given below (and it is a very abbreviated one)
will show. Bronowski's synthesis can lead to the
discussion of the internal and external ethics of
science [13]; Huxley's little book makes for some
interesting comparisons between his and his an-
cestor's viewpoints [14]. Specific humanistic sub-
jects can be taken up as in the booklets of Levin
[15] and Thorpe [16], or the general question of
culture can be pursued down a variety of avenues
in the writings of Eliot [17], Tillich [18], Marcuse
[19], and Steiner [20].
In short, such a course can be both broadening
and deepening to student and teacher alike, for
preeminently in such a second-order area the in-
teractive nature of learning can be enjoyed to
the full. Because the issue is of central importance,

it is a topic which can be returned to again and
again and which, if the authors' experience is any-
thing to go by, continually provides fresh im-
pressions and insights. O

1. Prior, M. L. Science and the Humanities. North-
western University Press. Evanston. 1962.
2. Prior (loc. cit.) is quoting R. S. Crane, The idea of
the humanities. Carleton College Bulletin. XLIX,
9 (1935).
3. Nagel, E. The place of science in a liberal educa-
tion. Daedalus. 88, 56 (1959).
4. Foucault, M. The order of things: an archaeology
of the human species. Pantheon. New York. 1970.
(Trs. of Les Mots et les choses, 1966).
5. Cassirier, E. The logic of the humanities. Yale Uni-
versity Press. New Haven. 1961.
6. Langer, S. Feeling and form. Scribners. New York.
7. Snow, C. P. The two cultures: and a second look.
New American Library. New York, 1964. This gives
both the original Rede Lecture, The two cultures
and the scientific revolution (C.U.P. Cambridge,
1959), and Snow's subsequent reflections. Leavis'
attack, the Richmond Lecture, was published in the
Spectator but is more available in "Two cultures?
The significance of C. P. Snow." Chatto. London.
1962 where it is joined with a critique by M. Yudkin,
or in the Leavis reference below. See also L. Trilling,
Science, Literature and Culture. Commentary 33,
461 (1962). The pages of the Times Literary Supple-
ment (1970) and Spectator (1970) contain an ex-
tensive correspondence, but the protand deuteragonist
have usefully collected their main contributions in:
C. P. Snow "Public affairs." Macmillan. London.
1971 and F. R. Leavis "Nor shall my sword." Chatto
and Windus. London. 1972. For a footnote by one
who knew them both, see S. G. Putt's essay
"Technique and culture: three Cambridge portraits"
in Essays and Studies 1961. John Murray for the
English Association (New Ser. Vol. 14). London.
8. Huxley, T. H. Science and culture in Collected
Essays. Vol. III. Appleton. New York. 1898.
9. Since Huxley's address is not too easy to find, a
rather full precis of its argument has been given.
10. Arnold, M. Literature and science. In Vol. X, The
complete prose works of Matthew Arnold (Ed. R. H.
Super). University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor.
1974. This was also a Rede Lecture at Cambridge
(June 14, 1882) and was given repeatedly-indeed
ad nauseam auctoris-during Arnold's lecture tour
of America in 1883.
11. Arnold, M. Empedocles on Etna (Scene II). Poems.
Collier. New York. 1902.
12. Green, M. Science and the shabby curate of poetry.
Norton. New York. 1964.
13. Bronowski, J. Science and human values. Harper.

Continued on page 85.



University of Delaware
Wilmington, Delaware 19898
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.
Wilmington, Delaware 19898

THIS IS A REPORT on an experimental pro-
gram to test the concept of training students
at the Master's level by a combination of formal
university graduate courses and an on-the-job
(industrial) internship in lieu of a formal MChE
research project. The objective of the internship
is to introduce the student to the "art" aspects
of chemical engineering to complement the engi-
neering science aspects of the classroom. The
program could be likened to the medical intern-
ship whereby the graduate supplements his
academic training with real-life experience and
training under the guidance of experienced prac-
The program is a closely cooperative joint
effort of the Department of Chemical Engineer-
ing at the University of Delaware and the
Chemical Engineering Consultant Section of the
Engineering Service Division of the E. I. du Pont
de Nemours & Company. The organizations are
close geographically and there has long been strong
interaction through personal and professional con-
tacts. In fact, it was in 1967 during initial con-
tacts between the authors during implementation
of a Washington University type of Design* that
the basic idea for the Internship Program
originated. It was then largely a matter of in-
cubation, detail development, and proposal selling
to the two affected organizations until the pro-
gram was agreed to in March 1974. Two candi-
dates were selected from applicants responding to
publicity released in the Fall of 1974, and the

*Chemical Engineering, May 6, 1968.

T. W. F. Russell is a Professor of ChE and Associate Dean of the
College of Engineering at the University of Delaware. He obtained his
bachelors and masters degree from the University of Alberta and after
working as a design engineer with Union Carbide, Canada for three
years, he obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Delaware. Professor
Russell is a coauthor of "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analy-
sis" (J. Wiley 1972) and Structure of the Chemical Process Industries-
Function and Economics" (McGraw Hill, in press).
Howard E. Turner, manager of chemical engineering in the
Engineering Service Division of DuPont's Engineering Department,
joined the company in 1940. He has worked at the Edge Moor,
Del., plant and the East Chicago plant and in Wilmington in the
Engineering Service Division of the Experimental Station. He has
served as a field section manager at the Newark, Del., office, as
director of maintenance engineering and engineering materials
section, and as head of the ChE section and later, the mechanical
energy processes section. Mr. Turner attending the U. of Minnesota
and received a B.S. degree and a M.S. degree, both in ChE. Mr.
Turner is a fellow of the AIChE.

program commenced in June 1975. (The Uni-
versity of Delaware has just recently completed
arrangements with the Union Carbide Corpora-
tion at Bound Brooks, N.J., to start an Internship
Program at that location. Two other companies
in the Delaware Valley have responded quite
favorably to proposals to initiate Internship
Programs with Delaware.)
The ChE Consultant Section of the Engineer-
ing Department was considered to be an attrac-
tive place in which to test the Intern concept
because of the problem-solving nature of its work
and the availability of senior ChE specialists to
"buddy-up" with the interns and guide their
work. Table 1 shows a schematic outline of the
section's activity. The first-listed group under-
takes many conceptual design problems for the De-
sign Division of the Engineering Department and
for Du Pont industrial departments. These prob-
lems are relatively well-defined and therefore very
suitable for use with the interns. Mass transfer
and fluid flow were chosen as the areas for the


Du Pont Engineering Department
Design Division
Construction Division
Engineering Research & Development Division
Engineering Service Division
Field Engineering
Chemical Engineering Consultants
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer
Reaction Engineering & Chemical Processing
Engineering Evaluations

two interns, one working in each area. We selected
from among the dozen or so specialists in these
areas, two of our senior consultants to act as the
adjunct professors on the intern program; and
they are so listed in the University Directory. The
specific consultants were chosen not only for their
technical competence but especially because of
their teaching ability demonstrated in in-house
continuing education courses and other teaching
experiences. One of the consultants had taught an
Industry-University Partnership design case study
at Delaware for three years.


T HE PROGRAM HAS been supervised by
two steering committees. The structure and
operation of the industrial problem-solving phase
was supervised by H. E. Turner and H. S. Kemp
of Du Pont and T. W. F. Russell of the University
of Delaware. Progress and problems were initially
monitored on a frequency of 2-4 weeks. The
second steering committee supervised relations
with and impact on the University. This com-
mittee was composed of A. B. Metzner, ChE De-
partment Chairman, R. L. Pigford, M. M. Denn,
R. L. McCullough, and T. W. F. Russell.
The interns are required to complete 24 credits
of course work at the graduate level (eight 3-credit
courses) as well as a 120-day intern assignment.
The intern assignment is scheduled as follows:

June 1 Aug. 31

Sept. 1 Dec. 31

Jan. 1 Feb. 10


Students have a three-month
period of full-time effort in the
Engineering Department.
Internship and Course Work.
The student interns two days a
week (Tuesday and Thursday)
and takes four 3-credit courses
in the ChE Department.


Feb. 10 May 30

The students complete their
120-day internship with five
weeks of full-time effort.
Course work in thesis prepara-
The students complete their
course work and prepare their
thesis under the direction of the
appointed adjunct professors.

The program takes twelve months, and some care-
ful scheduling along with a good deal of effort
on behalf of the interns is required.
In the first year of the program, publicity was
limited and the intern selection was carried out
by personally contacting each student who applied
for MChE studies at Delaware. Approximately 20
phone contacts were made and as a result 14
students were invited for on-campus interviews.
Seven from this group were sent to the Engineer-
ing Service Division of the Du Pont Engineering
Department for further review. Two students
were selected, one in January and one in April.
In the second year no phone contact was carried
out since ten out of the thirteen students who
applied for MChE studies requested the intern
option. The student applications were carefully
evaluated by both the ChE Department and the
Du Pont Engineering Department, and two offers

This is an experimental program
to test the concept of training students
at the Master's level by a combination of
formal university graduate courses and an on-the-
job (industrial) internship in lieu of a
formal MChE research project.

were made. Both offers were accepted by mid-
March 1976. As of this writing the first two in-
terns have completed the program and received
degrees in June 1976. The second two interns
began their program June 1, 1976. The first two
interns followed the schedule described. They com-
pleted their internship in February and finished
their "thesis" write-up by April 30, 1976.
A listing of jobs which includes the percentage
of time spent for each job is shown below for
both interns.

1. HAFBOC Computer Program
(Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium)
2. Dimethylformamide Hydrolysis in a




Distillation Column
3. Dimethylformamide Extraction and
4. Absorption Program
5. Solvent Emission Control
6. Bubble Cap Computer Program
(Tray Design)
7. Solvent Condensation
8. Crude Dimethylformamide Distillation
9. Turndown in a Distillation Column
10. HC1 Recovery
11. Cooler-Humidification Evaluation


1. Perforated Pipe Liquid Distributor Design 7%
2. Open Channel Liquid Level Calculation 3%
3. Sizing of Vent Lines and Rupture Discs 5%
Associated with a Vaporizer
4. Venting of a Two-Phase Mixture from a 3%
Reactor to a Collection Tank
5. Pressure Drop in Piping Associated with 3%
Vacuum Crystallizer
6. Analysis of an Expansion Joint 3%
7. Sparger Design for Injection of Steam into 4%
Slurry of Plastic Pellets
8. Force Calculations at Elbows of Piping 6%
9. Piping Analysis 24%
10. Vent Condenser Modification 10%
11. Quiet Mixer Design 2%
12. Process Vessel Pressure Reduction 16%
13. Analysis of Parallel Vaporizers 8%
14. Piping Modifications to Accommodate 6%
Increased Flow Rates through a Heat
The thesis for each intern consisted of a
Project Summary, which described each job in a
paragraph or two, and a detailed description of
certain selected problems. The detailed descrip-
tion varied in length from 7 to 220 pages. The
thesis write-ups were reviewed by the adjunct
professors, who interacted with the interns on
the following timetable.

Preparation of the Project
summary by interns

Selection by adjunct professors
of the projects for detailed
Detailed outlines for each proj-
ect by interns
Review of outlines and approval
by adjunct professors
Complete write-up of specific
projects by interns
Review by adjunct professors
and revision by interns
Typing and final preparation


February 13

February 18

February 23

February 27

March 26

April 7
April 30

Finished copies of the theses were read and com-
mented upon by the department chairman and
the University Intern Steering Committee.
During the year the interns reported on their
work twice. The first presentation occurred early
in the 1975 Fall Session at a special seminar
in the ChE Department. Both interns described
a problem they completed over the summer. The
two adjunct professors described their experiences
and the overall program was reviewed by H. E.
Turner and T. W. F. Russell. The seminar was
well-received by both students and faculty. Early
in 1976 both interns described another problem in
detail to the regular graduate seminar. The in-
terns completed all work including courses and
the internship in a twelve-month period. This is
designed to be and is a difficult program. The
interns worked very hard and had to meet some
rather severe deadlines with no vacation and only
normal industrial holidays.


