Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 In memorium C.E. Littlejohn
 A letter to chemical engineering...
 Modern thermodynamics
 Heterogeneous catalysis
 Dynamical systems and multivariable...
 Digital computations for chemical...
 Industrial pollution control
 Separation processes: Particulate...
 Administration of engineering and...
 Technological forecasting
 Enzyme catalysis
 Critical path planning of graduate...
 Measures of excellence of engineering...
 Should engineering students be...
 Graduate education advertiseme...
 Back Cover

Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00048
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Fall 1975
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00048
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00048

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 149
    In memorium C.E. Littlejohn
        Page 150
    A letter to chemical engineering seniors
        Page 151
    Modern thermodynamics
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Heterogeneous catalysis
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Dynamical systems and multivariable control - An operations research approach to automatic control education
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Digital computations for chemical engineers
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Industrial pollution control
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    Separation processes: Particulate systems and column operations
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Administration of engineering and technical personnel
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Technological forecasting
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Enzyme catalysis
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Critical path planning of graduate research
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Measures of excellence of engineering and science departments: A chemical engineering example
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Should engineering students be taught to blow the whistle on industry?
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Graduate education advertisements
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




ALSO: Measures of Excellence of
Science and Engineering

. . Gruver
. . . Liu
. Manning
. . McCoy
. . Pollack
S. Walter
. Schreiber
& Rigaud

Departments: A ChE Example
Should Engineering Students
Be Taught to Blow the
Whistle on Industry?

FALL 1975





There are probably
a lot of reasons
for Engineers to
settle in New England.
The stimulation of a
: diversified intellectual
.o . community, for one.
S. -I Or the proximity to a
S' cultural and social hub as
Individually accessible
Sas it is cosmopolitan.
S . .And there's always your
Standard panoramic view of
SMother Nature at work.
But we think Engineers
i might come because
they're looking for a chance
to share their imagination
Jand ability with us, one of the
world's foremost contractors serving
the petrochemical and refinery industries.

and creativity unavailable elsewhere. And because
our sales have increased so dramatically, we've expanded
Si into a world-wide, internationally recognized organization.
So if you're an Engineer
(chemical or mechanical) contact us.
We offer excellent salaries,
comprehensive benefits and almost
unlimited opportunities to develop your professional future.
And we'll throw New England into the bargain.

Please send a letter or resume to Lance Forrester, Badger America, Inc.,
One Broadway, Cambridge, MA 02142


International Designers /Engineers /Constructors
A Raytheon Company)
An Iqual ()lpporunitv EImpI'ver

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Acting Business Manager: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
University of Houston
James R. Couper
University of Arkansas
EAST:G. Michael Howard
University of Connecticut
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
University of California, Santa Barbara

FALL 1975

Chemical Engineering Education


152 Modern Thermodynamics
Gianni Astarita

158 Heterogeneous Catalysis
W. N. Delgass

162 Dynamical Systems and Multivariable
Control, W. A. Gruver

166 Digital Computations for Chemical
Engineers, Y. A. Liu

170 Industrial Pollution Control
Francis S. Manning

174 Separation Processes, B. J. McCoy
180 Administration of Engineering and
Technical Personnel, Joseph Polack

184 Technological Forecasting
H. P. Schreiber and M. Rigaud

188 Enzyme Catalysis, Charles Walter
192 Critical Path Planning of Graduate
Research, L. F. Donaghey

151 Editorial

183, 201 Book Reviews

150 In Memorium C. E. Littlejohn

194 Measures of Excellence of Engineering
and Science Departments: A Chemical
Engineering Example, C. L. Bernier,
W. N. Gill and R. G. Hunt
198 Should Engineering Students Be Taught
To Blow the Whistle on Industry?
John Biery and Ray Fahien

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $5 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright � 1975. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

In Memorium

e, 4. edittledMa

New Jersey Institute of Technology
Newark, New Jersey 07102

During the last week of May, 1975 many of
us associated with Chemical Engineering were
stunned and saddened with the announcement of
the death of C. E. Littlejohn. To those of us who
were aware of Charlie's condition, the news came
as no great surprise but still left us numb with
grief and disappointment. He is survived by his
wife Doris and two daughters.
C. E. Littlejohn, Charlie or Doc Charlie as
he was known to his colleagues and students, was
born on September 28, 1918 in Spartanburg, S. C.
His primary education was in the main under-
taken at various schools in the South. He received
his B. S. in Chemical Engineering from Clemson
College in 1940; his M. S. from North Carolina
State in 1941 and his Ph.D. from Virginia Poly-
technic Institute in 1952. His professional activi-
ties include Chairman of the Western South Caro-
lina Section of AIChE, Faculty Advisor to the
Student AIChE Chapter, Member of AIChE-
ECPD Accreditation Committee, Chairman of the
Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE, and
Chairman of the Publication Board of CEE. He
was co-author of a Chemical Engineering sopho-
more level text, listed in Who's Who in the U.S.,
and selected as Man of the Year of the Western
South Carolina Section of AIChE in 1970. Charlie
joined the staff of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment at Clemson as an Assistant Professor
in 1947 and became Department Chairman in
1956. During this period the departmental staff
consisted of Charlie and one other member with
very little facilities of its own. However, from
the students' point of view this was a positive fea-
ture since in meant Charlie taught many of the
courses. He was an excellent teacher genuinely
concerned with student problems and educational
development. He set high standards in his courses
but had the rare ability to transmit a keen sense
of pride and professionalism to his students. (In
fact, who can forget his lab grading system of

blue pencil for technical errors and red pencil for
grammar mistakes).
In 1960 the department initiated its M.S. program
followed by a Ph.D. program in 1962. In terms
of educational philosophy Charlie's belief was
that both the undergraduate and graduate train-
ing process should reflect an awareness of the
industrial sector's needs. One of his quotes as-
sociated with the graduate program, during its
initial growth stage, was the principle that, "A
Differential Equation Never Built a Distillation
Column." A belief that research should be used
to enhance the expertise of an individual faculty
member and ultimately this expertise be useful
to the students in their educational development
was impressed on his staff.
Insofar as his students were concerned, Charlie took
an active interest in their careers and accomplishments.
He was always available to both students and industrial
representatives for advice, counseling and recommenda-
tions concerning career choices. The mark of esteem
and affection he was held in is exemplified by the initia-
tion this year of the C. E. Littlejohn Scholarship Fund
initiated by industrial representatives who knew him.
Wherever any of "Charlie's Boys" (as his
former students liked to refer to themselves) are,
each one carries a favorite story or image of Doc
Charlie from their own experiences. For myself,
the picture I'll always associate with Charlie in-
volves when our paths would cross at the AIChE
Annual Meetings and we would get into long dis-
cussions on many topics and in my long winded
way I would start a discourse on some chemical
engineering educational related topic whereupon
he would wait until I had finished and with a
smile on his face he would properly admonish
me with the introductory phrase, "Now,
Angie . . .". Charlie, we are going to miss you!
Editor's Note: CEE also mourns the loss of our Publica-
tion Board Chairman. He has been succeeded by Prof.
William Corcoran of California Institute of Technology.




As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school.
In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.

Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in
your growth toward confidence, independence,
and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. Previous issues
included articles on applied mathematics, trans-
port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics,
particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional
operations, computer aided design, statistical anal-
ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and
certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio-
medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in pre-
vious years. If your department chairman or pro-
fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before
you read the articles in these issues we wish to
point out that (1) there is some variation in
course content and course organization at different
schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en-
gineering that we have not been able to cover, and

(3) the professors who have written these articles
are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize
that particular area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many very fine
chemical engineering departments and each of
these has its own "personality" with special em-
phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in
choosing a graduate school you might first con-
sider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If
you have a specific research project in mind, you
might want to attend a university which empha-
sizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if
you are unsure of your field of research, you might
consider a department that has a large faculty
with widely diversified interests so as to ensure
for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department
with a small enrollment of graduate students. In
any case, we suggest that you begin by writing
the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue.
You will probably also wish to seek advice from
members of the faculty at your own school.

But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.

University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

FALL 1975


University of Delaware, Newark, Del. and
Istituto di Principi di Ingegneria Chimica,
University di Napoli, Naples, Italy.

IN THE FALL Semester of both 1973 and 1974,
a somewhat non-traditional course in Thermo-
dynamics was given within the graduate program
at the Chemical Engineering Department of the
University of Delaware. The philosophy, scope
and possible future evolution of this course are
discussed in this report.
The teaching of Thermodynamics, at both the
graduate and undergraduate level, in ChE de-
partments is traditionally rather separated from
the mainstream of the research and teaching ac-
tivity of the department as a whole. Thermo-
dynamics is often viewed as a self-contained sub-
ject, knowledge of which allows solving such im-
portant but rather traditional problems as energy
balances, power cycles, and physical and chemical
equilibria. This subject matter is what will be
referred to in the following as classical thermody-
An analysis of the scope of classical thermo-
dynamics immediately shows that, as far as
energy balances are concerned, only the first law
is involved; for power cycles, the only materials
considered are one-component ideal fluids suffer-
ing at the most complex a phase change; and for

Gianni Astarita has received his M.Ch.E. at Delaware and his
Ph.D. at the University of Naples. He is Professor of Chemical
Engineering and Director of the Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals at the University of Naples, and has a part-time ap-
pointment at the University of Delaware. He has research interests
in Transport Phenomena, Rheology and Thermodynamics. He is the
Italian Editor for Chemical Engineering Science, and has been the
President of the Italian Society of Rheology in 1973-75. He is the
author of "Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction," Elsevier 1967,
of "An Introduction to Non-linear Continuum Thermodynamics,"
spa Ed. Chimica 1975, and coauthor of "Principles of non-New-
tonian Fluid Mechanics," McGraw-Hill 1974.

Prof. Hellinckx and Dr. Mewis of the Catholic
University of Leuven are to be thanked for offering
me in 1972 the first opportunity of teaching RT to
ChE students. Prof. Metzner has been always very
encouraging and has given all his personal support
to this course. C. J. S. Petrie and S. I. Sandler gave
valuable suggestions. H. B. Hopfenberg has offered
useful comments. Finally, my whole approach to
thermodynamic thinking has been greatly influenced
by my work with Prof. Marrucci and Dr. Sarti.

physical and chemical equilibria, no transforma-
tion at all is involved, but only equilibrium states.
With these limitations, the powerfulness of the
second law as a starting point for a theory of ir-
reversibility of processes undergone by possibly
very complex materials is left entirely unex-
plored; and consequently the core of ChE, say
the theory of transport phenomena, chemical
kinetics, process dynamics, and so on is developed
almost without regard to its relationship with
The course given at Delaware has been based
on the idea that there is no reason why thermo-
dynamics could not, and indeed should not, have
a central role in ChE methodology. An effort has
thus been made towards the application of ther--
modynamic thinking to non-traditional areas, and
particularly to those where strong research in-
terests exist in the department. This seems a
logical requirement for a graduate course in
thermodynamics if it wants to have an educational
value over and above its purely tutorial content.
This also poses the question of the role of thermo-
dynamics in ChE, which will be discussed in some
detail in the "future evolution" section below.

The syllabus of the course given at Delaware
in 1973 and 1974 is summarized in Table I. Par-
ticular emphasis was placed on the logical analysis


of the fundamental structure of thermodynamic
methodology (see sections B, C1, and D), and
applications were restricted to a subject of pre-
vailing interest in the research program of the
department, namely, polymer deformation and
flow (section C2), and to the traditional subject
of equilibria (section E).
The philosophy of the course is non traditional
in three aspects. First of all, since frictional heat-
ing and dissipation in flowing polymers wants to
be analyzed, a thermodynamic theory of ir-
reversible phenomena, with no Onsager-type re-
Syllabus of the Course
Section A. Mathematical preliminaries. 5 hours
Section B. Classical continuum thermodynamics.
13 hours
B1. Isothermal systems. 4 hours
B2. Non-isothermal systems. 5 hours
B3. Classical theories (Ideal fluids, Viscous
fluids, Elastic solids). 4 hours
Section C. Materials with memory. 7 hours
C1. Thermodynamics and memory. 4 hours
C2. Thermomechanics of polymers. 3 hours
Section D. Axiomatic foundation for classical equilibria.
7 hours
Dl. Internal state variables, Affinity,
Equilibrium. 3 hours
D2. Axiomatic stoichiometry. 3 hours
Section E. Classical equilibria. 8 hours
El. Phase equilibria. 4 hours
E2. Chemical equilibria. 4 hours
striction to linearity, has to be considered ex-
plicitly. Second, since the phenomena considered
involve systems the state of which is in general
different at different points in space (suffice it
to consider that temperature may be non-uniform,
see section B2), a field theory of thermodynamics
is required. Finally, since the peculiar thermo-
dynamic behavior of polymers is related to their
complex response to mechanical and thermal
stimuli, and following a trend which has become
progressively stronger in the theory of transport
phenomena, particular emphasis has been placed
on the role of constitutive assumptions in a
thermodynamic theory.


A FIELD THEORY of thermodynamics ap-
plicable to irreversible phenomena in ma-
terials with complex constitutive equations has
been developed in the last ten years mainly by
Coleman, Day, Gurtin, Mueller, Owen, Truesdell
and Williams; it is usually referred to as Rational

Thermodynamics (RT). A critical review of the
relevance of RT in chemical engineering is avail-
able [1]. The material summarized in Table I has
been taught following the methodology of RT.
Teaching RT in an engineering department
poses a major challenge. The technical literature
on the subject, as well as the two books available
up to 1974 [2, 3] are written for an audience of
mathematicians and mathematical physicists, and
are therefore largely unsuitable for direct class-
room use. Some moderately sophisticated mathe-
matical concepts are indeed essential to an under-
standing of the subject, but certainly much less
than presupposed for the reader of the specialized
literature. Furthermore, one needs to put into
sharp relief the relevance of the subject to the
engineering analysis of concrete problems, as well
as the physical counterpart of what may at first
sight appear unnecessary mathematical wizardry.
In view of these difficulties, a set of classroom
notes was prepared for the course at Delaware,
three fourths of which (covering sections A-C of
Table I) have now been published as a short book,
"An Introduction to Non-linear Continuum
Thermodynamics" [4].
RT is a wide and diversified field, so that teach-
ing it implies deciding which grounds to cover,
and even more crucially where to start. Every
axiomatic science must start somewhere, and a
few primitive undefined concepts are required,
whose only specifications are the requirements
laid down in the fundamental axioms. In RT, an

The philosophy of the course is non-traditional
in three aspects ... a thermodynamic theory of
irreversible phenomena with no Onsager-type
restriction to linearity is considered; a field theory of
thermo is required; finally emphasis is placed on
the role of constitutive assumptions in a
thermo theory.

abstract mathematical structure may be develop-
ed, based on such primitive concepts as state
and process [5, 6], and entropy is then obtained
as a derived concept (see also Day [3]). One may
also start from the notion of entropy, regarded
directly as a primitive concept, as has been done
in this course. This allows one to proceed much
more quickly to results of direct engineering in-
terest, though this choice invariably causes some

FALL 1975

concern among professional scientists, who are
not willing to accept entropy, particularly under
non-equilibrium conditions, as a primitive un-
defined concept.
Indeed, among professional scientists an "ac-
ceptable" primitive concept is a physical quantity
of which one is entitled to speak to colleagues

The most common reaction of the students after the
course was to ask why they hadn't been taught thermo
that way the first time they were exposed to the
subject-apparently the most difficult part of the
learning process was the unlearning of
previously acquired biases.

without being asked to define it; or perhaps one
which can be introduced in a paper without worry-
ing that a referee may confute its meaningfulness
in that context. Entropy of a system outside of
equilibrium certainly does not meet these quali-
It turns out that in classroom use primitive
concepts are, or are not accepted by students in-
dependently of their meeting these qualifications,
and in spite of a long training aimed at avoiding
their asking embarrassing questions, students are
still open-minded enough to be about as likely
to ask what a force is outside of equilibrium as
they are to ask the same question about entropy
-and the second question is not any more em-
barassing than the first one. Indeed, at the end
of the seventeenth century most scientists would
have nothing to do with forces outside of equili-
brium, and Newton felt the need to write: "In
Mathesi investigandae sunt virium quantitates
et rationes illae, quae ex conditionibus quibus-
cumque positis consequentur; deinde ubi in phy-
sicam descenditur, conferendae sunt hae rationes
cum phaenomenis ut innotescat quaenam virium
conditions singulis corporum attractivorum
generibus competent. Et tur demum de virium
speciebus, causis et rationibus physics tutius dis-
putare licebit" [7]. Newton's statement, with "en-
tropy" substituted for "force," could well be used
today as a valid argument in favour of a theory
of irreversibility which uses entropy as a primi-
tive concept.
Comparison with the mechanical example of
the concept of force is not the only illuminating

one; within the same body of thermodynamics
the case of energy is an equally strong one.
Energy is invariably presented as a primitive
concept, the only specification for it being the
requirements laid down in the first law; entropy
and the second law are the exact counterpart.
And indeed some rudimentary example of the
validity of the second law is much easier to dis-
cuss and much more intuitive than any example
of validity of the first law.
Furthermore, students may accept with some
reservations the notion of entropy as a primi-
tive concept, but they'll still allow the teacher
to go on, and after a couple of classes they'll
realize that scores of ideas which had been float-
ing on shaky grounds in their previous thermo-
dynamic training are now deduced with simple
but rigorous logic from one unequivocal mathe-
matical statement of the second law; they'll ap-
preciate that by being asked to accept entropy
as a primitive concept they are now offered de-
finitions of reversibility, irreversibility, dissipa-
tion, and so on. They'll find out one can discuss
mathematically and precisely mixtures and their
properties without ever having to postulate the
existence of semipermeable membranes; and what
is invariably the stumbling block of any discus-
sion about modern continuum thermodynamics
among professional scientists is passed over
smoothly and painlessly in the classroom. In-
deed, the most common reaction of the students
after the course in 1973 was to ask why they
hadn't been taught thermodynamics in that way
the first time they were exposed to the subject-
apparently, the most difficult part of the learning
process was the unlearning of previously acquired
biases. (In fact, some satisfactory results have
been obtained at the University of Naples, where
some of the methodology of RT has been intro-
duced in the teaching of thermodynamics at the
undergraduate level.)


T HE CONTENTS OF the course, summarized
in Table I, are illustrated in some detail in
the following.
In Section A, 3 hours are dedicated to the
introduction of tensors as linear transformations
of Euclidean vector space into itself, and to the
basic algorithm of space and time differentiation
of vectors and tensors. Although the classroom
notes and reference [4] include the algorithm for


components of vectors and tensors, this is really
not required in the balance of the course and
was not discussed in the classroom. The remain-
ing two hours were dedicated to a few basic con-
cepts of functional analysis, including topology
of function spaces and Frechet differentiation
of functionals.
Section B was dedicated to traditional con-
tinuum thermodynamics, following the method-
ology of RT. Thus two results are obtained: the
actual learning of classical thermomechanical
theories of ideal fluids, viscous fluids and elastic
solids, and the appreciation of the logical rigor,
simplicity and mathematical compactness with
which RT can yield the classical results. In par-
ticular, in section B1 the second law is written in
the simple form requiring the rate of heat supply
divided by temperature not to exceed the rate of
increase of entropy; the classical elementary re-
sults of the thermodynamics of ideal fluids are
then obtained as a direct consequence of the as-
sumption that the state is identified by the in-
stantaneous values of density and temperature.
In section B2, the second law is written in the
form of Clausius-Duhem's inequality, and shown
to imply such classical results as the maximum
possible efficiency of a heat pump without ever
introducing a Carnot cycle. The general method

The traditional areas of transport phenomena
and process dynamics; the new trends in molecular
engineering, rheology and biochemical engineering
may be compacted into some unifying central
viewpoint: modern non-equilibrium thermo is a
likely candidate for such a role.

of obtaining consequences of Clausius-Duhem's in-
equality in continuum thermomechanics consti-
tutes the balance of Section B2. Throughout Sec-
tion B, the only concrete examples of irreversibili-
ty which arise are heat transfer and viscous dissi-
Section C is dedicated to the thermomechanics
of polymers. In section C1, the method of RT is
applied to the analysis of materials with memory,
so that irreversibility of relaxation phenomena
is discussed in general terms; Section C2 applies
the results obtained to the specific case of poly-
meric materials. Heat transfer, flow and relaxa-

tion in polymers are discussed. The first three
sections exhaust the contents of the textbook [4].
Section D covers the mathematical formalism
of the methodology of RT as applied to both re-
acting and non-reacting mixtures. Since the aim
is only to derive the classical equilibrium theory,
diffusion is not discussed. In section Dl, the gener-
al theory of internal state variables (such as the
degree of conversion of a reaction and the degree
of splitting into phases of mixtures) and their
change in time, of affinity, and of both strong
and weak equilibrium states is discussed; the
irreversible nature of chemical reactions is put
into sharp relief. In section D2, the axiomatic
structure of classical chemistry is introduced.
This allows to deduce rigorously the theory of
physical and chemical equilibria, which are then
discussed in detail in section E.


T HE COURSE DESCRIBED above has been
given both in 1973 and 1974, and taken by
almost all the graduate students of the depart-
ment during their first semester of work. In the
Fall semester of 1974, a seminar was also held,
meeting once a week, on the teaching of thermo-
dynamics at both the graduate and undergradu-
ate level. The following future evolution of gradu-
ate level teaching of Thermodynamics has been
The students will be offered two graduate
courses; the first one, to be taken in their first
year of work, will be a more traditional course
than the one described above, while a course in
modern continuum thermodynamics will be offered
to second-year graduate students starting in the
Fall semester of 1976. With the background of a
more traditional course, the material in sections
D2 and E could well be left out from the second
year course, and the 12 hours so recovered could
be used for covering one or more of the following
SThermodynamics of diffusion. This would
complete the landscape of the theory of irrever-
sibility of the four basic classes of phenomena of
interest to chemical engineers, namely momen-
tum, heat and mass transfer and chemical
* Thermodynamics and stability. This would fit
in very well with some of the strong research
interests of the Department, namely stability of
non-equilibrium states (flow patterns, chemical

FALL 1975

kinetics) and control theory. The connection be-
tween process dynamics, stability theory and
thermodynamics has been the subject of some
very interesting research [8, 9].
* Relationship between continuum thermo-
dynamics and statistical thermodynamics. Al-
though RT is strictly a phenomeno-logical con-
tinuum theory, it is by no means at odds with
statistical thermodynamics; the aim of the latter
is to obtain a priori predictions on the constitu-
tive properties of specific materials, while one of
the main aims of the former is to obtain general
restrictions on the allowable forms of the con-
stitutive equations imposed by the second law.
Particularly in the case of polymeric materials,
the two approaches may be complementary, as
shown by some recent research [10]. Also, the
structural modeling of materials may put some
of the basic axioms of RT in a correct physical
perspective: witness the case of material ob-
jectivity, which has been shown to be valid only
if Coriolis forces on structural elements can be
neglected [11, 12].
It is perhaps interesting, before concluding,
to examine the role of thermodynamics teaching
in ChE in a historical perspective. ChE has under-
gone, at twenty years intervals, two major re-
organizations of its patterns of thought, research
and teaching. In the late 1930's, ChE evolved from
the early stage where the emphasis was on In-
dustrial Chemistry of Processes, to the stage
where Unit Operations were seen as the core.
In the late 1950's, the new change was the switch
from Unit Operations to Transport phenomena.
Both changes, when looked upon from a distance
in time, have the same character: unification of
a variety of parallel elements which had grown
too large for detailed analysis (the chemical
processes up to 1930, the unit operations up to
1950) into a more compact form which allows
the traditional material to be seen from some
central viewpoint.
A somewhat similar evolution may be in the
making, and the late 1970's appear as just about
the right time. The traditional areas of transport
phenomena and process dynamics; the new trends
in molecular engineering, in rheology and in bio-
chemical engineering may be compacted into
some unifying central viewpoint; and modern non-
equilibrium thermodynamics is a likely candidate
for such a role. The trend is already showing up

concretely in the area of transport phenomena:
two recent books on the subject [13, 14] dedicate
a substantially larger fraction of their contents
than traditional to the role of thermodynamics
in the theory of transport phenomena.
The course given at Delaware in 1973 and
1974 is a first effort in this direction; inclusion
of sections F, G and H would extend the area
of thermodynamic influence to the whole of trans-
port phenomena, to process dynamics, molecular
engineering and rheology, with only biochemical
engineering left out. Of course, this would still
be only an initial effort, which should and could
extend to the methodology of teaching and think-
ing at the undergraduate level. Equally of
course, the traditional areas of physical and
chemical equilibria, energy balances and ideal
fluids should not be excluded from thermo-
dynamics, but neither should they be regarded
as exhausting the subject. 0


1. G. Astarita, G. C. Sarti, Modern Thermodynamics in
Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Chim Ind.
(Milan), in press
2. C. Truesdell, Rational Thermodynamics, McGraw Hill,
New York 1969
3. W. A. Day, The Thermodynamics of Simple Materials
with Fading Memory, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New
York, 1972
4. G. Astarita, "An Introduction to Nonlinear Con-
tinuum Thermodynamics," S.p.A. Editrice di Chimica,
Milan 1975
5. B. D. Coleman, D. R. Owen, A Mathematical Founda-
tion for Thermodynamics, Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal.,
54, 1, (1974)
6. M. E. Gurtin, W. O. Williams, "An Axiomatic Foun-
dation for Continuum Thermodynamics," Arch. Ratl.
Mech. Anal., 26, 83, (1967)
7. I. Newton, Principia, 1687
8. J. C. Williams, "Dissipative dynamical systems. Part
I. General theory," Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal., 45, 321,
9. J. Wei, "An axiomatic treatment of chemical reaction
systems," J. Chem. Phys., 36, 1578, (1962)
10. G. Astarita, G. C. Sarti, "A Thermomechanical Theory
for Structured Materials," Trans. Soc. Rheol., in
11. I. Mueller, "On the Frame Dependence of Stress and
Heat Flux," Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal., 45, 242, (1972)
12. J. L. Lumley, "Toward a Turbulent Constitutive Equa-
tion," J. Fluid Mech., 41, 413, (1970)
13. F. P. Foraboschi, "Principi di Ingegneria Chimica,"
UTET, Firenze 1973
14. J. C. Slattery, Momentum, Energy and Mass Trans-
fer in Continua, McGraw Hill, New York 1972


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Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

A S THE BACKBONE of the chemical and
petroleum industries and a key to the solu-
tion of current problems concerning energy and
the environment, heterogeneous catalysis is firm-
ly rooted in the domain of chemical engineering.
The intersection of chemistry, physics, and
engineering in catalysis provides a broad spec-
trum of intriguing fundamental and practical
questions. The breadth and complexity of the
subject, however, require a balance of survey
versus depth in presentation of material in a one
semester graduate course. The choice of organiza-
tion and specific topics must be geared to the
make-up of the class as well as to the prejudices
of the instructor.
At Purdue a class of 25 students in this
course may include chemists (--15 %), chemical
and non-chemical engineers bound for the Ph.D.,

Heavy reliance on original papers slows the pace
but helps achieve one of the course goals-
familiarity with the literature and the ability
to read it critically.

