Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text

ch em l- en gi eerig e ca,,to

Getting blood from a baby is a little like trying to
get blood from a stone.
An infant has very little blood to spare.
Yet, there are times when a newborn child requires
critical blood tests. And some very fast results.
Union Carbide has answered these needs by
developing a revolutionary blood testing instrument
known as the CentrifiChem Analyzer.
It requires unusually small quantities of blood.
Which means enough can be drawn through a simple
prick in the finger or heel of a child or adult.
With that tinyamount of blood, the CentrifiChem
System can detect symptoms of cardiac, liver, kidney
and other bodily disorders. And this unique machine
is capable of performing blood tests so fast it can
help save a life that once might have been lost.

Union Carbide has developed three vital systems
for the critical clinical diagnostics field.
The Centria system, which is able to detect the
minutest quantities of substances circulating in the
The CintiChem system, designed exclusively for
the nuclear medicine laboratory.
And, of course, the CentrifiChem system.
It's about as close as you can get to a bloodless

Today, something we do will touch your life.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
Homer F. Johnson
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CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
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University of Wisconsin
WEST: George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
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Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
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University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania


Chemical Engineering Education

28 Using Summer Faculty-Student Consultant
teams to Solve Industrial Problems,
D. Michelsen, J. Arkis and G. Echols
44 Organization of a Functional ChE
Library, E. Snider
4 Departments of Chemical Engineering
10 The Educator
Ralph Peck of Illinois Tech
24 Curriculum
Process Control Engineering at UT
Permian, C. Sprague, G. Quentin and
C. Fry
32 Laboratory
SYCONS, A Systems Control Simulator,
H. Wengrow, C. Dennett, R. Greenlee and
D. LeBlanc
14 Lecture
The World of Surface Science, D. Shah
3, 31, 47 Letters
2 Book Review

ASEE Syposium
34 Where Is the Roller Coaster Headed?
W. Baasel and M. Cise
38 Practical Limits to Growth in ChE,
W. Corcoran
39 Too Many Departments!, H. McGee
41 Can We Limit Enrollment by Professional
Society Action?, T. Russell and
R. Daugherty
AIChE Report
46 Audio Visual Aids Subcommittee
Activities, W. Beckwith

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should he addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1977. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

Book reviews

by W. A. Gray and R. Muller
Pergamon Press, 1974.
Reviewed by Frank Kreith, University of Colorado
The authors of this work attempt to
summarize engineering methods for calculating
heat transfer by radiation and techniques for
measuring radiation and temperature in a book
of less than 150 pages. In view of the complexity
of the field and the many recent advances in calcu-
lation methods, the authors selected topics and
then attempted to integrate them into a book
suitable for engineers with a general background
in heat transfer and thermodynamics, but lacking
detailed knowledge in radiation heat transfer. The
topics selected are of general interest and would,
therefore, make this book suitable as a supple-
mentary text in some conventional courses, e.g.
Unit Operations, as currently taught in many
chemical engineering programs or Physical
Climatology. Unfortunately, the authors have
relied heavily for the material in their book on
other texts in heat transfer, rather than on
original sources. In their list of 47 references, 27
are to other textbooks and only 20 are to articles

in the literature. Among the latter group, some,
such as R. V. Dunkel's and A. K. Oppenheim's
classical papers, are not referenced correctly, and
only two articles published within the past five
years are cited. Thus, the book cannot be con-
sidered an up-to-date reference text, but rather
a compilation of well-known techniques, illustrated
by a few examples. However, only two papers
are devoted to the Monte Carlo Method which is
capable of handling many complex problems in
radiation and no worked out example is pre-
sented. Moreover, no mention is made of other
numerical techniques suitable for computer pro-
cessing. This appears a serious shortcoming in a
book dealing with engineering calculations for
technical people expecting to practice in the 1970's
or 1980's.
On the positive side, the summary of measurements of
radiation and temperature will be useful and the treatment
of atmospheric radiation is well put together. However,
also in these topics the material presented in this book does
not contain recent findings and the bibliography will not
help the reader to update his knowledge in the field.
In summary, the book will be useful for an
engineer who lacks background in radiation heat
transfer and wants to brush up without spending
too much time doing so, but for an up-to-date
treatment of engineering calculations in radiative
heat transfer the reader will find the current
literature a better source.


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DURING 1976:



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meown whco co"dO4ed & to dt *p4po4t o Qf i i? 976!


I letters


I'll be surprised if this is not one of a flood of letters you
will get in reply to Gill's report, Carberry's response and
Griskey's feature. The subject clearly matters to us all, yet
becomes absurd when dissected too closely and publicized too
much. In a hope that it may do more good than harm I
offer the following observations:

1. Peer evaluations or perceptions may or may not relate
to other relevant facts or substance but are of im-
portance to us of and in themselves. The danger is
positive feedback whereby the perception or reputa-
tion becomes an end in itself. I fear that Gill, Car-
berry, Griskey and perhaps all of us, are quickly
caught in that cycle.
2. While some departments stand out as particularly ex-
cellent, and perhaps some as particularly poor I con-
tend that with much fuzziness in what is being meas-
ured and large possible errors in measurement the
rankings become rapidly meaningless apart from ex-
tremes. I am sure no department does or should ac-
cept a self image as second or third rate. This is not
a pennant race whereby because someone is first it
follows that there must be a number two, twenty and
115. It is not a zero sum game and Minnesota's or
Buffalo's gain need not be MIT's or Notre Dame's
loss unless we insist on making it so.
3. The Griskey feature displays data in some helpful
ways making it possible to view and compare some
operating characteristics. His GRPI may even be a
useful lumped parameter for looking at some distribu-
tion of performance. Not surprisingly Griskey's Fig-
ure 5 shows that 50% of departments have GRPI's
between 0.4 and 0.6 and GRPI makes no meaningful
distinction among them. I doubt the validity of
Griskey's conclusion and would fear its adoption.
Means that are valid and helpful for characterizing a
population are not necessarily useful or proper when
applied individually to each unit of the population.
This is, properly, an emotional issue which pricks our
departmental and thus our personal pride. We must compete
and only one can be number one-for now.
David Hansen
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

We are ambivalent about prolonging the debate in your
pages on the ranking of chemical engineering departments,
since titers of feeling, eloquence, numerical data and pages
therein are already outdistancing more fundamental contri-
butions to your journal. We are the more ambivalent be-
cause we share Carberry's view, to which he himself shows
only partial adherence, that no single criterion and no par-
ticular combination of criteria has unique appeal and each
will produce different results. Nonetheless we consider
Griskey's recent article on this subject in your pages to
demonstrate laudable objectivity and appeal to common
sense in its formulation of one criterion. We want briefly

to summarize a similar study we made last spring that pro-
duced similar but not identical results and then to offer
some more general observations. Data from the last four
Thesis Indexes of Chemical Engineering Progress and the
last two ACS Directories of Graduate Research were used
to calculate the average number of doctoral degrees per
faculty member per year with the result shown in Table I.
The four-year averaging, approximately equal to a
doctoral student's mean residence time, is desirable because
many departments in these surveys produce only a few
doctorates per year and are subject to fluctuating enroll-
ments. Thus the "noise" of a single measurement channel
in our study may be smoothed by a longer sample time so
that the results may be of comparable quality to Griskey's
shorter sample of multiple channels.
Gill, defending his study against Carberry's criticism,
refers to the correlation among rankings. However, a close
examination of the rankings which include the two Ameri-
can Council of Education ratings, the Gill and Griskey
rankings and our own statistics showed that there was, in
fact, very little correlation among them. The lack of correla-
tion is most obvious on a plot using Griskey's results as the
abscissa and the different ratings as the ordinate.
In offering our data set we suggest that each of these
studies, ours included, establishes only a local truth and any
implied catholicism must be regarded warily. Our survey
was done to show our dean that our doctoral program was
cost effective relative to those of other chemical engineering
programs. Surveys that measure something close to a well-
defined concept of goodness may have merit, but opinions
report the feelings of those who opine, "efficiencies" meas-
ure against their own precise but narrow standard, and
complex truth does not come cheap.
H. Y. Cheh
E. F. Leonard
Columbia University

Table I
The following table was taken from a recent survey
concerning the productivity of doctoral degrees from vari-
ous chemical engineering schools in both US and Canada.
A total of 73 schools was included with data taken from
Thesis Index, CEP and ACS Directory of Graduate Re-
search. The first 10 schools are listed below:

Average number of doctoral
degrees granted per faculty
University per year (1971-75)

1 Stanford 0.979
2 UC Berkeley 0.913
3 Princeton 0.904
4 UCLA 0.863
5 Wisconsin 0.852
6 Northwestern 0.727
7 Columbia 0.694
8 Carnegie Mellon 0.683
9 Notre Dame 0.643
10 Colorado School of Mines 0.608
Average from 73 schools = 0.431
Standard deviation = 0.195



Case Institute of Technology
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106

N 1884, THE CASE catalog announced the in-
troduction of "Chemical Technology" as part of
the chemistry curriculum. This was the first ap-
pearance of Chemical Engineering at Case. The
first degree labelled Chemical Engineering was
awarded by Case in 1909, but it appears that the
curriculum itself was not called Chemical Engi-
neering until 1913.
The Case ChE program was one of the very
first in the country. Similar developments took
place throughout the 1880's and 1890's at Tulane,
.University of Illinois, University of Pennsylvania,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the
University of Michigan. It was not until 1922 that
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
could even agree on a definition of what Chemical
Engineering was. When the AIChE instituted ac-

creditation in 1925, the Case program was one of
only fourteen to be approved.
The men responsible for the founding of ChE
at Case were Professors Charles Mabery and Al-
bert W. Smith. Mabery, an early leader in petro-
leum research, was department head from 1883 to
1911. Smith, department head from 1911 to 1927,
was a key figure in the early history of the Dow
Chemical Company. It was under his leadership
that ChE emerged as a separate course of study.
For many years the department was integrated
with Chemistry in a Department of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering. In 1962, the ChE activities
were severed from Chemistry and became the
Chemical Engineering Science Division of the
School of Engineering. In 1972, we became the
Department of Chemical Engineering.
The completion of the $2,500,000 renovation of
the Albert W. Smith Building in January, 1976
signals the beginning of a new period of growth of
ChE at Case.



THE DEPARTMENT HAS had many well
known and influential ChE's associated with it
over the years. Herbert H. Dow, a Case Tech grad-
uate of 1888, founded the Dow Chemical Company,
which has become one of the world's largest chem-
ical enterprises. Dr. Albert W. Smith worked
closely with Dow and made many contributions
which were crucial to the survival and growth of
the company. Among these were the first Amer-
ican production of carbon tetrachloride and the
synthesis from this of chloroform. Professor
Smiths' sons, Kent H. Smith, and A. Kelvin
Smith, and F. Alex Nason, were co-founders of
the Lubrizol Corporation, the world's leading
manufacturer of lubricant additives. They are
Case ChE graduates from 1917, 1922 and 1922
Throughout the years 1927 to 1956, the chair-
men of the department were Professors William R.
Veazey, Carl F. Prutton '20 and William Von
Fischer. All were very active within the U.S.
chemical industry.
This tradition of accomplishment has con-
tinued to the present time. Today, Case graduates
are found in responsible positions throughout the
American and world chemical industry and in
academia. A very few examples of the many that
could be cited follow. Dr. Durga Ambwani, who
received his Ph.D. in 1968, is the cofounder of the
Asia Development Corporation. Dr. Paul Friedl, a
Case B.S. and Ph.D. Chemical Engineering gradu-
ate, developed the new IBM 5100 table top com-
puter. Dr. Glenn Brown, Ph.D. 1958, is Vice Presi-
dent for R. and D. of SOHIO. Shunji Kumazawa,
M.S. 1965, is General Manager of Technical De-
velopment for Toray Industries, one of Japan's
leading corporations. Richard Knazek, a Case B.S.
Chemical Engineering graduate of 1962, was
chosen as "One of the Ten Most Outstanding
Young Men in the U.S." by the U.S. Jaycees in
January, 1976 for his medical research.
Our most recent graduates are also doing well.
Two members of our 1976 senior class, Mr. Donald
Feke and Mr. Max Gorensek, won National Sci-
ence Foundation Graduate Fellowships. (Only
fourteen were awarded to ChE's in the entire
U.S.). Mr. Feke also won one of the three Electro-
chemical Society summer fellowships in 1976.
A total of 1686 B.S., 280 M.S., and 117 Ph.D.
degrees have been awarded by the department
since its founding.

We have attempted to steer
a middle road between the extremes
of pure empiricism on the one hand and
engineering science on the other. As a
result the ChE B.S. program has
no strong ideologicall" bias.

Faculty and Staff-The staff is comprised of
eight professors, two adjunct professors, one ad-
junct lecturer, six research engineers, one tech-
nician and an administrative and secretarial staff
of three. A listing of the faculty and their major
technical interests is given in Table 1.
Students-There are 135 undergraduates
majoring in ChE at Case and 25 resident graduate
students. We have experienced a significant in-
crease in undergraduate ChE enrollment in the
past year, although not such a dramatic upturn as
seen at some institutions. We have not, however,
had a decline in the average SAT scores of our
entering freshmen. They have, in fact, been
slightly increasing, counter to the national
trends-The average mathematics and verbal SAT
scores for the 1976 freshman class were at the
99th and 95th percentile respectively. Combined
mathematics and verbal SAT's run about 1250.
ChE has a reputation on the campus as being one
of the more demanding curricula and we con-
sistently attract excellent students.
Research-There is a very active graduate
research activity underway. Research expendi-
tures in the Department totalled $465,700 during
the past year, a very high figure for only 8 full
time faculty. An unusual feature of the present

Undergraduates in the Diamond Shamrock Computer


One unusual feature
of the graduate program is the
Instructional Television Network (ITN).
Courses are offered from the campus live
or on videotape to employed engineers
in the Cleveland area.

research support is that about half of it comes
from private industry.
The largest single effort is an industrial proj-
ect for the development of a new gas treating
process conceived by Professors Adler, Brosilow,
Gardner and Dr. William Brown, a recent Case
graduate. The new process has substantially lower
investment and operating costs than competing
processes and promises to have a major impact in
the chemical and related industries. Another large
project involves the catalysis of coal gasification,
done under the direction of Professors Gardner
and Angus with ERDA support.
A project of great potential is a joint computer
development effort with the IBM Corporation on
applications of APL in ChE. "A Programming
Language" (APL), while devised and imple-
mented between 1960 and 1965 by IBM, has re-
quired the present generation of computer sys-
tems for full utilization of its capabilities. The
result is a powerful notational scheme that allows
coding at a much higher level than FORTRAN,
and is similar to the notation of matrix algebra.
Hierarchical systems which interface an APL host
to experiments are being developed. By using
small microcomputers coded to execute APL com-
mands, data acquisition and computation on ac-
quired data bases can run efficiently. Real time
control functions are being studied as well. The
APL project is directed by Professor Mann.
An unusually strong effort is underway in
laser application studies including laser doppler
flowmeters, transport property measurement by
light scattering and laser holographic machining.
This work involves Professors Edwards, Mann
and Angus. The university effort in environmental
engineering is centered in ChE. There are several
projects in industrial wastewater treatment, e.g.,
ozone treatment and cyanide disposal. Professors
Prober and Melnyk direct this effort. We also have
an active research effort in membrane processes,
surface transport and interfacial dynamics under
the direction of Professor Mann.
We have always had a strong program in sys-

Taking courses over the Case Instructional Television
Network. Courses are televised to employed engineers
in the Cleveland area.

strong "ideological" bias. We require a total of
131 to 135 credit hours (depending on elective se-
quences). The ChE part of the curriculum in-
cludes courses in energy and mass balances, sepa-
ration processes, transport phenomena, thermo-
dynamics, chemical reactor design and a unit op-


teams and control. One aspect of the present work
is the development of inferential control schemes
and their application to onstream distillation col-
umns and reactors at Exxon, Marathon and Mobil
Oil Companies. This work is directed by Professor
Industrial Support-Industrial sponsored
contract research is done through the DICAR Cor-
poration, a for profit corporation owned by the
university. This arrangement permits us to accept
non thesis and confidential research from indus-
trial companies. The work is mainly in process
development and is conducted in part by full time
research engineers.
Unrestricted grant support from various com-
panies is also received. These include: Air Prod-
ucts Co., Atlantic Richfield, CWC Industries, Dia-
mond Shamrock, Dow Chemical Co., duPont Cor-
poration, Lubrizol Foundation, Monsanto Corpora-
tion, PPG Industries and the Procter and Gamble

E HAVE ATTEMPTED to steer a middle
road between the extremes of pure empiricism
on the one hand and engineering science on the
other. As a result the ChE B.S. program has no

erations laboratory. The ChE sequence is termi-
nated with a two semester capstone course in
Process Analysis and Design. This latter course
makes extensive use of the computer aided design
systems, FLOWTRAN.
The curriculum contains required laboratory
courses in mathematics (computation), physics,
chemistry, laboratory methods and techniques (in-
strumental) as well as the senior unit operations
laboratory. In addition, all students have the op-
tion of doing an experimental undergraduate re-
search project. This can be used to fulfill the 5
course elective sequence offered to all students.
Other elective sequences, which are virtually
"minor" fields, include Management, Polymer Sci-
ence, Environmental Engineering, Computing,
Systems and Control and Biomedical Engineering.
A full range of graduate courses is taught by
the department as well. Both M.S. and Ph.D. de-
grees are offered. One unusual feature of the
graduate program is the Instructional Television
Network (ITN). Courses are offered from the
campus live or on videotape to employed engineers
in the Cleveland area. This program has been in
existence now for several years and the depart-
ment has recently had its first M.S. graduate, Mr.
Monty Reed of the Timken Company, who did all
of his course work over television.

THE ChE DEPARTMENT is one of the fifteen
engineering and science departments that make
up Case Institute of Technology. Case, in turn, is
one of the major components of Case Western Re-
serve University. This latter institution was syn-
thesized in 1967 from the predecessors, the old
Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve
Case Institute is a small selective college; we
have only 1136 undergraduate students. The total
enrollment of the university, including all the
graduate and professional students is 8279. The
endowment, capital plant and faculty make Case
Western Reserve one of the countries largest
private universities.
The university is set within a large complex of
parks and educational and cultural institutions on
the eastern side of Cleveland known as University
Circle. This is especially fortunate, for our next
door neighbors are the Cleveland Museum of Art
and Severance Hall, the home of the Cleveland
The ChE faculty participate in a wide range of

A top view of the high pressure test cells showing the
large vertical vent stacks.

other professional activities in addition to their
principal jobs of teaching. A few of these are
listed to give an idea of the scope of these efforts.
* Professor Nelson Gardner's research group recently won
the National American Chemical Society prize for the
best paper on coal. Professor Gardner has also been
selected twice as a National A.I.Ch.E. tour speaker and
gave the opening plenary lecture at the U.S. Bureau of
Mines coal catalysis conference last spring.
* Professor Edwards' research in laser doppler flowmeters
has received international recognition. He was invited to
give the opening plenary lecture at the Biennial Turbu-
lence Symposium and was also twice selected as a Visit-
ing Scientist by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission.
* Professor Adler will serve as Conference Chairman of
the 1977 Engineering Foundation Biennial Meeting. Pro-
fessor Angus recently returned from a sabbatical year
at the University of Edinburgh where he was a Senior
NATO Fellow and Visiting Lecturer.
* Professor Prober is editor of the CRC Press Monograph
Series on Water Pollution Control Technology and was
Coordinating Editor for the CRC Handbook on Environ-
mental Control. Professor Brosilow is serving on the
National A.I.Ch.E. Machine Computation Committee and
recently spent a sabbatical year at the Technion in
Israel. Professor Mann has given many invited papers
on membrane dynamics around the country and will
organize the symposium for the Colloid division of the
ACS on "Application of Surface Science to Problems in
Biology and Medicine".
* Professor Melnyk recently received one of the two
national awards from the Technical Association of the
Pulp and Paper Industry for excellence in research on
wastewater treatment with ozone. Professor Bikerman,
one of the nation's leading authorities on foams and
surface phenomena, recently published a book entitled
"Foams" (Springer Verlag).



