Citation
Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

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This item has the following downloads:


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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump
University of Houston
EAST:
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania


WINTER 1977


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XI NUMBER 1 WINTER 1977


FEATURES
28 Using Summer Faculty-Student Consultant
teams to Solve Industrial Problems,
D. Michelsen, J. Arkis and G. Echols
44 Organization of a Functional ChE
Library, E. Snider
DEPARTMENTS
4 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Case
10 The Educator
Ralph Peck of Illinois Tech
24 Curriculum
Process Control Engineering at UT
Permian, C. Sprague, G. Quentin and
C. Fry
32 Laboratory
SYCONS, A Systems Control Simulator,
H. Wengrow, C. Dennett, R. Greenlee and
D. LeBlanc
14 Lecture
The World of Surface Science, D. Shah
3, 31, 47 Letters
2 Book Review

ASEE Syposium
34 Where Is the Roller Coaster Headed?
W. Baasel and M. Cise
38 Practical Limits to Growth in ChE,
W. Corcoran
39 Too Many Departments!, H. McGee
41 Can We Limit Enrollment by Professional
Society Action?, T. Russell and
R. Daugherty
AIChE Report
46 Audio Visual Aids Subcommittee
Activities, W. Beckwith

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should he addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1977. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.









Book reviews

ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS IN
RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER
by W. A. Gray and R. Muller
Pergamon Press, 1974.
Reviewed by Frank Kreith, University of Colorado
The authors of this work attempt to
summarize engineering methods for calculating
heat transfer by radiation and techniques for
measuring radiation and temperature in a book
of less than 150 pages. In view of the complexity
of the field and the many recent advances in calcu-
lation methods, the authors selected topics and
then attempted to integrate them into a book
suitable for engineers with a general background
in heat transfer and thermodynamics, but lacking
detailed knowledge in radiation heat transfer. The
topics selected are of general interest and would,
therefore, make this book suitable as a supple-
mentary text in some conventional courses, e.g.
Unit Operations, as currently taught in many
chemical engineering programs or Physical
Climatology. Unfortunately, the authors have
relied heavily for the material in their book on
other texts in heat transfer, rather than on
original sources. In their list of 47 references, 27
are to other textbooks and only 20 are to articles


in the literature. Among the latter group, some,
such as R. V. Dunkel's and A. K. Oppenheim's
classical papers, are not referenced correctly, and
only two articles published within the past five
years are cited. Thus, the book cannot be con-
sidered an up-to-date reference text, but rather
a compilation of well-known techniques, illustrated
by a few examples. However, only two papers
are devoted to the Monte Carlo Method which is
capable of handling many complex problems in
radiation and no worked out example is pre-
sented. Moreover, no mention is made of other
numerical techniques suitable for computer pro-
cessing. This appears a serious shortcoming in a
book dealing with engineering calculations for
technical people expecting to practice in the 1970's
or 1980's.
On the positive side, the summary of measurements of
radiation and temperature will be useful and the treatment
of atmospheric radiation is well put together. However,
also in these topics the material presented in this book does
not contain recent findings and the bibliography will not
help the reader to update his knowledge in the field.
In summary, the book will be useful for an
engineer who lacks background in radiation heat
transfer and wants to brush up without spending
too much time doing so, but for an up-to-date
treatment of engineering calculations in radiative
heat transfer the reader will find the current
literature a better source.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
DURING 1976:

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I letters

MORE LETTERS ON GRISKEY RATINGS

Sir:
I'll be surprised if this is not one of a flood of letters you
will get in reply to Gill's report, Carberry's response and
Griskey's feature. The subject clearly matters to us all, yet
becomes absurd when dissected too closely and publicized too
much. In a hope that it may do more good than harm I
offer the following observations:

1. Peer evaluations or perceptions may or may not relate
to other relevant facts or substance but are of im-
portance to us of and in themselves. The danger is
positive feedback whereby the perception or reputa-
tion becomes an end in itself. I fear that Gill, Car-
berry, Griskey and perhaps all of us, are quickly
caught in that cycle.
2. While some departments stand out as particularly ex-
cellent, and perhaps some as particularly poor I con-
tend that with much fuzziness in what is being meas-
ured and large possible errors in measurement the
rankings become rapidly meaningless apart from ex-
tremes. I am sure no department does or should ac-
cept a self image as second or third rate. This is not
a pennant race whereby because someone is first it
follows that there must be a number two, twenty and
115. It is not a zero sum game and Minnesota's or
Buffalo's gain need not be MIT's or Notre Dame's
loss unless we insist on making it so.
3. The Griskey feature displays data in some helpful
ways making it possible to view and compare some
operating characteristics. His GRPI may even be a
useful lumped parameter for looking at some distribu-
tion of performance. Not surprisingly Griskey's Fig-
ure 5 shows that 50% of departments have GRPI's
between 0.4 and 0.6 and GRPI makes no meaningful
distinction among them. I doubt the validity of
Griskey's conclusion and would fear its adoption.
Means that are valid and helpful for characterizing a
population are not necessarily useful or proper when
applied individually to each unit of the population.
This is, properly, an emotional issue which pricks our
departmental and thus our personal pride. We must compete
and only one can be number one-for now.
David Hansen
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Sir:
We are ambivalent about prolonging the debate in your
pages on the ranking of chemical engineering departments,
since titers of feeling, eloquence, numerical data and pages
therein are already outdistancing more fundamental contri-
butions to your journal. We are the more ambivalent be-
cause we share Carberry's view, to which he himself shows
only partial adherence, that no single criterion and no par-
ticular combination of criteria has unique appeal and each
will produce different results. Nonetheless we consider
Griskey's recent article on this subject in your pages to
demonstrate laudable objectivity and appeal to common
sense in its formulation of one criterion. We want briefly


to summarize a similar study we made last spring that pro-
duced similar but not identical results and then to offer
some more general observations. Data from the last four
Thesis Indexes of Chemical Engineering Progress and the
last two ACS Directories of Graduate Research were used
to calculate the average number of doctoral degrees per
faculty member per year with the result shown in Table I.
The four-year averaging, approximately equal to a
doctoral student's mean residence time, is desirable because
many departments in these surveys produce only a few
doctorates per year and are subject to fluctuating enroll-
ments. Thus the "noise" of a single measurement channel
in our study may be smoothed by a longer sample time so
that the results may be of comparable quality to Griskey's
shorter sample of multiple channels.
Gill, defending his study against Carberry's criticism,
refers to the correlation among rankings. However, a close
examination of the rankings which include the two Ameri-
can Council of Education ratings, the Gill and Griskey
rankings and our own statistics showed that there was, in
fact, very little correlation among them. The lack of correla-
tion is most obvious on a plot using Griskey's results as the
abscissa and the different ratings as the ordinate.
In offering our data set we suggest that each of these
studies, ours included, establishes only a local truth and any
implied catholicism must be regarded warily. Our survey
was done to show our dean that our doctoral program was
cost effective relative to those of other chemical engineering
programs. Surveys that measure something close to a well-
defined concept of goodness may have merit, but opinions
report the feelings of those who opine, "efficiencies" meas-
ure against their own precise but narrow standard, and
complex truth does not come cheap.
H. Y. Cheh
E. F. Leonard
Columbia University

Table I
The following table was taken from a recent survey
concerning the productivity of doctoral degrees from vari-
ous chemical engineering schools in both US and Canada.
A total of 73 schools was included with data taken from
Thesis Index, CEP and ACS Directory of Graduate Re-
search. The first 10 schools are listed below:

Average number of doctoral
degrees granted per faculty
University per year (1971-75)

1 Stanford 0.979
2 UC Berkeley 0.913
3 Princeton 0.904
4 UCLA 0.863
5 Wisconsin 0.852
6 Northwestern 0.727
7 Columbia 0.694
8 Carnegie Mellon 0.683
9 Notre Dame 0.643
10 Colorado School of Mines 0.608
Average from 73 schools = 0.431
Standard deviation = 0.195


WINTER 1977




































CASE


JOHN C. ANGUS
Case Institute of Technology
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106

N 1884, THE CASE catalog announced the in-
troduction of "Chemical Technology" as part of
the chemistry curriculum. This was the first ap-
pearance of Chemical Engineering at Case. The
first degree labelled Chemical Engineering was
awarded by Case in 1909, but it appears that the
curriculum itself was not called Chemical Engi-
neering until 1913.
The Case ChE program was one of the very
first in the country. Similar developments took
place throughout the 1880's and 1890's at Tulane,
.University of Illinois, University of Pennsylvania,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the
University of Michigan. It was not until 1922 that
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
could even agree on a definition of what Chemical
Engineering was. When the AIChE instituted ac-


creditation in 1925, the Case program was one of
only fourteen to be approved.
The men responsible for the founding of ChE
at Case were Professors Charles Mabery and Al-
bert W. Smith. Mabery, an early leader in petro-
leum research, was department head from 1883 to
1911. Smith, department head from 1911 to 1927,
was a key figure in the early history of the Dow
Chemical Company. It was under his leadership
that ChE emerged as a separate course of study.
For many years the department was integrated
with Chemistry in a Department of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering. In 1962, the ChE activities
were severed from Chemistry and became the
Chemical Engineering Science Division of the
School of Engineering. In 1972, we became the
Department of Chemical Engineering.
The completion of the $2,500,000 renovation of
the Albert W. Smith Building in January, 1976
signals the beginning of a new period of growth of
ChE at Case.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










TRADITION OF ACCOMPLISHMENT


THE DEPARTMENT HAS had many well
known and influential ChE's associated with it
over the years. Herbert H. Dow, a Case Tech grad-
uate of 1888, founded the Dow Chemical Company,
which has become one of the world's largest chem-
ical enterprises. Dr. Albert W. Smith worked
closely with Dow and made many contributions
which were crucial to the survival and growth of
the company. Among these were the first Amer-
ican production of carbon tetrachloride and the
synthesis from this of chloroform. Professor
Smiths' sons, Kent H. Smith, and A. Kelvin
Smith, and F. Alex Nason, were co-founders of
the Lubrizol Corporation, the world's leading
manufacturer of lubricant additives. They are
Case ChE graduates from 1917, 1922 and 1922
respectively.
Throughout the years 1927 to 1956, the chair-
men of the department were Professors William R.
Veazey, Carl F. Prutton '20 and William Von
Fischer. All were very active within the U.S.
chemical industry.
This tradition of accomplishment has con-
tinued to the present time. Today, Case graduates
are found in responsible positions throughout the
American and world chemical industry and in
academia. A very few examples of the many that
could be cited follow. Dr. Durga Ambwani, who
received his Ph.D. in 1968, is the cofounder of the
Asia Development Corporation. Dr. Paul Friedl, a
Case B.S. and Ph.D. Chemical Engineering gradu-
ate, developed the new IBM 5100 table top com-
puter. Dr. Glenn Brown, Ph.D. 1958, is Vice Presi-
dent for R. and D. of SOHIO. Shunji Kumazawa,
M.S. 1965, is General Manager of Technical De-
velopment for Toray Industries, one of Japan's
leading corporations. Richard Knazek, a Case B.S.
Chemical Engineering graduate of 1962, was
chosen as "One of the Ten Most Outstanding
Young Men in the U.S." by the U.S. Jaycees in
January, 1976 for his medical research.
Our most recent graduates are also doing well.
Two members of our 1976 senior class, Mr. Donald
Feke and Mr. Max Gorensek, won National Sci-
ence Foundation Graduate Fellowships. (Only
fourteen were awarded to ChE's in the entire
U.S.). Mr. Feke also won one of the three Electro-
chemical Society summer fellowships in 1976.
A total of 1686 B.S., 280 M.S., and 117 Ph.D.
degrees have been awarded by the department
since its founding.


We have attempted to steer
a middle road between the extremes
of pure empiricism on the one hand and
engineering science on the other. As a
result the ChE B.S. program has
no strong ideologicall" bias.


THE DEPARTMENT TODAY
Faculty and Staff-The staff is comprised of
eight professors, two adjunct professors, one ad-
junct lecturer, six research engineers, one tech-
nician and an administrative and secretarial staff
of three. A listing of the faculty and their major
technical interests is given in Table 1.
Students-There are 135 undergraduates
majoring in ChE at Case and 25 resident graduate
students. We have experienced a significant in-
crease in undergraduate ChE enrollment in the
past year, although not such a dramatic upturn as
seen at some institutions. We have not, however,
had a decline in the average SAT scores of our
entering freshmen. They have, in fact, been
slightly increasing, counter to the national
trends-The average mathematics and verbal SAT
scores for the 1976 freshman class were at the
99th and 95th percentile respectively. Combined
mathematics and verbal SAT's run about 1250.
ChE has a reputation on the campus as being one
of the more demanding curricula and we con-
sistently attract excellent students.
Research-There is a very active graduate
research activity underway. Research expendi-
tures in the Department totalled $465,700 during
the past year, a very high figure for only 8 full
time faculty. An unusual feature of the present


Undergraduates in the Diamond Shamrock Computer
Room.


WINTER 1977










One unusual feature
of the graduate program is the
Instructional Television Network (ITN).
Courses are offered from the campus live
or on videotape to employed engineers
in the Cleveland area.


research support is that about half of it comes
from private industry.
The largest single effort is an industrial proj-
ect for the development of a new gas treating
process conceived by Professors Adler, Brosilow,
Gardner and Dr. William Brown, a recent Case
graduate. The new process has substantially lower
investment and operating costs than competing
processes and promises to have a major impact in
the chemical and related industries. Another large
project involves the catalysis of coal gasification,
done under the direction of Professors Gardner
and Angus with ERDA support.
A project of great potential is a joint computer
development effort with the IBM Corporation on
applications of APL in ChE. "A Programming
Language" (APL), while devised and imple-
mented between 1960 and 1965 by IBM, has re-
quired the present generation of computer sys-
tems for full utilization of its capabilities. The
result is a powerful notational scheme that allows
coding at a much higher level than FORTRAN,
and is similar to the notation of matrix algebra.
Hierarchical systems which interface an APL host
to experiments are being developed. By using
small microcomputers coded to execute APL com-
mands, data acquisition and computation on ac-
quired data bases can run efficiently. Real time
control functions are being studied as well. The
APL project is directed by Professor Mann.
An unusually strong effort is underway in
laser application studies including laser doppler
flowmeters, transport property measurement by
light scattering and laser holographic machining.
This work involves Professors Edwards, Mann
and Angus. The university effort in environmental
engineering is centered in ChE. There are several
projects in industrial wastewater treatment, e.g.,
ozone treatment and cyanide disposal. Professors
Prober and Melnyk direct this effort. We also have
an active research effort in membrane processes,
surface transport and interfacial dynamics under
the direction of Professor Mann.
We have always had a strong program in sys-


Taking courses over the Case Instructional Television
Network. Courses are televised to employed engineers
in the Cleveland area.

strong "ideological" bias. We require a total of
131 to 135 credit hours (depending on elective se-
quences). The ChE part of the curriculum in-
cludes courses in energy and mass balances, sepa-
ration processes, transport phenomena, thermo-
dynamics, chemical reactor design and a unit op-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


teams and control. One aspect of the present work
is the development of inferential control schemes
and their application to onstream distillation col-
umns and reactors at Exxon, Marathon and Mobil
Oil Companies. This work is directed by Professor
Brosilow.
Industrial Support-Industrial sponsored
contract research is done through the DICAR Cor-
poration, a for profit corporation owned by the
university. This arrangement permits us to accept
non thesis and confidential research from indus-
trial companies. The work is mainly in process
development and is conducted in part by full time
research engineers.
Unrestricted grant support from various com-
panies is also received. These include: Air Prod-
ucts Co., Atlantic Richfield, CWC Industries, Dia-
mond Shamrock, Dow Chemical Co., duPont Cor-
poration, Lubrizol Foundation, Monsanto Corpora-
tion, PPG Industries and the Procter and Gamble
Fund.

BALANCED CURRICULUM
E HAVE ATTEMPTED to steer a middle
road between the extremes of pure empiricism
on the one hand and engineering science on the
other. As a result the ChE B.S. program has no









erations laboratory. The ChE sequence is termi-
nated with a two semester capstone course in
Process Analysis and Design. This latter course
makes extensive use of the computer aided design
systems, FLOWTRAN.
The curriculum contains required laboratory
courses in mathematics (computation), physics,
chemistry, laboratory methods and techniques (in-
strumental) as well as the senior unit operations
laboratory. In addition, all students have the op-
tion of doing an experimental undergraduate re-
search project. This can be used to fulfill the 5
course elective sequence offered to all students.
Other elective sequences, which are virtually
"minor" fields, include Management, Polymer Sci-
ence, Environmental Engineering, Computing,
Systems and Control and Biomedical Engineering.
A full range of graduate courses is taught by
the department as well. Both M.S. and Ph.D. de-
grees are offered. One unusual feature of the
graduate program is the Instructional Television
Network (ITN). Courses are offered from the
campus live or on videotape to employed engineers
in the Cleveland area. This program has been in
existence now for several years and the depart-
ment has recently had its first M.S. graduate, Mr.
Monty Reed of the Timken Company, who did all
of his course work over television.

INSTITUTIONAL SETTING
THE ChE DEPARTMENT is one of the fifteen
engineering and science departments that make
up Case Institute of Technology. Case, in turn, is
one of the major components of Case Western Re-
serve University. This latter institution was syn-
thesized in 1967 from the predecessors, the old
Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve
University.
Case Institute is a small selective college; we
have only 1136 undergraduate students. The total
enrollment of the university, including all the
graduate and professional students is 8279. The
endowment, capital plant and faculty make Case
Western Reserve one of the countries largest
private universities.
The university is set within a large complex of
parks and educational and cultural institutions on
the eastern side of Cleveland known as University
Circle. This is especially fortunate, for our next
door neighbors are the Cleveland Museum of Art
and Severance Hall, the home of the Cleveland
Orchestra.
The ChE faculty participate in a wide range of


A top view of the high pressure test cells showing the
large vertical vent stacks.


other professional activities in addition to their
principal jobs of teaching. A few of these are
listed to give an idea of the scope of these efforts.
* Professor Nelson Gardner's research group recently won
the National American Chemical Society prize for the
best paper on coal. Professor Gardner has also been
selected twice as a National A.I.Ch.E. tour speaker and
gave the opening plenary lecture at the U.S. Bureau of
Mines coal catalysis conference last spring.
* Professor Edwards' research in laser doppler flowmeters
has received international recognition. He was invited to
give the opening plenary lecture at the Biennial Turbu-
lence Symposium and was also twice selected as a Visit-
ing Scientist by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission.
* Professor Adler will serve as Conference Chairman of
the 1977 Engineering Foundation Biennial Meeting. Pro-
fessor Angus recently returned from a sabbatical year
at the University of Edinburgh where he was a Senior
NATO Fellow and Visiting Lecturer.
* Professor Prober is editor of the CRC Press Monograph
Series on Water Pollution Control Technology and was
Coordinating Editor for the CRC Handbook on Environ-
mental Control. Professor Brosilow is serving on the
National A.I.Ch.E. Machine Computation Committee and
recently spent a sabbatical year at the Technion in
Israel. Professor Mann has given many invited papers
on membrane dynamics around the country and will
organize the symposium for the Colloid division of the
ACS on "Application of Surface Science to Problems in
Biology and Medicine".
* Professor Melnyk recently received one of the two
national awards from the Technical Association of the
Pulp and Paper Industry for excellence in research on
wastewater treatment with ozone. Professor Bikerman,
one of the nation's leading authorities on foams and
surface phenomena, recently published a book entitled
"Foams" (Springer Verlag).


WINTER 1977









TEACHING AND RESEARCH FACILITIES

IN 1975, WE RECEIVED a $2,500,000 anony-
mous alumni donation to provide our depart-
ment with a ChE building. The existing Smith
Building on the Case Campus has been completely
renovated for the ChE Department. We moved to
our new quarters in January, 1976.
The Albert W. Smith Building includes: a
large undergraduate Unit Operations Laboratory;
an undergraduate projects laboratory; a computer
room; a high bay area for process related re-
search; three re-inforced concrete, vertically
vented chambers for hazardous and high pressure
research; graduate and undergraduate water pol-
lution control laboratories; acoustically isolated
room; constant temperature and humidity room;


A laser anemometer experiment of Professor Edwards'
for measuring flow in pipes.

instrument room; two classrooms (one designed
for television instruction) ; library-reading room
and the normal complement of offices and research
laboratories.
The four story building gives us approximately
30,000 square feet of net usable floor space.
The new facilities give us a unique opportunity
to further strengthen the size and scope of the
Chemical Engineering activities at Case. With the
completion and equipping of the building, we have
acquired absolutely first rate instructional and re-
search space. Some of the special features of the
facilities are outlined below.
We have just received a $185,000 grant from
Diamond Shamrock Corporation for the equipping
and maintenance of the Diamond Shamrock Com-
puter Center within the ChE department. This is
part of a larger university wide grant by Diamond
Shamrock. The computer will be installed early in
1977 and will be tied into the campus wide mini-
computer network.


The computer will be housed in the second floor
computer room, designed for this purpose. The
room has its own separate air conditioning unit,
the outer room wall has a vapor barrier to permit
better humidity control. Electric wiring is run
directly from the mains to minimize perturbations
from other electrical equipment. Seven phone lines
are provided for further flexibility in connecting
to other computer terminals and equipment in the
building.
We have what we believe to be a virtually
unique high pressure and pilot plant area for an
academic ChE department. At the south end of
the basement is a 2,515 square foot laboratory
area known as the Annex. This two story open
room is divided at the first floor level by a metal
grating floor. The laboratory is designated for
high pressure and hazardous work, and is used
primarily for energy and coal related research.
The roof is fitted with two blow-out roof
panels, each 6 by 38 feet, which will open at an
overpressure of 25 pounds per square foot to pro-
tect the integrity of the structure. In case of a
solvent spill or flammable gas leak, all electric
power can be shut off except for explosion-proof
lights and exhaust fan.
Six separate gases are piped into the room
through high pressure lines from a gas storage
shed outside the building. The lab is provided with
walk-in and overhead hoods and all laboratory
services.
Within the high pressure lab are three test
cells for performing very high pressure and
hazardous experiments. Two cells are 10 by 10
feet and one 6 by 10 feet; all have 10-foot head-
room.
Since the laboratory is located within a busy
campus area, conventional venting of the cells
through a blow out side wall could not be used.
Instead, the cells are vertically vented through
three separate 42-inch diameter steel stacks ex-
tending some 45 feet up through the Annex roof.
This very unusual design may be useful in other
similar locations; we would be happy to share our
experience with others.
The computer will support terminals for inter-
active classroom use. It also will provide "hands


We have what we believe to be a
virtually unique high pressure
and pilot plant area for an
academic ChE department.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











We have just received a $185,000 grant for
equipping and maintaining the Diamond Shamrock Computing Center
within the ChE department. The computer will support terminals for interactive
classroom use. It will also provide "hands on" experience for undergraduate and graduate
students, provide data acquisition and processing for research experiments
and will be used in a new computer controlled unit
operations laboratory experiment.


on" experience for undergraduate and graduate
students, provide data acquisition and processing
for research experiments and will be used in a new
computer controlled unit operations lab experi-
ment.
The cells have 18-inch thick reinforced con-
crete walls, containing 20 tons of steel reinforcing
bars and 115 cubic yards of concrete. The circum-
ferential rods are welded into continuous mem-
bers. The cells rest on a 20-inch thick reinforced
concrete foundation pad which, in turn, rests on
the underlying shale.
Entry to the cells is through rear doorways
fitted with 1-5/8 inch thick steel plate doors.
Visual access is via a port with a heavy sliding
steel plate cover. Numerous pipe sleeves are cast
through the concrete walls to permit entry of
services.
The large cells are designed for bending and
tensile stresses of 3900 lbs./square foot and the
smaller for 9000 lbs./square foot. The cells will
contain an explosion resulting from the rupture
and ignition of a hydrogen cylinder or high pres-
sure autoclave.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND LASER LABS

LABORATORIES FOR undergraduate instruc-
tion and graduate research in environmental
engineering are on the third floor. The instruc-
tional lab has space and utility drops for five
separate permanent experiments to demonstrate
flocculent and zone settling, aeration, biological
treatment and reverse osmosis. Within the lab are
a preparation room and a holding room. These
chambers, each 6 by 7 feet in internal dimension,
are used for the preparation and storage of bio-
logical samples at controlled temperatures rang-
ing from 0 to 350C.
The entire south end of the second floor is
taken up by a 2160-square foot graduate research
laboratory designed for precision optical and laser
application studies. This work includes laser dop-
pler anemometry, light scattering and laser ma-
chining. Light-tight drapes divide the room into
three separate dark areas. An enclosed wire cage
WINTER 1977


storage area and 440 V, 100 A electrical service
are provided in addition to the normal laboratory
services.
An acoustically and electrically isolated cham-
ber is placed within the large second floor labora-
tory. This room provides electrical isolation and
sound attenuation of greater than 80 decibels for
certain types of precise research.
Adjacent to the large second floor lab is a small
constant temperature room. The room tempera-
ture is controllable to 1F over the range 68 to
780F; relative humidity to 2-1/2% over the
range 40 to 70 %.

TABLE 1
CASE ChE FACULTY

ROBERT J. ADLER, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University.
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Mixing, Mathematical
Modelling, and Separation Processes.
JOHN C. ANGUS, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan.
Laser Applications, Coal Utilization, Electrochemical
Processes, Crystal Growth.
JACOB J. BIKERMAN, Ph.D. 1921, University of St.
Petersburg (Russia).
Foams and Colloidal Phenomena.
COLEMAN B. BROSILOW, Ph.D. 1962, Brooklyn Poly-
technic Institute.
Digital Simulation, Automated Design, Control of
Chemical Processes.
ROBERT V. EDWARDS, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity.
Laser Applications, Photochemistry, Chemical Kinetics,
Bioengineering.
NELSON C. GARDNER, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State Univer-
sity.
Coal Gasification, Surface Chemistry, Thermodynamics.
ROBERT E. HARRIS, Ph.D. 1968, Northeastern Univer-
sity.
Process Simulation, Computer Aided Design.
THOMAS LIEDERBACH, M.S. 1961, Case Institute of
Technology.
Career Development, Professionalism.
J. ADIN MANN, JR., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University.
Surface Phenomena, Membrane Technology, Laser Ap-
plications, Computation.
PETER B. MELNYK, Ph.D. 1974, McMaster University.
Wastewater Treatment, Process Simulation, Mixing.
RICHARD PROBER, Ph.D. 1962, University of Wisconsin.
Water Pollution Control, Ion Exchange, Membrane
Processes, Electrochemical Processes.









Educator


I~a4l2h Pecs w i'-





of Illinois

Tech


DAVID MILLER
Total Systems
Downers Grove, Illinois 60515
and
DARSH WASAN
Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois 60616

BORN IN WINTER to American parents on a
ranch in the province of Saskatchewan when
it was still a frontier area, Ralph Peck, Professor
of Chemical Engineering at Illinois Institute of
Technology, spent his early days acclimating him-
self to the hardships of farm life. When he was
two, his father died and left his mother with
Ralph and his older brother, Benajhar, with the
responsibility of managing their homestead.
His mother remarried when Ralph was nine
and he helped trail the family horses when the
family relocated in Alberta. An old German settler
they met along the way sternly lectured Ralph
about his being out of school and the importance
of education. The young boy followed the advice,
rising early to ride a horse to the one-room school
house. He and his brother later went to the high
school twelve miles away, living together in a
one-room shack during the week, taking care of
horses and milking a cow for board, and return-
ing to the farm on weekends to help. These early
rigors left Ralph with a zest for outdoor life and
an incentive to escape the hard farm life in the
north. It also left him with a love of gardening
and a skill in cooking which still persist.


EDUCATION IN MINNESOTA
B ECAUSE OF STRONG ties to his father's
relatives in Minnesota, where his parents
originated, the young brothers migrated in 1928
to the University of Minnesota for their college
education. An advisor steered Ralph from chemis-
try into ChE as a field that was just opening up.
An aunt sponsored his application for citizen-
ship and became his guardian. His uncle helped
him get summer jobs at the Cremet macaroni
plant, giving young Ralph an early introduction
to the food processing industry and the drying
problems which were to become a major thrust
of his future research.
Ralph received his BSChE degree with dis-
tinction in 1932 and, with drought and depression
in Canada, stayed on for graduate work in
chemistry and mathematics at Minnesota. As a
graduate assistant, he collected radon for the
famed F. H. MacDougall, whose physical chemis-
try book was an early classic, and initiated his
long-standing interest in thermodynamics as a
teaching assistant in the course.
Peck studied electrical conductivity and di-
electric constant with George Glockler as his
advisor, resulting in several publications and the
PhD in 1936. The famed chemist Melvin Calvin
was a labmate and another Minnesota friend, Ed
Piret, was an usher when Ralph married Joyce
Mullen, who had spent the summer typing his
thesis. The wedding was moved up to August so
Ralph could accept a job as instructor at Drexel


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Institute of Technology. To his amazement he was
turned down on application for final citizenship
papers on the grounds that he was already a
U.S. citizen because of his parentage.
When the Pecks arrived in Philadelphia, De-
partment Head Henry Rushton, who had hired
him, had moved on. Ralph worked with the late
Henry Ward, who became Department Head at
Kansas State University, and the late Harding
Bliss. Among his students at Drexel were Vince
Uhl and Ralph Troupe, who loved to challenge
him with unusual problems.

BEGINNING THE IIT YEARS

T HE PECKS WOULD usually spend their
summers travelling and camping. In 1939,
they went to a meeting at Penn State where Ralph
was hired by Dean Linton Grintner and Presi-
dent Henry T. Heald (later the head of the Ford
Foundation) of Armour Tech, which later be-
came IIT. He was to work as an instructor for
the ChE department founded and headed by Harry
McCormack [1]. They continued their trip around
the country and into Mexico and came to Chicago,
which has been their home, except for visits
abroad.
A summer- course taught by visiting professor
Barney Dodge rekindled his interest in thermo-
dynamics. It was during this period when Peck
began supervision of 100 Master's and 32 PhD
dissertations. Ralph was promoted to Assistant
Professor in 1941 and spent the war years working
on the freeze drying of foods and spray drying of
blood plasma. His principle interests developed in
heat transfer, thermodynamics, kinetics and re-
actor design, and energy conversion, and these
persist to the present. His students always found


Ralph Peck was co-inventor of the coal/sulfur abate-
ment/fertilizer process.


him available for technical or personal assistance,
both in his open-doored office and at home.
It was in this period that he began his long
and productive associations with other institutions
on the IIT campus, the IIT Research Institute
and the Institute of Gas Technology, and developed
his numerous industrial consulting activities. This
consulting lead him into studying the drying of
abaca fiber of Costa Rica as a substitute for
hemp for rope, drying of fertilizer and foodstuffs,
storage of liquidified gases, and the gasification
of coal, and many other problems. Although much
of Peck's published work has a fundamental
nature, it invariably arose from the need to solve
real problems.
In 1944 he was advanced to Associate Pro-
fessor and, in 1950, his contributions were


Research has always been a means
rather than an end for Peck. His list of
over forty journal publications is marked by
the diversity of subject matter. Signs of
his practical bent are the three patents
which have been issued in his name.


recognized by a full Professorship. In 1953 he
assumed the Department Chairmanship (succeed-
ing Henry Rushton who left for Purdue after a
7-year stint as Chairman), a post he held until
1967 [1].

PECK IN INDIA
IT WAS ONE of the first American schools to
welcome students from India who came on
government grants, and a large number of
students came in the 40's and the flow continues
to date. The Pecks welcomed students into their
home, with special emphasis on those left on
campus during holidays. Baseball games, with
participation by those playing for the first time,
have become legendary.
Because of his many Indian friends and as an
outgrowth of the partition of India, he was in-
vited in 1959 to spend a year helping set up a
ChE department, using funds from U.S. wheat
loans, at Punjab University in the beautiful new
city of Chandigar, north of New Delhi. The
Pecks, including sons Keith and Bruce and
daughter Gail, travelled extensively throughout
India with Ralph, who made a survey of all
engineering schools in the country. While they
were in Calcutta, they were hosted by a former


WINTER 1977










In 1973 he received IIT's
annual Excellence in Teaching Award.
In addition, he was given the ASEE Western
Electric Fund Award for teaching
excellence for 1975-76.


student who Ralph had reluctantly flunked out
of IIT. That student, now a millionaire business
man, was grateful for being steered out of a pro-
fession not making the best use of his talents.
Ralph's frontier heritage showed when he
bagged an antelope on a hunting trip and dressed
and butchered the carcass, storing the meat
temporarily in the ChE department freezer. While
Ralph was preceding, by way of the Orient, the
family's return to Chicago, his eldest son Keith
was killed in a tragic accident. The family re-
ceived extraordinary assistance from the U.S.
government in locating Ralph and returning the
body.

ISRAEL VISIT
B BECAUSE THE DEPARTMENT had run so
well under acting chairman Bernie Swanson,
Peck accepted the invitation of Bill Resnick, head
of the ChE department at Israel's Technion (and
former IIT professor), to introduce Ralph's
unique teaching style to the Israelis in the 1962-63
school year. One of the highlights of this style
is the abundant use of the ten-minute "drop quiz,"
accompanied by a laugh as a challenge to the
students. He surmounted the language barrier by
use of a translator.
During this year the Pecks camped from the
Arctic Circle to the Red Sea and contemplated
the probability of bumping into former student
Bob Miller while photographing the Champs de
Elysee. In addition to a productive year of teach-
ing and research, working with David Hasson,
Dan Luss (then a graduate student) and Sam
Seidman, Ralph was asked by the Israel Ministry
of Development to review various desalination
processes, including the controversial Zarkin
freezing process.

DIVERSE RESEARCH INTERESTS
RESEARCH HAS ALWAYS been a means
rather than an end for Peck. His list of over
forty journal publications is marked by the di-
versity of subject matter. Signs of his practical
bent are the three patents which have issued in


A Product of Peck's Puddle.


TEACHING ACTIVITIES
SALPH PECK'S devotion to research has never
-come at the expense of his teaching. In 1973
he received IIT's annual Excellence in Teaching
Award. In addition, he was given the ASEE
Western Electric Fund Award for teaching
excellence for 1975-76.
Along with his university teaching, he has
participated in industrial short courses in drying


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


his name. His scholarly writing activities includes
a review of drying with D. T. Wasan in the
"Advances in Chemical Engineering" series and
he is currently preparing the section on drying
for John McKetta's new "Encyclopedia of
Chemical Processing and Design."
Even as he approaches formal retirement, he
currently has several studies supported by grants
from a variety of agencies. The National Science
Foundation is supporting a study of the kinetics
of Methanation while the Illinois Institute for
Environmental Quality sponsors coal combustion
research.
A recent activity arising from his consulting
work was the invention, with former student Ladd
Pircon, of a process for removing the particulate
and sulfur pollutants from burning high-sulfur
Illinois (or other) coal and converting these
pollutants into useful fertilizer, instead of the
usual nonnewtonian sludge. This process, which
is in the pilot-plant stage, has attracted con-
siderable attention in the popular and professional
press and was featured on a TV program. The
development of this process emphasizes the im-
portance of ChE roots in chemistry and, as Ralph
often cautions, the process comes first-followed
by analysis, rather than the converse.


If ,II









theory and technology and, in the summer of 1972,
taught a drying course at the University of Sao
Paulo, Brazil. In 1976 he taught in Algeria as
part of a team from the Institute of Gas Tech-
nology.
A list of the students whose dissertations he
supervised would include many well-known names
from the academic, industrial and government
sectors. Peck is a Fellow of AIChE and active
member of ACS, ASEE, Phi Lambda Upsilon and
Sigma Xi. He has organized and chaired many
symposia on drying at national society meetings.


Peck accepted the invitation ...
to introduce his unique teaching style
to the Israelis in the 1962-63 school
year. One of the highlights of this style
is the abundant use of the ten-minute
"drop-quiz," accompanied by a laugh,
as a challenge to the students.


ONE OF THE MOST important strengths of
the Peck family is their annual trip to their
summer home in the wilds of northern Minnesota.
Except for trips abroad, all teaching and consult-
ing work comes to a halt at the end of the spring
semester. Originally acquired by Ralph's geologist
brother as payment for the brother's services, the
Pecks became owners of 40 acres, and the cabin
they built together with Benajhar, when the
brother's career took him to the southern U.S.
They acquired 40 more acres in 1949 and the lake
on the property, dubbed Peck's Puddle in fun, is
so listed on Geological Survey maps.
Then the cabin burned down in 1962, the
family later rebuilt it by hand, except for a bull-
dozer and "redimix" concrete. It now contains
most civilized comforts, with the notable excep-
tion of a telephone. Avoiding the temptations of
more work, Ralph is an avid fisherman, boater,
swimmer, and gardener. He credits this annual
break with his professional activities in keeping
him fresh the rest of the year (renewal theory?).
The family has now been augmented by Bruce's
wife Barbara and Gail Green's husband Jeff and
the three grandchildren, Kelly, Kristi and Jason.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES

SUPERIMPOSED ON his professional activi-
ties, Ralph has always found time for com-
munity involvement. Although he is not religious,


Ph.D. Students


Bakshy, Stanley
Bloomer, Oscar T.
Carr, Norman L.
Chase, Curtis Alden, Jr.
Clauson, Warren S.
Eakin, Betram E.
Ellington, Rex T.
Fagan, Walter
Garud, B. S.
Gidaspow, Dimitri
Griffith, Russell T.
Hesson, James C.
Jee, Benny C.
Kauh, Jae Y.
Khoobiar, Sargis
Kisaukurek, Bilgin


Linden, Henry R.
Lokay, Joseph D.
Marek, Cecil J.
Rai, Charanjit
Reddi, Mullapudi M.
Ryant, Charles J. J.
Sareen, Sarvajit S.
Sheth, Narendra J.
Smith, Neal D.
Snow, Richard
Staats, William R.
Tavakoli-Attar, J.
Uno, Seiji
VonFredersdorff, Claus
Vyas, Kirit C.
Wagner, Edward F.


he is often involved in church-sponsored activities,
such as the YMCA. He and Joyce have been long-
term supporters of the Ada S. McKinley Com-
munity House in the ghetto area near IIT. They
worked actively with the Gresham Community
Council to welcome and help new neighbors when
their neighborhood became racially mixed. The
Pecks membership in the Ethical Humanist
Society of Chicago lead to their early involvement
in the nonviolent aspects of the peace movement.
Ralph is an avid, and often unconventional, bridge
player and the lunchtime games between brown-
bagging faculty and graduate students have be-
come part of IIT's legend. One of the authors
(D. M.) remembers stalling a last hand to avoid
a 10-minute quiz in Peck's after lunch Heat
Transfer class, only to hear Peck announce a
good problem he has thought up while waiting
for the author to cover or duck a lead to the
dummy. He will long remember Peck's cheerful
public post mortem of how the author blew both
the bridge hand and the quiz. O

REFERENCES
1. R. C. Kintner and D. T. Wasan, Chemical Engineer-
ing Department-Illinois Tech, Chem. Eng. Educ. 5
(3) 108 (1971).