T HE PROGRAM IS designed for 120 intern
days. These are "working" days. All thesis
preparation is done outside this time as are all
requirements for the course work. Our first year's
experience showed that the interns spent about
20 to 30% of their time in review or questions
and about 70 to 80% in problem solving, of value
to those requiring engineering service. Each in-
tern is thus worth about .70 x 120 x $150 =
$12,600 if their time is billed at $150 per day.

During the year the
interns reported on their
work twice. The interns completed
all work including courses and the
internship in a twelve-month- period. This
is designed to be and is a difficult program.

The interns require a certain amount of time
from the adjunct professor that is educational to
the intern but unproductive to the job at hand.
An estimate of this time based on our first year's
experience is 15-20 days total for the two in-
terns. This cost must be charged to the program.
Management time spent on the intern program
must also be charged against the intern's total
value to a firm. Substantial management effort is
required initially, but at the steady state a


The faculty feels
the program adds needed
variety and insight and they
have become very enthusiastic.

reasonable charge is 10-12 days per year for the
total program. Interns are paid the same stipend
as graduate students in the traditional program.
For 1975 this was $4800 per year. Tuition for
1976-77 amounts to $2264 per year (out of state).
Costs would vary with location, but the program
should break even. A summary of costs is given
in Table 2.
There is no question that the interns have had
a very worthwhile experience. They have an
opportunity to integrate their graduate course
work with problems in a "real world" engineering
environment. This integration is enhanced and

Table 2
Cost Analysis

Adjunct Professors
Intern Stipend
Intern Tuition


15-20 days
10-20 days
$ 9,600
$ 4,600

made most effective by the one-to-one relation-
ship that is developed with the adjunct pro-
fessors. The interns spend more time with their
adjunct professors than students in the conven-
tional program do with their thesis advisors. This
is due partly to the need for immediate action on
some problems and partly due to the greater
number and variety of problems dealt with.
Because of the nature of the consultant-like
operation carried out by the adjunct professors,
the interns were also exposed to types of problems
that they would not normally encounter on their
own until they had accumulated much more ex-
The University gains in a number of ways:
* Class discussion is enlivened and often takes a different
tack because of the presence of the intern.
* Graduate student seminars are improved because some
industrial problems and real solutions are described in
addition to the conventional graduate level work.
* Informal discussions regarding course work and re-
search work take on a different tone when there are


interns as well as students in the conventional pro-
These and other effects of the intern program
are sometimes difficult to measure and quantify.
There is no question, however, that the faculty
feels the program adds needed variety and in-
sight and they have become very enthusiastic.
The industrial organization gains the services
of a very capable chemical engineer with
Bachelor's level education for 120 days. The pro-
gram is highly selective and the intern is in the
top 10% of his class and always from a quality
school. Having an intern in the course work also
provides some flow of new knowledge from the
university to the industrial group. The need to
explain problems to the intern also tends to
focus on matters in more detail and sometimes
additional insight is gained by the adjunct pro-
fessor. Both management personnel and the
adjunct professors have gained a good deal of
satisfaction in helping young people grow and
develop as engineers, and in advancing the educa-
tion process. E

For advertising rates contact Ms. B. J. Neelands, CEE
c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. 32601.

Department of Chemical and Biochemical
Engineering College of Engineering
The State University of New Jersey, invites applica-
tions for a full-time faculty member for under-
graduate and graduate teaching and research in the
field of chemical engineering. The Assistant Pro-
fessorship position can begin July 1, 1977, or start at
a later date. Applicants at the time of the appoint-
ment must have a doctoral degree in chemical
engineering and possess the ability to develop
sponsored research programs. Submit resume, in-
cluding at least three professional references, a list
of journal publications, and a brief summary state-
ment about your plans for research. Send your
application to Professor Burton Davidson, Depart-
ment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering,
Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick,
New Jersey 08903. Rutgers is an Affirmative
Action/Equal Opportunity employer.


Methodology And Evaluation

Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa
Mexico 13, D.F., Mexico

Mexican Industry the past thirty years has
required an equally accelerated production of
engineers and technicians, causing a tremendous
overpopulation problem in universities and poly-
technics around the country.
Analyzing the situation, we can focus the
problem of ChE education in terms of the develop-
ment of the chemical and petrochemical industries,
and in general, in terms of the development of
national production. Besides, the country has
reached a stage where said development cannot
take place without the creation of its own
technology. This creation of technology requires
high level scientific research, and this is not
possible without high level college education.
Therefore, the role ChE schools, in terms of
national production, is that of producing high level
When we speak of production, we understand
that the universities are centers for production of
high level professional education as a necessary
stage for the production of technology at different
levels. Therefore, if we focus the problem in these
terms, we have to analyze the organization re-
quired to produce higher education, as well as the
present situation of most universities in Mexico.
Due to historical reasons beyond the scope of
this analysis, higher education in Mexico is, in
general, free or very inexpensive. This hag
brought about one of the greatest problems of
our universities, population explosion.
This population problem produces the disper-
sion of the resources available which, in addition,'
are limited. This particular problem is unsolvable;
therefore, we must find the solution through a
rational distribution of resources for their more
efficient utilization. Among these resources we

must consider very prominently the students them-
selves, taking into account their characteristics in
order to employ them correctly in the teaching-
learning process. Therefore, the organization re-
quired for the production of high quality education
must rest upon the students and the professors
socially organized for that purpose, keeping in
mind the particular situation in which they have
to work, in order to devise a teaching system
which allows an optimal utilization of every re-
source available.


most ChE schools in the country, we can see
that, while the formal structures of ad-
ministrators-teachers-employees are reasonably
organized; among the students, who represent the
majority, the only elements of organization are:
* The term in which they are registered.
* The class to which they belong.
* The subject they are taking, their schedule, the class-
room, and the name of the teacher.
Under these conditions, it is only natural that
the mobilization of students to perform any
definite task is practically impossible, in fact, it
is not possible to count on representative demo-
cratic student organizations.
If we do not analyze this problem correctly,

Enrico N. Martinez, Chemical Engineer from Universidad Nacional
Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM.) M.S. and Ph.D. (1972) in Chemical
Engineering from University of Notre Dame was an Assistant Pro-
fessor at UNAM. He has been Director of Research and Develop-
ment for a pesticides manufacturer in Mexico and is presently
Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Universidad Autonoma
Metropolitana-lztapalapa. He consults in Process Development and his
research interests are in the field of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
Catalysis and Education.



FIGURE 1. Organization at the National University.

we may reach the wrong conclusions, and in fact
it is normal, for a good number of teachers and
administrators, to concentrate on the students all
the causes and consequences of the malfunction-
ing of our educational system, and so we just
hear about the "irresponsibility and apathy" of
the students, their "perpetual lack of prepara-
tion," their "immaturity and lack of motivation,"
etc. This conclusion, the result of criticizing in-
dividuals instead of the process, produces con-
fusion and frustration when trying to work-out
solutions to the problem.
On the other hand, the students also have a
tendency to judge their teachers, and thus they
also have a long list of negative elements about
the professors. At this point, we find ourselves
within a vicious circle, which shows up every time
that students and teachers get together to discuss
the problems of their school and their university.
The key to a democratic organization and its
performance, is given in terms of centralizing
such an organization from the bottom to the top,
and this makes it necessary to redefine the func-
tions of the professor and the student in the
educational process. Therefore, we may conceive
the professor as an organizer and the student as
an organizing element.
History has demonstrated that one of the best
ways to achieve a democratic organization, starts
by setting up a restricted organization, with very
clearly defined general principles, shared by their
members, to permit the initial centralization and
coordination of activities, necessary for a later
systematic action on the whole group of people
involved in the process.

In addition, due to our population explosion
problem, it is necessary to have a linking element
between our present teachers and our present
students. This implies a careful revision of the
current teaching methods in most of the ChE
schools of Mexico.
Actually, there have already been attempts to
do the above mentioned things; for example, at
the National University, we find the following
organization seen in Figure 1.
This structure represents, at the beginning
stage, the correct way of solving the problem.
However, the sufficient centralization level has not
been achieved, nor has it been possible to find a
consequent system to produce education efficiently.
Therefore, starting from this first level of action,
already given, we can set forth the following points
to analyze in terms of an organization for the pro-
duction of education:
* The role of the professor with respect to his teaching
* The role of the teaching assistants with respect to
the students.
* The role of the students with respect to the assistants
and professors.
* The role of the students with respect to the administra-
tive structure of their school and university.

Our first experience
was with a course on
chemical reaction engineering...
The teaching assistants were teaching
from industry and from the school
itself as volunteers.

In view of our previous analysis, and with
these four points in mind, we can set forth the
following proposals:
* Determine the necessary number of assistants in terms
of the number of students.
* Define the function of an assistant as an agent for
organization, communication, information and tutoring.
* Define the function of the professor as a generator of
academic material, evaluator of the educational process
and first level of centralization.
* Define the role of the student in the process as an
active and productive being, as a direct participant of
its organization, and fully capable of making decisions
within said process.
In addition, we must clearly establish, that
every organized action taken by administrators,
professors and assistants, has to be directed


towards the development and strengthening of
the students' own organization in the process, in
order to integrate them representatively when
decisions affecting the operation, objectives, and
development of the school are taken.
The planning and implementation of the
system needed to produce the above mentioned
interaction, may begin taking the following
general principles as a basis:
* The process is highly heterogeneous, and therefore,
any attempt to homogenize it must be avoided.
* Every student is different and he can advance, in the
learning process, according to his own capabilities and
* As well as the professor has a work to perform, and
concrete obligations, the student must also do his work
and have his concrete obligations.
* The students and the professors must be in an equal
position to demand of each other the performance of
each other's work and obligations.
* According to these principles, the current administrative
structure must be conceived as an organism representa-
tive of all the groups involved in the educational process,
and whose main function should be that of centralizing
such process in terms of the fundamental interests and
objectives of the great majority involved, that is,
students and professors.


S TARTING FROM THE principles set forth
in the previous section, we can propose a
general action scheme that consists of two stages;
first, the construction of the necessary infrastruc-
ture for the overall change, which will comprise
the following:
* Construction of the teaching material.
* Training and updating of existing professors, as well
as selection and training of the necessary additional
* Define timetables for implementation of the new
system, first in one of the biggest schools, i.e. the
Chemistry School at the National University, in pre-
paration for nationwide action in a later stage.
* Focus the action on the first semesters of study in
1976, at the chemistry school, for this initial stage.
In this respect, we take as a fundamental ele-
ment, the integration of theory and practice in
one single space, the laboratory. In order to
achieve this, it is necessary to design model study
"units" or modules containing the following parts:
* One or more laboratory practices in terms of the basic
principles to be learned, in which the objectives must
be, to observe, explain, predict and control the phenoma
involved, in a systematic way.
* Theoretical material associated with the principles to
be learned, which must be constructed from a selection

of the materials existing in the literature.
The purposes of this part are to develop
verbal and written ability as well as the handling
of numerical and logical operations around the
basic principles included in the unit.
This theoretical part must be accompanied by
a study guide to help to introduce the student to
the subject of the unit. This guide consists of a
series of questions directed towards calling the
student's attention to the most important aspects
of the material under study. The guide must be
handed out before the laboratory practice, and it
must be pointed out that it is not a homework,
but rather an orientation for a better study and
analysis of the material.
* One lecture, at least, with the participation of two or
more specialists in the subject, in order to have a
stimulating dialogue between them, and thus en-
courage the participation of the students in the dis-
* Audiovisual material, prepared according to the re-
quirements and the real possibilities of the school.
In every unit, the materials of theory and
practice must be referred to the socio-economical
situation, in historical terms, that gave way to
the discovery of the principles being studied, as
well as some of the relevant scientific and human-
istic aspects of the individuals that contributed
to said discovery. This may be done at two
different levels, a short summary with the most
relevant aspects and their relation with the
current situation of Mexico as far as technology
and socio-economical development are concerned;

The key to a democratic
organization and its performance,
is given in terms of centralizing such
an organization from the bottom to
the top, and this makes it necessary to
redefine the functions of the professor
and the student in the educational process.

and second, to direct the student toward more
ample bibliographical references on the subject.

