Citation
Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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VOLUME X NUMBER 4 FALL 1976





SGraduate

w| Education
z

z
Z
o FOOD ENGINEERING De Kee
TRANSPORT PROCESSES Rosner
0 ADSUBBLE SEPARATIONS Lemlich
Z
< ENVIRONMENTAL COURSES Klinzing
DISTILLATION DYNAMICS Deshpande
HENOINEER AS ENTREPRENEUR Reynolds
Z ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Alkire
> FUSION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY Johnson

z BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Bailey & Ollis
W POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Koutsky

0
Z" Also:
_U IMPLEMENTATION OF SI IN ChE-Younquist
"u 1.25-THIS IS A LOG TABLE?-Berty
U






FOR A CHEMICAL ENGINEER


A good career

decision

is like a good

stew-

many things

Should go into it!


Technical challenge, for example, is an important
consideration.
At Procter & Gamble, you'll find as much as you can
handle. As a major chemical process industry in-
volved in a very wide range of product and process
development activities, we welcome chemical en-
gineers who like a challenge. You need only pick the
direction that interests you most!
A company's stability, despite abrupt changes in the
economy, is another important consideration in mak-
ing your career choice. As is the growth record of
your prospective employer.
At P&G we make and sell things that people need and
buy, in good times and bad. According to Fortune
magazine, "One or more P&G products are used in
95 out of 100 homes, a penetration unequaled by any
other manufacturer of anything!"
P&G sales and earnings have increased every year
since 1952. Net sales have doubled in less than 10
years, to more than $6 billion. New products and
product improvements are being added continually.


And if you're interested in benefits, consider our
Profit-Sharing Trust Plan. The performance of this
Plan to date has enabled P&G monthly salaried
employees to retire at 65 with a lump sum amount
equal to about 15 times their average career annual
salary. This is without cost to the employee.
Technical challenge. Substantial initial responsibility.
Advancement on merit alone. Stability in good times
and bad. A company marked by vigorous growth. A
benefits program that ranks among the top 5% of all
U. S. companies. Good reasons to see the P&G re-
cruiter when he visits your campus!

PROCTER & GAMBLE
An Equal Opportunity Employer









EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
Darsh T. Wasan
Illinois Institute of Technology
WEST: George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump
University of Houston
EAST:
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania


FALL 1976


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME X NUMBER 4 FALL 1976


GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES

158 Electrochemical Engineering,
Richard Alkire

162 Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
J. A. Bailey and D. F. Ollis

166 Food Engineering, D. De Kee

168 Distillation Dynamics and Control,
Pradeep B. Deshpande

172 Fusion Reactor Technology,
Ernest F. Johnson

176 Environmental Courses, G. E. Klinzing

180 Adsorptive Bubble Separation
Methods, Robert Lemlich

184 Introductory Polymer Science and
Technology, James A. Koutsky

188 The Engineer as an Entrepreneur-
Some New Concepts, Howard H. Reynolds

190 Energy, Mass and Momentum
Transport, Daniel F. Rosner


DEPARTMENTS

155 Editorial
154 Letters

154, 196 Book Reviews

FEATURES

195 Implementation of SI Units in ChE
Education, Gordon R. Youngquist

198 1.25-This Is a Log Table? J. M. Berty

200 Index, Volumes VI-X

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1976. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.
153










letters


REACTION TO GRISKEY RANKING
Sir:
I found the article by R. G. Griskey, "Ranking Chemical
Engineering Departments" in the Summer 1976 issue of
CEE to be very interesting. No doubt he will attract both
praise and brickbats for his approach.
With his method a department may fluctuate rapidly in
the standing as fortunes go up or down. If a professor lands
a million dollar grant, the departmental rating will soar
suddenly. If the number of Ph.D.'s produced drops from 15
to 5 in one year (entirely possible) the rating will take a
nosedive. I am sure he is quite aware of the short-time
fluctuations.
I would like to see ratings compiled every year, by
Griskey's scheme. Let me urge him to consider being the
author of a yearly ranking for CEE or some other journal.
To many people it would be as valuable as the annual re-
views of special areas of research which were formerly
published, for example, by Ind. Eng. Chem.
J. W. Westwater
University of Illinois, Urbana
Editor's Reply:
CEE would be interested in receiving another paper
from Prof. Griskey on departmental ratings next year, in
order to see what, if any, changes have occurred. However,
since the results one obtains depend upon the weighting one
gives to the various parameters as well as upon the input
data, others may want to try a different approach and, in
the interest of fairness and diversity, are invited to do so.
GEE would not want to be thought of as endorsers of any
particular rating system or to be more or less committed to
publishing the "Griskey Ratings" annually to the exclusion
of others.
Other letters will appear in the next issue.



book reviews |


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER DATA BOOK,
2ND EDITION
by C. P. Kothandaraman and S. Subramanyan
John Wiley & Sons, 1975. $5.95.
Reviewed by F. J. Lockhart, University of
Southern California

Reference materials, both data and equations,
are presented for heat and mass transfer in MKS
and SI units.
This book is a compilation of data intended
for use with a text-book. There are essentially no
discussions of the various tables, graphs and
formulae, and at times insufficient definitions of


I sssw.i


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


symbols. References are not given for specific
data items, but a list of 16 books is given at the
end. So this book is a tertiary reference which
does not identify the specific secondary references.
There is no subject index and the table of
contents is too brief to be of help in locating
specific items of interest. A user will have to pre-
pare his own index. (Perhaps this is a good
thing!)
Coverage of heat transfer, physical properties,
and fluid flow is thorough. Mass transfer receives
scant attention: 2 pages for equation of molecular
diffusion, 2 pages for convective mass transfer co-
efficients, and 31/2 pages for humidification equa-
tions. E


MULTIVARIABLE COMPUTER CONTROL
A CASE STUDY
by D. Grant Fisher and Dale E. Seborg
North Holland Publishing Co. (1976) 205 Pages.
Reviewed by W. Harmon Ray,
University of Wisconsin, Madison
In order to understand the value of this book,
one must become familiar with its genesis. Ap-
proximately 10 years ago, the Department of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Al-
berta acquired an IBM 1800 process control com-
puter and began interfacing it with equipment
in their unit operations laboratory. One of the
first units to be put under computer control was
a double effect evaporator. In the ensuing years,
the authors have used this slightly nonlinear, mul-
tivariable evaporator as a model process for test-
ing a wide range of both traditional and modern
process control techniques. As their research
projects were completed, the results were
published in great variety of ways including
meeting proceedings, chemical engineering jour-
nals, control journals, trade journals, etc. In
many instances their work represented the first
real time experimental implementation of the
techniques applied. After several years of testing
and comparing on-line identification, state estima-
tion, and control algorithms applied to this
evaporator, quite a number of conclusions could
be drawn about the relative merits of the
techniques considered. Thus after some urging
from their colleagues in the field, the authors were
persuaded to compile a case study of process con-
trol algorithms applied to the evaporator and to
Continued on page 178.















ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


RICHARD ALKIRE
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801

E LECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS usually in-
volve the simultaneous interplay of several
different phenomena so that overall behavior is
often difficult to predict on the basis of intuition
alone. The principles of a rational analysis of
electrochemical systems rest upon an under-
standing of thermodynamics, electrode reaction
kinetics, surface phenomena, mass transport and
potential field effects. The quantitative basis for
electrochemical engineering is the combination of
transport phenomena and basic physical chemis-
try. Since this same combination is included in the
training of chemical engineers, it is not surprising
that chemical engineers can become familiar with
electrochemical systems with relative ease.
The distinguishing feature of electrochemical
systems is the electrical potential. The potential
plays a fundamental role in the thermodynamics
of galvanic cells, theory of solutions of electro-
lytes, and double-layer effects at interfaces. The
potential is important in the kinetics of charge-
transfer reactions, in the morphology of surface
alterations, and in mass transport by electrical
migration. For chemical engineers, there are
distinct advantages to having the capability of
using electrical energy to carry out chemical re-
actions. To borrow a metaphor from R. B. Mac-
Mullin, [1] "Chemical reaction, like politics, is
the art of the possible; electrochemical reaction,
like military tactics, is the art of overriding the
impossible by applying electrical force." In
studying electrochemical systems, the chemical
engineer must therefore broaden his traditional
scope in physical chemistry, as well as adjust,
so to speak, his strategy of attack on engineering
problems.
At Illinois, a three hour lecture course in
electrochemical engineering (45 class meetings)


is offered every other year. In lieu of using a
textbook, we have developed a set of lecture notes
and homework problems which have been updated
and expanded each time the course has been
offered. A reasonable alternative would be to use
the thorough, yet concise account of fundamental
electrochemical principles as given in Electro-
chemical Systems by John Newman (Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973). During the
course, about forty homework problems are
assigned. These, along with three hour exams, a
final examination, and a term paper, determine
the course grade. The topic of the term paper
is left to the student; grading is based on ap-
propriateness to course material, originality,
technical proficiency, thoroughness of coverage,
and accuracy in communication. Some topics
covered in recent years include desalination,
hydrometallurgy, waste water treatment, recovery
of heavy metals, industrial energy conservation,
electro-organic synthesis, batteries and fuel cells,
and various aspects of corrosion.
In addition to chemical engineers, the course
has included graduate students from ceramic,
metallurgical, nuclear and mechanical engineering,
electroanalytical and physical chemistry, and
solid-state physics.
LECTURE TOPICS
A N OUTLINE OF LECTURE topics is given
in Table I. A bibliography of useful source
material for the preparation of lectures on various
topics is available from the author upon request.
The introductory comments include a voltage
balance about a cell in order to indicate the
different phenomena which act to consume the
voltage applied to the cell terminals. The voltage
balance includes terms associated with the thermo-
dynamic potential of the cell at rest, and over-
potentials which arise at the electrode surface
(charge transfer and crystallization processes,
etc.), in the mass transfer zone near the surface


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


47 en








(concentration variations) and the remaining
regions within the cell ohmicc resistance effects).
The voltage balance indicates that consideration
must be given to thermodynamic, kinetic, mass
transport, and potential field effects.
Of the various phenomena which contribute
terms to the voltage balance, the notion of ohmic
resistance is the most familiar to chemical
engineers owing to similitude with heat and mass
conduction, and potential flows. The physical
chemistry of conduction processes is reviewed for
aqueous, nonaqueous, fused salt and solid-state
electrolyte systems. The purpose is not to teach
fundamental physical chemistry, but to provide
sufficient understanding of these systems to per-
mit estimation of conduction parameters for use
in engineering applications. Finally, the notion
of the spatial distribution of potential and current
is introduced in order to calculate the ohmic
resistance of an electrolytic solution between two
electrodes. Examples discussed at this point can
be drawn from applications in electroplating,
aluminum cell design, and electro-organic syn-
thesis cell design.



The final discussion topic
brings economic factors (dollar balances)
into the models in order to provide a
quantitative approach to process optimization.
Numerous tradeoffs can be decided as, for
example, number of individual cells, optimum
cell current and electrode area, best anode-
cathode gap spacing, frequency
of gap adjustment, etc.



Principles of thermodynamics of galvanic cells
are developed next, with examples which include
fused salt and solid-state cells. The thermodynamic
interactions between heterogeneous charge
transfer reaction and homogeneous chemical re-
actions is covered in detail (Pourbaix diagrams)
in preparation for future discussion of corrosion
systems. It is, of course, crucial to establish a
consistent set of nomenclature for potential
signs, and the IUPAC system is used here. Ap-
plication of principles is made in the areas of
estimating cell voltages and measuring thermo-
dynamic functions.
The kinetics of electrode processes are ap-
proached by first introducing the use of reference
electrodes and power supplies, by means of which


The author studied electrochemical engineering under Professor
Charles Tobias at Berkeley, and Professor Carl Wagner at the Max
Planck Institut fur physikalische Chemie at Gottingen. On the faculty
of the University of Illinois since 1969, Alkire has carried out a
program of fundamental research which has had applications in
electroplating, corrosion, batteries, copper electrowinning, electro-
organic processing, and cell design.



the reaction rate and reaction driving force can
be measured simultaneously in order to determine
the rate constant. In order to analyze the data
properly, the existence of the electrical double
layer is introduced with discussion of double
layer phenomena in colloidal suspension, electro-
phoretic separation, streaming currents, and
electropainting. Then the theory of kinetic rate
processes is applied to heterogeneous charge
transfer reactions in order to generate the form of
a reaction rate expression for simple and multiple-
step reaction sequences. Since chemical engineers
are not accustomed to the notion of an electrical
potential acting as a driving force for a reaction,
it is especially important to proceed with caution
in this area. The role of electrode kinetics on
mixed-potential (uniform corrosion) systems re-
ceives careful attention.

ENGINEERING RAMIFICATIONS
A T THIS POINT, it seems worthwhile to shift
attention to some of the engineering ramifica-
tions of the fundamentals introduced so far. In
particular, the relative importance of charge-
transfer resistance to ohmic resistance (defined
by the dimensionless polarization parameter) is
of great importance in determining the uniformity
of the current distribution along an electrode sur-
face. The polarization parameter provides one
basis for engineering scale-up of electrochemical
systems. The difficulty of scale-up is central to


FALL 1976


'MA












TABLE I: Course Outline

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
I. Introduction to Electrochemical Engineering
A. The scope of electrochemical phenomena
B. Disciples which encounter these phenomena
C. Introductory concepts, Faraday's laws
II. The Electrolytic Phase
A. Conduction processes in aqueous solutions
B. Conduction in nonaqueous solutions and fused
salts
C. Conduction in ionic crystals
D. The resistance of electrolytic solution between
electrodes: potential field distribution
III. Thermodynamics of Galvanic Cells
A. Electromotive force
B. Concentration cells and transference
C. Applications of galvanic cells
1. Measurements of Gibbs energy, activity
coefficients, standard potentials, ionization
constants; monitoring of chemical reactions
on electrode surfaces
D. Application of standard potentials
1. Criteria for a stable interface, cell reactions
at stable interfaces, Pourbaix diagrams,
corrosion
IV. Kinetics of Electrode Processes
A. Reference electrodes
B. Power sources
C. Structure of the electrical double layer
1. Capacitance, charging and faradaic re-
action, stability of colloidal suspensions,
applications
D. Charge transfer
1. Theory of rate processes, influence of con-
centration variation, complex reaction se-
quences, methods of measurement of rate
constants
E. Applications
1. Corrosion: mixed potential theory, cathodic
protection; the polarization parameter and
current distribution phenomena, electro-
plating, battery electrodes
V. Mass Transport in Electrochemical Systems
A. Electrolysis under diffusive transport control
1. Steady and unsteady-state methods of
electroanalytical chemistry
B. Electrolysis under convective transport control
C. Current distribution at the limiting current
D. Current distribution below the limiting current
VI. Synthesis of Fundamentals
A. Survey of applications
B. Modeling electrochemical systems
C. Developing an electrochemical process
D. Optimizing electrochemical processes


the task of electrochemical engineering, and will
be developed to a considerable extent later in the
course. Applications of the polarization parameter
are given by examples of designing battery plates,
and electroplating systems.
Although mass transport is familiar ground
to chemical engineers, the role of the potential
and cell voltage present unfamiliar new terri-
tories which must be worked through. Simple one-
dimensional examples are available in many of the
methods employed in electroanalytical chemistry.
More complex examples involve convective mass
transport wherein the current and potential dis-
tribution along an electrode is not uniform owing
to the presence of a nonuniform mass transfer
boundary layer.
The course now moves from providing a
fundamental background to developing the engi-
neering prowess needed for handling practical
situations. This last group of lectures is, I feel,
the heart of the course. First, a survey of existing
industrial process technology is presented in order
to show how closely related is the process chemis-
try and the process engineering. Copper electro-
refining, chlorine-caustic production, aluminum
reduction, battery and fuel cell systems, and water
electrolysis provide fertile grounds for discussion.
In copper refining cells, for example, a change in
process temperature affects the electrolyte con-
ductivity, the electrochemical reaction rate con-
stant, the solubility of dissolved salts and the
current efficiency. From such examples, the


The purpose is not to teach
fundamental physical chemistry but to
provide sufficient understanding of
these systems to permit estimation of
conduction parameters for use in
engineering applications.


students gain a fuller sense of the complex rela-
tion between process variables and process be-
havior.
The next topic is to show how to develop
mathematical models to correlate the behavior
of an electrochemical system with the parameters,
or process variables of the system. The discussion
covers the justification of modeling activities, the
different goals and levels of sophistication which
models may take on, the typical simplifications
which are commonly invoked, and the complexities


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










For chemical engineers there are distinct advantages to having the
capability of using electrical energy to carry out chemical reactions. To borrow
a metaphor from R. B. McMullin, "chemical reaction, like politics, is the art of
overriding the impossible by applying electrical force."


which often limit such endeavors. Based upon my
own interests, I have used as examples models of
flow-through porous electrodes, circuit board
fabrication, and localized corrosion.
The third step is to evaluate and work up
the process engineering for a reaction which has
been studied in th- research laboratory at the
beaker scale. AlthJugh many examples are proba-
bly available, the workup of the Baizer process
for adiponitrile production is particularly well
documented insofar as it was awarded the 1965
Kirkpatrick Award for Chemical Engineering
Achievement. Attention centers on having
students anticipate (1) what dilemmas must be
solved in order to settle upon the choice of system
chemistry and process operating conditions and
(2) when and how to use models to assist in
determining what effects are important and how
they will scale-up.
The final discussion topic brings economic
factors (dollar balances) into the models in order
to provide a quantitative approach to process
optimization [2]. Numerous tradeoffs can be de-
cided as, for example, number of individual cells,
optimum cell current and electrode area, best
anode-cathode gap spacing, frequency of gap ad-
justment, etc.
By discussing the foregoing engineering
examples, a great deal can be accomplished in
dispelling the aura of black magic which electro-
chemical systems seem to possess.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
O F THE TOTAL POWER generated in the
United States, nearly 10% is consumed by the
electrochemical process industry. Meanwhile,
corrosion processes consume more than fifteen
billion dollars in U. S. resources each year, or
11/4% of the GNP. Owing to the power consump-
tion and economic importance of the electro-
chemical industry, there is certainly no doubt
about the technological importance of electro-
chemical phenomena, nor about the economic in-
centives for improving our engineering knowledge


of electrochemical systems, including corrosion
systems.
Compelling trends toward the future indicate
that it will become even more important to under-
stand electrochemical systems. Within the next
twenty-five years, the primary form of energy
will shift to an electrical form, away from the
present chemical fossil fuel form. Nuclear and
solar generation both require energy conversion
and storage capabilities, and electrochemical
routes are certainly most viable.
Perhaps even more importantly, chemical
engineers will have to learn to operate chemical
processes without a fossil fuel based economy.
Electrical energy will become increasingly inex-
pensive in comparison with chemical agents for
oxidation and reduction operations. Therefore, it
seems only reasonable that chemical engineers will
give increased consideration to the evaluation of
electrochemical routes for the synthesis of
chemical materials and for the beneficiation of
increasingly lean natural resources.
It is with these perceptions of the future that
the choice of examples and discussion topics is
made in our teaching efforts. E
REFERENCES
1. R. B. MacMullin, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 135C
(1973).
2. T. R. Beck, "Industrial Electrochemical Processes"
in Techniques of Electrochemistry, Vol. III, Yeager
and Salkind, Wiley-Interscience, N.Y., 1976.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The development of this course has taken
place over a period of time during which the
interest and guidance of several colleagues have
been most sincerely appreciated. In particular, I
am pleased to acknowledge fruitful conversations
with Professor Sherlock Swann Jr. (University
of Illinois), Charles Tobias, John Newman (both
of the University of California at Berkeley),
Thomas Chapman (University of Wisconsin),
Robert MacMullin (MacMullin Associates), and
Manuel Baizer (Monsanto Company).


FALL 1976









7 Sauwwe CGwa.e




BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS


J. E. BAILEY
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
and
D. F. OLLIS
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540

MICROBIAL AND ENZYMATIC activities
have been an intimate part of man's history.
Microbes probably account for greater than ninety
percent of all animal mass; their biochemical
action contributes significantly to chemical
processes found in agriculture, diseases, digestion,
antibiotic production, food manufacture and
processing, spoilage, sanitation, waste disposal,
and marine and soil ecology. Consequently, it is
remarkable that the study of biochemical processes
is not an established component of chemical
engineering education.
One factor which seems to contribute to the
neglect of biochemical engineering courses in
many departments presently is the tendency in
current texts and monographs to concentrate on
a particular class of applications such as fer-
mentations, enzyme utilization or wastewater


When confronted with
many pages of descriptive text
on biochemistry and microbiology,. .
overcoming student apprehension
is perhaps the greatest challenge
in teaching the course.


treatment. While each such topic is important, it
appears that only a course aimed at all aspects
of biochemical engineering applications is likely
to provide a sufficiently broad learning base to
justify incorporation into most ChE curricula.
We have minimized this problem in our course
by stressing underlying common fundamentals


and a very broad range of applications. The funda-
mentals comprise those particular topics which
profoundly influence the behavior of man-made or
natural microbial or enzyme reactors. Such
biological examples include the dependence of
enzyme (and thus microbial) activity on substrate
concentration, pH, tempt rature, and ionic
strength, the existence of a small number of im-
portant metabolic paths among the multitude of
microbial species, the cellular control mechanisms
for complex internal reaction networks, and
molecular devices for biological information
storage and transmittal. Useful topics chosen
from chemical and engineering sciences are the
energetic of isothermal, coupled reactions;
mixing; transfer of heat and molecular solutes;
ideally and imperfectly mixed chemical reactors;
and filtration.
The general character of these fundamentals
is subsequently stressed by applications to class
examples and a wide variety of homework
problems. These latter exercises include analyses
of spectrophotometry, desugaring of egg white,
silver recovery from photographic film, exotoxin
production, enzyme electrodes, home winemaking,
chlorination disinfection, detergent biodegrada-
tion, steam reaeration, anaerobic digester heat
balances, production of optically pure amino
acids, and soil nitrification.
A second resistance in some of the previous
efforts in biochemical engineering education arises
from the assumption of significant d priori back-
ground in the biological sciences. Many ChE
students have not studied biochemistry and
microbiology, yet a working familiarity with both
fields is necessary in biochemical engineering.
Consequently, about thirty percent of our course
is devoted to a rapid survey of those elements of
microbiology and biochemistry essential to under-
standing biochemical reactors. It is assumed at
the outset that the student is unfamiliar with both
topics.
During the presentation of this material, an
attempt is made to relate life sciences funda-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








mental to their process implications. For
example, following discussion of molecular
genetics, viruses, mutation, and genetic manipula-
tion, we investigate recent applications of micro-
bial genetics in developing especially productive
microorganisms for several fermentation pro-
cesses. Searches for explanations of the improved
characteristics of the mutated microbes quickly
leads to consideration of metabolic control systems
and membrane transport, areas which have also
been examined earlier in the course.
Obviously there is an alternative to our ap-
proach: require the students to take regular
courses in the biological sciences before entering



Many ChE students have not
studied biochemistry and microbiology ...
Consequently, about thirty percent of our course
is devoted to a rapid survey of
those elements of microbiology
essential to understanding
biochemical reactors.



the biochemical engineering course. In what are
already crowded curricula, imposition of such pre-
requisites greatly limits the students' opportunity
to study biochemical engineering, and only those
students actively engaged in research in the area
are likely to elect such a sequence. On the other
hand, by presenting biological fundamentals
integrated with engineering analyses, design
principles, and applications in a single course, the
subject is easily accessible to any graduate
student, and indeed to any interested upper level
undergraduate. Following this course, those
students concentrating in biochemical engineering
can and should broaden their base in the life
sciences through additional, more advanced
courses taught in biochemistry, microbiology, bio-
physics, and other related departments.
The course is summarized in Table 1. The
material progresses from atomic to macroscopic
dimensions; i.e., from molecular through cellular
to microbial population dynamics. Applications
and the associated engineering design and analysis
principles are presented as soon as the necessary
background life science material has been covered.
Thus, enzyme isolation and applications are con-
sidered before discussion of cell metabolism, and
pure culture fermentations are examined before
delving into the complexities of multiple species


interactions and associated applications.
With this parallel approach, the molecular->
cellular->population paradigm is maintained
throughout the lectures in fundamentals and ap-
plications, description and analysis.

TEACHING THE COURSE
rTHE COURSE HAS BEEN taught in both a
single quarter and a single semester format.
In order to allow coverage of all elements of the
outline during this period, an extensive set of
notes has been developed so that many topics can
be presented in the form of outside reading assign-
ments. Besides their use in the courses at Houston
and Princeton, all or portions of these notes have
been used in biochemical engineering courses at
the University of California at Berkeley, Iowa
State University, the University of Maryland, and
the University of Virginia. A textbook derived
from these notes is now in press.
We have noted that engineering students may
become a bit disoriented when confronted with
many pages of descriptive text on biochemistry
and microbiology, each introducing one or more
new terms in an expanding cascade of new
vocabulary. Overcoming this student apprehen-
sion is perhaps the greatest challenge in teaching
the course, and we have used a variety of
strategies in concert to ameliorate the problem.
First, divertissements from the onslaught of
new biological concepts and terminology are pro-
vided in both local and longer scales in the lec-
tures and notes. The best example of the latter
case is the location of topics III and IV in the
course outline. In addition to the reasons given
earlier, the presence of these topics in the midst
of biological basics provides the engineering
student a respite in the relatively familiar terri-
tory of kinetics, transport-reaction interaction,
and commercial processes. Moreover, these topics
show the student that the biochemistry from
topic II is indeed necessary and useful, and thus
motivation is instilled for digging into energetic,
metabolism, and genetics in topics V and VI.
Also, practical implications of basic concepts
are briefly indicated during the fundamentals
discussions. One example of this approach has
already been mentioned; another is the discussion
of the influence of iron ion on the citric acid
fermentation in conjunction with the presentation
of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. At this point pre-
vious consideration of enzyme cofactor effects can
also be recalled and put into a commercial process


FALL 1976










Jay Bailey, Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston, concentrates his teaching and research activities in bio-
chemical engineering, chemical reactor analysis, and process dynamics.
A Ph.D. graduate of Rice University, Dr. Bailey received a Camille
and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Grant in 1974. He plays guitar
and 5-string banjo, now struggles with piano, and also enjoys
photography.

David F. Ollis, Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
at the Princeton University, received his B.Sc. at Caltech., M.E. at
Northwestern and Ph.D ('69) at Stanford. He was a process research
engineer at Texaco. He was a post-doctoral fellow at CNRS, Nancy,
France in 1969 and on sabbatical at CNRS in Lyons, France in 1975.
His research interest include heterogenious and homogeneous catalysis
and biochemical engineering.



perspective. Worked examples interspersed in the
course serve a similar function of breaking up the
new biological material. Finally, homework
exercises on all topics have been prepared, and
these are regularly assigned (a collection of
problems is available from the authors upon re-
quest). Combined with frequent quizzes, these pro-
vide the engineering student with regular oppor-
tunities to attempt quantitative analyses. Besides
their obvious important pedagogical role, these
exercises also alleviate the "culture shock" (!) of
facing many new biological terms and con-
cepts. E




TABLE 1: COURSE OUTLINE

Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals

I. A LITTLE MICROBIOLOGY
A. Biophysics and the Cell Doctrine
B. The Structure of Cells (procaryotic cells;
eucaryotic cells, cell fractionation)
(Example: Analysis of particle motion in
a centrifuge)
C. Important Classes of Microbes (bacteria;
yeasts; molds, algae and protozoa)
II. CHEMICALS OF LIFE
A. Lipids (fatty acids; fat-soluble vitamins;
steroids) Example: Modification of bio-
membrane permeability
B. Sugars and Polysaccharides
C. From Nucleotides to RNA and DNA (co-
enzymes; RNA, DNA)
D. Amino Acids into Proteins (polypeptides;
protein structure; biological regulation)
E. The Hierarchy of Cellular Organization '
III. THE KINETICS OF ENZYME-CATALYZED
REACTIONS


A. The Enzyme-Substrate Complex and Enzyme
Action
B. Simple Enzyme Kinetics with One and Two
Substrates (Michaelis-Menten kinetics;
two-substrate reactions and cofactor activa-
tion)
C. Determination of Elementary Step Rate
Constants (pre-steady-state, relaxation
kinetics)
D. Other Patterns of Substrate Concentration
Dependence (activation; inhibition; multiple
substrates)
E. Modulation and Regulation of Enzymic
Activity
F. Other Influences on Enzyme Activity (pH,
temperature, mechanical forces)
G. Enzyme Reactions in Heterogeneous Sys-
tems (insoluble substrates; immobilized
enzymes)
IV. ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ENZYMES
A. Production of Crude Enzyme Extracts
B. Enzyme Purification (chromatography;
dialysis; solid phase syntheses)
C. Enzyme Immobilization
D. Application of Hydrolytic Enzymes
(esterases, carbohydrates, proteases)
E. Other Enzyme Applications (medical, new
technology)
F. Immobilized Enzyme Technology (industrial
processes; medical and analytical applica-
tions; utilization and regeneration of co-
factors)
G. The Scale of Enzyme Technology

V. METABOLIC PATHWAYS AND ENERGETIC
OF THE CELL
A. The Concept of Energy Coupling: ATP and
NAD
B. Anaerobic Metabolism: Fermentation (gly-
colysis; other pathways)
C. Respiration and Aerobic Metabolism (TCA
cycle; respiratory chain; partial oxidation;
regulation)
D. Photosynthesis: Tapping the Ultimate Source
(Calvin Cycle; chloroplasts)
E. Biosynthesis (ATP utilization; small mole-
cules; macromolecules)
F. Transport Across Cell Membranes (passive,
facilitated, active transport) (Example:
Transport of nitric acid through a liquid
membrane)

VI. CELLULAR GENETICS AND CONTROL
SYSTEMS
A. Molecular Genetics (DNA translation;
replication; mutation; induction; repres-
sion)
B. Growth and Reproduction of a Single Cell
(synchonous culture; E. coli cell cycle;
eucaryotic cell cycle)
C. Alteration of Cellular DNA (viruses, phage;
transformation, conjugation; composite
DNA)
D. Commercial Applications of Microbial


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Genetics and Mutant Populations (Implica-
tions for medium formulation; auxotrophic
mutants)

VII. KINETICS OF SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION,
PRODUCT YIELD, AND BIOMASS PRODUCE
TION IN CELL CULTURES
A. Growth Cycle Phases for Batch Cultivation
(lag phase; exponential growth, the Monod
equation; stationary and death phase)
B. Mathematical Modeling of Batch Growth (re-
action networks; structured, unstructured
models; mold growth)
C. Product Synthesis Kinetics (fermentation
classifications; Shs segregated model)
D. Overall Kinetics in Cases of Reaction-Mass
Transport Interation (lumped, distributed
models for cells, floes, mold pellets)
E. Thermal Death Kinetics of Cells and Spores

VIII. TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN MICROBIAL
SYSTEMS
A. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Microbial Sys-
tems (basic concepts; metabolic oxygen
utilization rates) (Example: Effectiveness
factor of a microbial monolayer)
B. Determination of Oxygen Transfer Rates
(gas-liquid reactions; dissolved oxygen
measurements) (Examples: Warburg
respirometer; electrochemical determina-
tion of k1a)
C. Mass Transfer for Freely Rising or Falling
Bodies
D. Mass Transfer Across Free Surfaces
E. Forced Convective Mass Transfer (key
dimensionless groups; mass transfer co-
efficient correlations)
F. Surface Area Correlations for Mechanically
Agitated Vessels
G. Other Factors Affective k1a (diffusivities;
ionic strength; surface active agents)
H. Non-Newtonian Fluids (models; suspensions;
power consumption mass transfer)
I. Scaling of Mass Transfer Equipment
J. Particulate Mass Transfer: Filtration (single
fiber efficiencies; mass transfer coefficients)
K. Heat Transfer (microbial heat generation;
heat transfer correlations)

IX. BIOLOGICAL REACTOR DESIGN AND
ANALYSIS
A. The Ideal Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Re-
actor (Monod's chemostat; incomplete
mixing, films, recycle effects; enzyme
catalyzed reactions) (Example: Agitated
CSTR design for a liquid hydrocarbon fer-
mentation)
B. Residence Time Distributions (measure-
ments; applications)
C. Tubular and Tower Reactors (ideal plug flow
tubular reactor; tower reactors; tanks-in-
series and dispersion models)
D. Sterilization Reactors (bath; continuous)
E. Relationships Between Batch and Continuous
Biological Reactors (Example: Reactor


modeling and optimization for production
of a-Galactosidase by a Monascus sp.
mold)
X. BIOLOGICAL REACTORS, SUBSTRATES, AND
PRODUCTS I: SINGLE SPECIES APPLICA-
TIONS
A. Fermentation Technology (medium formula-
tion; aseptic practice; cell harvesting,
product recovery)
B. Product Manufacture by Fermentation (brew-
ing and wine making; oxidative transfor-
mations; organic, amino acids; complex
molecules: gibberelins, vitamins, anti-
biotics; undesirable products) (Example:
Reaction rates in microbial films; tempera-
ture programming for optimal pencillin
production)
C. Reactors for Biomass Production (food; food
processing; agricultural applications; im-
munology, tissue culture, and "Vaccine"
production) (Examples: A batch growth
model for liquid hydrocarbon fermenta-
tions; production of a low-intermediate
molecular weight product; cell growth and
virus propagation kinetics in tissue culture)

XI. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE, INTERACTING
MICROBIAL POPULATIONS
A. Neutralism, Mutalism, Commensalism, and
Ammensalism
B. Mathematical Preliminaries (Example: Two-
Species dynamics near a steady state)
C. Competition: Survival of the Fittest
D. Predation and Parasitism (Lotka-Volterra
model; other one predator-one prey models)
(Example: Model discrimination and de-
velopment via stability analysis)
E. Effects of the Number of Species and their
Web of Interactions trophicc levels, food
chains, food webs; mass action models;
qualitative stability; randomly constructed
food webs) (Examples: An application of
the mass action theory; qualitative stability
of a simple food web)
F. Spatial Patterns

XII. BIOLOGICAL REACTORS, SUBSTRATES, AND
PRODUCTS II: MIXED MICROBIAL POPULA-
TIONS IN APPLICATIONS AND NATURAL
SYSTEMS
A. Uses of Well-Defined Mixed Populations
(Example: Enhanced growth of methane-
utilizing Pseudomonas sp. due to mutalistic
interactions in a chemostat
B. Spoilage and Product Manufacture by Spon-
taneous Mixed Cultures
C. Microbial Participation in the Natural Cycles
of Matter and Energy
D. Biological Wastewater Treatment (waste-
water characteristics; activated sludge
process; trickling biological filters; an-
aerobic digestion) (Example: Simulation
studies of control strategies for anaerobic
digesters)


FALL 1976









7 fCcuOe in4


FOOD ENGINEERING


D. DE KEE
Ecole Polytechnique
C.P. 6079, Montr6al, Qu6. Canada

The dramatic changes in the world population
activated intensive interest in food problems all
over the world.
As a result, our department began offering
a selected topics type of course dealing with some
aspects of food engineering; indeed, the volume
of information available in the field is enormous
and a one semester course can never cover more
than a small fraction of the material.

TABLE I: FOOD ENGINEERING COURSE OUTLINE
PART I: BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY
A. Amino acids
B. Proteins
C. Bacteria
D. Yeasts
E. Microbial growth curve
PART II: OIL SEED TECHNOLOGY
A. Preparation of beans
B. Extraction
C. Desolventizing
D. Lecithin separation
E. Alkali refining
F. Bleaching
G. Hydrogenation
H. Deodorization
I. Mixing
J. Rheology
PART III: BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
A. Sterilization
B. Fermentation Kinetics
C. Batch and C S T R reactors
D. Application to the brewing industry
PART IV: STUDENT PRESENTATION OF
TERM PAPERS
1. Food from petroleum
2. Food additives
3. Food processing by microwaves
4. Protein from grasses


Daniel De Kee received his BSChE from S.I.H.T.S. (Belgium) and
his M.A.Sc. from the University of Ottawa (Canada). Before joining
the faculty of the Royal Military College of Canada in 1976, he
served as a lecturer in the department of Chemical Engineering at
Ecole Polytechnique (Montreal) while completing the requirements
for his Ph.D. degree under Dr. P.J. Carreau. His research interests
are in biochemical engineering and rheology.


The course was offered for the first time to
fourth year students and to first level graduate
students in chemical engineering. Chemists and
microbiologists also took the course but were
somewhat disappointed due to their lack of
knowledge in kinetics, transport phenomena, unit
operations and mathematics.
Active student participation was promoted by
including assignments in which judgement and
ingenuity were to be exercised and alternative
solutions considered, followed by oral presenta-
tion of a term paper, movie projections and a final
quiz.
We hope that the program of the course will
captive one's intellectual interest and indicate
important ways in which chemical engineers can
broaden their services to humanity.

DISCUSSION OF COURSE MATERIAL
T ABLE I OUTLINES the course material. The
first two sections of the first part introduced
the student to biochemistry. Properties of amino
acids and protein structures were discussed in
detail. The effect of processing factors such as
heat, storage, etc on the structure of protein
was dealt with and some of the analysis methods
(chromatography X-Ray diffraction) were intro-
duced. Then followed some notion of microbiology.
In addition to a general discussion about the cell,
some properties of bacteria and yeasts were
focused upon. References [1-7] were very helpful
in this context. The second part of the course


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









switched the student back into the engineering
world of material balances, mass transfer and
transport phenomena. As an example, the produc-
tion of margarine was discussed in detail. At-
tention was given to equipment selection (crack-
ing mills, extraction apparatus etc.), calculations
were made on extraction, mixing and hydrogena-
tion. With regard to those subjects, references
[8-9, 13-14, and 15] were of particular interest.
Some time was spent on the problems en-
countered with the choice of solvent(s) and on
efficiency calculations based on film theory and
on diffusion theory [12]. Due to time limitation,
the previous part was followed by a too brief
introduction to the rheology of non-Newtonian
liquids [16-17]. This second part was then con-
cluded by a projection of the two following
movies:
* Raw materials and refining vegetable oils and fats.
* What is margarine, vegetable oils and fats.
These movies were produced for the Lever
(British) Company by Worldwide Incorporated
and rented from the Canadian Film Institute,
Ottawa, Canada. References [10-11] proved also
to be of interest in the preparation of this
material.


The dramatic changes in the
world population activated intensive
interest in food problems all over the world.
As a result, our department began
offering a course dealing
with some aspects of
food engineering.


At various appropriate points in the third part
of the course, several aspects of the beer brewing
industry were introduced. Sterilization was looked
upon from an engineering point of view. In addi-
tion to presenting the classical Michaelis-Menten
kinetic model, we attempted to develop more
sophisticated ones such as the Aiyar and Luede-
king [21] and Kono-Asai [25] models.
Material and energy balances were then used
to predict the performance of batch reactors. Con-
tinuous systems were next studied; here a variety
of situations was looked into, such as the case
of a series of vessels, a single vessel with re-
cycling and the washout problem [18-19] other
fermentations were presented, dealing with the
given models [22, 24]. In addition to the above
mentioned references the following publications


proved to be useful in connections with this design
part: [20, 23, 26]. The course was concluded by
the presentation of the term papers. Table II
shows the chosen topics. l

TABLE II: TERM PAPER TOPICS
1. Food from petroleum
2. Food additives
3. Food processing by microwaves
4. Protein from grasses
5. Protein from algae
6. Enzymes and the tenderization of meat
7. Gibberellin fermentation
8. Control of fermentation processes
9. Sugar refining
10. Sorbitol utilization
11. Liquorice in food
12. Yeast as an animal food
13. Ethanol from wood
14. Protein from spent sulphite liquor
15. Furfural production from bagasse
16. Products from molasses
17. Starch
REFERENCES
1. E. E. Conn and P. K. Stumpf, Outlines of Bio-
chemistry, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York,
(1966).
2. M. F. Pertuz, Proteins and Nucleic Acids, Elsevier
Publishing Company, Amsterdam, (1964).
3. S. Prescott and C. Dunn, Industrial Microbiology,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, (1959).
4. L. E. Casida, Industrial Microbiology, John Wily &
Sons Inc., New York, (1968).
5. M. Pelczar and R. Reid, Microbiology, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, New York, (1972).
6. C. N. Hinshelwood, The Chemical Kinetics of the
Bacterial Cell, Clarendon Press, London, (1946).
7. V. P. Cirillo, J. Bact., 95, 603, (1968).
8. W. L. McCabe and J. C. Smith, Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering, 2nd. Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, (1967).
9. Shreve, Chemical Process Industries, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, New York, (1967).
10. Critical Reviews In Food Technology, Volume 2, Issue
I, (1971).
11. Altschul, Processed Plant Protein Foodstuffs, Aca-
demic Press, New York, (1958).
12. D. De Kee and H. Laudie, Hydrocarbon Processing,
224, (1974).
13. G. H. Leamy, Chemical Engineering, Oct. 15, (1973).
14. W. R. Penny, Chemical Engineering, March 22, (1971).
15. I. A. Eldib and L. F. Albright, Chemical Processes, 49,
5, 825, (1957).
16. R. B. Bird, W. E. Steward and E. N. Lightfoot,
Transport Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, (1960).
17. Charm, Fundamentals of Food Engineering, 2nd. Ed.,
Avi Publishing Company, Inc., (1971).
18. S. Aiba, A. E. Humphrey and N. F. Millis, Bio-
chemical Engineering, 2nd. Ed., Academic Press Inc.,
(1973).
Continued on page 174.


FALL 1976
















DISTILLATION DYNAMICS AND CONTROL


PRADEEP B. DESHPANDE
University of Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky 40208

A TYPICAL UNDERGRADUATE curriculum
in chemical engineering includes courses in
unit operations, process design, and process con-
trol. In the first of these, a number of unit opera-
tions, e.g., distillation, absorption, extraction, are
studied. In distillation, the following topics are
usually covered: vapor-liquid equilibria, heat and
material balances as applied to multistage
columns, determination of the number of stages
required for the specified separation of a binary
mixture, reflux ratio requirements, and the
efficiency of distillation columns. The detailed
steady-state design of towers is taken up in
















Pradeep Deshpande is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at the University of Louisville. He came to Louisville from
Bechtel, Inc. in San Francisco, California where he worked in the
area of mathematical modeling, digital and analog/hybrid simulation,
and automatic control of process systems. He received a B.S. degree
in Chemistry from Karnatak University, Dharwar, India. He com-
pleted his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Chemical Engineering at the
University of Alabama and his Ph.D. degree (1969) from the Uni-
versity of Arkansas. His background includes six years of academic
experience and 21/2 years of industrial experience. His current
interests are in conventional and computer control, mathematical
modeling, and dynamic simulation of process systems, and bad-
minton (not necessarily in that order).


process design. The third course, process control,
introduces the student to the instrumentation used
for the measurement, manipulation, and control
of process variables. He learns the Laplace-trans-
form methods for the characterization of
processes, measuring elements, controllers, and
final control elements. This is followed by the
study of frequency response techniques for the
design of control systems. Finally, criteria needed
to determine the stability of control systems are
discussed.
A graduate student with a background in the
above courses usually has available to him an
advanced course in distillation, which covers
topics in multicomponent separations. Thus, he
gets a fairly extensive background in the steady-
state process design and operation of distillation
columns. However, he has relatively little back-
ground in the automatic control of towers. For
the student who may seek an industrial career in
the area of distillation, or for one who plans
advanced graduate work in distillation, it is be-
lieved that a gap exists which needs to be filled.
It was with this in mind that a graduate level
course entitled "Distillation Dynamics and Con-
trol," was developed. This course has been offered
once to a class composed of 12 students, of whom
2 are PhD. students, 6 M.S. students (including
4 part-time students from industry), and 4 M.
Eng. students. The reaction of the students to
the course has been favorable.

COURSE CONTENT
T HE SUGGESTED TOPICS for this course
are shown in Table I. There are two ways in
which this course can be taught. (1) If the
curriculum structure, number of students avail-
able, and faculty loads are such that only one
course can be offered in the area of distillation,
the topics in Table I can be supplemented with
steady-state topics. This means that some of the
control topics would have to be eliminated, or


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










only briefly covered. (2) If desired, the entire
course can be devoted to control topics. In this
case, the course will benefit if it is supplemented
with distillation control experiments which
demonstrate the operation of control schemes. This
approach can also utilize digital computer pro-
grams to validate some of the concepts listed in
Table I. The course as taught here did include
steady-state topics, but did not cover Parts VII-B,
VIII-B, and IX. However, when the distillation
controls laboratory becomes operational, it is con-
templated that the entire course will be devoted
to control topics. The course description in this
article follows the latter approach.
One of the first questions that a control
engineer has to address himself to is: "how many
variables are available for control?" In order to
answer this question, one must consider the
analysis of the "degrees of freedom," in which
the system equations are developed and compared
with the number of unknown variables in order
to decide how many variables are available for
control, (Part II). Part III-A develops a basis
for the control of one or both product composi-
tions. The material balance and the separation
factor, S, for a binary tower can be expressed,
respectively, as

D Z_ Z- XB (1)
F X,D XB

S X, (1- XB)_ = f(V/F, n, a) (2)
XB (1- XD)
where
Z,, XD, XB = composition of the more volative
component in the feed, distillate
and, bottoms, respectively, dimen-
sionless
D = distillate rate, moles
time
F = feed rate, moles
time
V = vapor boilup in reboiler, moles
time
n = no. of theoretical stages
a = relative volatility, dimensionless

For a fixed column operating with a given binary
mixture, Equation (2) reduces to

S X, (1-XB) = f(V/F) (3)
XB (1 XD)
Equations (1) and (3) can be considered together


TABLE I. COURSE OUTLINE


DESCRIPTION
I. Introduction
A. Review of Steady-state Dis-
tillation Concepts
B. Introduction to Automatic
Control of Distillation
Columns
II. "Degrees of Freedom Analysis"
to Determine the Number of
Variables Available for Control
III. Material Balance Control
Schemes
A. Manipulation of Material
Balance and Heat Input
B. Pressure Control Methods
C. Criteria for Sensor Location
D. Control Strategy Analysis
on McCabe-Thiele and
Ponchon-Savarit Diagrams

IV. Dynamic Mathematical Modeling
and Simulation of Distillation
Columns
A. Binary and Multicomponent
Systems
B. Open-Loop and Closed-Loop
Responses
V. Frequency Response Methods
for Control Systems Design
A. Linearized Models
B. Experimental Methods -
Pulse Testing
VI. Control Over Both Products
A. The Interaction Problem in
Multivariable Control and
Bristol's Interaction
Measure
B. Proper Pairing of Variables
and Application in Distilla-
tion


C. Design of Decouplers

VII. Advanced Control Schemes for
Distillation Columns
A. Feedforward Control


B. Inferential Control


VIII. Special Problems
A. Inverse Response in Distilla-
tion Columns
B. Override Control Schemes


SUGGESTED
REFERENCES


(1) pp. 69-75
(2) pp. 355-65


pp. 288-305
pp. 299-302
pp. 476-82
pp. 334-39
pp. 417-27
pp. 139-44
pp. 26-29


(1) pp. 69-80

(1) pp. 148-59


(1) pp. 267-76

(1) pp. 282-93



(6) pp. 133-34
(3) pp. 188-98


305-06
403-07
227-36
52-57
380-84
198-203


(1) pp. 431-37
pp. 445-47
(11) Tabs 1-4
(12) pp. 614-23;
(13)
(14) pp. 127-31

(1) pp. 377-80
(15)
(1) pp. 342-44
(16)


IX. Control Instrumentation
A. Sensors, Controllers, and (1) pp. 305-45
Control Valves (3) pp. 61-123


FALL 1976








for deciding which streams should or need be
manipulated in order to control one or both
product compositions. Although the development
is based on a binary column, the principles may be
extended to multicomponent distillation.
In order to exercise proper control, it is es-
sential that column pressure be maintained
constant. Therefore, the methods for varying the
rate of condensation so as to control column
pressure are discussed next in Part III-B.


A graduate student usually gets
a fairly extensive background in the
steady-state process design and operation
of distillation columns. However, he has
relatively little background in the
automatic control of towers.


Although the objective of most control schemes
is to control product compositions, composition
analyzers are not widely used for control purposes
for reasons of cost and long time-lags. Instead,
temperatures at appropriate locations in the
column are controlled so as to indirectly control
product quality. Thus, it is appropriate at this
point to discuss the criteria for the suitable loca-
tion of temperature sensors (III-C).
Although limited in its concepts to the dis-
tillation of binary mixtures, the McCabe-Thiele
and Ponchon-Savarit diagrams are helpful in
analyzing the effect of various upsets on the
composition of product streams. The control
strategy analysis on these diagrams is the subject
of discussion in Part III-D.
Part IV is concerned with dynamic mathe-
matical modeling and digital simulation of distilla-
tion towers for separating binary and multi-
component mixtures. The purpose here is to evalu-
ate the open-loop response and the closed-loop
response of columns (with specified control
schemes), to various upsets. The dynamic models
of towers and the associated equipment are de-
veloped and the system equations are solved on
the digital computer in order to obtain open-loop
and closed-loop responses.

CONTROLLER SYNTHESIS
P ART V DEALS WITH controller synthesis;
analytical and experimental approaches are
covered. In the former approach (V-A), the
mathematical model developed earlier is linearized,


and the resulting system of equations is solved by
the "stepping" technique. The results are in the
form of frequency response plots (i.e., Bode
Plots), from which feedback controllers can be
designed.
The experimental technique consists of per-
turbing a distillation column and recording the
outputs as a function of time. Many inputs can
be used but a pulse input has many advantages
over the others. The presentation in V-B describes
how the output data to a pulse input can be
analyzed so as to obtain frequency response
diagrams.
Both of these methods are based on linear
(ized) models, and hence the controllers will be
satisfactory in the vicinity of the steady-state
operating conditions. It is best to test these con-
trollers on a more rigorous nonlinear model of
the column developed in Part IV.
Part VI is devoted to the control of both
product compositions and to the problem of inter-
action. A simple and useful measure of interaction
in multivariable control problems is Bristol's
Interaction Matrix. This interaction measure is
developed and applied to some simple problems in
VI-A. Its application to distillation (Part VI-B),
assists in the selection of proper pairing of
manipulated and controlled variables. This is
followed, in Part VI-C, by the design of decouplers
for achieving noninteracting feedback control of
distillation columns. The design leads to Bode
plots from which the transfer functions of de-
couplers can be approximated for implementation
on hardware. This procedure is also based on a
linearized model of the process, and the validity
of these decouplers should be tested on a nonlinear
model of the column developed earlier.
Part VII is concerned with advanced control
schemes for distillation columns. Part VII-A dis-
cusses the advantages of feedforward control over
feedback control. This is followed by the design
of feedforward controllers. The gain terms of the
feedforward controllers can be obtained from the
material balance. In order to include dynamics,
analysis of Part V-A (or experimental data), are
needed. This analysis leads to Bode plots from
which feedforward controller transfer functions
can be obtained. The benefits of combined feed-
back/feedforward over feedforward and feedback
control schemes can be demonstrated through
simulation.
Part VII-B discusses an advanced scheme in
which inexpensive multiple measurements on a


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









column are used to estimate the product composi-
tion. The estimate is then used to manipulate
appropriate streams to hold product quality
constant. There is scope here also to validate the
results through simulation.
Part VIII outlines some special problems in
distillation operations. The first of these to be
covered is the inverse response in columns. The
column base liquid level, for example, may
temporarily increase due to an increase in reboiler
heat duty. Part VIII-A examined the transfer
function of a process, and illustrates how a posi-
tive zero can give rise to inverse response. Next,
the equations needed to predict inverse response in
distillation columns are developed. These equa-
tions serve as an aid in checking the design of
distillation columns for inverse response. The
remedy may consist of an alternate design for new
columns or a different control scheme for operat-
ing columns.
Part VIII-B discusses override control
schemes and the need for them. Often, conven-
tional control schemes are inadequate in the
presence of large upsets. In such cases, the over-
ride control schemes alter the appropriate streams
so as to maintain the column in the safe operating
region (or even cause shutdown if warranted).
The hardware needed to implement these schemes
is also discussed here.
Part IX in this course considers instrumenta-
tion hardware. The elements for the measurement
of flow, liquid level, pressure, temperature, and
composition are covered. This is followed by con-
troller mode selection for loops involving the above


The benefits of combined
feedback/feedforward control schemes
can be demonstrated through simulation.


variables. Finally, the characteristics and selec-
tion of control valves and the effect of characteris-
tics on loop linearity is studied.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
IT IS BELIEVED that this course fills the gap
between a conventional course on distillation
and the dynamic operation of distillation towers.
It can be taught as a complete course in distilla-
tion controls, or portions of it can be combined
with a conventional course on distillation.


The course outline of Table I does not include
optimal control and computer control of towers
because these topics require an additional back-
ground in optimization and the z-transform
methods (Perhaps these can be covered in indi-
vidual courses in optimization and computer pro-
cess control, respectively). El


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author thanks his colleague, Professor
P. M. Christopher, for reviewing this manuscript.


REFERENCES
1. Luyben, W. L., Process Modeling, Simulation, and
Control for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, N.Y. 1973.
2. Rademaker, 0., Rijnsdorp, J. E., and Maarleveld,
A., Dynamics and Control of Continuous Distillation
Units, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New
York, N.Y. 1975.
3. Shinskey, F. G., Process Control Systems, McGraw-
Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y. 1967.
4. Bertrand, L. and Jones, L., "Controlling Distillation
Columns," Chemical Engineering, February 20, 1961.
5. Hougen, J. 0., Measurement and Control Applications
for Practicing Engineers, Cahner's Books, Boston,
Massachusetts, 1972.
6. Bristol, E. H., "On a New Measure of Interaction for
Multivariable Process Control," IEEE Trans. Aut.
Cont., AC-11, 133, 1966.
7. Shinskey, F. G., "Stable Distillation Control Through
Proper Pairing of Variables, ISA Transactions, Vol.
10, No. 4, 1971.
8. Nisenfeld, A. E., Stravinski, C., "Feedforward Con-
trol of Azeotropic Distillation," Chemical Engineering,
September 23, 1968.
9. Nisenfeld, A. E., Schultz, H. M., "Interaction Analysis
in Control Systems Design," Instrumentation Tech-
nology, April 1971.
10. Luyben, W. L., "Distillation Decoupling," A. I. Ch. E.
Journal Vol. 16, No. 2, March 1970.
11. Shinskey, F. G., Feedforward A Basic Control
Technique, Publication No. 170B, Foxboro Company,
Foxboro, Massachusetts, September 1972.
12. Weber, R. and Brosilow, C., "The Use of Secondary
Measurements to Improve Control," A. I. Ch. E.
Journal Vol. 18, No. 3, May 1972.
13. Brosilow, C. and Tong, M., "Inferential Control of a
Multicomponent Distillation Column," Paper No. 5.
Presented at the 79th A. I. Ch. E. Meeting, Houston,
Texas, March 16-20, 1975.
14. Joseph, B., et al., "Multi-temps Give Better Con-
trol," Hydrocarbon Processing, March 1976.
15. Buckley, P. S., et. al., Paper No. 5E presented at the
79th A. I. Ch. E. Meeting, Houston, Texas, March
16-20, 1975.
16. Course Notes on Distillation Dynamics and Control,
Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, May 13-
17, 1974.


FALL 1976








4e Goe in4


FUSION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY


ERNEST F. JOHNSON
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540

AS A CONSEQUENCE of growing interests of
members of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment at Princeton in research problems re-
lated to the development of thermonuclear fusion
reactors, a program in fusion reactor technology
was established in 1972 in the School of Engineer-
ing and Applied Science. This program provides
a coordination of study and research at all degree
levels for students interested in the engineering
and technological aspects of controlled thermo-
nuclear research. Readers interested in why a pro-
gram in fusion reactor technology should be born
in a ChE department are referred to the lively
article by Axtmann [1] describing the contribu-
tions of chemical engineers to nuclear engineering.
The idea of controlling the fusion reactions
of the hydrogen bomb for the generation of
electric power originated in the then classified
work of Project Matterhorn at Princeton and re-
sulted in the first conceptual design of a fusion
power reactor, the so-called Model D Stellarator
report of Spitzer et al. [2]. Given the level of
knowledge of the time, that report was singularly
prescient in identifying the major scientific and
technological problems that would have to be
solved to achieve a practicable power generator.
The problems of plasma physics were clearly of
paramount importance, and as a consequence, a
major theoretical and experimental program in
plasma physics has developed at the Princeton
Plasma Laboratory, the largest American enter-
prise devoted to controlled thermonuclear research
and the only large one on a university campus.
Members of the ChE faculty have long been
associated with the Plasma Physics Laboratory
(two for more than twenty years) and involved
in researches on various technological problems
related to fusion power development. However,
there had been little incentive to formalize a pro-


gram in fusion reactor technology until recently
when it became clear that the plasma physics
problems were likely to be solvable and that the
world energy situation would make fusion an in-
creasingly attractive alternative source of energy.

COLLABORATION WITH PLASMA PHYSICS
T HE PROGRAM IN fusion reactor technology
was established in collaboration with the
Plasma Physics Laboratory. There are six regular-
ly enrolled graduate students in it plus about an
equal number of undergraduates. Two full-time
faculty and two part-time faculty are active in the
program, and two other faculty members have re-
lated research interest. In addition there are, from
time to time, visiting scholars from abroad.
Three courses involving fusion reactor tech-
nology are offered each year at Princeton. All
three are taught in the Department of Chemical
Engineering. Two are senior level undergraduate



Dr. Ernest F. Johnston is Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Princeton University and Associate Dean of the Faculty. He was
awarded his B.S. degree from Lehigh University and was then
associated with Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation as research
engineer, project leader, and production control supervisor. For
two years he was at the Thermodynamics Research Laboratory at the
University of Pennsylvania where he received his Ph.D. He has
contributed significant research to the area of study concerned
with the automatic control of industrial processes, and he is the
author of numerous papers in this field, including a chapter in
Advances in Chemical Engineering and a book Automatic Process
Control published by McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1967). He has published
extensively in other aspects of chemical engineering including
molecular transport properties, thermodynamics and fusion tech-
nology. Since 1955 he has been associated with the Plasmas Physics
Laboratory on Princeton's James Forrestal Campus where he is
concerned with the technological problems of thermonuclear fusion
power reactors. He adds "I am an amateur boat builder, Milton
scholar, and musician (voice, piano and pipe organ), and I practice
gentleman farming at our summer home on the Maine coast. I
commute to work by bicycle, risking knock-off by motor vehicle to
avoid knock-off by heart attack."


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








courses, Ch.E. 417 and 418, Nuclear Engineering I
and II, and the third is Ch.E. 550, Fusion Tech-
nology, the graduate course described here. The
first of the undergraduate courses is concerned
primarily with fission processes, and fusion
topics are introduced only briefly. The second
undergraduate course, however, deals solely with
fusion problems, emphasizing plasma behavior,
the engineering aspects of plasma research,
magnet design, and similar subjects. It provides
a background useful for the graduate course.
Both undergraduate courses may be elected
by graduate students and by properly qualified
juniors and seniors. These courses are populated
by students from a variety of engineering and
science disciplines.
The graduate course was designed primarily
for first-year graduate students in the fusion re-
actor technology program but a number of other
students elect it as well. A principal objective is
to provide an up-to-date perspective on the major
problems and current researches in the techno-
logical aspects of fusion power development. The
catalog description is:
Ch. E. 550. Fusion Reactor Technology
A study of contemporary problems in the develop-
ment of nuclear fusion reactor systems. Plasma
problems, fuel cycles, materials, blanket problems,
energy extraction and power cycles, non-power uses
of energy output, reactor control, environmental
problems. Prerequisite: ChE 418 or equivalent.