A recent activity
arising from his consulting
work was the invention, with
former student Ladd Pircon, of a
process for removing the particulate
and sulfur pollutants from burning high-
sulfer coal and converting these
pollutants into useful fertilizer.


WINTER 1977










IMlecture


THE WORLD OF SURFACE SCIENCE*


D. O. SHAH
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

SYNOPSIS
The domain of surface science is perhaps one
of the most interdisciplinary areas of modern sci-
ence and technology. Monolayers provide a unique
system to determine experimentally the cross-
sectional areas of surface-active molecules and to
study reactions and molecular interactions at sur-
faces. Surface chemical aspects of membranes,
cornea and tear are discussed. The mechanism by
which surface-active polymers stabilize a thick
aqueous layer on cornea is elucidated.


UNIVERSE

I


SUN EARTH

OBJECTS


GAS
I ioiUi


LIQUID
LIQUID
LIQUID


1

GAS
SOLID


MOON STARS GALAXIES


-\-
LIQUID
SOLID


SOLID
SOLID
SOLID


FIGURE 1. All objects are surrounded with one or more of these five
interfaces.

The engineering applications of surface science
range from agricultural sprays to oil recovery in-
cluding areas such as catalysis, coatings, disper-
sions, electronics, flotation of minerals, lubrica-
tion, and retardation of evaporation from lakes
and reservoirs. Among biomedical areas, the ap-
plications of surface science extend from anesthes-
iology to zoology including fields such as artificial
implants, biomembranes, biolubrication, lipopro-
teins, lung surfactant, ophthalmology, pharma-
ceuticals and pharmacology.

*This paper was selected by the Board of Judges of the
Faculty Forum of the University of Florida for the "Presi-
dent's Scholar Award" for 1975-76.


EDITOR'S NOTE: In this issue, CEE continues a new de-
partment-ChE LECTURES. We intend to publish seminars
and lectures on important areas of modern chemical engi-
neering. If you feel that one of your seminars or lectures
on a certain topic would have pedagogical or tutorial value
and would be of general interest to our erudite readers,
please send the manuscript to the editor for review. We
would appreciate comments from our readers on this new
department as well as suggestions for authors of papers.




A LTHOUGH THE importance of surface sci-
ence has been recognized for more than a
century, it is only during the last few decades that
we have seen rapid advances in the understanding
of surface phenomena. In this presentation I
would like to review briefly various principles of
surface science and where appropriate would like
to present the highlights of the research carried
out in my laboratory during the past decade.
Let me begin with a quotation of an oriental
proverb which says, "The color of the world you
see depends upon the color of the glass you look
through." In general, a scientist attempts to look
at the Universe through his own glass. When one
looks at the Universe through the glass of surface
science (Figure 1), one sees that it consists of
Sun, Earth, Moon, Stars, Galaxies, etc. When one
looks closer to the Earth, one finds that it is full
of objects.; and that each object is surrounded by
a surface or an interface. Fortunately, all the
interfaces can be grouped in five major classes,
namely, gas/liquid, liquid/liquid, solid/liquid,
solid/gas, and solid/solid. All objects are sur-
rounded by one or more of these basic five inter-
faces. All of these interfaces have a common
property called surface tension or surface free
energy. There is also a class of compounds called
surface-active compounds (or surfactants) that
decreases strikingly the surface tension or surface
free energy of these interfaces.
A surfactant molecule has two functional


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





























Presently Dr. Shah is a professor of Chemical Engineering, Anes-
thesiology and Biophysics at the University of Florida.
He received his undergraduate training at the University of Bombay
and subsequently his doctoral degree from Columbia University in
1965, where he worked in the laboratory of the late Professor J. H.
Schulman.
He spent, subsequently, a year at NASA Ames Research Laboratory
in California conducting research on chemical evolution and the
origin of life, and surface chemical aspects of the origin of mem-
branes. Later he moved to the Biological Oceanography Division of
Columbia University and investigated the dispersion of oil-spills, re-
tardation of evaporation and wave damping by thin films of surface
active agents and surface chemical aspects of sea water.
Since 1970, he has been at the University of Florida with a joint
appointment in Chemical Engineering and Anesthesiology Departments.
Dr. Shah has published in the areas of biological and model mem-
branes, chemical evolution and the origin of membranes, monomole-
cular films, foams, microemulsions, improved oil recovery, surfactant-
polymer interaction, boundary lubrication and surface chemical aspects
of lungs, vision and anesthesia.
Dr. Shah received the University of Florida's "Excellence in Teach-
ing Award" in 1972-73, "President's Scholar Award" in 1975-76, and
"Outstanding Service Award" in 1975-76.


parts, namely, a hydrophilic (water soluble) or
polar part, and a lipophilic (oil soluble) or non-
polar part. The lipophilic part is usually a long
hydrocarbon chain. Schematically a surfactant
molecule can be represented by a nonpolar (tail)


CH,







A- -A
S0= FACTNT
SURFACTANT


NONPOLAR PART (OIL SOLUBLE)




POLAR PART (WATER SOLUBLE)


CH,
CH,

CH,
O0
CHI
C-O.\
"'-" H H


CH,
CH,

CR,
CH,


H H
HC.-O
ROH
CH /
H OH


POLYMER


FIGURE 2. The structure of surface-active molecules. The broken line
shows the separation of polar and non-polar parts of the
molecule.


and a polar group as shown in Figure 2. A poly-
mer also can be surface-active if it has two func-
tional groups, one hydrophilic and the other lipo-
philic (Figure 2). The properties of a surface-
active compound are determined by the balance
between its hydrophilic and lipophilic character-
istics. If the chain-length is relatively short (less
than 12 -C-C- bonds in length), they are called
water soluble surfactants since the polar group
drags the entire molecule in water. However,
when the chain-length is greater than 14 or 16
-C-C- bonds in length, the compounds are called
insoluble surfactants. They do not dissolve in
water because of the long hydrocarbon chains.


MOLECULAR AGGREGATES

F THE CONCENTRATION of a soluble sur-
factant in water is increased gradually, at a
specific concentration of the surfactant, the solu-
tion properties such as osmotic pressure, surface


U AIR
IACSORPTION
-


C


ELES
MICELLES


E


3OLUBILIZATION
*o ....... ^ _
"- i i


FIGURE 3. A schematic presentation of adsorption, micelle formation,
and solubilization processes in surfactant solutions.


tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and
density abruptly change [1]. This concentration is
called critical micelle concentration (CMC). It
has been established from theoretical considera-
tions as well as experimental determinations that
surfactant molecules begin to form aggregates,
called micelles, when surfactant concentration is
increased beyond the critical micelle concentration
(Figure 3A). In general, the micelles are spherical
aggregates of surfactant molecules about 40-100
Angstrom in diameter and are in equilibrium with
single molecules (or monomers) in the bulk solu-
tion (Figure 3A). The critical micelle concentra-
tion depends upon the structure of surfactant
molecules as well as physicochemical conditions
such as temperature, pH, and the ionic composi-
tion of the solution.
If a soluble surfactant is dissolved in water, it
tends to absorb at the gas/liquid, liquid/liquid, or
solid/liquid interfaces. The adsorption phenome-


WINTER 1977








non results in a greater concentration of sur-
factant molecules at the interface as compared to
that in the bulk solution (Figure 3B). For many
surface-active drugs and pharmacological agents,
their concentration at the membrane surface will
be considerably greater than their bulk concentra-
tion [2].
The formation of micelles in an aqueous solu-
tion creates a local nonpolar environment within
the aqueous phase. Oil soluble molecules such as
dyes, pigments, nonpolar oils, or oil soluble vita-
mins can be dissolved within the micelles (Figure
3C, D). The solubilization of such molecules in
micelles is greater if they also possess polar
groups.
If a surfactant solution contains a surface-
active polymer, then adsorption of the polymer can
occur at the micellar surface (Figure 3E). The
structure of lipoproteins, particularly low density
lipoproteins in blood serum, resembles this situa-
tion in which a protein is adsorbed on the ag-
gregates of lipid (i.e., biological surfactant or fat)
molecules [3]. If a surface-active polymer is pres-
ent in the solution, then a mixed, absorbed film of
polymer and surfactant also can occur at the in-
terface (Figure 3F). In several biological mem-
branes, the protein-lipid association is believed to
resemble this type of association [4].
Surfactant molecules can be considered as
building blocks. One can make various types of
structures of surfactant molecules by simply in-
creasing the concentration of surfactant in water
and adjusting proper physicochemical conditions
such as temperature, pH, and the presence of vari-
ous electrolytes [5, 6]. Figure 4 schematically
shows various structures that are formed in the
surfactant solution upon increasing the concentra-


4-.
MONOMERS MICELLE CYLINDRICAL
MICELLE
(RANDOMLY ORIEN-EVD


SURFACTANT
CRYSTAL


Am N


MICROEMULS IO


-'-, -,
i
HEXAGONAL
PACKING OF CYLINDERS


_-_--_


SLAMELLAR MICELLE
HEXAGONAL PACKING OF
WATER CYLINDER


FIGURE 4. A schematic presentation of structure formation in sur-
factant solution depending upon the concentration of sur-
factant as well as physico-chemical conditions.


tion of a surfactant. Upon increasing the concen-
tration of surfactant, spherical micelles become
cylindrical and subsequently the cylindrical struc-
tures become hexagonally packed. If concentration
is further increased, the lamellar structures are
formed. Upon further addition of surfactant, the
lamellar structures are converted to a hexagonal


FIGURE 5. (A) schematic illustration of a monomolecular film at air-
water interface.
(B) orientation of surface-active molecules with increasing
chain-length at air-water interface.

packing of water cylinders. Upon addition of oil
and a short-chain alcohol, one can convert such
water cylinders into a water-in-oil microemulsion.
The structures of these systems are well estab-
lished from X-ray diffraction studies [7, 8]. It is
possible to induce a transition from one structure
to another by changing the physicochemical con-
ditions such as temperature, pH, addition of
monovalent or divalent cations in the surfactant
solution [9]. The cylindrical and lamellar struc-
tures often are called liquid-crystalline phases
since they have flow properties as liquids and a
certain degree of crystallinity as solids. They have
very unusual electrical and theological properties
[10-12]. It should be emphasized that the scheme
shown in Figure 4 is a general scheme and a sur-
factant may skip several phases depending upon
its structure and the physicochemical conditions.

INSOLUBLE SURFACTANT AND MONOLAYERS

F THE HYDROCARBON chains are sufficiently
long (greater than 16 -C-C- bonds), the sur-
face-active molecules will be insoluble in water.
When such insoluble surfactants are dissolved in
organic solvents, and a drop of the solution is
placed on the water surface, these molecules will
spread at the air/water interface. In general, the
surfactant molecule does not evaporate because
the polar group is anchored on the water surface
and it does not dissolve because the long hydro-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








carbon chain prevents the molecule dissolving into
water. In this way, one can produce a monomole-
cular film of floating molecules of an insoluble
surfactant at the air/water interface. In general,
one can fill a tray of Teflon or plexiglas with water
up to the rim of the tray. A measured quantity of
surfactant solution in an organic solvent such as
chloroform, benzene, or hexane can be placed by a
microsyringe on the water surface. The solvent
molecules evaporate or diffuse into the water leav-
ing the insoluble surfactant molecules at the sur-
face. A glass slide is placed at one end of the
trough (Figure 5A). By horizontal movement of
the glass slide one can compress this monomole-
cular film and bring molecules closer to one an-
other. However, as the film is compressed, at a
specific film area, the molecules will stand side by
side with their polar groups in water and hydro-
carbon chains in the air. By measuring the area
of the film as well as calculating the number of
molecules deposited on the surface, one can de-
termine the average area per surface-active mole-
cule in the monolayer. In a closed packed state,
the average area per molecule is close to the cross-
sectional area of the surfactant molecule. Thus, an
insoluble monolayer is a system which allows the
direct experimental determination of the cross-
sectional area of the molecules.
Monomolecular films or monolayers represent
a two-dimensional state of matter since their


The engineering applications
of surface science range from agricultural
sprays to oil recovery including areas such as
catalysis, coatings, dispersions, electronics,
flotation of minerals, lubrication, and
retardation of evaporation from
lakes and reservoirs...


height, which is about 20-25 Angstrom, is negligi-
ble compared with their length and width. Analo-
gous to the states of matter in three dimensions,
monolayers also can exist as two-dimensional
solids, liquids or gases and can undergo tempera-
ture-dependent phase transitions from one state
to another [13, 14].
When the monomolecular film is compressed by
moving the glass slide, the surface tension de-
creases (Figure 5A). The decrease in surface
tension often is, called surface pressure which
indicates the state of compression of the mono-
molecular film. The higher the surface pressure,


A B
FIGURE 6. (A) Davson-Danielli model for structure of biological mem-
branes.
(B) Lipid-protein mosaic model for the structure of bio-
logical membranes.

the higher the state of compression of the mono-
molecular film. The surface tension is measured
by a torsion balance from which a thin platinum
blade is suspended in water at the air/water inter-
face.
From the surface pressure measurements one
can prepare a plot of surface pressure vs. average
area per molecule. This plot is equivalent to pres-
sure vs. volume curve for gases in three-dimen-
sional state. In 1920, the concept of the specific
molecular orientation at interfaces was a novel
idea, but there was no experimental proof for this
concept. Langmuir [15] used monolayer approach
to establish that surface active molecules have a
specific molecular orientation at the air/water
interface. He studied monolayers of various fatty
acids of different length containing 16 to 32
carbon atoms. Experimentally, he determined the
cross-sectional area of molecules in the compressed
monolayers of these fatty acids. To his surprise,
he observed that although the fatty acids studied
were of different chain-length, the cross-sectional
area determined was the same for all fatty acids
suggesting that they must be oriented vertically
to the surface (Figure 5B). If they were oriented
in any other way, the increasing chain length
would have caused an increase in the average area
per molecule. For establishing this concept of the
specific molecular orientation at interfaces, Lang-
muir later was awarded a Nobel Prize [16].

APPLICATIONS OF MONOLAYERS
SINCE IT IS DIFFICULT to visualize at a
molecular level how properties of a monolayer
are related to various phenomena, I have prepared
the following few diagrams to emphasize the role
of monomolecular films in these phenomena.


WINTER 1977









FOAM


SURFACE VISCOSITY



FLOW
DRAINAGE OF SOAP SOLUTION



WATER


FOAM STABILITYl RATE OF DRAINAGE --SURFACE VISCOSITY-MOLECULAR PACKING
FIGURE 7. The schematic presentation of factors influencing foam
stability.

Figure 6 shows two conceptual models for
molecular arrangement of lipids and proteins in
biological membranes [17, 18]. In the Davson-
Danielli model (Figure 6A), the lipids (i.e., bio-
logical surfactant) are arranged as a continuous
bilayer and protein is believed to be adsorbed on
both sides of the lipid bilayer. The second model,
(Figure 6B) which is based upon the current
thinking about the structure of biological mem-
branes, visualizes a discontinuous lipid bilayer
interdigitated by protein molecules. Irrespective
of which of these models is a more accurate de-
scription of molecular arrangement in membranes,
the orientation and packing of lipid molecules in
membranes are similar to that in monomolecular
films of the lipids at the interface. Using a mono-
layer approach, one can determine lipid-lipid,
lipid-protein and lipid-metal ion interactions that
may occur in biological membranes [19-21].
Figure 7 schematically shows a foam column
produced by a surfactant solution. The stability of
the foam column depends upon the stability of
individual soap bubbles. A soap bubble is a thin
layer of surfactant solution which has the ad-
sorbed film of surfactant on both sides of the soap
film. The stability of the soap film depends upon
the rate of drainage of solution in the film, which


OIL-IN-WATER


& .ftR..


WATER-IN-OIL


FIGURE 8. A schematic presentation for the structure of emulsion
droplets and orientation of surface-active molecules at the
oil-water interface.


subsequently depends upon the state of adsorbed
surfactant film. We have observed [22, 23] that a
closer packing of surfactant molecules in the ad-
sorbed monolayer leads to a higher surface vis-
cosity of the adsorbed monolayer, which subse-
quently decreases the rate of drainage of solution
within the soap film, and hence increases the foam
stability.
Figure 8 schematically shows the role of mono-
layers in stabilizing oil/water emulsions. It has
been known that oil and water do not mix. How-
ever, if a surfactant is added to oil-water mixture,
one can produce a relatively stable emulsion. De-
pending upon the relative amounts of oil and
water as well as the physicochemical conditions,
one can produce oil-in-water or water-in-oil type
emulsion. In either case, each droplet is coated
with a surfactant monolayer (Figure 8).
Figure 9 shows the role of the monomolecular
film in boundary lubrication of metallic surfaces.
Here a surfactant attaches itself to a metal sur-
face due to the interaction between the polar


The domain of surface science is
perhaps one of the most interdisciplinary
areas of modern science and technology...


group of the surfactant with the metallic surface.
When such monolayer-covered surfaces slide
against one another, the frictional forces decrease
considerably. Since sliding of hydrocarbon chains
past one another does not offer too much re-
sistance, the coefficient of friction decreases strik-
ingly. Moreover, the adsorption of such mono-
molecular film of surfactant on metal surfaces
also protects the surface against wear from fric-
tion.
The monomolecular films of fatty acids or fatty
alcohols also are employed for reducing evapora-
tion of water [24]. In many countries such as
Israel, India, and Australia this approach is used
to decrease evaporation of water from lakes and
reservoirs.
Figure 10 shows one of the concepts of surface
science, namely, contact angle and wettability.
When a drop of water is placed on wax, Teflon,
or plexiglas, the drop rests on the surface with a
finite angle called contact angle. If the contact
angle is greater than 90', the liquid does not wet
the surface. If one adds a surfactant or "wetting
agent" in water, the contact angle on wax or


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

















FIGURE 9. A schematic presentation of the orientation of surface-active
molecules at the metal surface in boundary lubrication.

Teflon decreases dramatically and may approach
zero. Hence, normally nonwettable surfaces can be
wetted by water if surfactants are added to water
[25, 26]. This phenomenon is of considerable im-
portance in agricultural sprays since the herbicide
or insecticide will not be effective if the drops
from the spray do not stay on the leaves or fruits
(because of their waxy surface) and fall on the
ground. However, if one adds a surface-active
agent to the spray, it changes the contact angle
and permits droplets to stick and spread on the
leaves and fruits providing protection from insects
and other diseases (Figure 10). This phenomenon
is also of central importance in the wetting of con-
tact lenses and in many problems related to cornea
and tears [27].

UNSATURATED FAT AND MOLECULAR AREA

A T PRESENT, considerable emphasis is placed
on the desirability of "polyunsaturated fat"
and the undesirability of "saturated fat and
cholesterol" in diet. To determine the differences
in the cross-sectional area and surface properties
of lipid (fat) molecules with identical polar group
but different degree of unsaturation in their fatty
acid chains, we took lecithins from four different
sources [28]. The four lecithins were, respectively,
dipalmitoyl lecithin, egg yolk lecithin, soy bean
lecithin, and dioleyol lecithin. The first and the
last lecithins were synthesized in the laboratory.
Lecithin is a common component of biological tis-
sues and membranes. As shown in Figure 11, the
surface-pressure-area per molecule curves of these
four lecithins were different suggesting that the
nature of hydrocarbon chains influences the av-
erage area per molecule of lecithin. The order of
average area per molecule is as follows: dipalmi-
toyl lecithin < egg lecithin < soy bean lecithin <
dioleyol lecithin. The fatty acid compositions of
these four lecithins also were determined sep-
arately by the gas chromatography of fatty acids.
Figure 12 is a schematic presentation of these


four lecithins in monomolecular films based on
monolayer and gas chromatography data. These
results indicate that the degree of unsaturation or
the presence of double bonds in fatty acid chains
influences the average molecular area of lecithins
and subsequently influences the intermolecular
spacing between lipid molecules. If one assumes
that the average area per molecule is a circle with
a radius "r"; then the intermolecular spacing is
2r. If we consider areas of 51.9 A2, 73.8 A2, 78.1
A2, and 87.5 A2 per molecule at a surface pressure
of 20 dynes/cm for dipalmitoyl, egg, soy bean, and
dioleyol lecithins, respectively; the corresponding
intermolecular spacings are 8.1 A, 9.7 A, 10.0 A,
and 10.6 A suggesting that a change of 0.3 A to
1.5 A in the intermolecular spacing is brought
about by the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid
chains. Further, we have shown that such small
changes in intermolecular spacing strikingly in-
fluence the hydrolysis of lecithin monolayers when
snake venom is injected under the monolayers. We
have established that the degree of unsaturation
of lecithins also influences their interaction with
calcium ions in the solution as well as their as-
sociation with cholesterol in monomolecular films
(19, 21, 29, 30).
In summary, monolayers provide an extremely
useful system to study cross-sectional area of sur-
factant molecules and to elucidate the effect of
unsaturation on the intermolecular spacing, and


WITHOUT SURFACTANT


WITH SURFACTANT
(wetting agent)




DROP
SPREADS


FIGURE 10. A schematic presentation of the role of contact angle and
wettability in influencing the effectiveness of agricultural
sprays.

hence on the reactions and molecular interactions
at interfaces [31].

MONOLAYERS AND OIL SPILLS
The contraction of an oil spill is an interesting


WINTER 1977


9 > 9o-


oc

I~L"/









application of monolayers.* In the event of an oil-
spill, the oil continues to spread because of the
natural surfactant in the crude oil. These natural
surfactants have a certain spreading pressure and,
as a result, the oil continues to spread at the air/
water interface. However, if one deposits a film
of another surfactant with a higher spreading
pressure around the oil-spill, then the deposited
monolayer causes contraction of the oil-spill. In
other words, the deposited film, having a higher
surface pressure, causes the oil-spill to contract.
The most fascinating message that comes out of
this observation is that the monomolecular film of

50 .i i -i i i |
DIPALMITOYL LECITHIN
EGG LECITHIN
SOYBEAN LECITHIN
E 40 DIOLEOYL LECITHIN


o30-


20-






40 60 80 100 120 140
AZ/molecule
FIGURE 11. The surface pressure-area curves for four lecithins with
different fatty acid compositions.

surfactant pushes a crude oil layer that is two mil-
lion times thicker than its own thickness (?25A).
This observation leads to the conclusion that for
contraction of oil-spill, it is the spreading pressure
that is a predominant factor and not the thickness
of oil or surfactant layers. Spreading such a sur-
face-active material around the oil-spill from a
helicopter can prevent further spreading of the
oil-spill and can thicken the oil layer at the air/
sea interface and hence facilitate the collection
procedures. Spreading of such films near the
shore-line also can prevent the oil-spill from con-
taminating the beaches. Since we are using mono-
molecular films for this purpose, the danger of


*Mr. A. Tamjeedi, an undergraduate student in Chem-
ical Engineering, presented this paper at the Students
AIChE Chapters competition at Baton Rouge, Louisiana
and was awarded a second prize for his work in this area,
1973.


10.6SA o.o 971

MOLECULAR
AREA AT 8757
TT -20
1T.5 U C



WATER
I! P P
V ____ i 1, *
FIGURE 12. A schematic presentation of the effect of double bonds
on the intermolecular spacing in lecithin monolayers.


contaminating the beaches with surfactant is ex-
tremely negligible and most of the surfactant used
for this purpose would be biodegradable. More-
over, one would require extremely small amounts
to produce monomolecular films.
Figure 13 shows the three-dimensional view
of the application of surfactant solutions or
microemulsions in tertiary oil recovery from pe-
troleum reservoirs. Usually the oil wells are drilled
in a five spot pattern in such a way that the micro-
emulsions or surfactant solutions are injected into
the central injection well. The surfactant formula-
tion solubilizes the oils or decreases the interfacial
tension at the oil/brine interface in the reservoir
and displaces the oil towards the production wells
at the four corners. If appropriate surfactants are
injected, then the sandstone and rocks in the reser-
voir are cleaned and the oil is displaced effectively
towards the production wells.


SURFACE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS
AND TEAR SUBSTITUTES

T IS FASCINATING that most of the phenom-
ena mentioned previously such as retardation
of evaporation, wettability of surfaces and lubrica-
tion take place every time we blink. Figure 14
schematically shows our concept [32, 33] of vari-
ous phenomena that occur in the outer portion of
the eye (i.e., cornea, tear, and the film of meibom-
ian oil at the air/tear interface). Many people
usually above 40 to 50 years of age suffer with a
condition called "dry-eye syndrome." In this situ-
ation, the thickness of the tear film decreases con-
siderably because of lack of fluid in the eyes. Be-
tween the blinks the thickness of the tear film
decreases to such a low value that the tear film
breaks and develops dry spots on the cornea. If
one blinks under these conditions, there is con-
siderable friction between the inside of the eye
lid and the dry spots on the cornea. This may lead


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








to damage of the corneal surface. Several pharma-
ceutical eye drops containing polymers are avail-
able to stabilize a thick layer of water on cornea.
However, there is no scientific evaluation of the
effectiveness of these available artificial tears or
tear substitutes.
We studied the flow dynamics and the thick-
ness of tear film in the eye using a slit-lamp fluoro-
photometer. The eye drops containing a fluorescent
dye fluoresceinn) are instilled into the eye of the
patient or volunteer. In general, the intensity of
fluorescence is related to the thickness of the tear
film. We found that the tear-film thickness de-
creases between blinks due to drainage by gravity.
However, if one adds a drop of a surface-active
polymer solution (such as polyvinylalcohol
(PVA), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)),
or a commercially available tear substitute, the
film thickness increases between blinks. Figure 15
schematically shows our explanation for the effect
of polymers in thickening the tear film between
blinks. A surface-active polymer would adsorb at
the air/tear interface. When one blinks, this ad-
sorbed film is compressed just like a monolayer
spread on the tray filled with water (Figure 5).
After the blink, the lid is moved upward, and the
compressed film of the polymer spreads in the
upward direction to occupy the clean surface at
the air/tear interface. When the compressed film
of polymer moves upward, it drags water as the
sublayer. This phenomenon of surface flow from
high surface pressure to low surface pressure is
called Marangoni effect. To establish that water


1

,. 9..... m ,

A B c D0
FIGURE 13. A schematic presentation of a petroleum reservoir. The
lower part of the diagram shows how injection of a sur-
factant formulation moves the oil towards the four pro-
duction wells.


can be dragged by a polymer film, a simple experi-
ment using a glass slide was carried out as shown
in Figure 16. One end of a wet glass slide was
dipped into a polymer solution and it was observed
that the polymer solution begins to climb on the
wet glass slide. From fluorescence measurements,
the thickness of the moving film was determined.
To our surprise we found that the thickness of
films of various polymer solutions measured in
this system was the same as that measured in the
eye. Table I shows the thickness of various poly-
mer solutions dragged on a vertical glass slide. We


TABLE I

Thickness (gm)
of water
layer dragged
Polymer by polymers*
Barnes-Hind
wetting soln. 58 cp 22
Adaptt 70 cp 17
Presertt 18 cp 16
Lacrilt 28 cp 14
Visculoset 130 cp 11
PVA 120 cp 18
PVA 20 cp 12
HPMC 120 cp 12
HPMC 20 cp 9
Monomolecular film of PVA 13
*Surface Area of Trough = 0.52 cm2
commercially available artificial tear solutions


also carried out similar experiments using a mono-
molecular film of Polyvinylalcohol (Table I). Here
again, we found that the thickness of the layer of
water dragged by a monolayer was 13 microns
which is the same as the thickness of the layer
dragged from the polymer solution. In other
words, the increase in the thickness of the tears in
the eye can be accounted for by a monomolecular
film of polymer at the air/tear interface. This
study again points out the importance of surface
activity of polymers in assisting and providing
comfort to patients with "dry-eye syndrome."


APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE SCIENCE
Agriculture and food technology--The ef-
fectiveness of various herbicides and insecticides
in agricultural sprays are determined by their
wetting of leaves and fruits. The presence of sur-
factants (wetting agents) in agricultural sprays
strikingly improves the effectiveness of the sprays


WINTER 1977








and contributes to a greater production of crops.
The emulsions also find considerable application in
food products such as salad dressings, margarine,
whipped cream, puddings, etc. Surface chemical
aspects of protein-lipid associations also are im-
portant in determining the texture of food such
as cakes and pastries and work is being done in
this direction using the principles and techniques
of surface sciences.
Energy-The surfactant solutions and
microemulsions are important in improving oil
recovery from petroleum reservoirs. Another in-
teresting application is in the area of combustion
efficiency of various oils. Recently, it has been
shown that if one injects a fine dispersion or emul-
sion of water and oil in furnaces, the efficiency of
conversion of oil into heat is improved consider-
ably. Although the exact mechanism is not estab-
lished, the fact still remains that emulsification of
oil and water improves the combustion efficiency.
Environment-Principles and techniques of
surface science find many applications in environ-
mental problems. The dewatering of phosphate
slimes, sludge formation, coagulation, and floc-
culation in many waste-water treatment plants
rely on the surface interactions. The surface re-
actions and adsorption on activated carbon are
very effective methods for removal of trace con-
taminants. Fibrous coalescers also are used for
the removal of oil droplets from a few parts per
million concentration in the effluent streams of
many industries. Here the attachment of oil drops
to the fiber and their subsequent coalescence play
an important role in the separation of oil. The
use of surface films as oil herder for the contrac-
tion of oil-spills has been discussed. The presence
of films at the air/water interface also causes


WETTING
DRAINAGE
EVAPORATION
FILM STABILITY
LUBRICATION
SURFACE CHARGE
EFFECTS ON DRUGS


FIGURE 14. A schematic presentation of various surface phenomena
occurring in the eye.


... monolayersprovide a unique system
to determine experimentally the cross-
sectional areas of surface-active molecules
and to study reactions and molecular
interactions at surfaces.


wave-damping of small ripples. This observation
has been used in developing the instrumentation
for remote sensing of oil-spills. In all these sys-
tems and processes, the principles of physics and
chemistry of surfaces and surface-active agents
are involved.
Industries and engineering-The surface
science is involved in coating processes. For ex-
ample, the production of magnetic tapes in which
a dispersion of magnetic oxide is coated on poly-
ester tapes. The stability of the dispersion and the
strength of adhesion depend on the surface inter-
actions. Other applications of surface science are
found in the manufacture of inks, paints, pig-
ments, nonstick cooking wares, etc. The textile
industry also utilizes considerable quantities of
surface-active substances in the form of wetting
agents, emulsions, dye-solubilization and other
processes. The contact angle and wettability also
enters into water-proofing of textiles, roofing ma-
terial and similar systems. Many lubricants also
involve the use of hydrocarbon oils and various
surface-active agents as additives. The physics
and chemistry of thin films are used extensively in
the electronics industry. As discussed previously,
the production of petroleum and petrochemicals
also utilizes many processes which are in the gen-
eral domain of surface science. The field of cat-
alysis is based on surface interactions between the
substrate molecules and the catalyst surface. The
formulations of soaps and detergents for house-
hold uses also are based on surface properties of
surfactants. In the world about 109 tons of min-
erals are processed every year by the use of flota-
tion technology which again relies on the adsorp-
tion of surfactant on mineral particles. Many of-
fice stationeries such as NCR papers (no carbon
required papers) use microencapsulation of
powders to coat these papers. The microencapsula-
tion is one of the most interesting applications of
surface and colloid science to industrial processes.
Biology and medicine-Many principles and
techniques of surface science are relevant to the
understanding of the properties and functions of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









biological membranes. It has been suggested [17]
that the spontaneous formation of membranes
played an important role in the origin of prebio-
logical cells during the chemical evolution which
was followed by the biological evolution. These
techniques are being used to elucidate the mechan-
ism of action of many drugs, anesthetic agents,
and pharmacological agents on membrane prop-
erties. It has been established during recent years
that conduction of electrical signal along a nerve
fiber is strictly a surface phenomenon occurring
in nerve cell membrane. As discussed previously
the surface properties of polymers are also rel-
evant to the performance of tear substitutes in
the eye. These concepts can be also extended to the
wetting of contact lenses and the comfort for the
eye. The solubilization of oil soluble vitamins in








\ DSORBED -R oE
S4 POLYMER





A B LC D

FIGURE 15. A schematic presentation of the effect of adsorbed poly-
mer film at the air-tear interface in upward movement of
water after a blink.

micelles, the fat absorption in intestine, lung
stability and the function of pulmonary sur-
factant, synovial fluid and lubrication of bone
joints, dental integuments, and the development of
various nonthrombogenic surfaces for artificial
organs and implants all draw significantly on sur-
face science.
Pharmaceuticals-Various pharmaceutical
products such as ointments, skin lotions, creams,
microencapsulation of drugs for sustained drug-
delivery, birth control foams, etc. are being formu-
lated and developed using principles and tech-
niques of surface science. Some of these have been
discussed previously.
In summary, I would like to emphasize that
from the research activities I have carried out in
the past decade, I have become convinced that the
surface science is one of the most important facets


/ WATER &
FLUORESCEIN
POLYMER FILM-


POLYMER a FLUORESCEIN

PVAC
FLUORESCENCE
INTENSITY

TIME Intl
FIGURE 16. The slide technique used to measure the thickness of
water layer dragged with a moving polymer film.


of science. It is related to many natural processes
and systems; it is one of the unique branches of
science that finds so many diverse and wide-rang-
ing applications in engineering, biology and med-
icine.
It is only during the past few years that we
have seen rapid advances in understanding the
complexities and unique properties of surfaces. I
believe we are still at the shores of surface science,
and we have a whole ocean to explore! Over the
years I have also become convinced in my belief
that "research is an art. Just as an artist enjoys
painting a picture, or a poet enjoys writing a
poem, a scientist does research for his own enjoy-
ment, regardless of its appreciation by others, al-
though it is nicer when it is also appreciated and
enjoyed by others." As I began this article with a
quotation, I would also like to end it with a quota-
tion from a poem by Tagore, which very appro-
priately says, "My friend, drink my wine in my
own cup to appreciate its sparkling bubbles." E

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Professor Bolduc (Education),
Professor Nevis (Electrical Engineering and Physics), Dr.
Tham (Anesthesiology and Chemical Engineering), and
Professor Walker (Chemical Engineering) for critically
reviewing the manuscript and for many constructive sug-
gestions. The financial support for the research presented
here was provided by the National Science Foundation,
National Institute of Health, Environmental Protection
Agency, the Florida Heart Association, and the University
of Florida, which is gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES
1. Preston, W. C., J. Phys. and Colloid Chem., 52: 84
(1948).
2. Shah, D. O., In "Respiratory Distress Syndrome," eds.
Continued on page 48.


WINTER 1977











NTciic11UM


PROCESS CONTROL ENGINEERING AT UT PERMIAN


CLYDE H. SPRAGUE, GEORGE H. QUENTIN
AND C. M. FRY
University of Texas of the Permian Basin
Odessa, Texas 79762

T HE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS of the Permian
Basin, was opened in the Fall of 1973 to serve
the more than 300,000 people in the oil-rich Per-
mian Basin, the state of Texas, and the nation.
Offering programs in three colleges: Management,
Arts and Education, and Science and Engineer-
ing, the university operates as an upper level
institution providing junior, senior, and graduate
level courses. Students are accepted after com-
pleting at least 60 hours of work at another
institution, usually a junior college. Designed
from the outset to provide unique and innovative
programs and to employ proven teaching tech-
niques, both new and old, the university has em-
barked on a number of distinctive educational
and operational tracks. These are perhaps best
exemplified by the program in Control Engineer-
ing. It is the purpose of this paper to describe
that program.

THE NATURE OF A CONTROL ENGINEER

C ONTROL ENGINEERING is a unique engineering
discipline, as different from other disciplines
as they are different from each other. It is in-
herently multidisciplinary in character requiring
expertise from a number of diverse disciplines.
That expertise must be brought to bear, however,
in a way that is unique to control engineering.
Control engineers are concerned with complex
systems, systems with elements from many
physical domains, systems that are almost always
in a transient state, systems that must perform
with precision and accuracy.
A suitable control engineering curriculum

*Recent revision of a paper presented at the annual
meeting of the ASEE-CED, Colorado State University, 1975.


must emphasize accurate measurement and con-
trol of variables, modeling and dynamic response
of elements and systems, sophisticated and
functional methods of analysis and design, and
the commonality of systems from all domains.
To successfully build a program of this type, it is
necessary to have faculty with broad experience
and an interdisciplinary background and that are
willing to work freely across discipline boundaries.

GENERAL GOALS
S TARTING A NEW engineering program in a new
university, especially one where judicious de-
parture from tradition is not only tolerated but
encouraged, provides a rare opportunity to take
a new approach to engineering education. The
control engineering program has attempted to
take a cautious and rational approach to substan-
tial change. Program goals, for example, call for


Since the courses are also offered
for variable credit, there are essentially
no fixed course boundaries. Students may
thus enter a study area at a point consistent
with their background and exit when they
have successfully completed the collection
of modules appropriate to their specific degree plan.


technical competence in breadth and depth and a
demonstrated high level of communication, man-
agement, and interactive skills. More significant-
ly different from tradition, however, are the ad-
ditional program goals of developing in graduates
the desire and the ability to continue learning, of
providing a program that meets efficiently the in-
dividual needs of students, and gives students with
sufficient innate learning capacities a maximum
chance for success. Accreditation is, of course, an
important program goal.
A coherent curriculum design results when
aimed toward a specific and well-defined set of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









degree objectives. From the degree objectives, it
is possible to identify the supporting objectives
down to the expected entrance level of students,
in this case, the beginning of the junior year.
These supporting objectives can be subdivided to
form the courses or study areas necessary to ac-
complish the curriculum. Usually, a given objec-
tive specifies a broadly applicable problem-solving
process and need not be tied directly to a given
physical domain such as chemical, electrical, me-
chanical, etc. In this way, it is possible to use
different applications vehicles to illustrate and
learn the given process. One may learn about the
basic processes in modeling and simulating second
order systems, for example, by using electrical,
mechanical, fluid, thermal or other systems as
illustrations. The multi-disciplinary nature of con-
trol engineering makes it important to give some
attention to all applications areas while placing
emphasis in the areas appropriate to the individual
student's goals. By specifying the appropriate set
of problem-solving capabilities along with the con-
tent areas that are germane, a highly in-
dividualized curriculum can result.
The specific degree objectives are of utmost
importance in the design of a curriculum and of
courses for that curriculum. For those that may
be interested, the objectives are included as an
appendix.