Master's and, in a few cases, B.S. degree. This
diverse class background and the desire to make
the course available at the graduate level without
prerequisites necessitate inclusion of a review
of chemical kinetics. The prejudice of the in-
structor has dictated organization of the course
primarily in terms of theoretical concepts. No
text with the orientation and emphasis outlined
in Table 1 is available, but J. M. Thomas and
W. J. Thomas, Introduction to the Principles of
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Academic Press, New
York (1967), supplemented by Alfred Clark's

W. N. Delgass received his B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering
from the University of Michigan and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from
Stanford University. He joined the Yale faculty as an Assistant Pro-
fessor of Engineering and Applied Science in 1969 after a post-
doctoral year at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1974
he became an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Purdue
University. His principal research interests are heterogeneous catalysis,
surface chemistry, Mossbauer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

book The Theory of Adsorption and Catalysis,
Academic Press, New York (1970), or J. J.
Thompson and G. Webb, Heterogeneous Catalysis,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1968),
represents a reasonable compromise. Additional
sources of material and some key papers read by
the students and discussed in class are also in-
cluded in Table 1. Heavy reliance on original
papers slows the pace but helps to achieve one
of the course goals: familiarity with the litera-
ture and ability to read it critically.

DETAILS OF THE COURSE material are best
discussed with reference to Table 1, which
also indicates the approximate class time spent
on each area. Section I was an experiment last
year to provide orientation to the field and moti-
vation for the array of topics that follows. Sin-
felt's elegant investigation of ethane hydro-
genolysis over supported metals proved to be a
good vehicle for this purpose, in spite of difficul-
ties the students had initially in dealing with
terms and concepts that were not fully developed
until later in the course.


Sections II, III and IV of the course outline
represent a view of catalysis from the gas side
of the gas-solid interface and also include details
of physical characterization of catalysts. The
emphasis in Sections III and IV is on establishing
criteria for the validity and chemical significance
of kinetic parameters. Simple expectations such
as the exothermicity of adsorption or a rate of
adsorption not exceeding the collision rate with
the surface, for example, can help prevent a com-
puter's propagating physical or chemical non-
sense from a mathematical fit of kinetic data.
Working knowledge in this area is stressed
through homework problems and student reviews
of recent papers presenting kinetic analyses. A
more complete review of kinetics and quantitative
discussion of design and heat, mass and momen-
tum transfer in chemical reactors is the province
of "Chemical Reactor Design," which, along
with courses in thermodynamics, transport, and
mathematics, makes up the graduate core curricu-
lum in chemical engineering at Purdue.
Sections V and VI present a view of catalysis
from the solid side of the gas-solid interface.
These sections contain much new subject matter
and are the most difficult for many students. The
material is presented to help students establish
a basis for the understanding and construction
of chemical models for catalyst behavior and to
provide them with criteria for comparing different
catalysts. Unique explanations of the catalytic
action are difficult to achieve, but concepts such
as ensemble, or surface geometry, effects on
catalytic selectivity and modification of the
electronic properties of metal surfaces by alkalai
adsorption or semiconductor surfaces by contact
with metals, for example, can contribute to
progress in the field. Section VII reinforces some
of these concepts, introduces others, and also
provides discussion of industrial applications of
catalysis. Many students choose deeper study of
industrial reactions for their term papers.


A N APPARENT OMISSION in the outline is
a general section on experimental techniques.
This area is covered in literature readings, a tour
of the extensive catalysis research facilities in
the School of Chemical Engineering, the term
paper option, and a requirement that teams of
two students prepare for distribution to the class
a one page summary of a particular technique.

The summary includes the underlying principles,
experimental requirements, information available,
catalytic applications, and a few directive
references. Though after several revisions a note-
book of these descriptions of experimental
techniques will become quite useful, future ver-
sions of the course will provide more direct dis-
cussion of this area through further integration
of sections V, VI and VII. O

Course Outline
I) OVERVIEW (4 Lectures)-Discussion of "Cataly-
tic Hydrogenolysis over Supported Metals," J. H.
Sinfelt, Catal. Rev., 31 175 (1969)
Emphasis: The nature of catalysts and catalysis
A) Relation of Hydrogenolysis to Petroleum Pro-
cessing-Catalyst Selectivity
B) Nature of Catalysts
1) Support
2) Metal Dispersion and its Measurement
3) Methods of Preparation
C) Kinetic Analysis
D) Comparison of Group VIII Metals
1) Activity Pattern
2) Correlation of Activity with Electronic
3) Crystallite Size Effects
4) Support Effects
5) Ru/Cu Bimetallic Clusters (J. H. Sinfelt,
J. Catal., 29, 308 (1973))
II) CHEMICAL KINETICS (8 Lectures)-(M. Bou-
dart, Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice Hall,
Emphasis: The relation between sequences of ele-
mentary steps and the rate expression, recogni-
tion of valid kinetic parameters.
A) Derivation of Rate Equations from Sequences
of Elementary Steps
1) Langmuir Adsorption
2) Steady State Approximation
3) Rate Determining Step Approximation
B) Rate Constants for Elementary Steps-Orders
of Magnitude
1) Transition State Theory
2) Collision Theory
3) Further Evaluation of Rate Parameters,
(M. Boudart, D. E. Mears, and M. A.
Vannice, Ind. Chim. Belge., Special Issue 36,
Part I, 281 (1967), and M. Boudart, AIChE
Journal, 18, 465 (1972))
C) Correlation and Estimation of Kinetic
1) Polanyi Relation
2) Van Tiggelen Formula
3) Principle of Sabatier
4) Compensation Effect
D) Non-Uniform Surfaces
1) Freundlich and Temkin Isotherms
2) 2 Step Reactions

FALL 1975

Experimental techniques are covered by requiring teams of two students to prepare for distribution
to the class a one page summary of a popular technique . . . including the underlying principles,
experimental requirements, information available, catalytic applications
and a few directive references.

(3 Lectures)
A) Selective Chemisorption
B) BET Theory-Approximations, Results and
C) Pore Size Distribution
1) Kelvin Equation
2) Hysteresis in BET Isotherm
3) Mercury Porosimetry
(C. N. Satterfield, Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous
Catalysis, MIT Press, (1970))
Emphasis: Qualitative behavior, diagnostics to in-
sure true kinetics.
A) Bulk or Film Diffusion
B) Pore Diffusion
1) Macropore
2) Micropore
C) Heat and Mass Transfer Diagnostics (P. B.
Weisz and J. S. Hicks, Ch.E. Science, 17, 265
D) Diffusion Influence on Selectivity
E) Poisoning
Emphasis: Development of important parameters
and differences between classes of solids.
A) Crystal Structure
1) Crystal Lattices
2) Miller Indices
3) Geometry of Surface Planes
B) Electronic Structure
1) Review of Atomic and Molecular Orbitals
2) Band Structure
a) Metals
b) Semiconductors-Intrinsic/Extrinsic
c) Insulators
d) Temperature Dependence of
3) Image Potential
4) Work Function-Changes on Adsorption
5) Collective vs. Localized Electron Picture
AND CATALYSIS (8 Lectures)
Emphasis: Examination of the degree to which
simple theoretical approaches can describe catalytic
A) Metals
1) Ionic Model for Adsorption
2) Localized Covalent Model for Adsorption
3) Summary of Current Theoretical Approaches
to Metal-Adsorbate Bonding
4) Ensemble vs. Ligand Effects (Y. Soma-
Noto and W.M.H. Sachtler, J. Catal., 32,
315 (1974))

a) CO Adsorption-Bridged and Linear
b) Alloy Surfaces
c) Infrared Spectroscopy
B) Non-Metals
1) Boundary Layer Theory of Adsorption on
a) Depletive/Cumulative
b) N20 Decomposition
2) Catalyst/Support Electronic Interaction
a) Metals on Semiconductors
b) Semiconductors on Metals
3) Thermochemical Approach-CO Oxidation
Over NiO
a) Carbonate Intermediate
b) 180 Isotope Tracer
4) Ligand Field Approach
CHEMISTRY (11 Lectures)
A) Oxidation
1) Summary of Industrial Processes and
2) Ethylene to Ethylene Oxide
a) Unique Selectivity of Ag
b) O,- Intermediate (P. A. Kilty, N. C. Rol
-and W.M.H. Sachtler, in Catalysis, Vol.
2, J. W. Hightower ed., North Holland
(1972) p. 929)
c) Radiation Induced Selectivity Change
(J. J. Carberry, G. C. Kuczynski, and E.
Martinez, J. Catal., 26, 247 (1972))
i) Importance of Surface Ca Impurity
ii) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
B) Hydrogenation (R. J. Kokes, in Catalysis, Vol.
1, J. W. Hightower ed., North Holland (1972),
p. A-l)
1) Comparison of Metals and Metal Oxides
2) Propylene on ZnO-Details of Catalytic
C) Cracking
1) Summary of Industrial Processes
2) Carbonium Ion Reactions
3) Brinsted and Lewis Acid Sites on Silica/
Alumina and Zeolites
D) Reforming
1) Dual Functional Catalysts
2) Dehydrocyclization on Clean Surfaces (G. A.
Somorjai, Catal. Rev., 7, 87 (1972))-Rela-
tion between Clean Surface Research and
E) NO Reduction
1) Summary of Auto Exhaust Problems
2) Molecular Orbital Symmetry Rules-
2NON2 + 02 as a Symmetry Forbidden


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FALL 1975



An Operations Research Approach

To Automatic Control Education

North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27607

AT MOST UNIVERSITIES in the United States,
graduate education in automatic control is
the responsibility of each of the traditional
engineering departments-chemical, electrical
and mechanical. This situation is partly a result
of the rapid growth of control during the past 30
years, which has emphasized limited areas of ap-
plication and, thereby, created groupings such as
process control, servo control and flight control.
In spite of these groupings, there has been con-
siderable emphasis at the graduate level on mathe-
matical aspects of automatic control and less
emphasis on practical questions of system model-
ing and control implementation.1' 2 This emphasis
has led to the distinction "classical" or "modern"
control which, in turn, has magnified the gap
between theory and practice. It is generally
recognized that sole emphasis on mathematics
does not necessarily provide the best preparation
for a career in automatic control. In addition to
an appreciation of mathematical abstraction, a
broadness of perspective toward system design is
needed in order to solve the emerging problems
of our society. According to the late L. Hyldgaard-
"Engineering education of the future should realize
that our industrial systems are becoming so large
and so complex that knowledge of the parts taken
separately is not sufficient. On the contrary we can
expect that, often, the interconnections and inter-
actions between the system elements will be more
important than the separate elements them-
selves . . . Therefore the teaching of design in
automatic control will exhibit an increasing em-
phasis upon new, explicit, and highly organized

techniques for dealing with system structures. The
shift in viewpoint from analysis of systems to de-
sign of systems and the formal emphasis upon the
process of interconnecting elements into total
systems will bring about a new tendency in auto-
matic control education."3
At North Carolina State University (NCSU),
a broad outlook toward Systems and Control is
encouraged by its centralization within Opera-
tions Research (OR). Although the association
of automatic control and operations research is
not new,4 the unique feature at NCSU is that OR
is a graduate program of multidisciplinary nature,
supported by faculty from most branches of

William A. Gruver is a graduate of the University of Pennsyl-
vania (PhD, 1970) and Imperial College, London (DIC, 1965). Before
joining the faculty at North Carolina State University in 1974, he
worked as an optimization specialist for the German Space Agency
and has taught electrical engineering at the University of Pennsyl-
vania and the U.S. Naval Academy. In 1973 he was recipient of a
Humboldt Senior Scientist Award at the Technical University Darm-
stadt. At NCSU, Dr. Gruver is active in developing an interdisciplinary
program in the systems optimization and control area, and the
use of laboratories in automatic control education. His research
centers on the computational and algorithmic aspects of mathe-
matical programming and optimal control.


engineering and the physical sciences. Study in
OR can be undertaken in one or more of the fol-
lowing areas: mathematical optimization, sto-
chastic systems, econometrics, information and
computer sciences, and dynamical systems and
automatic control. Students in OR usually have
degrees in engineering, mathematics, statistics
or computer science.
The main characteristic of Operations Re-
search during its brief history is that it is inter-
disciplinary. That is, it draws on mathematics,
economics, physics and engineering and distills
from among these disciplines, techniques which
apply to the system under study with the objec-
tive of gaining understanding of the system so
that it may be controlled and harnessed for man's
needs. The natural means for broadening the
scope of automatic control education at NCSU,
therefore, has been to associate it with the Opera-
tions Research Program. An important benefit of
this association is the rich heritage of OR with
mathematical programming and numerical opti-
mization techniques which interfaces directly
with the theory and computational methods of
optimal control.
DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS and Multivariable
Control is a one semester, first year graduate
level course in the Systems and Control option of
the Operations Research Program. Prerequisites
are a knowledge of differential equations and
linear algebra as usually contained in an under-
graduate engineering curriculum. A rudimentary
knowledge of the Fortran language and card
preparation is also required. The customary pre-
requisite of an undergraduate course in single-
loop feedback systems and frequency response
methods is intentionally omitted in order that the
course can be taken by non-engineers. Most
students with a major in OR also have back-
grounds which include advanced calculus and
probability theory.
This course is intended to (1) provide an in-
troduction to analytical modeling, control and op-
timization of dynamical systems, (2) create an
awareness of the wide range of application of
Systems and Control and (3) provide ex-
perience in computer-aided analysis and design.
Both state space and transfer function descrip-
tions are developed early in the course so that the
student is not led to regard either approach as
"classical" or "modern." Emphasis is placed on
linear, stationary models with parallel develop-
ment of continuous-time and discrete time

representations. Topics include state variables,
transforms, flow graphs, canonical forms, system
response, stability, controllability and observ-
ability, modal control, non-interacting control
and fundamental concepts of optimal control and
estimation. Multidisciplinary applications are

The emphasis on the mathematical aspects of automatic
control has magnified the gap between theory and
practice. It does not necessarily provide the best
preparation for a career in automatic control.

chosen from biological, chemical, electrical, me-
chanical and socio-economic systems.


Course Outline

System Representation-

System Response-

System Stability-

Multivariable Control

Linear Stochastic

Optimal Control

State variables, state equations,
transfer functions, Laplace and
z-transforms, canonical forms
and transformations of linear
Vector differential equations,
transition matrix, eigenvector
analysis, controllability and ob-
servability, phase plane, system
Equilibrium points and stabili-
ty concepts, Direct Method of
Lyapunov, construction of Lya-
punov functions, Routh-Hur-
witz criteria, root locus.
State space formulation, matrix
transfer functions, decoupling
and non-interacting control,
feedforward and modal con-
trol, observers.
Statistical concepts in time and
frequency domains, Gauss-Mar-
kov random processes, mean
square estimation and optimal
Maximum Principle, Dynamic
Programming, linear systems
subject to quadratic criteria,
combined optimal control and


T HERE ARE PRESENTLY several excellent
textbooks that combine the state variable

FALL 1975

Although the association of automatic control
and operations research is not new, the unique feature
at NCSU is that OR is a graduate program of
multidisciplinary nature, supported by faculty from
most branches of engineering and the
physical sciences.

and transfer function approaches at an intro-
ductory level. Most of these books, however,
emphasize applications from electrical engineer-
ing. In keeping with the interdisciplinary spirit
of this course, the textbook by Takahashi, Rabins
and Auslander5 provides an effective treatment
of the material while keeping a good balance be-
tween mathematical abstraction and physical
reality. The first half of the course includes use
of a computer program for obtaining time
response, system reduction to canonical form,
system sensitivity by root locus, etc. This pro-
gram is an expanded version of a package for the
analysis and design of linear state variable feed-
back systems. The user's manual is reasonably
complete and gives sample problems for testing
the routines.6' 7
The second part of the course is concerned
with use of the system theoretical concepts
studied previously and is intended to serve as an
introduction to topics which may be studied in
more advanced courses or independent study
basis. The topic of multivariable control treats
both state variable and transfer function ap-
proaches, although advanced frequency response
techniques such as the inverse Nyquist array
method have not been included due to lack of
time and need for additional preparation in com-
plex variable theory.
The topics of stochastic and optimal systems
survey, in the remaining time, certain funda-
mental concepts of these areas and present some
current applications which have included power,
ecological and transportation systems. Several
class sessions and homework exercises are also
devoted to the use of a computer program, the
Variable Dimension Automatic Synthesis Pro-
gram (VASP), for implementing some of the
optimal estimation and control algorithms.8 Ex-
perience gained from working with these com-
puter-aided design programs has been a valuable
means of integrating theoretical concepts with
physical reality, particularly when a student is
forced to discover why his program bombed!

The class meets three hours per week for 16
weeks. About 6 weeks are devoted to system
representation, response and stability. The re-
maining time is divided equally among the topics
of multivariable control, stochastic systems and
optimal control. A graduate student teaching
assistant is responsible for setting up the com-
puter exercises and serves as programming con-
The brief exposure to system optimization is
intended to interface with related OR courses
which included linear and nonlinear programming,
dynamic programming, optimization of engineer-
ing processes, variational methods in optimization
techniques, vector space methods in system op-
timization, and computational algorithms of
mathematical programming and optimal control.
Cognate courses such as process dynamics,
economic decision theory, biomathematics and
statistical communication theory provide depth
in more specialized topics.
Centralization of this course within the Operations
Research Program avoids the usual groupings such as
process control, servo control or flight control and, there-
by, encourages a broad outlook toward applications in
the Systems and Control area. An important benefit of
this association is the rich heritage of OR with mathe-
matical programming and numerical optimization tech-
niques which interfaces directly with the theory and
computational methods of optimal control. O

1. Kahne, S., "Formal Post-Graduate Education in
the United States," Automatica, 8, 525-530 (1972).
2. Schneider, A. M., "University Curricula in Control
Engineering," Joint Automatic Control Conference
3. Hyldgaard-Jensen, L., "Trends in Automatic Control
Education," IFAC World Congress, Paris, France
4. IFAC Workshop on Higher Education in Automatic
Control, Session 6-"Systems Science and Operations
Research in Automatic Control Education," Dresden,
GDR, March 15-18 (1971).
5. Takahashi, Y., Rabins, M. J., and Auslander, D. M.,
Control and Dynamic Systems, Addison-Wesley Publ.
Co., Reading, Mass. (1970).
6. Melsa, J. L. and Jones, S. K., Computer Programs for
Computational Assistance in the Study of Linear Con-
trol Theory, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York (1973).
7. Gruver, W. A. and Leake, R. J., "Review of Com-
puter Programs for Computational Assistance in the
Study of Linear Control Theory," IEEE Trans. on
Automatic Control, AC-17, 188-189 (1972).
8. White, J. S. and Lee, H. Q., User's Manual for
VASP, NASA TMX-2417 (1971); also Kalman, R. E.
and Englar, T. S., A User's Manual for the Auto-
matic Synthesis Program, NASA CR-475 (1966).


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Auburn University
Auburn, Alabama 36830

Computations for Chemical Engineers" has
been developed recently by the author at Auburn
University. The major objective of the course
is to introduce to the student the theory and
application of the polynomial (or functional) and
finite difference approximations in the solution
of mathematical models in ChE. Brief discussions
on the use of these approximation techniques in
the analysis of experimental data are also in-
The contents of the course are distributed
into three broad topics: I. Introduction to poly-
nomial approximation and finite difference, II.
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equa-
tions (ODE), and III. Numerical solution of
partial differential equations (PDE). The pro-
gression of the course follows the sequence given
in Table I, which lists the breakdown of the
course in parts and chapters. The course is divided
into two three-credit-hour quarter-courses. The
first three-fifths of the topics is covered in ChE
600, "ChE Analysis," and the remainder in ChE
650, "Special Topics in ChE." As Seen in Table
I, the course puts less emphasis on the computa-
tional solution of system of linear and nonlinear
algebraic equations as well as the boundary value
problems in ODE. These topics are discussed only
briefly within Topics II and III, and are covered
in more depth in courses on computer aided
process design and optimal control of process
systems. Although a number of the recent textual
references are given in Table II, a single text-
book which is suitable for the course does not
exist. Consequently, lecture notes have to be
prepared for the course. However, note-taking
during the lectures is eliminated through the use
of detailed handouts on most of the lecture ma-

Referring to Tables I and II, a few remarks
on the course contents and the source of the
course material are as follows. Topic I contains
a concise introduction of polynomial approxima-
tion and finite difference, with special emphasis
on their applications to the computational analysis
of experimental data. The problem of finding a
polynomial of a specified degree to approximate
a known function given either in an analytical
form or as sets of discrete data is considered. The
important questions related to this problem are
discussed from the approximation theory1 using
finite difference table and associated linear
symbolic operators.2 The actual lectures follow
much of the standard material on polynomial
approximation and finite difference from reference
texts 2, 5, 6, 10, and 12 in Table II. The reported

The major objective of the course is to introduce to
the student the theory and application of the
polynomial (or functional) and finite difference
approximations in the solution of mathematical
models in chemical engineering.

results on the development and implementation
of computational algorithms on the topic subject
from such periodicals as Communications of the
Association for Computing Machine (CACM)
and Numerische Matermatik are discussed. An
index by subject on these algorithms published in
1960-1970 is conveniently available in the
reference text 4 in Table II. Weekly homework
problems on applying the lecture material to such
problems as the interpolation of discrete data of
vapor pressure versus temperature, the differen-
tial and integral methods of kinetic analysis from
experimental data are given. A special problem on
the practical application of spline approximation
to the analysis of thermodynamic data3 4 is also



(1) Topics-polynomial approximation, finite differ-
ence, interpolation and extrapolation,
numerical differentiation and integra-
tion, orthogonal polynomials and
quadrature formulas.
(2) Selected Application-analysis of thermody-
namic data by the spline approximation
(1) Topics-fundamental concepts, Runge-Kutta
and allied single-step formulas, predic-
tor-corrector methods, stability of
multistep and Runge-Kutta methods,
stiff differential equations.
(2) Selected Application-digital parameter esti-
mation of complex chemical reaction
Chapter III-1. Fundamental Concepts
Fundamental notations, first and second order
PDE, system of first order PDE, initial and
boundary conditions, finite difference approxima-
tion, functional approximation, further mathe-
matical background, questions raised.
Chapter III-2. Methods of Lines (MOL) and Method
of Characteristics (MOC)
Introduction, basic concepts in the MOL, inverse
methods, consistence, convergence and stability,
MOL for parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic PDE,
method of characteristics, other extensions.
Chapter III-3. Finite Difference Solution of Para-
bolic Equations
Introduction, model parabolic PDE, explicit and
implicit finite difference approximations, con-
sistency and convergence, heuristic, Von Neumann
and matrix stability concepts, some extensions,
solution of finite difference approximations, com-
posite solutions-global extrapolation and local
combinations, explicit and implicit methods for
two- and three-dimensional problems-alternat-
ing direction, local one dimension, fractional
splitting and hopscotch methods, other exten-
Chapter III-4. Finite Difference Solution of Hyper-
bolic Equations
Introduction, model hyperbolic PDE, first order
hyperbolic PDE, first order vector and vector
conservative hyperbolic PDE, two- and three-
dimensional hyperbolic PDE, second order model
hyperbolic PDE, other extensions.
Chapter III-5. Finite Difference Solution of Elliptic
Introduction, model elliptic PDE, finite difference
approximations of two- and three-space dimen-
sional problems, solution of finite difference ap-
proximations-direct methods, iterative methods,

Y. A. Liu did his undergraduate work at National Taiwan Uni-
versity, graduate study at Tufts University and obtained his Ph.D.
from Princeton University in 1974 under Professor Leon Lapidus.
He has been an assistant professor of the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Auburn University since 1974. He is currently work-
ing on research projects in the areas of applied numerical methods,
process modeling, simulation and optimization, systems theory and
process control, process design and synthesis, applied chemical
kinetics, statistical theory of particulate processes, coal liquefaction
and solid-liquid separation.

sparse matrix techniques, composite solutions
and other methods, conversion of elliptic to
hyperbolic or parabolic equation, other extensions.
Chapter III-6. Variational, Least-Square and Mo-
ment Methods
Introduction, variational principles, Rayloigh-
Ritz method and extensions, variational solution
of parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic PDE, dy-
namic programming and invariant imbedding
approach, least-square and moment methods,
comparison with other methods, further exten-
Chapter III-7. Galerkin Methods
Introduction, general features of Galerkin
methods, solution of parabolic PDE-continuous-
time Galerkin, Crank-Nicholson Galerkin, hop-
scotch-Galerkin, local one dimensional Galer-
kin methods, solution of hyperbolic and elliptic
PDE, comparison with other methods, further
Chapter III-8. Collocation Methods
Introduction, collocation points and approximating
polynomials, the line collocation, orthogonal col-
location and finite element collocation methods,
solution of parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic
PDEs, comparison with other methods, further
Chapter III-9. Finite Element Methods
Introduction, variational finite element methods,
weighted-residual finite element method, element
types and basis functions, the time dimension,
finite element matrix structure and storage
schemes, solution of linear equations in finite
element analysis, solution of parabolic PDE-
finite element heat and mass transfer analysis,

FALL 1975

solution of hyperbolic PDE, solution of elliptic
PDE-finite element method and fluid flow prob-
lems, comparison with other methods, further
Chapter III-10. Practical Considerations in Poly-
nomial (Functional) Approxima-
tion Methods
Introduction, continuous and discrete methods of
weighted residuals, the selection of weighting
functions, the selection of approximating func-
tions, the problem specific polynomial approach,
further extensions.
Chapter III-11. Selected Applications
Introduction, solution of Navier-Stokes equations,
solution of problems of adsorption, chroma-
tography and ion exchange columns, solution of
oil and gas reservoir problem, solution of phase
change and related moving boundary problems,
solution of water resources problems, solution
of population balance equations, solution of
catalytic fixed bed reactor problem.


