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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
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American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
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Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
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English
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v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Chemical abstracts
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Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
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Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
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VOLUME IX


GRADUATE
EDUCATION
ISSUE


MODERN THERMO .
HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS .
DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS ...
DIGITAL COMPUTATIONS .
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL
SEPARATION PROCESSES .
ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION
ENZYME CATALYSIS .
CRITICAL PATH PLANNING .
TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING .


ALSO: Measures of Excellence of
Science and Engineering


SAstarita
SDelgass
. Gruver
. Liu
. Manning
. McCoy
. Pollack
S. Walter
Donaghey
. Schreiber
& Rigaud


Departments: A ChE Example
Should Engineering Students
Be Taught to Blow the
Whistle on Industry?


FALL 1975


NUMBER 4






ENGINEERS:


WE'VE GOT

LOTS OF

REASONS
There are probably
a lot of reasons
for Engineers to
settle in New England.
The stimulation of a
: diversified intellectual
.o community, for one.
S. -I Or the proximity to a
S' cultural and social hub as
Individually accessible
Sas it is cosmopolitan.
S .And there's always your
Standard panoramic view of
SMother Nature at work.
But we think Engineers
i might come because
they're looking for a chance
to share their imagination
Jand ability with us, one of the
world's foremost contractors serving
the petrochemical and refinery industries.

and creativity unavailable elsewhere. And because
our sales have increased so dramatically, we've expanded
Si into a world-wide, internationally recognized organization.
So if you're an Engineer
(chemical or mechanical) contact us.
We offer excellent salaries,
comprehensive benefits and almost
unlimited opportunities to develop your professional future.
And we'll throw New England into the bargain.

Please send a letter or resume to Lance Forrester, Badger America, Inc.,
One Broadway, Cambridge, MA 02142





NBadger

International Designers /Engineers /Constructors
A Raytheon Company)
An Iqual ()lpporunitv EImpI'ver









EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Acting Business Manager: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump
University of Houston
James R. Couper
University of Arkansas
EAST:G. Michael Howard
University of Connecticut
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES
UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers
University of California, Santa Barbara




FALL 1975


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME IX NUMBER 4 FALL 1975


GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES

152 Modern Thermodynamics
Gianni Astarita

158 Heterogeneous Catalysis
W. N. Delgass

162 Dynamical Systems and Multivariable
Control, W. A. Gruver

166 Digital Computations for Chemical
Engineers, Y. A. Liu

170 Industrial Pollution Control
Francis S. Manning

174 Separation Processes, B. J. McCoy
180 Administration of Engineering and
Technical Personnel, Joseph Polack

184 Technological Forecasting
H. P. Schreiber and M. Rigaud

188 Enzyme Catalysis, Charles Walter
192 Critical Path Planning of Graduate
Research, L. F. Donaghey


DEPARTMENTS
151 Editorial

183, 201 Book Reviews

150 In Memorium C. E. Littlejohn

FEATURES
194 Measures of Excellence of Engineering
and Science Departments: A Chemical
Engineering Example, C. L. Bernier,
W. N. Gill and R. G. Hunt
198 Should Engineering Students Be Taught
To Blow the Whistle on Industry?
John Biery and Ray Fahien

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $7 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $5 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1975. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.
149









In Memorium


e, 4. edittledMa


A. J. PERNA
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Newark, New Jersey 07102

During the last week of May, 1975 many of
us associated with Chemical Engineering were
stunned and saddened with the announcement of
the death of C. E. Littlejohn. To those of us who
were aware of Charlie's condition, the news came
as no great surprise but still left us numb with
grief and disappointment. He is survived by his
wife Doris and two daughters.
C. E. Littlejohn, Charlie or Doc Charlie as
he was known to his colleagues and students, was
born on September 28, 1918 in Spartanburg, S. C.
His primary education was in the main under-
taken at various schools in the South. He received
his B. S. in Chemical Engineering from Clemson
College in 1940; his M. S. from North Carolina
State in 1941 and his Ph.D. from Virginia Poly-
technic Institute in 1952. His professional activi-
ties include Chairman of the Western South Caro-
lina Section of AIChE, Faculty Advisor to the
Student AIChE Chapter, Member of AIChE-
ECPD Accreditation Committee, Chairman of the
Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE, and
Chairman of the Publication Board of CEE. He
was co-author of a Chemical Engineering sopho-
more level text, listed in Who's Who in the U.S.,
and selected as Man of the Year of the Western
South Carolina Section of AIChE in 1970. Charlie
joined the staff of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment at Clemson as an Assistant Professor
in 1947 and became Department Chairman in
1956. During this period the departmental staff
consisted of Charlie and one other member with
very little facilities of its own. However, from
the students' point of view this was a positive fea-
ture since in meant Charlie taught many of the
courses. He was an excellent teacher genuinely
concerned with student problems and educational
development. He set high standards in his courses
but had the rare ability to transmit a keen sense
of pride and professionalism to his students. (In
fact, who can forget his lab grading system of


blue pencil for technical errors and red pencil for
grammar mistakes).
In 1960 the department initiated its M.S. program
followed by a Ph.D. program in 1962. In terms
of educational philosophy Charlie's belief was
that both the undergraduate and graduate train-
ing process should reflect an awareness of the
industrial sector's needs. One of his quotes as-
sociated with the graduate program, during its
initial growth stage, was the principle that, "A
Differential Equation Never Built a Distillation
Column." A belief that research should be used
to enhance the expertise of an individual faculty
member and ultimately this expertise be useful
to the students in their educational development
was impressed on his staff.
Insofar as his students were concerned, Charlie took
an active interest in their careers and accomplishments.
He was always available to both students and industrial
representatives for advice, counseling and recommenda-
tions concerning career choices. The mark of esteem
and affection he was held in is exemplified by the initia-
tion this year of the C. E. Littlejohn Scholarship Fund
initiated by industrial representatives who knew him.
Wherever any of "Charlie's Boys" (as his
former students liked to refer to themselves) are,
each one carries a favorite story or image of Doc
Charlie from their own experiences. For myself,
the picture I'll always associate with Charlie in-
volves when our paths would cross at the AIChE
Annual Meetings and we would get into long dis-
cussions on many topics and in my long winded
way I would start a discourse on some chemical
engineering educational related topic whereupon
he would wait until I had finished and with a
smile on his face he would properly admonish
me with the introductory phrase, "Now,
Angie .". Charlie, we are going to miss you!
Editor's Note: CEE also mourns the loss of our Publica-
tion Board Chairman. He has been succeeded by Prof.
William Corcoran of California Institute of Technology.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Cddowual




A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS

As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school.
In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in
your growth toward confidence, independence,
and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. Previous issues
included articles on applied mathematics, trans-
port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics,
particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional
operations, computer aided design, statistical anal-
ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and
certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio-
medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in pre-
vious years. If your department chairman or pro-
fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before
you read the articles in these issues we wish to
point out that (1) there is some variation in
course content and course organization at different
schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en-
gineering that we have not been able to cover, and


(3) the professors who have written these articles
are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize
that particular area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many very fine
chemical engineering departments and each of
these has its own "personality" with special em-
phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in
choosing a graduate school you might first con-
sider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If
you have a specific research project in mind, you
might want to attend a university which empha-
sizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if
you are unsure of your field of research, you might
consider a department that has a large faculty
with widely diversified interests so as to ensure
for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department
with a small enrollment of graduate students. In
any case, we suggest that you begin by writing
the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue.
You will probably also wish to seek advice from
members of the faculty at your own school.

But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.
Sincerely,

RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


FALL 1975















MODERN THERMODYNAMICS


GIANNI ASTARITA
University of Delaware, Newark, Del. and
Istituto di Principi di Ingegneria Chimica,
University di Napoli, Naples, Italy.

IN THE FALL Semester of both 1973 and 1974,
a somewhat non-traditional course in Thermo-
dynamics was given within the graduate program
at the Chemical Engineering Department of the
University of Delaware. The philosophy, scope
and possible future evolution of this course are
discussed in this report.
The teaching of Thermodynamics, at both the
graduate and undergraduate level, in ChE de-
partments is traditionally rather separated from
the mainstream of the research and teaching ac-
tivity of the department as a whole. Thermo-
dynamics is often viewed as a self-contained sub-
ject, knowledge of which allows solving such im-
portant but rather traditional problems as energy
balances, power cycles, and physical and chemical
equilibria. This subject matter is what will be
referred to in the following as classical thermody-
namics.
An analysis of the scope of classical thermo-
dynamics immediately shows that, as far as
energy balances are concerned, only the first law
is involved; for power cycles, the only materials
considered are one-component ideal fluids suffer-
ing at the most complex a phase change; and for


Gianni Astarita has received his M.Ch.E. at Delaware and his
Ph.D. at the University of Naples. He is Professor of Chemical
Engineering and Director of the Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals at the University of Naples, and has a part-time ap-
pointment at the University of Delaware. He has research interests
in Transport Phenomena, Rheology and Thermodynamics. He is the
Italian Editor for Chemical Engineering Science, and has been the
President of the Italian Society of Rheology in 1973-75. He is the
author of "Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction," Elsevier 1967,
of "An Introduction to Non-linear Continuum Thermodynamics,"
spa Ed. Chimica 1975, and coauthor of "Principles of non-New-
tonian Fluid Mechanics," McGraw-Hill 1974.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Prof. Hellinckx and Dr. Mewis of the Catholic
University of Leuven are to be thanked for offering
me in 1972 the first opportunity of teaching RT to
ChE students. Prof. Metzner has been always very
encouraging and has given all his personal support
to this course. C. J. S. Petrie and S. I. Sandler gave
valuable suggestions. H. B. Hopfenberg has offered
useful comments. Finally, my whole approach to
thermodynamic thinking has been greatly influenced
by my work with Prof. Marrucci and Dr. Sarti.

physical and chemical equilibria, no transforma-
tion at all is involved, but only equilibrium states.
With these limitations, the powerfulness of the
second law as a starting point for a theory of ir-
reversibility of processes undergone by possibly
very complex materials is left entirely unex-
plored; and consequently the core of ChE, say
the theory of transport phenomena, chemical
kinetics, process dynamics, and so on is developed
almost without regard to its relationship with
thermodynamics.
The course given at Delaware has been based
on the idea that there is no reason why thermo-
dynamics could not, and indeed should not, have
a central role in ChE methodology. An effort has
thus been made towards the application of ther--
modynamic thinking to non-traditional areas, and
particularly to those where strong research in-
terests exist in the department. This seems a
logical requirement for a graduate course in
thermodynamics if it wants to have an educational
value over and above its purely tutorial content.
This also poses the question of the role of thermo-
dynamics in ChE, which will be discussed in some
detail in the "future evolution" section below.

PHILOSOPHY
The syllabus of the course given at Delaware
in 1973 and 1974 is summarized in Table I. Par-
ticular emphasis was placed on the logical analysis


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







of the fundamental structure of thermodynamic
methodology (see sections B, C1, and D), and
applications were restricted to a subject of pre-
vailing interest in the research program of the
department, namely, polymer deformation and
flow (section C2), and to the traditional subject
of equilibria (section E).
The philosophy of the course is non traditional
in three aspects. First of all, since frictional heat-
ing and dissipation in flowing polymers wants to
be analyzed, a thermodynamic theory of ir-
reversible phenomena, with no Onsager-type re-
TABLE I
Syllabus of the Course
Section A. Mathematical preliminaries. 5 hours
Section B. Classical continuum thermodynamics.
13 hours
B1. Isothermal systems. 4 hours
B2. Non-isothermal systems. 5 hours
B3. Classical theories (Ideal fluids, Viscous
fluids, Elastic solids). 4 hours
Section C. Materials with memory. 7 hours
C1. Thermodynamics and memory. 4 hours
C2. Thermomechanics of polymers. 3 hours
Section D. Axiomatic foundation for classical equilibria.
7 hours
Dl. Internal state variables, Affinity,
Equilibrium. 3 hours
D2. Axiomatic stoichiometry. 3 hours
Section E. Classical equilibria. 8 hours
El. Phase equilibria. 4 hours
E2. Chemical equilibria. 4 hours
striction to linearity, has to be considered ex-
plicitly. Second, since the phenomena considered
involve systems the state of which is in general
different at different points in space (suffice it
to consider that temperature may be non-uniform,
see section B2), a field theory of thermodynamics
is required. Finally, since the peculiar thermo-
dynamic behavior of polymers is related to their
complex response to mechanical and thermal
stimuli, and following a trend which has become
progressively stronger in the theory of transport
phenomena, particular emphasis has been placed
on the role of constitutive assumptions in a
thermodynamic theory.