Three faculty members share equally in the
formal instruction in the course. They are Robert
C. Axtmann, Professor of ChE for Environmental
Studies, Ernest F. Johnson, Professor of ChE
and Robert G. Mills, Head of the Fussion Reactor
Design Division of the Plasma Physics Laboratory
and Lecturer in ChE with rank of Professor. Ap-
proximately three-quarters of the class time is
used for their lectures. The remaining quarter
comprises seminars by students in the course and
by other faculty members on selected topics in the
field. Because of the disparateness of many of the
topics the lecturers frequently alternate, and the
seminars are scattered throughout the term albeit
somewhat more heavily concentrated toward the
end of the term.
There is no single textbook suited to this new
field. Because of our historical and continuing
link to the Plasma Physics Laboratory the
principal focus of the treatment is on magnetically
confined plasma machines rather than laser driven
devices, and we tend to use as a major reference


the conceptual design report edited by Mills [3]
and published by the Plasma Physics Laboratory.
This nearly 600-page report is the most detailed
design study for a fusion power reactor currently
available. This volume, with its numerous
references, constitutes a comprehensive introduc-
tion to the field. The design is based on a minimal
employment of new technology. In particular,


The idea of controlling the
fusion reactions of the hydrogen
bomb for the generation of electric
power originated in the then classified
work of Project Matterhorn at Princeton
and resulted in the first conceptual
design of a fusion power reactor.


materials of construction involve only those for
which there is a proved fabrication capability.
Even so, there are many uncertainties in the de-
sign since there are large areas of ignorance.
These uncertainties are discussed at some length
in the report, and hence they provide a good
springboard for examining the major problems in
fusion power development.
Four copies of the Mills design report together
with one each of the reference books listed below
are placed on reserve in the Engineering Library
for use by students during the course.

RESERVE LIST
1. "A Short Course in Fusion Power," NP-20040,
USAEC, NTIS, 1972.
2. Chen, Francis F., "Introduction to Plasma Physics,"
Plenum Press, New York, 1974.
3. Glasstone, S., and R. H. Lovberg, "Controlled
Thermonuclear Reactions," D. Van Nostrand Co.,
Princteon, New Jersey, 1960.
4. Gruen, D. M., editor, "The Chemistry of Fusion Tech-
nology," Plenum Press, New York, 1972.
5. Kammash, T., "Fusion Reactor Physics Principles
and Technology," Ann Arbor Science Publications,
Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1975.
6. Mills, R. G., editor, "A Fusion Power Plant," MATT
1050 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Prince-
ton, New Jersey, 1974 (available through NTIS,
U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia
22151).
7. Rose, D. J., and M. L. Clark, "Plasmas and Con-
trolled Fusion," MIT Press, Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts, 1961.

In addition to the reserved books there are


FALL 1976








strong collections of publications on fusion tech-
nology maintained by the Engineering Library
and also by a satellite library at the Plasma
Physics Laboratory on the Forrestal Campus.
Many of these publications are in the form of
proceedings of international symposia and work-
shops on specialized aspects of fusion technology
sponsored by various agencies like Energy Re-
search and Development Administration (ERDA)
and technical societies like the American Nuclear
Society and the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE).


The graduate course was designed primarily
for first-year graduate students in the
fusion reactor technology program
but a number of other students
elect it as well. A principal
objective is to provide an up-to-date
perspective on the major problems and
current researches in the technological
aspects of fusion power development.


Because of the rapid growth of knowledge in
many aspects of fusion technology and shifting
emphases as new constraints arise and old ones
change, the content of the course will vary from
year to year. Last fall the formal coverage in-
cluded a brief overview of the world energy
problem to show what contributions might be ex-
pected of fusion power, a detailed review of the
Princeton Reference Design to identify the major
problems and some possible solutions, a treatment
of the problems of plasma physics as a basis for
setting the scale of realistic machines and fixing
many of their properties, and an examination of
the environmental problems arising from power
plants generally and from fusion power plants in
particular.
Although some problems had to be treated
cursorily, either for lack of time or because
current understanding is uncertain, every major
problem was addressed in the formal part of the
course. Some like the use of molten salts as
tritium breeding media the permeation of hydro-
gen isotopes in metals were addressed in greater
detail because of the special interests of particular
faculty members.
During the term eight seminars were con-
ducted in the course on the following subjects:
1. Low Concentration Permeation
2. Ion Bombardment of Metals
3. Fission-Fusion Hybrids


4. Parametric Systems Analysis
5. Laser Fusion
6. Alternate Fuel Cycles
7. Non-Power Uses of Fusion
8. Fuel Injection
Concurrently with the graduate course in
fusion reactor technology a series of ten seminars
on vacuum technology and engineering was offered
by a physicist from the Plasma Physics Labora-
tory as part of the program in fusion reactor
technology. A similar seminar series on neu-
tronics was offered during the preceding term.
As a consequence neither of these topics was
discussed in any detail in the graduate course.
Although we have offered the course only
once, our assessment, arrived at in consultation
with our students, is that we have fairly met
our objectives. We anticipate that we will follow
essentially the same format when we offer the
course again this fall. In contrast with the first
offering we shall probably include some home-
work problems and examinations to provide a
better feedback on our teaching. E

REFERENCES
1. Axtmann, R. C., Nuclear Technology 27 78-83 (1975).
2. Spitzer, L., Jr., D. J. Grove, W. E. Johnson, L. Tonks,
and W. F. Westendorp, Problems of the Stellarator
as a Useful Power Source, NYO-6047, U. S. Atomic
Energy Commission (1954).
3. Mills, R. G., editor, "A Fusion Power Plant," MATT
1050, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Prince-
ton, N. J. 1974 (available through NTIS, U. S. De-
partment of Commerce, Springfield, Va. 22151).



DE KEE: Food Engineering
Continued from page 167.
19. F. C. Webb, Biochemical Engineering, Van Nostrand,
New York, (1964).
20. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, 68
volume 64, Bioengineering-Food, (1968).
21. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, 69,
volume 62, Bioengineering and Food Processing,
(1966).
22. D. De Kee, M.A. SC. Thesis, University of Ottawa,
(1974).
23. Chemical Engineering, Jan. 4, "Continuous Beer
Making Makes Commercial Debut," (1965).
24. G. Pineault, B. Pruden and D. De Kee, "Etude Des
Parametres D'Operation Du Procede De Fermenta-
tion Des Hexoses Contenus Dans La Liqueur Resi-
duaire Bisulfitique," submitted to Canadian Journal
of Chemical Enigneering.
25. T. Kono and T. Asai, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 11, 293,
1969.
26. 0. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd
Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, (1972).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






235 of our people

left theirjobs last year.


-W)

We're pmud

ofthat record.


Job hopping is something we encourage through our
Internal Placement System.
We happen to believe our most valuable corporate
assets are people. The more our people know, the
stronger company we are. IPS was initiated over three
years ago and in that time over 700 Sun people have
changed jobs using the system.
Here's how it works. Say you're an engineer.
You'd like to broaden your experience and feel that
you'd make a contribution in Marketing. You check
the weekly job opening notices. When there's an


opening in Marketing you think you can fill, you
apply-and get first consideration.
You have freedom to experiment and move around
at Sun. You learn more and you learn faster.
You want to learn more right now-about Sun
and IPS? Ask your Placement Director when a Sun
Oil recruiter will be on campus. Or write for a copy of
our Career Guide. SUN COMPANY, INC., Human
Resources Dept. CEE, 1608 Walnut Street, Philadel-
phia, Pa. 19103. An equal opportunity employer m/f.


A Diversified Energy and Petrochemical Company
Sun Company, Inc. (formerly Sun Oil Company)










9Cddo-al




A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS

As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school.
In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in
your growth toward confidence, independence,
and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. Previous issues
included articles on applied mathematics, trans-
port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics,
particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional
operations, computer aided design, statistical anal-
ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and
certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio-
medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in pre-
vious years. If your department chairman or pro-
fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before
you read the articles in these issues we wish to
point out that (1) there is some variation in
course content and course organization at different
schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en-
gineering that we have not been able to cover, and


(3) the professors who have written these articles
are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize
that particular area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many very fine
chemical engineering departments and each of
these has its own "personality" with special em-
phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in
choosing a graduate school you might first con-
sider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If
you have a specific research project in mind, you
might want to attend a university which empha-
sizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if
you are unsure of your field of research, you might
consider a department that has a large faculty
with widely diversified interests so as to ensure
for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department
with a small enrollment of graduate students. In
any case, we suggest that you begin by writing
the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue.
You will probably also wish to seek advice from
members of the faculty at your own school.

But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.
Sincerely,

RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


FALL 1976












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Industrial Sponsors: The following companies donated funds for the
support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION during 1975-76:

MONSANTO COMPANY 3M COMPANY

Departmental Sponsors: The following 134 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1976:


University of Akron
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Drexel University
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Illinois Institute of Technology
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





For some people, the good life doesn't begin at
five p.m. And it's not measured in vacations and
weekends. Rather, it wakes up with them every
morning. It moves with them as they go about
their tasks.
These people work in an atmosphere of
growth without constraint. They set their own
goals based on their own abilities. They use
their own judgment in helping to solve problems
that directly affect their own lives. Like assuring
an ample food supply. Ridding the environment
of pollution. Curing disease.
Because life is fragile, these people believe
it needs protection.


That's one reason they chose a career with
Dow. We need more people who think along
these lines and have backgrounds in science,
engineering, manufacturing and marketing.
If you know of students who are looking for
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cruiting and College Relations, P.O. Box 1713,
Midland, Michigan 48640.
Dow is an equal opportunity employer-
male/female.
DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.
*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company















ENVIRONMENTAL COURSES


G. E. KLINZING
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261

DURING THE PAST THREE years at the
University of Pittsburgh the Chemical Engi-
neering Department has developed two courses
dealing with the environment for advanced under-
graduates and graduate students. One is entitled,
"Atmospheric Pollution" and the other, "Indus-
trial Waste Treatment." These courses developed
from joint student-faculty-industry interest and
cooperation. Not only have chemical engineering
students participated in the program, but other
science and engineering students have also taken
these courses.
The University's location in a heavily indus-
trialized city has been a particular advantage for
the study of the environment in these courses. Co-
operation with industrial and government organi-
zations has given the courses a unique quality of
seeing and being involved in the most immediate
and relevant problems of an industrial city.
In the atmospheric pollution course, the Pitts-
burgh problem was stressed and used as a basis
for analysis. The sulfur dioxide and suspended
particulate matter problems were presented more
than the nitrogen oxides or any other pollutant
problems. The course ran 15 weeks, which is one
trimester having three hours of class time per
week. This course was held on one evening in


The final part of the course
looked at equipment, design and
economics. Process treatments, scrubbers,
bag houses, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators,
etc., were handled. The cost of these
units as well as a treatment of
cost-benefit analysis of air
pollution control in general
was presented.


George Klinzing received his BS degree in Chemical Engineering
from the University of Pittsburgh and his MS and PhD from Carnegie-
Mellon University. He spent three years teaching and consulting in
chemical engineering at Central University in Quito, Ecuador. His in-
terests are transport phenomena and engineering education in and
technology transfer to developing countries.

order to accommodate the large number of part-
time graduate students from the industrial com-
munity of the area.
The first week was devoted to an introduction
to air pollution both on a global and local basis.
Definition of terms and identification of sources
were detailed. Chapters 1-5 of McCormac [1] and
Chapter 1 of Strauss [2] were required readings.
The next two weeks were dedicated to atmospheric
transport by dispersion models. Comparison be-
tween models and evaluation of coefficients of
dispersion were treated. The effects of inversions,
chemical reactions and finite absorption of the
pollutants at ground level was studied in the
modeling. The many plume rise equation were
viewed and controversy aired on the various
analyses. The book by Ledbetter [3] was also used
as reference material.
Sampling and analysis were next scrutinized.
The EPA sampling train and other EPA regula-
tions on sampling were covered. At this point, an
industrial representative from a local power com-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








pany discussed the practical aspects of sampling
commenting heavily on the regulations specified
by EPA in the Federal Register. Considerable
class interaction took place at this point and an
appreciation of the industrial problem was real-
ized. These topics took two weeks to study.

LEGAL ASPECT
T HE LEGAL ASPECTS of air pollution are in-
deed complex. Some of the more famous cases
were viewed and the pending legal situation of
cases in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh being the
County Seat) were discussed. A representation of
the State of Pennsylvania's Department of En-
vironmental Resources gave a lecture discussing
some specific cases and showing the legal process
that needs to be followed in prosecuting a violator.
Routine inspections and testing were explained
and problem areas mentioned as to enforcement of
the law. Two weeks were spent in total on the
legal topic.
The next three to four weeks were spent on
sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter
analysis. Detection techniques, sources and abate-
ment procedures were treated. Chapters 3-10 of
Strauss were utilized as a basis with government
publication assisting in the treatment. [4] The
various types of equipment for analysis and sam-
pling were brought into class when possible, and
the advantages and disadvantages of the units
explained in detail.
The final part of the course looked at equip-
ment, design and economics. Process treatments,
scrubbers, bag houses, cyclones, electrostatic pre-
cipitators, etc. were handled. The cost of these
units as well as a treatment of cost-benefit analysis
of air pollution control in general was presented.
In addition to quizzes and a final exam, the
students in groups of 2 or 3 worked on a project
during the term related to the air pollution area.
Some topics were suggested and others were orig-
inated by the students. Some of the topics for
analyses were:
CO Concentrations in Oakland (University
Area)
Pressure Swing Adsorption Cycle on Auto
Emissions
Infra-Red, Gas Chromatographic Analysis of
Pollutants
Indoor Level of Pollutants (Engineering
Hall, Student Dormitories)
Multiple Stack Analysis


Plume Rise Calculations (Comparison and
Analysis)
Flow Patterns Around Buildings

WASTE TREATMENT COURSE

THE SECOND COURSE in the environmental
area was "Industrial Waste Treatment." This
course met for the same length of time and same
time slot as the "Atmospheric Pollution" course.
The base text for the course was Nemerow. [5]
The first four to five weeks of the course were
dedicated to understanding the basics of industrial
waste treatment and roughly Chapter 1-20 in
Nemerow were covered. Here again, definitions are
essential such as BOD, COD, and TOD. The basic
operation of neutralization, sedimentation flota-
tion, activated sludge, and trickle filters were
handled showing the basis for analyses from mass
and heat transfer approaches. Detailed designs
of a base case for each one of these units were
presented. [6] This preface was used as a basis


One course is entitled,
"Atmospheric Pollution" and the other,
"Industrial Waste Treatment." These courses
developed from joint student-faculty-industry
interest and cooperation.


for industrial representatives to present lectures
on specific industrial waste problems concerning
mostly the Pittsburgh area. To begin the special
lectures a professor of Environmental Law talked
in general and specific on industrial waste prob-
lems stressing changes in legal interpretation and
sentiment. A consultant in the Pittsburgh area
spoke on wastes in the tanning industry showing
that as the laws are presently written and con-
sidering the small size of such tanning operations
the industry would probably die in the United
States in the next few years.
Wastes in the food industry was given by an
engineer from the H. J. Heinz Co. and another
consultant in the environmental area spoke on
waste water parameters and measurement for
treatment control. Both speakers stressed high
costs with the Heinz representative giving de-
tailed information on financing of an industrial
waste treatment. The pitfalls of waste water meas-
urement were mentioned by the consultant show-
ing you can rely very little on most measurement
in the waste water analysis field including the


FALL 1976









standard pH measurement.
Radioactive waste disposal was handled by
Westinghouse and a representative of United
States Steel Corporation gave an excellent treat-
ment of the steel industries problems and pro-
grams. The municipal waste and their ability and
willingness to handle industrial discharge was
presented by the county's municipal disposal facil-
ity, ALCOSAN. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corpo-
ration presented the coal mining waste problem
and treatment. Effective treatment can be enacted
on new mines; but old abandoned ones are the
areas most difficult to clean-up.

THERMAL POLLUTION
DURING THE LAST WEEK of the course, the
thermal pollution area was treated with con-
sideration from power plants both coal fired and
atomic. Much of the atomic power plant material
tied in with the radioactive waste treatment lec-
ture.


In short, reliance on industry for up-to-date
information and a special viewpoint was very
successful both in the atmospheric and industrial
wastes courses offered. Our area indeed is rich in
capable, knowledgeable engineers willing to assist
in the preparation of meaningful courses on the
environment for the students of our engineering
schools. l

REFERENCES
1. Me Cormac, B. M., Introduction to the Scientific Study
of Atmospheric Pollution, D. Reidel Publishing Co.,
Dordrecht-Holland (1971).
2. Strauss, W., Industrial Gas Cleaning, Pergamon Press,
London, (1966).
3. Ledbetter, J. E., Air Pollution Part A: Analysis, Mar-
cel Dekker, Inc., New York (1972).
4. National Air Pollution Control Administration Publi-
cations AP-49, 50, 51, 52, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68, 84.
5. Nemerow, N. L., Liquid Waste of Industry, Addison-
Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass. (1971).
6. Eckenfelder, W. W., Industrial Water Pollution Con-
trol, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1966).


BOOK REVIEW: Multivariable Computer Control


Continued from page 154


publish these together in a single volume. The
result is the present book.
The authors have been able to present a co-
herent view of their work by appending introduc-
tory discussion to previously published papers and
organizing this by topic. It may be useful to sum-
marize briefly the scope of the material. Section 1
presents an overall view of the book, while Sec-
tion 2 treats several different approaches to
modelling the process. Of particular interest is
a comparison of model reduction procedures and a
study of several approximate low order models
of the process. Section 3 demonstrates the dy-
namic performance to be expected under conven-
tional control while Sections 4-6 discuss more
modern computer control techniques. These sec-
tions present a detailed comparative study of
techniques such a multivariable feedback control,
combined feedforward-feedback control, time
optimal control, optimal linear-quadratic feed-
back control, model reference adaptive control,
etc. Section 7 presents experimental testing of
on-line state estimation (using Kalman Filters)
and the incorporation of the state estimator into
a stochastic feedback control scheme. Finally
Section 8 describes the overall educational as-
pects of such computer control facilities.


The case study would be of interest to anyone
wanting to evaluate the experimental perform-
ance of a number of modern process control
techniques. However, as one who has used this
case study (in manuscript form) with good re-
sults in a graduate process control course, this
writer feels the greatest value of the book is as a
supplementary text in such a graduate course.
The availability of a single process from which to
draw experimental examples of model lineariza-
tion, model reduction, single loop feedback con-
trol, multivariable feedback control, multivariable
optimal feedback control, state estimation, etc.,
allows the student to study a new method on an
already familiar process and to compare with
methods already discussed. As a supplement to lec-
tures over the fundamental mathematical methods,
we found the case study extraordinarily helpful.

BOOK RECEIVED
Organic Electronic Spectral Data. Vol. II, 1969.
Edited by J. P. Phillips, H. Feuer, P. M. Laughton
and B. S. Thyagarajan.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, 1975.
1075 pages.
This is volume II in a continuing compilation of
ultraviolet-visible spectra of organic compounds
presented in the journal literature.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION














































Hold your breath for 60 seconds.


Try this little experiment and
chances are you'll find the last few sec-
onds unbearable.
That desperate, terrifying sensa-
tion is caused by a lack of oxygen and
an excess of carbon dioxide.
People with emphysema or other
lung diseases know the feeling well.
They live with it 24 hours a day.
Oxygen therapy can help many of
them. But it can also sentence them
to a bleak existence -living in fear,
bound to heavy, bulky oxygen tanks.
Union Carbide has developed a
portable oxygen system.
We call it the Oxygen Walker.


It's small enough to be carried on
a shoulder strap and weighs only 11
pounds full. Yet, incredibly, this
handy pack can supply over 1000 li-
ters of oxygen gas enough for 8
hours or more, depending on individ-
ual flow rates.
Taking the Oxygen Walker with
them, patients are free to leave their
homes. Free to go walking, shopping,
fishing... many have even returned
to work.
The Oxygen Walker is only one
of the things we're doing with oxy-
gen. We supply more of it than any-
one else in the country. For steelmak-


ing, hospitals, wastewater treatment
and the chemical industry.
But, in a way, the Walker is the
most important use of our oxygen.
Because to the people who use it, it
is the breath of life.





Today, something we do
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ADSORPTIVE BUBBLE SEPARATION METHODS


ROBERT LEMLICH
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221

TO MOST ENGINEERS, the adsorptive bubble
separation methods [1,2] are a largely un-
familiar group of techniques. This may be due in
part to the fact that these techniques are in-
timately based on surface phenomena. Most engi-
neers seem to be more comfortable when dealing
with bulk phenomena than with surface phe-
nomena. Such a preference can prove awkward
when an investigator or designer is faced with
certain classes of problems.
The adsorptive bubble separation methods in-
volve selective adsorption or attachment at the
surfaces of bubbles rising through a solution or
suspension. If the material to be adsorbed or at-
tached, which is termed the colligend, is not sur-
face active, a suitable substance called a collector
may be added to unit with the colligend to form a
surface active sublate which is carried up by the
bubbles.
Prominent among these techniques, either in
terms of application or research interest, are the
flotation of particulate matter in wastewater treat-
ment and in mineral beneficiation [ore flotation]
[3], the foam fractionation of dissolved or fine
colloidal matter [4], the collector-required
technique of ion flotation [5], the precipitate-
required technique of precipitate flotation [6], the
foamless technique of bubble fractionation [7]
which capitalizes on the vertical concentration
gradient that is established in a vertically-
elongated bubbled pool of liquid, and the foamless
technique of solvent sublation [5] which makes
use of an immiscible auxiliary liquid atop the
main pool to entrap the adsorbed material from
the existing bubbles. For the sake of brevity, the
term adsorptive bubble separation methods is
sometimes contracted to adsubble methods [1,8].
In order to acquaint interested graduate


students with this somewhat unusual group of
separation techniques, some years ago the writer
established an elective graduate lecture course on
the subject. It runs for an academic quarter and
is offered in approximately alternate years. It
was originally offered for only 2 credits, but it
recently has been expanded to 3 credits and has
been opened to qualified seniors as well as to
graduate students.
The text for the course is "Adsorptive Bubble
Separation Techniques" by Lemlich [9]. Emphasis
is placed on the first eight chapters which
constitute half the book. Supplementary material,
which includes some solved illustrative problems
[10,11], is drawn from other sources. Table 1
presents an abbreviated outline of the course.
The course begins with an introductory over-
view of the field. The various adsubble techniques
are briefly described and compared. The pervading
importance of surface activity and solute surface
excess are carefully noted.

SURFACES AND BUBBLES
NEXT, SURFACE TENSION is discussed and
the common methods for measuring it are
reviewed [12]. The equation of Laplace and
Young for the pressure difference across a curved
interface is derived, and the result is applied to
the submerged bubble, the free bubble, and the
Plateau border. For reinforcement of learning,
these three special cases are also derived directly
from fundamental force balances.
TABLE 1
Abbreviated Outline of Course


Introduction
Surfaces and bubbles
Foam
Adsorption
Foam fractionation
Flotation
Foamless separations
Student presentations


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























Robert Lemlich received his B.Ch.E. summa cum laude from New
York University, his M.Ch.E. from the Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn, and his Ph.D. from the University of Cincinnati (1954)
where he is presently Professor of Chemical Engineering. He has
also held Fulbright lectureships to Israel (1958-59) and Argentina
(1966). He is a Registered Professional Engineer, a Fellow of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is
listed in Who's Who in America. His research interests are in
bubbles, foam, and heat transfer.


The generation of bubbles is described. Em-
pirical [13] and theoretical [14,15] unimodal
frequency-distribution functions are discussed, as
well as pathological bimodall] distributions [16].
Mean bubble radii based on various combinations
of moments are introduced. The propriety of r3,2
for adsorption and rs,, for drainage is derived.
The general morphology and characteristics of
foam are presented [17,18]. Foam stability is ex-
plained in terms of the liquid and surface viscosi-
ties, the Gibbs and Marangoni effects, and, for
ionic surfactants, the electrostatic repulsion across
the film. The two general mechanisms of foam
instability are delineated, namely film rupture
[19] and interbubble gas diffusion [13]. Theory for
the latter mechanism [13] as well as for foam
drainage [16,20-22] is covered in some detail.
Various methods for measuring pertinent
properties of and in foam are presented. These
include surface viscosity by movement within
films [23], film thickness by diffraction of light
[23], and liquid content of foam by total collapse
or by electrical conductivity in situ [24,25]. Bubble
sizes are usually measured photographically. Ac-
cordingly, derivations are presented in detail for
the correction to the frequency size distribution
for planar statistical bias [13] and its step effect
[26] on any mean radius [true rj,k = planar rj-Ik-].
The general Gibbs adsorption equation [27] is
detailed and several important special cases are


discussed. For the sake of clarity and reinforce-
ment, the simple case of a pure dilute solution
of a simple nonionic surfactant is also derived
directly [28].
The Langmuir isotherm [29] is derived and
its important limiting cases are noted. The effects
of insufficient collector, excess collector, micelles,
and competing ions are considered. Selectivity is
discussed.

SEPARATION METHODS

T HE SIMPLE, STRIPPING, enriching, and
combined modes of operation are presented in
detail. The important concept of effective concen-
tration in the upflow is introduced. Transfer units
and theoretical stages are discussed and methods
for their calculation are derived [10,30,31].
For utility as well as learning reinforcement,
the limiting equations for separation in tall
counterflow columns are derived from transfer
units, theoretical stages, and also directly from
fundamentals. The effect of internal reflux in-
duced by coalescence in the rising foam is dis-
cussed [30].
The physical and chemical parameters affect-
ing ion flotation are covered. The selectivity,
thermodynamics, and kinetics of the separation
are discussed.


The adsorptive bubble
separation methods involve
selective adsorption or attachment
at the surface of bubbles rising through
a solution or suspension.


Precipitate flotation of the first kind, in which
a separate surface-active collector is added to
coat and thus float the precipitate, is distinguished
from precipitate flotation of the second kind in
which no separate collector is required. The effects
of the various parameters are discussed and pre-
cipitate flotation is compared with ion flotation.
The elements of mineral flotation are pre-
sented. Some of the technology [32] is also
surveyed. However, since mineral flotation be-
longs more properly in the field of mining
engineering and extractive metallurgy, it is not
covered in detail in this course which is intended
primarily for students in chemical engineering.
The lumped parametric approach to analyzing


FALL 1976








batchwise bubble fractionation is presented [33],
and results are compared with experiment [34].
The theory is extended to continuous flow and also
compared with the distributed parametric ap-
proach [35].
Solvent sublation is introduced and compared
with bubble fractionation. It is also compared
with conventional liquid extraction. The im-
miscible layer of solvent sublation can trap more
than can the layer in liquid extraction which is
limited by considerations of bulk equilibrium.

PRESENTATIONS AND DEMONSTRATIONS
SOME OF THE MANY systems separated by
the adsubble techniques are surveyed through-
out the course. Each student is then required to
write a term paper and in some cases present a
brief oral report on some group or aspect of these
separations. Appropriate supplementary literature
is provided.
Some typical topics are as follows: a) Applica-
tions to sewage treatment; b) Phenol removal;
c) Natural adsubble phenomena in the sea and the


For the sake of brevity,
the term adsorptive bubble
separation methods is sometimes
contracted to adsubble methods.


effect on the marine aerosol; d) The adsorptive
droplet separation methods (which are the liquid-
liquid analogs of the adsorptive bubble separation
methods).
It has been the author's experience that the
inclusion of an occasional, simple, inexpensive but
well-chosen brief demonstration can add spice to
a lecture course while at the same time illustrate
principles in a convincing manner and thus en-
hance the learning process [36,37]. Some examples
for this course include the following: (a) A razor
blade floated by surface tension and dramatically
pushed aside by a single tiny droplet of surfactant
but scarcely moved by a second droplet; (b) The
foam fractionation of dilute crystal violet chloride
from scarlet red in the presence of sodium sulfate
and the collector sodium lauryl sulfate by simple
shaking (and the failure to visibly separate in
the presence of too much collector) ; (c) The
bubble fractionation of dilute crystal violet
chloride in the presence of sodium sulfate in a


tall narrow vertical glass tube by bubbling with
air or nitrogen; and (d) the simple Crits ring
test for the presence of trace surfactants in water
[38] that has been shown to function by virtue
of transient adsubble separation [39].

CONCLUDING REMARKS
B Y THE END of this course the student has
become familiar not only with the adsubble
techniques but also with some of the important
universal concepts of surface phenomena. He has
also learned some ways in which they can be
applied. He is thus better equipped to deal with a
class of problems that might otherwise cause
him great difficulty during his subsequent pro-
fessional career. D

REFERENCES
1. Lemlich, R., Chem. Eng. 73 (21), 7 (1966).
2. Karger, B. L., R. B. Grieves, A. J. Rubin and F.
Sebba. Sci. 2, 401 (1967).
3. Gaudin, A. M., Flotation, McGraw Hill, N.Y. (1957).
4. Lemlich, R., Chem. Eng. 75 (27) 95 (1968). Errata
in 76 (6), 5 (1969).
5. Sebba, F., Ion Flotation, Elsevier, N.Y. (1962).
6. Baarson, R. E. and C. L. Ray, Proc. Met. Soc. Conf.
24, 656 (1963).
7. Dorman, D. C. and R. Lemlich, Nature 207, 145
(1965).
8. Lemlich, R., Ch. 5 in Recent Developments in Separa-
tion Science, vol. 1, 113-127, N.N. Li, ed., CRC Press,
Cleveland (1972).
9. Lemlich R., ed., Adsorptive Bubble Separation
Technique, Academic Press, N.Y. (1972).
10. Lemlich, R., Ch. 1 in Progress in Separation and Puri-
fication, vol. 1, 1-56, E.S. Perry, ed., Interscience,
N.Y. (1968).
11. Lemlich, R., in Chemical Engineers Handbook, 17,
29-34, R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, eds. McGraw-
Hill, N.Y. (1973).
12. Osipow, L. I., Surface Chemistry, Reinhold (1962).
13. deVries, A. J., Foam Stability, Rubber-Stichting,
Delft (1957).
14. Abe, T., Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics
(Japan). 5 (3-4), 240 (1955).
15. Gal-Or, B. and H. E. Hoelscher, A.I.Ch.E.J. 12, 499
(1966).
16. Shih, F. S. and R. Lemlich, Ind. Eng. Chem. Funda-
mentals 10, 254 (1971).
17. Lemlich, R., J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 23, 299 (1972).
18. Bikerman, J. J. Foams, Springer-Verlag, N.Y. (1973).
19. Vrij, A. and J. Th. G. Overbeek, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
90, 3074 (1968).
20. Leonard, R. A. and R. Lemlich, A.I.Ch.E.J. 11, 18
(1965).
21. Fanlo, S. and R. Lemlich, A.I.Ch.E. I. Chem. E.
(London) Symp. Ser. 9, 75, 85(1965).
22. Shih, F. S. and R. Lemlich, AJ.Ch.E.J. 13, 751 (1967).
Continued on page 186.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








AT PPG,
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
ARE A
CRITICAL RESOURCE

Since before the turn of the century, PPG Industries has
recognized the value of chemical engineers. Thats how
long we've been in the chemical business.
Our Chemical Division and our Coatings & Resins Divi-
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technology products for which PPG Industries has be-
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engineers at all levels from the recent graduate to
highest corporate management.
PPG also is a leader in the production of flat glass and
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PPG: a Concern for the Future


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INTRODUCTORY POLYMER SCIENCE

AND TECHNOLOGY


JAMES A. KOUTSKY
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

IN THE COURSE OF THIRTY years the
polymer industry has grown enormously to the
present levels of production comparable to that of
steel. It is estimated that 30% of all chemistry
and ChE graduates are employed in some field of
endeavor involving polymeric materials. In this
time period the industry matured and many
scientific and engineering principles of polymeriza-
tion, polymer processing and polymer fabrication
have been well established. A general course and
laboratory experience in polymers certainly will
be an important aspect of ChE education for years
to come.
Today the maturing and importance of the
polymer field have resulted in many new courses
being adapted in well established programs as well
as the proliferation of basic courses in polymers
for many departments which, up until recently,
have not had a course in polymer science and
technology. The first level foundation course is of
great importance since it should acquaint students
with the basic subject material, reveal the breadth
of the polymer field, and yet challenge the gifted
student. Wisconsin has had such a course for
many years which has been continually updated.
An interesting development, particularly in the
past five years, is the variety of backgrounds of
students taking such a course. Students represent-
ing chemistry, metallurgy, physics, materials
science, engineering mechanics, mechanical,
electrical as well as chemical engineering, have
elected to take this course. The course is aimed
mainly for senior and graduate ChE level
students, although interested junior level students,
who have had thermodynamics, physical chemis-
try and organic chemistry are also encouraged
to take the course. Graduate students from other


departments who have not had basic prerequisites
in two of the three aforementioned areas are
generally discouraged from taking the course. The
course has been very well received and enroll-
ments have been large, averaging about 35
students each semester.
The course is developed to achieve a balance
of many of the disciplines of polymer science and
technology. This necessitates, a survey approach.
However, homework problems are specific enough
for the student to obtain a deeper insight into
many of the topics covered in lecture. In a sense,
the course is designed to "whet the appetite" as
well as feed specific information about the polymer
field. Classroom demonstrations of polymer
properties have been of particular educational
value and are listed as follows: solution,
mechanical (modulus, elasticity, shrinkage on
annealing, time effects and fracture), optical
birefringencee, scattering, and spherulitic struc-
ture), wettability and flammability. Also the


J. Koutsky obtained his BS and MS in Chemical Engineering
and his PhD in Polymer Science and Engineering (1966) from Case
Institute of Technology. He has been at the University of Wisconsin-
Madison since 1966. His research interests involve solid-state struc-
ture studies of polymers, adhesion of thermosetting polymers and
cryogenic recycling of polymer wastes.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









examination of various commercial forms of
typical plastic materials has been quite enlighten-
ing to the students. For instance, the film, fiber
and molded articles made from polyethylene, poly-
ethylene terephthalate and the polyamides reveal
the enormous flexibility of property design via
polymer processing methods.
The course outline is as follows:
TABLE I. Course Outline
APPROXIMATE
NO. OF
LECTURES
I. INTRODUCTION 1
A. Basic Definitions
B. Unique Properties of Polymers
C. Cohesive Energy Density and
Properties
II. POLYMERIZATION
A. Condensation 3
B. Addition 3
C. Copolymerization 1
D. Polymer Reactions 1
III. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF
POLYMERS
A. Measurement of Molecular Weight
and Size 3
B. Polymer Solutions 2
C. Analysis of Polymers 2
D. Testing of Polymers 2
E. Morphology and Order in
Crystalline and Amorphous Polymers
(Processing Effects) 2
F. Polymer Structure and Mechanical
Properties 2
G. Polymer Structure and Diffusion
Properties 1
H. Polymer Structure and Optical
Properties 1
I. Polymer Structure and Electrical
Properties 1
IV. PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL
POLYMERS
A. Olefin Polymers 2
B. Diene Polymers 2
C. Vinyl and Vinylidene Polymers and
Copolymers 2
D. Heterochain Polymers (Polyamides,
Polyesters, Polyimides, Polyethers) 3
E. Cellulosic Polymers 1
F. Thermosets 2
V. POLYMER PROCESSING
A. Resin and Plastics Technology
(Molding, Extrusion, Compounding,
Calendering, Casting) 4
B. Fiber Technology (Melt and Solution
Spinning, Annealing, Dyeing) 1
C. Elastomer Technology (Compound-
ing, Vulcanization, Molding) 2


Any required background text for such a
course usually has certain limitations. Therefore
additional supplementary material introduced in
the lectures is necessary to expand the concepts
found in the required text. Even though this re-
quires additional work in terms of pedagogy the
rewards are great since one can "flavor" the
course with different approaches. Presently the


An excellent complementary course
for students is a basic laboratory
experience which includes experiments
on polymerization, polymer fabrication
and polymer properties.


required text is F. W. Billmeyer's, Textbook on
Polymer Science, 2nd edition, Interscience pub-
lishers (1971). Additional texts, which have been
used for supplementary information include the
following:
Polymerization
Organic Chemistry of Synthetic High Polymers, R.
Lenz, Interscience (1967).
Polymer Chemistry, B. Vollmert, translated by E. H.
Immergut, Springer-Verlag (1973).
Polymer Science and Engineering, D. J. Williams,
Prentice-Hall, (1971).
Structure and Properties of Polymers
Engineering Design for Plastics, ed. E. Baer, Reinhold
(1964).
Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, J. Ferry, John
Wiley (1970).
Principles of Polymer Chemistry, P. J. Flory, Cornell
University Press (1953).
Modern Plastics Encyclopedia, ed. S. Gross, McGraw-
Hill.
Polymer Processing
Plastics Processing, J. M. McKelvey, John Wiley (1962).
Rubber Technology, M. Morton, Reinhold (1973).
Plastics Film Technology, W. R. R. Park, Reinhold
(1969).
As one can see from the outline and references,
the course is broadly based and includes a great
deal of information. For handling the supple-
mentary lecture material not covered in the re-
quired text, extensive handouts are given to the
students to facilitate questions in class and allow
more specific homework problems to be assigned.

LABORATORY EXPERIENCE

AN EXCELLENT COMPLEMENTARY course
for students is a basic laboratory experience
which includes experiments on polymerization,
polymer fabrication and polymer properties. The
following is an outline of a course which is


FALL 1976









offered on a yearly basis and has enrollments of
12 to 15 students of which 30% have been of
graduate standing. Larger enrollments have been
handled by giving the laboratory twice a year.
This approach has allowed for more individualized
instruction which is quite necessary in a labora-
tory of this type since the equipment is generally
expensive and chemicals are somewhat toxic.



The course is developed to achieve
a balance of many of the disciplines of
polymer science and technology. This necessitates
a survey approach. However, homework
problems are specific enough for the
student to obtain a deeper insight into
many of the topics covered in the lecture.


The course is divided into three one credit sec-
tions for flexibility. A list of the required experi-
ments is given in Table 2.
TABLE 2. Laboratory Experiments
I. POLYMERIZATION (1 credit)
1. Suspension Polymerization of Polystyrene
2. Preparation of Phenol-Formaldehyde and
Phenol-Resorcinol Resins
3. Preparation of Polyurethane Foams
4. Kinetics of Polyesterification
5. Preparation of Polysiloxane Elastomer
II. CHARACTERIZATION (1 credit)
1. Infrared Analysis of Polymers
2. Fractionation of Polystyrene and Molecular
Weight Measurements by Solution Viscosity
3. Flammability of Polymers
4. Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Polymers
5. Nuclear Magnetic Characterization of Polymers
III. FABRICATION AND TENSILE TESTING
(1 credit)
1. Molding of Phenolic Laminates and Composites
2. Tensile Testing of Rigid, Thermoplastic, and
Elastomeric Polymers
3. Compression and Injection Molding of Thermo-
plastics and Thermosets
4. Extrusion of Thermoplastics (Polypropylene)
The text used for the laboratory is, Laboratory Preparation
for Macromolecular Chemistry, E. L. McCaffery, McGraw-
Hill (1970).
Before the students can begin each experiment
they must hand in a short report on the toxicity
and carcinogenic properties of each chemical (in-
cluding common solvents) which is used in the
experiment. I might add this single requirement
has produced desirable, positive effects on labora-
tory techniques. The students work in squads of


two or three since most of the experiments are
elaborate enough to be difficult for one person
either to control or set up. It normally takes three
hours for completion of most of the experiments,
however certain long experiments are split into
two laboratory periods. The polymerization re-
actions which unfortunately cannot be split can
take long times, especially the pearl polymerization
of styrene. Some undaunted students have been
known to stay ten hours to complete that experi-
ment after two initial failures!
Additional experiments on light scattering, ad-
hesion and fracture, and copolymerization have
been designed and will be included in the follow-
ing year.
These introductory courses have been useful
for many graduate students embarking on higher
level courses specific to polymers and particularly
useful for the undergraduate ChE student who
wishes a background of polymers to round out his
academic career. Although the department does
not yet require such a course for undergraduates,
a large majority of our students avail themselves
of the opportunity. -


LEMLICH: Adsubble Methods
Continued from page 182.
23. Mysels, K. J., K. Shinoda and S. Frankel, Soap Films,
Studies of their Thinning, Pergamon, N.Y. (1959).
24. Clark, N. 0. Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 13 (1948).
25. Jashnani, I. L. and R. Lemlich, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fundamentals 14, 131 (1975).
26. Jashnani, I. L. and R. Lemlich, J. Coll. Interface Sci.
46, 13 (1974).
27. Gibbs, J. W. Collected Works, Longman Green, N.Y.
(1928).
28. Taylor, H. S. and H. A. Taylor, Elementary Physical
Chemistry, Van Nostrand, N.Y. (1940).
29. Davies, J. T. and E. K. Rideal, Interfacial Phenomena,
Academic Press, N.Y. (1963).
30. Jashnani, I. L. and R. Lemlich, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Process Des. Devel. 12, 312 '(1973).
31. Aguayo, G. A. and R. Lemlich, ibid. 13, 153 (1974).
32. Brison, R. J., in Chemical Engineers Handbook, 21,
65-69, R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, eds., McGraw-
Hill, N.Y. (1973).
33. Lemlich, R., A.I.Ch.E.J. 12, 802 (1966). Errata in
13, 1017 (1967).
34. Shah, G. N., and R. Lemlich, Ind. Eng. Chem. Funda-
mentals 9, 350 (1970).
35. Cannon, K. D., and R. Lemlich, A.I.Ch.E. Symp. Ser.
68 (124), 180 (1972).
36. Lemlich, R., J. Chem. Educ. 34, 489 (1957).
37. Lemlich, R., J. Eng. Educ. 48, 385 (1958).
38. Crits, G. J., The Crits Organic Ring Test, 140th Nat.
Meeting Amer. Chem. Soc., Div. Water, Air, Waste
Chem., Preprint, Sept. 1961.
39. Lemlich, R., J. Coll. Interface Sci. 37, 497 (1971).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION














* ~- ~


Career Opportunities in
Engineering, Design, Research,
and Construction

For more than 65 years C F Braun & Co has been involved in worldwide engineering and construction. We have
designed and built hundreds of facilities for the chemical, petroleum, ore processing, and power industries.
Today we are also actively engaged in the newer fields of nuclear energy and coal gasification.
Our rapid growth has opened up many career positions. Challenging assignments and opportunities for pro-
fessional growth are available at Braun in an environment designed for creative engineering.
Positions are available at our engineering headquarters in Alhambra, California and at our eastern engineering
center in Murray Hill, New Jersey. For further information write to C F Braun & Co, Department K, Alhambra,
California 91802, or Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974.


C F BRAUN & Co
Engineers Constructors


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER


N4L7


ISAP. I \













THE ENGINEER AS AN ENTREPRENEUR-

SOME NEW CONCEPTS


HOWARD H. REYNOLDS
Lowell Technological Institute
Lowell, Massachusetts 01854

N EW ENGLAND HAS NOT been blessed with
a plethora of natural raw materials. At the
same time its excellent university system, both
in the private and public sectors, has produced
a large quantity of engineers and scientists as
well as skilled technicians. The result of these
two factors has been the development of an
economy based primarily on products with high
technology input or of engineering and scientific
services.
In order to maintain and improve its economic
position, New England must continue its produc-
tion of products and services requiring high
technology. For continued growth, a continuing
influx of new businesses must be maintained both
to improve employment opportunities and to main-
tain or increase its tax base. Such a growth has
been characteristic of the region in the decades of
the 1950's and 1960's and a new upward thrust in
this direction should be anticipated in the 1980's
and beyond.
In an effort to aid in the development of better
entrepreneurship in New England, the Chemical
Engineering Department at Lowell Technological
Institute has provided a new course called "The
Engineer as an Entrepreneur." This course is
open to seniors and graduate students, and is not
restricted to chemical engineers. The course has
been well received and has just completed its third
year. The author has had considerable experience
with entrepreneurial businesses in the area and
is familiar with a number of such companies in
New England.
The course has developed around the concept
that the best way to learn to swim is to get in
the water. A major part of the course is the es-
tablishment of small two- or three-man companies
which develop a product, a marketing plan and a


financial plan to exploit the product. While en-
gaged in the development of this new company,
the students are exposed to lectures and discus-
sions by entrepreneurs in the local area. They are
also given lectures by patent attorneys, financial
people, marketing people and government repre-
sentatives. The implications of Chapter 11 of the
Bankruptcy Laws are also discussed.
Unfortunately in a one-semester course it is
impossible to try out the new product or service
on the market in any but a very preliminary way.
In most cases, prototypes of the product have
been produced and local marketing evaluations
have been made. Cash flow, financial requirements,
and pro forma profit and loss statements have
been produced for a five-year period.
At the end of the.course, the full report of the
company is presented to the entire class (with
visitors) and the completed report is submitted as
a fulfillment of the course requirements. The
stipulation is that the report be written to be
presented to a group of financial people to obtain
their financial support for the project.
Textbooks dealing with the subject in all of
its ramifications are difficult to find. Three books
were used as references as follows:
1. How to Run a Small Business, J. K. Lasser (4th
Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1974).
2. Fun and Guts, the Entrepreneur Philosophy, Joseph
Mancuso (Addison-Wesley, 1973).
3. The Small Chemical Enterprise and Forces Shaping
the Future of the Chemical Industry, (American
Chemical Society, 165th Meeting, Dallas, Texas,
April 10 through 12, 1973).

Other class handouts included publications by
the Small Business Administration (SBA), the
Department of Commerce of the Commonwealth
of Massachusetts, and various U. S. Government
publications.
Guest lecturers were brought into the class
and included a patent attorney, a successful en-
trepreneur, a banker, and a financial advisor. A


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









field trip was made to a successful small company,
Amicon Corporation, of Lexington, Massachusetts.
A seminar was held with the president of the
company, Norman D. Jacobs, who outlined the
inception of the company and discussed many of
the problems involved in the development and
growth of Amicon. A plant visit was also
scheduled subsequent to the seminar.
The students were given lectures involving the
principles of business organization, problems of
accounting, cash flow and depreciation, problems
associated with markets and marketing and prob-
lems associated with production. Heavy emphasis
was placed on both the marketing function and
the financial function. Further emphasis was
placed on the methods of incorporation of the
corporation and various mechanisms for obtaining
initial money to start up the company.

MARKETING RESEARCH
T HE STUDENTS DID their own marketing
survey usually on a local basis and discussed
various problems associated with these market-
ing surveys with other members of the class.


The course has developed
around the concept that the best way
to learn to swim is to get in the water.
A major part of the course is the establishment
of two- or three-man companies which
develop a product, a marketing
plan and a financial plan
to exploit the product.


Marketing research on a national basis was done
in a preliminary way by literature evaluations
and by direct contact with marketing organiza-
tions. Distribution systems, costs of selling and
of operation and problems associated with capital
investment were all discussed in detail.
The final reports were expected to reflect all of
the problems which would normally be associated
with the establishment of sound legal corporate
structure, financial backing and projected profit
and loss statements. Strong emphasis was placed
upon the oft-neglected principle that Accounts
Payable are due within 30 days, whereas Accounts
Receivable may extend up to 120 days. This re-
quires working capital to bridge the time gap.
More small companies fail because of lack of
understanding of this principle than any other
single factor.

FALL 1976


Howard H. Reynolds received his AB in Chemistry from Harvard
University and his ScD in Chemical Engineering from M. I. T. He
has worked in the Technical Dept. and Research Dept. of Wyandotte
Chemicals Co. Subsequently he worked with the Davison Chemical
Company, the Dewey & Almy Chemical Company, the Cryovac
Company and was Vice-President of Research and Development for
the Ludlow Corporation. Since 1963 he has been professor and
chairman of the Chemical Engineering Dept. of Lowell Technological
Institute. He has been a member of the following societies: ACS,
AIChE, AAAS, SPE, TAPPI, New York Academy of Science and
Sigma Xi. He was recently elected a Fellow of AIChE.

Three projects developed in this course are
worthy of note. The first is a mechanical apple-
picker, operated by one person, capable of a sub-
stantial increase in the harvesting of fruit with
a marked reduction in bruising. A prototype
machine was built and was exhibited to several
potential customers who were very excited about
the prospect. Preliminary cost studies indicated
that labor savings would more than pay for the
mechanical apple-picker in one season.
A second interesting product was a Tic-Tac-To
game involving 625 holes for pegs. The game was
designed primarily for the age group of 8 years
to adults. A prototype was made and a local
market survey received enthusiastic response.
There is considerable interest in continuing this
development if appropriate capital can be ac-
quired.
A third product was the development of a
10-size signal generator for use in testing of
electronic circuits with specific reference to
radios and television sets. The product could be
equipped with multi-purpose replaceable heads to
expand the range of utility. Preliminary market
surveys indicated that a substantial market did
in fact exist and one of the members of the
student company intends to carry forward the
Continued on page 194.















ENERGY, MASS AND MOMENTUM TRANSPORT-


The Treatment Of Jump Conditions At Phase Boundaries

And Fluid-dynamic Discontinuities


DANIEL E. ROSNER
Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520

T HE ABILTY TO DEAL quantitatively with
transport phenomena accompanying phase and
chemical transformations is the hallmark of the
chemical engineer. But since the essentials of
transport phenomena are, accordingly, a central



... the principal need in the future
will be for creative engineers able to formulate
and program the solution to challenging novel
problems, not the now-routine problems
which characterized (chemical) engineering
earlier this century.



part of every ChE's undergraduate education,
what then is the purpose of a graduate course in
this subject? The answer lies in the fact that
undergraduate courses tend to emphasize the solu-
tion of "classical" problems whereas, in practice,
the solution to such problems has already been
thoroughly computerized. The situation is what
D. Gabor calls the "aristocratic revolution" within
the engineering profession [1]-viz. the principal
need in the future will be for creative engineers
able to formulate and program the solution to
challenging novel problems, not the now-routine
problems which characterized (chemical) engi-
neering earlier this century. This is our underly-
ing premise at Yale and, in what follows, I il-
lustrate how this influences my teaching of our
graduate course in energy and mass transport. For
definiteness, I have selected the treatment of
"boundary conditions", one of the "Achilles' heels"
of most undergraduate courses in transport phe-
nomena.


COURSE CONTENT
T HE PLACE OF OUR topic within the context
of the one semester lecture course (EAS 254)
is evident in Table 1. This course is not only taken
by all graduate students in ChE but, each year,
attracts students from other graduate majors at
Yale (eg. Geology, Forestry, Materials Science,
Fluid Physics, Physiology). As will become clear

TABLE 1
COURSE OUTLINE: Heat, Mass and
Momentum Transport Processes*
1. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES
(Continuum Approach)
Fixed and moving macroscopic control volumes
Conservation relations in partial differential form
Jump conditions at phase boundaries, discontinuities
2. PHENOMENOLOGICAL TRANSPORT LAWS AND
COEFFICIENTS
Linear flux-driving force laws
Molecular level approach to transport coefficients
Actual and effective transport coefficients; turbulent
transport
Similitude methods, implications
3. ENERGY AND MASS TRANSPORT IN
QUIESCENT MEDIA
Steady state conduction, diffusion
Transient conduction/diffusion; analytical methods
Numerical methods; finite differences, finite elements
4. ENERGY AND MASS TRANSPORT IN
MOVING MEDIA
Transport to/from submerged surfaces
Transport to/from duct surfaces
Transport in packed beds
Transport in jets, plumes, wakes; pollutant dispersion
modeling
5. SPECIAL TOPICS (as time permits)
Transport with simultaneous phase change
Transport with simultaneous chemical reaction
Low density flows (non-continuum effects)
High speed flows (viscous dissipation effects)
*Textbook: Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. and Lightfoot, E. N.,
Transport Phenomena J. Wiley (1963) (Sup-
plemented by papers from the current re-
search/engineering literature)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









via our example, this broad appeal follows from
our emphasis on fundamental principles common
to transport phenomena in these fields. Specific
applications including numerical calculations, are
covered mainly via graded homework sets (about
9) and 2 take-home open book examinations.
Moreover, the course is not only intended for
tomorrow's "computer modelers" of chemical proc-
esses-it has proved useful to students designing
and interpreting experiments in chemical kinetics,
both laboratory and pilot plant scale.
Our approach to the treatment of boundary
conditions is not that they are a set of ad hoc pre-
scriptions (usually stated without their underlying
restrictions), but rather that they follow from the
same conservation principles used to generate
global conditions on chemical reactors or differ-
ential equations applicable within each region of
the ChE's interest. This is shown in the "road
map" (Fig. 1), which reveals that we formulate
the conditions to be imposed at interfaces separat-
ing continue by applying "battle-tested" conserva-
tion (balance) principles (mass, energy, momen-
tum, entropy) to a special type of semi-differential
control volume (a "pillbox") straddling the mov-
ing interface. It is remarkable that while this ap-
proach is quite familiar to EE's studying electro-
magnetism, most ChE's have not been introduced
to it.

LIMITATIONS OF THE USUAL APPROACH
UNDERGRADUATE ChE's typically feel com-
fortable imposing continuity of normal veloc-
ity, tangential velocity (no "slip"), tangential
shear stress, normal pressure, temperature, heat
flux and chemical potential across interfaces (usu-
ally phase boundaries, but here broadened to in-
clude fluid-dynamic discontinuities such as detona-
tion waves in gases, or the interface between
immiscible liquids). To illustrate the serious lim-
itations of these "commonly encountered" pre-
scriptions, consider the following student exer-
cises:


For definiteness,
I have selected the treatment
of "boundary conditions," one of the
"Achilles' heels" of most
undergraduate courses
in transport phenomena.


&1n
Dr. Rosner's research interests include convective heat and mass
transport, interfacial chemical reactions, phase transformations, com-
bustion and aerosol phenomena, on which he has published over 90
papers. He received his Ph.D. in Aeronautical Engineering from Prince-
ton University in 1961 following a bachelor's degree in Mechanical
Engineering (summa cum laude) from City College of New York in
1955. Prior to joining the Yale faculty as an Associate Professor of
Engineering and Applied Science in 1969, he headed a research group
on interfacial chemical kinetics and transport at AeroChem Div. Sybron
Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey. He has also been a Visiting Pro-
fessor of Mechanical Engineering at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn-
Graduate School, and a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University (Chem.
Eng. 1968) and Imperial College-London (Mech. Eng. 1973). He is
presently Professor of Chemical Engineering and Applied Science
and Director of the High Temperature Chemical Reaction Engineering
laboratory at Yale University.

El. It is often stated that at solid/fluid interfaces the
fluid velocity equals the velocity of the surface it-
self (p. 37, BSL [2] and p. 94 WWW [3]). Moreover,
Batchelor (Ref. [4], p. 68) states that "unless
rupture occurs" at the interface between two con-
tacting media, the normal component of fluid veloc-
ity must be continuous across the interface. Sup-
pose, however, that a solid is subliming into the
gas (eg. napthalene in air). Would this above state-
ment be true for the velocity components normal
to the surface?
E2. The shear stress is often considered to be negligible
at gas/liquid interfaces (p. 37, BSL and p. 110
WWW). When wind drives a film of rainwater up
your car windshield against the pull of gravity,
would this assumption be justified?
E3. For the energy equation one can frequently impose
the condition of continuity of heat flux and tem-
perature across an interface (p. 267, BSL). Would
continuity of heat flux be valid if the interface
were the site of a phase change?
E4. A theoretician has argued that a conjectured fluid
dynamic discontinuity is possible ("exists") since
it is compatible with the laws of mass, momentum
and energy conservation. Is his proof complete?
Can a discontinuity exist if the specific entropy of
the fluid decreases across the discontinuity (as in
a solidification wave)?
E5. For systems which need not be in mechanical,
thermal or chemical equilibrium: a) would a dis-
continuity in tangential mass-averaged velocity, vt,


FALL 1976








across an interface (eg. phase boundary) violate
any basic conservation principle? b) Would a dis-
continuity in temperature, T, across an interface
(eg. a shock wave) violate any conservation prin-
ciple? c) Would a discontinuity in chemical po-
tential across an interface (eg. a phase boundary)
violate any conservation principle? d) What kind
of restrictions do the conservation equations im-
pose in such cases?

LECTURE EMPHASIS: A GENERAL METHOD
IN THE OUTLINE for this lecture (including a
list of useful references [5, 6]), distributed to
each student, a systematic procedure for deriving
relations between field quantities on either side of
surfaces of discontinuity is sketched. During the
lecture this procedure is illustrated for each pri-
mary "balanced" quantity (chemical elements,
chemical species mass, total mass, linear momen-
tum, angular momentum, total energy and specific
entropy) and then specialized to cases of practical


importance. For brevity we here outline the pro-
cedure as applied to chemical species conservation
at interfaces, the relevant field "density" being the
scalar partial density of each chemical species.
Our result can then be compared to various de-
generate cases stated in classical treatises on sur-
face chemistry--e.g. Hayward and Trapnell's
monograph [7] on chemisorption on solid surfaces.
Using examples from recent research carried out
in the Yale High Temperature Chemical Reaction
Engineering Laboratories, we then consider some
implications of the general boundary condition,
emphasizing the important question of departures
from chemical equilibrium at surfaces.
We adopt the view that the interface separates
two regions (designated by --) each governed by
continuum laws, but avoid prescribing the form of
the transport laws within the interfacial region
(owing to the magnitude of local gradients
therein) .*
GURE 1


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Then:
1. Write the relevant conservation equation for an arbi-
trarily moving macroscopic control volume (since the
interface motion is generally different from that of
the fluid on either side of it).
2. Specialize the control volume to a "pillbox" (of arbi-
trary area) always moving so as to straddle the
interface.
3. Evaluate all terms in the resulting integral equation
[using mathematical theorems (Leibnitz, Gauss), ex-
ploiting the fact that, for sufficiently thin interfaces,
the pillbox top and bottom become locally parallel
(hence their unit outward normals n+, n_ are opposite
in sign)].
When applied to a chemical species i present with
instantaneous mass pi" per unit area of interface
and produced at the instantaneous (heterogeneous
reaction) rate ri" per unit (projected) interface
area, we obtain
pi'"/t + div" (pi"v,, + ji') +
[pi/" (v v,) + ji"] n = r"
1 2 (1)
3
where term 1 is the accumulation rate, 2 is the net
outflow of species i per unit interfacial area due to
both tangential surface convection vs,t and surface
diffusion ji' 3 (involving the "jump" operator [ ]
= ( )+ ( )W) is the net outflow of species i
due to relative convection and diffusion normal to
the interface. In comparing this relation to its
better known three-dimensional analog:
ap"'/7t + div"' (pi"'v + ji") = ri"' (2)
note that, in effect, the net outflow (by convection
and diffusion) term per unit interfacial area in
Eq. (1) has been decomposed into a tangential
contribution 2 and a normal contribution 3.