TN TOPIC II, the fundamental concepts and
definitions in numerical solution of ODE are
introduced. The practical considerations in nu-
merically solving ODE such as stability, ac-
curacy and computational efficiency are also con-
sidered. Here, the important material from three
recent books 4, 7, and 8 in Table II is briefly dis-
cussed, and supplemented with the excellent
monograph on stiff ODE edited by Willoughby
(see Table II). The specific lectures begin with
some basic techniques for deriving integration
formulae for ODE and related terminologies. The
Taylor series expansion is used first to derive the
simplest Euler's formula and the concept of trunc-
tion error. The forward and backward Taylor
series expansions are then combined to derive
the midpoint rule. These two integration formu-
lae provide the typical examples for defining the
explicit as well as the single-step and multi-step
methods. Next, both the Euler's formula and mid-
point rule are derived by using numerical differen-
tiation and/or integration formulae. The integra-
tion of the ODE by the trapezoidal rule gives the
modified Euler's formula, which serves as an
example for introducing the implicit method. The
combined use of the Euler formula, the original
ODE and the modified Euler's formula suggests
the family of predictor-evaluation-corrector-
evaluation (PECE) methods. A generalized,
linear, multi-step differential-difference equation
with constant coefficients is then defined to sum-
marize the preceding discussions concisely and to
encompass all previous integration formulae with-

in the same framework. The course is continued
with the illustration of the concept of order by
deriving, for example, the second-order Adams-
Bashforth predictor equation from polynomial
approximation. With these preliminaries in hand,
the next step in the course is to introduce the
generalized Adams-Bashforth formaulae, the
Adams-Moulton's forms and the Nystrom ex-
plicit forms, etc. The well-known Runge-Kutta
processes are discussed in a vector-matrix form5
and applied to many homework problems. At this
time, a special topic on the parameter estimation
in ODE from experimental data is given. A
generalized nonlinear least-square, curve-fitting
procedure6' 7 is introduced and a problem of com-
puterized kinetic analysis in the batch fermen-
tation of penicillin is assigned to the students.
The effectiveness and comparison of different
methods in solving ODE are then presented.8' 9
Topic II is concluded with lectures on the occur-
rence of stiff ODE in chemical engineering,1o and
several efficient integration packages for solving
stiff ODE such as by Gear." Finally, many in-
teresting papers on stiff ODE from the reference
text 15 in Table II are discussed.


the latest knowledge on the numerical solu-
tion of PDE by polynomial (or functional) ap-
proximation has been reviewed in reference
texts 3, 13, and 17 in Table II, such texts on the
numerical solution of PDE by finite difference as
1, 6, 9-11, 14-16 in Table II contain only that
literature published before 1970. A suitable book
covering the up-to-date information of both types
of approximations does not exist. Thus, the lec-
ture-notes for Topic III are mostly the original
developments in the course. An outline in chapters
and sections has been included in Table I. It
should be mentioned that the developments of

The problem of finding a polynomial of a specified
degree to approximate a known function given either
in an analytical form or as sets of discrete data is
considered.., questions related to this problem
are discussed from the approximation theory using
finite difference table and associated linear
symbolic operators.


these notes would not be possible without the
encouragement, support and participation of
Professor Leon Lapidus of Princeton University.
The computer listing of the latest publications
as well as the hundreds of reference reports and
reprints on the numerical solution of PDE given
by Professor John H. Giese of University of
Delaware have been most helpful. In addition, a
number of excellent literature reviews and the
latest developments on the subjects on Topic III
have been found in several recent doctoral dis-

1. Ames, W. F., "Numerical Solution of Partial
Differential Equation," Barnes & Nobles
2. Dahlquist, G., A. Bjorck, & N. Anderson, "Nu-
merical Methods," Prentice-Hall (1974).
3. Finlayson, B. A., "The Method of Weighted
Residuals and Variational Principles," Aca-
demic Press (1972).
4. Gear, C. W., "Numerical Initial Value Prob-
lems in Ordinary Differential Equations,"
Prentice-Hall (1971).
5. Issacson, I., & H. B. Keller, "Analysis of Nu-
merical Methods," Wiley (1966).
6. Lapidus, L., "Digital Computations for
Chemical Engineers," McGraw-Hill (1962).--
7. Lambert, J. D., "Computational Methods in
Ordinary Differential Equations," Wiley
8. Lapidus, L., & J. H. Seinfeld, "Numerical So-
lution of Ordinary Differential Equations,"
Academic Press (1971).
9. Mitchell, A. R., "Computational Methods in
Partial Differential Equations," Wiley (1969).
10. Ralston, A., & H. S. Wilf, Editors, "Mathe-
matical Methods for Digital Computers,"
Wiley, Vol. I (1960), and Vol. 2 (1967).
11. Richtmyer, R. D., & K. W. Morton, "Differ-
ence Methods for Initial Value Problems,"
2nd Edition, Interscience (1967).
12. Rosenbrock, R. H., & C. Storey, "Computa-
tional Techniques for Chemical Engineers,"
Pergamon Press (1966).
13. Strang, G., & G. Fix, "An Analysis of the
Finits Element Method," Prentice-Hall (1973).
14. Varga, R. S., "Matrix Iterative Analysis,"
Prentice-Hall (1962).
15. Willoughby, R. A., Editor, "Proceedings of
International Symposium on Stiff Differential
Systems," Wilbad, Germany, Plenum Press
16. Young, D. M., "Iterative Solution of Large
Linear Systems," Academic Press (1972).
17. Zienkiewicz, O. Z., "The Finite Element Method
in Engineering Science," 2nd Edition, McGraw-
Hill (1967).

sertations. For example, studies which are con-
cerned with the method of line for PDE12 (Chap-
ter III-2), the composite numerical solution of
PDE13 (Chapter III-3 to III-5), finite element
method for heat conduction analysis14 and fluid
flow problems15 (Chapter III-9), collocation

A generalized non-linear least square, curve-fitting
procedure is introduced and a problem of
computerized kinetic analysis in the batch
fermentation of penicillin is assigned ... the
effectiveness and comparison of different methods
in solving ODE are then presented.

method for the analysis of chromatographic sys-
tem16 (Chapter III-8) have been reported. While
further discussions on the course contents and
source material for Topic III are not possible
within the limits of this article, a detailed write-
up and specific subject references on the numerical
solution of PDE can be obtained by writing to the


A BRIEF REMARK about the course require-
ment may be of interest here. Homework
problems are assigned to the class weekly. Each
student is required to conduct an independent
course project and to submit a term paper which
includes: (a) a concise literature survey of the
most important publications in the topic chosen,
(b) a critical analysis of the computational
techniques involved and a proper evaluation of
the "state of the art," and (c) suggestions for
further investigations as well as a preliminary
analysis of the feasibility of the proposed research
areas. Since no course examinations are given,
this provides more opportunities for each student
to pursue the specific subjects of interest. Typical
subjects on the term projects chosen by the class
during the last year include the method of
characteristics, the method of lines, the ana-
lysis of chromatographic system, the colloca-
tion method, and the extrapolation technique for
the solution of PDE and nonlinear algebraic equa-
tions. It is encouraging to mention that several
of these projects conducted by the class in the
course have led to some quite original research
(Continued on page 202.)

FALL 1975

A7 (?0ae in


University of Tulsa
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104

IN 1971 THE Chemical Engineering graduate
students formally requested a graduate level
course in pollution control. From 1971 through
1973, Tulsa University conducted a M.S. level,
EPA-sponsored program of training of engineers
in oil-related water pollution control. This pro-
gram created a need for a graduate course which
would familiarize B.S. chemical engineers with
industrial pollution control practices and design
Since 1974 the ChE Department has ad-
ministered the University of Tulsa Environmen-
tal Protection (UTEPP) program-a non-profit,
cooperative, petroleum industry-sponsored re-
search program committed to studying present
and future environmental protection problems in
petroleum and related industries. Obviously, stu-
dents working in UTEPP also require graduate-
level instruction in industrial pollution control.

only focuses on the general theories of in-
dustrial pollution control to provide breadth of
understanding, but also emphasizes petroleum-
related design examples to provide the required
specialization. Current industrial pollution con-
trol practices and design procedures are intro-
duced as painlessly as possible. This is accom-
plished by emphasizing the relevancy of conven-
tional, undergraduate chemical engineering. In
other words, biological oxidation processes are de-
scribed as chemical reactors; but, of course, new
concepts such as the inherently varying waste-
water "feed" volume and concentration and the
sensitivity of "bugs" to shock loads are carefully
described. Similarly, ammonia stripping is dis-
cussed using standard ChE desorption nomencla-

ture; and liquid condensation in pressure-relief
lines is treated as a standard thermodynamic
"flash calculation."

WHILE THE TRADITIONAL lecture format is
maintained, formal lecturing is minimized.
For the past two years "Industrial Pollution Con-
trol" was taught via the Oklahoma Higher Edu-
cation Televised Instruction System (Philoon,
1974) thus allowing engineers from Conoco in
Ponca City and Phillips Petroleum in Bartlesville
to participate. This televised procedure permitted
maximum use of class time because an overhead
TV camera made it possible to project printed
pages on the TV receiving screens. This mini-
mized the timeconsuming writing of notes on
the blackboard and the laborious copying by
students. While two texts were recommended (but
not required) the majority of the course material
was selected from recent articles (see references
for a partial listing). The references must be up-
dated every year because of the great current
interest in this field. Frequently students were

Francis S. Manning is Professor and Chairman of Chemical Eng-
ineering at The University of Tulsa. He holds the following degrees
in. Chemical Engineering:-B. Eng. (Hons.) from McGill University and
M.S.E., A.M., and Ph.D. from Princeton University. He is a profes-
sional engineer, registered in Oklahoma, Pennsylvania and Texas.


supplied with reprints of key articles not readily
available in the library.
Because "Industrial Pollution Control" covered
such a wide range of topics, expert guest lecturers
were used:-e.g. Paul Buthod for petroleum re-
fining; Erle Donaldson for subsurface disposal;
Dick Martin for noise control and Robert Reed
for combustion and incineration. Plant trips to
Sun Oil Company's Tulsa refinery and to William
Brothers Analytical Laboratory were included.
Since 1970, the University of Tulsa has spon-
sored ten one-week short courses for industry on
wastewater and air pollution control as applied
to petroleum refining and related petrochemicals.
These short courses have featured many national-
ly-known authorities such as Milton Beychok,
Frank Bodurtha, Marion Buercklin, Lee Byers,
Burton Crocker, Wes Eckenfelder, Davis Ford,
Bill Licht, Leon Myers, Robert Reed, George Reid,
Jim Seebold and others. Students enrolled in
"Industrial Pollution Control" have always been
encouraged to attend these short courses (free
of charge) and were given complimentary notes
for the short course. These short courses have
enriched "Industrial Pollution Control" im-
measurably. Last fall, for example, the students
attended 35 hours of lectures on air pollution con-
trol and received approximately 200 pages of
notes and design case histories. In-class treatment
of air pollution then consisted of discussing points
of student uncertainty and working extra prob-
Students were graded on 1) their solutions
to the design problems; 2) two "term-papers"
or more comprehensive design projects; and 3)
their in-class presentation and defense of their
design projects.

* Petroleum Refining (1 hr lecture) A brief dis-
cussion of refining with emphasis on unit pro-
cessing steps and the major sources and types of
wastes is conducted. The chief concept presented
is: increased processing is accompanied by in-
creased production of potential pollutants. Nelson
* Refinery Wastewater Treatment (1 hr lecture)
A brief summary is given of major uses of process
water in a refinery emphasizing current recycling
of process water and methods of minimizing
volume of wastewater produced. Advantages of
segregated sewers. Overview of primary, second-

ary, and tertiary treatment with emphasis on ar-
rangement of treatment steps. Manning (1973).
* Characterization of Industrial Wastewaters (1
hr lecture) The problem of describing a waste-
water in terms of a relatively few, standard
analyses such as BOD, COD, TOC, SS, etc., is ex-
plained. FWPCA (1967).

The course not only focuses on the general theories
of industrial pollution control to provide breadth
of understanding; but also emphasizes petroleum-
related design examples to provide the required
specialization. Current industrial pollution control
practices and design procedures are introduced by
emphasizing the relevancy of conventional
undergraduate ChE.

* Biological Treatment (2 weeks, 3 problems)
Biological phenomena and related importance in
understanding biological waste treatment are
presented. Laboratory methods for modeling
aerobic growth kinetics. Current design methods
for sizing activated sludge and aerated lagoons
including treatability studies, common start-up
and operating problems and solutions, effluent
qualities typically realized, and economic aspects.
API (1969); Eckenfelder and Krenkel (1972);
Thackston and Eckenfelder (1972); Adams and
Eckenfelder (1974).
* Sludge Handling (1 week; 1 problem) Sludge
handling is discussed in depth with emphasis
upon alternative methods-sludge conditioning,
thickening, dewatering, drying and digesting.
Ultimate disposal methods such as land farming
and landfill were reviewed. Dick (1972); Ecken-
felder and Krenkel (1972).
* Pretreatment (2 weeks, 3 problems) The role
of pretreatment on the operation of biological
treatment such as activated sludge or aerated la-
goons is discussed. Detailed design procedures for
equalization basins; neutralization; oil separators
(API and CPI); and dissolved air flotation units.
Adams and Eckenfelder (1974); Ford and
Manning (1974).
* Tertiary Treatment (1 week, 2 problems)
Biological nitrification-denitrification are review-
ed. Carbon adsorption and mixed-media filtration
as effluent polishing steps are discussed. Emphasis
is placed on the implications of EPA effluent cri-
teria on the selection of processes, design pro-
cedures, and effluent qualities obtainable in in-
dustrial operation. Adams and Eckenfelder

FALL 1975

(1974); Thackston and Eckenfelder (1974).
* Subsurface Disposal (1 hr lecture) The design
and operation of underground disposal wells is
reviewed including geology; economics; and the
pros and cons of subsurface versus surface treat-
ment. Donaldson (1974).
* Water Quality Standards (Ihr lecture)
BPCTCA: BATEA: new source standards and
1985 "Zero Discharge" regulations are reviewed,
while emphasizing their effect on current treat-
ment practices. Federal Register (1974).
* Source and Ambient Air Sampling (1 hr lecture)
Procedures for stack sampling of particulates and
gaseous procedures are reviewed with emphasis
upon relevant case histories-isokinetic pro-
cedures for particulates, and analysis of SO,,
NOX and hydrocarbons. Crocker and Schnelle
(1970) ; Hesketh (1972).
* Meteorology (2 weeks, 3 problems) Funda-
mentals of meteorology are presented, including
mixing processes; DALR; atmospheric stability;
Pasquill and Turner's classifications; dispersion
models using Gaussian models; plume rise. Design
case histories are used to illustrate calculation
procedures, including variations in ground-level
concentration, time averaging, multiple stacks,
etc. Crocker and Schnelle (1970); Schnelle and
Noll (1972); Hesketh (1972).
* Removal of Particulates (2 weeks, 3 problems)
The basic design criteria for particulate control
with emphasis upon fundamental principles and
mechanisms are reviewed. These principles are
used to develop basic collector models, determine
effects of dust size distributions, energy require-
ments, and optimal design criteria. Inertial
separators (cyclones), filters, electrostatic precipi-
tators, and wet scrubbers are included. Crocker
and Schnelle (1970); Byers and Licht (1974);
Hesketh (1972).
* Control of SO2 Emissions (1 week) Control of
SO0 emissions from combustion and process gasses
by limestone/dolomite injection, limestone and
MgO slurry scrubbing, catalytic oxidation and
alkaline scrubbing, and Claus recovery plants are
discussed. Byers and Licht (1972).
* Incineration (2 weeks, 3 problems) Combustion
fundamentals are reviewed, including fuel
characteristics, fuel: air ratio, combustion
temperature, heat transfer and mixing effects,
effect of water vapor, heating value of fuels, speed
of combustion, odor control by incineration and
design methods for fluid bed and atomized suspen-
sion incinerators and for flares. Reed, R. D.

(1973); Eckenfelder and Krenkel (1972).
* Hydrocarbon Losses; NOX Reduction (1 hour
lecture, 1 problem) Methods of controlling NOX
emissions such as low excess air firing, staged
combustion, flue gas recirculation, and inert in-
jection are reviewed. Sarofin and Bartok (1973).
* In-Plant Noise Control (1 week, 1 problem) An
introduction to the nature of noise, health as-
pects, pollution economics, major national sources,
main concepts of in-plant noise (design versus ex-
ternal treatment), inplant noise legislation and
basic physics of noise generation is presented.
Kannapell and Seebold (1975).
* Air Standards, Environmental Impact Studies
(1 lecture) We review federal legislation includ-
ing the Clean Air Act of 1970, establishment of
national air quality standards, implementation
plans and emission standards for new and exist-
ing sources. Environmental Impact Statements
are discussed. Beychok (1973) ; Hesketh (1972).


discussing design problems which are care-
fully formulated to reflect actual engineering
practice. The students are not required to
memorize typical operating conditions; but,
hopefully they develop such engineering judg-
ment by working with realistic numbers. These
problems illustrate how the student's basic ChE
knowledge can be applied to pollution control.
This teaching philosophy is illustrated below in
typical problems.
* Biological Treatment In addition to designing
activated sludge and aerated lagoons by conven-
tional methods (Adams and Eckenfelder, 1974)
the students fit laboratory treatability data with
3 variations of the first order kinetics: thus dis-
covering the empirical nature of the assumed
kinetics. Also, if time permits, the students com-
pare Beychok's (1970) data on aerated lagoons
with plug-flow and perfectly-mixed reactor
models. They are surprised to find that both
models can fit the biological degradation data over
the limited variation in residence time, etc. (Sop-
er et al, 1975).
* Neutralization Students plot the daily amounts
of base required to neutralize an acid coke and
chemicals wastewater (pH=2.5) on probability
paper. They test whether the daily requirements
are normally distributed and learn what is meant
by designing for the 90 or 95 percentile.


* Equalization Students plot the daily COD load
from a typical (but hypothetical) refinery on
probability paper. They then design an equaliza-
tion basin using Novotny and Englande's (1974)
method which assumes random fluctuations. Class
discussion compares the results of the Novotny
and Englande method with a rigorous, numerical,
computer solution. This shows how a major spill
produces a non-Gaussian distribution, and also
indicates when Novotny and Englande's method
should and should not be applied.

signment is to criticize a very misleading paper.
* Sludge Incineration This incineration design in-
cludes complete mass and energy balances; sizing
combustion volume for a specified residence time;
and specifying insulation. Sludge atomization
using steam is examined.

This course "Industrial Pollution Control"
was made possible only by the advice, support,

For the past two years "Industrial Pollution Control" was taught via the Oklahoma Higher Education
Televised Instruction System-thus allowing engineers from Conoco in Ponca City and Phillips
Petroleum in Bartlesville to participate. This televised procedure made it possible
to project printed pages on the TV receiving screens.

* Stripping Students first reconcile the design
equations listed by Smith (Thackston and Ecken-
felder, 1972, p. 140) with the standard ChE
formulations for counter-current columns. They
examine the relative magnitudes of the gas and
liquid phase resistances. Finally the overwhelm-
ing effect of temperature on the feasibility of
stripping is illustrated by sizing several towers.
If time permits, Beychok's approach to high
temperature, stripping of HS-NH3 mixtures is
discussed (API, 1969, revised chapter).
* Atmospheric Dispersion Dispersion of SO2 is
estimated using the Pasquill and Turner approach.
The estimates are repeated for multiple stacks
and at least two plume-rise formulae. Finally
the differences between continuous point sources,
and instantaneous "puff" sources are illustrated
not by dwelling on the mathematical derivations
but by working suitable examples. Students esti-
mate the dispersion coefficients thus emphasizing
the uncertainties inherent in the final answers. If
time permits, students estimate the ground con-
centration of HS and/or mercaptan produced by
releasing HsS and/or mercaptan from a safety
release valve. The resulting ground concentra-
tions are then compared with odor thresholds and
EPA air quality standards.
* Flare Stack The design of a flare stack includes
estimating potential carbon escape, steam demand
for smoke suppression; sizing storage space for
liquid knock-out facility; ground-level radiant
heat fluxes. Wherever possible students are in-
troduced to alternative (and sometimes contra-
dictory) design rules-of-thumb. In fact one as-

and contributions of many students, faculty, in-
cluding adjuncts, industrial friends, and short-
course lecturers. The author regrets that space
limitations prevent individual recognition; but
special thanks are due Marion Buercklin (Sun Oil
Company) and Leon Meyers (E. P. A.) for serving
as "founding fathers." 0

Recommended Texts
Hesketh, H. E. (1972), Understanding and Controlling
Air Pollution, Ann Arbor Science Pub., Ann Arbor,
Thackston, E. L., and W. W. Eckenfelder (1972), Process
Design in Water Quality Engineering, Jenkins Pub-
lishing Company, Austin, Texas.

Adams, C. E., and W. W. Eckenfelder (1974), Process De-
sign Techniques for Industrial Waste Treatment, En-
viro Press, Nashville, Tennessee.
American Petroleum Institute, (1969), "Manual Disposal
of Refinery Wastes Volume on Liquid Wastes," A. P. I.,
Washington, D. C.
Beychok, M. R. (1970), "Performance of Surface Aerated
Basins," Chemical Engineering Progress Symp. Series,
No. 107, Vol. 67, p. 322.
Beychok, M. R. (1973) "Air Pollution Control Legislation,"
Tulsa University Short Course Notes, January 15.
Byers, R. L. and W. Licht, (1972), "Processes for Con-
trol of SO, Emissions," AIChE Advanced Seminar,
AIChE, N. Y.
Byers, R. L. and W. Licht, (1974), "Design Fundamentals
of Particulate Collection for Air Pollution Control,"
AIChE Today Series, AIChE, N. Y.
Crocker, B. B. and K. B. Schnelle, (1970), "Introduction
(Continued on page 186.)

FALL 1975

1wa oauew i4Z


Particulate Systems And Column Operations

University of California
Davis, California 95616

UC Davis are each one quarter courses de-
signed to introduce graduate students ( and some
seniors) to separation processes of particulate
systems and column or cascade systems. Some
students consider the courses as featuring appli-
cations of mass transfer, others, applications of
mathematics. Some students hope to gain a deep-
er understanding for design of ChE unit opera-
tions, others desire a suitable background in a
particular area so they may begin research or
understand the research of others. In addition
to these separate objectives the instructor hopes
students in the courses are instilled with an ap-
preciation for the interaction and interdependence
of these subjects: mathematics, transport
phenomena, design, and research.
Tables I and II show typical outlines of topics
and lectures. These courses are not meant to over-
lap with other engineering courses at UC Davis,
and therefore certain items are omitted that are
adequately covered in the other courses. For the
first course, a course in transport phenomena such
as Section III in Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot [1],
is pre-requisite; for the second, an additional pre-
requisite is a course in staged mass transfer ope-

Some students consider the courses as featuring
applications of mass transfer; others, applications of
mathematics. Some hope to gain a deeper under-
standing for design of ChE unit operations, others
desire a suitable background in a particular area
so they can begin research or understand
the research of others.


Outline of topics for ChE 260,
Separation Processes: Particulate Systems
1. Membrane separations: colloid systems, reverse
osmosis and ultrafiltration, problem of con-
centration polarization.
2. Distribution functions, population balances,
moment equations.
3. Micro organisms; enzyme kinetics.
4. Birth, death, and fission kinetics.
5. Chemostat analysis: fermentation, activated
sludge, sterilization.
6. Crystallization, nucleation, zone refining.
7. Liquid-liquid systems: particle agglomeration
and breakage.
8. Aerosol dynamics: Knudsen, transition, con-
tinuum regimes.
9. Molecular velocity distribution functions,
kinetic equations, hydrodynamic equations,
constitutive equations.
10. Drag and thermal forces on aerosols; pre-
11. Evaporation and growth of aerosols.


of particulate systems in, for example, pollu-
tion abatement and chemical process equip-
ment. Macromolecules, micro-organisms, colloids,
crystals, and aerosols are discussed. Population
balances and distribution functions are mathe-
matical concepts that tie the topics together and
help maintain continuity. Variations of the classic
ChE models, the plug flow and continuous stirred
tank reactors, recur frequently as well.
Usually ChE 260 begins with the membrane
separations: reverse osmosis (hyper filtration),
ultrafiltration, dialysis, etc. The students inspect
various membrane devices, and thermodynamics
of osmotic pressure is reviewed (e.g. van't Hoff
equation). Flux equations for solvent or solute
transfer through the membrane are based on
principles of irreversible thermodynamics. The


Benjamin J. McCoy received his B.S. degree from the Illinois
Institute of Technology, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Uni-
versity of Minnesota (1967). He is presently an associate professor
of chemical engineering at the University of California, Davis. His
research interests are in rarefied gas phenomena, molecular theory
of chemical kinetics, enzyme engineering, and separation processes.

role of concentration polarization is emphasized,
and the film theory with rejection efficiency is
introduced. We review correlations for mass trans-
fer coefficients in various configurations for
laminar and turbulent flow. For example, we show
the Leveque model provides an analytical path to
the laminar-flow form of the relation between
Sherwood and Peclet numbers and the diameter
to length ratio [2]:
Sh a Pe1/3 (d/x)1/3
Techniques for increasing mass transfer and
decreasing concentration polarization are dis-
cussed [3], including the effect of heating [4] and
of pulsed operation [5]. For dewatering of cer-
tain food materials, the fluid is non-Newtonian.
Thus the effect of the power law stress relation
on transfer coefficients is studied [6]. For a mathe-
matically more detailed description of the convec-
tive mass transfer in concentration polarization,
the partial differential equations are written and
solved by separation of variables [7]. The velocity
profiles for the convective model are provided by
the perturbation solution of the Navier-Stokes
equation for the stream function [8].
Enzymes are macromolecules (proteins) that
can be concentrated by ultra-filtration [9]. Their
catalytic properties are first described by
Michaelis-Menten kinetics, derived via the Briggs-
Haldane model [10]. Expressions for conversion of
substrate in plug flow, batch and continuous
stirred tank reactors are compared. Rate equa-
tions for various competitive reactions, as well
as methods of data analyses, are developed.