The Laboratory Practice-This evaluation is
two-fold, first before the practice to determine
if the student has "done his homework" and is
ready to perform in the laboratory. A short in-


dividual interview is sufficient. Second, the student
must write a report, which is evaluated by the
teaching assistant in terms of clarity of writing,
results and conclusions.
Theoretical Part-The first evaluation is a
personal interview between the student and the
professor or a teaching assistant, in order to
determine whether the student can or cannot
handle the material, if he does, he takes a written
test (one or more problems), if he does not, the
possible causes are discussed, in order to indicate
to him what aspects he should review more care-
fully before he has another interview. A student
can take as many interviews as necessary in order
to be sure that he has learned the principles in-
cluded in a unit. In practice, however, it never
takes a student more than three interviews.
The student must hand in, after every unit,
a graph indicating the number of study hours per
day of a week devoted to a unit. The teaching
assistant will keep a record of interviews and
written tests, as well as of the units passed as a
function of time.
In general, we pretend to reach two objectives
in a study unit. First, that a student can handle
the greater amount of variables possible about a
problem, once this is achieved, to try to work on
his behaviour in such a way that he can start from
the general principles down to a precise analysis
of the particular cases. The second objective is
for the student to develop an improving mastery
of the concepts involved. It is worthwhile men-
tioning in this respect, that the response will be
extremely variable from one individual to another,
given the previous history and the limitations of
everyone in particular.
We consider that if a student can handle the
theoretical principles for observation, revision, ex-
planation, control and systematization in the
laboratory, we are reinforcing his capability to
face any kind of particular problem in a variety
of chemical industries, and therefore we can
achieve our goal of producing high level pro-
fessional education.
It is worthwhile mentioning that, the funda-
mental principles that we have outlined for the
methodology, organization of material, and
evaluation, were first established by Keller [1],
and have already been applied, with some varia-
tions, in several American Universities [2, 3], as
well as at the Instituto Tecnol6gico de Monterrey
in M6xico [4]; in all these cases, the results re-
ported are highly satisfactory. At the Universidad

The first evaluation is
a personal interview between
the student and the professor
or a teaching assistant, in order to
determine whether the student can or
cannot handle the material.

Nacional de Mexico's school of chemistry, we
have already applied said principles with success
[5], and we shall comment on the experience later
in this work.

OUR FIRST EXPERIENCE, performed in the
Chemistry School of the Universidad Nacional,
was with a course on chemical reaction engineering
the second semester of 1972 [5]. The material used
consisted of chapters 7 through 14 of Smith's
text [6], which were the 7 study units for the
semester. The teaching assistants were recruited
from industry and the school itself as volunteers.
The results at the end of the semester were highly
satisfactory; we actually incorporated, as teach-
ing assistants, 5 students that finished the course
in 10 weeks. Two of these students continued
working as assistants the following semester,
besides joining the school's research group on
Heterogeneous Catalysis under our supervision.
The number of students in this group was 35,
most of which were considered "irregular" be-
cause they had flunked one or more times any of
their previous ChE courses, which caused them
to fall behind the pace of their class. Despite this,
in our course, 80% of them passed and more than
half the passing grades were A.
The results of this experience created great
expectation among the students that were about
to take reaction engineering during the first
semester of 1973, as well as among some pro-
fessors. Therefore, we decided to open 2 groups
of 80 students each, this time with support from
the school's administration to allow for a sufficient
number of teaching assistants.
The total number of students registered for
this course was 169, out of which, 131 passed
(77.5%), 33 did not show up or abandoned early
in the semester (19%), and 5 completed 3 out of
7 units but finished the course on the following
semester. Among the passing grades 54% were
A, 41.2%, B and 4.7%, C. This distribution of


I a II-'

Comparison of Results For Experiences Performed

No. OF

1. Second 35 28 52% A
Semester '72 38% B
10% C 1 4 Volunteers
2. First 169 131 54% A
Semester '73 41% B 9 5
5% C 2 3 10
3. Second 44% A
Semester '73 146 106 45% B
11% C 2 4 20

grades was practically in direct relation to the
velocity with which the students finished the
The course was again divided into 7 units,
that were evaluated on the basis of a hundred
percent performance by the students, in conse-
quence, some individuals required more than one
evaluation per unit to achieve the degree of
excellence required.
The personnel involved in this second ex-
perience consisted of 9 teaching assistants with 5
hours-week, 3 with 10 hours-week, and two pro-
fessors with 10 hours-week. The general results
of this and the previous experience are sum-
marized in Table 1 for an easier comparison.
Since every assistant kept a detailed record of
every student in his subgroup (see Table 2), we
were able to obtain additional information about
the process.
The students finished the course within the
eighth and the twenty first weeks, with the mean
finishing by the thirteenth week. Analyzing the
response from the students as a function of time,
we could observe that, at the beginning, they
respond slowly; by the fourth week they respond
fast and stably; by the end of the semester they
accelerate their execution and wind up handling
the last two units with great flexibility.
The students organized themselves in a natural
way through the teaching assistants, who were
previously and carefully instructed in the basic
principles of the system. The correct handling of
the basic principles by the assistants, permitted
the experience to take place without incidents,
and favored the development of adequate personal

relations between teachers and students.
As a result of this assistant-student interac-
tion, the communication was enhanced beyond the
school boundaries, which avoided the usual let
down during and after the mid-semester vacation
period. The sustained interaction between as--
sistants and professors made possible the con-
solidation of a high level working group.
The mean period needed for an interview was
of 40 minutes at the beginning, but it was cut in
half by the eighth week. Therefore, the work
required of professors and assistants is intense
at the beginning of the course and it is reduced
to a minimum towards the end.
The space required to work with the students
was equivalent to 60% of a classroom for 80
people, from which we conclude that the real
needs for space are concentrated in the laboratory
and not in the theoretical courses.
The material used for the course was, again,
the text by Smith [6], in English. Many students
actually translated into Spanish the chapters
under study, also in discussion with the assistants
they actually revised the material, corrected mis-
prints and attempted to improve the treatment
of the subjects to make them more accessible for
the majority of the group. The final result was
actually the first stage towards the construction
of a new material.

N VIEW OF THESE results, we decided to con-
tinue with a third experience, again with two
groups of students in the same subject, during
the second semester of 1973, with the purpose


of studying the performance of the system if we
reduced the time employed by the two professors
to a 10% of that employed in the previous ex-
perience. Also, we wanted to reduce the number
of assistants to 4 with 20 hours-week, in order
to make the cost of applying the system more
accessible for the school.
Therefore, the results of this third experience
were analyzed in terms of the more efficient
application of the resources available. First, we
address ourselves to the progress of the students
as a function of time in every study unit. If we
plot said progress as shown in Figure 2, we obtain
a S-shaped curve in the upper part of which,
we locate the fastest students; in the long inter-
mediate part, we find the bulk of the group, and
in the lower section we find the slowest students.
The length of each section changes from one unit
to another, and the dispersion was reduced as the
semester advanced. Unit number 2, which includes
the kinetics of homogeneous reactions, represented
the unit that required more time on the average,
this was due mainly to the fact that it comprises
most of the fundamental material for the re-
mainder of the course, and the majority of the
students required more than one interview to
master the concepts.
The advanced students that integrate the
group in the upper part of the curves, exert a
favorable effect on the remainder of the group
due to the wide communication developed within
the learning process. When the bulk of the
students find out about the existence of several
fellow students that have advanced quickly, they
react positively and feel that the road towards
the end might not be so difficult.

No of
Study Unit

Unit no -

S10 15 20
Number of Weeks
FIGURE 2. Progress of students as function of time.

Due to the control that we can have on the
teaching-learning process with this system, it is
possible for us to detect the most important
factors that influence the development of said
process, such as:
The System-Since there is no fixed limit
date to pass the first unit, the students start
working very slowly, therefore, there are too
many requests for interviews at the end of the
semester. The source material in English was also
responsible for delays, since many students had
difficulties with the language and took more time
to prepare the units.
The Teaching Assistant-Every assistant has
a particular way to conduct an oral interview,
hence these varied in time and depth from one
assistant to another.
Missed sessions by assistants, cause a delay in
all the students of their sub-group and have a

Assistant's Record



UNIT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

STUDENT Dates of Evaluation/Grade

(Name of student) 5/29 6/8 6/15, 17

(Name of student) 5/21 5/29 6/8 6/16 7/2 7/15

(Name of student) 5/23 5/29 6/15 6/28


negative effect on their behaviour within the
learning process. If by any reason, a student had
to take one or more interviews with different
assistants, this had an equally negative effect.
The Student-The defective preparation in
basic knowledge, such as mathematics, transport
phenomena and thermodynamics, caused the
students to need more time to study the units.
The students are used to respond only under
pressure, and therefore, most of them start work-
ing hard until the end of the semester.
The personal problems of each student, such
as an excess of courses, time limitations due to
part time jobs, health problems and others, also
reduced the global performance.
Regarding the general results, these were very
similar to those obtained in the previous ex-
periences. Out of a total of 146 students registered,
72.5% passed the course, the distribution of
grades was 44%, A, 45%, B and 11%, C.
The length of the semester was 18 weeks, and
we were able to determine that it is perfectly
possible for an assistant with 20 hours-week, to
take care of 40 students, if the students respond
from the beginning.

F ROM THE EXPERIENCES detailed before,
we can obtain the following general conclu-
The majority of the students that enter the
program pass the course; we consider that there
are no students flunked, since they simply do not
enter the program.
There is a very short number of students that
take the course by stages, since there is no need
to repeat the units passed. This has a tendency
to eliminate the traditional problem of repeating
full courses and falling in the vicious circle of
taking again a subject, from the beginning, with
the same drawbacks that caused them to fail in
the first chance. We consider that the problem of
repeaters should cease to exist in the long run.
Due to the division of the course in units, to
the oral and written evaluations, and to the utili-
zation of sufficient assistants, we have been able
to establish that it is possible to have groups of
40 students under the supervision of an assistant
with 20 hours-week, and that it is possible to take
care of a class of 160 students with just 4
assistants and one professor. Another important
point, is the real possibility of incorporating the
most advanced students as secondary assistants,

considering that a good number of them completes
the course in 10 weeks or less.
The role of the professor finds a new definition
as follows: A person holding a B.S. degree with
well rounded preparation, whose functions are
to manage and coordinate the working team, to
design the exams and numerical problems, to
evaluate the performance of the assistants and
of a random sample of students, to gather and
classify the information from the assistants and
send it to the school's evaluation department in
order for them to supervise the global develop-
ment of the course.

... it is possible to have
groups of 40 students under
the supervision of an assistant with
20 hours/week, and it is possible
to take care of a class of 160 students
with just four assistants and one professor.

The analysis of the students' progress with
time, allows us to take adequate action with every
group, isolating the students that fall very far
behind in order to devote more attention them
according to their characteristics. On the other
hand, it is possible to further motivate those
students concentrated in the central part of the
curve, through adequate utilization of audio-
visual material and lectures, and so we avoid
mixing a greatly heterogeneous population for
specific activities.
In the traditional teaching system, it is very
difficult to do what we are talking about here,
since there, we do not have the necessary informa-
tion nor centralization to take adequate action
when it is needed.
The system contributes to improve the aca-
demic level of the professors and assistants, and
to the training of future teachers. It allows us
to select the best students from the beginning
in order to strengthen basic research in the
future. That is, those students that show positive
characteristics and motivation toward research,
can be trained by means of a specific program of
activities to further direct them to scientific re-
The teaching material can be constantly
generated and revised through the performance
and demands from the students, discussions with
the assistants, and the centralization of all this


information by a commission of high academic
It was observed that the students are able to
cope with the problem of material written in a
foreign language, and given the characteristics
of the system, it is possible to help them when-
ever they need it.
As far as the student-professor relationship
is concerned, the fundamental characteristic of
the system consists in, completely eliminating
adverse stimuli and substituting them by posi-
tive reinforcement. Incompatible conducts are also
suppressed by simply not stimulating them.
During our three experiences, there was not a
single authority problem, on the contrary,
magnificent relationships were developed.