RATIONAL THERMODYNAMICS

A FIELD THEORY of thermodynamics ap-
plicable to irreversible phenomena in ma-
terials with complex constitutive equations has
been developed in the last ten years mainly by
Coleman, Day, Gurtin, Mueller, Owen, Truesdell
and Williams; it is usually referred to as Rational


Thermodynamics (RT). A critical review of the
relevance of RT in chemical engineering is avail-
able [1]. The material summarized in Table I has
been taught following the methodology of RT.
Teaching RT in an engineering department
poses a major challenge. The technical literature
on the subject, as well as the two books available
up to 1974 [2, 3] are written for an audience of
mathematicians and mathematical physicists, and
are therefore largely unsuitable for direct class-
room use. Some moderately sophisticated mathe-
matical concepts are indeed essential to an under-
standing of the subject, but certainly much less
than presupposed for the reader of the specialized
literature. Furthermore, one needs to put into
sharp relief the relevance of the subject to the
engineering analysis of concrete problems, as well
as the physical counterpart of what may at first
sight appear unnecessary mathematical wizardry.
In view of these difficulties, a set of classroom
notes was prepared for the course at Delaware,
three fourths of which (covering sections A-C of
Table I) have now been published as a short book,
"An Introduction to Non-linear Continuum
Thermodynamics" [4].
RT is a wide and diversified field, so that teach-
ing it implies deciding which grounds to cover,
and even more crucially where to start. Every
axiomatic science must start somewhere, and a
few primitive undefined concepts are required,
whose only specifications are the requirements
laid down in the fundamental axioms. In RT, an



The philosophy of the course is non-traditional
in three aspects ... a thermodynamic theory of
irreversible phenomena with no Onsager-type
restriction to linearity is considered; a field theory of
thermo is required; finally emphasis is placed on
the role of constitutive assumptions in a
thermo theory.



abstract mathematical structure may be develop-
ed, based on such primitive concepts as state
and process [5, 6], and entropy is then obtained
as a derived concept (see also Day [3]). One may
also start from the notion of entropy, regarded
directly as a primitive concept, as has been done
in this course. This allows one to proceed much
more quickly to results of direct engineering in-
terest, though this choice invariably causes some


FALL 1975







concern among professional scientists, who are
not willing to accept entropy, particularly under
non-equilibrium conditions, as a primitive un-
defined concept.
Indeed, among professional scientists an "ac-
ceptable" primitive concept is a physical quantity
of which one is entitled to speak to colleagues




The most common reaction of the students after the
course was to ask why they hadn't been taught thermo
that way the first time they were exposed to the
subject-apparently the most difficult part of the
learning process was the unlearning of
previously acquired biases.




without being asked to define it; or perhaps one
which can be introduced in a paper without worry-
ing that a referee may confute its meaningfulness
in that context. Entropy of a system outside of
equilibrium certainly does not meet these quali-
fications.
It turns out that in classroom use primitive
concepts are, or are not accepted by students in-
dependently of their meeting these qualifications,
and in spite of a long training aimed at avoiding
their asking embarrassing questions, students are
still open-minded enough to be about as likely
to ask what a force is outside of equilibrium as
they are to ask the same question about entropy
-and the second question is not any more em-
barassing than the first one. Indeed, at the end
of the seventeenth century most scientists would
have nothing to do with forces outside of equili-
brium, and Newton felt the need to write: "In
Mathesi investigandae sunt virium quantitates
et rationes illae, quae ex conditionibus quibus-
cumque positis consequentur; deinde ubi in phy-
sicam descenditur, conferendae sunt hae rationes
cum phaenomenis ut innotescat quaenam virium
conditions singulis corporum attractivorum
generibus competent. Et tur demum de virium
speciebus, causis et rationibus physics tutius dis-
putare licebit" [7]. Newton's statement, with "en-
tropy" substituted for "force," could well be used
today as a valid argument in favour of a theory
of irreversibility which uses entropy as a primi-
tive concept.
Comparison with the mechanical example of
the concept of force is not the only illuminating


one; within the same body of thermodynamics
the case of energy is an equally strong one.
Energy is invariably presented as a primitive
concept, the only specification for it being the
requirements laid down in the first law; entropy
and the second law are the exact counterpart.
And indeed some rudimentary example of the
validity of the second law is much easier to dis-
cuss and much more intuitive than any example
of validity of the first law.
Furthermore, students may accept with some
reservations the notion of entropy as a primi-
tive concept, but they'll still allow the teacher
to go on, and after a couple of classes they'll
realize that scores of ideas which had been float-
ing on shaky grounds in their previous thermo-
dynamic training are now deduced with simple
but rigorous logic from one unequivocal mathe-
matical statement of the second law; they'll ap-
preciate that by being asked to accept entropy
as a primitive concept they are now offered de-
finitions of reversibility, irreversibility, dissipa-
tion, and so on. They'll find out one can discuss
mathematically and precisely mixtures and their
properties without ever having to postulate the
existence of semipermeable membranes; and what
is invariably the stumbling block of any discus-
sion about modern continuum thermodynamics
among professional scientists is passed over
smoothly and painlessly in the classroom. In-
deed, the most common reaction of the students
after the course in 1973 was to ask why they
hadn't been taught thermodynamics in that way
the first time they were exposed to the subject-
apparently, the most difficult part of the learning
process was the unlearning of previously acquired
biases. (In fact, some satisfactory results have
been obtained at the University of Naples, where
some of the methodology of RT has been intro-
duced in the teaching of thermodynamics at the
undergraduate level.)

SCOPE OF THE COURSE

T HE CONTENTS OF the course, summarized
in Table I, are illustrated in some detail in
the following.
In Section A, 3 hours are dedicated to the
introduction of tensors as linear transformations
of Euclidean vector space into itself, and to the
basic algorithm of space and time differentiation
of vectors and tensors. Although the classroom
notes and reference [4] include the algorithm for


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








components of vectors and tensors, this is really
not required in the balance of the course and
was not discussed in the classroom. The remain-
ing two hours were dedicated to a few basic con-
cepts of functional analysis, including topology
of function spaces and Frechet differentiation
of functionals.
Section B was dedicated to traditional con-
tinuum thermodynamics, following the method-
ology of RT. Thus two results are obtained: the
actual learning of classical thermomechanical
theories of ideal fluids, viscous fluids and elastic
solids, and the appreciation of the logical rigor,
simplicity and mathematical compactness with
which RT can yield the classical results. In par-
ticular, in section B1 the second law is written in
the simple form requiring the rate of heat supply
divided by temperature not to exceed the rate of
increase of entropy; the classical elementary re-
sults of the thermodynamics of ideal fluids are
then obtained as a direct consequence of the as-
sumption that the state is identified by the in-
stantaneous values of density and temperature.
In section B2, the second law is written in the
form of Clausius-Duhem's inequality, and shown
to imply such classical results as the maximum
possible efficiency of a heat pump without ever
introducing a Carnot cycle. The general method




The traditional areas of transport phenomena
and process dynamics; the new trends in molecular
engineering, rheology and biochemical engineering
may be compacted into some unifying central
viewpoint: modern non-equilibrium thermo is a
likely candidate for such a role.



of obtaining consequences of Clausius-Duhem's in-
equality in continuum thermomechanics consti-
tutes the balance of Section B2. Throughout Sec-
tion B, the only concrete examples of irreversibili-
ty which arise are heat transfer and viscous dissi-
pation.
Section C is dedicated to the thermomechanics
of polymers. In section C1, the method of RT is
applied to the analysis of materials with memory,
so that irreversibility of relaxation phenomena
is discussed in general terms; Section C2 applies
the results obtained to the specific case of poly-
meric materials. Heat transfer, flow and relaxa-


tion in polymers are discussed. The first three
sections exhaust the contents of the textbook [4].
Section D covers the mathematical formalism
of the methodology of RT as applied to both re-
acting and non-reacting mixtures. Since the aim
is only to derive the classical equilibrium theory,
diffusion is not discussed. In section Dl, the gener-
al theory of internal state variables (such as the
degree of conversion of a reaction and the degree
of splitting into phases of mixtures) and their
change in time, of affinity, and of both strong
and weak equilibrium states is discussed; the
irreversible nature of chemical reactions is put
into sharp relief. In section D2, the axiomatic
structure of classical chemistry is introduced.
This allows to deduce rigorously the theory of
physical and chemical equilibria, which are then
discussed in detail in section E.

FUTURE EVOLUTION

T HE COURSE DESCRIBED above has been
given both in 1973 and 1974, and taken by
almost all the graduate students of the depart-
ment during their first semester of work. In the
Fall semester of 1974, a seminar was also held,
meeting once a week, on the teaching of thermo-
dynamics at both the graduate and undergradu-
ate level. The following future evolution of gradu-
ate level teaching of Thermodynamics has been
planned.
The students will be offered two graduate
courses; the first one, to be taken in their first
year of work, will be a more traditional course
than the one described above, while a course in
modern continuum thermodynamics will be offered
to second-year graduate students starting in the
Fall semester of 1976. With the background of a
more traditional course, the material in sections
D2 and E could well be left out from the second
year course, and the 12 hours so recovered could
be used for covering one or more of the following
subjects:
SThermodynamics of diffusion. This would
complete the landscape of the theory of irrever-
sibility of the four basic classes of phenomena of
interest to chemical engineers, namely momen-
tum, heat and mass transfer and chemical
kinetics.
* Thermodynamics and stability. This would fit
in very well with some of the strong research
interests of the Department, namely stability of
non-equilibrium states (flow patterns, chemical


FALL 1975









kinetics) and control theory. The connection be-
tween process dynamics, stability theory and
thermodynamics has been the subject of some
very interesting research [8, 9].
Relationship between continuum thermo-
dynamics and statistical thermodynamics. Al-
though RT is strictly a phenomeno-logical con-
tinuum theory, it is by no means at odds with
statistical thermodynamics; the aim of the latter
is to obtain a priori predictions on the constitu-
tive properties of specific materials, while one of
the main aims of the former is to obtain general
restrictions on the allowable forms of the con-
stitutive equations imposed by the second law.
Particularly in the case of polymeric materials,
the two approaches may be complementary, as
shown by some recent research [10]. Also, the
structural modeling of materials may put some
of the basic axioms of RT in a correct physical
perspective: witness the case of material ob-
jectivity, which has been shown to be valid only
if Coriolis forces on structural elements can be
neglected [11, 12].
It is perhaps interesting, before concluding,
to examine the role of thermodynamics teaching
in ChE in a historical perspective. ChE has under-
gone, at twenty years intervals, two major re-
organizations of its patterns of thought, research
and teaching. In the late 1930's, ChE evolved from
the early stage where the emphasis was on In-
dustrial Chemistry of Processes, to the stage
where Unit Operations were seen as the core.
In the late 1950's, the new change was the switch
from Unit Operations to Transport phenomena.
Both changes, when looked upon from a distance
in time, have the same character: unification of
a variety of parallel elements which had grown
too large for detailed analysis (the chemical
processes up to 1930, the unit operations up to
1950) into a more compact form which allows
the traditional material to be seen from some
central viewpoint.
A somewhat similar evolution may be in the
making, and the late 1970's appear as just about
the right time. The traditional areas of transport
phenomena and process dynamics; the new trends
in molecular engineering, in rheology and in bio-
chemical engineering may be compacted into
some unifying central viewpoint; and modern non-
equilibrium thermodynamics is a likely candidate
for such a role. The trend is already showing up


concretely in the area of transport phenomena:
two recent books on the subject [13, 14] dedicate
a substantially larger fraction of their contents
than traditional to the role of thermodynamics
in the theory of transport phenomena.
The course given at Delaware in 1973 and
1974 is a first effort in this direction; inclusion
of sections F, G and H would extend the area
of thermodynamic influence to the whole of trans-
port phenomena, to process dynamics, molecular
engineering and rheology, with only biochemical
engineering left out. Of course, this would still
be only an initial effort, which should and could
extend to the methodology of teaching and think-
ing at the undergraduate level. Equally of
course, the traditional areas of physical and
chemical equilibria, energy balances and ideal
fluids should not be excluded from thermo-
dynamics, but neither should they be regarded
as exhausting the subject. 0


REFERENCES

1. G. Astarita, G. C. Sarti, Modern Thermodynamics in
Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Chim Ind.
(Milan), in press
2. C. Truesdell, Rational Thermodynamics, McGraw Hill,
New York 1969
3. W. A. Day, The Thermodynamics of Simple Materials
with Fading Memory, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New
York, 1972
4. G. Astarita, "An Introduction to Nonlinear Con-
tinuum Thermodynamics," S.p.A. Editrice di Chimica,
Milan 1975
5. B. D. Coleman, D. R. Owen, A Mathematical Founda-
tion for Thermodynamics, Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal.,
54, 1, (1974)
6. M. E. Gurtin, W. O. Williams, "An Axiomatic Foun-
dation for Continuum Thermodynamics," Arch. Ratl.
Mech. Anal., 26, 83, (1967)
7. I. Newton, Principia, 1687
8. J. C. Williams, "Dissipative dynamical systems. Part
I. General theory," Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal., 45, 321,
(1972)
9. J. Wei, "An axiomatic treatment of chemical reaction
systems," J. Chem. Phys., 36, 1578, (1962)
10. G. Astarita, G. C. Sarti, "A Thermomechanical Theory
for Structured Materials," Trans. Soc. Rheol., in
press
11. I. Mueller, "On the Frame Dependence of Stress and
Heat Flux," Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal., 45, 242, (1972)
12. J. L. Lumley, "Toward a Turbulent Constitutive Equa-
tion," J. Fluid Mech., 41, 413, (1970)
13. F. P. Foraboschi, "Principi di Ingegneria Chimica,"
UTET, Firenze 1973
14. J. C. Slattery, Momentum, Energy and Mass Trans-
fer in Continua, McGraw Hill, New York 1972


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






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HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS




W. N. DELGASS
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907


A S THE BACKBONE of the chemical and
petroleum industries and a key to the solu-
tion of current problems concerning energy and
the environment, heterogeneous catalysis is firm-
ly rooted in the domain of chemical engineering.
The intersection of chemistry, physics, and
engineering in catalysis provides a broad spec-
trum of intriguing fundamental and practical
questions. The breadth and complexity of the
subject, however, require a balance of survey
versus depth in presentation of material in a one
semester graduate course. The choice of organiza-
tion and specific topics must be geared to the
make-up of the class as well as to the prejudices
of the instructor.
At Purdue a class of 25 students in this
course may include chemists (--15 %), chemical
and non-chemical engineers bound for the Ph.D.,




Heavy reliance on original papers slows the pace
but helps achieve one of the course goals-
familiarity with the literature and the ability
to read it critically.



Master's and, in a few cases, B.S. degree. This
diverse class background and the desire to make
the course available at the graduate level without
prerequisites necessitate inclusion of a review
of chemical kinetics. The prejudice of the in-
structor has dictated organization of the course
primarily in terms of theoretical concepts. No
text with the orientation and emphasis outlined
in Table 1 is available, but J. M. Thomas and
W. J. Thomas, Introduction to the Principles of
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Academic Press, New
York (1967), supplemented by Alfred Clark's


-
W. N. Delgass received his B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering
from the University of Michigan and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from
Stanford University. He joined the Yale faculty as an Assistant Pro-
fessor of Engineering and Applied Science in 1969 after a post-
doctoral year at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1974
he became an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Purdue
University. His principal research interests are heterogeneous catalysis,
surface chemistry, Mossbauer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

book The Theory of Adsorption and Catalysis,
Academic Press, New York (1970), or J. J.
Thompson and G. Webb, Heterogeneous Catalysis,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1968),
represents a reasonable compromise. Additional
sources of material and some key papers read by
the students and discussed in class are also in-
cluded in Table 1. Heavy reliance on original
papers slows the pace but helps to achieve one
of the course goals: familiarity with the litera-
ture and ability to read it critically.