Various immobilized-enzyme reactors are com-
pared. Rate equations for various competitive re-
actions, as well as methods of data analyses, are
developed. Various immobilized-enzyme reactors
are analyzed: for example, the differential equa-
tion for steady state diffusion and reaction of
substrate in a porous spherical particle is solved
for zeroth and first order kinetics due to an en-
zyme attached to the pore surfaces. Effectiveness
factors are used to determine conversion for
packed bed and slurry reactors of these porous
particles [11].
Solubility and stability of proteins and colloids
are discussed in terms of the electrical double lay-
er [12]. The Debye-Huckel theory, which makes
use of diffusion-like differential equations for
electrostatic potential, is reviewed for the activity
coefficients of dissolved enzymes [13]. The equili-
brium theory of protein solubility shows how dis-
solved protein concentration depends on ionic
strength [14]. Recent developments in affinity

The first course is an analysis of particulate systems
in, for example, pollution abatement and chemical
process equipment. Macromolecules, micro-organisms,
colloids, crystals and aerosols are discussed.
Population balances and distribution functions are
mathematical concepts that tie the topics together
and help maintain continuity.

chromatography to separate proteins are inter-
preted in terms of protein solubility in salt solu-
tions [15].
Microencapsulated enzyme is an example of
the simplest model of a microorganism. Substrate
diffuses through the encapsulating membrane to
react with the entrapped enzyme. Monod kinetics
for bacterial growth follow naturally, and are used
to derive equations for the operation of the steady
state chemostat. Brief mention is made of the
chemostat's relation to fermentation, activated
sludge, and sterilization processes. The diffusion
field in and around a single spherical cell is studied
for zeroth and first order approximations to Mi-
chaelis-Menten kinetics inside the cell [16].


T HE COMPACT SECTION in Himmelblau and
Bischoff [17] is followed closely to introduce
and use population balance equations. A general

FALL 1975

Reynolds transport theorem is used in this con-
text, and the population balance equation is
shown to be a generalization of the more familiar
multicomponent mass balance. Moment equations
are derived from the equation for the population
distribution function. A macroscopic equation
for the average distribution is shown to have ob-
vious similarities with macroscopic equations in
transport phenomena. The chemostat model for
bacteria with time dependent mass is considered
for special forms of birth, death, and fission terms.
We briefly touch on problems of particle agglo-
meration and breakage in liquid-liquid systems.
Crystallizer product size distributions for the
"mixed suspension, mixed product removal"
model are discussed. Reading from the book on
particulate processes by Randolph and Larson
[18] is recommended. The basic picture of homo-
geneous nucleation with free energy depending
on embryo size provides for a discussion of effects
of supersaturation, interfacial tension, and critical
cluster diameter [19]. We also discuss a model of
zone refining [20].
The final major section of ChE 260 is based
on rarefied gas transport phenomena and aerosol
systems. First, the three rarefied gas regimes are
defined: the Knudsen, transition, and continuum
regimes with, respectively, the mean free path X
much greater than, about the same as, or much
less than the characteristic geometrical length L,
e.g., the particle diameter. We note qualitatively
different phenomena are exhibited in the extreme
regimes, but that a gradual transition bridges be-
tween. This is compared to sharp qualitative leaps
between regimes of other phenomena, e.g. phase
changes, or laminar-turbulent transition. All this
is to emphasize physical laws have limits: mathe-
matical equations fail to describe physical reality
outside the range of the model's application.
Because it appears in so many contexts, the
equation for flux of molecules to a surface in
free-molecule (Knudsen) flow is carefully de-
j = p/V27rmkT
This equation is related to effusion, catalyst pore
diffusion, the Knudsen vapor pressure cell, therm-
al transpiration, and deposition and evaporation
at the surface of a particle-all processes in the
Knudsen regime. Condensation and accommoda-
tion coefficients are defined. Knudsen regime for-
mulas for heat transfer from a sphere, and for
drag on a sphere are presented (reference is made
to Kogan's book [21] for details).

The continuum gas regime is next treated,
where intermolecular collisions dominate entirely
over molecule/wall collisions. The Boltzmann
kinetic equation is shown to have the same general
form as population balance equations. The velocity
distribution function has moments related to the
observable mass density, velocity, and tempera-
ture of the gas. The moment equations are the
point hydrodynamicc) equations of change. We
introduce the simple relaxation (Krook) form of
the intermolecular collision operator [22] and use
the Chapman-Enskog technique to derive New-
ton's law of stress with viscosity coefficient,
/Ic TcP
and Fourier's law of heat conduction with thermal
conductivity coefficient,
Ke = --m-Tep
in terms of the collision time rT, pressure p,
molecular mass m, and Boltzmann's constant k.
The subscript c indicates the continuum limit.
We treat the transition regime by assuming
that the collision frequency is the sum of col-
lision frequencies of molecule/wall and molecule/
molecule collisions [23]:
1 1 1
Such a hypothesis leads to transport coefficients
obeying a well-known expression; e.g. for the
1 1 1
tL P-K Ptc

The second course concerns the analysis and design
of separation processes in columns or cascaded
systems: distillation, leaching, extraction, adsorption,
chromatography, absorption. Applied mathematics
is a prominent aspect of the course including finite
difference equations, probability and random walk
theories, method of characteristics, and
moment analysis.

Expressions for fluxes D are usually of prime im-
portance; we show that
1 + GK
where K = X/L is the Knudsen number, and G
depends on geometry and molecular accommoda-
tion. Further,
GK = 0 -c/ = fK c/P- _ Tc/TK



Outline of topics for ChE 261,
Separation Processes: Column Operations
1. Finite difference equations applied to staged
operations: distillation, extraction, leaching,
absorption. Derivation of Smoker, Fenske, and
Kremser equations.
2. Rate processes in column operations: transfer
unit analysis and unified design method for
continuous contractors.
3. Axial dispersion: Taylor, random walk, other
4. Equilibrium theory of chromatography: bi-
nomial, Poisson, and Gaussian probability
5. Breakthrough curve analysis: Goldstein J-
function, Parex process.
6. Method of characteristics for solving first-
order partial differential equations: chroma-
tography, parametric pumping.
7. Moment analysis of pulse response experi-
ments: adsorption, gas-liquid partition, gel
permeation chromatography. Hermite poly-
nomial representation of elution curves.
8. Chromatography resolution and optimization.

so that quite simple formulas describe the transi-
tion regime, formulas that are easily constructed
if one knows the continuum and Knudsen flux
expressions [23]. Transition range formulas are
developed for heat and mass transport near a
sphere, and drag on a sphere. The well-known
Maxwell equation for evaporation or growth of
a droplet is derived for simultaneous heat and
mass transport [24]. Remarkably, when transi-
tion range diffusion and heat conductivity co-
efficients are inserted into the Maxwell formula,
one obtains precisely the same equation derived
by Fukuta and Walters [24] by quite a different


T HE SECOND COURSE concerns the analysis
and design of separation processes in columns
or cascaded systems: distillation, leaching, ex-
traction, adsorption, chromatography, absorption.
Applied mathematics is a prominent aspect of the
course, including finite difference equations,
probability and random walk theories, method of
characteristics, and moment analysis via Laplace
transformation. The emphasis is on mathematics
as a reflection of the physical world, and the
usefulness (or necessity) of the derived equations
for design of equipment is continually noted. The

students in ChE 261 are asked to purchase King's
Separation Processes [25], from which numerous
reading and problem assignments are made.
We begin with the calculus of finite differences
applied to staged units [26]. Analytical methods
for solving difference equations are compared to
methods for differential equations. Murphrey
efficiencies are included in the analysis of systems
whose equilibrium can be described by a linear
relation or by a constant separation factor (rela-
tive volatility). The Smoker, Fenske, and Kremser
equations are derived, and a host of problems of
industrial interest are solved for homework.
Depending on the interests of the students, we
have sometimes treated multicomponent distilla-
tion for constant relative volatility systems.
Here, matrix methods and computer techniques
are discussed [24].
We review the analysis of two-phase separa-
tions controlled by interphase mass transfer when
longitudinal dispersion can be ignored [1]. The
resulting expression for number of transfer
units (NTU) is related to height equivalent to a
theoretical stage (HETP).
Descriptive notions of longitudinal dispersion
in columns are introduced. The Danckwerts
boundary conditions for a finite-length column
are derived following the simple, yet general
treatment by Bischoff [28]. A unified design
method for continuous-contact mass transfer
operations unifies a large class of operations with
dispersion [29].
Following Feller [30], we introduce the
probability concepts of binomial distribution and
Bernoulli trials. The Poisson and normal Gaussian
distributions are treated as approximations to
the binomial distributions. The first and second
moments of the three distributions are derived
and compared.
We follow King's treatment [25] of the inter-
mittent carrier flow model for equilibrium stages,
to get the binomial distribution of solute among
stages. We use a generating function method [30]
to obtain the Poisson distribution solution to the
difference-differential equation for the continuous-
flow equilibrium-stage model of chromatographic
separators. From the Gaussian approximation we
extend this analysis to develop the relations for
the equilibrium model of chromatography. We
also use the generating function method to analyze
a breakthrough curve for a cascade of equilibrium
One-dimensional random walk theory is used

FALL 1975

in the conventional manner to derive the diffusion
ac D 2c
Dt x2
A solution for a delta function initial condition is
derived by means of the gaussian approximation
to the binomial distribution [31]. This solution is
used as a Green's function to get superposition
solutions for several other initial conditions [32].
This material is then related to the convected
dispersion problem in a tube, and conditions for
the Peclet number are derived under which a
chromatographic output curve is gaussian with
respect to time [33]. Related topics, such as
Fourier transform solutions, Brownian motion,
and the Einstein formula for diffusion coefficients,
have been dealt with in some years, depending
on available time and student interest.

There is considerable interest.., in using dynamic
response methods (e.g. pulse response) to quantify
parameters in a range of systems: packed-bed and
slurry catalytic reactors, kidneys, distillation
columns, chicken lungs, etc.

W E NEXT TREAT dispersion in a more
thorough manner by means of the Taylor-
Aris model via the moment analysis of convec-
tion and diffusion [34]. Some other models and
correlations of data are discussed [35-39].
The Goldstein J-function solution for the non-
dispersed first order partial differential equations
for breakthrough curves is derived by Laplace
transforms [40]. The discussion of this model and
the graphical presentation of the solution by
Hougen and Watson [41] is noted. The application
to the Parex adsorption process for recovering
p-xylene from its mixtures with other Cs hydro-
carbons is discussed [42]. We also consider ion
exchange processes.
The method of characteristics is also useful
for time-dependent problems when diffusion
effects can be ignored. Simple chromatography
[35] and parametric pumping [43] are analyzed by
this method.
There is considerable interest in our depart-
ment in using dynamic response methods (e.g.

pulse response) to quantify parameters in a range
of systems: packed-bed and slurry catalytic re-
actors, kidneys, distillation columns, chicken
lungs, etc. The method is introduced by a pulse
response analysis of an open tube; for the con-
centration c(t,x) we have

ac ac a2c
=-v +D
at - v x x2
The equation is Laplace transformed, and the
resulting ordinary differential equation is solved
for c(s,x). From the definition of the transformed
concentration, c(s,x), we prove that

lim d c
s-->O ds' - (-1)I tk cdt,
where the integral is the kth moment. Therefore,
we can take limits of derivatives of the solution,
c(s,x), to relate the statistical moments to the
parameters of the system. The moments may be
calculated from experimental response data, and
parameters evaluated. The technique is extended
to breakthrough curve analysis (response to a
step function input), and to frequency analysis
(response to a sinusoidal input).
Considerable effort is put into the moment
treatment of adsorption chromatography [44], of
which (gel) permeation chromatography is the
special case when adsorption is negligible. Ad-
sorption (or a linear chemical reaction) may
occur at the pore surfaces of porous particles in
packed columns. Pore diffusion, interparticle mass
transfer, and axial dispersion all play a role. Ex-
pressions of moments and methods of getting in-
formation out of pulse response data are pre-
sented [45, 46].
Since an output pulse is often nearly gaussian,
hermite polynomials are defined and used to re-
construct the output curve in terms of moments,
and thus in terms of system parameters [47]. For
the separation of two solutes with gaussian out-
puts, a resolution criterion is defined for their
separation, and optimization with regard to
column length and operating velocity is discussed
[48]. This approach has the advantage that con-
siderable semi-empirical knowledge can be or-
ganized by one comprehensive method. The op-
timization is extended to apply to product value,
and equipment and operating costs [48]. We point
out the same methods can be applied to capillary
chromatography or partition chromatography.


S.. students in the
courses are instilled with an appreciation for
the interaction and interdependence of mathematics,
transport phenomena, design, and research.... The
emphasis is on mathematics as a reflection of the
physical world, and the usefulness of the derived
equations for design of equipment
is continually noted.


material can be covered in the two 30-lecture
quarters if tedious algebraic manipulations on
the blackboard are kept to a minimum. Such
manipulations are often assigned as homework
so students may gain familiarity with the mathe-
matical symbols and their meaning in terms of
the physical world. Lecture notes are frequently
xeroxed and handed out, so lectures emphasize
concepts and conclusions. Many of the papers
referenced here are assigned reading, to bring
students up to the frontiers of research. E


1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot,
Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, 1960.
2. Knudsen, J. G., and D. L. Katz, Fluid Dynamics and
Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, N. Y. 1958.
3. Kennedy, T. J., L. E. Monge, B. J. McCoy, R. L.
Merson, AIChE Symposium Series, 69 (132), 81
4. Monge, L. E., B. J. McCoy, R. L. Merson, J. Food
Sci. 38, 633 (1973).
5. Kennedy, T. J., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, Chem.
Eng. Sci. 29, 1927 (1974).
6. Skelland, A. H. P., Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat
Transfer, Wiley, N. Y. (1967).
7. Sherwood, T. K., P. L. T. Brian, R. E. Fisher, L.
Dresner, I. E. C. Funds. 4, 113 (1965).
8. Berman, A. S., J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1232 (1953).
9. Carbonell, R. G., M. D. Kostin, A.I.Ch.E. J. 18, 1
10. Aiba, S., A. E. Humphrey, N. F. Millis, Biochemical
Engineering, Academic Press, N. Y. 1965.
11. Marrazzo, W. N., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, Biotech.
Bioeng., to be published.
12. Shaw, D. J., Introduction to Colloid and Surface
Chemistry, Butterworths, London, 1966.
13. Tanford, C., Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules,
Wiley, N. Y., 1961.
14. Cohn, E. J., J. T. Edsall, Proteins, Amino Acids, and
Peptides, Hafner Publishing Co., N. Y., 1965.

15. Morrow, R. M., R. G. Carbonell, B. J. McCoy, Bio-
tech. Bioeng. to be published.
16. Rashevsky, N., Mathematical Biophysics, Vol. I, 3rd
Ed., Dover, N. Y., 1960.
17. Himmelblau, D. M., K. B. Bischoff, Process Analysis
and Simulation, Wiley, N. Y., 1968.
18. Randolph, A. D., M. A. Larson, Theory of Particulate
Processes, Academic Press, 1971.
19. Abraham, F. F., Homogeneous Nucleation Theory,
Academic, N. Y., 1974.
20. Hudgins, R. R., Chem. Eng. Educ. 5, 138 (1971).
21. Kogan, M. N., Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Plenum Press,
N. Y., 1969.
22. Vincenti, W. G., C. H. Kruger, Jr., Introduction to
Physical Gas Dynamics, Wiley, N. Y., 1965.
23. McCoy, B. J., C. Y. Cha, Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 381
24. Fukuta, N., L. A. Walter, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1160
25. King, C. J., Separation Processes, McGraw-Hill, N. Y.,
26. Marshall, W. R., R. L. Pigford, Applications of
Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering
Problems, U. Delaware Press, Newark (1947).
27. Amundson, N. R., Mathematical Methods in Chemical
Engineering, Prentice-Hall, N. J., 1966.
28. Bischoff, K. B., Chem. Eng. Sci. 16, 131 (1961).
29. Pavlica, R. T., J. H. Olson, IEC 62, 45 (1970).
30. Feller, W., An Introduction to Probability Theory
and Its Applications, 2nd Ed., Wiley, N. Y., 1950.
31. Chandrasekhar, S., Rev. Mod. Phys. 15, 1 (1943); in
Noise and Stochastic Processes, Ed. N. Wax, Dover,
32. Crank, J., The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford,
London, 1956.
33. Levelspiel, 0., W. K. Smith, Chem. Eng. Sci. 6, 227
34. Friedly, J. C., Dynamic Behavior of Processes,
Prentice-Hall, N. J., 1972.
35. Aris, R., N. R. Amundson, A.I.Ch.E. J. 3, 280 (1957).
36. Bischoff, K. B., O. Levelspiel, Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 245
37. de Ligny, C. L., Chem. Eng. Sci. 25, 1177 (1970).
38. Gunn, D. J., Trans. Instr. Chem. Engrs. 47, T351
39. Wilhelm, R. H., J. Pure Appl. Chem. 5, 403 (1962).
40. Aris, R., N. R. Amundson, Mathematical Methods in
Chemical Engineering, Vol. II, Prentice-Hall, 1973.
41. Hougen, O. A., K. M. Watson, Chemical Process
Principles Vol. III, Wiley, N. Y., 1947.
42. Broughton, D. B., R. W. Neuzil, J. M. Pharis, C. S.
Brearley, Chem. Eng. Prog. 66, (9), 71 (1970).
43. Pigford, R. L., D. Baker, D. E. Blum, IEC Funds. 8,
144 (1969).
44. Kucera, K., J. Chromatog. 19, 237 (1965).
45. Schneider, P., J. M. Smith, A. I. Ch. E. J. 14, 762
46. Mehta, R. V., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, A.I.Ch.E.
J. 19, 1068 (1973).
47. Mehta, R. V., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, J. Chroma-
tog. 88, 1 (1974).
48. Carbonell, R. G., B. J. McCoy, J. Chem. Eng., in

FALL 1975

4 Cause on



Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

E ENGINEERS ARE TRAINED to deal with ob-
jective things-with variables that are
governed by physical laws. Many of us were in
fact attracted to engineering because of the
elegant predictability of the material and scien
tific world. The slide rule was our trademark,
and now the pocket electronic calculator permits
multi-digit precision in our calculations. But when
it comes to matters involving people, we enter
into a non-calculable, subjective, often unpre-
dictable world. If it is governed by laws at all,
these are largely unknown, and certainly have
little to do with logic. Rather, the world of people
is characterized by wide individual differences,
and by unquantifiable and emotional factors
seemingly designed to make engineers uncom-
Surely, we are largely untrained in these
matters. Yet engineers are people, they do have
feelings, and they do behave unpredictably, just
like other people.
Also, whether they like it or not, engineers
encounter human problems all the time; certain-
ly they do in their employment situations. Fur-
ther, if they are managers, their professional
success depends in large measure on their human
relations skills. Yet most engineers have not had
a day's training in dealing with "people" prob-
lems. But that's where the action is, and that's
where the opportunities for the future are. So
that's why we feel it's appropriate to give some
attention to this important side of engineering
training, and offer this introductory course.
Consider the following:
* We can send men to the moon, but we haven't
learned to solve the traffic problems in our cities
and on our campuses.
* We know how to build a nuclear power plant-but
we don't know whether to build them.

Professor Polack has been Head of the Chemical Engineering
Department at L. S. U. since 1970. After receiving the Sc.D. from
M. 1. T. in 1948, he spent 22 years with the Exxon Corporation in
a variety of technical and managerial posts. From 1966 to 1970,
he was Director of the Esso Research Laboratories (now Exxon
Research and Development Laboratories) in Baton Rouge.

* We know how to drill for offshore oil, but not
whether to drill for it.
* We come up with a slick solution to a technical
problem, but we are unable to persuade our bosses
to implement it.
The successful engineer of tomorrow must
learn to deal with these human problems. The
fact of the matter is that many, if not most,
engineers reach the peak of their technical sophis-
tication while they are in school. Only a small
percentage (primarily those who remain in
academe) will ever be faced with problems as
technically difficult as those given in a typical
Ph.D. qualifying exam. But most will face very
perplexing human, management and political
problems that they are poorly equipped to deal


A MAJOR PURPOSE of this graduate course
is to introduce the engineer to the human
and organizational problems of the manager and


to give some hints as to how these problems might
be approached. Another important purpose of the
course is to introduce the engineer to the body
of knowledge which exists in the field of manage-
ment and human relations. There are principles
of management, even if they seem to be proven
as much by exception as by rule. Surely they are
inexact in comparison to the laws of science. What
is hoped is that this introduction will capture the
interest of the students so that they will continue
to read in the management and human relations
areas. There is definitive literature in the field
and it is an appropriate subject for scholarly
study, rudimentary though the science of manage-
ment may be. Finally, the course provides some
opportunity for the student to gain some
knowledge of self and others by his participation
in the case discussions which take up the bulk
of the classroom time.


T HE COURSE IS DESIGNED to proceed from
the familiar to the less familiar. At the start,
we discuss what a business is, and what impact
management's philosophy has on its conduct.
From this we proceed to look at various models
of organizational structure from the simple pyra-
mid to modern matrix or multi-dimensional struc-
tures. Some of the principles of organizational
theory, i.e., the concepts of span of control, unity
of command, and delegation of authority are de-
scribed; and case studies bring out the human
problems and frustrations which arise from mis-
understanding of these theories and philosophical
The next block of study has to do with moti-
vation, morale, and leadership. Research findings
of Mayo, Maslow, McGregor and others are used
as basis for understanding a wide variety of hu-
man conflicts and problems. Here, too, case his-
tories, drawn from the literature as well as the
experience of the instructor, provide the material
for classroom work. Both individual and group
interactions are studied.

Finally, attention is centered on specific
management activities including communications,
counselling, performance appraisal, training and
the like. A detailed outline is shown in Table I.


T HE STUDENT IS expected to do outside read-
ing and also prepares a term paper, discussed
further below. The class period itself (one and a
half hours twice a week) is given over almost ex-
clusively to discussion. The lecture technique is

Abbreviated Outline of Course
A. Introduction
Management as a Profession
Philosophies of Management
B. Organizational Structures; Theory and Practice
Functional, Federal, Matrix Structures, etc.
Traditional Principles of Organization: Span of
Control, Unity of Command, etc.
Delegation of Authority
C. Motivation and Leadership
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Development of Participation
Management of Change
D. Group Processes and Social Environments
The Individual in the Organization
Scientific and Technical Employees
1st Line Supervision
Communications Processes
Appraisal and Incentives
E. Overview: Factors in Above Outline all Interact
Simultaneously. So the Sequence Shown is one
of Convenience Rather than Logic.
rarely used, except for an occasional guest lec-
ture on a special topic. The reason is that the
specific factual information covered is easily ob-
tained by the student from his textbook and other
sources. To learn about human relations and prob-
lems involving people, one must experience the
differences of opinion and feelings that can arise.
This is best done through classroom discussion,
role playing and other experiential techniques.
The case method is the principal study method
used in this course. During the semester, fifteen

When it comes to matters involving people, we enter into a non-calculable,
subjective, often unpredictable world. If it is governed by laws at all, these are
largely unknown, and certainly have little to do with logic. Rather, the world
of people is characterized by wide individual differences, and by unquantifiable
and emotional factors seemingly designed to make engineers uncomfortable.

FALL 1975

or twenty different cases are considered by the
Following are some examples of cases covered:
* A manager bypasses a supervisor and deals directly
with a staff engineer on a rush job. As a result,
foundations for a new compressor are poured be-
fore it is discovered that the compressor specified
is not available. Strained relationships result among
various organizational groups.
* The maintenance department reduces janitorial
service. So the supervisor in an engineering group
asks the secretary to dust the conference table and
desks every day. Two weeks later, she resigns,
stating that her husband has been transferred to
another city. But several Weeks after that, the
supervisor sees her shopping in a local supermarket,
and discovers that she has another local job.
* A small company, in which the president is in
close contact with the first line supervisors, is ex-
tremely successful and expands rapidly. Mounting
problems of production require that the president
bring in a new plant manager and an efficiency ex-
pert. Midnight one Saturday night the front line
supervisors storm into the president's office, de-
manding that he get rid of the new supervisory
The above vignettes are of necessity quite
abbreviated, as the cases include much more de-
tail. In the classroom discussion, each person is
encouraged to express his view on the situation
presented. It is quite amazing to hear the many
different views that are brought forth on what
seem to be simple problems-but aren't. The role
of the instructor is to keep the discussion open in
order to generate as many options as possible,
and then to aid the students in seeing advantages
and disadvantages of different approaches.