N VIEW OF THE pressing need to face the
academic and political problems of our Chemis-
try School and the country in general, we propose
to give priority to the teaching system, taking as
a basis the general principles indicated in this
document. Said system must constitute the basic
platform and must generate the fundamental
infrastructure to establish the general project for
change in ChE education within a period no longer
than 4 years.
Starting from an investigation of needs in
terms of the activities of a ChE, define what
aspects of science are most important for the
development of Mexico and develop a basic struc-
ture of knowledge to be taken by students in their
first two semesters of college. Consequently, the
resources should be distributed preferably to
those areas requiring more development and depth
according to the peculiarities of our situation.
We consider as the basic platform, a first
semester with General Physics, General Chemis-
try, Mathematics and Laboratory. In this plat-
form, our basic academic activity must be the
integration of these subjects with the activity of
a ChE.
In order to develop the basic platform, we
must integrate an "Academic Commission"
formed by representatives from each area of the
country, with a high academic standing; with
nationally recognized researchers and specialists
working as consultants.
The experience and results achieved by this
commission during the first year of work, should
permit us to create, one year in advance, the

academic commissions for each area of the
country, in order to generate the new plans, pro-
grams and materials for every area.
It is necessary to form a "Technical Group"
whose task will be to work in close contact with
the Academic Commission, in order to centralize
the evaluation of the learning process for all the
groups participating in the first level of basic
science. This Technical Group should gather the
greatest amount of information possible con-
cerning the current distribution of resources in
a ChE school, as well as their characteristics, so
that the Academic Commission can use this in-
formation, for a more logic development and im-
plementation of the teaching methodology and the
material associated with it, according to our
current conditions in a university and in the
country. O

1. Keller, F. S., Learning: Reinforcement Theory, Ran-
dom House (1969).
2. Angus, R. M., "Chemical Process Measurements: A
Self-Paced Laboratory for Sophomores," 65th Annual
Meeting A.I.Ch.E., New York City, December 1972.
3. Metcalfe, T. B., "An Innovated Method of Person-
alized Self-Paced Instruction," 67th Annual Meeting
A.I.Ch.E., Washington, D. C., December 1974.
4. G6mez-Junco, H., Sistema de Instrucci6n Person-
alizada: Una Innovaci6n en la Enseianza Superior,
LIMUSA (1974).
5. Martinez E., and Lojo J., "Proyecto para Desar-
rollar e Implementar la Experiencia Ingenieria
Quimica VIII," Octava Conferencia de ANFEI,
Morelia, Mdx., May 1973.
6. Smith, J. M., Chemical Engineering Kinetics, Second
Edition, McGraw-Hill (1970).

Continued from page 73.
New York. 1959.
14. Huxley, A. Literature and science. Harper. New
York. 1962.
15. Levin, H. Why literary criticism is not an exact
science. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Mass.
16. Thorpe, J. (Ed.) The aims and methods of scholar-
ship in modern languages and literatures. Mod.
Lang. Assn. of America. New York. 2nd edn. 1970.
17. Eliot, T. S. Notes towards the definition of culture.
Faber. London. 1945.
18. Tillich, P. Theology of culture. Oxford University
Press. New York. 1959.
19. Marcuse, H. One-dimensional man. Beacon Press.
Boston. 1964.
20. Steiner, G. In Bluebeard's castle: some notes towards
the redefinition of culture. Yale University Press. New
Haven. 1971.



Part 1: What Is Being Done?

McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7

ROBLEM SOLVING-what is it? where does
Pit fit into a training or educational pro-
gram? and how do we teach it?
The range of response to 1000 questionnaires
sent out to try to find answers to these questions
ranged from incredulity that anyone should ask
such a question, ignoring the questionnaire (the
response was 8%), to interest in the topic, but
no specific suggestions at this time, to very
stimulating interest responses.
This summary discusses the initial problem
of definitions, and what experience is being
offered (content and method). The challenges or
difficulties as seen by the respondees and some
idea of how one might use the information here
summarized to introduce or improve the teaching
of problem solving are discussed in Part II.
Defining what we mean by solving problems
is not easy. A problem could be defined as a
stimulus situation for which an organism does not
have a ready response [1] or more formally as
a specific situation or set of related situations to
which a person must respond in order to function
effectively in his environment. The situation is
one where no effective response alternative is im-
mediately available to the individual confronted
with the situation [2]. One could identify problem
solving as the activity whereby a best value is
determined from an unknown, subject to a
specific set of conditions or more formally-a be-
havioral process, whether overt or cognitive in
nature, which
* makes available a variety of potentially effective re-
sponse alternatives for dealing with the problematic
* increases the probability of selecting the most effective
response from among these various alternatives [2].

D. R. Woods is a graduate of Queen's University and the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin (Ph.D.). For the past three years he has been
attending all undergraduate lectures along with the students to try
to discover what needs to be done to improve student's problem
solving skills. His teaching and research interests are in process
analysis, and synthesis communication skills, cost estimation, separa-
tions, surface phenomena and developing problem solving skills. He
is the author of "Financial Decision-Making in the Process In-
dustry." He received the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty
Association award for Outstanding Contribution to University Teaching.

From a first glance at such an activity as
problem solving we can identify [1] a strategy,
procedure or set of steps, by which we perform the
activity, and [2] elements or skills that are
necessary to be able to carry out the steps; for
example, being able to analyze or take a problem
apart, to generalize, to be creative, to draw
logical inferences, to generate hypotheses, to make
decisions, to identify criteria etc.
But the two above are not sufficient if the
problem solver lacks the prerequisite

* basic knowledge or manual skills,
* attitude or will to solve the problem,
* ability to obtain information,
* ability to listen or to understand words,
* ability to work in groups (if necessary),
* experience from which to make judgments,
* learning skills.



In summary, the initial problem in talking
about problem solving is to limit the scope.
In this summary, the focus is on those courses
or programs that offer training in the application
of the strategy and the elements or steps in that
strategy, and not to emphasize the courses or
programs on the prerequisites (listed above).


TO SUMMARIZE THIS survey, Figure 1
shows the variety of emphasis on the content.
On the extreme left of Figure 1 are courses where
problem solving is not part of the experience.
Naturally no responses were received that are in
this category. On the extreme right are ex-
periences where problem solving is the sole
emphasis. At the top are those experiences where
the emphasis is on the strategy (for example, the
steps in solving the problem) while at the bottom
are those experiences where the emphasis is on the
elements (for example, a course on creativity).
Some textbooks are shown on Figure 1 so that this
classification may be more apparent.
From this analysis, six characteristic groups
were identified. There is no universal answer as
to where is the best location on Figure 1; that
depends on the local conditions. The classification
does identify groups of people from wide ranges
of disciplines that are doing about the same




* 000

things. Each of these six groups are discussed
in turn.
Most of us teach courses where the students
must learn some basic knowledge: Newton's
second law, the law of diminishing returns, or the
biochemistry of oxygen transfer. We expect our
students to be able to solve problems using that
knowledge and eventually to solve real-world
In class, we may solve many example problems
ourselves, choose textbooks that have many
illustrative problems and assign many problems
for homework. Our effectiveness in teaching
problem solving skills by this approach depends
very much on the consistency and detail presented
when examples are worked in class, the faculty-
student dialogue during that example, the type of
homework problem assignated, the way the ques-
tion is asked etc. For different courses, there is a
varying amount of emphasis that can be placed
on the problem solving activity. Those who follow
this approach are shown on the left hand side
of Figure 1. Some ideas that one might try are:
(based on the responses from the survey)
* have some students work the problems on the board
and then have them describe how they did it to the
* provide a list of a problem solving strategy,
* place special emphasis on how to approximate and how
to check the answer,

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* pretest prerequisite background knowledge to ensure
this is not the difficulty,
* Study the ideas of Piaget about concrete and formal
thought and translate the implications into our
courses and worked examples,
* run or attend short study sessions on the development
of reasoning,
* use sender-directed problem solving. Rather than just
turning the students loose to "solve the homework
problems" with the professor available for assistance,
the professor starts the session by asking them as a
group to define or restate the problem so that every
one knows what was expected. He does this by asking:
"Bill, what do you think is being asked for?" "Mary,
do you agree?", "How many think it is something
else?", "I could interpret it as what do you
think of that interpretation?" He provides the
students with an overall outline of the steps in solving
problems and by leading the students through the
strategy for several steps, for several problems, he
hopes they can translate this to solving problems on
their own.
* use group or small group tutorial problem solving,
* use different learning environment such as a game
or simulation.
Perhaps some more ambitious ideas, that require
more time on problem solving, include:
* identify a pattern or strategy for solving problems and
then consistently use that strategy for all example
problems, for the notes and for the textbook, see,
for example, ref. 8
* provide real life problems as case* studies or larger
projects that are open-ended where data are missing
or inconsistent
* provide more in class demonstrations by the instructor,
by students, by someone outside and by the students
* have students prepare a problem for the professor to
solve in the tutorial. The professor thinks aloud while
he solves the problem
* prepare self-paced enrichment units for all the pre-
requisite skills and the problem solving elements
* use a problem oriented approach to learning.
The next group of suggestions demand more
commitment not only of time in the program but
to the development of special materials that focus
only on how problems are solved. The major focus
can vary on the one extreme from the answer
(based on the discipline knowledge with some
emphasis throughout being placed on the
strategy), to the other extreme where the focus
is on the strategy and on the elements and the
discipline is almost immaterial). Those taking
these approaches are shown in the top central
region of Figure 1.

*The term case study is used to describe open-ended
problems describing real world or simulated real world

A problem could be defined
as a stimulus situation for which an
organism does not have a ready response
or more formally as a specific situation or
set of related situations to which a person
must respond in order to function effectively
in his environment.

Some ideas for this approach include:
* provide a special set of problems to force students to
focus on the strategy of solving problems
* use a small group tutorial to solve real case problems
* use design or synthesis type of problem
* use a research type of problem
* use critical instant, deterministic or clinical diagnosis
type of problems
* use a textbook centered strategy to solve around open-
ended problems such as ref. 9
* use large open ended problems where the student must
collect their own data from experiments or from


CONSIDER BRIEFLY a few details of some
selected specific approaches that illustrate
the variety.
Gladstone [10], as part of courses on learning
and introductory psychology, uses a carefully se-
lected sequence of problems. The students solve a
hierarchy of difficult problems given some instruc-
tions as to how to go about the task, then they
learn a particular problem solving technique and
find a problem that can be solved using that
technique. They verbally describe how they solve
their own problems using the techniques learned
in the class.
Marples [11] has developed problem worksheets
to help the students to organize their problem
solving approach. First Marples suggests that
the problem statement can be classified into the
artefact, the conditions and the unknown. The
known information can be generalized to provide
clues as to which theory could be used to create
a hypothesis. Via backward reasoning and by
relating the hypotheses to subproblems, the struc-
ture of the problem solution can be developed.
His examples are freshman and sophomore
science problems. His paper should be consulted
for details.
Van Wie [12] has concentrated on the fresh-
man science-technology problems. Through lec-


tures and handout material he describes Polya's
four step procedure and enriches the presentation
from Wickelgren's ideas. Then the students, in
groups of three or four, solve problems and report
to the total class how they solved the problem.
This activity is the introductory part of a course
in mathematics.
Wallach [13] for senior level courses, provides
16 sequential sets of references in an area of
psychology. These sets trace the development of
the research ideas. From this the students learn
how to analyze the research literature and to
design experiments. At the end of the students'
study of these selected case histories, each student
prepares a research proposal.
Richards [14], in a freshman engineering
laboratory, requires that the students devise their
own experiments to discover ideas. Sample
problems include discovering the optimum closure
time of wire-wound mousetraps, and the factors
that affect the time it takes staved-in boats to
sink. More details are available from his Nuffield
Foundation report.
Small [15], in an immunology program poses
clinical problems to the class. As a group they
analyze the observations, formulate an hypothesis,
design experiments to test these, interpret the
data and decide if the hypothesis is confirmed.
Walters [16] has several noteworthy ap-
proaches. The first uses broadly defined problems
in computer programming. For example, students
are given the following data for 30 people: name,
social security number, weight, height, date of
birth, etc. They first prepare instructions as to
how to keypunch these data; second they keypunch
the data following a fellow student's set of in-
structions; third they keypunch the data following
the instructor's instructions. Each state is
evaluated: what they do differently in their own
work, and problems they discovered in other
people's work. Many other projects follow this
pattern. The emphasis is on the method. The
students learn by seeing an example, then doing
it themselves and then benefitting from comments
of others during group discussion of the solutions
and methods of solution with computer program
as media. The second course, on clinical skills, uses
many of the same learning ideas. The emphasis
is on developing alternative causes of clinical
symptoms and the generation of an hypothesis.
Computer simulations are used for some of the
cases. The students are video taped while they
are solving the problems.