STUDY PLANS AND COURSE STRUCTURE

ALTHOUGH ONLY A single degree designation
is currently authorized, a broad range of
individual curricula is possible through formula-
tion of a specific, individually tailored degree plan
for each student. Working in close association
with a faculty adviser of his or her choice, a
student works out the degree plan which, while
meeting all the external constraints, is best suited
to the entrance competencies and career goals of
the student. Personal interviews, current testing
data, job experience, previous academic records,
and limited special testing are currently used as
bases for establishing points of entry into the
program. An extensive program of protesting will
be undertaken for the first time in the Fall of
1975.
Courses designed for this program are each
divided into several small modules of instruction,
each module specifying carefully what is required
of the student. Modules are studied in a sequence
so that each builds on and reinforces the previous
one and so that interrelationships among study


L to R: Drs. Charles M. Fry, Clyde H. Sprague and
George H. Quentin.

Charles Max Fry received the B.S. degree in aerospace engineering
from the University of Oklahoma in 1965, the M.S. degree in mechan-
ical engineering from Rice University in 1967, and the Electrical En-
gineer and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Southern
Methodist University in 1972 and 1973, respectively. From 1967 to
1970 he was employed as an Aerodynamics Design Engineer with
LTV Aerospace Corp., Dallas, Texas. Dr. Fry was an LTV Corporation
Doctoral Fellow at Southern Methodist University from 1970 to 1973.
Since 1973 he has been Assistant Professor of Engineering at U. T.
Permian Basin.
Clyde H. Sprague received the B.S. degree in mechanical engineer-
ing from Kansas State University in 1958. From 1958 to 1961 he was
employed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
in Silver Spring, Maryland. He received the M.S. degree in mechanical
engineering from Kansas State University in 1963. From 1963 to 1973
he was with the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Kansas
State University. Two years were spent on leave at Purdue University
where the Ph.D. degree was completed in 1967. He moved to UT-
Permian in January of 1973 as Associate Professor and Coordinator
of Engineering.
George H. Quentin received the BChE (1955) from Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute, and the M.S. and Ph.D. (1965) in Chemical Engineer-
ing from Iowa State University. Background includes diversified ex-
perience with DuPont, National Distillers, and Monsanto Companies.
Following several years on the Chemical Engineering Faculty at the
University of New Mexico, he joined the University of Texas of the
Permian Basin as an Associate Professor on the Faculty of Engineering.


areas are carefully delineated. Since the courses
are also offered for variable credit, there are es-
sentially no fixed course boundaries. Students may
thus enter a study area at a point consistent with
their background and exit when they have suc-
cessfully completed the collection of modules ap-
propriate to their specific degree plan. Additional
flexibility is provided by selecting variations in
objectives and application areas within a module
to support a particular program. To formulate
such a degree plan, the amount of credit in a
given course area is specified; currently in units


WINTER 1977









of not less than 1 credit hour. This generates a
conventional-looking transcript. Specific require-
ments for a student to earn the designated credit
are worked out and contracted informally. A more
formal process for this is evolving but the in-
formal process works adequately for our small
student population.

SELF-PACED INSTRUCTION AND
COURSE MANAGEMENT
To use effectively the flexibility built into the
course structure and degree formulation system,
most course areas are offered on a continuous en-
rollment, self-paced basis. Consequently, students
may enter the program at any time, and take up
to two full semesters to complete a course under
justifiable circumstances. This requires that most
self-paced courses be available at all times. Simul-
taneous proctoring of several courses by both stu-
dents and faculty results in efficient and full use
of instructor time, even with small individual
course enrollments.


Courses designed
for this program are each divided
into several small modules of instruction,
each module specifying carefully what
is required of the student.


Good course management plays an important
role in the relative success of a self-paced course.
Neglect of the management aspect of self-paced
course design is common and often leads to dis-
enchantment with the method. Significant time
and effort have been devoted to the evolution of
a workable management system at UT Permian,
and much has been accomplished. Although the
system is far from perfect it is improving steadily.
Management is an important component in all
self-paced courses but is critical in this engineer-
ing program where most or all of a given student's
load may be self-paced.

A RANGE OF DEGREE PLANS

ALTHOUGH THE CONTROL Engineering degree is
of sufficient breadth to prepare students for a
variety of career opportunities, all students are
expected to develop control system design exper-
tise in one or more selected applications areas.
Efficient degree planning for these diverse fields
of application requires significant breadth of se-


election in math, in engineering science, and in
engineering design. This is accomplished by de-
veloping a minimal central core in each area sur-
rounded by a coherent collection of additional
work from which to choose. In visualizing this ap-
proach, it is important to recognize that there
are no fixed course boundaries so great flexibility
is possible.
To illustrate the breadth of possible curriculum
planning, two contrasting degree plans are out-
lined in the table below. One is appropriate for
an engineer interested in chemical process con-
trol, the other is oriented toward flight control
applications in commercial or military aviation or
aerospace. These degree plans should be inter-
preted as representative of what is planned or
possible, not as specific requirements for a de-
gree although they do indicate minimal credit in
an area. It is also important to note that
differences in content and objectives between
equal credits in a given study area contribute to
a difference in the two plans not evident in the
table.

ENGINEERING DESIGN
A SIGNIFICANT PORTION of this component of
each Control Engineering degree plan is de-
voted to formal training and realistic experience
with project engineering and management. At
present, the engineering management training is
handled by conventionally offered, formal man-
agement courses. These will eventually be tailored
to and integrated with the project engineering
activity.
The engineering project experience is provided
by courses in Authentic Involvement. In this area,
students are organized into teams of four or five
students, possibly some that are not engineers,
to pursue a lengthy engineering project. Projects
are solicited from industry, public service institu-
tions or other appropriate sources. Specific cri-
teria for screening potential projects have been
established to insure their realism and suitability.
Students work in teams, under faculty super-
vision, and as consultants to the industry. Each
team is expected to carry out all of the functions
of a normal project team assigned to such a prob-
lem and to conclude the project with a formal,
oral and written report to the client agency.
Authentic Involvement is the capstone of the
degree program and serves to reinforce previously
acquired engineering competencies; to develop
confidence and competence with the engineering


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










TABLE 1. REPRESENTATIVE BUT CONTRASTING DEGREE PLANS.


Chemical Process
Control Orientation


Flight Control
Orientation


Humanities
and
Social Science
Basic
Science


Mathematics

Engineering
Science


History
Government
Other
Inorganic Chemistry
Advanced Chemistry
(Physical & Organic)
Analytic Geometry &
Calculus
Advanced Math
Simulation
Statics
Dynamics
Mech of Mat'ls
Mat'ls Science
Systems Analysis
Thermodynamics
Fluids
Heat Transfer
Electronics
Measurements
Separation Processes
Chemical Reactor Operations
Introductory Control
System Design
Computer Control
Modern Control
Engineering Management
& Economics
Engineering Project


Engineering
Design


9 9
(content of advanced math selected to fit program)
6 6


design process; to develop and apply manage-
ment, communications, and interaction skills so
students experience a role as close to engineering
practice as is possible in a university environ-
ment.

UNIQUE FACILITIES

ALTHOUGH FACILITIES are usually of secondary
importance, those being used for this program
are as unique as the program. The University is
housed, almost in its entirety, within a single
building. One wing is used for conventional class-
rooms, offices, computer center, instructional
media, administrative offices, and other service
facilities, the specific room configuration being
established with snap-in walls easily rearranged
to meet changing needs.
The laboratory wing consists of three fully


carpeted floors that are totally open and without
walls except for a few offices and special purpose
rooms around the periphery. Laboratory activi-
ties are carried out on mobile lab benches, some
with all quick-connect utilities for wet experi-
ments, some dry for other experiments. All tables
have removable tote-trays for storing collections
of experimental supplies in the stockroom for in-
dividual checkout. Utility outlets and drive-in
fume hoods are distributed throughout the area.
Tables are designed so they may be connected
to form a chain of benches for group laboratories.
All other furniture in the laboratory is movable
to facilitate organization of the space for im-
mediate needs.
The laboratory facility is used by all
disciplines in the University and provides, in ad-
Continued on page 31.


WINTER 1977


English A a













USING SUMMER FACULTY-STUDENT CONSULTANT

TEAMS TO SOLVE INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS


DONALD L. MICHELSEN
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061
and

JEROME ARKIS and GENE ECHOLS
Amoco Oil Company
Yorktown, Virginia 23690

THE INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT of a sum-
mer student between the junior and senior year
or between the senior and first-year graduate
school often is received by the student with mixed
feelings. The experience can be a good one, with
a challenging and interesting assignment, good
supervision and understanding, and include a
sense of community and identity. On the other
hand, often summer experiences can leave a stu-
dent perplexed and frustrated. He or she is not
always treated with respect or given very chal-
lenging assignments. A stranger in town who feels
out of touch with the community. The supervisor
does not have adequate time to really provide him
with a background to carry out a meaningful as-
signment in the short period time that is available,
and the management does not know exactly how
to treat him because he is the result of a public
relations program.
During the first three weeks in September
1975, a group of four upcoming seniors, a gradu-
ate student, and a faculty consultant spent three
weeks at the Yorktown refinery of Amoco Oil
Company on four projects related to the waste-
water treatments of refinery effluents. These four
projects lasted only three weeks but because of
good planning, excellent cooperation from the re-
finery and a good student mix, all the shortcom-
ings often found with summer jobs were over-
come. In addition, the technical achievements and
maturity of approach were amazingly high. And
what was originally thought to be primarily a
public relations approach to better recruiting


turned out to be quite successful whether meas-
ured from a public relations or technical contribu-
tion standpoint.
Last fall, while interviewing for Amoco at
Virginia Tech, Jerry Arkis discussed with Don
Michelsen the use of faculty-student consultant
teams as a means for solving industrial problems.
Because our unit operation lab occupies most of
late July and August between the junior and
senior year, the possibilities of using student study
group was limited to an eight week period before
Unit Operations Laboratory or a three week
period following Labor Day prior to the beginning
of fall classes at Virginia Tech. Following the ex-
change the faculty consultant drafted a brief de-
scription of consulting faculty-student team pos-
sibilities which could be expanded depending upon
Amoco's interest. It was suggested that these
teams might be used to solve a process develop-


The waste treatment area
is a good area in which to work
because... a high level of technical
know-how is not required before an
understanding of the problem is appreciated.


ment or plant project, complete an energy survey
or process control analysis, or study the refinery's
waste treatment plant.

PLANNING PROCEDURE
N APRIL, AMOCO invited the faculty con-
sultant to visit for further discussion. The fac-
ulty member toured the facilities with Gene Echols
and exchanged ideas on how students might be
effectively used to study a number of waste treat-
ment problems in the refinery. The refinery is
committed to an activated sludge process for treat-
ing its biological wastes, but has some degree of
flexibility in terms of what might be installed be-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








tore and after the activated sludge facility. By
late afternoon, Echols and Michelsen had defined
four possible areas for student investigation.
Subsequently, the faculty consultant completed
a proposal describing the four project areas, proj-
ect definition procedures involving the students,
procedures to be followed in carrying out the
studies, and a budget. The financial arrangement
was made independent of the university. An im-
portant goal was to have students identify the
projects as their own rather than an assignment
delegated by Amoco and/or the faculty consultant.
The proposal was shared with the four students
selected from six applicants who expressed inter-
est in carrying out this project after Unit Opera-
tions Laboratory in the Fall of 1975. Prior to go-
ing down to Yorktown in late May, the students
and faculty discussed Amoco's treatment pro-
cedures, general expectation being placed on the
students, and agreed on student project area as-
signments.
By late May the proposal had been approved
by Amoco and the four undergraduate students,
plus the faculty consultant visited Yorktown in
order to tour the refinery including the waste
treatment facilities, and to discuss and exchange
ideas on the individual projects. By day's end the
students had a good understanding of their proj-
ect. Prior to revisiting the end of July, each stu-
dent was responsible for completing a literature
search and background study on his project area
and for preparing a presentation using flow charts
of planned activities for early September. On
Monday, July 28, 1975, the four students plus a
fifth graduate student (Honcho) and the faculty
consultant discussed their approach to the prob-
lems with representatives from Amoco Oil in
Yorktown including James Grutsch, the Environ-
mental Director for Standard of Indiana. The
students' plan of attack differed considerably from
the earlier discussions. They recognized increased
emphasis on the pretreatment of the waste water
following API separator, industrial concern for
the aeration and stabilization of the sludges, and
decided not to pursue work on the crude desalter
but rather to spend that time in the API separator
area. Following their flip chart presentation,
James Grutsch gave an overview of the operation
of the Amoco operation in Texas City. His ideas
verified much of what the consulting team had de-
cided Amoco should be doing in Yorktown. After
considerable discussion, the four projects were
defined. In effect, only one of the students' projects


was changed in any significant manner.
The four projects selected for study were as
follows: 1) a study of the performance and cap-
abilities of the API separator, as well as the feasi-
bility of using a coalescer following the API sep-
arator, 2) a pilot dissolved air-flotation system
following the API separator to remove dispersed
oil and suspended solids, 3) evaluation of final
filter using newly installed equipment including a
dual polymer flocculation system, and 4) a plant
study of sludge settling in their backflush pond,
including the use of polymer addition, turbulence
in the backwash pond; and a laboratory study on
air stabilization of backflush solids.



It was suggested that
summer faculty-student con-
sultant teams might be used to solve
a process development or plant project,
complete an energy survey or process control
analysis, or study the refinery's waste treatment plant.


The students were very busy during the next
five weeks completing the rather intensive Unit
Operations Laboratory at Virginia Tech; there-
fore, when they arrived on Labor Day to start
work on the second of September, the first day
was spent discussing each project assignment. The
first week was spent laying out test work, fabricat-
ing equipment, and becoming familiar with stand-
ard laboratory tests. Because of good understand-
ing with management, laboratory, shop and plant
personnel an atmosphere of good cooperation and
encouragement was achieved-essential if any
progress was to be made in three weeks. Equip-
ment modifications were quickly made. A favora-
ble union situation gave the students considerable
freedom to design and fabricate much of their own
equipment.
Projects were reviewed after the second week
with Amoco management. By that time the stu-
dents had completed their Introduction, Back-
ground and Theory, and Procedure sections which
included plans, equipment, chemical analyses, data
reduction, and presentation of expected results
section. Monday, September 21, 1975, the students,
Honcho, and faculty member gave a final oral re-
port of the results of the study using flip charts.
Each student had completed a rough draft of
his report and the results were presented to five
representatives from the Amoco refinery. The


WINTER 1977








three hour session included an individual presenta-
tion by each of the students involving their proj-
ects, a report of the short-term recommendations
by the group leader, and a discussion of long-term
recommendations to meet the BPT goals by 1977
by the faculty consultant. The long-term recom-
mendations on the use of a DAF and equalization
pond system are in conflict with present plans for


What was originally thought
to be primarily a public relations
approach to better recruiting turned out
to be quite successful whether measured
from a public relations or technical
contribution standpoint.


Yorktown. A final report was completed by No-
vember 10, 1975, which included a write-up by
each of the students and an overall Summary,
Introduction and Recommendations section.

PARTICIPANTS' RESPONSIBILITIES
ALTHOUGH THE STUDENTS could call on
support from faculty consultant, Honcho, and
Gene Echols from Amoco, the students were given
most of the responsibility for carrying out their
individual projects. This was reinforced by the
oral presentation given the end of July which laid
the groundwork for the students to start im-
mediately after Labor Day. A significant amount
of flexibility was provided while on site. The fac-
ulty consultant was in the plant four days al-
though he did spend a number of Sundays review-
ing projects with individual students. The Honcho
was necessary to provide technical assistance, in-
teract on numerous questions, provide liaison with
Amoco and to encourage students when bogged
down. He acted as an intermediary and yet as
much as possible direct interaction of the students
with refinery representatives was encouraged. The
students did much of their own work and were
free to go into the shops and work directly with
Amoco personnel. The team lived together in two
adjoining kitchenettes with the Honcho and fac-
ulty consultant. The group ate together during the
week but tended to scatter during the weekends.
Because of the close proximity, the two conducted
studies around the API separator working to-
gether closely, and the two operating the filter and
backwash worked together. A two man team effort
developed.


The faculty consultant's responsibility centered
primarily on setting up the projects, making sure
the teams got off to a good start, setting some
guidelines and directions for the overall projects,
and reviewing the results and recommendations
closely.
The waste treatment area is a good area in
which to work because of short induction period.
That is, a high level of technical know-how is not
required before an understanding of the problem
is appreciated. The students picked up a grasp of
the subject rather quickly. However, prior to
hands-on experience, the students had difficulty
relating literature to plant operations. Books on
industrial waste treatment are abundant and pro-
vide background, but until the student is directly
involved appreciation of the literature is difficult.
As a result, background and theory and the sig-
nificance of the literature were initially glossed
over. During the three week work period, the level
of appreciation increased and the results and com-
parison to the literature represented a real con-
tribution.
The biggest analytical stumbling block came in
the analysis of the oil and grease using freon ex-
traction. The standard procedure for conducting
these tests is time-consuming and subject to error.
The students spent two or three evenings at the
end of the project completing these analyses, yet
this was crucial to the study in Yorktown because
of an oil carry-over problem from the API sep-
arator into the biological basins. As the refinery
moves toward the installation of an activated
sludge process, a more elaborate oil and suspended
solid removal procedure will be necessary in order
to insure good oxidation.
The level of technical throughness with which
the students approach their individual problems
was truly remarkable and the magnitude of the re-
sults are really quite impressive. It has provided
the basis for a number of conclusions and recom-
mendations which suggest a review of current and
future plans for waste treatment.
CONCLUSION
THROUGH PROPER organization and planning a short-
term three week consulting team project can be con-
ducted with significant technical and public relations payoff
with students contributing in a very responsible fashion. A
combination of introductory visits and a presentation by
the students resulted in a strong commitment to their
project area. Once motivated the students moved ahead
quickly wih their project. In addition, a strong sense of
comradarie developed from living in those two adjacent
kitchenettes and working together in two man teams. []


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









PROCESS CONTROL:
Sprague, Quentin, Fry
Continued from page 27.
edition to strictly laboratory needs, proctoring
areas, study carrels, open study areas, small
seminar areas, media-areas; in short, all of the
facilities needed to carry on individualized, self-
paced, or small group course activities. In this
way, the open laboratory serves almost all of
the needs of the engineering program in a very
efficient utilization of space, furnishings, and
equipment. Only a few activities require other
spaces. Since the same open laboratory is used by
all disciplines in the University for all of the
functions named above, there is considerable in-
teraction among students and faculty from these
different areas.

STATUS OF THE PROGRAM

T HE FOREGOING discussion has laid out the de-
sign goals, curriculum objectives, and curri-
culum implementation features for the Control
Engineering Program at UT-Permian Basin.
Underway only two years, the program has not,
of course, fully realized all of these ambitions.
The intent of this section is to evaluate the status
of the program and its future.
The ultimate evaluation of any professional
program comes from the performance of its
graduates in practice. Too young to have many
graduates and with little time-in-service for those
that have graduated, any evaluation must neces-
sarily be very preliminary. Students in or from
this program have been favorably received by in-
dustry and graduate schools. Industries par-
ticipating in our Authentic Involvement program
have responded favorably both to the engineering
competence of our students and to their abilities
to document and communicate their work. Thus
the external indicators of acceptance of our
students are positive.
The educational environment in our program
is entirely different from what most students have
previously experienced. Inevitably then, there has
been a period of adaptation as students learn to
function efficiently in this new environment and
as the faculty adjust the environment based on
student successes and reactions. Some students
have been unable or unprepared to adapt and have
dropped from the program, but most have learned
to take advantage of the flexibility. A significant
number of students, with poor initial preparation
or with a long lapse in their studies, have been


able to develop and to succeed in the program
only because of the individual pacing, one-to-one
instructor help, and the opportunity to recycle
until reasonable competency is achieved. Such
students, although they have excellent latent po-
tential, would not survive in a conventional pro-
gram.
Although considerable progress has been
achieved toward meeting the needs and maximiz-
ing the chance for success of individual students,
much remains to be done. Needed are more formal
premeasure procedures, self-study packages for
areas of significant prerequisite weakness, a
broader range of course offerings and more variety
within courses, revisions and additions to existing
learning materials, a more formal and elaborate
validation procedure, development of laboratory
facilities, and an ever-improving course manage-
ment system. These areas of development are in
various stages of progress, but all are underway.
Resource limitations are believed to be the
primary impediments to their rapid and success-
ful conclusion. O
APPENDIX
Curriculum objectives for the Control Engineering pro-
gram are as follows.
A graduate of this program should be able to:
* Operate successfully as a member of a project design
team to construct a proposed design solution to an
authentic problem and to prepare and present satis-
factory oral and written reports documenting the
design.
* Demonstrate project management skills necessary to
insure the successful operation of the team in the
team design activity described above.
* Demonstrate successful acquisition and application of
information relative to a topic for which little infor-
mation is available in typical literature sources.
* Construct and support a prediction of the possible
impact on society of a major event, invention, dis-
covery, technological change, change in government
policy or law, etc.


Sir:
Almost invariably I have found that the demonstration
has been a very effective teaching tool that was well re-
ceived by students. To help myself and others who share
my inclination, I am attempting to edit a compilation of
demonstrations. I wish to concentrate on the field of ChE
as a broader coverage is probably not practical. Accord-
ingly, I would like to ask any potential author who knows
of such demonstrations to contact me. Then we can make
arrangements so that a common format is used and ap-
propriate authors credits are given.
Prof. M. Duane Horton
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


WINTER 1977









n laboratory


SYCONS, A SYSTEMS CONTROL SIMULATOR


HENRY R. WENGROW1
CHARLES R. DENNETT2
RICHARD N. GREENLEE
and DAVID LeBLANC3
University of Lowell
Lowell, Mass. 01854


P ROCESS DYNAMICS and Control is normally
taught to ChE students in their senior year.
At the University of Lowell this is a two semester
course consisting of 3 hours of lecture in the fall
semester and 1 hour of lecture and 3 hours of
laboratory in the spring semester. The fall semes-
ter course is intended to provide a sound theoret-
ical background in control theory with emphasis
on mathematical techniques, open and closed loop
systems and stability analysis (root locus and
Bode diagrams). The spring semester consists of
weekly lectures on advanced topics and laboratory
work consisting of digital and analog computer
techniques and experimental techniques using
hardware such as pneumatic and electronic con-
trollers, valves, level control systems and flow
control systems.
In addition the university has established a
college-wide digital control laboratory for the pur-
pose of developing real time systems and demon-
stration programs for both teaching and research
projects.
Three ChE seniors, (Dennett, Greenlee, Le-
Blanc) developed SYCONS as an elective senior
project in conjunction with this laboratory, work-
ing under the direction of the senior author,
(Wengrow).
SYCONS, which stands for Systems Control
Simulator, is an interactive program written in
BASIC which allows the user to simulate a closed
loop block diagram of up to 30 individual com-
ponents, consisting of a 3-mode controller (any

1Present address: 3017 Amherst Ave., Columbia, S.C.
2Present address: 494-13 Greenleaf Meadows, Rochester,
N.Y.
3Present address: Celanese Chemical Co., Bishop, Tx.


combination of modes), step loads or setpoint, first
and second order systems, and dead times. The
transfer functions for components are shown in
Table 1. The set point can also be a sine wave and
the system may be run open loop.

TABLE 1
Transfer Functions for SYCONS


Transfer Function
X= R-Y
1
KeJ1 + + TDs]
TiS
G
7S + 1
G
72s2 + 2fTs + 1
e -Ts


Name


Comments


Comparator 1st element in loop


Controller


Can be used as P, I, D,
PI, PD, PID, ID


1st order Specify G and r


2nd Order Specify G, 7, and {


Specify 7 < 5


X = Y + U Summing Must be between each
junction non-summing junction
element.
With these combinations available, most com-
mon type control problems arising in ChE can be
solved. The output consists of the time domain
response of the final element in the loop.
The program philosophy is to allow the user to
specify the control loop and provide answers in
the least restricted fashion possible.
The machine used is a NOVA 1200 with 16K
memory and disk storage. Input is through key-
board with CRT display or punched paper type
and output is CRT, line printer or punched paper
type.
Computing Algorithms-Each individual ele-
ment is considered as a block with input, X, and
output, Y. Summing junctions have an additional
input U which may be zero and serve both to al-
low step changes in load and to convert the output
of one block to the input of the next block.
Comparator-This element allows for negative
feedback and is analogous to the comparator in
real systems.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Controller-A simple trapezoidal rule is used
for the integral portion and a difference approxi-
mation is used for the derivative mode.

[ 1 t-1i
Y= X + Xi + At
L TI 1 2

Xt -Xt (1)


First and Second Order Systems-The rela-
tively unsophisticated Euler method is used for
the solutions of the first and second order differ-
ential equations. A time step of 0.02 is used
throughout.

Yt = G xt Yt-1 At + Yt-1 (2)
T

Yt = GXt- 2_ t (Yt- Yt-2) -Yt-2
At A tY


+ 2Yt-l-Yt-2 (3)
T )
Time Lag-The time lag is achieved by storing
inputs in an array and recalling at the proper
time. Because of array size limitations for BASIC,
only time lags of 5 and less can be used.
Y(t) = X(t ) (4)
Also only one delay element may be used per loop
simulation.

USE OF SYCONS

THE USE OF SYCONS is relatively simple and
can be used by students of control with mini-
mum instruction. The closed loop process shown in
Figure 1 was run on the computer by way of il-
lustrations. In the language of SYCONS it con-
sists of 8 elements:
1. Comparator 5. Summing Junction
2. Controller 6. First Order
3. Summing Junction 7. Summing Junction
4. First Order 8. Time Lag
At each point in the program where a user
must enter information, SYCONS requests the


FIGURE 1. Block Diagram.


TIHE
FIGURE 2. Response to step change in load.


proper information giving the user the proper
codes to assist in the input. Interested readers
may request a copy of the program from the
author.
Figure 2 is a plot of the time domain response
of the last element.
Several additional techniques can be used with
SYCONS. A sine wave can be used in the first
load position (comparator set-point) and if the
process is run open-loop the frequency response
can be determined. The derivative mode of the
controller can be used to generate an impulse func-
tion by putting a step change into the set point
under open loop conditions and the integral mode
will generate a ramp input under similar condi-
tions. With an impulse input, data for Fourier
analysis can be generated.

CONCLUSIONS

S YCONS APPEARS to work well and to be a
versatile tool for both the learning of process
control techniques and for the solution of complex
transient responses.
It has been used by several students with some
control background and was found to be simple to
use and instructive in illustrating methods that
were merely concepts.
A copy of the project report which includes the
program listing, additional illustrated examples
and the program logic diagram can be obtained
from Digital Control Lab, College of Engineering,
University of Lowell, Lowell, MA. 01854.
The authors acknowledge Prof. P. Burger and
the students of the Digital Control Lab, Univer-
sity of Lowell, for their help and encouragement
in this project. O


WINTER 1977










84th

Annual

Conference


Editor's Note: The four papers following were presented as part of a
symposium at the Annual Conference of the ASEE at the University
of Tennessee; Knoxville, Tennessee; June 1976.


Where Is the

Roller Coaster Headed?


TABLE 1


WILLIAM D. BAASEL
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio 45701
and
MICHAEL D. CISE
Eli Lilly & Company
Indianapolis, Indiana 46206

THE DEMAND FOR engineers has been widely
touted recently by such mass media publica-
tions as the Wall Street Journal and Time Maga-
zine. This has generally been a result of reports
emanating from the Engineering Manpower Com-
mission. Professional journals have also vividly
described the apparent disparity between engi-
neering enrollments and projected demands for
B.S. engineers. An example of this is the series
"Supply, Demand and Utilization of Engineers"
in Chemical Engineering Progress last year.
It appeared that engineering enrollments were
on the decline up to the Fall of 1975. At that time,
ChE Departments began to talk about a quantum
surge in enrollments and fears of a boom and bust
cycle were being mentioned at national AIChE
meetings. It became evident that this was a


Will these and other survey results
moderate the present enrollment rise
and degree projections? Where is the roller
coaster headed? Do we want to stop it?
What action do you, the Professional
Chemical Engineer, feel AIChE
and ASEE should take?


PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN
FRESHMAN ENROLLMENTS


Percentage
Increase
<0%
0- 9%
10- 19%
20- 29%
30- 39%
40- 49%
50- 59%
60- 69%
70- 79%
80- 89%
90- 99%
100-109%
110% +
Median


Number of Number of
U.S. Schools Canadian Schools


nation-wide phenomenon. The National Career
Guidance Committee of AIChE sought verification
of this as well as other pertinent data to offer a
true perspective of the increases. They conducted
a survey of all ChE Departments in the United
States and Canada which asked for estimates of
projected B.S. degrees to 1979, past degree pro-
duction data, present and future capacity data,
trends in enrollments, attitudes toward coping
with the increased enrollments and career guid-
ance programs and needs. Were we really on an
enrollment roller coaster and did we want to get
off?
One hundred nineteen of the one hundred
thirty-six U.S. ChE Departments responded to
the survey (see Appended copy) conducted in
March and April of 1976. Thirteen of the seven-
teen Canadian departments also responded. Use-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









ful data was obtained from U.S. Departments
representing almost 90% of the B.S. degrees
granted. The Canadian schools reporting repre-
sented approximately 82% of the B.S. degree vol-
ume for that country. The survey results indicate
that in 1978, 5328 Bachelor of Science degrees in
ChE will be awarded by schools in the United
States and another 523 by Canadian schools. This
will be an increase of more than 50% over the av-
erage number of B.S. chemical engineers gradu-
ated between 1966 and 1975 for the U.S. The
predictions also indicate the 1979 graduating
classes will be 5656 and 698 for the United States
and Canada, respectively. Only twice has the num-
ber of United States ChE Bachelors degrees ex-
ceeded 3800. In 1949 it was 4506 and in 1950,
4529.
The 119 United States ChE Departments are
hoping to add between 98 and 117 new faculty
positions in ChE to meet this enrollment surge.
This increase in faculty will mean the United
States will have the capacity for producing an
estimated 6271 B.S. graduates per year. Present
estimated United States capacity is 5785. The
present estimated Canadian annual capacity is
649 B.S. degrees and a projected increase of four
faculty positions will bring this to 680.
The survey first polled the chemical engineer-
ing departments on the increases in the fresh-
man and sophomore enrollments. Tables 1 and 2
show the distribution of percentage increases.
Generally, the largest increases were reported by
small departments. The median reported freshman
increase was 40% and the median reported sopho-

TABLE 2
PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN
SOPHOMORE ENROLLMENTS


Percentage
Increase
<0%
0- 9%
10- 19%
20- 29%
30- 39%
40- 49%
50- 59%
60- 69%
70- 79%
80- 89%
90- 99%
100-109%
110% +
Median


Number of Number of
U.S. Schools Canadian Schools


TABLE 3
ATTRITION RATE
IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Attrition
Rate
%
0- 4
5- 9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
80
Median


Number of
U.S. Schools
3
1
4
7
10
12
21
4
10
3
14


Number of
Canadian Schools



1
2
1
1
3



1


more increase was 30%. When the schools were
asked if the number of highly qualified students
which were likely to graduate in ChE had in-
creased, 75% (62%)* said yes and 17% (31%)*
said no. This is a good indication that the ex-
panded student body can survive the rigors of a
ChE program.
The departments were then asked to supply
their freshman-senior attrition experience. Table
3 illustrates the distribution and again the smaller
departments usually experienced the larger rates.
The median attrition rate is 30%. Thirty-four
percent (0%) of the departments expect the at-
trition rate to increase, 11% (17%) to decrease
and 49% (83%) to remain the same. Here again
is an indication that the increased enrollments can
be expected to appear as future graduates.
Not only are those selecting ChE initially in-
creasing but those transferring into our field are
also increasing. Eighty-eight percent (54%) of
the responding schools found an increasing shift
of degree major toward ChE at the B.S. level.
Sixty-one percent (23%) found an increased shift
at the M.S. level.

ESTIMATED GROWTH

EACH RESPONDENT was asked to estimate
the number of expected B.S. degrees over the
next four years. Table 4 summarizes the estimates
that were supplied by U.S. schools. The number

*The numbers not in parenthesis are for the U.S.
schools; those in parenthesis are for the Canadian schools.


WINTER 1977










TABLE 4
UNITED STATES ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS


Sum of Number of
Estimates Schools


Year


1976
1977
1978
1979
Present
Capacity
Future
Capacity


3237
3880
4718
4699

4936

5351


Reported*
10 year
average
sum
3190.7
3190.7
3145.7
2951.3


117 3030.7

117 3030.7


Estimated
Yearly
Total
3607
4320
5328
5656

5785

6272


*Including an estimate by authors for 3 schools.


of schools that provided useful estimates are indi-
cated. Also listed are the estimates of total degrees
to be awarded. These are based upon the sum of
10-year averages provided by the schools that
estimated future enrollments (for three of these
schools, the authors had to estimate their 10-year
average). This sum was added to the calculated
average for the 17 non-answering schools plus the
four who have ceased offering a degree in ChE.
This total divided by the sum for the schools esti-
mating future enrollments was multiplied by their
estimates to obtain the projected yearly totals for
the next four years. For the schools which did not
provide 10-year estimates these were obtained
from the number of graduates listed in "Chemical
Engineering Faculties". Where values were mis-
sing these were estimated by the authors. The
average number of U.S. Bachelors degrees was
calculated to be 3552. The Engineering Manpower
Commission estimates the average between 1966
and 1975 to be 3371 B.S. graduates. This is the


TABLE 5
CANADIAN ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS


Sum of Number of
Estimates Schools


1976
1977
1978
1979
Present
Capacity
Future
Capacity


Reported
Ten Year
Average
Sum
320.3
320.3
320.3
210.3


Est
Y
"1


13 320.3

13 320.3


imated
early
Total
312
430
523
698

650

680


equivalent to an error of 5.37% or an over-estima-
tion of 1.56 graduates per year for each of schools
responding. The equivalent figures for Canadian
schools are given in Table 5. The projected totals
were estimated in a similar way. Table 6 gives the
projected number of Bachelor level engineering
degrees as estimated by the Engineering Man-
power Commission in its publication "Prospects
of Engineering and Technology Graduates 1975".
To obtain the ChE bachelors degrees this was
multiplied by 8-1/2%. This is the figure John
Alden (CEP, Oct. 1975, pg. 25) estimated as the
past and future percentage of total engineering
bachelor degrees. The difference in these figures
is astonishing. Since the vast majority of these
prospective graduates are currently enrolled in
ChE and each school estimated its own prospec-
tive number of graduates, the authors feel the
figures estimated by this survey are reasonably
accurate. In fact these figures may be a little low

TABLE 6
COMPARISON OF UNITED STATES
ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS


Year
1976
1977
1978
1979


Total U.S.*
Bachelors
Degrees
40,600
44,200
50,700
51,900


ChE**
Bachelors
Degrees
3,450
3,757
4,310
4,416


Estimate
from
Table 4
3,607
4,320
5,328
5,656


*Source: "Engineering Manpower Commission"
**8-1/2% of Total Bachelors Degrees

because the number of Master of Science degrees
which will be granted to non-B.S. ChE degree
holders must also be considered as part of the
annual output of ChE's. The schools answering
this question indicated 129 (22) of these will be
granted in 1976 and 206 (39) in 1977. Currently
at least 60 United States (8) schools offer or-
ganized programs in this sort and 13 (0) are
planning to add such programs in the next few
years.
Is this increase in students merely a perturba-
tion about the mean or does it portend a sub-
stantial long term growth in B.S. ChE's? Most
U.S. schools seem to feel that it may be permanent
since 62 (3) of them are planning or hoping to
add over 98 (4) new faculty positions. When
asked whether there were any constraints upon
the departments which would prevent them from
increasing their faculty size, only 25% (15%)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 7
CONSTRAINTS WHICH MAY PREVENT THE
ChE DEPARTMENTS FROM INCREASING
THEIR NUMBER OF FACULTY MEMBERS


U.S. Schools
Number of
Replies


Money
Administration Policy
Space (Laboratory
or Classroom)
Enrollment
Faculty
Job Opportunities
Resources
Graduate Students
Research


Canadian
Number of
Replies
11



2


said no. Those that answered yes listed the con-
straints given in Table 7. The overwhelming ma-
jority cited budgetary restraints of one form or
another. It appears from the comments received
that quite a few university administrations are
putting a lid on the total number of faculty and
any increase in engineering faculty would have to
come at the expense of other departments.
The Survey indicates that 36 (3) schools feel
they will exceed their estimated capacity by 1979.
The authors anticipated this and asked the ques-
tion, "If the number of freshman or sophomore
ChE majors exceeded the largest number of ChE's
which you felt you could reasonably graduate
would you (a) increase the size of the faculty, (b)
set a maximum number of students admitted to
junior courses, (c) hire graduate students to teach
undergraduate courses, (d) increase standards so
more students flunk nut nf the nronramm (ep dn


TABLE 8
UNITED STATES DEPARTME
"If the number of freshman o
engineering majors exceeded t
chemical engineers which you
ably graduate, what course
take?"


Increase the size of the faculty
Set a maximum number of stu-
dents admitted to junior
course
Hire graduate students to teach
undergraduate courses
Increase standards so more stu-
dents flunk out of the pro-
gram
Nothing


nothing, (f) other. The responses varied and are
given in Table 8 and 9. The favorite U.S. method
of coping was to increase faculty. Increasing
standards and regulating junior class size met
with split decisions while using graduate students
to teach met with disfavor. The most frequently
noted alternative was controlling admissions at
the outset. It is noteworthy that this appears to
be the method favored in Canada since 6 of 13
schools indicated this as a course of action, and
some stated they were presently employing it. The
use of adjunct faculty was the second most men-
tioned alternative as a short-term means of help-
ing a department through the present surge.
This survey has quantified the present enroll-
ment surge and projected an unusual situation in
ChE education. Undoubtedly, many factors are

TABLE 9
CANADIAN DEPARTMENTAL RESPONSES TO
"If the number of freshman or sophomore chemical
engineering majors exceeded the largest number of
chemical engineers which you felt you could reason-
ably graduate, what course of cation would you
take?"