IMPLICATIONS
DISSOCIATIVE chemisorption of oxygen on
solid surfaces is an important elementary step
in solid-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The kinetics
of this step are often studied under transient con-
ditions such that only term 1 contributes to the

*Alternate methods can be used if the "interface" is it-
self a continuum zone with merely large spatial gradients
in one (normal) direction, and moderate spatial gradients
in the tangential directions. Decomposition of the V op-
erator into normal (n) and tangential (t) contributions
then allows formal integration of the presumed differential
equations to obtain the desired "jump" relations. [8]
tWe adopt the useful convention that triple primed ("'),
double primed (") and single primed (') quantities refer,
respectively, to quantities reckoned per unit volume, area
and length.


... a systematic formulation of
jump conditions provides insight into
failure of the commonly encountered assump-
tion of interphase local chemical equilibrium
despite conditions of net chemical
species transport.


left hand side of Eq. (1)---ie. the net rate of for-
mation of adsorbed 0-atoms is then proportional
to the instantaneous rate of increase of surface
coverage. [7] But if 0-atom diffusion into the bulk
"solvent" is important, term 3 contributes, and in
molecular beam studies (in which only a portion
of the target is "illuminated") [10] term 2 (sur-
face diffusion) must be considered. We recently
completed a kinetic study of the oxygen/tantalum
reaction in the temperature range 1200-3000K us-
ing a transient (resistance "relaxation") method.
[9] In considering Eq. (1) for atomic oxygen, term
1 contributed due to the transient, term 2 con-
tributed due to the continuous shrinkage of the
tantalum filament associated with metal gasifica-
tion, and term 3 contributed due to internal dis-
solution of oxygen in the metal. This systeni* pro-
vides a dramatic illustration of the moral: be wary
of unrestricted statements of highly degenerate
cases of Eq. (1), such as the commonly seen
forms:
pt"/Z)t = ri" (in chemisorption) (3)
or
ji," n, = ri" (in steady-state catalysis) (4)
It should also be remarked that a systematic
formulation of jump conditions such as Eq. (1)
provides insight into failure of the commonly en-
countered assumption of interphase local chemical
equilibrium despite conditions of net chemical spe-
cies transport. For when one descends to the mole-
cular level one finds that each ri" is itself the
algebraic sum of positive and negative contribu-
tions which vanish only at equilibrium. It follows
that when the left hand side of Eq. (1) is non-
zero then local interface equilibrium cannot be
strictly valid. Thus, in any particular application
the importance of this departure can be assessed,
provided the relevant kinetic and transport coef-
ficients are known or estimable. Moreover, while

*An analogous situation, recently treated by Pierson and
Whitaker [11], is the surfactant (heptanoic acid) absorp-
tion mass balance for a growing droplet (water).


FALL 1976









discussed here for the case of chemical equilib-
rium, similar arguments apply to the case of me-
chanical equilibrium (via momentum conserva-
tion) and thermal equilibrium (via energy conser-
vation). Indeed, in a recent study [12] of the non-
equilibrium crystallization of pure ZrO2, liquid/
solid interface temperatures some 570K below the
equilibrium melting point have been encountered!

CONCLUSIONS

THE TREATMENT of boundary conditions
briefly described above [13] has been use to
illustrate our approach to the teaching of energy,
mass and momentum transport at the graduate
level. We believe that such a fundamental ap-
proach to each of the topics (Table 1) is essential
to the development of PhD chemical engineers
who will be able to deal rationally with novel
chemical processes involving extreme conditions.

REFERENCES
1. Gabor, D., Innovations, Scientific, Technological and
Social, Oxford University Press, New York and Ox-
ford, 1970.
2. Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. and Lightfoot, E. N., Trans-
port Phenomena, J. Wiley, New York, 1963.
3. Welty, J. R., Wicks, C. E. and Wilson, R. E., Funda-
mentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer, J.
Wiley, New York, 1969.
4. Batchelor, G. K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1967.
5. Slattery, J. C., Momentum, Energy and Mass Transfer
in Continue, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.
6. Delahay, J. M., "Jump Conditions and Entropy Sources
in Two Phase Systems. Local Instant Formulation",
Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1, 395-409 (1974).
7. Trapnell, B. M. W. and Hayward, D. 0., Cheinisorp-
tion, Butterworths (London) Second Edition, 1964.
8. Bernstein, I., "Lecture notes for EAS 100:Mathe-
matical Methods in Engineering and Applied Science",
Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Yale
University, 1976-1977.
9. Rosner, D. E., Chung, H. and Feng, H., "Resistance-
Relaxation Studies of Gas/Metal Reactions Leading to
Simultaneous Dissolution and Gasification-The Dis-
sociated Oxygen/Tantalum System Above 2400K. I.
Methodology and the Role of Atomic Oxygen. II.
Mechanism, Kinetics and Energetics of Chemisorption,
Interface Penetration and Product Desorption", Fara-
day Transactions I. Phys. Chem., 72, 842-875 (1976).
10. Krakowski, R. A. and Olander, D. R., "Dissociation of
Hydrogen on Tantalum Using a Modulated Molecular
Beam Technique", J. Chem. Phys., 49, 5027-5041
(1968).
11. Pierson, F. W. and Whitaker, S., "Studies of the Drop-
Weight Method for Surfactant Solutions. I. Mathe-
matical Analysis of the Adsorption of Surfactants at
the Surface of a Growing Drop", J. Coll. Int. Sci., 54,
No. 2, 203-218 (1976).


12. Rosner, D. E. and Epstein, M., "Simultaneous Kinetic
and Heat Transfer Limitations in the Crystallization
of Highly Undercooled Melts", Chem. Engineering Sci.,
30, 511-520 (1975).
13. Rosner, D. E., Boundary Conditions in Energy, Mass
and Momentum Transport Processes, (monograph, in
preparation).

REYNOLDS: Engineer as Entrepeneur
Continued from page 189.
development to commercialization.
One of the problems which necessarily arises in
a one-semester course of this type is that four
months is really inadequate to carry out the de-
velopment and preliminary commercialization
satisfactorily. Serious consideration is being
given to the extension of the one-semester course
to a two-semester course in which at time in-
tervals, prototype devices could be manufactured
and test marketing carried out. The current one-
semester course carried three credits and has
generated a great deal of interest.
The Chemical Engineering Department feels
that this type of innovative course could have
major beneficial effects for the Commonwealth
of Massachusetts by drawing attention of
engineering students to the field of entrepreneur-
ship and to give embryonic entrepreneurs a real-
life experience in the development and marketing
of new products. It is hoped that as time goes on,
funding may be available for "seed money" in
which to take one or more of the more promising
products or services into at least preliminary
commercialization. D


ACADEMIC POSITIONS

For advertising rates contact Ms. B. J. Neelands, CEE
c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. 32601.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
CHAIRPERSON POSITION
Candidates for the chairperson of the Department of
Chemical Engineering at the State University of
New York at Buffalo are being sought. Persons in-
terested are invited to send their credentials, and
persons wishing to nominate others are invited to
send names and addresses to: McAllister H. Hull, Jr.,
Dean, Graduate School, State University of New
York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214. The university
is aggressively engaged in an affirmative action pro-
gram and is an equal opportunity employer.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












IMPLEMENTATION OF SI UNITS IN


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


GORDON R. YOUNGQUIST
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676

RECENT LEGISLATION passed by Congress
and signed by President Ford provides for the
voluntary conversion to the SI system of units
in the United States. No time limit was set for
the changeover, but considerable progress has al-
ready been made, especially in industries which
are international.
The American Institute of Chemical Engineers
has established a Metrication Committee to
examine the problems of conversion to metric
practice by the chemical industries. In January
1976, on behalf of this Committee, a questionnaire
was sent to all U.S. Chemical Engineering De-
partments on the AIChE Faculties list to assess
implementation of SI in chemical engineering
education in the United States. 92 departments
have responded and the results of the survey are
summarized below. Of those responding:
* 30% indicated that their engineering schools have
established policy with respect to use of SI in its
courses, while an additional 15% will establish such
policy in the near future.
* Where such engineering school policy exists, the policy
is typically weak: the use of SI in courses is urged,
but at the instructor's option. Only 3 schools indicated
that some use of SI was required in all engineering
courses.
* 30% of engineering schools have made some concerted
efforts to introduce SI, usually by distribution of
pamphlets, but also through short courses, films,
seminars, and committees to respond to questions and
provide other assistance.
* 49% of the ChE Departments have made some special
efforts to introduce SI to their curricula, usually in at
least one course (e.g., material and energy balances)
and along with other systems of measurements.
-5 departments require some use of SI in all their courses (none
use it exclusively).
-28% urge (but don't require) their faculty to use SI where
possible.
-13% have distributed pamphlets or other written information
on SI.
-26% intend to make stronger efforts in the future especially
as more textbooks in SI become available.
-64% introduce SI along with other systems of measurement
at the option of instructors.


-68% said that at least some of its faculty write up their
research and are conducting current research using SI.
-54% indicated that their support staff (secretaries, technicians,
e.g.) no working knowledge of SI, with 37% having some
working knowledge.
-51% indicated that their present seniors have a working
knowledge of SI, an additional 15% a limited knowledge.
* 40% of the ChE departments thought it appropriate
for accreditation groups to encourage implementation
of SI, 60% did not (some quite vehemently!).
* 10% have encountered or foresaw no problems in im-
plementing SI; the remainder cited as problems:
-60%, lack of texts and reference materials in SI.
-24%, faculty resistance.
-23%, faculty unfamiliar with SI.
-16%, lack of resource materials which explain system.
-15%, lack of AIChE guidance.
-36%, lack of national legal requirement.
-4%, apathy.
-10%, SI a lousy system.
* 17% favored immediate changeover to SI for all AIChE
publications, 68% did not.
* 73% favored a phased changeover to SI for AIChE
publications, 14% did not.
* 52% favored encouragement from AIChE to publishers
to provide textbooks and reference materials in SI,
22% did not, and a few favored dual notation.
* 67% favored publication of an AIChE guide to metric
practice, 17% did not. (The cost of such guide was
questioned several times.)


SOME COMMENTS

It is evident that the transition to SI is well
under way in a large number of ChE departments
in the U.S., although some resistance to the SI
system still exists. Most departments seem to view
SI as yet another system of measurement that
chemical engineers must be able to deal with, and
feel that chemical engineers will need to be con-
versant in a variety of systems for some years to
come. The major deterrent to increased use of SI
in ChE education appears to be the lack of text-
books and reference materials which make use
of SI. Several who responded questioned whether
industrial demands for employees with SI train-
ing existed. In this respect it should be noted that
some companies (Exxon, for example) have
essentially completed their conversion to SI, while
others have not yet addressed the problem. l


FALL 1976









book reviews


Principles of Quantum Chemistry
By D. V. George
Pergamon Press, 1972
Reviewed by Phillip Certain,
University of Wisconsin

The first thing one notices about this book
is the unusual photograph on the dustjacket. A
careful reading of the book gives absolutely no
information about what the subject of the photo-
graph (an electron micrograph of a mitochrondria
membrane?) might be. Instead one discovers that
this text is a straightforward presentation of the
fundamentals of quantum chemistry, pitched at
a level appropriate to advanced (and bright!)
undergraduates.
It is a very compact presentation, requiring
only 260 pages to cover most of the topics normal-
ly treated in a course on quantum chemistry and
spectroscopy. The book begins with a brief his-
torical introduction to quantum mechanics, in-
cluding a "derivation" of the Schrddinger equa-
tion based on de Broglie's wave hypothesis. After
the particle-in-a-box is treated, the postulational
approach to quantum mechanics is presented in
a very nice way. There is a good discussion of
the significance of the commutator of two opera-
tors with respect to the uncertainty principle; and
a simple introduction to Dirac notation is included.
As simple applications of quantum mechanics,
George considers the usual rigid rotator, harmonic
oscillator, and hydrogen atom. He presents the
ladder-operator approach to the eigenvalues of the
angular momentum operator, and develops the
eigenfunctions from the differential equations ap-
proach.
Two additional chapters are included to pro-
vide necessary background for quantum chemis-
try. One is a very brief discussion of variation
and perturbation methods and the other is an in-
troduction to group theory.
This basic material constitutes the first half of
the book. The remaining half is devoted to dis-
cussions of many-electron atoms, molecular orbital
and valence bond theory, Htickel molecular orbital
theory, ligand field theory and spectroscopy. These
subjects receive an average of 20 pages each, so
that it is evident the author maintains his con-
cise presentation throughout.


Given the limited space available, George
treats his subject clearly and concisely. There are
some very attractive features of the book. Not
a great deal of mathematical background is as-
sumed for the student. Although the presentation
is distinctly mathematical, the math is carefully
done and more advanced techniques are discussed
separately before applications are presented.
There is a concise summary and set of exercises
at the end of each chapter. The style of writing
is informal and readable.
The essentials are in the book, but detailed
applications and explanations in general have
been sacrificed to conserve space. The instructor
who chooses this book as a text should be prepared
to provide a fair amount of supplementary ma-
terial to the students. The book might be most
useful in a free-wheeling course in which the in-
structor wants a text for the students which is a
concise reference on the fundamentals.
The book is similar in length and level of
,presentation to M. W. Hanna's Quantum
Mechanics in Chemistry [Benjamin (1969)]. The
experience of our undergraduate students with
this latter book is that, without substantial initial
help, its conciseness is a real barrier to under-
standing. E


Optimization by Variational Methods
By Morton M. Denn
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1969
Reviewed by E. Stanley Lee, University of South-
ern California
Many books on optimization have been pub-
lished. But, unfortunately, most books are not
written for chemical engineers and do not use
chemical engineering systems as examples. This
book fulfills this gap in the variational approach.
Furthermore, it is well written and has many
useful examples.
Variational methods cover many different
areas and frequently involve fairly sophisticated
mathematics. Professor Denn did an excellent
job in presenting the material and in avoiding
the requirement of more sophisticated mathe-
matical background. However, the user of this
book must be cautioned about the fact that many
chemical engineering students do not have the
mathematical maturity and the teacher must
present the material in great detail during the
initial period. More homework and problem solv-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








ing periods in class also help the situation.
Chapter 1 presents the basic concepts of op-
timization by differential calculus, also known as
single stage optimization by differential calculus.
It provides a useful and easy transition from dif-
ferential calculus for the optimization of finite
number of variables to the variational calculus for
the optimization of functionals. The latter is
treated in Chapters 3 to 6 for continuous systems
and in Chapter 7 for staged systems. Computa-
tional problems are treated in Chapter 9 and
Chapter 10 treats nonserial processes. An intro-
ductory coverage on feedback control and distrib-
uted-parameter systems is given in Chapters 8 and
11. In Chapter 12, an introduction to dynamic pro-
gramming is given together with a demonstration
of the interconnections between dynamic pro-
gramming and the variational approaches.
In teaching a typical chemical engineering
optimization course at the graduate level, this re-
viewer has found that it is useful to divide this
course into two parts: the variational approaches
and the programming approaches. The latter cate-
gory includes all the linear and nonlinear pro-
gramming techniques, and dynamic programming.
As a foundation to these two categories, the
various search techniques and numerical methods
for solving algebraic and differential equations
are introduced. Since practical chemical engineer-
ing problems are usually nonlinear problems;
numerical solution, not analytical solution, should
be emphasized.
Viewed from the above concept, this book can
be used as a textbook for the variational ap-
proaches. If optimization is a one-year course, the
variational approaches should be covered in a se-
mester. The second semester is more appropriate
with the first semester covering the programming
techniques and the search techniques.
If the variational techniques are to be covered
in one semester, fairly detailed discussions should
be given to Chapters 1 and 3. The derivations in
Chapters 4 and 5 can be omitted except to sum-
marize the results to provide a transition from
Chapters 3 to 6. Chapters 6, 7, 9 and 10 should,
again, be covered completely. Since Chapter 2 is
only an introductory chapter on search techniques
which should be covered in the previous semester,
this chapter can be omitted. Greater emphasis
should be placed on Chapters 9 and 10. Further-
more, the material in these two chapters can be
supplemented with recent publications in the
literature. L


FALL 1976














1.25-THIS IS A LOG TABLE?


J. M. BERTY
Autoclave Engineers, Inc.
Erie, Pennsylvania 16501

YES, IF YOU can remember that:
100.1 = 1.25, and
you know the rule that:
10. (100-1) = 100-2, then you have memorized
the log table and should be able to raise any
number to any exponent, first with paper and
pencil and later in your head and get an estimate
of the order of magnitude and the first digit
correct.
With the age of the $20.00 electronic calcu-
lator upon us, the danger that people will soon
forget even how to add is all to real. A slightly
more expensive calculator can give logarithmic
and exponential functions, and so the engineer's
slide rule will join the abacus in the museum.
Both of these are still excellent educational tools
to illustrate some basic concepts and should be
retained as such. The use of electronic calculators,
just like the computers, will speed up getting re-
sults-both good and bad results. So checking out
results, at least for order-of-magnitude correct-
ness, is more important than ever. The following
two-digit log table can help you to check the
results from your calculator and from your com-
puter.

Starting with the basic premise that:
100.1 = 1.25* and 100.1(100.1) = 100.2
i.e., 1.25(1.25) = 1.56 1.6 we received
100.2 = 1.6. In the same way,
100.1(100.2) = 100.3, 1.25(1.6) = 2.0, we
already calculated 100.3 2.00.
In summary:

*The four-digit value is for 101.0 = 1.259 which rounds
up to 1.26 and this value is recommended for chain
multiplication, i.e., 100.3 = (1.26)3. In the following table
where all other values are rounded to two digits, the
value of 1.25, i.e., one and a quarter, fits better.


100.1 = 1.25
1002 = 1.6
100.3 = 2.0

Carrying out the same way for all nine digits:
100o.1(100.) = 100.4, 1.25(2.0) = 2.5, or
100.2(100.2) 100.4, 1.6(1.6) = 2.5, etc., we
receive the following table:


100.1 = 1.25
,100.2 = 1.6
100-3 = 2.0


100.4 = 2.5
100.5 = 3.2
100.6 = 4.0


100.7 = 5.0
100.- = 6.4
100.9 = 8.0


Reconstruct this table on your blackboard
daily and admire it; sooned or later it will sink
into your brain.
The table is organized this way to take ad-
vantage of 100.3 = 2, so the exponents, or logs, are
0.3 higher in the second column than in the first
and the numbers or anti-logs, are twice as much.
The same holds for the third vs. second columns.
This way is enough to remember the first column,
and try to memorize only the first column at the
start, but the most important thing is to re-
member how it was derived. A feel for the errors
involved in the rounding of the antilogs to two
digits will help you to know how much precision
you can expect of these numbers. Therefore, look
up the exact values for the antilogs of 0.1, 0.2,
etc. from a log table, or from your pocket calcu-
lator. In addition, derive the higher logs from
the lower ones in various ways, like 100.-1 (100.7) =
100.8 1.25(5.0) = ? and 100.4(100.4) = 100.8 = ?
and so on. Calculate also (100.1)10 = 1.25(1.25)
(1.25) 2 (1.25) -0 ?. Do the same for 1.26
and 1.259.
Before we start to use this table, it is useful
to recall that by asking the question: "What is
the log of 2?" we are asking, in essence: "To what
exponent do I have to raise 10 to receive a 2?"
So let's start learning to raise numbers to frac-
tional exponents.
EXAMPLE 1. A production unit has to be in-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








creased to 4 times its present capacity. The invest-
ment cost of this type of unit is proportional to
the 0.8 power of the size. How much more will
the 4-times-larger unit cost than the present one?
So the question really is, 40.8 ?

SOLUTION: 4 = 100-6, 40.8 = (106)0-.8
100o. x 0.8 = 100.48 and since 100.5 = 3.2 so 100.48
will be somewhat less, let's say about 3. So a 4-
times-larger unit will cost 3 times more to build.
The result by calculator is 3.03.

EXAMPLE 2. Calderbank and Pogorski re-
ported [1] for heat transfer in fluid beds that:

Nu = 0.36 Re0-36

What is the Nusselt number if the Reynolds
number is 200? That is, 0.36 (200)0-36 = ?

SOLUTION: 200 = 2 x 100 100.3(102) = 102-3,
(102.30.36 102.3 x 0.36 100.83, and
0.36 = 3.6 (10-1) and since 100-5
3.2 and 100-6 4.0, 0.36 ~ 100.55
(10-1) or 10-.45, finally
10-o0.45 (100.83) = 10-0.45 + o.83
10038, and since 100.4 = 2.5 and
100.3 2.0, 100.38 2.4.
Therefore, the Nusselt number will
0.36 (200) 0.36 = 2.4.

The electronic calculator gives 2.42, i.e., the
error of our estimate is quite low.

COMMENTS: For numbers outside 1 and 10,
we convert them to these and to the product of
ten raised to an integer number. Then, for
numbers between 1 and 10, we find the exponent
of ten corresponding to their value from our
table (mantissa of the logarithm) and add it to
the integer exponent of ten (characteristic of
the logarithm).

EXAMPLE 3. The isomerization of acetalde-
hyde to ethylene oxide in the vapor phase should


Dr. Berty received his Diploma in Chemical Engineering from
the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary in 1944 and his
D.Sc. in 1950. He joined the Hungarian Oil and Gas Research Institute
and taught in the College for Chemical Engineering in Veszprem,
Hungary. In 1956 he accepted a Guest Professorship in Halle, East
Germany. In 1957 he came to the U.S.A. and joined Union Carbide
Corporation where he worked for 19 years. In the 1973/74 academic
year he was a Senior Fulbright Lecturer at the Technical University
in Munich, Germany. Presently he is with Autoclave Engineers, Inc.


be checked for commercial feasibility [2]. For this
reaction:
CHSCHO C2H4O
the equilibrium constant at 1000K is:
In K = -17.4. How much ethylene oxide can
we expect?
K -= e -174 10-17.4/2.3 = 10-7-6 = 100.4(10-8)
K = 2.5(10-8) = 25(10-9) = 25 PPB
The expected ethylene oxide concentration will be
a few tens PPB. Even if the tacitly assumed ideal
gas assumption is wrong, it can change the re-
sults by less than an order of magnitude, and the
process is not feasible.
EXAMPLE 4. What is the apparent energy of
activation of ethylene hydrogenation over an Ni-
catalyst if the reaction is eight times faster at
400'K than at 3000K? (3)

E( 1 1
R T1- T2
e 1 = 8


E
(2) (1000) (2.3)


1000
( 400


1000
300 8
=8


E
-4600 (2.5 3.333)
10 = 8, since 8.00 = 100.9
E- 0.833 = 0.9
4600
E 4600(0.9) 5000
0.833
The apparent energy of activation is about
5000 cal/gmole
In conclusion, with a little work and a lot of
perseverance, this simple log table can be
memorized and used for checking orders of
magnitude.
The final advice: before you calculate any-
thing with your calculator or computer, first make
a guess as to what number to expect, then carry
out the calculation and, finally, check whether the
results are reasonable. O

REFERENCES
1. Calderbank and Pogorski, Trans. Inst. Chem. Engrs.
(London), 35, 195 (1957).
2. Kobe, K. A. and Associates, "Thermochemistry for
the Petrochemical Industry." Reprinted from The
Petroleum Refiner, January 1949 to December 1951.
3. Berty, J. M., Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 70, No. 5, pp.
78-84, May, 1974.


FALL 1976











CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION INDEX Volumes VI-X

AUTHOR INDEX


Aldag, A. W. .----
Alkire, R. -----
Allen, T. ----- ----
Anderson, J. B. -----
Anderson, J. E. .---
Andres, R. P. -----
Aris, R. --- VIII, 20;
X, 2, 114, 124
Astarita, G. -------.
B
Bailey, J. E. ----.-
Balch, C. W.- ---
Balzhiser, R. E.
Bankoff, S. G. --
Barker, D. H. ------
Bell, K. J.
Bennett, G. F.
Berg, L. -- -
Bergantz, J. A.
Bernier, C. L. -----
Berty, J. M. -
Biery, J. C --..-..--. IX,
Black, J. H. --
Brown, B. A. ..--.----
Burnet, G. -----


Cadman, T. W. -
120; IX, 68
Carberry, J. J. -
Carnahan, B.
Cassiere, G. ---
Certain, P. -
Chao, K. C. -
Chen, T. Y. -- --
Chetrick, M. H. -
Clark, J. P.
Cloutier, L. ---
Cobb, Jr., J. T.
Cohen, R. E. --.-
Cokelet, G. R.
Cooney, D. 0. --
Copeland, N. A.
Corcoran, W. H.
Corripio, A B.
Cosart, W. P. -
Cunningham, R. C.
Curl, R. L. ...---


--- VI, 36
X, 126, 158
X, 93
VI, 3
- VI, 92
X, 18
IX. 99, 118,


Denn, M. M. ----
Deshpande, P. B.
Donaghey, L. F.
IX, 192
Douglas, J. M.
Dunn, I. J.


Eakman, J. M.
IX, 152 Edgar, T. F.
Ernst, W. R.
Eubank, P. T.


-- X, 162
-- VI, 23
VI, 40
.-- VI, 49
.--- VI, 25
VI, 154
VIII, 82
VI, 8
VII, 112
IX, 194
X, 198
198; X, 94
IX, 143
___ IX, 76
VI, 62


- VII, 3


3; VIII,


Evans, T. F. -


VII, 117, 208;
--.. IX, 88; 3
--.....--- VIII,

..-- VI, 180;


E
.. ----- VII
VII]
-................-- x
--------------- ----- -
------- --- -- i


F
Fahien, R. W. -----...- VI, 45, 147; VII,


155; VIII, 159;
Fan, L. T. -.--.
Feinberg, M.
Felder, R. M.
Finger, S. M. .
Fogler, H. S.
Foss, A. S.
Fredenslund, A.
Frederickson, A.
Freshwater, D. C
Fricke, A. L.
Fulford, G. D. ..-


IX, 151, 198; X, 155
.------- IX, 120
X, 125
---- VI, 118, 132
.------- IX, 68
---- VII, 122
VII, 72
VII, 142
G VI, 36
VI, 190
---- VII, 176
.--..--- VI, 128


Gaden, Jr., E. L.
VII, 22; X, 107 Gainer, J. L. ---....--- --
VII, 80 Gangi, A. F. -------
-------- VII, 22 Gardner, R. P.
------- X, 194 Gates, B. C ..--- VIII,
--- VI, 158 Gerrard, A. M.
.------ IX, 10 Gill, W. N. --.--- IX,
VIII, 58, IX, 128 Gluckman, M. J.
X, 90 Godbold, T. M. -
VII, 38 Good, R. J.
-- VI, 143 Graessley, W. W. ----
- VII, 30; X, 44 Greenkorn, R. A ... ---
VII, 76 VIII, 176
..----- VI, 162 Grens, E. A-
VIII, 66 Griskey, R. G.
-.---. VII, 187 Gruver, W. A.
VIII, 162 Gryte, C. C.
X, 134 Gubbins, K. E.
---...... VII, 18 Gupta, L --..-...----


- VI, 166


Dahlstrom, D. A. --.- VII, 187
Daniels, R. D. -- ------ VII, 164
Daubert, T. E. .---- VII, 84, 187
DeFore, J. J. ----- VI, 62
DeNevers, N. ..-- VII, 126; VIII, 98;
X, 16
Delgass, W. N ........ ---VI, 124; IX, 62,
158


H
Haering, E. R. -..---- -
Hall, K. R.
Halligan, J. E. --
Hamrin, C. E. --------
Han, C. D. -
Hawley, M. C. .....--
IX, 128
Heenan, W. A. ---...-----
Henley, E. J. ----.--.----


X, 196 Henry, Jr., J. D. --
C, 168 Henry, J. M. ------
164; Hershey, J. -----
Hile, L. R. ----
IX, 8 Hill, C. T. ----
X, 23 Hladky, W. ---..-
Hoffman, T. W. ---.
Hopfenberg, H. B. -
[, 116 Howard, G. M. .--
[, 168 Hubbard, D. W.
I, 146 Hudgins, R. R.
TI, 30 Hughes, R. R.
'I, 88 Hunt, R. G.
Hunter, D. L. --


Ingham, J --
Isakoff, S. E.


Jacobs, L. J.
Johnson, A. I.
Johnson, E. F.
Jorne, J.


Kabel, R. L --
Kadlec, R. H. -
Kafes, N ...-.--
Kapner, W. H.
Katzer, J. R.
Kelleher, E. G.
Keppel, R. A.
Kermode, R. I.
Kessler, D. P.
King, C. J. --
VIII, 6; X, 56
Kirk, R. S. -.-
Kirwan, D. J.
Kittrell, J. R.
Klinzing, G. E.
Koutsky, J. A.
Kranich, W. L.
Kube, W. R.
Kushner, J.


IX, 40
.- VI, 171
VI, 30
VII, 132
172; IX, 124
IX, 28
194; X, 107
VIII, 82
IX, 16
X, 16
VI, 127
- VI, 158;

VII, 72
X, 48, 140
IX, 162
X, 28


1<


VII, 203 Lamping, N. E. ---
VII, 200 Lapidus, L ----
Larsen, A. H. ------
Larson, M. A. ---
VIII, 74 78; IX, 201; X, 108
IX, 24 Lashmet, P. K. .--
VII, 158 Lastovica, J. E. ---
VIII, 200 Laurence, R. ----
VI, 74 Lees, F. P. .---
VI, 110; Leflich, R.
Levenspiel, 0. ----
X, 17 Leggett, Jr., L. W. --
-- X, 17 Leinroth, Jr., J. P.


VII, 208
---- VI, 132
VII, 106
- ---- X, 18
VII, 184
..--- VI, 122
---- -VII, 96
.---- VII, 174
...-- VIII, 82
X, 76
IX, 138
VII, 28
IX, 194
VII, 14


- X, 23
Vil, 84


---- X, 5
VII, 96
X, 172
iX, 31


-------- VI, 88
VI, 166, VII, 110
......--.--- VI, 178
.--. ------- VI, 4
VIII, 172
...------ VI, 178
. -------- VI, 45
------- VIII, 200
VIII, 176
--. VI, 50; VII, 72;

-- VI, 35; VIII, 90
-- -- IX, 24
VI, 180
X, 176
...- ------ X, 184
---- VIII, 12; X, 70
-...---- VI, 111
------ -VI, 66


--- VI, 30
-.--- VI, 148
---.- VIII, 70
VI, 70; VIII,

--- VIII, 130
.-.- VII, 198
---- X, 112
.---- VI, 190
X, 180
-.-- IX, 102
VI, 36
VI, 80


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


------------ -










Lightsey, G. R. -. ------- IX, 144
Lin, S. H. .. ......... ....... IX, 120
Liu, Y. A. .. ............. IX, 166
Locke, C. E .. ................. VII, 164
Lockhart, F. J .......... ------------.... X, 154
Lohmann, M. R. VII, 187
Long, R. B. .--......- VII, 87
Lovinger, A. J -. .............. X, 28
Luks, K. D. ................... VIII, 180
Luss, D -....- VII, 16; VIII, 102
Lynn, S. ..--.---- ................... VII, 72


Ma, Y. H ---
Maddox, R. N.
Manning, F. S.
Marchello, J. ---
Martin, J. B. .--
Martin, J. J. -- -
Mason, D. M. .__
Matthews, M. A.
McCoy, B. J .--
McGee, Jr., H. A.
Meisen, A. ----
Mellichamp, D. A
Melnyk, P. B. .
Meredith, R. E.
Merrill, E. W.
Merrill, R. P .....
Miller, A. D. -
Miller, C. W.
Miller, J. D .. -
Mischka, R. A.
Modell, M.
Moo-Young, M.
Moore, C. F. --
Murray, F. --


Nelson, Jr. R. D.
Newman, J. A. .


O'Connell, J. P.
Oden, E. C.
Ollis, D. F.
Olson, J. H.
Overholser, K. A.


Parker, R. 0.
Paul, J. F. .
Pei, D. C. T.
Perna, A. J ..
Peters, M. S.


-.-- ---- VIII, 12
....---- VII, 66
--. ...-- IX, 170
----. .. VII, 56
- ---- VIII, 74
..----. VIII, 138
.-..--- VI, 102
-.-.----- IX, 76
-. ----- IX, 174
---- ..-- IX, 52
- ---.. VII, 144
. .----.- VII, 146
-...---. VIII, 184
__ VII, 55
.--- ----- X, 44
....---- VII, 161
...-----.-- X, 33


It


Petty, D. S. ---
Pham, C ....-- -
Pings, C. J. ....--
Polack, J. A. --.
Prausnitz, J. M .
VIII, 6; X, 60
Prenosil, J. E.
Prober, R. --.-
Pulsifer, A. H.

I
Rase, H. F ... --.
Ray, W. H .. ----
Regan, T. M. .
Rehm, T. R. .-
Reilly, P. -
Reynolds, H. H.
Rhodes. E. -
Richardson, J. T.
Rigaud. M .
Robertus, R. J. .-
Rosen, E. M.
Rosner, D. E. ---
Rousseau, R. W. .
Rudd, D. F. -----..
Russell, T. W. F.
Rutherford, A. -
Rutkowski, M. A.


----VII, 33 Sandall, 0. C. ---
...----- X, 84 Sandier, S. --
VI, 114 Schmitz, R. A. --
IX, 106 Schowalter, W. R.
IX, 4 Schreiber, H. P. -
-- -- VII, 168 Schrodt, V. N. ---
---- VIII, 58 Schuitt, G. A. A.
Seagrave, R. C.
IX, 66 VII, 76; X, 108
----- I,194 Shah, D. 0. -..--.-
VI, 194 Shaheen, E. I. --
Shair, F. H. ---
- --- VII, 203 Shelden, R. A. --
VIII, 16, 134 Sherman, J. D.
X 162 Sherwood, T. K. --
VIII, 172 Shuster, C. N. -_
----- IX, 16 Silla, H .......--
Slattery, J. C. --
Sleicher, C. A. --
--- VI, 4 Smith, J. M. --
VII, 40; VIII, 94 Sommerfeld, J. T.
-- VI, 128 146
II, 122; IX, 150 Sorensen, K. D.
---- VII, 187 Storvick, T. S. -


.---.- X, 33
----- VII, 38
VII, 92; VIII, 70
.------ IX, 180
VI, 60; VII, 203;

X, 23
.----- VIII, 184
VI, 78


I------ IX, 22
---..- .... X, 154
-----..- IX, 68
------ X, 84
-- VIII, 116
X, 188
- VIII, 44; IX, 84
----- VII, 16
-.-. --.. IX, 184
----. X, 80
---- VIII, 48
-..----- X, 190
.-.---- VII, 132
------ VII, 44, 72
- .- VII, 117
IX, 118
------ IX, 88


VI, 28; VII, 146
------- --. X, 40
---.- VII, 136
VI, 8; VII, 54
S---- IX, 184
VIII, 200; IX, 183
VIII, 172
VI, 70;

----- VIII, 32
.----- IX, 128
.---.- VII, 122
------ X, 130
----- IX, 124
...- VIII, 204
---- VII, 209
----- VII, 129
.----- VI, 174
------ IX, 2
.----- VII, 4
VII, 18; X, 90,

VIII, 130
------ VIII, 40


Strunk, M. R. ----
Sussman, M. V.
Sutterby, J. L.


Tao, L. C. ------
Tavlarides, L. L. .-
Thatcher, C. M ....
Thies, C. ---.
Tierney, J. W.
Tiller, F. M. ----
Timm, D. C.
Timmerhaus, K. D.
Treybal, R. E. --.-
Tschoegl, N. W.
Tucker, W. H ......
Tyner, M ---.--
U
Ulrichson, D. L.
Updike, 0. L. .


Vermeulen, T. --....
Vermeychuk, J. G. --
Vivian, J. E ...........


VII, 156
VIII, 149
VI, 188


----- VI, 139
----- VIII, 188
----- VIII, 146
VIII, 194
--. VII, 180
-- --- IX, 115
VIII, 116
... VI, 83
...- VI, 4
VII, 30
__ VIII, 142; X, 36
--__- --- VI, 45


VIII, 78
IX, 24


VIII, 6
VII, 112
VII, 89


Walawender, W. P. .....--- IX, 10
Walker, C. A. ----- VI, 124, 150
Walter, C. F. IX, 188
Ward, T. J. ----.-- ..--- X, 136
Ware, Jr., C. H. ------ ....- IX, 62
Wasan, D. T. -.--.--- .. VII, 200
Watson, F. A. --------. VII, 54
Watt, Jr., D. M .-..-------. VI, 80
Wei, J. VIII, 172
Weller, S. W. -----. --- X, 74
West, J. B. ------_-.. VII, 66
Westwater, J. W .......... ..... X, 6, 154
Wheelock, T. D ....-..-...-. VI, 106
Whitwell, J. C. --....--- VI, 148
Wilde, D. -- ----- IX, 139
Wilkes, J. 0. ---- VII, 80
Williams, R. D. VII, 148;
VIII, 28 IX, 133; X, 134
Wolf, D. .. ---- -----.. ..-- IX, 133
Woltz, C. C. ---...- IX, 16
Woods, D. R. .- VII, 96; VIII, 82


Youngquist, G. R.


Zwiebel, I. -. .


- IX, 32; X, 195


VIII, 12; X, 70


A
Administration of Engineering and
Technical Personnel ---- IX, 180
Adsorptive Bubble Separation
Methods .--- ----- X, 180
Advanced Thermodynamics VIII, 180

FALL 1976


TITLE INDEX

Advanced Chemical Engineering at
Loughborough VI, 191
AIChE Annual Report --.-.- VI, 49
AIChE Career Guidance
Committee -- -..-._----. VI, 122
Alkaline Fading of -Organic Dyes:
An Ideal Reaction for Homogen-


eous Reactor Experiments ... X, 18
Analog Simulation of Sampled-Data
Control Systems ---_-- IX, 88
Analog Simulation of the Dispersion
of Atmospheric Pollutants VII, 33
Applications of Heterogeneous
Catalysis --------- VII, 16

201










Application of Molecular Concepts
of Predicting Properties Needed
for Design -----------. VII, 203
Application of Perturbation Tech-
niques to Analog
Computations ----- VIII, 94
Applied Chemical Kinetics VII, 161
Applied Surface Chemistry,
A Course in ------- VI, 171
Art and Science of Rheology,
The __- ---------- VI, 14
Associate Degree ChE Technology
Programs -......-..-- --- -- VI, 66
B
Baccalaureate Programs in Chemical
Engineering Technology VI, 62
Bernoulli's Equation with
Friction --------- VII, 126
Beckman, Bob-ChE Educator VII, 56
Biochemical Engineering
Fundamentals X, 162
Biological Reactions: Kinetics of
Yeast Growth VI, 134
Biological Transport Phenomena and
Biomedical Engineering, A Survey
Course in -- ------ VI, 162
Biotechnology-An Old Solution to
New Problems ------- IX, 40
Book Reviews:
ChE Thermodynamics: The Study
of Energy, Entropy and Equi-
librium ------- VIII, 41
Chemical Kinetics and Reactor
Design ----------- VIII, 102
Chemical Plant Simulation VII, 28
Dynamic Behavior of
Processes ---- -- VII, 208
Environment, Power and
Society ---- -- VII, 209
From Electrocatalysis to Fuel
Cells ------ --- VII, 55
Fundamentals and Modeling of
Separation Processes, Absorp-
tion, Distillation, Evaporation
and Extraction --- IX, 183
Heat and Mass Transfer Data
Book -------- X, 154
Introduction to Chemical Engi-
neering Analysis --- VII, 110
Introduction to Control
Systems IX, 139
Introduction to Nonlinear Con-
tinuum Thermodynamics,
An --- -- X, 125
Introduction to Process
Economics ----- IX, 143
Introduction to Thermodynamics:
Classical and Statistical VI, 60
Mathematical Methods of Chemical
Engineering, Vol. 3 Process
Modeling Estimation and
Identification ----- IX, 99
Mathematics Applied to Deter-


ministic Problems in the Natural
Sciences ____---- -- X, 124
Mixing--Principles and
Applications .....----------------.. X, 5
Modeling Crystal Growth Rate
from Solution -- --- IX, 201
Multivariable Computer
Control -...- ...--------------- X, 151
Optimization by Variational
Methods -- --------------------- X, 196
Polymer Science and Engineer-
ing ......--- -- ---------------------- VI, 127
Polymers in Engineering
Curriculum ---------.------ VII, 54
Principles of Quantum
Chemistry -- -----...------ ---- X, 196
Process Synthesis ---- VIII, 146
Processes and Systems in Industrial
Chemistry --------...-------- VI, 35
Staged Cascades in Chemical
Processes __ --- VII, 208
Transport Phenomena for
Engineers ------ VI 188
Buffalo-SUNY, ChE
Department ------ VII, 112
Building a Computer Program: Multi-
component Distillation --- VI, 80

C

Can an Engineer Be
Actualized? ------- X, 94
Carberry, James J., ChE
Educator --------- VIII, 2
Carberry's Ultimate Paper IX, 118
Career Guidance and Recruitment at
Michigan State -- VI, 110
Career Guidance and Recruitment at
Virginia Polytechnic
Institute ...- -- ------- VI, 114
Changing Role of the Chemical
Engineer, The ------ VIII, 66
Chemi Project, The ....-----..----- X, 17
Chemical Process Design and Engi-
neering Summer School
Workshop -------- VII, 72
Chemistry of Catalytic
Processes --.--- VIII, 172
Combustion Project: Explosive
Limits ....- ----------------- ---- X, 40
Comments on a Proctorial System of
Instruction -------- VI, 78
Comments on Gibbs Equation: The
Condition for Chemical Equilibrium
in Open Systems .....--- VIII, 70
Computerized Cost Engineering in
the Process Design Course VIII, 120
Computerized Undergraduate Process
Dynamics and Control
Laboratory .- ---- VII, 136
Corrosion Control ---__ VII, 164
Cost Estimating by Computer in
Process Design -- -- VIII, 130
Critical Path Planning of Graduate


Research ------ ____.-- IX, 192
D

Demonstrating Catalytic Reactor
Stability .....-- -----------------.. IX, 138
Deriving Three Thermodynamic Equa-
tions in Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
Studies --- ----___---. ------ VI, 139
Design Laboratory, The Chemical
Engineering --....--- --------- VII, 129
Design of Process Control Systems
Using Frequency Response and
Analog Simulation
Techniques ---------- --------.. VII, 40
Development of Mass Transfer
Theory ---- ------- ------ VIII, 204
Diamonds Are a Thermodynamicist's
Best Friend .------ -- IX, 66
Digital Computations for Chemical
Engineers ....----- ------------ IX, 166
Digital Computer Control of
Processes --....---- ------ VIII, 162
Digital Computer Process
Control ------- ----- VII, 168
Digital Simulation __- X, 23
Distillation Dynamics and
Control .-.......... -------------- X, 168
Diversified and Special Programs in
Undergraduate Chemical Engi-
neering Education ..---- VI, 45
Douglas, James, ChE
Educator -...-- ------ -.-- X, 112
Dynamical Systems and Multivariable
Control-An Operations Research
Approach to Automatic Control
Education --------- XI, 162

E

Economics of the Chemical Processing
Industries --- ---- VII, 172
Education for the Seventies, Chemical
Engineering -- --------- VI, 40
Education Projects Committee,
Chemical Engineering .....- VI, 50
Effectiveness of Graduate Chemical
Engineering Education-Academic
Viewpoint ------ VII, 89, 92
Effectiveness of Graduate Chemical
Engineering Education-Industrial
Viewpoint --- -- VII, 84, 87
Effectiveness of Graduate Chemical
Engineering Education-Industrial
Versus Academic Viewpoint VII, 84
Electrochemical Engineering -... X, 158
Energy Engineering -- VIII, 200
Energy, Mass and Momentum
Transport .........-------- X, 190
Engineer as an Entrepreneur,
The _. ------ ---- X, 188
Engineering Entrepeneurship, A
Course in -------------------- ------- VI, 181
Environmental Courses -------- X, 176
Enzyme and Biochemical Engi-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


202









neering -------- VIII, 188
Enzyme Catalysis ..--- IX, 188
Equilibrium Theory of Fluids, A
Course in -------- VI, 158
Evolutionary Experiment,
An ------ VII, 144
Expansion and Contraction Losses in
Fluid Flow VIII, 138
Experiments in Heterogeneous
Catalysis ---- IX, 124

F
Flow Curve Determination for Non-
Newtonian Fluids IX, 10
Flow Modeling and Parameter Esti-
mation Using Radiotracers VII, 132
Food Engineering --- X, 166
Forced Convection Demonstration
Using Solid CO2 Sublimation,
A VII, 146
Foreign Language Requirements for
the Ph.D. ----- VI, 88
Foreign Study Program in Chemical
Engineering, A -- ----- VIII, 78
Freshman Engineering-A Student
Viewpoint ----- .....- VII, 14
Fusion Reactor Technology X, 172

G
Georgia Tech's Pulp and Paper
Engineering Program -- IX, 145
Graduate School-Who Should
Go? ------- ---- VII, 158

H

Happel, John, ChE Educator -... VI, 4
Heterogeneous Catalysis IX, 158
Horn, Fritz, ChE Educator VI, 54
Hot Lips, A Cold Heart and
Thermomometry --.._ IX, 102
How to Get the Most Out of an
Equation without Really
Trying ---- ---- X, 114

I

Identity, Breadth, Depth in a Co-
operative Program .-- IX, 84
Illinois, Urbana, ChE Depart-
ment --_--_--- ___-- X, 6
Implementation of SI Units in ChE
Education ----- ---- X, 195
Implementing Changes in Engineer-
ing Education ---- VI, 92
Improving College Teaching in
Chemical Engineering VI, 132
Index, Volumes VI-X --. X, 200
Indirect Measurement of Reaction
Rate ------- VIII, 2
Industrial Pollution Control IX, 170
Industrial Researcher Looks at the
Master's Degree, An ... VII, 198
Inexpensive Time Bomb, An VIII, 98
Integrated Reactor Engineering

FALL 1976


Laboratory, An --- VII, 148
Integration of Biomedical and En-
vironmental Examples into Under-
graduate ChE Course Work VII, 76
Interfacial Phenomena for Engineers
-A Bridge Between Engineering
Life Sciences ----- VIII, 32
Interphase Catalytic Effectiveness
Factor: Activity, Yield and Non-
isothermality, The .. VII, 22
Instruction by the PSI Method in a
Required Senior Course X, 76
Introducing Behavioral Science Into
an Engineering Laboratory VIII, 74
Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Analysis VII, 117
Introductory Design Course for
Engineering Freshmen, An IX, 32
Introductory Polymer Science and
Technology ... X, 184
Iowa State, ChE Department X, 108
Ivory Tower Man Dines in the Real
World, An ---.---- X, 80

J
Jackson, Julius J., In
Memoriam -IX, 31
Junior Course in Chemical Engi-
neering Computations, A VIII, 48

L
Littlejohn, C. E., In
Memoriam ---_-- __ IX, 150

M

M.I.T.'s Polymer Program --..-- X, 44
Measures of Excellence of Engineer-
ing and Science Departments: A
Chemical Engineering
Example ..--.. IX, 194
Michigan, ChE Department VII, 60
Michigan State, ChE
Department VIII, 58
Modeling, A Course in VI, 166
Modern Analysis Techniques with the
APL System ------------ VII, 38
Modern Thermodynamics IX, 152
Molecular Thermodynamics for
Chemical Process Design X, 60
Montana State, ChE
Department -- ---- VI, 8
Motivating for ChE -_ VI, 111
Multi-purpose Video-Taped Course
in Data Analysis ------- VIII, 176
Multivariable Control and
Estimation -------- VIII, 168


N
Nebraska's Integrated
velopment/ Design
Laboratory _--
Network Planning and
Curriculum ...-


Process De-

VIII, 116
the ChE
VII, 18


Packed Column Mass Transfer Co-
efficients for Concurrent and
Countercurrent Flow: An Analysis
of Recent Work ___-- X, 84
Peaceful Coexistence of Engineering
and Technology in the
University _-- VI, 70
Pings, Neal, ChE Educator VII, 106
Plan for Graduate Student Research
in Engineering, A --- VI, 194
Plans for Academic and Industrial
Research Interaction -- VI, 83
Plant Design: A Logical First Course
for Freshmen X, 130
Pollution of the Environment: Causes
and Cures --- -IX, 128
Polymer Processing --- VII, 176
Polymer Processing at Brooklyn
Poly. ----------------- VI, 74
Polymer Program at Caltech,
The ------------ VII, 30
Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal
Materials ---- VII, 174
Practical Introduction to Analysis
and Synthesis, A --_-- X, 134
Prausnitz, John, ChE Educator X, 56
Prediction of Temperature and Oxy-
gen Distributions During Aerobic
Microbial Growth ---- IX, 68
Preliminary Appraisal of a Self-Paced
Laboratory ---- IX, 22
Preparing the Engineer for His
Unique Role --- __-- VI, 36
Princeton, ChE Department VI, 56
Process and Plant Design Project, A
Course in -- __--- VI, 178
Process Heat Transfer: Sufficient
Conclusions from Insufficient
Premises, A Course in --- VI, 154
Process Model-Building: An Intro-
duction to Complex Design X, 136
Process Synthesis ----- VII, 44

203


New Look, A, ChE Lab -_ IX, 8
New Traditional Unit Operations
Laboratory Course, A VII, 142
Newark College of Engineering,
ChE Department --_ IX, 56
Non-Isothermal Tubular Reactor
Program ------- VIII, 90
Numerical Methods for Chemical
Engineering Problems -_ VII, 80

0
O'Connell, John P., ChE
Educator ---.....----- ------- X, 14
Ohio State, ChE
Department __--_ -- VIII, 106
Organic and Physical Chemistry
Courses in 89 ChE Curricula VI, 143
Organization of Reaction Engineer-
ing Problems ------ X, 146

P









Process Technology of Solid-State
Materials and Devices -- VIII, 164
Profession, The Chemical
Engineering --_ ----- X, 126
Profession and Cooperative Education,
The Chemical Engineering VIII, 142
Professional Program in Engineering,
A ......---- -------------------------- VII, 66
Project Approach to Chemical Engi-
neering Education Under the WPI
Plan .......------------------ VIII, 12

R

Ranking Chemical Engineering De-
partments _-- --- X, 140
Reid, Bob, ChE Educator IX, 106
Reminiscences cf Barnett F.
Dodge ----- VI, 150
Review of the History of Mass
Transfer -- ----- VIII, 204

S

Saponification of Acetamide in a
Batch Reactor ------ X, 74
Science of Synthetic and Biological
Polymers ------------------ VIII, 194
Seagrave, Dick, ChE Educator VI, 106
Seeing Entropy-The Incompleat
Thermodynamics of the Maxwell
Demon Bottle ------ VIII, 149
Self-Instruction in Thermo-
dynamics IX, 115
Separation Processes: Particulate
Systems and Column
Operations ------- IX, 174
Short Happy Life of Aris Rutherford,
The ------__--__.--- .----- ---- IX, 119
Should Engineering Students Be
Taught to Blow the Whistle on
Industry? __ ----- IX, 198
Simple, Instructive Solid State
Diffusion Experiment for Use in
Teaching Laboratories, A .-- X, 33
Simulation of the Cardiopulmonary
Circulation: An Experiment in Re-
actor Analysis with Medical Appli-


cations ----------- -- X, 28 Too Much Chemical Engineering Re-
Single Drop Liquid Extraction Ex- Search and Teaching Is Dull, Dull,
periment, A ---- VI, 28 Dull -----__- IX, 52
Sliepcevich, Cheddy, ChE Toor, Herb, ChE Educator VIII, 56
Educator --------- IX, 76 Training of Foreign Graduate
Some Simple Experiments for First Students-Problems and
Year Students --- ---- IX, 28 Solutions --------- VII, 200
Some Thoughts on the Nature of Transients in Plug Flow
Academic Research in Chemical Systems IX, 120
Engineering X, 2 Trends in Engineering Accredita-
Staged Separations ----- VII, 180 tion-Will the M.S. Become the
Stanford, ChE Department VI, 102 First Professional Degree? VII, 194
Stoichiometry of a City -- VI, 124 Tubular Flow of Pseudoplastic
Storvick, Turk, ChE Fluids ---------- IX, 80
Educator ------ -------- VIII, 112 Turbulent Transfer Processes VI, 128
SUNY-Buffalo, ChE
Department VII, 112
Undergraduate ChE Laboratory,
T The -------- VII, 122
Teaching Experience with Design and Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Simulation Projects VII, 96 Engineering (1969-70) -- VI, 23
Teaching Plant Design to Chemical Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Engineers --- VIII, 134 Engineering (1970-71) -- VI, 25
Teaching Undeigraduate Mass and Undergraduate Education: Patterns
Energy Balances 1972+ VIII, 82 Today-Extrapolation Tomorrow,
Technology Assessment -- VII, 184 ChE ------- ----- VI, 36
Technology Education, ChE VI, 62 Use of a Continuous System Simula-
Technological Forecasting .- IX, 184 tion Language in Chemical Reaction
Temperature Approach in Counter- Engineering -------- IX, 133
Flow Heat Exchangers --- X, 36 Use of Flowsheet Simulation Pro-
Test to Measure the Ability of ChE grams in Teaching Chemical Engi-
Seniors in the Practical Applica- neering Design .-.. VIII, 124
tion of ChE Principles VIII, 16 Use of FLOWTRAN Simulation in
Texaco-Yale Student Consulting Pro- Education ---------- X, 90
gram, The ----__-- IX, 62 W
Texas, ChE Department -- VII, 8
Theory of Diffusion and Reaction- Wastewater Engineering for Chemical
A Chemical Engineering Symphony, Engineers --_ VIII, 184
The ------------ VIII, 20 Waterloo, ChE Department .... IX, 4
Thermodorm, A Mnemonic Octahed- Waterloo Program for High
ron of Thermodynamics, The VI, 30 Schools -------- -- VIII, 44
This Is a Log Table ?-1.25 X, 198 West Virginia, ChE Depart-
Thoughts About Our First Graduate ment .------- IX, 110
Courses in Momentum, Energy, and Whitaker, Steve, ChE
Mass Transfer ------ VI, 174 Educator ---- ------ VII, 4
Today We Will Hear from the ChE Worcester Polytechnic, ChE
Department -- VI, 118 Department ---------- X, 70


SUBJECT INDEX


A

Accreditation -- --- VI, 149
Administration ------- IX, 180
Analog Simulation ------- VII, 33;
VIII, 94; IX, 88
Analysis -------....... VII, 38, 117; VIII,
176; X, 134
Applied Surface Chemistry VI, 171


B

Beckmall, Bob, Educator ... VII, 56
Bernouli, Equation ------- VIII, 126
Biochemical Engineering VII, 188;
VII, 76; VIII, 188; X, 162
Biomedical Engineering .... VI, 162;
VII, 76
Biotechnology --------- IX, 40


Book Reviews
Analysis-VII, 110; Chemistry-VI,
35; Control-IX, 139; Dynamics-VII,
208; Economics-IX, 143; Electrocat-
alysis-VII, 55; General-VII, 209;
Kinetics and Reactors-VIII, 102;
Mathematical Methods-IX, 99; X,
124; Polymers-VI, 127; VII, 54;
Simulation-VII, 28; Synthesis-VIII,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









146; Thermodynamics-VI, 60; VIII,
41; X, 125; Transport Phenomena-
VI, 188; Unit Operations-VII, 208;
IX, 201, 183; X, 5

C
Carberry, James J., Educator VIII, 2
Cardiopulmonary Simulation X, 28
Career Guidance, ChE .- VI, 110, 111,
114, 122
Catalysis, General-VII, 22; VIII, 172;
IX, 138; Enzyme-IX, 188; Hetero-
geneous-VII, 16; IX, 124, 158
ChE Departments, General-VI, 118;
IX, 194; X, 140; Illinois, Urbana-
X, 6; Iowa State-X, 108; Lough-
borough VI, 191; Michigan-VII, 60;
Michigan State-VIII, 58; Montana
State-VI, 8; Newark-IX, 56; Ohio
State-VIII, 106; Princeton-VI, 56;
Stanford-VI, 102; SUNY, Buffalo-
VII, 112; Texas-VII, 8; West Vir-
ginia-IX, 110; Waterloo-IX, 4;
Worcester Polytechnic-X, 70


Combustion -------- -- X, 40
Computation Methods ---- VII, 80;
VIII, 48
Consulting Program IX, 62
Corrosion Control -------- VII, 164
Curricula, Undergrad., ChE __ VI, 23,
25, 36; VII, 18; IX, 84
D

Design Laboratory .. VII, 129;
VIII, 116
Digital Computation ---- VI, 80;
IX, 166
Digital Simulation ..--. VIII, 124;
IX, 133; X, 23, 90
Dodge, Barnett F., ChE
Pioneer ..... VI, 150
Douglas, James, Educator -...__. X, 112

E
Economics, Process -....... VII, 172
Education, ChE ----- VI, 40, 50, 92,
132; VIII, 12; X, 80
Education and Accreditation VI, 49
Educator, ChE --.... VI, 4, 54, 106;
VII, 4, 56, 106; VIII, 2, 56, 112;
IX, 2, 76, 106; X, 14, 56, 112
Electrochemical Engineering X, 158
Energy Engineering -.. VIII, 200
Entrepeneurship --- VI, 181; X, 188
Enzyme and Biochemical Engineer-
ing -------- ... .... VIII, 188
Equation Analysis --_.-..-- X, 114

F
Fluid Flow -.-- VII, 132; VIII, 138;
IX, 10, 80, 120
Finlayson, Bruce, Educator IX, 2
Foreign Graduate Students VII, 200


Foreign Language, Ph.D. VI, 88 Process Design, Complex-X, 136;
Freshman Engineering ...... VII, 14; Costing-VIII, 120, 130; Freshman-
IX, 28, 32; X, 130 IX, 32; X, 130; Laboratory-VII,
G 129; VIII, 116; Teaching-VI, 178;
VIII, 72, 96; VIII, 134
Graduate ChE Education -- VII, 84, Process Economics -_- --- VII, 172
87, 89, 92 Process Synthesis -- VII, 44; X, 134
Graduate Research --- VI, 194; IX, Proctorial System ---- VI, 78; X, 76
192 Professional Engineering ._._ VI, 36,
Graduate School ---- VII, 158 181; VII, 66; VIII, 66, 142; X, 94,
H 126


Happel, John, Educator --.....-.
Heat Transfer .-. VI, 154
Horn, Fritz, Educator ....
I
Interfacial Phenomena .-- -
J
Jackson, Julius L., In
Memoriam --------- ..
K
Kinetics, Chemical --- VI, 1I
161; VIII, 28


Laboratory, General-VII, 122
74, 98; IX, 8, 22; Design-V
VIII, 116; Unit Operati(
142, 144; Reactors-VII, 148
Letters, General-VII, 54;
Chemi Project-X, 17; Grac
148; X, 154; Quality-VII, 15(
Littlejohn, C. E., In
Memoriam -_---

M
Mass and Energy Balances
Mass Transfer -------- VI, 128; V
VIII, 20, 204; X, 33
Master's Degree, ChE ..... V
198
Memorium .--... IX, 150; X,
Microbial Growth __
Modeling -----------....-- .._......