Powers [17] is a co-author of a very imagina-
tive text that has done much to organize the
strategy and criteria used for designing chemical
plants [9]. His own courses and emphasis are on
computer-assisted problem solving and some of
the work of Newell and Simon [18] [19]. In his
case study approach he uses the state space, de-
composition and theorem-proving representa-
tions of the problem. His review [20] summarizes
these techniques.
Douglas and Kittrell [21] has developed an
imaginative course on entrepreneurship. The
emphasis is on idea generation and exploitation,
screening ideas and problem and program defini-
tion. They suggest a 12 step strategy. The case
studies provide much practice in taking problems
apart and in having the students ask the right
questions. Some example case studies include the
manufacture of maple syrup in the home, and the
development of cigarette filters.
King [22] uses a wide variety of learning
environments in his courses on engineering
synthesis: teacher poses series of discussion ques-
tions, large and small case problems worked by
students individually or in groups, simulations,
and trouble-shooting problems [23]. Many case
study problems have been developed [24]. Class-
room activities include brainstorming and other
creativity fostering activities.
Shields [25] emphasizes the application of
Kepner and Tregor's [26] problem solving
algorithm as part of a course on management and
decision making.

Our effectiveness in teaching problem solving
skills by this approach depends very much on
the consistency and detail presented when
examples are worked in class, the faculty-
student dialogue during that example,
the type of homework assigned,
the way the question is asked...

In Fuller's [27, 28, 29] Process Principles
Course the students compose, choose and solve a
series of case problems. His approach is based
on Maier's ideas [30]. The experience for the
students include choosing point of view or identi-
fication in the context of a case, composing
problems based on the situation, assessing values
of the composed problems, choosing the most
valuable problem to try to solve, sorting out in-


formation relevant to the problem, proposing po-
tential solutions, evaluating and recommending

ALES AND STAGER in their text "Educa-
tional Systems Design [31]" make telling
arguments for the use of guided design as part of
a curriculum. They have followed this with their
text (which they coauthored with Long) entitled
"Guided Engineering Design" [3]. The flavor of
the text is engineering but the applications can
be broad.
Of the respondees to the questionnaire, three
center their course around this approach as is
shown on the top central section of Figure 1.
Swartman [33] uses this text for small group
tutorials and complements this with a series of
lectures on the elements in solving problems: de-
cision making, creativity, problem solving strate-
gies, project management and communication
Stager's [34] course stresses five elements:
modern techniques for problem solving, mor-
phology of design, effective communication, cri-
terion function and effective learning. Case
projects are solved by teams. Projects include
problems on noise and water pollution and on the
suspension system for an automobile. He has
special activities on group selection and dynamics,
brainstorming, problem recognition and syner-
gistic decision making.
Wales, Pappano and Bailie [35] have extended
this open ended problem solving approach to
other courses so that much of the four year
curriculum at West Virginia contains elements of
this approach.

central area of Figure 1 around reference 3.
The approach is different than those in section
2.3 mainly in commitment. The engineering school
at West Virginia is moving toward orienting
major portions of their curriculum to case studies
or what could be called problem-based learning.
The McMaster Medical School [36] was founded
around this concept. The three year medical pro-
gram uses a series of carefully selected problems.
The students learn by solving these in groups of
three to five students. For each problem the
students decide the questions they want to ask,

they identify issues or themes, generate alterna-
tives, (ranging from the submolecular structure
level to the social structure level), decide on one
alternative and look for the variety of experience
available, gather information, resolve the issues
and evaluate. Each student group has a tutor and
many resource persons available. In addition, self-
paced learning packages have been developed for
all the background knowledge needed in the three
year medical program. The problems are posed
via paper descriptions, problem boxes, simulated
patient, protocol card game (The P4 game), actual
patient, or computer simulations.
Very complete and stimulating series of papers
and reports are available that describe the ap-
proach and provide background on such topics
as how to be a small group tutor and developing
case studies (problem boxes or the P4-game).
A simulated problem-solving tutorial is part
of the admissions tests to gain entry into the
program. No formal programs on how to solve
problems are given. The emphasis is on the tutor
and the small group tutorial. Continuous assess-
ment is used for the students, the tutor, the case
problems, the resource materials and the pro-
gram. More details are available [37, 38, 39].
Some approaches, shown on Figure 1 near the
bottom right hand side, emphasize the elements of
problem solving. Fuller [27] blends Polya [5]
diagrams with the content of his chemical re-
action engineering course. His emphasis is on
changing students' perceptions of problems (as
opposed to memorizing strategy or sequence of
activities) so that they see problems as a set of

The engineering school at
West Virginia is moving toward
orienting major portions of their curri-
culum to case studies or what could
be called problem-based learning.

elements and a structure that makes the solution
routine. The ideas are based on Polya maps and
Newell and Simon's 'problem space.' The course
is PSI with students asking questions about the
analysis of the problem statement, the structure
of the problem, the composition of a new problem
having the same structure and the composition of
a new problem having a structure related to the
given one. Trouble-shooting (diagnostic) case
studies are used as well as his own special story


case problems. More details are available [28, 29].
Brown [40] presents the content of his intro-
ductory course in Mechanics uniquely. About the
first one third of the course introduces the basic
laws-the knowledge that is to be applied. The
last two-third is centered around solving problems,
and showing the inter-relationships among the
laws. This latter activity is centered around the
Polya map. Throughout the course there is an
emphasis on developing the students' ability to
analyze situations.
Black [41] has an extremely imaginative skills
tutorial to complement freshman physics courses.
In this tutorial, groups of four students solve
problems together and then combine with four
other such groups to discuss the ideas generated
and to share experience. Each set of problems has
some open-ended real world problems and some
related directly to the physics course. The topics
for the sessions are-estimating orders of magni-
tude, scaling, translation: graphical-verbal, trans-
lation: algebraic-graphical, words into symbols,
the art of negligence, using algebra in an argu-
ment, planning an investigation-first steps, de-
signing apparatus, designing an experiment, "de-
sign consultants," thinking of alternatives, think
about it first, what's the principle?, physical in-
tuition, when is it true?, seeing the key, what
are the relevant variables, spotting the fallacy,
and 'bugs.'
Although more information is available from
Black et al [42] details of the tutorial package
are described in the HELP(P) material [43].
Rubinstein's [44] course on problem solving is
relatively independent of the discipline. The
flavor of his approach can be seen from his recent
text Rubinstein (1975) which provides us with
a good survey of especially the elements in prob-
lem solving such as semantics, probability, models
and values.
Reif et al. [45] and Larkin [46, 47] have focused
on two aspects of problem solving. A problem-
solving strategy (description, planning, imple-
mentation and checking) was explained to the
students, and its use demonstrated. Then, the
students were given practice and feedback on
their application of this strategy to solve their
homework problems. The second aspect of prob-
lem solver's ability to select and apply the correct
basic knowledge needed to solve the problem. They
discovered that experienced problem solvers use
fewer relationships or equations to solve prob-
lems than do the inexperienced problem solvers.

Hence, the students are encouraged to ensure that
they see how all new ideas, laws and definitions
relate to their previous knowledge. To assist
them worksheets have been developed that the
students complete for each new concept. More
details are available [45, 46, 47].

N THIS CATEGORY are some noteworthy and
completely different ideas on teaching course on
problem solving where the emphasis tends to be-
to varying degrees-on the strategy.

King uses a wide variety of learning environments
in his courses on engineering synthesis:
teacher poses series of discussion ques-
tions, large and small case problems
worked by students individually or
in groups, simulations and
trouble-shooting problems.

Spark's [48] approach is as a credit, pass-
fail freshman course. The students and professor
get excited together by solving sets of problems.
The sequencing and objectives for each set are
well defined and well selected, with emphasis on
building confidence, being able to generalize and
to recognize unwarranted assumptions. The
students must begin to see the value in any
answer. An example of the topic is:
* What can I do with it? Here the students are given a
blob of magnetic plastic and asked this question.
* What does it mean? The students must discover ideas
about mixing, and design a large scale process from
observing the mixing of cold chocolate syrup into
milk. I found the ideas and concepts exciting but
would find it difficult to mount a complete program
such as this because I felt I lacked Spark's experience
and depth in the technical subject. More details are
available [49].
Others might find Magazine's [50] approach
easier to implement for the first time. Like Sparks,
the idea is for the group to solve a carefully
constructed sequence of problems. However,
Magazine asks colleagues to be part of the ex-
perience and, as resource persons, to pose problems
for the group. A larger consulting type problem
is selected from a local industry. Examples in-
clude how to mark off a parking lot, redesign a
typewriter, nutrition of growing insects, the
process of plea bargaining, patient transportation


in hospital, and the optimum mix of ingredients
in sausages. Both Sparks and Magazine use the
contact time with the students to solve problems
Two other variations on this theme are de-
scribed by Eastburn [51] and Barker [52], al-
though they seemed to have a stronger lecture
component to them. Eastburn's emphasis is on a
five step strategy and on creativity with a special
effort to give the students a personal awareness
of their capabilities, while Barker hopes that
through case studies students will identify what
problem solving techniques and steps can hinder
Some courses that are more structured are
described by Wickelgren [53], Wheeler [54],
Stonewater [55], Slaymaker [56], and Liddle [57].
Polya [5] has influenced the approaches of Wickel-
gren, Stonewater and Wheeler. Wickelgren [53]
has enriched the Polya work by introducing arti-
ficial intelligence ideas from for example, Newell
and Simon [18]. His attractive text [6] is a very
welcome outgrowth and enrichment of these two
approaches and his emphasis is on solving
problems (as opposed to talking about it). The
problems used are mainly recreational mathe-

Stager's course stresses
five elements: modern techniques
for problem solving, morphology of
design, effective communication,
criterion function and effective learning
Case projects are solved by teams. Projects
include problems on noise and water pollution
and on the suspension system
for an automobile.

Wheeler [54] uses Wickelgren's text [6] and
combines it with topics on thinking, decision
making and communication. His course is organ-
ized into nine units. The unique emphasis is that
the students discover what methods they use when
they solve problems, and they get experience
applying the methods more appropriately and
efficiently. They become aware of a strategy for
solving problems. His units are:
* Introduce groups and discover how to solve problems.
NASA problem.
* Listening skills.
* Making assumptions.
* Trouble with words and definitions.

* Problem analysis-drawing trees, logical inference,
concept or hypothesis formation.
* Methods for detectives-examining evidence, brain-
storming, eliminating alternatives.
* Decision making-developing balance sheets, value
clarification, intuitive decision making, decision
* Putting it all together-synectics.
* Evaluation.
Stonewater [55] has prepared a self paced
program on problem solving. His units have the
Polya-Wickelgren flavor. There are three packages
to the seven units: Preparation, Communication
and Strategies. The details are:
* Preparing for Problem Solving (1 unit) (problem
definition, list criteria, identify given information, and
summarize as problem statement).
* Communication and Clarification (2 units) (drawing
diagrams and preparing tables).
* Strategies (4 units) (subproblem, contradiction, in-
ference and working backwards).
His imaginative problems are mixtures of
puzzles, short mathematical problems and
science/engineering homework problems.
At Alverno College, the focus is on eight abili-
ties in their competence-based learning program
that is an integral part of their program [58].
These abilities are in communication, analysis,
problem solving, value judgments and decision
making, social interaction, interrelating between
the individual and the environment, between the
individual and the world in which ones lives and
between the individual and the arts/humanities.
For problem solving six levels of achievement are
identified that range from identification of the
process (level 1) to demonstration that problem
solving is an assumed approach in one's own
search for knowledge and one's reflection upon
experience (level 6).
Slaymaker's [56] course requires the students
to record their behavior and thoughts as they
solve several laboratory problems. This is used
as background for a survey of theoretical models
of problem solving and thinking.
Finally, Liddle [57] has offered a course on
problem solving to engineers and managers in
industry. His approach is influenced by Raybould
and Minter [59]. He emphasizes three phases:
diagnosis, exploration and evaluation.
This group of approaches is shown on the
upper right of Figure 1.