IN 1975, WE RECEIVED a $2,500,000 anony-
mous alumni donation to provide our depart-
ment with a ChE building. The existing Smith
Building on the Case Campus has been completely
renovated for the ChE Department. We moved to
our new quarters in January, 1976.
The Albert W. Smith Building includes: a
large undergraduate Unit Operations Laboratory;
an undergraduate projects laboratory; a computer
room; a high bay area for process related re-
search; three re-inforced concrete, vertically
vented chambers for hazardous and high pressure
research; graduate and undergraduate water pol-
lution control laboratories; acoustically isolated
room; constant temperature and humidity room;

A laser anemometer experiment of Professor Edwards'
for measuring flow in pipes.

instrument room; two classrooms (one designed
for television instruction) ; library-reading room
and the normal complement of offices and research
The four story building gives us approximately
30,000 square feet of net usable floor space.
The new facilities give us a unique opportunity
to further strengthen the size and scope of the
Chemical Engineering activities at Case. With the
completion and equipping of the building, we have
acquired absolutely first rate instructional and re-
search space. Some of the special features of the
facilities are outlined below.
We have just received a $185,000 grant from
Diamond Shamrock Corporation for the equipping
and maintenance of the Diamond Shamrock Com-
puter Center within the ChE department. This is
part of a larger university wide grant by Diamond
Shamrock. The computer will be installed early in
1977 and will be tied into the campus wide mini-
computer network.

The computer will be housed in the second floor
computer room, designed for this purpose. The
room has its own separate air conditioning unit,
the outer room wall has a vapor barrier to permit
better humidity control. Electric wiring is run
directly from the mains to minimize perturbations
from other electrical equipment. Seven phone lines
are provided for further flexibility in connecting
to other computer terminals and equipment in the
We have what we believe to be a virtually
unique high pressure and pilot plant area for an
academic ChE department. At the south end of
the basement is a 2,515 square foot laboratory
area known as the Annex. This two story open
room is divided at the first floor level by a metal
grating floor. The laboratory is designated for
high pressure and hazardous work, and is used
primarily for energy and coal related research.
The roof is fitted with two blow-out roof
panels, each 6 by 38 feet, which will open at an
overpressure of 25 pounds per square foot to pro-
tect the integrity of the structure. In case of a
solvent spill or flammable gas leak, all electric
power can be shut off except for explosion-proof
lights and exhaust fan.
Six separate gases are piped into the room
through high pressure lines from a gas storage
shed outside the building. The lab is provided with
walk-in and overhead hoods and all laboratory
Within the high pressure lab are three test
cells for performing very high pressure and
hazardous experiments. Two cells are 10 by 10
feet and one 6 by 10 feet; all have 10-foot head-
Since the laboratory is located within a busy
campus area, conventional venting of the cells
through a blow out side wall could not be used.
Instead, the cells are vertically vented through
three separate 42-inch diameter steel stacks ex-
tending some 45 feet up through the Annex roof.
This very unusual design may be useful in other
similar locations; we would be happy to share our
experience with others.
The computer will support terminals for inter-
active classroom use. It also will provide "hands

We have what we believe to be a
virtually unique high pressure
and pilot plant area for an
academic ChE department.


We have just received a $185,000 grant for
equipping and maintaining the Diamond Shamrock Computing Center
within the ChE department. The computer will support terminals for interactive
classroom use. It will also provide "hands on" experience for undergraduate and graduate
students, provide data acquisition and processing for research experiments
and will be used in a new computer controlled unit
operations laboratory experiment.

on" experience for undergraduate and graduate
students, provide data acquisition and processing
for research experiments and will be used in a new
computer controlled unit operations lab experi-
The cells have 18-inch thick reinforced con-
crete walls, containing 20 tons of steel reinforcing
bars and 115 cubic yards of concrete. The circum-
ferential rods are welded into continuous mem-
bers. The cells rest on a 20-inch thick reinforced
concrete foundation pad which, in turn, rests on
the underlying shale.
Entry to the cells is through rear doorways
fitted with 1-5/8 inch thick steel plate doors.
Visual access is via a port with a heavy sliding
steel plate cover. Numerous pipe sleeves are cast
through the concrete walls to permit entry of
The large cells are designed for bending and
tensile stresses of 3900 lbs./square foot and the
smaller for 9000 lbs./square foot. The cells will
contain an explosion resulting from the rupture
and ignition of a hydrogen cylinder or high pres-
sure autoclave.


LABORATORIES FOR undergraduate instruc-
tion and graduate research in environmental
engineering are on the third floor. The instruc-
tional lab has space and utility drops for five
separate permanent experiments to demonstrate
flocculent and zone settling, aeration, biological
treatment and reverse osmosis. Within the lab are
a preparation room and a holding room. These
chambers, each 6 by 7 feet in internal dimension,
are used for the preparation and storage of bio-
logical samples at controlled temperatures rang-
ing from 0 to 350C.
The entire south end of the second floor is
taken up by a 2160-square foot graduate research
laboratory designed for precision optical and laser
application studies. This work includes laser dop-
pler anemometry, light scattering and laser ma-
chining. Light-tight drapes divide the room into
three separate dark areas. An enclosed wire cage

storage area and 440 V, 100 A electrical service
are provided in addition to the normal laboratory
An acoustically and electrically isolated cham-
ber is placed within the large second floor labora-
tory. This room provides electrical isolation and
sound attenuation of greater than 80 decibels for
certain types of precise research.
Adjacent to the large second floor lab is a small
constant temperature room. The room tempera-
ture is controllable to 1F over the range 68 to
780F; relative humidity to 2-1/2% over the
range 40 to 70 %.


ROBERT J. ADLER, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University.
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Mixing, Mathematical
Modelling, and Separation Processes.
JOHN C. ANGUS, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan.
Laser Applications, Coal Utilization, Electrochemical
Processes, Crystal Growth.
JACOB J. BIKERMAN, Ph.D. 1921, University of St.
Petersburg (Russia).
Foams and Colloidal Phenomena.
COLEMAN B. BROSILOW, Ph.D. 1962, Brooklyn Poly-
technic Institute.
Digital Simulation, Automated Design, Control of
Chemical Processes.
ROBERT V. EDWARDS, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins Uni-
Laser Applications, Photochemistry, Chemical Kinetics,
NELSON C. GARDNER, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State Univer-
Coal Gasification, Surface Chemistry, Thermodynamics.
ROBERT E. HARRIS, Ph.D. 1968, Northeastern Univer-
Process Simulation, Computer Aided Design.
THOMAS LIEDERBACH, M.S. 1961, Case Institute of
Career Development, Professionalism.
J. ADIN MANN, JR., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University.
Surface Phenomena, Membrane Technology, Laser Ap-
plications, Computation.
PETER B. MELNYK, Ph.D. 1974, McMaster University.
Wastewater Treatment, Process Simulation, Mixing.
RICHARD PROBER, Ph.D. 1962, University of Wisconsin.
Water Pollution Control, Ion Exchange, Membrane
Processes, Electrochemical Processes.


I~a4l2h Pecs w i'-

of Illinois


Total Systems
Downers Grove, Illinois 60515
Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois 60616

BORN IN WINTER to American parents on a
ranch in the province of Saskatchewan when
it was still a frontier area, Ralph Peck, Professor
of Chemical Engineering at Illinois Institute of
Technology, spent his early days acclimating him-
self to the hardships of farm life. When he was
two, his father died and left his mother with
Ralph and his older brother, Benajhar, with the
responsibility of managing their homestead.
His mother remarried when Ralph was nine
and he helped trail the family horses when the
family relocated in Alberta. An old German settler
they met along the way sternly lectured Ralph
about his being out of school and the importance
of education. The young boy followed the advice,
rising early to ride a horse to the one-room school
house. He and his brother later went to the high
school twelve miles away, living together in a
one-room shack during the week, taking care of
horses and milking a cow for board, and return-
ing to the farm on weekends to help. These early
rigors left Ralph with a zest for outdoor life and
an incentive to escape the hard farm life in the
north. It also left him with a love of gardening
and a skill in cooking which still persist.

B ECAUSE OF STRONG ties to his father's
relatives in Minnesota, where his parents
originated, the young brothers migrated in 1928
to the University of Minnesota for their college
education. An advisor steered Ralph from chemis-
try into ChE as a field that was just opening up.
An aunt sponsored his application for citizen-
ship and became his guardian. His uncle helped
him get summer jobs at the Cremet macaroni
plant, giving young Ralph an early introduction
to the food processing industry and the drying
problems which were to become a major thrust
of his future research.
Ralph received his BSChE degree with dis-
tinction in 1932 and, with drought and depression
in Canada, stayed on for graduate work in
chemistry and mathematics at Minnesota. As a
graduate assistant, he collected radon for the
famed F. H. MacDougall, whose physical chemis-
try book was an early classic, and initiated his
long-standing interest in thermodynamics as a
teaching assistant in the course.
Peck studied electrical conductivity and di-
electric constant with George Glockler as his
advisor, resulting in several publications and the
PhD in 1936. The famed chemist Melvin Calvin
was a labmate and another Minnesota friend, Ed
Piret, was an usher when Ralph married Joyce
Mullen, who had spent the summer typing his
thesis. The wedding was moved up to August so
Ralph could accept a job as instructor at Drexel


Institute of Technology. To his amazement he was
turned down on application for final citizenship
papers on the grounds that he was already a
U.S. citizen because of his parentage.
When the Pecks arrived in Philadelphia, De-
partment Head Henry Rushton, who had hired
him, had moved on. Ralph worked with the late
Henry Ward, who became Department Head at
Kansas State University, and the late Harding
Bliss. Among his students at Drexel were Vince
Uhl and Ralph Troupe, who loved to challenge
him with unusual problems.


T HE PECKS WOULD usually spend their
summers travelling and camping. In 1939,
they went to a meeting at Penn State where Ralph
was hired by Dean Linton Grintner and Presi-
dent Henry T. Heald (later the head of the Ford
Foundation) of Armour Tech, which later be-
came IIT. He was to work as an instructor for
the ChE department founded and headed by Harry
McCormack [1]. They continued their trip around
the country and into Mexico and came to Chicago,
which has been their home, except for visits
A summer- course taught by visiting professor
Barney Dodge rekindled his interest in thermo-
dynamics. It was during this period when Peck
began supervision of 100 Master's and 32 PhD
dissertations. Ralph was promoted to Assistant
Professor in 1941 and spent the war years working
on the freeze drying of foods and spray drying of
blood plasma. His principle interests developed in
heat transfer, thermodynamics, kinetics and re-
actor design, and energy conversion, and these
persist to the present. His students always found

Ralph Peck was co-inventor of the coal/sulfur abate-
ment/fertilizer process.

him available for technical or personal assistance,
both in his open-doored office and at home.
It was in this period that he began his long
and productive associations with other institutions
on the IIT campus, the IIT Research Institute
and the Institute of Gas Technology, and developed
his numerous industrial consulting activities. This
consulting lead him into studying the drying of
abaca fiber of Costa Rica as a substitute for
hemp for rope, drying of fertilizer and foodstuffs,
storage of liquidified gases, and the gasification
of coal, and many other problems. Although much
of Peck's published work has a fundamental
nature, it invariably arose from the need to solve
real problems.
In 1944 he was advanced to Associate Pro-
fessor and, in 1950, his contributions were

Research has always been a means
rather than an end for Peck. His list of
over forty journal publications is marked by
the diversity of subject matter. Signs of
his practical bent are the three patents
which have been issued in his name.

recognized by a full Professorship. In 1953 he
assumed the Department Chairmanship (succeed-
ing Henry Rushton who left for Purdue after a
7-year stint as Chairman), a post he held until
1967 [1].

IT WAS ONE of the first American schools to
welcome students from India who came on
government grants, and a large number of
students came in the 40's and the flow continues
to date. The Pecks welcomed students into their
home, with special emphasis on those left on
campus during holidays. Baseball games, with
participation by those playing for the first time,
have become legendary.
Because of his many Indian friends and as an
outgrowth of the partition of India, he was in-
vited in 1959 to spend a year helping set up a
ChE department, using funds from U.S. wheat
loans, at Punjab University in the beautiful new
city of Chandigar, north of New Delhi. The
Pecks, including sons Keith and Bruce and
daughter Gail, travelled extensively throughout
India with Ralph, who made a survey of all
engineering schools in the country. While they
were in Calcutta, they were hosted by a former


In 1973 he received IIT's
annual Excellence in Teaching Award.
In addition, he was given the ASEE Western
Electric Fund Award for teaching
excellence for 1975-76.

student who Ralph had reluctantly flunked out
of IIT. That student, now a millionaire business
man, was grateful for being steered out of a pro-
fession not making the best use of his talents.
Ralph's frontier heritage showed when he
bagged an antelope on a hunting trip and dressed
and butchered the carcass, storing the meat
temporarily in the ChE department freezer. While
Ralph was preceding, by way of the Orient, the
family's return to Chicago, his eldest son Keith
was killed in a tragic accident. The family re-
ceived extraordinary assistance from the U.S.
government in locating Ralph and returning the

well under acting chairman Bernie Swanson,
Peck accepted the invitation of Bill Resnick, head
of the ChE department at Israel's Technion (and
former IIT professor), to introduce Ralph's
unique teaching style to the Israelis in the 1962-63
school year. One of the highlights of this style
is the abundant use of the ten-minute "drop quiz,"
accompanied by a laugh as a challenge to the
students. He surmounted the language barrier by
use of a translator.
During this year the Pecks camped from the
Arctic Circle to the Red Sea and contemplated
the probability of bumping into former student
Bob Miller while photographing the Champs de
Elysee. In addition to a productive year of teach-
ing and research, working with David Hasson,
Dan Luss (then a graduate student) and Sam
Seidman, Ralph was asked by the Israel Ministry
of Development to review various desalination
processes, including the controversial Zarkin
freezing process.

rather than an end for Peck. His list of over
forty journal publications is marked by the di-
versity of subject matter. Signs of his practical
bent are the three patents which have issued in

A Product of Peck's Puddle.

SALPH PECK'S devotion to research has never
-come at the expense of his teaching. In 1973
he received IIT's annual Excellence in Teaching
Award. In addition, he was given the ASEE
Western Electric Fund Award for teaching
excellence for 1975-76.
Along with his university teaching, he has
participated in industrial short courses in drying


his name. His scholarly writing activities includes
a review of drying with D. T. Wasan in the
"Advances in Chemical Engineering" series and
he is currently preparing the section on drying
for John McKetta's new "Encyclopedia of
Chemical Processing and Design."
Even as he approaches formal retirement, he
currently has several studies supported by grants
from a variety of agencies. The National Science
Foundation is supporting a study of the kinetics
of Methanation while the Illinois Institute for
Environmental Quality sponsors coal combustion
A recent activity arising from his consulting
work was the invention, with former student Ladd
Pircon, of a process for removing the particulate
and sulfur pollutants from burning high-sulfur
Illinois (or other) coal and converting these
pollutants into useful fertilizer, instead of the
usual nonnewtonian sludge. This process, which
is in the pilot-plant stage, has attracted con-
siderable attention in the popular and professional
press and was featured on a TV program. The
development of this process emphasizes the im-
portance of ChE roots in chemistry and, as Ralph
often cautions, the process comes first-followed
by analysis, rather than the converse.

If ,II

theory and technology and, in the summer of 1972,
taught a drying course at the University of Sao
Paulo, Brazil. In 1976 he taught in Algeria as
part of a team from the Institute of Gas Tech-
A list of the students whose dissertations he
supervised would include many well-known names
from the academic, industrial and government
sectors. Peck is a Fellow of AIChE and active
member of ACS, ASEE, Phi Lambda Upsilon and
Sigma Xi. He has organized and chaired many
symposia on drying at national society meetings.

Peck accepted the invitation ...
to introduce his unique teaching style
to the Israelis in the 1962-63 school
year. One of the highlights of this style
is the abundant use of the ten-minute
"drop-quiz," accompanied by a laugh,
as a challenge to the students.

ONE OF THE MOST important strengths of
the Peck family is their annual trip to their
summer home in the wilds of northern Minnesota.
Except for trips abroad, all teaching and consult-
ing work comes to a halt at the end of the spring
semester. Originally acquired by Ralph's geologist
brother as payment for the brother's services, the
Pecks became owners of 40 acres, and the cabin
they built together with Benajhar, when the
brother's career took him to the southern U.S.
They acquired 40 more acres in 1949 and the lake
on the property, dubbed Peck's Puddle in fun, is
so listed on Geological Survey maps.
Then the cabin burned down in 1962, the
family later rebuilt it by hand, except for a bull-
dozer and "redimix" concrete. It now contains
most civilized comforts, with the notable excep-
tion of a telephone. Avoiding the temptations of
more work, Ralph is an avid fisherman, boater,
swimmer, and gardener. He credits this annual
break with his professional activities in keeping
him fresh the rest of the year (renewal theory?).
The family has now been augmented by Bruce's
wife Barbara and Gail Green's husband Jeff and
the three grandchildren, Kelly, Kristi and Jason.