A major purpose ... is to introduce the engineer to
the human problems of the manager and to give
some hints as to how these problems might be
approached . . and to introduce the engineer to
the body of knowledge ... in the field of management
and human relations.

In human relations problems, there are no
"right" answers. What we try to develop is either
approaches and/or solutions which can lead to
better outcomes for all participants in a situation.
The underlying thesis is that by working the
"people" problems, the manager then makes it
possible for individuals to work the "work" prob-
lems. (Too often, we tend to work the technical
problems and ignore the "people" problems.)


EACH STUDENT WRITES a term paper which
accounts for about 407% of his grade. A variety
of topics are suggested, but the students are free
to select topics of their own. Many of them do.

Typical Term Paper Topics

Motivation and Creativity
The Informal Organization
Elimination of Job Boredom
Group Dynamics-T Groups
Management of a Non-Profit Organization
Communications Problems in Large Organizations
Organization of a National Pizza Chain
Appraising Personnel Performance

Table II lists some of the titles students have
selected in recent years. The student is expected
to make full use of the literature. He is en-
couraged to express his own opinions, but must
document what he says with examples and/or
reference to authority. Performance of students
on these papers varies, depending largely on the
amount of time they spend. Sometimes, a student
gets deeply interested in a subject and does a
spectacularly good job. For example, one student
did a study on creativity, which itself was most
creative and, in the instructor's opinion, worthy
of being the starting point for some substantial
original work. Some students who are industrially
employed make studies of their own company
organizations, using the insights they have gained
from the course. If the class is small enough, the
students give oral reports on their term papers.
While guest speakers are not extensively used,
speakers from the Psychology and Speech de-
partments have been quite effective in lecturing
and leading discussions on communications and
human interactions. Such speakers introduce
variety and help to give the students an apprecia-
tion of the talent available in the university com-
munity in fields other than engineering.
The textbook used is "Human Behavior at
Work" subtitled "Human Relations and Organi-
zational Behavior" by Keith Davis (McGraw-Hill,
4th edition, 1972). There are many texts dealing
with this subject and the choice is a matter of
the individual instructor's preference. All of the
texts basically cover the same material (just like


various texts on thermodynamics). I like the
Davis text because it is comprehensive, the ma-
terial is well documented, and it is written in a
readable, interesting way. Also, each chapter has
case studies for use in class, and there is an ex-
cellent collection of cases which comprise the
appendix to the book.
In addition, the students are given a reading
list (see Table III) and are encouraged to read
on their own. To keep them honest, they are
quizzed on certain specific reading assignments
during the term. The reading list is liberally
supplemented by reprints of articles from journals
such as the Harvard Business Review.


course. Many are part-time students who are
currently employed by local industry. By offering
the course in the early evening, we make it easy
for such students to attend after work. This is
an ideal group of students. Having experienced
some of the vicissitudes of industrial organiza-
tional life, they readily recognize the reality of
the case studies. They are eager to participate
in the discussions, for they feel that the ma-
terial is directly relevant to their day-to-day work.
The students learn from each other, and the
instructor learns from them, too. Most of the
full-time students have usually had at least sum-
mer employment in industry, and they, too, take
an active part. On the other hand, it is somewhat
more difficult for a totally inexperienced student
to participate in and thereby benefit from the
My own feeling is that undergraduates could
benefit by some exposure to this subject matter.


Excerpts from Reading List

Drucker, P.-The Practice of Management
The Concept of the Corporation
McGregor, D.-The Human Side of the Enterprise
Greenewalt, C.-The Uncommon Man
Argyris, C.-Personality and Organization
Likert, R.-New Patterns in Management
The Human Organization
Whyte, W. H.-The Organization Man
The, Harvard Business Review
Publications of the American Management Association

However, for undergraduates, I would recommend
a different course design-one which would thrust
the student into an experiential situation. Some
sort of simulation of a real work problem would,
I think, be necessary for the student to really ap-
preciate the feelings which are engendered in
such situations.

In summary, the major challenges facing the
engineer of tomorrow are as much nontechnical
as technical. This course introduces the engineer-
ing graduate student to the body of knowledge
which exists in the management and human rela-
tions field and hopefully provides him with some
insight into dealing with problems in these im-
portant areas. People have a tremendous poten-
tial for achievement, and the modern corporation
is a remarkable device for accomplishment of high
purposes. Progressive managers concentrate on
helping people to fulfill their own aims and to
achieve a greater proportion of their potential.
In this way, organizational achievement can be
maximized. O

book reviews

Fundamentals and Modeling of Separation Proc-
esses, Absorption, Distillation, Evaporation, and
By Charles D. Holland
Prentice-Hall. 430 pages.
Reviewed by Verle N. Schrodt, Monsanto Agri-
cultural Products Company.

When asked to review this book I agreed to do
so without remembering that I had reviewed an-
other of Dr. Holland's books some 11 or 12 years
ago. This previous work, "Unsteady State Proc-
esses with Applications in Multicomponent Dis-
tillation" was quite good but had a somewhat mis-
leading title since it was only concerned with dis-
tillation. I thought perhaps this one would be
equally good and would really cover other proc-
esses and would be fun to read so I went ahead
with the review.
The book was a pleasure to read. It covers the
fundamentals of the four named basic separations
(Continued on page 191.)

FALL 1975

7 Qi4u i&Z


Ecole Polytechnique
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

T HE FULL TITLE of the course is "Tech-
nological Forecasting: An Aid to Decision
Making." It is a one trimester course (13 weeks)
offered to graduate students in engineering and
open to extension service students. The existence
of this course reflects our view of the technological
age for which we are training graduate engineers.
That view accepts the role of the engineer in in-
dustry, business or in the public service, as an
expert technologist, as a prime agent for tech-
nological innovation, for technology transfer from
pilot to full production scale, and so on. It also
recognizes that we live in an era of unprecedent-
ed concern for the husbanding of natural re-
sources, for the protection of public and en-
vironmental safety and for the economic and so-
cietal consequences of technology and its spread-
ing use. Further, it considers the engineering
graduate and more particularly the holder of
Masters or Doctoral degrees as a decision maker
who will function in that capacity at a very early
stage of a professional career. It is no longer
reasonable however, to make decisions on tech-
nological matters without taking into account the
possible economic, societal, environmental and
political motivations for these decisions and in
turn, the impact of the decisions on these inter-
related factors. Our course is designed to in-
troduce the graduate engineer to the complex
interactions between technological and the non-
technological factors noted above and to create
in him an awareness of the complex crossimpacts
which must be weighed in the decision-making
process. In short, we hope to give him a balanced
preparation for the complex roles which he will
in all probability, be asked to perform in the
course of a professional career.
The growing discipline of technological fore-

casting (TF) appears to offer a suitable vehicle
for coping with the intellectual problems outlined
above. In recent years TF has become a staple of
planning groups in business and government.
Such professional organizations as the Hudson
Institute, the Stanford Research Institute, Boston
Consulting Group, etc. have become widely
recognized spokesmen for the importance of this
planning aid. Though far from a precise discipline,
TF has now taken on some aspects of analytic
science (1-8) and has been the subject of train-
ing courses offered mainly to executives in in-
dustry and government. We believe there is a
need in the graduate engineering curriculum for
a view of this evolving discipline, in a version
which stresses the analytic concepts of data
analysis and trend extrapolation, and which
particularly stresses application of TF methods
to situations relevant to regional and national
needs touching upon technology. We are not alone
in this belief; to give a few examples, J. H. Hal-
lomon, of M.I.T.'s Center for Policy Alternatives,
has recently urged universities to act as focal
points for the development of skills in techno-
logical planning, technology assessment and in
evaluating the impact of technology on those who
should use it (9). The widewing concern in En-
gineering faculties over the functions and power
of Technology Assessment offices, has led to
Symposia on this complex topic (10). To the best
of our knowledge, however, our just-completed
exposure (winter 1975) of the TF course makes
the first formal appearance of this "soft"
discipline in an approved curriculum.
The TF course is divided into three main sec-
tions and a complementary fourth part:
Background: In this first three-week segment,
the philosophic basis for planning disciplines is
laid down. Mathematical principles of data
analysis, elements of probability functions and


games theory are introduced. Particular stress is
laid on the character of linear and exponential
growth. Examples of the latter mode were drawn
from the Club of Rome Study on the Limits of
Growth (11).
The Tools of TF: The second segment (four
weeks) is devoted to a consideration of major
practical approaches to the technological planning
function. Intuitive, huristic and normative
methods of forecasting are outlined. Major ap-
proaches considered in detail include:
* trend extrapolation
* Delphi interrogation
* structured interview
* relevance tree construction
* substitution theory
* input, output tabulation
* scenario writing
As a course guide here, we have used J. R.
Bright's A Brief Introduction to Technology Fore-
casting (Pemaquid Press, Austin Texas, 1972),
but emphasis was placed in case histories drawn
from published reports of Institutes such as Stan-
ford Research, Battelle, etc.
TF & Planning Workshop: The third and major
portion of the course is 6 weeks long with addi-
tional consultation sessions arranged between
instructors and students. The students were divid-
ed into working teams (5-6 individuals per team),
each team selecting a topic on which they would
develop a scenario depicting the future techno-
logical status (5-10 years away) of the industry
relating to the topic. The scenario had to con-
sider various non-technological options, such as
a surprise-free future, major changes in political,
environmental or social attitudes toward a given
section of technology, the resource base from
which the industries must operate, etc. A major
need was to identify threats to opportunities for
existing technology and innovative technology
respectively, and to identify events in the fore-
cast span which could be used as signals as to the
validity (or non-validity) of the planning forecast.
The completed scenario was used as the solo
source for determining each student's standing
in the course.
Supplementary Lectures: A group of lectures
(four in the 1975 term) given by invited senior
spokesmen from industries and governments, deal-
ing with special aspects of technology planning,
its management, transfer and assessment, com-
plemented the formal content of the course.

Though inevitably only loosely interconnected,
the lectures served their purpose in providing in-
sight into the role of technology and of the en-
gineer in various occupational spheres and at
various career stages.

W E ARE UNDER NO illusion as to the hazards
involved in presenting a course of this type
to engineering students, and as to the difficulty
in deciding on the content and methods of pre-
senting the material. We have much to learn, but
are pleased with the response obtained in our
first year of operation.
It was evident that the engineering students
(about 2/3 of a total of 23-the remainder had
backgrounds in economics and business adminis-
tration) initially approached the subject with
misgivings and were distinctly cool about the
ultimate value of the course to their fund of
knowledge. Matters began to change noticeably
in the second portion of the course; the case

Our view of the technological age recognizes we live
in an era of unprecedented concern for husbanding
natural resources, for the protection of public and
environmental safety and for the economic and
societal consequences of technology and its
spreading use.

examples involved here ranged from "classical"
illustrations of substitution theory (steamship
technology replacing sail, jet engines replacing
piston plants, etc.) to analyses and extrapolations
of the development of computer technology, and
Delphi-based statements on the future competi-
tion between audio-visual communication methods
and public transportation (both long and short
distance). In each of these examples, further
evidence was presented to support the thesis that
technological growth patterns can be categorized,
that to some degree the technology of the future
can be planned for and controlled. Consequently,
the students began to comprehend their role as
future coordinators of the multidisciplinary pres-
sures upon and arising from their activities in
the technological sphere.
The work-shop section was enthusiastically
accomplished, notwithstanding the fact that the
average time input far exceeded the formally

FALL 1975

scheduled period of 18 hours. Scenarios were pro-
duced on:

* Evolution of steel-making technology (1975-
* The competitive balance between the steel
and plastics industry in 1985.
* Plastics recycle technology in 1985.

The final results lack the authority and
balanced viewpoints of professional reports. They
are by no means academic exercises, however, and
have provided some interesting insights into the
future stance of industries important to the re-
gional and national economies. Beyond any doubt
the authors have a truer view of the nature of
these industries and of the environment in which
they will probably be operating during the
students' working careers. We believe that as a
result of this training, this group may accommo-
date more quickly to the realities of the in-
dustrial and business worlds; and thus make their
presence felt to their benefit and to the benefit of
society in general. O


1. E. Jantsch, Technological Forecasting in Perspective
O.E.C.D. Paris (1967).
2. J. R. Bright and M. E. F. Schoeman, A Guide to
Practical Technological Forecasting. Prentice-Hall
3. A. T. Olenzak: "Technological Forecasting: A Prag-

Continued from page 173.
to Air Pollution Control," A.I.Ch.E. Today Series,
AIChE, N. Y.
Dick, R. I., (1972), "Sludge Treatment," Chapter 12 in
Physicochemical Processes, W. J. Weber, Jr., Ed.
Wiley Interscience, N. Y.
Donaldson, E. C., (1974), "Subsurface Waste Injection
in the U.S.," U.S.B.M. Information Circular 8636.
Eckenfelder, W. W., and P. Krenkel, (1972), "Advanced
Wastewater Treatment," AIChE Today Series, AIChE,
Federal Register (1974), "Petroleum Refining Point
Source Category," Vol. 39, No. 91, May 9, p. 16559-
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, (1967),
"The Cost of Clean Water: Industrial Waste Profile
No. 5, Petroleum Refining," Washington, D. C.
Ford, D. L. and F. S. Manning, (1974), "Oil Removal
from Wastewaters," Presented at Short Course,
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, Nov. 11-
Kannapell, P. A. and J. G. Seebold, (1975), "Introduction
to Noise Control in the Process Industries," AIChE
Today Series, AIChE, N. Y. also Seebold's T. U.
Short Course Notes, October 1974.

H. P. Schreiber graduated with B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from
the University of Manitoba and obtained his Ph.D. at the University
of Toronto. Following post-doctoral work at N.R.C. Ottawa, he joined
Canadian Industries Ltd. in 1955, and served until 1973 as research
chemist, Research Scientist and Group Leader, concentrating on
polymer. He is Professor of ChE Ecole Polytechnique. Dr. Rigaud
is a graduate of Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, and holds bachelors,
masters and Ph.D. degrees from that Institution in metallurgical
engineering. Until 1974 Chairman of the Metallurgical Engineering
Department, he is currently Associate Director for Research at Sid-
bec-Dosco, Contrecouer.

matic Approach" Chem. Eng. Progress (No. 6) p.
27 (1972).
4. D. M. Kiefer "Chemicals 1992" Chem. and Eng.
News, July 10, 1972 (p. 6).
5. H. Kahn and Bruce-Briggs: "Things to Come,
Thinking about the 70's and 80's." MacMillan, New
York (1972).
6. R. U. Ayers, Technological Forecasting and Long-
Range Planning. McGraw Hill, N. Y. (1966).
7. J. P. Martino, An Introduction to Technological Fore-
casting. Gordon and Breach (1972).
8. J. P. Martino, Technological Forecasting for De-
cision Making. American Elsevier, N. Y. (1972).
9. J. H. Hallomon "Technology and the Productive Pro-
cess" Lecture, Sloan School of Management, M.I.T.
June (1974).
10. 1974 Engineering seminar conference on Technology
Assessment. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
11. D. Meadows, Donnella Meadows, J. Randers, W.
Behrens III. The Limits to Growth. Potomac As-
sociates (1972).

Manning, F. S. (1973), "Petroleum Refinery Waters and
Wastewaters," Presented at PAHO Short Course,
Trinidad, W. I., December 3-7.
Nelson, W. L. (1968), "Petroleum" Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology Vol. 14, 2nd Ed., p. 835, J.
Wiley & Sons, N. Y.
Novotny, V., and A. J. Englande, Jr., (1974), "Equaliza-
tion Design Techniques for Conservative Substances
in Wastewater Treatment Systems," Water Research
8, No. 6, p. 325.
Philoon, W. C. (1974), "Use of Talk-Back Closed Circuit
Television in Continuing Engineering Education,"
Proc. 9th Annual Midwest Section A. S. E. E., Wichita,
Kansas, March 28-29.
Reed, R. D. (1973), "Furnace Operations," Gulf Publ Co.,
Houston, Texas.
Sarofin, A. F. and W. Bartok, (1973), "Methods for Con-
trol of NOX Emissions," AIChE Advanced Seminar,
AIChE, N. Y.
Schnelle, K. B. and K. E. Noll (1972), "Meteorology and
Air Pollution Control," AIChE Today Series, AIChE,
N. Y.
Soper, M. L., D. H. Atwell, and F. S. Manning (1975),
"Mixing Effects in Surface-Aerated Basins," Water
Research (accepted for publication).



Engineers - Constructors


engineering for more energy

requires new ideas - YOURS

With a background of 65 years of engineering for the
process industries, C F Braun & Co occupies a unique
ground-floor position in three of the newer energy
fields - coal gasification, oil shale processing, and
nuclear fuels. Our nuclear projects include plants for
fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, and power gener-
ation. We are also engineering and will construct plants
to convert coal and oil shale to clean commercial fuels.

You, as an engineer, recognize that your future job
security and shortest route to promotion lie in areas
of new industrial technology. You want individual
recognition for your ideas. You want to be involved
with new concepts. You want to work in a congenial

atmosphere with senior engineers who can help you
advance rapidly in your career. You want to work in
a company that provides the ideal environment for
your professional growth. All of these, you will find
at Braun.

The rapid growth of our engineering and construction
work for the energy-conversion industries has opened
many career positions in our Engineering Headquarters
at Alhambra, California and in our Eastern Engineering
Center at Murray Hill, New Jersey. For more infor-
mation, please write to C F Braun & Co, Department
K, Alhambra, California 91802 or Murray Hill, New
Jersey 07974.


FALL 1975

4e a44t^e in


University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004

AT FIRST GLANCE it surprises enzymolo-
gists that enzymes are not utilized much
more widely in batch chemical engineering pro-
cesses. This attitude comes from the enzymolo-
gists' creed: "Enzymes will catalyze virtually
any chemical reaction, and they will do it better
than any other catalyst."
At second glance, however, the surprise is
gone. The problems associated with using enzyme
technology in chemical engineering processes are
immense: They range from the lack of educa-
tion about enzymes amongst chemical engineers
and the lack of education and interest about ChE
applications among enzymologists, to the severity
of the problems well trained biochemical en-
gineers must solve in order to keep enzymes happy
in environments dictated by engineering con-
The apparently recent realization that the
earth is a finite system has accelerated interest
in waste treatment processes, solar energy utili-
zation, clean-burning fuels, food technology, hu-
man population control, and environmental quali-
ty. Each of these important engineering problems
is related in some way to biological (and therefore
enzyme-catalyzed) processes. Biological degrada-
tion of waste is the oldest and still most widely-
used process of waste disposal. The sole energy
source in biology is the sun, so living systems are
old hands at capturing and utilizing solar energy.
Because micro-organisms have to co-exist with
what they excrete, relatively clean burning fuels
are the natural product of many biological fer-
mentations. Food is a biological material so its
manipulation and interconversion by enzyme-
catalyzed processes is clearly involving obvious
biological components.
For these and other reasons it became clear
that the catalysis program in our department

should include a graduate level course about
enzyme catalysis. We designed this course to pro-
vide engineers and students in the sciences with
a basic understanding of how enzymes and multi-
enzyme systems function as catalysts. Special
emphasis is on enzyme specificity, efficiency and
control, and how these characteristics relate to
potential applications in biochemical engineering.
The course is structured so that the student is
exposed to: [1] basic concepts about enzymes
and enzyme catalysis and [2] the methodologies of
enzyme chemistry and enzyme kinetics.
The course is designed for first level graduate
students in engineering, but senior-level under-
graduate students in chemical engineering,
chemistry, or the biological sciences, as well as
graduate students in these sciences, and interested
medical students are welcome to register. I would
expect adequately prepared students in any of
these categories to be able to do well in this
course. Obviously, a knowledge of biochemistry

The enzymologist's creed: "Enzymes will catalyze
virtually any chemical reaction, and they will do
it better than any other catalyst."

and/or enzymology would be helpful, but it is not
essential. The prerequisites listed for the course
are calculus, physical chemistry, organic
chemistry, and elementary computer pro-
gramming. The principle reference material in-
cludes the following four books: Enzyme Reac-
tions and Enzyme Systems [1], Biochemical Regu-
latory Mechanisms in Eukaryotic Cells [2], Steady-
state Applications in Enzyme Kinetics [3], and
Immobilized Enzymes [4].

I. The Chemical Structure of Enzymes
The purpose of this part of the course is to


introduce the student to basic concepts about
enzyme structure and function.
The first section outlines the nomenclature
recommended for enzymes in the 1961 Report of
the Commission on Enzymes of the International
Union of Biochemistry [5]. The second section
provides the student with an understanding of
the role in protein structure and enzyme activity
of the peptide bond, other covalent bonds, hydro-
gen bonding, apolar associative forces, and other

Course Outline
I. The Chemical Structure of Enzymes
A. Enzyme nomenclature
B. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
C. The concept of the "active site"
D. The concept of the "regulatory site"
E. Cofactors
F. Control properties implicit in chemical struc-
II. Kinetic Properties of Single Enzymes in Solution
A. The general theory of enzyme kinetics, the
law of mass action
B. Initial transient kinetics
C. The quasi-steady-state approximation and its
validity in enzyme kinetics
D. Quasi-steady-state models
E. Near-equilibrium techniques and their kinetic
F. Near-equilibrium versus quasi-steady-state
tracer distribution kinetics
G. Simulation of enzyme models on analog and
digital computers
H. Computer methods for generating rate equa-
tions for enzyme models
I. The collection and analysis of enzyme kinetic
data with on-line computational facilities.
III. Kinetic Properties of Multi-enzyme Systems
A. The general theory of control; applications in
biochemical engineering
B. The theory of far-from-equilibrium systems;
applications to multi-enzyme systems
C. Kinetics of multi-component systems without
feedback control
D. Kinetics of multi-component systems with
feedback control
E. Integrated reaction kinetics of enzyme reactors
F. Simultaneous reactors and diffusion in enzyme
IV. Immobilized Enzymes and Enzyme Systems
A. Types of support
B. Covalent coupling methods
C. Effects due to coupling on enzyme activity
and other enzyme properties
D. Theoretical effects of immobilization on enzyme
E. Consideration of physical and diffusional con-
straints imposed by the carrier on enzyme

Charles F. Walter received his B.S. (1957), M.S. (1959), and Ph.D.
(1962) degrees in chemistry at Florida State University. He was ap-
pointed Assistant Professor (1964) and Associate Professor (1968)
of Biochemistry at the University of Tennessee Medical School in
Memphis. In 1970 he was appointed Associate Professor of Bio-
mathematics and Associate Professor of Biochemistry at the Uni-
versity of Texas System Cancer Center, M. D. Anderson Hospital and
Tumor Institute in Houston. In 1974 Dr. Walter was appointed to
his present position as Professor of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Houston. His research and teaching interests include
enzymology applied to biochemical engineering problems in hydro-
gen generation from cellulose, the chemistry of nucleotide-nucleotide.

non-covalent interactions. Section C, about the
catalytic sites of enzymes, emphasizes current
ideas about the indigenous nature of certain sites
on enzyme surfaces, and how sites not indigenous
on the enzyme surface can be induced by the
proximity of a ligand (usually the substrate) to
the site area. Similarly, Section D, which is about
regulatory binding sites on enzymes, emphasizes
current concepts about how these noncatalytic
sites, when associated with specific ligand mole-
cules, interact with catalytic sites and thereby
alter catalytic activity. General models involving
cooperative interactions between regulatory and
catalytic sites and stimulation or inhibition of
catalytic behavior are emphasized [6, 7]. Section
E deals with the role of cofactors in the induction
of non-indigenous substrate binding sites, and
the last section is about the type of control of
catalytic activity that is "built in" by the primary,
second, tertiary, and quaternary structure of

II. Kinetic Properties of Single Enzymes in Solution

The purpose of this part of the course is to
provide the students with a fundamental under-
standing of the kinetics and control properties
of single isolated enzymes in homogenous solu-

FALL 1975

The first section reviews the law of mass ac-
tion and its applications to enzyme models. The
overall chemical reaction, the development of em-
pirical kinetic equations for enzyme-catalyzed re-
actions, the relation between these kinetic equa-
tions and initial rate equations, and a description

The apparently recent realization that the earth is a
finite system has accelerated interest in waste
treatment processes, solar energy utilization,
cleanburning fuels, food technology, human
population control and environmental quality.
Each of these ... is related in some way to
biological (and therefore enzyme-catalyzed) processes.

of a general initial quasi-steady-state rate equa-
tion for multisubstrate enzyme models are in-
cluded in Section A. The second section is about
the kinetic behavior of enzyme-catalyzed reac-
tions prior to the attainment of a quasi-steady-
state. Section C includes a rigorous discussion of
the concept of a quasi-steady-state in a closed
system, and a derivation of the relationship be-
tween the error introduced by using the quasi-
steady-state approximation, the magnitude of the
kinetic constants for the enzyme, and the experi-
mental initial conditions used. Section D is a re-
view of quasi-steady-state enzyme models, the
use of the King and Altman algorithm [8] to de-
rive them, and the relationship between these
approximate mathematical models and the real
chemical mechanisms they approximate. Sections
E and F are about the relaxation kinetics of
enzyme reactions that have been perturbed
slightly from thermodynamic equilibrium. Pertur-
bation techniques that are discussed include step-
wise temperature changes, periodic pressure
variations, and the addition of small quantities
of a radioactively labelled reactant. In section F
the usefulness of kinetic experiments involving
the addition of traces of labelled reactant to an
enzyme and its reactants near thermodynamic
equilibrium, and kinetic experiments wherein
large quantities of labelled substrate are added
to an enzyme and its reactants far from equili-
brium, is compared. Section G is about the simu-
lation of enzyme models on analog computers, and
their numerical "simulation" on digital machines.
For the digital simulations we have chosen the
program by Chance, Shephard and Curtis, "The

University College London Enzyme Simulator"
[9]. This program is especially easy to use because
it "automatically" translates the individual
chemical steps into mathematical relationships
via a built-in equation translator routine. Section
H explains the use of a computer program [10, 11]
that uses the King and Altman [8] algorithm to
derive quasi-steady-state rate equations for any
enzyme model. The last section of this part is a
description of how enzyme kinetic data is properly
analyzed. This section includes a comparison of
the graphical and "standard" statistical pro-
cedures usually employed in the analysis of en-
zyme rates, a discussion of one-line methods for
the collection and analysis of data from enzyme-
catalyzed reactions, a critical evaluation of in-
tegrated forms of quasi-steady-state rate equa-
tions, and the use of experimental data and digital
computer programs like "The University College
London Enzyme Simulator" [9] to estimate in-
dividual rate constants in assumed enzyme models.