0
O'Connell, John P. Educator
Organic, Physical Chemistry

P
Pings, Neal, Educator ---- V
Pollution _------- VIII, 184; IX, 1!
X, 176
Polymers, Processing-VI, 74
176; Programs-VII, 30;
Science-VII, 174; VIII, 194;
Prausnitz, John, Educator ......
Process Control-VII, 136; VII
IX, 162; Analog-VII, 40; 1
VII, 168; VIII, 162; X, 168


VI, 4 R
; X, 36
VI, 54 Reactor Laboratory -------.-. VII, 148
Reactors --- VIII, 90; IX, 138; X,
18, 74, 146
VIII, 32 Reid, Bob, Educator _.._... IX, 106
Research, ChE -- VI, 83; IX, 52; X, 2
Research, Graduate VI, 194; IX, 192
Rheology .--- .... __ VI, 14
IX, 31 Rutherford, Aris --.-... IX, 118, 119


34; VII,
Seagrave, Dick, Educator -- VI, 106
Senior Test, ChE -- -- VIII, 16
Separations VI, 28; VII, 180;
; VIII, IX, 174; X, 84
II, 129; SI Units ------- X, 195
)ns-VII, Simulation, Digital ----.... VIII, 124;
IX, 133; X, 23, 90
X, 16; Sliepcevich, Cheddy, Educator IX, 76
ling-VI, Stoichiometry -- _--- VI, 124
; X, 16 Storvick, Turk, Educator VIII, 112
Study Program, Foreign-VIII, 78;
IX, 150 High School-VIII, 44; Paper and
Pulp-IX, 145; Special-VI, 45
Surface Chemistry, Applied VI, 171
VIII, 82
II, 146;
Technology-VI, 70; VII, 184; VIII,
II, 194, 164; IX, 184; ChE-VI, 62, 66
Thermodynamics, General-VIII, 180;
59, 107 IX, 115, 152; Entropy-VIII, 149;
IX, 68 Equilibrium-VI, 139, 158; VIII, 70;
VI, 166 Molecular, VIII, 203; X, 60;
Thermodorm-VI, 30
Thermometry --__ --- IX, 102
X, 14 Toor, Herb, Educator .---- VIII, 56
VI, 143 Transport Phenomena, General-VI,
174; Bernoulli Equation-VII, 126;
Fluid Flow-VII, 132; VIII, 138; IX,
10, 80; 120; Heat Transfer-VI, 154;
II, 106 X, 36; Mass Transfer-VI, 128; VII,
28, 170; 146; VIII, 20, 204; X, 33, 190

:; VII, U
X, 44;
X, 184 Unit Operations Laboratory ..-.. VII,
- X, 56 142, 144
I", 168;
Digital-
Whitaker, Steve, Educator -- VII, 4


FALL 1976


205










UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA
Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering


Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $6,500/year.
M.Sc. Candidates: up to $6,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Costs.
Tuition: $535/year.
Married students housing rent: $154/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $190/month.

Department Size
13 Professors, 20 Research Associates
30 Graduate Students.
Applications
For additional information write to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6

Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and
Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De-
sign.
J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (Brit. Columbia): Transport Pheno-
mena, Numerical Analysis, In situ Recovery of Oil
Sands.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer,
Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ-
mental Engineering.
D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Math-
ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory.
D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
dynamics.
J T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.
D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Com-
puter Control, Process Identification


F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (Ca;ifornia-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
tics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns.

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
schools.
Enrollment of 19,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
non-denominational.
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river
valley.

Edmonton
Fast growing, modern city; population of 500,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper and Banff National Parks.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA





The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1972
Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering, Energy and
Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re-
action-Applications to the Minerals Industry.


DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation


Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow-
ing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.














For further information,
write to:
Dr. J. 0. L. Wendt
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721












The University of Calgary


Program of Study

The Department of Chemical Engineering provides unusual opportunities for research and study leading to the M.Eng., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees.
This dynamic department offers a wide variety of course work and research in the following areas: Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Environ-
mental Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering, Rheology and Thermodynamics. The University operates
on an eight-month academic year, thus allowing four full months per year for research.
The requirements for the M.Eng. and M.Sc. degrees are 6 to 8 courses with a B standing or better and the submission of a thesis on a
research project.
The requirements for the Ph.D. degree are 8 to 12 courses and the submission of a thesis on an original research topic.
The M.Eng. program is a part-time program designed for those who are working in industry and would like to enhance their technical educa-
tion. The M.Eng. thesis is usually the design type and related to the industrial activity in which the student is engaged. Further details of this
program are available from the Department Head, or the Chairman of the Graduate Studies Committee.
Research Facilities

The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies one wing of the Engineering Complex. The building was designed to accommodate the
installation and operation of research equipment with a minimum of inconvenience to the researchers. The Department has at its disposal an
EAl 690 hybrid computer and a TR48 analog computer and numerous direct access terminals to the University's CDC Cyber 172 digital com-
puter. In addition, a well equipped Machine Shop and Chemical Analysis Laboratory are operated by the Department. Other major research
facilities include a highly instrumented and versatile multiphase pipeline flow loop, an automated pilot plant unit based on the Girbotol Process
for natural gas processing, an X-ray scanning unit for studying flow in porous media, a fully instrumented adiabatic combustion tube for
research on the in-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands, a laser anemometer unit, and environmental research laboratories for air
pollution, water pollution and oil spill studies.
Financial Aid

Fellowships and assistantships are available with remuneration of up to $6,000 per annum, with possible remission of fees. In addition, new
students may be eligible for a travel allowance of up to a maximum of $300. If required, loans are available from the Federal and Provincial
Governments to Canadian citizens and Landed Immigrants. There are also a number of bursaries, fellowships, and scholarships available on a
competition basis to full-time graduate students. Faculty members may also provide financial support from their research grants to students
electing to do research with them.
Cost of Study

The tuition fees for a full-time graduate student are $625 per year plus small incidental fees. Most full-time graduate students to date have
had their tuition fees remitted.
Cost of Living

Housing for single students in University dormitories range from $172/mo. for a double room, to $205/mo. for a single room, including board.
There are a number of new townhouses for married students available, ranging from $177/mo. for a 1-bedroom, to $193/mo. for a 2-bedroom
and to $209/mo. for a 3-bedroom unit, including utilities, major appliances and parking. Numerous apartments and private housing are within
easy access of the University. Food and clothing costs are comparable with those found in other major North American urban centres.
Student Body

The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe. The current enrolment is about 12,000 with ap-
proximately 1,000 graduate students. Most full-time graduate students are currently receiving financial assistance either from internal or
external sources.
The Community

The University is located in Calgary, Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of 570,000 combines the traditions of
the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and
the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of
the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in
the community at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations
of engineering activity in the country.
The University

The University operated from 1945 until 1966 as an integral part of the University of Alberta. The present campus situated in the rolling hills
of northwest Calgary, was established in 1960, and in 1966 The University of Calgary was chartered as an autonomous institution by the
Province of Alberta. At present the University consists of 14 faculties. Off-campus institutions associated with The University of Calgary include
the Banff School of Fine Arts and Centre of Continuing Education located in Banff, Alberta, and the Kananaskis Environmental Research Station
located in the beautiful Bow Forest Reserve.
Applying

The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
Canada


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA


RESEARCH


ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL

KINETICS AND CATALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESS DESIGN
AND DEVELOPMENT

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
MATERIAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY
Alexis T. Bell
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Mitchel Shen
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermuelen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams


FLUID MECHANICS
AND RHEOLOGY


FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE.


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720




































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further


advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor J. H. Seinfeld
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1977.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering;
air and water quality.
SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution;
biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif-
fusion and membrane transport.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor,
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical
mechanics.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.




Get your career off the ground.




l














Graduate Chemical Engineering


Carnegie-Mellon University
Schenley Park Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15213




























I

pp


Nil

1111

pp pp
"U1


THE UNIVERSITY
Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed in-
stitution with traditions of excellence in Engineering and
Applied Science since 1880. In 1967, Case Institute and
Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment,
endowment and faculty make Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity one of the leading private schools in the country.
The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's University
Circle, an extensive concentration of educational, scientific,
social and cultural organizations.


ACTIVE RESEARCH AREAS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Environmental Engineering
Control & Optimization
Computer Simulation
Systems Engineering
Foam & Colloidal Science
Transport Processes


Coal Gasification
Biomedical Engineering
Surface Chemistry & Catalysis
Crystal Growth & Materials
Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Chemical Reaction Engineering


liii


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
The department is growing and has recently moved
to a new complex. This facility provides for innovations in
both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major
areas of Chemical Engineering are available. Case Chemical
Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and
petroleum companies and have made important technical and
entrepreneurial contributions for over a half a century.


FINANCIAL AID
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research As-
sistantships are available to qualified applicants. Applications
are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
Contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


r


?_ -I ""^- IH HM i
117-l~





DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


CLARKSON

PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORAL DEGREE IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE


Clarkson's multimillion dollar Science Center was dedicated in 1970 and is one of the finest facilities of its kind in New York.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY


W.R. WILCOX-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1960, University of
California, Berkeley) Crystal growth phenomena, new separation
techniques.

M. G. ANTONIADES-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1976, University of
Rochester) Surface films at fluid interfaces, interfacial reactions,
interphase mass transfer.

D-T. CHIN-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1969, University of Pennsylvania)
Electrochemical engineering, transport phenomena, waste treatment
and resource recovery, energy conversion, corrosion.

R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson College of
Technology) Boiling heat transfer, bubble dynamics, boiling
nucleation, holographic interferometry.

D. 0. COONEY-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of
Wisconsin) Mass transfer in fixed beds, biomedical engineering,
pharmacokinetics.

E. J. DAVIS-Prof. (Ph. D., 1960, University of Washington) Heat
transfer and fluid mechanics associated with two-phase flow,
convective diffusion, aerosol physics, transport phenomena,
mathematical modeling.

M. DONAHUE-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1976, University of California,
Berkeley) Thermodynamics and phase equilibria.


R. J. NUNGE-Prof., Dean of the Graduate School and Director,
Division of Research. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University) Transport
phenomena, multistream forced convection transport processes,
structure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through porous media,
atmospheric transport processes.

H. L. SHULMAN-Prof., Dean of Eng. and Vice Pres of the College.
(Ph.D., 1950, University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, packed
columns, adsorption of gases, absorption.

R. S. SUBRAMANIAN-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, Clarkson College
of Technology) Heat and mass transfer, unsteady convective
diffusion miscible dispersion, chromatographic and other
interphase transport systems, fluid mechanics, mathematical
modeling.

P. C. SUKANEK-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, University of
Massachusetts) Rheology, polymer degradation, continuum
mechanics.

T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute) Process control, nuclear engineering, ceramic materials.

G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of Illinois)
Adsorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous media,
waste conversion processes.


J. ESTRIN-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation
phenomena, crystallization, phase change processes, analysis of For information concerning Assistantships and
energy consuming processes. Fellowships contact the Dean of the Graduate
J. L. KATZ-Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago) School, Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam,
Homogeneous nucleation of vapors, homogeneous boiling, New York 13676
heterogeneous nucleation, aerosols, nucleation of voids in metals,
chemical nucleation, thermal conductivity of gases.
CLARKSON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY / POTSDAM, NEW YORK 13676







CORNELL UNIVERSITY


Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering







Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
research-oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
sophy or Master of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
Master of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Engineering (general)
Thermodynamics; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations.
Bioengineering
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and re-
lated subjects in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of processes
in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.
Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Transport Processes.
Homogeneous kinetics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation;
simultaneous mass transfer and reaction; diffusion in liquids and membranes.
Chemical Processes and Process Control
Advanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and
chemistry.

Faculty Members and Research Interests
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. (Cornell): light and electron microscopy, properties of
materials, solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. (Minnesota): waste treatment, agitation and aeration,
microbial kinetics, enzyme purification.
Keith E. Gubbins, Ph.D. (London): transport properties and thermodynamics
of liquids.
Peter Harriott, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion
in membranes and porous solids.
Robert P. Merrill, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): gas-solid chemical reactions, adsorption and
catalysis, chemical kinetics, reactor design.
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. (Cornell): polymerization, properties of polymer
systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. (Illinois): hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid
mechanics of liquid drops and jets.
Michael L. Shuler, Ph.D. (Minnesota): biochemical engineering, novel food
sources, plant cells, biological reactors.
Julian C. Smith, Chem.E. (Cornell): conductive transfer processes, heat transfer,
mixing, mechanical separations.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. (Wisconsin): transport phenomena, rheology.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. (Cornell): phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics
of polymerization.
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics,
effect of radiation on chemical reactions, saline-water conversion.
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. (Purdue): crystallization, petroleum processing,
saline-water conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Robert York, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): molecular sieves; chemical market analyses; chemical
economics; process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATION. Write to Professor P. Harriott, Olin Hall of Chemical
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853.















UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

Newark, Delaware 19711

The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and
practice in the art and science of chemical engineering:
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.

A Ph.D. degree.

The regular faculty are:

Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) T. W. F. Russell
C. E. Birchenall S. I. Sander
K. B. Bischoff G. L. Schrader
H. W. Blanch G. C. A. Schuit (1/2 time)
M. M. Denn J. M. Schultz
B. C. Gates L. Spielman
J. R. Katzer James Wei
R. L. McCullough
A. B. Metzner Visiting Faculty
J. H. Olson R. 1. Tanner
M. E. Paulaitis D. V. Boger
R. L. Pigford


The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with in-
dustrial practice are:
R. L. Dedrick .---- Biomedical engineering
T. R. Keane ..--__ Polymer Science & Engineering
W. H. Manogue Catalysis, reaction engineering
F. E. Rush, Jr. --Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction
R. J. Samuels -- Polymer science
A. B. Stiles ----- Catalysis
K. F. Wissbrun Polymer engineering
P. M. Gullino, M.D. -.-_-Biomedical engineering
H. F. Haug --__ --Chemical engineering design


For information and admissions materials contact:
A. B. Metzner, Chairman


FALL 1976








university offlorida

offers you ,, -.1


Transport
Phenomena &
Rheology
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.


Optimization
& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.


Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.



andmuclkmore...


A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports


Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.


Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

































































FALL 1976 217













SILLINOI

THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


* GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs with a strong
emphasis on creative research, either in fundamental engineering science or its application to the
solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be
achieved from the close one-to-one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de-
velop relevant scientific contributions.
* STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re-
search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements.
Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available, not only in terms of equipment
and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel.


Applied Mathematics
Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering
Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Reactor Dynamics
Corrosion
Electronic Structure of Matter
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Sources and Conservation
Environmental Engineering
Fluid Dynamics
Heat Transfer
High Pressure
Mass Transfer
Materials Science and Engineering
Molecular Thermodynamics
Phase Transformations
Process Control
Process Design
Reaction Engineering
Statistical Mechanics
Systems Analysis
Two-Phase Flow


0 FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS:


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


* AREAS OF RESEARCH:


Professor J. W. Westwater
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Adams Laboratory
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801






GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH


The Department of Energy Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO CIRCLE




Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Faculty and Research Activities in
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Head of the Department
David S. Hacker
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1954
Associate Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
Victor J. Kremesec, Jr.
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1975
Assistant Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Associate Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szipe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:


Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Chemical kinetics, mass transport phenomena, chemical
process design, particulate transport phenomena

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers

Multi-phase flow, flow in porous media, mass transfer,
interfacial behavior, biological applications of transport
phenomena, thermodynamics of solutions
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
cryobioengineering
Thermodynamics, biotransport, artificial organs,
biophysics

Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, optimization,
environmental and pollution problems


Professor W. J. Minkowyz, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680







IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY

OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production,
Atomic Energy)
Renato G. Bautista
Lawrence E. Burkhart
George G. Burnet
Allen H. Pulsifer
Dean L. Ulrichson
Thomas D. Wheelock


Biomedical Engineering
(System Modeling,
Transport. process)
Richard C. Seagrave
Charles E. Glatz

Biochemical Engineering
(Enzyme Technology)
Charles E. Glatz
Peter J. Reilly

Polymerization Processes
Wiilliam H. Abraham
John D. Stevens

as well as
Air Pollution Control
Solvent Extraction
High Pressure Technology
Mineral Processing


GRADUATE STUDY and

GRADUATE RESEARCH

in

Chemical Engineering



Transport Processes
(Heat, mass & momentum transfer)
William H. Abraham
Renato G. Bautista
Charles E. Glatz
James C. Hill
Frank 0. Shuck
Richard C. Seagrave

Process Chemistry and
Fertilizer Technology
David R. Boylan
George Burnet
Maurice A. Larson


Crystallization Kinetics
Maurice A. Larson
John D. Stevens

Process Instrumentation
and System Optimization
and Control
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Kenneth R. Jolls


write to:
Prof. D. L. Ulrichson
Dept. of Chem. Engr. & Nuc. Engr.
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010






UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program


Petroleum Engineering
also
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
and
M.S. in Petroleum Management


The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.



Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants


Research Areas

Transport Phenomena
Fluid Flow in Porous Media
Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies
Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems
Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior


For Information and Applications write:

Floyd W. Preston, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922










Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $5,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER
HEAT TRANSFER
FLUID MECHANICS
THERMODYNAMICS
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SOLID MIXING
CATALYSIS
OPTIMIZATION
FLUIDIZATION
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM












UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

DEPART IENr OF

CHEMI101

ENGINEERING
M.S. & Ph.D. Programs
Including Intensive Study in
ENERGY ENGINEERING
Energy supply and demand
Hydrogen production processes
Coal liquefaction and gasification processes
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Process and system control, and gas cleaning
Diffusion, and modelling of urban atmospheres

WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
Advanced waste treatment and water reclamation
Design of physical and chemical processes
Biochemical reactor design
STIPENDS:
Excellent financial support is available
in the form of National Science Foundation
Traineeships, fellowships & assistantships.
OTHER PROGRAM AREAS:
Thermodynamics Reactor design
Process control Transport
WRITE TO: R.B. Grieves, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY 40506






























* ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY


* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


* BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING


* TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

* CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

* SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY


* POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES

* ENERGY


Massachusetts

Institute
of Technology




DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING










For decades to come, the chemical engineer
will play a central role in fields of national
concern. In two areas alone, energy and the
environment, society and industry will turn
to the chemical engineer for technology and
management in finding process-related
solutions to critical problems. MIT has con-
sistently been a leader in chemical engineer-
ing education with a strong working relation-
ship with industry for over a half century.
For detailed information, contact Professor
Kenneth A. Smith, Acting Head of the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.


Raymond F. Baddour
Janos M. Beer
Clark K. Colton
Lawrence B., Evans
Hoyt C. Hottel
Jack B. Howard
John P. Longwell
Herman P. Meissner
Edward W. Merrill


FACULTY
J. Th. G. Overbeek
Robert C. Reid
Adel F. Sarofim
Charles N. Satterfield
Kenneth A. Smith
J. Edward Vivian
Glenn C. Williams
Michael Modell
Ronald A. Hites


Robert C. Armstrong
Lloyd A. Clomburg
Robert E. Cohen
William M. Deen
Richard G. Donnelly
Christos Georgakis
Michael P. Manning
Frederick A. Putnam
Jefferson W. Tester









Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA

ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman


Day Programs



Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence Mixing and Drag Reduction
Studies-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson

(2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W.
Johnson

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.

(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees



In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:
(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems; Energy
Conversion from Agricultural Products-
Prof. J. L. Gaddy
(b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies
-Dr. M. E. Findley
(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies and
Separation Processes-Dr. R. C. Waggoner
(d) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice


(e) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer
Applications to Process Control-Ds. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-
kamp
(f) Transport Properties, Kinetics, enzymes and
catalysis-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E.
Poling
(g) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley








Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.


FALL 1976









university of


pennsylvania


chemical


and biochemical


engineering


FACULTY
Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan)
Elizabeth B. Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins)
William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania)
Eduardo D. Glandt (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia)
Mitchell Litt (Columbia)
Alan L. Myers (California)
Melvin C. Molstad (Yale)
Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale)
John A. Quinn (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider (Michigan)


RESEARCH SPECIALTIES
Energy Utilization
Enzyme Engineering
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Environmental and Pollution Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques
Transport Phenomena


The faculty includes two members of the National Academy of Engineering and three recipients of the highest honors awarded by the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers. Staff members are active in teaching, research, and professional work. Located near one of the largest con-
centrations of chemical industry in the United States, the University of Pensylvania maintains the scholarly standards of the Ivy League and
numbers among its assets a superlative Medical Center and the Wharton School of Business.


PHILADELPHIA: The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University.
Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the New Jersey shore are within a two-
hour drive.


For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to Dr. A. L. Myers,
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering / D3, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19174.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












LOOKING


for a
graduate education
in

Chemical Engineering ?

Consider


PENN STATE

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Research
Reactor Design and Catalysis
Transport Phenomena
Thermodynamic Properties
Process Dynamics and Control
Applied Chemistry and Kinetics
Petroleum Refining
Tribology
Interfacial Phenomena
Energy Research
And Other Areas

WRITE TO
Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Fenske Laboratory
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802


FALL 1976






HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO

YOUR GRADUATE WORK

IN THE CULTURAL CENTER

OF THE WORLD?


I.

i~I,.'i


L__. '^ S-M a- -.. S ---* *.S ^
m~P51,n


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING


FACULTY
R. C. Ackerberg
R. F. Benenati
J. J. Conti
C. D. Han
R. D. Patel
E. M. Pearce
E. N. Ziegler


RESEARCH AREAS
Air Pollution
Biomedical Systems
Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors
Fluidization
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical Modelling
Polymerization Reactions
Process Control
Rheology and Polymer Processing


Polytechnic
Institute

Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science.


Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and
Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research:
chemical engineering, polymer science and
engineering and environmental studies.


Fellowships and Research Assistantships
are available.

For further information contact
Professor C. D. Han
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201


















I


o:3b Albright
Barile
,B Chao
Delgass
Eckert
S Emery
Greenkorn
Hanneman
Houze
f Kessler


wAj


.d


Koppel
Lim
Reklaitis
Sesonske
Squires
Theofanous
Tsao
Wankat
Weigand
Woods


.I
A


Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907











Graduate Study


in Chemical Engineering


at Rice University


Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in
the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the
student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary
proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various
areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint
program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available.

The Department has approximately 30 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several
post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers
12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio,
outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in
keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer-
ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent
evaluation by the American Council of Education.


MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Chromatography
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
Blood Flow and Blood Trauma
Blood Pumping Systems
Biomaterials

Rice University
Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca-
tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac-
tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine
residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston.
There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800
graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a
complete university with programs in the various fields
of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer-
ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings.
The academic year is from August to May. As there
are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly
four months for research. The school offers excellent
recreational and athletic facilities with a completely
equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes
outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year-
round activities.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT
Full-time graduate students receive financial support
with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of
$333-400 per month.

APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION
Address letters of inquiry to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

Houston
With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










THE STATE UNIVERSITY
1 1jRUTGERSHOF NEW JERSEY

M.S. and Ph.D.

PROGRAMS
-IN THE DEPARTMENT OF

X CHEMICAL AND

BIOCHEMICAL

ii ENGINEERING
College of Engineering

AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
* THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY,
COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
* MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES BIOMATERIALS
* ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
* BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES
INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS FLAMMABILITY OF MATERIALS OCEANS AND ESTUARIES
ENZYMES IN THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE, PACKAGING QUALITY MANAGEMENT
PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSING POLYMER PROCESSING WASTES RECOVERY
AND WASTE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
FOOD PROCESSING
FELLOWSHIPS AND For Application Forms and Further Information Write To:
Dr. A. Constantinides, Graduate Director
ASSISTANTSHIPS Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
College of Engineering
ARE AVAILABLE Rutgers, The State University
New Brunswick, N.J. 08903


FALL 1976


















THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

AT COLUMBIA
between the mountains and the sea
where the quality of life is good and opportunities for ambitious
students abound in this fastest growing area of the country.
Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineer-
ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemistry, physics, math-
ematics, materials and computer science.
Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are
available.

For particulars and application forms write to:
Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman
Chemical Engineering Program
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, S.C. 29208


THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY
B. L. Baker, Professor, Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process
design, environmental problems, ion transport)
M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951
(Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treat-
ment)
J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer,
fluid mechanics)
F. P. Pike, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass
transfer in liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria)
T. G. Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., The University of Michigan, 1976
(Chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems, process
design, thermodynamics)
G. B. Tatterson, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1977 (Process
control, real time computing, mixing phenomena)
V. Van Brunt, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass
Transfer, Computer Modeling)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











LOOK WHAT'S COMING TO BUFFALO!


mmm EE Immmm.....


*: .* -* -:- '^' '*.*^*f ^ '~ -
- -.- .- -
L !. o .


The New Chemical Engineering Building
Clifford C. Furnas Hall


Sailing on nearby Lake Erie


The Department of Chemical Engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo is proud to have the only State-supported chemical
engineering program in New York. In the Fall of 1977, the Department will move into Furnas Hall on the new Amherst Campus on the out-
skirts of Buffalo. The building is ten stories and contains 75,000 square feet of offices and laboratories. This 1200-acre campus represents a $650
million investment in education. While it is part of a large university, Chemical Engineering at Buffalo is a highly personal educational experience.

RESEARCH


Energy Utilization
Environmental Problems
Kinetics and Catalysis


Process Design and Development
Biochemical Engineering


Fluid Mechanics and Rheology
Polymer Science and Engineering
Surface Science


FACULTY
D. R. Brutvan .. ------------ Staged operations
P. Ehrlich ..--.------ ---- Polymeric materials, thermodynamics
W. N. Gill_. -- -------------- ..... Dispersion, reverse osmosis
R. J. Good Surface phenomena, adhesion
A. E. Hamielec (Adjunct) -------------- Polymer synthesis and reactor engineering
K. M. Kiser ---..... ---------------- Blood flow, turbulence, pollution in lakes
P. J. Phillips ---------------- Polymer morphology, mechanical and electrical properties
M. Ryan ....... ------........ Polymer rheology, process optimization
E. Ruckenstein ------ -- Catalysis, interfacial phenomena, bioengineering
T. W. Weber----------- Process control, dynamics of adsorption
S. W. Weller ............ --------------- Catalysis, catalytic reactors
D. Zabriskie ...............---------------------. Biochemical engineering, fermentation

Financial aid available for undergraduate and For further information please write or call me personally.
graduate students. Dr. Sol W. Weller

Chemical Engineering Building
State University of New York
Buffalo, N.Y. 14214
(716) 831-3105


-''*a-l^ '":' 1-"


























Programs

Programs for the degrees of Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy are
offered in chemical engineering,
metallurgical engineering and polymer
engineering. The Master's program may
be tailored as a terminal one with
emphasis on professional development,
or it may serve as preparation for more
advanced work leading to the Doc-
torate.




Faculty

William T. Becker
Donald C. Bogue
Charlie R. Brooks
Duane D. Bruns
Edward S. Clark
Oran L. Culberson
John F. Fellers
George C. Frazier
Hsien-Wen Hsu
Homer F. Johnson, Department Head
Stanley H. Jury
Peter J. Meschter
Charles F. Moore
Ben F. Oliver, Professor-in-Charg
of Metallurgical Engineering
Joseph J. Perona
Joseph E. Spruiell
E. Eugene Stansbury
James L. White


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF TENNESSEE


Graduate

Studies in

Chemical,

Metallurgical &

Polymer

Engineering



Research

Process Dynamics and Control
Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of
Packed Beds
Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge
Studies of Macromolecules
Development and Synthesis of New
Engineering Polymers
Fiber and Plastics Processing
Chemical Bioengineering
X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission and
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Solidification, Zone Refining
and Welding
Cryogenic and High Temperature
Calorimetry
Flow and Fracture in Metallic and
Polymeric Systems
Corrosion
Solid State Kinetics


Financial Assistance

Sources available include graduate
teaching assistantships, research assis-
tantships, and industrial fellowships.


Knoxville and
Surroundings

With a population near 200,000, Knox-
ville is the trade and industrial center of
East Tennessee. In the Knoxville Audi-
torium-Coliseum and the University
theaters, Broadway plays, musical and
dramatic artists, and other entertain-
ment events are regularly scheduled.
Knoxville has a number of points of his-
torical interest, a symphony orchestra,
two art galleries, and a number of
museums. Within an hour's drive are
many TVA lakes and mountain streams
for water sports, the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park with the Gatlin-
burg tourist area, two state parks, and
the atomic energy installations at Oak
Ridge, including the Museum of Atomic
Energy.

Write

Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












. ...

............................


UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

TORONTO, CANADA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
& APPLIED CHEMISTRY


p "'','.'.'.'.' .'.'.'-" ...


The Department offers a wide range of research topics for the
creative student including:

" nuclear power engineering
" energy engineering, solar heating
" electrochemical engineering and corrosion
" polymer science and engineering
" plastics engineering and composite materials
Process modelling and optimal control
Sfluid mechanics and pipeline transportation
Spetrophemistry and tar sands development
Ceramics engineering
Seat, mass and momentum transport
Sradiodhemistry and radioanalysis
Analytical chemistry and instrumentation
" thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis
" applied organic chemistry
" environmental engineering
" biomedical engineering
* bioengineering and food synthesis
" pulp and paper chemistry


The Department ranks as one of the largest chemical
engineering schools in the world with a total professorial
staff of 33 and an enrolment of 160 graduate students.
Interdisciplinary research is fostered through joint projects
with the Institute for Environmental Studies, the Institute
for Biomedical Engineering, the Centre for the Study of
Materials, the Systems Building Centre, and the Institute
for Aerospace Studies.
Admission to the School of Graduate Studies is based
solely on academic standing and availability of space and
facilities. A graduate brochure entitled "Graduate Research
and Career Development" which describes current research
programs is available on request. Adequate financial support
in the form of scholarships, fellowships or bursaries
is available to qualified students.
For further details write:
Professor R.T. Woodhams, Graduate Secretary
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Applied Chemistry
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario
Canada MSS 1A4







West Virginia

University


Energy Engineering
Coal Conversion
Potential of Coal Based Energy Complexes
Conversion of Solid Wastes to Low BTU Gas


Environmental


Engineering


Other Topics
Optimization
Chemical Kinetics
Separation Processes
Fluidization
Bioengineering
Transport Phenomena
Utilization of Ultrasonic Energy


Purification of Acid Mine Drainage Water
by Reverse Osmosis
Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering
SO2 Scrubbing
Economic Impact of
Environmental Regulations
River & Lake Modeling


M.S. and Ph.D.


Programs


For further information in
financial aid write:
Dr. J. D. Henry
Department of Chemical Engineering
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506


U
Ii
U


Chemical

Engineering


I











CHEMICAL


ENGINEERING




DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D.
RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE:
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
PROCESS MODELING
IN: COAL GASIFICATION, CHEMICALS FROM WOOD, ECOSYSTEM
ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES
CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD
P. O. BOX G
University, Alabama 35486



S B DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY
LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837

For admission, address
Dr. George F. Folkers
Coordinator of Graduate Studies



* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* For the usual candidate with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation. Special programs
are arranged for candidates with baccalaureate degrees in the natural sciences.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* Typical interests of the faculty include the areas of: reaction kinetics and catalyst deactiva-
tion; thermodynamics; process dynamics and control, including direct digital control; computer-
aided design; science of materials, particularly metallurgy and polymer technology; numerical
analysis; statistical analysis; mathematical modeling; operations research.


FALL 1976












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS


Faculty
R. L. Bell:
R. G. Carbonell
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
F. R. McLarnon:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:


Mass Transfer, Bio Medical Engineering
Enzyme Kinetics, Quantum Mechanics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Electrochemistry, Electrochemical Engineering
Water Pollution, Reactor Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena


To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

AT UCLA


The University of California, Los Angeles offers a broad educational experience in chemical engineering
and allied fields. Areas of chemical engineering specialization include:


* KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
* BIOENGINEERING
* ELECTROCHEMISTRY
* TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

* THERMODYNAMICS


* ADVANCED ENERGY SOURCES
(NUCLEAR,SOLAR, COAL)
* ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
* MEMBRANE TRANSPORT AND
SEPARATION PROCESSES
* OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL


FOR INFORMATION ON PROGRAMS, ADMISSIONS, AND FINANCIAL AID PLEASE WRITE TO
PROFESSOR ALAN ULLMAN, ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE
ENERGY AND KINETICS DEPARTMENT
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90024


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA


CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING


Gerald R. Cysewski
Henri J. Fenech
Husam Gurol
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp


John E. Myers
George L. Nicolaides
G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker
Orville C. Sandall


For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106


FALL 1976


CINCINNATI f
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING -

M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES

-Major urban educational center
-New, prize-winning laboratory building and
facilities-Rhodes Hall
-National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent
to campus
-Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid
-Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control,
polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction-
ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen-
eration, heat transfer.
Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head
Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering (0620)
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221


































































CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


CLEMSON UNIVERSITY

S o Chemical Engineering Department

00.0*6 0...' M.S. and Doctoral Programs


THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS
Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Industrial Pollution Control
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids, Interfacial Phenomena
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U.-Digital Computer Process Control, Textile Dyeing and Finishing
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena, Pulp and Paper Processing
Edie, D. D., Ph.D., U. Virginia-Crystallization, Polymer Processing
Haile, J. M., Ph.D., U. Florida-Statistical Thermodynamics, Computer Simulation of Fluids
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Kinetics and Reactor Design, Membrane Processes
Melsheimer, S. S., Ph.D., Tulane-Membrane Transport, Numerical Methods, Process Control
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption
Talbott, W. H., Ph.D., U. Michigan-Rheology, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
Contact:
D. D. Edie, Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631


COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROGRAM-The Chemical and Petroleum-Refining Engineering Department offers
graduate programs leading to M.S., or Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering.
Three semesters will normally be required for the M.S. degree, and three or more
years for the Ph.D. degree. These degree programs are flexible in scope, and
will be adjusted to meet the needs and desires of each student.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Both research assistantships and teaching assistantships
are available with stipends to $450 per month plus tuition for the academic year.
LOCATION-The Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, Colorado, is picturesquely
situated in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, 13 miles west of Denver. Most
of Colorado's beautiful recreation areas for hiking, camping, or skiing are easily
reached from Golden.
LIVING ACCOMODATIONS-Most graduate students, both single and married,
prefer to live in private apartments in the Golden-Denver area. For those students
desiring to live on campus, the School maintains resident halls for single students
and apartments for married students.













t-h




university
of
conctct


programs
M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL


financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England


We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268


LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

Department of Chemical Engineering
Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015

Can you match the professor with his technical specialty(ies)?


PROFESSOR
Marvin Charles
Curtis W. Clump
Robert W. Coughlin
Mohamed EI-Aasser
Alan S. Foust
William L. Luyben
Anthony J. McHugh
Gary W. Poehlein
William E. Schiesser
Leslie H. Sperling
Fred P. Stein
Leonard A. Wenzel


RESEARCH/TECHNOLOGY
Mass and Heat Transfer
Thermodynamics
Energy/Fossil Fuels
Nuclear Technology
Polymer Materials Science
Numerical Integration
Catalysis
Chemical Reactor Engineering
Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering
Enzyme Technology
Cryogenics
Process Design
Technology Transfer
Process Dynamics
Waste Water Treatment
Air Pollution Control
Rheology
Emulsion Polymerization
Computer Simulation
Surface Science
Process Control
Transport Phenomena
Kinetics


FALL 1976


faculty
J. P. BELL
C. 0. BENNETT
R. W. COUGHLIN
M. B. CUTLIP
A. T. DiBENEDETTO
G. M. HOWARD
H. E. KLEI
R. M. STEPHENSON
L. F. STUTZMAN
D. W. SUNDSTROM













Graduate Enrollment 60


CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT


UNIVERSITY
OF
MARYLAND


The Department offers a broad program of
grees. Specialties available in Biochemical,
Polymers, and Energy-related areas.
Tuition for the 1976-77 academic year is
$85 per credit hour for nonresidents.


graduate studies leading to MS and PhD de-
Environmental Process Analysis and Simulation,

$40 per credit hour for Maryland residents and


Board and lodging are available in many private homes and apartments in College Park
and vicinity, with recent estimates suggesting that accommodations may cost anywhere
from $100 to $200 monthly. A list of accommodations is maintained by the University's
Housing Bureau.
The College Park campus is located a few miles from Washington, D.C. and thirty miles
from Baltimore and Annapolis. Because of its proximity to Washington, the University
community enjoys advantages found nowhere else in the country. The variety of political,
social, educational, cultural and athletic events enhances the life of all graduate students
at Maryland.
Graduate Research and Teaching Assistantships and ERDA Traineeships. Contact Prof. A.
Gomezplata, Chairman, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College
Park, Maryland 20742.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


S Faculty 19



Bioengineering
Pollution Control
Process Dynamics
Computer Control
0 Kinetics and Catalysis
Thermodynamics
Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department Sugar Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803


Programs
of Study:

Cost of
Tuition:
Cost of
Living:


The
Community:



Financial
Aid:


242












McMASTER UNIVERSITY

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS

THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS


R. B. Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) Ca
M. H. 1. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) Os
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) W
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) Po
C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) O
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) Bi
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) Po
T. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) He
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Sti
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) W
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) Ma
W. J. Snodgrass (Ph.D., U. of N. Carolina, Chapel Hill) M
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) Po
D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Int
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) Pr


DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL
RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST


talysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
cillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
astewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
'lymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
optimization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simulation
logical Fluid and Mass Transfer
lymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
at Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
atistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control
wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
ass Transfer, Corrosion
odelling of Aquatic Systems
lymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Processes
terfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
ocess Simulation and Control, Computer Control


CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman,
Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7


THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS


on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS


The University of Michigan awarded its first
Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D.
in 1914. It has moved with the times since and
today offers a flexible program of graduate
study that allows emphases ranging from fun-
damentals to design.
The Chemical Engineering Department, with
19 faculty members and some 70 graduate stu-
dents, has opportunities for study and research
in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor
design, transport processes, mathematical and
numerical methods, optimization, mixing, rheol-
ogy, materials, bioengineering, electrochemical
engineering, production-pipelining-storage of oil
and gas, coal processing, and pollution control.


The M.S. program may be completed in 10
months and does not require a thesis. The Pro-
fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond
the Master's and a professional problem. The
Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to
expedite entry into a research area as early in
the program as possible.

For further Information and applications,
write:
Prof. Brice Carnahan
Chairman of the Graduate Committee
The University of Michigan
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104


FALL 1976 243


FALL 1976


243










DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK AT MICHIGAN TECH...


WORK AND STUDY
... with a select faculty
... the best equipment
... surrounded by forests and lakes

DEGREES OFFERED:
M.S. in Chemical Engineering
studies in advanced thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, instrumentation, unit operations, and
chemical processing.
M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemistry
specialization in organic, inorganic, physical and analytical chemistry, and in biochemistry.



Financial assistance available in the form of fellowships and assistantships.

For more information write:
S H. El Khadem, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, Michigan 49931


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


DO YOU THINK

OF

MINNESOTA

. as an hyperborean haunt of horrendous weather far to the north of the
Cote d'Azur and other balmy latitudes?
. as a domain dominated by dismal theoreticians and other weird species?

IF SO

. you're wrong on both counts. Our weather is brisk, to be sure, but far
from glacial. Our theoreticians are doughty not dismal; and anyway the
experimentalists outnumber the theoreticians-nor do they themselves fear
theory.

For the unexpurgated truth on graduate work at Minnesota, write:
DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES
Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455


244








































MONASH UNIVERSITY
CLAYTON, VICTORIA
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIPS


Applications are invited for Monash University
Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering. The awards are
intended to enable scholars to carry out under
supervision, a programme of full-time advanced
studies and research which may lead to the
degrees of Master of Engineering Science and/
or Doctor of Philosophy.

Facilities are available for work in the general
fields of:

Biochemical and Environmental Engineering
Rheology
Computer Process Control
Heat and Mass Transfer


Minerals Processing
Hydro and Pyrometallurgy
Reaction Engineering
Fluidisation

Scholarships carry a tax-free stipend of $A3,250
per annum. Detailed information about the
awards and the necessary application forms may
be obtained from the Academic Registrar. Tech-
nical enquiries should be addressed to the
Chairman of Department, Professor 0. E. Potter.


Postal Address: Monash University, Wellington
Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168,
Australia


FALL 1976


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D.
Degrees

Research Areas
Air Pollution Monitoring and Control
Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams
Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Energy Sources and Systems
Environmental Control Engineering
Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
Process Control and Modelling of Processes
Single-Cell Protein Research
Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids
Transport in Biological Systems
WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg.,
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201














UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA


OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH
LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. IN THE AREAS OF:


Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Crystallization
Food Processing
Kinetics


Mixing
Polymerization
Thermodynamics
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas


FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO:


Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508


THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

f- Offering Research Opportunities in
t ,' Coal Gasification
SDesalination
Synthetic Fuels
Hydrogen Economy
Mini Computer Applications to
Process Control
Process Simulation
Hydroa-Metallurgy
Radioactive Waste Management
.-. and more

Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque!

For further information, write:
Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131












NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Faculty and Research Activities:


S. G. Bankoff
G. M. Brown
J. B. Butt
S. H. Carr
W. C. Cohen
B. Crist
J. S. Dranoff
T. K. Goldstick
W. W. Graessley
H. M. Hulburt
H. H. Kung
G. G. Lamb
R. S. H. Mah
J. C. Slattery
W. F. Stevens
G. Thodos


Boiling Heat Transfer, Two-Phase Flow
Thermodynamics, Process Simulation
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Catalysis
Solid State Properties of Polymers, Biodegradation
Dynamics and Control of Process Systems
Polymers in the Solid State
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chromatographic Separations
Biomedical Engineering, Oxygen Transport
Polymer Rheology, Polymer Reaction Engineering
Analysis of Chemical and Physical Processes
Catalyst Behavior, Properties of Oxide Surfaces
Analysis of Societal Change
Computer-Aided Process Planning, Design and Analysis
Transport and Interfacial Phenomena
Process Optimization and Control
Properties of Fluids, Coal Processing, Solar Energy


Financial support is available
For information and application materials, write:
Professor William F. Stevens, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois 60201


GRADUATE


STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS


Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control
Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Rheology Unit Operations
Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Simulation
Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request


WRITE E. R. Haering, Acting Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210



FALL 1976 9A











i1 HE


UNIVERSITY

OF


OKAL4HO/IA


WRITE TO:
THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069


* CATALYSIS
* CORROSION
* DIGITAL SYSTEMS
* DESIGN
* POLYMERS
* METALLURGY
* THERMODYNAMICS
* RATE PROCESSES
* ENZYME TECHNOLOGY


Princeton
University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY
Ronald P. Andres
Robert C. Axtmann
Robert L. Bratzler
Joseph M. Calo
John K. Gillham
Ernest F. Johnson
Morton D. Kostin
Leon Lapidus
Bryce Maxwell
David F. Ollis
William B. Russel
Dudley A. Saville
William R. Schowalter
Garth L. Wilkes


RESEARCH AREAS
Atmospheric Aerosols
Bioengineering
Catalysis
Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Energy Conversion & Fusion Reactor Technology
Environmental Studies
Fluid Mechanics & Rheology
Mass & Momentum Transport
Molecular Beams
Polymer Materials Science & Rheology
Process Control & Optimization


WRITE TO
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

















Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering


M Sc and PhD Degree Programs

D.W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin)
H.A. Becker ScD (MIT)
D.H. Bone PhD(London)
S.C. Cho PhD (Princeton)
R.H. Clark PhD (Imperial College)
R.K. Code PhD (Cornell)
J. Downie PhD (Toronto)
J.E. Ellsworth PhD (Princeton)
C.C. HSU PhD(Texas)
J.D. Raal PhD (Toronto)
T.R. Warriner ScD (Johns Hopkins)
B.W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa)


* Waste Processing
water and waste treatment
applied microbiology
biochemical engineering
* Chemical Reaction
Engineering
catalysis
statistical design
polymer studies

* Transport Processes
combustion
fluid mechanics
thermodynamics


Write:
Dr. John Downie
Department of Chemical
Engineering
Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario
Canada


I i


FACULTY:
ANDREAS ACRIVOS (Ph.D., 1954, Minnesota)
Fluid Mechanics.
MICHEL BOUDART (Ph.D., 1950, Princeton)
Kinetics & Catalysis.
CURTIS W. FRANK (Ph.D., 1972, Illinois)
Polymer Physics.
GEORGE M. HOMSY (Ph.D., 1969, Illinois)
Fluid Mechanics & Stability.
ROBERT J. MADIX (Ph.D., 1964, U. Cal-Berkeley)
Surface Reactivity.
DAVID M. MASON (Ph.D., 1949, Cal Tech)
Applied Thermodynamics & Chemical Kinetics.
CHANNING R. ROBERTSON (Ph.D., 1969, Stanford)
Bioengineering.

LECTURERS & CONSULTING FACULTY:
RICHARD E. BALZHISER, E.P.R.I.,
Palo Alto, CA (Ph.D., 1961, Michigan)
Heat Transfer & Thermodynamics.
ALAN S. MICHAELS, Alza Corporation,
Palo Alta, CA (Sc.D., 1948, M.I.T.)
Surface, Colloid & Polymer Chemistry.
ROBERT H. SCHWAAR, S.R.I., Menlo Park, CA.
(Ph.D., 1956, Princeton)
Technological Development & Process Design.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

AT


STANFORD UNIVERSITY

Stanford University offers programs of study and
research leading to master of science and doctor of
philosophy degrees in chemical engineering with a
number of financially attractive fellowships and as-
sistantships available to outstanding students pursuing
either program.

For further information and application blanks, write


Admissions Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305.


4.4
'"5
N
a
~rb.2. ~


Closing date for applications is Feb. 15, 1977.


FALL 1976 249


FALL 1976


249












SRENSSELAER


RPI) POLYTECHNIC

INSTITUTE

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
offers graduate study programs leading to M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees with opportunities for specialization in:
THERMODYNAMICS
HEAT TRANSFER
FLUIDIZATION
WATER RESOURCES
AIR POLLUTION
POLYMER MATERIALS
POLYMER PROCESSING
PROCESS DYNAMICS
SOLID WASTES

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, established in 1824
"for the application of science to the common purposes
of life," has grown from a school of engineering and
applied science into a technological university, serving
some 3500 undergraduates and over 1000 graduate
students.
It is located in Troy, New York, about 150 miles
north of New York City and 180 miles west of Boston.
Troy, Albany, and Schenectady together comprise the
heart of New York's Capital District, an upstate metro-
politan area of about 600,000 population. These his-
toric cities and the surrounding countryside provide the
attractions of both urban and and rural life.
Scenic streams, lakes and mountains, including the
Hudson River, Lake George, the Green Mountains of
Vermont, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions
of the Adirondack Forest Preserve, are within easy
driving distance, and offer many attractions for those
interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hunting, fishing,
etc.

For full details write
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
12181.


Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De-
partment offers M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-
doctoral programs in:

*Biochemical and Food Engineering
*Environmental and Pollution Control
*Extractive and Process Metallurgy
*Polymer Science and Engineering
*Mathematical Analysis and Control
*Transport Phenomena and Kinetics

Financial Aid: Competitive with any other Canadian
University

Academic Staff: K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton);
E. Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester); R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D.
(Princeton); T. L. Batke, Ph.D. (Toronto); K S. Chang,
Ph.D. (Northwestern); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (U.B.C.);
T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (Illinois); R. Y-M. Huang, Ph.D.
(Toronto); D. C. T. Pei, Ph.D. (McGill); P. M. Reilly, Ph.D.
(London); A. Rudin, Ph.D. (Northwestern); D. S. Scott,
Ph.D. (Illinois); P. L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich); D. R.
Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State); G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Man-
chester); B. M. E. van der Hoff, Ir (Delf); M. Moo-Young,
Ph.D. (London); L. E. Bodnar, Ph.D. (McMaster); C. M.
Burns, Ph.D. (Polytechnic Inst., Brooklyn); J. J. Byerley,
Ph.D. (U.B.C.); K. Enns, Ph.D. (Toronto); J. D. Ford,
Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E. Gall, Ph.D. (Minn.); G. L. Rempel,
Ph.D. (U.B.C.); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (U.C., Berkeley);
J. R. Wynnyckyj, Ph.D. (Toronto); I. F. Macdonald, Ph.D.
(Wisconsin); G. S. Mueller, Ph.D. (Manchester); J. M.
Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania);

To apply, contact:
The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies)
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario
Canada N2L 3G1
Further information: See CEE, p. 4, Winter 1975




Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 u 0 UJ (.'.) z UJ UJ z (.'.) z UJ 0 LL .... UJ u 0 V) z 4'. !:d UJ 4'. LL. 0 z 0 (/) > 0 (.'.) z UJ UJ z (.'.) z UJ ...J 4'. u UJ I u VOLUME X NUMBER 4 F A LL 1 976 Graduate Education Issue FOOD ENGINEERING De Kee TRANSPORT PROCESSES Rosner ADSUBBLE SEPARATIONS Lemlich ENVIRONMENTAL COURSES Kl i n z ing DISTILLATION DYNAMICS Deshpande ENGINEER AS ENTREPENEUR Re y nolds ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Alk i re FUSION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY Johnson BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Bailey & Ollis POL YMIR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Koutsky Also: IMP L EMENTAT I ON OF SI IN ChE-Younqu i st 1.25-THIS IS A LOG TABLE?-Berty

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FOR A CHEMICAL ENGINEER A good career decision is like a good stew manythings should go into it! Technical challenge, for example is an important consideration At Procter & Gamble, you ll find as much as you can handle. As a major chemical process industry in volved in a very wide range of product and process development activities, we welcome chemical en gineers who like a challenge You need only pick the direction that interests you most! A company's stability despite abrupt changes in the economy, is another important consideration in mak ing your career choice As is the growth record of your prospective employer At P&G we make and sell things that people need and buy, in good times and bad. According to Fortune magazine, "One or more P&G products are used in 95 out of 100 homes, a penetration unequaled by any other manufacturer of anything!" P&G sales arid earnings have increased every year since 1952 Net sales have doubled in less than 10 years, to more than $6 billion New products and product improvements are being added continually. And if you're interested in benefits, consider our Profif-Sharing Trust Plan. The performance of this Plan to date has enabled P&G monthly salaried employees to retire at 65 with a lump sum amount equal to about 15 times their averaae career annual salary. This is without cost to the employee. Technical challenge Substantial initial responsibility. Advancement on merit alone. Stability in good times and bad A company marked by vigorous growth. A benefits program that ranks among the top 5% of all U S. companies Good reasons to see the P&G re cruiter when he visits your campus! PROCTER & CAMBLE An Equal Opportun i ty Employer

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: William H. Corcoran California Institute of Technology SOUTH: Homer F. Johnson University of Tennessee Vincent W. Uhl University of Virginia CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti University of Toledo Camden A. Coberly University of Wisconsin Darsh T. Wasan Illinois Institute of Technology WEST: George F. Meenaghan Texas Tech University SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump University of Houston EAST: Leon Lapidus Princeton University Thomas W. Weber State University of New York Lee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University NORTH: J. J. Martin University of Michigan Edward B. Stuart University of Pittsburgh NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton University of Washington Charles E. Wicks Oregon State University PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania FALL 1976 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME X NUMBER 4 FALL 1976 GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES 158 Electrochemical Engineering, Richard Alkire 162 Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals J. A. Bailey and D. F. Ollis 166 Food Engineering, D. De Kee 168 Distillation Dynamics and Control, P radeep B. Deshpand e 172 Fusion Reactor Technology, Ernest F. Johnson 176 Environmental Courses, G. E. Klin zing ISO Adsorptive Bubble Separati-on Methods, Robe r t Lemlich 184 Introductory Polymer Science and Technology, James A. Koutsky 188 The Engineer as an EntrepreneurSome New Concepts, Ho ward H. Reynolds 190 Energy, Mass and Momentum Transport, Daniel F. Rosner DEPARTMENTS 155 Editorial 154 Letters 154, 196 Book Reviews FEATURES 195 Implementation of SI Units in ChE Education, Gordon R. Youngquist 198 1.25-This Is a Log Table? J.M. Berty 200lndex, Volumes VI-X CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 82611. Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to tbe printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877 DeLeon Springs, Florida 82028. Subscription rate U.S Canada, and Mexico is $10 pe; year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the C hE Di v ision of ASEE. Bulk subscription rates to ChE facult y on request Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright 1976. Chemical Engineering Di v ision of American Society for Engineering Education, Ray Fabien, Editor, The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsihility for them, Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days. The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical. 153

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(!Jbli letters REACTION TO GRISKEY RANKING Sir: I found the article by R. G. Griskey, "Ranking Chemical Engineering Departments" in the Summer 1976 issue of GEE to be very interesting. No doubt he will attract both praise and brickbats for his approach. With his method a department may fluctuate rapidly in the standing as fortunes go up or down. If a professor lands a million dollar grant, the departmental rating will soar suddenly. If the number of Ph.D.'s produced drops from 15 to 5 in one year ( entirely possible) the rating will take a nosedive. I am sure he is quite aware of the short-time fluctuations. I would like to see ratings compiled every year, by Griskey's scheme. Let me urge him to consider being the author of a yearly ranking for GEE or some other journal. To many people it would be as valuable as the annual re views of special areas of research which were formerly published, for example, by Ind. Eng. Chem. J. W. Westwater University of Illinois, Urbana Editor's Reply: GEE would be interested in receiving another paper from Prof. Griskey on departmental ratings next year, in order to see what, if any, changes have occurred. Howeve r since the results one obtains depend upon the weighting one gives to the various parameters as well as upon the input data, others may want to try a different approach and, in the interest of fairness and diversity, are invited to do so. GEE would not want to be thought of as endorsers of any particular rating system or to be more or less committed to publishing the "Griskey Ratings" annually to the exclusion of others. Other letters will appear in the next issue. [eJ n #I book reviews HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER DATA BOOK, 2ND EDITION by C. P. Kothandaraman and S. Subramanyan John Wiley & Sons, 197.5. $5.95. Reviewed by F. J. Lockhart, University of Southern California Reference materials, both data and equations, are presented for heat and mass transfer in MKS and SI units. This book is a compilation of data intended for use with a text-book. There are essentially no discussions of the various tables, graphs and formulae, and at times insufficient definitions of 154 symbols References are not given for specific data items, but a list of 16 books is given at the end. So this book is a tertiary reference which does not identify the specific secondary references. There is no subject index and the table of contents is too brief to be of help in locating specific items of interest. A user will have to pre pare his own index. (Perhaps this is a good thing!) Coverage of heat transfer, physical properties and fluid flow is thorough. Mass transfer receives scant attention: 2 pages for equation of molecular diffusion, 2 pages for convective mass transfer co efficients, and 3 pages for humidification equa tions. MULTIV ARIABLE COMPUTER CONTROL A CASE STUDY by D. Grant Fisher and Dale E. Seborg North Holland Publishing Co. (1976) 2 05 Pages. Reviewed by W. Harmon Ray, University of Wisconsin, Madison In order to understand the value of this book, one must become familiar with its genesis. Ap proximately 10 years ago, the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Al berta acquired an IBM 1800 process control com puter and began interfacing it with equipment in their unit operations laboratory. One of the first units to be put under computer control was a double effect evaporator. In the ensuing years, the authors have used this slightly nonlinear, mul tivariable evaporator as a model process for test ing a wide range of both traditional and modern process control techniques. As their research projects were completed, the results were published in great variety of ways including meeting proceedings, chemical engineering jour nals, control journals, trade journals, etc. In many instances their work represented the first real time experimental implementation of the techniques applied. After several years of testing and comparing on-line identification, state estima tion, and control algorithms applied to this evaporator, quite a number of conclusions could be drawn about the relative merits of the techniques considered. Thus after some urging from their colleagues in the field, the authors were persuaded to compile a case study of process con trol algorithms applied to the evaporator and to Continued on page 178. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school. In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them. Should you go to g r aduate school? Through the papers in this special graduate education issue, Chemical Eng i nee r ing Educa tion invites you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional de velopment. We belie v e that you will find that graduate work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate study can provide you with insurance against the increasing danger of technical obsolescence. Furthermore, w e believe that graduate research work under the guidance of an inspiring and in terested faculty member will be important in your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity. What is taught in graduate school? In order to familiarize you with the content of some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate courses as they are taught by scholars at various universities Previous issues included articles on applied mathematics, trans port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics, pa r ticulate systems, optimal control, diffusional operations, computer aided design, statistical anal ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly suggest that you supplement your reading of this issue by also reading the articles published in pre vious years. If your department chairman or pro fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before you read the articles in these issues we wish to point out that (1) there is some variation in course content and course organization at different schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en gineering that we have not been able to cover, and FA L L 1976 (3) the professors who have written these articles are not the only authorities in these fields nor are their departments the only ones that emphasize that particular area of study. Whe r e should y ou go to g ra duat e school? It is common for a student to broaden himself by doing graduate work at an institution other than the one from which he receives his bachelor's degree. Fortunately there are many very fine chemical engineering departments and each of these has its own "personality" with special em phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in choosing a graduate school you might first con sider which school is most suitable for your own futu r e plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a specific research project in mind, you might want to attend a university which empha sizes that area and where a prominent specialist is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if you are unsure of your field of research, you might consider a department that has a large faculty with widely diversified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a small enrollment of graduate students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by writing the schools that have provided information on their graduate programs in the back of this issue. You will probably also wish to seek advice from members of the faculty at your own school. But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that you explore the possibility of continuing your education in graduate school. Sincerely, RAY FAHIEN Editor CEE University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 155

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ACl{NOWLEDGMENTS Industrial Sponsors: The following companies donated funds for the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION during 1975-76: MONSANTO COMPANY 3M COMPANY Departmental Sponsors: The fol lowing 134 departments contributed to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1976: U ni versity of A kron University of A labama U niver sity of Alberta Arizona State University University of Arizona University of Arka11sas Brigham Young University U ni versity of Briti s h Col umbia Bucknell U niver sity U ni versity of Calgary Califo rnia State Polytechnic Californ ia Institute of Technology University of Ca lifornia (Berkeley) University of California (Davis) University of California (Santa Barbara) Carnegie -Mellon University Case-Wes tern Reser ve University C halmer s University of Technology University of C incinnati C larkson College of Technology C lem so n University C le vela nd State University University of Coimbra University of Colorado Colora do School of Mines Columb ia University University of Co nnecticut Corne ll University University of Delaware University of Detr o it Drexel University University Co llege Dublin Ecole Polytech, Canada Georgia Institute of Technology University of Florida University of Hou sto n U ni versity of Idaho University of Illinois (Urbana) Illinois Institute of Technology U niver sity of Iowa Iowa State University Kansas State University University of Kentucky Lafayette College Lamar University Laval U niver sity Lehigh University Loughborou g h University (England) Louisiana State University Louisiana Technological University University of Louisville Lowell Technological Institute University of Maine Manhattan Co llege University of Maryland University of Massachusetts Massachusetts Institute of Technology McMaster University McNeese State University University of Michigan Michigan State UniYersity Michigan Tech. University University of Minnesota University of Mississippi University of Missouri, Rolla Montana State University University of Nebraska Univer s ity of New Brun s wick University of New Hampshire New Jer sey Institute of Technology New Mexico State University University of New Mexico City University of New York Polytechnic In s titute of New York State University of N.Y. at Buffalo North Caro lina State University University of North Dakota Northwestern University University of Notre Dame Nova Scotia Technical C ollege Ohio State University Ohio University Oklahoma State University University of Oklahoma Oregon State University University of Ottawa University of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University University of Pittsburgh Princeton University Purdue University Queen's University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University of Rhode Island Rice University University of Rocheste r Rose-Bulman Institute of Technology Rutgers State University University of South Carolina University of Saskatchewan South Dakota School of Mines University of Southern Ca lifornia Stevens In stit ute of Technology Syracuse University Tennessee Technological University University of Tennessee Texas A&M University Texas A& I University University of Texas at A u sti n Texas Technological University University of Toledo Tri-State College Tufts University Tulane University University of Tulsa University of Utah Vanderbilt University Villanova University Virginia Polytechnic In stit ute Washington State University University of Washington Washington University University of Waterloo Wayne State University West Virginia University University of Western Ontario University of Windsor University of Wisconsin Worcester Polytechnic Institute University of Wyoming Yale University Youngstown State U ni vers it y TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your department chairman to write CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c / o Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. 156 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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For some people. the good life doesn t begin at five p m And it's not measured in vacations and weekends Rather, it wakes up with them every morning It moves with them as they go about their tasks These people work in an atmosphere of growth without con straint. They set their own goals based on their own abilities They use their own judgment in helping to solve problems that directly affect their own lives. Like assuring an amp le food supply. Ridding the environment of pollution Curing disease Because life is fragile, these people believe it needs protection. That's one reason they chose a career with Dow. We need more people who think along these lines and have backgrounds in science engineering. manufacturing and marketing. If you know of students who are l ooking for employment with enough meaning for their tal ents and enthusiasm. have them contact us. Re cruiting and College Relations P.O Box 1713 Midland. Michigan 48640. Dow is an equal opportunity employer male / female. DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A. *Trad e m ark o f T h e D ow Ch e mic al Comp a ny