Increase the size of the faculty
Set a maximum number of stu-
dents admitted to junior
course
Hire graduate students to teach
undergraduate courses
Increase standards so more stu-
dents flunk out of the pro-
gram
Nothing


Yes No Unknown
2 4 1


3 2 1

0 5 0


0 5 0
0 0 0


responsible for the present situation and many


others will affect the outcome over the next few
years. Many questions come to mind as a conse-
quence of this survey. Are the ChE departments
NTAL RESPONSES TO on an enrollment roller coaster? Are the future
r sophomore chemical
the largest number of plans of these departments for faculty additions
felt you could reason- realistic? Is this surge in enrollments due to pub-
of action would you licity in the mass media, lack of jobs in other
scientific fields, and/or lack of jobs for high school
Yes No Unknown and college graduates due to the recession? Should
ChE departments regulate their admissions or
56 22 14
just bend with the breeze? Will there be enough
job openings offering meaningful employment for
35 37 10 the anticipated surge of engineers? Will these and
other survey results moderate the present enroll-
22 49 6 ment rise and degree projections? Where is the
roller coaster headed? Do we want to stop it?
38 31 9 What action do you, the Professional Chemical
5 31 5 Engineer, feel AIChE and ASEE should take? E


WINTER 1977









Practical Limits


To Growth In ChE



WILLIAM H. CORCORAN
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125

T HE FOCUS IN THE PAST two years on
national needs, with particular stimulus from
our energy crisis, has excited new thinking about
control of chemical change. A result is that ChE
is a well-paid profession at entry. High school
students in the United States have noticed the dif-
ference. Possibly for that reason there has been


One of the items
that engineering and science
programs have not handled appropriately
over the past few years is the matter of quality.


a boom in enrollment in ChE schools in the 50
states. Some schools report twice as many stu-
dents enrolled in 1976 in the first class of ChE as
in 1975. Perhaps the trend will continue, and per-
haps it will not. In any event we do seem to be
faced with acute personnel problems. They are
problems that are nicer to have than those that
relate to shrinkage of enrollments.
What really will control the growth of ChE
enrollments? Should they be controlled? First,
universities already have built-in controls by way
of budgets that are tighter than ever before in
the history of education. Even if a school wanted
to double its total program, it probably would have
trouble. It might allow an entering class to be
twice the size of a previous entering class, but to
have the total undergraduate enrollment twice
that experienced over a couple of years ago would
probably not be possible in terms of staff and sup-
porting functions required. Therefore, the college
budget is the first step in the control of ChE en-
rollment.
What is the second step? Students may be
enamored with the idea of opportunities to help
and to gain economic strength by way of the en-
gineering profession, and particularly by way of


chemical engineering. They may lose sight, how-
ever, of the difficulties in various curricula. Cer-
tainly ChE is a quantitative curriculum, and
students have been known to fail in the program.
Particularly students have had trouble with uni-
versity chemistry. General chemistry, organic
chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and physical
chemistry are much more demanding and quanti-
tative than ever before. To be a ChE requires that
you move through the courses in chemistry. It
probably is so that a fair fraction of a diverse
group of students in the ChE curriculum will find
difficulties with chemistry. So item two in control
of ChE enrollments relates to the specter of chem-
istry. Also chemistry could be made even more
stringent as a control point.
Third, one of the items that engineering and
science programs have not handled appropriately
over the past few years is the matter of quality.
Since the end of World War II, we, in general,
have been focusing upon quantity not at the total
loss of quality but not with the same development
of quality that we would have with emphasis on
that attribute. So, as universities have large en-
tering classes in ChE, it is incumbent upon the
universities to have appropriate standards of per-
formance so that in the subsequent years those
students who really are not committed to the de-
velopment of useful careers in ChE can be drop-
ped. That has been a practice in some large schools
for some time anyway. For example, admission
standards could be minimal for the freshman year.
Then a large number could be weeded out in the
first year after knowledge is collected on their
abilities. Perhaps more of that control will be
invoked in the future in ChE.

FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES
A FOURTH CONTROL on growth of ChE en-
rollment could be found in careful examina-
tion of predicted employment opportunities. No
one has yet figured out how to predict employment
opportunities. If we ponder the costs for a new
engineer in industry and the increasing ability of
an engineer to work with effectiveness because of
new tools and new computers, maybe the market
will need fewer engineers per capital of population.
As part of the future employment opportuni-
ties for engineers, note should be made of the roles


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








of engineering technologists and technicians. Em-
ployment interest in them has not been fully de-
veloped. As it becomes fully developed, there prob-
ably will be an increasing effort to have engineers
work in the fullest professional sense as engineers.
Engineering technologists would be ready to
handle operational functions. If engineering tech-
nology does affect our work as suggested, there
indeed will be fewer engineers hired but probably
at much higher salaries and with much higher
professional input to their jobs. That calls for
better and even more demanding programs. That
more intense professional development in itself
could provide a strong governor on enrollment.
No one truly can predict what lies ahead rela-


A fourth control on the growth of
ChE enrollment could be found
in careful examination of
predicted employment opportunities.


tive to what we have done in the past. Engineer-
ing obviously will have to help in meeting all na-
tional priorities and in keeping the country mov-
ing. Whether it will do its work more efficiently
than in the past is our problem, and really that is
the total crux of what engineering will be like ten
years from now and what enrollment levels will
be. O


Too Many


Departments!

HENRY A. McGEE, JR.
Virgina Polytechnic Institute and
State University
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

T HE CONTINUED HEALTH of our profession
demands that the production of baccalaureate
graduates in ChE be limited. A natural such limi-
tation results from the acceptance of a simple
premise, but it is nonetheless one that educators
in ChE somehow still find to be debatable. The
premise is simply that education in ChE at what-
ever academic level must be developed and pre-
sented by professors who are themselves active
participants in the growing edge of the profession.
And this is true for professors in all of the pro-
fessions. For example, I cannot imagine the ap-
prentice surgeon learning his skill from a master
who himself does not practice surgery. Certainly
also the young surgeon who aspires to be the
creator of new techniques-to invent the heart
transplant, as it were-will want to work with the


It is not enough merely to
admonish our students to go out
and be honest and apply common sense
to this or that ethical situation. We must provide
intellectually demanding exercises and
exposure to the great ideas and
thinkers of Western Civilization.


best-known experts of the day. So it is also in
ChE.
This participation by faculty at the growing
edge of the profession is heavily dependent upon
graduate students, for the neophytes are an ex-
tension of the personality of the major professor.
In fact, to a marked degree, the reputation of pro-
fessors is heavily dependent upon the quality of
the graduate students that we have attracted over
the years. It appears that our economy can absorb
about 400 new PhD level ChE's per year. At a
nominal rate of one new PhD per year per faculty
member, this implies a total faculty in the uni-
versities of the country of about 400. Or, cor-
respondingly, the need of our society for about
1000 MS graduates per year implies a faculty of
about 500 if we take a production rate of about
two new MS graduates per faculty member per
year. Using this larger number, and with a critical
density of about 15 faculty per department, this
suggests that we need about 35 departments. A
faculty of 15 could readily produce a baccalaureate
group of 70 per year or a national production of
about 2500 BS graduates per year. The numbers
in this sort of nominal scenario are approximately
the degree production that seems to fit our na-
tional requirements for new ChE's. However, the
institutional structures for educating these new
practitioners of our science and our art have ex-
panded beyond all reason. We compare the above
projections with the current listing of 123 ac-
credited departments in the United States with
almost 1500 faculty members-and growing. The
academic profession then is functioning as an
excellent absorber of ChE talent that could be


WINTER 1977


__


III








more productively utilized elsewhere. Innumerable
variations on this theme are, of course, possible-
the above exercise is merely typical-but the es-
sential message of the analysis is that we have
too many ChE departments. The excess capacity
seems to be about a factor of two or three.

FEWER DEPARTMENTS
M OST IMPORTANTLY, fewer departments
would produce a much more professional



... fewer departments would produce ... a much
more professional orientation than we now seem
to impart to our students ... would insure
the stimulation of high quality colleagues
in other related disciplines, and
facilities that are not thwarted
by the critical mass phenomena.



orientation than we now seem to impart to our
students. And this new status would characterize
our graduates at all three academic levels. One
might well counter that it is not professional
status that you achieve at all, but rather a snob-
bishness borne of exclusivity. This exclusivity does
personify the elitism of our profession; but it also
changes the point from which the new entrant
into the profession views himself and his po-
tential for contribution to our society. The change
I propose does not attempt to change a person's
perspective on professional issues, rather it
changes the point from which the perspective
originates. It is not ideas that determine our pro-
fessional status, rather it is our socio-economic
status that determines our professional ideas and
our self-perceptions. My discussions with many
ChE's from all over the country produce a dis-
appointment and a sadness by the self-perception
of so many ChE's who see themselves as highly
skilled technical employees of some great corpora-
tion. Yet the ChE is not merely a skilled employee
of duPont-rather he is the duPont Company. And
without his presence, the company could not exist.
Attitudes and self-perceptions are enormously im-
portant. We will continue to have large numbers
of our ranks who have technician-like perceptions
of themselves and their work as long as the uni-
versities continue to inculcate such values. The
greatest unmet task of our ChE departments is
that of elevating the views and raising the ex-


pectations of our students. Although thermo-
dynamics is an essential tool, it cannot be applied
with professional character except from a back-
ground of values. It is not enough to merely ad-
monish our students to go out and be honest and
apply common sense to this or that ethical situa-
tion. We must provide intellectually demanding
exercises and exposure to the great ideas and
thinkers of Western Civilization especially in those
areas that emphasize human values and ethics,
and this attitudinal development is also enhanced
by the vision of chemical engineering as a very
special profession.

Fewer departments would insure the stimula-
tion of high quality colleagues in other related
disciplines. Departments of chemical engineering
are parasitic in a sense, for we feed off of the de-
partments of chemistry, other departments of the
college of engineering, and increasingly the de-
partments of biochemistry and microbiology as
well and even several departments of the college of
medicine. Excellence in essential supporting de-
partments is also relatively rare, and yet a ChE
department cannot really thrive unless, for ex-
ample, the chemistry department is also excellent.
This co-existence of strengths exists on relatively
few campuses, and yet this co-existence and this
synergism is essential to insure the continued ex-
panding ChE domain.

Fewer departments would insure faculties that
are not thwarted by the critical mass phenomena.
Just as ChE personifies synergism with other
disciplines, so also is this the case within its own
areas of specialization. A faculty of about ten
seems to be on the lower bound of criticality, for
a survey of the work of departments reveals that
smaller ones are either just weak, or, if strong,
that strength will be in a very few special areas
of ChE. It is essential that students be exposed to
ChE's who might be characterized as applied
physical chemists and it is equally important that
they see ChE's who exemplify the more engineer-
ing orientation. The strength of our profession is
this dual character of the ChE as both scientist
and engineer-and our faculties must be of suf-
ficient breadth to provide models of both extremes,
and at several points in between. Those students
who are graduating, at whatever the academic de-
gree level, from departments that do not have
this character are not receiving the vision of the
profession nor the attitudinal structure that they
need for optimum professional practice.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES


THE FINANCIAL position of ChE's is clearly
enhanced by this control on numbers that we
seek. ChE services are required, persons with such
skills are few, and therefore the price for such
services will be high. Professional licensing by the
states could protect the public against imitators.
A graduate in biology can read a few books on the
physiology and diseases of dogs, but state licensing
protects the public against this individual uni-
laterally declaring himself a veterinarian and
opening a pet clinic. So it could be in ChE.
As is the case with most organizational struc-
tures, attitudes, philosophies, and ambitions, the
major obstacle to this (or any other) more pro-
fessional orientation is our desire to make the
change. Many self-proclaimed leading departments
will not be interested, for they mistakenly feel
that they have nothing to gain. The sleepy depart-
ments will not be interested for concerns of self-
preservation, for they would see themselves going
out of business. Yet we are all the healthier-just
as the NFL is healthier-if we maintain only as
many teams as can be supported in first-class style
and be maintained at more or less comparable
strengths.


How might it be done, for departments are not
likely to vote themselves out of business. Cer-
tainly the advantages to the individual faculty
member of consolidating two or three departments
could be made compelling. The combined depart-
ment would be more attractive in terms of quality
of faculty, quality of facilities, and numbers and
quality of students. The economics of consolida-
tion would be attractive to state legislatures and
boards of trustees, and certainly the long-term
economies of scale could be used to extract short-
term incentives to promote and to initially capital-
ize this new epiphany of ChE education. Certainly
those deans who lose their ChE department would
breathe a sigh of relief, for the ChE's are widely
recognized as the nemesis of all deans of engineer-
ing.
Perhaps the dismal science of economics may
yet push us to this more professional status but
curiously from the motivation of the happenstance
corollary of cost effectiveness. That would be a
very positive result, but it certainly would not
reflect the wisdom of the ChE community. We
seem to know so much about the economies of
scale; it is curious that we continue to ignore
those ideas in our own business. O


Can We Limit Enrollment


By Professional

Society Action?

T. W. F. RUSSELL and R. L. DAUGHERTY
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711

T IS QUITE clear that the demand for engi-
neering graduates is difficult if not impossible
to predict. User surveys have not proven success-
ful and it seems doubtful that we will ever be able
to make forecasts adequate enough for individ-
uals, universities, industrial and government sec-
tors to do reliable planning. Some engineers think
that the answer is to limit enrollment at some
number below the most pessimistic forecast and
thus assure that those accepted into the profession
have an opportunity to practice it. There are two
ways to limit enrollment:
limit number of accredited colleges
limit number of students in accredited colleges.


The Engineers Council on Professional Devel-
opment already limits the number of colleges and
any discussion of this issue must consider tighter
criteria for accreditation. The question of limiting
the number of students has not received as much
attention and this problem is considered here.

ENROLLMENT LIMITING PROCESS
FIGURE 1 ILLUSTRATES the enrollment lim-
iting process and shows what information is
needed to consider the question. The capacity by
discipline of each engineering college needs to be
known and the number of graduates capable of
being produced in each discipline in any one year
must be known. This later information depends
not only upon number of students which can be
graduated, but also upon raw material supply of
high school or transfer students. Demand fore-
casts for at least four years in the future must be
available for each discipline. A comparison can
then be made between supply and demand and
action initiated (Figure 2).


WINTER 1977









defined in different ways by different people using
the word-the admissions office thinks of capacity
in terms of Freshmen who can be admitted, the
provost thinks of capacity in terms of the total
number of students who are in the college, the
dean thinks of capacity in terms of number of
students in each year in each department, the pro-
fessional society thinks in terms of number of
graduates.
A method of predicting department capacity
for a given distribution of students by year has
been proposed by Russell and Daugherty [1]. The
main elements of their method are shown in Fig-
ure 3 and Table 1. It is a procedure which should


FIGURE 1.
When predicted output is greater than pre-
dicted demand and nothing is done, a cycle of over
and under supply is created with very negative
effects to the universities and to those employing
engineers. To limit enrollment, departments or
colleges must be eliminated or the number of
graduating students in existing departments must
be controlled.
Either course of action is difficult to carry out.
There is a severe problem of time scale and it is
essential to have adequate prediction at least four
years in advance. This is simply not available at
the present time with enough accuracy so that de-
cisions of the sort needed can be made and en-
forced.
Furthermore, even if the predictions could be
made with some degree of credibility, we must be
able to predict the capacity of a college of engi-
neering. This is a term used rather loosely. It is


FIGURE 2.


Some engineers think that the
answer is to limit enrollment at some
number below the most pessimistic forecast
and thus assure that those accepted into
the profession have an opportunity
to practice it.


assure educational quality. It first evaluates the
faculty's efforts in research, curriculum develop-
ment, professional society service and academic
service to realistically determine the time which
can be devoted to undergraduate teaching. (Fac-
ulty course capacity factor). Departments which
are nationally ranked have values between 0.4
and 0.5. Departments which have values close to
1.0 are not devoting enough effort to other activ-
ities to keep their teaching up to date and effec-
tive. Using the faculty course capacity figure, the
maximum number of student spaces can be com-
puted if the negotiated work load, number of full
time faculty, and number of students per course
are known. The maximum number of student
spaces is then modified for the inadequacies listed
in Table 1. Capacity is determined in terms of
distribution of students by year.
This capacity determination procedure has not
been tested and modified by experience, a process
which should take a minimum of two years. It is
essential that this be done however, if the engi-
neering profession is to consider the question of
enrollment limitation.
If we suppose that adequate procedures are
available to predict demand and predict capacity,
the question of how to limit arises.
* To limit number of departments, the ECPD must tighten
accreditation standards in such a way that some number
of schools will lose their accreditation. It is far from a


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











DETERMINATION OF
DEPARTMENT
CAPACITY


DETERMINE FACULTY
COURSE CAPACITY FACTOR
(0,3 1.0)


DETERMINE MAXIMUM
NUMBER OF STUDENT
SPACES

-NEGOTIATED WORK LOAD
-NUMBER OF FULL-TIME FACULTY
-NUMBER OF STUDENTS PER COURSE


FIGURE 3.
trivial matter to decide how this should be done and al-
most impossible to control numbers within the time
scales involved (6 and 4 year accreditations). Further-
more, what happens to those students enrolled in an
institution which loses its accreditation? Many will con-
tinue and graduate.
* To limit enrollments within departments, the ECPD
must first determine capacity of each and every college
it accredits. This is a task requiring a minimum: of 6 to
8 years. Once capacity is known a means of prorating
must be developed and each college informed of its "al-
lowed" capacity. A means of so doing is not now avail-
able and even if this could be developed, the college or
the university may not wish or may not be able to limit
student numbers.
It must be concluded that limitation of enroll-


ment can not easily be carried out at the present
time in any effective way.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE

A means of determining capacity should be
tested, modified and then formally accepted by the
ECPD. This could be done by having ECPD in-
spection teams try out proposed procedures.
The capacity determination procedure should
be made part of the ECPD inspection.
The U. S. capacity for producing engineers
should be determined using the ECPD figures.
This would then allow the engineering profession
to better understand one part of the fundamental
problem underlying over and under supply. O

TABLE 1
MODIFY MAXIMUM NUMBER OF STUDENT SPACES
FOR DEFICIENCY IN
(1) Inadequate Laboratory Space
(2) Inadequate Numbers of Non-Academic Personnel
(3) Inadequate Numbers of Graduate Teaching Assistants
(4) Inadequate Capital Equipment Expenditures
(5) Inadequate Appropriations for Expenditure
Determine Capacity in Terms of
Number of Students Per Year

REFERENCES
1. "Estimating Undergraduate Student Capacity of an
Engineering Department", T. W. F. Russell, R. L.
Daugherty and A. F. Graziano. (Submitted to Journal
of Engineering Education).


William D. Baasel is a professor of ChE at Ohio University. He re-
ceived his bachelors and masters degrees from Northwestern University
and his doctorate from Cornell University. He is the author of a book-
"Preliminary Chemical Engineering Plant Design" and is secretary-treas-
urer of the ChE Division of ASEE. He has taught at Clemson College
and held a Ford Foundation Residency in Engineering Practice at the
Dow Chemical Company. He is a registered professional engineer in
Ohio.
Michael D. Cise is a research scientist assigned to the Product De-
velopment Division of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis. He received
his B.ChE degree from the University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, and his
M.S.ChE and Ph.D. from the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. He
is a member of A.I.ChE and local section Career Guidance Chairman
as well as a member of the National Career Guidance Committee of
A.I.ChE.
Henry A. McGee, Jr. is a scientist/engineer by education and by
experience. He is professor and head of the ChE department at VPI
& SU. His current research interest is the application of very unusual
high energy chemistry to the development of highpowered chemically
pumped lasers. He is active in AIChE and this essay is abstracted from
a popular invited talk he has given around the country as an AIChE
Tour Lecturer. His comments on teaching and research are as a par-
ticipant rather than as an observer.
William H. Corcoran is Vice President, Institute Relations and pro-
fessor of ChE at California Institute of Technology. He received his B.S.,


M.S. and Ph.D. from CalTech and later became director of Technical
Development at Cutter Laboratories before returning to CalTech as pro-
fessor. He received the Western Electric Fund Award of ASEE for
1960-70; the Civ Award of the Southern California Section of AIChE in
1970 and the Founders Award of AIChE in 1974. He was the Sixth
Annual Phillips Petroleum Lecturer in ChE in 1971, and is the past
chairman of the EE & A Committee of ECPD, the Publications Board of
CEE and the E & A Committee of AIChE. He is currently the vice
president of AIChE.
T. W. F. Russell is a Professor of ChE and Associate Dean of the
College of Engineering at the University of Delaware. He obtained his
bachelors and masters degree from the University of Alberta and after
working as a design engineer with Union Carbide, Canada for three
years, he obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Delaware. Professor
Russell is a coauthor of "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analy-
sis" (J. Wiley 1972) and Structure of the Chemical Process Industries-
Function and Economics" (McGraw Hill, in press).
Richard L. Daugherty is Assistant Dean of Engineering and Assistant
Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University
of Delaware. He holds degrees in civil and mechanical engineering as
well as a Ph.D. in applied science. Dean Daugherty handles budgetary
and fiscal matters for the College and maintains a teaching and re-
search load in structural mechanics and its application to filamentary
composite materials.


WINTER 1977 AR


I I I I














ORGANIZATION OF A FUNCTIONAL ChE LIBRARY


ERIC H. SNIDER
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631

rpHE ChE DEPARTMENT of Clemson Univer-
sity maintains a library for the use of faculty,
students, and visitors. Contained in an 800 square
foot room, the library has, in addition to cases and
shelves for book storage, a current periodicals dis-
play rack, tables and chairs, typewriters, calcula-
tors, and other supplies for the users of the li-
brary. In recent years the library's holdings have
increased significantly. This, along with the fact
that users don't always return volumes to their
proper places, had begun to make it difficult to
locate materials quickly.
A reorganization of the library was under-
taken during a summer break of 1975 to alleviate
this problem. This included discarding out-of-date
material and reclassifying the library contents by
a streamlined "subject area" system. The stand-
ard Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Sys-
tems were considered, but it was decided that en-
gineers don't think in terms of these systems.
Instead, engineers tend to classify things in cer-
tain distinct subject areas that are not well defined
by either of the standard systems. It was with this
in mind that the following classification system
has been instituted.

THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

THE FOLLOWING classification system has
been found useful for cataloging the holdings
of the department library at Clemson.
Chemical Abstracts. Prior to 1962, the com-
plete Chemical Abstracts series was received by
the ChE department. Since 1963, only the Applied
Chemistry Sections have been received. This re-
sults in a considerable saving of shelf space. The
complete Chemical Abstracts are available at two
other campus library facilities, the main univer-
sity library and the Chemistry department library.
Bound Journals. These include Industrial


Eric H. Snider received his B.S. degree in Chemistry (1973), and
the M.S. degree in Chemical Engineering (1975) at Clemson University,
and is currently pursuing the Ph.D. curriculum in Chemical Engineering
at Clemson University. He is a Professional Chemist, A.I.C. Accredited.
His research interests are in air and water pollution analysis, systems
development, and control.

Engineering Chemistry, AIChE Journal, AIChE
Transactions, Chemical Engineering Progress,
and other pertinent journals.
Current Periodicals. This category includes
at least twenty-five current magazines and jour-
nals. Attractive display shelves were constructed
to allow prominent display of the current issues
of each publication. These fold back to reveal
storage shelves for previous copies of each peri-
odical. This provides a convenient and safe method
of storing each year's copies until year-end bind-
ing time.
Miscellaneous Abstracts, Conference Pro-
ceedings, and Government Reports. This serves as
a catch-all category containing such things as is-
sues of Air Pollution Abstracts (one of the fac-
ulty has major research interests in this area),
and final reports of a number of Environmental
Protection Agency sponsored projects.
Dissertations and Theses. This section con-
tains copies of the dissertations and theses done
by graduate students of the department.
Engineering and Reference Texts. This cat-
egory is by far the most extensive in terms of total


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









number of books and number of subcategories.
This category contains many of the standard ref-
erences and texts which find most frequent use in
the engineering disciplines.

CATEGORIES OF ENGINEERING AND
REFERENCE TEXTS
D IVISION OF THE standard reference and
classroom texts into specific categories was
by far the most difficult part of the reorganiza-
tion. Of necessity, the categories were chosen
somewhat arbitrarily, depending on the number
of books we had which might conceivably fall
within a certain class. The system decided upon
is detailed below.

* Reference Books-This category includes many of the
standard references most used by engineers and stu-
dents, such as the Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology,
Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, C.R.C. Hand-
books of Chemistry and Physics, Laboratory Safety,
Organic Compound Identification, Tables for Probability
and Statistics, and numerous others. No attempt was
made to further subdivide this category into engineer-
ing references, mathematics references, etc.; however,
if a library's holdings are extensive enough such sub-
division could be made with little problem.
* General ChE Texts-This category contains the sopho-
more and junior level texts which serve as introductions
to ChE. This group of texts is particularly valuable to
undergraduate students who use its holdings for review
purposes and as a source of supplemental information.
* Unit Operations-This grouping of texts contains gen-
eral texts on the unit operations as well as specialized
texts covering individual processes. Subheadings of the
various unit operations could be used if warranted by a
large number of texts.
* Thermodynamics
* Kinetics
* Plant Design and Economics-This category contains
texts on general chemical process plant design, special
equipment design manuals, and texts on economics in
engineering.
* Process Dynamics and Control
* Mathematics and Computers in Engineering-If a large
number of books are to be catalogued under this head-
ing, subdivisions such as calculus, computer theory, pro-
gramming languages, etc. may be found useful.
* Miscellaneous Engineering-Under this category are
filed texts in the other engineering disciplines, environ-
mental sciences, and physics.
* Chemistry-Subdivision into analytical, organic, phys-
ical, etc. may be made if the number of books warrants
it.
* Miscellaneous Texts-This is another catch-all category
containing such things as histories of major chemical
firms, biographies of scientists, and other miscellaneous
books.
* Engineering Writing and Communications-This cate-
gory contains several useful texts on improving com-


munciation of engineering information. A good diction-
ary is an indispensable part of this division. (Dictionaries
are also conspicuously present in the Reference Books
section.)
After this classification system was devised,
the physical arrangement of the categories on the
shelves was agreed upon. At this stage, the outside
spine of each book was labelled with an abbrevia-
tion of its category, and on the inside front cover
was written the category and the shelf number to
which the book is assigned. This facilitates easy
and accurate refiling of material by all library
users.

ACQUIRING LIBRARY MATERIAL
M ANY FACULTY MEMBERS choose to donate
their desk copies of current texts to the li-
brary. Many texts which are not in current use
find their way from faculty offices onto the library
shelves. Also, many faculty members receive peri-
odicals, conference proceedings, and government
reports in the areas of their research interests,


The standard Dewey Decimal and
Library of Congress Systems were con-
sidered, but it was decided that engineers
don't think in terms of these systems.


and these are often donated to the library.
A major (but often little used) potential
source of library material is the main library of
the institution. For example, Clemson's main uni-
versity library receives the A.S.T.M. Standards
each year. The current three years editions are on
the shelves, and previous editions are kept in
storage. It was discovered by calling the main li-
brary that a fairly recent edition of this work
along with many others, could be removed from
storage and be placed on extended loan to indi-
vidual department libraries. Although the current
edition of these publications would be kept in the
main library, there could still be great value in
having a three- to five-year old edition available in
the department.

LOANING POLICIES

W ITH THE COMPLETION of the reorganiza-
Stion, the need existed to revise and enforce a
loan procedure for the library materials. The fol-
lowing policies have been adopted:
Continued on page 48.


WINTER 1977












j AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

SUBCOMMITTEE ACTIVITIES
WILLIAM F. BECKWITH
Chairman of A-V Sub-Committee


Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631

SEVERAL YEARS AGO I came to the realiza-
tion that visual material on chemical process
equipment is not as readily available to present
chemical engineering students as it used to be. I
came to this realization from a question asked by
a student after we had been studying heat trans-
fer. The student asked, "What does a heat ex-
changer look like?" The only picture of an ex-
changer in the textbook was a schematic drawing
of the flow pattern through an exchanger, and
this drawing was located several chapters ahead
in the book from where the class was studying. I
recalled one textbook from which I studied as a
student, "Unit Operations" by G. G. Brown et al.,
had a number of good pictures of heat exchangers
and other process equipment. As a result, I was
able to obtain a visual understanding of chemical
process equipment that I was studying. Present
ChE students usually do not have such visual aids
available to them.
After discussing this problem with my depart-















William Beckwith obtained his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical
Engineering from Iowa State University. He has been at Clemson
University since receiving his terminal degree in 1963. He is presently
chairman of the Audio-Visual Aids Subcommittee of the Educational
Projects Committee of AIChE. His research interests are in educational
technology and fluid mechanics.


In this film the fabrication
of a heat exchanger was presented.
After showing this film to my class, I observed
the students to be more motivated
to study heat transfer.


ment head, he found an old copy (1957) of a strip
film on heat exchangers. This film along with a
script was made by the C. F. Braun Company for
the Education Projects Committee of AIChE. In
this film the fabrication of heat exchanger along
with a description of some of its uses were pre-
sented. After showing this film to my class, I ob-
served the students to be more motivated to study
heat transfer. Most of the ChE students that I
have taught seem to be able to relate to physical
objects better than abstract concepts.
With this experience I started searching for
other films on chemical process equipment. I lo-
cated a second strip film on fractionating columns
that was also produced by the C. F. Braun Com-
pany. Unable to locate other films, I decided to
make a sound-slide-show of one of my lectures on
the uses of various kinds of pipe fittings. I dis-
covered that it took me about ten hours to pro-
duce a ten minute show. Because of the time re-
quired to produce a ten minute show, I decided to
learn who else has produced sound-slide-shows on
chemical process equipment. Then if I could make
a trade of shows, I could have two shows for the
effort of producing one. I inquired into the present
activities of the Education Projects Committee of
AIChE and I was invited to join the committee to
reactivate the old films subcommittee which was
then renamed the Audio-Visual Aids Committee.
The first project of the A-V Committee was to
survey the other ChE departments about their use
and development of A-V materials. Questionaires
were mailed to about 140 ChE departments, and
sixty nine replies were received. Two questions
were asked. One, list the names of the faculty


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








members who are actively developing or using
A-V material, such as 16 mm films, TV tapes or
sound-slide-shows. Two, describe the A-V material
being used by reporting the media employed, the
name of the course in which the material was be-
ing used, a brief description of the material and
who developed it.

SUMMARY OF SURVEY
A summary of the results of this survey is as
follows. Overall, many ChE faculty members are
experimenting with different types of A-V ma-
terial for use in the courses that they teach. A
number of schools use audio cassettes with or
without slides to present operating instructions
for laboratory equipment. There are some movie
films being shown. The two most frequently shown
film series are films on fluid dynamics of drag by
Shapiro and the fluid flow film loops produced by
the National Committee for Fluid Mechanics
Films and distributed by the Encyclopedia Bri-
tanica Educational Corporation. Two textbooks
are being written which will have accompanying
sets of slides and audio tapes. Dr. C. M. Thatcher
at the University of Arkansas is making a set of
slides and audio tapes to supplement his book
titled "Fundamentals of Good Chemical Engineer-
ing". Professor B. E. Lauer at the University of
Colorado has made 1100 slides to accompany his
textbook on ChE techniques. Outside of the 16 mm
movie films on distillation columns by Fractiona-
tion Research Inc. and by Shell Oil Company, there
were no other A-V material on chemical process
equipment reported.
From this survey it was learned that Professor
B. E. Lauer has prepared a catalog of available
self-paced material which utilized video tapes. For
more information about this catalog write to:
The Catalog
546 Fourteenth Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302

Another activity of the A-V Subcommittee was
to have Professor M. W. Bredekamp to update
his movie film list. Professor Bredekamp divided
his revised list into six parts. Part one contains
all the films believed to be pertinent to the teach-
ing of undergraduate ChE courses. Some of these
films listed have been reviewed and evaluated with
a brief comment about the film. In the second part
of his list, films which deal with specific chemical
industries are reported. Then local sections of
AIChE have reviewed and judged these films to


The first project of the A-V Committee
was to survey the other ChE departments about
their use and development of A-V materials.



be unsuitable for classroom use. In part three are
the addresses of film distributors from which the
films can be ordered. In part four of the listing
are sources of film information from which Pro-
fessor Bredekamp compiled his list, and in part
five a list of films which were included in the
previous year's film listing but which are pres-
ently not available. Professor Bredekamp has also
included the results of the A-V Use Survey in the
Sixth part of his film listing. It is hoped that this
listing by Dr. Bredekamp will be published by
AIChE.*
The A-V subcommittee is presently seeking
more people to work on projects. There is a need
for people and for companies to produce A-V ma-
terial on chemical process equipment. The subcom-
mittee will act as a clearing house for the A-V
material. I have a ten minute sound-slide-show on
the applications of different kinds of pipe fittings
which I would be willing to trade for a sound-
slide-show on pumps. I also have a few copies of
the A-V survey which I will be happy to mail to
anyone on request.
The goal of the A-V subcommittee is to assist
educators to locate A-V material and to promote
the production of new material. By the trading of
material produced by individuals, more A-V ma-
terial at less cost will become available to all. E

* Publication X-91 "Chemical Engineering Educational
Films" can be obtained for $4 by AIChE members and
for $10 by non-members by writing to AIChE's Publica-
tions Dept., 345 E. 47th St., New York, New York 10017.



LETTERS: Continued
Sir:
I was very pleased to notice the inauguration of the
feature "ChE Lectures" in the Summer 1976 issue of
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION. I believe it
is an interesting and instructive addition to your quarterly,
and I heartily welcome it. The choice of R. Aris for the first
lecture was superb, for, leaving the main content of the
lecture aside, who could top the quote in the Conclusion.
Do I hear a leopard stalking in the wilds of Pennsyl-
vania... ?
Arvind Varma
University of Notre Dame


WINTER 1977









WORLD OF SURFACE SCIENCE: Shah
Continued from page 23.


C. A. Villee, D. B. Villee and J. Zuckermann, Academic
Press, pp. 47-75 (1973).
3. Margolis, S., In "Structural and Functional Aspects
of Lipoproteins in Living Systems," eds. E. Tria and
A. M. Scanu, Academic Press, pp. 370-415 (1969).
4. Dawson, R. M. C., In "Biological Membranes," eds.
D. Chapman, Academic Press, pp. 203-231 (1968).
5. Luzzati, V., In "Biological Membranes," ed. D. Chap-
man, Academic Press, pp. 71-121 (1968).
6. Mandell, L., K. Fontell and Per Ekwall, In "Ordered
Fluids and Liquid Crystals," Advan. Chem. Ser., 63:
89 (1967).
7. Husson, F. R., and V. Luzzati, In "Advan. Biol. and
Med. Phys.," Vol. 11, Academic Press, pp. 87-107
1967).
8. Lecuyer, H., and D. G. Dervichian, J. Mol. Biol., 45:
39 (1969).
9. Shah, D. O., J. Colloid Interface Sci., (submitted).
10. Falco, J. W., R. D. Walker, and D. O. Shah, AIChE J.,
20: 510 (1974).
11. Williams, E. L., "Liquid Crystals for Electronic De-
vices," Noyes Data Corporation, 1975.
12. Porter, R. S., and J. F. Johnson, "Ordered Fluids and
Liquid Crystals," Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol.
63 (1967).
13. Shah, D. O., In "Advances in Lipid Research," eds.
R. Paoletti and D. Kritchevsky, Academic Press, Vol.
8, pp. 348-419 (1970).
14. Shah, D. O., In "Effects of Metals on Cells, Subcellular
Elements, and Macromolecules," eds. J. Maniloff, J. R.
Coleman and M. W. Miller, Charles C. Thomas Pub-
lishers, pp. 155-190 (1970).
15. Langmuir, I., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 39: 1848 (1917).
16. Farger, E., "Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry,"
Abelard-Schuman Press, pp. 132-136 (1963).
17. Shah, D. O., In "Exobiology" ed. C. Ponnamperuma,
North-Holland Publishing Co., pp. 235-265 (1972).
18. Vanderkooi, G., and D. E. Green, Bioscience, 21: 409
(1971).
19. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Lipid Res., 8: 215
(1967).
20. Shah, D. O., In "Progress in Surface Science," ed. S. G.
Davison, Pergamon Press, Vol. 3, pp. 222-268 (1972).
21. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Lipid Res., 6: 341
(1965).
22. Shah, D. O., J. Colloid Interface. Sci., 37: 744 (1971).
23. Shah, D. O., N. F. Djabbara, and D. T. Wasan, AIChE
J. (submitted).
24. La Mer, V. K., "Retardation of Evaporation by Mono-
layers," Academic Press (1962).
25. Gould, R. F., "Contact Angle, Wettability and Ad-
hesion," Advances in Chem. Series, Vol. 43 (1964).
26. Gould, R. F., "Pesticidal Formulations Research," Ad-
vances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 86 (1969).
27. Holly, F. J. and M. A. Lemp, "The Preocular Tear
Film and Dry-Eye Syndromes," Little, Brown and
Company (1973).
28. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 25: 107 (1967).


29. Shah, D. 0. and fJ. H. Schulman, J. Lipid Res., 8: 227
1967).
30. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, Lipids, 2: 21 (1967).
31. Shah, D. O., In "Biological Horizons in Surface Sci-
ence," eds. L. M. Prince and F. D. Sears, Academic
Press, pp. 69-106 (1973).
32. Brauninger, G. E., D. O. Shah and H. E. Kaufman,
Am. J. Ophthalmo., 73: 132 (1972).
33. Benedetto, D., D. O. Shah and H. E. Kaufman, Inves-
tiga. Ophthalmo., 14: 887-902 (1975).