T O TALK ABOUT METHOD separate from
the content is difficult and can be misleading.


, Cenleapd

*OS Wr



Yet, such a classification does identify groups that
are using similar methods. Figure 2 shows the
type of learning environment used. This figure
shows five focal points-the faculty member as
a lecturer or example problem solver, the students
who work many assignments on their own, the
tutorial where students and tutor work problems
together, the media assisted environment and the
"real world" of hardware. Most approaches com-
bine the possibilities. Noteworthy features to me
were the extent of the use of group problem
solving, especially the small group tutorial, the
use of computers and self paced material and case
To solve problems we must have problems to
solve. What type of problems are being used? The
respondees used a wide variety of problems. Some
used ordinary homework problems, some posed
problems that are open ended (or divergent)
which require the solver to generate many
alternative "good" solutions and to select the
"best," some want critical-instant type problems,
and some would like to use everyday problems.
The variety includes technical problems in our
physical world (devoid of having to worry about
how people react), technical problems where
people are part of the problem (such as biologically
medical problems or process plant problems
where the operators are part of the problem),
people problems, everyday problems and mathe-
matical puzzles. No general advice about the
choice of problem could be discovered.

flaueE 1 : "T'he L.a2 r E,,r, .e-t UsiA .


Cnemrd .05u

Some asked that the problems be solved by
groups of students working together, others by
individuals or by a mixture.
Finally, those separate courses on problem
solving can be either solving general problems or
clinical/design problems. For these courses, the
size of the class or tutorial was usually less than


To try to discover what we at McMaster
University might do to improve the problem
solving, we asked over 1000 departments to de-
scribe how they teach problem solving. The re-
sponses showed a wide range-some work many
sample problems in class, and some have a
separate course on problem solving; some empha-
size the overall strategy, and some, the steps in
that strategy. This variety was summarized as a
graph and from this, six general characteristics
could be identified. These were experiences with
the emphasis (1) on the discipline, (3) on guided
design, (4) on case studies as a core for a
curriculum, (5) on problem solving (the steps)
and (6) on problem solving (the strategy).
The learning environment, the types of
problems and how they were solved, the variety
of approaches used-were summarized. O


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tember 1975.
47. Larkin, J. H., "Cognitive Structures and Problem-
Solving Ability," Report JL060176, January 1976.
48. Sparks, R. E., personal communication, Washington
49. Sparks, R. E. (1972) Inventive Reasoning, in "The
New Teachers," D. M. Flournoy editor, Hossey-Bass
Inc., San Francisco.
50. Magazine, M., personal communication, University
of Waterloo, Canada.
51. Eastburn, F., personal communication, University of
Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.
52. Barker, D. H., personal communication, Brigham
Young University.
53. Wickelgren, W., personal communication, University
of Oregon.
54. Wheeler, D. D., personal communication, University
of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
55. Stonewater, J. K., personal communication, Michigan
State University.
56. Slaymaker, F., personal communication, Loyola Univ.
of Chicago.
57. Liddle, C. J., personal communication, Teeside Poly-
technic, England.
58. Doherty, Sister Austin, personal communication, Al-
verno College, Milwaukee.
59. Raybould, E. B. and Minter, A. L. (1971), Problem-
Solving for Management, British Institute of Manage-
ment, Management Publications, London, England.


Continued from page 67.
But certainly, with a course time constraint, the
most reoccurring modules should make up the
majority of the material covered if the professor
desires to give his students the broadest possible
background for future study.
One corrective feature of this computer-aided
method of curriculum analysis is that while
Figure 1 can be arbitrarily drawn, that is, the
diagram could be different depending on who con-
structs it, it was found that errors, omissions,
etc., in Figure 1 are easily found and correctable
after examining the computer output. This results
in a refinement of Figure 2 which removes most
of the arbitrariness of the construction of Figure
1. This is similar to what often happens to a pro-
fessor while teaching. Suddenly he realizes that
he forgot to cover a needed subject in order to
properly explain his topic. So he stops and goes
back to cover the needed subject matter. The
corrective sequence of events is as follows:
1. Construct Figure 1
2. Run program based on the information of
Figure 1
3. Check all possibilities which are generated
by the program, Figure 2
4. Eliminate impossible paths or add obvious
missing paths
5. Modify Figure 1
6. Run program again
7. Repeat steps 3 to 6 until no further
omissions or impossibilities occur
The use of the above procedure is believed to
provide a satisfactory method of curriculum
analysis which can be used by anyone knowledge-
able of the subject area to be taught or studied.
The method should also help both students and
professors to optimize the learning process. D

We are grateful to Professor Dave Himmel-
blau, Chairman of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment at the University of Texas at Austin,
for his helpful suggestions and to Dr. G. Edwards
of the National Science Foundation for his en-
couragement and for support under HES 75-03911.

1. W. A. Heenan, E. J. Henley, "The CHEMI Project,"
Chemical Engineering Education, Winter 1976, p. 17.

2. S. Caceres, E. J. Henley, "Process Failure Analysis by
Block Diagrams and Fault Trees," Ind. Eng. Chem.,
Fundam., Vol 15, No. 2, 1976, pp. 128-34.
3. P. A. Longoria, E. J. Henley, "A Graph-Theoretic
Curriculum Analysis," submitted to Engineering
Education as a Finding.
4. P. A. Longoria, "Curriculum Analysis by Graphical
Techniques," M.S. Thesis, U. of Houston (1975).
5. E. J. Henley, R. A. Williams, "Graph Theory in
Modern Engineering," Academic Press, New York
N.Y., 1973.

Continued from page 53.
numerous worthwhile conclusions concerning
both the strategy and tactics of reactor simula-
tion. However, it is very difficult to understand
how many of the conclusions were obtained.
Unit Operation models are covered in Chapter
3. Distillation, Absorption, Compressors, Heat
Exchange and Pumps are discussed. Although the
author states that "The number of man-hours
spent on costing a project can equal the number
spent on its process design.", he devotes only 7
pages to the topic of costing.
Chapter 4 is entitled Specific Process Models.
Simulation versus design models are discussed
but without a strong conclusion for one or the
other. The author implies successive substitution
is an adequate recycle convergence method and
that tearing to minimize the number of unknowns
in a recycle system is the best approach; the re-
viewer's experience suggests otherwise. In dis-
cussing requisite output from a process model
the author omits the need for any output showing
the progress of the calculations; he does suggest
output options are valuable, however. The author's
discussion of the uses of process models for sen-
sitivity analysis is good.
Chapter 5 covers generalized flowsheet pro-
grams. Since the vast bulk of model usage is
generalize flowsheet programs, either publicly
available or proprietary, or of other 'canned' pro-
grams, one should think this chapter would be
quite long and comprehensive. Unfortunately it
is not. The author spends only two pages on dis-
cussion of the data library and correlations and
implies that the field is much further behind than
it really is.
Chapter 6 is entitled The Use of Modelling
at the Planning Stage. This is a survey on 'opera-
tions research' techniques such as LP, DCF and


NPW, risk and forecasting, inventory planning,
decision trees, etc. GPSS and/or Simscript are
not mentioned.
Appendix 1 contains illustrative numerical
methods for root finding, solving simultaneous
equations, integration, linear programming, op-
timization, regression and dynamic programming.
Appendix 2 discusses briefly design of experi-
Appendix 3 is entitled Suggested Contents of
a Chemical Engineering Computer Library.
Fortran subroutines or references to subroutines
available in the IBM Scientific Subroutine pack-
age are given for many of the numerical methods
in Appendix 1. The descriptions of the various
subroutine calling arguments do not have the pre-
ciseness of expression that is necessary. This ap-
pendix includes more than 25 pages of listings of
FORTRAN subroutines, which are very poorly
done. For example, the FORTRAN is not com-
pletely standard, very few comment cards are
used, arithmetic IF's are used where logical IF's
should be, etc. The computer listings are typed
rather than being direct reproductions of com-
puter-produced subroutine listings, almost guaran-
teeing the presence of difficult-to-find typogra-
phical errors!
The back of the book contains a Problem sec-
tion with a large number of problems for Chapters
The Bibliography section contains 119
references. There seems to be no sense at all to
the ordering sequence of the references. Many of
the references would be difficult to retrieve for
a United States engineer without access to an un-
usually comprehensive chemical engineering li-
The author's approach to modelling is very
practical-the purpose of modelling is to obtain
timely, usable results. He carries this theme
throughout the book. At times he seems overly
concerned about computer resources used in simu-
lation; this is rarely a problem with today's high-
speed/low cost computers.


Continued from page 53.
Honor Scroll of the IEC Division of the ACS in 1961.
Brenner graduated with honors from Pratt Institute and
received a doctor of engineering science degree from
New York University. He has been associate editor of the
International Journal of Multiphase Flow since 1973.

Prof. Brenner succeeds Prof. John Ferron, who will
return to full-time teaching and research at the uni-

One of the newest and fastest growing divisions in
the American Society of Engineering Education is the
International Division. This division was formed from the
international relations committee, a group of individuals
interested in the international aspects of engineering
education. The division publishes a newsletter which is
sent to all members of the division. In addition, it
publishes a magazine entitled Technos which is dedicated
to the publication of international engineering education
articles. It sponsored the World Congress on educating
engineers for world development in 1975 and has since
published the proceedings of this meeting. In addition, a
mid-winter meeting is held in which interesting inter-
national education projects are developed and discussed.
The division is desirous of obtaining members who are
interested in any aspect of international education such
as teaching in a foreign country, teaching students from
foreign countries in our own country, interchange with
scholars by writing, presentation of programs at the
national meeting, etc.
I invite those persons interested in joining the division
or those persons having an interest in international educa-
tion to contact me.
Dee H. Barker
ChE Dept., Brigham Young University, CB 350,
Provo Utah, 84602

Continued from page 63.
with 48 schools reporting, Bird Stewart and
Lightfoot with 31 schools reporting and mass
transfer by Treybal with 21 schools reporting use
of this book. There are numerous other books
being used, however, the total number of reported
adoptions in each is very small. Thus it would
appear that in the basic ChE subjects that a
small number of books dominate the field, and
thus would indicate a uniformity in the material
being given to the ChE students throughout the
country. O

1. Thatcher, C. M., The Chemical Engineering Curricu-
lum, Chemical Engineering Education, Sept. 1962.
2. Schmidt, A. X., What is the Current ChE Curricu-
lum? Journal of Engineering Education, 50 October
3. Balch, C. W., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Engineering 1969-70, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion, Vol. VI, No. 1, Winter 1972.
4. Barker, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Engineering 1970-71, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion, Winter 1972.


Your present car weighs a lot because there's a lot of
metal in it.
Now, imagine replacing most of that metal with a
material that can lead to the reduction of the weight of a
car, by half.
That's the Thorneldiet.
Thornel is a remarkable carbon fiber produced by
Union Carbide which, when used to reinforce high-
performance plastics, creates a material that can have five
times the strength and stiffness, for equal weight, of
In addition, Thornel absorbs shock, dampens
vibration and will not rust or corrode.
Right now, there is a study showing the feasibility
of taking a 4000-pound car and reducing it to 2000
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suspension members, wheels and bumpers.
While this is being developed for the future, there
are things happening now. Thomel fiber is being used in
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Thornel. One day it will make a big car with the
weight of a small car.
And that's no small achievement.