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ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING RICHARD ALKIRE University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 61801 ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS usually involve the simultaneous interplay of several different phenomena so that overall behavior is often difficult to predict on the basis of intuition alone. The principles of a rational analysis of electrochemical systems rest upon an under standing of thermodynamics, electrode reaction kinetics, surface phenomena, mass transport and potential field effects. The quantitative basis for electrochemical engineering is the combination of transport phenomena and basic physical chemis try. Since this same combination is included in the training of chemical engineers, it is not surprising that chemical engineers can become familiar with electrochemical systems with relative ease. The distinguishing feature of electrochemical systems is the electrical potential. The potential plays a fundamental role in the thermodynamics of galvanic cells, theory of solutions of electro lytes, and double-layer effects at interfaces. The potential is important in the kinetics of charge transfer reactions, in the morphology of surface alterations, and in mass transport by electrical migration. For chemical engineers, there are distinct advantages to having the capability of using electrical energy to carry out chemical re actions. To borrow a metaphor from R. B. Mac Mullin, [l] "Chemical reaction, like politics, is the art of the possible; electrochemical reaction, like military tactics, is the art of overriding the impossible by applying electrical force." In studying electrochemical systems, the chemical engineer must therefore broaden his traditional scope in physical chemistry, as well as adjust, so to speak, his strategy of attack on engineering problems. At Illinois, a three hour lecture course m electrochemical engineering ( 45 class meetings) 158 is offered every other year. In lieu of using a textbook, we have developed a set of lecture notes and homework problems which have been updated and expanded each time the course has been offered. A reasonable alternative would be to use the thorough, yet concise account of fundamental electrochemical principles as given in Electro chemical Systems by John Newman (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973). During the course, about forty homework problems are assigned. These, along with three hour exams, a final examination, and a term paper, determine the course grade. The topic of the term paper is left to the student; grading is based on ap propriateness to course material, originality, technical proficiency, thoroughness of coverage, and accuracy in communication. Some topics covered in recent years include desalination, hydrometallurgy, waste water treatment, recovery of heavy metals, industrial energy conservation, electro-organic synthesis, batteries and fuel cells, and various aspects of corrosion. In addition to chemical engineers, the course has included graduate students from ceramic, metallurgical, nuclear and mechanical engineering, electroanalytical and physical chemistry, and solid-state physics. LECTURE TOPICS AN OUTLINE OF LECTURE topics is given in Table I. A bibliography of useful source material for the preparation of lectures on various topics is available from the author upon request. The introductory comments include a voltage balance about a cell in order to indicate the different phenomena which act to consume the voltage applied to the cell terminals. The voltage balance includes terms associated with the thermo dynamic potential of the cell at rest, and over potentials which arise at the electrode surface ( charge transfer and crystallization processes, etc.), in the mass transfer zone near the surface CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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(concentration variations) and the remammg regions within the cell (ohmic resistance effects). The voltage balance indicates that consideration must be given to thermodynamic, kinetic, mass transport, and potential field effects. Of the various phenomena which contribute terms to the voltage balance, the notion of ohmic resistance is the most familiar to chemical engineers owing to similitude with heat and mass conduction, and potential flows. The physical chemistry of conduction processes is reviewed for aqueous, nonaqueous, fused salt and solid-state electrolyte systems. The purpose is not to teach fundamental physical chemistry, but to provide sufficient understanding of these systems to per mit estimation of conduction parameters for use in engineering applications. Finally, the notion of the spatial distribution of potential and current is intr9duced in order to calculate the ohmic resistance of an electrolytic solution between two electrodes. Examples discussed at this point can be drawn from applications in electroplating, aluminum cell design, and electro-organic syn thesis cell design. The final discussion topic brings economic factors (dollar balances) into the models in order to provide a quantitative approach to process optimization. Numerous tradeoffs can be decided as, for example, number of individual cells, optimum cell current and electrode area, best anode cathode gap spacing, frequency of gap adjustment, etc. Principles of thermodynamics of galvanic cells are developed next, with examples which include fused salt and solid-state cells. The thermodynamic interactions between heterogeneous charge transfer reaction and homogeneous chemical re actions is covered in detail (Pourbaix diagrams) in preparation for future discussion of corrosion systems. It is, of course, crucial to establish a consistent set of nomenclature for potential signs, and the IUP AC system is used here. Ap plication of principles is made in the areas of estimating cell voltages and measuring thermo dynamic functions. The kinetics of electrode processes are ap proached by first introducing the use of reference electrodes and power supplies by means of which FALL 1976 The author studied electrochemical eng i neering under Professor Charles Tobias at Berkeley, and Professor Carl Wagner at the Max Planck lnstitut fur physikalische Chemie at Gottingen On the faculty of the University of Illinois since 1969, Alk i re has carried out a program of fundamental research which has had applications in electroplating, corrosion, batteries, copper electrowinning, electro organic processing, and cell design the reaction rate and reaction driving force can be measured simultaneously in order to determine the rate constant. In order to analyze the data properly, the existence of the electrical double layer is introduced with discussion of double layer phenomena in colloidal suspension, electro phoretic separation, streaming currents, and electropainting Then the theory of kinetic rate processes is applied to heterogeneous charge transfer reactions in order to generate the form of a reaction rate expression for simple and multiple step reaction sequences. Since chemical engineers are not accustomed to the notion of an electrical potential acting as a driving force for a reaction, it is especially important to proceed with caution in this area. The role of electrode kinetics on mixed-potential (uniform corrosion) systems re ceives careful attention. ENGINEERING RAMIFICATIONS AT THIS POINT, it seems worthwhile to shift attention to some of the engineering ramifica tions of the fundamentals introduced so far. In particular, the relative importance of charge transfer resistance to ohmic resistance ( defined by the dimensionless polarization parameter) is of great importance in determining the uniformity of the current distribution along an electrode sur face. The polarization parameter provides one basis for engineering scale-up of electrochemical systems. The difficulty of scale-up is central to 159

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TABLE I: Course Outlin e PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING I. Introduction to Electrochemical Engineering A. The scope of electrochemical phenomena B. Disciples which encounter the1oe phenomena C. Introductory concepts, Faraday's laws II. The Electrolytic Phase A. Conduction processes in aqueous solutions B. Conduction in nonaqueous solutions and fused salts C. Conduction in ionic crystals D. The resistance of electrolytic solution between electrodes: potential field distribution III. Thermodynamics of Galvanic Cells A. Electromotive force B. Concentration cells and transference C. Applications of galvanic cells 1. Measurements of Gibbs energy, activity coefficients, standard potentials ionization constants; monitoring of chemical reactions on electrode surfaces D. Application of standard potentials 1. Criteria for a stable interface, cell reactions at stable interfaces, Pourbaix diagrams, corrosion IV. Kinetics of Electrode Processes A. Reference electrodes B. Power sources C. Structure of the electrical double layer 1. Capacitance, charging and faradaic re action, stability of colloidal suspensions, applications D. Charge transfer 1. Theory of rate processes, influence of con centration variation, complex reaction se quences, methods of measurement of rate constants E. Applications 1. Corrosion: mixed potential theory, cathodic protection; the polarization parameter and current distribution phenomena, electro plating, battery electrodes V. Mass Transport in Electrochemical Systems A. Electrolysis under diffusive transport control 1. Steady and unsteady-state methods of electroanalytical chemistry B. Electrolysis under convective transport control C. Current distribution at the limiting current D. Current distribution below the limiting current VI. Synthesis of Fundamentals A. Survey of applications B. Modeling electrochemical systems C. Developing an electrochemical process D. Optimizing electrochemical processes 160 the task of electrochemical engineering, and will be developed to a considerable extent later in the course. Applications of the polarization parameter are given by examples of designing battery plates, and electroplating systems. Although mass transport is familiar ground to chemical engineers, the role of the potential and cell voltage present unfamiliar new terri tories which must be worked through. Simple one dimensional examples are available in many of the methods employed in electroanalytical chemistry. More complex examples involve convective mass transport wherein the current and potential dis tribution along an electrode is not uniform owing to the presence of a nonuniform mass transfer boundary layer. The course now moves from providing a fundamental background to developing the engi neering prowess needed for handling practical situations. This last group of lectures is, I feel, the heart of the course. First, a survey of existing industrial process technology is presented in order to show how closely related is the process chemis try and the process engineering. Copper electro refining, chlorine-caustic production, aluminum reduction, battery and fuel cell systems, and water electrolysis provide fertile grounds for discussion. In copper refining cells, for example, a change in process temperature affects the electrolyte con ductivity, the electrochemical reaction rate con stant, the solubility of dissolved salts and the current efficiency. From such examples, the The purpose is not to teach fundamental physical chemistry but to provide sufficient understanding of these systems to permit estimation of conduction parameters for use in engineering applications. students gain a fuller sense of the complex rela tion between process variables and process be havior. The next topic is to show how to develop mathematical models to correlate the behavior of an electrochemical system with the parameters, or process variables of the system. The discussion covers the justification of modeling activities, the different goals and levels of sophistication which models may take on, the typical simplifications which are commonly invoked, and the complexities CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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For chemical engineers there are distinct advantages to having the capability of using electrical energy to carry out chemical reactions. To borrow a metaphor from R. B. McMullin, 11 chemical reaction, like politics, is the art of overriding the impossible by applying electrical force." which often limit such endeavors. Based upon my own interests, I have used as examples models of flow-through porous electrodes, circuit board fabrication, and localized corrosion. The third step is to evaluate and work up the process engineering for a reaction which has been studied in th'J research laboratory at the beaker scale. Altr.Jugh many examples are proba bly available, the workup of the Baizer process for adiponitrile production is particularly well documented insofar as it was awarded the 1965 Kirkpatrick Award for Chemical Engineering Achievement. Attention cent~rs on having students anticipate (1) what dilemmas must be solved in order to settle upon the choice of system chemistry and process operating conditions and (2) when and how to use models to assist in determining what effects are important and how they will scale-up. The final discussion topic brings economic factors ( dollar balances) into the models in order to provide a quantitative approach to process optimization [2]. Numerous tradeoffs can be de cided as, for example, number of individual cells, optimum cell current and electrode area, best anode-cathode gap spacing, frequency of gap ad justment, etc. By discussing the foregoing engineering examples, a great deal can be accomplished in dispelling the aura of black magic which electro chemical systems seem to possess. CONCLUDING REMARKS O F THE TOTAL POWER generated in the United States, nearly 10 % is consumed by the electrochemical process industry. Meanwhile, corrosion processes consume more than fifteen billion dollars in U. S. resources each year, or 1 % of the GNP. Owing to the power consump tion and economic importance of the electro chemical industry, there is certainly no doubt about the technological importance of electro chemical phenomena, nor about the economic in centives for improving our engineering knowledge FALL 1976 of electrochemical systems, including corrosion systems. Compelling trends toward the future indicate that it will become even more important to under stand electrochemical systems. Within the next twenty-five years, the primary form of energy will shift to an electrical form, away from the present chemical fossil fuel form. Nuclear and solar generation both require energy conversion and storage capabilities, and electrochemical routes are certainly most viable. Perhaps even more importantly, chemical engineers will have to learn to operate chemical processes without a fossil fuel based economy. Electrical energy will become increasingly inex pensive in comparison with chemical agents for oxidation and reduction operations. Therefore, it seems only reasonable that chemical engineers will give increased consideration to the evaluation of electrochemical routes for the synthesis of chemical materials and for the beneficiation of increasingly lean natural resources. It is with these perceptions of the future that the choice of examples and discussion topics is made in our teaching efforts. REFERENCES 1. R. B. MacMullin, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 135C (1973). 2. T. R. Beck, "Industrial Electrochemical Processes" in Techniques of Electrochemistry, Vol. III, Yeager and Salkind, Wiley-lnterscience, N.Y., 1976. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The development of this course has taken place over a period of time during which the interest and guidance of several colleagues have been most sincerely appreciated. In particular, I am pleased to acknowledge fruitful conversations with Professor Sherlock Swann Jr. (University of Illinois), Charles Tobias, John Newman (both of the University of California at Berkeley), Thomas Chapman (University of Wisconsin), Robert MacMullin (MacMullin Associates), and Manuel Baizer (Monsanto Company). 161

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BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS J.E. BAILEY U niver sity of Houston Houston, T ex as 77004 and D. F. OLLIS P ri n c eton Uni ver sity Princeton New Je r sey 08540 MICROBIAL AND ENZYMATIC activities have been an intimate part of man's history. Microbes probably account for greater than ninety percent of all animal mass; their biochemical action contributes significantly to chemical processes found in agriculture, diseases, digestion, antibiotic production, food manufacture and processing, spoilage, sanitation, waste disposal, and marine and soil ecology. Consequently, it is remarkable that the study of biochemical processes is not an established component of chemical engineering education. One factor which seems to contribute to the neglect of biochemical engineering courses in many departments presently is the tendency in current texts and monographs to concentrate on a particular class of applications such as fer mentations, enzyme utilization or wastewater When confronted with many pages of descriptive text on biochemistry and microbiology, .. overcoming student apprehension is perhaps the greatest challenge in teaching the course treatment. While each such topic is important, it appears that only a course aimed at all aspects of biochemical engineering applications is likely to provide a sufficiently broad learning base to justify incorporation into most ChE curricula. We have minimized this problem in our course by stressing underlying common fundamentals 162 and a very broad range of applications. The funda mentals comprise those particular topics which profoundly influence the behavior of man-made or natural microbial or enzyme reactors. Such biological examples include the dependence of enzyme (and thus mic r obial ) a ctivity on substrate concentration, pH, temp rature, and ionic strength, the existence of a small number of im portant metabolic paths among the multitude of microbial species, the cellular control mechanisms for complex internal reaction networks, and molecular devices for biological information storage and transmittal. Useful topics chosen from chemical and engineering sciences are the energetics of isothermal, coupled reactions; mixing; transfer of heat and molecular s olutes; ideally and imperfectly mixed chemical reactors; and filtration. The general character of these fundamentals is subsequently stressed by applications to class examples and a wide variety of homework problems. These latter exercises include analyses of spectrophotometry, desugaring of egg white, silver recovery from photographic film, exotoxin production, enzyme electrodes, home winemaking chlorination disinfection detergent biodegrada tion, steam reaeration, anaerobic digester heat balances, production of optically pure amino acids, and soil nitrification. A second resistance in some of the previous efforts in biochemical engineering education arises from the assumption of significant d pri o ri back ground in the biological sciences. Man y ChE students have not studied biochemistry and microbiology, yet a working familiarity with both fields is necessary in biochemical engineering. Consequently, about thirty percent of our course is devoted to a rapid survey of those elements of microbiology and biochemistry essential to under standing biochemical reactors. It i s assumed at the outset that the student is unfamiliar with both topics. During the presentation of this material, an attempt is made to relate life sciences fundaCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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mentals to their process implications. For example, following discussion of molecular genetics, viruses, mutation, and genetic manipula tion, we investigate recent applications of micro bial genetics in developing especially productive microorganisms for several fermentation pro cesses. Searches for explanations of the improved characteristics of the mutated microbes quickly leads to consideration of metabolic control systems and membrane transport, areas which have also been examined earlier in the course. Obviously there is an alternative to our ap proach: require the students to take regular courses in the biological sciences before entering Many ChE students have not studied biochemistry and microbiology ... Consequently, about thirty percent of our course is devoted to a rapid survey of those elements of microbiology essential to understanding biochemical reactors. the biochemical engineering course. In what are already crowded curricula, imposition of such pre requisites greatly limits the students' opportunity to study biochemical engineering, and only those students actively engaged in research in the area are likely to elect such a sequence. On the other hand, by presenting biological fundamentals integrated with engineering analyses, design principles, and applications in a single course, the subject is easily accessible to any graduate student, and indeed to any interested upper level undergraduate. Following this course, those students concentrating in biochemical engineering can and should broaden their base in the life sciences through additional, more advanced courses taught in biochemistry, microbiology, bio physics, and other related departments. The course is summarized in Table 1. The material progresses from atomic to macroscopic dimensions; i.e., from molecular through cellular to microbial population dynamics. Applications and the associated engineering design and analysis principles are presented as soon as the necessary background life science material has been covered. Thus, enzyme isolation and applications are con sidered before discussion of cell metabolism, and pure culture fermentations are examined before delving into the complexities of multiple species FALL 1976 interactions and associated applications. With this parallel approach, the molecular cellular population paradigm is maintained throughout the lectures in fundamentals and ap plications, description and analysis. TEACHING THE COURSE THE COURSE HAS BEEN taught in both a single quarter and a single semester format. In order to allow coverage of all elements of the outline during this period, an extensive set of notes has been developed so that many topics can be presented in the form of outside reading assign ments. Besides their use in the courses at Houston and Princeton, all or portions of these notes have been used in biochemical engineering courses at the University of California at Berkeley, Iowa State University, the University of Maryland, and the University of Virginia. A textbook derived from these notes is now in press. We have noted that engineering students may become a bit disoriented when confronted with many pages of descriptive text on biochemistry and microbiology, each introducing one or more new terms in an expanding cascade of new vocabulary. Overcoming this student apprehen sion is perhaps the greatest challenge in teaching the course, and we have used a variety of strategies in concert to ameliorate the problem. First, divertissements from the onslaught of new biological concepts and terminology are pro vided in both local and longer scales in the lec tures and notes. The best example of the latter case is the location of topics III and IV in the course outline. In addition to the reasons given earlier, the presence of these topics in the midst of biological basics provides the engineering student a respite in the relatively familiar terri tory of kinetics, transport-reaction interaction, and commercial processes. Moreover, these topics show the student that the biochemistry from topic II is indeed necessary and useful, and thus motivation is instilled for digging into energetics, metabolism, and genetics in topics V and VI. Also, practical implications of basic concepts are briefly indicated during the fundamentals discussions. One example of this approach has already been mentioned; another is the discussion of the influence of iron ion on the citric acid fermentationjn conjunction with the presentation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. At this point pre vious consideration of enzyme cofactor effects can also be recalled and put into a commercial process 163

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Jay Bailey Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston, concentrates his teaching and research activities in bio chemical engineering, chemical reactor analysis, and process dynamics A Ph.D graduate of Rice University, Dr Bailey received a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Grant in 197 4 He plays guitar and 5-string banjo, now struggles with piano, and also enjoys photography David F Ollis Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Princeton University, received his B.Sc. at Caltech. M E at Northwestern and Ph.D ('69) at Stanford. He was a process research engineer at Texaco. He was a post-doctoral fellow at CNRS Nancy, France in 1969 and on sabbatical at CNRS in Lyons, France in 1975 His research interest include heterogenious and homogeneous catalysis and biochemical engineering perspective. Worked examples interspersed in the course serve a similar function of breaking up the new biological material. Finally, homework exercises on all topics have been prepared, and these are regularly assigned (a collection of problems is available from the authors upon re quest). Combined with frequent quizzes, these pro vide the engineering student with regular oppor tunities to attempt quantitative analyses. Besides their obvious important pedagogical role, these exercises also alleviate the "culture shock" ( !) of facing many new biological terms and con cepts. TABLE 1: COURSE OUTLINE Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals I. A LITTLE MICROBIOLOGY A. Biophysics and the Cell Doctrine B. The Structure of Cells (procaryotic cells; eucaryotic cells, cell fractionation) (Example: Analysis of particle motion in a centrifuge) C. Important Classes of Microbes (bacteria; yeasts; molds, algae and protozoa) II. CHEMICALS OF LIFE A. Lipids (fatty acids; fat-soluble vitamins; steroids) Example: Modification of bio membrane permeability B. Sugars and Polysaccharides C. From Nucleotides to RNA and DNA (co enzymes; RNA, DNA) D. Amino Acids into Proteins (polypeptides; protein structure; biological regulation) E. The Hierarchy of Cellular Organization III. THE KINETICS OF ENZYME-CATALYZED REACTIONS 164 A. The Enzyme-Substrate Complex and Enzyme Action B. Simple Enzyme Kinetics with One and Two Substrates (Michaelis-Menten kinetics ; two-substrate reactions and cofactor activa tion) C. Determination of Elementary Step Rate Constants (pre-steady-state, relaxation kinetics) D. Other Patterns of Substrate Concentration Dependence (activation; inhibition; multiple substrates) E. Modulation and Regulat i on of Enzymic Activity F. Other Influences on Enzyme Activity (pH, temperature, mechanical forces) G. Enzyme Reactions in Heterogeneous Sys tems (insoluble substrates; immobilized enzymes) IV. ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ENZYMES A. Production of Crude Enzyme Extracts B. Enzyme Purification (chromatography; dialysis; solid phase syntheses) C. Enzyme Immobilization D. Application of Hydrolytic Enzymes (esterases carbohydrases, proteases) E. Other Enzyme Applications (medical, new technology) F. Immobilized Enzyme Technology (industrial processes; medical and analytical applica tions; utilization and regeneration of co factors) G. The Scale of Enzyme Technology V. METABOLIC PATHWAYS AND ENERGETICS OF THE CELL A. The Concept of Energy Coupling: ATP and NAD B. Anaerobic Metabolism: Fermentation (gly colysis; other pathways) C. Respiration and Aerobic Metabolism (TCA cycle ; respiratory chain; partial oxidation; regulation) D. Photosynthesis: Tapping the Ultimate Source (Calvin Cycle; chloroplasts) E. Biosynthesis (ATP utilization; small mole cules; macromolecules) F Transport Across Cell Membranes (passive, facilitated, active transport) (Example: Transport of nitric acid through a liquid membrane) VI. CELLULAR GENETICS AND CONTROL SYSTEMS A. Molecular Genetics (DNA translation; replication; mutation; induction; repres sion) B. Growth and Reproduction of a Single Cell (synchonous culture ; E. coli cell cycle; eucaryotic cell cycle) C. Alteration of Cellular DNA (viruses, phage; transformation, conjugation; composite DNA) D. Commercial Applications of Microbial CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Genetics and Mutant Populations (Implica tions for medium formulation; auxotrophic mutants) VII. KINETICS OF SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION, PRODUCT YIELD, AND BIOMASS PRODUC TION IN CELL CULTURES A. Growth Cycle Phases for Batch Cultivation (lag phase; exponential growth, the Monod equation; stationary and death phase) B. Mathematical Modeling of Batch Growth (re action networks; structured, unstructured models; mold growth) C. Product Synthesis Kinetics (fermentation classifications; Shs segregated model) D. Overall Kinetics in Cases of Reaction-Mass Transport lnteration (lumped, distributed models for cells, floes, mold pellets) E. Thermal Death Kinetics of Cells and Spores VIII. TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN MICROBIAL SYSTEMS A. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Microbial Sys tems (basic concepts; metabolic oxygen utilization rates) (Example: Effectiveness factor of a microbial monolayer) B. Determination of Oxygen Transfer Rates (gas-liquid reactions; dissolved oxygen measurements) (Examples: Warburg respirometer; electrochemical determina tion of k z a) C. Mass Transfer for Freely Rising or Falling Bodies D. Mass Transfer Across Free Surfaces E. Forced Convective Mass Transfer (key dimensionless groups; mass transfer co efficient correlations) F. Surface Area Correlations for Mechanically Agitated Vessels G Other Factors Affective kza (diffusivities; ionic strength; surface active agents) H. Non-Newtonian Fluids (models; suspensions; power consumption mass transfer) I. Scaling of Mass Transfer Equipment J. Particulate Mass Transfer: Filtration (single fiber efficiencies ; mass transfer coefficients) K. Heat Transfer (microbial heat generation; heat transfer correlations) IX. BIOLOGICAL REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS A. The Ideal Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Re actor (Monod's chemostat; incomplete m1xmg, films, recycle effects; enzyme catalyzed reactions) (Example: Agitated CSTR design for a liquid hydrocarbon fer mentation) B. Residence Time Distributions (measure ments; applications) C. Tubular and Tower Reactors (ideal plug flow tubular reactor; tower reactors; tanks-in series and dispersion models) D. Sterilization Reactors (bath; continuous) E. Relationships Between Batch and Continuous Biological Reactors (Example: Reactor FALL 1976 modeling and optimization for production of a-Galactosidase by a Monascus sp. mold) X. BIOLOGICAL REACTORS, SUBSTRATES, AND PRODUCTS I: SINGLE SPECIES APPLICA TIONS A. Fermentation Technology (medium formula tion; aseptic practice ; cell harvesting, product recovery) B. Product Manufacture by Fermentation (brew ing and wine making; oxidative transfor mations; organic amino acids; complex molecules: gibberelins, vitamins, anti biotics; undesirable products) (Example: Reaction rates in microbial films; tempera ture programming for optimal pencillin production) C. Reactors for Biomass Production (food; food processing; agricultural applications; im munology, tissue culture, and "Vaccine" production) (Examples: A batch growth model for liquid hydrocarbon fermenta tions; production of a low-intermediate molecular weight product; cell growth and virus propagation kinetics in tissue culture) XI. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE, INTERACTING MICROBIAL POPULATIONS A. Neutralism, Mutalism, Commensalism, and Ammensalism B. Mathematical Preliminaries (Example: Two Species dynamics near a steady state) C. Competition: Survival of the Fittest D. Predation and Parasitism (Lotka-Volterra model; other one predator-one prey models) (Example: Model discrimination and de velopment via stability analysis) E. Effects of the Number of Species and their Web of Interactions (trophic levels, food chains, food webs; mass action models; qualitative stability; randomly constructed food webs) (Examples: An application of the mass action theory; qualitative stability of a simple food web) F. Spatial Patterns XII. BIOLOGICAL REACTORS, SUBSTRATES, AND PRODUCTS II: MIXED MICROBIAL POPULA TIONS IN APPLICATIONS AND NATURAL SYSTEMS A. Uses of Well -D efined Mixed Populations (Example: Enhanced growth of methane utilizing Pseudomonas sp. due to mutalistic interactions in a chemostat B. Spoilage and Product Manufacture by Spon taneous Mixed Cultures C. Microbial Participation in the Natural Cycles of Matter and Energy D. Biological Wastewater Treatment (waste water characteristics; activated slu dge process; trickling biological filters; an aerobic digestion) (Example: Simulation studies of control strategies for anaerobic digesters) 165

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FOOD ENGINEERING D. DE KEE Ecole Polytechnique C.P. 6079, Montreal, Que. Canada The dramatic changes in the world population activated intensive interest in food problems all over the world. As a result, our department began offering a selected topics type of course dealing with some aspects of food engineering; indeed, the volume of information available in the field is enormous and a one semester course can never cover more than a small fraction of the material. TABLE I: FOOD ENGINEERING COURSE OUTLINE PART I: BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY A. Amino acids B. Proteins C. Bacteria D. Yeasts E. Microbial growth curve PART II: OIL SEED 'fECHNOLOGY A. Preparation of beans B. Extraction C. Desolventizing D. Lecithin separation E. Alkali refining F. Bleaching G. Hydrogenation H. Deodorization I. Mixing J. Rheology PART III: BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING A. Sterilization B. Fermentation Kinetics C. Batch and CST R reactors D. Application to the brewing industry PART IV: STUDENT PRESENTATION OF TERM PAPERS 1. Food from petroleum 2. Food additives 3. Food processing by microwaves 4. Protein from grasses 166 Daniel De Kee received his BSChE from S I.H.T S (Belgium) and his M.A Sc from the University of Ottawa (Canada) Before joining the faculty of the Royal Military College of Canada in 1976 he served as a lecturer in the department of Chemical Engineer i ng at Ecole Polytechn i que (Montreal) while completing the requ i rements for his Ph D degree under Dr P J. Carreau His research interests are in biochemical engineering and rheology The course was offered for the first time to fourth year students and to first level graduate students in chemical engineering. Chemists and microbiologists also took the course but were somewhat disappointed due to their lack of knowledge in kinetics, transport phenomena, unit operations and mathematics. Active student participation was promoted by including assignments in which judgement and ingenuity were to be exercised and alternative solutions considered, followed by oral presenta tion of a term paper, movie projections and a final quiz. We hope that the program of the course will captive one's intellectual interest and indicate important ways in which chemical engineers can broaden their services to humanity. DISCUSSION OF COURSE MATERIAL TABLE I OUTLINES the course material. The first two sections of the first part introduced the student to biochemistry. Properties of amino acids and protein structures were discussed in detail. The effect of processing factors such as heat, storage, etc ... on the structure of protein was dealt with and some of the analysis methods (chromatography X-Ray diffraction) were intro duced. Then followed some notion of microbiology. In addition to a general discussion about the cell, some properties of bacteria and yeasts were focussed upon. References [1-7] were very helpful in this context. The second part of the course CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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switched the student back into the engineering world of material balances, mass transfer and transport phenomena. As an example, the produc tion of margarine was discussed in detail. At tention was given to equipment selection ( crack ing mills, extraction apparatus etc.), calculations were made on extraction, mixing and hydrogena tion. With regard to those subjects, references (8-9, 13-14, and 15] were of particular interest. Some time was spent on the problems en countered with the choice of solvent(s) and on efficiency calculations based on film theory and on diffusion theory [12). Due to time limitation, the previous part was followed by a too brief introduction to the rheology of non-Newtonian liquids [16-17). This second part was then con cluded by a projection of the two following movies: Raw materials and refining vegetable oils and fats. What is margarine, vegetable oils and fats. These movies were produced for the Lever (British) Company by Worldwide Incorporated and rented from the Canadian Film Institute, Ottawa, Canada. References [10-11) proved also to be of interest in the preparation of this material. The dramatic changes in the world population activated intensive interest in food problems all over the world. As a result, our department began offering a course dealing with some aspects of food engineering. At various appropriate points in the third part of the course, several aspects of the beer brewing industry were introduced. Sterilization was looked upon from an engineering point of view. In addi tion to presenting the classical Michaelis-Menten kinetic model, we attempted to develop more sophisticated ones such as the Aiyar and Luede king [21 J and Kono-Asai [25) models. Material and energy balances were then used to predict the performance of batch reactors. Con tinuous systems were next studied; here a variety of situations was looked into, such as the case of a series of vessels, a single vessel with re cycling and the washout problem [18-19) other fermentations were presented, dealing with the given models [22, 24]. In addition to the above mentioned references the following publications FALL 1976 proved to be useful in connections with this design part: [20, 23, 26) The course was concluded by the presentation of the term papers. Table II shows the chosen topics. TABLE II: TERM PAPER TOPICS 1. Food from petroleum 2. Food additives 3. Food processing by microwaves 4. Protein from grasses 5. Protein from algae 6. Enzymes and the tenderization of meat 7. Gibberellin fermentation 8. Control of fermentation processes 9. Sugar refining 10 Sorbitol utilization 11. Liquorice in food 12. Yeast as an animal food 13. Ethanol from wood 14. Protein from spent sulphite liquor 15. Furfural production from bagasse 16. Products from molasses 17. Starch REFERENCES 1. E. E. Conn and P. K Stumpf, Outlin es of Bio chemistry, 2nd Ed., John Wil ey & Sons, New York, (1966). 2. M. F. Pertuz, Prot eins and Nucleic Acids, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amste r dam, (1964). 3 S. Prescott and C. Dunn, Indu stria l Microbiology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, N ew York, (1959). 4. L. E. Casida, Indu stria l Microbiology, John Wily & Sons Inc., New York, (1968). 5. M Pelczar and R. Reid, Microbiology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, N ew York, (1972). 6. C. N. Hinshelwood, Th e Chemical Kinetics of the B acteria l Cell, Clarendon P ress, London, (1946). 7 V. P. Cirillo, J. Bact., 95, 603, (1968). 8. W. L McCabe and J. C. Smith, Unit Op erations of Chemical Engineering, 2nd. Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, (1967). 9. Shreve, Chemical Proce ss Indu stries McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, (1967). 10. Critical R eviews In Food T echnology, Volume 2, Issue I, (1971) 11. Altschul, Pro cessed Plant Protein Food stuffs, Aca demic Press, N ew York, (1958). 12. D. D e Kee and H. Laudie, Hydrocarbon Pro cessin g, 224 (1974). 13. G. H. Leamy, Chemical Engineering, Oct. 15, (1973). 14. W. R. Penny, Chemical Eng ineering, March 22, (1971) 15. I. A. Eldib and L. F. Albright, Chemical Pro cesses, 49, 5, 825, (1957). 16. R. B. Bird, W. E. Steward and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Ph enomena, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Yo rk, (1960). 17. Charm, Fund amentals of Food Engineering, 2nd. Ed., Avi Publishing Company, Inc., (1971). 18. S. Aiba, A. E. Humphrey and N F. Millis, B io c h emica l Engin eering 2nd Ed., Academic Press Inc., (1973) Co ntinued on page 17 4. 167

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DISTILLATION DYNAMICS AND CONTROL PRADEEPB.DESHPANDE University of Louisville Louisville Kentucky 40208 A TYPICAL UNDERGRADUATE curriculum in chemical engineering includes courses in unit operations process design, and process con trol. In the first of these, a number of unit opera tions, e.g., distillation, absorption, extraction, are studied. In distillation, the following topics are usually covered: vapor-liquid equilibria, heat and material balances as applied to multistage columns, determination of the number of stages required for the specified separation of a binary mixture, reflux ratio requirements, and the efficiency of distillation columns. The detailed steady-state design of towers is taken up in Pradeep Deshpande is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineer ing at the Univ e rsity of Louisville. He came to Louisville from Bechtel Inc. in San Francisco California where he worked in the area of mathematical mod e ling digital and analog / hybrid simulation and automatic control of process systems He received a B S degree in Chemistry from Karnatak University, Dharwar, India. He com pleted his B.S. and M.S degrees in Chemical Engineering at the University of Alabama and his Ph.D degree (1969) from the Uni versity of Arkansas His background includes six years of academic experience and 2 years of industrial experience. His current interests are in conventional and computer control mathematical modeling, and dynamic simulation of process systems and bad minton (not necessarily in that order) 168 process design. The third course, process control, introduces the student to the instrumentation used for the measurement, manipulation, and control of process variables. He learns the Laplace-trans form methods for the characterization of processes, measuring elements, controllers, and final control elements. This is followed by the study of frequency response techniques for the design of control systems. Finally, criteria needed to determine the stability of control systems are discussed. A graduate student with a background in the above courses usually has available to him an advanced course in distillation, which covers topics in multicomponent separations. Thus, he gets a fairly extensive background in the steady state process design and operation of distillation columns. However, he has relatively little back ground in the automatic control of towers. For the student who may seek an industrial career in the area of distillation, or for one who plans advanced graduate work in distillation, it is be lieved that a gap exists which needs to be filled. It was with this in mind that a graduate level course entitled "Distillation Dynamics and Con trol," was developed. This course has been offered once to a class composed of 12 students, of whom 2 are PhD. students, 6 M.S. students (including 4 part-time students from industry), and 4 M. Eng. students. The reaction of the students to the course has been favorable. COURSE CONTENT THE SUGGESTED TOPICS for this course are shown in Table I. There are two ways in which this course can be taught. (1) If the curriculum structure, number of students avail able, and faculty loads are such that only one course can be offered in the area of distillation, the topics in Table I can be supplemented with steady-state topics. This means that some of the control topics would have to be eliminated, or CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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only briefly covered. (2) If desired, the entire course can be devoted to control topics. In this case, the course will benefit if it is supplemented with distillation control experiments which demonstrate the operation of control schemes. This approach can also utilize digital computer pro grams to validate some of the concepts listed in Table I. The course as taught here did include steady-state topics, but did not cover Parts VII-B, VIII-B, and IX. However, when the distillation controls laboratory becomes operational, it is con templated that the entire course will be devoted to control topics. The course description in this article follows the latter approach. One of the first questions that a control engineer has to address himself to is : "how many variables are available for control?" In order to answer this question, one must consider the analysis of the "degrees of freedom," in which the system equations are developed and compared with the number of unknown variables in order to decide how many variables are available for control, (Part II). Part III-A develops a basis for the control of one or both product composi tions. The material balance and the separation factor, S, for a binary tower can be expressed, respectively, as D Z F Xa (l) F X nX n S Xn(l-Xn) f(VF ) ( = Xn (1X n ) = / 'n, a 2 ) where ZF, X n Xn composition of the more volative component in the feed, distillate and, bottoms, respectively, dimen sionless D distillate rate, moles time F feed rate, moles time V vapor boilup in reboiler, moles time n no. of theoretical stages a relative volatility, dimensionless For a fixed column operating with a given binary mixture, Equation (2) reduces to S = Xn (1-Xn) = f(V / F) (3) Xn (1-X n ) Equations (1) and (3) can be considered together FALL 1976 TABLE I. COURSE OUTLINE DESCRIPTION I. Introduction A. Review of Steady-state Dis tillation Concepts B Introduction to Automatic Control of Distillation Columns SUGGESTED REFERENCES II. "Degrees of Freedom Analysis" (1) pp. 69-75 to Determine the Number of (2) pp. 355-65 Variables Available for Control III. Material Balance Control Schemes A. Manipulation of Material Balance and Heat Input B. Pressure Control Methods C. Criteria for Sensor Location D. Control Strategy Analysis on McCabe-Thiele and Ponchon-Savarit Diagrams IV. Dynamic Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Distillation Columns A. Binary and Multicomponent (3) pp. 288-305 (3) pp. 299-302 (2) pp. 476-82 (1) pp. 334-39 (2) pp. 417-27 (4) pp. 139-44 (5) pp. 26-29 Systems (1) pp. 69-80 B. Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Responses (1) pp. 148-59 V. Frequency Response Methods for Control Systems Design A. Linearized Models (1) pp. 267-76 B. Experimental Methods Pulse Testing (1) pp. 282-93 VI. Control Over Both Products A. The Interaction Problem in Multivariable Control and Bristol's Interaction Measure B. Proper Pairing of Variables and Application in Distilla tion C. Design of Decouplers VII. Advanced Control Schemes for Distillation Columns A. Feedforward Control B. Inferential Control VIII. Special Problems (6) pp. 133-34 (3) pp. 188-98 (3) pp. 305-06 (7) pp. 403-07 (8) pp. 227-36 (9) pp. 52-57 (1) pp. 380-84 (10) pp. 198-203 (1) pp. 431-37 pp. 445-47 (11) Tabs 1-4 (12) pp. 614-23; (13) (14) pp. 127-31 A. Inverse Response in Distilla(1) pp. 377-80 tion Columns (15) B. Override Control Schemes (1) pp. 342-44 (16) 1X. Control Instrumentation A. Sensors, Controllers, Control Valves and (1) pp. 305-45 (3) pp. 61-123 169

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for deciding which streams should or need be manipulated in order to control one or both product compositions. Although the development is based on a binary column, the principles may be extended to multicomponent distillation. In order to exercise proper control, it is es sential that column pressure be maintained constant. Therefore, the methods for varying the rate of condensation so as to control column pressure are discussed next in Part III-B. A graduate student usually gets a fairly extensive background in the steady-state process design and operation of distillation columns. However, he has relatively little background in the automatic control of towers. Although the objective of most control schemes is to control product compositions, composition analyzers are not widely used for control purposes for reasons of cost and long time-lags. Instead, temperatures at appropriate locations in the column are controlled so as to indirectly control product quality. Thus, it is appropriate at this point to discuss the criteria for the suitable loca tion of temperature sensors (III-C). Although limited in its concepts to the dis tillation of binary mixtures, the McCabe-Thiele and Ponchon-Savarit diagrams are helpful in analyzing the effect of various upsets on the composition of product streams. The control strategy analysis on these diagrams is the subject of discussion in Part III-D. Part IV is concerned with dynamic mathe matical modeling and digital simulation of distilla tion towers for separating binary and multi component mixtures. The purpose here is to evalu ate the open-loop response and the closed-loop response of columns (with specified control schemes), to various upsets. The dynamic models of towers and the associated equipment are de veloped and the system equations are solved on the digital computer in order to obtain open-loop and closed-loop responses. CONTROLLER SYNTHESIS P ART V DEALS WITH controller synthesis; analytical and experimental approaches are covered. In the former approach (V-A), the mathematical model developed earlier is linearized, 170 and the resulting system of equations is solved by the "stepping" technique. The results are in the form of frequency response plots (i.e., Bode Plots), from which feedback controllers can be designed. The experimental technique consists of per turbing a distillation column and recording the outputs as a function of time. Many inputs can be used but a pulse input has many advantages over the others. The presentation in V-B describes how the output data to a pulse input can be analyzed so as to obtain frequency response diagrams. Both of these methods are based on linear (ized) models, and hence the controllers will be satisfactory in the vicinity of the steady-state operating conditions. It is best to test these con trollers on a more rigorous nonlinear model of the column developed in Part IV. Part VI is devoted to the control of both product compositions and to the problem of inter action. A simple and useful measure of interaction in multivariable control problems is Bristol's Interaction Matrix. This interaction measure is developed and applied to some simple problems in VI-A. Its application to distillation (Part VI-B), assists in the selection of proper pairing of manipulated and controlled variables. This is followed, in Part VI-C, by the design of decouplers for achieving noninteracting feedback control of distillation columns. The design leads to Bode plots from which the transfer functions of de couplers can be approximated for implementation on hardware. This procedure is also based on a linearized model of the process, and the validity of these decouplers should be tested on a nonlinear model of the column developed earlier. Part VII is concerned with advanced control schemes for distillation columns. Part VII-A dis cusses the advantages of feedforward control over feedback control. This is followed by the design of feedforward controllers. The gain terms of the feedforward controllers can be obtained from the material balance. In order to include dynamics, analysis of Part V-A (or experimental data), are needed. This analysis leads to Bode plots from which feedforward controller transfer functions can be obtained. The benefits of combined feed back / feedforward over feedforward and feedback control schemes can be demonstrated through simulation. Part VII-B discusses an advanced scheme in which inexpensive multiple measurements on a CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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column are used to estimate the product composi tion. The estimate is then used to manipulate appropriate streams to hold product quality constant. There i s scope here also to validate the results through simulation Part VIII outlines some sp ecial problems in distillation operations. The first of these to be covered is the inverse response in columns. The column base liquid level, for example, may temporarily increase due to an increase in reboiler heat duty. Part VIII-A examined the transfer function of a process, and illustrates how a posi tive zero can give rise to inverse response. Next, the equations needed to predict inverse response in distillation columns are developed. These equa tions serve as an aid in checking the design of distillation columns for inverse response. The remedy may consist of an alternate design for new columns or a different control scheme for operat ing columns Part VIII-B discusses override control schemes and the need for them. Often, conven tional control schemes are inadequate in the presence of large upsets. In such cases, the over ride control schemes alter the appropriate streams so as to maintain the column in the safe operating region ( or even cause shutdown if warranted). The hardware needed to implement these schemes is also discussed here. Part IX in this course considers instrumenta tion hardware. The elements for the measurement of flow, liquid level, pressure, temperature, and composition are covered. This is followed by con troller mode selection for loops involving the above The benefits of combined feedback / feedforward control schemes can be demonstrated through simulation. variables. Finally, the characteristics and selec tion of control valves and the effect of characteris tics on loop linearity is studied. CONCLUDING REMARKS I T IS BELIEVED that this course fills the gap between a conventional course on distillation and the dynamic operation of distillation towers. It can be taught as a complete course in distilla tion controls, or portions of it can be combined with a conventional course on distillation. FALL 1976 The course outline of Table I does not include optimal control and computer control of towers because these topics require an additional back ground in optimization and the z-transform methods (Perhaps these can be covered in indi vidual courses in optimization and computer pro cess control, respectively). ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author thanks his colleague, Professor P. M. Christopher, for reviewing this manuscript. REFERENCES 1. Luyben, W. L., P rocess Modeling, Simu l ation, and Control for Chemical Engineers, McG r aw-Hill Book Compa n y N ew York, N.Y. 197 3 2. Rademaker, 0. Rijn s dorp, J. E., and Maa r leveld, A., Dyna mics and Control of Continuous D isti llation Units, Els e vier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, N.Y. 1975. 3. Shinskey, F. G., Pro cess Control Systems, McGraw Hill Book Company, New Yo r k, N.Y. 1967. 4. Bertrand, L. and Jones L. "Controlling Distillation Columns," Chemical Engineering, F e bruary 20, 1961. 5 Hou ge n J. 0., M e asurement and Control Applications for P racticing Eng ineers Cahn e r' s Books, Boston, M assac husetts, 1972. 6 Bristol, E. H., "On a New Measur e of Int eract ion for Multivariable Process Contrnl," IEEE T rans Aut. Cont., AC-11, 13 3 1966. 7. Shinskey, F G., "Stable Distillation Control Through Prope r Pairing of Variabl es, IS A Tran sactions, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1971. 8. Nisenfeld, A. E., Stravinski, C ., "Feedforward Con trol of Azeot ro pic Di s tillation," Ch emic al Engin eerin g, September 2 3, 1968. 9 Nis enfe ld, A E. Schultz, H M., "Interaction Analysis in Control Systems Design," I nstrumentation T ech nology, Ap r il 1971. 10. Luyben, W. L., Distillation Decoupling," A. I. Ch E. Jou rnal Vol. 16, No. 2, March 1970. 11. Shinskey, F G., F eedforwcird A Ba sic Control T echni qu e Publication No 170B, Foxboro Company, Foxboro, Massachusett s, September 1972. 12. W eber, R. and B ros ilow, C., "Th e Use of Secondary M eas urements to Improve Control," A I Ch. E. Journ a l Vol. 18, No. 3 May 1972. 13. Brosilow, C and Tong, M., "Inferential Control of a Mult ico mpon e nt Distillation Column," Paper No. 5. P resen ted at the 79th A I. Ch. E. M ee ting, Houston, Texa s March 16-20, 1975. 14. Joseph, B., et al., Multi-temps Give Better Con trol," Hydro carbon P rocessing March 1976. 1 5 Buckley, P. S ., et al., Paper No. 5 E presented at the 79th A. I. Ch. E. Me et ing, Houston, Texas, March 16-20, 1975. 16. Course Notes on Di s till ation D yna mics and Control, Lehigh University, B et hlehem, P ennsy lvania, May 13 17, 1974. 171

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FUSION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY ERNEST F. JOHNSON Princeton University Pri nceton, New Jersey 08540 AS A CONSEQUENCE of growing interests of members of the Chemical Engineering De partment at Princeton in research problems re lated to the development of thermonuclear fusion reactors, a program in fusion reactor technology was established in 1972 in the School of Engineer ing and Applied Science. This program provides a coordination of study and research at all degree levels for students interested in the engineering and technological aspects of controlled thermo nuclear research. Readers interested in why a pro gram in fusion reactor technology should be born in a ChE department are referred to the lively article by Axtmann [1] describing the contribu tions of chemical engineers to nuclear engineering. The idea of controlling the fusion reactions of the hydrogen bomb for the generation of electric power originated in the then classified work of Project Matterhorn at Princeton and re sulted in the first conceptual design of a fusion power reactor, the so -called Model D Stellarator report of Spitzer et al. [2]. Given the level of knowledge of the time, that report was singularly prescient in identifying the major scientific and technological problems that would have to be solved to achieve a practicable power generator. The problems of plasma physics were clearly of paramount importance, and as a consequence, a major theoretical and experimental program in plasma physics has developed at the Princeton Pla sma Laboratory, the largest American enter prise devoted to controlled thermonuclear res earch and the only large one on a university campus. Members of the ChE faculty have long been associated with the Plasma Physics Laboratory (two for more than twenty years) and involved in researches on various technological problems related to fusion power development. However, there had been little incentive to formalize a pro172 gram in fusion reactor technology until recently when it became clear that the plasma physics problems were likely to be solvable and that the world energy situation would make fusion an in creasingly attractive alternative source of energy. COLLABORATION WITH PLASMA PHYSICS T HE PROGRAM IN fusion reactor technology was established in collaboration with the Plasma Physics Laboratory. There are six regular ly enrolled graduate students in it plus about an equal number of undergraduates. Two full-time faculty and two part-time faculty are active in the program, and two other faculty members have re lated research interest. In addition there are, from time to time, visiting scholars from abroad. Three courses involving fusion reactor tech nology are offered each year at Princeton. All three are taught in the Department of Chemical Engineering Two are senior level undergraduate Dr. Ernest F Johnston is Professor of Chemical Engineering at Pr inceto n University and Associate Dean of the Faculty. He was awarded his B S degree from Lehigh University and was then associated with Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation as research engineer, project leader, and production control supervisor. For two years he was at the Thermodynamics Research laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania where he received his Ph.D. He has contributed si gnificant research to the area of study concerned with the automatic control of industrial processes, and he is the author of numerous papers in this field, including a chapter in Advances in Chemical Engineering and a book Automatic Process Control published by McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1967). He has published extensively in other aspects of chemical engineering including molecular transport properties, thermodynamics and fusion tech nology Since 1955 he has been associated with the Plasmas Physics laboratory on Princeton's James Forrestal Campus where he is concerned with the technological problems of thermonuclear fusion power reactors He adds I am an amateur boat builder, Milton scholar, and musician (voice, piano and pipe organ) and I practice gentleman farming at our summer home on the Maine coast I commute to work by b icycle, r isking knock-off by motor vehicle to avoid knock off by heart attack." CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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courses, Ch.E. 417 and 418, Nuclear Engineering I and II, and the third is Ch.E. 550, Fusion Tech nology, the graduate course described here. The first of the undergraduate courses is concerned primarily with fission processes, and fusion topics are introduced only briefly. The second undergraduate course, however, deals solely with fusion problems, emphasizing plasma behavior, the engineering aspects of plasma research, magnet design, and similar subjects. It provides a background useful for the graduate course. Both undergraduate courses may be elected by graduate students and by properly qualified juniors and seniors. These courses are populated by students from a variety of engineering and science disciplines. The graduate course was designed primarily for first-year graduate students in the fusion re actor technology program but a number of other students elect it as well. A principal objective is to provide an up-to-date perspective on the major problems and current researches in the techno logical aspects of fusion power development. The catalog description is : Ch. E. 550. Fusion Reactor Technology A study of contemporary problems in the develop ment of nuclear fusion reactor systems. Plasma problems, fuel cycles, materials, blanket problems energy extraction and power cycles, non-power uses of energy output, reactor control, environmental problems. Prerequisite: ChE 418 or equivalent. Three faculty members share equally in the formal instruction in the course. They are Robert C. Axtmann, Professor of ChE for Environmental Studies, Ernest F. Johnson, Professor of ChE and Robert G. Mills, Head of the Fussion Reactor Design Division of the Plasma Physics Laboratory and Lecturer in ChE with rank of Professor. Ap proximately three-quarters of the class time is used for their lectures. The remaining quarter comprises seminars by students in the course and by other faculty members on selected topics in the field. Because of the disparateness of many of the topics the lecturers frequently alternate, and the seminars are scattered throughout the term albeit somewhat more heavily concentrated toward the end of the term. There is no single textbook suited to this new field. Because of our historical and continuing link to the Plasma Physics Laboratory the principal focus of the treatment is on magnetically confined plasma machines rather than laser driven devices, and we tend to use as a major reference FALL 1976 the conceptual design report edited by Mills [3] and published by the Plasma Physics Laboratory. This nearly 600-page report is the most detailed design study for a fusion power reactor currently available. This volume, with its numerous references, constitutes a comprehensive introduc tion to the field. The design is based on a minimal employment of new technology. In particular, The idea of controlling the fusion reactions of the hydrogen bomb for the generation of electric power originated in the then classified work of Project Matterhorn at Princeton and resulted in the first conceptual design of a fusion power reactor. materials of construction involve only those for which there is a proved fabrication capability. Even so, there are many uncertainties in the de sign since there are large areas of ignorance. These uncertainties are discussed at some length in the report, and hence they provide a good springboard for examining the major problems in fusion power development. Four copies of the Mills design report together with one each of the reference books listed below are placed on reserve in the Engineering Library for use by students during the course. RESERVE LIST 1. "A Short Course in Fusion Power NP-20040, USAEC, NTIS, 1972. __ 2. Chen, Francis F., "Introduction to Plasma Physics," Plenum Press, New York, 1974. 3. Glasstone, S., and R. H. Lovberg, "Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions," D Van Nostrand Co., Princteon, New Jersey, 1960. 4. Gruen, D. M., editor, "The Chemistry of Fusion Tech nology," Plenum Press, New York, 1972. 5. Kammash T., "Fusion Reactor Physics Principles and Technology," Ann Arbor Science Publications, Inc., Ann Arbor Michigan, 1975 6. Mills, R. G., editor, "A Fusion Power Plant," MATT 1050 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Prince ton, New Jersey, 1974 (available through NTIS, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22151). 7. Rose, D. J., and M. L. Clark, "Plasmas and Con trolled Fusion," MIT Press Cambridge, Massa chusetts, 1961. In addition to the reserved books there are 173

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strong collections of publications on fusion tech nology maintained by the Engineering Library and a lso by a satellite library at the Plasma Physics Laboratory on the Forrestal Campus. Many of these publications are in the form of proceedings of international symposia and work shops on specialized aspects of fusion technology sponsored by various agencies like Energy Re search and Development Administration (ERDA) and technical societies like the American Nuclear Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The graduate course was designed primarily for first-year graduate students in the fusion reactor technology program but a number of other students elect it as well. A principal objective is to provide an up-to-date perspective on the major problems and current researches in the technological aspects of fusion power development. Because of the rapid growth of knowledge in many aspects of fusion technology and shifting emphases as new constraints arise and old ones change, the content of the course will vary from year to year. Last fall the formal coverage in cluded a brief overview of the world energy problem to show what contributions might be ex pected of fusion power, a detailed review of the Princeton Reference Design to identify the major problems and some possible solutions, a treatment of the problems of plasma physics as a basis for setting the scale of realistic machines and fixing many of their properties, and an examination of the environmental problems arising from power plants generally and from fusion power plants in particular. Although some problems had to be treated cursorily, either for lack of time or because current understanding is uncertain, every major problem was addressed in the formal part of the course. Some like the use of molten salts as tritium breeding media the permeation of hydro gen isotopes in metals were addressed in greater detail because of the special interests of particular faculty members. During the term eight seminars were conducted in the course on the following subjects: 1. Low Concentration Permeation 2. Ion Bombardment of Metals 3. Fission-Fusion Hybrids 174 4 Parametric Systems Analysis 5. Laser Fusion 6. Alternate Fuel Cycles 7. No n-Power Uses of Fusion 8. Fuel Injection Concurrently with the graduate course in fusion reactor technology a series of ten seminars on vacuum technology and engineering was offered by a physicist from the Plasma Physics Labora tory as part of the program in fusion reactor technology. A similar seminar series on neu tronics was offered during the preceding term. As a consequence neither of these topics was discussed in any detail in the graduate course. Although we have offered the course only once, our assessment, arrived at in consultation with our students, is that we have fairly met our objectives. We anticipate that we will follow essentially the same format when we offer the course again this fall. In contrast with the first offering we shall probably include some home work problems and examinations to provide a better feedback on our teaching. REFERENCES 1. A xtmann, R. C., Nuclear Technology 27 78-83 (1975). 2 Spitzer, L., Jr., D J Grov e, W. E. Johnson, L. Tonks, and W. F. Westendorp, Problems of the Stellarator as a Useful Power Source, NYO-6047, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (1954). 3 Mills R. G., editor, "A Fusion Power Plant," MATT 1050, Princ eton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Prince ton, N. J. 1974 (available t hrough NTIS, U. S. De partment of Commerce, Springfield, Va. 22151). DE KEE: Food Engineering Continued from page 167 19. F C. Webb, Biochemical Engineering, Van Nostrand, New York, (1964). 20 Chemical Engin eeri ng Progress Symposium Series, 68 volume 64, Bioengineering-Food, (1968). 21. Chemical Engin ee ring P rogress Symposium Series, 69, volume 62, Bioengineering and Food Processing, (196 6 ). 22. D. De Kee, M A. SC. Thesis, University of Ottawa, (1974). 23 C h emical Engineering, Jan. 4, "Continuous Bee r Making Makes Commercial Debut," ( 1965). 24. G. Pineault, B. Prud en and D. De Kee, "Etude D es Par ametres D'Operation Du Pro cede De Fermenta tion Des Hexos es Contenus Dans La Liqueur Resi duaire Bisulfitique," submitted to Canadian Journal of Chemical Enigneering. 25. T. Kono and T. Asai Biotechnol. B ioeng., 11, 293 1969 26. 0. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, (1972). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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235 of our people left their jobs last year. e'reproud of that record. Job hopping is something we encourage through our Internal Placement System. We happen to believe our most valuable corporate assets are people. The more our people know, the stronger company we are. JPS was initiated over three years ago and in that time over 700 Sun people have changed jobs using the system. Here's how it works. Say you're an engineer. You'd like to broaden your experience and feel that you'd make a contribution in Marketing You check the weekly job opening notices When there's an opening in Marketing you think you can fill, you apply-and get first consideration. You have freedom to experiment and move around at Sun. You learn more and you learn faster. You want to learn more right now-about Sun and JPS? Ask your Placement Director when a Sun Oil recruiter will be on campus. Or write for a copy of our Career Guide. SUN COMPANY, INC., Human Resources Dept. CEE, 1608 Walnut Street, Philadel. phia, Pa. 19103. An equal opportunity employer m/f. A Diversified Energy and Petrochemical Company Sun Company, Inc.(formerly Sun Oil Company)