ChE LIBRARY: Snider
Continued from page 45.
* Faculty and graduate students may check out
any material contained in the library. Texts
may be checked out for extended periods, sub-
ject to recall if needed. Reference books, jour-
nals, conference proceedings, etc, may be checked
out on overnight loan only.
* Undergraduate students may check out only
texts and related material, on overnight loan
only. Special reserve shelves are sometimes util-
ized by faculty who want to make available ma-
terial for use only in the library. Special reserve
material is not allowed to be checked out.
Visitors from other departments on campus and
from local industry may use any library ma-
terial and may check out material upon ap-
proval of the department head.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

SF COURSE, NOT ALL ChE departments will
find the classification system initiated at
Clemson to be useful. The extent of subdivision
will no doubt vary with the quantity of the hold-
ings. The utility of any library is the ready avail-
ability of its materials; nothing is quite so frus-
trating as to waste valuable time searching for
material that you know is there, if only you knew
how to look for it. It was the purpose of our li-
brary reorganization to minimize this problem
and to make our holdings available to all who
need them.
The author expresses great appreciation to the
ChE faculty of Clemson University for their as-
sistance in choosing materials to be discarded and
for suggesting additions to the classification sys-
tem, and to the department secretaries, Mrs. Mary
Ann Hayden and Mrs. Deborah Nelson for doing
the cataloging and arrangement of the ma-
terials. [


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The attitude taken in the preparation of this text is
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Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 < u ::::> Cl w 0 z 0::: w w z 0 z w 0::: 0 LL >1w u 0 (/) z <{ 0::: w <{ LL 0 z 0 (/) > Cl c., z 0::: w w z 0 z w ...J <{ u w I u VOLUME XI NUMBER 1 WINTER 1977 The World of Surface Science: SHAH Process Engineering: SPRAGUE, QUENTIN, FRY Faculty-Student Consulting Teams: MICHELSEN, ARKIS, ECHOLS SYCONS: WENGROW, DENNETT, GREENLEE, LEBLANC Organization of Functional Library: SNIDER AIChE Audio-Visual Aids Activities: BECKWITH ASEE Symposium Where Is the Roller Coaster Headed? BAASEL Practical Limits to Growth CORCORAN Too Many Departments McGEE Can We Limit Enrollment By Professional Society Action? RUSSELL, DAUGHERTY ChE at CASE Ralph Peck of Illinois Tech

PAGE 2

Getting blood from a baby is a little like trying to get blood from a stone. An infant has very little blood to spare. Yet, there are times when a newborn child requires critical blood tests. And some very fast results. Union Carbide has answered these needs by developing a revolutionary blood testing instrument known as the CentrifiChem Analyzer. It requires unusually small quantities of blood. Which means enough can be drawn through a simple prick in the finger or heel of a child or adult. With that tinyamountofblood, theCentrifiChem System can detect symptoms of cardiac, liver, kidney and other bodily disorders. And this unique machine is capable of performing blood tests so fast it can help save a life that once might have been lost. Union Carbide has developed three vital systems for the critical clinical diagnostics field. The Centria system, which is able to detect the minutest quantities of substances circulating in the bloodstream. The CintiChem system, designed exclusively for the nuclear medicine laboratory And, of course, the CentrifiChem system. It's about as close as you can get to a bloodless revolution Today, something we do will touch your life. An Equal Opportunity Employer M / F

PAGE 3

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: Darsh T. Wasan Illinois Institute of Technology SOUTH: Homer F. Johnson University of Tennessee Vincent W. Uhl University of Virginia CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti University of Toledo Camden A. Coberly University of Wisconsin WEST: George F. Meenaghan Texas Tech University William H. Corcoran California Institute of Technology SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump University of Houston EAST: Leon Lapidus Princeton Un,iversity Thomas W. Weber State University of New York L ee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University NORTH: J. J. Martin University of Michigan Edward B. Stuart University of Pittsburgh NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton University of Washington Charle s E. Wicks Oregon State University PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania WINTER 1977 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME XI NUMBER l WINTER 1977 FEATURES 28 Using Summer Faculty-Student Consultant tearns to Solve Industrial Problems, D. Michelsen, J. A rkis and G. E c hols 44 Organization of a Functional ChE Library, E. Snider DEPARTMENTS 4 Departments of Chemical Engineering Case 10 The Educator Ralph Peck of Illinois Tech 24 Curriculum Process Control Engineering at UT Permian, C. Spragu e, G. Quentin and C.Fry 32 Laboratory SYCONS, A Systems Control Simulator, H. Wengro w, C. De nne tt, R. G reen lee and D. LeBlan c 14 Lecture The World of Surface Science, D. Shah 3 31, 47 Letters 2 Book Review ASEE Syposium 34 Where Is the Roller Coaster Headed? W. Baasel and M Cise 38 Practical Limits to Growth in ChE, W. Corcoran 39 Too Many Departments!, H. McGee 41 Can We Limit Enrollment by Professional Society Action?, T. Russ e ll and R. Daugherty AIChE Report 46 Audio Visual Aids Subcommittee Activities, W. Be c k wi th CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville Florida, and at DeLeon Springs Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives Plates and other advertising material may b e se nt directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877, DeLeon Springs Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S Canada, and Mexico Is $10 per year, $7 per year mail e d to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk s ub s cription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright 1977 Chemical Engineering Di v i s ion of American Society for Engine er ing Education, Ray Fabien, Editor, The statements and opinions expre sse d in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Di visi on of the ASEE which body assumes no responsihility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days. The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical 1

PAGE 4

[9" 5I book reviews ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS IN RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER by W. A. G r ay and R. M u lle r Pe r gamon Pr e ss, 1974. Re v iewed by Frank Kreith, University of Colorado The authors of this work attempt to summarize engineering methods for calculating heat transfer by radiation and techniques for measuring radiation and temperature in a book of less than 150 pages. In view of the complexity of the field and the many recent advances in calcu lation methods, the authors selected topics and then attempted to integ r ate them into a book suitable for engineers with a general background in heat transfer and thermodynamics, but lacking detailed knowledge in radiation heat transfer. The topics selected are of general interest and would, therefore, make this book suitable as a supple mentary text in some conventional courses, e.g. Unit Operations, as currently taught in many chemical engineering programs or Physical Climatology. Unfortunately, the authors have relied heavily for the material in their book on other texts in heat transfer, rather than on original sources. In their list of 47 references, 27 are to other textbooks and only 20 are to articles in the literature. Among the latter group, some, such as R. V. Dunkel s and A. K. Oppenheim's classical papers, are not referenced correctly, and only two articles published within the past five years are cited. Thus, the book cannot be con sidered an up-to-date reference text, but rather a compilation of well-known techniques illustrated by a few examples However, only two papers are devoted to the Monte Carlo Method which is capable of handling many complex problems in radiation and no worked out example is pre sented. Moreover, no mention is made of other numerical' techniques suitable for computer pro cessing. This appears a serious shortcoming in a book dealing with engineering calculations for technical people expecting to practice in the 1970's or 1980's. On the positive side, the summary of measurements of radiation and temperature will be useful and the treatment of atmospheric radiation is well put together. However, also in these topics the material presented in this book does not contain recent findings and the bibliography will not help the reader to update his knowledge in the field. In summary, the book will be useful for an engineer who lacks back gr ound in radiation heat transfer and wants to bru s h up without spending too much time doing so, but for an up-to-date treatment of engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer the reader will find the current literature a better source. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION DURING 1976: MONSANTO COMPANY 3M COMPANY 'We alto tl,,ank tl,,e 134 e~ Cn~IU#Uj ~epa,ld ~ wl,,o. ~eJ /,o tl,,e o/J ecc m 1976! 2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 5

[ij;j#I letters MORE LETTERS ON GRISKEY RA TINGS Sir: I'll be surprised if this is not one of a flood of letters you will get in reply to Gill's report, Carberry's re spo ns e a nd Griskey's feature. Th e subject clearly matters to u s all, yet becom e s abs urd when dissected too closely and publicized too much. In a hope that it may do more good than harm I offer the following observations: 1. Peer evaluations or perceptions may or may not relate to other relevant facts or substance but are of im portance to us of and in themselves. The danger is positive feedback whereby the perception or reputa tion becomes an end in itself. I fear that Gill, Car berry, G riskey and perhaps all of us, are quickly caught in that cycle. 2. While some departments stand out as particularly ex cellent, and perhaps some as particularly poor I con tend that with much fuzziness in what is being meas ured and la rge possibl e errors in measurement the rankings become rapidly meaningless apart from ex tremes. I am sure no department does or should ac cept a self image as second or third ra t e This is not a pennant race whereby because someone is first it follows that there must be a number two, twenty and 115 It is not a z ero sum game and Minnesota's or Buffalo's gain need not be MIT's or Notre Dame's loss unless we insist on making it so 3. Th e Griskey feature displays data in some helpful ways making it possible to view and compare some operating characteristics. His GRPI may even be a useful lumped parameter for looking at some distribu tion of performance. Not surprisingly G ris key's Fig ure 5 shows that 50% of departments have GRPl's between 0.4 and 0.6 and GRPI makes no meaningful distinction among them. I doubt the validity of Griskey's conclusion and would fear its adoption. Means that are valid and helpful for characterizing a population are not necessarily useful or prope r when ap plied individually to each unit of the population. This is, properly, an emotiona l issue which pricks our departmental and thus our per sona l pride. We must compete and only one can be number one-for now. David Hansen Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Sir: We are ambivalent about prolonging the deba~ in your pages on the ranking of chemical engineering departments, since titers of feeling, eloquence, numerical data and pages therein are already outdistancing more fundamental contri butions to your journal. We are the more ambivalent be cause we share Carberry's view, to which he himself shows only partial adherence, that no single criterion and no par ticular combination of criteria has unique appeal and each will produce different resu lts. Nonetheless we consider Griskey's recent article on this subject in your pages to demonstrate laudable objectivity and appeal to common sense in its formulation of one criterion. We want briefly WINTER 1977 to summarize a similar study we made last spring that pro duced similar but not identical results and then to offer some more general observations. Data from the last four Thesis Indexes of Chemical Engineering Progress and the last two ACS Directories of Graduate Research were used to calculate the average number of doctoral degrees per faculty member per year with the result shown in Table I. The four-yea r averaging, approximately equal to a doctoral student's mean residence time, is desirable because many dep artments in these surveys produce only a few doctorates per year and are subject to fluctuating enroll ments. Thus the "noise" of a single measurement channel in our study may be smoothed by a longer sample time so that the results may be of comparable quality to Griskey's shorter sample of multiple channels. Gill, defending his study against Carberry's criticism, refers to the correlation among rankings. However, a close examination of the rankings which include the two Ameri can Council of Edu cation ratings, the Gill and Griskey rankings and our own statistics showed that there was, in fact, very little correlation among them. The lack of correla tion is most obvious on a plot using Griskey's results as the abscissa and the different ratings as the ordinate. In offering our data set we suggest that each of these studies, ours included, establishes only a local truth and any implied catholicism must be regarded warily. Our survey was don e to show our dean that our doctoral prog r am was cost effective relative to those of other chemical engineering programs. Surveys that measure something close to a well defined conc ept of goodness may hav e merit, but opinions report the feelings of those who opine, "efficiencies" meas ure against their own precise but narrow standard, and complex truth does not come cheap Table I H. Y. Cheh E. F. Leonard Columbia University The following table was taken from a recent survey concerning the productivity of doctoral degrees from vari ous chemical engineering schools in both US and Canada. A total of 73 schools was included with data taken from Thesis Index, CEP and ACS Directory of Graduate Re search. The first 10 schools are listed below: University 1 Stanford 2 UC Berkeley 3 Princeton 4 UCLA 5 Wisconsin 6 Northwestern 7 Columbia 8 Carnegie Mellon 9 Notre Dame Average number of doctoral degrees granted per faculty per year (1971-75) 10 Colorado School of Mines 0.979 0.913 0.904 0.863 0.852 0.727 0.694 0.683 0.643 0.608 Average from 73 schools = 0.431 Standard deviation = 0.195 3

PAGE 6

ti Na department CASE JOHN C. ANGUS Case Institute of Technology Case Western Reser ve Uni ver sit y Cle v eland, Ohio 44106 JN 1884, THE CASE catalog announced the introduction of "Chemical Technology" as part of the chemistry curriculum. This was the first ap pearance of Chemical Engineering at Case. The first degree labelled Chemical Engineering was awarded by Case in 1909, but it appears that the curriculum itself was not called Chemical Engi neering until 1913. The Case ChE program was one of the very first in the country. Similar developments took place throughout the 1880's and 1890's at Tulane, .University of Illinois, University of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Michigan. It was not until 1922 that the American Institute of Chemical Enginee rs could even agree on a definition of what Chemical Engineering was. When the AIChE instituted ac4 creditation in 1925, the Case program was one of only fourteen to be approved. The men responsible for the founding of ChE at Case were Professors Charles Mabery and Al bert W. Smith. Mabery, an early leader in petro leum research, was department head from 1883 to 1911. Smith, department head from 1911 to 1927, was a key figure in the early history of the Dow Chemical Company. It was under his leadership that ChE emerged as a separate course of study. For many years the department was integrated with Chemistry in a Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. In 1962, the ChE activities were severed from Chemistry and became the Chemical Engineering Science Division of the School of Engineering. In 1972, we became the Department of Chemical Engineering. The completion of the $2,500,000 renovation of the Albert W. Smith Building in January, 1976 signals the beginning of a new period of growth of ChE at Case. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 7

TRADITION OF ACCOMPLISHMENT THE DEPARTMENT HAS had many well known and influential ChE's associated with it over the years. Herbert H. Dow, a Case Tech grad uate of 1888, founded the Dow Chemical Company, which has become one of the world's largest chem ical enterprises. Dr. Albert W. Smith worked closely with Dow and made many contributions which were crucial to the survival and growth of the company. Among these were the first Amer ican production of carbon tetrachloride and the synthesis from this of chloroform. Professor Smiths' sons, Kent H. Smith, and A. Kelvin Smith, and F. Alex Nason, were co-founders of the Lubrizol Corporation, the world's leading manufacturer of lubricant additives. They are Case ChE graduates from 1917, 1922 and 1922 respectively. Throughout the years 1927 to 1956, the cha ir men of the department were Professors William R. Veazey, Carl F. Prutton '20 and William Von Fischer. All were very active within the U.S. chemical industry. This tradition of accomplishment has con tinued to the present time. Today, Case graduates are found in responsible positions throughout the American and world chemical industry and in academia. A very few examples of the many that could be cited follow. Dr. Durga Ambwani, who received his Ph.D. in 1968, is the cofounder of the Asia Development Corporation. D r. Paul Friedl, a Case B.S. and Ph.D. Chemical Engineering gradu ate, developed the new IBM 5100 table top com puter. D r. Glenn Brown, Ph.D. 1958, is Vice Presi dent for R. and D. of SOHIO. Shunji Kumazawa, M.S. 1965, is General Manager of Technical De velopment for Toray Industries, one of Japan's leading corporations. Richard Knazek, a Case B.S. Chemical Engineering graduate of 1962, was chosen as "One of the Ten Most Outstanding Young Men in the U.S." by the U.S. Ja ycees in January, 1976 for his medical research. Our most recent graduates are also doing well. Two members of our 1976 senior class, Mr. Donald Feke and Mr. Max Gorensek, won National Sci ence Foundation Graduate Fellowships. (Only fourteen were awarded to ChE's in the entire U.S.). Mr. Feke also won one of the three Electro chemical Society summer fellowships in 1976. A total of 1686 B.S., 280 M.S., and 117 Ph.D. degrees have been awarded by the department since its founding. WINTER 1977 We have attempted to steer a middle road between the extremes of pure empiricism on the one hand and engineering science on the other. As a result the ChE B.S. program has no strong "idealogical" bias THE DEPARTMENT TODAY Faculty and Staff-The staff is comprised of ~ight professors, two adjunct professors, one ad J unct lecture r, six research engineers, one tech nician and an administrative and secretarial staff of three. A listing of the faculty and their major technical interests is given in Table 1. Students--There are 135 undergraduates majoring in ChE at Case and 25 resident graduate students. We have experienced a significant in crease in undergraduate ChE enrollment in the past year, although not such a dramatic upturn as seen at some institutions. We have not, however, had a decline in the average SAT scores of our entering freshmen. They have, in fact, been slightly increasing, counter to the national trends-The average mathematics and verbal SAT scores for the 1976 freshman class were at the 99th and 95th percentile respectively. Combined mathematics and verbal SAT's run about 1250. ChE has a reputation on the campus as being one of the more demanding curricula and we con sistently attract excellent students. Research-There is a very active graduate research activity underway. Research expendi tures in the Department totalled $465,700 during the past year, a very high figure for only 8 full time faculty. An unusual feature of the present Undergraduates in the Diamond Shamrock Computer Room 5

PAGE 8

One unusual feature of the graduate program is the Instructional Television Network (ITN). Courses are offered from the campus live or on videotape to employed engineers in the Cleveland area. research support is that about half of it comes from private industry. The largest single effort is an industrial proj ect for the development of a new gas treating process conceived by Professors Adler, Brosilow, Gardner and Dr. William Brown, a recent Case graduate. The new process has substantially lower investment and operating costs than competing processes and promises to have a major impact in the chemical and related industries. Another large project involves the catalysis of coal gasification, done under the direction of Professors Gardner and Angus with ERDA support. A project of great potential is a joint computer development effort with the IBM Corporation on applications of APL in ChE. "A Programming Language" (APL), while devised and imple mented between 1960 and 1965 by IBM, has re quired the present generation of computer sys tems for full utilization of its capabilities. The result is a powerful notational scheme that allows coding at a much higher level than FORTRAN, and is similar to the notation of matrix algebra. Hierarchical systems which interface an APL host to experiments are being developed. By using small microcomputers coded to execute APL com mands, data acquisition and computation on ac quired data bases can run efficiently. Real time control functions are being studied as well. The APL project is directed by Professor Mann. An unusually strong effort is underway in laser application studies including laser doppler flowmeters, transport property measurement by light scattering and laser holographic machining. This work involves Professors Edwards, Mann and Angus. The university effort in environmental engineering is centered in ChE. There are several projects in industrial wastewater treatment, e.g., ozone treatment and cyanide disposal. Professors Prober and Melnyk direct this effort. We also have an active research effort in membrane processes, surface transport and interfacial dynamics under the direction of Professor Mann. We have always had a strong program in sys6 terns and control. One aspect of the present work is the development of inferential control schemes and their application to onstream distillation col umns and reactors at Exxon, Marathon and Mobil Oil Companies. This work is directed by Professor Brosilow. Industrial Support-Industrial sponsored contract research is done through the DI CAR Cor poration, a for profit corporation owned by the university. This arrangement permits us to accept non thesis and confidential research from indus trial companies. The work is mainly in process development and is conducted in part by full time research engineers. Unrestricted grant support from various com panies is also received. These include: Air Prod ucts Co., Atlantic Richfield, CWC Industries, Dia mond Shamrock, Dow Chemical Co., duPont Cor poration, Lubrizol Foundation, Monsanto Corpora tion, PPG Industries and the Procter and Gamble Fund. BALANCED CURRICULUM WE HA VE ATTEMPTED to steer a middle road between the extremes of pure empiricism on the one hand and engineering science on the other. As a result the ChE B.S. program has no Taking courses over the Case Instructional Television Network. Courses are televised to employed engineers in the Cleveland area. strong "ideological" bias. We require a total of 131 to 135 credit hours ( depending on elective se quences). The ChE part of the curriculum in cludes courses in energy and mass balances, sepa ration processes, transport phenomena, thermo dynamics, chemical reactor design and a unit opCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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erations laboratory. The ChE sequence is termi nated with a two semester capstone course in Process Analysis and Design. This latter course makes extensive use of the computer aided design systems, FLOWTRAN. The curriculum contains required laboratory courses in mathematics (computation), physics, chemistry, laboratory methods and techniques (in strumental) as well as the senior unit operations laboratory. In addition, all students have the op tion of doing an experimental undergraduate re search project. This can be used to fulfill the 5 course elective sequence offered to all students. Other elective sequences, which are virtually "minor" fields, include Management, Polymer Sci ence, Environmental Engineering, Computing, Systems and Control and Biomedical Engineering. A full range of graduate courses is taught by the department as well. Both M.S. and Ph.D. de grees are offered. One unusual feature of the graduate program is the Instructional Television Network (ITN). Courses are offered from the campus live or on videotape to employed engineers in the Cleveland area. This program has been in existence now for several years and the depart ment has recently had its first M.S. graduate, Mr. Monty Reed of the Timken Company, who did all of his course work over television. INSTITUTIONAL SETTING THE ChE DEPARTMENT is one of the fifteen engineering and science departments that make up Case Institute of Technology. Case, in turn, is one of the major components of Case Western Re serve University. This latter institution was syn thesized in 1967 from the predecessors, the old Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University. Case Institute is a small selective college; we have only 1136 undergraduate students. The total enrollment of the university, including all the graduate and professional students is 8279. The endowment, capital plant and faculty make Case Western Reserve one of the countries largest private universities. The university is set within a large complex of parks and educational and cultural institutions on the eastern side of Cleveland known as University Circle. This is especially fortunate, for our next door neighbors are the Cleveland Museum of Art and Severance Hall, the home of the Cleveland Orchestra. The ChE faculty participate in a wide range of WINTER 1977 A top view of the high pressure test cells showing the large vertical vent stacks. other professional activities in addition to their principal jobs of teaching. A few of these are listed to give an idea of the scope of these efforts. Professor Nelson Gardner's research group recently won the National American Chemical Society prize for the best paper on coal. Professor Gardner has also been selected twice as a National A.I.Ch.E. tour speaker and gave the opening plenary lecture at the U.S. Bureau of Mines coal catalysis conference last spring. Professor Edwards' research in laser doppler flowmeters has received international recognition. He was invited to give the opening plenary lecture at the Biennial Turbu lence Symposium and was also twice selected as a Visit ing Scientist by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. Professor Adler will serve as Conference Chairman of the 1977 Engineering Foundation Biennial Meeting. Pro fessor Angus recently returned from a sabbatical year at the University of Edinburgh where he was a Senior NATO Fellow and Visiting Lecturer. Professor Prober is editor of the CRC Press Monograph Series on Water Pollution Control Technology and was Coordinating Editor for the CRC Handbook on Environ mental Control. Professor Brosilow is serving on the National A.I.Ch.E. Machine Computation Committee and recently spent a sabbatical year at the Technion in Israel. Professor Mann has given many invited papers on membrane dynamics around the country and will organize the symposium for the Colloid division of the ACS on "Application of Surface Science to Problems in Biology and Medicine". Professor Melnyk recently received one of the two national awards from the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry for excellence in research on wastewater treatment with ozone. Professor Bikerman, one of the nation's leading authorities on foams and surface phenomena, recently published a book entitled "Foams" (Springer Verlag). 7

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TEACHING AND RESEARCH FACILITIES JN 1975, WE RECEIVED a $2,500,000 anonymous alumni donation to provide our depart ment with a ChE building. The existing Smith Building on the Case Campus has been completely renovated for the ChE Department. We moved to our new quarters in January, 1976. The Albert W. Smith Building includes: a large undergraduate Unit Operations Laboratory; an undergraduate projects laboratory; a computer room; a high bay area for process related re search; three re-inforced concrete, vertically vented chambers for hazardous and high pressure research; graduate and undergraduate water pol lution control laboratories; acoustically isolated room; constant temperature and humidity room; A laser anemometer experiment of Professor Edwards' for measuring flow in pipes. instrument room; two classrooms ( one designed for television instruction) ; library-reading room and the normal complement of offices and research laboratories. The four story building gives us approximately 30,000 square feet of net usable floor space. The new facilities give us a unique opportunity to further strengthen the size and scope of the Chemical Engineering activities at Case. With the completion and equipping of the building, we have acquired absolutely first rate instructional and re search space. Some of the special features of the facilities are outlined below. We have just received a $185,000 grant from Diamond Shamrock Corporation for the equipping and maintenance of the Diamond Shamrock Com puter Center within the ChE department. This is part of a larger university wide grant by Diamond Shamrock. The computer will be installed early in 1977 and will be tied into the campus wide mini computer network. 8 The computer will be housed in the second floor computer room, designed for this purpose. The room has its own separate air conditioning unit, the outer room wall has a vapor barrier to permit better humidity control. Electric wiring is run directly from the mains to minimize perturbations from other electrical equipment. Seven phone lines are provided for further flexibility in connecting to other computer terminals and equipment in the building. We have what we believe to be a virtually unique high pressure and pilot plant area for an academic ChE department. At the south end of the basement is a 2,515 square foot laboratory area known as the Annex. This two story open room is divided at the first floor level by a metal grating floor. The laboratory is designated for high pressure and hazardous work, and is used primarily for energy and coal related research. The roof is fitted with two blow-out roof panels, each 6 by 38 feet, which will open at an overpressure of 25 pounds per square foot to pro tect the integrity of the structure. In case of a solvent spill or flammable gas leak, all electric power can be shut off except for explosion-proof lights and exhaust fan. Six separate gases are piped into the room through high pressure lines from a gas storage shed outside the building. The lab is provided with walk-in and overhead hoods and all laboratory services. Within the high pressure lab are three test cells for performing very high pressure and hazardous experiments. Two cells are 10 by 10 feet and one 6 by 10 feet; all have 10-foot head room. Since the laboratory is located within a busy campus area, conventional venting of the cells through a blow out side wall could not be used. Instead, the cells are vertically vented through three separate 42-inch diameter steel stacks ex tending some 45 feet up through the Annex roof. This very unusual design may be useful in other similar locations; we would be happy to share our experience with others. The computer will support terminals for inter active classroom use. It also will provide "hands We have what we believe to be a virtually unique high pressure and pilot plant area for an academic ChE department. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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We have just received a $185,000 grant for equipping and maintaining the Diamond Shamrock Computing Center within the ChE department. The computer will support terminals for interactive classroom use. It will also provide "hands on" experience for undergraduate and graduate students, provide data acquisition and processing for research experiments and will be used in a new computer controlled unit operations laboratory experiment. on" experience for undergraduate and graduate students, provide data acquisition and processing for research experiments and will be used in a new computer controlled unit operations lab experi ment. The cells have 18-inch thick reinforced con crete walls, containing 20 tons of steel reinforcing bars and 115 cubic yards of concrete. The circum ferential rods are welded into continuous mem bers. The cells rest on a 20-inch thick reinforced concrete foundation pad which, in turn, rests on the underlying shale. Entry to the cells is through rear doorways fitted with 1-5 / 8 inch thick steel plate doors. Visual access is via a port with a heavy sliding steel plate cover. Numerous pipe sleeves are cast through the concrete walls to permit entry of services. The large cells are designed for bending and tensile stresses of 3900 lbs. / square foot and the smaller for 9000 lbs. / square foot. The cells will contain an explosion resulting from the rupture and ignition of a hydrogen cylinder or high pres sure autoclave. ENVIRONMENT AL AND LASER LABS L ABORATORIES FOR undergraduate instruc tion and graduate research in environmental engineering are on the third floor. The instruc tional lab has space and utility drops for five separate permanent experiments to demonstrate flocculent and zone settling, aeration, biological treatment and reverse osmosis. Within the lab are a preparation room and a holding room. These chambers, each 6 by 7 feet in internal dimension, are used for the preparation and storage of bio logical samples at controlled temperatures rang ing from Oto 35 C. The entire south end of the second floor is taken up by a 2160-square foot graduate research laboratory designed for precision optical and laser application studies. This work includes laser dop pler anemometry, light scattering and laser ma chining. Light-tight drapes divide the room into three separate dark areas. An enclosed wire cage WINTER 1977 storage area and 440 V, 100 A electrical service are provided in addition to the normal laboratory services. An acoustically and electrically isolated cham ber is placed within the large second floor labora tory. This room provides electrical isolation and sound attenuation of greater than 80 decibels for certain types of precise research. Adjacent to the large second floor lab is a small constant temperature room. The room tempera ture is controllable to + 1 F over the range 68 to 78 F; relative humidity to + 2-1 / 2 % over the range 40 to 70 % TABLE 1 CASE ChE FACULTY ROBERT J. ADLER, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University. C hemical Reaction Engineering, Mixing, Mathematical Modelling, and Separation Processes. JOHN C. ANGUS, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan. Laser Applications, Coal Utilization, Electrochemical Processes, Crystal Growth. JACOB J. BIKERMAN, Ph.D. 1921, University of St. Petersburg (Russia). Foams and Colloidal Phenomena. COLEMAN B. BROSILOW, Ph.D. 1962, Brooklyn Poly technic Institute. Digital Simulation, Automate d Design, Control of Chemical Processes. ROBERT V. EDWARDS, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins Uni versity. Laser Applications, Photochemistry, Chemical Kinetics, Bioengineering. NELSON C. GARDNER, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State Univer sity Coal Gasification, Surface Chemistry, Thermodynamics. ROBERT E. HARRIS, Ph.D. 1968, Northeastern Univer sity. Process Simulation, Computer Aided Design. THOMAS LIEDERBACH M.S. 1961, Case Institute of Technology. Career Development, Professionalism. J. ADIN MANN, JR., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University. Surface Phenomena, Membrane Technology, Laser Ap plications, Computation. PETER B. MELNYK, Ph.D. 1974, McMaster University. Wastewater Treatment, Process Simulation, Mixing. RICHARD PROBER, Ph.D. 1962, University of Wisconsin. Water Pollution Control, Ion Exchange, Membrane Processes, Electrochemical Processes. 9

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[i} ff a educator DAVID MILLER Total Systems of Illinois Tech Downers Grove, Illinois 60515 and DARSH WASAN Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois 60616 BORN IN WINTER to American parents on a ranch in the province of Saskatchewan when it was still a frontier area, Ralph Peck, Professor of Chemical Engineering at Illinois Institute of Technology, spent his early days acclimating him self to the hardships of farm life. When he was two, his father died and left his mother with Ralph and his older brother, Benajhar, with the responsibility of managing their homestead. His mother remarried when Ralph was nine and he helped trail the family horses when the family relocated in Alberta. An old German settler they met along the way sternly lectured Ralph about his being out of school and the importance of education. The young boy followed the advice, rising early to ride a horse to the one-room school house. He and his brother later went to the high school twelve miles away, living together in a on e-room shack during the week, taking care of horses and milking a cow for board, and return ing to the farm on weekends to help. These early rigors left Ralph with a zest for outdoor life and an incentive to escape the hard farm life in the north. It also left him with a love of gardening and a skill in cooking which still persist. 10 EDUCATION IN MINNESOTA BE CAUSE OF STRONG ties to his father's relatives in Minnesota, where his parents originated, the young brothers migrated in 1928 to the University of Minnesota for their college education. An advisor steered Ralph from chemis try into ChE as a field that was just opening up. An aunt sponsored his application for citizen ship and became his guardian His uncle helped him get summer jobs at the Cremet macaroni plant, giving young Ralph an early introduction to the food processing industry and the drying problems which were to become a major thrust of his future research. Ralph received his BSChE degree with dis tinction in 1932 and, with drought and depression in Canada, stayed on for graduate work in chemistry and mathematics at Minnesota. As a graduate assistant, he collected radon for the famed F. H. MacDougall, whose physical chemis try book was an early classic, and initiated his long-standing interest in thermodynamics as a teaching assistant in the course. Peck studied electrical conductivity and di electric constant with George Glockler as his advisor, resulting in several publications and the PhD in 1936. The famed chemist Melvin Calvin was a labmate and another Minnesota friend, Ed Piret, was an usher when Ralph married Joyce Mullen, who had spent the summer typing his thesis. The wedding was moved up to August so Ralph could accept a job as instructor at Drexel CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Institute of Technology. To his amazement he was turned down on application for final citizenship papers on the grounds that he was already a U.S. citizen because of his parentage. When the Pecks arrived in Philadelphia, De partment Head Henry Rushton, who had hired him, had moved on. Ralph worked with the late Henry Ward, who became Department Head at Kansas State University, and the late Harding Bliss. Among his students at Drexel were Vince Uhl and Ralph Troupe, who loved to challenge him with unusual problems. BEGINNING THE Ill YEARS THE PECKS WOULD usually spend their summers travelling and camping. In 1939, they went to a meeting at Penn State where Ralph was hired by Dean Linton Grintner and Presi dent Henry T. Heald (later the head of the Ford Foundation) of Armour Tech, which later be came IIT. He was to work as an instructor for the ChE department founded and headed by Harry McCormack [l]. They continued their trip around the country and into Mexico and came to Chicago, which has been their home, except for visits abroad. A summer course taught by visiting professor Barney Dodge rekindled his interest in thermo dynamics. It was during this period when Peck began supervision of 100 Master's and 32 PhD dissertations. Ralph was promoted to Assistant Professor in 1941 and spent the war years working on the freeze drying of foods and spray drying of blood plasma. His principle interests developed in heat transfer, thermodynamics, kinetics and re actor design, and energy conversion, and these persist to the present. His students always found Ralph Peck was co-inventor of the coal/sulfur abate ment/fertilizer process. WINTER 1977 him available for technical or personal assistance, both in his open-doored office and at home. It was in this period that he began his long and productive associations with other institutions on the IIT campus, the IIT Research Institute and the Institute of Gas Technology, and developed his numerous industrial consulting activities. This consulting lead him into studying the drying of abaca fiber of Costa Rica as a substitute for hemp for rope, drying of fertilizer and foodstuffs, storage of liquidified gases, and the gasification of coal, and many other problems. Although much of Peck's published work has a fundamental nature, it invariably arose from the need to solve real problems. In 1944 he was advanced to Associate Pro fessor and, in 1950, his contributions were Research has always been a means rather than an end for Peck. His list of over forty journal publications is marked by the diversity of subject matter. Signs of his practical bent are the three patents which have been issued in his name recognized by a full Professorship. In 1953 he assumed the Department Chairmanship (succeed ing Henry Rushton who left for Purdue after a 7-year stint as Chairman), a post he held until 1967 [1]. PECK IN INDIA I IT WAS ONE of the first American schools to welcome students from India who came on government grants, and a large number of students came in the 40's and the flow continues to date. The Pecks welcomed students into their home, with special emphasis on those left on campus during holidays. Baseball games, with participation by those playing for the first time, have become legendary. Because of his many Indian friends and as an outgrowth of the partition of India, he was in vited in 1959 to spend a year helping set up a ChE department, using funds from U.S. wheat loans, at Punjab University in the beautiful new city of Chandigar, north of New Delhi. The Pecks, including sons Keith and Bruce and daughter Gail, travelled extensively throughout India with Ralph, who made a survey of all engineering schools in the country. While they were in Calcutta, they were hosted by a former 11

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In 1973 he received Ill's annual Excellence in Teaching Award. In addition, he was given the ASEE Western Electric Fund Award for teaching excellence for 1975-76. student who Ralph had reluctantly flunked out of IIT. That student, now a millionaire business man, was grateful for being steered out of a pro fession not making the best use of his talents. Ralph's frontier heritage showed when he bagged an antelope on a hunting trip and dressed and butchered the carcass, storing the meat temporarily in the ChE department freezer. While Ralph was preceding, by way of the Orient, the family's return to Chicago, his eldest son Keith was killed in a tragic accident. The family re ceived extraordinary assistance from the U.S. government in locating Ralph and returning the body. ISRAEL VISIT BE CAUS E THE DEPARTMENT had run so well under acting chairman Bernie Swanson, Peck accepted the invitation of Bill Resnick, head of the ChE department at Israel's Technion (and former IIT professor), to introduce Ralph's unique teaching style to the Israelis in the 1962-63 school year. One of the highlights of this style is the abundant use of the ten-minute "drop quiz," accompanied by a laugh as a challenge to the students. He surmounted the language barrier by use of a translator. During this year the Pecks camped from the Arctic Circle to the Red Sea and contemplated the probability of bumping into former student Bob Miller while photographing the Champs de Elysee. In addition to a productive year of teach ing and research, working with David Hasson, Dan Luss (then a graduate student) and Sam Seidman, Ralph was asked by the Israel Ministry of Development to review vari ous desalination processes, including the controversial Zarkin freezing process. DIVERSE RESEARCH INTERESTS R ESEARCH HAS ALWAYS been a means rather than an end for Peck. His list of over forty journal publications is marked by the di versity of subject matter. Signs of his practical bent are the three patents which have issued in 12 his name. His scholarly writing activities includes a review of drying with D. T. Wasan in the "Advances in Chemical Engineering" series and he is currently preparing the section on drying for John McKetta's new "Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design." Even as he approaches formal retirement, he currently has several studies supported by grants from a variety of agencies. The National Science Foundation is supporting a study of the kinetics of Methanation while the Illinois Institute for Environmental Quality sponsors coal combustion research. A recent activity arising from his consulting work was the invention, with former student Ladd Pircon, of a process for removing the particulate and sulfur pollutants from burning high-sulfur Illinois (or other) coal and converting these pollutants into useful fertilizer, instead of the usual nonnewtonian sludge. This process, which is in the pilot-plant stage, has attracted con siderable attention in the popular and professional press and was featured on a TV program. The development of this process emphasizes the im portance of ChE roots in chemistry and, as Ralph often cautions, the process comes first--followed by analysis, rather than the converse. A Product of Peck's Puddle TEACHING ACTIVITIES RALPH PECK'S devotion to research has never come at the expense of his teaching. In 1973 he received IIT s annual Excellence in Teaching Award. In addition, he was given the ASEE Western Electric Fund Award for teaching excellence for 1975-76. Along with his university teaching, he has participated in industrial short courses in drying CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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theory and technology and, in the summer of 1972, taught a drying course at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In 1976 he taught in Algeria as part of a team from the Institute of Gas Tech nology. A list of the students whose dissertations he supervised would include many well-known names from the academic, industrial and government sectors. Peck is a Fellow of AIChE and active member of ACS, ASEE, Phi Lambda Upsilon and Sigma Xi. He has organized and chaired many symposia on drying at national society meetings. Peck accepted the invitation ... to introduce his unique teaching style to the Israelis in the 1962-63 school year. One of the highlights of this style is the abundant use of the ten-minute "drop-quiz," accompanied by a laugh, as a challenge to the students. O NE OF THE MOST important strengths of the Peck family is their annual trip to their summer home in the wilds of northern Minnesota. Except for trips abroad, all teaching and consult ing work comes to a halt at the end of the spring semester. Originally acquired by Ralph's geologist brother as payment for the brother's services, the Pecks became owners of 40 acres, and the ca:bin they built together with Benajhar, when the brother's career took him to the southern U.S. They acquired 40 more acres in 1949 and the lake on the property, dubbed Peck's Puddle in fun, is so listed on Geological Survey maps. Then the cabin burned down in 1962, the family later rebuilt it by hand, except for a bull dozer and "redimix" concrete. It now contains most civilized comforts, with the notable excep tion of a telephone. A voiding the temptations of more work, Ralph is an avid :fisherman, boater, swimmer, and gardener. He credits this annual break with his professional activities in keeping him fresh the rest of the year ( renewal theory?) The family has now been augmented by Bruce's wife Barbara and Gail Green's husband Jeff and the three grandchildren, Kelly, Kristi and Jason. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES S UPERIMPOSED ON his professional activi ties, Ralph has always found time for com munity involvement. Although he is not religious, WINTER 1977 Ph.D. Students Bakshy, Stanley Bloomer, Oscar T. Carr, Norman L Chase, Curtis Alden, Jr. Clauson, Warren S Eakin, Betram E. Ellington, Rex T. Fagan, Walter Garud, B. S. Gidaspow, Dimitri Griffith, Russell T. Hesson, James C. Jee, Benny C. Kauh, Jae Y. Khoobiar, Sargis Kisaukurek, Bilgin Linden, Henry R. Lokay, Joseph D. Marek, Cecil J. Rai, Charanjit Reddi, Mullapudi M. Ryant, Charles J. J. Sareen, Sarvajit S. Sheth, Narendra J. Smith, Neal D. Snow, Richard Staats, William R. Tavakoli-Attar, J. Uno, Seiji V onFredersdorff, C lau s Vyas, Kirit C. Wagner, Edward F. he is often involved in church-sponsored activities, such as the YMCA. He and Joyce have been long term supporters of the Ada S. McKinley Com munity House in the ghetto area near IIT. They worked actively with the Gresham Community Council to welcome and help new neighbors when their neighborhood became racially mixed. The Pecks membership in the Ethical Humanist Society of Chicago lead to their early involvement in the nonviolent aspects of the peace movement. Ralph is an avid, and often unconventional, bridge player and the lunchtime games between brown bagging faculty and graduate students have be come part of IIT's legend. One of the authors (D. M.) remembers stalling a last hand to avoid a 10-minute quiz in Peck's after lunch Heat Transfer class, only to hear Peck announce a good problem he has thought up while waiting for the author to cover or duck a lead to the dummy. He will long remember Peck's cheerful public post mortem of how the author blew both the bridge hand and the quiz. REFERENCES 1. R. C. Kintner and D. T. Wasan, Chemical Engineer ing Department-Illinois Tech, Chem. Eng. Educ. 5 (3) 108 (1971). A recent activity arising from his consulting work was the invention, with former student Ladd Pircon, of a process for removing the particulate and sulfur pollutants from burning high sulfer coal and converting these pollutants into useful fertilizer. 13