SUPERIMPOSED ON his professional activi-
ties, Ralph has always found time for com-
munity involvement. Although he is not religious,

Ph.D. Students

Bakshy, Stanley
Bloomer, Oscar T.
Carr, Norman L.
Chase, Curtis Alden, Jr.
Clauson, Warren S.
Eakin, Betram E.
Ellington, Rex T.
Fagan, Walter
Garud, B. S.
Gidaspow, Dimitri
Griffith, Russell T.
Hesson, James C.
Jee, Benny C.
Kauh, Jae Y.
Khoobiar, Sargis
Kisaukurek, Bilgin

Linden, Henry R.
Lokay, Joseph D.
Marek, Cecil J.
Rai, Charanjit
Reddi, Mullapudi M.
Ryant, Charles J. J.
Sareen, Sarvajit S.
Sheth, Narendra J.
Smith, Neal D.
Snow, Richard
Staats, William R.
Tavakoli-Attar, J.
Uno, Seiji
VonFredersdorff, Claus
Vyas, Kirit C.
Wagner, Edward F.

he is often involved in church-sponsored activities,
such as the YMCA. He and Joyce have been long-
term supporters of the Ada S. McKinley Com-
munity House in the ghetto area near IIT. They
worked actively with the Gresham Community
Council to welcome and help new neighbors when
their neighborhood became racially mixed. The
Pecks membership in the Ethical Humanist
Society of Chicago lead to their early involvement
in the nonviolent aspects of the peace movement.
Ralph is an avid, and often unconventional, bridge
player and the lunchtime games between brown-
bagging faculty and graduate students have be-
come part of IIT's legend. One of the authors
(D. M.) remembers stalling a last hand to avoid
a 10-minute quiz in Peck's after lunch Heat
Transfer class, only to hear Peck announce a
good problem he has thought up while waiting
for the author to cover or duck a lead to the
dummy. He will long remember Peck's cheerful
public post mortem of how the author blew both
the bridge hand and the quiz. O

1. R. C. Kintner and D. T. Wasan, Chemical Engineer-
ing Department-Illinois Tech, Chem. Eng. Educ. 5
(3) 108 (1971).

A recent activity
arising from his consulting
work was the invention, with
former student Ladd Pircon, of a
process for removing the particulate
and sulfur pollutants from burning high-
sulfer coal and converting these
pollutants into useful fertilizer.




University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

The domain of surface science is perhaps one
of the most interdisciplinary areas of modern sci-
ence and technology. Monolayers provide a unique
system to determine experimentally the cross-
sectional areas of surface-active molecules and to
study reactions and molecular interactions at sur-
faces. Surface chemical aspects of membranes,
cornea and tear are discussed. The mechanism by
which surface-active polymers stabilize a thick
aqueous layer on cornea is elucidated.





I ioiUi







FIGURE 1. All objects are surrounded with one or more of these five

The engineering applications of surface science
range from agricultural sprays to oil recovery in-
cluding areas such as catalysis, coatings, disper-
sions, electronics, flotation of minerals, lubrica-
tion, and retardation of evaporation from lakes
and reservoirs. Among biomedical areas, the ap-
plications of surface science extend from anesthes-
iology to zoology including fields such as artificial
implants, biomembranes, biolubrication, lipopro-
teins, lung surfactant, ophthalmology, pharma-
ceuticals and pharmacology.

*This paper was selected by the Board of Judges of the
Faculty Forum of the University of Florida for the "Presi-
dent's Scholar Award" for 1975-76.

EDITOR'S NOTE: In this issue, CEE continues a new de-
partment-ChE LECTURES. We intend to publish seminars
and lectures on important areas of modern chemical engi-
neering. If you feel that one of your seminars or lectures
on a certain topic would have pedagogical or tutorial value
and would be of general interest to our erudite readers,
please send the manuscript to the editor for review. We
would appreciate comments from our readers on this new
department as well as suggestions for authors of papers.

A LTHOUGH THE importance of surface sci-
ence has been recognized for more than a
century, it is only during the last few decades that
we have seen rapid advances in the understanding
of surface phenomena. In this presentation I
would like to review briefly various principles of
surface science and where appropriate would like
to present the highlights of the research carried
out in my laboratory during the past decade.
Let me begin with a quotation of an oriental
proverb which says, "The color of the world you
see depends upon the color of the glass you look
through." In general, a scientist attempts to look
at the Universe through his own glass. When one
looks at the Universe through the glass of surface
science (Figure 1), one sees that it consists of
Sun, Earth, Moon, Stars, Galaxies, etc. When one
looks closer to the Earth, one finds that it is full
of objects.; and that each object is surrounded by
a surface or an interface. Fortunately, all the
interfaces can be grouped in five major classes,
namely, gas/liquid, liquid/liquid, solid/liquid,
solid/gas, and solid/solid. All objects are sur-
rounded by one or more of these basic five inter-
faces. All of these interfaces have a common
property called surface tension or surface free
energy. There is also a class of compounds called
surface-active compounds (or surfactants) that
decreases strikingly the surface tension or surface
free energy of these interfaces.
A surfactant molecule has two functional


Presently Dr. Shah is a professor of Chemical Engineering, Anes-
thesiology and Biophysics at the University of Florida.
He received his undergraduate training at the University of Bombay
and subsequently his doctoral degree from Columbia University in
1965, where he worked in the laboratory of the late Professor J. H.
He spent, subsequently, a year at NASA Ames Research Laboratory
in California conducting research on chemical evolution and the
origin of life, and surface chemical aspects of the origin of mem-
branes. Later he moved to the Biological Oceanography Division of
Columbia University and investigated the dispersion of oil-spills, re-
tardation of evaporation and wave damping by thin films of surface
active agents and surface chemical aspects of sea water.
Since 1970, he has been at the University of Florida with a joint
appointment in Chemical Engineering and Anesthesiology Departments.
Dr. Shah has published in the areas of biological and model mem-
branes, chemical evolution and the origin of membranes, monomole-
cular films, foams, microemulsions, improved oil recovery, surfactant-
polymer interaction, boundary lubrication and surface chemical aspects
of lungs, vision and anesthesia.
Dr. Shah received the University of Florida's "Excellence in Teach-
ing Award" in 1972-73, "President's Scholar Award" in 1975-76, and
"Outstanding Service Award" in 1975-76.

parts, namely, a hydrophilic (water soluble) or
polar part, and a lipophilic (oil soluble) or non-
polar part. The lipophilic part is usually a long
hydrocarbon chain. Schematically a surfactant
molecule can be represented by a nonpolar (tail)


A- -A




"'-" H H



CH /


FIGURE 2. The structure of surface-active molecules. The broken line
shows the separation of polar and non-polar parts of the

and a polar group as shown in Figure 2. A poly-
mer also can be surface-active if it has two func-
tional groups, one hydrophilic and the other lipo-
philic (Figure 2). The properties of a surface-
active compound are determined by the balance
between its hydrophilic and lipophilic character-
istics. If the chain-length is relatively short (less
than 12 -C-C- bonds in length), they are called
water soluble surfactants since the polar group
drags the entire molecule in water. However,
when the chain-length is greater than 14 or 16
-C-C- bonds in length, the compounds are called
insoluble surfactants. They do not dissolve in
water because of the long hydrocarbon chains.


F THE CONCENTRATION of a soluble sur-
factant in water is increased gradually, at a
specific concentration of the surfactant, the solu-
tion properties such as osmotic pressure, surface





*o ....... ^ _
"- - i i

FIGURE 3. A schematic presentation of adsorption, micelle formation,
and solubilization processes in surfactant solutions.

tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and
density abruptly change [1]. This concentration is
called critical micelle concentration (CMC). It
has been established from theoretical considera-
tions as well as experimental determinations that
surfactant molecules begin to form aggregates,
called micelles, when surfactant concentration is
increased beyond the critical micelle concentration
(Figure 3A). In general, the micelles are spherical
aggregates of surfactant molecules about 40-100
Angstrom in diameter and are in equilibrium with
single molecules (or monomers) in the bulk solu-
tion (Figure 3A). The critical micelle concentra-
tion depends upon the structure of surfactant
molecules as well as physicochemical conditions
such as temperature, pH, and the ionic composi-
tion of the solution.
If a soluble surfactant is dissolved in water, it
tends to absorb at the gas/liquid, liquid/liquid, or
solid/liquid interfaces. The adsorption phenome-


non results in a greater concentration of sur-
factant molecules at the interface as compared to
that in the bulk solution (Figure 3B). For many
surface-active drugs and pharmacological agents,
their concentration at the membrane surface will
be considerably greater than their bulk concentra-
tion [2].
The formation of micelles in an aqueous solu-
tion creates a local nonpolar environment within
the aqueous phase. Oil soluble molecules such as
dyes, pigments, nonpolar oils, or oil soluble vita-
mins can be dissolved within the micelles (Figure
3C, D). The solubilization of such molecules in
micelles is greater if they also possess polar
If a surfactant solution contains a surface-
active polymer, then adsorption of the polymer can
occur at the micellar surface (Figure 3E). The
structure of lipoproteins, particularly low density
lipoproteins in blood serum, resembles this situa-
tion in which a protein is adsorbed on the ag-
gregates of lipid (i.e., biological surfactant or fat)
molecules [3]. If a surface-active polymer is pres-
ent in the solution, then a mixed, absorbed film of
polymer and surfactant also can occur at the in-
terface (Figure 3F). In several biological mem-
branes, the protein-lipid association is believed to
resemble this type of association [4].
Surfactant molecules can be considered as
building blocks. One can make various types of
structures of surfactant molecules by simply in-
creasing the concentration of surfactant in water
and adjusting proper physicochemical conditions
such as temperature, pH, and the presence of vari-
ous electrolytes [5, 6]. Figure 4 schematically
shows various structures that are formed in the
surfactant solution upon increasing the concentra-



Am N


-'-, -,



FIGURE 4. A schematic presentation of structure formation in sur-
factant solution depending upon the concentration of sur-
factant as well as physico-chemical conditions.

tion of a surfactant. Upon increasing the concen-
tration of surfactant, spherical micelles become
cylindrical and subsequently the cylindrical struc-
tures become hexagonally packed. If concentration
is further increased, the lamellar structures are
formed. Upon further addition of surfactant, the
lamellar structures are converted to a hexagonal

FIGURE 5. (A) schematic illustration of a monomolecular film at air-
water interface.
(B) orientation of surface-active molecules with increasing
chain-length at air-water interface.

packing of water cylinders. Upon addition of oil
and a short-chain alcohol, one can convert such
water cylinders into a water-in-oil microemulsion.
The structures of these systems are well estab-
lished from X-ray diffraction studies [7, 8]. It is
possible to induce a transition from one structure
to another by changing the physicochemical con-
ditions such as temperature, pH, addition of
monovalent or divalent cations in the surfactant
solution [9]. The cylindrical and lamellar struc-
tures often are called liquid-crystalline phases
since they have flow properties as liquids and a
certain degree of crystallinity as solids. They have
very unusual electrical and theological properties
[10-12]. It should be emphasized that the scheme
shown in Figure 4 is a general scheme and a sur-
factant may skip several phases depending upon
its structure and the physicochemical conditions.


F THE HYDROCARBON chains are sufficiently
long (greater than 16 -C-C- bonds), the sur-
face-active molecules will be insoluble in water.
When such insoluble surfactants are dissolved in
organic solvents, and a drop of the solution is
placed on the water surface, these molecules will
spread at the air/water interface. In general, the
surfactant molecule does not evaporate because
the polar group is anchored on the water surface
and it does not dissolve because the long hydro-


carbon chain prevents the molecule dissolving into
water. In this way, one can produce a monomole-
cular film of floating molecules of an insoluble
surfactant at the air/water interface. In general,
one can fill a tray of Teflon or plexiglas with water
up to the rim of the tray. A measured quantity of
surfactant solution in an organic solvent such as
chloroform, benzene, or hexane can be placed by a
microsyringe on the water surface. The solvent
molecules evaporate or diffuse into the water leav-
ing the insoluble surfactant molecules at the sur-
face. A glass slide is placed at one end of the
trough (Figure 5A). By horizontal movement of
the glass slide one can compress this monomole-
cular film and bring molecules closer to one an-
other. However, as the film is compressed, at a
specific film area, the molecules will stand side by
side with their polar groups in water and hydro-
carbon chains in the air. By measuring the area
of the film as well as calculating the number of
molecules deposited on the surface, one can de-
termine the average area per surface-active mole-
cule in the monolayer. In a closed packed state,
the average area per molecule is close to the cross-
sectional area of the surfactant molecule. Thus, an
insoluble monolayer is a system which allows the
direct experimental determination of the cross-
sectional area of the molecules.
Monomolecular films or monolayers represent
a two-dimensional state of matter since their

The engineering applications
of surface science range from agricultural
sprays to oil recovery including areas such as
catalysis, coatings, dispersions, electronics,
flotation of minerals, lubrication, and
retardation of evaporation from
lakes and reservoirs...

height, which is about 20-25 Angstrom, is negligi-
ble compared with their length and width. Analo-
gous to the states of matter in three dimensions,
monolayers also can exist as two-dimensional
solids, liquids or gases and can undergo tempera-
ture-dependent phase transitions from one state
to another [13, 14].
When the monomolecular film is compressed by
moving the glass slide, the surface tension de-
creases (Figure 5A). The decrease in surface
tension often is, called surface pressure which
indicates the state of compression of the mono-
molecular film. The higher the surface pressure,

FIGURE 6. (A) Davson-Danielli model for structure of biological mem-
(B) Lipid-protein mosaic model for the structure of bio-
logical membranes.

the higher the state of compression of the mono-
molecular film. The surface tension is measured
by a torsion balance from which a thin platinum
blade is suspended in water at the air/water inter-
From the surface pressure measurements one
can prepare a plot of surface pressure vs. average
area per molecule. This plot is equivalent to pres-
sure vs. volume curve for gases in three-dimen-
sional state. In 1920, the concept of the specific
molecular orientation at interfaces was a novel
idea, but there was no experimental proof for this
concept. Langmuir [15] used monolayer approach
to establish that surface active molecules have a
specific molecular orientation at the air/water
interface. He studied monolayers of various fatty
acids of different length containing 16 to 32
carbon atoms. Experimentally, he determined the
cross-sectional area of molecules in the compressed
monolayers of these fatty acids. To his surprise,
he observed that although the fatty acids studied
were of different chain-length, the cross-sectional
area determined was the same for all fatty acids
suggesting that they must be oriented vertically
to the surface (Figure 5B). If they were oriented
in any other way, the increasing chain length
would have caused an increase in the average area
per molecule. For establishing this concept of the
specific molecular orientation at interfaces, Lang-
muir later was awarded a Nobel Prize [16].

SINCE IT IS DIFFICULT to visualize at a
molecular level how properties of a monolayer
are related to various phenomena, I have prepared
the following few diagrams to emphasize the role
of monomolecular films in these phenomena.






FIGURE 7. The schematic presentation of factors influencing foam

Figure 6 shows two conceptual models for
molecular arrangement of lipids and proteins in
biological membranes [17, 18]. In the Davson-
Danielli model (Figure 6A), the lipids (i.e., bio-
logical surfactant) are arranged as a continuous
bilayer and protein is believed to be adsorbed on
both sides of the lipid bilayer. The second model,
(Figure 6B) which is based upon the current
thinking about the structure of biological mem-
branes, visualizes a discontinuous lipid bilayer
interdigitated by protein molecules. Irrespective
of which of these models is a more accurate de-
scription of molecular arrangement in membranes,
the orientation and packing of lipid molecules in
membranes are similar to that in monomolecular
films of the lipids at the interface. Using a mono-
layer approach, one can determine lipid-lipid,
lipid-protein and lipid-metal ion interactions that
may occur in biological membranes [19-21].
Figure 7 schematically shows a foam column
produced by a surfactant solution. The stability of
the foam column depends upon the stability of
individual soap bubbles. A soap bubble is a thin
layer of surfactant solution which has the ad-
sorbed film of surfactant on both sides of the soap
film. The stability of the soap film depends upon
the rate of drainage of solution in the film, which


& .ftR..


FIGURE 8. A schematic presentation for the structure of emulsion
droplets and orientation of surface-active molecules at the
oil-water interface.

subsequently depends upon the state of adsorbed
surfactant film. We have observed [22, 23] that a
closer packing of surfactant molecules in the ad-
sorbed monolayer leads to a higher surface vis-
cosity of the adsorbed monolayer, which subse-
quently decreases the rate of drainage of solution
within the soap film, and hence increases the foam
Figure 8 schematically shows the role of mono-
layers in stabilizing oil/water emulsions. It has
been known that oil and water do not mix. How-
ever, if a surfactant is added to oil-water mixture,
one can produce a relatively stable emulsion. De-
pending upon the relative amounts of oil and
water as well as the physicochemical conditions,
one can produce oil-in-water or water-in-oil type
emulsion. In either case, each droplet is coated
with a surfactant monolayer (Figure 8).
Figure 9 shows the role of the monomolecular
film in boundary lubrication of metallic surfaces.
Here a surfactant attaches itself to a metal sur-
face due to the interaction between the polar

The domain of surface science is
perhaps one of the most interdisciplinary
areas of modern science and technology...

group of the surfactant with the metallic surface.
When such monolayer-covered surfaces slide
against one another, the frictional forces decrease
considerably. Since sliding of hydrocarbon chains
past one another does not offer too much re-
sistance, the coefficient of friction decreases strik-
ingly. Moreover, the adsorption of such mono-
molecular film of surfactant on metal surfaces
also protects the surface against wear from fric-
The monomolecular films of fatty acids or fatty
alcohols also are employed for reducing evapora-
tion of water [24]. In many countries such as
Israel, India, and Australia this approach is used
to decrease evaporation of water from lakes and
Figure 10 shows one of the concepts of surface
science, namely, contact angle and wettability.
When a drop of water is placed on wax, Teflon,
or plexiglas, the drop rests on the surface with a
finite angle called contact angle. If the contact
angle is greater than 90', the liquid does not wet
the surface. If one adds a surfactant or "wetting
agent" in water, the contact angle on wax or


FIGURE 9. A schematic presentation of the orientation of surface-active
molecules at the metal surface in boundary lubrication.

Teflon decreases dramatically and may approach
zero. Hence, normally nonwettable surfaces can be
wetted by water if surfactants are added to water
[25, 26]. This phenomenon is of considerable im-
portance in agricultural sprays since the herbicide
or insecticide will not be effective if the drops
from the spray do not stay on the leaves or fruits
(because of their waxy surface) and fall on the
ground. However, if one adds a surface-active
agent to the spray, it changes the contact angle
and permits droplets to stick and spread on the
leaves and fruits providing protection from insects
and other diseases (Figure 10). This phenomenon
is also of central importance in the wetting of con-
tact lenses and in many problems related to cornea
and tears [27].