PROVIDING ORIENTATION
DETAILS OF THE COURSE material are best
discussed with reference to Table 1, which
also indicates the approximate class time spent
on each area. Section I was an experiment last
year to provide orientation to the field and moti-
vation for the array of topics that follows. Sin-
felt's elegant investigation of ethane hydro-
genolysis over supported metals proved to be a
good vehicle for this purpose, in spite of difficul-
ties the students had initially in dealing with
terms and concepts that were not fully developed
until later in the course.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Sections II, III and IV of the course outline
represent a view of catalysis from the gas side
of the gas-solid interface and also include details
of physical characterization of catalysts. The
emphasis in Sections III and IV is on establishing
criteria for the validity and chemical significance
of kinetic parameters. Simple expectations such
as the exothermicity of adsorption or a rate of
adsorption not exceeding the collision rate with
the surface, for example, can help prevent a com-
puter's propagating physical or chemical non-
sense from a mathematical fit of kinetic data.
Working knowledge in this area is stressed
through homework problems and student reviews
of recent papers presenting kinetic analyses. A
more complete review of kinetics and quantitative
discussion of design and heat, mass and momen-
tum transfer in chemical reactors is the province
of "Chemical Reactor Design," which, along
with courses in thermodynamics, transport, and
mathematics, makes up the graduate core curricu-
lum in chemical engineering at Purdue.
Sections V and VI present a view of catalysis
from the solid side of the gas-solid interface.
These sections contain much new subject matter
and are the most difficult for many students. The
material is presented to help students establish
a basis for the understanding and construction
of chemical models for catalyst behavior and to
provide them with criteria for comparing different
catalysts. Unique explanations of the catalytic
action are difficult to achieve, but concepts such
as ensemble, or surface geometry, effects on
catalytic selectivity and modification of the
electronic properties of metal surfaces by alkalai
adsorption or semiconductor surfaces by contact
with metals, for example, can contribute to
progress in the field. Section VII reinforces some
of these concepts, introduces others, and also
provides discussion of industrial applications of
catalysis. Many students choose deeper study of
industrial reactions for their term papers.


EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES

A N APPARENT OMISSION in the outline is
a general section on experimental techniques.
This area is covered in literature readings, a tour
of the extensive catalysis research facilities in
the School of Chemical Engineering, the term
paper option, and a requirement that teams of
two students prepare for distribution to the class
a one page summary of a particular technique.


The summary includes the underlying principles,
experimental requirements, information available,
catalytic applications, and a few directive
references. Though after several revisions a note-
book of these descriptions of experimental
techniques will become quite useful, future ver-
sions of the course will provide more direct dis-
cussion of this area through further integration
of sections V, VI and VII. O

TABLE 1
Course Outline
I) OVERVIEW (4 Lectures)-Discussion of "Cataly-
tic Hydrogenolysis over Supported Metals," J. H.
Sinfelt, Catal. Rev., 31 175 (1969)
Emphasis: The nature of catalysts and catalysis
research.
A) Relation of Hydrogenolysis to Petroleum Pro-
cessing-Catalyst Selectivity
B) Nature of Catalysts
1) Support
2) Metal Dispersion and its Measurement
3) Methods of Preparation
C) Kinetic Analysis
D) Comparison of Group VIII Metals
1) Activity Pattern
2) Correlation of Activity with Electronic
Properties
3) Crystallite Size Effects
4) Support Effects
5) Ru/Cu Bimetallic Clusters (J. H. Sinfelt,
J. Catal., 29, 308 (1973))
II) CHEMICAL KINETICS (8 Lectures)-(M. Bou-
dart, Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice Hall,
1968)
Emphasis: The relation between sequences of ele-
mentary steps and the rate expression, recogni-
tion of valid kinetic parameters.
A) Derivation of Rate Equations from Sequences
of Elementary Steps
1) Langmuir Adsorption
2) Steady State Approximation
3) Rate Determining Step Approximation
B) Rate Constants for Elementary Steps-Orders
of Magnitude
1) Transition State Theory
2) Collision Theory
3) Further Evaluation of Rate Parameters,
(M. Boudart, D. E. Mears, and M. A.
Vannice, Ind. Chim. Belge., Special Issue 36,
Part I, 281 (1967), and M. Boudart, AIChE
Journal, 18, 465 (1972))
C) Correlation and Estimation of Kinetic
Parameters
1) Polanyi Relation
2) Van Tiggelen Formula
3) Principle of Sabatier
4) Compensation Effect
D) Non-Uniform Surfaces
1) Freundlich and Temkin Isotherms
2) 2 Step Reactions


FALL 1975











Experimental techniques are covered by requiring teams of two students to prepare for distribution
to the class a one page summary of a popular technique including the underlying principles,
experimental requirements, information available, catalytic applications
and a few directive references.


III) SURFACE AREA AND PORE STRUCTURE
(3 Lectures)
A) Selective Chemisorption
B) BET Theory-Approximations, Results and
Applications
C) Pore Size Distribution
1) Kelvin Equation
2) Hysteresis in BET Isotherm
3) Mercury Porosimetry
IV) HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER INFLUENCE
ON KINETIC PARAMETERS (4 Lectures)
(C. N. Satterfield, Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous
Catalysis, MIT Press, (1970))
Emphasis: Qualitative behavior, diagnostics to in-
sure true kinetics.
A) Bulk or Film Diffusion
B) Pore Diffusion
1) Macropore
2) Micropore
C) Heat and Mass Transfer Diagnostics (P. B.
Weisz and J. S. Hicks, Ch.E. Science, 17, 265
(1962))
D) Diffusion Influence on Selectivity
E) Poisoning
V) PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS (7 Lectures)
Emphasis: Development of important parameters
and differences between classes of solids.
A) Crystal Structure
1) Crystal Lattices
2) Miller Indices
3) Geometry of Surface Planes
B) Electronic Structure
1) Review of Atomic and Molecular Orbitals
2) Band Structure
a) Metals
b) Semiconductors-Intrinsic/Extrinsic
c) Insulators
d) Temperature Dependence of
Conductivity
3) Image Potential
4) Work Function-Changes on Adsorption
5) Collective vs. Localized Electron Picture
VI) THEORETICAL CONCEPTS IN ADSORPTION
AND CATALYSIS (8 Lectures)
Emphasis: Examination of the degree to which
simple theoretical approaches can describe catalytic
phenomena.
A) Metals
1) Ionic Model for Adsorption
2) Localized Covalent Model for Adsorption
3) Summary of Current Theoretical Approaches
to Metal-Adsorbate Bonding
4) Ensemble vs. Ligand Effects (Y. Soma-
Noto and W.M.H. Sachtler, J. Catal., 32,
315 (1974))


a) CO Adsorption-Bridged and Linear
b) Alloy Surfaces
c) Infrared Spectroscopy
B) Non-Metals
1) Boundary Layer Theory of Adsorption on
Semiconductors
a) Depletive/Cumulative
b) N20 Decomposition
2) Catalyst/Support Electronic Interaction
a) Metals on Semiconductors
b) Semiconductors on Metals
3) Thermochemical Approach-CO Oxidation
Over NiO
a) Carbonate Intermediate
b) 180 Isotope Tracer
4) Ligand Field Approach
VII) CATALYTIC REACTIONS AND CATALYTIC
CHEMISTRY (11 Lectures)
A) Oxidation
1) Summary of Industrial Processes and
Catalysts
2) Ethylene to Ethylene Oxide
a) Unique Selectivity of Ag
b) O,- Intermediate (P. A. Kilty, N. C. Rol
-and W.M.H. Sachtler, in Catalysis, Vol.
2, J. W. Hightower ed., North Holland
(1972) p. 929)
c) Radiation Induced Selectivity Change
(J. J. Carberry, G. C. Kuczynski, and E.
Martinez, J. Catal., 26, 247 (1972))
i) Importance of Surface Ca Impurity
ii) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
B) Hydrogenation (R. J. Kokes, in Catalysis, Vol.
1, J. W. Hightower ed., North Holland (1972),
p. A-l)
1) Comparison of Metals and Metal Oxides
2) Propylene on ZnO-Details of Catalytic
Chemistry
C) Cracking
1) Summary of Industrial Processes
2) Carbonium Ion Reactions
3) Brinsted and Lewis Acid Sites on Silica/
Alumina and Zeolites
D) Reforming
1) Dual Functional Catalysts
2) Dehydrocyclization on Clean Surfaces (G. A.
Somorjai, Catal. Rev., 7, 87 (1972))-Rela-
tion between Clean Surface Research and
Catalysis
E) NO Reduction
1) Summary of Auto Exhaust Problems
2) Molecular Orbital Symmetry Rules-
2NON2 + 02 as a Symmetry Forbidden
Reaction


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION














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FALL 1975















DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

AND MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL-

An Operations Research Approach

To Automatic Control Education


W. A. GRUVER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27607

AT MOST UNIVERSITIES in the United States,
graduate education in automatic control is
the responsibility of each of the traditional
engineering departments-chemical, electrical
and mechanical. This situation is partly a result
of the rapid growth of control during the past 30
years, which has emphasized limited areas of ap-
plication and, thereby, created groupings such as
process control, servo control and flight control.
In spite of these groupings, there has been con-
siderable emphasis at the graduate level on mathe-
matical aspects of automatic control and less
emphasis on practical questions of system model-
ing and control implementation.1' 2 This emphasis
has led to the distinction "classical" or "modern"
control which, in turn, has magnified the gap
between theory and practice. It is generally
recognized that sole emphasis on mathematics
does not necessarily provide the best preparation
for a career in automatic control. In addition to
an appreciation of mathematical abstraction, a
broadness of perspective toward system design is
needed in order to solve the emerging problems
of our society. According to the late L. Hyldgaard-
Jensen:
"Engineering education of the future should realize
that our industrial systems are becoming so large
and so complex that knowledge of the parts taken
separately is not sufficient. On the contrary we can
expect that, often, the interconnections and inter-
actions between the system elements will be more
important than the separate elements them-
selves Therefore the teaching of design in
automatic control will exhibit an increasing em-
phasis upon new, explicit, and highly organized


techniques for dealing with system structures. The
shift in viewpoint from analysis of systems to de-
sign of systems and the formal emphasis upon the
process of interconnecting elements into total
systems will bring about a new tendency in auto-
matic control education."3
At North Carolina State University (NCSU),
a broad outlook toward Systems and Control is
encouraged by its centralization within Opera-
tions Research (OR). Although the association
of automatic control and operations research is
not new,4 the unique feature at NCSU is that OR
is a graduate program of multidisciplinary nature,
supported by faculty from most branches of


William A. Gruver is a graduate of the University of Pennsyl-
vania (PhD, 1970) and Imperial College, London (DIC, 1965). Before
joining the faculty at North Carolina State University in 1974, he
worked as an optimization specialist for the German Space Agency
and has taught electrical engineering at the University of Pennsyl-
vania and the U.S. Naval Academy. In 1973 he was recipient of a
Humboldt Senior Scientist Award at the Technical University Darm-
stadt. At NCSU, Dr. Gruver is active in developing an interdisciplinary
program in the systems optimization and control area, and the
use of laboratories in automatic control education. His research
centers on the computational and algorithmic aspects of mathe-
matical programming and optimal control.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









engineering and the physical sciences. Study in
OR can be undertaken in one or more of the fol-
lowing areas: mathematical optimization, sto-
chastic systems, econometrics, information and
computer sciences, and dynamical systems and
automatic control. Students in OR usually have
degrees in engineering, mathematics, statistics
or computer science.
The main characteristic of Operations Re-
search during its brief history is that it is inter-
disciplinary. That is, it draws on mathematics,
economics, physics and engineering and distills
from among these disciplines, techniques which
apply to the system under study with the objec-
tive of gaining understanding of the system so
that it may be controlled and harnessed for man's
needs. The natural means for broadening the
scope of automatic control education at NCSU,
therefore, has been to associate it with the Opera-
tions Research Program. An important benefit of
this association is the rich heritage of OR with
mathematical programming and numerical opti-
mization techniques which interfaces directly
with the theory and computational methods of
optimal control.
DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS and Multivariable
Control is a one semester, first year graduate
level course in the Systems and Control option of
the Operations Research Program. Prerequisites
are a knowledge of differential equations and
linear algebra as usually contained in an under-
graduate engineering curriculum. A rudimentary
knowledge of the Fortran language and card
preparation is also required. The customary pre-
requisite of an undergraduate course in single-
loop feedback systems and frequency response
methods is intentionally omitted in order that the
course can be taken by non-engineers. Most
students with a major in OR also have back-
grounds which include advanced calculus and
probability theory.
This course is intended to (1) provide an in-
troduction to analytical modeling, control and op-
timization of dynamical systems, (2) create an
awareness of the wide range of application of
Systems and Control and (3) provide ex-
perience in computer-aided analysis and design.
Both state space and transfer function descrip-
tions are developed early in the course so that the
student is not led to regard either approach as
"classical" or "modern." Emphasis is placed on
linear, stationary models with parallel develop-
ment of continuous-time and discrete time


representations. Topics include state variables,
transforms, flow graphs, canonical forms, system
response, stability, controllability and observ-
ability, modal control, non-interacting control
and fundamental concepts of optimal control and
estimation. Multidisciplinary applications are



The emphasis on the mathematical aspects of automatic
control has magnified the gap between theory and
practice. It does not necessarily provide the best
preparation for a career in automatic control.



chosen from biological, chemical, electrical, me-
chanical and socio-economic systems.


TABLE 1

Course Outline


System Representation-




System Response-




System Stability-




Multivariable Control
Systems-



Linear Stochastic
Systems-



Optimal Control
Systems-


State variables, state equations,
transfer functions, Laplace and
z-transforms, canonical forms
and transformations of linear
systems.
Vector differential equations,
transition matrix, eigenvector
analysis, controllability and ob-
servability, phase plane, system
simulation.
Equilibrium points and stabili-
ty concepts, Direct Method of
Lyapunov, construction of Lya-
punov functions, Routh-Hur-
witz criteria, root locus.
State space formulation, matrix
transfer functions, decoupling
and non-interacting control,
feedforward and modal con-
trol, observers.
Statistical concepts in time and
frequency domains, Gauss-Mar-
kov random processes, mean
square estimation and optimal
filtering.
Maximum Principle, Dynamic
Programming, linear systems
subject to quadratic criteria,
combined optimal control and
estimation.