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ti Na lecture THE WORLD OF SURFACE SCIENCE* D. 0. SHAH University of Florida Gaines v ille, Florida 32611 SYNOPSIS The domain of surface science is perhaps one of the most interdisciplinary areas of modern sci ence and technology. Monolayers provide a unique system to determine experimentally the cross sectional areas of surface-active molecules and to study reactions and molecular interactions at sur faces. Surface chemical aspects of membranes, cornea and tear are discussed. The mechanism by which surface-active polymers stabilize a thick aqueous layer on cornea is elucidated. GAS LIQUI D SUN LIQUID LIQUID EARTH OBJECTS l GAS SOLID MOON LIQUID SOLID STARS SOLID SOLID GALAXIES FIGURE 1. All objects are surrounded with one or more of these five interfaces. The engineering applications of surface science range from agricultural sprays to oil recovery in cluding areas such as catalysis, coatings, disper sions, electronics, flotation of minerals, lubrica tion, and retardation of evaporation from lakes and reservoirs. Among biomedical areas, the ap plications of surface science extend from anesthes iology to zoology including fields such as artificial implants, biomembranes, biolubrication, lipopro teins, lung surfactant, ophthalmology, pharma ceuticals and pharmacology. This paper was selected by the Board of Judges of the Faculty Forum of the University of Florida for the "Presi dent's Scholar Award" for 1975-76. 14 EDITOR'S NOTE: In this issue, GEE continues a new de partment-ChE LECTURES. We intend to publish seminars and lectures on important areas of modern chemical engi neering If you feel that one of your seminars or lectures on a certain topic would have pedagogical or tutorial value and would be of general interest to our erudite readers, please send the manuscript to the editor for review. V\ i e would appreciate comments from our readers on this new department as well as s ugge stions for authors of papers. ALTHOUGH THE importance of surface science has been recognized for more than a century, it is only during the last few decades that we have seen rapid advances in the understanding of surface phenomena. In this presentation I would like to review briefly various principles of surface science and where appropriate would like to present the highlights of the research carried out in my laboratory during the past decade. Let me begin with a quotation of an oriental proverb which says, "The color of the world you see depends upon the color of the glass you look through." In general, a scientist attempts to look at the Universe through his own glass. When one looks at the Universe through the glass of surface science (Figure 1), one sees that it consists of Sun, Earth, Moon, Stars, Galaxies, etc. When one looks closer to the Earth, one finds that it is full of objects \ ; and that each object is surrounded by surface or an interface. Fortunately, all the mterfaces can be grouped in five major classes, na1:1ely, gas / liquid, liquid / liquid, solid / liquid, sohd / gas, and solid / solid. All objects are sur rounded by one or more of these basic five inter faces. All of these interfaces have a common property called surface tension or surface free energy. There is also a class of compounds called surface-active compounds ( or surfactants) that decreases strikingly the surface tension or surface free energy of these interfaces. A surfactant molecule has two functional CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Presently Dr. Shah is a professor of Chemical Engineering Anes thesiology and Biophysics at the University of Florida He received his undergraduate training at the University of Bombay and subsequently his doctoral degree from Columbia University in 1965, where he worked i n the laboratory of the late Professor J. H Schulman. He spent subsequently a year at NASA Ames Research Laboratory in California conducting research on chemical evolution and the origin of life, and surface chemical aspects of the origin of mem branes. Later he moved to the Biological Oceanography Divis i on of Columbia University and investigated the dispersion of oil-spills re tard at ion of evaporation and wave damping by thin films of surface active agents and surface chemical aspects of sea water. Since 1970 he has been at the University of Florida with a joint appointment in Chemical Engineering and Anesthesiology Departm ents. Dr Shah has published in the areas of biological and model mem branes chemical evolution and the origin of membranes monomole cular films foams, microemulsions improved oil recovery, surfactant polymer interaction, boundary lubrication and surface chemical aspects of lungs vision and anesthesia Dr Shah received the University of Florida's "Excellence in Teach ing Award" in 1972 73, "President's Scholar Award" i n 1975-76 and "Outstanding Service Award" in 1975 76 parts, namely, a hydrophilic (water soluble) or polar part, and a lipophilic (oil soluble) or non polar part. The lipophilic part is usually a long hydrocarbon chain. Schematically a surfactant molecule can be represented b y a nonpolar (tail) NON POLAR PART (OIL SOLUBLE) SURFACTANT POLYMER FIGURE 2 The structure of surface-active molecules. Th e broken l i n e shows the separation of polar and non polar parts of th e molecule WINTER 1977 and a polar group as shown in Figure 2. A poly mer also can be surface-active if it has two func tional groups, one hydrophilic and the other lipo philic (Figure 2). The properties of a surface active compound are determined by the balance between its hydrophilic and lipophilic character istics. If the chain-length is r elatively short (less than 12 -C-Cbonds in length), they are called water soluble surfactants since the polar group drags the entire molecule in water. However, when the chain-length is greater than 14 or 16 -C-Cbonds in length, the compounds are called insoluble surfactants. They do not dissolve in water because of the long hydrocarbon chains. MOLECULAR AGGREGATES JF THE CONCENTRATION of a soluble sur factant in water is increased gradually, at a specific concentration of the surfactant, the solu tion properties such as osmotic pressure, surface FIGURE 3 A s chematic presentation of adsorption micelle formation, and solubilization processes in surfactant solutions tension viscosity, electrical conductivity, and density abruptly change [l]. This concentration is called critical micelle concentration (CMC). It has been established from theoretical considera tions as well as experimental determinations that surfactant molecules begin to form aggregates, called micelles, when surfactant concenb. 1 ~tion is increased beyond the critical micelle concentration (Figure 3A). In general, the micelles are spherical aggregates of surfactant molecules about 40-100 Angstrom in diameter and are in equilibrium with single molecules ( or monomers) in the bulk solu tion (Figure 3A). The critical micelle concentra tion depends upon the structure of surfactant molecules as well as physicochemical conditions such as temperature, pH, and the ionic composi tion of the solution. If a soluble surfactant is dissolved in water, it tends to absorb at the gas / liquid, liquid / liquid, or solid / liquid interfaces. The adsorption phenome15

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non results in a greater concentration of sur factant molecules at the interface as compared to that in the bulk solution (Figure 3B). For m a ny surface-active drugs and pharmacological agent s, their concentration at the membrane surface w ill be considerably greater than their bulk concentra tion [2]. The formation of micelles in an aqueous solu tion creates a local nonpolar environment within the aqueous phase. Oil soluble molecules such as dyes, pigments, nonpolar oils, or oil soluble vita mins can be dissolved within the micelles (Figure 3C, D). The solubilization of such molecules in micelles is greater if they also possess polar groups. If a surfactant solution contains a surface active polymer, then adsorption of the polymer can occur at the micellar surface (Figure 3E). The structure of lipoprotein s particularly low density lipoproteins in blood serum resembles this situa tion in which a protein is adsorbed on the ag gregates of lipid (i.e., biological surfactant or fat) molecules [3]. If a surface-active polymer is pres ent in the solution, then a mixed absorbed film of polymer and surfactant also can occur at the in terface (Figure 3F). In several biological mem branes the protein-lipid association is believed to resemble this type of association [4]. Surfactant molecules can be considered as building blocks. One can make various types of structures of surfactant molecules by simply in creasing the concentration of surfactant in water and adjusting proper physicochemical conditions such as temperature, pH, and the presence of vari ous electrolytes [5, 6]. Figure 4 schematically shows various structures that are formed in the surfactant solution upon increasing the concentraM O N O ME RS M IC EL L E ( RANDO M LY ORIE N-E I:':I SU RFA CTAN T C RY STAL \s' nm ~ ~r____ _ _,,AF, W,!,! l,.J~~ -; / \ " ~;!1>" ?Ym ::t_::, ,o ':i;y; ~ : > l ~~.i,kg~~h'l, bW,b ) J''t'i ,, ,, .,,; ----.1.1!~0 6 .H zO -~ I / 9ffl?TI~i_ : \ / ~i, ,~ ~ ::l'' .. ~ C' M ECLR M ICEuE ./ H zO J H E XAGO NA L PACKING OF M IC R OE M ULS IO N WA TER CYLI N DER FIGURE 4 A schematic presentation of structure formation in sur factant solution depending upon the concentration of sur factant as well as physico chemical conditions 16 tion of a surfactant Upon increasing the concen tration of surfactant, spherical micelles become cylindrical and subsequently the cylindrical struc tures become hexagonall y packed. If concentration is further increased the lamellar structures a r e formed. Upon further addition of surfactant, the lamellar structures are converted to a hexagonal FIGURE 5 (A ) schematic i llustration of a monomolecular film at air water interface. (B ) orientation of surface-activ e molecules with increasing chain length at air-water int e rface packing of water cylinders Upon addition of oil and a short-chain alcohol, one can convert such water cylinders into a water-in-oil microemulsion. The structures of these systems are well estab lished from X-ray diffraction studies [7, 8]. It is pos s ible to induce a tran s ition from one structure to another by changing the ph y sico c hemical con ditions such as temperature, pH, addition of monovalent or divalent cation s in the surfactant solution [9]. The cylindrical and lamellar struc tures often are called liquid-crystalline phases since they have flow properties as liquids and a certain degree of crystallinity as solids. They have very unusual electrical and rheological properties [10-12]. It should be emphasized that the scheme sho w n in Figure 4 is a general s cheme and a sur factant may skip se v eral phases depending upon its structure and the physicochemical conditions. INSOLUBLE SURFACTANT AND MONOLAYERS JF THE HYDROCARBON chains are sufficiently long (greater than 16 -C-Cbonds), the sur face-active molecules will be insoluble in water. When such insoluble surfactants are dissolved in organic solvent s, and a drop of the solution is placed on the water surface, these molecules will spread at the air / water interface. In general, the surfactant molecule does not evaporate because the polar group is anchored on the water surface and it does not dissolve because the long hydroCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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carbon chain prevents the molecule dissolving into w ater. In this way, one can produce a monomole cular film of floating molecules of an insoluble surfactant at the air / water interface. In general one can fill a tray of Teflon or plexiglas with water up to the rim of the tray. A measured quant ity of surfactant solution in an organic solvent such as chloroform, benzene, or hexane can be placed by a microsyringe on the water surface. The solvent molecules evaporate or diffuse into the wa ter leav ing the insoluble surfactant molecules at the sur face A glass slide is placed at one end of the trough (Figure 5A). By horizontal movement of the glass slide one can compress this monomole cular film and bring molecules closer to one an other. However, as the film is com pressed, at a specific film area, the molecules will stand side by side with their polar groups in water and hydro carbon chains in the air. By measuring the area of the film as well as calculating the number of molecules deposited on the surface, one can de termine the average area per surface active mole cule in the monolayer. In a closed packed state, the average area per molecule is close to the cross sectional area of the surfactant molecule. Thus, an insoluble monolayer is a system which allows the direct experimental determination of the cross sectional area of the molecules. Monomolecular films or monolayers represent a two-dimensional state of matter since their The engineering applications of surface science range from agricultural sprays to oil recovery including areas such as catalysis, coatings, dispersions, electronics, flotation of minerals, lubrication, and retardation of evaporation from lakes and reservoirs .. height, which is about 20-25 Angstrom, is negligi ble compared with their length and width. Analo gous to the states of matter in three dimensions, monolayers also can exist as two-dimensional solids, liquids or gases and can undergo tempera ture-dependent phase transitions from one state to another [13, 14]. When the monomolecular film is compressed by moving the glass slide, the s urface tension de creases (Figure 5A). The decrease in surface tension often i s called surface pressure which indicates the state of compression of the mono molecular film. The higher the surface pressure, WINTER 1977 A B FIGURE 6 (A) Davson-Dan ie ll i model for structure of bio logical mem branes ( B ) Lipid-protein mosaic mod el for the structure of bio logical membranes the higher the state of compression of the mono molecular film. The surface tension is measured by a torsion balance from which a thin platinum blade is suspended in w ater at the air / water inter face. From the surface pressure measurements one c an prepare a plot of surface pressure vs. average area per molecule. This plot is equivalent to pres sure vs. volume curve for gases in three-dimen sional state. In 1920, the concept of the specific molecular orientation at interfaces was a novel idea, but there was no experimental proof for this concept. Langmuir [15] used monolayer approach to establish that surface active molecules have a specific molecular orientation at the air / water interface. He studied monolayers of various fatty acids of different length containing 16 to 32 carbon atoms. Experimentally, he determined the cross-sectional area of molecules in the compressed monolayers of these fatty acids. To his surprise, he observed that although the fatty acids studied were of different chain-length the cross-sectional area determined was the same for all fatty acids suggesting that they must be oriented vertically to the surface (Figure 5B). If they were oriented in any other way, the increasing chain length would have caused an increase in the average area per molecule. For establishing this concept of the specific molecular orientation at interfaces, Lang muir later was awarded a Nobel Prize [16]. APPLICATIONS OF MONOLAYERS SINCE IT IS DIFFICULT to visualize at a molecular level how properties of a monolayer are related to various phenomena, I have prepared the follo w ing few diagrams to emphasize the roie of monomolecular films in these phenomena. 17

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F O AM S URFA C E VISCOSI TY FL O W~~ DRAIN A GE OF S OAP SOLUTION FOA M S T A B ILI T Y -RA TE O F D R AI N AGE suR F ACE VI S COSITY -M OL E CULAR PACKI N G FIGURE 7 The schematic presentation of factors influencing foam stability. Figure 6 shows two conceptual models for molecular arrangement of lipids and proteins in biological membranes [17, 18]. In the Davson Danielli model (Figure 6A), the lipids (i.e., bio logical surfactant) are arranged as a continuous bilayer and protein is believed to be adsorbed on both sides of the lipid bilayer. The second model, (Figure 6B) which is based upon the current thinking about the structure of biological mem branes visualizes a discontinuous lipid bilayer interdigitated by protein molecules. Irrespective of which of these models is a more accurate de scription of molecular arrangement in membranes, the orientation and packing of lipid molecules in membranes are similar to that in monomolecular films of the lipids at the interface. Using a mono layer approach, one can determine lipid-lipid, lipid-protein and lipid-metal ion interactions that may occur in biological membranes [19-21 ]. Figure 7 schematically shows a foam column produced by a surfactant solution. The stability of the foam column depends upon the stability of individual soap bubbles. A soap bubble is a thin layer of surfactant solution which has the ad sorbed film of surfactant on both sides of the soap film. The stability of the soap film depends upon the rate of drainage of solution in the film, which OIL-IN-WATER WATER-IN-OIL FIGURE 8 A schematic presentation for the structure of emulsion droplets and orientation of surface active molecules at the oil-water interface. 18 s ubsequently depends upon the state of adsorbed surfactant film. We have observed [ 22, 23] that a closer packing of surfactant molecules in the ad sorbed monolayer leads to a higher surface vis cosity of the adsorbed monolayer, which subse quently decreases the rate of d r ainage of solution within the soap film, and hence increases the foam stability. Figure 8 schematically shows the role of mono layers in stabilizing oi l/ water emulsions. It has been known that oil and water do not mix. How ever, if a surfactant is added to oil-water mixture, one can produce a relatively stable emulsion. De pending upon the relative amounts of oil and water as well as the physicochemical conditions, one can produce oil-in-water or water-in-oil type emulsion In either case, each droplet is coated with a surfactant monolayer (Figure 8). Figure 9 shows the role of the monomolecular film in boundary lubrication of metallic surfaces. Here a surfactant attaches itself to a metal sur face due to the interaction between the polar The domain of surface science is perhaps one of the most interdisciplinary areas of modern science and technology .. group of the surfactant with the metallic surface. When such monolayer-covered surfaces slide against one another, the frictional forces decrease considerably. Since sliding of hydrocarbon chains past one another does not offer too much re sistance, the coefficient of friction decreases strik ingly. Moreover, the adsorption of such mono molecular film of surfactant on metal surfaces also protects the surface against wear from fric tion. The monomolecular films of fatty acids or fatty alcohols also are employed for reducing evapora tion of water [24]. In many countries such as Israel, India, and Australia this approach is used to decrease evaporation of water from lakes and reservoirs Figure 10 shows one of the concepts of surface science, namely, contact angle and wettability. When a drop of water is placed on wax, Teflon, or plexiglas, the drop rests on the surface with a finite angle called contact angle. If the contact angle is greater than 90 the liquid does not wet the surface. If one adds a surfactant or "wetting agent" in w ater, the contact angle on w ax or C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FIGURE 9 A schematic presentation of the orientation of surface active molecules at the metal surface in boundary lubrication Teflon decreases dramatically and may approach zero. Hence, normally nonwettable surfaces can be wetted by water if surfactants are added to water [25, 26]. This phenomenon is of considerable im portance in agricultural sprays since the herbicide or insecticide will not be effective if the drops from the spray do not stay on the leaves or fruits (because of their waxy surface) and fall on the ground. However, if one adds a surface-active agent to the spray, it changes the contact angle and permits droplets to stick and spread on the leaves and fruits providing protection from insects and other diseases (Figure 10). This phenomenon is also of central importance in the wetting of con tact lenses and in many problems related to cornea and tears [27]. UNSATURATED FA T AND MO L ECULAR AREA A T PRESENT, considerable emphasis is placed on the desirability of "polyunsaturated fat" and the undesirability of "saturated fat and cholesterol" in diet. To determine the differences in the cross-sectional area and surface properties of lipid (fat) molecules with identical polar group but different degree of unsaturation in their fatty acid chains, we took lecithins from four different sources [28]. The four lecithins were, respectively, dipalmitoyl lecithin, egg yolk lecithin, soy bean lecithin, and dioleyol lecithin. The first and the last lecithins were synthesized in the laboratory. Lecithin is a common component of biological tis sues and membranes. As shown in Figure 11, the surface-pressure-area per molecule curves of these four lecithins were different suggesting that the nature of hydrocarbon chains influences the av erage area per molecule of lecithin. The order of average area per molecule is as follows: dipalmi toyl lecithin < egg lecithin < soy bean lecithin < dioleyol lecithin. The fatty acid compositions of these four lecithins also w ere determined sep arately by the gas chromatography of fatty acids. Figure 12 is a schematic presentation of these WINTER 1977 four lecithins in monomolecular films based on monolayer and gas chromatography data. These results indicate that the degree of unsaturation or the presence of double bonds in fatty acid chains influences the average molecular area of lecithins and subsequently influences the intermolecular spacing between lipid molecules. If one assumes that the average area per molecule is a circle with a radius "r"; then the intermolecular spacing is 2r. If we consider areas of 51.9 A 2 73.8 A 2, 78.1 A 2, and 87.5 A 2 per molecule at a surface pressure of 20 dynes / cm for dipalmitoyl, egg, soy bean, and dioleyol lecithins, respectively; the corresponding intermolecular spacings are 8.1 A, 9.7 A, 10.0 A, and 10 6 A suggesting that a change of 0.3 A to 1.5 A in the intermolecular spacing is brought about by the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid chains. Further, we have shown that such small changes in intermolecular spacing strikingly in fluence the hydrolysis of lecithin monolayers when snake venom is injected under the monolayers. We have established that the degree of unsaturation of lecithins also influences their interaction with calcium ions in the solution as well as their as sociation with cholesterol in monomolecular films (19, 21, 29, 30). In summary, monolayers provide an extremely useful system to study cross-sectional area of sur factant molecules and to elucidate the effect of unsaturation on the intermolecular spacing, and WITH O UT SURFA C TA NT W I T H SU RF ACTAN T { we llin9 ag ent l FIGURE l 0 A schematic presentation of the role of contact angle and wettabi l ity in influencing the effectiveness of agricultural sprays hence on the reactions and molecular interactions at interfaces [31]. MONOLAYERS AND OI L SP I L L S The contraction of an oil spill is an interesting 19

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application of monolayers.* In the event of an oil spill, the oil continues to spread because of the natural surfactant in the crude oil. These natural surfactants have a certain spreading pressure and, as a result, the oil continues to spread at the air / wi1ter interface. However, if one deposits a film 9f another surfactant with a higher spreading pressure around the oil-spill, then the deposited monolayer causes contraction of the oil-spill. In other words, the deposited film, having a higher surface pressure, causes the oil-spill to contract. The most fascinating message that comes out of this observation is that the monomolecular film of so---~--~ 0 DIPALMITOYL LECITHIN "' EGG LECITHIN SOYBEAN LE C ITHIN 0 DIOLEOYL LE C ITHIN 140 FIGURE 11 The surface pressure-area curves for four lecithins with different fatty acid compositions surfactant pushes a crude oil layer that is two mil lion times thicker than its own thickness (;:::;25A). This observation leads to the conclusion that for contraction of oil-spill, it is the spreading pressure that is a predominant factor and not the thickness of oil or surfactant layers. Spreading such a sur face-active material around the oil-spill from a helicopter can prevent further spreading of the oil-spill and can thicken the oil layer at the air / sea interface and hence facilitate the collection procedures. Spreading of such films near the shore-line also can prevent the oil-spill from con taminating the beaches. Since we are using mono molecular films for this purpose, the danger of Mr. A. Tamjeedi, an underg r aduate student in Chem ical Engineering, present e d this paper at the Students AIChE Chapters competition at Baton Rouge, Louisiana and was awarded a second priz e for his work in this area 19'73 : 20 Ma.ECULAR AREA AT 11" 20. N_. __ ~ FIGURE 12. A schematic presentation of the effect of double bonds on the intermolecular spacing in lecithin monolayers contaminating the beaches with surfactant is ex tremely negligible and most of the surfactant used for this purpose would be biodegradable. More over, one would require extremely small amounts to produce monomolecular films. Figure 13 shows the three-dimensional view of the application of surfactant solutions or microemulsions in tertiary oil recovery from pe troleum reservoirs. Usually the oil wells are drilled in a five spot pattern in such a way that the micro emulsions or surfactant solutions are injected into the central injection well. The surfactant formula tion solubilizes the oils or decreases the interfacial tension at the oi l/ brine interface in the reservoir and displaces the oil towards the production wells at the four corners. If appropriate surfactants are injected then the sandstone and rocks in the reser voir are cleaned and the oil is displaced effectivel y towards the production wells. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS AND TEAR SUBSTITUTES I T IS FASCINATING that most of the phenom ena mentioned previously such as retardation of evaporation, wettability of surfaces and lubrica tion take place every time we blink. Figure 14 schematically shows our concept [32, 33] of vari ous phenomena that occur in the outer portion of the eye (i.e., cornea, tear, and the film of meibom ian oil at the air / tear interface) Many people usually above 40 to 50 years of age suffer with a condition called "dry-eye syndrome." In this situ ation, the thickness of the tear film decreases con siderably because of lack of fluid in the eyes. Be tween the blinks the thickness of the tear film decreases to such a low value that the tear film breaks and develops dry spots on the cornea. If one blinks under these conditions, there is con siderable friction between the inside of the eye lid and the dry spots on the cornea. This may lead CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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to damage of the corneal surface. Several pharma ceutical eye drops containing polymers are avail able to stabilize a thick layer of water on cornea. However, there is no scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of these available artificial tears or tear substitutes. We studied the flow dynamics and the thick ness of tear film in the eye using a slit-lamp fluoro photometer. The eye drops containing a fluorescent dye (fluorescein) are instilled into the eye of the patient or volunteer. In general, the intensity of fluorescence is related to the thickness of the tear film. We found that the tear-film thickness de creases between blinks due to drainage by gravity. However, if one adds a drop of a surface-active polymer solution (such as polyvinylalcohol (PVA), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)), or a commercially available tear substitute, the film thickness increases between blinks. Figure 15 schematically shows our explanation for the effect of polymers in thickening the tear film between blinks. A surface-active polymer would adsorb at the air / tear interface. When one blinks, this ad sorbed film is compressed just like a monolayer spread on the tray filled with water (Figure 5). After the blink, the lid is moved upward, and the compressed film of the polymer spreads in the upward direction to occupy the clean surface at the air / tear interface. When the compressed film of polymer moves upward, it drags water as the sublayer. This phenomenon of surface flow from high surface pressure to low surface pressure is called Marangoni effect. To establish that water FIGURE 13. A schematic presentation of a petroleum reservoir The lower part of the diagram shows how injection of a sur factant formulation moves the oil towards the four pro duction wells WINTER 1977 can be dragged by a polymer film, a simple experi ment using a glass slide was carried out as shown in Figure 16. One end of a wet glass slide was dipped into a polymer solution and it was observed that the polymer solution begins to climb on the wet glass slide. From fluorescence measurements, the thickness ofthe moving film was determined. To our surprise we found that the thickness of films of various polymer solutions measured in this system was the same as that measured in the eye. Table I shows the thickness of various poly mer solutions dragged on a vertical glass slide. We Polymer Barnes-Hind TABLE I wetting soln. 58 cp Adaptt 70 cp Presert t 18 cp Lacrilt 28 cp Visculoset 130 cp PVA 120cp PVA 20cp HPMC 120cp HPMC 20cp Monomolecular film of PV A Thickness (,m) of water layer dragged by polymers* 22 17 16 14 11 18 12 12 9 13 Surface Area of Trough = 0.52 cm 2 t commercially available artificial tear solutions also carried out similar experiments using a mono molecular film of Polyvinylalcohol (Table I). Here again, we found that the thickness of the layer of water dragged by a monolayer was 13 microns which is the same as the thickness of the layer dragged from the polymer solution. In other words, the increase in the thickness of the tears in the eye can be accounted for by a monomolecular film ofpolymer at the air / tear interface. This study again points out the importance of surface activity of polymers in assisting and providing comfort to patients with "dry-eye syndrome." APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE SCIENCE Agriculture and food technology.:.......The ef fectiveness of various herbicides and insecticides in agricultural sprays are determined by their wetting of leaves and fruits. The presence of sur factants (wetting agents) in agricultural sprays strikingly improves the effectiveness of the sprays 21

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and contributes to a greater production of crops. The emulsions also find considerable application in food products such as salad dressings, margarine, whipped cream, puddings, etc. Surface chemical aspects of protein-lipid associations also are im portant in determining the texture of food such as cakes and pastries and work is being done in this direction using the principles and techniques of surface sciences. Energy-The surfactant solutions and microemulsions are important in improving oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. Another in teresting application is in the area of combustion efficiency of various oils. Recently, it has been shown that if one injects a fine dispersion or emul sion of water and oil in furnaces, the efficiency of cdi-iversion of oil into heat is improved consider ably. Although the exact mechanism is not estab lished, the fact still remains that emulsification of oil and water improves the combustion efficiency. Environment-Principles and techniques of surface science find many applications in environ mental problems. The dewatering of phosphate slimes, sludge formation, coagulation, and floc culation in many waste-water treatment plants rely on the surface interactions. The surface re actions and adsorption on activated carbon are very effective methods for removal of trace con taminants. Fibrous coalescers also are used for the removal of oil droplets from a few parts per million concentration in the effluent streams of many industries. Here the attachment of oil drops to the fiber and their subsequent coalescence play an important role in the separation of oil. The use of surface films as oil herder for the contrac tion of oil-spills has been discussed. The presence of films at the air / water interface also causes I WETTING 2 DRAINAGE 3 EVAPORATION 4 FILM STABILITY 5 LUBRICATION 6 SURFACE CHARGE EFFECTS ON DRUGS DRAINAGE OF TEAR FIGURE 14. A schematic presentation of various surface phenomena occurring in the eye. 22 ... monolayers.provide a unique system to determine experimentally the cross sectional areas of surface-active molecules and to study reactions and molecular interactions at surfaces. wave-damping of small ripples. This observation has been used in developing the instrumentation for remote sensing of oil-spills. In all these sys tems and processes, the principles of physics and chemistry of surfaces and surface-active agents are involved. Industries and engineering-The surface science is involved in coating processes. For ex ample, the production of magnetic tapes in which a dispersion of magnetic oxide is coated on poly ester tapes. The stability of the dispersion and the strength of adhesion depend on the surface inter actions. Other applications of surface science are found in the manufacture of inks, paints, pig ments, nonstick cooking wares, etc. The textile industry also utilizes considerable quantities of surface-active substances in the form of wetting agents, emulsions, dye-solubilization and other processes. The contact angle and wettability also enters into water-proofing of textiles, roofing ma terial and similar systems. Many lubricants also involve the use of hydrocarbon oils and various surface-active agents as additives. The physics and chemistry of thin films are used extensively in the electronics industry. As discussed previously, the production of petroleum and petrochemicals also utilizes many processes which are in the gen eral domain of surface science. The field of cat alysis is based on surface interactions between the substrate molecules and the catalyst surface. The formulations of soaps and detergents for house hold uses also are based on surface properties of surfactants. In the world about 10 9 tons of min erals are processed every year by the use of flota tion technology which again relies on the adsorp tion of surfactant on mineral particles. Many of fice stationeries such as NCR papers (no carbon required papers) use microencapsulation of powders to coat these papers. The microencapsula tion is one of the most interesting applications of surface and colloid science to industrial processes. Biology and medicine-Many principles and techniques of surface science are relevant to the understanding of the properties and functions of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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biological membranes. It has been suggested [17] that the spontaneous formation of membranes played an important role in the origin of prebio logical cells during the chemical evolution which was followed by the biological evolution. These techniques are being used to elucidate the mechan ism of action of many drugs, anesthetic agents, and pharmacological agents on membrane prop erties. It has been established during recent years that conduction of electrical signal along a nerve fiber is strictly a surface phenomenon occurring in nerve cell membrane. As discussed previously the surface properties of polymers are also rel evant to the performance of tear substitutes in the eye. These concepts can be also extended to the wetting of contact lenses and the comfort for the eye. The solubilization of oil soluble vitamins in I I \ ADSORBED I P OLY MER A '~""" FIGURE 15. A schematic presentation of the effect of adsorbed poly mer film at the air-tear interface in upward movement of water after a blink micelles, the fat absorption in intestine, lung stability and the function of pulmonary sur factant, synovial fluid and lubrication of bone joints, dental integuments, and the development of various nonthrombogenic surfaces for artificial organs and implants all draw significantly on sur face science. Pharmaceuticals-Various pharmaceutical products such as ointments, skin lotions, creams, microencapsulation of drugs for sustained drug delivery, birth control foams, etc. are being formu lated and developed using principles and tech niques of surface science. Some of these have been discussed previously. In summary, I would like to emphasize that from the research activities I have carried out in the past decade, I have become convinced that the surface science is one of the most important facets WINTER 1977 11 a u/F~IN t:::~',...:<.::.i ,OLYIIIER a FLUORESCEIN We=::., .. .. _,~ I NTENSITY -------FIGURE 16 The slide technique used to measure the thickness of water layer dragged with a moving polymer film. of science. It is related to many natural processes and systems; it is one of the unique branches of science that finds so many diverse and wide-rang ing applications in engineering, biology and med icine. It is only during the past few years that we have seen rapid advances in understanding the complexities and unique properties of surfaces. I believe we are still at the shores of surface science, and we have a whole ocean to explore! Over the years I have also become convinced in my belief that "research is an art. Just as an artist enjoys painting a picture, or a poet enjoys writing a poem, a scientist does research for his own enjoy ment, regardless of its appreciation by others, al though it is nicer when it is also appreciated and enjoyed by others." As I began this article with a quotation, I would also like to end it with a quota tion from a poem by Tagore, which very appro priately says, "My friend, drink my wine in my own cup to appreciate its sparkling bubbles." ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Professor Bolduc (Education), Professor Nevis (Electrical Engineering and Physics), Dr. Tham (Anesthesiology and Chemical Engineering), and Professor Walker (Chemical Engineering) for critically reviewing the manuscript and for many constructive sug gestions. The financial support for the research presented here was provided by the National Science Foundation, National Institute of Health, Environmental Protection Agency, the Florida Heart Association, and the University of Florida, which is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Pr esto n, W. C., J Phy s. and Colloid Chem., 52: 84 (1948). 2. Shah, D. 0. In "Respiratory Distress Syndrome," eds. Continued on page 48. 23

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[in $1 curriculum PROCESS CONTROL ENGINEERING AT UT PERMIAN CLYDE H. SPRAGUE, GEORGE H. QUENTIN AND C. M. FRY Uni v ersit y of Te x as of the Permian Basin Odessa, Te x as 79762 THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS of the Permian Basin, was opened in the Fall of 1973 to serve the more than 300,000 people in the oil-rich Per mian Basin, the state of Texas, and the nation. Offering programs in three colleges: Management, Arts and Education, and Science and Engineer ing, the university operates as an upper level institution providing junior, senior, and graduate level courses. Students are accepted after com pleting at least 60 hours of work at another institution, usually a junior college. Designed from the outset to provide unique and innovative programs and to employ proven teaching tech niques, both new and old, the university has em barked on a number of distinctive educational and operational tracks. These are perhaps best exemplified by the program in Control Engineer ing. It is the purpose of this paper to describe that program. THE NATURE OF A CONTROL ENGINEER C 0NTR0L ENGINEERING is a unique engineering discipline, as different from other disciplines as they are different from each other. It is in herently multidisciplinary in character requiring expertise from a number of diverse disciplines That expertise must be brought to bear, however, in a way that is unique to control engineering. Control engineers are concerned with complex systems, systems with elements from many physical domains, systems that are almost always in a transient state, systems that must perform with precision and accuracy. A suitable control engineering curriculum Recent revision of a paper p r esent e d at th e annual meeting of the ASEE-CED C olorado Sta t e University, 1 9 75 2 4 must emphasize accurate measurement and con trol of variables modeling and dynamic response of elements and systems, s ophisticated and functional methods of analysis and design, and the commonality of systems from all domains. To successfully build a program of this type, it is necessary to have faculty with broad experience and an interdisciplinary background and that are willing to work freely across discipline boundaries. GENERAL GOALS STARTING A NEW engineering program in a new university, especially one w here judicious de parture from tradition is not only tolerated but encouraged, provides a rare opportunity to take a new approach to engineering education. The control engineering program has attempted to take a cautious and rational approach to substan tial change. Program goals, for example, call for Since the courses are also offered for variable credit, there are essentially no fixed course boundaries. Students may thus enter a study area at a point consistent with their background and exit when they have successfully completed the collection of modules appropriate to their specific degree plan. technical competence in breadth and depth and a demonstrated high level of communication, man agement, and interactive skills. More significant ly different from tradition, howeve :r, are the ad ditional program goals of developing in graduates the desire and the ability to continue learning, of providing a program that meets efficiently the in dividual needs of students, and g ives student s with sufficient innate learning capacities a maximum chance for succes s Accreditation is, of course, an important program goal. A coherent curriculum design results when aimed toward a specific and w ell-defined set of C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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degree objectives. From the degree objectives, it is possible to identify the supporting objectives down to the expected entrance level of students, in this case, the beginning of the junior year. These supporting objectives can be subdivided to form the courses or study areas necessary to ac complish the curriculum. Usually, a given objec tive specifies a broadly applicable problem solving process and need not be tied directly to a given physical domain such as chemical, electrical, me chanical, etc. In this way, it is possible to use different applications vehicles to illustrate and learn the given process One may learn about the basic processes in modeling and simulat in g second order systems, for example, by using electrical, mechanical, fluid, thermal or other systems as illustrations. The multi-disciplinary nature of con trol engineering makes it important to give some attention to all applications areas while placing emphasis in the areas appropriate to the individual student's goals. By specifying the appropriate set of problem-solving capabilities along with the con tent areas that are germane, a highly in dividualized curriculum can result. The specific degree objectives are of utmost importance in the design of a curriculum and of courses for that curriculum For those that may be interested, the objectives are included as an appendix STUDY PLANS AND COURSE STRUCTURE ALTHOUGH ONLY A single degree designation is currently authorized, a broad range of individual curricula is possible through formula tion of a specific, individually tailored degree plan for each student. Working in close association with a faculty adviser of his or her choice, a student works out the degree plan which, while meeting all the external constraints, is best suited to the entrance competencies and career goals of the student. Personal interviews, current testing data, job e:xperience, previous academic records, and limited special testing are currently used as bases for establishing points of entry into the program. An extensive program of pretesting will be undertaken for the first time in the Fall of 1975. Courses designed for this program are each divided into several small modules of instruction, each module specifying carefully what is required of the student Modules are studied in a sequence so that each builds on and reinforces the previous one and so that interrelationships among study WINTER 1977 L to R : Ors. Charles M. Fry Clyde H. Sprague and George H. Quentin Charles Max Fry received the B.S degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Oklahoma in 1965, the M S degree in mechan ical engineering from Rice University in 1967, and the Electrical En gineer and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Southern Methodist University in 1972 and 1973 respectively From 1967 to 1970 he was employed as an Aerodynamics Design Engineer with LTV Aerospace Corp ., Dallas, Texas Dr Fry was an LTV Corporation Doctoral Fellow at Southern Methodist University from 1970 to 1973 Since 1973 he has been Assistant Professor of Engineering at U. T Permian Basin Clyde H Sprague received the B S degree in mechanical engineer ing from Kansas State University in 1958 From 1958 to 1961 he was employed at The Johns Hopk ins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Silver Spring, Maryland He received the M.S degree in mechanical engineer i ng from Kansas State University in 1963. From 1963 to 1973 he was with the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Kansas State University. Two years were spent on leave at Purdue University where the Ph.D degree was completed in 1967. He moved to UT Permian in January of 1973 as Associate Professor and Coordinator of Engineering George H. Quentin received the BChE (1955) from Rensselaer Poly technic Institute, and the M.S. and Ph.D (19 65 ) in Chemical Engineer ing from Iowa State University Backgr ound includes div ersified ex perience with DuPont National Distillers and Monsanto Companies. Following several years on the Chemical Engineering Faculty at the University of New Mexico he joined the University of Texas of the Permian Bas in as an Associate Professor on the Faculty of Engineering. areas are carefully delineated. Since the courses are also offered for variable credit, there are es sentially no fixed course boundaries. Students may thus enter a study area at a point consistent with their background and exit when they have suc cessfully completed the collection of modules ap propriate to their specific degree plan. Additional flexibility is provided by selecting variations in objectives and application areas within a module to support a particular program. To formulate such a degree plan, the amount of credit in a given course area is specified; currently in units 25