III. Kinetic Properties of Multi-enzyme Systems
The purpose of this part of the course is to
provide the students with a comprehensive under-
standing of the kinetics and control properties of
a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a
homogeneous solution.
The first section reviews the general theory
of control for linear and nonlinear systems. Ap-
plication of the Lyapunov direct method to biolo-
gical control systems of interest in biochemical
engineering is illustrated, and the existence and
significance of limit cycles in biochemical systems
is discussed. The next section is about the theory
of far-from-equilibrium chemical systems; dis-
sipative structures and the spatial and temporal
organization of such systems are discussed from
the point of view of the rich organizational be-
havior implicit in the nonlinear partial differential
equations that describe them. Sections C and D
are about the dynamics, stability, and control
properties of nonlinear multi-chemical systems
with or without feedback control; emphasis in
these sections is on multi-enzyme systems with
negative feedback of the Yates and Pardee [12]
type, or positive feedback of the type thought to
be responsible for the limit cycle concentration
oscillations of the components in the glycolytic
pathway [13, 14]. Analysis of the stability pro-
perties of these control systems is carried out
with the aid of: [1] the usual analysis for


linearized systems [15, 16]; [2] perturbation
theory; [3] the Aisermann conjecture [17]; [4]
the Lur's transformation and algorithm for ob-
taining a global Lyapunov function [18]; and [5]
computer simulations of the nonlinear differential
equations [19, 20]. The analysis of the control
properties is carried out by comparing the sensi-
tivity of metabolic levels of the components in
the models to parameter variations. The last two
sections are about applications of the theory of
enzyme kinetics and control to chemical reactor
processes. Section E deals with situations where
diffusion is not important, and Section F with
examples where the effects of diffusion must be
included in the differential equations describing
the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the reactor.

IV. Immobilized Enzymes and Enzyme Systems
The purpose of the last part of the course
is to acquaint students with heterogeneous en-
zyme catalysis and its role in problems in bio-
chemical engineering.
The first two sections review the various types
of supports and covalent coupling methods used
to bind enzymes. Section C is about the effects of
immobilization methods on enzyme structure, and
especially on those aspects of structure changes
which effect enzyme activity via modification of
the active site and/or control sites. This section
introduces the student to possible effects of these
structural modifications on the overall kinetics of
the immobilized enzymes. The next section com-
pares the kinetics of homogeneous and hetero-
geneous enzymes or enzyme systems. The last
section examines the physical and diffusional con-
straints imposed on enzymes or multi-enzyme sys-
tems by immobilization. Ol

1. C. Walter, Enzyme Reactions and Enzyme Systems,
Marcel Dekker, Inc., Publishers, New York, 1975.
2. C. Walter, Ch. 11 in Biochemical Regulatory Me-
chanisms in Eukaryotic Cells, Edited by E. Kun and
S. Grisolia, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Interscience
Publishers, New York 1972.
3. C. Walter, Steady-state Applications in Enzyme
Kinetics, Ronald Press Publishers, New York, 1965.
4. 0. Zaborsky, Immobilized Enzymes, Edited by R.
Weast, Chemical Rubber Company Press Publishers,
Cleveland, 1973.
5. Report of the Commission on Enzymes of the Inter-
national Union of Biochemistry, Pergamon Press
Publishers, London, 1961.

6. J. Botts, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 593 (1958).
7. C. Walter, Proc Biophys. Soc. 14, 120a (1970).
8. E. King and C. Altman, J. Phys. Chem. 60, 1375
9. For a description of this program, see reference 1,
Chapter 4.
10. D. Fisher and A. Schultz, Math. Biosciences 4, 189
11. A. Schultz and D. Fisher, Canadian J. Biol. Chem.
47, 889 (1968).
12. P. Yates and A. Pardee, J. Biol. Chem., 221 (1956).
13. A. Ghosh and B. Chance, Biochem. Biophys. Res.
Commun. 16, 174 (1964).
14. J. Higgins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 51, 989 (1964).
15. C. Walter, Biophys. J. 9, 863 (1969).
16. G. Viniegra-Gonzalez and H. Martinez, Proc. Bio-
phys. Soc. 13, 210A (1969).
17. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 23, 23 (1969).
18. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 23, 39 (1969).
19. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 27, 259 (1970).
20. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 44, 219 (1974).

Continued from page 183.

processes and the treatment is thorough and com-
plete and certainly not elementary. The funda-
mentals are covered in 5 chapters in Section I and
then in Section II two chapters are devoted to
modeling and rate process fundamentals followed
by 5 chapters on adsorption, distillation and ex-
traction. In these chapters several different models
are proposed and then selected ones are used to
model actual field results for industrial columns.
For example a packed distillation column 34 ft.
high and containing 9260 lbs. of Pall Rings is
modeled in detail as is a packed extractor 72 ft.
high and 5 ft. in diameter handling 12,000 barrels
of kerosene per day. There are other examples for
plate towers. The results appear to be uniformly
good. Calculated and experimental product com-
positions agree well over wide variations in the
input parameters.
The book should be useful in a senior or grad-
uate level design course. There are numerous
problems and plenty of references. If very much
use was to be made of the techniques, access to a
computer would be needed for solving sets of
equations for separations involving many com-
ponents and many plates. The book should also be
useful to industrial designers although I would
think that most would already be familiar with
the methods in this book since the techniques
have been published in various journals and
theses. O

FALL 1975

4 owua4e in4


University of California
Berkeley, California 94720

proven to be exceptionally beneficial over the
last fifteen years for the control of project opera-
tions, and for task planning and control in many
industries. In addition to its proven success in
industry, the critical path method has been applied
successfully in the education educational sphere
for the planning of ChE curricula [1]. The vast
majority of the literature on CPM concerns ap-
plications requiring computer solution of the
critical path by parametric, linear programming
[2], whereas non-computer methods are needed for
the routine application of this method in small
laboratory research projects. In this paper, a
simplified procedure is presented for applying
the critical path method to graduate research
programs, using noncomputerized techniques
readily available to the student. Recent experience
with the method is drawn from several graduate-
level ChE research programs.


THE BASIC CONCEPTS of critical path
planning were initially developed in two
fundamentally different forms. The "probabilistic"
approach was known as Program Evaluation of
Research Tasks (PERT) or PERT with costs
(PERTCO) [3]. In this form, individual research
and development tasks, whose duration and cost
could not be accurately estimated, were assigned
a range of probable duration and cost. These

The critical path method is applied to
graduate research programs ... Experience
shows a high correlation between task identification
and effective task completion by the student.

TABLE I. Steps in the Critical Path Method
Phase I. Project decomposition into a realistic network
of task sequences.
A. Assignment of individual tasks.
B. Estimate of times and cost benefits.
C. Construction of a precedence-contribu-
tion matrix.
D. Assignments of topical sequences.
Phase II. Critical path determination for a normal
project rate.
A. Construction of an arrow diagram.
B. Determination of the critical path.
Phase III. Time-cost-benefit optimization
A. Estimation of times and cost-benefits
for highest rate.
B. Calculation of incremental cost slopes.
C. Determination of the critical path.

data were then incorporated into a computerized
critical-path control program. A second form of
CPM, called Project Planning and Scheduling
System (PPSS), was predicated on a more de-
terministic approach, where the controlling
variables of individual tasks are assumed to be
estimated with reasonable accuracy [4]. The
latter approach has been utilized effectively in the
chemical and construction industries [4, 5]. The
deterministic approach is more suitable for
graduate research planning provided that the
controlling variables can be quantitatively

THERE ARE THREE important phases of the
CPM method developed here for graduate re-
search. These are summarized in Table I. In the
first phase, the overall project is divided into
distinct tasks. It is useful to divide long project
operations into a sequence of separate tasks.
The tasks are then ordered into topical sequences
with the aid of a precedence-contribution matrix:
each task follows its precedents, but should come
before tasks to which it contributes. An arrow
diagram is then constructed from which the
critical path is determined, again using informa-


tion in the precedence-contribution matrix. The
program is finally optimized by calculating the in-
cremental cost-benefits per unit of time saved,
for alternative forms of the project tasks.
The noncomputer critical path method pro-
posed for graduate research planning is perhaps
best illustrated with an example. Consider a
typical set of research tasks arising in a project
having both analytical and experimental com-
ponents. Following the steps listed in Table I, one
first lists the individual tasks of the project and
assigns values of the time required and the cost-
benefit to each, as shown in the left-hand part of
Table II. Dead times requiring no work input
are separately listed. Next, a precedence-contri-
bution matrix is constructed, as shown in Table
III, where the precedent steps are identified, as
are subsequent steps which benefit from each
step. The information on precedents is then used
to construct the topical sequences shown in Table
III. Here, for example, task 2 is listed following
task 1 in sequence because task 1 is a precedent,
whereas task 3 is placed at the start of a new
sequence because no precedent step is required.
All duplicate tasks numbers in this table could
be deleted to simplify the table.
The second phase of the method is the deter-
mination of the critical path for a normal project
rate. For this, an arrow diagram is first con-
structed from the information in Tables III and
IV, with arrows connecting each step to its re-
quired precedent steps, as shown by the solid lines
in Fig. la. Then, Table II is examined to deter-
mine the first subsequent step to which a given
step contributes. These contributions are denoted
by the dotted lines in Fig. la.
It is evident from Fig. la that task 3 could
proceed task 1, but there is no clear precedence
requirement. It is appropriate, therefore, to fur-
ther subdivide task 1 into two parts, where one



0 50 100
Time (days)

o0 O Time (days) 100
FIGURE 1. Task sequencing of a typical graduate research program:
a) arrow diagram, b) critical path for a normal program rate, c)
critical path for an accelerated rate.

part requires task 3 as a precedent. Note also,
that several tasks are in parallel (i.e., 2, 4 and 6)
and could be performed by a large work force.
The graduate student constitutes a one-man crew,
however, and therefore an addition criterion must
be supplied to determine the task sequence. Two
criteria are proposed here: (i) Table II is
examined for each task in a parallel group (i.e., 2,
4 and 6). The number of contribution entries in
the column for each is counted, and the task with
the highest number of "C" entries is performed
first. Alternately, (ii) the parallel tasks should
be further subdivided and ordered so that the
graduate student alternates his time between
them, thereby gaining experience with all the
tasks early in the program. Following criterion
(i), one can readily arrive at the critical path
program shown in Fig. lb for the normal program
rate. The critical path is denoted by double ar-
rows, while idle time durations are denoted by
wavey arrows (e.g., for task 2).

(Continued on page 203.)

TABLE II. Time, Cost and Cost-Slope Estimates for a Typical Project

Task Name
Define Problem
Order Supplies
Lit. Survey
Construct App.
Analyt. Calc.
Data Reduction
Compare Theo & Exp.
Write Reports

Normal Rate Accelerated Rate
Time (d) Cost-Benefit ($) Time (d) Cost-Benefit ($)
5 100 5 100
30* 520 30 520
5 100 5 100
20 1000 10 2000
20 400 20 400
20 700 10 1000
10 200 5 200
10 200 10 200
10 200 10 200

Cost S ope ($/d)



*29 day dead time.

FALL 1975




State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14214

THE PURPOSE OF this study was to deter-
mine how such measures1 of departmental
and research quality as number of citations of
current research papers, number of citations of
the research of a lifetime, number of Ph.D.'s
graduated, funds expended for research, number
of papers published, and others, correlate with
one another and with the quality or visibility of
departments as measured by peer evaluations
such as those conducted by Cartter [1] and more
recently by Roose and Andersen [2]. The number
of citations by others correlates best with the
other measures in the present study.
Numerous studies of citation analysis have
been reported relatively recently [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].
Also, the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)

has conducted a citation study for the National
Science Foundation of all professors in the 78
leading chemistry departments listed in the Roose-
Andersen report [2]. Several questions arise re-
garding the use of citations as measures of the
quality of the research of an individual or group.
First, does the number of citations provide a
reasonably valid measure of research quality?
Second, should one be concerned primarily with
citations of recent work or of the work of a life-
time in assessing the value of the contributions
that one has the potential for making in the
future? Third, do citation counts correlate with
other measures of quality, both objective and sub-
jective? Fourth, can one compare the quality of
individuals or groups in different disciplines on
the basis of citation counts?
In the present study a simple random sample
of 21 departments of chemical engineering in
the U.S. universities was selected. Citations were
counted in the Science Citation Index (SCI) (11)


Spearman Rank Order Intercorrelation Coefficients for Departments of Chemical Engineering
N = Number of Departments Correlated in the Measure

No. N Measure
1 21 Citations by others
2 21 Total citations
3 21 Citations/professor
4 21 Papers with 5-9 citations
5 21 Self-citations
6 21 Lifetime citations
7 21 Number of papers
8 17 Research expenditures
9 9 Papers with 10+ citations
10 12 Papers/professor
11 21 Citations/paper
12 21 Papers with 0-4 citations
13 16 1970 Rating of Graduate Programs
14 21 Ph.D.'s graduated
15 21 Ph.D.'s./professor

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

.99 .95 .93 .91 .87
.95 .93 .93 .87
.89 .87 .82
.93 .84

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15


for 1965-9 (cumulative), 1970, 1971, and through
June of 1972. The departments were ranked by
number of citations, etc., and the rankings were
compared with the unpublished Roose-Andersen
rankings (that were supplied by Andersen) by
use of the Spearman rank-order intercorrelation
coefficients between all pairs of rankings. Results
are in Table 1. All correlations are significant at
least at the five percent level of confidence.


T HE NUMBERS OF citations to research by
professors in different ChE departments varies
much more than do other measures. In the 21
departments studied, the average number of life-
time citations' per professor varied in different
departments from 275 in one department to 8
in another department with a mean of 79 for all
professors in all departments; average number
of citations1 of 1967-9 articles per professor varied
from 40 to 0.9 with a mean of 13 per department;
number of papers published per professor in
different departments varied from 6.5 to 0.63
with a mean of 3.6. The variation among in-
dividual professors is much greater than among
departments. For example, lifetime citations vary
from 0 to 1,100 and those of 1967-9 articles from
0 to 162. Thus, it seems that the recognition, as
measured by the number of citations to works of
professors in different departments, varies much
more than does the rate at which they publish
articles, and departments with professors who
publish more, on the average, seem to be the
source of work that is used (cited) more. These
data dispel the myth that those who publish
prolifically, publish less significant work; quantity
and quality are correlated highly positively.
Our low correlation coefficient, 0.17, between
the number of articles and peer recognition
(Roose & Andersen (RA) study (2)) contrasts
with the 0.67 obtained by Hagstrom [12] for
biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics de-
partments. This suggests that there may be a
difference, on the average, between the impact
of science and applied science articles.
Departmental reputations as measured by the
RA study [2], tend to correlate slightly better
with lifetime citations than with '67-9 depart-
mental citations.1 That is, it is not only the work
that is presently being done or has been done in
the recent past, but also the work that has been
done years ago, that contributes significantly to

the reputation among peers of individuals and
departments. Our results show the correlation
coefficient between peer judgment (RA) and the
first-author citations to be 0.65; Hagstrom [12]
obtained 0.69. Also, our results for both first-au-
thor lifetime citations and total '67-9 citations
are 0.65 and 0.62, respectively; Hagstroms and
our results are on the same order but are some-
what lower than the 0.75 obtained in the recent
study of 78 leading chemistry departments carried
out by ISI [13]. On the other hand, our correlation
between citations per article and the RA ratings
is 0.66 whereas the ISI correlation is only 0.48.
The ISI counting by computer was the most com-
prehensive, ours was next, and Hagstrom's was
the least since he apparently used first-author
data for only 1966.

W E HAVE CONSIDERED essentially five
different measures of excellence including
various types of citation counts, research support,

We have considered essentially five different measures
of excellence including various types of citation
counts, research support, numbers of papers
published, peer evaluations and Ph.D.'s produced.

numbers of papers published, peer evaluations
and Ph.D.'s produced. Clearly, the various types
of citation counts overlap in items counted and
therefore high correlation coefficients between
these counts are not surprising. The other four
measures are not so obviously related to one an-
other or to citation counts. Therefore, we might
wish to ask which of the ways of counting cita-
tions has the highest mean correlation with the
four non-citation measures. On this basis citations
by others and total citations per department
correlate most highly with the other measures
(0.70 and 0.69) and these are followed by citations
per professor (0.63).
It is somewhat surprising that number 15,
Ph.D.'s graduated per professor has among the
lowest correlation with the other measures. How-
ever, number 14, Ph.D.'s graduated per depart-
ment, correlates quite well, on the same order
as citation counts, with the peer evaluations of

FALL 1975


Data on Measures

1 Citations by others/dept.
2 Total citations/dept.
3 Citations/professor
4 Papers with 5-9 citations
5 Self-citations/dept.
6 Lifetime citations/dept.
7 Number of papers/dept.
8 Research expenditures/yr.
9 Papers with 10-plus citations
10 Papers/professor
11 Citations/paper
12 Papers with 0-4 citations
13 Withheld
14 Ph.D's. Graduated/yr.
15 Ph.D's./professor/yr.
16 Lifetime citations/professor
17 Professors/school

the Roose-Andersen 1970 Rating of Graduate
Programs. This implies that department size is
important and larger departments are more
visible to others in the field.
Maxima, minima, means, and medians of the
measures in Table 1, plus numbers 16 and 17,
are given in Table II. It is interesting to note that,
on a departmental basis, the citation counts per
professor show means and medians that do not
differ greatly. However, number 16 in Table II,
which refers to the lifetime citations per in-
dividual, shows a mean of about 79 and a median
of 33. This indicates that, on an individual basis,

Relationship between

2a 140
24 120

1a a.

14 70
12 61

8 40
4 O
2 10
0 0
353 4044 45 49 5054 55 59 60 AND OVER
age and productivity in Chemical Engineers.

the distribution of citations is highly skewed and
that a relatively small number of highly talented
people contribute work that is highly cited and
which accounts for a large fraction of all of the
citations of the entire group. Thus, the mean
does not reflect the performance of the average
individual because the average is so strongly in-
fluenced by those with outstanding citation
records. The median seems much more represen-
tative of average individual performance.
It does not seem reasonable to compare the
quality of departments in different disciplines by
the measures discussed. For example, the average
chemistry article is cited close to 10 times (one
department was lowest with 5.3, another had 25.3
in the ISI study) whereas the average ChE article
is cited about 3 times or less. Some data were ob-
tained on various engineering departments to see
if citation rates differ among them. It appears
that civil and mechanical engineers cite somewhat
less frequently (1/3 to 1/2) than do chemical
engineers, and electrical engineers cite perhaps
twice as frequently as do chemical engineers.
The relationship between age and productivity
of chemical engineers is interesting. As shown in
Figure 1, all measures of research productivity
peak in the 40-44 age group; individuals in this
group published an average of approximately 5
papers each during the two-year period, 1967-9,
and these papers were cited approximately 5 times
each; the lifetime citations for this group
averaged about 126 per professor.














E VALUATION OF THE performance of in-
dividuals and departments is difficult at best,
but it is customary and necessary. Appointment,
funding, promotion, ranking, selection, and tenure
depend upon the results of evaluation. Objective
data, such as those discussed here, are useful (if
crude) measures that enable one to minimize un-
realistic appraisals. It certainly seems that the
number of citations should be included in any
evaluation of the research performance of in-
dividuals or departments. Indeed, the dossier of
every candidate for tenure or promotion should
include a citation analysis of his published work.


1. Citations by others: Number of non-self citations of
works published between 1967 and 1969 and listed
in the American Chemical Society Directory of Gradu-
ate Research, 1971 [10] (including those works in

Charles L. Bernier, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D., is listed in American
Men of Science. He is professor at the State University of New
York at Buffalo in the School of Information and Library Studies.
He was Editor of Chemical Abstracts and Director of ASTIA. He has
been associated with: the National Library of Medicine, National
Institutes of Health, Rutgers-The State University, Squibb Institute
for Medical Research, International Flavors and Fragrances; American
Dental Association; Auerbach; Computer Sciences Corporation; Hor-
ton Steel Works, Ltd.; International Flavors and Fragrances; National
Library of Medicine; National Institute for Neurological Diseases and
Blindness; University of Missouri Medical Center; and Hooker
Chemical Corporation. His research interests in information science
include: condensed literatures such as indexed abstracts, extracts,
and terse literatures; information centers and services; data processing
(spectral, organoleptic, organostructural, etc.); and measurement of
knowledge transfer. (LEFT)
William N. Gill took his Ph.D. at Syracuse University and re-
mained there on the faculty until 1965 at which time he joined the
Department of Chemical Engineering at Clarkson College of Tech-
nology as Chairman. In 1971 he became Provost of the Faculty of
Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Chemical En-

which the author studied is not listed first on the
work). Science Citation Indexes: 1965-9 cumulative,
1970, 1971, and the first half of 1972 were used for
the random sample of 21 departments of chemical
engineering in the U. S.
2. Total citations: Self-citations plus citations by
3. Citations/professor: Total citations of '67-9 works
divided by number of faculty members.
4. Papers with 5-9 citations: Works published in the
'67-9 period per department-with 5-9 total citations.
5. Self-citations: Authors' citations of their own '67-9
works (including those works on which their names
do not appear first).
6. Lifetime citations: The number of citations, in-
cluding self-citations, to all works on which a faculty
member is first or only author.
7. Number of papers: Works published in the '67-9
8. Research expenditures: Dollars spent per depart-
ment for research per year, averaged for the '67-9
9. Papers with 10-plus citations: Works published in

(Continued on page 202.)

gineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He has
written about 100 articles on theoretical and experimental studies
in transport phenomena. Recently his main research activities have
been in reverse osmosis, including hollow fiber systems, and the de-
velopment of a new theory of unsteady convective diffusion in which
a generalized dispersion model is derived from first principles.
Raymond G. Hunt is Director of the Survey Research Center, and
is Faculty Professor of Social Sciences and Administration at the
State University of New York at Buffalo. He received his Ph.D. from
the University of Buffalo where he was formerly Professor of Social
Psychology and chairman for Graduate Studies in the Department
of Psychology. He has also served as Acting Director of the Social
Science Research Institute at SUNYAB and was previously Professor
in the Department of Community Service Education, College of Human
Ecology, Cornell University. Professor Hunt is a Fellow of the
American Psychological Association and a member of the American
Sociological Association, the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Sciences, the Association of Research Administrators, and
the Academy of Management. He is author or co-author of four books
and of numerous articles and papers. (RIGHT)

FALL 1975

views and opinions



University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla. 32601

T HE QUESTION to be answered is not only
should an engineer blow the whistle on in-
dustry but whether students of engineering
should be taught to do so. This leads to the broad
question of whether moral or ethical standards of
any kind should be taught to engineering stu-
dents. Our answer is that we consider our students
to be free individuals who must ultimately make
their own choices based on their own sense of
values. The teacher cannot play God; he cannot
program them with a list of rules or a set of ab-
solutes. What he can do, however, is to assist
them in seeing the alternatives and to familarize
them with the way others have approached moral
problems. The teacher can tell them how he might
act in a given situation and he can make them
conscious and aware of the consequences of moral
decisions (or indecisions) but he should not and
cannot make the decisions for them.
However, in order to give the student a basis
for making his moral decisions we would present
for his consideration the following hierarchy of
moral values that have been proposed by the
philosopher Robert Hartman:
1) Extrinsic values: These are basically ma-
terial values, e.g. the monetary value of
an automobile, a house, a boat, a heat ex-
changer, or of any material thing.
2) Systemic values: These deal with systems
or organizations. Loyalty to an organiza-
tion such as one's employer, to a fraternity,
to a school, to a profession, to a depart-
ment in a university, to one's country, or
to a political system are systemic values.

*Presented at the American Society for Engineering
Education Annual Conference, June 25-28, 1973 Iowa
State University Ames, Iowa 50010.

Ray Fahien is professor of chemical engineering at the University
of Florida and a former chairman of the department. He received
his bachelor's in chemical engineering at Washington University (St.
Louis), his master's at University of Missouri (Rolla) and his Ph.D.
at Purdue. He has worked for Ethyl Corporation and has taught at
Rolla, at Iowa State, at the University of Brazil, and at the University
of Wisconsin. He is now on leave as a UNESCO consultant at the
University of the Orient in Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela.
John C. Biery is Chairman and Professor of chemical engineer-
ing at the University of Florida. He received his bachelor's in
chemical engineering at the University of Michigan and his Ph.D.
at Iowa State University. He did postdoctoral work under Prof.
R. B. Bird at the University of Wisconsin and has worked at Dow
Chemical Co. and at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. He has taught
at the University of Arizona and at Florida and is the author of
papers on sodium technology, transport phenomena liquid-liquid ex-
traction, and engineering education. He is a member of the ASEE
Chemical Engineering Division Executive Committee, and chairman
of the Motivational Techniques Session at the November 1975 AIChE
meeting in Los Angeles.

3) Intrinsic values: These might also be called
human or spiritual values. They include the
idea of the infinite worth and dignity of a
human being. Intrinsic values cannot be
measured in terms of dollars and cents.
The highest of these values is that of an
individual human life.
While systemic values are rated higher than
extrinsic values, they are superseded by intrinsic
values. Everything in the world, including the
world itself, can be valued extrinsically, sys-
temically, or intrinsically. For example, a button
can be valued systemically as the product of a
button factory, extrinsically as a useful part of
a shirt, and intrinsically as an object to which a
fetishist is devoted.
An engineering student can be valued sys-
temically as another graduate or "product" of a
department, extrinsically in comparison with
other engineering students, and intrinsically in
his own uniqueness as a human being.