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ENVIRONMENT AL COURSES G. E. KLINZING University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsyl v ania 15261 DURING THE PAST THREE years at the University of Pittsburgh the Chemical Engi neering Department has developed two courses dealing with the environment for advanced under graduates and graduate students. One is entitled, "Atmospheric Pollution" and the other, "Indus trial Waste Treatment." These courses developed from joint student-faculty-industry interest and cooperation. Not only have chemical engineering students participated in the program, but other science and engineering students have also taken these courses. The University's location in a heavily indus trialized city has been a particular advantage for the study of the environment in these courses. Co operation with industrial and government organi zations has given the courses a unique quality of seeing and being involved in the most immediate and relevant problems of an industrial city. In the atmospheric pollution course, the Pitts burgh problem was stressed and used as a basis for analysis. The sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter problems were presented more than the nitrogen oxides or any other pollutant problems. The course ran 15 weeks, which is one trimester having three hours of class time per week. This course was held on one evening in The final part of the course looked at equipment, design and economics. Process treatments, scrubbers, bag houses, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, etc., were handled. The cost of these units as well as a treatment of cost-benefit analysis of air pollution control in general was presented. 176 George Klinzing received his BS degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh and his MS and PhD from Carnegie Mellon University He spent three years teaching and consulting in chemical eng i neering at Central University in Quito, Ecuador. His in terests are transport phenomena and engineering education in and technology transfer to developing countries. order to accommodate the large number of part time graduate students from the industrial com munity of the area. The first week was devoted to an introduction to air pollution both on a global and local basis. Definition of terms and identification of sources were detailed. Chapters 1-5 of McCormac [1] and Chapter 1 of Strauss [2] were required readings. The next two weeks were dedicated to atmospheric transport by dispersion models. Comparison be tween models and evaluation of coefficients of dispersion were treated. The effects of inversions, chemical reactions and finite absorption of the pollutants at ground level was studied in the modeling. The many plume rise equation were viewed and controversy aired on the various analyses. The book by Ledbetter [3] was also used as reference material. Sampling and analysis were next scrutinized. The EPA sampling train and other EPA regula tions on sampling were covered. At this point, an industrial representative from a local power comCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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pany discussed the practical aspects of sampling commenting heavily on the regulations specified by EPA in the Federal Register. Considerable class interaction took place at this point and an appreciation of the industrial problem was real ized. These topics took two weeks to study. LEGAL ASPECT T HE LEGAL ASPECTS of air pollution are in deed complex. Some of the more famous cases were viewed and the pending legal situation of cases in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh being the County Seat) were discussed. A representation of the State of Pennsylvania's Department of En vironmental Resources gave a lecture discussing some specific cases and showing the legal process that needs to be followed in prosecuting a violator. Routine inspections and testing were explained and problem areas mentioned as to enforcement of the law. Two weeks were spent in total on the legal topic. The next three to four weeks were spent on sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter analysis. Detection techniques, sources and abate ment procedures were treated. Chapters 3-10 of Strauss were utilized as a basis with government publication assisting in the treatment. [4] The various types of equipment for analysis and sam pling were brought into class when possible, and the advantages and disadvantages of the units explained in detail. The final part of the course looked at equip ment, design and economics. Process treatments, scrubbers, bag houses, cyclones, electrostatic pre cipitators, etc. were handled. The cost of these units as well as a treatment of cost-benefit analysis of air pollution control in general was presented. In addition to quizzes and a final exam, the students in groups of 2 or 3 worked on a project during the term related to the air pollution area. Some topics were suggested and others were orig inated by the students. Some of the topics for analyses were : CO Concentrations in Oakland (University Area) Pressure Swing Adsorption Cycle on Auto Emissions Infra-Red, Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Pollutants Indoor Level of Pollutants (Engineering Hall, Student Dormitories) Multiple Stack Analysis FALL 1976 Plume Rise Calculations ( Comparison and Analysis) Flow Patterns Around Buildings WASTE TREATMENT COURSE T HE SECOND COURSE in the environmental area was "Industrial Waste Treatment." This course met for the same length of time and same time slot as the "Atmospheric Pollution" course. The base text for the course was Nemerow. [5] The first four to five weeks of the course were dedicated to understanding the basics of industrial waste treatment and roughly Chapter 1-20 in Nemerow were covered. Here again, definitions are essential such as BOD, COD, and TOD. The basic operation of neutralization, sedimentation flota tion, activated sludge, and trickle filters were handled showing the basis for analyses from mass and heat transfer approaches. Detailed designs of a base case for each one of these units were presented. (6] This preface was used as a basis One course is entitled, "Atmospheric Pollution" and the other, "Industrial Waste Treatment." These courses developed from joint student-faculty-industry interest and cooperation. for industrial representatives to present lectures on specific industrial waste problems concerning mostly the Pittsburgh area. To begin the special lectures a professor of Environmental Law talked in general and specific on industrial waste prob lems stressing changes in legal interpretation and sentiment. A consultant in the Pittsburgh area spoke on wastes in the tanning industry showing that as the laws are presently written and con sidering the small size of such tanning operations the industry would probably die in the United States in the next few years. Wastes in the food industry was given by an engineer from the H J. Heinz Co. and another consultant in the environmental area spoke on waste water parameters and measurement for treatment control. Both speakers stressed high costs with the Heinz representative giving de tailed information on financing of an industrial waste treatment. The pitfalls of waste water meas urement were mentioned by the consultant show ing you can rely very little on most measurement in the waste water analysis field including the 177

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stadard pH measurement. Radioacti v e waste disposal was handled by Westinghouse and a representative of United States Steel Corporation gave an excellent treat ment of the steel industries problems and pro grams. The municipal waste and their ability and willingness to handle industrial discharge was presented b y the county's municipal disposal facil ity, ALCOSAN. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corpo ration presented the coal mining waste problem and treatment. Effective treatment can be inacted on new mines; but old abandoned ones are the areas most difficult to clean-up. THERMAL POLLUTION D URING THE LAST WEEK of the course, the thermal pollution area w as treated with con sideration from power plants both coal fired and atomic. Much of the atomic power plant material tied in with the radioactive waste treatment lec ture. In short, reliance on industr y for up-to-date information and a special viewpoint was very successful both in the atmospheric and industrial wastes courses offered. Our area indeed is rich in capable, knowledgeable engineers willing to assist in the preparation of meaningful courses on the environment for the students of our engineering schools. D REFERENCES 1. M c Co rmac, B. M I ntroducti o n to t h e Scienti fi c Stu dy o f Atmos p heric Poll u t i o n D. Reidel Publi s hin g Co., Dordrecht-Holland (1971). 2. Strau ss W., I ndustria l G as C l eaning, P e rga m on Press, L o nd o n, (19 66 ). 3 L e db et t e r, J E., Ai r P o ll ution P art A: Ana l ysis, M a r ce l D e kk e r In c Ne w York (1972). 4 N a ti o n a l Ai r P o lluti o n Co nt ro l Adminis tr a t ion Publi c ation s AP-49 5 0 51, 5 2, 6 2, 63, 66, 6 7 68 8 4 5. Nem ero w, N. L. L i q ui d W aste of I ndustry, Addison W e sl e y Publishing Co., R e adin g Ma ss. (1971) 6 E c k e nfelde r W. W In dustri al W a t er P o ll u t i o n C o n tro l McGraw-Hill Book Co. Ne w York (19 6 6). BOOK REVIEW: Multivariable Computer Control Continued from page 154 The case study would be of interest to anyone w anting to evaluate the experimental perform ance of a number of modern process control techniques. However, as one who has used this case study (in manuscript form) with good re sults in a graduate process control course, this writer feels the greatest value of the book is as a supplementary text in such a graduate course. The availability of a single process from which to draw experimental examples of model lineariza tion, model reduction, single loop feedback con trol, multi v ariable feedback control, multi v ariable optimal feedback control, state estimation, etc., allows the student to study a new method on an already familiar process and to compare with methods already discussed. As a supplement to lec tures ove r the fundamental mathematical methods, we found the case study extraordinarily helpful. publish these together in a single volume. The result is the present book. The authors have been able to present a co herent view of their work by appending introduc tory discussion to previously published papers and organizing this by topic. It may be useful to sum marize briefly the scope of the material. Section 1 presents an overall v iew of the book, w hile Sec tion 2 treats several different approaches to modelling the process. Of particular interest is a comparison of model reduction procedures and a study of several approximate low order models of the process. Section 3 demonstrates the dy namic performance to be expected under conven tional control while Sections 4-6 discuss more modern computer control techniques. These sec tions present a detailed comparative study of techniques such a multivariable feedback control, combined feedforward-feedback control, time optimal control, optimal linear-quadratic feed back control, model reference adaptive control, etc. Section 7 presents experimental testing of on-line state estimation (using Kalman Filters) and the incorporation of the state estimator into a stochastic feedback control scheme. Finall y Section 8 describes the o v erall educational as pects of such computer control facilities. 178 BOOK RE CEIVED Organic Electronic Spectral Data. Vol. II, 1969. Ed i ted b y J.P. Ph i llips, H. Feu er P. M. La u ghto n a nd B. S. Thyag a rajan. Joh n Wiley & So n s, In c Ne w Yo r k, 197 5 1075 pag e s. This is v olume II in a continuing compilation of ultraviolet-visible spectra of organic compound s presented in the journal literature. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Hold your breath for 60 seconds. Try this little experiment and chances are you ll find the last few sec onds unbearable. That desperate, terrifying sensa tion is caused by a lack of oxygen and an excess of carbon dioxide. People with emphysema or other lung diseases know the feeling well. They live with it 24 hours a day. Oxygen therapy can help many of them. But it can also sentence them to a bleak existence living in fear, bound to heavy, bulky oxygen tanks. Union Carbide has developed a portable oxygen system. We call it the Oxygen Walker. It's small enough to be carried on a shoulder strap and weighs only 11 pounds full. Yet, incredibly this handy pack can supply over 1000 li ters of oxygen gas enough for 8 hours or more, depending on individ ual flow rates. Taking the Oxygen Walker with them, patients are free to leave their homes Free to go walking, shopping fishing .. many have even returned to work. The Oxygen Walker is only one of the things we re doing with oxy gen. We supply more of it than any one else in the country. For steelmaking, hospitals wastewater treatment and the chemical industry. But, in a way, the Walker is the most important use of our oxygen. Because tO the people who use it, it is the breath of life. Today, something we do wa11 touch your life. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

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ADSORPTIVE BUBBLE SEPARATION METHODS ROBERT LEMLICH University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 To MOST ENGINEERS, the adsorptive bubble separation methods [1,2] are a largely un familiar group of techniques. This may be due in part to the fact that these techniques are in timately based on surface phenomena. Most engi neers seem to be more comfortable when dealing with bulk phenomena than with surface phe nomena. Such a preference can prove awkward when an investigator or designer is faced with certain classes of problems. The adsorptive bubble separation methods in volve selective adsorption or attachment at the surfaces of bubbles rising through a solution or suspension. If the material to be adsorbed or at tached, which is termed the colligend, is not sur face active, a suitable substance called a collector may be added to unit with the colligend to form a surface active sublate which is carried up by the bubbles. Prominent among these techniques, either in terms of application or research interest, 3:re the flotation of particulate matter in wastewater treat ment and in mineral beneficiation [ore flotation] [3], the foam fractionation of dissolved or fine colloidal matter [4], the collector-required technique of ion flotation [5], the precipitate required technique of precipitate flotation [6], the foamless technique of bubble fractionation [7] which capitalizes on the vertical concentration gradient that is established in a vertically elongated bubbled pool of liquid, and the foamless technique of solvent sublation [5] which makes use of an immiscible auxiliary liquid atop the main pool to entrap the adsorbed material from the existing bubbles. For the sake of brevity, the term adsorptive bubble separation methods is sometimes contracted to adsubble methods [1,8]. In order to acquaint interested graduate 180 students with this somewhat unusual group of separation techniques, some years ago the writer established an elective graduate lecture course on the subject. It runs for an academic quarter and is offered in approximately alternate years. It was originally offered for only 2 credits, but it recently has been expanded to 3 credits and has been opened to qualified seniors as well as to graduate students. The text for the course is "Adsorptive Bubble Separation Techniques" by Lemlich [9]. Emphasis is placed on the first eight chapters which constitute half the book. Supplementary material, which includes some solved illustrative problems [10,11 ], is drawn from other sources. Table 1 presents an abbreviated outline of the course. The course begins with an introductory over view of the field. The various adsubble techniques are briefly described and compared. The pervading importance of surface activity and solute surface excess are carefully noted. SURFACES AND BUBBLES NEXT, SURF ACE TENSION is discussed and the common methods for measuring it are reviewed [12]. The equation of Laplace and Young for the pressure difference across a curved interface is derived, and the result is applied to the submerged bubble, the free bubble, and the Plateau border. For reinforcement of learning, these three special cases are also derived directly from fundamental force balances. TABLE 1 Abbreviated Outline of Course 1. Introduction 2. Surfaces and bubbles 3. Foam 4. Adsorption 5. Foam fractionation 6. Flotation 7 Foamless separations 8. Student presentations CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Robert Lemlich received his B.Ch E. summa cum laude from N ew York University, his M Ch E from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and his Ph D. from the University of Cincinnati (1954) where he is presently Professor of Chemical Engineering. H e has also held Fulbright lectureships to Israel (1958-59) and Argentina (1966). He is a Registered Professional Engineer a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is listed in Who s Who i n America. His research interests are in bubbles, foam and heat transfer The generation of bubbles is described. Em pirical [13] and theoretical [14,15] unimodal frequency-distribution functions are discussed, as well as pathological [bimodal] distributions [16]. Mean bubble radii based on various combinations of moments are introduced. The propriety of r a,2 for adsorption and r 3 1 for drainage is derived. The general morphology and characteristics of foam are presented [17,18]. Foam stability is ex plained in terms of the liquid and surface viscosi ties, the Gibbs and Marangoni effects, and, for ionic surfactants, the electrostatic repulsion across the film. The two general mechanisms of foam instability are delineated, namely film rupture [19] and interbubble gas diffusion [13]. Theory for the latter mechanism [13] as well as for foam drainage [16,20-22] is covered in some detail. Various methods for measuring pertinent properties of and in foam are presented. These include surface viscosity by movement within films [23], film thickness by diffraction of light [23], and liquid content of foam by total collapse or by electrical conductivity in situ [24,25] Bubble sizes are usually measured photographically. Ac cordingly, derivations are presented in detail for the correction to the frequency size distribution for planar statistical bias [13] and its step effect [26] on any mean radius [true ri k = planar r H.kiJ The general Gibbs adsorption equation [27] is detailed and several important special cases are FALL 1976 discussed. For the sake of clarity and reinforce ment, the simple case of a pure dilute solution of a simple nonionic surfactant is also derived directly [28]. The Langmuir isotherm [29] is derived and its important limiting cases are noted. The effects of insufficient collector, excess collector, micelles, and competing ions are considered Selectivity is discussed. SEPARATION METHODS THE SIMPLE, STRIPPING, enriching, and combined modes of operation are presented in detail. The important concept of effective concen tration in the upflow is introduced. Transfer units and theoretical stages are discussed and methods for their calculation are derived [10,30,31]. For utility as well as learning reinforcement, the limiting equations for separation in tall counterflow columns are derived from transfer units, theoretical stages, and also directly from fundamentals. The effect of internal reflux in duced by coalescence in the rising foam is dis cussed [30] The physical and chemical parameters affect ing ion flotation are covered. The selectivity, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the separation are discussed. The adsorptive bubble separation methods involve selective adsorption or attachment at the surface of bubbles rising through a solution or suspension. Precipitate flotation of the first kind, in which a separate surface-active collector is added to coat and thus float the precipitate, is distinguished from precipitate flotation of the second kind in which no separate collector is required. The effects of the various parameters are discussed and pre cipitate flotation is compared with ion flotation. The elements of mineral flotation are pre sented. Some of the technology [32] is also surveyed. However, since mineral flotation be longs more properly in the field of mining engineering and extractive metallurgy, it is not covered in detail in this course which is intended primarily for students in chemical engineering. The lumped parametric approach to analyzing 181

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batchwise bubble fractionation is presented [33], and results are compared with experiment [34]. The theory is extended to continuous flow and also compared with the distributed parametric ap proach [35]. Solvent sublat i on is introduced and compared with bubble fractionation. It is also compared with conventional liquid extraction. The im miscible layer of solvent sublation can trap more than can the layer in liquid extraction which is limited by considerations of bulk equilibrium PRESENT A TIONS AN D DEMO N STR A TIONS S OME OF THE MANY systems separated by the adsubble techniques are surveyed through out the course Each student is then required to write a term paper and in some cases present a brief oral report on some group or aspect of these separations. Appropriate supplementary literature is provided Some typical topics are as follows: a) Applica tions to sewage treatment; b) Phenol removal; c) Natural adsubble phenomena in the sea and the For the sake of brevity the term adsorptiv e bubble sepa r ation methods is someti me s con t racted to adsubble m e th ods. effect on the marine aerosol; d) The adsorptive droplet separation methods (which are the liquid liquid analogs of the adsorptive bubble separation methods). It has been the author's experience that the inclusion of an occasional, simple, inexpensive but well-chosen brief demonstration can add spice to a lecture course while at the same time illustrate principles in a convincing manner and thus en hance the learning process [36,37]. Some examples for this course include the following: (a} A razor blade floated by surface tension and dramatically pushed aside by a single tiny droplet of surfactant but scarcely moved by a second droplet; (b) The foam fractionation of dilute crystal violet chloride from scarlet red in the presence of sodium sulfate and the collector sodium lauryl sulfate by simple shaking (and the failure to visibly separate in the presence of too much collector) ; (c} The bubble fractionation of dilute crystal violet chloride in the presence of sodium sulfate in a 182 tall narrow vertical glass tube by bubbling with air or nitrogen; and ( d) the simple Crits ring test for the presence of trace surfactants in water [38] that has been shown to function by virtue of transient adsubble separation [39]. CONCLUDING REMARKS B Y THE END of this c'.>urse the student has become familiar not only with the adsubble techniques but also with som e of the important universal concepts of surface phenomena. He has also learned some ways in which they can be applied. He is thus better equipped to deal with a class of problems that might otherwise cause him great difficulty during his subsequent pro fessional career. REFERENCES 1. Lemlich, R., Chem. Eng. 73 (21), 7 (1966). 2 Karger, B. L R. B. Grieves, A. J. Rubin and F. Sebba. Sci. 2, 401 (1967) 3 Gaudin, A M Flotation, McGraw Hill, N.Y. (1957). 4 Lemlich, R Chem. Eng. 75 (27) 95 (1968). Errata in 76 (6), 5 (1969). 5. Sebba, F Ion Flotation, Elsevier, N Y. (1962) 6. Baa rso n, R. E. and C. L. Ray, Proc. Met. Soc. Conf. 24 656 (1963). 7. Dorman, D C. and R. Lemlich, Nature 207, 145 (196 5 ). 8. Lemlich, R., Ch. 5 in R ecent D eve lo'f)'Ynents in Separa tion Science, vol. 1, 113-127, N.N. Li, ed., CRC Press, Cleveland (1972). 9. Lemlich R., ed., Adsorptive Bubble Separation Technique, Academic Press, N.Y. (1972). 10. Lemlich, R., Ch. 1 in Progress in Separation and Puri fication, vol. 1, 1-56, E.S. Perry, ed., Interscience, N.Y. (1968) 11. Lemlich, R., in Chemical Engin eers Handbook, 17, 29 -3 4, R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, eds. McGraw Hill, N.Y. (1973). 12. Osipow, L. I., Surface Chemistry, Reinhold (1962). 13. deVries, A. J., Foam Stability, Rubber-Stichting, Delft (1957). 14. Abe, T., Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics (Japan) 5 (3-4), 240 (1955). 15 Gal-Or, B. and H. E. Hoelscher, A.I.Ch.E J. 12, 499 (1966). 16. Shih, F. S. and R. Lemlich, Ind. Eng. Chem Fundamentals 10, 254 (1971). 17 Lemlich, R J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 23 299 (1972). 18. Bik er man, J J. Foams, Springer-Verlag, N.Y. (1973). 19. Vrij, A. and J. Th G Overbeek, J. Am. Chem Soc. 90, 3074 (1968). 20. Leona r d, R. A. and R. Lemlich, A.I.Ch.E.J. 11, 18 (1965). 21. Fanlo, S and R. Lemlich, A.I.Ch E. I. Chem. E. (London) Symp. Ser. 9, 75, 85 (1965). 22. Shih, F. S. and R. Lemlich, A.I.Ch.E.J. 13, 751 (1967). Continued on page 186. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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AT PPG, CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AREA CRITICAL RESOURCE Since before the turn of the century, PPG Industries has recognized the value of chemical engineers. Thats how long we've been in the chemical business. Our Chemical Division and our Coatings & Resins Divi sion, in particular, rely heavily on chemical engineers to develop, produce, market and manage the high technology products for which PPG Industries has be come justly famous. And you'll find these chemical engineers at all levels from the recent graduate to highest corporate management. PPG also is a leader in the production of flat glass and fiber glass. We operate a total of 81 manufacturing locations around the world, 47 of them in the United States. If you would like to know more about PPG Industries, you may receive a copy of our Career Opportunities brochure by writing to: Harold E. Kohlhammer, Direc tor of Professional Employn:-ent, PPG Industries, One Gateway Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15222. PPG: a Concern for the Future ,,, I NDUSTRIES

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INTRODUCTORY POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JAMES A. KOUTSKY Uni v ersity of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706 JN THE COURSE OF THIRTY years the polymer industry has grown enormously to the pre sen t levels of production comparable to that of steel. It is estimated that 30 % of all chemistry and ChE graduates are employed in some field of endeavor involving polymeric materials. In this time period the industry matured and many scientific and engineering principles of polymeriza tion, polymer processing and polymer fabrication ha ve been well established. A general course and laboratory experience in polymers certainly will be an important aspect of ChE education for years to c:o me. Today the maturing and importance of the pol y mer field have resulted in many new courses being adapted in well established programs as well as the proliferation of basic courses in polymers for many departments which, up until recently, ha ve not had a course in polymer science and technology. The first level foundation course is of great importance since it should acquaint students with the basic subject material, reveal the breadth of the polymer field, and yet challenge the gifted student. Wisconsin has had such a course for many years which has been continually updated. An interesting development, particularly in the past five years, is the variety of backgrounds of students taking such a course. Students represent ing chemistry, metallur gy, physics, materials science, engineering mechanics, mechanical, electrical as well as chemical engineering, have elected to take this course. The course is aimed mai n ly for senior and graduate ChE level students, although interested junior level students, who have had thermodynamics, physical chemis try and organic chemistry are also encouraged to take the course. Graduate students from other 184 departments who have not had basic prerequisites in two of the three aforementioned areas are generally discouraged from taking the course. The course has been very well received and enroll ments have been large, averaging about 35 students each semester. The course is developed to achieve a balance of many of the disciplines of polymer science and technology. This necessitates, a survey approach. However, homework problems are specific enough for the student to obtain a deeper insight into many of the topics covered in lecture. In a sense, the course is designed to "wh et the appetite" as well as feed specific information about the polymer field. Classroom demonstrations of polymer properties have been of particular educational value and are listed as follows: solution, mechanical (modulus, elasticity, shrinkage on annealing, time effects and fracture) optical (birefringence, scattering, and spherulitic struc ture), wettability and flammability. Also the J Koulsky obtained his BS and MS in Chemical Engineering and his PhD in Polymer Science and Engineering (1966) from Case Institute of Technology He has been at the University of Wisconsin Madison since 1966. His research interests i nvolve solid-state struc ture studies of polymers adhes i on of therm osetting polymers and cryogenic recycling of polymer wastes. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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examination of various commercial forms of typical plastic materials has been quite enlighten ing to the students. For instance, the film, fiber and molded articles made from polyethylene, poly ethylene terephthalate and the polyamides reveal the enormous flexibility of property design via polymer processing methods. The course outline is as follows : TABLE I. Course Outline APPROXIMATE NO. OF LECTURES I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. III. IV. A. Basic Definitions B. Unique Properties of Polymers C. Cohesive Energy Density and Properties POLYMERIZATION A. Con den sation B. A ddition C Copolymerization D. Polymer Reactions STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS A. Measurement of Molecular Weight and Size B. Polymer Solutions C A naly sis of Polymers D. Testing of Polymers E. Morphology and Order in Crystalline and Amorphous Polymers (Processing Effects) F. Polymer Structure and Mechanical Properties G. Polymer Structure and Diffusion Properties H. Polymer Structure and Optical Properties I. Polymer Structure and Electrical Properties PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL POLYMERS A Olefin Polymers B. Diene Polymers C. Vinyl and Vinylidene Polymers and Copolymers D. Heterochain Polymers (Polyamides, Polyesters, Polyimides, Polyethers) E. Cellulosic Polymers F. Thermosets 3 3 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 V. POLYMER PROCESSING A. Resin and Plastics Technology (Molding, Extrusion, Compounding, Calendering, Casting) 4 B. Fiber Technology (Melt and Solution Spinning, Annealing, Dyeing) 1 C. Elastomer Technology (Compounding, Vulcanization, Molding) 2 44 FALL 1976 Any required background text for such a course usually has certain limitations. Therefore additional supplementary material introduced in the lectures is necessary to expand the concepts found in the required text. Even though this re quires additional work in terms of pedagogy the rewards are great since one can "flavor" the course with different approaches. Presently the An excellent complementary course for students is a basic laboratory experience which includes experiments on polymerization, polymer fabrication and polymer properties. required text is F. W. Billmeyer's, Textbook on Polymer Science, 2nd edition, Interscience pub lishers (1971). Additional texts, which have been used for supplementary information include the following: Polymerization Organic Chemistry of Synthetic High Polym ers, R. Lenz, Interscience ( 1967). Polymer Chemistry, B Vollmert, translated by E. H. Immergut, Springer-Verlag (1973). Polymer Science and Engineering, D. J. William s, Prentice-Hall, (1971). Structure and Properties of Polymers Engineering Design for Pla stics, ed. E Baer, Reinhold (1964). Viscoelastic Prop erties of Polym ers, J Ferry John Wiley (1970). P rinciples of Poly mer Chemistry, P. J. Flory, Cornell University Press (1953) Modern Pla stics Encyclopedia, ed. S. Gross, McG raw Hill. Polymer Processing Pl astics P rocessing, J.M. McKelve y, John Wiley (1962) Rubber T echnology, M Morton, Reinhold (1973). Plastics Film T echnology, W. R. R. Park, Reinhold (1969). As one can see from the outline and references, the course is broadly based and includes a great deal of information. For handling the supple mentary lecture material not covered in the re quired text, extensive handouts are given to the students to facilitate questions in class and allow more specific homework problems to be assigned LABO RA TORY EXPERIENCE AN EXCELLENT COMPLEMENTARY course for students is a basic laboratory experience which includes experiments on polymerization, polymer fabrication and polymer properties. The following is an outline of a course which is 185

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offered on a yearly basis and has enrollments of 12 to 15 students of which 30 % have been of graduate standing. Larger enrollments have been handled by giving the laboratory twice a year. Thi s approach has allowed for more individualized ins tr uction w hich is quite necessary in a labora tor y of this type s ince the equipment is generally expensive and chemicals are somewhat toxic. The course is developed to achieve a balance of many of the disciplines of polymer science and technology. This necessitates a survey approach. However, homework prob l ems are specific enough for the student to obtain a deeper insight into many of the topics covered in the lecture. The course is divided into three one credit sec tion s fo r flexibility A list of the required experi ment s is given in Table 2. TABLE 2. Laboratory Experiments I. POLYMERIZATION ( 1 credit) 1. Suspensio n Polymerization of Polystyrene 2. Preparatio n of Phenol-Formaldehyde and Phenol-Resorcinol Resin s 3. Preparation of Polyurethane Foams 4 Kinetics of Polyesterification 5 Preparation of Polysiloxane Elastomer II. CHARACTERIZATION (1 credit) 1. Infrared Analysis of Polymers 2. Fractionation of Polystyrene and Molecular Weight Mea s urements by Solution Viscosity 3. Flammability of Polymers 4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Polymer s 5. Nuclear Magnetic C haracterization of Polymers III. FABRICATION AND TENSILE TESTING (1 credit) 1. Molding of Phe nolic Laminates and Composites 2. Tensile Testing of Rigid, Thermoplastic, and Elastomeric Polymers 3. Co mpression and Injection Molding of Thermo plastic s and Thermoset s 4 Extrusio n of Thermoplastics (Polypropylene) The text used for the l aborato r y is, Labo ratory Preparation for Macromolecular Chemistry, E L. McCaff ery McG raw Hill (1970). Before the students can begin each experiment the y must hand in a short report on the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of each chemical (in cluding common solvents) which is used in the experiment. I might add this single requirement h as produced desirable, positive effects on labora to ry techni q ues. The students work in squads of 186 two or three since most of the experiments are elaborate enough to be difficult for one person either to control or set up. It normally takes three hours for completion of most of the experiments, however certain long experiments are split into two laboratory periods. The polymerization re actions which unfortunately cannot be split can take long times, especially the pearl polymerization of styrene. Some undaunted students have been known to stay ten hours to complete that experi ment after two initial failures! Additional experiments on light scattering, ad hesion and fracture, and copolymerization have been designed and will be included in the follow ing year. These introductory courses have been useful for many graduate students embarking on higher level courses specific to polymers and particularly useful for the undergraduate ChE student who wishes a background of polymers to round out his academic career. Although the department does not yet require such a course for undergraduates, a large majority of our students avail themselves of the opportunity. LEMLICH: Adsubble Methods Continued from page 182. 2 3. My se ls K. J., K. Shinoda and S. F ra nkel Soap Fil ms, Studi es of their Th innin g, Pe r gam o n, N.Y. (1959) 24. Clark, N. 0 Trans. Faraday Soc 44 1 3 (1948). 2 5 Jashnani I. L. and R. L e mlich, Ind. En g. Chem. Fundamentals 14, 131 (1975). 26. Jashnani, I. L. an d R. Lemlich, J. Coll In terface Sci. 46 1 3 (1974). 27. Gibb s J. W Collected Work s, L ongma n Gr een, N .Y (1928). 28. Taylor, H. S. and H. A. Taylor El ementary P hysica l Chemistry, Van Nostr a nd, N .Y. (1940). 29. Davi es, J. T. and E. K. Rid ea l, I nterfacia l Ph eno mena, Acad em ic P ress, N.Y. (1963). 3 0. J ashn a ni, I. L and R. L e mlich Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc ess De s Devel. 1 .2 3 12 (1973) 3 1. Agua yo G. A. and R. Lemlich ibid 13, 15 3 (1974). 32. Bri son, R. J., in Chemical Engin eers H andbook 2 1, 65-69, R H Perry and C. H. C hilt on eds., McGraw Hill, N.Y. (197 3 ). 33. Lemlich, R., A.I.Ch.E.J. 1 2 802 (1966). E rrata i n 13, 1017 (1967) 3 4. Shah, G. N and R. Lemli c h, Ind. En g. Chem Funda mentals 9, 35 0 (1970). 35. Cannon, K. D., an d R. L e mlich A I. C h .E Symp. Ser. 68 (124), 180 (1972). 36 L emli ch, R., J. Chem E duc 34, 489 (1957). 37. L e mlich, R., J. Eng Edu c 48, 385 (1958). 38. Crits, G. J., T he Grits Organi c Ring T est, 140th N at M eet in g Am e r. C hem Soc., Div. Water, A ir, Waste C hem ., Pr e print, Sept. 1961. 39 Lemlich, R., J. C oll Int er fa ce Sci. 37, 497 (1971). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Career Opportunities in Engineering, Design, Research, and Construction For more than 65 years C F Braun & Co has been involved in worldwide engineering and construction. We have designed and built hundreds of facilities for the chemical, petroleum, ore processing, and power industries. Today we are also actively engaged in the newer fields of nuclear energy and coal gasification. Our rapid growth has opened up many career positions. Challenging assignments and opportunities for pro fessional growth are available at Braun in an environment designed for creative engineering. Positions are available at our engineering headquarters in Alhambra, California and at our eastern engineering center in Murray Hill, New Jersey. For further information write to C F Braun & Co, Department K Alhambra, California 91802, or Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974. C F BRAUN & Co Engineers Constructors AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER

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THE ENGINEER AS AN ENTREPRENEUR SOME NEW CONCEPTS HOW ARD H. REYNOLDS Lo we ll T ec h n ologi c al Institut e Lo we ll, Massa c h u setts 01854 N EW ENGLAND HAS NOT been blessed with a plethora of natural raw materials. At the same time its excellent university system, both in the private and public sectors has produced a large quantity of engineers and scientists as well as skilled technicians. The result of these two factors has been the development of an economy based primarily on products with high technology input or of engineering and scientific services. In order to maintain and improve its economic position, New England must continue its produc tion of p r oducts and services requiring high technology. For continued growth, a continuing influ x of new businesses must be maintained both to improve employment opportunities and to main tain or increase its tax base. Such a growth ha s been characteristic of the region in the decades of the 1950's and 1960's and a new upward thrust in this direction should be anticipated in the 1980's and beyond. In an effort to aid in the development of better entrepreneurship in New England, the Chemical Engineering Department at Lowell Technological Institute has provided a ne w course called Th e E n g ineer as an E n t repreneur ." This course i s open to seniors and graduate students, and is not restricted to chemical engineers. The course has been well received and has just completed its third yea r The author has had considerable experience with entrepreneurial businesses in the area and is familiar with a number of such companies in New England. The course has developed around the concept that the best way to learn to swim is to get in the water. A major part of the course is the es tablishment of small twoor three-man companies which develop a product, a marketing plan and a 188 financial plan to exploit the product. While en gaged in the development of this new company, the students are exposed to lectures and discus sions by entrepreneurs in the local area. They are also given lectures by patent attorneys, financial people, marketing people and government repre sentatives. The implications of Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Laws a t e also discussed. Unfortunately iri a one-semester course it is impossible to try out the new product or service on the market in an y but a very preliminary way In most cases, prototypes of the product have been produced and : local marketing evaluations have been made. Cash flow, financial requirements, and pro forma profit and loss statements have been produced for a five-year period. At the end of the course, the full report of the company is presented to the entire class (with visitors) and the corri.pleted report is submitted as a fulfillment of the course re q uirements. The stipulation is that the report be written to be presented to a group of financial people to obtain their financial suppo r t for the project. Textbooks dealing with the subject in all of its ramifications are difficult to find. Three books were used as references as follows: 1. Ho w to R1l n a S m.a ll B usiness J. K. L a ss er (4th Ed., M c Gra w -Hill, 1 9 7 4 ). 2. Fun and Guts the E ntrepreneur P hi l osop h y, J ose ph Mancu so (Addi so n W e sl ey, 1 9 7 3 ) 3 T he Sm.a ll Ch emica l E nterprise a n d F oices Shapin g the F u t ure of t h e Chemica l I ndustry, (Ame r ican C h e mical Soci ety, 16 5 th M eet ing Dallas Texas, April 10 through 12, 197 3 ). Other class handouts included publications by the Small Business Administration (SBA), the Department of Commerce of the Commonwealth of Massachusett s, and various U. S. Government publications. Guest lecturers were brought into the class and included a patent attorney, a successful en trepreneur, a banker, and a financial advisor. A CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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field trip was made to a successful small company, Amicon Corporation, of Lexington, Massachusetts. A seminar was held with the president of the company, Norman D. Jacobs, who outlined the inception of the company and discussed many of the problems involved in the development and growth of Amicon. A plant visit was also scheduled subsequent to the seminar. The students were given lectures involving the principles of business organization, problems of accounting, cash flow and depreciation, problems associated with markets and marketing and prob lems associated with production. Heavy emphasis was placed on both the marketing function and the financial function. Further emphasis was placed on the methods of incorporation of the corporation and various mechanisms for obtaining initial money to start up the company. MARKETING RESEARCH THE STUDENTS DID their own marketing survey usually on a local basis and discussed various problems associated with these market ing surveys with other members of the class The course has developed around the concept that the best way to learn to swim is to get in the water. A major part of the course is the establishment of twoor three-man companies which develop a product, a marketing plan and a financial plan to exploit the product. Marketing research on a national basis was done in a preliminary way by literature evaluations and by direct contact with marketing organiza tions. Distribution systems, costs of selling and of operation and problems associated with capital investment were all discussed in detail. The final reports were expected to reflect all of the problems which would normally be associated with the establishment of sound legal corporate structure, financial backing and projected profit and loss statements. Strong emphasis was placed upon the oft-neglected principle that Accounts Payable are due within 30 days, whereas Accounts Receivable may extend up to 120 days. This re quires working capital to bridge the time gap. More small companies fail because of lack of understanding of this principle than any other single factor. FALL 1976 Howard H Reynolds received h i s AB i n Chem i str y from Harvard University and his ScD in Chemical Engineer i ng from M I. T He has worked in the Technical Dept and Resear c h Dept. of Wyandotte Chemicals Co Subsequently he worked with the Davison Chemical Company, the Dewey & Almy Chem i cal Company, the Cryovac Company and was Vice President of Research and Development for the Ludlow Corporation. Since 1963 he ha s been professor and chairman of the Chemical Engineering Dept of Lowell Technological Institute He has been a member of the following societ i es : ACS AIChE AAAS, SPE TAPPI, New York Academy of Science and Sigma Xi He was recently elected a Fellow of AIChE Three projects developed in this course are worthy of note. The first is a mechanical apple picker, operated by one person, capable of a sub stantial increase in the harvesting of fruit with a marked reduction in bruising. A prototype machine was built and was exhibited to several potential customers who were very excited about the prospect. Preliminary cost studies indicated that labor savings would more than pay for the mechanical apple-picker in one season. A second interesting product was a Tic-Tac-To game involving 625 holes for pegs. The game was designed primarily for the age group of 8 years to adults. A prototype was made and a local market survey received enthusiastic response. There is considerable interest in continuing this development if appropriate capital can be a c quired. A third product was the development of a 10-size signal generator for use in testing of electronic circuits with specific reference to radios and television sets. The product could be equipped with multi-purpose replaceable heads to expand the range of utility. Preliminary market surveys indicated that a substantial market did in fact exist and one of the members of the student company intends to carr y forward the Continued on page 194. 189

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ENERGY, MASS AND MOMENTUM TRANSPORT The Treatment Of Jump Conditions At Phase Boundaries And Fluid -dynamic Discontinuities DANIEL E. ROSNER Yale University New Haven, Connecticut 06520 THE ABILTY TO DEAL quantitatively with transport phenomena accompanying phase and chemical transformations is the hallmark of the chemical engineer. But since the essentials of transport phenomena are, accordingly, a central ... the principal need in the future will be for creative engineers able to formulate and program the solution to challenging novel problems, not the now-routine problems which characterized (chemical) engineering earlier this century. part of every ChE's undergraduate education, what then is the purpose of a graduate course in this subject? The answer lies in the fact that undergraduate courses tend to emphasize the solu tion of "classical" problems whereas, in practice, the solution to such problems has already been thoroughly computerized. The situation is what D. Gabor calls the "aristocratic revolution" within the engineering profession [l]-viz. the principal need in the future will be for creative engineers able to formulate and program the solution to challenging novel problems, not the now-routine problems which characterized (chemical) engi neering earlier this century. This is our underly ing premise at Yale and, in what follows, I il lustrate how this influences my teaching of our graduate course in energy and mass transport. For definiteness, I have selected the treatment of "boundary conditions", one of the "Achilles' heels" of most undergraduate courses in transport phe nomena. 190 COURSE CONTENT THE PLACE OF OUR topic within the context of the one semester lecture course (EAS 254) is evident in Table 1. This course is not only taken by all graduate students in ChE but, each year, attracts students from other graduate majors at Yale ( e,g Geology, Forestry, Materials Science, Fluid Physics, Physiology). As will become clear TABLE 1 COURSE OUTLINE: Heat, Mass and Momentum Transport Processes 1. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES (Continuum Approach) Fixed and moving macroscopic control vol ume s Co nser vation relations in partial differential form Jump conditions at phase boundaries, discontinuities 2. PHENOMENOLOGICAL TRANSPORT LAWS AND COEFFICIENTS Linear flux-driving force laws Molecular level approach to transport coefficients Actual and effective transport coefficients; turbulent transport Similitu de methods, implications 3. ENERGY AND MASS TRANSPORT IN QUIESCENT MEDIA Stea d y state conduction, diffusion Transient conduction /diffusion ; analytical methods Numerical methods; finite differences finite elements 4. ENERGY AND MASS TRANSPORT IN MOVING MEDIA Transport to/from submerged surfaces Transport to/from duct surfaces Transport in packed beds Transport in jets, plumes, wakes; pollutant dispersion modeling 5 SPECIAL TOPICS (as time permits) Transport with simultaneous phase change Transport with simultaneous chemical reaction Low density flows (non-continuum effects) High speed flows (viscous dissipation effects) Textbook: Bird, R. B., Stewart W. and Lightfoot, E. N., Transport Phenomena J. Wiley (1963) (Sup plemented by papers from the current re searc h/engineering literature) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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via our example, this broad appeal follows from our emphasis on fundamental principles common to transport phenomena in these fields. Specific applications including numerical calculations, are covered mainly via graded homework sets (about 9) and 2 take-home open book examinations Moreover, the course is not only intended for tomorrow's "computer modelers" of chemical proc esses-it has proved useful to students designing and interpreting experiments in chemical kinetics, both laboratory and pilot plant scale. Our approach to the treatment of boundary conditions is not that they are a set of ad ho c pre scriptions (usually stated without their underlying restrictions), but rather that they follow from the same conservation principles used to generate global conditions on chemical reactors or differ ential equations applicable within each region of the ChE's interest. This is shown in the "road map" (Fig. 1), which reveals that we formulate the conditions to be imposed at interfaces separat ing continua by applying "battle-tested" conserva tion (balance) principles (mass, energy, momen tum, entropy) to a special type of semi-differential control volume (a "pillbox") straddling the mov ing interface. It is remarkable that while this ap proach is quite familiar to EE's studying electro magnetism, most ChE's have not been introduced to it. LIMITATIONS OF THE USUAL APPROACH U NDERGRADUATE ChE's typically feel com fortable imposing continuity of normal veloc ity, tangential velocity (no "slip"), tangential shear stress, normal pressure, temperature, heat flux and chemical potential across interfaces (usu ally phase boundaries, but here broadened to in clude fluid-dynamic discontinuities such as detona tion waves in gases, or the interface between immiscible liquids). To illustrate the serious lim itations of these "commonly encountered" pre scriptions, consider the folowing student exer cises: For definiteness, I have selected the treatment of "boundary conditions," one of the "Achilles' heels" of most undergraduate courses in transport phenomena. FALL 1976 Dr Rosner's research i nterests include convective heat and mass transport, interfacial chemical reactions, phase transformations, com bustion and aerosol phenomena, on which he has published over 90 papers He received his Ph D in Aeronautical Engineering from Prince ton University in 1961 following a bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering (summa cum laude) from City College of New York in 1955. Prior to joining the Yale faculty as an Associate Professor of Engineer i ng and Applied Science in 1969, he headed a research group on interfacial chemical kinetics and transport at AeroChem Div Sybron Corporat i on, Princeton, New Jersey He has also been a Visiting Pro fessor of Mechanical Engineering at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Graduate School and a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University (Chem. Eng. 1968 ) and Imperial College-London (Mech. Eng. 1973) He is presently Professor of Chemical Engineering and Applied Science and Director of the High Temperature Chemical Reaction Engineering laboratory at Yale University El. It is often stated that at solid/fluid interfaces the fluid velocity equals the velocity of the surface it self (p. 37, BSL [ 2] and p. 94 WWW [3]). Moreover, Batchelor (Ref. (4], p. 68) states that "unless rupture occurs" at the interface between two con tacting media, the normal component of fluid veloc ity must be continuous across the interface. Sup po s e, however, that a solid is subliming into the gas (eg napthalene in air). Would this above state ment be true for the velocity components normal to the surface? E2. The shear stress is often considered to be negligible at gas/liquid interfaces (p. 37, BSL and p. 110 WWW). When wind drives a film of rainwater up your car windshield against the pull of gravity, would this as sumption be justified? E3. For the energy equation one can frequently impose the condition of continuity of heat flux and tem perature across an interface (p. 267, BSL). Would continuity of heat flux be valid if the interface were the site of a phase change? E4. A theoretician has argued that a conjectured fluid dynamic discontinuity is possible ("exists") since it is compatible with the laws of mass, momentum and energy conservation. I s his proof complete.? Can a discontinuity exist if t~e specific entropy of the fluid decreases across the discontinuity (as in a solidification wave)? E5. For systems which need not be in mechanical, thermal or chemical equilibrium: a) would a dis continuity in tangential mass-averaged v elocity, vt, 191

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across a n i n te r f a ce (eg pha se b o u nd ary) v iol ate a n y b as i c c on serva tion p ri n ci p le? b) W ould a d i co n ti nui ty i n te mp e ratu re, T, across an i n terface (eg. a s h ock wave) vio l ate a n y c on servat io n p ri n ciple? c) Wo uld a d isc on t inu ity i n c h em i cal p te n tial across a n i n terface (eg. a p h ase b o und ary) violate a n y conse r vatio n p ri n ci pl e? d ) W h at ki nd of restrict ion s do t h e co n servatio n eq u atio n s im pose in such cases? LECTURE EMPHASIS : A GENERAL METHOD J N T H E OUTLINE for th i s l ecture (i n cluding a list of useful refere n ces [5, 6]), distributed to each stud e nt, a systematic pr o cedure for d e riving relations between field quantJ.t1 e s on eith e r side of surfaces of discontinuity is sk e tched. D uring the lecture this pr o cedure is illustrated for e ach pri mary "balanced" quantity (chemical elements, chemical species mass, total mass, lin e ar momen tum, angular m o mentum, t o ta l en e rgy a n d speci fi c entropy) and then sp e cialized to cases o f practica l importance For brevity we here outline the pro cedure as applied to chemical species conservation at i nterfac e s, th e r el evant field "density" being the scalar partial density of each chemical species. O ur result can th e n be compared to various de generate cases stated in classical treatis es on sur face chem i stry-e.g. Hayward and Trapnell's monograph [7] on chemisorption on solid surfaces Using examples from recent research carried out in the Yale High Temperature Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, we then consider some i mp licati o ns of the general boundary conditi o n, e mph as i z i ng t h e im p ortant question of departures from chemical equilibrium at surfaces. We adopt the view that the interface separates two regio n s ( designated by each governed by continuum laws, but avoid prescribing the form of the transport laws wi thi n the interfacial region ( o wing to the magnitude of local gradients t h erein). F I GU RE 1 BASIC "CO NSER VATION" LAWS MOMENTUM I I MASS (Newton-Euler) ENERGY ENTROPY. I I MOLECULAR APPROACH CONT INUUM APPROACH N oneq. + Stat Mech K inetic The or y rr rev.Thermo + Constitutive Re lations+ Eqs of Transport C oe ffici ent s S tate I P. D, Ens Trans. Coeff, I Eqs. State I .... I I I FULLY DIFFERENT I AL CONTROL VOLUME MACROSCOPIC FULLY MACROSCO P IC CONTROL VOLUME I N AT LEAST ONE DIMENSION CONTROL VOLUME I I F ormulation Boundary Theo rem s Via Reyno ld s Theorems Partia l Diffe rRega rdin g entia l Equatio ns of Simple and "jump 11 Regarding Transport Theorem Stresses k a n y orthogonal Problems conditio n s Stresses (Leibnitz Ru le) ., I I Cont rol I Fixed V olum e "Material" .,_ Con tr ol l C ontrol Voiume Mov in g Volume Ar bitra rily VI A GAUSS I I DIVERGENCE THEOREM I So lution of "Bl ack Box 11 Prob le ms 192 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Then: 1. Write the relevant conservation equation for an arbi trarily moving macroscopic control volume (since the interface motion is generally different from that of the fluid on either side of it). 2. Specialize the control volume to a "pillbox" (of arbi trary area) always moving so as to straddle the interface. 3. Evaluate all terms in the resulting integral equation [using mathematical theorems (Leibnitz, Gauss), ex ploiting the fact that, for sufficiently thin interfaces, the pillbox top and bottom become locally parallel (hence their unit outwa r d normals n + n are opposite in sign)]. When applied to a chemical species i present with instantaneous mass p;' per unit area of interface t and produced at the instantaneous (heterogeneous reaction) rate rt'' per unit (projected) interface area, we obtain ?)pi'' / t + div" (p;"v ., 1. + jt') + [pi'" (v v ) + jt] n + = rt 1 2 (1) 3 where term 1 is the accumulation rate, 2 is the net outflow of species i per unit interfacial area due to both tangential surface convection v ., t and surfaee diffusion jt' 3 (involving the "jump" operator [ J ( ) + ( ) ) is the net outflow of species i due to relative convection and diffusion normal to the interface. In comparing this relation to its better known three-dimensional analog: op"' / at +div "' (p i'"v + j i'' ) = r t' (2) note that, in effect, the net outflow (by convection and diffusion) term per unit interfacial area in Eq. (1) has been decomposed into a tangential contribution 2 and a normal contribution 3. IMPLICATIONS DISSOCIATIVE chemisorption of oxygen on solid surfaces is an important elementary step in solid-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The kinetics of this step are often studied under transient con ditions such that only term 1 contributes to the Alternate methods can be used if the "interface" is it se lf a continuum zone with merely large spatial gradients in one (normal) direction and moderate spatial gradients in the tangential directions. Decomposition of the "v op erator into normal (n) and tangential (t) contributions then allow s formal integration of the presumed differential equations to obtain the desired "j ump ;r elations. [8] t We adopt the useful convention that triple primed ("'), double primed (") and single primed (') quantities refer, respectively, to quantities reckoned per unit volume, area and length FALL 1976 ... a systematic formulation of jump conditions provides insight into failure of the commonly encountered assump tion of interphase local chemical equilibrium despite conditions of net chemical species transport. left hand side of Eq. (1)-ie. the net rate of for mation of adsorbed 0-atoms is then proportional to the instantaneous rate of increase of surface coverage. [7] But if 0-atom diffusion into the bulk "solvent" is important, term 3 contributes, and in molecular beam studies (in which only a portion of the target is "illuminated") [10] term 2 (sur face diffusion) must be considered. We recently completed a kinetic study of the oxygen / tantalum reaction in the temperature range 1200-3000K us ing a transient (resistance "relaxation") method. [9] In considering Eq. (1) for atomic oxygen, term 1 contributed due to the transient, term 2 con tributed due to the continuous shrinkage of the tantalum filament associated with metal gasifica tion, and term 3 contributed due to internal dis solution of oxygen in the metal. This system* pro vides a dramatic illustration of the moral: be wary of unrestricted statements of highly degenerate cases of Eq. (1), such as the commonly seen forms: ?)p/' / at = r t (in chemisorption) (3) or j ;/' n + = r t (in steady-state catalysis) (4) I t should also be remarked that a systematic formulation of jump conditions such as Eq. (1) provides insight into failure of the commonly en countered assumption of interphase local chemical equilibrium despite conditions of net chemical spe cies transport. For when one descends to the mole cular level one finds that each r1" is itself the algebraic sum of positive and negative contribu tions which vanish only at equilibrium. It follows that when the left hand side of Eq (1) is non zero then local interface equilibrium cannot be strictly valid. Thus, in any particular application the importance of this departure can be assessed, provided the relevant kinetic and transport coef ficients are known or estimable. Moreover, while An analogous situation, rec ently treated b y Pie rs on and Whitaker [11 ] is the surfactant (heptanoic acid) absorp tion mass balance for a growing droplet (water). 193

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discussed here for the case of chemical equilib rium, similar arguments apply to the case of me chanical equilibrium (via momentum conserva tion) and thermal equilibrium (via energy conser vation). Indeed, in a recent study [12] of the non equilibrium crystallization of pure Zr02, liquid/ solid interface temperatures some 570K below the equilibrium melting point have been encountered! CONCLUSIONS T HE TREATMENT of boundary conditions briefly described above [13] has been use to illustrate our approach to the teaching of energy, mass and momentum transport at the graduate level. We believe that such a fundamental ap proach to each of the topics (Table 1) is essential to the development of PhD chemical engineers who will be able to deal rationally with novel chemical processes involving extreme conditions. REFERENCES 1. Gabor, D., In novations, Scientific, Te chnolo gical and Social, Oxford University Press, New York and Ox ford, 1970. 2. Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. and Lightfoot, E. N., Trans port Phenomena, J. Wiley, New York, 1963. 3. Welty, J. R., Wicks, C. E. and Wilson, R. E., Funda mentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass T ransfer, J. Wiley, New York, 1969. 4. Batchelor, G K., An Int roduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1967. 5. Slattery, J. C., Momentum, Energy and Mass Transf er in Continua, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972. 6. Delahay, J.M., "Jump Conditions and Entropy Sources in Two Phase Systems. Local Instant Formulation", Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1, 395-409 (1974). 7. Trapnell, B. M. W. and Hayward, D. 0., Chemisorp tion, Butterworths (London) Second Edition, 1964. 8. Bernstein, I., "Lecture notes for EAS 100 : Mathe matical Methods in Engineering and Applied Science", Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Yale University, 1976-1977. 9. Rosne r D. E ., Chung, H. and Feng, H., "Resistance Relaxation Studies of Gas/Metal Reactions Leading to Simultaneous Dissolution and Gasification-The Dis sociated Oxygen/Tantalum System Above 2400K. I. Methodology and the Role of Atomic Oxygen. II. Mechanism, Kinetics and Energetics of Chemisorption Int erface Penetration and Product Desorption", Fara day T ransactions I. Phy s Chem., 72, 842-875 (1976). 10. Krakowski, R. A. and Olander, D. R ., "Dissociation of Hydrogen on Tantalum Using a Modulated Molecular Beam Technique", J. Chem. Phys., 49, 5027-5041 (1968). 11. Pierson, F. W. and Whitaker, S., "Studies of the Drqp W eight Method for Surfactant Solutions. I. Mathe matical Analysis of the Adsorption of Surfactants at the Surface of a Growing Drop", J. Coll. Int. Sci., 54, No. 2, 203-218 (1976). 194 12. Rosner, D. E. and Epstein, M., "Simultaneous Kinetic and Heat Transfe r Limitations in the Crystallization of Highly Under coo led Melts", Chem Engineering Sci., 30, 511-520 (1975). 13. Rosner, D E., Boundary Conditions in Energy, Mass and Momentum T ransport Pro cesses, (monograph, in preparation). REYNOLDS: Engineer as Entrepeneur Continued from page 189. development to commercialization. One of the problems which necessarily arises in a one-semester course of this type is that four months is really inadequate to carry out the de velopment and preliminary commercialization satisfactorily. Serious consideration is being given to the extension of the one-semester course to a two-semester course in which at time in tervals, prototype devices could be manufactured and test marketing carried out. The current one semester course carried three credits and has generated a great deal of interest. The Chemical Engineering Department feels that this type of innovative course could have major beneficial effects for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by drawing attention of engineering students to the field of entrepreneur ship and to give embryonic entrepreneurs a real life experience in the development and marketing of new products. It is hoped that as time goes on, funding may be available for "seed money" in which to take one or more of the more promising products or services into at least preliminary commercialization. ACADEMIC POSITIONS For advertising rates contact Ms B J. Neelands, CEE c / o Chemical Engineering Dept University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 32601. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CHAIRPERSON POSITION Candidates for the chairperson of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo are being sought. Persons in terested are invited to send their credentials, and persons wishing to nominate others are invited to send names and addresses to: McAllister H. Hull, Jr., Dean Graduate School, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214. The university is aggressively engaged in an affirmative action pro gram and is an equal opportunity employer. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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IMPLEMENTATION OF SI UNITS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION GORDON R. YOUNGQUIST Clarkson College of Technology Potsdam, New York 13676 RECENT LEGISLATION passed by Congress and signed by President Ford provides for the voluntary conversion to the SI system of units in the United States. No time limit was set for the changeover, but considerable progress has al ready been made, especially in industries which are international. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers has established a Metrication Committee to examine the problems of conversion to metric practice by the chemical industries. In January 1976, on behalf of this Committee, a questionnaire was sent to all U.S. Chemical Engineering De partments on the AIChE Faculties list to assess implementation of SI in chemical engineering education in the United States. 92 departments have responded and the results of the survey are summarized below. Of those responding: 30 % indicated that their engineering schools have established policy with respect to use of SI in its courses, while an additional 15 % will establish such policy in the near future. Where such engineering school policy exists, the policy is typically weak: the use of SI in courses is urged, but at the instructor's option. Only 3 schools indicated that some use of SI was required in all engineering courses. 30 % of engineering schools have made some concerted efforts to introduce SI, usually by distribution of pamphlets, but also through short courses, films, seminars, and committees to respond to questions and provide other assistance. o 49 % of the ChE Departments have made some special efforts to introduce SI to their curricula, usually in at least one course (e.g., material and energy balances) and along with other systems of measurements. -5 departments require some use of SI in all their courses (none use it exclusively). -28% urge (but d on't require) their faculty to use SI where possible -13% have distributed pamphlets or other written information on SI. -26% intend to make stronger efforts in the future especially as more textbooks in SI become available. -64% introduce SI along with other systems of measurement at the option of instructors FALL 1976 -68% said that at least some of its faculty write up their research and are conducting current research using SI. -54% indicated that their support staff (secretaries, technicians, e.g.) no working knowledge of SI, with 37% having some working knowledge -51 % indicated that their present seniors have a working knowledge of SI, an additional 15% a limited knowledge. 40 % of the ChE departments thought it appropriate for accreditation groups to encourage implementation of SI, 60 % did not (some quite vehemently!). 10 % have encountered or foresaw no problems in im plementing SI; the remainder cited as problems: -60%, lack of texts and reference materials in SI. -24%, faculty resistance. -23%, faculty unfamiliar with SI. -16%, lack of resource materials which explain system. -15%, lack of AIChE guidance. -36%, lack of national legal requirement. -4%, apathy. -10%, SI a lousy system. 17 % favored immediate changeover to SI for all AIChE publications, 68 % did not. 73 % favored a phased changeover to SI for AIChE publications, 14 % did not. 52 % favored encouragement from AIChE to publishers to provide textbooks and reference materials in SI, 22 % did not, and a few favored dual notation. 67 % favored publication of an AIChE guide to metric practice, 17 % did not. (The cost of such guide was questioned several times.) SOME COMMENTS It is evident that the transition to SI is well under way in a large number of ChE departments in the U.S., although some resistance to the SI system still exists. Most departments seem to view SI as yet another system of measurement that chemical engineers must be able to deal with, and feel that chemical engineers will need to be con versant in a variety of systems for some years to come. The major deterrent to increased use of SI in ChE education appears to be the lack of text books and reference materials which make use of SI. Several who responded questioned whether industrial demands for employees with SI train ing existed. In this respect it should be noted that some companies (Exxon, fo r example) have essentially completed their con v ersion to SI, while others have not yet addressed the problem. 195