INTERDISCIPLINARY SPIRIT

T HERE ARE PRESENTLY several excellent
textbooks that combine the state variable


FALL 1975










Although the association of automatic control
and operations research is not new, the unique feature
at NCSU is that OR is a graduate program of
multidisciplinary nature, supported by faculty from
most branches of engineering and the
physical sciences.



and transfer function approaches at an intro-
ductory level. Most of these books, however,
emphasize applications from electrical engineer-
ing. In keeping with the interdisciplinary spirit
of this course, the textbook by Takahashi, Rabins
and Auslander5 provides an effective treatment
of the material while keeping a good balance be-
tween mathematical abstraction and physical
reality. The first half of the course includes use
of a computer program for obtaining time
response, system reduction to canonical form,
system sensitivity by root locus, etc. This pro-
gram is an expanded version of a package for the
analysis and design of linear state variable feed-
back systems. The user's manual is reasonably
complete and gives sample problems for testing
the routines.6' 7
The second part of the course is concerned
with use of the system theoretical concepts
studied previously and is intended to serve as an
introduction to topics which may be studied in
more advanced courses or independent study
basis. The topic of multivariable control treats
both state variable and transfer function ap-
proaches, although advanced frequency response
techniques such as the inverse Nyquist array
method have not been included due to lack of
time and need for additional preparation in com-
plex variable theory.
The topics of stochastic and optimal systems
survey, in the remaining time, certain funda-
mental concepts of these areas and present some
current applications which have included power,
ecological and transportation systems. Several
class sessions and homework exercises are also
devoted to the use of a computer program, the
Variable Dimension Automatic Synthesis Pro-
gram (VASP), for implementing some of the
optimal estimation and control algorithms.8 Ex-
perience gained from working with these com-
puter-aided design programs has been a valuable
means of integrating theoretical concepts with
physical reality, particularly when a student is
forced to discover why his program bombed!


The class meets three hours per week for 16
weeks. About 6 weeks are devoted to system
representation, response and stability. The re-
maining time is divided equally among the topics
of multivariable control, stochastic systems and
optimal control. A graduate student teaching
assistant is responsible for setting up the com-
puter exercises and serves as programming con-
sultant.
The brief exposure to system optimization is
intended to interface with related OR courses
which included linear and nonlinear programming,
dynamic programming, optimization of engineer-
ing processes, variational methods in optimization
techniques, vector space methods in system op-
timization, and computational algorithms of
mathematical programming and optimal control.
Cognate courses such as process dynamics,
economic decision theory, biomathematics and
statistical communication theory provide depth
in more specialized topics.
Centralization of this course within the Operations
Research Program avoids the usual groupings such as
process control, servo control or flight control and, there-
by, encourages a broad outlook toward applications in
the Systems and Control area. An important benefit of
this association is the rich heritage of OR with mathe-
matical programming and numerical optimization tech-
niques which interfaces directly with the theory and
computational methods of optimal control. O

REFERENCES
1. Kahne, S., "Formal Post-Graduate Education in
the United States," Automatica, 8, 525-530 (1972).
2. Schneider, A. M., "University Curricula in Control
Engineering," Joint Automatic Control Conference
(1969).
3. Hyldgaard-Jensen, L., "Trends in Automatic Control
Education," IFAC World Congress, Paris, France
(1972).
4. IFAC Workshop on Higher Education in Automatic
Control, Session 6-"Systems Science and Operations
Research in Automatic Control Education," Dresden,
GDR, March 15-18 (1971).
5. Takahashi, Y., Rabins, M. J., and Auslander, D. M.,
Control and Dynamic Systems, Addison-Wesley Publ.
Co., Reading, Mass. (1970).
6. Melsa, J. L. and Jones, S. K., Computer Programs for
Computational Assistance in the Study of Linear Con-
trol Theory, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York (1973).
7. Gruver, W. A. and Leake, R. J., "Review of Com-
puter Programs for Computational Assistance in the
Study of Linear Control Theory," IEEE Trans. on
Automatic Control, AC-17, 188-189 (1972).
8. White, J. S. and Lee, H. Q., User's Manual for
VASP, NASA TMX-2417 (1971); also Kalman, R. E.
and Englar, T. S., A User's Manual for the Auto-
matic Synthesis Program, NASA CR-475 (1966).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




































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DIGITAL COMPUTATIONS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


Y. A. LIU
Auburn University
Auburn, Alabama 36830

A NEW GRADUATE COURSE on "Digital
Computations for Chemical Engineers" has
been developed recently by the author at Auburn
University. The major objective of the course
is to introduce to the student the theory and
application of the polynomial (or functional) and
finite difference approximations in the solution
of mathematical models in ChE. Brief discussions
on the use of these approximation techniques in
the analysis of experimental data are also in-
cluded.
The contents of the course are distributed
into three broad topics: I. Introduction to poly-
nomial approximation and finite difference, II.
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equa-
tions (ODE), and III. Numerical solution of
partial differential equations (PDE). The pro-
gression of the course follows the sequence given
in Table I, which lists the breakdown of the
course in parts and chapters. The course is divided
into two three-credit-hour quarter-courses. The
first three-fifths of the topics is covered in ChE
600, "ChE Analysis," and the remainder in ChE
650, "Special Topics in ChE." As Seen in Table
I, the course puts less emphasis on the computa-
tional solution of system of linear and nonlinear
algebraic equations as well as the boundary value
problems in ODE. These topics are discussed only
briefly within Topics II and III, and are covered
in more depth in courses on computer aided
process design and optimal control of process
systems. Although a number of the recent textual
references are given in Table II, a single text-
book which is suitable for the course does not
exist. Consequently, lecture notes have to be
prepared for the course. However, note-taking
during the lectures is eliminated through the use
of detailed handouts on most of the lecture ma-
terial.


Referring to Tables I and II, a few remarks
on the course contents and the source of the
course material are as follows. Topic I contains
a concise introduction of polynomial approxima-
tion and finite difference, with special emphasis
on their applications to the computational analysis
of experimental data. The problem of finding a
polynomial of a specified degree to approximate
a known function given either in an analytical
form or as sets of discrete data is considered. The
important questions related to this problem are
discussed from the approximation theory1 using
finite difference table and associated linear
symbolic operators.2 The actual lectures follow
much of the standard material on polynomial
approximation and finite difference from reference
texts 2, 5, 6, 10, and 12 in Table II. The reported



The major objective of the course is to introduce to
the student the theory and application of the
polynomial (or functional) and finite difference
approximations in the solution of mathematical
models in chemical engineering.



results on the development and implementation
of computational algorithms on the topic subject
from such periodicals as Communications of the
Association for Computing Machine (CACM)
and Numerische Matermatik are discussed. An
index by subject on these algorithms published in
1960-1970 is conveniently available in the
reference text 4 in Table II. Weekly homework
problems on applying the lecture material to such
problems as the interpolation of discrete data of
vapor pressure versus temperature, the differen-
tial and integral methods of kinetic analysis from
experimental data are given. A special problem on
the practical application of spline approximation
to the analysis of thermodynamic data3 4 is also
assigned.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










TABLE I.
A TOPICAL OUTLINE OF THE COURSE

I. INTRODUCTION TO POLYNOMIAL APPROXI-
MATION AND FINITE DIFFERENCE:
(1) Topics-polynomial approximation, finite differ-
ence, interpolation and extrapolation,
numerical differentiation and integra-
tion, orthogonal polynomials and
quadrature formulas.
(2) Selected Application-analysis of thermody-
namic data by the spline approximation
technique.
II. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF ORDINARY
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE):
(1) Topics-fundamental concepts, Runge-Kutta
and allied single-step formulas, predic-
tor-corrector methods, stability of
multistep and Runge-Kutta methods,
stiff differential equations.
(2) Selected Application-digital parameter esti-
mation of complex chemical reaction
systems.
III. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF PARTIAL DIFFER-
RENTIAL EQUATIONS (PDE):
Chapter III-1. Fundamental Concepts
Fundamental notations, first and second order
PDE, system of first order PDE, initial and
boundary conditions, finite difference approxima-
tion, functional approximation, further mathe-
matical background, questions raised.
Chapter III-2. Methods of Lines (MOL) and Method
of Characteristics (MOC)
Introduction, basic concepts in the MOL, inverse
methods, consistence, convergence and stability,
MOL for parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic PDE,
method of characteristics, other extensions.
Chapter III-3. Finite Difference Solution of Para-
bolic Equations
Introduction, model parabolic PDE, explicit and
implicit finite difference approximations, con-
sistency and convergence, heuristic, Von Neumann
and matrix stability concepts, some extensions,
solution of finite difference approximations, com-
posite solutions-global extrapolation and local
combinations, explicit and implicit methods for
two- and three-dimensional problems-alternat-
ing direction, local one dimension, fractional
splitting and hopscotch methods, other exten-
sions.
Chapter III-4. Finite Difference Solution of Hyper-
bolic Equations
Introduction, model hyperbolic PDE, first order
hyperbolic PDE, first order vector and vector
conservative hyperbolic PDE, two- and three-
dimensional hyperbolic PDE, second order model
hyperbolic PDE, other extensions.
Chapter III-5. Finite Difference Solution of Elliptic
Equations
Introduction, model elliptic PDE, finite difference
approximations of two- and three-space dimen-
sional problems, solution of finite difference ap-
proximations-direct methods, iterative methods,


Y. A. Liu did his undergraduate work at National Taiwan Uni-
versity, graduate study at Tufts University and obtained his Ph.D.
from Princeton University in 1974 under Professor Leon Lapidus.
He has been an assistant professor of the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Auburn University since 1974. He is currently work-
ing on research projects in the areas of applied numerical methods,
process modeling, simulation and optimization, systems theory and
process control, process design and synthesis, applied chemical
kinetics, statistical theory of particulate processes, coal liquefaction
and solid-liquid separation.



sparse matrix techniques, composite solutions
and other methods, conversion of elliptic to
hyperbolic or parabolic equation, other extensions.
Chapter III-6. Variational, Least-Square and Mo-
ment Methods
Introduction, variational principles, Rayloigh-
Ritz method and extensions, variational solution
of parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic PDE, dy-
namic programming and invariant imbedding
approach, least-square and moment methods,
comparison with other methods, further exten-
sions.
Chapter III-7. Galerkin Methods
Introduction, general features of Galerkin
methods, solution of parabolic PDE-continuous-
time Galerkin, Crank-Nicholson Galerkin, hop-
scotch-Galerkin, local one dimensional Galer-
kin methods, solution of hyperbolic and elliptic
PDE, comparison with other methods, further
extensions.
Chapter III-8. Collocation Methods
Introduction, collocation points and approximating
polynomials, the line collocation, orthogonal col-
location and finite element collocation methods,
solution of parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic
PDEs, comparison with other methods, further
extensions.
Chapter III-9. Finite Element Methods
Introduction, variational finite element methods,
weighted-residual finite element method, element
types and basis functions, the time dimension,
finite element matrix structure and storage
schemes, solution of linear equations in finite
element analysis, solution of parabolic PDE-
finite element heat and mass transfer analysis,


FALL 1975








solution of hyperbolic PDE, solution of elliptic
PDE-finite element method and fluid flow prob-
lems, comparison with other methods, further
extensions.
Chapter III-10. Practical Considerations in Poly-
nomial (Functional) Approxima-
tion Methods
Introduction, continuous and discrete methods of
weighted residuals, the selection of weighting
functions, the selection of approximating func-
tions, the problem specific polynomial approach,
further extensions.
Chapter III-11. Selected Applications
Introduction, solution of Navier-Stokes equations,
solution of problems of adsorption, chroma-
tography and ion exchange columns, solution of
oil and gas reservoir problem, solution of phase
change and related moving boundary problems,
solution of water resources problems, solution
of population balance equations, solution of
catalytic fixed bed reactor problem.

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

TN TOPIC II, the fundamental concepts and
definitions in numerical solution of ODE are
introduced. The practical considerations in nu-
merically solving ODE such as stability, ac-
curacy and computational efficiency are also con-
sidered. Here, the important material from three
recent books 4, 7, and 8 in Table II is briefly dis-
cussed, and supplemented with the excellent
monograph on stiff ODE edited by Willoughby
(see Table II). The specific lectures begin with
some basic techniques for deriving integration
formulae for ODE and related terminologies. The
Taylor series expansion is used first to derive the
simplest Euler's formula and the concept of trunc-
tion error. The forward and backward Taylor
series expansions are then combined to derive
the midpoint rule. These two integration formu-
lae provide the typical examples for defining the
explicit as well as the single-step and multi-step
methods. Next, both the Euler's formula and mid-
point rule are derived by using numerical differen-
tiation and/or integration formulae. The integra-
tion of the ODE by the trapezoidal rule gives the
modified Euler's formula, which serves as an
example for introducing the implicit method. The
combined use of the Euler formula, the original
ODE and the modified Euler's formula suggests
the family of predictor-evaluation-corrector-
evaluation (PECE) methods. A generalized,
linear, multi-step differential-difference equation
with constant coefficients is then defined to sum-
marize the preceding discussions concisely and to
encompass all previous integration formulae with-


in the same framework. The course is continued
with the illustration of the concept of order by
deriving, for example, the second-order Adams-
Bashforth predictor equation from polynomial
approximation. With these preliminaries in hand,
the next step in the course is to introduce the
generalized Adams-Bashforth formaulae, the
Adams-Moulton's forms and the Nystrom ex-
plicit forms, etc. The well-known Runge-Kutta
processes are discussed in a vector-matrix form5
and applied to many homework problems. At this
time, a special topic on the parameter estimation
in ODE from experimental data is given. A
generalized nonlinear least-square, curve-fitting
procedure6' 7 is introduced and a problem of com-
puterized kinetic analysis in the batch fermen-
tation of penicillin is assigned to the students.
The effectiveness and comparison of different
methods in solving ODE are then presented.8' 9
Topic II is concluded with lectures on the occur-
rence of stiff ODE in chemical engineering,1o and
several efficient integration packages for solving
stiff ODE such as by Gear." Finally, many in-
teresting papers on stiff ODE from the reference
text 15 in Table II are discussed.


PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

ALTHOUGH A CONSIDERABLE amount of
the latest knowledge on the numerical solu-
tion of PDE by polynomial (or functional) ap-
proximation has been reviewed in reference
texts 3, 13, and 17 in Table II, such texts on the
numerical solution of PDE by finite difference as
1, 6, 9-11, 14-16 in Table II contain only that
literature published before 1970. A suitable book
covering the up-to-date information of both types
of approximations does not exist. Thus, the lec-
ture-notes for Topic III are mostly the original
developments in the course. An outline in chapters
and sections has been included in Table I. It
should be mentioned that the developments of




The problem of finding a polynomial of a specified
degree to approximate a known function given either
in an analytical form or as sets of discrete data is
considered.., questions related to this problem
are discussed from the approximation theory using
finite difference table and associated linear
symbolic operators.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









these notes would not be possible without the
encouragement, support and participation of
Professor Leon Lapidus of Princeton University.
The computer listing of the latest publications
as well as the hundreds of reference reports and
reprints on the numerical solution of PDE given
by Professor John H. Giese of University of
Delaware have been most helpful. In addition, a
number of excellent literature reviews and the
latest developments on the subjects on Topic III
have been found in several recent doctoral dis-

TABLE II.
SOME TEXTUAL REFERENCES OF
THE COURSE
1. Ames, W. F., "Numerical Solution of Partial
Differential Equation," Barnes & Nobles
(1969).
2. Dahlquist, G., A. Bjorck, & N. Anderson, "Nu-
merical Methods," Prentice-Hall (1974).
3. Finlayson, B. A., "The Method of Weighted
Residuals and Variational Principles," Aca-
demic Press (1972).
4. Gear, C. W., "Numerical Initial Value Prob-
lems in Ordinary Differential Equations,"
Prentice-Hall (1971).
5. Issacson, I., & H. B. Keller, "Analysis of Nu-
merical Methods," Wiley (1966).
6. Lapidus, L., "Digital Computations for
Chemical Engineers," McGraw-Hill (1962).--
7. Lambert, J. D., "Computational Methods in
Ordinary Differential Equations," Wiley
(1973).
8. Lapidus, L., & J. H. Seinfeld, "Numerical So-
lution of Ordinary Differential Equations,"
Academic Press (1971).
9. Mitchell, A. R., "Computational Methods in
Partial Differential Equations," Wiley (1969).
10. Ralston, A., & H. S. Wilf, Editors, "Mathe-
matical Methods for Digital Computers,"
Wiley, Vol. I (1960), and Vol. 2 (1967).
11. Richtmyer, R. D., & K. W. Morton, "Differ-
ence Methods for Initial Value Problems,"
2nd Edition, Interscience (1967).
12. Rosenbrock, R. H., & C. Storey, "Computa-
tional Techniques for Chemical Engineers,"
Pergamon Press (1966).
13. Strang, G., & G. Fix, "An Analysis of the
Finits Element Method," Prentice-Hall (1973).
14. Varga, R. S., "Matrix Iterative Analysis,"
Prentice-Hall (1962).
15. Willoughby, R. A., Editor, "Proceedings of
International Symposium on Stiff Differential
Systems," Wilbad, Germany, Plenum Press
(1974).
16. Young, D. M., "Iterative Solution of Large
Linear Systems," Academic Press (1972).
17. Zienkiewicz, O. Z., "The Finite Element Method
in Engineering Science," 2nd Edition, McGraw-
Hill (1967).


sertations. For example, studies which are con-
cerned with the method of line for PDE12 (Chap-
ter III-2), the composite numerical solution of
PDE13 (Chapter III-3 to III-5), finite element
method for heat conduction analysis14 and fluid
flow problems15 (Chapter III-9), collocation




A generalized non-linear least square, curve-fitting
procedure is introduced and a problem of
computerized kinetic analysis in the batch
fermentation of penicillin is assigned ... the
effectiveness and comparison of different methods
in solving ODE are then presented.




method for the analysis of chromatographic sys-
tem16 (Chapter III-8) have been reported. While
further discussions on the course contents and
source material for Topic III are not possible
within the limits of this article, a detailed write-
up and specific subject references on the numerical
solution of PDE can be obtained by writing to the
author.

WORK REQUIREMENTS

A BRIEF REMARK about the course require-
ment may be of interest here. Homework
problems are assigned to the class weekly. Each
student is required to conduct an independent
course project and to submit a term paper which
includes: (a) a concise literature survey of the
most important publications in the topic chosen,
(b) a critical analysis of the computational
techniques involved and a proper evaluation of
the "state of the art," and (c) suggestions for
further investigations as well as a preliminary
analysis of the feasibility of the proposed research
areas. Since no course examinations are given,
this provides more opportunities for each student
to pursue the specific subjects of interest. Typical
subjects on the term projects chosen by the class
during the last year include the method of
characteristics, the method of lines, the ana-
lysis of chromatographic system, the colloca-
tion method, and the extrapolation technique for
the solution of PDE and nonlinear algebraic equa-
tions. It is encouraging to mention that several
of these projects conducted by the class in the
course have led to some quite original research
(Continued on page 202.)


FALL 1975









A7 (?0ae in


INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL


FRANCIS S. MANNING
University of Tulsa
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104

IN 1971 THE Chemical Engineering graduate
students formally requested a graduate level
course in pollution control. From 1971 through
1973, Tulsa University conducted a M.S. level,
EPA-sponsored program of training of engineers
in oil-related water pollution control. This pro-
gram created a need for a graduate course which
would familiarize B.S. chemical engineers with
industrial pollution control practices and design
procedures.
Since 1974 the ChE Department has ad-
ministered the University of Tulsa Environmen-
tal Protection (UTEPP) program-a non-profit,
cooperative, petroleum industry-sponsored re-
search program committed to studying present
and future environmental protection problems in
petroleum and related industries. Obviously, stu-
dents working in UTEPP also require graduate-
level instruction in industrial pollution control.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL not
only focuses on the general theories of in-
dustrial pollution control to provide breadth of
understanding, but also emphasizes petroleum-
related design examples to provide the required
specialization. Current industrial pollution con-
trol practices and design procedures are intro-
duced as painlessly as possible. This is accom-
plished by emphasizing the relevancy of conven-
tional, undergraduate chemical engineering. In
other words, biological oxidation processes are de-
scribed as chemical reactors; but, of course, new
concepts such as the inherently varying waste-
water "feed" volume and concentration and the
sensitivity of "bugs" to shock loads are carefully
described. Similarly, ammonia stripping is dis-
cussed using standard ChE desorption nomencla-


ture; and liquid condensation in pressure-relief
lines is treated as a standard thermodynamic
"flash calculation."

TEACHING FORMAT
WHILE THE TRADITIONAL lecture format is
maintained, formal lecturing is minimized.
For the past two years "Industrial Pollution Con-
trol" was taught via the Oklahoma Higher Edu-
cation Televised Instruction System (Philoon,
1974) thus allowing engineers from Conoco in
Ponca City and Phillips Petroleum in Bartlesville
to participate. This televised procedure permitted
maximum use of class time because an overhead
TV camera made it possible to project printed
pages on the TV receiving screens. This mini-
mized the timeconsuming writing of notes on
the blackboard and the laborious copying by
students. While two texts were recommended (but
not required) the majority of the course material
was selected from recent articles (see references
for a partial listing). The references must be up-
dated every year because of the great current
interest in this field. Frequently students were


Francis S. Manning is Professor and Chairman of Chemical Eng-
ineering at The University of Tulsa. He holds the following degrees
in. Chemical Engineering:-B. Eng. (Hons.) from McGill University and
M.S.E., A.M., and Ph.D. from Princeton University. He is a profes-
sional engineer, registered in Oklahoma, Pennsylvania and Texas.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








supplied with reprints of key articles not readily
available in the library.
Because "Industrial Pollution Control" covered
such a wide range of topics, expert guest lecturers
were used:-e.g. Paul Buthod for petroleum re-
fining; Erle Donaldson for subsurface disposal;
Dick Martin for noise control and Robert Reed
for combustion and incineration. Plant trips to
Sun Oil Company's Tulsa refinery and to William
Brothers Analytical Laboratory were included.
Since 1970, the University of Tulsa has spon-
sored ten one-week short courses for industry on
wastewater and air pollution control as applied
to petroleum refining and related petrochemicals.
These short courses have featured many national-
ly-known authorities such as Milton Beychok,
Frank Bodurtha, Marion Buercklin, Lee Byers,
Burton Crocker, Wes Eckenfelder, Davis Ford,
Bill Licht, Leon Myers, Robert Reed, George Reid,
Jim Seebold and others. Students enrolled in
"Industrial Pollution Control" have always been
encouraged to attend these short courses (free
of charge) and were given complimentary notes
for the short course. These short courses have
enriched "Industrial Pollution Control" im-
measurably. Last fall, for example, the students
attended 35 hours of lectures on air pollution con-
trol and received approximately 200 pages of
notes and design case histories. In-class treatment
of air pollution then consisted of discussing points
of student uncertainty and working extra prob-
lems.
Students were graded on 1) their solutions
to the design problems; 2) two "term-papers"
or more comprehensive design projects; and 3)
their in-class presentation and defense of their
design projects.

COURSE OUTLINE
Petroleum Refining (1 hr lecture) A brief dis-
cussion of refining with emphasis on unit pro-
cessing steps and the major sources and types of
wastes is conducted. The chief concept presented
is: increased processing is accompanied by in-
creased production of potential pollutants. Nelson
(1968).
Refinery Wastewater Treatment (1 hr lecture)
A brief summary is given of major uses of process
water in a refinery emphasizing current recycling
of process water and methods of minimizing
volume of wastewater produced. Advantages of
segregated sewers. Overview of primary, second-


ary, and tertiary treatment with emphasis on ar-
rangement of treatment steps. Manning (1973).
* Characterization of Industrial Wastewaters (1
hr lecture) The problem of describing a waste-
water in terms of a relatively few, standard
analyses such as BOD, COD, TOC, SS, etc., is ex-
plained. FWPCA (1967).


The course not only focuses on the general theories
of industrial pollution control to provide breadth
of understanding; but also emphasizes petroleum-
related design examples to provide the required
specialization. Current industrial pollution control
practices and design procedures are introduced by
emphasizing the relevancy of conventional
undergraduate ChE.


Biological Treatment (2 weeks, 3 problems)
Biological phenomena and related importance in
understanding biological waste treatment are
presented. Laboratory methods for modeling
aerobic growth kinetics. Current design methods
for sizing activated sludge and aerated lagoons
including treatability studies, common start-up
and operating problems and solutions, effluent
qualities typically realized, and economic aspects.
API (1969); Eckenfelder and Krenkel (1972);
Thackston and Eckenfelder (1972); Adams and
Eckenfelder (1974).
Sludge Handling (1 week; 1 problem) Sludge
handling is discussed in depth with emphasis
upon alternative methods-sludge conditioning,
thickening, dewatering, drying and digesting.
Ultimate disposal methods such as land farming
and landfill were reviewed. Dick (1972); Ecken-
felder and Krenkel (1972).
Pretreatment (2 weeks, 3 problems) The role
of pretreatment on the operation of biological
treatment such as activated sludge or aerated la-
goons is discussed. Detailed design procedures for
equalization basins; neutralization; oil separators
(API and CPI); and dissolved air flotation units.
Adams and Eckenfelder (1974); Ford and
Manning (1974).
Tertiary Treatment (1 week, 2 problems)
Biological nitrification-denitrification are review-
ed. Carbon adsorption and mixed-media filtration
as effluent polishing steps are discussed. Emphasis
is placed on the implications of EPA effluent cri-
teria on the selection of processes, design pro-
cedures, and effluent qualities obtainable in in-
dustrial operation. Adams and Eckenfelder


FALL 1975








(1974); Thackston and Eckenfelder (1974).
* Subsurface Disposal (1 hr lecture) The design
and operation of underground disposal wells is
reviewed including geology; economics; and the
pros and cons of subsurface versus surface treat-
ment. Donaldson (1974).
* Water Quality Standards (Ihr lecture)
BPCTCA: BATEA: new source standards and
1985 "Zero Discharge" regulations are reviewed,
while emphasizing their effect on current treat-
ment practices. Federal Register (1974).
* Source and Ambient Air Sampling (1 hr lecture)
Procedures for stack sampling of particulates and
gaseous procedures are reviewed with emphasis
upon relevant case histories-isokinetic pro-
cedures for particulates, and analysis of SO,,
NOX and hydrocarbons. Crocker and Schnelle
(1970) ; Hesketh (1972).
* Meteorology (2 weeks, 3 problems) Funda-
mentals of meteorology are presented, including
mixing processes; DALR; atmospheric stability;
Pasquill and Turner's classifications; dispersion
models using Gaussian models; plume rise. Design
case histories are used to illustrate calculation
procedures, including variations in ground-level
concentration, time averaging, multiple stacks,
etc. Crocker and Schnelle (1970); Schnelle and
Noll (1972); Hesketh (1972).
* Removal of Particulates (2 weeks, 3 problems)
The basic design criteria for particulate control
with emphasis upon fundamental principles and
mechanisms are reviewed. These principles are
used to develop basic collector models, determine
effects of dust size distributions, energy require-
ments, and optimal design criteria. Inertial
separators (cyclones), filters, electrostatic precipi-
tators, and wet scrubbers are included. Crocker
and Schnelle (1970); Byers and Licht (1974);
Hesketh (1972).
* Control of SO2 Emissions (1 week) Control of
SO0 emissions from combustion and process gasses
by limestone/dolomite injection, limestone and
MgO slurry scrubbing, catalytic oxidation and
alkaline scrubbing, and Claus recovery plants are
discussed. Byers and Licht (1972).
* Incineration (2 weeks, 3 problems) Combustion
fundamentals are reviewed, including fuel
characteristics, fuel: air ratio, combustion
temperature, heat transfer and mixing effects,
effect of water vapor, heating value of fuels, speed
of combustion, odor control by incineration and
design methods for fluid bed and atomized suspen-
sion incinerators and for flares. Reed, R. D.


(1973); Eckenfelder and Krenkel (1972).
* Hydrocarbon Losses; NOX Reduction (1 hour
lecture, 1 problem) Methods of controlling NOX
emissions such as low excess air firing, staged
combustion, flue gas recirculation, and inert in-
jection are reviewed. Sarofin and Bartok (1973).
* In-Plant Noise Control (1 week, 1 problem) An
introduction to the nature of noise, health as-
pects, pollution economics, major national sources,
main concepts of in-plant noise (design versus ex-
ternal treatment), inplant noise legislation and
basic physics of noise generation is presented.
Kannapell and Seebold (1975).
* Air Standards, Environmental Impact Studies
(1 lecture) We review federal legislation includ-
ing the Clean Air Act of 1970, establishment of
national air quality standards, implementation
plans and emission standards for new and exist-
ing sources. Environmental Impact Statements
are discussed. Beychok (1973) ; Hesketh (1972).