Let us now apply these to some possible cases
in which the engineer must make a moral de-
cision. In each case we will presume that the
financial welfare of the company is in jeopardy
and that the engineer subscribes to the above
hierarchy of values.
Case I: The company is releasing substances
or manufactures a product that will undoubtedly
result in death or serious injury; e.g. a botulism-
causing bacteria in a canned good or the release of
fluorides into the atmosphere. The engineer must
"blow the whistle" because human life, an intrin-
sic value, is more important than the good of the
company, a systemic value.
Case II: The company releases substances or
manufactures a product that may result in death
or serious injury. For example, his company is
making flammable children's pajamas or labeling
a combustible urethane foam as non-combustible.
In this case the engineer must first decide wheth-
er a high probability of human death or injury
actually does exist under the likely conditions of
use. We feel that if such a risk is real he would
be justified in informing consumer and govern-
mental groups of the potential danger-assuming
that he has done everything in his power to con-
vince management of the problem.
Case III: The company is making a product
that is to be used in a conflict that the engineer
considers to be an "unjust" war. In this case the
engineer should resign if his personal conscience
tells him that he cannot work for a company that
makes such a product. However, if there is a
legitimate difference of opinion as to whether a
war is or is not just, he should be cautious about
inflicting his own moral concepts on others by
publicly "blowing the whistle." On the other hand
he might recall that Adolf Eichman, who burned
thousands of Jews in ovens during World War II,
claimed he was innocent because he was merely
following orders and acting as a "transportation
system". This is a good example of placing sys-
temic values-presumably loyalty to the country
-ahead of intrinsic values. The chemists and en-
gineers who worked for the Krupp works in Nazi
Germany undoubtedly also felt that their re-
sponsibility was only to the company and to their
Case IV: The company is releasing pollutants
that the engineer thinks are deletrious to the en-
vironment, but which are not directly dangerous
to humans. In this case, the company is probably,
under today's legal atmosphere, already taking

steps to eliminate the problem. If so, the engineer
should work within the company to accelerate the
process. He should balance the good he can do in
that manner against the good and harm he might
do by "blowing the whistle". In this case both
the good of the environment and the financial
welfare of the company can be viewed intrinsical-
ly in terms of their effects on people. In the name
of human values the environment must be pro-
tected, but also, in the name of human values, the
role of the company in manufacturing a useful
product and in providing employment to the com-
munity must be considered. Here each case must
be decided separately, but loyalty to the company
should not require them to defend a company
that repeatedly despoils the environment.
Case V: The company is selling a product that
is useless but is known to be harmless; e.g. a
battery or crankcase additive, or an ineffective
but harmless patent medicine. In this case he
should honestly inform management of the re-
sults of any tests that he had made. If the product
is then falsely advertised, he should leave the

We feel therefore that the engineer today
should be aware that there are really two elements
of the question of blowing the whistle on in-
dustry: One is the attempt to do it internally, to
influence management in ways that are both bene-
ficial to the company but which still satisfy the
moral integrity of the engineer as he views him-
self and as he views his job in reference to the

While systematic values are rated higher than extrinsic
values, they are superseded by intrinsic values.
Everything in the world, including the world itself,
can be valued extrinsically, systemically
or intrinsically.

company and to the society about him. The
second is to do something externally. We feel
that this should be done if the first approach
fails. Of course some may argue that the engineer
who tries to accomplish change of this type in-
ternally is doomed to failure. While this may
have been true in the past, we feel that the young

FALL 1975

engineer who is leaving the university and enter-
ing industry today has a great opportunity, if he
so wishes, to have an impact on the decision and
management processes of his company. One
possible reason for this increased influence is
the teetering balance in which the companies find
themselves between the problems of continued
profitability and the pressure of (a) maintaining
safety standards for OSHA, (b) in meeting pollu-
tion standards as prescribed by EPA, and (c) in
meeting the demands of equal employment and
non-discrimination as required by various federal
laws and as expedited by the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare. From our point
of view, one of our important jobs in education is
to inform the engineer of his position of making
his influence felt and known in the organization
that he is joining.
We also think that at this time efforts in the
direction of being immediately involved can have
definite results. The trend in many management
schemes is to try to drop the decision making
process to the lowest possible level. One company
(as we have been informed recently) is involved
in such a program in which the lowest level of
either management (or maybe non-management;
i.e. the actual operating personnel) will make the
decisions which they can make. They can influence
their job each day and possibly even influence
more than themselves; they may influence the
organization in which they are working. In the
experience of one of us at Los Alamos Scientific
Laboratory, the decision making process was
very much centered in the so-called staff member.
He was not a member of management as such but
actually the ideas for projects, the direction that
projects were to proceed came in most cases from
the staff member. We hope that our students will
go out into the industry with the idea that they
are a member of the management team and that
they can contribute directly to the decision-mak-
ing processes going on.

IN THIS DISCUSSION we have been influenced
to a great extent by the book, The Greening
of America by Reich. Many of his descriptions
of human nature, of the types of Consciousness I,
II, and III, from our own experience, are extreme-
ly accurate. These descriptions illustrate how
most engineers perhaps have behaved in the past
and how they possibly might behave in the fu-

ture. A good number of engineers are members
of the Consciousness II group as described by
Reich. This group is one that believes in large
organizations, large structured groups. A Con-
sciousness II engineer would believe that the de-
cisions made by the organization are not to be
challenged. He should go ahead and blindly do as

We feel that the young engineer who is leaving
the university and entering industry today has
a great opportunity, if he so wishes, to have an
impact on the decision and management
processes of his company.

he is told to do and don't worry about it. The at-
titude is: "Do your job; get your 40 hours a week
in; and then forget about it. Let's get home, let's
get to the beach, let's do our thing on the week-
end, let's live a bifurcated life, a life which in-
volves fun and family on one hand and the almost
forced involvement with a company on the other."
If we educate students to go out into industry
with the idea that this is the only possible point
of view, we are making a great mistake. We are
not priming our students or engineers to be the
effective persons that they can be in industry.
With this view in mind we are teaching a
seminar course at the University of Florida to
seniors in which we are using The Greening of
America and Man, The Manipulator by Shoestrum
as texts to look at the various stances that we as
engineers can take. The question we've asked
them is: "Can we take stances other than the
classical one?" The classical one is being a mem-
ber of Group II Consciousness. Is there a possibili-
ty of integrating some of the ideas of Group III
consciousness into our engineering profession and
into our ideas of achievement and still be strong-
ly productive and interactive? In Man, The
Manipulator, Shostrum describes the manipulative
forms that many of us find ourselves trapped in
but also describes the thrilling description of the
actualized person: the person who really can be
interactive, can be open, can express his feelings,
can share and be intimately involved in the
sharing and feedback process. Our hope is that
our engineers can take on some of these actualized



A PERSON CERTAINLY HAS to have some of
the concepts or elements of the actualized
person to immediately contribute towards an
organization. He must take risks. He must speak
up. He must involve himself in a productive way
with all the decisions in which he has contact.
He has the difficulty of doing this in a way which
is acceptable to the people around him. He cannot
be overbearing; he makes no points that way. But
he cannot be under-aggressive; he again makes
no points. So, therefore, the process is one of
sensing where the other human being is, being
aware of where his managers are and of their
capabilities and maybe lack of capabilities.
Therefore, our stance today is that our stu-
dents can blow the whistle on industry, either in-
ternally or externally. But he can do it by being
a productive management team, even when we're
not so designated. Our responsibility as educators
is to set them up, to make them aware that this

is their responsibility. We find it very difficult to
preach morals or to teach a definite set of ethics.
But we feel that each person should be en-
couraged to express the set of ethics that he per-
sonally has developed. We do hope that our en-
gineers can go out and be actualized people, be
non-manipulative, be open. They can express their
concern about what the company is doing, about
its processes, about the pollution capability, about
the discrimination practices that they see, about
the quality or lack of quality of their product.
These are of direct concern to every technical
person who works with a company, and the first
step, the most productive step, is one of im-
mediately being interactive.
"Had I but served my God with the zeal
that I have, served my king, He would not,
in my old age, have left me naked before
my enemies!"-William Shakespeare

SDbook reviews

Modeling Crystal Growth Rate from Solution
By Makoto Ohara and Robert C. Reid
Prentice-Hall (1973), 272 pp.
Reviewed by Maurice Larson, Iowa State U.
This book is a good summary of the most pop-
ular theories attempting to describe the mech-
anism of crystal growth from solution. Of its 272
pages, 134 pages are devoted to appendices. It is
printed by photo-offset of the typed manuscript.
It is well organized and readable, but many of the
illustrations do not have figure numbers nor titles.
This leads to some difficulty. The index is adequate
but brief.
The seven chapters of the non-appendix por-
tion of the book are devoted to a Synopsis of the
text, four chapters describing four growth mech-
anism concepts, one chapter concerned with im-
purity effects and a chapter which compares re-
cent experimental data with theory.
The Synopsis summarizes the book well, points
out what the purpose of the book is and briefly
states the concepts of the various mechanistic
models for growth. Chapter 2 discusses the clas-
sical surface nucleation theories of growth and
shows that they are perhaps quite inadequate to
explain observed growth rates. Chapter 3 dis-
cusses crystal growth limited by mass transfer,

introduces the Burton, Caberra, Frank bulk dif-
fusion model and treats it in detail. Chapter 4 dis-
cusses surface diffusion theories, again calling on
the work of Burton, Caberra and Frank. The
chapter is quite short leaving the detailed mathe-
matical development for Appendix A which is 68
pages long. The treatment is detailed and lucid.
Layer and dislocation growth concepts are ade-
quately treated.
Chapter 5 attempts to account for the appear-
ance of microscopic growth layers and distin-
guishes them from the layer and dislocation
growth theories of Burton, Caberra and Frank.
Impurity effects are briefly treated in chapter 6.
The treatment reflects the general lack of ade-
quate theories which explain observed phenomena.
Finally chapter 7 presents data which can be ex-
plained to some degree by the theories presented
The book is largely concerned with the detailed
mathematical presentation of existing theories
and the correction of some derivation errors
found in the literature. In the words of the
authors 'the book has solved no new (italics mine)
problem' but the treatment should be helpful for
those wishing to gain an understanding of present
thought without extensive literature review. It
will be a good reference book for those new to the
field and could provide a substantial part of text
material for a course in crystallization technology.

FALL 1975

Continued from page 169.
propositions. What is perhaps the most encourag-
ing of all is the interest in this course and the
constructive criticism by the class.


The research grants provided by the Alabama's Water
Resources Research Institute and the Auburn University
Grant-in-Aid Program on projects concerning the course
subject are gratefully acknowledged. O


1. Shiska, O., Appl. Mech. Review, 21, 337 (1968).
2. Bickley, W. S., J. Math. & Phys., 27, 183 (1948).
3. Landis, F., & E. N. Nilson, "The Determination of
Thermodynamic Properties by Direct Differentiation
Techniques," in Progress in International Research
on Thermodynamics and Transport Properties, p. 218,
Academic Press (1962).
4. Klaus, R. L., & H. C. Van Ness, AIChE J., 13, 1132
5. Butcher, J. C., Math. Comp., 18, 50 (1964).
6. Howland, J. L., & R. Vaillancourt, J. Soc. Ind. Appl.
Math., 9, 165 (1961).

7. Marquardt, D. W., ibid, 11, 131 (1963).
8. Hull, T. E., W. H. Enright, B. M. Fellen & A. E.
Sedgwick, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 9, 603 (1972).
9. Lapidus, L., & J. H. Seinfeld, Numerical Solution of
Ordinary Differential Equations, Academic Press
10. Lapidus, L., R. C. Aiken & Y. A. Liu, "The Occurrence
and Numerical Solution of Physical and Chemical
Systems Having Widely Varying Time Constants,"
in Proceedings of International Symposium on Stiff
Differential Systems, Wilbad, Germany, Edited by
R. A. Willoughby, p. 187, Plenum Press (1974).
11. Gear, C. W., Comm. ACM, 14, 185 (1971).
12. Larson, L., "Automatic Solution of Partial Differen-
tial Equations," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois
13. Burgess, W. P., "Composite Numerical Solution of
PDE," Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University (1971).
14. Laskaris, T. E., "Finite Element Analysis of Several
Compressible and Uncompressible Viscous Flow Prob-
lems," Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
15. Chakrabarti, S., "Approximations in Finite Element
Heat Conduction Analysis," Ph.D. Thesis, University
of Pittsburgh (1974).
16. Woodrow, P. T., "Analysis of Chromatographic Sys-
tems Using Orthogonal Collocation," Ph.D. Thesis,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1974).

MEASURES OF EXCELLENCE: Bernier, Gill and Hunt
Continued from page 197.

'67-9 and cited ten or more times.
10. Papers/professor: Works published in the '67-9 period
divided by the number of professors, publishing or
not, in the departments in that period.
11. Citations/paper: Total citations divided by the
number of '67-9 works (impact factor).
12. Papers with 0-4 citations: '67-9 works with through
four total citations.
13. 1970 Rating of Graduate Programs: Detailed data
of Roose and Andersen study on rankings of depart-
ments of ChE kindly supplied by Andersen.
14. Ph.D.'s graduated: Ph.D.'s graduated per year during
15. Ph.D's/professor: Ph.D.'s graduated per faculty
member per year in '67-9.
16. Lifetime citations/professor: The number of cita-
tions, including self-citations, to all works on which
a faculty member is first or only author divided by
the number of professors, publishing or not, in the
literature cited.
17. Professors/school: The number of professors, pub-
lishing or not, in the literature cited divided by
number of schools (21).


1. Cartter, Allan M., "An Assessment of Quality in
Graduate Education," American Council on Educa-
tion, One DuPont Circle, Washington, D, C., 20036,

2. Roose, Kenneth D., and Andersen, Charles J., "A
Rating of Graduate Programs," American Council
on Education, One DuPont Circle, Washington, D.C.
20036, (1970).
3. Garfield, E., and Scher, I. H., Am. Doc. 14, 195,
4. Sher, I. H., and Garfield, E., "New Tools for Im-
proving and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Research,"
Science Citation Index, Institute for Scientific In-
formation, Philadelphia (1965).
5. Cole, S., and Cole, J. R., American Sociological Re-
view 32, 377-90, (1967).
6. Garfield, E., Nature, 227, 669, (1970).
7. Cole, J., and Cole, S., American Sociologist, 6, 23-9,
8. Cole, J. R., and Cole, S., Science, 178, 368-75, (1972).
9. Matheson, A. J., Chemistry in Britain, 8, 202-10,
10. American Chemical Society Directory of Graduate
Research, American Chemical Society, Washington,
D. C., (1971).
11. Science Citation Index, Institute for Scientific Infor-
mation, Philadelphia, (1965-72).
12. Hagstrom, W. 0., "Inputs, Outputs and the Prestige
of American University Science Departments," Paper
delivered at the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science, Chicago, Ill., (Dec. 28, 1970).
13. Unpublished work supplied by Malin of the Institute
for Scientific Information.


CPM METHOD: Donaghey
Continued from page 193.
The acceleration of any project step pre-
supposes a subcontracting of project labor, often
at the expense of graduate research experience.
For example, the time required for construction
of experimental apparatus can be shorted by pur-
chasing ready-made apparatus, and data-reduc-
tion tasks could possibly be shortened by hiring
an undergraduate assistant.
With accelerated project rates now accepted
for tasks 4, 6 and 7, the resulting critical path
becomes that shown in Fig. Ic. Here, the total
project time is constrained by the duration of
task 2 (i.e., waiting for ordered supplies to
arrive) rather than by steps 6 and 4. Consequent-
ly, one of the two tasks need not be shortened.

TABLE III. Precedence-Contribution Matrix
Affected 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 P C P P P

P = Precedence

C = Contribution


TABLE IV. Assignment of Topical Sequences
Step Number
Sequence 1 2 3 4 5 6
A 1 2 5 7 8 9

4 5 7 8 9


THE FORM OF THE critical path method
presented here differs from earlier forms is
having these important characteristics: (1) the
educational experience derived from interacting
research tasks is counted as a cost benefit, (2)
the critical path is constructed with a minimum
of subcontracted or simultaneous tasks, and (3)
the method presented does not require a com-
puter to apply it. O

1. Cunningham, R. C. and Sommerfields, J. T., Chem.
Eng. Educ. 7 (1), 18 (1973).
2. Kelley, J. E. Jr., Operations Res. 9 (3), May-June
3. Chipman, J. S., "PERT with Costs," Technical Report
112 SRP, WSPACS Working Paper No. 4, Aerojet
General Corporation, Feb. 15, 1961.
4. Walker, M. R. and Sayer, J. S., "Project Planning
and Scheduling," Report 6959, E. J. duPont de Ne-
mours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, March
5. Fondahl, J. W., "A Non-Computer Approach to the
Critical Path Method for the Construction Industry,"
Report No. 9, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Stanford
University, Stanford, Calif., November, 1961.

Table I shows that task 6 has the higher cost
slope, and, therefore, this task should be carried
out at the normal rate.


T HE CRITICAL PATH method outlined above
has been tested in a number of graduate re-
search programs in solid-state electrochemistry,
process kinetics and transport phenomena during
the past few years. Experience has shown that
the initial critical path plan must be revised
periodically during the program to take ad-
vantages of new discoveries or to avoid limiting
difficulties. Experience has also shown a high
correlation between task identification and effec-
tive task completion by the student. It has also
been found that long-term segments of the total
program should be subdivided so that the student
gains familiarity with all type of program tasks
in operation terms early in the program.

Lee F. Donaghey received the B.A. degree in Physics from Har-
vard College, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Science
from Stanford University. His industrial experience has been in the
semiconductor and microwave electronics industries. Following a
postdoctoral appointment at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stock-
holm, he joined the Chemical Engineering faculty at the University
of California, Berkeley in 1970. His research interests are concerned
with the synthesis, thermochemistry and process kinetics of elec-
tronic materials.

FALL 1975


Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $6,500/year.
M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to $5,500/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Tuition: $535/year.
Married students housing rent: $154/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $190/month.
Ph.D. Degree
Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year
courses, thesis.
M.Sc. Degree
6 half-year courses, thesis.
M.Eng. Degree
10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project.
Department Size
12 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows,
30-40 Graduate Students.
For additional information write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6

Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and
Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De-
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer,
Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ-
mental Engineering.
D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Math-
ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory.

D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.
D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Com-
puter Control, Process Identification
F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns.

Department Facilities
Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre.
Excellent complement of computing and analytical
-IBM 1800 (real-time) computer
-EAI 590 hybrid computer
-AD 32 analog computer
-IBM 360/67 terminal
-Weissenberg Rheogoniometer
-Infrared spectrophotometer
-Research and industrial gas chromatographs

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
Enrollment of 18,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river

Fast growing, modern city; population of 440,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper and Banff National Parks.



The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,

JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1972
Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering, Energy and
Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re-
action-Applications to the Minerals Industry.

DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation,
Distillation, Applied Design

Packed Column

JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation

Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow-
ing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.

For further information,
write to:
Dr. J. 11'. II;te, Chairmani
Graduate Study Committee
Depaort m ( at of
Cclmical Euv11w1,iim,,g
I'uio i ,sit., of' Ai:owm
Tors(o,,W. A. i:oia Z ,oi 1 S 7l -














Alexis T. Bell
Lee F. Donaghey
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
Robert P. Merrill
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Mitchel Shen
Thomas K. Sherwood
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermuelen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
Berkeley, California 94720

PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further

advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor J. H. Seinfeld
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1976.


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering;
air and water quality.
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution;
biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif-
fusion and membrane transport.
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical

JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.
FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.

Are you sure you have the

necessary tools?"

Write Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania




St - -<^MJ "'MHS8w ^Bjj

Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed in-
stitution with traditions of excellence in Engineering and
Applied Science since 1880. In 1967, Case Institute and
Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment,
endowment and faculty make Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity one of the leading private schools in the country.
The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's University
Circle, an extensive concentration of educational, scientific,
social and cultural organizations.


Environmental Engineering
Control & Optimization
Computer Simulation
Systems Engineering
Foam & Colloidal Science
Transport Processes

Coal Gasification
Biomedical Engineering
Surface Chemistry & Catalysis
Crystal Growth & Materials
Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Chemical Reaction Engineering

The department is growing and has recently moved
to a new complex. This facility provides for innovations in
both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major
areas of Chemical Engineering are available. Case Chemical
Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and
petroleum companies and have made important technical and
entrepreneurial contributions for over a half a century.

Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research As-
sistantships are available to qualified applicants. Applications
are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chemical
Contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106




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Clarksons multimillion dollar Science Center was dedicated in 1970 and is one of the finest facilities o its kind in New York.

Clarkson's multimillion dollar Science Center was dedicated in 1970 and is one of the finest facilities ot its kind in New York.


W. R. WILCOX-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1960, University of
California, Berkeley) Crystal growth in semiconductor and
biological systems, nucleation of crystals, mass transfer in
solidification processes, metallic corrosion.

D-T. CHIN-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1969, University of Pennsylvania)
Electrochemical engineering, transport phenomena, waste treatment
and resource recovery, energy conversion.

R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. and Exec. Officer. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson
College of Technology) Boiling heat transfer, bubble dynamics,
boiling nucleation, holographic interferometry.

D. O. COONEY-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of
Wisconsin) Mass transfer in fixed beds, biomedical engineering.

E. J. DAVIS-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington) Heat
transfer and fluid mechanics associated with two-phase flow,
convective diffusion, aerosol physics, transport phenomena,
mathematical modeling.

J. ESTRIN-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation
phenomena, crystallization, phase change processes.

J. L. KATZ-Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago)
Homogeneous nucleation of vapors, homogeneous boiling, hetero-
geneous nucleation, aerosols, nucleation of voids in metals, chemical
nucleation, thermal conductivity of gases.

R. J. NUNGE-Prof. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University) Transport
phenomena, multistream forced convection transport processes,
structure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through porous media,
atmospheric transport processes.

H. L. SHULMAN-Prof., Dean of Eng. and Vice Pres. of the College.
(Ph.D., 1950, University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, packed
columns, adsorption of gases, absorption.

R. S. SUBRAMANIAN-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, Clarkson College
of Technology) Heat and mass transfer, unsteady convective
diffusion - miscible dispersion, chromatographic and other
interphase transport systems, fluid mechanics, mathematical

V. VAN BRUNT-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1974, University of Tennessee)
Transport properties, optimization, computer methods, process

T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute) Process control, nuclear engineering, ceramic materials.
G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of Illinois) Ad-
sorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous media, waste
conversion processes.

For information concerning Assistantships and
Fellowships contact the Graduate School Office,
Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New
York 13676



Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering

Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
research-oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
sophy or Master of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
Master of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Engineering (general)
Thermodynamics; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations.
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and re-
lated subjects in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of processes
in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.
Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Catalysis
Homogeneous kinetics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation;
simultaneous mass transfer and reaction; optimization of reactor design.
Chemical Processes and Process Control
Advanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and

Faculty Members and Research Interests
John L. Anderson, Ph.D. Membrane transport, bioengineering.
Kenneth B. Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi-
cal reaction engineering.
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. Light and electron microscopy, properties of materials,
solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation, agitation and aeration, pro-
cessing of biochemicals, electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons.
Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion in mem-
branes and porous solids.
J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D. Economic analyses and forecasts, new ventures devel-
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. Polymerization, properties of polymer systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid mechanics
of liquid drops and jets, convection-distorted flow fields.
Michael L. Shuler, Ph.D., Biochemical engineering.
Julian C. Smith, Chem.E. Conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing,
mechanical separations.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. Chemical engineering applications to biomedical
problems; rheology.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics of poly-
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. Liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics, effect of
radiation on chemical reactions.
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline-water
conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding,
filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis.
Robert York, Sc.D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco-
nomics, process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATION. Write to Professor K. B. Bischoff, Olin Hall of Chemical
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850.


Newark, Delaware 19711

The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and
practice in the art and science of chemical engineering:
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.

A Ph.D. degree.

The regular faculty are:

Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) J. H. Olson
C. E. Birchenall C. A. Petty
H. W. Blanch R. L. Pigford
M. M. Denn T. W. F. Russell
B. C. Gates S. I. Sander
D. H. Henneman, M.D. G. C. A. Schuit (1/2 time)
J. R. Katzer J. M. Schultz
R. L. McCullough L. Spielman
A. B. Metzner James Wei

The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with in-
dustrial practice are:

L. A. DeFrate ...-_---..---- Heat, mass and momentum transfer
T. R. Keane_____ Polymer Science & Engineering
W. H. Manogue ______- Catalysis, reaction engineering
E. L. Mongan, Jr. --------Design and process evaluation
F. E. Rush, Jr. --______Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction
R. J. Samuels -______.. .Polymer science
A. B. Stiles ----___-- Catalysis
K. F. Wissbrun ______- - Polymer engineering

For information and admissions materials contact:
A. B. Metzner, Chairman


university offlorida

offers you .

Phenomena &
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.

& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.

Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.

andmuct more...

A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports

Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.

Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering - Room.227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611






* GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs with a strong
emphasis on creative research, either in fundamental engineering science or its application to the
solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be
achieved from the close one-to-one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de-
velop relevant scientific contributions.
* STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re-
search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements.
Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available, not only in terms of equipment
and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel.