A T PRESENT, considerable emphasis is placed
on the desirability of "polyunsaturated fat"
and the undesirability of "saturated fat and
cholesterol" in diet. To determine the differences
in the cross-sectional area and surface properties
of lipid (fat) molecules with identical polar group
but different degree of unsaturation in their fatty
acid chains, we took lecithins from four different
sources [28]. The four lecithins were, respectively,
dipalmitoyl lecithin, egg yolk lecithin, soy bean
lecithin, and dioleyol lecithin. The first and the
last lecithins were synthesized in the laboratory.
Lecithin is a common component of biological tis-
sues and membranes. As shown in Figure 11, the
surface-pressure-area per molecule curves of these
four lecithins were different suggesting that the
nature of hydrocarbon chains influences the av-
erage area per molecule of lecithin. The order of
average area per molecule is as follows: dipalmi-
toyl lecithin < egg lecithin < soy bean lecithin <
dioleyol lecithin. The fatty acid compositions of
these four lecithins also were determined sep-
arately by the gas chromatography of fatty acids.
Figure 12 is a schematic presentation of these

four lecithins in monomolecular films based on
monolayer and gas chromatography data. These
results indicate that the degree of unsaturation or
the presence of double bonds in fatty acid chains
influences the average molecular area of lecithins
and subsequently influences the intermolecular
spacing between lipid molecules. If one assumes
that the average area per molecule is a circle with
a radius "r"; then the intermolecular spacing is
2r. If we consider areas of 51.9 A2, 73.8 A2, 78.1
A2, and 87.5 A2 per molecule at a surface pressure
of 20 dynes/cm for dipalmitoyl, egg, soy bean, and
dioleyol lecithins, respectively; the corresponding
intermolecular spacings are 8.1 A, 9.7 A, 10.0 A,
and 10.6 A suggesting that a change of 0.3 A to
1.5 A in the intermolecular spacing is brought
about by the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid
chains. Further, we have shown that such small
changes in intermolecular spacing strikingly in-
fluence the hydrolysis of lecithin monolayers when
snake venom is injected under the monolayers. We
have established that the degree of unsaturation
of lecithins also influences their interaction with
calcium ions in the solution as well as their as-
sociation with cholesterol in monomolecular films
(19, 21, 29, 30).
In summary, monolayers provide an extremely
useful system to study cross-sectional area of sur-
factant molecules and to elucidate the effect of
unsaturation on the intermolecular spacing, and


(wetting agent)


FIGURE 10. A schematic presentation of the role of contact angle and
wettability in influencing the effectiveness of agricultural

hence on the reactions and molecular interactions
at interfaces [31].

The contraction of an oil spill is an interesting


9 > 9o-



application of monolayers.* In the event of an oil-
spill, the oil continues to spread because of the
natural surfactant in the crude oil. These natural
surfactants have a certain spreading pressure and,
as a result, the oil continues to spread at the air/
water interface. However, if one deposits a film
of another surfactant with a higher spreading
pressure around the oil-spill, then the deposited
monolayer causes contraction of the oil-spill. In
other words, the deposited film, having a higher
surface pressure, causes the oil-spill to contract.
The most fascinating message that comes out of
this observation is that the monomolecular film of

50 .i i -i i i |



40 60 80 100 120 140
FIGURE 11. The surface pressure-area curves for four lecithins with
different fatty acid compositions.

surfactant pushes a crude oil layer that is two mil-
lion times thicker than its own thickness (?25A).
This observation leads to the conclusion that for
contraction of oil-spill, it is the spreading pressure
that is a predominant factor and not the thickness
of oil or surfactant layers. Spreading such a sur-
face-active material around the oil-spill from a
helicopter can prevent further spreading of the
oil-spill and can thicken the oil layer at the air/
sea interface and hence facilitate the collection
procedures. Spreading of such films near the
shore-line also can prevent the oil-spill from con-
taminating the beaches. Since we are using mono-
molecular films for this purpose, the danger of

*Mr. A. Tamjeedi, an undergraduate student in Chem-
ical Engineering, presented this paper at the Students
AIChE Chapters competition at Baton Rouge, Louisiana
and was awarded a second prize for his work in this area,

10.6SA o.o 971

AREA AT 8757
TT -20
1T.5 U C

I! P P
V ____ i 1, *
FIGURE 12. A schematic presentation of the effect of double bonds
on the intermolecular spacing in lecithin monolayers.

contaminating the beaches with surfactant is ex-
tremely negligible and most of the surfactant used
for this purpose would be biodegradable. More-
over, one would require extremely small amounts
to produce monomolecular films.
Figure 13 shows the three-dimensional view
of the application of surfactant solutions or
microemulsions in tertiary oil recovery from pe-
troleum reservoirs. Usually the oil wells are drilled
in a five spot pattern in such a way that the micro-
emulsions or surfactant solutions are injected into
the central injection well. The surfactant formula-
tion solubilizes the oils or decreases the interfacial
tension at the oil/brine interface in the reservoir
and displaces the oil towards the production wells
at the four corners. If appropriate surfactants are
injected, then the sandstone and rocks in the reser-
voir are cleaned and the oil is displaced effectively
towards the production wells.


T IS FASCINATING that most of the phenom-
ena mentioned previously such as retardation
of evaporation, wettability of surfaces and lubrica-
tion take place every time we blink. Figure 14
schematically shows our concept [32, 33] of vari-
ous phenomena that occur in the outer portion of
the eye (i.e., cornea, tear, and the film of meibom-
ian oil at the air/tear interface). Many people
usually above 40 to 50 years of age suffer with a
condition called "dry-eye syndrome." In this situ-
ation, the thickness of the tear film decreases con-
siderably because of lack of fluid in the eyes. Be-
tween the blinks the thickness of the tear film
decreases to such a low value that the tear film
breaks and develops dry spots on the cornea. If
one blinks under these conditions, there is con-
siderable friction between the inside of the eye
lid and the dry spots on the cornea. This may lead


to damage of the corneal surface. Several pharma-
ceutical eye drops containing polymers are avail-
able to stabilize a thick layer of water on cornea.
However, there is no scientific evaluation of the
effectiveness of these available artificial tears or
tear substitutes.
We studied the flow dynamics and the thick-
ness of tear film in the eye using a slit-lamp fluoro-
photometer. The eye drops containing a fluorescent
dye fluoresceinn) are instilled into the eye of the
patient or volunteer. In general, the intensity of
fluorescence is related to the thickness of the tear
film. We found that the tear-film thickness de-
creases between blinks due to drainage by gravity.
However, if one adds a drop of a surface-active
polymer solution (such as polyvinylalcohol
(PVA), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)),
or a commercially available tear substitute, the
film thickness increases between blinks. Figure 15
schematically shows our explanation for the effect
of polymers in thickening the tear film between
blinks. A surface-active polymer would adsorb at
the air/tear interface. When one blinks, this ad-
sorbed film is compressed just like a monolayer
spread on the tray filled with water (Figure 5).
After the blink, the lid is moved upward, and the
compressed film of the polymer spreads in the
upward direction to occupy the clean surface at
the air/tear interface. When the compressed film
of polymer moves upward, it drags water as the
sublayer. This phenomenon of surface flow from
high surface pressure to low surface pressure is
called Marangoni effect. To establish that water


,. 9..... m ,

A B c D0
FIGURE 13. A schematic presentation of a petroleum reservoir. The
lower part of the diagram shows how injection of a sur-
factant formulation moves the oil towards the four pro-
duction wells.

can be dragged by a polymer film, a simple experi-
ment using a glass slide was carried out as shown
in Figure 16. One end of a wet glass slide was
dipped into a polymer solution and it was observed
that the polymer solution begins to climb on the
wet glass slide. From fluorescence measurements,
the thickness of the moving film was determined.
To our surprise we found that the thickness of
films of various polymer solutions measured in
this system was the same as that measured in the
eye. Table I shows the thickness of various poly-
mer solutions dragged on a vertical glass slide. We


Thickness (gm)
of water
layer dragged
Polymer by polymers*
wetting soln. 58 cp 22
Adaptt 70 cp 17
Presertt 18 cp 16
Lacrilt 28 cp 14
Visculoset 130 cp 11
PVA 120 cp 18
PVA 20 cp 12
HPMC 120 cp 12
HPMC 20 cp 9
Monomolecular film of PVA 13
*Surface Area of Trough = 0.52 cm2
commercially available artificial tear solutions

also carried out similar experiments using a mono-
molecular film of Polyvinylalcohol (Table I). Here
again, we found that the thickness of the layer of
water dragged by a monolayer was 13 microns
which is the same as the thickness of the layer
dragged from the polymer solution. In other
words, the increase in the thickness of the tears in
the eye can be accounted for by a monomolecular
film of polymer at the air/tear interface. This
study again points out the importance of surface
activity of polymers in assisting and providing
comfort to patients with "dry-eye syndrome."

Agriculture and food technology--The ef-
fectiveness of various herbicides and insecticides
in agricultural sprays are determined by their
wetting of leaves and fruits. The presence of sur-
factants (wetting agents) in agricultural sprays
strikingly improves the effectiveness of the sprays


and contributes to a greater production of crops.
The emulsions also find considerable application in
food products such as salad dressings, margarine,
whipped cream, puddings, etc. Surface chemical
aspects of protein-lipid associations also are im-
portant in determining the texture of food such
as cakes and pastries and work is being done in
this direction using the principles and techniques
of surface sciences.
Energy-The surfactant solutions and
microemulsions are important in improving oil
recovery from petroleum reservoirs. Another in-
teresting application is in the area of combustion
efficiency of various oils. Recently, it has been
shown that if one injects a fine dispersion or emul-
sion of water and oil in furnaces, the efficiency of
conversion of oil into heat is improved consider-
ably. Although the exact mechanism is not estab-
lished, the fact still remains that emulsification of
oil and water improves the combustion efficiency.
Environment-Principles and techniques of
surface science find many applications in environ-
mental problems. The dewatering of phosphate
slimes, sludge formation, coagulation, and floc-
culation in many waste-water treatment plants
rely on the surface interactions. The surface re-
actions and adsorption on activated carbon are
very effective methods for removal of trace con-
taminants. Fibrous coalescers also are used for
the removal of oil droplets from a few parts per
million concentration in the effluent streams of
many industries. Here the attachment of oil drops
to the fiber and their subsequent coalescence play
an important role in the separation of oil. The
use of surface films as oil herder for the contrac-
tion of oil-spills has been discussed. The presence
of films at the air/water interface also causes


FIGURE 14. A schematic presentation of various surface phenomena
occurring in the eye.

... monolayersprovide a unique system
to determine experimentally the cross-
sectional areas of surface-active molecules
and to study reactions and molecular
interactions at surfaces.

wave-damping of small ripples. This observation
has been used in developing the instrumentation
for remote sensing of oil-spills. In all these sys-
tems and processes, the principles of physics and
chemistry of surfaces and surface-active agents
are involved.
Industries and engineering-The surface
science is involved in coating processes. For ex-
ample, the production of magnetic tapes in which
a dispersion of magnetic oxide is coated on poly-
ester tapes. The stability of the dispersion and the
strength of adhesion depend on the surface inter-
actions. Other applications of surface science are
found in the manufacture of inks, paints, pig-
ments, nonstick cooking wares, etc. The textile
industry also utilizes considerable quantities of
surface-active substances in the form of wetting
agents, emulsions, dye-solubilization and other
processes. The contact angle and wettability also
enters into water-proofing of textiles, roofing ma-
terial and similar systems. Many lubricants also
involve the use of hydrocarbon oils and various
surface-active agents as additives. The physics
and chemistry of thin films are used extensively in
the electronics industry. As discussed previously,
the production of petroleum and petrochemicals
also utilizes many processes which are in the gen-
eral domain of surface science. The field of cat-
alysis is based on surface interactions between the
substrate molecules and the catalyst surface. The
formulations of soaps and detergents for house-
hold uses also are based on surface properties of
surfactants. In the world about 109 tons of min-
erals are processed every year by the use of flota-
tion technology which again relies on the adsorp-
tion of surfactant on mineral particles. Many of-
fice stationeries such as NCR papers (no carbon
required papers) use microencapsulation of
powders to coat these papers. The microencapsula-
tion is one of the most interesting applications of
surface and colloid science to industrial processes.
Biology and medicine-Many principles and
techniques of surface science are relevant to the
understanding of the properties and functions of


biological membranes. It has been suggested [17]
that the spontaneous formation of membranes
played an important role in the origin of prebio-
logical cells during the chemical evolution which
was followed by the biological evolution. These
techniques are being used to elucidate the mechan-
ism of action of many drugs, anesthetic agents,
and pharmacological agents on membrane prop-
erties. It has been established during recent years
that conduction of electrical signal along a nerve
fiber is strictly a surface phenomenon occurring
in nerve cell membrane. As discussed previously
the surface properties of polymers are also rel-
evant to the performance of tear substitutes in
the eye. These concepts can be also extended to the
wetting of contact lenses and the comfort for the
eye. The solubilization of oil soluble vitamins in



FIGURE 15. A schematic presentation of the effect of adsorbed poly-
mer film at the air-tear interface in upward movement of
water after a blink.

micelles, the fat absorption in intestine, lung
stability and the function of pulmonary sur-
factant, synovial fluid and lubrication of bone
joints, dental integuments, and the development of
various nonthrombogenic surfaces for artificial
organs and implants all draw significantly on sur-
face science.
Pharmaceuticals-Various pharmaceutical
products such as ointments, skin lotions, creams,
microencapsulation of drugs for sustained drug-
delivery, birth control foams, etc. are being formu-
lated and developed using principles and tech-
niques of surface science. Some of these have been
discussed previously.
In summary, I would like to emphasize that
from the research activities I have carried out in
the past decade, I have become convinced that the
surface science is one of the most important facets




FIGURE 16. The slide technique used to measure the thickness of
water layer dragged with a moving polymer film.

of science. It is related to many natural processes
and systems; it is one of the unique branches of
science that finds so many diverse and wide-rang-
ing applications in engineering, biology and med-
It is only during the past few years that we
have seen rapid advances in understanding the
complexities and unique properties of surfaces. I
believe we are still at the shores of surface science,
and we have a whole ocean to explore! Over the
years I have also become convinced in my belief
that "research is an art. Just as an artist enjoys
painting a picture, or a poet enjoys writing a
poem, a scientist does research for his own enjoy-
ment, regardless of its appreciation by others, al-
though it is nicer when it is also appreciated and
enjoyed by others." As I began this article with a
quotation, I would also like to end it with a quota-
tion from a poem by Tagore, which very appro-
priately says, "My friend, drink my wine in my
own cup to appreciate its sparkling bubbles." E

I would like to thank Professor Bolduc (Education),
Professor Nevis (Electrical Engineering and Physics), Dr.
Tham (Anesthesiology and Chemical Engineering), and
Professor Walker (Chemical Engineering) for critically
reviewing the manuscript and for many constructive sug-
gestions. The financial support for the research presented
here was provided by the National Science Foundation,
National Institute of Health, Environmental Protection
Agency, the Florida Heart Association, and the University
of Florida, which is gratefully acknowledged.

1. Preston, W. C., J. Phys. and Colloid Chem., 52: 84
2. Shah, D. O., In "Respiratory Distress Syndrome," eds.
Continued on page 48.




University of Texas of the Permian Basin
Odessa, Texas 79762

Basin, was opened in the Fall of 1973 to serve
the more than 300,000 people in the oil-rich Per-
mian Basin, the state of Texas, and the nation.
Offering programs in three colleges: Management,
Arts and Education, and Science and Engineer-
ing, the university operates as an upper level
institution providing junior, senior, and graduate
level courses. Students are accepted after com-
pleting at least 60 hours of work at another
institution, usually a junior college. Designed
from the outset to provide unique and innovative
programs and to employ proven teaching tech-
niques, both new and old, the university has em-
barked on a number of distinctive educational
and operational tracks. These are perhaps best
exemplified by the program in Control Engineer-
ing. It is the purpose of this paper to describe
that program.


C ONTROL ENGINEERING is a unique engineering
discipline, as different from other disciplines
as they are different from each other. It is in-
herently multidisciplinary in character requiring
expertise from a number of diverse disciplines.
That expertise must be brought to bear, however,
in a way that is unique to control engineering.
Control engineers are concerned with complex
systems, systems with elements from many
physical domains, systems that are almost always
in a transient state, systems that must perform
with precision and accuracy.
A suitable control engineering curriculum

*Recent revision of a paper presented at the annual
meeting of the ASEE-CED, Colorado State University, 1975.

must emphasize accurate measurement and con-
trol of variables, modeling and dynamic response
of elements and systems, sophisticated and
functional methods of analysis and design, and
the commonality of systems from all domains.
To successfully build a program of this type, it is
necessary to have faculty with broad experience
and an interdisciplinary background and that are
willing to work freely across discipline boundaries.

S TARTING A NEW engineering program in a new
university, especially one where judicious de-
parture from tradition is not only tolerated but
encouraged, provides a rare opportunity to take
a new approach to engineering education. The
control engineering program has attempted to
take a cautious and rational approach to substan-
tial change. Program goals, for example, call for

Since the courses are also offered
for variable credit, there are essentially
no fixed course boundaries. Students may
thus enter a study area at a point consistent
with their background and exit when they
have successfully completed the collection
of modules appropriate to their specific degree plan.

technical competence in breadth and depth and a
demonstrated high level of communication, man-
agement, and interactive skills. More significant-
ly different from tradition, however, are the ad-
ditional program goals of developing in graduates
the desire and the ability to continue learning, of
providing a program that meets efficiently the in-
dividual needs of students, and gives students with
sufficient innate learning capacities a maximum
chance for success. Accreditation is, of course, an
important program goal.
A coherent curriculum design results when
aimed toward a specific and well-defined set of


degree objectives. From the degree objectives, it
is possible to identify the supporting objectives
down to the expected entrance level of students,
in this case, the beginning of the junior year.
These supporting objectives can be subdivided to
form the courses or study areas necessary to ac-
complish the curriculum. Usually, a given objec-
tive specifies a broadly applicable problem-solving
process and need not be tied directly to a given
physical domain such as chemical, electrical, me-
chanical, etc. In this way, it is possible to use
different applications vehicles to illustrate and
learn the given process. One may learn about the
basic processes in modeling and simulating second
order systems, for example, by using electrical,
mechanical, fluid, thermal or other systems as
illustrations. The multi-disciplinary nature of con-
trol engineering makes it important to give some
attention to all applications areas while placing
emphasis in the areas appropriate to the individual
student's goals. By specifying the appropriate set
of problem-solving capabilities along with the con-
tent areas that are germane, a highly in-
dividualized curriculum can result.
The specific degree objectives are of utmost
importance in the design of a curriculum and of
courses for that curriculum. For those that may
be interested, the objectives are included as an


ALTHOUGH ONLY A single degree designation
is currently authorized, a broad range of
individual curricula is possible through formula-
tion of a specific, individually tailored degree plan
for each student. Working in close association
with a faculty adviser of his or her choice, a
student works out the degree plan which, while
meeting all the external constraints, is best suited
to the entrance competencies and career goals of
the student. Personal interviews, current testing
data, job experience, previous academic records,
and limited special testing are currently used as
bases for establishing points of entry into the
program. An extensive program of protesting will
be undertaken for the first time in the Fall of
Courses designed for this program are each
divided into several small modules of instruction,
each module specifying carefully what is required
of the student. Modules are studied in a sequence
so that each builds on and reinforces the previous
one and so that interrelationships among study

L to R: Drs. Charles M. Fry, Clyde H. Sprague and
George H. Quentin.