TYPICAL PROBLEMS

T HE MAJORITY OF CLASS TIME is spent
discussing design problems which are care-
fully formulated to reflect actual engineering
practice. The students are not required to
memorize typical operating conditions; but,
hopefully they develop such engineering judg-
ment by working with realistic numbers. These
problems illustrate how the student's basic ChE
knowledge can be applied to pollution control.
This teaching philosophy is illustrated below in
typical problems.
Biological Treatment In addition to designing
activated sludge and aerated lagoons by conven-
tional methods (Adams and Eckenfelder, 1974)
the students fit laboratory treatability data with
3 variations of the first order kinetics: thus dis-
covering the empirical nature of the assumed
kinetics. Also, if time permits, the students com-
pare Beychok's (1970) data on aerated lagoons
with plug-flow and perfectly-mixed reactor
models. They are surprised to find that both
models can fit the biological degradation data over
the limited variation in residence time, etc. (Sop-
er et al, 1975).
Neutralization Students plot the daily amounts
of base required to neutralize an acid coke and
chemicals wastewater (pH=2.5) on probability
paper. They test whether the daily requirements
are normally distributed and learn what is meant
by designing for the 90 or 95 percentile.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









* Equalization Students plot the daily COD load
from a typical (but hypothetical) refinery on
probability paper. They then design an equaliza-
tion basin using Novotny and Englande's (1974)
method which assumes random fluctuations. Class
discussion compares the results of the Novotny
and Englande method with a rigorous, numerical,
computer solution. This shows how a major spill
produces a non-Gaussian distribution, and also
indicates when Novotny and Englande's method
should and should not be applied.


signment is to criticize a very misleading paper.
* Sludge Incineration This incineration design in-
cludes complete mass and energy balances; sizing
combustion volume for a specified residence time;
and specifying insulation. Sludge atomization
using steam is examined.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This course "Industrial Pollution Control"
was made possible only by the advice, support,


For the past two years "Industrial Pollution Control" was taught via the Oklahoma Higher Education
Televised Instruction System-thus allowing engineers from Conoco in Ponca City and Phillips
Petroleum in Bartlesville to participate. This televised procedure made it possible
to project printed pages on the TV receiving screens.


* Stripping Students first reconcile the design
equations listed by Smith (Thackston and Ecken-
felder, 1972, p. 140) with the standard ChE
formulations for counter-current columns. They
examine the relative magnitudes of the gas and
liquid phase resistances. Finally the overwhelm-
ing effect of temperature on the feasibility of
stripping is illustrated by sizing several towers.
If time permits, Beychok's approach to high
temperature, stripping of HS-NH3 mixtures is
discussed (API, 1969, revised chapter).
* Atmospheric Dispersion Dispersion of SO2 is
estimated using the Pasquill and Turner approach.
The estimates are repeated for multiple stacks
and at least two plume-rise formulae. Finally
the differences between continuous point sources,
and instantaneous "puff" sources are illustrated
not by dwelling on the mathematical derivations
but by working suitable examples. Students esti-
mate the dispersion coefficients thus emphasizing
the uncertainties inherent in the final answers. If
time permits, students estimate the ground con-
centration of HS and/or mercaptan produced by
releasing HsS and/or mercaptan from a safety
release valve. The resulting ground concentra-
tions are then compared with odor thresholds and
EPA air quality standards.
* Flare Stack The design of a flare stack includes
estimating potential carbon escape, steam demand
for smoke suppression; sizing storage space for
liquid knock-out facility; ground-level radiant
heat fluxes. Wherever possible students are in-
troduced to alternative (and sometimes contra-
dictory) design rules-of-thumb. In fact one as-


and contributions of many students, faculty, in-
cluding adjuncts, industrial friends, and short-
course lecturers. The author regrets that space
limitations prevent individual recognition; but
special thanks are due Marion Buercklin (Sun Oil
Company) and Leon Meyers (E. P. A.) for serving
as "founding fathers." 0

REFERENCES
Recommended Texts
Hesketh, H. E. (1972), Understanding and Controlling
Air Pollution, Ann Arbor Science Pub., Ann Arbor,
Michigan.
Thackston, E. L., and W. W. Eckenfelder (1972), Process
Design in Water Quality Engineering, Jenkins Pub-
lishing Company, Austin, Texas.

References
Adams, C. E., and W. W. Eckenfelder (1974), Process De-
sign Techniques for Industrial Waste Treatment, En-
viro Press, Nashville, Tennessee.
American Petroleum Institute, (1969), "Manual Disposal
of Refinery Wastes Volume on Liquid Wastes," A. P. I.,
Washington, D. C.
Beychok, M. R. (1970), "Performance of Surface Aerated
Basins," Chemical Engineering Progress Symp. Series,
No. 107, Vol. 67, p. 322.
Beychok, M. R. (1973) "Air Pollution Control Legislation,"
Tulsa University Short Course Notes, January 15.
Byers, R. L. and W. Licht, (1972), "Processes for Con-
trol of SO, Emissions," AIChE Advanced Seminar,
AIChE, N. Y.
Byers, R. L. and W. Licht, (1974), "Design Fundamentals
of Particulate Collection for Air Pollution Control,"
AIChE Today Series, AIChE, N. Y.
Crocker, B. B. and K. B. Schnelle, (1970), "Introduction
(Continued on page 186.)


FALL 1975









1wa oauew i4Z


SEPARATION PROCESSES:

Particulate Systems And Column Operations


B. J. McCOY
University of California
Davis, California 95616


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 260 and 261 at
UC Davis are each one quarter courses de-
signed to introduce graduate students ( and some
seniors) to separation processes of particulate
systems and column or cascade systems. Some
students consider the courses as featuring appli-
cations of mass transfer, others, applications of
mathematics. Some students hope to gain a deep-
er understanding for design of ChE unit opera-
tions, others desire a suitable background in a
particular area so they may begin research or
understand the research of others. In addition
to these separate objectives the instructor hopes
students in the courses are instilled with an ap-
preciation for the interaction and interdependence
of these subjects: mathematics, transport
phenomena, design, and research.
Tables I and II show typical outlines of topics
and lectures. These courses are not meant to over-
lap with other engineering courses at UC Davis,
and therefore certain items are omitted that are
adequately covered in the other courses. For the
first course, a course in transport phenomena such
as Section III in Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot [1],
is pre-requisite; for the second, an additional pre-
requisite is a course in staged mass transfer ope-
rations.



Some students consider the courses as featuring
applications of mass transfer; others, applications of
mathematics. Some hope to gain a deeper under-
standing for design of ChE unit operations, others
desire a suitable background in a particular area
so they can begin research or understand
the research of others.


TABLE I


Outline of topics for ChE 260,
Separation Processes: Particulate Systems
1. Membrane separations: colloid systems, reverse
osmosis and ultrafiltration, problem of con-
centration polarization.
2. Distribution functions, population balances,
moment equations.
3. Micro organisms; enzyme kinetics.
4. Birth, death, and fission kinetics.
5. Chemostat analysis: fermentation, activated
sludge, sterilization.
6. Crystallization, nucleation, zone refining.
7. Liquid-liquid systems: particle agglomeration
and breakage.
8. Aerosol dynamics: Knudsen, transition, con-
tinuum regimes.
9. Molecular velocity distribution functions,
kinetic equations, hydrodynamic equations,
constitutive equations.
10. Drag and thermal forces on aerosols; pre-
cipitators.
11. Evaporation and growth of aerosols.

PARTICULATE SYSTEMS

B RIEFLY, THE FIRST COURSE is an analysis
of particulate systems in, for example, pollu-
tion abatement and chemical process equip-
ment. Macromolecules, micro-organisms, colloids,
crystals, and aerosols are discussed. Population
balances and distribution functions are mathe-
matical concepts that tie the topics together and
help maintain continuity. Variations of the classic
ChE models, the plug flow and continuous stirred
tank reactors, recur frequently as well.
Usually ChE 260 begins with the membrane
separations: reverse osmosis (hyper filtration),
ultrafiltration, dialysis, etc. The students inspect
various membrane devices, and thermodynamics
of osmotic pressure is reviewed (e.g. van't Hoff
equation). Flux equations for solvent or solute
transfer through the membrane are based on
principles of irreversible thermodynamics. The


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























Benjamin J. McCoy received his B.S. degree from the Illinois
Institute of Technology, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Uni-
versity of Minnesota (1967). He is presently an associate professor
of chemical engineering at the University of California, Davis. His
research interests are in rarefied gas phenomena, molecular theory
of chemical kinetics, enzyme engineering, and separation processes.


role of concentration polarization is emphasized,
and the film theory with rejection efficiency is
introduced. We review correlations for mass trans-
fer coefficients in various configurations for
laminar and turbulent flow. For example, we show
the Leveque model provides an analytical path to
the laminar-flow form of the relation between
Sherwood and Peclet numbers and the diameter
to length ratio [2]:
Sh a Pe1/3 (d/x)1/3
Techniques for increasing mass transfer and
decreasing concentration polarization are dis-
cussed [3], including the effect of heating [4] and
of pulsed operation [5]. For dewatering of cer-
tain food materials, the fluid is non-Newtonian.
Thus the effect of the power law stress relation
on transfer coefficients is studied [6]. For a mathe-
matically more detailed description of the convec-
tive mass transfer in concentration polarization,
the partial differential equations are written and
solved by separation of variables [7]. The velocity
profiles for the convective model are provided by
the perturbation solution of the Navier-Stokes
equation for the stream function [8].
Enzymes are macromolecules (proteins) that
can be concentrated by ultra-filtration [9]. Their
catalytic properties are first described by
Michaelis-Menten kinetics, derived via the Briggs-
Haldane model [10]. Expressions for conversion of
substrate in plug flow, batch and continuous
stirred tank reactors are compared. Rate equa-
tions for various competitive reactions, as well
as methods of data analyses, are developed.


Various immobilized-enzyme reactors are com-
pared. Rate equations for various competitive re-
actions, as well as methods of data analyses, are
developed. Various immobilized-enzyme reactors
are analyzed: for example, the differential equa-
tion for steady state diffusion and reaction of
substrate in a porous spherical particle is solved
for zeroth and first order kinetics due to an en-
zyme attached to the pore surfaces. Effectiveness
factors are used to determine conversion for
packed bed and slurry reactors of these porous
particles [11].
Solubility and stability of proteins and colloids
are discussed in terms of the electrical double lay-
er [12]. The Debye-Huckel theory, which makes
use of diffusion-like differential equations for
electrostatic potential, is reviewed for the activity
coefficients of dissolved enzymes [13]. The equili-
brium theory of protein solubility shows how dis-
solved protein concentration depends on ionic
strength [14]. Recent developments in affinity



The first course is an analysis of particulate systems
in, for example, pollution abatement and chemical
process equipment. Macromolecules, micro-organisms,
colloids, crystals and aerosols are discussed.
Population balances and distribution functions are
mathematical concepts that tie the topics together
and help maintain continuity.



chromatography to separate proteins are inter-
preted in terms of protein solubility in salt solu-
tions [15].
Microencapsulated enzyme is an example of
the simplest model of a microorganism. Substrate
diffuses through the encapsulating membrane to
react with the entrapped enzyme. Monod kinetics
for bacterial growth follow naturally, and are used
to derive equations for the operation of the steady
state chemostat. Brief mention is made of the
chemostat's relation to fermentation, activated
sludge, and sterilization processes. The diffusion
field in and around a single spherical cell is studied
for zeroth and first order approximations to Mi-
chaelis-Menten kinetics inside the cell [16].

POPULATION BALANCE

T HE COMPACT SECTION in Himmelblau and
Bischoff [17] is followed closely to introduce
and use population balance equations. A general


FALL 1975








Reynolds transport theorem is used in this con-
text, and the population balance equation is
shown to be a generalization of the more familiar
multicomponent mass balance. Moment equations
are derived from the equation for the population
distribution function. A macroscopic equation
for the average distribution is shown to have ob-
vious similarities with macroscopic equations in
transport phenomena. The chemostat model for
bacteria with time dependent mass is considered
for special forms of birth, death, and fission terms.
We briefly touch on problems of particle agglo-
meration and breakage in liquid-liquid systems.
Crystallizer product size distributions for the
"mixed suspension, mixed product removal"
model are discussed. Reading from the book on
particulate processes by Randolph and Larson
[18] is recommended. The basic picture of homo-
geneous nucleation with free energy depending
on embryo size provides for a discussion of effects
of supersaturation, interfacial tension, and critical
cluster diameter [19]. We also discuss a model of
zone refining [20].
The final major section of ChE 260 is based
on rarefied gas transport phenomena and aerosol
systems. First, the three rarefied gas regimes are
defined: the Knudsen, transition, and continuum
regimes with, respectively, the mean free path X
much greater than, about the same as, or much
less than the characteristic geometrical length L,
e.g., the particle diameter. We note qualitatively
different phenomena are exhibited in the extreme
regimes, but that a gradual transition bridges be-
tween. This is compared to sharp qualitative leaps
between regimes of other phenomena, e.g. phase
changes, or laminar-turbulent transition. All this
is to emphasize physical laws have limits: mathe-
matical equations fail to describe physical reality
outside the range of the model's application.
Because it appears in so many contexts, the
equation for flux of molecules to a surface in
free-molecule (Knudsen) flow is carefully de-
veloped.
j = p/V27rmkT
This equation is related to effusion, catalyst pore
diffusion, the Knudsen vapor pressure cell, therm-
al transpiration, and deposition and evaporation
at the surface of a particle-all processes in the
Knudsen regime. Condensation and accommoda-
tion coefficients are defined. Knudsen regime for-
mulas for heat transfer from a sphere, and for
drag on a sphere are presented (reference is made
to Kogan's book [21] for details).


The continuum gas regime is next treated,
where intermolecular collisions dominate entirely
over molecule/wall collisions. The Boltzmann
kinetic equation is shown to have the same general
form as population balance equations. The velocity
distribution function has moments related to the
observable mass density, velocity, and tempera-
ture of the gas. The moment equations are the
point hydrodynamicc) equations of change. We
introduce the simple relaxation (Krook) form of
the intermolecular collision operator [22] and use
the Chapman-Enskog technique to derive New-
ton's law of stress with viscosity coefficient,
/Ic TcP
and Fourier's law of heat conduction with thermal
conductivity coefficient,
5k
Ke = --m-Tep
in terms of the collision time rT, pressure p,
molecular mass m, and Boltzmann's constant k.
The subscript c indicates the continuum limit.
We treat the transition regime by assuming
that the collision frequency is the sum of col-
lision frequencies of molecule/wall and molecule/
molecule collisions [23]:
1 1 1
T TK Te
Such a hypothesis leads to transport coefficients
obeying a well-known expression; e.g. for the
viscosity,
1 1 1
tL P-K Ptc


The second course concerns the analysis and design
of separation processes in columns or cascaded
systems: distillation, leaching, extraction, adsorption,
chromatography, absorption. Applied mathematics
is a prominent aspect of the course including finite
difference equations, probability and random walk
theories, method of characteristics, and
moment analysis.