Applied Mathematics
Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering
Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Reactor Dynamics
Electronic Structure of Matter
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Sources and Conservation
Environmental Engineering
Fluid Dynamics
Heat Transfer
High Pressure
Mass Transfer
Materials Science and Engineering
Molecular Thermodynamics
Phase Transformations
Process Control
Reaction Engineering
Statistical Mechanics
Two-Phase Flow


Professor J. W. Westwater
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Adams Laboratory
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801

FALL 1975





Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production,
Atomic Energy)
Dr. R. G. Bautista
Dr. L. E. Burkhart
Dr. G. Burnet
Dr. A. H. Pulsifer
Dr. D. L. Ulrichson
Dr. T. D. Wheelock




Chemical Engineering

Transport Processes
(Heat, mass & momentum transfer)
Dr. W. H. Abraham
Dr. R. G. Bautista
Dr. C. E. Glatz
Dr. J. C. Hill
Dr. F. O. Shuck

Process Chemistry and
Fertilizer Technology
Dr. D. R. Boylan
Dr. G. Burnet
Dr. M. A. Larson

Biomedical Engineering
(System Modeling,
Transport. process)
Dr. R. C. Seagrave

Biochemical Engineering
(Enzyme Technology)
Dr. C. E. Glatz
Dr. P. J. Reilly

Polymerization Processes
Dr. W. H. Abraham
Dr. J. D. Stevens

as well as
Air Pollution Control
Solvent Extraction
High Pressure Technology
Mineral Processing


Crystallization Kinetics
Dr. M. A. Larson
Dr. J. D. Stevens

Process Instrumentation
and System Optimization
and Control
Dr. L. E. Burkhart
Dr. K. R. Jolls

write to:
Prof. M. A. Larson
Dept. of Chem. Engr. & Nuc. Engr.
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program
Petroleum Engineering
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
M.S. in Petroleum Management

The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.

Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena
Fluid Flow in Porous Media
Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies
Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems

Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior

For Information and Applications write:

Floyd W. Preston, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922





M.S. & Ph.D. Programs
Including Intensive Study in
Energy supply and demand
Fuel combustion processes
Coal liquefaction and gasification processes
Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Process and system control, and gas cleaning
Diffusion, and modelling of urban atmospheres
Advanced waste treatment and water reclamation
Design of physical and chemical processes
Biochemical reactor design

- it.




Excellent financial support is available
in the form of National Science Foundation
Traineeships, fellowships & assislanishrps.
Thermodynamics Reaclor design
Process control Transport
RITE TO: R.B. Grieves, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical Engineering











of Technology



For decades to come, the chemical engineer
will play a central role in fields of national
concern. In two areas alone, energy and the
environment, society and industry will turn
to the chemical engineer for technology and
management in finding process related so -
lutions to critical problems. M.I.T. has con-
sistently been a leader in chemical engineer-
ing education with a strong working relation-
ship with industry for over a half century.
For detailed information, contact Professor
Raymond F. Baddour, Head of the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.

Raymond F. Baddour
Lawrence B. Evans
Paul J. Flory
Hoyt C. Hottel
John P. Longwell
James E. Mark
Herman P. Meissner
Edward W. Merrill
J. Th. G. Overbeek
J. R. A. Pearson

Robert C. Reid
Adel F. Sarofim
Charles N. Satterfield
Kenneth A. Smith
J. Edward Vivian
Glenn C. Williams
Clark K. Colton
Jack B. Howard
Michael Modell

C. Michael Mohr
James H. Porter
Robert C. Armstrong
Donald B. Anthony
Lloyd A. Clomburg
Robert E. Cohen
Richard G. Donnelly
Christos Georgakis
Ronald A. Hites
Jefferson W. Tester

Department of Chemical Engineering



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman

Day Programs

Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies
-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson

(2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W.

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.

(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek

(5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K.
G. Mayhan

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:
(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems; Energy
Conversion from Agricultural Products-
Prof. J. L. Gaddy
(b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies
-Dr. M. E. Findley
(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr.
R. C. Waggoner
(d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim-
(e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice

(f) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer
Applications to Process Control-Ds. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-
(g) Transport Properties, Kinetics and enzymes
and catalysis-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E.
(h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley

Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and

Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid

is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.







I' I





R. C. Ackerberg
R. F. Benenati
J. J. Conti
C. D. Han
R. D. Patel
E. M. Pearce
E. N. Ziegler

Air Pollution
Biomedical Systems
Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical Modelling
Polymerization Reactions
Process Control
Rheology and Polymer Processing


Formed by the merger of Polytechnic institute of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science.

Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and
Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research:
chemical engineering, polymer science and
engineering, bioengineering and environmental

Fellowships and Research Assistantships
are available.

For further information contact
Professor C. D. Han
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201


:`J~- i"

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,r I. Y-Y'�



The cultural advantages and historical assets of
a great city, including the incomparable Phila-
delphia Orchestra are within walking distance
of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety

of college and professional sports at hand. A
complete range of recreational facilities exists
within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the
New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive.


The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League
School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex-
cellence in graduate education. A unique feature
of the University is the breadth of medically
related activities including those in engineering.
In recent years the University has undergone

a great expansion of its facilities, including
specialized graduate student housing. The De-
partment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineer-
ing has attracted national and international atten-
tion because of its rapid rise to excellence.



The faculty includes two members of the Na-
tional Academy of Engineering and three recip-
ients of the highest honors awarded by the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Every
staff member is active in graduate and under-
Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan)
Elizabeth Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins)
William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia)
Ronald L. Klaus (R.P.I.)
Energy Utilization and Conservation
Enzyme Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Electrochemical Engineering

graduate teaching, in research, and in profes-
sional work. Close faculty association with in-
dustry provides expert guidance for the student
in research and career planning.

Mitchell Litt (Columbia)
Alan L. Myers (California)
Melvin C. Molstad (Yale)
Leonard Nanis (Columbia)
Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale)
John A. Quinn (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider (Michigan)

Environmental and Pollution Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques
Biochemical Engineering

For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to:
Dr. J. A. Quinn, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 19174.


for a

graduate education


Chemical Engineering ?



M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Research
Reactor Design and Catalysis

Transport Phenomena
Thermodynamic Properties
Separational Processes
Applied Chemistry and Kinetics

Petroleum Refining
Interfacial Phenomena
Energy Research
And Other Areas

Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Fenske Laboratory
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802

FALL 1975




Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907


, I


Graduate Study

in Chemical Engineering

at Rice University

Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in
the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the
student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary
proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various
areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint
program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available.

The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several
post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers
12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio,
outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in
keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer-
ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent
evaluation by the American Council of Education.

Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science

Blood Flow and Blood Trauma
Blood Pumping Systems

Rice University
Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca-
tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac-
tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine
residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston.
There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800
graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a
complete university with programs in the various fields
of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer-
ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings.
The academic year is from September to May. As there
are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly
four months for research. The school offers excellent
recreational and athletic facilities with a completely
equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes
outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year-
round activities.
FALL 1975

Full-time graduate students receive financial support
with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of
$333-400 per month.

Address letters of inquiry to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.



between the mountains and the sea
where the quality of life is good and opportunities for ambitious
students abound in this fastest growing area of the country.
Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineer-
ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemistry, physics, math-
ematics, materials and computer science.
Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are

For particulars and application forms write to:
Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman
Chemical Engineering Program
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, S.C. 29208

B. L. Baker, Professor, Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process
design, environmental problems, ion transport)
M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951
(Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treat-
J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer,
fluid mechanics)
P. E. Kleinsmith, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1972
(Transport phenomena, statistical mechanics)
F. P. Pike, Professor, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in
liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria)
J. M. Tarbell, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1974 (Thermo-
dynamics, process dynamics)
V. Van Brunt, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass
Transfer, Computer Modeling)



ANDREAS ACRIVOS, Ph.D., University of
Minnesota, 1954. Field: Fluid Mechanics.
MICHEL BOUDART, Ph.D., Princeton
University, 1950. Field: Kinetics
and Catalysis.
GEORGE M. HOMSY, Ph.D., University
of Illinois, 1969. Field: Fluid
Mechanics and Stability.
ROBERT J. MADIX, Ph.D., University
of California at Berkeley, 1964.
Field: Surface Reactivity.
DAVID M. MASON, Ph.D., California
Institute of Technology, 1949.
Field: Applied Chemical Kinetics.
Stanford University, 1969. Field: Bioengineering.

Fossil Fuel and Advanced System
Programs, Electric Power Research
Institute. Ph.D., University of
Michigan, 1961. Field: Heat Transfer
and Thermodynamics.
ALAN S. MICHAELS, Senior Vice President
for Technological Resource Development,
Alza Corporation. Sc.D., Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1948. Field:
Surface, Colloid and Polymer Chemistry.
ROBERT H. SCHWAAR, Senior Chemical
Engineer, Stanford Research Institute,
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1956.
Field: Technological Development and
Process Design.



Stanford University offers programs of study and
research leading to master of science and doctor of
philosophy degrees in chemical engineering with a
number of financially attractive fellowships and as-
sistantships available to outstanding students pursuing
either program.
For further information and application blanks, write
Admissions Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305.
Closing date for applications is Feb. 15, 1976.


Chemical Engineering Science
Design * Polymers

Polymer Processing *Rheology
Polymer Property-Structure Relationships
Polymerization Kinetics * Reaction Engineering
Mass Transfer * Fluid Dynamics * Turbulence
Air Pollution * Waste Treatment * Combustion
Energy Storage in Chemical Systems

For further information contact:
Dean L. Z. Pollara
Graduate Studies
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, New Jersey
(201) 792-2700 Ext. 330


Programs for the degrees of Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy are
offered in both Chemical and Metal-
lurgical Engineering. The Master's pro-
gram may be tailored as a terminal one
with emphasis on professional develop-
ment, or it may serve as preparation for
more advanced work leading to the
Doctorate. Specialization in Polymer
Science and Engineering is available at
both levels.


William T. Becker
Donald C. Bogue
Charlie R. Brooks
Edward S. Clark
Oran L. Culberson
John F. Fellers
George C. Frazier
Hsien-Wen Hsu
Homer F. Johnson, Department Head
Stanley H. Jury
Carl D. Lundin
Charles F. Moore
Ben F. Oliver, Professor-in-Charge
of Metallurgical Engineering
Joseph J. Perona
Joseph E. Spruiell
E. Eugene Stansbury
James L. White
FALL 1975





Studies in

Chemical &




Process Dynamics and Control
Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of
Packed Beds
Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge
Studies of Macromolecules
Development and Synthesis of New
Engineering Polymers
Fiber and Plastics Processing
X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission and
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Solidification, Zone Refining
and Welding
Cryogenic and High Temperature
Flow and Fracture in Metallic and
Polymeric Systems
Solid State Kinetics

Financial Assistance

Sources available include graduate
teaching assistantships, research assis-
tantships, and industrial fellowships.

Knoxville and

With a population near 200,000, Knox-
ville is the trade and industrial center of
East Tennessee. In the Knoxville Audi-
torium-Coliseum and the University
theaters, Broadway plays, musical and
dramatic artists, and other entertain-
ment events are regularly scheduled.
Knoxville has a number of points of his-
torical interest, a symphony orchestra,
two art galleries, and a number of
museums. Within an hour's drive are
many TVA lakes and mountain streams
for water sports, the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park with the Gatlin-
burg tourist area, two state parks, and
the atomic energy installations at Oak
Ridge, including the Museum of Atomic


Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916


11 N


West Virginia

University Chemical Engineering

Environmental Engineering
Purification of Acid Mine Drainage
Water by Reverse Osmosis
Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering
SO2 Scrubbing
Economic Impact of Environmental

Other Topics
Chemical Kinetics
Separation Processes
Transport Phenomena
Utilization of Ultrasonic Energy

Energy Engineering
Coal Conversion
Potential of Coal Based Energy Complexes
Conversion of Solid Wastes to
Low BTU Gas
Energy Farming

MS & PhD Programs
Financial Aid: up to $5400/year
For further information and applications
Dr. J. D. Henry
Department of Chemical Engineering
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506



P. O. Box 6312
University, Alabama 35486

A Land Grant University of Alabama




Financial Assistance:
Research and Teaching Assistantships,
Industrial Fellowships Are Available


For Further Information, Write:
Head, Chemical Engineering Department
Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830

FALL 1975



For admission, address
Dr. Paul H. DeHoff
Coordinator of Graduate Studies

* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Some courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
e Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis-
tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; reaction kinetics; catalyst deac-
tivation; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of materials; mathematical model-
ing; numerical analysis; statistical analysis.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.




R. L. Bell:
R. G. Carbonell
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:

Mass Transfer, Bio Medical Engineering
Enzyme Kinetics, Quantum Mechanics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reactor Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena

To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616





Henri J. Fenech
Husam Gurol
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp

John E. Myers
G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker

Orville C. Sandall

For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106

FALL 1975



-Major urban educational center
-New, prize-winning laboratory building and
facilities-Rhodes Hall
-National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent
to campus
-Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid
-Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control,
polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction-
ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen-
eration, heat transfer.
Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head
Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221


M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:

financial id - Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location - Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England

We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268


A .; Chemical Engineering Department

M.S. and Doctoral Programs


Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Industrial Pollution Control
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids, Interfacial Phenomena
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U.-Digital Computer Process Control, Textile Dyeing and Finishing
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena, Pulp and Paper Processing
Edie, D. D., Ph.D., U. Virginia-Crystallization, Polymer Processing
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Kinetics and Reactor Design, Membrane Processes
Melsheimer, SS., Ph.D., Tulane-Membrane Transport, Numerical Methods, Process Control
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
D. D. Edie, Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631

th e

university y




Kinetics Pollution Control Simulation Processes
The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the
doctorate. Financial assistance is available.

Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44115

Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-

Financial Aid Available
Uo to $5,000 Per Year
Professor B. G. Kyle
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502


FALL 1975


Department of Chemical Engineering
Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015

Can you match the professor with his technical specialty(ies)?

Marvin Charles

Curtis W. Clump

Robert W. Coughlin

Mohamed EI-Aasser

Alan S. Foust

William L. Luyben

Anthony J. McHugh

Gary W. Poehlein

William E. Schiesser
Leslie H. Sperling
Fred P. Stein
Leonard A. Wenzel

Mass and Heat Transfer
Energy/Fossil Fuels
Nuclear Technology
Polymer Materials Science
Numerical Integration
Chemical Reactor Engineering
Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering
Enzyme Technology
Process Design
Technology Transfer
Process Dynamics
Waste Water Treatment
Air Pollution Control
Emulsion Polymerization
Computer Simulation
Surface Science
Process Control
Transport Phenomena

Faculty - 19

* Bioengineering
* Pollution Control
* Process Dynamics
* Computer Control
* Kinetics and Catalysis
* Thermodynamics
* Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department e Sugar Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803



Hamilton, Ontario, Canada


R. B. Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) . . . . . . . . . Ca
M. H. I. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) . . . . . . . . Os
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) . . . . . . W
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) . . . . . . . . . . Po
C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) . . . . . . . . Op
Y. Doganoglu (Ph.D., McGill) . . . . . . . . . Flu
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) . . . . . . Bic
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) . . . . . . . .. . Po
T. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) . . . . . . . .. He
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . . . . . . . . Sta
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . . . . . . . . . W
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) . . . . . . . . . Ma
W. J. Snodgrass (Ph.D., U. of N. Carolina, Chapel Hill) Mc
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) . ..... Po
D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . . . .... .Int
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) . . . . . . . . Pro


talysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
cillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
wastewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
lymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
timization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simulation
lid Mechanics, Transport Processes
logical Fluid and Mass Transfer
lymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
at Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
itistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control
wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
iss Transfer, Corrosion
delling of Aquatic Systems
lymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Processes
erfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
ocess Simulation and Control, Computer Control

CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman,
Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7




The University of Michigan awarded its first
Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D.
in 1914. It has moved with the times since and
today offers a flexible program of graduate
study that allows emphases ranging from fun-
damentals to design.
The Chemical Engineering Department, with
21 faculty members and some 65 graduate stu-
dents, has opportunities for study and research
in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor
design, transport processes, mathematical and
numerical methods, optimization, mixing, rheol-
ogy, materials, bioengineering, electrochemical
engineering, production-pipelining-storage of oil
and gas, coal processing, and pollution control.

The M.S. program may be completed in 10
months and does not require a thesis. The Pro-
fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond
the Master's and a professional problem. The
Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to
expedite entry into a research area as early in
the program as possible.

For further Information and applications,
Prof. Brice Carnahan
Chairman of the Graduate Committee
The University of Michigan
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104

FALL 1975



H. El Khadem, D. Sc. Tech.,
Department Head

M. W. BREDEKAMP, Ph.D. - Instrumentation, Process Dynamics and Control
L. B. HEIN, Ph.D. - Unit Operations, Mineral Extraction
D. W. HUBBARD, Ph.D. - Lake Studies, Mixing Phenomena, Turbulent Flow
J. T. PATTON, Ph.D. - Biosynthesis, Waste Treatment, Petroleum Recovery
A. J. PINTAR, Ph.D. - Energy Conversion, Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics
J. M. SKAATES, Ph.D. - Fluid-Solid Reactions, Catalysis, Reactor Design
E. T. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. - Improvement of Pulpwood Yield

Financial assistance available in the form of Fellowships and Assistantships.

For more information, write to:

H. El Khadem, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering





. .as an hyperborean haunt of horrendous weather far to the north of the
Cote d'Azur and other balmy latitudes?
.as a domain dominated by dismal theoreticians and other weird species?


you're wrong on both counts. Our weather is brisk, to be sure, but far
from glacial. Our theoreticians are doughty not dismal; and anyway the
experimentalists outnumber the theoreticians-nor do they themselves fear

For the unexpirgated truth on graduate work at Minnesota, write:
Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455



Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Food Processing

Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas


Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508



Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D.

Research Areas
Air Pollution Monitoring and Control
Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams
Biomedical Engineering
Energy Sources and Systems
Environmental Control Engineering
Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
Process Control and Modelling of Processes
Single-Cell Protein Research
Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids
Transport in Biological Systems
WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg.,
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201

* Vy '
*- l.1 r.i


M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

Offering Research Opportunities in
Coal Gassification
Polymer Science
Hydrogen Economy
Mini Computer Applications to
Process Control
Process Simulation
Radioactive Waste Management
S. . and more

Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque!

For further information, write:
Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Faculty and research interests:

J. A. Bergantz
D. R. Brutvan
H. T. Cullinan, Jr.
P. Ehrlich
W. N. Gill
R. J. Good
K. M. Kiser
P. J. Phillips
W. H. Ray
E. Ruckenstein
J. Szekely
T. W. Weber
S. W. Weller

energy sources, gas-solid reactions
staged operations
multicomponent mass transfer, transport properties
polymeric materials, thermodynamics
dispersion, reverse osmosis
surface phenomena, adhesion of living cells
blood flow, turbulence, pollution in lakes
polymer morphology, structure and properties
optimization, polymerization reactors
catalysis, interfacial phenomena, bioengineering
process metallurgy, gas-solid and solid-solid reactions
process control, dynamics of adsorption
catalysis, catalytic reactors

Financial aid is available

For full information and application materials, please contact:
Dr. Harry T. Cullinan, Jr.
Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, New York 14214



university UNIVERSITY





The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069


FALL 1975 24:

offers programs leading to the M.S., M.Ch.E. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engi-
neering. Active research programs leading to approximately 50 journal publica-
tions per year are offered in all classical and contemporary research areas of
chemical engineering. The proximity of a large number of polymer-related re-
search facilities at the nearby Research Triangle Park and the various offices and
laboratories of the Environmental Protection Agency in and near the Park stimu-
lates strong research programs in polymers and air pollution technology at North
Carolina State University. Graduate students are further stimulated by beaches
and mountains, an early spring and a late fall, and the sister universities of Duke
and UNC Chapel Hill. Our distinguished senior faculty of K. O. Beatty Jr., J. K.
Ferrell, H. B. Hopfenberg, Warren L. McCabe, E. M. Schoenborn, E. P. Stahel and
V. T. Stannett join their colleagues in inviting your application to study chemical
engineering in North Carolina.



Ronald P. Andres
Robert C. Axtmann
Robert L. Bratzler
Joseph M. Calo
John K. Gillham
Ernest F. Johnson
Morton D. Kostin
Leon Lapidus
Bryce Maxwell
David F. Ollis
William B. Russel
Dudley A. Saville
William R. Schowalter
Garth L. Wilkes

Atmospheric Aerosols
Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Energy Conversion & Fusion Reactor Technology
Environmental Studies
Fluid Mechanics & Rheology
Mass & Momentum Transport
Molecular Beams
Polymer Materials Science & Rheology
Process Control & Optimization

Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540





* Environmental Engineering * Process Analysis, Design and Control
* Reaction Kinetics * Polymer Engineering
* Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer * Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
* Nuclear Chemical Engineering * Thermodynamics
* Rheology * Unit Operations
* Energy Sources and Conversion * Process Dynamics and Simulation
* Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
* Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request

WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210

SThese are some of the challenging specialties
Syou can follow in graduate programs
S/ 7 leading to degrees of M.S. in chemical/petroleum engineering
b or Ph.D. in chemical engineering.
Graduate. Coordinator
Chemical/Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261


Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering
MSc and PhD Degree Programs
D.W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) * Waste Processing Write:
H.A. Becker SCD MIT) water and waste treatment Dr. John Downie
D.H. Bone PhD (London) applied microbiology Department of Chemical
S.C. Cho PhD(Princeton) biochemical engineering Engineering
R.H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) Queen's University
. Chemical Reaction
R.K. Code PhD (Cornell) Kingston, Ontario
J. Downie PhD (Toronto) gin ig Canada
J.E. Ellsworth PhD (Princeton)
statistical design
C.C. Hsu PhDITexas) p
polymer studies
J.D. Raal PhD (Toronto)
T.R. Warriner ScD (Johns Hopkins) * Transport Processes
B.W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) combustion
fluid mechanics

FALL 1975




offers graduate study programs leading to M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees with opportunities for specialization in:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, established in 1824
"for the application of science to the common purposes
of life," has grown from a school of engineering and
applied science into a technological university, serving
some 3500 undergraduates and over 1000 graduate
It is located in Troy, New York, about 150 miles
north of New York City and 180 miles west of Boston.
Troy, Albany, and Schenectady together comprise the
heart of New York's Capital District, an upstate metro-
politan area of about 600,000 population. These his-
toric cities and the surrounding countryside provide the
attractions of both urban and and rural life.
Scenic streams, lakes and mountains, including the
Hudson River, Lake George, the Green Mountains of
Vermont, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions
of the Adirondack Forest Preserve, are within easy
driving distance, and offer many attractions for those
interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hunting, fishing,

For full details write
Mr. R. A. Du Mez, Director of Graduate Admissions,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York

Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De-
partment offers M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-
doctoral programs in:

*Biochemical and Food Engineering
*Environmental and Pollution Control
*Extractive and Process Metallurgy
*Polymer Science and Engineering
*Mathematical Analysis and Control
*Transport Phenomena and Kinetics

Financial Aid: Competitive with any other Canadian

Academic Staff: K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton);
E. Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester); R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D.
(Princeton); T. L. Batke, Ph.D. (Toronto); K S. Chang,
Ph.D. (Northwestern); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (U.B.C.);
T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (Illinois); R. Y-M. Huang, Ph.D.
(Toronto); D. C. T. Pei, Ph.D. (McGill); P. M. Reilly, Ph.D.
(London); A. Rudin, Ph.D. (Northwestern); D. S. Scott,
Ph.D. (Illinois); P. L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich); D. R.
Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State); G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Man-
chester); B. M. E. van der Hoff, Ir (Delf); M. Moo-Young,
Ph.D. (London); L. E. Bodnar, Ph.D. (McMaster); C. M.
Burns, Ph.D. (Polytechnic Inst., Brooklyn); J. J. Byerley,
Ph.D. (U.B.C.); K. Enns, Ph.D. (Toronto); J. D. Ford,
Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E. Gall, Ph.D. (Minn.); G. L. Rempel,
Ph.D. (U.B.C.); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (U.C., Berkeley);
J. R. Wynnyckyj, Ph.D. (Toronto); I. F. Macdonald, Ph.D.
(Wisconsin); G. S. Mueller, Ph.D. (Manchester); J. M.
Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania);

To apply, contact:
The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies)
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario
Canada N2L 3G1
Further information: See CEE, p. 4, Winter 1975




Water Renovation Transport Phenomena
Biomedical Engineering Separation Processes
Membrane Processes Mathematical Modeling
Desalination Rheology

Allen J. Barduhn
R. Rajagopalan
Philip A. Rice
S. Alexander Stern

Gopal Subramanian
Chi Tien
Raffi M. Turian

Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among
the hills of Central New York State. A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering,
science, the social sciences, and the humanities exists at the university. The many diversified activities
conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both specific and general
educational goals.
As a part of this medium sized research oriented university, the Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of the
faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research, independent study and the general
atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation.

For Information:
Contact: Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science
Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York 13210

Stipends range from $2,000 to $4,500
with most students receiving $3,400-
$4,000 per annum in addition to remit-
ted tuition privileges.


MS & PhD Programs

T. L. Donaldson
R. F. Eisenberg
M. R. Feinberg
J. R. Ferron
J. C. Friedly
R. H. Heist
F. J. M. Horn
H. R. Osmers
H. J. Palmer
H. Saltsburg
W. D. Smith, Jr.
G. J. Su

Mass Transfer, Membranes, Enzyme Catalysis
Inorganic Composites, Physical Metallurgy
Formal Chemical Kinetics, Continuum Mechanics
Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics
Process Dynamics, Optimal Control & Design
Nucleation, Atmospheric Chemistry, Solids
Chemical Processing Theory, Applied Mathematics
Rheology, Polymers, Biological & Ecological Processes
Interfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes
Surface & Solid-State Chemistry, Molecular Beams
Kinetics & Reactor Design, Computer Applications
Glass Science & Technology, Thermodynamics

For information write: J. R. Ferron, Chairman

FALL 1975 245

FALL 1975




Think about a meaningful study program in chemical engi-
neering at Texas A&M University.
TAMU's graduate program is designed to produce engineers
who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac-
tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry
and society.
Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl, there is
an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally
warm Texas friendliness, enabling you to get the very best
guidance and instruction possible.

For an information packet and application materials, write to:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Texas A&M University
College Station,
Texas 77843


Metropolitan Boston