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(ejn plll book reviews Principles of Quantum Chemistry By D. V. George P er gamon Press, 197 2 Reviewed by Phillip Certain University of Wisconsin The first thing on e notices about this book is the unusual photograph on the dustjacket. A careful r eading of the book gives absolutely no information about what the subject of the photo graph (an electron micrograph of a mitochrondria membrane?) might be. Instead one discovers that this text is a straightforward presentation of the fundamentals of quantum chemistry, pitched at a level appropriate to advanced (and bright!) undergraduates. It is a very compact presentation, requiring only 260 pages to cover most of the topics normal ly treated in a course on quantum chemistry and spectroscopy. The book begins with a brief his torical introduction to quantum mechanics, in cluding a "derivation" of the Schrodinger equa tion based on de Broglie's wave hypothesis. After the particle-in-a-box is treated, the postulational approach to quantum mechanics is presented in a very nice way. There is a good discussion of the significance of the commutator of two opera tors with respect to the uncertainty principle; and a simple introduction to Dirac notation is included. As simple applications of quantum mechanics, George considers the usual rigid rotator, harmonic oscillator, and hydrogen atom. He presents the ladder-operator approach to the eigenvalues of the angular momentum operator, and develops the eigenfunctions from the differential equations ap proach. Two additional chapters are invluded to pro vide necessary background for quantum chemis try. One is a very brief discussion of variation and perturbation methods and the other is an in troduction to group theory. This basic material constitutes the first half of the book. The remaining half is devoted to dis cussions of many-electron atoms, molecular orbital and valence bond theory, Hiickel molecular orbital theory, ligand field theory and spectroscopy. These subjects receive an average of 20 pages each, so that it is evident the author maintains his con cise presentation throughout. 196 Given the limited space available, George treats his subject clearly and concisely. There are some very attractive features of the book. Not a great deal of mathematical background is as sumed for the student. Although the presentation is distinctly mathematical, the math is carefully done and more advanced techniques are discussed separately before applications are presented. There is a concise summary and set of exercises at the end of each c hapter. The style of writing is informal and re a dable. The essentials are in the book, but detailed applications and explanations in general have been sacrificed to conserve s pace. The instructor who chooses this book as a text should be prepared to provide a fair amount of supplementary ma terial to the students. The book might be most useful in a free-wheeling course in which the in structor wants a text for the students which is a concise reference on the fundamentals. The book is similar in length and level of 1 presentation to M. W. Hanna's Q uan tum Mec]:iani c s in Chemist ry [Benjamin (1969)]. The experience of our undergraduate students with this latter book is that, without substantial initial help, its conciseness is a real barrier to under standing Optimization by Variational Methods By Morton M. Denn M c Gra w -Hill Book Company, Ne w Yo r k, 1969 Reviewed by E. Stanley Lee, University of South ern California Many books on optimization have been pub lished. But unfortunately, most books are not written for chemical engineers and do not use chemical engineering systems as examples. This book fulfills this gap in the variational approach. Furthermore, it is well written and has many useful examples Variational methods cover many different areas and frequently involve fairly sophisticated mathematics. Professor Denn did an excellent job in presenting the material and in avoiding the requirement of more sophisticated mathe matical background. However, the user of this book must be cautioned about the fact that many chemical engineering students do not have the mathematical maturity and the teacher must present the material in great detail during the initial period. More homework and problem solvCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ing periods in class also help the situation. Chapter 1 presents the basic concepts of op timization by differential calculus, also known as single stage optimization by differential calculus. It provides a useful and easy transition from dif ferential calculus for the optimization of finite number of variables to the variational calculus for the optimization of functionals. The latter is treated in Chapters 3 to 6 for continuous systems and in Chapter 7 for staged systems. Computa tional problems are treated in Chapter 9 and Chapter 10 treats nonserial processes. An intro ductory coverage on feedback control and distrib uted-parameter systems is given in Chapters 8 and 11. In Chapter 12, an introduction to dynamic pro gramming is given together with a demonstration of the interconnections between dynamic pro gramming and the variational approaches. In teaching a typical chemical engineering optimization course at the graduate level, this re viewer has found that it is useful to divide this course into two parts: the variational approaches and the programming approaches. The latter cate gory includes all the linear and nonlinear pro gramming techniques, and dynamic programming. As a foundation to these two categories, the various search techniques and numerical methods for solving algebraic and differential equations are introduced. Since practical chemical engineer ing problems are usually nonlinear problems; numerical so lution not analytical solution, should be emphasized. Viewed from the above concept, this book can be used as a textbook for the variational ap proaches. If optimization is a one-year course, the variational approaches should be covered in a se mester. The second semester is more appropriate with the first semester covering the programming techniques and the search techniques. If the variational techniques are to be covered in one semester, fairly detailed discussions should be given to Chapters 1 and 3. The derivations in Chapters 4 and 5 can be omitted except to sum marize the results to provide a transition from Chapters 3 to 6. Chapters 6, 7, 9 and 10 should, again, be covered completely. Since Chapter 2 is only an introductory chapter on search techniques which should be covered in the previous semester, this chapter can be omitted. Greater emphasis should be placed on Chapters 9 and 10. Further more, the material in these two chapters can be supplemented with recent publications in the literature. D FALL 1976 WortdWide Engineering & Construction In Pasadena, california The Ralph M. Parsons Company, a world leader in the engineering and construction industry, is continuing to grow in the fields of Petroleum and Chemical Process Plants, Mining and Metallurgy Power and Systems En gineering, and we re look ing for innovative engine ering graduates to join us in our new world head quarters facility in Pasa dena, California. We're crossing the thres hold from anticipation into realization in such advanc ed areas as oil shale and tar sands development, coal gasification and liqui fication, and various other energy sources and pro cesses. Parsons offers the career-minded individual clearly defined growth paths, in a rapidly expand ing professional environ ment in which emphasis is placed on individual ach ievement. Equally impor tant : our project concept will plunge you directly into the action. You don't start on the fringes of an assignment. .. you're part of it. See your placement office to arrange an interview. We'd like to tell you more about The Ralph M. Par sons Company Southern California and tomorrow. PARSONS An Equal Opportunity Employer Male/Female

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1.25 THIS IS A LOG TABLE? J.M. BERTY Autocla v e Engineers, Inc. Erie Pe n nsyl v ania 16501 Y ES, IF YOU can remember that: 10 1 = 1.25, and you know the rule that: 10 1 (10 1 ) = 2 then you have memorized the log table and should be able to raise any number to any exponent, first with paper and pencil and later in your head and get an estimate of the order of magnitude and the first digit correct. With the age of the $20.00 electronic calcu lator upon us, the danger that people will soon forget even how to add is all to real. A slightly more expensive calculator can give logarithmic and exponential functions, and so the engineer's slide rule will join the abacus in the museum. Both of these are still excellent educational tools to illustrate some basic concepts and should be retained as such. The use of electronic calculators, just like the computers, will speed up getting re sults-both good and bad results. So checking out results, at least for order-of-magnitude correct ness, is more important than ever. The following two-digit log table can help you to check the results from your calculator and from your com puter. Starting with the basic premise that: 10 1 = 1.25* and 10 1 (10 1 ) = 10 2 i.e., 1.25(1.25) = 1.56 = 1.6 we received 10 2 = 1.6. In the same way, 10 1 (10 2 ) = 10 3 1.25 (1.6) = 2.0, we already calculated 10 3 = 2.00. In summary: The fou r -digit value is for 10 1.o = 1.2 5 9 which rounds up t o 1.26 and this valu e is r ecommended for chain multiplication, i.e., 10 8 = ( 1.26) 8 In the following table where all other value s a re r ounded to two d i git s the valu e of 1.2 5 i.e. on e and a qua r ter, fits better. 198 10 1 = 1.25 10 2 = 1.6 10 3 = 2.0 Carrying out the same way for all nine digits: 10 1 (10 3 ) = 10 4 1.25 (2.0) = 2.5, or 10 2 (10 2 ) = lQ o.4 1.6 (1.6) = 2.5, etc., we receive the following table: 10 1 = 1.25 10 2 = 1.6 10 3 = 2.0 10 .4 = 2.5 10 5 = 3.2 10 6 = 4.0 10 7 = 5.0 10 0 s = 6.4 10 9 = 8.0 Reconstruct this table on your blackboard daily and admire it; sooned or later it will sink into your brain. The table is organized this way to take ad vantage of 10 3 = 2, so the exponents, or logs, are 0.3 higher in the second column than in the first and the numbers or anti-logs, are twice as much. The same holds for the third vs. second columns. This way is enough to remember the first column, and try to memorize only the first column at the start, but the most important thing is to re member how it was derived. A feel for the errors involved in the rounding of the antilogs to two digits will help you to know how much precision you can expect of these numbers. Therefore, look up the exact values for the antilogs of 0.1, 0 2, etc. from a log table, or from your pocket calcu lator. In addition, derive the higher logs from the lower ones in various ways, like 1o o.i (10 1 ) = 10 8 = 1.25(5.0) =? and 10 .4 (10 .4 ) = 10 8 = ? and so on. Calculate also (10 1 ) 10 = 1.25(1.25) 2 ( 1.25) 3 (1.25) 10 = ? Do the same for 1.26 and 1.259. Before we start to use this table, it is useful to recall that by asking the question: "What is the log of 2 ?" we are asking, in essence: "To what exponent do I have to raise 10 to receive a 2 ?" So let's start learning to raise numbers to frac_ tional exponents. EXAMPLE 1. A production unit has to be inCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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creased to 4 times its present capacity. The invest ment cost of this type of unit is proportional to the 0 8 power of the size. How much more will the 4-times-larger unit cost than the present one? So the question really is, 8 ? SOLUTION: 4 = 10 0.6 1 4 0.8 (10 0.6 ) o.8 10 6 x 0 8 = 10 .4 8 and since 10 5 3.2 so 10 .4 8 will be somewhat less, let's say about 3. So a 4times-larger unit will cost 3 times mo re to build. The result by calculator is 3.03. EXAMPLE 2. Calderbank and Pogorski re ported [1] for heat transfer in fluid beds that: Nu= 0.36 Re 0 36 What is the Nusselt number if the Reynolds number is 200? That is, 0.36 (200) 0 36 = ? SOLUTION: 200 = 2 x 100 = 10 3 (10 2 ) = 10 2 3 (10 2 ) o. 3 6 = 10 2,3 x o 36 ::::::: 10 0,8a and 0.36 = 3.6 ( 10 1 ) and since 10 5 = 3.2 and 10 6 = 4.0, 0.36 = 10 55 (l0 1 ) or 10 0 45 finally 10 -0.45 (l0o .83 ) = 10 -0,45 + o. 83 = 10 38 and since 10 4 = 2.5 and 10 3 = 2.0, 10 38 ~ 2.4. Therefore, the Nusselt number will 0.36 (200) 0 36 = 2.4. The electronic calculator gives 2.42, i.e., the error of our estimate is quite low. COMMENTS: For numbers outside 1 and 10 we convert them to these and to the product of ten raised to an integer number. Then, for numbers between 1 and 10, we find the exponent of ten corresponding to their value from our table (mantissa of the logarithm) and add it to the integer exponent of ten ( characteristic of the logarithm). EXAMPLE 3. The isomerization of acetalde hyde to ethylene oxide in the vapor phase should Dr. Berty received his Diploma in Chemical Engineering from the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary in 1944 and his D.Sc. in 1950 He joined the Hungarian Oil and Gas Research Institute and taught in the College for Chemical Engineering in Veszprem, Hungary. In 1956 he accepted a Guest Professorship in Halle, East Germany In 1957 he came to the U.S A and joined Union Carbide Corporation where he worked for 19 years. In the 1973/74 ~cademic year he was a Senior Fulbright Lecturer at the Technical University in Munich, Germany Presently he is with Autoclave Engineers Inc FALL 1976 be checked for commercial feasibility [2]. For this reaction: CH a CHO C 2 H 4 O the equilibrium constant at 1000 K is: ln K = -17.4. How much ethylene oxide can we expect? K = e 11.1 = 1o 11 .4; 2.3 = 1o -1.6 = l0 Q.4 (l0 -8 ) K = 2.5 (10 8 ) = 25 (10 9 ) = 25 PPB The expected ethylene oxide concentration will be a few tens PPB. Even if the tacitly assumed ideal gas assumption is wrong, it can change the re sults by less than an order of magnitude, and the process is not feasible. EXAMPLE 4. What is the apparent energy of activation of ethylene hydrogenation over an Ni catalyst if the reaction is eight times faster at 400 K than at 300 K? (3) :(_1 1) T1 T e = 8 E ( 1000 1000 ) (2) (1000) (2.3) 4()() 300 10 = 8 E 4600 (2.5 3.333) 10 = 8, since 8.00 = 10 9 E 4600 0.833 = 0.9 E 4600 (0.9) ~ 5000 0.833 The apparent energy of activation is about 5000 cal / gmole In conclusion, with a little work and a lot of perseverance, this simple log table can be memorized and used for checking orders of magnitude. The final advice : before you calculate any thing with your calculator or computer, first make a guess as to what number to expect, then carry out the calculation and, finally, check whether the results are reasonable. REFERENCES 1. Calderbank and Pogorski, Trans. Inst. Chem. Engrs. (London), 35, 19 5 (1957) 2 Kob e K A. and Associat e s, "Thermochemistry for the P e trochemical Industry." Reprinted from Th e P et roleum R e fin er January 1949 to December 1951. 3. Berty J M., Ch e m. Eng. P r og., Vol. 70, No. 5 pp. 78-84, May, 1974 199

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION INDEX Volumes VI-X AUTHOR INDEX A Aldag, A. W. ____ VI, 36 Alkire, R _______________________ X, 126, 158 Allen, T. -----------------------X, 93 Anderson, J. B. ----------------------VI, 3 Anderson, J. E. _____________ ______ _____ VI, 92 Andres, R. P. ______ _____ X, 18 Aris, R. ____ __ __ VIII, 20; IX, 99, 118, X, 2, 114, 124 Astarita, G. ----------------------IX, 152 B Bailey, J. E. ___________________________ X, 162 Balch, C W. ______ _____________ _____ ___ VI, 23 Balzhiser, R E. ______________________ VI, 40 Bankoff, S. G. -----------------------VI, 49 Barker, D. H. ___________ VI, 25 Bell, K. J. ----------------------------VI ,' 154 Bennett, G F. ___________ _________ VIII, 82 Berg, L __ -----------------VI, 8 Bergantz, J. A. ________________ _____ VII, 112 Bernier, C. L. __ _____________________ IX, 194 Berty, J.M. ___________________ X, 198 Biery, J. C. ______ __ ___ ___ IX, 198; X, 94 Black, J. H. __________ ____ IX 143 Brown, B. A ___ __ _______ IX, 76 Burnet, G _________________ VI, 62 C Cadman, T. W. ____________ VII, 33; VIII, 120; IX, 68 Carberry, J. J. __ ______ VII, 22; X, 107 Carnahan, B. ____________________ VII, 80 Cassiere, G. _____________ __ _____ ______ VII, 22 Certain, P. _______________ X, 194 Chao, K. C ------------------------VI, 158 Chen, T. Y --------IX, 10 Chetrick, M H. ___ VIII, 58, IX, 128 Clark, J. P. _____ ___ ___ X, 90 Cloutier, L. _______ VII, 38 Cobb, Jr., J. T. ________ VI, 143 Cohen, R. E. ____ ___ ____ VII, 30; X, 44 Cokelet, G. R. ____ _________ ___________ VII, 76 Cooney, D. 0. ____________ VI, 162 Copeland, N. A. _________ VIII, 66 Corcoran, W. H. ____ VII, 187 Corripio, A B __________________ __ VIII, 162 Cosart, W. P. _____________ X, 134 Cunningham, R. C. ________ ___ VII, 18 Curl, R. L. ______ VI, 166 D Dahlstrom D. A. __ ____________ VII, 187 Daniels, R. D. ________________________ VII, 164 Daubert, T. E. ________________ VII, 84, 187 DeFore, J. J. __________________________ VI, 62 DeNevers, N. ________ VII, 126; VIII, 98; X, 16 Delgass, W. N. ________ VI, 124; IX, 62, 158 200 Denn, M. M. ________ VII, 117,208; X, 196 Deshpande, P. B. ________ IX, 88; X, 168 Donaghey, L. F. ________ _______ VIII, 164; IX, 192 Douglas, J. M. ____________ VI, 180; IX, 8 Dunn, I. J. -----------------------------X, 23 E Eakman, J. M. ____________ __ ____ VIII, 116 Edgar, T. F. ______________________ VIII, 168 Ernst, W. R. ------------------------X 146 Eubank, P. T. ----------------------VI, 30 Evans, T. F. ____ VI, 88 F Fahien, R. W. __ _____ __ ___ VI, 45, 147; VII, 155; VIII, 159; IX, 151, 198; X, 155 Fan, L. T. -----------------IX, 120 Feinberg, M. -------------------------X, 125 Felder, R. M ___________ ______ VI, 118, 132 Finger, S. M. ----------------------IX, 68 Fogler, H. S. _________________ __ ___ VII, 122 Foss, A. S. ---------------------Vll, 72 Fredenslund, A. ___ ____ ____________ ___ VII, 142 Frederickson, A. G. __ __ _________ __ VI, 36 Freshwater, D. C. ________ _______ ____ VI, 190 Fricke, A. L. ________ VII, 176 Fulford, G. D. ___________ ________________ VI, 128 G Gaden, Jr., E. L. ___ IX, 40 Gainer, J. L __ _____ _______ VI, 171 Gangi, A. F. -------------------------VI, 30 Gardner, R. P. ____ __ ______________ VII, 1 32 Gates, B. C. ___ ________ VIII, 172; IX, 124 Gerrard, A. M. ____ __ _________________ IX, 28 Gill, W. N. ______________ IX, 194; X, 107 Gluckman, M. J. ____ VIII, 82 Godbold, T. M. ___________ ____ __ ____ IX, 16 Good, R. J. ________________ X, 16 Graessley, W. W. ___________________ VI, 127 Greenkorn, R. A. ________ ___ ____ VI, 158; VIII, 176 Grens, E A. _______________________ VII, 72 Griskey, R. G. _______ ________ _____ X, 48, 140 Gruver, W. A _____________________ IX, 162 Gryte, C. C. _______ X, 28 Gubbins, K. E. ______ ______ VII, 203 Gupta, L ---------------------------VII, 200 H Haering, E. R. __ _________ VIII, 74 Hall, K. R. ------------------------~--IX, 24 Halligan, J. E. _____ VII, 158 Hamrin, C. E. --------------------VIII, 200 Han, C. D. -----------------------------VI, 74 Hawley, M. C. ______________ ______ VI 110; IX, 128 Heenan, W. A. ---------------------X, 17 Henley, E. J. ----------------------------X, 17 Henry Jr., J. D ___ ___________ VII, 208 Henry, J. M. ------------------------VI, 132 Hershey, J ___________ VII, 106 Hile, L. R. ____________________________ X, 18 Hill, C T. ---------------------------VII, 184 Hladky, W. ____________________________ VI, 122 Hoffman, T. W ________________ ____ ___ VII, 96 Hopfenbe rg, H. B. _______________ VII, 174 Howard, G. M. ____ __ ________ _________ VIII, 82 Hubbard, D W. ___ ______ X, 76 Hudgins, R. R. ____________________ _____ IX, 138 Hughes, R_ R. _______________________ VII, 28 Hunt, R. G. ___________________________ IX, 194 Hunter, D. L. ____ _______________ ___ VII, 14 I Ingham, J -----------------------------X, 23 Isakoff, S. E. ____________ ___________ V i l, 84 J Jacobs, L .T. ---------------------_______ X, 5 Johnson, A. I. ____ _____ _____ ___ ______ VII, 96 Johnson, E. F. ------------------------X, 172 Jorne, J. -------------------------------i X, 31 K Kabel, R. L -------------------------------VI, 88 Kadlec, R. H. ___________ VI, 166, VII, 110 Kafes, N. -------------------------------VI, 178 Kapner, W H. ------------------------VI, 4 Katzer, J. R. ________ _____________ VIII, 172 Kelleher, E. G. _____________________ __ VI, 178 Keppel, R. A. --------------------VI, 45 Kermode, R. I. ____________________ VIII, 200 Kessler, D. P. _____ __ ____________ VIII, 176 King, C. J. _______________ VI, 50; VII, 72; VIII, 6; X, 56 Kirk, R. S. _____ VI, 35; VIII, 90 Kirwan, D. J. ------------------------IX, 24 Kittrell, J. R. ______________________ VI, 180 Klinzing, G. E. ________________________ X, 176 Koutsky, J. A. _____________ X, 184 Kranich, W. L. ____________ VIII, 12; X, 70 Kube, W. R. ________ __ _________________ VI, 111 Kushner, J. _______ ___________ _______ VI, 66 L Lamping, N. E. -------------------VI, 30 Lapidus, L. ___ _____________ _______ ____ VI, 148 Larsen, A. H. ---------------------VIII, 70 Larson, M. A. ____________ VI, 70; VIII, 78; IX, 201; X, 108 Lashmet, P. K. __________________ VIII, 130 Lastovica, J. E. ___ ________________ VII, 198 Laurence, R. ---------------------------X, 112 Lees, F. P _______________ VI, 190 Leflich, R. -------------------------X, 180 Levenspiel, 0. ________________________ IX, 102 Leggett, Jr., L. W. ____________________ VI, 36 Leinroth, Jr., J. P. ____________________ VI, 80 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Light s ey, G R. .. .. ... ... .... .. .... IX, 144 Lin, S H. -........... IX 120 Liu, Y A .. IX, 166 Locke, C. E ____ VII, 164 Lockhart, F J ............ ...... X, 154 Lohmann, M. R. .. ... ....... ... VII, 187 Long, R. B VII, 87 Lov i ng e r, A J .. .... .. .. ... X, 28 Luks, K. D ... . .. VIII, 180 Lus s D ............... VII, 16; VIII, 102 Lynn, S 00 VII, 72 M Ma, Y H .. .. ........ VIII 12 M a ddox, R. N. VII, 66 Manning, F. S ____ .. .. IX, 170 Marchello, J. VII 56 Martin, J. B ..... .... VIII, 74 M artin, J. J VIII, 138 Ma s on, D M. ---VI 102 M a tthews, !11 A IX, 76 Mc C oy, B J IX 174 McGee, Jr., H. A. ___ IX, 52 M e i s en, A . ... --VII, 144 Mellichamp, D A ___ VII, 146 Melnyk, P. B. .... VIII, 184 M ere d ith, R. E ... .. .. VII, 55 Merrill, E. W .. .. .. .. ... ..... .. X, 44 M e r r ill R. P . .... ..... .... VII, 161 Miller, A. D. X, 33 Miller, C W VII, 33 Miller, J D X, 84 M is c hke, R. A VI 114 Mod e ll, M .... IX, 106 Moo-Young, M. _____ IX, 4 Moore, C F ... ---VII, 168 Mu r ray F --VIII 58 N e l s on, Jr. R. D Newman, J A N 0 IX, 66 ____ VI, 194 O'Connell, J P ____ VII, 203 Oden, E. C. -VIII, 16, 134 Ollis, D F. ____ ___ X, 162 Ol s on, J H .. VIII, 172 Ove r hol s er K A .... .... ___ IX, 16 p Pa1 ker. R. 0. VI, 4 Paul, J. F. ____ VII, 40; VIII, 94 Pei, D C T VI, 128 Perna, A. J VII, 122; IX, 150 Peters, M. S VII, 187 A Administration of Engineering and Technic a l Personnel -IX, 180 Adsorptive Bubble Separation Methods .. .. -----X, 180 Advanced Thermodynamics VIII, 180 FALL 1976 Petty, D. S. X, 33 Ph a m, C .. .. ... VII, 38 Pings, C J ... .. ... VII, 92; VIII, 70 Pol a ck, J. A. _____ IX, 180 Prau s nitz, J. M. VI, 60; VII, 203; VIII 6; X, 60 Prenosil J. E ...... X, 23 P r obe r, R. .... ....... VIII, 184 Pul si f e r A H VI, 78 R Ras e H F. ____ IX, 22 R a y, W. H. ______ X, 154 R e g a n, T. M. ----IX, 68 Rehm, T R .. ... ... _____ X, 84 Reilly, P. ___ __ VIII, 116 Reynolds, H H ____ X, 188 Rhodes. E .. ..... VIII, 44; IX, 84 Richardson J T __ ___ VII, 16 Rig a u d, M .. .. ............ ... .... IX 184 Rob e rtu s R J X, 8 0 Ro s en E. M VIII, 48 Rosne r D. E. ---X, 190 R ou s seau R. W .. --VII, 132 Rudd, D F VII, 44, 72 Rus s ell T W. F __ __ VII, 117 Rutherfo r d, A. _____ IX, 118 Rutkow s ki, M A . .. .. ..... .... .. IX, 88 s S a ndall 0 C. VI, 28; VII, 146 S a ndler, S .. ....... ---X, 40 Schmitz, R A ......... ....... VII, 136 Schow a lter, W R ....... VI, 8; VII, 54 Sch r e i ber, H P .... ... ... .. .. IX, 184 Schrodt, V. N ........ VIII, 200; IX, 183 Schuitt, G. A. A ____ VIII 172 Seagrave, R. C ... VI, 70; VII, 76 ; X, 108 Shah D 0 _____ VIII, 32 Shahe e n, E. I. ..... ___ IX, 128 Shair, F H .... ---VII, 122 Sheld e n, R A. .. ... X, 130 Sherman, J D. ___ __ IX, 124 She r wood, T. K. VIII, 204 Shuster, C N. ____ VII, 209 Silla H ... _____ VII, 129 Slattery, J C _____ VI, 174 Sleicher, C A. ______ IX, 2 Smith, J. M. VII, 4 Sommerfeld, J T. VII 18; X, 90, 146 Sorensen K. D Storvick, T S. TITLE INDEX VIII 130 VIII, 40 Advanced Chemical Engin e ering at Loughborough ____ VI, 191 AIChE Annual Report ....... .... VI, 49 AIChE Ca r eer Guidance Committee ---: ...... ...... VI, 122 Alkaline Fading of Organic Dyes: An Ideal Reaction for HomogenStrunk, M. R .......... Vll, 156 Su ss man M V VIII, 149 Sutterby J. L. _____ VI, 188 T Tao, L. C. _______ VI, 139 Tavlarides, L L. ___ VIII, 188 Thatcher, C. M ................ VIII, 146 Thie s C. VIII, 194 Tierney, J W ---VII, 180 Tiller, F M. ____ IX, 115 Timm, D. C VIII 116 Timmerhaus, K D ____ VI, 83 Treybal, R. E ...... ____ VI, 4 Tschoegl, N. W ____ VII, 30 Tucker, W. H ............ VIII, 142; X, 36 Tyne r, M ---VI, 45 u Ul r ich s on, D L. ____ VIII, 78 Updi e, 0. L. IX 24 V Ve r meulen, T. Vermeychuk, J. G ___ Vivian, J. E w VIII, 6 VII, 112 VII, 89 Walawender, W. P. ____ IX, 10 Walker, C A ..... ............ VI, 124, 150 Walter, C F ... ...... __ IX, 188 Ward, T J. _______ X, 136 Ware, J r C. H ... .. ................ ... IX, 62 Wasan, D T VII, 200 Watson F. A. VII, 54 Watt, Jr D. M. ____ VI, 80 Wei, J ------.. VIII, 172 Weller, S. W _____ X, 74 West, J. B ___ __ VII, 66 Westwater, J W __ X, 6, 154 Wheelock, T. D _____ VI, 106 Wh i twell, J C. VI, 148 Wilde D .. IX, 139 Wilke s J. 0. ______ VII, 80 Williams, R. D VII, 148; VIII, 28 IX, 133; X, 134 Wolf, D. -------IX, 133 Woltz, C C. IX, 16 Woods, D R ....... .... VII, 96; VIII, 82 y Youngquist, G R ..... ... IX, 32; X, 195 z Zwieb e l I. ___ VIII, 12; X 70 eous Reactor Experiments .... X, 18 Analog Simulation of Sampled-Data Control Systems ____ IX, 88 Analog Simulation of the Dispersion of Atmosph er ic Pollutants VII, 33 Applications of Heterogeneous Cataly s is ______ VII, 16 201

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Application of Molecular Concepts of Predicting Properties Needed for Design ______________ VII, 203 Application of Perturbation Tech niques to Analog Computations ________ VIII, 94 Applied Chemical Kinetics ____ VII, 161 Applied Surface Chemistry, A Course in ______ VI, 171 Art and Science of Rheology, The __________ VI, 14 Associate Degree ChE Technology Programs ____________ VI, 66 B Baccalaureate Programs in Chemical Engineering Technology ________ VI, 62 Bernoulli's Equation with Friction __________ VII, 126 Beckman, Bob--ChE Educator VII, 56 Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals ______ X, 162 Biological Reactions: Kinetics of Yeast Growth ____ VI, 134 Biological Transport Phenomena and Biomedical Engineering, A Survey Course in _______ VI, 162 Biotechnology-An Old Solution to New Problems __ __ ____ IX, 40 Book Reviews: ChE Thermodynamics: of Energy, Entropy librium The Study and Equi VIII, 41 Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design _______ ____ VIII, 102 Chemical Plant Simulation VII, 28 Dynamic Behavior of Processes ______ VII, 208 Environment, Power and Society ______ VII, 209 From Electrocatalysis to Fuel Cells __ __ _________ ___ __ VII, 55 Fundamentals and Modeling of Separation Processes, Absorp tion, Distillation, Evaporation and Extraction ____ IX, 183 Heat and Mass T ransfer Data Book _______ X, 154 Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analysis ___ __ ___ VII, 110 Introduction to Control Systems Introduction to IX, 139 Nonlinear Continuum Thermodynamics, An __ __ _____ X, 125 Introduction to Process Economics _____ IX, 143 Introduction to Thermodynamics: Classical and Statistical VI, 60 Mathematical Methods of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 3 Process Modeling Estimation and Identification _____ IX, 99 Mathematics Applied to Deter202 ministic Problems in the Natural Sciences ______ __ X, 124 Mixing -Principles and Applications _______ X, 5 Modeling Crystal Growth Rate from Solution IX, 201 Multivariable Computer Control __________________ X, 154 Optimization by Variational Methods ______________ X, 196 Polymer Science and Engineer ing -----------------VI, 127 Polymers in Engineering Curriculum _______ VII, 54 Principles of Quantum Chemistry _______ X, 196 Process Synthesis ________ __ VIII, 146 Processes and Systems in Industrial Chemistry __ ____ _______ VI, 35 Staged Cascades in Chemical Processes ______ VII, 208 Transport Phenomena for Engineers ____________ VI 188 Buffalo-SUNY, ChE Department ____ VII, 112 Building a Computer Program: Multicomponent Distillation ________ VI, 80 C Can an Engineer Be Actualized? ___________ X, 94 Carberry, James .J., ChE Educator _______ VIII, 2 Carberry's Ultimate Paper __ IX, 118 Career Guidance and Recruitment at Michigan State ____ VI, 110 Career Guidance and Recruitment at Virginia Polytechnic Institute ________ VI, 114 Changing Role of the Chemical Engineer The ___ VIII, 66 Chemi Project, The _____ X, 17 Chemical Process Design and Engi neering Summer School Workshop _____________ VII, 72 Chemistry of Catalytic Processes _________ ___ __ _________ VIII, 172 Combustion Project: Explosive Limits ________________ X, 40 Comments on a Proctorial System of Instruction _______ VI, 78 Comments on Gibbs Equation : The Condition for Chemical Equilibrium in Open Systems ____ VIII, 70 Computerized Cost Engineering in the Process Design Course VIII, 120 Computerized Undergraduate Process Dynamics and Control Laboratory VII, 136 VII, 164 Computer in Corrosion Control ___ Cost Estimating by Process Design ____ VIII, 130 Critical Path Planning of Graduate Research IX, 192 D Demonstrating Catalytic Reactor Stability --------------IX, 138 Deriving Three Thermodynamic Equa tions in Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Studies ________ VI, 139 Design Laboratory, The Chemical Engineering ___ ___ _____ _____ ________ VII, 129 Design of Process Control Systems Using Frequency Response and Analog Simulation Techniques _______ VII, 40 Development of Mass Transfer Theory ______ VIII, 204 Diamonds Are a Thermodynamicist's Best Friend _____________ IX, 66 Digital Computations for Chemical Engineers _______ IX, 166 Digital Computer Control of Processes ______________ VIII, 162 Digital Computer Process Control __ _____________ __ VII, 168 X, 23 Digital Simulation _______ Distillation Dynamics and Control _________________ X, 168 Diversified and Special Programs in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Education ____ VI, 45 Douglas, James, ChE Educator _____________ X, 112 Dynamical Systems and Multivariable Control-An Operations Research Approach to Automatic Control Education ____ XI, 162 E Economics of the Chemical Processing Industries ______ VII, 172 Education for the Seventies, Chemical Engineering _____________ VI, 40 Education Projects Committee, Chemical Engineering ________ VI, 50 Effectiveness of Graduate Chemical Engineering Education-Academic Viewpoint _____ VII, 89, 92 Effectiveness of Graduate Chemical Engineering Education-Industrial Viewpoint ______ VII, 84, 87 Effectiveness of Graduate Chemical Engineering Education-Industrial Versus Academic Viewpoint VII, 84 Electrochemical Engineering ____ X, 158 Energy Engineering _______ VIII, 200 Energy, Mass and Momentum Transport _________ X, 190 Engineer as an Entrepreneur, The ________ X, 188 Engineering Entrepeneurship, A Course in ______________ VI, 181 Environmental Courses __ ______ ____ X, 176 Enzyme and Biochemical EngiCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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neering _____ VIII, 188 Enzyme Catalysis ____ IX, 188 Equilibrium Theory of Fluids, A Course in ----,----------------VI, 158 Evolutionary Experiment, An ___________ VII, 144 Expansion and Contraction Losses in Fluid Flow _______ _______________ VIII, 138 Experiments in Heterogeneous Catalysis ________ ______ __ _________ IX, 124 F Flow Curve Determination for NonNewtonian Fluids ____ IX, 10 Flow Modeling and Parameter Esti mation Using Radiotracers VII, 132 Food Engineering ________ X, 166 Forced Convection Demonstration Using Solid CO 2 Sublimation, A _____________________________________ VII, 146 Foreign Language Requirements for the Ph.D. ___ ________ VI, 88 Foreign Study Program in Chemical Engineering, A ____ __ VIII, 78 Freshman Engineering-A Student Viewpoint ___ __ __ VII, 14 Fusion Reactor Technology __ __ X, 172 G Georgia Tech's Pulp and Paper Engineering Program _______ IX, 145 Graduate School-Who Should Go? _________ VII, 158 H Happel, John, ChE Educator __ VI, 4 Heterogeneous Catalysis ____ IX, 158 Horn, Fritz, ChE Educator ____ VI, 54 Hot Lips, A Cold Heart and Thermomometry ____ IX, 102 How to Get the Most Out of an Equation without Really Trying _______ ________ X, 114 I Identity, Breadth, Depth in a Cooperative Program __ ____ ___ IX, 84 Illinois, Urbana, ChE Department ________________ X, 6 Implementation of SI Units in ChE Education -------------------------X, 195 Implementing Changes in Engineering Education ____ : _________ _______ VI, 92 Improving College Teaching in Chemical Engineering _____ VI, 132 Index, Volumes VI-X ____ X, 200 Indirect Measurement of Reaction Rate ____ __ __ ______ VIII, 2 Industrial Pollution Control IX, 170 Industrial Researcher Looks at the Master's Degree, An ______ VII, 198 Inexpensive Time Bomb, An VIII, 98 Integrated Reactor Engineering FALL 1976 Laboratory, An _______________ VII, 148 Integration of Biomedical and En vironmental Examples into Under graduate ChE Course Work VII, 76 Interfacial Phenomena for Engineers -A Bridge Between Engineering Life Sciences __ __ VIII, 32 Interphase Catalytic Effectiveness Factor: Activity, Yield and Nonisothermality The __ _________ VII, 22 Instruction by the PSI Method in a Required Senior Course ____ X, 76 Introducing Behavioral Science Into an Engineering Laboratory VIII, 7 4 Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analysis ______________ __ VII, 117 Introductory Design Course for Engineering Freshmen, An IX, 32 Introductory Polymer Science and Technology __________ X, 184 Iowa State ChE Department X, 108 Ivory Tower Man Dines in the Real World, An -----------------------------X, 80 J Jackson, Julius J., In Memoriam _____________________ ____ IX, 31 Junior Course in Chemical Engi neering Computations, A VIII, 48 L Littlejohn, C. E., In Memoriam ______ IX, 150 M M.I.T.'s Polymer Program __ __ ____ X, 44 Measures of Excellence of Engineer ing and Science Departments: A Chemical Engineering Example ______ __ IX, 194 Michigan, ChE Department VII, 60 Michigan State, ChE Department _____ VIII, 58 Modeling, A Course in ___________ VI, 166 Modern Analysis Techniques with the APL System _____ VII, 38 Modern Thermodynamics ____ IX, 152 Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design ____ X, 60 Montana State, ChE Department _______ ___________________ VI, 8 Motivating for ChE ____ VI 111 Multi-purpose Video-Taped Course in Data Analysis ____________ VIII, 176 Multivariable Control and Estimation N Nebraska's Integrated velopment / Design VIII, 168 Process DeLaboratory VIII, 116 Network Planning and the ChE Curriculum ________________ VII, 18 New Look, A, ChE Lab ______ IX 8 New Traditional Unit Operations Laboratory Course, A ____ VII, 142 Newark College of Engineering, ChE Department ____ IX, 56 Non-Isothermal Tubular Reactor Program ______ VIII, 90 Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineering Problems _______ VII, 80 0 O'Connell, John P ChE Educator ----------------------------X, 14 Ohio State, ChE Department ______ ____ VIII, 106 Organic and Physical Chemistry Courses in 89 ChE Curr i cula VI, 143 Organization of Reaction Engineering Problems ______ X, 146 p Packed Column Mass Transfer Co efficients for Concurrent and Countercurrent Flow : An Analysis of Recent Work ____ X, 84 Peaceful Coexistence of Engineering and Technology in the University _____ __ VI, 70 Pings, Neal, ChE Educator VII, 106 Plan for Graduate Student Research in Engineering A __ ____ ___ VI, 194 Plans for Academic and Industrial Research Interaction _______ VI, 83 Plant Design: A Logical First Course for Freshmen ______ X, 130 Pollution of the Environment : Causes and Cures ______________ IX, 128 Polymer Processing _________ ___ ___ VII, 176 Polymer Processing at Brooklyn Poly. ____ ____ VI 74 Polymer Program at Caltech, The ___ _________ _____________ VII, 30 Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal Materials __________ __ ___ VII, 174 Practical Introduction to Analysis and Synthesis, A _____ X, 134 Prausnitz, John, ChE Educator X, 56 Prediction of Temperature and Oxy gen Distributions During Aerobic Microbial Growth _____ ________ IX, 68 Preliminary Appraisal of a Self-Pac e d Laboratory ________ ______ IX 22 Preparing the Engineer for His Unique Role ___ _______ VI, 36 Princeton, ChE Department ____ VI, 56 Process and Plant Design Project, A Course in _______ VI, 178 Process Heat Transfer: Sufficient Conclusions from Insufficient Premises, A Course in ____ VI, 154 Process Model-Building: An Intro duction to Complex Design X, 136 Process Synthesis ___________________ VII, 44 203

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Process Technology of Solid-State Materials and Devices ___ VIII, 164 Profession, The Chemical Engineering ____ ___________ ________ X, 126 Profession and Cooperative Education, The Chemical Engineering VIII, 142 Professional Program in Engineering, A -----------------------------------VII, 66 Project Approach to Chemical Engi neering Education Under the WPI Plan ----------------------------VIII, 12 R Ranking Chemical Engineering partments __ __ _____ _______ _______ X, Reid, Bob, ChE Educator IX, Reminiscences cf B a rnett F. De140 106 Dodge __ ___ ________ VI, 150 Review of the History of Mass Transfer ____ ___ __ __ ___ _____ ________ VIII, 204 s Saponification of Acetamide in a Batch Reactor __ __ __________ __ ____ X, 74 Science of Synthetic and Biological Polymer s ___________ _______ ______ VIII, 194 Seagrave, Dick, ChE Educator VI, 106 Seeing Entropy-The Incompleat Thermodynamics of the Maxwell Demon Bottle _________ ____ VIII, 149 Self-Instruction in Thermodynamics --------------------------IX, 115 Separation Processes: Particulate Systems and Column Operations ________ ________ IX, 174 Short Happy Life of Aris Rutherford, The __ ______ ___ _______ ___ IX, 119 Should Engineering Students Be Taught to Blow the Whistle on Industry? _________ IX, 198 Simple, Instructive Solid State Diffusion Experiment for Use in Teaching Laboratories, A ____ X, 33 Simulation of the Cardiopulmonary Circulation: An Experiment in Re actor Analysis with Medical AppliA Accreditation __ Administration __ ____ _____ Analog Simulation __________ VIII, 94; IX, 88 VI, 149 IX, 180 VII, 33; Analysis ________ ___ VII, 38, 11 7; VIII, 176; X, 134 Applied Surface Chemistry VI, 171 204 cations ---------------------------------------X, 28 Single Drop Liquid Extraction Exs periment, A __________ VI, 28 Sliepcevich, Cheddy, ChE Educator ----------------------------IX, 76 Some Simple Experiments for First Year Students -----------------IX, 28 Some Thought s on the Nature of Academic Research in Chemical Engineering ___________________ ______ X, 2 Staged Separations _____________ __ VII, 180 Stanford, ChE Department __ VI, 102 Stoich i ometry of a City __ ___ ___ VI, 124 Storvick, Turk, ChE Educator -------------------------VIII, 112 SUNY-Buffalo, ChE Department _______ _____ _______ VII, 112 T Teaching Experience with Design and Simul a tion Projects __ ____ __ VII, 96 Teaching Plant Design to Chemical Engineers _______ _______________ VIII, 134 Teaching Undergraduate Mass and Energy Balances 1972 + ____ VIII, 82 Technology Assessment ________ VII, 184 Technology Education, ChE VI, 62 Technological Forecasting ____ IX, 184 Temperature Approach in CounterFlow Heat Exchangers __ __ ___ X, 36 Test to Measure the Ability of ChE Seniors in the Practical Application of ChE Principles ____ VIII, 16 Texaco-Yale Student Consul ting Program, The _____________________ IX, 62 Texas, ChE Department ________ VII, 8 Theory of Diffusion and Reaction A Chemical Engineering Symphony, The -----------------------VIII, 20 Thermodorm, A Mnemonic Octahedron of Thermodynamics, The VI, 30 This Is a Log Table ?-1.25 ____ X, 198 Thoughts About Our First Graduate Courses in Momentum, Energy, and Mass Transfer ____ VI, 174 Today We Will Hear from the ChE Department -----------------VI, 118 SUBJECT INDEX B Beckman, Bob, Educator ____ VII, 56 Bernouli Equation ________ ____ VIII, 126 Biochemical Engineering ____ VII, 188; VII, 76; VIII, 188; X, 162 Biomedical Engineering VI, 162; VII, 76 Biotechnology ______ IX, 40 Too Much Chemical Engineering Re Search and Teaching Is Dull, Dull, Dull ----------------------------------IX, 52 Toor, Herb, ChE Educator ___ VIII, 56 Training of Foreign Graduate Students-Problems and Solutions ________ ________________ ___ VII, 200 Transients in Plug Flow Systems ________ ___ ___ ___ __________ IX, 120 Trends in Engineering Accredita tion-Will the M.S. Become the First Professional Degree? VII, 194 Tubular F l ow of Pseudoplastic Fluids ----------------------------IX, 80 Turbulent Tran sfe r Processe s VI, 128 u Undergraduate ChE Laboratory, The --------------------------------VII, 122 Undergraduate Curr icula in Chemical Engineering (1969 70) __ ___ VI, 23 Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical Engineering (1970 -71 ) _______ VI, 25 Undergraduate Education: Patterns Today-Extrapolation Tomorrow, ChE ________ ____ ________ ___________________ VI, 36 Use of a Continuous System Simula tion Language in Chemical Reaction Engineering ____ ________________ __ IX, 133 Use of Flowsheet Simulation Pro grams in Teaching Chemical Engineering Design ___ ______ VIII, 124 Use of FLOWTRAN Simulation in Education --------------------------X, 90 w Wastewater Engineering for Chemical Engineers ______ VIII, 184 Waterloo, ChE Department ________ IX, 4 Waterloo Program for High Schools __________________ VIII, 44 West Virginia, ChE Department ---------------------------------____ IX, 110 Whitaker, Steve, ChE Educator ______________ __ __ __ VII, 4 Worcester Polytechnic, ChE Department ----------------------X, 70 Book Reviews Analysis-VII, 110 ; Chemistry-VI, 35; Control-IX, 139; Dynamics-VII, 208; Economics-IX, 143 ; Electrocat alysis-VII, 55; General-VII, 209; Kinetics and ReactorsVIII, 102; Mathematical Methods-IX, 99; X, 124; Polymers-VI, 127; VII, 54; Simulation-VII, 28; Synthesis-VIII, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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146; Thermodynamics-VI, 60; VIII, 41; X, 125; Transport Phenomena VI, 188; Unit Operations-VII, 208; IX, 201, 183; X, 5 C Carberry, James J., Educator VIII, 2 Cardiopulmonary Simulation __ X, 28 Career Guidance, ChE ____ VI, 110, 111, 114, 122 Catalysis, General-VII, 22; VIII, 172; IX, 138; Enzyme-IX, 188; Hetero geneous-VII, 16; IX, 124, 158 ChE Departments, General-VI, 118; IX, 194; X, 140; Illinois, Urbana X 6; Iowa State-X, 108; Lough bo r ough VI, 191; Michigan-VII, 60; Michigan State-VIII, 58; Montana State-VI, 8; Newark-IX, 56; Ohio State-VIII, 106; Princeton-VI, 56; Stanford-VI, 102; SUNY, Buffalo VII, 112; Texas-VII, 8; West Vir ginia-IX, 110; Waterloo-IX, 4; Worcester Polytechnic-X, 70 Combustion ---------------------X, 40 Computation Methods ________ VII, 80 ; VIII, 48 Consulting Program _____________ ___ IX, 62 Corrosion Control ____ ___ __ _________ VII, 164 Curricula, Undergrad., ChE __ VI, 23, 25, 36; VII, 18; IX, 84 D Design Laboratory _________ VII, 129; VIII, 116 Digital Computation ___________ VI, 80; IX, 166 Digital Simulation ________ VIII, 124 ; IX, 133; X, 23, 90 Dodge, Barnett F., ChE Pioneer _________ VI, 150 Dougla s James, Educator ______ X, 112 E Economics, Process ____________ VII, 172 Education, ChE ________ VI, 40, 50, 92, 132; VIII, 12; X, 80 Education and Accreditation VI, 49 Educator, ChE ________ VI, 4, 54, 106; VII, 4, 56, 106; VIII, 2, 56, 112; IX, 2, 76, 106; X, 14, 56, 112 Electrochemical Engineering X, 158 Energy Engineering ___________ VIII, 200 Entrepeneurship ___ VI, 181; X, 188 Enzyme and Biochemical Engineering ----------------------------VIII, 188 Equation Analysis ________ X, 114 F Fluid Flow _______ VII, 132; VIII, 138; IX, 10, 80, 120 Finlayson, Bruce, Educator IX, 2 Foreign Graduate Students VII, 200 FALL 1976 Foreign Language, Ph D. ______ VI, 88 Freshman Engineering ________ VII, 14; IX, 28, 32; X, 130 G Graduate ChE Education ____ VII, 84, 87, 89, 92 Graduate Research ________ VI, 194; IX, 192 Graduate School VII, 158 H Happel, John, Educator ___________ VI, 4 Heat Transfer _________ VI, 154; X, 36 Horn, Fritz, Educator ___________ VI, 54 I Interfacial Phenomena ________ VIII, 32 J Jackson, Julius L_, In Memoriam -----------------------IX, 31 K Kinetics, Chemical ______ VI, 134; VII, lGl; VIII, 28 L Laboratory, General-VII, 122; VIII, 74, 98; IX, 8, 22; Design-VII, 129; VIII, 116; Unit Operations-VII, 142, 144; Reactors-VII, 148 Letters, General-VII, 54; X, 16; Chemi Project-X, 17; Grading-VI, 148; X, 154; Quality-VII, 156; X, 16 Littlejohn, C. E., In Memoriam ---------------------------IX, 150 M Mass and Energy Balances __ VIII, 82 Mass Transfer ________ VI, 128; VII, 146; VIII, 20, 204; X, 33 Master's Degree, ChE ________ VII, 194, 198 Memorium ____________ IX, 150; X, 59, 107 Microbial Growth ________ ___________ IX, 68 Modeling -----------------------------------, VI, 166 0 O'Connell, John P. Educator __ __ X, 14 Organic, Physical Chemistry VI, 143 p Pings, Neal, Educator ____ VII, 106 Pollution __ ____ VIII, 184; IX, 128, 170; X, 176 Polymers, Processing-VI, 74; VII, 176; Programs-VII, 30; X, 44; Science-VII, 174; VIII, 194; X, 184 Prausnitz, John, Educator __ ____ X, 56 Process Control-VII, 136; VIII, 168; IX, 162; Analog-VII, 40; Digital VII, 168; VIII, 162; X, 168 Proce s s Design, Complex-X, 136; Costing-VIII, 120, 130; Freshman IX, 32; X, 130; Laboratory-VII, 129; VIII, 116 ; Teaching-VI, 178; VIII, 72, 96; VIII, 134 Process Economics ____ VII, 172 Process Synthesis ___ VII, 44; X, 134 Proctorial System ________ VI, 78; X, 76 Professional Engineering ____ VI, 36, 181; VII, 66; VIII, 66, 142; X, 94, 126 R Reactor Laboratory _____ __ ___ VII, 148 Reactors ___ ___ VIII, 90; IX, 138; X, 18, 74, 146 Reid, Bob, Educator ___________ IX, 106 Research, ChE ____ VI, 83; IX, 52; X, 2 Research, Graduate VI, 194; IX, 192 Rheology _______ VI, 14 Rutherford, Aris IX, 118, 119 s Seagrave, Dick, Educator __ VI, 106 Senior Test, ChE _________ ___ VIII, 16 Separations _____ VI, 28; VII, 180; IX, 174; X, 84 SI Units _____________ __ X, 195 Simulation, Digital VIII, 124; IX, 133; X, 23, 90 Sliepcevich, Cheddy, Educator IX, 76 Stoichiometry __________ VI, 124 Storvick, Turk, Educator VIII, 112 Study Program, ForeignVIII, 78; High School-VIII, 44; Paper and Pulp-IX, 145; Special-VI, 45 Surface Chemistry, Applied ___ VI, 171 T Technology-VI, 70; VII, 184; VIII, 164; IX, 184; ChE-VI, 62, 66 Thermodynamics, General-VIII, 180; IX, 115, 152; Entropy-VIII, 149; Equilibrium-VI, 139, 158; VIII, 70; Molecular, VIII, 203; X, 60; Thermodorm-VI, 30 Thermometry _____________ IX, 102 Toor, Herb, Educator ____________ VIII, 56 Transport Phenomena, General-VI, 174; Bernoulli Equation-VII, 126; Fluid Flow-VII, 132; VIII, 138; IX, 10, 80; 120; Heat Transfer-VI, 154; X 36; Mass Transfer-VI, 128; VII, 146; VIII, 20, 204; X, 33, 190 u Unit Operations Laboratory __ __ VII, 142, 144 w Whitaker, Steve, Educator ____ VII, 4 205

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UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Ph.D. Candidates : up to $6,500 / year. M Sc. Candidates: up to $6,000 / year. Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships and limited travel funds are available. Costs. Tuition: $535 / year. Married students housing rent: $154 / month. Room and board, University Housing : $190 / month. Department Size 13 Professors 20 Research Associates 30 Graduate Students. Applications For additional information write to: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6 Faculty and Research Interests I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero geneous Catalysis. D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan) : Process Dynamics and Control, Real Time Computer Applications, Process De sign J. H Masliyah, Ph.D. (Brit. Columbia) : Transport Pheno mena, Numerical Analysis, In situ Recovery of Oil Sands. A. E Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan) : Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics. W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna) : Heat Transfer Air Pol lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap plied Mathematics F. D. Otto (Chairman), Ph D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ mental Engineering. D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc D (M.I.T ) : Applied Math ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory. D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan) : Thermal and Volu metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo dynamics. J T. Ryan Ph.D. (Missouri) : Process Economics, Energy Economics and Supply. D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton) : Process Control, Com puter Control, Process Identification 206 F. A. Seyer, Ph D. (Delawar e): Turbulent Flow, Rheo logy of Complex Fluids. S. E. Wanke, Ph D (Ca;ifornia-Davis): Catalysis, Kine tics. R. K. Wood Ph.D. (Northwestern) : Process Dynamics and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns. The University of Alberta One of Canada s largest universities and engineering schools. Enrollment of 19,000 students Co-educational, government-supported, non-denominational. Five minutes from city centre overlooking scenic river valley. Edmonton Fast growing, modern city ; population of 500,000. Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra, professional sports. Major chemical and petroleum processing centre. Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains and Jasper and Banff National Parks CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973 Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys tems, Blood Processing JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head Ph D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody namics lnterfacial Phenomena RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Assoc. Professor Ph D., Princeton University, 1972 Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering, Energy and Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re action-Applications to the Minerals Industry. DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D ., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Applied Design JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968 Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con trol, Model Building and Simulation Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow ing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to: Dr. J. 0. L. Wendt Graduate Study Committee D epar tment of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721

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The University of Calgary Program of Study The Departmen t of Chemical Engineering provides unusual opportunities for research and study leading to the M.Eng M Sc or Ph D degrees This dynamic department offers a wide variety of course work and research in the following areas : Petroleum Reservoir Engine e ring, Env i ron mental Engineering Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Engineering, Rheology and Thermodynamics The Uni v ers i t y op e rat e s on an eight month academic year, thus allowing four full months per year for research The requirements for the M.Eng. and M Sc. degrees are 6 to 8 courses with a B standing or better and the submission of a thesis on a res e arch project. The requirements for the Ph.D. degree are 8 to 12 courses and the submission of a thesis on an original research topic. The M Eng program is a part-time program designed for those who a re working in industry and would like to enhance their technical educa tion. The M.Eng thesis is usually the design type and related to the industrial activity in which the student is engaged Further deta i ls of 1his program are available from the Department Head, or the Chairman of the Graduate Studies Committee. Research Facilities The Department of Ch e mical Eng i neering occupies one wing of the Engineering Complex Th e building was designed to accommodat e the installation and operation of research equipment with a minimum of inconvenience to the researchers The Department has at i ts d i sposal an EA 1 690 hybrid computer and a TR48 analog computer and numerous d i rect access terminals to the University's CDC Cyber 172 digital com puter. In addition, a well equipped Machine Shop and Chemical Analy s is Laboratory are operated by the Department. Other major research facilities include a highly instrumented and versatile multiphase p i peline flow loop, an automated pilot plant unit based on the Girbotol Proces s for natural gas processing, an X-ray scanning unit for studying flow in porous media a fully instrumented adiabatic combustion tub e for research on the in-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands a laser anemometer un i t, and environmental research laborator i es for air pollution water pollution and oil spill studies Financial Aid Fellowships and assistantships are available with remuneration o f up to $6 000 per annum with possible rem1ss1on of fees In addit i on new students may b e eligible for a travel allowance of up to a maximum of $300 If required loans are available from the Federal and P r ovin ci al Governments to Canadian citizens and Landed Immigrants. There are also a number of bursaries fellowships and scholarships available on a competition basis to full time graduate students. Faculty memb e rs may also provide financial support from their resear c h gran t s to students e l e ct i ng to do research with them. Cost of Study The tuition fees for a full-time graduate student are $625 per year plus small incidental fees Most full-time graduate students to dat e have had th ei r tuition fees remitted. Cost of Living Housing for s i ngle s t udents in University dormitories range from $172 / mo for a double r oom to $205 / mo for a single room i nclud i ng board There are a number of new townhouses for married students available ranging from $177 / mo for a ]-bedroom, to $193 / mo for a 2-bedroom and to $209 / mo for a 3-bedroom unit, includ i ng utilities, major appliances and park i ng Numerous apartments and private housing are with i n easy access of the Univers i ty Food and clothing costs are comparable w i th those found in other major North Amer i can urban centr e s Student Body The University is a cosmopolitan community attracting students from all parts of the globe. The current enrolment i s about 12,000 w i th ap proximately 1,000 graduate students. Most full-time gradua1e students are currently receiving financial assistance e i ther from internal or external sources The Community The University is located in Calgary, Alberta home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of 570 000 comb i nes the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and i n the community at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentration s of engineering activity in the country The University The Un i versity operated from 1945 until 1966 as an integral part of the University of Alberta. The present campus situated in the rolling hills of northwest Calgary was established in 1960 and i n 1966 The University of Calgary was chartered as an autonomous institution by the Province of Alberta At present the Un i versity consists of 14 faculties Off-campus institutions associated with The University of Calgary include the Banff School of Fine Arts and Centre of Cont i nu i ng Education located in Banff Alberta and the Kananaskis Environmental Research Station located i n the beautiful Bow Forest Reserve 208 The Cha i rman Graduate Studies Comm i tte e Department of Chemical Engineering The Un i vers i ty of Calgary Calgary Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA RESEARCH ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MATERIAL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE: FACULTY Alexis T Bell Alan S Foss Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N. Hanson C. Judson King (Chairman) Scott Lynn David N. Lyon John S. Newman Eugene E Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Mitchel Shen Charles W. Tobias Theodore Vermuelen Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, Callfornla 94720

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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his program of study. In this way a student can properly pre pare himself for a productive career of research, develop ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding technological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special terminal M S. option, involving either research or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature to th e overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Professor J. H. Seinfeld Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It is advisable to submit applications before Fern1ary 15, 1977. FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice President for Jnstitute Relations Ph.D. (1948), California Jnstitute of Technology Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering; air and water quality. SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution; biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif fusion and membrane transport. GEORGE R. GAV ALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization; coal gasification. L. GARY LEAL, Associate Professor Ph D. (1969), Stanford University Th e oretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. CORNELIUS J PINGS, Professor, Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical mechanics. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Control and estimation theory; air pollution. FRED H SHAIR, Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies of various environmental problems. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure property relations in polymers. ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois Solid state and surface chemistry. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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Get your career off the ground. r_\_ ,. .. ~', ;,, .., \ .. 1~ f",t ...,.. .. Graduate Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon Un1vers1ty Schenley Park Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15213

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M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY THE UNIVERSITY Case Institute of Technology is a pr i vately endowed in stitution with trad i ti ons of excellence in Engineer i ng and Applied Scienc e since 1880. In 1967 Case Institute and Western Reserve Un i versity joined together. The enrollment endowment and fa c ulty mak e Case Western Reserve Un vers i ty one of the leading privat e schoo l s i n the country The modern urban campus is located in Cleveland's Un iversity Circle an extensive concentration of edu cational scientific social and cultural organization s ACTIVE RESEARCH AREAS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Environmental Eng inee r i ng Control & Optim i zation Computer Simulat i on Systems Engineering foam & Colloidal Scienc e Transport Processes C oal Gasificat io n B i omed ica l Engineer i ng Surface Chemistry & Catalys i s Crystal Growth & Materials Laser Doppler Velocimetry C hemical Reaction Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The department is growing and has recently moved to a new complex This facility provides for innovations in both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major areas of Chemical Engineer i ng are available Case Chemical Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and petroleum companies and have made i mportant technical and entrepreneur i al contributions for over a half a century FINANCIAL AID Fel lowsh ips, Teaching Ass is tantships and Research As sistantships are availabl e to qualified applicants Applicat i ons are welcome from graduates i n Chemistry and Chemical Engineering FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Co ntact : Graduate Student Adv i sor Chemical Engineering Departmen t C ase Western Reserve University Cleve la n d, Ohio 44106