Today, something we do will touch your life.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

There's a good deal more to enjoying the good
life than many people imagine.
For some of us, the good life means sharing
-our time, our talents, whatever it takes to solve
problems. Like making sure there's enough food
to feed a hungry world. Enough thick forests to
help house it. Enough care to rid it of pollution
and disease. And enough time left to enjoy it.
At Dow, we're dedicated to these and other
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It is largely because of this concern that
many recent graduates with scientific, engineer-
ing, manufacturing and marketing backgrounds

have chosen a career with Dow. They've found
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If you know of students who are looking for
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Midland, Michigan 48640.
Dow is an equal opportunity employer-

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

To truly enjoy the good life,
I1- .... ,I ... L -_ L ... aU

Full Text


lpeclal on the a,1 Curriculum Computer Aided Curriculum Anolysis Undergroduole Curricula 1976 An Internship Program Teaching Problem Solving A Science and Humanities Course HEENAN &HENLEY


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I n du str ial Spon s o rs: The fol low ing wmponies dono1ed fund, for th e support of CHEMICAL ENG I NEERING EDUCATION during 1976-77 3M COMPANY D a partm e ntol Spo ns o rs : The fol l owing 114 deportments coni,ib\J1ed to the suppor1 of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION i n 1977 ,, ,,.,., _, A .. ,_ ....... .,.,, ... : _,.,,,.,, .. ru,,..,_, l',1.,,-%, o lo) ,,TN .l 0, : ... ,.,, ..... .. ., .. .,, .,, ..... ,,. ,, .... : ........ ,. ... ... "" ___ ,,, ,, ., ... ,, .... ... .. -"'''"""'""' ............. ., ...... ,, .,,_C ..... ol TN-1 ,: ,-~, ..... .. Cl<-Cal"""'' u 1, ,,.., ,0,, ., _,1, ............. -,,,.., J, h,~flOo ,-.rTK ...... > ..... ,.,c_.., ,. .. "" .,,.,., c_ ... .,...,~,....,,,,. ,. ,.. .. ... .. ,.-. > .... .,,., .. ., ..,,..,,, ... "" .. S.Y .. ,, ~. ... ,c ., .... ...... .. ,,.b _,., s.,.c ,.. .,,.,u,.,.,,., c,, .. h.... ...... ... ,., ............. ,.,.., .. _,,. ,: me, .,,. ,__ u ,~.,..,_, ..._ S .,,.,_ T,. .. ; of ll -(C ... N) 00 0 0 C h, "-'"'" .. To ..... 01 0 ,..,,-,_,,_,G ., Ttt-> ,. ..... ...... ~.._ ...... .. ... ,""'"' ~._., .,,;,mo l '"' "''>of'- Coi.,,.H, .. Ouoo ........ :....... : ......... ... "'"'""' ..._, ............... : ,_.,, "'"""''"/4 ... ...... c-.. ,..,._"""'""' ...... : .. .. Q,: .... ...,. ,.,.,,,: .... .J,, -~ ., ... ,, ............. .... h .. U c~ .. hf ... ., .. ......... T,. ...... :~ .r} -~ ~~ ..... '.)_ fOOUJ.HAOfH Ny..,..,,._~_,, ., ... ,.,._ (HEM!CA

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AP..,-.,JaTHE SCIEN C E S AND THE HUMANITIES Ml!ICHAr&1oq .. tlonor Ille ood&I ,..._.;bllit1 of Ille ..,Ji,_,, for f~@f~~6~~If?il~~~~ lalMMf'OU..tlt..., ... _._,ttc,loJ--i..,...,,.t.,.i..,-1,-11,i., ........... 1 ...... -btlaapp,opri&to, t~1~2.::~ .,,_,t ......... 11..._.... .. btllippo,y. A l-p,obl.obooltU..-<>r'-'orlnotnoctU..otucl1111 lnU..,ubl)ftlo&oflllt,,.,.,. ... ,..ionor,h,..,.. =-=-~":,~~~1~": =.... ..:.r~= f-of-~Wbo~U...,.ial1! ltia ...... oohflpfole,,~...,iol,bol.._ :,":JE:~;,::~E~t:: .. : -_,,..,1>o.,,.p11a,,iaiaontlltor<1o,11 ltan>l

bolormulat,d u a Mrlooor ..... bi. propoo;,;.,.... r e.,_m..., wu,.. woh ,.. .,,....,. o ti<,,liy u oonrt,,inth.,...., o .., u lhoriuol ,-itivllrtllnt .. nhtt-.,.otury,oronrtain q_,;.,,.. ... .. .. >mr,ora it o dtv,lopment or G,..k o nd B&byioolion .. ,roloy, Thtryo, moral philooophyarmt

Thftro\le,,.lof,.llotot h<,.lotiorulhlp Th.,Prior [l] i" ~bholpl ........... .._. __ .. ....... ........ . :--.:: ~:;::ri : : : :r:~ -n, hins ro, Jult ou< &n 0<>thodoneh7 a t.ct,in t~~~:~::~=~;~:,-~:; ~~7 ; :~~::~:~.::~~I;~ ~=; ron""' or Pri-0,. anolyolo. ~-.,.loft with a ~i]f~~t~~JJ ~'.l~[~2~1i~~iiE !);>o p1,,..;,. 1 prodio&lly unillto,,n.andotl1r ....,.d.o..i..-,..po o nd m&k< h im ~,,. -0/thodil "'"' mplnlty of the;,. ..... I t brion "'to t h< point~.,,.,. ~~EI[t 1 tfil~~t~


C ~=i~ ::_~~:;;.;:f:.!: klh&l'IKlpoliotoofl i l,e,.ltd.., tion oe,a l ltdthom whobt,.....ru1 th lormerhe11<""" 1tdnhy. lluxley he ld thatrulnw.,..oftoomt l < iryoflil<, 1.....i .. _,,i..,1rno~~l i kooli1'-ibili:h:1,:!'~n~kt,,::1: 1:~i: ~:bi~;::ii.:~~1 1 i~~ ~:!:'.~~ :=. :::;~n~ti::i1:=~~~':'.:'::: :.'~T~ the-e h iefpl-,ln\heodu<>lionof\hemoiority ofm> nk lnd"h

. 'l~i::!a1;: If O ~,:,i"~ \!:tfr;)i ~I i;~:J?i:jl .. l1! ~ :~ir 0 1. l!11;;-iJ 'ic;;r~H:i~ J,mtr .. ti ii'" ~"f=-~s-1 rr1 1 r:1 ;J,. I ., ;i'll;. I'll: t'u ;f,ii ;Pl! r .1 'rill tj; I 'f< r"fHfHJ:Prji' > t1fiH fi!H,r;:,llii j11H !,!i;:hjifHii ~!!\ : ll' ,,fi

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I NTERNSHIP I N CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING DES I GN T II' P RUSs ~ ;u. u,;,.,..;tr of D, .,~,,,., w ;i.,; ,.,. ~,...,.. ,,ia98 k'.l l' <>" t ,k N ...,,.,.. l, C o l ..,, w;i ,.;.o .. r,, ,..., 19m .. ,.,_ .,_,.""_._._ .... .. ........ _., ............ _____ --______ .... _.,_.,,.,.._ "'' ,_ .. _,,. __ .._ .. -.... ........... ,.,.,, ... ...._,. ... ,__ ,_ ... ___ ..., __ ... ... ,_ ___ ... .. ...... ..._ .. ..._ __ ........ ___, .. _.,.., _____ __ _. .. _.,,.__ ..... .._ .. .. .... ,,_-. .. ... .... _________ __ ,. _____ ............ ""_ ... .. ____ .. __ .. ,_ ... __ ..,_ _. ...,._, ...... ""


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.. ,,, ........ ....... ... .. O. B ".. .,,, ,.., ... o.c...., 11 .... ..... ..... ... O.Tw .-.nlo '"k < looc.h o U.C .... 1&< looE>o l .. loo ... ,,.., ... .. ,, .. u ... ,.,.. ... .. ,w,. ,. o, .... ..... .. .. .. ,. ,. .. ... ... ,,. .. ..... ,, .. 0 11, 1 ol, ol' .... .. I" "'" 1 11, 1 ., ., ., ,c.,o .., .,_ T ,. ,. ,.,....,., .. .... ," .... -, ... ,., .. A .. 1, ol K, ., J .. .... ,,.. .. .. ... .. .. .... 11, o. v .... c .. ... .. ,. __ ., ,. .. ... ..... -u !l mn,., ,, ,,.._ ,-,~ "'""' I .. A .. t,, l.ol l'o,"1. 1 "" "'"" 1' ... .... .. ........... ,_ A..,_ ..... ,, ... .. .. ... v ,._ .,,. ,, ,, ., The 1'-1 foro.,;h ; ntern ,.,.,..;,,..i of P rojort S umma,y .-hleh-, H..:t -, h Joblo o po,u.aphorlwo,a,,d o

mademootol!t;v,bythe-to-on ...,._ol<>pJ with \he odJund""oort lylo\hen-ifo,imme
  • blmu lh.otlhey~""ld_no,m>llynrount,,onth i rt,ti>plnodby t hea,JJuoct p,.._ 1-,,. Both manor,mont po... 1 a nd \h e a,JJ onRJ0. Cl .. U "-~0.S~Rkff k ... At, n,s,., ~_,.,,..., ... J,,.., ........... k,. ... .. ... .... ,, __ ... .. ...... .. ........... .. ......... .... OH .. .. .... .t "k'1 .,, ..... ,. n, A-l or._,, ,,. ,.......... .,, ... ., ., ,., ,,.,N .. A .......... .... _., ... ,. ... .. u('"ff-N .... N .. <.._ ... ... ..... _, .. ..... .. .. ._ .. ,,. ....... ,,.. .,k., ., ,,...,..,..._ ........... .ri-. ..... ~, ............. _., ..... .. .... .. .. ........ .. ... k .. loo .. -"' '"" ..,, .. "' .. k". .. .,n.n. "'" ., s, .. .. i>J""' -""" n ..

    PAGE 32

    ChE EDUCATION IN MEXICO Met h odology And E valuation T :~ :t',~~;~':.T;;: "":lr,d d,qua~\-"""'lraw /"1""1~1 :"::'~:O";'d~=:~ uni, .. ,.;11 .. a nd iIY An aly:,i r the ,, ... " nt of n allon.o l prodO' hM .....,hod a ,._ ~hr< N i~ ...,_.lopn,ent eannot ;;.,s !~:7~,~~?E~i:;.:3; f~J=~:.;!::::~::: ~; ~~:1~:~=~ =::~.!:::1=~: ~.:}:~~S:f.:~~t:~~1~J; 0 u;...itoptodUtthirt,oroyorulll1orop<. higherrr<r,,ll,o.,,..,nl .. tlon ,.._ ,,uir
    PAGE 33

    = ~[ ,,. ,,_...,,..,.,,..,=:::J wfl.Oro<> ... ndinfOt,on tMltdi
    PAGE 34

    n. ""-" b ..,,,..._ "' .. ,. .,. ,., ... ,..... n ~.. K.,., """' .. ,.. "' .. m ,,,..,. .. .. ... .... -...,.,. ....... ..... .. .. .... .. .. ....,_ .... .. .... ,. ... .. ..,, ............. .... ... ..... ...... ....... ..... ... .. ,_ .... .... ... ,..,.., .... .. ... ....... .......... ,, ... ............. ... .. ... ... .. ...... .., .. .. .. ....... ..... .. ,,.,. .. ...... ..... ~ .... .. .. .. ..,, ~ .... .. ,_, ..... .. ........ .. ...... .. .. ............... .. .. .. .. .... ..._ ... ._ ... ........... .. .. ..., ... ,,_ .. .. ..... _.._ ... .. .. ... .... -. .. ...... .. ... s A~~lloron&tn><,t!Qo of tho ....,... y 1" 1 .. ..... Wr< lor tM ... ll ............... --. .... 11 .............. .... .... ......... ..... .. ........ .... .. _. ..... .... ., ... .. ..... ... .. .... ... .. .... .. Ck w ... ..., .. N ""' U ,.. .. .. .. .., .. ... .... .. ... ... .. ..... ... .. .... .... .. ...... .., .. ., .. .. ... ..... .. ....... .. ... ... l o t hlrll>OdolNoonUini o 1th,followin 1l"' rto ._... .. ,.... ....... .., .. ... ..... .. ... .. k ..... .......... ko ...... .. .. .. .... .. ........... .... ... ... _. -~ ., "'"' k-,. ........ .. .. ... .. ._ .. .. ... .... .. .... .. .. ........ .. ... .. ..... ,.,. ...... ... ~"' ""- .... ~ .. ,.. .. .. ... ...... ,.. .. .. -"I' .......... .. .. ... ................ ... ........... _.,. .... k1 ., ... ., ... ., .... ,. .. ._ ....... ................. .. N .. ..... I .... .... ..... In e, eey on ;, th, ma trtlrit..t,d :.~;F,I.~~~~~:i?~n a n d...,.....,,..,., i ,ald,,..i.,_,,, ,."""""nl..:l .. .. ............ .. .. .. ..... ..... .. ..,._ .. -~~ : ; ~ ~:;; ~ and-,todi...,.th,,tu....,ttowardmor< ample bibH..-nph l <&I ,.,.,...,.. on t h e oub;~ n, .. ,,..,., .. y l' ~Thl ionl o ,...,_fold A,.tbefoTOth, p ,acti""toOm,....,ri, and i o r, adyto.,rfonninlh< l abon11-01'1'. A "1 o r\ i n