Charles Max Fry received the B.S. degree in aerospace engineering
from the University of Oklahoma in 1965, the M.S. degree in mechan-
ical engineering from Rice University in 1967, and the Electrical En-
gineer and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Southern
Methodist University in 1972 and 1973, respectively. From 1967 to
1970 he was employed as an Aerodynamics Design Engineer with
LTV Aerospace Corp., Dallas, Texas. Dr. Fry was an LTV Corporation
Doctoral Fellow at Southern Methodist University from 1970 to 1973.
Since 1973 he has been Assistant Professor of Engineering at U. T.
Permian Basin.
Clyde H. Sprague received the B.S. degree in mechanical engineer-
ing from Kansas State University in 1958. From 1958 to 1961 he was
employed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
in Silver Spring, Maryland. He received the M.S. degree in mechanical
engineering from Kansas State University in 1963. From 1963 to 1973
he was with the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Kansas
State University. Two years were spent on leave at Purdue University
where the Ph.D. degree was completed in 1967. He moved to UT-
Permian in January of 1973 as Associate Professor and Coordinator
of Engineering.
George H. Quentin received the BChE (1955) from Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute, and the M.S. and Ph.D. (1965) in Chemical Engineer-
ing from Iowa State University. Background includes diversified ex-
perience with DuPont, National Distillers, and Monsanto Companies.
Following several years on the Chemical Engineering Faculty at the
University of New Mexico, he joined the University of Texas of the
Permian Basin as an Associate Professor on the Faculty of Engineering.

areas are carefully delineated. Since the courses
are also offered for variable credit, there are es-
sentially no fixed course boundaries. Students may
thus enter a study area at a point consistent with
their background and exit when they have suc-
cessfully completed the collection of modules ap-
propriate to their specific degree plan. Additional
flexibility is provided by selecting variations in
objectives and application areas within a module
to support a particular program. To formulate
such a degree plan, the amount of credit in a
given course area is specified; currently in units


of not less than 1 credit hour. This generates a
conventional-looking transcript. Specific require-
ments for a student to earn the designated credit
are worked out and contracted informally. A more
formal process for this is evolving but the in-
formal process works adequately for our small
student population.

To use effectively the flexibility built into the
course structure and degree formulation system,
most course areas are offered on a continuous en-
rollment, self-paced basis. Consequently, students
may enter the program at any time, and take up
to two full semesters to complete a course under
justifiable circumstances. This requires that most
self-paced courses be available at all times. Simul-
taneous proctoring of several courses by both stu-
dents and faculty results in efficient and full use
of instructor time, even with small individual
course enrollments.

Courses designed
for this program are each divided
into several small modules of instruction,
each module specifying carefully what
is required of the student.

Good course management plays an important
role in the relative success of a self-paced course.
Neglect of the management aspect of self-paced
course design is common and often leads to dis-
enchantment with the method. Significant time
and effort have been devoted to the evolution of
a workable management system at UT Permian,
and much has been accomplished. Although the
system is far from perfect it is improving steadily.
Management is an important component in all
self-paced courses but is critical in this engineer-
ing program where most or all of a given student's
load may be self-paced.


ALTHOUGH THE CONTROL Engineering degree is
of sufficient breadth to prepare students for a
variety of career opportunities, all students are
expected to develop control system design exper-
tise in one or more selected applications areas.
Efficient degree planning for these diverse fields
of application requires significant breadth of se-

election in math, in engineering science, and in
engineering design. This is accomplished by de-
veloping a minimal central core in each area sur-
rounded by a coherent collection of additional
work from which to choose. In visualizing this ap-
proach, it is important to recognize that there
are no fixed course boundaries so great flexibility
is possible.
To illustrate the breadth of possible curriculum
planning, two contrasting degree plans are out-
lined in the table below. One is appropriate for
an engineer interested in chemical process con-
trol, the other is oriented toward flight control
applications in commercial or military aviation or
aerospace. These degree plans should be inter-
preted as representative of what is planned or
possible, not as specific requirements for a de-
gree although they do indicate minimal credit in
an area. It is also important to note that
differences in content and objectives between
equal credits in a given study area contribute to
a difference in the two plans not evident in the

A SIGNIFICANT PORTION of this component of
each Control Engineering degree plan is de-
voted to formal training and realistic experience
with project engineering and management. At
present, the engineering management training is
handled by conventionally offered, formal man-
agement courses. These will eventually be tailored
to and integrated with the project engineering
The engineering project experience is provided
by courses in Authentic Involvement. In this area,
students are organized into teams of four or five
students, possibly some that are not engineers,
to pursue a lengthy engineering project. Projects
are solicited from industry, public service institu-
tions or other appropriate sources. Specific cri-
teria for screening potential projects have been
established to insure their realism and suitability.
Students work in teams, under faculty super-
vision, and as consultants to the industry. Each
team is expected to carry out all of the functions
of a normal project team assigned to such a prob-
lem and to conclude the project with a formal,
oral and written report to the client agency.
Authentic Involvement is the capstone of the
degree program and serves to reinforce previously
acquired engineering competencies; to develop
confidence and competence with the engineering



Chemical Process
Control Orientation

Flight Control

Social Science



Inorganic Chemistry
Advanced Chemistry
(Physical & Organic)
Analytic Geometry &
Advanced Math
Mech of Mat'ls
Mat'ls Science
Systems Analysis
Heat Transfer
Separation Processes
Chemical Reactor Operations
Introductory Control
System Design
Computer Control
Modern Control
Engineering Management
& Economics
Engineering Project


9 9
(content of advanced math selected to fit program)
6 6

design process; to develop and apply manage-
ment, communications, and interaction skills so
students experience a role as close to engineering
practice as is possible in a university environ-


ALTHOUGH FACILITIES are usually of secondary
importance, those being used for this program
are as unique as the program. The University is
housed, almost in its entirety, within a single
building. One wing is used for conventional class-
rooms, offices, computer center, instructional
media, administrative offices, and other service
facilities, the specific room configuration being
established with snap-in walls easily rearranged
to meet changing needs.
The laboratory wing consists of three fully

carpeted floors that are totally open and without
walls except for a few offices and special purpose
rooms around the periphery. Laboratory activi-
ties are carried out on mobile lab benches, some
with all quick-connect utilities for wet experi-
ments, some dry for other experiments. All tables
have removable tote-trays for storing collections
of experimental supplies in the stockroom for in-
dividual checkout. Utility outlets and drive-in
fume hoods are distributed throughout the area.
Tables are designed so they may be connected
to form a chain of benches for group laboratories.
All other furniture in the laboratory is movable
to facilitate organization of the space for im-
mediate needs.
The laboratory facility is used by all
disciplines in the University and provides, in ad-
Continued on page 31.


English A a



Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

Amoco Oil Company
Yorktown, Virginia 23690

mer student between the junior and senior year
or between the senior and first-year graduate
school often is received by the student with mixed
feelings. The experience can be a good one, with
a challenging and interesting assignment, good
supervision and understanding, and include a
sense of community and identity. On the other
hand, often summer experiences can leave a stu-
dent perplexed and frustrated. He or she is not
always treated with respect or given very chal-
lenging assignments. A stranger in town who feels
out of touch with the community. The supervisor
does not have adequate time to really provide him
with a background to carry out a meaningful as-
signment in the short period time that is available,
and the management does not know exactly how
to treat him because he is the result of a public
relations program.
During the first three weeks in September
1975, a group of four upcoming seniors, a gradu-
ate student, and a faculty consultant spent three
weeks at the Yorktown refinery of Amoco Oil
Company on four projects related to the waste-
water treatments of refinery effluents. These four
projects lasted only three weeks but because of
good planning, excellent cooperation from the re-
finery and a good student mix, all the shortcom-
ings often found with summer jobs were over-
come. In addition, the technical achievements and
maturity of approach were amazingly high. And
what was originally thought to be primarily a
public relations approach to better recruiting

turned out to be quite successful whether meas-
ured from a public relations or technical contribu-
tion standpoint.
Last fall, while interviewing for Amoco at
Virginia Tech, Jerry Arkis discussed with Don
Michelsen the use of faculty-student consultant
teams as a means for solving industrial problems.
Because our unit operation lab occupies most of
late July and August between the junior and
senior year, the possibilities of using student study
group was limited to an eight week period before
Unit Operations Laboratory or a three week
period following Labor Day prior to the beginning
of fall classes at Virginia Tech. Following the ex-
change the faculty consultant drafted a brief de-
scription of consulting faculty-student team pos-
sibilities which could be expanded depending upon
Amoco's interest. It was suggested that these
teams might be used to solve a process develop-

The waste treatment area
is a good area in which to work
because... a high level of technical
know-how is not required before an
understanding of the problem is appreciated.

ment or plant project, complete an energy survey
or process control analysis, or study the refinery's
waste treatment plant.

N APRIL, AMOCO invited the faculty con-
sultant to visit for further discussion. The fac-
ulty member toured the facilities with Gene Echols
and exchanged ideas on how students might be
effectively used to study a number of waste treat-
ment problems in the refinery. The refinery is
committed to an activated sludge process for treat-
ing its biological wastes, but has some degree of
flexibility in terms of what might be installed be-


tore and after the activated sludge facility. By
late afternoon, Echols and Michelsen had defined
four possible areas for student investigation.
Subsequently, the faculty consultant completed
a proposal describing the four project areas, proj-
ect definition procedures involving the students,
procedures to be followed in carrying out the
studies, and a budget. The financial arrangement
was made independent of the university. An im-
portant goal was to have students identify the
projects as their own rather than an assignment
delegated by Amoco and/or the faculty consultant.
The proposal was shared with the four students
selected from six applicants who expressed inter-
est in carrying out this project after Unit Opera-
tions Laboratory in the Fall of 1975. Prior to go-
ing down to Yorktown in late May, the students
and faculty discussed Amoco's treatment pro-
cedures, general expectation being placed on the
students, and agreed on student project area as-
By late May the proposal had been approved
by Amoco and the four undergraduate students,
plus the faculty consultant visited Yorktown in
order to tour the refinery including the waste
treatment facilities, and to discuss and exchange
ideas on the individual projects. By day's end the
students had a good understanding of their proj-
ect. Prior to revisiting the end of July, each stu-
dent was responsible for completing a literature
search and background study on his project area
and for preparing a presentation using flow charts
of planned activities for early September. On
Monday, July 28, 1975, the four students plus a
fifth graduate student (Honcho) and the faculty
consultant discussed their approach to the prob-
lems with representatives from Amoco Oil in
Yorktown including James Grutsch, the Environ-
mental Director for Standard of Indiana. The
students' plan of attack differed considerably from
the earlier discussions. They recognized increased
emphasis on the pretreatment of the waste water
following API separator, industrial concern for
the aeration and stabilization of the sludges, and
decided not to pursue work on the crude desalter
but rather to spend that time in the API separator
area. Following their flip chart presentation,
James Grutsch gave an overview of the operation
of the Amoco operation in Texas City. His ideas
verified much of what the consulting team had de-
cided Amoco should be doing in Yorktown. After
considerable discussion, the four projects were
defined. In effect, only one of the students' projects

was changed in any significant manner.
The four projects selected for study were as
follows: 1) a study of the performance and cap-
abilities of the API separator, as well as the feasi-
bility of using a coalescer following the API sep-
arator, 2) a pilot dissolved air-flotation system
following the API separator to remove dispersed
oil and suspended solids, 3) evaluation of final
filter using newly installed equipment including a
dual polymer flocculation system, and 4) a plant
study of sludge settling in their backflush pond,
including the use of polymer addition, turbulence
in the backwash pond; and a laboratory study on
air stabilization of backflush solids.

It was suggested that
summer faculty-student con-
sultant teams might be used to solve
a process development or plant project,
complete an energy survey or process control
analysis, or study the refinery's waste treatment plant.

The students were very busy during the next
five weeks completing the rather intensive Unit
Operations Laboratory at Virginia Tech; there-
fore, when they arrived on Labor Day to start
work on the second of September, the first day
was spent discussing each project assignment. The
first week was spent laying out test work, fabricat-
ing equipment, and becoming familiar with stand-
ard laboratory tests. Because of good understand-
ing with management, laboratory, shop and plant
personnel an atmosphere of good cooperation and
encouragement was achieved-essential if any
progress was to be made in three weeks. Equip-
ment modifications were quickly made. A favora-
ble union situation gave the students considerable
freedom to design and fabricate much of their own
Projects were reviewed after the second week
with Amoco management. By that time the stu-
dents had completed their Introduction, Back-
ground and Theory, and Procedure sections which
included plans, equipment, chemical analyses, data
reduction, and presentation of expected results
section. Monday, September 21, 1975, the students,
Honcho, and faculty member gave a final oral re-
port of the results of the study using flip charts.
Each student had completed a rough draft of
his report and the results were presented to five
representatives from the Amoco refinery. The


three hour session included an individual presenta-
tion by each of the students involving their proj-
ects, a report of the short-term recommendations
by the group leader, and a discussion of long-term
recommendations to meet the BPT goals by 1977
by the faculty consultant. The long-term recom-
mendations on the use of a DAF and equalization
pond system are in conflict with present plans for

What was originally thought
to be primarily a public relations
approach to better recruiting turned out
to be quite successful whether measured
from a public relations or technical
contribution standpoint.

Yorktown. A final report was completed by No-
vember 10, 1975, which included a write-up by
each of the students and an overall Summary,
Introduction and Recommendations section.

support from faculty consultant, Honcho, and
Gene Echols from Amoco, the students were given
most of the responsibility for carrying out their
individual projects. This was reinforced by the
oral presentation given the end of July which laid
the groundwork for the students to start im-
mediately after Labor Day. A significant amount
of flexibility was provided while on site. The fac-
ulty consultant was in the plant four days al-
though he did spend a number of Sundays review-
ing projects with individual students. The Honcho
was necessary to provide technical assistance, in-
teract on numerous questions, provide liaison with
Amoco and to encourage students when bogged
down. He acted as an intermediary and yet as
much as possible direct interaction of the students
with refinery representatives was encouraged. The
students did much of their own work and were
free to go into the shops and work directly with
Amoco personnel. The team lived together in two
adjoining kitchenettes with the Honcho and fac-
ulty consultant. The group ate together during the
week but tended to scatter during the weekends.
Because of the close proximity, the two conducted
studies around the API separator working to-
gether closely, and the two operating the filter and
backwash worked together. A two man team effort

The faculty consultant's responsibility centered
primarily on setting up the projects, making sure
the teams got off to a good start, setting some
guidelines and directions for the overall projects,
and reviewing the results and recommendations
The waste treatment area is a good area in
which to work because of short induction period.
That is, a high level of technical know-how is not
required before an understanding of the problem
is appreciated. The students picked up a grasp of
the subject rather quickly. However, prior to
hands-on experience, the students had difficulty
relating literature to plant operations. Books on
industrial waste treatment are abundant and pro-
vide background, but until the student is directly
involved appreciation of the literature is difficult.
As a result, background and theory and the sig-
nificance of the literature were initially glossed
over. During the three week work period, the level
of appreciation increased and the results and com-
parison to the literature represented a real con-
The biggest analytical stumbling block came in
the analysis of the oil and grease using freon ex-
traction. The standard procedure for conducting
these tests is time-consuming and subject to error.
The students spent two or three evenings at the
end of the project completing these analyses, yet
this was crucial to the study in Yorktown because
of an oil carry-over problem from the API sep-
arator into the biological basins. As the refinery
moves toward the installation of an activated
sludge process, a more elaborate oil and suspended
solid removal procedure will be necessary in order
to insure good oxidation.
The level of technical throughness with which
the students approach their individual problems
was truly remarkable and the magnitude of the re-
sults are really quite impressive. It has provided
the basis for a number of conclusions and recom-
mendations which suggest a review of current and
future plans for waste treatment.
THROUGH PROPER organization and planning a short-
term three week consulting team project can be con-
ducted with significant technical and public relations payoff
with students contributing in a very responsible fashion. A
combination of introductory visits and a presentation by
the students resulted in a strong commitment to their
project area. Once motivated the students moved ahead
quickly wih their project. In addition, a strong sense of
comradarie developed from living in those two adjacent
kitchenettes and working together in two man teams. []


Sprague, Quentin, Fry
Continued from page 27.
edition to strictly laboratory needs, proctoring
areas, study carrels, open study areas, small
seminar areas, media-areas; in short, all of the
facilities needed to carry on individualized, self-
paced, or small group course activities. In this
way, the open laboratory serves almost all of
the needs of the engineering program in a very
efficient utilization of space, furnishings, and
equipment. Only a few activities require other
spaces. Since the same open laboratory is used by
all disciplines in the University for all of the
functions named above, there is considerable in-
teraction among students and faculty from these
different areas.


T HE FOREGOING discussion has laid out the de-
sign goals, curriculum objectives, and curri-
culum implementation features for the Control
Engineering Program at UT-Permian Basin.
Underway only two years, the program has not,
of course, fully realized all of these ambitions.
The intent of this section is to evaluate the status
of the program and its future.
The ultimate evaluation of any professional
program comes from the performance of its
graduates in practice. Too young to have many
graduates and with little time-in-service for those
that have graduated, any evaluation must neces-
sarily be very preliminary. Students in or from
this program have been favorably received by in-
dustry and graduate schools. Industries par-
ticipating in our Authentic Involvement program
have responded favorably both to the engineering
competence of our students and to their abilities
to document and communicate their work. Thus
the external indicators of acceptance of our
students are positive.
The educational environment in our program
is entirely different from what most students have
previously experienced. Inevitably then, there has
been a period of adaptation as students learn to
function efficiently in this new environment and
as the faculty adjust the environment based on
student successes and reactions. Some students
have been unable or unprepared to adapt and have
dropped from the program, but most have learned
to take advantage of the flexibility. A significant
number of students, with poor initial preparation
or with a long lapse in their studies, have been

able to develop and to succeed in the program
only because of the individual pacing, one-to-one
instructor help, and the opportunity to recycle
until reasonable competency is achieved. Such
students, although they have excellent latent po-
tential, would not survive in a conventional pro-
Although considerable progress has been
achieved toward meeting the needs and maximiz-
ing the chance for success of individual students,
much remains to be done. Needed are more formal
premeasure procedures, self-study packages for
areas of significant prerequisite weakness, a
broader range of course offerings and more variety
within courses, revisions and additions to existing
learning materials, a more formal and elaborate
validation procedure, development of laboratory
facilities, and an ever-improving course manage-
ment system. These areas of development are in
various stages of progress, but all are underway.
Resource limitations are believed to be the
primary impediments to their rapid and success-
ful conclusion. O
Curriculum objectives for the Control Engineering pro-
gram are as follows.
A graduate of this program should be able to:
* Operate successfully as a member of a project design
team to construct a proposed design solution to an
authentic problem and to prepare and present satis-
factory oral and written reports documenting the
* Demonstrate project management skills necessary to
insure the successful operation of the team in the
team design activity described above.
* Demonstrate successful acquisition and application of
information relative to a topic for which little infor-
mation is available in typical literature sources.
* Construct and support a prediction of the possible
impact on society of a major event, invention, dis-
covery, technological change, change in government
policy or law, etc.