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CLARKSON PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORAL DEGREE IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE Clarkson's multimillion dollar Science Center was dedicated in 1970 and is one of the finest facilities ot its k i nd in New York CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY W R WILCOX Prof. a nd Chmn (Ph.D ., 1960, University of C a liforni a, Ber k el e y) Cryst a l growth phenomena, new separat i on techniques M. G ANTONIADES Asst Prof (Ph.D ., 1976, University of Ro c hester) Surface films a t fluid interfaces int e r fac i a l r e actions interphase mass transfer D T CHIN Asso c. Prof. (Ph D ., 1969, Uni y_ er s ity of Pennsylvani a ) Electrochemic a l engineering, transport phenomena was t e treatment a nd re s ource recovery, energy conversion corrosion R COLE Assoc Prof (Ph.D 1966, Clarkson College of Technology) Boiling heat transfer, bubble dynamics boiling nucleation holographic interferometry D 0 COONEY Assoc Prof (Ph D ., 1966 University of Wiscon s in) M a s s tr a nsfe r in f i x ed bed s, biomedical engineering ph a rm a co k inetics E J DAVIS Prof. (Ph D 1960 University of Washington) He a t transfer and fluid mechanics a ssociated with two phase flow convectiv e diffusion, a eros o l physics t ransport phenomen a m a them a tic a l modeling. M. DONAHUE Asst Prof. (Ph.D 1976 University of C a lifornia Berkeley) Thermodyn a mics a nd ph a se equilibri a. J ESTRIN Prof (Ph D ., 1960, Columbi a University) Nucle a tion phenomena, cryst a lli z ation ph a s e ch a nge pr o ce s ses a nalysi s of energy c on s timing processes J L. KATZ Prof (Ph D ., 196 3, Uni v er s ity of Chicago) Homogeneou s nucleation o f vapors, homogeneous boiling, heterogeneous nucleation, aerosols nucleation of voids in metals, chem i cal nucleat i on, thermal conductivity of ga s es R J NUNGE-Prof Dean of the Graduate School and Directo r, Division of Research. (Ph.D. 1965 Syracuse University) Transport phenomena, multistream forced convection transport processes, st ructure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through porous media atmospheric t ~ ansport processes H L SHULMAN Prof Dean of Eng and Vice Pres of the College (Ph D 1950, University of Pennsylvania) M a ss Transfer, packed co lumns a dsorption of gases absorption. R S SUBRAMANIAN-Asst Prof (Ph D 1972 Clarkson College of Technology) Heat and mass transfer, unsteady convective diffusion miscible dispersion, chromatographic and other interphase transport systems fluid mechanics mathematical modeling. P C SUKANEK Asst Prof (Ph D. 1972 University o f Massachusetts) Rheology polym e r degrad a tion continuum mechanics T J WARD Assoc Prof. (Ph D 1959, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) Process control, nuclear engineering ceramic mater i als G R YOUNGQUIST Prof (Ph D 1962, University of Illinois) Adsorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous medi a, waste conversion processes. F or i n fo r ma ti o n c on ce rni ng Ass i sta n tsh i ps a n d F e ll ows hi ps co n tact th e D ea n of t h e Gr a du ate Sc h oo l Cl a r kso n Co ll ege of Tec hn o l ogy, Potsdam New Yo r k 1 36 7 6 CLARKSON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY/ POTSDAM, NEW YORK 1367~ -,,

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CORNELL UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University Students may enter a research-oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo sophy or Master of Sc ience, or may study for the professional degree of Master of Engineering (Chemica l ). Graduate work may be done in the follow ing subject areas. Chemical Engineering (general) Thermodynamics ; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations. Bioengineering Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and re lated sub j ects in biochem is try and microbiology; mathematical models of processes in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs Chemical Microscopy Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering Kinetics and Trans port Pro c esses Homogeneous kinetics; catalysis by sol i ds and enzymes; catalyst deactivation; simultaneous mass transfer and reaction; diffusion in liquids and membranes. Chemical Processes and Process Control Advanced plant design; process development ; petroleum refining; chemical engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com puter methods. Materials Engineering Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry materials, mechanics, metal lurgy and solid-state physics biomaterials Nuclear Process Engineering Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and chemistry Faculty Members and Research Interests George G. Cocks, Ph D. (Cornell): light and e l ect ron microscopy, properties of materials solid-state chemistry, crystallography Robert K Finn, Ph.D. (Minnesota): waste treatment, agitation and aeration, microbial kinetics, enzyme purification. Keith E. Gubbins, Ph.D. (London): transport properties and thermodynamics of liquids Peter Harriott, Sc.D. (M .I. T.): kinetics and catalysis process control, diffusion in membranes and porous solids. Robert P Merrill, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): gas-solid chemical reactions adsorption and catalysis, chemical kinetics, reactor design Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. (Cornell): polymer i zation, properties of polymer systems George F Scheele, Ph.D (Illinois): hydrodynamic stability coalescence, fluid mechanics of liquid drops and jets Michael L. Shuler Ph D. (Minnesota): biochemical engineering, novel food sources plant cells, biological reactors Julian C Smith, Chem.E (Cornell) : conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing, mechanical separations. James F Stevenson Ph.D. (Wisconsin) : transport phenomena, rheology Raymond G Thorpe, M.Chem.E (Corne ll ): phase equilibria, fluid flow kinetics of polymerization Robert L. Von Berg, Sc D. (M.1 T.) : liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics effect of radiation on chemical reactions, saline-water conversion. Herbert F Wiegand!, Ph.D. (Purdue): crystal~zation, petroleum processing, saline-water conversion, direct contact heat transfer Robert York, Sc.D (M.I.T ): molecular sieves ; chemical market analyses; chemical economics; process development, design, and evaluation FURTHER INFORMATION Write to Profe ssor P Harriott Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Cornell Uni versity Ithaca New York 14853

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FALL 1976 UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Newark, Delaware 19711 The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and practice in the art and science of chemical engineering : An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem An M.Ch E. degree based upon course work and a period of in dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the Delaware Valley chemical process industries. A Ph D. degree. The regular faculty are : Gianni Astarita time) C. E. Birchenall K. B. Bischoff H W. Blanch M. M. Denn B. C. Gates J R. Katzer R L. McCullough A. B. Metzner J. H Olson M. E. Paulaitis R L. Pigford T. W. F. Russell S. I. Sandler G L. Schrader G. C. A. Schuit( time) J M. Schultz L. Spi elman James Wei Visiting Faculty R I. Tanner D. V. Boger The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with industrial practice are: R L. Dedrick ____ Biomedical engineering T. R. Keane ___ __ Polymer Science & Engineering W. H. Manogue ____ Catalysis, reaction engineering F. E. Rush, Jr. Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction R. J. Samuels Polymer science A. B. Stiles Catalysis K. F. Wissbrun ____ Polymer engineering P. M. Gullino, M.D. ___________ Biomedical engineering H. F. Haug ____ __ Chemical engineering design For information and admissions materials contact: A. B. Metzner, Chairman 215

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~iversity of florida Transport Phenomena & Rheology Drag-reducing polymers greatly modify the familiar bathtub vortex, as studied here by dye injection. offersyou Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics llfustrating hydrogen-bondin g forces between water molecules. and mucJimore .. A young, dynamic faculty Wide course and program selection Excellent facilities Year-round sports Optimization & Control Part of a computerized distillation control system. Biomedical Engineering & lnterfacial Phenomena Oxygen being extracted from a substance similar to blood plasma. Write to: Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227 University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

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Chemical Engineering Graduate Study Programs FALL 1976 UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON APPLY TQ : DIRECTOR O F GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT O F CHEMICAL ENGINEERl"JG INTERESTED IN CHE GRADUA1E STUDY ENTER PHD PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON HOUSTON, TEXAS 77004 + MASTER OF SCIENCE,CHE 24 CR!;OIT HOURS OF COURSES 6 CREDIT HOURS OF THESIS MASTER OF MASTER OF SCIENCE CHEMICAL UNDIFFERENTIATED ENGINEERING CHOOSE : 24 CREDIT SYSTEMS HOURS OF ENVIRONMENTAL COURSES BIOMEDICAL DESIGN 24 CREDIT HOlJRS PROJECT OF COURSES E D N 6 CREDIT HOURS OF THESIS N R AMUNDSON A ATTAR J.E BAILEY J.R. CRUMP THESIS ADVISOR AND TOPIC A E. DUKLER R.W FLUMERFELT E J HENLEY W. I. HONEYWELL C J HUANG C.V. KIRKPATRICK D. LUSS R.L MOTARD A C. PAYATAKES H.W. PRENGLE, JR J T. RICHARDSON F. M. TILLER F. L. WORLEY, JR. C A TALYSIS ... CO NTR O L AND O PTIMIZATION .. TWO PHASE FLOW ... KINETICS .. ENERGY CONVERSION ... ENZYME KINETICS ... HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER .. THERMODYNAMICS .. AIR POLLUTION ... COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN ... FERMENTATION P ROCESSES .. PROCESS DYNAMICS ... BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS RHEOLOGY ... FLUID PARTICLE SEPARATIONS .. PROCESS SYNTHESIS REACTOR DESIGN .. 217

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THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs with a strong emphasis on creative research, either in fundamental engineering science or its application to the solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be achieved from the close one-to-one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de velop relevant scientific contributions. STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available, not only in terms of equipment and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel. AREAS OF RESEARCH: Applied Mathematics Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering Chemical Kinetics Chemical Reactor Dynamics Corrosion Electronic Structure of Matter Electrochemical Engineering Energy Sources and Conservation Environmental Engineering Fluid Dynamics Heat Transfer High Pressure Mass Transfer Materials Science and Engineering Molecular Thermodynamics Phase Transformations Process Control Process Design Reaction Engineering Statistical Mechanics Systems Analysis Two Phase Flow FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS: Professor J. W. Westwater Department of Chemical Engineering 113 Adams Laboratory University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 61801 218 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Programs in The Department of Energy Engineering leading to the degrees of MASTER OF SCIENCE and D OCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Cornell ... ;y Victor J. Kremesec, Jr Northwestern University, 1975 Assistan fessor Satish 0 Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta Univer sity, 1956 ofessor The MS program, with its ~ptio~al thesis, can be completed in one year. The department invites applications for admission and support from all qualified candidates. Special fellowships are available for minority students. To obtain application forms or to request further information write: I Fluid mech a nic s, combustion, turbulence, chemically reacting flows Chemical kinetics, mass transport phenomena, chemical process des ig n, particulate tran spo rt phenomena Kinetics of gas reaction s, energy transfer pro cesses, molecular la sers Multi-phase flow, flow in porou s media, mas s transfer, interfacial behavior, biological applications of transport phenomena, thermod y namic s of i;, olution s Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of flu i d s, s olids and s olutions, kinetic s of liquid reactions, cryobioengineering Thermodynamics, biotran s port, artificial organs, biophy s ic s Transport properties of fluid s and solids, heat and ma ss transfer, isotope separation fixed and fluidized bed combustion Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, optimization, environmental and pollution problems Professor W. J. Minkowyz, Chairman The Graduate Committee Department of Energy Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Circle Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680

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IOWA STATE UNIVERIIT'I Biomedical Engineering (System Modeling, Transport. process) Richard C. Seagrave Charles E. Glatz Biochemical Engineering (Enzyme Technology) Charles E. Glatz Peter J. Reilly Polymerization Processes Wiilliam H Abraham John D. Stevens as well as Air Pollution Control Solvent Extraction High Pressure Technology Mineral Processing write to: OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Energy Conversion (Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production, Atomic Energy) Renato G. Bautista Lawrence E. Burkhart George G. Burnet Allen H. Pulsifer Dean L. Ulrichson Thomas D. Wheelock Crystallization Kinetics Maurice A. Larson John D. Steven s Process Instrumentation and System Optimization and Control Lawrence E. Burkhart Kenneth R. Jolls Prof. D. L. Ulrichson Dept. of Chem. Engr. & N uc. Engr. Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50010 GRADUATE STUDY and GRADUATE RESEARCH in Chemical Engineering Transport Processes (Heat, mass & momentum transfer) William H. Abraham Renato G. Bautista Charles E. Glatz James C. Hill Frank 0. Shuck Richard C. Seagrave Process Chemistry and Fertilizer Technology David R. Boylan George Burnet Maurice A. Larson

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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering M.S. Program in Petroleum Engineering also Doctor of Engineering (D.E.) and M.S. in Petroleum Management The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro leum Industry. Research Areas Transport Phenomena Fluid Flow in Porous Media Process Dynamics and Control Water Resources and Environmental Studies Mathematical Modeling of Complex Physical Systems Reaction Kinetics and Process Design Financial assistance is available for Research Assistants and Teaching Assistants For Information and Applications write: Floyd W. Preston, Chairman 1 Nucleate Boiling Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas High Pressure, Low Temperature Phase Behavior Lawrence, Kansas, 66044 Phone (913) UN4-3922

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Up to $5,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B G. Kyle Durland Hall : Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66502 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER HEAT TRANSFER FLUID MECHANICS THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEER.ING MATERIALS SCIENCE SOLID MIXING CATALYSI~ OPTIMIZATION FLU I DIZA TION PHASE EQUILIBRIUM

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY DEPART~ENr OF CHEM101L ENGINEERING M.S. & Ph.D. Programs Including Intensive Study in ENERGY ENGINEERING Energy supply and demand Hydrogen production processes Coal liquefaction and gasification processes AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions Process and system control, and gas cleaning Diffusion, and modelling of urban atmospheres WATER POLLUTION CONTROL Advanced waste treatment and water reclamation Design of physical and chemical processes Biochemical reactor design STIPENDS: Excellent financial support is available in the form of National Science Foundation Traineeshi_p~, fellowshjps & assistantsh ips. OTHER PROGRAM AREAS: Thermodynamics Process control Reactor design Transport WRITE TO: R.B. Grieves, Chairman Dept. of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY 40506

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ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For decades to come, the chemical engineer will play a central role i n fields of national concern In two areas alone, energy and the environment, society and industry will turn SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY to the chemical engineer for technology and management in finding process-related solutions to critical problems MIT has con sistently been a leader in chemical engineer ing education with a strong working relation ship with industry for over a half century. For detailed information, contact Professor Kenneth A. Smith, Acting Head of the Depart ment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES ENERGY FACULTY Raymond F Baddour J. Th. G. Overbeek Robert C. Armstrong Janos M. Beer Robert C. Reid Lloyd A. Clomburg Clark K Colton Adel F Sarofim Robert E Cohen Lawrence B Evans Charles N. Satterfield William M. Deen Hoyt C. Hottel Kenneth A. Smith Richard G Donne l ly Jack B. Howard J Edward Vivian Christos Georgakis John P. Longwell Glenn C. Williams Michael P. Manning Herman P. Meissner Michael Modell Frederick A. Putnam Edward W. Merrill Ronald A. Hites Jefferson W Tester

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Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman Day Programs Established fields of specialization in which re search programs are in progress are: (1) Fluid Turbulence Mixing and Drag Reduction Studies-Ors. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson (2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr J. W Johnson (3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr. (4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr R. M Wellek M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees In addition, research projects are being carried out in the following areas : (a) Optimization of Chemical Systems; Energy Conversion from Agricultural Products Prof J. L. Gaddy (b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies Dr. M. E. Findley (c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies and Separation Processes-Dr. R. C. Waggoner (d) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques Dr H. H. Grice (e) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer Applications to Process Control Os M. E. Findley, R. C. Waggoner and R. A. Mollen kamp (f) Transport Properties Kinetics, enzymes and catalysis-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E Poling (g) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Dr. D B. Manley Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. FALL 1976 225

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university of pennsylvania chemical and biochemical eng1neer1ng FACULTY Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan) Eli zabeth B Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins) William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania) Eduardo D Glandt (Pennsylvania) Dav id J Graves (M.I.T.) A. Norman Hixson (Columbia) Arthur E Humphrey (Columbia) Mitchell Litt (Col u mbia) Alan L Myers (California) M elvin C. Molstad (Ya le ) Daniel D Perlmutter (Yale) John A. Quinn (Princeton) Warren D. Seider (Michigan) RESEARCH SPECIALTIES Energy Utilization Enzyme Engineering Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Computer A ided De si gn Chemical Reactor Analysis Environmental and Pollution Control Polymer Engineer in g Process Simulation Surface Phenomena Separations Technique s Transport Phenome na Th e faculty inc ludes two members of the Nat i onal Academ y of Engineering and three recipients of t he high est honors awarded by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Staff members are active in tea ch i ng research and professional work. Located near one of the large st con centrations of chemical industry in the United States the Un ive rs ity of Pensylvania maintains the scholarly standards of the Ivy League and n u mbers among its assets a superlative Med ica l Center and the Wharton School of Business PHILADELPHIA : The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand Th e Pocono Mounta ins and the New Jer sey sho re are within a two hour drive For further info rmat ion on graduate st udies in this dynamic setting, write to Dr A L. Myers, D epartment of Chemical and Biochem ical Engin eeri ng / D3 Univ e rsity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA 1917 4. 226 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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LOOKING FALL 1976 for a graduate education in Chemical Engineering ? Consider PENN STATE M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered with Research In Biomedical Engineering Environmental Research Reactor Design and Catalysis Transport Phenomena Thermodynamic Properties Process Dynamics and Control Applied Chemistry and Kinetics Petroleum Refining Tribology lnterfacial Phenomena Energy Research And Other Areas WRITE TO Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head 160 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pa. 16802 227

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? ... ~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg R. F. Benenati J. J. Conti C. D. Han R. D. Patel E. M. Pearce E. N Ziegler Polvtechnic lnsfitute @ ~~ Ww lk For med by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and New York Un i versity School of Engineering and Scienc e. Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and Doctor 's degrees Areas of study and research : chemical engineering polymer science and engineering and environmental studies. RESEARCH AREAS Air Pollution Biomedical Systems Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Mathematical Modelling Polymerization Reactions Process Control Rheology and Polymer Processing Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available For further information contact Professor C. D. Han Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Institute of New York 333 Jay Street Brooklyn New York 11201

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Albright Barile Chao Delgass Eckert Emery Greenkom Hanneman Houze Kessler DUE Koppel Lim Reklaitis Sesonske Squires Theofanous Tsao Wankat Weigand Wo o ds Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M-D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available. The Department has approximately 30 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent evaluation by the American Council of Education. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization, Stability, and Process Control Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Polymer Science BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma Blood Pumping Systems Biomaterials Rice University Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston. There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800 graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a complete university with programs in the various fields of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings. The academic year is from August to May As there are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly four months for research. The school offers excellent recreational and athletic facilities with a completely equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year round activities. 230 FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of $333-400 per month APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION Address letters of inquiry to: Houston Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Rice University Houston Texas 77001 With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and recreational attractions. It has a well known resident symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company, which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and Museum of Natural ScienceThe air-conditioned Astro dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers and the site of many other events C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AND CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING College of Engineering AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY, COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES BIOMATERIALS ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS FLAMMABILITY OF MATERIALS OCEANS AND ESTUARIES ENZYMES IN THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE, PACKAGING QUALITY MANAGEMENT PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSING POLYMER PROCESSING WASTES RECOVERY AND WASTE TREATMENT FOOD PROCESSING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE FALL 1976 PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS For Application Forms and Further Information Write To : Dr. A. Constantinides, Graduate Director Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering College of Engineering Rutgers, The State University New Brunswick, N.J. 08903 231

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232 THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA AT COLUMBIA between the mountains and the sea where the quality of life is good and opportunities for ambitious students abound in this fastest growing area of the country. Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineer ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemstry, physics, math ematics, materials and computer science Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are available. For particulars and application forms write to: Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman Chemical Engineering Program College of Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, S.C. 29208 THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY B L. Baker Professor, Ph.D. North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process design, environmental problems, ion transport) M.W Davis Jr., Professor, Ph.D ., Univers i ty of Californ i a (Berkeley), 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis chemical process analysis, solvent extraction waste treat ment) J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 1961 (Heat transfer fluid mechanics) F. P. Pike Professor Emeri t us, Ph D ., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equil i bria) T. G. Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph D The University of Michigan 1976 (Chemical reactor engineering mathematical modeling of chemical systems process design, thermodynamics) G B. Tatterson Assistant Professor Ph.D. Ohio State Un i vers i ty 1977 (Process control, real time computing, mixing phenomena) V Van Brunt Assistant Professor Ph.D ., Univer s ity of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass Transfer Computer Modeling) CHEMICAL ENG I NEERING EDUCATION

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LOOI( WHAT'S COMING TO BUFFALO! The New Chemical Engineering Building Clifford C. Furnas Hall Sailing on nearby Lake Erie The Department of Chemical Engineering at the State Un iversity of New York at Buffalo is proud to have the only State-supported chemical engineering program in New York. In the F a ll of 1977 the Department will move into Furnas Hall on the new Amherst Campus on the out skirts of Buffalo. The building is ten stories and conta i ns 75 ,0 00 square feet of off i ces and laboratories This 1200-acre campus represents a $650 million investment in education. While it is part of a l arge university Chemical Engineering at Buffalo is a highly personal educational experience Energy Utilization Environmental Problems Kinetics and Catalysis RESEARCH Process Design and Development Biochemical Eng i nee ri ng FACULTY D R Brutva,,_ ___________ P Ehrlic JL _______________ W N Gill _____________ R J Good A E Hamielec (Adjunct), ________ K. M. Kiser __________ Staged operations Pol yme ric materials, thermodynamics Dispersion reverse osmos is Surface phenomena, adhesion Polymer sy nthesis and reactor engineering Blood flow turbulence, pollution i n lakes Fluid Mechanic s and Rheology Polymer Science and Engineering Surface Science P J Phillip ~ -----------M Rya, ,_ ___ _____ __ ___ Polymer morphology mechanical and electrical properties Polymer rheology, process optimization E Ruckenstei, ,_ ______ ______ Catalysis interf acial phenomena bioengineering T W Weber _____ _______ Process control dynamics of adsorption S. W. Weller __ ___________ Catalysis catalytic reactors D Zabriski.,_ __ ___________ Biochemical engineering, fermentation Financial aid available for undergraduate and graduate students. For further information please write or call me personally. Dr. Sol W. Weller Chemical Engineering Building State University of New York Buffalo, N.Y. 14214 (716) 831-3105

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Programs Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are offered in chemical engineering metallurgical engineering and polymer engineering The Master s program may be tailored as a terminal one with emphasis on professional dvelopment or it may serve as preparation for more advanced work leading to the Doc torate Faculty William T Becker Donald C Bogue Charlie R Brooks Duane D Bruns Edward S Clark Oran L Culberson John F Fellers George C Frazier Hsien Wen Hsu Homer F Johnson Department Head Stanley H Jury Peter J Meschter Charles F Moore Ben F Oliver Professor -i n-Charg ~ of Metallurgical Engineer i ng Joseph J Perona Joseph E Spruiell E. Eugene Stal1$bury James L. Whit e 234 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Graduate Studies in Chemical, Metallurgical & Polymer Engineering Research Process Dynamics and Control Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of Packed Beds Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge Studies of Macromolecules Development and Synthesis of New Engineering Polymers Fiber and Plastics Processing Chemical Bioengineering X-Ray Diffraction Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy Solidification Zone Refining and Welding Cryogenic and High Temperature Calorimetry Flo w and Fracture in Metallic and Polymeric Systems Co rrosion Soli d State Kineti cs Financial Assistance Sources available include graduate teaching assistantships research assis tantships a nd industrial fellowships Knoxville and Surroundings W ith a population near 200 000 Knox ville is the trade and industrial center of East Tenn essee. In the Knoxville Aud torium-Coliseum and the University theaters Broadway plays musical and dramatic artists and other entertain ment eve nts are regularly scheduled. Kno x ville has a number of points of his torical interest a symphony orchestra, two art galleries and a number of museums. Within an hour s drive are many TVA lakes and mountain streams for water sports the Great Smoky Mountains National Park with the Gatlin burg tourist area two state parks and th e atomic energy installations at Oak Ridg e i n cluding the Museum of Atomic Energy Write Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering The University of Tennessee K noxvi ll e, T en n es see 37 916 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO TORONTO, CANADA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED CHEMISTRY The Department offers a wide range of research topics for the creative student including : nuclepr power engineering energy engineering solar heating electrpchemical engineering and corrosion polymer science and engineering plasf j ~s engineering and composite materials proce~s modelling and optimal control fluid r'(lechanics and pipeline transportation petro ~ t,emistry an~ tar sands development ceramics engineering heat, (nass and momentum transport radiochemistry and radioanalysis analytical chemistry and instrumentation thermodynamics kinetics and catalysis applied organic chemistry environmental engineering biomedical engineering bioengineering and food synthesis pulp and paper chemistry The Department ranks as one of the largest chemical engineering schools in the world with a total professorial staff of 33 and an enrolment of 160 graduate students. Interdisciplinary research is fostered through joint projects with the Institute for Environmental Studies, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering the Centre for the Study of Materials the Systems Building Centre and the Institute for Aerospace Studies. Admission to the School of Graduate Studies is based solely on academic standing and availability of space and facilities. A graduate brochure entitled "Graduate Research and Career Development which describes current research programs is available on request. Adequate financial support in the form of scholarships, fellowships or bursaries i s ava i lable to qualified students For further details write : Professor R.T. Woodhams, Graduate Secretary Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario Canada MSS 1A4

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Chemical Engineering Energy Engineering Coal Conversion Potential of Coal Based Energy Complexes Conversion of Solid Wastes to Low BTU Gas Environmental Engineering Purification of Acid Mine Drainage Water by Reverse Osmosis Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering SO2 Scrubbing Economic Impact of Environmental Regulations River & Lake Modeling West l/1rgIn1a Un1vers1ly Other Topics Optimization Chemical Kinetics Separation Processes Fluidization Bioengineering Transport Phenomena Utilization of Ultrasonic Energy M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information in financial aid write : Dr J. D. Henry Department of Chemical Engineering West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D. RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE: HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL PROCESS MODELING IN: COAL GASIFICATION, CHEMICALS FROM WOOD, ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J HATCHER, JR., HEAD P. 0. BOXG University, Alabama 35486 DEPARTMENT o F CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837 For admission, address Dr. George F Folkers Coordinator of Graduate Studies Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering For the usual candidate with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation. Special programs are arranged for candidates with baccalaureate degrees in the natural sciences. Assistantships and scholarships are available Typical interests of the faculty include the areas of: reaction kinetics and catalyst deactiva tion; thermodynamics; process dynamics and control, including direct digital control; computer aided design; science of materials, particularly metallurgy and polymer technology; numerical analysis; statistical analysis; mathematical modeling; operations research FALL 1976 237

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238 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS Faculty R. L. Bell: R. G. Carbonell A. P. Jackman: B. J. McCoy: F. R. Mclarnon: J.M. Smith: S. Whitaker: Mass Transfer, Bio Medical Engineering Enzyme Kinetics, Quantum Mechanics Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution Molecular Theory, Transport Processes Electrochemistry, Electrochemical Engineering Water Pollution, Reactor Design Fluid Mechanics, lnterfacial Phenomena To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To: Graduate Student Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Davis, California 95616 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT UCLA The University cf C.:lifornia, Los Angeles offers a broad educational experience in chemical engineering and allied fields. Areas of chemical engineering specialization include: KINETICS ANO CATALYSIS BIOENGINEERING ELECTROCHEMISTRY TRANSPORT PHENOMENA THERMODYNAMICS ADVANCED ENERGY SOURCES (NUCLEAR, SOLAR, COAil) ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MEMBRANE TRANSPORT AND SEPARATION PROCESSES OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL FOR INFORMATION ON PROGRAMS, ADMISSIONS, ANO FINANCIAL AID PLEASE WRITE TO PROFESSOR ALAN ULLMAN, ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE ENERGY AND KINETICS DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90024 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Gerald R Cysewsk i Henri J. Fenech Husam Gurol Owen T. Hanna Duncan A. Mellichamp UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING John E. Myers George L. Nicolaides G. Robert Odette A. Edward Profio Robert G. Rinker Orville C. Sandall For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara 93106 CINCINNATI DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES FALL 1976 -Major urban educational center -New, prize-winning laboratory building and facilities-Rhodes Hall -National Environmental Research Center (EPA} adjacent to campus -Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid -Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control, polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen eration, heat transfer. Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering (0620) University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 239

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240 CLEMSON UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering Department M.S. and Doctoral Programs THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina Industrial Pollution Control Barlage, W B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids, lnterfacial Phenomena Beard, J N., Ph.D., L.S.U .Digital Computer Process Control, Textile Dyeing and Finishing Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena, Pulp and Paper Processing Edie, D. D ., Ph D., U Virginia-Crystallization, Polymer Processing Haile, J. M., Ph.D. U. Florida Statistical Thermodynamics, Computer Simulation of Fluids Harshman, R. C., Ph D., Ohio State-Kinetics and Reactor Design, Membrane Processes Melsheimer, S S ., Ph D., Tulane Membrane Transport, Numerical Methods, Process Control Mullins, J C., Ph.D ., Georgia Tech Thermodynamics, Adsorption Talbott W. H., Ph D., U. Michigan Rheology Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships Contact : D. D. Edie, Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Clemson University Clemson, S C. 29631 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM The Chemical and Petroleum-Refining Engineering Department offers graduate programs leading to M.S., or Ph D. degrees in chemical engineering. Three semesters will normally be required for the M.S degree, and three or more years for the Ph D degree. These degree programs are flexible in scope, and will be adjusted to meet the needs and desires of each student. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Both research assistantships and teaching assistantships are available with stipends to $450 per month plus tuition for the academic year LOCATION-The Colorado School of Mines, in Golden Colorado, is picturesquely situated in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, 13 miles west of Denver. Most of Colorado's beautiful recreation areas for hiking, camping, or skiing are easily reached from Golden. LIVING ACCOMODATIONS Most graduate students both single and married, prefer to live in private apartments in the Golden-Denver area. For those students desiring to live on campus, the School maintains resident halls for single students and apartments for married students CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDVCATION

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faculty J P. BELL C. 0. BENNETT R W. COUGHLIN M. B. CUTLIP A. T. DiBENEDETTO G. M. HOWARD H. E. KLEI R. M. STEPHENSON L. F. STUTZMAN D. W SUNDSTROM programs M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering most aspects of Chemical Engineering. Research projects concentrate in four main areas: KINETICS AND CATALYSIS POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL flnanclal aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships locatlon Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut, convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities for an education at UCONN, please write to: Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06268 LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 Can you match the professor with his technical specialty(ies)? FALL 1976 PROFESSOR Marvin Charles Curtis W Clump Robert W Coughlin Mohamed EI Aasser Alan S Foust William L. Luyben Anthony J. McHugh Gary W. Poehlein Will i am E Schiesser Leslie H Sperling Fred P. Stein Leonard A Wenzel RESEARCH / TECHNOLOGY Mass and Heat Transfer Thermodynamics Energy / Fossil Fuels Nuclear Technology Polymer Materials Science Numerical Integration Catalysis Chemical Reactor Engineering Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Enzyme Technology Cryogenics Process Design Technology Transfer Process Dynamics Waste Water Treatment Air Pollution Control Rheology Emulsion Polymerization Computer Simulation Surface Science Process Control Transport Phenomena Kinetics 241

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Bioengineering Graduate Enrollment 60 Faculty 19 Pollution Control Process Dynamics Computer Control Kinetics and Catalysis Thermodynamics Ecological Modeling Write: Chemical Engineering Department Sugar Technology Programs of Study: Cost of Tuition: Cost of living: Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND The Department offers a broad program of graduate studies leading to MS and PhD de grees. Specialties available in Biochemical, Environmental Process Analysis and Simulation Polymers, and Energy-related areas Tuition for the 1976-77 academic year is $40 per credit hour for Maryland residents and $85 per credit hour for nonresidents Board and lodging are available in many private homes and apartments in College Park and vicinity with recent estimates suggesting that accommodations may cost anywhere from $100 to $200 monthly. A list of accommodations is maintained by the University's Housing Bureau The Community: The College Park campus is located a few miles from Washington, D.C. and thirty miles from Baltimore and Annapolis. Because of its proximity to Wash in gton, the University community enjoys advantages found nowhere else in the country The variety of political, social, educational, cultural and athletic events enhances the life of all graduate students at Maryland Financial Aid: 242 Graduate Research and Teaching Assistantships and ERDA Traineeships Contact Prof A. Gomezplata Chairman, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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McMASTER UNIVERSITY Hamilton, Ontario, Canada M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS R B Anderson ( Ph D. Iowa ) M H. I. Ba i rd (Ph D ., Cambridge ) A. B e n e dek ( Ph.D U. of Washington ) J L. Brash (Ph D ., Glasgow ) . C M Crowe (PhD ., Cambridge ) I. A Feu e rstein ( Ph.D ., Mas s achusetts ) A E Ham i el e c ( Ph D., Toronto ) T W Hoffman ( Ph D ., McG i ll ) J F. MacGregor (Ph.D ., W i scons i n ) K L. Murphy ( Ph.D ., Wiscons i n ) L. W Shemilt (Ph D ., Toron t o) W. J. Snodgrass ( Ph D ., U of N Carolina Chapel Hill ) J Vl ac hopoulos (D.Sc Wash i ngton U .) D R. Woods ( Ph D ., Wisconsin ) J. D Wright (Ph D Cambr i dge ) . Catalysis Adsorp t ion K i netics Oscillatory Flows, T ransport Phenomena Wast e water Treatment Novel Separation Techn i ques Poly me r Chemistry Use of Polymers i n Med i cine Optimi z at i on Chemical Reaction Eng i neering Simulation Biological Fluid and Mas s Transfer Poly m er Reactor Engineering Tran s port Processes Heat Transfer Chemical React i on Engr ., S i mulat i on Statistical Methods i n Proces s Analysis Computer Control Wastewater Treatment Physicochemical Separations Mass Transfer, Corrosion Modelling of Aquatic Systems Polymer Rheology and Processing Transport Processes lnt e rfacial Phenom e na Particulate Systems Process Simulation and Control Computer Control DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 18S 417 THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS The University of Michigan awarded its first Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D. in 1914 It has moved with the times since and today offers a flexible program of graduate study that allows emphases ranging from fun damentals to design. The Chemical Engineering Department, with 19 faculty members and some 70 graduate stu dents, has opportunities for study and research in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor design, transport processes, mathematical and numerical methods, optimization, mixing, rheol ogy, materials, bioengineering electrochemical engineering, production-pipelining-storage of oil and gas, coal processing, and pollution control. The M.S. program may be completed in 10 months and does not require a thesis. The Pro fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond the Master's and a professional problem. The Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to expedite entry into a research area as early in the program as possible. For further Information and applications, write: Prof. Brice Carnahan Chairman of the Graduate Committee The University of Michigan Department of Chemical Engineering Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 : FALL 1976 243

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DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK AT MICHIGAN TECH ... 244 WORK AND STUDY .. with a select faculty ... the best equipment ... surrounded by forests and lakes DEGREES OFFERED: M S in Chemical Engineering studies in advanced thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, instrumentation, unit operations, and chemical processing M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemistry specialization in organic, inorganic, physical and analytical chemistry and in biochemistry Financial assistance available in the form of fellowships and assistantships For more information write: H. El Khadem, Head Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 DO YOU THINK OF MINNESOTA as an hyperborean haunt of horrendous weather far to the north of the Cote d'Azur and other balmy latitudes? as a domain dominated by dismal theoreticians and other weird species? IF SO you're wrong on both counts. Our weather is brisk, to be sure but far from glacial. Our theoreticians are doughty not dismal; and anyway the experimentalists outnumber the theoreticians nor do they themselves fear theory For the unexpurgated truth on graduate work at Minnesota, write: DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D Degrees Research Areas Air Pollution Monitoring and Control Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Energy Sources and Systems Environmental Control Engineering Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Process Control and Modelling of Processes Single-Cell Protein Research Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids Transport in Biological Systems WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg., University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201 MONASH UN/VERSIT'I CLAYTON, VICTORIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIPS Applications are invited for Monash University Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart ment of Chemical Engineering. The awards are intended to enable scholars to carry out under supervision, a programme of full-time advanced studies and research which may lead to the degrees of Master of Engineering Science and/ or Doctor of Philosophy. Facilities are available for work in the general fields of : Biochemical and Environmental Fngineering Rheology Computer Process Control Heat and Mass Transfer FALL 1976 Minerals Processing Hydro and Pyrometallurgy Reaction Engineering Fluidisation Scholarships carry a tax-free stipend of $A3,250 per annum Detailed information about the awards and the necessary application forms may be obtained from the Academic Registrar. Tech nical enquiries should be addressed to the Chairman of Department, Professor 0. E. Potter Postal Address: Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia 245

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lE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH LEADING TO THE M S. OR Ph.D. I N THE AREAS OF: Bio c hemical Engin ee ring Computer Applications Crystallization Food Proc ess ing Kinetics Mixing Polymerization Thermodynamics Tray Efficiencies and Dynamic s and other area s F OR A PPLI CATIONS AND INFORMATION ON FINANCIAL ASS I STANCE WRITE TO : Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Offering Research Opportunities in Coal Gasification Desalination Synthetic Fuels Hydrogen Economy Mini Computer Applications to Process Control Process Simulation Hydro-Metallurgy Radioactive Waste Management ... and more Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque! For further information, write: Chairman Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131

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NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE Faculty and Research Activities: S. G. Bankoff G M. Brown J B Butt S H Carr W C. Cohen B Crist J S Dranoff T K Goldstick W. W. Graessley H M Hulburt H H Kung G G. Lamb R S. H. Mah J C Slattery W F Stevens G Thodos Boiling Heat Transfer, Two-Phase Flow Thermodynamics Process Simulation Ch e mical React i on Engineering, Applied Catalysis Solid State Properties of Polymers Biodegradation Dynamics and Control of Process Systems Polymers in the Solid State Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chromatographic Separations Biomedical Engineer i ng Oxygen Transport Polymer Rheology, Polymer Reaction Engineering Analysis of Chemical and Phys i cal Processes Ca t alys t Behavior Propert ie s of Oxide Surfaces Analysis of Societal Change Computer Aided Process Planning Design and Analysis Transport and lnterfacial Phenomena Process Optimization and Control Properties of Fluids Coal Processing Solar Energy Financial support is available For information and application materials, write : STUDY IN Professor William F. Stevens, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60201 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE OHIO ST ATE UNIVERSITY M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Rheology Unit Operations Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Simulation Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request WRITE E. R. Haering Acting Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 W 19th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 FALL 1976 247

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J-IE UNIVERSITY OF 0Klt4HOMA WRITE TO: THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE The University of Oklahoma Engineering Center 202 W. Boyd Room 23 Norman, Oklahoma 73069 Princeton CATALYSIS CORROSION DIGITAL SYSTEMS DESIGN POLYMERS METALLURGY THERMODYNAMICS RA TE PROCESSES ENZYME TECHNOLOGY University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 248 FACULTY Ronald P Andres Robert C. Axtmann Robert L. Bratzler Joseph M. Calo John K. Gillham Ernest F Johnson Morton D. Kostin Leon Lapidus Bryce Maxwell David F. Oll is William B. Russel Dudley A Sav ille William R. Schowalter Garth L Wilkes RESEARCH AREAS Atmospheric Aerosols B i oengineer ing Catalysis Chemical Reactor / Reaction Engineering Computer-Aided Design Energy Conversion & Fusion Reactor Technology Environmental Studies Fluid Mechanics & Rheology Mass & Momentum Transport Molecular Beams Polymer Ma teri als Science & Rheology Process Control & Opt imization WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08540 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Qgeenrs University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D.W. Bacon PhD(Wi s consin) H.A Becker ScD ( MIT) D H. Bone PhD(London) S .C. Cho PhD!Princeton) Waste Proces sing Write : water and waste treatment applied microbiolog y biochemi ca l engineering Dr. John Downie Department of Chemical Engineering R H Clark PhD Imperial College, R. K. Code Ph D Cornell) Chemical Reaction Queen 's University Kingston, Ontario Canada J Downie PhD (Toronto) J.E Ellsworth PhD !Princeton) c.c. Hsu PhD !Texas) J. D. Raal PhD Toronto) Engineering cata l ysis statistical design polymer s tudies T. R Warriner Sc-D ( Johns Hopkins) B W Wojciechowski PhD ( Ottawa) Transport Proce sses combustion FACULTY : ANDREAS ACRIVOS (Ph D., 1954, Minnesota) Fluid Mechanics. MICHEL BOUDART (Ph.D., 1950, Princeton) Kinetics & Catalysis. CURTIS W. FRANK (Ph.D ., 1972 Illinois) Pol yme r Physics GEORGE M. HOMSY (Ph.D ., 1969, Illinois) Flu i d Mechanics & Stability ROBERT J. MADIX (Ph.D ., 1964, U Cal-Berkeley) Surface Reactivity. DAVID M MASON (Ph.D., 1949, Cal Tech) Applied Th ermodyn am ics & Chemical Kinetics. CHANNING R ROBERTSON (Ph.D., 1969, Stanford) Bioengineer in g LECTURERS & CONSULTING FACULTY : RICHARD E BALZHISER, E.P.R.I., Palo Alto, CA (Ph.D., 1961 Michigan) H eat Transfer & Thermodynamics. ALAN S. MICHAELS, Alza Corporation, Palo Alta, CA (Sc.D., 1948, M.I T.) Surface Collo id & Polymer Chem istry. ROBERT H SCHWAAR, S.R.I., Menlo Park, CA. (Ph.D ., 1956 Princeton) Technological Development & Process De sign. FALL 1976 fluid mechanics thermodynamics CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY Stanford University offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering with a number of financially attractive fellowships and as sistantships available to outstanding students pursuing either program For further information and application blanks, write to: Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305. Closing date for applications is Feb. 249

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RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING offers graduate study programs leading to M S and Ph D degree s with opportunities for spec ialization in : THERMODYNAMICS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDIZATION WATER RESOURCES AIR POLLUTION POLYMER MATERIALS POLYMER PROCESSING PROCESS DYNAMICS SOLID WASTES Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute established in 1824 "for the application of science to the common purpose s of life, has grown from a sc hool of e n g in eer ing and applied science into a techno l ogica l univer si t y, s er v ing some 3500 undergradua te s and ove r 1000 graduate s tudent s It is l ocated in Troy, Ne w Yo rk about 150 miles nor t h of Ne w York City and 180 miles west of B oston. Troy Albany, and Sc hen ec ta dy together comp r ise the heart of N ew York 's Capital Di s tri c t an upstate metro poli t an area of about 600,000 popu l ation These hi toric ci t ies and t he su r rounding co un tr yside provide th e att ra ctions of bo th urban and and rural life. Scenic s tream s, lak es and mountains, i ncl ud ing th e Hu dson Ri ver, L ake George, the Green Mountain s of Vermont, th e Berkshires of Massach u setts, and portion s o f th e Adir ondac k Forest Pr ese rve are w ithin easy driving distan ce, and offer many attractions for tho se in t eres t ed in s kiing hik i ng, boating, hu n t ing, fishing, e tc For full details write Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12181. L ake Hur o n University of Waterloo L o ndon Lake Erie Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De partment offers M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post doctoral programs in: Biochemical and Food Engineering Environmental and Pollution Control Extractive and Process Metallurgy Polymer Science and Engineering Mathematical Analysis and Control Transport Phenomena and Kinetics Financial Aid: Competitive with any other Canadian University Academic Staff: K F. O Driscoll Ph.D (Princeton); E. Rhodes Ph D. (Manchester); R R Hudgins Ph.D. (Princeton) ; T L. Batke, Ph.D (Toronto); K S. Chang, Ph D. (Northwestern); F A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (U.B.C.); T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (Illinois); R. Y-M. Huang Ph D. (Toronto); D C. T. Pe i, Ph D (McGill); P M Reilly Ph D. (London) ; A Rud in, Ph D (Northwestern) ; D. S Scott, Ph D (Illinois); P L. S i lveston Dr. Ing (Munich); D. R. Sp i nk, Ph D (Iowa State); G A. Turner Ph.D (Man chester); B M. E. van der Hoff Ir (Delf); M Moo -Y oung Ph.D. (London); L. E Bodnar, Ph D (McMaster) ; C. M Burns Ph D (Polytechnic Inst Brooklyn) ; J J Byerley, Ph D. (U.B C.); K. Enns, Ph D. (Toronto) ; J. D. Ford, Ph D. (Toronto); C. E. Gall, Ph.D. (Minn ); G L. Rempel, Ph.D. (U B C.) ; C. W. Robinson, Ph D (U C. Berkeley) ; J R. Wynnyckyj, Ph.D. (Toronto); I. F. Macdonald, Ph D (Wisconsin) ; G S. Mueller Ph D (Manchester); J. M. Schare r, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania); To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G1 Further information : See CEE, p 4, Winter 1975

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY IN SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AREAS Water Renovation Biomedical Engineering Membrane Processes Desalination Transport Phenomena Separation Processes Mathematical Modeling Fluid-Particle Separation FACULTY Allen J Barduhn Robert Shambaugh Philip A. Rice S. Alexander Stern Gopal Subramanian Chi Tien Raffi M. Turian Chiu-Sen Wang Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among the hills of Central New York State A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering, science, the social sciences and the humanit i es exists at the un i vers i ty. The many diversified act i v i ties conducted on the campus prov i de an i deal environment for the attainment of both specific and general educat i onal goals As a part of this med i um sized research ori e nted university the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broaden i ng interest of the faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research independent study and the general atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation. FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1977-78 For Information: Stipends: Contact : Chairman Stipends range from $3,000 to $5,500 with most students receiving at least $4,200 per annum in addition to remit ted tuition privileges FALL 1976 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Syracuse University Syracuse, New York 13210 THINKING ABOUT GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING? Think about a meaningful study program in chemical engi neering at Texas A&M University. TAMU's graduate program is designed to produce engineers who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry and society. Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl, there is an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally warm Texas friendliness, enabling you to get the very best guidance and instruction possible. For an information packet and application materials, write to: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843 251

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252 The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships Available. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EPA Traineeships in Water Supply and Pollution Control. For more details write: Dr. Leslie E. Lahti Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 M.S. AND Ph.D PROGRAMS TUFTS UNIVERSITY CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS Metropolitan Boston RHEOLOGY OPTIMIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION POLYMER STUDIES MEMBRANE PHENOMENA CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY BIO-ENGINEERING MECHANO-CHEMISTRY PROCESS CONTROL FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF K. A VAN WORMER, CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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STUDY WITH US AND ENJOY NEW ORLEANS TOO! DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TULANE UNIVERSITY A Vigorous Faculty Meaningful Research Excellent Facilities The Good Life For Additional Information, Please Contact Duane F. Bruley, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Tulane University New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 THE FACULTY: Raymound V Bailey Ph.D (LSU) ---Systems Engineering, Applied Math, Energy Conversion Duane F. Bruley Ph D (Tenn. ) Process Dynamics, Control Biomedical Eng in eering Neil Larry Book Ph D. (Colorado) Process Design and Economics, Optimization, Modeling and Simula tion of Ecolog i cal Systems, Alternative Energy Sources Thomas R Hanley, Ph D (Virginia K i netics and Reactor Design, Polymer Polytechnic Institute) ------Systems James Moreland Henry Ph.D (Princeton) .... Chemical Kinetics Chemical Reactor Analysis Process Energy Efficiency, Advanced Energy Conversion Daniel B. Killeen Ph.D (Tulane ) ----Use of Computers in Engineering Education Victor J. Law Ph.D (Tulane) Optimization Control Agrisystems Danny William McCarthy, Ph D. (Tulane) ________ Computer Control Optimizat i on Deterministic Modeling Samuel L. Sullivan, Jr Ph.D. (Texas A&M) --Separation Process, Transport Phenomena Numerical Methods Robert E. C Weaver Ph.D (Princeton) ______ Resource Management, Operations Research and Control Biomedical Engineering VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. AND Ph.D. DEGREE PROGRAMS W. Wesley Eckenfelder Thomas M. Godbold Thomas R Harris Knowles A. Overholser John A Roth Karl B. Schnelle, Jr. Robert D. Tanner W Dennis Threadgill Biological and Advanced Waste Water Treatment Processes Process Dynamics and Control, Mass Transfer Physiological Systems Analysis, Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineer i ng Tracer Analysis Combustion Physics Biorheology Reaction Kinetics and Chemical Reactor Design Gas Chromatography, Industrial Waste Management and Control Air Pollution Instrumentation and Automatic Control, Dispersion Studies Enzyme Kinetics Fermentation Processes and Kinetics, Pharmaco kinetics, Microbial Assays Unit Operat ions, Food and Dairy Industry Waste Treatment FURTHER INFORMATION: W. Dennis Threadgill, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Box 1821 Station B, Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee 37235 FALL 1976 253

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254 We are seeking entrepreneurial, innovative Colleagues for NEW VENTURES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOIN US AT VIRGINIA TECH Coal Processing New Polymer Fibers Digital Electronics, Microprocessors and Control Chemical Laser Engineering Isotope Separation Chemical Microengineering Cryogenic Chemical Syntheses Food Processing Agriculture Biochemical Engineering Heterogeneous, Homogeneous, and Multiphase Catalysis Guerilla Science Financial support is available for programs lead ing to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Uni versity is Virginia's Land Grant University located in the mountains of beautiful Southwestern Vir ginia at Blacksburg. Research in Chemical Engi neering emphasizes applied science and the practical application of new science and technol ogy to important current problems with service and profit as major objectives. The department is one of the largest in the country, a large supplier of well-trained engineers to national employers, and the graduate program reflects a close relation ship with the potential users of new develop ments. The faculty represents a wide range of industrial, academic and government experience. WRITE TO: Dr. Henry A. McGee, Jr. Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Washington University is located on a park-like campus at the St. Louis City limit Its location offers the cultural and recreational opportunities of a major metropolitan area combined with the convenience of a University surrounded by pleasant res i dential areas with many apartment houses where single and married graduate students can obtain housing at reasonable rates The Department of Chemical Engineering occup ies a modern building with well -e quipped laboratory facilities for research in a large variety of areas. There is close interaction with the research and engineering staffs of major S t. Louis chemical companies and also ex tensive collaboration with the faculty of the Washington Un i vers ity School of Medicine i n the biomedical engineering research activities. PRINCIPAL RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering Rheology Technology Assessment Environmental Science Thermodynamics Polymer Science Transport Phenomena For application forms, a catalog, and a brochure which describes faculty research interests, research projects and financial aid write to: Dr. Eric Weger, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Washington University St. Louis, Missouri 63130 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chemical Engineering BF-10, Seattle, Washington 9819:i GRADUATE STUDY BROCHURE AVAILABLE ON REQUEST WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs AIR POLLUTION : Submicron Particulate Collection / High Temperature Catalysis / Global Monitor ing & Meteorological Interaction / Atmospheric Chemistry & Trace Analyses / Odor Perception / Phytotoxicity ENERGY: Combustion & NO x SO x Control / Coal Minerals Recovery/ Petrochemical Substitutes From Coal / Process Development & Design TRANSPORT PHENOMENA: Laser-Doppler Velocimetry / Single& Multi-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer / Foam Flow NUCLEAR ENGINEERING: Radioactive Waste Management / Fuels Reprocessing / LMFBR Technology / Radiocarbon Dating / Neutron Activation Analyses POLYMER ENGINEERING: Electroiniated Polymerization / Polymeric Encapsulation BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING : Biorheology BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Fermentation Kinetics FALL 1976 Several Fellowships, Assistantships and Full-time Summer Appointments Available Contact: J. A. Brink, Jr., Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Wa. 99163 / Tel. 509-335-4332.

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256 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. R. Fisher, PhD thermodynamics-process design kinetics-molecular lasers electrochemical engr -fuel cells environmental engr. -kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments multi-phase flows-environmental engr. J. Jorne, PhD R.H. Kummler, PhD C. B. Leffert, PhD R. Marriott, PhD J. H. McMicking, PhD R. Mickelson, PhD P.K.Rol, PhD E.W. Rothe, PhD S. K. Stynes, PhD FOR FURTHER INFORMATION on admission and financial aid contact: Dr Ralph H. Kummler Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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IIIPI WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE "The Innovative School" Annual research support in chemical engineering exceeds $250,000 for projects in : Adsorption Diffusion Catalysis Enzyme Engineering Energy Conversion The Department enjoys an international reputation in molecular sieves research An advantageous location in medium sized city close to scientific and cultural centers of the region The Department includes 10 faculty members Degrees granted in 1976: 2 PhD, 5 MS, 35 BS Address inquiries to: Dr. lmre Zwiebel, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 THE CITY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK The Department of Chemical Engineering at The City College of The City University of New York offers the degrees of Master of Engineering (Chem Eng.) and Ph.D (Chem. Eng.). The de partment has ongoing funded research pro grams in the areas of policy research on problems of energy and pollution, materials science and polymers, synthetic fuels, process control and dynamics, process economics fluidization and particulate systems, and transport processes in biological systems. Holders of bachelor's degrees in related fields of engineering, materials science, chemistry, physics, and economics may be ad mitted to the program CLEVELAND STA.TE UNIVERSITY DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING If interested write to: Chairman Additional information and application kits may be obtained from: Department of Chemical Engineering The City College of New York 138th Street and Convent Avenue New York, New York 10031 for bulletin describing the program and on going research in detail. FALL 1976 The Department of Chemical Engineering Cleveland State University Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street Cleveland, Ohio 44115 or telephone 687-2569 257

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Colorado offers excellent op portunities for graduate study and research leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering Research interests of the faculty i nclude cryo gen i cs process control, polyme r science ca t aly si s, fluid mechan i cs, heat transfer mass transfer, computer aided design, air and water pollut i on biomedical engineering and ecological engi neering For application and information, write to: Chairman, Graduate Committee Chemical Engineering Depa r tmen t University of Colorado Boulder THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA Iowa City M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering Emphasis on Materials Engineering Rheology Transport Processes Chemo-mechanics Stress Corrosion Irreversible Thermodynamics Memb r ane Processe s Surface Effects Reaction Kinetic s Radiation Effects Assistantships are available Write: 258 Chairman Chemical Engineering Program University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 ECOLE POL YTECHNIQUE AFFILIEE A L'UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Research assistantships are available in the following areas: POLYMER ENGINEERING RHEOLOGY RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS FLUIDISATION REACTION KINETICS PROCESS CONTROL AND SIMULATION INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL PROFITEZ DE CETTE OCCASION POUR PARFAIRE VOS CONNAISSANCES DU FRANCAIS! VIVE LA DIFFERENCE! Som e know l e dg e of th e Fr e nch l angu age i s r e quir e d M S. F or i n form a t i on writ e t o: Dr. Andr e Ro ll i n pr e po se 1 !' a dmi ss ion D ep a rt e m e nt du G e n i e C hi miq u e E c o l e Po l yte c h n i qu e C P 607 9, St a tion A M o nt rea l H 3C 3 ...\ 7 CANA D A NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEWARK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR AND IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Sc D DEGREES Biomedical Engineering Basic Studies-Chemical Engineering Biochemical Engineering Environmental Engineering Polymer Science and Engineering Basic Studies-Applied Chemistry Process and Design Studies For details on applications and financial aid, write : Dean Alex Bedrosian Graduate Division New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 High Street Newark, New Jersey 07104 C HEMICA L ENG I N E ER ING E P UCAT IO N

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UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: Thesis and non-Thesis programs leading to the M.S. degree are available. A full-time student can com plete the program in a calender year Research and Teaching assistantships are available. PROJECT LIGNITE: UND's Chemical Engineering Department is engag e d in a major research program under the U S Energy Research and Development Administration on conversion of lignite coal to upgraded energy products A pilot plant has been built for a coal liquefac tion process. Students may pa rticipat e in project-related thesis problems, or be employed as project workers while taking course work in the depart ment. ERDA: The Department of Chemical Engineering and the Grand Forks En e rgy Research Center offer a cooperative program of study related to coal technology. Course work is taken at the Un iversity and thesis research performed at the Center under ERDA staff members Fellowships are available to U S citizens FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58201 University of Rhode Island Graduate Study Chemical Engineering MS, PhD Nuclear Engineering MS AREAS OF RESEARCH Adsorption Biochemical Engineering Boiling Heat Transfer Catalysis Corrosion Desalination Dispersion Processes Distillation Fluid Dynamics Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics Liquid Extraction APPLICATIONS Mass Transfer Materials Engineering Membrane Diffusion Metal Finishing Metal Oxidation Metallurgy Nuclear Technology Phase Equilibria Polymers Process Dynamics Thermodynamics Water Resources X-ray Metallography Apply to the Dean of the Graduate School, Uni versity of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881. Applications for financial aid should be re ceived not later than February 15. Appointments will be made about April. FALL 1976 Do any of these names ring a bell? Elzy Fitzgerald Knudsen Leven spiel Meredith Mrazek Wicks They're our Department We offer advanced study in straight chemical engineering and joint programs with biochemistry, environmental and ocean engineering, etc. It's exciting here at OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY Curious? Questions? Write Dr. Charles E Wicks Chemical Engineering Department Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty research interests include materials, separation processes, polymers, fluid properties, surface and aerosol physics, catalysis and kine tics, automatic control, process simulation and optimization. For additional information write: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas Austin Texas 78712 259

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---------------------------~-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TEXAS TECH Join a rapidly accelerating department (research funding has increased an average of 26 % per year for the last three years) Graduate research projects available inPROCESS ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENVI RO NM ENT AL CONTROL ENERGY BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY Texas Tech Chemical Engineering graduates are among the most sought-after by industry in the country. Be one of them! For information brochure and application mate rials, write Dr. R. M. Bethea Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 WYOMING ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT We offer exciting opportunities for research in many ENERGY-related areas, such as coal and oil shale We also offer research relating to ENVIRONMENT, such as in situ processes and water resources. These and many other oppor tunities are available to those with ENERGY who wish to work in a pleasant ENVIRONMENT, both academically and geographically. Take a moment and write for more informa tion Dr. D. L. Stinson Mineral Engineering Department University of Wyoming P. 0. Box 3295, University Station Laramie, Wyoming 82071 Financial aid is available, and all aid recipients pay only resident fees. 260 CONSIDER UTAH This is a small ad for people who recognize that bigger isn't necessarily better. The University of Utah has a small chemical engineering depart ment (8 faculty) where the emphasis is not on size but on quality. If you are interested in a small, high-quality chemical engineering depart ment having a variety of important research activities and located in one of the world's most pleasant cities in a unique geographical setting, write for more information to: Professor Noel deNevers Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 y Yale Chemical Engineering Department of Engineering a nd Applied Science CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Chemical Engineering Research at Merck ... Varied ... Challenging Micro-Reactor used in Heterogeneous Catalysis Studies Pilot Scale Ion Exchange Columns Carbon Adsorption Experiment Rahway Plant Chemical Manufacturing Unit Continuous Separation of Optical Isomers via Selective Crystallization AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER M / f ... Significant Computer Controlled Fermentor Extraction Experiment Antibiotic Solution For more details contact: Manager, College Relations Merck & Co., Inc. Rahway, New Jersey 07065

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1 At Du Pont I work closely with control agencies to protect the environment:' Sam Severance is a BSChE from Georgia Tech and a member of Tau Beta Pi. Five years ago he joined Du Pont fresh out of school as an engineer Now he s a Technical Supervisor in our Newark N.J. Pigments Plant. -Sam Severance Sam and the people he supervises spend a full 30 per cent of their time working on environmental control both in the plant and on effluent discharge systems outside the plant. As a result of this type of commitment Du Pont has one of the best safety health and environmental records in the industry. This is typical of the kind of commitment Du Pont and its employees are making to improve the world we live in. And Sam s story is 't ypical of the progress Du Pont engineers regardless of their degrees can make for themselves, the Company and society. So if you d like to work for a company that will permit you to make as big a contribution as you wish, do what Sam d i d Talk with the Du Pont Personnel Representative who visits your campus Or write direct to Du Pont Company Room 24 764 Wilmington Delaware 19898 At Du Pont ... there's a world of things you can do something about. ~GUS PA T8T M Off An Equa l Opport u nity Emp l oye r M / F


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