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of not less than 1 credit hour. This generates a conventional-looking transcript. Specific require ments for a student to earn the designated credit are worked out and contracted informally. A more formal process for this is evolving but the in formal process works adequately for our small student population. SELF-PACED INSTRUCTION AND COURSE MANAGEMENT To use effectively the flexibility built into the course structure and degree formulation system, most course areas are offered on a continuous en rollment, self-paced basis. Consequently, students may enter the program at any time, and take up to two full semesters to complete a course under justifiable circumstances. This requires that most self-paced courses be available at all times. Simul taneous proctoring of several courses by both stu dents and faculty results in efficient and full use of instructor time, even with small individual course enrollments. Courses designed for this program are each divided into several small modules of instruction, each module specifying carefully what is required of the student. Good course management plays an important role in the relative success of a self-paced course. Neglect of the management aspect of self-paced course design is common and often leads to dis enchantment with the method. Significant time and effort have been devoted to the evolution of a workable management system at UT Permian, and much has been accomplished. Although the system is far from perfect it is improving steadily. Management is an important component in all self-paced courses but is critical in this engineer ing program where most or all of a given student's load may be self-paced. A RANGE OF DEGREE PLANS ALTHOUGH THE CONTROL Engineering degree is of sufficient breadth to prepare students for a variety of career opportunities, all students are expected to develop control system design exper tise in one or more selected applications areas. Efficient degree planning for these diverse fields of application requires significant breadth of se26 lection in math, in engineering science, and in engineering design. This is accomplished by de veloping a minimal central core in each area sur rounded by a coherent collection of additional work from which to choose. In visualizing this ap proach, it is important to recognize that there are no fixed course boundaries so great flexibility is possible. To illustrate the breadth of possible curriculum planning, two contrasting degree plans are out lined in the table below. One is appropriate for an engineer interested in chemical process con trol, the other is oriented toward flight control applications in commercial or military aviation or aerospace. These degree plans should be inter preted as representative of what is planned or possible, not as specific requirements for a de gree although they do indicate minimal credit in an area It is also important to note that differences in content and objectives between equal credits in a given study area contribute to a difference in the two plans not evident in the table. ENGINEERING DESIGN A SIGNIFICANT PORTION of this component of each Control Engineering degree plan is de voted to formal training and re a listic experience with project engineering and management. At present, the engineering management training is handled by conventionally offered, formal man agement courses. These will eventually be tailored to and integrated with the project engineering activity. The engineering project experience is provided by courses in Authentic Involvement. In this area, students are organized into teams of four or five students, possibly some that are not engineers, to pursue a lengthy engineering project. Projects are solicited from industry, public service institu tions or other appropriate sources. Specific cri teria for screening potential projects have been established to insure their realism and suitability. Students work in teams, under faculty super vision, and as consultants to the industry. Each team is expected to carry out all of the functions of a normal project team assigned to such a prob lem and to conclude the project with a formal, oral and written report to the client agency. Authentic Involvement is the capstone of the degree program and serves to reinforce previously acquired engineering competencies; to develop confidence and competence with the engineering C HEMICAL ENGINEERIN G EDUCATION

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TABLE 1. REPRESENTATIVE BUT CONTRASTING DEGREE PLANS. English Humanities and Social Science Basic Science Mathematics Engineering Science Engineering Design History Government Other Inorganic Chemistry Advanced Chemistry (Physical & Organic) Analytic Geometry & Calculus Advanced Math Simulation Statics Dynamics Mech of Mat'ls Mat'ls Science Systems Analysis Thermodynamics Fluids Heat Transfer Electronics Measurements Separation Processes Chemical Reactor Operations Introductory Control System Design Computer Control Modern Control Engineering Management & Economics Engineering Project design process; to develop and apply manage ment, communications, and interaction skills so students experience a role as close to engineering practice as is possible in a university environ ment. UNIQUE FACILITIES ALTHOUGH FACILITIES are usually of secondary importance, those being used for this program are as unique as the program. The University is housed, almost in its entirety, within a single building. One wing is used for conventional class rooms, offices, computer center, instructional media, administrative offices, and other service facilities, the specific room configuration being established with snap-in walls easily rearranged to meet changing needs. The laboratory wing consists of three fully WINTER 1977 Chemical Process Control Orientation 6 6 6 3-6 8 8 Flight Control Orientation 6 6 6 3-6 8 0 9 9 (content of advanced math selected to fit program) 6 6 1-3 1 2 2 2 4 6 3 3 0-3 3 3 3 3 0 3-6 3-6 1-3 1 3 2-3 2-3 6 3 3 2-3 3 3 3 0-3 3 3-6 3-6 carpeted floors that are totally open and without walls except for a few offices and special purpose rooms around the periphery. Laboratory activi ties are carried out on mobile lab benches, some with all quick-connect utilities for wet experi ments, some dry for other experiments. All tables have removable tote-trays for storing collections of experimental supplies in the stockroom for in dividual checkout. Utility outlets and drive-in fume hoods are distributed throughout the area. Tables are designed so they may be connected to form a chain of benches for group laboratories. All other furniture in the laboratory is movable to facilitate organization of the space for im mediate needs. The laboratory facility is used by all disciplines in the University and provides, in adContinued on page 31. 27

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USING SUMMER FACULTY -STUDENT CONSULT ANT TEAMS TO SOL VE INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS DONALD L. MICHELSEN Virginia Polytechnic Institute Blacksburg, V irginia 24061 and JEROME ARKIS and GENE ECHOLS Amoco Oil Company Yorktown, Virginia 23690 THE INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT of a summer student between the junior and senior year or between the senior and first-year graduate school often is received by the student with mixed feelings. The experience can be a good one, with a challenging and interesting assignment, good supervision and understanding, and include a sense of community and identity. On the other hand, often summer experiences can leave a stu dent perplexed and frustrated. He or she is not always treated with respect or given very chal lenging assignments. A stranger in town who feels out of touch with the community. The supervisor does not have adequate time to really provide him with a background to carry out a meaningful as signment in the short period time that is available, and the management does not know exactly how to treat him because he is the result of a public relations program. During the first three weeks in September 1975, a group of four upcoming seniors, a gradu ate student, and a faculty consultant spent three weeks at the Yorktown refinery of Amoco Oil Company on four projects related to the waste water treatments of refinery effluents. These four projects lasted only three weeks but because of good planning, excellent cooperation from the r finery and a good student mix, all the shortcom ings often found with summer jobs were over come. In addition, the technical achievements and maturity of approach were amazingly high. And what was originally thought to be primarily a public relations approach to better recruiting 28 turned out to be quite successful whether meas ured from a public relations or technical contribu tion standpoint Last fall, while interviewing for Amoco at Virginia Tech, Jerry Arkis discussed with Don Michelsen the use of faculty-student consultant teams as a means for solving industrial problems. Because our unit operation lab occupies most of late July and August between the junior and senior year, the possibilities of using student study group was limited to an eight week period before Unit Operations Laboratory or a three week period following Labor Day prior to the beginning of fall classes at Virginia Tech. Following the ex change the faculty consultant drafted a brief de scription of consulting faculty-student team pos sibilities which could be expanded depending upon Amoco's interest. It was suggested that these teams might be used to so lve a process developThe waste treatment area is a good area in which to work because ... a high level of technical know-how is not required before an understanding of the problem is appreciated. ment or plant project, complete an energy survey or process control analysis, or study the refinery's waste treatment plant. PLANNING PROCEDURE I N APRIL, AMOCO invited the faculty con su ltant to visit for further discussion. The fac ulty member toured the facilities with Gene Echols and exchanged ideas on how students might be effectively used to study a number of waste treat ment problems in the refinery. The refinery is committed to an activated sludge process for treat ing its biological wastes, but has some degree of flexibility in terms of what might be installed beCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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tore and after the activated sludge facility. By late afternoon, Echols and Michelsen had defined four possible areas for student in v estigation Subsequently, the faculty consultant completed a proposal describing the four project areas, proj ect definition procedures involving the students, procedures to be followed in carrying out the studies, and a budget. The financial arrangement was made independent of the university An im portant goal was to have students identify the projects as their own rather than an assignment delegated by Amoco and / or the faculty consultant The proposal was shared with the four students selected from six applicants who expressed inter est in carrying out this project after Unit Opera tions Laboratory in the Fall of 1975. Prior to go ing down to Yorktown in late May, the students and faculty discussed Amoco's treatment pro cedures, general expectation being placed on the students, and agreed on student project area as signments. By late May the proposal had been approved by Amoco and the four undergraduate students, plus the faculty consultant visited Yorktown in order to tour the refinery including the waste treatment facilities, and to discuss and exchange ideas on the individual projects By day's end the students had a good understanding of their proj ect. Prior to revisiting the end of July, each stu dent was responsible for completing a literature search and background study on his project area and for preparing a presentation using flow charts of planned activities for early September. On Monday, July 28, 1975, the four students plus a fifth graduate student (Honcho) and the faculty consultant discussed their approach to the prob lems with representatives from Amoco Oil in Yorktown including James Grutsch, the Environ mental Director for Standard of Indiana. The students' plan of attack differed considerably from the earlier discussions They recognized increased emphasis on the pretreatment of the waste water following API separator, industrial concern for the aeration and stabilization of the sludges, and decided not to pursue work on the crude desalter but rather to spend that time in the API separator area. Following their flip chart presentation, James Grutsch gave an overview of the operation of the Amoco operation in Texas City. His ideas verified much of what the consulting team had de cided Amoco should be doing in Yorktown. After considerable discussion, the four projects were defined In effect, only one of the students' projects WINTER 1977 --------------was changed in any significant manner. The four projects selected for study were as follows: 1) a study of the performance and cap abilities of the API separator, as well as the feasi bility of using a coalescer following the API sep arator, 2) a pilot dissolved air-flotation system following the API separator to remove dispersed oil and suspended solids, 3) evaluation of final filter using newly installed equipment including a dual polymer flocculation system, and 4) a plant study of sludge settling in their backflush pond, including the use of polymer addition, turbulence in the backwash pond; and a laboratory study on air stabilization of backflush solids. It was suggested that summer faculty-student con sultant team s might be used to solve a proces s development or plant pro j ect, compl e te a n energy sur v ey or process control analysis or study the refinery s waste treatment plant The students were very busy during the next five weeks completing the rather intensive Unit Operations Laboratory at Virginia Tech; there fore, when they arrived on Labor Day to start work on the second of September, the first day was spent discussing each project assignment. The first week was spent laying out test work, fabricat ing equipment, and becoming familiar with stand ard laboratory tests. Because of good understand ing with management, laboratory, shop and plant personnel an atmosphere of good cooperation and encouragement was achieved-essential if any progress was to be made in three weeks. Equip ment modifications were quickly made A favora ble union situation gave the students considerable freedom to design and fabricate much of their own equipment. Projects were reviewed after the second week with Amoco management. By that time the stu dents had completed their Introduction, Back ground and Theory, and Procedure sections which included plans, equipment, chemical analyses, data reduction, and presentation of expected results section. Monday, September 21, 1975, the students, Honcho, and faculty member gave a final oral re port of the results of the study using flip charts. Each student had completed a rough draft of his report and the results were presented to five representatives from the Amoco refinery. The 29

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three hour session included an individual presenta tion by each of the students involving their proj ects, a report of the short-term recommendations by the group leader, and a discussion of long-term recommendations to meet the BPT goals by 1977 by the faculty consultant. The long-term recom mendations on the use of a DAF and equalization pond system are in conflict with present plans for What was originally thought to be primarily a public relations approach to better recruiting turned out to be quite successful whether measured from a public relations or technical contribution standpoint. Yorktown. A final report was completed by No vember 10, 1975, which included a write-up by each of the students and an overall Summary, Introduction and Recommendations section. PARTICIPANTS' RESPONSIBILITIES A LTHOUGH THE STUDENTS could call on support from faculty consultant, Honcho, and Gene Echols from Amoco, the students were given most of the responsibility for carrying out their individual projects. This was reinforced by the oral presentation given the end of July which laid the groundwork for the students to start im mediately after Labor Day. A significant amount of flexibility was provided while on site. The fac ulty consultant was in the plant four days al though he did spend a number of Sundays review ing projects with individual students. The Honcho was necessary to provide technical assistance, in teract on numerous questions, provide liaison with Amoco and to encourage students when bogged down. He acted as an intermediary and yet as much as possible direct interaction of the students with refinery representatives was encouraged. The students did much of their own work and were free to go into the shops and work directly with Amoco personnel. The team lived together in two adjoining kitchenettes with the Honcho and fac ulty consultant. The group ate together during the week but tended to scatter during the weekends. Because of the close proximity, the two conducted studies around the API separator working to gether closely, and the two operating the filter and backwash worked together. A two man team effort developed. 30 The faculty consultant's responsibility centered primarily on setting up the projects, making sure the teams got off to a good start, setting some guidelines and directions for the overall projects, and reviewing the results and recommendations closely. The waste treatment area is a good area in which to work because of short induction period. That is, a high level of technical know-how is not required before an understanding of the problem is appreciated. The students picked up a grasp of the subject rather quickly. However, prior to hands-on experience, the students had difficulty relating literature to plant operations. Books on industrial waste treatment are abundant and pro vide background, but until the student is directly involved appreciation of the literature is difficult. As a result, background and theory and the sig nificance of the literature were initially glossed over. During the three week work period, the level of appreciation increased and the results and com parison to the literature represented a real con tribution. The biggest analytical stumbling block came in the analysis of the oil and grease using freon ex traction. The standard procedure for conducting these tests is time-consuming and subject to error. The students spent two or three evenings at the end of the project completing these analyses, yet this was crucial to the study in Yorktown because of an oil carry -o ver problem from the API sep arator into the biological basins. As the refinery moves toward the installation of an activated sludge process, a more elaborate oil and suspended solid removal procedure will be necessary in order to insure good oxidation. The level of technical throughness with which the students approach their individual problems was truly remarkable and the magnitude of the re sults are really quite impressive. It has provided the basis for a number of conclusions and recom mendations which suggest a review of current and future plans for waste treatment. CONCLUSION T HROUGH PROPER organization and planning a short term three week consulting team project can be con ducted with significant technical and public relations payoff with students contributing in a very responsible fashion. A combination of introductory visits and a presentation by the students resulted in a stro ng committment to their project area. Once motivated the students moved ahead quickly wih their project. In addition, a strong sense of comradarie developed from living in those two adjacent kitchenettes and working together in two man teams. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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PROCESS CONTROL: Sprague, Quentin, Fry Continued from page 27. dition to strictly laboratory needs, proctoring areas, study carrels, open study areas, small seminar areas, media-areas ; in short, all of the facilities needed to carry on individualized, self paced, or small group course activities. In this way, the open laboratory serves almost all of the needs of the engineering program in a very efficient utilization of space, furnishings, and equipment. Only a few activities require other spaces. Since the same open laboratory is used by all disciplines in the University for all of the functions named above, there is considerable in teraction among students and faculty from these different areas. STATUS OF THE PROGRAM T HE FOREGOING discussion has laid out the de sign goals, curriculum objectives, and curri culum implementation features for the Control Engineering Program at UT-Permian Basin. Underway only two years, the program has not, of course, fully realized all of these ambitions. The intent of this section is to evaluate the status of the program and its future. The ultimate evaluation of any professional program comes from the performance of its graduates in practice. Too young to have many graduates and with little time-in-service for those that have graduated, any evaluation must neces sarily be very preliminary. Students in or from this program have been favorably received by in dustry and graduate schools. Industries par ticipating in our Authentic Involvement program have responded favorably both to the engineering competence of our students and to their abilities to document and communicate their work. Thus the external indicators of acceptance of our students are positive. The educational environment in our program is entirely different from what most students have previously experienced. Inevitably then, there has been a period of adaptation as students learn to function efficiently in this new environment and as the faculty adjust the environment based on student successes and reactions. Some students have been unable or unprepared to adapt and have dropped from the program, but most have learned to take advantage of the flexibility. A significant number of students, with poor initial preparation or with a long lapse in their studies have been WINTER 1977 able to develop and to succeed in the program only because of the individual pacing, one-to-one instructor help, and the opportunity to recycle until reasonable competency is achieved. Such students, although they have excellent latent po tential, would not survive in a conventional pro gram. Although considerable progress has been achieved toward meeting the needs and maximiz ing the chance for success of individual students, much remains to be done. Needed are more formal premeasure procedures, self-study packages for areas of significant prerequisite weakness, a broader range of course offerings and more variety within courses, revisions and additions to existing learning materials, a more formal and elaborate validation procedure, development of laboratory facilities, and an ever-improving course manage ment system. These areas of development are in various stages of progress, but all are underway. Resource limitations are believed to be the primary impediments to their rapid and success ful conclusion. APPENDIX Curriculum objectives for the Control Engineering pro gram are as follows. A graduate of this program should be able to: Operate successfully as a member of a project design team to construct a proposed design solution to an authentic problem and to prepare and present satis factory oral and written reports documenting the design. Demonstrate project management skills necessary to insure the successful operation of the team in the team design activity described above. Demonstrate successful acquisition and application of information relative to a topic for which little infor mation is available in typical literature sources. Construct and support a prediction of the possible impact on society of a major event, invention, dis covery, technological change change in government policy or law, etc. Sir: Almost invariably I have found that the demonstration has been a very effective teaching tool that was well re ceived by students. To help myself and others who share my inclination, I am attempting to edit a compilation of demonstrations. I wish to concentrate on the field of ChE as a broader coverage is probably not practical. Accord ingly, I would like to ask any potential author who knows of such demonstrations to contact me. Then we can make arrangements so that a commonformat is used and ap propriate authors credits are given. Prof. M Duane Horton Brigham Young University Provo, Utah 84602 31

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[e) ;j #I laboratory SY CONS, A SYSTEMS CONTROL SIMULA TOR HENRY R. WENGROW 1 CHARLES R. DENNETT 2 RICHARD N. GREENLEE and DAVID LeBLANC 3 University of Lo well Lowell, Mass. 01854 PROCESS DYNAMICS and Control is normally taught to ChE students in their senior year. At the University of Lowell this is a two semester course consisting of 3 hours of lecture in the fall semester and 1 hour of lecture and 3 hours of laboratory in the spring semester. The fall semes ter course is intended to provide a sound theoret ical background in control theory with emphasis on mathematical techniques, open and closed loop systems and stability analysis (root locus and Bode diagrams). The spring semester consists of weekly lectures on advanced topics and laboratory work consisting of digital and analog computer techniques and experimental techniques using hardware such as pneumatic and electronic con trollers, valves, level control systems and flow control systems. In addition the university has established a college-wide digital control laboratory for the pur pose of developing real time systems and demon stration programs for both teaching and research projects. Three ChE seniors, (Dennett, Greenlee, Le Blanc) developed SYCONS as an elective senior project in conjunction with this laboratory, work ing under the direction of the senior author, (Wengrow). SYCONS, which stands for Systems Control Simulator, is an interactive program written in BASIC which allows the user to simulate a closed loop block diagram of up to 30 individual com ponents, consisting of a 3 -mode controller (any 1 Present address: 3017 Amherst Ave., Columbia, S.C. 2 Present address: 494-13 Greenleaf Meadows, Rochester, N.Y. 3 Present address: Celanese Chemical Co Bishop, Tx. 32 combination of modes), step loads or setpoint, first and second order systems, and dead times. The transfer functions for components are shown in Table 1. The set point can also be a sine wave and the system may be ruh open loop. TABLE 1 Transfer Functions for SYCONS Transfer Function Name Comments X = R Y Co mpar ator 1st element in loop 1 Can be used as P, I, D, K.[1 + + 7nsl Co ntroller 71S Pl, PD, PID, ID G 1st order Specify G and 7 7S + 1 G 2nd Order Specify G, 7, and g 72s 2 + 2{7s + 1 e 7s lag Specify 7 < 5 X=Y+U Summing Must be between each junction non-summing junction element. With these combinations available, most com mon type control problems arising in ChE can be solved. The output consists of the time domain response of the final element in the loop. The program philosophy is to allow the user to specify the control loop and provide answers in the least restricted fashion possible. The machine used is a NOV A 1200 with 16K memory and disk storage. Input is through key board with CRT display or punched paper type and output is CRT, line printer or punched paper type. Computing Algorithms-Each individual ele ment is considered as a block with input, X, and output, Y. Summing junctions have an additional input U which may be zero and serve both to al low step changes in load and to convert the output of one block to the input of the next block. Comparator-This element allows for negative feedback and is analogous to the comparator in real systems. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Controller-A simple trapezoidal rule is used for the integral portion and a difference approxi mation is used for the derivative mode. + T n (1) First and Second Order Systerns--The rela tively unsophisticated Euler method is used for the solutions of the first and second order differ ential equations. A time step of 0.02 is used throughout. Y t = G X t Y t-i At+ Y t 1 T (2) ( At ) 2 --:;+ 2Y t-C y t -2 (3) Time Lag-The time lag is achieved by storing inputs in an array and recalling at the proper time. Because of array size limitations for BASIC, only time lags of 5 and less can be used. Y(t) = X(t-T) (4) Also only one delay element may be used per loop simulation. USE OF SYCONS THE USE OF SYCONS is relatively simple and can be used by students of control with mini mum instruction. The closed loop process shown in Figure 1 was run on the computer by way of il lustrations In the language of SYCONS it con sists of 8 elements : 1. Comparator 5. Summing Junction 2. Controller 6. First Order 3. Summing Junction 7. Summing Junction 4. First Order 8 Time Lag At each point in the program where a user must enter information, SYCONS requests the R O + K 4. 2 l l ~ 8 0 0 7 WINTER 1977 FIGURE 1 Block Diagram 20 24 TIME FIGURE 2. Response t o step change i n load proper information giving the user the proper codes to assist in the input Interested readers may request a copy of the program from the author. Figure 2 is a plot of the time domain response of the last element. Several additional techni q ues can be used with SYCONS. A sine wave can be used in the first load position (comparator set-point) and if the process is run open-loop the frequency response can be determined. The derivative mode of the controller can be used to generate an impulse func tion by putting a step change into the set point under open loop conditions and the integral mode will generate a ramp input under similar condi tions. With an impulse input data for Fourier analysis can be generated. CONCLUSIONS S YCONS APPEARS to work well and to be a versatile tool for both the learning of process control techniques and for the solution of complex transient responses. It has been used by several students with some control background and was found to be simple to use and instructive in illustrating methods that were merely concepts. A copy of the project report which includes the program listing, additional illustrated examples and the program logic diagram can be obtained from Digital Control Lab, College of Engineering, University of Lowell, Lowell, MA. 01854. The authors acknowledge Prof. P. Burger and the students of the Digital Control Lab, Univer sity of Lowell, for thei r help and encouragement in this project. 33

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84th Annual Conference Editor's Note: The four papers following were presented as part of a symposium at the Annual Conference of the ASEE at the University of Tennessee; Knoxville, Tennessee; June 1976. Where Is the Roller Coaster Headed? WILLIAM D. BAASEL Ohio University Athens, Ohio 45701 and MICHAEL D. CISE Eli Lilly & Company Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 T HE DEMAND FOR engineers has been widely touted recently by such mass media publica tions as the Wall Street Journal and Time Maga zine. This has generally been a result of reports emanating from the Engineering Manpower Com mission. Professional journals have also vividly described the apparent disparity between engi neering enrollments and projected demands for B.S. engineers. An example of this is the series "Supply, Demand and Utilization of Engineers" in Chemical Engineering Progress last year. It appeared that engineering enrollments were on the decline up to the Fall of 1975. At that time, ChE Departments began to talk about a quantum surge in enrollments and fears of a boom and bust cycle were being mentioned at national AIChE meetings. It became evident that this was a Will these and other survey results moderate the present enrollment rise and degree projections? Where is the roller coaster headed? Do we want to stop it? What action do you, the Professional Chemical Engineer, feel AIChE and ASEE should take? 34 Percentage Increase <0% 09% 1019% 2029% 3039% 4049% 5059% 6069% 7079% 8089% 9099% 100-109% 110% + Median TABLE 1 PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN FRESHMAN ENROLLMENTS Number of U.S. Schools Number of Canadian Schools 1 8 10 10 11 10 10 12 3 2 2 3 2 40 1 1 2 1 40 nation-wide phenomenon. The National Career Guidance Committee of AIChE sought verification of this as well as other pertinent data to off er a true perspective of the increases. They conducted a survey of all ChE Departments in the United States and Canada which asked for estimates of projected B.S. degrees to 1979, past degree pro duction data, present and future capacity data, trends in enrollments, attitudes toward coping with the increased enrollments and career guid ance programs and needs. Were we really on ari enrollment roller coaster and did we want to get off? One hundred nineteen of the one hundred thirty-six U.S. ChE Departments responded to the survey (see Appended copy) conducted in March and April of 1976. Thirteen of the seven teen Canadian departments also responded. UseCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ful data was obtained from U.S. Departments representing almost 90 % of the B.S. degrees granted. The Canadian schools reporting repre sented approximately 82 % of the B.S. degree vol ume for that country. The survey results indicate that in 1978, 5328 Bachelor of Science degrees in ChE will be awarded by schools in the United States and another 523 by Canadian schools. This will be an increase of more than 50 % over the av erage number of B.S. chemical engineers gradu ated between 1966 and 1975 for the U.S. The predictions also indicate the 1979 graduating classes will be 5656 and 698 for the United States and Canada, respectively. Only twice has the num ber of United States ChE Bachelors degrees ex ceeded 3800. In 1949 it was 4506 and in 1950, 4529. The 119 United States ChE Departments are hoping to add between 98 and 117 new faculty positions in ChE to meet this enrollment surge. This increase in faculty will mean the United States will have the capacity for producing an estimated 6271 B.S. graduates per year. Present estimated United States capacity is 5785. The present estimated Canadian annual capacity is 649 B.S. degrees and a projected increase of four faculty positions will bring this to 680. The survey first polled the chemical engineer ing departments on the increases in the fresh man and sophomore enrollments. Tables 1 and 2 show the distribution of percentage increases. Generally, the largest increases were reported by small departments. The median reported freshman increase was 40 % and the median reported sophoPercentage Increase < 0% 09% 1019% 2029% 3039% 4049% 5059% 6069% 7079% 8089% 9099% 100-109% 110% + Median TA B LE 2 PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN SOPHOMORE ENROLLMENTS Number of Number of U.S. Schools Canadian Schools 3 1 9 2 21 18 3 11 9 12 3 7 1 3 1 11 1 7 30 37.5 WINTER 1977 Attrition Rate % 04 59 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30 34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 80 Median T ABL E 3 ATTRITION RATE IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Number of U.S. Schools 3 1 4 7 10 12 21 4 10 3 14 4 1 30 Number of Canadian Schools 1 2 1 1 3 1 23 more increase was 30 % When the schools were asked if the number of highly qualified students which were likely to graduate in ChE had in creased, 75 % (62 % )* said yes and 17 % (31 % )* said no. This is a good indication that the ex panded student body can survive the rigors of a ChE program. The departments were then asked to supply their freshman-senior attrition experience. Table 3 illustrates the distribution and again the smaller departments usually experienced the larger rates. The median attrition rate is 30 % Thirty-four percent ( 0 % ) of the departments expect the at trition rate to increase, 11 % ( 17 % ) to decrease and 49 % ( 83 % ) to remain the same. Here again is an indication that the increased enrollments can be expected to appear as future graduates. Not only are those selecting ChE initially in creasing but those transfering into our field are also increasing. Eighty-eight percent (54 % ) of the responding schools found an increasing shift of degree major toward ChE at the B.S. level. Sixty-one percent (23 % ) found an increased shift at the M S. level. ESTIMATED GROW T H E ACH RESPONDENT was asked to estimate the number of expected B.S. degrees over the next four years. Table 4 summarizes the estimates that were supplied by U.S schools. The number The numbers not in parenthesis are for the U.S. schools; those in parenthesis are for the Canadian schools. 35

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TABLE 4 UNITED STATES ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS Reported 10 year Estimated Sum of Number of average Yearly Year Estimates Schools sum Total 1976 3237 119 3190.7 3607 1977 3880 119 3190.7 4320 1978 4718 117 3145.7 5328 1979 4699 107 2951.3 5656 Present Capacity 4936 117 3030.7 5785 Future Capacity 5351 117 3030.7 6272 Including an estimate by authors for 3 schools. of schools that provided useful estimates are indi cated. Also listed are the estimates of total degrees to be awarded. These are based upon the sum of 10-year averages provided by the schools that estimated future enrollments (for three of these schools, the authors had to estimate their 10-year average). This sum was added to the calculated average for the 17 non-answering schools plus the four who have ceased offering a degree in ChE. This total divided by the sum for the schools esti mating future enrollments was multiplied by their estimates to obtain the projected yearly totals for the next four years. For the schools which did not provide 10-year estimates these were obtained from the number of graduates listed in "Chemical Engineering Faculties". Where values were mis sing these were estimated by the authors. The average number of U.S. Bachelors degrees was calculated to be 3552. The Engineering Manpower Commission estimates the average between 1966 and 1975 to be 3371 B.S. graduates. This is the TABLE 5 CANADIAN ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS Reported Ten Year Estimated Sum of Number of Average Yearly Year Estimates Schools Sum Total 1976 255 13 320.3 312 1977 351 13 320.3 430 1978 427 13 320 3 523 1979 374 9 210.3 698 Present Capacity 530 13 320.3 650 Future Capacity 555 13 320.3 680 36 equivalent to an error of 5.37 % or an over-estima tion of 1.56 graduates per year for each of schools responding. The equivalent figures for Canadian schools are given in Table 5. The projected totals were estimated in a similar way. Table 6 gives the projected number of Bachelor level engineering degrees as estimated by the Engineering Man power Commission in its publication "Prospects of Engineering and Technology Graduates 1975". To obtain the ChE bachelors degrees this was multiplied by 8-1 / 2 % This is the figure John Alden (CEP, Oct. 1975, pg. 25) estimated as the past and future percentage of total engineering bachelor degrees. The difference in these figures is astonishing. Since the vast majority of these prospective graduates are currently enrolled in ChE and each school estimated its own prospec tive number of graduates, the authors feel the figures estimated by this survey are reasonably accurate In fact these figures may be a little low Year 1976 1977 1978 1979 TABLE 6 COMPARISON OF UNITED STATES ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS Total U.S. ChE ** Bachelors Bachelors Degrees Degrees 40,600 3,450 44,200 3,757 50,700 4,310 51,900 4 416 Source: Engineering Manpower Commission" ** 8-1/2% of Total Bachelors Degrees Estimate from Table 4 3,607 4,320 5,328 5,656 because the number of Master of Science degrees which will be granted to non-B.S. ChE degree holders must also be considered as part of the annual output of ChE's. The schools answering this question indicated 129 (22) of these will be granted in 1976 and 206 (39) in 1977. Currently at least 60 United States (8) schools offer or ganized programs in this sort and 13 ( 0) are planning to add such programs in the next few years. Is this increase in students merely a perturba tion about the mean or does it portend a sub stantial long term growth in B.S. ChE's? Most U.S. schools seem to feel that it may be permanent since 62 ( 3) of them are planning or hoping to add over 98 ( 4) new faculty positions. When asked whether there were any constraints upon the departments which would prevent them from increasing their faculty size, only 25 % (15 % ) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 7 CONSTRAINTS WHICH MAY PREVENT THE ChE DEPARTMENTS FROM INCREASING THEIR NUMBER OF FACULTY MEMBERS Money Administration Policy Space (Laboratory or Classroom) Enrollment Faculty Job Opportunities Resources Graduate Students Research U.S. Schools Number of Replies 60 18 17 10 2 2 1 1 1 Canadian Number of Replies 11 2 said no. Those that answered yes listed the con straints given in Table 7. The overwhelming ma jority cited budgetary restraints of one form or another. It appears from the comments received that quite a few university administrations are putting a lid on the total number of faculty and any increase in engineering faculty would have to come at the expense of other departments. The Survey indicates that 36 (3) schools feel they will exceed their estimated capacity by 1979. The authors anticipated this and asked the ques tion, "If the number of freshman or sophomore ChE majors exceeded the largest number of ChE's which you felt you could reasonably graduate would you (a) increase the size of the faculty, (b) set a maximum number of students admitted to junior courses, (c) hire graduate students to teach undergraduate courses, ( d) increase standards so more students flunk out of the program, ( e) do TABLE 8 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENTAL RESPONSES TO "If the number of freshman or sophomore chemical engineering majors exceeded the largest number of chemical engineers which you felt you could reason ably graduate, what course of action would you take?" Yes No Unknown Increase the size of the faculty 56 22 14 Set a maximum number of students admitted to junior course 35 37 10 Hire graduate students to teach undergraduate courses 22 49 6 Increase standards so more students flunk out of the program 38 31 9 Nothing 5 31 5 WINTER 1977 nothing, (f) other. The responses varied and are given in Table 8 and 9. The favorite U.S. method of coping was to increase faculty. Increasing standards and regulating junior class size met with split decisions while using graduate students to teach met with disfavor. The most frequently noted alternative was controlling admissions at the outset. It is noteworthy that this appears to be the method favored in Canada since 6 of 13 schools indicated this as a course of action, and some stated they were presently employing it. The use of adjunct faculty was the second most men tioned alternative as a short-term means of help ing a department through the present surge. This survey has quantified the present enroll ment surge and projected an unusual situation in ChE education. Undoubtedly, many factors are T AB LE 9 CANADIAN DEPARTMENTAL RESPONSES TO "If the number of freshman or sophomore chemical engineering majors exceeded the largest number of chemical engineers which you felt you could reason ably graduate, what course of cation would you take?" Yes No Unknown Increase the size of the faculty 2 4 1 Set a maximum number of students admitted to junior course 3 2 1 Hire graduate students to teach undergrduate courses 0 5 0 Increase standards so more students flunk out of the program 0 5 0 Nothing 0 0 0 responsible for the present situation and many others will affect the outcome over the next few years. Many questions come to mind as a conse quence of this survey. Are the ChE departments on an enrollment roller coaster? Are the future plans of these departments for faculty additions realistic? Is this surge in enrollments due to pub licity in the mass media, lack of jobs in other scientific fields, and / or lack of jobs for high school and college graduates due to the recession? Should ChE departments regulate their admissions or just bend with the breeze? Will there be enough job openings offering meaningful employment for the anticipated surge of engineers? Will these and other survey results moderate the present enroll ment rise and degree projections? Where is the roller coaster headed? Do we want to stop it? What action do you, the Professional Chemical Engineer, feel AIChE and ASEE should take? D 37