Expressions for fluxes D are usually of prime im-
portance; we show that
1
1 + GK
where K = X/L is the Knudsen number, and G
depends on geometry and molecular accommoda-
tion. Further,
GK = 0 -c/ = fK c/P- Tc/TK


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








TABLE II

Outline of topics for ChE 261,
Separation Processes: Column Operations
1. Finite difference equations applied to staged
operations: distillation, extraction, leaching,
absorption. Derivation of Smoker, Fenske, and
Kremser equations.
2. Rate processes in column operations: transfer
unit analysis and unified design method for
continuous contractors.
3. Axial dispersion: Taylor, random walk, other
models.
4. Equilibrium theory of chromatography: bi-
nomial, Poisson, and Gaussian probability
functions.
5. Breakthrough curve analysis: Goldstein J-
function, Parex process.
6. Method of characteristics for solving first-
order partial differential equations: chroma-
tography, parametric pumping.
7. Moment analysis of pulse response experi-
ments: adsorption, gas-liquid partition, gel
permeation chromatography. Hermite poly-
nomial representation of elution curves.
8. Chromatography resolution and optimization.


so that quite simple formulas describe the transi-
tion regime, formulas that are easily constructed
if one knows the continuum and Knudsen flux
expressions [23]. Transition range formulas are
developed for heat and mass transport near a
sphere, and drag on a sphere. The well-known
Maxwell equation for evaporation or growth of
a droplet is derived for simultaneous heat and
mass transport [24]. Remarkably, when transi-
tion range diffusion and heat conductivity co-
efficients are inserted into the Maxwell formula,
one obtains precisely the same equation derived
by Fukuta and Walters [24] by quite a different
approach.


COLUMN OPERATIONS

T HE SECOND COURSE concerns the analysis
and design of separation processes in columns
or cascaded systems: distillation, leaching, ex-
traction, adsorption, chromatography, absorption.
Applied mathematics is a prominent aspect of the
course, including finite difference equations,
probability and random walk theories, method of
characteristics, and moment analysis via Laplace
transformation. The emphasis is on mathematics
as a reflection of the physical world, and the
usefulness (or necessity) of the derived equations
for design of equipment is continually noted. The


students in ChE 261 are asked to purchase King's
Separation Processes [25], from which numerous
reading and problem assignments are made.
We begin with the calculus of finite differences
applied to staged units [26]. Analytical methods
for solving difference equations are compared to
methods for differential equations. Murphrey
efficiencies are included in the analysis of systems
whose equilibrium can be described by a linear
relation or by a constant separation factor (rela-
tive volatility). The Smoker, Fenske, and Kremser
equations are derived, and a host of problems of
industrial interest are solved for homework.
Depending on the interests of the students, we
have sometimes treated multicomponent distilla-
tion for constant relative volatility systems.
Here, matrix methods and computer techniques
are discussed [24].
We review the analysis of two-phase separa-
tions controlled by interphase mass transfer when
longitudinal dispersion can be ignored [1]. The
resulting expression for number of transfer
units (NTU) is related to height equivalent to a
theoretical stage (HETP).
Descriptive notions of longitudinal dispersion
in columns are introduced. The Danckwerts
boundary conditions for a finite-length column
are derived following the simple, yet general
treatment by Bischoff [28]. A unified design
method for continuous-contact mass transfer
operations unifies a large class of operations with
dispersion [29].
Following Feller [30], we introduce the
probability concepts of binomial distribution and
Bernoulli trials. The Poisson and normal Gaussian
distributions are treated as approximations to
the binomial distributions. The first and second
moments of the three distributions are derived
and compared.
We follow King's treatment [25] of the inter-
mittent carrier flow model for equilibrium stages,
to get the binomial distribution of solute among
stages. We use a generating function method [30]
to obtain the Poisson distribution solution to the
difference-differential equation for the continuous-
flow equilibrium-stage model of chromatographic
separators. From the Gaussian approximation we
extend this analysis to develop the relations for
the equilibrium model of chromatography. We
also use the generating function method to analyze
a breakthrough curve for a cascade of equilibrium
stages.
One-dimensional random walk theory is used


FALL 1975








in the conventional manner to derive the diffusion
equation,
ac D 2c
Dt x2
A solution for a delta function initial condition is
derived by means of the gaussian approximation
to the binomial distribution [31]. This solution is
used as a Green's function to get superposition
solutions for several other initial conditions [32].
This material is then related to the convected
dispersion problem in a tube, and conditions for
the Peclet number are derived under which a
chromatographic output curve is gaussian with
respect to time [33]. Related topics, such as
Fourier transform solutions, Brownian motion,
and the Einstein formula for diffusion coefficients,
have been dealt with in some years, depending
on available time and student interest.



There is considerable interest.., in using dynamic
response methods (e.g. pulse response) to quantify
parameters in a range of systems: packed-bed and
slurry catalytic reactors, kidneys, distillation
columns, chicken lungs, etc.



TREATMENT OF DISPERSION
W E NEXT TREAT dispersion in a more
thorough manner by means of the Taylor-
Aris model via the moment analysis of convec-
tion and diffusion [34]. Some other models and
correlations of data are discussed [35-39].
The Goldstein J-function solution for the non-
dispersed first order partial differential equations
for breakthrough curves is derived by Laplace
transforms [40]. The discussion of this model and
the graphical presentation of the solution by
Hougen and Watson [41] is noted. The application
to the Parex adsorption process for recovering
p-xylene from its mixtures with other Cs hydro-
carbons is discussed [42]. We also consider ion
exchange processes.
The method of characteristics is also useful
for time-dependent problems when diffusion
effects can be ignored. Simple chromatography
[35] and parametric pumping [43] are analyzed by
this method.
There is considerable interest in our depart-
ment in using dynamic response methods (e.g.


pulse response) to quantify parameters in a range
of systems: packed-bed and slurry catalytic re-
actors, kidneys, distillation columns, chicken
lungs, etc. The method is introduced by a pulse
response analysis of an open tube; for the con-
centration c(t,x) we have

ac ac a2c
=-v +D
at v x x2
The equation is Laplace transformed, and the
resulting ordinary differential equation is solved
for c(s,x). From the definition of the transformed
concentration, c(s,x), we prove that

lim d c
s-->O ds' (-1)I tk cdt,
0
where the integral is the kth moment. Therefore,
we can take limits of derivatives of the solution,
c(s,x), to relate the statistical moments to the
parameters of the system. The moments may be
calculated from experimental response data, and
parameters evaluated. The technique is extended
to breakthrough curve analysis (response to a
step function input), and to frequency analysis
(response to a sinusoidal input).
Considerable effort is put into the moment
treatment of adsorption chromatography [44], of
which (gel) permeation chromatography is the
special case when adsorption is negligible. Ad-
sorption (or a linear chemical reaction) may
occur at the pore surfaces of porous particles in
packed columns. Pore diffusion, interparticle mass
transfer, and axial dispersion all play a role. Ex-
pressions of moments and methods of getting in-
formation out of pulse response data are pre-
sented [45, 46].
Since an output pulse is often nearly gaussian,
hermite polynomials are defined and used to re-
construct the output curve in terms of moments,
and thus in terms of system parameters [47]. For
the separation of two solutes with gaussian out-
puts, a resolution criterion is defined for their
separation, and optimization with regard to
column length and operating velocity is discussed
[48]. This approach has the advantage that con-
siderable semi-empirical knowledge can be or-
ganized by one comprehensive method. The op-
timization is extended to apply to product value,
and equipment and operating costs [48]. We point
out the same methods can be applied to capillary
chromatography or partition chromatography.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












S.. students in the
courses are instilled with an appreciation for
the interaction and interdependence of mathematics,
transport phenomena, design, and research.... The
emphasis is on mathematics as a reflection of the
physical world, and the usefulness of the derived
equations for design of equipment
is continually noted.





CONCLUDING REMARKS

OUR EXPERIENCE INDICATES considerable
material can be covered in the two 30-lecture
quarters if tedious algebraic manipulations on
the blackboard are kept to a minimum. Such
manipulations are often assigned as homework
so students may gain familiarity with the mathe-
matical symbols and their meaning in terms of
the physical world. Lecture notes are frequently
xeroxed and handed out, so lectures emphasize
concepts and conclusions. Many of the papers
referenced here are assigned reading, to bring
students up to the frontiers of research. E


REFERENCES

1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot,
Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, 1960.
2. Knudsen, J. G., and D. L. Katz, Fluid Dynamics and
Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, N. Y. 1958.
3. Kennedy, T. J., L. E. Monge, B. J. McCoy, R. L.
Merson, AIChE Symposium Series, 69 (132), 81
(1973).
4. Monge, L. E., B. J. McCoy, R. L. Merson, J. Food
Sci. 38, 633 (1973).
5. Kennedy, T. J., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, Chem.
Eng. Sci. 29, 1927 (1974).
6. Skelland, A. H. P., Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat
Transfer, Wiley, N. Y. (1967).
7. Sherwood, T. K., P. L. T. Brian, R. E. Fisher, L.
Dresner, I. E. C. Funds. 4, 113 (1965).
8. Berman, A. S., J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1232 (1953).
9. Carbonell, R. G., M. D. Kostin, A.I.Ch.E. J. 18, 1
(1972).
10. Aiba, S., A. E. Humphrey, N. F. Millis, Biochemical
Engineering, Academic Press, N. Y. 1965.
11. Marrazzo, W. N., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, Biotech.
Bioeng., to be published.
12. Shaw, D. J., Introduction to Colloid and Surface
Chemistry, Butterworths, London, 1966.
13. Tanford, C., Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules,
Wiley, N. Y., 1961.
14. Cohn, E. J., J. T. Edsall, Proteins, Amino Acids, and
Peptides, Hafner Publishing Co., N. Y., 1965.


15. Morrow, R. M., R. G. Carbonell, B. J. McCoy, Bio-
tech. Bioeng. to be published.
16. Rashevsky, N., Mathematical Biophysics, Vol. I, 3rd
Ed., Dover, N. Y., 1960.
17. Himmelblau, D. M., K. B. Bischoff, Process Analysis
and Simulation, Wiley, N. Y., 1968.
18. Randolph, A. D., M. A. Larson, Theory of Particulate
Processes, Academic Press, 1971.
19. Abraham, F. F., Homogeneous Nucleation Theory,
Academic, N. Y., 1974.
20. Hudgins, R. R., Chem. Eng. Educ. 5, 138 (1971).
21. Kogan, M. N., Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Plenum Press,
N. Y., 1969.
22. Vincenti, W. G., C. H. Kruger, Jr., Introduction to
Physical Gas Dynamics, Wiley, N. Y., 1965.
23. McCoy, B. J., C. Y. Cha, Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 381
(1974).
24. Fukuta, N., L. A. Walter, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1160
(1970).
25. King, C. J., Separation Processes, McGraw-Hill, N. Y.,
1971.
26. Marshall, W. R., R. L. Pigford, Applications of
Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering
Problems, U. Delaware Press, Newark (1947).
27. Amundson, N. R., Mathematical Methods in Chemical
Engineering, Prentice-Hall, N. J., 1966.
28. Bischoff, K. B., Chem. Eng. Sci. 16, 131 (1961).
29. Pavlica, R. T., J. H. Olson, IEC 62, 45 (1970).
30. Feller, W., An Introduction to Probability Theory
and Its Applications, 2nd Ed., Wiley, N. Y., 1950.
31. Chandrasekhar, S., Rev. Mod. Phys. 15, 1 (1943); in
Noise and Stochastic Processes, Ed. N. Wax, Dover,
1954.
32. Crank, J., The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford,
London, 1956.
33. Levelspiel, 0., W. K. Smith, Chem. Eng. Sci. 6, 227
(1957).
34. Friedly, J. C., Dynamic Behavior of Processes,
Prentice-Hall, N. J., 1972.
35. Aris, R., N. R. Amundson, A.I.Ch.E. J. 3, 280 (1957).
36. Bischoff, K. B., O. Levelspiel, Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 245
(1962).
37. de Ligny, C. L., Chem. Eng. Sci. 25, 1177 (1970).
38. Gunn, D. J., Trans. Instr. Chem. Engrs. 47, T351
(1969).
39. Wilhelm, R. H., J. Pure Appl. Chem. 5, 403 (1962).
40. Aris, R., N. R. Amundson, Mathematical Methods in
Chemical Engineering, Vol. II, Prentice-Hall, 1973.
41. Hougen, O. A., K. M. Watson, Chemical Process
Principles Vol. III, Wiley, N. Y., 1947.
42. Broughton, D. B., R. W. Neuzil, J. M. Pharis, C. S.
Brearley, Chem. Eng. Prog. 66, (9), 71 (1970).
43. Pigford, R. L., D. Baker, D. E. Blum, IEC Funds. 8,
144 (1969).
44. Kucera, K., J. Chromatog. 19, 237 (1965).
45. Schneider, P., J. M. Smith, A. I. Ch. E. J. 14, 762
(1968).
46. Mehta, R. V., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, A.I.Ch.E.
J. 19, 1068 (1973).
47. Mehta, R. V., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, J. Chroma-
tog. 88, 1 (1974).
48. Carbonell, R. G., B. J. McCoy, J. Chem. Eng., in
press.


FALL 1975









4 Cause on


ADMINISTRATION OF ENGINEERING

AND TECHNICAL PERSONNEL


JOSEPH A. POLACK
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

E ENGINEERS ARE TRAINED to deal with ob-
jective things-with variables that are
governed by physical laws. Many of us were in
fact attracted to engineering because of the
elegant predictability of the material and scien
tific world. The slide rule was our trademark,
and now the pocket electronic calculator permits
multi-digit precision in our calculations. But when
it comes to matters involving people, we enter
into a non-calculable, subjective, often unpre-
dictable world. If it is governed by laws at all,
these are largely unknown, and certainly have
little to do with logic. Rather, the world of people
is characterized by wide individual differences,
and by unquantifiable and emotional factors
seemingly designed to make engineers uncom-
fortable.
Surely, we are largely untrained in these
matters. Yet engineers are people, they do have
feelings, and they do behave unpredictably, just
like other people.
Also, whether they like it or not, engineers
encounter human problems all the time; certain-
ly they do in their employment situations. Fur-
ther, if they are managers, their professional
success depends in large measure on their human
relations skills. Yet most engineers have not had
a day's training in dealing with "people" prob-
lems. But that's where the action is, and that's
where the opportunities for the future are. So
that's why we feel it's appropriate to give some
attention to this important side of engineering
training, and offer this introductory course.
Consider the following:
* We can send men to the moon, but we haven't
learned to solve the traffic problems in our cities
and on our campuses.
* We know how to build a nuclear power plant-but
we don't know whether to build them.