Almost invariably I have found that the demonstration
has been a very effective teaching tool that was well re-
ceived by students. To help myself and others who share
my inclination, I am attempting to edit a compilation of
demonstrations. I wish to concentrate on the field of ChE
as a broader coverage is probably not practical. Accord-
ingly, I would like to ask any potential author who knows
of such demonstrations to contact me. Then we can make
arrangements so that a common format is used and ap-
propriate authors credits are given.
Prof. M. Duane Horton
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


n laboratory


University of Lowell
Lowell, Mass. 01854

P ROCESS DYNAMICS and Control is normally
taught to ChE students in their senior year.
At the University of Lowell this is a two semester
course consisting of 3 hours of lecture in the fall
semester and 1 hour of lecture and 3 hours of
laboratory in the spring semester. The fall semes-
ter course is intended to provide a sound theoret-
ical background in control theory with emphasis
on mathematical techniques, open and closed loop
systems and stability analysis (root locus and
Bode diagrams). The spring semester consists of
weekly lectures on advanced topics and laboratory
work consisting of digital and analog computer
techniques and experimental techniques using
hardware such as pneumatic and electronic con-
trollers, valves, level control systems and flow
control systems.
In addition the university has established a
college-wide digital control laboratory for the pur-
pose of developing real time systems and demon-
stration programs for both teaching and research
Three ChE seniors, (Dennett, Greenlee, Le-
Blanc) developed SYCONS as an elective senior
project in conjunction with this laboratory, work-
ing under the direction of the senior author,
SYCONS, which stands for Systems Control
Simulator, is an interactive program written in
BASIC which allows the user to simulate a closed
loop block diagram of up to 30 individual com-
ponents, consisting of a 3-mode controller (any

1Present address: 3017 Amherst Ave., Columbia, S.C.
2Present address: 494-13 Greenleaf Meadows, Rochester,
3Present address: Celanese Chemical Co., Bishop, Tx.

combination of modes), step loads or setpoint, first
and second order systems, and dead times. The
transfer functions for components are shown in
Table 1. The set point can also be a sine wave and
the system may be run open loop.

Transfer Functions for SYCONS

Transfer Function
X= R-Y
KeJ1 + + TDs]
7S + 1
72s2 + 2fTs + 1
e -Ts



Comparator 1st element in loop


Can be used as P, I, D,

1st order Specify G and r

2nd Order Specify G, 7, and {

Specify 7 < 5

X = Y + U Summing Must be between each
junction non-summing junction
With these combinations available, most com-
mon type control problems arising in ChE can be
solved. The output consists of the time domain
response of the final element in the loop.
The program philosophy is to allow the user to
specify the control loop and provide answers in
the least restricted fashion possible.
The machine used is a NOVA 1200 with 16K
memory and disk storage. Input is through key-
board with CRT display or punched paper type
and output is CRT, line printer or punched paper
Computing Algorithms-Each individual ele-
ment is considered as a block with input, X, and
output, Y. Summing junctions have an additional
input U which may be zero and serve both to al-
low step changes in load and to convert the output
of one block to the input of the next block.
Comparator-This element allows for negative
feedback and is analogous to the comparator in
real systems.


Controller-A simple trapezoidal rule is used
for the integral portion and a difference approxi-
mation is used for the derivative mode.

[ 1 t-1i
Y= X + Xi + At
L TI 1 2

Xt -Xt (1)

First and Second Order Systems-The rela-
tively unsophisticated Euler method is used for
the solutions of the first and second order differ-
ential equations. A time step of 0.02 is used

Yt = G xt Yt-1 At + Yt-1 (2)

Yt = GXt- 2_ t (Yt- Yt-2) -Yt-2
At A tY

+ 2Yt-l-Yt-2 (3)
T )
Time Lag-The time lag is achieved by storing
inputs in an array and recalling at the proper
time. Because of array size limitations for BASIC,
only time lags of 5 and less can be used.
Y(t) = X(t ) (4)
Also only one delay element may be used per loop


THE USE OF SYCONS is relatively simple and
can be used by students of control with mini-
mum instruction. The closed loop process shown in
Figure 1 was run on the computer by way of il-
lustrations. In the language of SYCONS it con-
sists of 8 elements:
1. Comparator 5. Summing Junction
2. Controller 6. First Order
3. Summing Junction 7. Summing Junction
4. First Order 8. Time Lag
At each point in the program where a user
must enter information, SYCONS requests the

FIGURE 1. Block Diagram.

FIGURE 2. Response to step change in load.

proper information giving the user the proper
codes to assist in the input. Interested readers
may request a copy of the program from the
Figure 2 is a plot of the time domain response
of the last element.
Several additional techniques can be used with
SYCONS. A sine wave can be used in the first
load position (comparator set-point) and if the
process is run open-loop the frequency response
can be determined. The derivative mode of the
controller can be used to generate an impulse func-
tion by putting a step change into the set point
under open loop conditions and the integral mode
will generate a ramp input under similar condi-
tions. With an impulse input, data for Fourier
analysis can be generated.


S YCONS APPEARS to work well and to be a
versatile tool for both the learning of process
control techniques and for the solution of complex
transient responses.
It has been used by several students with some
control background and was found to be simple to
use and instructive in illustrating methods that
were merely concepts.
A copy of the project report which includes the
program listing, additional illustrated examples
and the program logic diagram can be obtained
from Digital Control Lab, College of Engineering,
University of Lowell, Lowell, MA. 01854.
The authors acknowledge Prof. P. Burger and
the students of the Digital Control Lab, Univer-
sity of Lowell, for their help and encouragement
in this project. O





Editor's Note: The four papers following were presented as part of a
symposium at the Annual Conference of the ASEE at the University
of Tennessee; Knoxville, Tennessee; June 1976.

Where Is the

Roller Coaster Headed?


Ohio University
Athens, Ohio 45701
Eli Lilly & Company
Indianapolis, Indiana 46206

THE DEMAND FOR engineers has been widely
touted recently by such mass media publica-
tions as the Wall Street Journal and Time Maga-
zine. This has generally been a result of reports
emanating from the Engineering Manpower Com-
mission. Professional journals have also vividly
described the apparent disparity between engi-
neering enrollments and projected demands for
B.S. engineers. An example of this is the series
"Supply, Demand and Utilization of Engineers"
in Chemical Engineering Progress last year.
It appeared that engineering enrollments were
on the decline up to the Fall of 1975. At that time,
ChE Departments began to talk about a quantum
surge in enrollments and fears of a boom and bust
cycle were being mentioned at national AIChE
meetings. It became evident that this was a

Will these and other survey results
moderate the present enrollment rise
and degree projections? Where is the roller
coaster headed? Do we want to stop it?
What action do you, the Professional
Chemical Engineer, feel AIChE
and ASEE should take?


0- 9%
10- 19%
20- 29%
30- 39%
40- 49%
50- 59%
60- 69%
70- 79%
80- 89%
90- 99%
110% +

Number of Number of
U.S. Schools Canadian Schools

nation-wide phenomenon. The National Career
Guidance Committee of AIChE sought verification
of this as well as other pertinent data to offer a
true perspective of the increases. They conducted
a survey of all ChE Departments in the United
States and Canada which asked for estimates of
projected B.S. degrees to 1979, past degree pro-
duction data, present and future capacity data,
trends in enrollments, attitudes toward coping
with the increased enrollments and career guid-
ance programs and needs. Were we really on an
enrollment roller coaster and did we want to get
One hundred nineteen of the one hundred
thirty-six U.S. ChE Departments responded to
the survey (see Appended copy) conducted in
March and April of 1976. Thirteen of the seven-
teen Canadian departments also responded. Use-


ful data was obtained from U.S. Departments
representing almost 90% of the B.S. degrees
granted. The Canadian schools reporting repre-
sented approximately 82% of the B.S. degree vol-
ume for that country. The survey results indicate
that in 1978, 5328 Bachelor of Science degrees in
ChE will be awarded by schools in the United
States and another 523 by Canadian schools. This
will be an increase of more than 50% over the av-
erage number of B.S. chemical engineers gradu-
ated between 1966 and 1975 for the U.S. The
predictions also indicate the 1979 graduating
classes will be 5656 and 698 for the United States
and Canada, respectively. Only twice has the num-
ber of United States ChE Bachelors degrees ex-
ceeded 3800. In 1949 it was 4506 and in 1950,
The 119 United States ChE Departments are
hoping to add between 98 and 117 new faculty
positions in ChE to meet this enrollment surge.
This increase in faculty will mean the United
States will have the capacity for producing an
estimated 6271 B.S. graduates per year. Present
estimated United States capacity is 5785. The
present estimated Canadian annual capacity is
649 B.S. degrees and a projected increase of four
faculty positions will bring this to 680.
The survey first polled the chemical engineer-
ing departments on the increases in the fresh-
man and sophomore enrollments. Tables 1 and 2
show the distribution of percentage increases.
Generally, the largest increases were reported by
small departments. The median reported freshman
increase was 40% and the median reported sopho-


0- 9%
10- 19%
20- 29%
30- 39%
40- 49%
50- 59%
60- 69%
70- 79%
80- 89%
90- 99%
110% +

Number of Number of
U.S. Schools Canadian Schools


0- 4
5- 9

Number of
U.S. Schools

Number of
Canadian Schools



more increase was 30%. When the schools were
asked if the number of highly qualified students
which were likely to graduate in ChE had in-
creased, 75% (62%)* said yes and 17% (31%)*
said no. This is a good indication that the ex-
panded student body can survive the rigors of a
ChE program.
The departments were then asked to supply
their freshman-senior attrition experience. Table
3 illustrates the distribution and again the smaller
departments usually experienced the larger rates.
The median attrition rate is 30%. Thirty-four
percent (0%) of the departments expect the at-
trition rate to increase, 11% (17%) to decrease
and 49% (83%) to remain the same. Here again
is an indication that the increased enrollments can
be expected to appear as future graduates.
Not only are those selecting ChE initially in-
creasing but those transferring into our field are
also increasing. Eighty-eight percent (54%) of
the responding schools found an increasing shift
of degree major toward ChE at the B.S. level.
Sixty-one percent (23%) found an increased shift
at the M.S. level.


EACH RESPONDENT was asked to estimate
the number of expected B.S. degrees over the
next four years. Table 4 summarizes the estimates
that were supplied by U.S. schools. The number

*The numbers not in parenthesis are for the U.S.
schools; those in parenthesis are for the Canadian schools.



Sum of Number of
Estimates Schools






10 year

117 3030.7

117 3030.7




*Including an estimate by authors for 3 schools.

of schools that provided useful estimates are indi-
cated. Also listed are the estimates of total degrees
to be awarded. These are based upon the sum of
10-year averages provided by the schools that
estimated future enrollments (for three of these
schools, the authors had to estimate their 10-year
average). This sum was added to the calculated
average for the 17 non-answering schools plus the
four who have ceased offering a degree in ChE.
This total divided by the sum for the schools esti-
mating future enrollments was multiplied by their
estimates to obtain the projected yearly totals for
the next four years. For the schools which did not
provide 10-year estimates these were obtained
from the number of graduates listed in "Chemical
Engineering Faculties". Where values were mis-
sing these were estimated by the authors. The
average number of U.S. Bachelors degrees was
calculated to be 3552. The Engineering Manpower
Commission estimates the average between 1966
and 1975 to be 3371 B.S. graduates. This is the


Sum of Number of
Estimates Schools


Ten Year


13 320.3

13 320.3




equivalent to an error of 5.37% or an over-estima-
tion of 1.56 graduates per year for each of schools
responding. The equivalent figures for Canadian
schools are given in Table 5. The projected totals
were estimated in a similar way. Table 6 gives the
projected number of Bachelor level engineering
degrees as estimated by the Engineering Man-
power Commission in its publication "Prospects
of Engineering and Technology Graduates 1975".
To obtain the ChE bachelors degrees this was
multiplied by 8-1/2%. This is the figure John
Alden (CEP, Oct. 1975, pg. 25) estimated as the
past and future percentage of total engineering
bachelor degrees. The difference in these figures
is astonishing. Since the vast majority of these
prospective graduates are currently enrolled in
ChE and each school estimated its own prospec-
tive number of graduates, the authors feel the
figures estimated by this survey are reasonably
accurate. In fact these figures may be a little low



Total U.S.*


Table 4

*Source: "Engineering Manpower Commission"
**8-1/2% of Total Bachelors Degrees

because the number of Master of Science degrees
which will be granted to non-B.S. ChE degree
holders must also be considered as part of the
annual output of ChE's. The schools answering
this question indicated 129 (22) of these will be
granted in 1976 and 206 (39) in 1977. Currently
at least 60 United States (8) schools offer or-
ganized programs in this sort and 13 (0) are
planning to add such programs in the next few
Is this increase in students merely a perturba-
tion about the mean or does it portend a sub-
stantial long term growth in B.S. ChE's? Most
U.S. schools seem to feel that it may be permanent
since 62 (3) of them are planning or hoping to
add over 98 (4) new faculty positions. When
asked whether there were any constraints upon
the departments which would prevent them from
increasing their faculty size, only 25% (15%)



U.S. Schools
Number of

Administration Policy
Space (Laboratory
or Classroom)
Job Opportunities
Graduate Students

Number of


said no. Those that answered yes listed the con-
straints given in Table 7. The overwhelming ma-
jority cited budgetary restraints of one form or
another. It appears from the comments received
that quite a few university administrations are
putting a lid on the total number of faculty and
any increase in engineering faculty would have to
come at the expense of other departments.
The Survey indicates that 36 (3) schools feel
they will exceed their estimated capacity by 1979.
The authors anticipated this and asked the ques-
tion, "If the number of freshman or sophomore
ChE majors exceeded the largest number of ChE's
which you felt you could reasonably graduate
would you (a) increase the size of the faculty, (b)
set a maximum number of students admitted to
junior courses, (c) hire graduate students to teach
undergraduate courses, (d) increase standards so
more students flunk nut nf the nronramm (ep dn

"If the number of freshman o
engineering majors exceeded t
chemical engineers which you
ably graduate, what course

Increase the size of the faculty
Set a maximum number of stu-
dents admitted to junior
Hire graduate students to teach
undergraduate courses
Increase standards so more stu-
dents flunk out of the pro-

nothing, (f) other. The responses varied and are
given in Table 8 and 9. The favorite U.S. method
of coping was to increase faculty. Increasing
standards and regulating junior class size met
with split decisions while using graduate students
to teach met with disfavor. The most frequently
noted alternative was controlling admissions at
the outset. It is noteworthy that this appears to
be the method favored in Canada since 6 of 13
schools indicated this as a course of action, and
some stated they were presently employing it. The
use of adjunct faculty was the second most men-
tioned alternative as a short-term means of help-
ing a department through the present surge.
This survey has quantified the present enroll-
ment surge and projected an unusual situation in
ChE education. Undoubtedly, many factors are

"If the number of freshman or sophomore chemical
engineering majors exceeded the largest number of
chemical engineers which you felt you could reason-
ably graduate, what course of cation would you

Increase the size of the faculty
Set a maximum number of stu-
dents admitted to junior
Hire graduate students to teach
undergraduate courses
Increase standards so more stu-
dents flunk out of the pro-

Yes No Unknown
2 4 1

3 2 1

0 5 0

0 5 0
0 0 0

responsible for the present situation and many

others will affect the outcome over the next few
years. Many questions come to mind as a conse-
quence of this survey. Are the ChE departments
NTAL RESPONSES TO on an enrollment roller coaster? Are the future
r sophomore chemical
the largest number of plans of these departments for faculty additions
felt you could reason- realistic? Is this surge in enrollments due to pub-
of action would you licity in the mass media, lack of jobs in other
scientific fields, and/or lack of jobs for high school
Yes No Unknown and college graduates due to the recession? Should
ChE departments regulate their admissions or
56 22 14
just bend with the breeze? Will there be enough
job openings offering meaningful employment for
35 37 10 the anticipated surge of engineers? Will these and
other survey results moderate the present enroll-
22 49 6 ment rise and degree projections? Where is the
roller coaster headed? Do we want to stop it?
38 31 9 What action do you, the Professional Chemical
5 31 5 Engineer, feel AIChE and ASEE should take? E


Practical Limits

To Growth In ChE

California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125

T HE FOCUS IN THE PAST two years on
national needs, with particular stimulus from
our energy crisis, has excited new thinking about
control of chemical change. A result is that ChE
is a well-paid profession at entry. High school
students in the United States have noticed the dif-
ference. Possibly for that reason there has been

One of the items
that engineering and science
programs have not handled appropriately
over the past few years is the matter of quality.

a boom in enrollment in ChE schools in the 50
states. Some schools report twice as many stu-
dents enrolled in 1976 in the first class of ChE as
in 1975. Perhaps the trend will continue, and per-
haps it will not. In any event we do seem to be
faced with acute personnel problems. They are
problems that are nicer to have than those that
relate to shrinkage of enrollments.
What really will control the growth of ChE
enrollments? Should they be controlled? First,
universities already have built-in controls by way
of budgets that are tighter than ever before in
the history of education. Even if a school wanted
to double its total program, it probably would have
trouble. It might allow an entering class to be
twice the size of a previous entering class, but to
have the total undergraduate enrollment twice
that experienced over a couple of years ago would
probably not be possible in terms of staff and sup-
porting functions required. Therefore, the college
budget is the first step in the control of ChE en-
What is the second step? Students may be
enamored with the idea of opportunities to help
and to gain economic strength by way of the en-
gineering profession, and particularly by way of

chemical engineering. They may lose sight, how-
ever, of the difficulties in various curricula. Cer-
tainly ChE is a quantitative curriculum, and
students have been known to fail in the program.
Particularly students have had trouble with uni-
versity chemistry. General chemistry, organic
chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and physical
chemistry are much more demanding and quanti-
tative than ever before. To be a ChE requires that
you move through the courses in chemistry. It
probably is so that a fair fraction of a diverse
group of students in the ChE curriculum will find
difficulties with chemistry. So item two in control
of ChE enrollments relates to the specter of chem-
istry. Also chemistry could be made even more
stringent as a control point.
Third, one of the items that engineering and
science programs have not handled appropriately
over the past few years is the matter of quality.
Since the end of World War II, we, in general,
have been focusing upon quantity not at the total
loss of quality but not with the same development
of quality that we would have with emphasis on
that attribute. So, as universities have large en-
tering classes in ChE, it is incumbent upon the
universities to have appropriate standards of per-
formance so that in the subsequent years those
students who really are not committed to the de-
velopment of useful careers in ChE can be drop-
ped. That has been a practice in some large schools
for some time anyway. For example, admission
standards could be minimal for the freshman year.
Then a large number could be weeded out in the
first year after knowledge is collected on their
abilities. Perhaps more of that control will be
invoked in the future in ChE.