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Practical Limits To Growth In ChE WILLIAM H. CORCORAN California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 THE FOCUS IN THE PAST two years on national needs, with particular stimulus from our energy crisis, has excited new thinking about control of chemical change. A result is that ChE is a well-paid profession at entry. High school students in the United States have noticed the dif ference. Possibly for that reason there has been One of the items that engineering and science programs have not handled appropriately over the past few years is the matter of quality. a boom in enrollment in ChE schools in the 50 states. Some schools report twice as many stu dents enrolled in 1976 in the first class of ChE as in 1975. Perhaps the trend will continue, and per haps it will not. In any event we do seem to be faced with acute personnel problems. They are problems that are nicer to have than those that relate to shrinkage of enrollments. What really will control the growth of ChE enrollments? Should they be controlled? First, universities already have built-in controls by way of budgets that are tighter than ever before in the history of education. Even if a school wanted to double its total program, it probably would have trouble. It might allow an entering class to be twice the size of a previous entering class, but to have the total undergraduate enrollment twice that experienced over a couple of years ago would probably not be possible in terms of staff and sup porting functions required. Therefore, the college budget is the first step in the control of ChE en rollment. What is the second step? Students may be enamored with the idea of opportunities to help and to gain economic strength by way of the en gineering profession, and particularly by way of 38 chemical engineering. They may lose sight, how ever, of the difficulties in various curricula. Cer tainly ChE is a quantitative curriculum, and students have been known to fail in the program. Particularly students have had trouble with uni versity chemistry. General chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and physical chemistry are much more demanding and quanti tative than ever before. To be a ChE requires that you move through the courses in chemistry. It probably is so that a fair fraction of a diverse group of students in the ChE curriculum will find difficulties with chemistry. So item two in control of ChE enrollments relates to the specter of chem istry. Also chemistry could be made even more stringent as a control point. Third, one of the items that engineering and science programs have not handled appropriately over the past few years is the matter of quality. Since the end of World War II, we, in general, have been focusing upon quantity not at the total loss of quality but not with the same development of quality that we would have with emphasis on that attribute. So, as universities have large en tering classes in ChE, it is incumbent upon the universities to have appropriate standards of per formance so that in the subsequent years those students who really are not committed to the de velopment of useful careers in ChE can be drop ped. That has been a practice in some large schools for some time anyway. For example, admission standards could be minimal for the freshman year. Then a large number coulp be weeded out in the first year after knowledge is collected on their abilities. Perhaps more of that control will be invoked in the future in ChE. FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES A FOURTH CONTROL on growth of ChE en rollment could be found in careful examina tion of predicted employment opportunities. No one has yet figured out how to predict employment opportunities. If we ponder the costs for a new engineer in industry and the increasing ability of an engineer to work with effectiveness because of new tools and new computers, maybe the market will need fewer engineers per capita of population. As part of the future employment opportuni ties for engineers, note should be made of the roles CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of engineering technologists and technicians. Em ployment interest in them has not been fully de veloped. As it becomes fully developed, there prob ably will be an increasing effort to have engineers work in the fullest professional sense as engineers. Engineering technologists would be ready to handle operational functions. If engineering tech nology does affect our work as suggested, there indeed will be fewer engineers hired but probably at much higher salaries and with much higher professional input to their jobs. That calls for better and even more demanding programs. That more intense professional development in itself could provide a strong governor on enrollment. No one truly can predict what lies ahead relaToo Many Departments I HENRY A. McGEE, JR. Virgina Polytechnic Institute and State Uni v ersity Blacksburg, Vi r ginia 24061 THE CONTINUED HEALTH of our profession demands that the production of baccalaureate graduates in ChE be limited. A natural such limi tation results from the acceptance of a simple premise, but it is nonetheless one that educators in ChE somehow still find to be debatable. The premise is simply that education in ChE at what ever academic level must be developed and pre sented by professors who are themselves active participants in the growing edge of the profession. And this is true for professors in all of the pro fessions. For example, I cannot imagine the ap prentice surgeon learning his skill from a master who himself does not practice surgery. Certainly also the young surgeon who aspires to be the creator of new techniques-to invent the heart transplant, as it were--will want to work with the It is not enough merely to admonish our students to go out and be honest and apply common sense to this or that ethical situation. We must provide intellectually demanding exercises and exposure to the great ideas and thinkers of Western Civilization. WINTER 1977 A fourth control on the growth of ChE enrollment could be found in careful examination of predicted employment opportunities. tive to what we have done in the past. Engineer ing obviously will have to help in meeting all na tional priorities and in keeping the country mov ing. Whether it will do its work more efficiently than in the past is our problem, and really that is the total crux of what engineering will be like ten years from now and what enrollment levels will be. D best-known experts of the day. So it is also in ChE. This participation by faculty at the growing edge of the profession is heavily dependent upon graduate students, for the neophytes are an ex tension of the personality of the major professor. In fact, to a marked degree, the reputation of pro fessors is heavily dependent upon the quality of the graduate students that we have attracted over the years. It appears that our economy can absorb about 400 new PhD level ChE's per year. At a nominal rate of one new PhD per year per faculty member, this implies a total faculty in the uni versities of the country of about 400. Or, cor respondingly, the need of our society for about 1000 MS graduates per year implies a faculty of about 500 if we take a production rate of about two new MS graduates per faculty member per year. Using this larger number, and with a critical density of about 15 faculty per department, this suggests that we need about 35 departments. A faculty of 15 could readily produce a baccalaureate group of 70 per year or a national production of about 2500 BS graduates per year. The numbers in this sort of nominal scenario are approximately the degree production that seems to fit our na tional requirements for new ChE's. However, the institutional structures for educating these new practitioners of our science and our art have ex panded beyond all reason. We compare the above projections with the curent listing of 123 ac credited departments in the United States with almost 1500 faculty members-and growing. The academic profession then is functioning as an excellent absorber of ChE talent that could be 39

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more productively utilized elsewhere Innumerable variations on th i s theme are, of course, possible the above exercise is mere l y typical-but t h e es sential message of the analysis is that we have too many ChE departm e nts The excess ca p acity seems to be about a factor of two or t h ree FEWER DEPARTMENTS M OST IMPO R TANTLY, fewer de p artments would produce a much more professional . fewer departments would produce .. a much more professional orientation than we now seem to impart to our students .. would insure the stimulation of high quality colleagues in other related disciplines and facilit i es that are not thwarted by the critical mass phenomena orientation than we now seem to impart to our students. And this new status would characterize our graduates at all three academic levels. One might well counter that it is not professional status that you achieve at all, but rather a snob bishness borne of exclusivity. This exclusivity does personify the elitism of our profession; but it also changes the point from which the new entrant into the profession views himself and his po tential for contribution to our society The change I propose does not atttempt to change a person's perspective on professional issues, rather it changes the point from which the perspective originates. It is not ideas that determine our pro fessional status, rather it is our socio-economic status that determines our professional ideas and our self-perceptions. My discussions with many ChE's from all over the country produce a dis appointment and a sadness by the self-perception of so many ChE's who see themselves as highly skilled technical employees of some great corpora tion. Yet the ChE is not merely a skilled employee of duPont-rather he is the duPont Company. And without his presence, the company could not exist Attitudes and self-perceptions are enormously im portant. We will continue to have large numbers of our ranks who have technician-like perceptions of themselves and their work as long as the uni versities continue to inculcate such values. The greatest unmet task of our ChE departments is that of elevating the views and raising the ex40 pectations of our students. Although thermo dynamics is an essential tool, it cannot be applied with professional character except from a back ground of values. It is not enough to merely ad monish our students to go out and be honest and apply common sense to this or that ethical situa tion. We must provide intellectually demanding exercises and exposure to the great ideas and thinkers of Western Civilization especially in those areas that emphasize human values and ethics, and this attitudinal development is also enhanced by the vision of chemical engineering as a very special profession Fewer departments would insure the stimula tion of high quality colleagues in other related disciplines. D epartments of chemical engineering are parasitic in a sense, for we feed off of the de partments of chemistry, other departments of the college of engineering, and increasingly the de partments of biochemistry and microbiology as well and even several departments of the college of medicine. Excellence in essential supporting de partments is also relatively rare, and yet a ChE department cannot really thrive unless, for ex ample, the chemistry department is also excellent. This co-existence of strengths exists on relatively few campuses, and yet this co-existence and this synergism is essential to insure the continued ex panding ChE domain. Fewer departments would insure faculties that are not thwarted by the critical mass phenomena. Just as ChE personifies synergism with other disciplines, so also is this the case within its own areas of specialization. A faculty of about ten seems to be on the lower bound of criticality, for a survey of the work of departments reveals that smaller ones are either just weak, or, if strong, that strength will be in a very few special areas of ChE It is essential that students be exposed to ChE's who might be characterized as applied physical chemists and it is equally important that they see ChE's who exemplify the more engineer ing orientation. The strength of our profession is this dual character of the ChE as both scientist and engineer-and our faculties must be of suf ficient breadth to provide models of both extremes, and at several points in between. Those students who are graduating, at whatever the academic de gree level, from departments that do not have this character are not receiving the vision of the profession nor the attitudinal structure that they need for optimum professional practice. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES T HE FINANCIAL position of ChE's is clearly enhanced by this control on numbers that we seek. ChE services are required, persons with such skills are few, and therefore the price for such services will be high. Professional licensing by the states could protect the public against imitators. A graduate in biology can read a few books on the physiology and diseases of dogs, but state licensing protects the public against this individual uni laterally declaring himself a veterinarian and opening a pet clinic. So it could be in ChE. As is the case with most organizational struc tures, attitudes, philosophies, and ambitions, the major obstacle to this (or any other) more pro fessional orientation is our desire to make the change. Many self-proclaimed leading departments will not be interested, for they mistakenly feel that they have nothing to gain. The sleepy depart ments will not be interested for concerns of self preservation, for they would see themselves going out of business. Yet we are all the healthier-just as the NFL is healthier-if we maintain only as many teams as can be supported in first-class style and be maintained at more or less comparable strengths. Can We Limit Enrollment By Professiona I Society Action? T. W. F. RUSSELL and R. L. DAUGHERTY Uni v ersity of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19711 I T IS QUITE clear that the demand for engi neering graduates is difficult if not impossible to predict. User surveys have not proven success ful and it seems doubtful that we will ever be able to make forecasts adequate enough for individ uals, universities, industrial and government sec tors to do reliable planning. Some engineers think that the answer is to limit enrollment at some number below the most pessimistic forecast and thus assure that those accepted into the profession have an opportunity to practice it. There are two ways to limit enrollment: limit number of accredited college s limit number of studnts in accredited colleges. WINTER 1977 How might it be done, for departments are not likely to vote themselves out of business. Cer tainly the advantages to the individual faculty member of consolidating two or three departments could be made compelling. The combined depart ment would be more attractive in terms of quality of faculty, quality of facilities and numbers and quality of students. The economics of consolida tion would be attractive to state legislatures and boards of trustees, and certainly the long-term economies of scale could be used to extract short term incentives to promote and to initially capital ize this new epiphany of ChE education. Certainly those deans who lose their ChE department would breathe a sigh of relief, for the ChE's are widely recognized as the nemesis of all deans of engineer ing. Perhaps the dismal science of economics may yet push us to this more professional status but curiously from the motivation of the happenstance corollary of cost effectiveness. That would be a very positive result, but it certainly would not reflec t the wisdom of the ChE community. We seem to know so much about the economies of scale; it is curious that we continue to ignore those ideas in our own business The Engineers Council on Professional Devel opment already limits the number of colleges and any discussion of this issue must consider tighter criteria for accreditation. The question of limiting the number of students has not received as much attention and this problem is considered here. ENROLLMENT LIMITING PROCESS F IGURE 1 ILLUSTRATES the enrollment lim iting process and shows what information is needed to consider the question. The capacity by discipline of each engineering college needs to be known and the number of graduates capable of being produced in each discipline in any one year must be known. This later information depends not only upon number of students which can be graduated, but also upon raw material supply of high school or transfer students. Demand fore casts for at least four years in the future must be available for each discipline A comparison can then be made between supply and demand and action initiated (Figure 2). 41

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C A P A CITY OF EA C H CO LL EGE (E CPD MUS T D EV E L OP PREC ED URE) NUM BER OF G RADUATES CAPABLE OF BE I NG PRODUCED IN EA C H DISCIP LI NE (ECPD M US T DEVE L OP) OUT PU T GREATER TH AN DEMAND U, S. OUT P UT BY DI SC P LIN E COMPARE WITH DEMAND BY D I SC I P L! NE (PRED I CT E D) FIGURE 1. N U M BER OF A CCRED !TED CO LL EGES (ECPD NOW DOES) O UT PUT LE SS TH A N DEMAND When predicted output is greater than pre dicted demand and nothing is done, a cycle of over and under supply is created with very negative effects to the universities and to those employing engineers. To limit enrollment, departments or colleges must be eliminated or the number of graduating students in existing departments must be controlled. Either course of action is difficult to carry out. There is a severe problem of time scale and it is essential to have adequate prediction at least four years in advance. This is simply not available at the present time with enough accuracy so that de cisions of the sort needed can be made and en forced. Furthermore, even if the predictions could be made with some degree of credibility, we must be able to predict the capacity of a college of engi neering. This is a term used rather loosely. It is 42 NATURAL CONSEQUENCES O UT PU T GREATER THAN DEMAllD ELIMINATE ENROLLMENT LIMITATION COLLEGES OR DEPARHIENT S WITHIN COLL E GE =. TI GH T EN UP ACCREDI T ATION 4 TO 6 YEAR Tl ME SCALE FIGURE 2. LIMIT DEPARTMENT ENROUJIEIHS IN ENGINEERIN G COLLEGES defined in different ways by different people using the word-the admissions office thinks of capacity in terms of Freshmen who can be admitted, the provost thinks of capacity in terms of the total number of students who are in the college, the dean thinks of capacity in terms of number of students in each year in each department, the pro fessional society thinks in terms of number of graduates. A method of predicting department capacity for a given distribution of students by year has been proposed by Russell and Daugherty [ 1]. The main elements of their method are shown in Fig ure 3 and Table 1. It is a procedure which should Some engineers think that the answer is to limit enrollment at some number below the most pessimistic forecast and thus assure that those accepted into the profession have an opportunity to practice it. assure educational quality. It first evaluates the faculty's efforts in research, curriculum develop ment, professional society service and academic service to realistically determine the time which can be devoted to undergraduate teaching. (Fac ulty course capacity factor). Departments which are nationally ranked have values between 0.4 and 0.5. Departments which have values close to 1.0 are not devoting enough effort to other activ ities to keep their teaching up to date and effec tive. Using the faculty course capacity figure, the maximum number of student spaces can be com puted if the negotiated work load, number of full time faculty, and number of students per course are known. The maximum number of student spaces is then modified for the inadequacies listed in Table 1. Capacity is determined in terms of distribution of students by year. This capacity determination procedure has not been tested and modified by experience, a process which should take a minimum of two years. It is essential that this be done however, if the engi neering profession is to consider the question of enrollment limitation. If we suppose that adequate procedures are available to predict demand and predict capacity, the question of ho w to limit arises. To limit number of departments, the ECPD must tighten accreditation standards in such a way that some number of sch ool s will lose their accreditation. It is far from a CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUC A TION

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DETERMINATI ON OF DEPARTMENT CA PACITY DETERMINE FACULTY COUR SE CAP AC !TY FA CTOR (0,3 1.0) D ETERMINE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF S TUDEIIT SPACES -NEGOTIATED WORK L OAD -NUMBER O F FULL-TI ME F AC~L T Y -NUMBER OF S TU DEN T S PER COURS E FIGURE 3 trivial matter to decide how this should be done and al most impossible to control numbers within the time scales involved (6 and 4 year accreditations). Further more, what happens to those students enrolled in an institution which loses its accreditation? Many will con tinue and graduate. To limit enrollments within departments, the ECPD must first determine capacity of each and every college it accredits. This is a task requiring a minimum of 6 to 8 years. Once capacity is known a means of prorating must be developed and each college informed of its "al lowed" capacity. A means of so doing is not now avail able and even if this could be developed, the college or the university may not wish or may not be able to limit student numbers. It must be concluded that limitation of enrollWilliam D. Baasel is a professor of ChE at Ohio University He re ceived his bachelors and masters degr ees from Northwestern University and his doctorate from Cornell Univ e rs ity. He is the author of a book "Preliminary Ch e m ic al Engine ering Plan t Design and is secretary treas urer of the ChE Division of ASEE H e has taught at Clemson College and held a Ford Foundation Residency in Engineering Practice at the Dow Chemical Company. He is a reg i stered professional engineer in Ohio. Michael D Cise is a research scientist assigned to the Product De velopment Division of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis. He rece iv ed his B ChE degree from the Un ive rsity of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, and his M S.ChE and Ph D from the University of A r izona Tucson Arizona He is a member of A 1.ChE and local section Career Guidance Cha i rman as well as a member of the National Career Guidance Com mittee of A .1. ChE. Henry A McGee, Jr is a scientist / engineer by education and by experience. He is professor and head of the ChE department at VPI & SU. His current research interest is the application of very unusual high energy chemistry to the development of highpowered chemically pumped lasers He is active in AIChE and this essay is abstracted from a popular inv ite d talk he has given around the country as an AIChE Tour Lectur e r His comments on teaching and research are as a par ticipant rather than as an observer William H Corcoran is Vice President, Institute Relations and pro fessor of ChE at Cal i fornia In s t itu te of Technology He received his B S ., WINTER 1977 ment can not easily be carried out at the present time in any effective way. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE A means of determining capacity should be tested, modified and then formally accepted by the ECPD. This could be done by having ECPD in spection teams try out proposed procedures. The capacity determination procedure should be made part of the ECPD inspection. The U. S. capacity for producing engineers should be determined using the ECPD figures. This would then allow the engineering profession to better understand one part of the fundamental problem underlying over and under supply. TABLE 1 MODIFY MAXIMUM NUMBER OF STUDENT SP ACES FOR DEFICIENCY IN (1) Inadequate Laboratory Space (2) Inadequate Numbers of Non-Academic Personnel (3) Inadequate Numbers of Graduate Teaching Assistants (4) Inadequate Capital Equipment Expenditures (5) Inadequate Appropriations for Expenditure REFERENCES Determine Capacity in Terms of Number of Students Per Year 1. "Estimating Undergraduate Student Capacity of an Engineering Department", T. W. F Russell, R. L. Daugherty and A. F. Graziano. (Submitted to Journal of Engineering Education). M.S. and Ph.D from CalTech and later became director of Technical Development at Cutter Laboratories before returning to CalTech as pro fes s or He received the Western Electric Fund Award of ASEE for 1960 70 ; the Civ Award of the Southern California Sect i on of AIChE in 1970 and the Founders Award of AIChE in 1974. He was the Sixth Annual Phillips Petroleum Lecturer in ChE i n 1971 and is the past chairman of the EE & A Committee of ECPD, the Publications Board of CEE and the E & A Committee of AIChE He i s currently the vice president of AIChE T W. F Russell is a Professor of ChE and As s ociate Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Delaware He obtained his bachelors and masters degree from the University of Alberta and after wo r king as a design engineer with Un i on Carbide, Canada for three years, he obta i ned h i s Ph D from the University of Delaware. Professor Russell is a coauthor of "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analy sis (J. W i ley 1972) and Structure of the Chemical Process Industr ies Function and Economics" (McGraw Hill, in press). Richard l. Daugherty is Assistant Dean of Engineering and Assistant Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Delaware. He holds degrees in civil and mechanical engineering as well as a Ph.D in applied science Dean Daugherty handles budgetary and fiscal matters for the College and maintains a teaching and re search load in structural mechanics and i ts application to filamentary composite materials 43

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ORGANIZATION OF A FUNCTIONAL ChE LIBRARY ERIC H. SNIDER Clemson Uni v ersity Clemson, South Carolina 29631 THE ChE DEPARTMENT of Clemson University maintains a library for the use of faculty, students, and visitors. Contained in an 800 square foot room, the library has, in addition to cases and shelves for book storage, a current periodicals dis play rack, tables and chairs, typewriters, calcula tors, and other supplies for the users of the li brary. In recent years the library's holdings have increased significantly. This, along with the fact that users don't always return volumes to their proper places, had begun to make it difficult to locate materials quickly. A reorganization of the library was under taken during a summer break of 1975 to alleviate this problem. This included discarding out-of-date material and reclassifying the library contents by a streamlined "subject' area" system. The stand ard Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Sys tems were considered, but it was decided that en gineers don't think in terms of these systems. Instead, engineers tend to classify things in cer tain distinct subject areas that are not well defined by either of the standard systems. It was with this in mind that the following classification system has been instituted. THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM T HE FOLLOWING classification system has been found useful for cataloging the holdings of the department library at Clemson. Chemical Abstracts. Prior to 1962, the com plete Chemical Abstracts series was received by the ChE department. Since 1963, only the Applied Chemistry Sections have been received. This re sults in a considerable saving of shelf space. The complete Chemical Abstracts are available at two other campus library facilities, the main univer sity library and the Chemistry department library. Bound Journals. These include Industrial 44 Eric H. Snider rece i ved his B S. degre e i n Chem i stry ( 1973) and the M S degree in Chemical Engineering (1975) at Clemson University, and is currently pursuing the Ph D. curriculum in Chemical Engineering at Clemson University He is a Professional Chemist, A.LC Accredited His research interests are in air and water pollution analysis, systems development, and control. Engineering Chemistry, AIChE Journal, AIChE Transactions, Chemical Engineering Progress, and other pertinent journals. Current Periodicals. This category includes at least twenty-five current magazines and jour nals. Attractive display shelves were constructed to allow prominent display of the current issues of each publication. These fold back to reveal storage shelves for previous copies of each peri odical. This provides a convenient and safe method of storing each year's copies until year-end bind ing time. Miscellaneous Abstracts, Conference Pro ceedings, and Government Reports. This serves as a catch-all category containing such things as is sues of Air Pollution Abstracts ( one of the fac ulty has major research interests in this area), and final reports of a number of Environmental Protection Agency sponsored projects. Dissertations and Theses. This section con tains copies of the dissertations and theses done by graduate students of the department. Engineering and Reference Texts. This cat egory is by far the most extensive in terms of total CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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number of books and number of subcategories. This category contains many of the standard ref erences and texts which find most frequent use in the engineering disciplines. CATEGORIES OF ENGINEERING AND REFERENCE TEXTS DIVISION OF THE standard reference and classroom texts into specific categories was by far the most difficult part of the reorganiza tion. Of necessity, the categories were chosen somewhat arbitrarily, depending on the number of books we had which might conceivably fall within a certain class. The system decided upon is detailed below. Reference Books-This category includes many of the standard references most used by engineers and stu dents, such as the Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, C.R.C. Hand books of Chemistry and Physics, Laboratory Safety, Organic Compound Identification, Tables for Probability and Statistics, and numerous others. No attempt was made to further subdivide this category into engineer ing references, mathematics references, etc.; however, if a library's holdings are extensive enough such sub division could be made with little problem. General ChE Texts-This category contains the sopho more and junior level texts which serve as introductions to ChE. This group of texts is particularly valuable to undergraduate students who use its holdings for review purposes and as a source of supplemental information. Unit Operations-This grouping of texts contains gen eral texts on the unit operations as well as specilized texts covering individual processes Subheadings of the various unit operations could be used if warranted by a large number of texts. Thermodynamics Kinetics Plant Design and Economics-This category contains texts on general chemical process plant design, special equipment design manuals, and texts on economics in engineering. Process Dynamics and Control Mathematics and Computers in Engineering-If a large number of books are to be catalogued under this head ing, subdivisions such as calculus, computer theory, pro gramming languages, etc. may be found useful. Miscellaneous Engineering-Under this category are filed texts in the other engineering disciplines, environ mental sciences, and physics. Chemistry-Subdivision into analytical, organic, phys ical, etc. may be made if the number of books warrants it. Miscellaneous Texts-This is another catch-all category containing such things as histories of major chemical firms, biographies of scientists, and other miscellaneous books. Engineering Writing and Communications-This cate gory contains several useful texts on improving comWINTER 1977 munciation of engineering information. A good diction ary is an indispensible part of this division. (Dictionaries are also conspicuously present in the Reference Books section.) After this classification system was devised, the physical arrangement of the categories on the shelves was agreed upon. At this stage, the outside spine of each book was labelled with an abbrevia tion of its category, and on the inside front cover was written the category and the shelf number to which the book is assigned. This facilitates easy and accurate refiling of material by all library users. ACQUIRING LIBRARY MATERIAL MANY FACULTY MEMBERS choose to donate their desk copies of current texts to the li brary. Many texts which are not in current use find their way from faculty offices onto the library shelves. Also, many faculty members receive peri odicals, conference proceedings, and government reports in the areas of their research interests, The standard Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Systems were con sidered, but it was decided that engineers don't think in terms of these systems. and these are often donated to the library. A major (but often little used) potential source of library material is the main library of the institution. For example, Clemson's main uni versity library receives the A.S.T.M. Standards each year. The current three years editions are on the shelves, and previous editions are kept in storage. It was discovered by calling the main li brary that a fairly recent edition of this work along with many others, could be removed from storage and be placed on extended loan to indi vidual department libraries. Although the current edition of these publications would be kept in the main library, there could still be great value in having a threeto five-year old edition available in the department. LOANING POLICIES W ITH THE COMPLETION of the reorganiza tion, the need existed to revise and enforce a loan procedure for the library materials. The fol lowing policies have been adopted: Continued on page 48. 45

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AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS SUBCOMMITTEE ACTIVITIES WILLIAM F. BECKWITH Chairman of A-V Sub-Committee Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29631 S EVERAL YEARS AGO I came to the realiza tion that visual material on chemical process equipment is not as readily available to present chemical engineering students as it used to be. I came to this realization from a question asked by a student after we had been studying heat trans fer. The student asked, "What does a heat ex changer look like?" The only picture of an ex changer in the textbook was a schematic drawing of the flow pattern through an exchanger, and this drawing was located several chapters ahead in the book from where the class was studying. I recalled one textbook from which I studied as a student, "Unit Operations" by G. G. Brown et al., had a number of good pictures of heat exchangers and other process equipment. As a result, I was able to obtain a visual understanding of chemical process equipment that I was studying. Present ChE students usually do not have such visual aids available to them. After discussing this problem with my departWilliam Beckwith obtained his B S. M S and Ph D in Chemical Engineering from Iowa State University. He has been at Clemson University since receiving his terminal degree in 1963. He is presently chairman of the Audio-Visual Aids Subcommittee of the Educational Projects Committee of AIChE His research interests are in educational technology and fluid mechanics 46 In this film the fabrication of a heat exchanger was presented. After showing this film to my class, I observed the students to be more motivated to study heat transfer ment head, he found an old copy (1957) of a strip film on heat exchangers. This film along with a script was made by the C. F. Braun Company for the Education Projects Committee of AIChE. In this film the fabrication of heat exchanger along with a description of some of its uses were pre sented. After showing this film to my class, I ob served the students to be more motivated to study heat transfer. Most of the ChE students that I have taught seem to be able to relate to physical objects better than abstract concepts. With this experience I started searching for other films on chemical process equipment. I lo cated a second strip film on fractionating columns th&t was also produced by the C. F. Braun Com pa~y. Unable to locate other films, I decided to make a sound-slide-show of one of my lectures on the uses of various kinds of pipe fittings. I dis covered that it took me about ten hours to pro duce a ten minute show. Because of the time re quired to produce a ten minute show, I decided to learn who else has produced sound-slide-shows on chemical process equipment. Then if I could make a trade of shows I could have two shows for the effort of producing one. I inquired into the present activities of the Education Projects Committee of AIChE and I was invited to join the committee to reactivate the old films subcommittee which was then renamed the Audio-Visual Aids Committee. The first project of the A-V Committee was to survey the other ChE departments about their use and development of A-V materials. Questionaires were mailed to about 140 ChE departments and sixty nine replies were received. Two questions were asked. One, list the names of the faculty CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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members who are actively developing or using A-V material, such as 16 mm films, TV tapes or sound-slide-shows. Two, describe the A-V material being used by reporting the media employed, the name of the course in which the material was be ing used, a brief description of the material and who developed it. SUMMARY OF SURVEY A summary of the results of this survey is as follows. Overall, many ChE faculty members are experimenting with different types of A-V ma terial for use in the courses that they teach. A number of schools use audio cassettes with or without slides to present operating instructions for laboratory equipment. There are some movie films being shown. The two most frequently shown film series are films on fluid dynamics of drag by Shapiro and the fluid flow film loops produced by the National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films and distributed by the Encyclopedia Bri tanica Educational Corporation. Two textbooks are being written which will have accompaning sets of slides and audio tapes. Dr. C. M. Thatcher at the University of Arkansas is making a set of slides and audio tapes to supplement his book titled "Fundamentals of Good Chemical Engineer ing". Professor B. E. Lauer at the University of Colorado has made 1100 slides to accompany his textbook on ChE techniques. Outside of the 16 mm movie films on distillation columns by Fractiona tion Research Inc. and by Shell Oil Company, there were no other A-V material on chemical process equipment reported. From this survey it was learned that Professor B. E. Lauer has prepared a catalog of available self-paced material which utilized video tapes. For more information about this catalog write to: The Catalog 546 Fourteenth Street Boulder, Colorado 80302 Another activity of the A-V Subcommittee was to have Professor M. W. Bredekamp to update his movie film list. Professor Bredekamp divided his revised list into six parts. Part one contains all the films believed to be pertinent to the teach ing of undergraduate ChE courses. Some of these films listed have been reviewed and evaluated with a brief comment about the film. In the second part of his list, films which deal with specific chemical industries are reported. Then local sections of AIChE have reviewed and judged these films to WINTER 1977 The first project of the A-V Committee was to survey the other ChE departments about their use and development of A-V materials. be unsuitable for classroom use. In part three are the addresses of film distributors from which the films can be ordered. In part four of the listing are sources of film information from which Pro fessor Bredekamp compiled his list, and in part five a list of films which were included in the previous year's film listing but which are pres ently not available. Professor Bredekamp has also included the results of the A-V Use Survey in the Sixth part of his film listing. It is hoped that this listing by Dr. Bredekamp will be published by AIChE.* The A-V subcommittee is presently seeking more people to work on projects. There is a need for people and for companies to produce A-V ma terial on chemical process equipment. The subcom mittee will act as a clearing house for the A-V material. I have a ten minute sound-slide-show on the applications of different kinds of pipe fittings which I would be willing to trade for a sound slide-show on pumps. I also have a few copies of the A-V survey which I will be happy to mail to anyone on request. The goal of the A-V subcommittee is to assist educators to locate A-V material and to promote the production of new material. By the trading of material produced by individuals, more A-V ma terial at less cost will become available to all. D Publication X-91 "Chemical Engineering Educational Film s can b e obtained for $4 by AIChE members and for $10 by non-members by writing to AIChE's Publica tions Dept., 3 4 5 E. 47th St., New York, New York 10017. LETTERS: Continued Sir : I was very pleased to notice the inauguration of the feature "ChE Lectures" in the Summer 1976 issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION. I believe it is an interesting and instructive addition to your quarterly, and I heartily welcome it. The choice of R. Aris for the first lecture was superb, for, leaving the main content of the lecture aside, who could top the quote in the Conclusion. Do I hear a leopard stalking in the wilds of Pennsyl'I vama .... Arvind Varma University of Notre Dame 47

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WO R LD OF SURFACE SCIENCE: Shah Con t inued from page 23 C. A. Villee, D. B. Villee and J. Zuckermann, Academic Press, pp. 47-75 (1973). 3. Margolis, S In "Structural and Functional Aspects of Lipoproteins in Living Systems," eds E. Tria and A. M Scanu, Academic Press, pp. 370-415 (1969) 4. Dawson, R. M. C., In "Biological Membranes," eds. D Chapman, Academic Press, pp. 203-231 (1968). 5. Luzzati, V., In "Biological Membranes," ed. D Chap man, Academic Press, pp. 71-121 (1968). 6. Mandell, L K. Fontell and Per Ekwall, In "Ordered Fluids and Liquid Crystals," Advan. Chem. Ser., 63: 89 (1967). 7. Husson, F. R., and V. Luzzati, In "Advan. Biol. and Med. Phys ," Vol. 11, Academic Press, pp 87-107 1967). 8. Lecuyer, H and D. G Dervichian, J. Mol. Biol., 45: 39 (1969). 9. Shah, D. 0., J. Colloid Interface Sci, (submitted). 10. Falco, J. W., R. D. Walker, and D. 0. Shah, AIChE J., 2 0: 510 (1974) 11. Williams, E. L., "Liquid Crystals for Electronic De vices," Noyes Data Corporation, 1975. 12 Porter, R. S., and J. F. Johnson, "Ordered Fluids and Liquid Crystals," Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 63 (1967). 13 Shah, D. 0 In "Advances in Lipid Research," eds. R. Paoletti and D Kritchevsky, Academic Press, Vol. 8, pp. 348-419 (1970). 14. Shah, D 0., In "Effects of Metals on Cells, Subcellular Elements, and Macromolecules," eds. J. Maniloff, J. R. Coleman and M. W. Miller, Charles C. Thomas Pub lishers, pp. 155-190 (1970). 15. Langmuir, I., J. Am. Chem Soc., 39: 1848 (1917). 16. Farger, E., "Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry," Abelard-Schuman Press, pp. 132-136 (1963). 17. Shah, D. 0., In "Exobiology" ed. C. Ponnamperuma, North-Holland Publishing Co., pp. 235-265 (1972). 18. Vanderkooi, G and D E Green, Bioscience, 21: 409 (1971). 19 Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Li,pid Res., 8: 215 (1967). 20 Shah, D. 0 In "Progress in Surface Science," ed. S. G. Davison, Pergamon Press, Vol. 3, pp 222-268 (1972) 21. Shah, D. 0. and J. H. Schulman, J. Li,pid Res., 6: 341 (1965). 22. Shah, D. 0., J. Colloid Interfa c e Sci,., 37: 744 (1971). 23. Shah, D 0., N F Djabbara, and D. T. Wasan, AIChE J. (submitted). 24. La Mer, V. K., "Retardation of Evaporation by Mono layers," Academic Press (1962). 25. Gould, R. F., "Contact Angle, Wettability and Ad hesion," Advances in Chem. Series, Vol. 43 (1964). 26. Gould, R. F., "Pesticidal Formulations Research," Ad vances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 86 (1969). 27. Holly, F. J. and M. A. Lemp, "The Preocular Tear Film and Dry-Eye Syndromes," Little, Brown and Company ( 1973) 28. Shah, D. 0 and J. H. Schulman, J. Colloid Interfac e Sci., 2 5: 107 (1967). 48 29. Shah, D 0 and :J. H Schulman, J. Li,pid Res., 8: 227 1967). 30. Shah, D. 0 and J. H. Schulman, Llpids, 2: 21 (1967). 31. Shah, D. 0., In "Biological Horizons in Surface Sci ence," eds. L. M. Prince and F. D Sears, Academic Press, pp. 69-106 (197 3 ). 32. Brauninger, G. E., D. 0. Shah and H E. Kaufman, Am. J. Ophthalmo., 73: 132 (1972). 33. Benedetto, D., D. 0. Shah and H. E Kaufman, Inv es tiga. Ophthal m o ., 14: 887-902 (1975). ChE LIBRARY : Snider Continued from page 45. Faculty and graduate students may check out any material contained in the library. Texts may be checked out for extended periods, sub ject to recall if needed. Reference books, jour nals, conference procedings, etc, may be checked out on overnight loan only. Undergraduate students may check out only texts and related material, on overnight loan only Special reserve shelves are sometimes util ized by faculty who want to make available ma terial for use only in the library. Special reserve material is not allowed to be checked out. Visitors from other departments on campus and from local industry may use any library ma terial and may check out material upon ap proval of the department head. CONCLUDING REMARKS Q F COU R SE, NOT ALL ChE departments will find the classification system initiated at Clemson to be useful. The extent of subdivision will no doubt vary with the quantity of the hold ings The utility of any library is the ready avail ability of its materials; nothing is quite so frus trating as to waste valuable time searching for material that you know is there, if only you knew how to look for it. It was the purpose of our li brary reorganization to. minimize this problem and to make our holdings available to all who need them. The author expresses great appreciation to the ChE faculty of Clemson University for their as sistance in choosing materials to be discarded and for suggesting additions to the classification sys tem, and to the department secretaries, Mrs. Mary Ann Hayden and Mrs. Deborah Nelson for doing the cataloging and arrangement of the ma terials. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Edited by J. M. COULSON, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, and J. F. RICHARDSON, University College of Swansea .. .. outstanding in this field and present a formidable challenge to all previous chemi cal engineering textbooks ." From a review of the first editions of Vols 1 & 2 in Nature Volume 1: Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer3rd edition by J. M. COULSON, J. F. RICHARDSON, and J. R. BACKHURST In addition to incorporating S.I. units, this latest edition of a standard work offering a transport mechanics approach to chemical engineering includes a new section on the flow of two-phase gas-liquid mixtures-reflecting the growing in terest in this area in the gas and petroleum in dustries Geared to advanced undergraduate and graduate students of chemical engineering, this completely updated and clarified edition offers a detailed treatment of the fundamentals of important chemical mechanisms By treating dif fusion, fluid flow and heat transfer thoroughly, this text points the way for application of these basic mechanics to the solution of problems arising in unit operation It deals with the laws of fluid motion generally with special attention given to calculation of the fall of pressure in pipes and the measurement of flow rates for both com pressible and incompressible fluids. Among the topics discussed are heat transfer the design of heat exchangers mass transfer by molecular and eddy diffusion and various types of pumping problems Numerous worked examples as well as a selection of problems are included. 350 pp 1976 0 08 021015-5 f $15.00 0 08 020614-X h 25.00 Volume 2: Unit Operations2nd edition by J. M. COULSON and J. F. RICHARDSON 808 pp 1968 0 08 013185-9 Volume 3: 2nd edition Edited by J. F. RICHARDSON and D. G. PEACOCK 636 pp 1971 0 08 016438-2 h $11.50 h $14.00 Volume 4: Problems and Solutions (SI Units)-1st edition by J. R. BACKHURST and J. H. HARKER, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Written concurrently with the preparation of the latest edition of Volume 1, this volume is similar in scope and format Using S I. units, it offers solu tions which are grouped in sections correspond ing to the chapters in the first volume At all stages extensive reference is made to the equa tions and sources of data in the earlier work Contents: Units and Dimensions. Energy and Momentum Relationships Friction in Pipes and Channels Compressible Flow Flow Measurement. Pumping of Fluids. Heat Transfer. Mass Transfer. The Boundary Layer Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer. Humidification and Water Cooling. 150 pp 1976 0 08 020918-1 f $ 8.00 (approx.) (approx.) 0 08 020926-2 h 14.00 (approx.) ELEMENTARY HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS Stephen WHITAKER, University of California, Davis This book is intended for use in an introductory course in heat transfer for either Junior or Senior engineering students It provides a balanced treatment of the fundamental aspects of con duction, convection and radiation The attitude taken in the preparation of this text is that one should strive for proficiency in the anal ysis of steady, one-dimensional heat conduction; become acquainted with the nature of transient heat conduction; develop a thorough under standing of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows; acquire a sound understanding of black body radiation phenom ena; and be introduced to simple gray body radi ant energy exchange processes At the beginning of the first 8 chapters there is a design problem which is used to illustrate the type of problems that one can solve after having mastered the material in each particular chapter The main purpose of these problems is to serve as a motivating force ; however detailed solutions are given at the end of each chapter so these problems also serve as solved examples In addi tion, there are problems at the end of each chapter dealing explicitly with the design prob lem, thus the design problems can be used as vehicles for studying special aspects of each chapter In addition to the solutions to the design problems, there are numerous solved example problems throughout the text. 369 pages 1976 0 08 018959-8 $22.50 PERGAMON PRESS Fairview Park, Elmsford New York 10523 & Headington Hill Hall Oxford OX3 OBW England

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At Du Pont lin finding ways to squeeze more product out of fewer Btu~. "Every time I find a way to increase a yield by a fraction of a percent or lower a reaction temperature by a few degrees I can save literally thousands of Stu s of energy. I wanted a job where I could make a real contribution : says Pam. Du Pont gave it to me: With a BS in Chemical Engineering from Auburn University Pam s first assignment was in an environmental control group. After two years she felt that process engineering would offer a greater challenge-so Du Pont changed her assignment. Now she s working on methyl methacrylate during the day, and working on her MBA at night. She s attending Memphis State at DuPont's expense. Pam's story is the same as that of thousands of Chemical Mechanical and Electrical Engineers who ve chosen careers -Pam Tutwiler at Du Pont. We place no limits on the progress our engineers can make. And we place no limits on the contributions they can make to themselves to the Company or to society. If this sounds like your kind of company, do what Pam Tutwiler did: talk to the Du Pont Representative who visits your campus Or write direct to : Du Pont Company Room 25240 Wilmington, DE 19898. At Du Pont ... there's a world of things YOU can do something about. An Equal Opportun i ty Employer M/ F