    PAGE 35

    " "" ""' I ... M""k<>' oc hool of ,h,miotry, WO h.o,lee,,<1y,ppliod .. ldprindpl .. with~ f l ; : ;'..:k>llll..,.....,,.,..,he.,oeri.,,loter

    PAGE 36

    ,...... ,..,..1n.11y1.odi .......... ,.,.1ou.. ;:::-,~lth,rltiththoAudonlOftnl.....it1,. ,na7":.::":::1o:::. ::...di=:;~ :.:;:: ==-::::.. i :!:.1~~ 1 ;....-:.; ::!.":!:.:;,,:t lo tho ..... "' ~gi :=~~:~~! .i=iE:: tho~.. lhlial>fid ""' _,.. willll tho o1,r1,11t.,...u..,.....,.a,.....,1u,,,,m,u.. .. 1o1o1...-''U..t111,._11,...,_Au1,n1...-u.. ::.::E:,::~~ =,~~?~~?::i:: .-.1throurt,thnMmhondbeyo,ldtho .. hoolboo n duioo,whlom,d_,.,tt,-, .. o t ion period.i,,.-.intdlntoroctio,,he
    PAGE 37

    or11udylt>J:theoerro,......,.or,1,e., ....,;1we !'t th Protr,_ of the ,tudent, Nof ,nonit lf we f o vo,oble,fl"0ort ;::~~"!.,:;:t'. ~~.--~;.=~; ~':~n, i"~r ::;: .. _..,..Th,..,.""'ma"riolin E 0Jl i 1h.,..,1>o ,...pon,ibl"'>'o lotottthu ~~~i~~~:::.: :: ::~: a llU..atudonUoftholroul>-JTOOp & ndh,...,o .,... "J' ----

    PAGE 38

    ~~~~~ 0 X:-.!ll:!~: = =-~ :::~:~JEt:t~~:~ho; :k;J::~~~~i ;:'~~~:"2= g~~Y![~~5:~ ~;ggiffi to ... l)llohthatitiopooajblotohavolf'OIIPoOf 40>todoot&ondorU..aopuvioionofonuolo1&nt wlt h 2011doa1> _,...,ilh ti ... ,allo""t,ot..hodoqlUlte&nolt-hin~.,..tem,itio,ory ~;~~~;Ei~: k :E~: n...,..__.,11,., .... ;,,,.,,._u.o .... f~)gg~1~ :!:11!."'~u~ h ~~: :h:::'~f<,~;~~::. Th< i-fll"ll ..,_,1<,riol he _,,1&ntly

    PAGE 39

    ..,dmmi-.iono fo, -h of t i>< -,,. Jtao. 2. A -. ~. II ,..,, _,... P,,. ,...,_ A ... ,._ ........ ....,.,.,_ ..... A .... l ..... .. A l,C,,.,Y ... a,>,1-1'11 1 11 ... Al f, T B..'A l ... M ... .,,._ .... ,~ ... -_. .... A ..... 11 ..... < A,!, ci, .1. -. D.C.. -,m ~ Gt,<; ,_. H 11(1'70) SCtENCE&HUMANITIES:P e nn & At is C fo ...r r ,_,...,. ,. H .. ~7. A .Uun, .............. H ...... r O. ""10. 11 .J '"''""' ,~t1,lo,. lo .. .,.,, ........ H ,,., .. u ---c-.._ ,...._ ~ n..,.. ... ,n.. .... ... _,,.,..,....,.~ .. ............ __ ... ............ ... t.oo,.A-ofA-,.-.,_, ..... v. s. x .-- "" .. .,. ..i ... !O.Tln_., -.......,..,,. ,to ... od ""'U""'""' I ~ M,,._, H. --.,,. p,_ .. ..,., .......... ..... __ ,._,,. ., ,_.,,.,_.,,.,.,,._ Y,~ u ,1,.,,,. "'N,..

    PAGE 40

    ON TEACHING PROBLEM SOLVING Par t l : What I s Being Done? OONALD R. WOODS .llc,11 .. 1 U' 11 ... u...,,o,.,.,.;,,LSS,L? P ;i 0 :,,.~!',}~'-~~~~ --~: ~~~:t:::,, 7:;: Jr&rnl&l'ldho,,.do..-.tnnpot,.._..tolOOOq""'lioon a i.., ..,,,001tot,ytoftnd&n0nrstolh-qu .. tiono ,.,,....i r,..,.., ln<~ulitythatanyoneohould M k ~iil Dtf\ninr what~ """" by oo!vin.c or,,l,lemo :~i.:u~~.t0:: 1 :;,;';~ !,:i'!"'!. M n~ hav.arudy,,..pon .. [ l ]ormo,..fonnallyM :~:it .. ai.::t:n ... ::..:d :1.,0':!~:'1~::o':i.: effocti~ylnhl,.,,vl,onm,nt.Tbeait .. tioni,. -~h,. .. lroctl,,...-ltern>tiVnlH 5:~'~ 1 ~!~;1:!".;t:i~t; ~;,1:=-~~-:.: ==~~:"".;:-;;:. ..... .......... ...... ........ ~,,,. ..... .. .. ,_,, ...... ,... ..... ...... .. .... .. ...... _, .. ,_, .. _, ............ ........... .. _, ..... ................... ,, ..... .. ___ .. .. _.,_,,,, ..... ~ .... .,_,......,_ ..... .... ,_, .. .., _______ .... ,..._ .. .., .. .... .... ._ .. __ ............... .._ ... -... ~-----~ .... --... ----~-"' --, ~--.. .... ..-.. .. .,,,. .. _,_ ..... ,., ___ ..... .......... .. ..... ... ... ... .. ... .... ...... .. w ..... ...... .... . ... ........ .. c. .. .,.. ,~.. ) .... ..... ,_ .......... Jo,1 _,._

    PAGE 41

    la- Ille ;.;tw ...lo Wkl .. -:=--=~::.-~::=_,_ .. ........... ,.,, .. ..... 1 .......... icat ... olU..ot .. \dU...... -1.111a1 otto~,O""ootlO ... pt,MiNtho_,_.,, P,.,.,..,...,lhoo,.NQoi,itN(IUltoolhot\hio fllaJ"\,e..,,.apoo""'L. .!':,.~~~~ .... .;:::=~== :.=:.:-.:~""~!"..:i~ --(1-poof ....... f __ ofdiocl,W-lllata,.cloiq-11,o....,. ~l:acl,oft'-olo...,..poa,._ JI ... ., ........ -. .... .. __ ,. ___ ..._.,:;_, -,dl&.-,tholooldilnioiol0,-.thonla& varyin.rOMOUtollfflphMiothatconboplNO
    PAGE 42

    . ... ...,,m __ ..,,, ,_ _.,. .. "' ........ ....... ... .. ,_,. .. .. ... ... ... ... ... .... .. .. .. ., ... ,. .. ... .............. ... .................. .. ,, .... .. .. ...... ........ ........... 1 .. ... .. ...... ..... ......... ... .. .. ............ ..... .. .. ... ..... ._ ............. .... .. ... ... .... .... .. .......... ..-. .. .... .. ....... ..... ,._""" .. .,., ..... .. .. .. .. .. ..... .... .... .. ...... ., .. ,_.,-.. ,, .... .. _, .... ,-.-, ....... .. ..... .. .. ........ .... ....... ,.,.. v H .,.,...._ ... .. .... ...... .. .... .... ,, ....... ..... .. ..-.. .... ,,... .. ... .. ...... .. ....... ,, .... ,,,., .. ............. ..... .. ........ ... ........... ....... .... .. ..... .. ... .. ...... .. ..-. ... .. ,,.. ..... .. ... ,. .. .......... P orh&po..,.,,.mono, mbill ousld<.._ 1 ruo ,,...oitt monoU,..onp,l loo,o.:Min,;. io l<>prn,ntof,ptti al moteri ol ,thotf 0flh ....,. omphMi o throos,ho,,,t l>ein~ pl Oefocu ioon\l>eolra"g ndon th,ol a ln>00tio,matei o l ) Th 1.etopn nl "Ki<>nhow1<>go,001JttJH,tut,thffl they lto rn o parl ;. ul a,probl
    PAGE 43

    tiv< "=" !!l:.: :::':"...:'.:. ~:;: ............. --fw~:!1-.:!.:" ,::.:=='='..::: tho.-orkotS ...... lo..t!!,l-(19](1tilhl ::;!~""::"~~=p:;:'" .:=.:: :::: ~~n:;.::HI .ni.,.tiOI """'"1Do,_ Oil r!-rlnf l}'lllhooia: IMI, ::-.:::::.:. 1 ~:!l~.~.7:;'~": :':..~~~ =-=-:.:..~~~ ,,o1...i...... ,., ......... Nrt1., .....

    PAGE 44

    /_ ..... ,.., ... ..-,.,..,,......,.._ :::. ....... ,;.,. .... ..-.di ~! ::! !fE~;;;:~r.:l;~-:E 0<10n-lNdwiU,Lolls)..,lltlod "i;klodl-:rl-o..; .. -~~-n.,1&...-ol :~.: :::: :7..:=::-u,: .... .... ,_ ..... _ndtl,lo,,,_ .... -u,o...,...,,ro1-J0o nlt ollo,, 61-r" {M] ..,..,... 111~,, -to, IQDMfo,pn,i,l"nondBoille(lt]hvolOn0""""'Probkffloohinrappn,o1>ttpt,Tht1h.-.. .... ,....:litolp,,,_ "'""' .... o Nrioo ol <&"'f\llly ooitod p, Tllo al_tl ,._,...,,. .. Mns tI .-p0 ol u,,...,...,. .. -. ... r ..-_,,_,.. .. __ ... ......,.......,. ........ =~===:=F~?= alter, tlyt...iklol,lorU.OftriP-1 to _,.;,1n1 .,.._ton"' ,oq...,.. of otHI\IM)oolhat \ hoy-prob i.,... o, -of w -...--~--...i _....,._o1_,_ ... -.. ......... ,...._.._ ....... -"""""""',.u,.,10Wblom ll.ovin1tl>o"'""l""'u,.an
    PAGE 45

    ,_problfflu.Ho .. de<>il,.vilobl.[28,2'] t a-,.Thilot,.,.,,;,;,yi.n"'~roon l vin~ i ~5~h~!~fff1:i~~:1~;7 ::;~~=--h.,..,,..nt\<,,pl'OOObolity,model, ~ eHetal.[46]a od !.arkin[46 47Jha,..fO ...,,i,tiooand""'"""'h.o t they ... M~ll....-idddnit i on, .. 1otet<>thoirp-ioo,knowlln.To...Ut lhomworbh .. uho bpl. }lo ,. <- ,. OlhdM-,Ol.i,.. 0[60) Pl'roo ~rat ti,,,.. Uk o Spoirl o lo< o l lndu>t,y l'. xo mp i..,;n f5::~e:~.~~=!~~:.::i

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    PAGE 50

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    PAGE 51

    How your car can lose 2000 pounds on the Thome! diet.

    PAGE 52

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