A FOURTH CONTROL on growth of ChE en-
rollment could be found in careful examina-
tion of predicted employment opportunities. No
one has yet figured out how to predict employment
opportunities. If we ponder the costs for a new
engineer in industry and the increasing ability of
an engineer to work with effectiveness because of
new tools and new computers, maybe the market
will need fewer engineers per capital of population.
As part of the future employment opportuni-
ties for engineers, note should be made of the roles


of engineering technologists and technicians. Em-
ployment interest in them has not been fully de-
veloped. As it becomes fully developed, there prob-
ably will be an increasing effort to have engineers
work in the fullest professional sense as engineers.
Engineering technologists would be ready to
handle operational functions. If engineering tech-
nology does affect our work as suggested, there
indeed will be fewer engineers hired but probably
at much higher salaries and with much higher
professional input to their jobs. That calls for
better and even more demanding programs. That
more intense professional development in itself
could provide a strong governor on enrollment.
No one truly can predict what lies ahead rela-

A fourth control on the growth of
ChE enrollment could be found
in careful examination of
predicted employment opportunities.

tive to what we have done in the past. Engineer-
ing obviously will have to help in meeting all na-
tional priorities and in keeping the country mov-
ing. Whether it will do its work more efficiently
than in the past is our problem, and really that is
the total crux of what engineering will be like ten
years from now and what enrollment levels will
be. O

Too Many


Virgina Polytechnic Institute and
State University
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

T HE CONTINUED HEALTH of our profession
demands that the production of baccalaureate
graduates in ChE be limited. A natural such limi-
tation results from the acceptance of a simple
premise, but it is nonetheless one that educators
in ChE somehow still find to be debatable. The
premise is simply that education in ChE at what-
ever academic level must be developed and pre-
sented by professors who are themselves active
participants in the growing edge of the profession.
And this is true for professors in all of the pro-
fessions. For example, I cannot imagine the ap-
prentice surgeon learning his skill from a master
who himself does not practice surgery. Certainly
also the young surgeon who aspires to be the
creator of new techniques-to invent the heart
transplant, as it were-will want to work with the

It is not enough merely to
admonish our students to go out
and be honest and apply common sense
to this or that ethical situation. We must provide
intellectually demanding exercises and
exposure to the great ideas and
thinkers of Western Civilization.

best-known experts of the day. So it is also in
This participation by faculty at the growing
edge of the profession is heavily dependent upon
graduate students, for the neophytes are an ex-
tension of the personality of the major professor.
In fact, to a marked degree, the reputation of pro-
fessors is heavily dependent upon the quality of
the graduate students that we have attracted over
the years. It appears that our economy can absorb
about 400 new PhD level ChE's per year. At a
nominal rate of one new PhD per year per faculty
member, this implies a total faculty in the uni-
versities of the country of about 400. Or, cor-
respondingly, the need of our society for about
1000 MS graduates per year implies a faculty of
about 500 if we take a production rate of about
two new MS graduates per faculty member per
year. Using this larger number, and with a critical
density of about 15 faculty per department, this
suggests that we need about 35 departments. A
faculty of 15 could readily produce a baccalaureate
group of 70 per year or a national production of
about 2500 BS graduates per year. The numbers
in this sort of nominal scenario are approximately
the degree production that seems to fit our na-
tional requirements for new ChE's. However, the
institutional structures for educating these new
practitioners of our science and our art have ex-
panded beyond all reason. We compare the above
projections with the current listing of 123 ac-
credited departments in the United States with
almost 1500 faculty members-and growing. The
academic profession then is functioning as an
excellent absorber of ChE talent that could be




more productively utilized elsewhere. Innumerable
variations on this theme are, of course, possible-
the above exercise is merely typical-but the es-
sential message of the analysis is that we have
too many ChE departments. The excess capacity
seems to be about a factor of two or three.

M OST IMPORTANTLY, fewer departments
would produce a much more professional

... fewer departments would produce ... a much
more professional orientation than we now seem
to impart to our students ... would insure
the stimulation of high quality colleagues
in other related disciplines, and
facilities that are not thwarted
by the critical mass phenomena.

orientation than we now seem to impart to our
students. And this new status would characterize
our graduates at all three academic levels. One
might well counter that it is not professional
status that you achieve at all, but rather a snob-
bishness borne of exclusivity. This exclusivity does
personify the elitism of our profession; but it also
changes the point from which the new entrant
into the profession views himself and his po-
tential for contribution to our society. The change
I propose does not attempt to change a person's
perspective on professional issues, rather it
changes the point from which the perspective
originates. It is not ideas that determine our pro-
fessional status, rather it is our socio-economic
status that determines our professional ideas and
our self-perceptions. My discussions with many
ChE's from all over the country produce a dis-
appointment and a sadness by the self-perception
of so many ChE's who see themselves as highly
skilled technical employees of some great corpora-
tion. Yet the ChE is not merely a skilled employee
of duPont-rather he is the duPont Company. And
without his presence, the company could not exist.
Attitudes and self-perceptions are enormously im-
portant. We will continue to have large numbers
of our ranks who have technician-like perceptions
of themselves and their work as long as the uni-
versities continue to inculcate such values. The
greatest unmet task of our ChE departments is
that of elevating the views and raising the ex-

pectations of our students. Although thermo-
dynamics is an essential tool, it cannot be applied
with professional character except from a back-
ground of values. It is not enough to merely ad-
monish our students to go out and be honest and
apply common sense to this or that ethical situa-
tion. We must provide intellectually demanding
exercises and exposure to the great ideas and
thinkers of Western Civilization especially in those
areas that emphasize human values and ethics,
and this attitudinal development is also enhanced
by the vision of chemical engineering as a very
special profession.

Fewer departments would insure the stimula-
tion of high quality colleagues in other related
disciplines. Departments of chemical engineering
are parasitic in a sense, for we feed off of the de-
partments of chemistry, other departments of the
college of engineering, and increasingly the de-
partments of biochemistry and microbiology as
well and even several departments of the college of
medicine. Excellence in essential supporting de-
partments is also relatively rare, and yet a ChE
department cannot really thrive unless, for ex-
ample, the chemistry department is also excellent.
This co-existence of strengths exists on relatively
few campuses, and yet this co-existence and this
synergism is essential to insure the continued ex-
panding ChE domain.

Fewer departments would insure faculties that
are not thwarted by the critical mass phenomena.
Just as ChE personifies synergism with other
disciplines, so also is this the case within its own
areas of specialization. A faculty of about ten
seems to be on the lower bound of criticality, for
a survey of the work of departments reveals that
smaller ones are either just weak, or, if strong,
that strength will be in a very few special areas
of ChE. It is essential that students be exposed to
ChE's who might be characterized as applied
physical chemists and it is equally important that
they see ChE's who exemplify the more engineer-
ing orientation. The strength of our profession is
this dual character of the ChE as both scientist
and engineer-and our faculties must be of suf-
ficient breadth to provide models of both extremes,
and at several points in between. Those students
who are graduating, at whatever the academic de-
gree level, from departments that do not have
this character are not receiving the vision of the
profession nor the attitudinal structure that they
need for optimum professional practice.



THE FINANCIAL position of ChE's is clearly
enhanced by this control on numbers that we
seek. ChE services are required, persons with such
skills are few, and therefore the price for such
services will be high. Professional licensing by the
states could protect the public against imitators.
A graduate in biology can read a few books on the
physiology and diseases of dogs, but state licensing
protects the public against this individual uni-
laterally declaring himself a veterinarian and
opening a pet clinic. So it could be in ChE.
As is the case with most organizational struc-
tures, attitudes, philosophies, and ambitions, the
major obstacle to this (or any other) more pro-
fessional orientation is our desire to make the
change. Many self-proclaimed leading departments
will not be interested, for they mistakenly feel
that they have nothing to gain. The sleepy depart-
ments will not be interested for concerns of self-
preservation, for they would see themselves going
out of business. Yet we are all the healthier-just
as the NFL is healthier-if we maintain only as
many teams as can be supported in first-class style
and be maintained at more or less comparable

How might it be done, for departments are not
likely to vote themselves out of business. Cer-
tainly the advantages to the individual faculty
member of consolidating two or three departments
could be made compelling. The combined depart-
ment would be more attractive in terms of quality
of faculty, quality of facilities, and numbers and
quality of students. The economics of consolida-
tion would be attractive to state legislatures and
boards of trustees, and certainly the long-term
economies of scale could be used to extract short-
term incentives to promote and to initially capital-
ize this new epiphany of ChE education. Certainly
those deans who lose their ChE department would
breathe a sigh of relief, for the ChE's are widely
recognized as the nemesis of all deans of engineer-
Perhaps the dismal science of economics may
yet push us to this more professional status but
curiously from the motivation of the happenstance
corollary of cost effectiveness. That would be a
very positive result, but it certainly would not
reflect the wisdom of the ChE community. We
seem to know so much about the economies of
scale; it is curious that we continue to ignore
those ideas in our own business. O

Can We Limit Enrollment

By Professional

Society Action?

University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711

T IS QUITE clear that the demand for engi-
neering graduates is difficult if not impossible
to predict. User surveys have not proven success-
ful and it seems doubtful that we will ever be able
to make forecasts adequate enough for individ-
uals, universities, industrial and government sec-
tors to do reliable planning. Some engineers think
that the answer is to limit enrollment at some
number below the most pessimistic forecast and
thus assure that those accepted into the profession
have an opportunity to practice it. There are two
ways to limit enrollment:
limit number of accredited colleges
limit number of students in accredited colleges.

The Engineers Council on Professional Devel-
opment already limits the number of colleges and
any discussion of this issue must consider tighter
criteria for accreditation. The question of limiting
the number of students has not received as much
attention and this problem is considered here.

FIGURE 1 ILLUSTRATES the enrollment lim-
iting process and shows what information is
needed to consider the question. The capacity by
discipline of each engineering college needs to be
known and the number of graduates capable of
being produced in each discipline in any one year
must be known. This later information depends
not only upon number of students which can be
graduated, but also upon raw material supply of
high school or transfer students. Demand fore-
casts for at least four years in the future must be
available for each discipline. A comparison can
then be made between supply and demand and
action initiated (Figure 2).


defined in different ways by different people using
the word-the admissions office thinks of capacity
in terms of Freshmen who can be admitted, the
provost thinks of capacity in terms of the total
number of students who are in the college, the
dean thinks of capacity in terms of number of
students in each year in each department, the pro-
fessional society thinks in terms of number of
A method of predicting department capacity
for a given distribution of students by year has
been proposed by Russell and Daugherty [1]. The
main elements of their method are shown in Fig-
ure 3 and Table 1. It is a procedure which should

When predicted output is greater than pre-
dicted demand and nothing is done, a cycle of over
and under supply is created with very negative
effects to the universities and to those employing
engineers. To limit enrollment, departments or
colleges must be eliminated or the number of
graduating students in existing departments must
be controlled.
Either course of action is difficult to carry out.
There is a severe problem of time scale and it is
essential to have adequate prediction at least four
years in advance. This is simply not available at
the present time with enough accuracy so that de-
cisions of the sort needed can be made and en-
Furthermore, even if the predictions could be
made with some degree of credibility, we must be
able to predict the capacity of a college of engi-
neering. This is a term used rather loosely. It is


Some engineers think that the
answer is to limit enrollment at some
number below the most pessimistic forecast
and thus assure that those accepted into
the profession have an opportunity
to practice it.

assure educational quality. It first evaluates the
faculty's efforts in research, curriculum develop-
ment, professional society service and academic
service to realistically determine the time which
can be devoted to undergraduate teaching. (Fac-
ulty course capacity factor). Departments which
are nationally ranked have values between 0.4
and 0.5. Departments which have values close to
1.0 are not devoting enough effort to other activ-
ities to keep their teaching up to date and effec-
tive. Using the faculty course capacity figure, the
maximum number of student spaces can be com-
puted if the negotiated work load, number of full
time faculty, and number of students per course
are known. The maximum number of student
spaces is then modified for the inadequacies listed
in Table 1. Capacity is determined in terms of
distribution of students by year.
This capacity determination procedure has not
been tested and modified by experience, a process
which should take a minimum of two years. It is
essential that this be done however, if the engi-
neering profession is to consider the question of
enrollment limitation.
If we suppose that adequate procedures are
available to predict demand and predict capacity,
the question of how to limit arises.
* To limit number of departments, the ECPD must tighten
accreditation standards in such a way that some number
of schools will lose their accreditation. It is far from a



(0,3 1.0)



trivial matter to decide how this should be done and al-
most impossible to control numbers within the time
scales involved (6 and 4 year accreditations). Further-
more, what happens to those students enrolled in an
institution which loses its accreditation? Many will con-
tinue and graduate.
* To limit enrollments within departments, the ECPD
must first determine capacity of each and every college
it accredits. This is a task requiring a minimum: of 6 to
8 years. Once capacity is known a means of prorating
must be developed and each college informed of its "al-
lowed" capacity. A means of so doing is not now avail-
able and even if this could be developed, the college or
the university may not wish or may not be able to limit
student numbers.
It must be concluded that limitation of enroll-

ment can not easily be carried out at the present
time in any effective way.


A means of determining capacity should be
tested, modified and then formally accepted by the
ECPD. This could be done by having ECPD in-
spection teams try out proposed procedures.
The capacity determination procedure should
be made part of the ECPD inspection.
The U. S. capacity for producing engineers
should be determined using the ECPD figures.
This would then allow the engineering profession
to better understand one part of the fundamental
problem underlying over and under supply. O

(1) Inadequate Laboratory Space
(2) Inadequate Numbers of Non-Academic Personnel
(3) Inadequate Numbers of Graduate Teaching Assistants
(4) Inadequate Capital Equipment Expenditures
(5) Inadequate Appropriations for Expenditure
Determine Capacity in Terms of
Number of Students Per Year

1. "Estimating Undergraduate Student Capacity of an
Engineering Department", T. W. F. Russell, R. L.
Daugherty and A. F. Graziano. (Submitted to Journal
of Engineering Education).

William D. Baasel is a professor of ChE at Ohio University. He re-
ceived his bachelors and masters degrees from Northwestern University
and his doctorate from Cornell University. He is the author of a book-
"Preliminary Chemical Engineering Plant Design" and is secretary-treas-
urer of the ChE Division of ASEE. He has taught at Clemson College
and held a Ford Foundation Residency in Engineering Practice at the
Dow Chemical Company. He is a registered professional engineer in
Michael D. Cise is a research scientist assigned to the Product De-
velopment Division of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis. He received
his B.ChE degree from the University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, and his
M.S.ChE and Ph.D. from the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. He
is a member of A.I.ChE and local section Career Guidance Chairman
as well as a member of the National Career Guidance Committee of
Henry A. McGee, Jr. is a scientist/engineer by education and by
experience. He is professor and head of the ChE department at VPI
& SU. His current research interest is the application of very unusual
high energy chemistry to the development of highpowered chemically
pumped lasers. He is active in AIChE and this essay is abstracted from
a popular invited talk he has given around the country as an AIChE
Tour Lecturer. His comments on teaching and research are as a par-
ticipant rather than as an observer.
William H. Corcoran is Vice President, Institute Relations and pro-
fessor of ChE at California Institute of Technology. He received his B.S.,

M.S. and Ph.D. from CalTech and later became director of Technical
Development at Cutter Laboratories before returning to CalTech as pro-
fessor. He received the Western Electric Fund Award of ASEE for
1960-70; the Civ Award of the Southern California Section of AIChE in
1970 and the Founders Award of AIChE in 1974. He was the Sixth
Annual Phillips Petroleum Lecturer in ChE in 1971, and is the past
chairman of the EE & A Committee of ECPD, the Publications Board of
CEE and the E & A Committee of AIChE. He is currently the vice
president of AIChE.
T. W. F. Russell is a Professor of ChE and Associate Dean of the
College of Engineering at the University of Delaware. He obtained his
bachelors and masters degree from the University of Alberta and after
working as a design engineer with Union Carbide, Canada for three
years, he obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Delaware. Professor
Russell is a coauthor of "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analy-
sis" (J. Wiley 1972) and Structure of the Chemical Process Industries-
Function and Economics" (McGraw Hill, in press).
Richard L. Daugherty is Assistant Dean of Engineering and Assistant
Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University
of Delaware. He holds degrees in civil and mechanical engineering as
well as a Ph.D. in applied science. Dean Daugherty handles budgetary
and fiscal matters for the College and maintains a teaching and re-
search load in structural mechanics and its application to filamentary
composite materials.




Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631

rpHE ChE DEPARTMENT of Clemson Univer-
sity maintains a library for the use of faculty,
students, and visitors. Contained in an 800 square
foot room, the library has, in addition to cases and
shelves for book storage, a current periodicals dis-
play rack, tables and chairs, typewriters, calcula-
tors, and other supplies for the users of the li-
brary. In recent years the library's holdings have
increased significantly. This, along with the fact
that users don't always return volumes to their
proper places, had begun to make it difficult to
locate materials quickly.
A reorganization of the library was under-
taken during a summer break of 1975 to alleviate
this problem. This included discarding out-of-date
material and reclassifying the library contents by
a streamlined "subject area" system. The stand-
ard Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Sys-
tems were considered, but it was decided that en-
gineers don't think in terms of these systems.
Instead, engineers tend to classify things in cer-
tain distinct subject areas that are not well defined
by either of the standard systems. It was with this
in mind that the following classification system
has been instituted.


THE FOLLOWING classification system has
been found useful for cataloging the holdings
of the department library at Clemson.
Chemical Abstracts. Prior to 1962, the com-
plete Chemical Abstracts series was received by
the ChE department. Since 1963, only the Applied
Chemistry Sections have been received. This re-
sults in a considerable saving of shelf space. The
complete Chemical Abstracts are available at two
other campus library facilities, the main univer-
sity library and the Chemistry department library.
Bound Journals. These include Industrial

Eric H. Snider received his B.S. degree in Chemistry (1973), and
the M.S. degree in Chemical Engineering (1975) at Clemson University,
and is currently pursuing the Ph.D. curriculum in Chemical Engineering
at Clemson University. He is a Professional Chemist, A.I.C. Accredited.
His research interests are in air and water pollution analysis, systems
development, and control.

Engineering Chemistry, AIChE Journal, AIChE
Transactions, Chemical Engineering Progress,
and other pertinent journals.
Current Periodicals. This category includes
at least twenty-five current magazines and jour-
nals. Attractive display shelves were constructed
to allow prominent display of the current issues
of each publication. These fold back to reveal
storage shelves for previous copies of each peri-
odical. This provides a convenient and safe method
of storing each year's copies until year-end bind-
ing time.
Miscellaneous Abstracts, Conference Pro-
ceedings, and Government Reports. This serves as
a catch-all category containing such things as is-
sues of Air Pollution Abstracts (one of the fac-
ulty has major research interests in this area),
and final reports of a number of Environmental
Protection Agency sponsored projects.
Dissertations and Theses. This section con-
tains copies of the dissertations and theses done
by graduate students of the department.
Engineering and Reference Texts. This cat-
egory is by far the most extensive in terms of total


number of books and number of subcategories.
This category contains many of the standard ref-
erences and texts which find most frequent use in
the engineering disciplines.

D IVISION OF THE standard reference and
classroom texts into specific categories was
by far the most difficult part of the reorganiza-
tion. Of necessity, the categories were chosen
somewhat arbitrarily, depending on the number
of books we had which might conceivably fall
within a certain class. The system decided upon
is detailed below.

* Reference Books-This category includes many of the
standard references most used by engineers and stu-
dents, such as the Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology,
Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, C.R.C. Hand-
books of Chemistry and Physics, Laboratory Safety,
Organic Compound Identification, Tables for Probability
and Statistics, and numerous others. No attempt was
made to further subdivide this category into engineer-
ing references, mathematics references, etc.; however,
if a library's holdings are extensive enough such sub-
division could be made with little problem.
* General ChE Texts-This category contains the sopho-
more and junior level texts which serve as introductions
to ChE. This group of texts is particularly valuable to
undergraduate students who use its holdings for review
purposes and as a source of supplemental information.
* Unit Operations-This grouping of texts contains gen-
eral texts on the unit operations as well as specialized
texts covering individual processes. Subheadings of the
various unit operations could be used if warranted by a
large number of texts.
* Thermodynamics
* Kinetics
* Plant Design and Economics-This category contains
texts on general chemical process plant design, special
equipment design manuals, and texts on economics in
* Process Dynamics and Control
* Mathematics and Computers in Engineering-If a large
number of books are to be catalogued under this head-
ing, subdivisions such as calculus, computer theory, pro-
gramming languages, etc. may be found useful.
* Miscellaneous Engineering-Under this category are
filed texts in the other engineering disciplines, environ-
mental sciences, and physics.
* Chemistry-Subdivision into analytical, organic, phys-
ical, etc. may be made if the number of books warrants
* Miscellaneous Texts-This is another catch-all category
containing such things as histories of major chemical
firms, biographies of scientists, and other miscellaneous
* Engineering Writing and Communications-This cate-
gory contains several useful texts on improving com-

munciation of engineering information. A good diction-
ary is an indispensable part of this division. (Dictionaries
are also conspicuously present in the Reference Books
After this classification system was devised,
the physical arrangement of the categories on the
shelves was agreed upon. At this stage, the outside
spine of each book was labelled with an abbrevia-
tion of its category, and on the inside front cover
was written the category and the shelf number to
which the book is assigned. This facilitates easy
and accurate refiling of material by all library

M ANY FACULTY MEMBERS choose to donate
their desk copies of current texts to the li-
brary. Many texts which are not in current use
find their way from faculty offices onto the library
shelves. Also, many faculty members receive peri-
odicals, conference proceedings, and government
reports in the areas of their research interests,

The standard Dewey Decimal and
Library of Congress Systems were con-
sidered, but it was decided that engineers
don't think in terms of these systems.

and these are often donated to the library.
A major (but often little used) potential
source of library material is the main library of
the institution. For example, Clemson's main uni-
versity library receives the A.S.T.M. Standards
each year. The current three years editions are on
the shelves, and previous editions are kept in
storage. It was discovered by calling the main li-
brary that a fairly recent edition of this work
along with many others, could be removed from
storage and be placed on extended loan to indi-
vidual department libraries. Although the current
edition of these publications would be kept in the
main library, there could still be great value in
having a three- to five-year old edition available in
the department.


W ITH THE COMPLETION of the reorganiza-
Stion, the need existed to revise and enforce a
loan procedure for the library materials. The fol-
lowing policies have been adopted:
Continued on page 48.



Chairman of A-V Sub-Committee

Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631

SEVERAL YEARS AGO I came to the realiza-
tion that visual material on chemical process
equipment is not as readily available to present
chemical engineering students as it used to be. I
came to this realization from a question asked by
a student after we had been studying heat trans-
fer. The student asked, "What does a heat ex-
changer look like?" The only picture of an ex-
changer in the textbook was a schematic drawing
of the flow pattern through an exchanger, and
this drawing was located several chapters ahead
in the book from where the class was studying. I
recalled one textbook from which I studied as a
student, "Unit Operations" by G. G. Brown et al.,
had a number of good pictures of heat exchangers
and other process equipment. As a result, I was
able to obtain a visual understanding of chemical
process equipment that I was studying. Present
ChE students usually do not have such visual aids
available to them.
After discussing this problem with my depart-

William Beckwith obtained his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical
Engineering from Iowa State University. He has been at Clemson
University since receiving his terminal degree in 1963. He is presently
chairman of the Audio-Visual Aids Subcommittee of the Educational
Projects Committee of AIChE. His research interests are in educational
technology and fluid mechanics.

In this film the fabrication
of a heat exchanger was presented.
After showing this film to my class, I observed
the students to be more motivated
to study heat transfer.

ment head, he found an old copy (1957) of a strip
film on heat exchangers. This film along with a
script was made by the C. F. Braun Company for
the Education Projects Committee of AIChE. In
this film the fabrication of heat exchanger along
with a description of some of its uses were pre-
sented. After showing this film to my class, I ob-
served the students to be more motivated to study
heat transfer. Most of the ChE students that I
have taught seem to be able to relate to physical
objects better than abstract concepts.
With this experience I started searching for
other films on chemical process equipment. I lo-
cated a second strip film on fractionating columns
that was also produced by the C. F. Braun Com-
pany. Unable to locate other films, I decided to
make a sound-slide-show of one of my lectures on
the uses of various kinds of pipe fittings. I dis-
covered that it took me about ten hours to pro-
duce a ten minute show. Because of the time re-
quired to produce a ten minute show, I decided to
learn who else has produced sound-slide-shows on
chemical process equipment. Then if I could make
a trade of shows, I could have two shows for the
effort of producing one. I inquired into the present
activities of the Education Projects Committee of
AIChE and I was invited to join the committee to
reactivate the old films subcommittee which was
then renamed the Audio-Visual Aids Committee.
The first project of the A-V Committee was to
survey the other ChE departments about their use
and development of A-V materials. Questionaires
were mailed to about 140 ChE departments, and
sixty nine replies were received. Two questions
were asked. One, list the names of the faculty


members who are actively developing or using
A-V material, such as 16 mm films, TV tapes or
sound-slide-shows. Two, describe the A-V material
being used by reporting the media employed, the
name of the course in which the material was be-
ing used, a brief description of the material and
who developed it.

A summary of the results of this survey is as
follows. Overall, many ChE faculty members are
experimenting with different types of A-V ma-
terial for use in the courses that they teach. A
number of schools use audio cassettes with or
without slides to present operating instructions
for laboratory equipment. There are some movie
films being shown. The two most frequently shown
film series are films on fluid dynamics of drag by
Shapiro and the fluid flow film loops produced by
the National Committee for Fluid Mechanics
Films and distributed by the Encyclopedia Bri-
tanica Educational Corporation. Two textbooks
are being written which will have accompanying
sets of slides and audio tapes. Dr. C. M. Thatcher
at the University of Arkansas is making a set of
slides and audio tapes to supplement his book
titled "Fundamentals of Good Chemical Engineer-
ing". Professor B. E. Lauer at the University of
Colorado has made 1100 slides to accompany his
textbook on ChE techniques. Outside of the 16 mm
movie films on distillation columns by Fractiona-
tion Research Inc. and by Shell Oil Company, there
were no other A-V material on chemical process
equipment reported.
From this survey it was learned that Professor
B. E. Lauer has prepared a catalog of available
self-paced material which utilized video tapes. For
more information about this catalog write to:
The Catalog
546 Fourteenth Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302

Another activity of the A-V Subcommittee was
to have Professor M. W. Bredekamp to update
his movie film list. Professor Bredekamp divided
his revised list into six parts. Part one contains
all the films believed to be pertinent to the teach-
ing of undergraduate ChE courses. Some of these
films listed have been reviewed and evaluated with
a brief comment about the film. In the second part
of his list, films which deal with specific chemical
industries are reported. Then local sections of
AIChE have reviewed and judged these films to

The first project of the A-V Committee
was to survey the other ChE departments about
their use and development of A-V materials.

be unsuitable for classroom use. In part three are
the addresses of film distributors from which the
films can be ordered. In part four of the listing
are sources of film information from which Pro-
fessor Bredekamp compiled his list, and in part
five a list of films which were included in the
previous year's film listing but which are pres-
ently not available. Professor Bredekamp has also
included the results of the A-V Use Survey in the
Sixth part of his film listing. It is hoped that this
listing by Dr. Bredekamp will be published by
The A-V subcommittee is presently seeking
more people to work on projects. There is a need
for people and for companies to produce A-V ma-
terial on chemical process equipment. The subcom-
mittee will act as a clearing house for the A-V
material. I have a ten minute sound-slide-show on
the applications of different kinds of pipe fittings
which I would be willing to trade for a sound-
slide-show on pumps. I also have a few copies of
the A-V survey which I will be happy to mail to
anyone on request.
The goal of the A-V subcommittee is to assist
educators to locate A-V material and to promote
the production of new material. By the trading of
material produced by individuals, more A-V ma-
terial at less cost will become available to all. E

* Publication X-91 "Chemical Engineering Educational
Films" can be obtained for $4 by AIChE members and
for $10 by non-members by writing to AIChE's Publica-
tions Dept., 345 E. 47th St., New York, New York 10017.

LETTERS: Continued
I was very pleased to notice the inauguration of the
feature "ChE Lectures" in the Summer 1976 issue of
is an interesting and instructive addition to your quarterly,
and I heartily welcome it. The choice of R. Aris for the first
lecture was superb, for, leaving the main content of the
lecture aside, who could top the quote in the Conclusion.
Do I hear a leopard stalking in the wilds of Pennsyl-
vania... ?
Arvind Varma
University of Notre Dame


Continued from page 23.

C. A. Villee, D. B. Villee and J. Zuckermann, Academic
Press, pp. 47-75 (1973).
3. Margolis, S., In "Structural and Functional Aspects
of Lipoproteins in Living Systems," eds. E. Tria and
A. M. Scanu, Academic Press, pp. 370-415 (1969).
4. Dawson, R. M. C., In "Biological Membranes," eds.
D. Chapman, Academic Press, pp. 203-231 (1968).
5. Luzzati, V., In "Biological Membranes," ed. D. Chap-
man, Academic Press, pp. 71-121 (1968).
6. Mandell, L., K. Fontell and Per Ekwall, In "Ordered
Fluids and Liquid Crystals," Advan. Chem. Ser., 63:
89 (1967).
7. Husson, F. R., and V. Luzzati, In "Advan. Biol. and
Med. Phys.," Vol. 11, Academic Press, pp. 87-107
8. Lecuyer, H., and D. G. Dervichian, J. Mol. Biol., 45:
39 (1969).
9. Shah, D. O., J. Colloid Interface Sci., (submitted).
10. Falco, J. W., R. D. Walker, and D. O. Shah, AIChE J.,
20: 510 (1974).
11. Williams, E. L., "Liquid Crystals for Electronic De-
vices," Noyes Data Corporation, 1975.
12. Porter, R. S., and J. F. Johnson, "Ordered Fluids and
Liquid Crystals," Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol.
63 (1967).
13. Shah, D. O., In "Advances in Lipid Research," eds.
R. Paoletti and D. Kritchevsky, Academic Press, Vol.
8, pp. 348-419 (1970).
14. Shah, D. O., In "Effects of Metals on Cells, Subcellular
Elements, and Macromolecules," eds. J. Maniloff, J. R.
Coleman and M. W. Miller, Charles C. Thomas Pub-
lishers, pp. 155-190 (1970).
15. Langmuir, I., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 39: 1848 (1917).
16. Farger, E., "Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry,"
Abelard-Schuman Press, pp. 132-136 (1963).
17. Shah, D. O., In "Exobiology" ed. C. Ponnamperuma,
North-Holland Publishing Co., pp. 235-265 (1972).
18. Vanderkooi, G., and D. E. Green, Bioscience, 21: 409
19. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Lipid Res., 8: 215
20. Shah, D. O., In "Progress in Surface Science," ed. S. G.
Davison, Pergamon Press, Vol. 3, pp. 222-268 (1972).
21. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Lipid Res., 6: 341
22. Shah, D. O., J. Colloid Interface. Sci., 37: 744 (1971).
23. Shah, D. O., N. F. Djabbara, and D. T. Wasan, AIChE
J. (submitted).
24. La Mer, V. K., "Retardation of Evaporation by Mono-
layers," Academic Press (1962).
25. Gould, R. F., "Contact Angle, Wettability and Ad-
hesion," Advances in Chem. Series, Vol. 43 (1964).
26. Gould, R. F., "Pesticidal Formulations Research," Ad-
vances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 86 (1969).
27. Holly, F. J. and M. A. Lemp, "The Preocular Tear
Film and Dry-Eye Syndromes," Little, Brown and
Company (1973).
28. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 25: 107 (1967).

29. Shah, D. 0. and fJ. H. Schulman, J. Lipid Res., 8: 227
30. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, Lipids, 2: 21 (1967).
31. Shah, D. O., In "Biological Horizons in Surface Sci-
ence," eds. L. M. Prince and F. D. Sears, Academic
Press, pp. 69-106 (1973).
32. Brauninger, G. E., D. O. Shah and H. E. Kaufman,
Am. J. Ophthalmo., 73: 132 (1972).
33. Benedetto, D., D. O. Shah and H. E. Kaufman, Inves-
tiga. Ophthalmo., 14: 887-902 (1975).

Continued from page 45.
* Faculty and graduate students may check out
any material contained in the library. Texts
may be checked out for extended periods, sub-
ject to recall if needed. Reference books, jour-
nals, conference proceedings, etc, may be checked
out on overnight loan only.
* Undergraduate students may check out only
texts and related material, on overnight loan
only. Special reserve shelves are sometimes util-
ized by faculty who want to make available ma-
terial for use only in the library. Special reserve
material is not allowed to be checked out.
Visitors from other departments on campus and
from local industry may use any library ma-
terial and may check out material upon ap-
proval of the department head.


SF COURSE, NOT ALL ChE departments will
find the classification system initiated at
Clemson to be useful. The extent of subdivision
will no doubt vary with the quantity of the hold-
ings. The utility of any library is the ready avail-
ability of its materials; nothing is quite so frus-
trating as to waste valuable time searching for
material that you know is there, if only you knew
how to look for it. It was the purpose of our li-
brary reorganization to minimize this problem
and to make our holdings available to all who
need them.
The author expresses great appreciation to the
ChE faculty of Clemson University for their as-
sistance in choosing materials to be discarded and
for suggesting additions to the classification sys-
tem, and to the department secretaries, Mrs. Mary
Ann Hayden and Mrs. Deborah Nelson for doing
the cataloging and arrangement of the ma-
terials. [


Edited by J. M. COULSON,
University of Newcastle
upon Tyne, and
University College
of Swansea
.....outstanding in this field and present a
formidable challenge to all previous chemi-
cal engineering textbooks."
From a review of the first editions
of Vols. 1 & 2 in Nature
Volume 1: Fluid Flow, Heat
Transfer and Mass Transfer-
3rd edition
In addition to incorporating S.I. units, this latest
edition of a standard work offering a transport
mechanics approach to chemical engineering
includes a new section on the flow of two-phase
gas-liquid mixtures-reflecting the growing in-
terest in this area in the gas and petroleum in-
dustries. Geared to advanced undergraduate
and graduate students of chemical engineering,
this completely updated and clarified edition
offers a detailed treatment of the fundamentals of
important chemical mechanisms. By treating dif-
fusion, fluid flow and heat transfer thoroughly,
this text points the way for application of these
basic mechanics to the solution of problems
arising in unit operation. It deals with the laws of
fluid motion generally, with special attention
given to calculation of the fall of pressure in pipes
and the measurement of flow rates for both com-
pressible and incompressible fluids. Among the
topics discussed are heat transfer, the design of
heat exchangers, mass transfer by molecular and
eddy diffusion and various types of pumping
problems. Numerous worked examples as well as
a selection of problems are included.
350 pp 1976 0 08 021015-5 f $15.00
0 08 020614-X h 25.00
Volume 2: Unit Operations-
2nd edition
by J. M. COULSON and

808 pp 1968

0 08 013185-9 h

Volume 3: 2nd edition
Edited by J. F. RICHARDSON

636 pp 1971

0 08 016438-2 h $14.00

Volume 4: Problems and Solutions
(SI Units)-1st edition
and J. H. HARKER,
University of Newcastle
upon Tyne
Written concurrently with the preparation of the
latest edition of Volume 1, this volume is similar in
scope and format. Using S.I. units, it offers solu-
tions which are grouped in sections correspond-
ing to the chapters in the first volume. At all
stages extensive reference is made to the equa-
tions and sources of data in the earlier work.
Units and Dimensions. Energy and Momentum
Relationships. Friction in Pipes and Channels.
Compressible Flow. Flow Measurement. Pumping
of Fluids. Heat Transfer. Mass Transfer. The
Boundary Layer. Heat, Mass and Momentum
Transfer. Humidification and Water Cooling.
150 pp 1976 0 08 020918-1 f $ 8.00 (approx.)
(approx.) 0 08 020926-2 h 14.00 (approx.)

University of California, Davis
This book is intended for use in an introductory
course in heat transfer for either Junior or Senior
engineering students. It provides a balanced
treatment of the fundamental aspects of con-
duction, convection, and radiation.
The attitude taken in the preparation of this text is
that one should strive for proficiency in the anal-
ysis of steady, one-dimensional heat conduction;
become acquainted with the nature of transient
heat conduction; develop a thorough under-
standing of the thermal energy equation and its
application to boundary layer flows and confined
and unconfined turbulent flows; acquire a sound
understanding of black body radiation phenom-
ena; and be introduced to simple gray body radi-
ant energy exchange processes.
At the beginning of the first 8 chapters there is a
design problem which is used to illustrate the
type of problems that one can solve after having
mastered the material in each particular chapter.
The main purpose of these problems is to serve
as a motivating force; however, detailed solutions
are given at the end of each chapter so these
problems also serve as solved examples. In addi-
tion, there are problems at the end of each
chapter dealing explicitly with the design prob-
lem, thus the design problems can be used as
vehicles for studying special aspects of each
chapter. In addition to the solutions to the design
problems, there are numerous solved example
problems throughout the text.
369 pages 1976 0 08 018959-8 $22.50

Fairview Park, Elmsford, New York 10523 &
Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, England

At Du Pont Im finding

ways to squeeze more

product out of fewer Btu's.
-Pam Tutwiler

"Every time I find a way to
increase a yield by a fraction of a
percent, or lower a reaction
temperature by a few degrees, I
can save literally thousands of
Btu's of energy.
"I wanted a job where I could
make a real contribution:' says
Pam. "Du Pont gave it to me:'
With a BS in Chemical
Engineering from Auburn
University, Pam's first assignment
was in an environmental control

group. After two years she felt that
process engineering would offer a
greater challenge-so Du Pont
changed her assignment.
Now she's working on methyl
methacrylate during the day, and
working on her MBA at night.
She's attending Memphis State at
Du Pont's expense.
Pam's story is the same as
that of thousands of Chemical,
Mechanical and Electrical
Engineers who've chosen careers

at Du Pont.
We place no limits on
the progress our engineers can
make. And we place no limits on
the contributions they can make-
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If this sounds like your kind of
company, do what Pam Tutwiler did:
talk to the Du Pont Representative
who visits your campus. Or write
direct to: Du Pont Company, Room
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An Equal Opportunity Employer. M/F

Full Text