Professor Polack has been Head of the Chemical Engineering
Department at L. S. U. since 1970. After receiving the Sc.D. from
M. 1. T. in 1948, he spent 22 years with the Exxon Corporation in
a variety of technical and managerial posts. From 1966 to 1970,
he was Director of the Esso Research Laboratories (now Exxon
Research and Development Laboratories) in Baton Rouge.


* We know how to drill for offshore oil, but not
whether to drill for it.
* We come up with a slick solution to a technical
problem, but we are unable to persuade our bosses
to implement it.
The successful engineer of tomorrow must
learn to deal with these human problems. The
fact of the matter is that many, if not most,
engineers reach the peak of their technical sophis-
tication while they are in school. Only a small
percentage (primarily those who remain in
academe) will ever be faced with problems as
technically difficult as those given in a typical
Ph.D. qualifying exam. But most will face very
perplexing human, management and political
problems that they are poorly equipped to deal
with.

INTRODUCING MANAGEMENT

A MAJOR PURPOSE of this graduate course
is to introduce the engineer to the human
and organizational problems of the manager and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









to give some hints as to how these problems might
be approached. Another important purpose of the
course is to introduce the engineer to the body
of knowledge which exists in the field of manage-
ment and human relations. There are principles
of management, even if they seem to be proven
as much by exception as by rule. Surely they are
inexact in comparison to the laws of science. What
is hoped is that this introduction will capture the
interest of the students so that they will continue
to read in the management and human relations
areas. There is definitive literature in the field
and it is an appropriate subject for scholarly
study, rudimentary though the science of manage-
ment may be. Finally, the course provides some
opportunity for the student to gain some
knowledge of self and others by his participation
in the case discussions which take up the bulk
of the classroom time.

COURSE ORGANIZATION

T HE COURSE IS DESIGNED to proceed from
the familiar to the less familiar. At the start,
we discuss what a business is, and what impact
management's philosophy has on its conduct.
From this we proceed to look at various models
of organizational structure from the simple pyra-
mid to modern matrix or multi-dimensional struc-
tures. Some of the principles of organizational
theory, i.e., the concepts of span of control, unity
of command, and delegation of authority are de-
scribed; and case studies bring out the human
problems and frustrations which arise from mis-
understanding of these theories and philosophical
concepts.
The next block of study has to do with moti-
vation, morale, and leadership. Research findings
of Mayo, Maslow, McGregor and others are used
as basis for understanding a wide variety of hu-
man conflicts and problems. Here, too, case his-
tories, drawn from the literature as well as the
experience of the instructor, provide the material
for classroom work. Both individual and group
interactions are studied.


Finally, attention is centered on specific
management activities including communications,
counselling, performance appraisal, training and
the like. A detailed outline is shown in Table I.

CASE STUDY FORMAT

T HE STUDENT IS expected to do outside read-
ing and also prepares a term paper, discussed
further below. The class period itself (one and a
half hours twice a week) is given over almost ex-
clusively to discussion. The lecture technique is

TABLE I
Abbreviated Outline of Course
A. Introduction
Management as a Profession
Philosophies of Management
B. Organizational Structures; Theory and Practice
Functional, Federal, Matrix Structures, etc.
Traditional Principles of Organization: Span of
Control, Unity of Command, etc.
Delegation of Authority
C. Motivation and Leadership
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Development of Participation
Management of Change
D. Group Processes and Social Environments
The Individual in the Organization
Scientific and Technical Employees
1st Line Supervision
Communications Processes
Appraisal and Incentives
E. Overview: Factors in Above Outline all Interact
Simultaneously. So the Sequence Shown is one
of Convenience Rather than Logic.
rarely used, except for an occasional guest lec-
ture on a special topic. The reason is that the
specific factual information covered is easily ob-
tained by the student from his textbook and other
sources. To learn about human relations and prob-
lems involving people, one must experience the
differences of opinion and feelings that can arise.
This is best done through classroom discussion,
role playing and other experiential techniques.
The case method is the principal study method
used in this course. During the semester, fifteen


When it comes to matters involving people, we enter into a non-calculable,
subjective, often unpredictable world. If it is governed by laws at all, these are
largely unknown, and certainly have little to do with logic. Rather, the world
of people is characterized by wide individual differences, and by unquantifiable
and emotional factors seemingly designed to make engineers uncomfortable.


FALL 1975








or twenty different cases are considered by the
class.
Following are some examples of cases covered:
* A manager bypasses a supervisor and deals directly
with a staff engineer on a rush job. As a result,
foundations for a new compressor are poured be-
fore it is discovered that the compressor specified
is not available. Strained relationships result among
various organizational groups.
* The maintenance department reduces janitorial
service. So the supervisor in an engineering group
asks the secretary to dust the conference table and
desks every day. Two weeks later, she resigns,
stating that her husband has been transferred to
another city. But several Weeks after that, the
supervisor sees her shopping in a local supermarket,
and discovers that she has another local job.
* A small company, in which the president is in
close contact with the first line supervisors, is ex-
tremely successful and expands rapidly. Mounting
problems of production require that the president
bring in a new plant manager and an efficiency ex-
pert. Midnight one Saturday night the front line
supervisors storm into the president's office, de-
manding that he get rid of the new supervisory
employees.
The above vignettes are of necessity quite
abbreviated, as the cases include much more de-
tail. In the classroom discussion, each person is
encouraged to express his view on the situation
presented. It is quite amazing to hear the many
different views that are brought forth on what
seem to be simple problems-but aren't. The role
of the instructor is to keep the discussion open in
order to generate as many options as possible,
and then to aid the students in seeing advantages
and disadvantages of different approaches.



A major purpose ... is to introduce the engineer to
the human problems of the manager and to give
some hints as to how these problems might be
approached and to introduce the engineer to
the body of knowledge ... in the field of management
and human relations.



In human relations problems, there are no
"right" answers. What we try to develop is either
approaches and/or solutions which can lead to
better outcomes for all participants in a situation.
The underlying thesis is that by working the
"people" problems, the manager then makes it
possible for individuals to work the "work" prob-
lems. (Too often, we tend to work the technical
problems and ignore the "people" problems.)


WRITING, SPEAKING AND READING

EACH STUDENT WRITES a term paper which
accounts for about 407% of his grade. A variety
of topics are suggested, but the students are free
to select topics of their own. Many of them do.


TABLE II
Typical Term Paper Topics

Motivation and Creativity
The Informal Organization
Elimination of Job Boredom
Group Dynamics-T Groups
Management of a Non-Profit Organization
Conformity
Communications Problems in Large Organizations
Organization of a National Pizza Chain
Appraising Personnel Performance


Table II lists some of the titles students have
selected in recent years. The student is expected
to make full use of the literature. He is en-
couraged to express his own opinions, but must
document what he says with examples and/or
reference to authority. Performance of students
on these papers varies, depending largely on the
amount of time they spend. Sometimes, a student
gets deeply interested in a subject and does a
spectacularly good job. For example, one student
did a study on creativity, which itself was most
creative and, in the instructor's opinion, worthy
of being the starting point for some substantial
original work. Some students who are industrially
employed make studies of their own company
organizations, using the insights they have gained
from the course. If the class is small enough, the
students give oral reports on their term papers.
While guest speakers are not extensively used,
speakers from the Psychology and Speech de-
partments have been quite effective in lecturing
and leading discussions on communications and
human interactions. Such speakers introduce
variety and help to give the students an apprecia-
tion of the talent available in the university com-
munity in fields other than engineering.
The textbook used is "Human Behavior at
Work" subtitled "Human Relations and Organi-
zational Behavior" by Keith Davis (McGraw-Hill,
4th edition, 1972). There are many texts dealing
with this subject and the choice is a matter of
the individual instructor's preference. All of the
texts basically cover the same material (just like


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








various texts on thermodynamics). I like the
Davis text because it is comprehensive, the ma-
terial is well documented, and it is written in a
readable, interesting way. Also, each chapter has
case studies for use in class, and there is an ex-
cellent collection of cases which comprise the
appendix to the book.
In addition, the students are given a reading
list (see Table III) and are encouraged to read
on their own. To keep them honest, they are
quizzed on certain specific reading assignments
during the term. The reading list is liberally
supplemented by reprints of articles from journals
such as the Harvard Business Review.


THE STUDENTS

ONLY GRADUATE STUDENTS may take this
course. Many are part-time students who are
currently employed by local industry. By offering
the course in the early evening, we make it easy
for such students to attend after work. This is
an ideal group of students. Having experienced
some of the vicissitudes of industrial organiza-
tional life, they readily recognize the reality of
the case studies. They are eager to participate
in the discussions, for they feel that the ma-
terial is directly relevant to their day-to-day work.
The students learn from each other, and the
instructor learns from them, too. Most of the
full-time students have usually had at least sum-
mer employment in industry, and they, too, take
an active part. On the other hand, it is somewhat
more difficult for a totally inexperienced student
to participate in and thereby benefit from the
course.
My own feeling is that undergraduates could
benefit by some exposure to this subject matter.


TABLE III

Excerpts from Reading List

Drucker, P.-The Practice of Management
The Concept of the Corporation
McGregor, D.-The Human Side of the Enterprise
Greenewalt, C.-The Uncommon Man
Argyris, C.-Personality and Organization
Likert, R.-New Patterns in Management
The Human Organization
Whyte, W. H.-The Organization Man
The, Harvard Business Review
Publications of the American Management Association


However, for undergraduates, I would recommend
a different course design-one which would thrust
the student into an experiential situation. Some
sort of simulation of a real work problem would,
I think, be necessary for the student to really ap-
preciate the feelings which are engendered in
such situations.

SUMMARY
In summary, the major challenges facing the
engineer of tomorrow are as much nontechnical
as technical. This course introduces the engineer-
ing graduate student to the body of knowledge
which exists in the management and human rela-
tions field and hopefully provides him with some
insight into dealing with problems in these im-
portant areas. People have a tremendous poten-
tial for achievement, and the modern corporation
is a remarkable device for accomplishment of high
purposes. Progressive managers concentrate on
helping people to fulfill their own aims and to
achieve a greater proportion of their potential.
In this way, organizational achievement can be
maximized. O



book reviews


Fundamentals and Modeling of Separation Proc-
esses, Absorption, Distillation, Evaporation, and
Extraction.
By Charles D. Holland
Prentice-Hall. 430 pages.
Reviewed by Verle N. Schrodt, Monsanto Agri-
cultural Products Company.

When asked to review this book I agreed to do
so without remembering that I had reviewed an-
other of Dr. Holland's books some 11 or 12 years
ago. This previous work, "Unsteady State Proc-
esses with Applications in Multicomponent Dis-
tillation" was quite good but had a somewhat mis-
leading title since it was only concerned with dis-
tillation. I thought perhaps this one would be
equally good and would really cover other proc-
esses and would be fun to read so I went ahead
with the review.
The book was a pleasure to read. It covers the
fundamentals of the four named basic separations
(Continued on page 191.)


FALL 1975








7 Qi4u i&Z


TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING


H. P. SCHREIBER AND M. RIGAUD
Ecole Polytechnique
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

T HE FULL TITLE of the course is "Tech-
nological Forecasting: An Aid to Decision
Making." It is a one trimester course (13 weeks)
offered to graduate students in engineering and
open to extension service students. The existence
of this course reflects our view of the technological
age for which we are training graduate engineers.
That view accepts the role of the engineer in in-
dustry, business or in the public service, as an
expert technologist, as a prime agent for tech-
nological innovation, for technology transfer from
pilot to full production scale, and so on. It also
recognizes that we live in an era of unprecedent-
ed concern for the husbanding of natural re-
sources, for the protection of public and en-
vironmental safety and for the economic and so-
cietal consequences of technology and its spread-
ing use. Further, it considers the engineering
graduate and more particularly the holder of
Masters or Doctoral degrees as a decision maker
who will function in that capacity at a very early
stage of a professional career. It is no longer
reasonable however, to make decisions on tech-
nological matters without taking into account the
possible economic, societal, environmental and
political motivations for these decisions and in
turn, the impact of the decisions on these inter-
related factors. Our course is designed to in-
troduce the graduate engineer to the complex
interactions between technological and the non-
technological factors noted above and to create
in him an awareness of the complex crossimpacts
which must be weighed in the decision-making
process. In short, we hope to give him a balanced
preparation for the complex roles which he will
in all probability, be asked to perform in the
course of a professional career.
The growing discipline of technological fore-


casting (TF) appears to offer a suitable vehicle
for coping with the intellectual problems outlined
above. In recent years TF has become a staple of
planning groups in business and government.
Such professional organizations as the Hudson
Institute, the Stanford Research Institute, Boston
Consulting Group, etc. have become widely
recognized spokesmen for the importance of this
planning aid. Though far from a precise discipline,
TF has now taken on some aspects of analytic
science (1-8) and has been the subject of train-
ing courses offered mainly to executives in in-
dustry and government. We believe there is a
need in the graduate engineering curriculum for
a view of this evolving discipline, in a version
which stresses the analytic concepts of data
analysis and trend extrapolation, and which
particularly stresses application of TF methods
to situations relevant to regional and national
needs touching upon technology. We are not alone
in this belief; to give a few examples, J. H. Hal-
lomon, of M.I.T.'s Center for Policy Alternatives,
has recently urged universities to act as focal
points for the development of skills in techno-
logical planning, technology assessment and in
evaluating the impact of technology on those who
should use it (9). The widewing concern in En-
gineering faculties over the functions and power
of Technology Assessment offices, has led to
Symposia on this complex topic (10). To the best
of our knowledge, however, our just-completed
exposure (winter 1975) of the TF course makes
the first formal appearance of this "soft"
discipline in an approved curriculum.
COURSE CONTENT
The TF course is divided into three main sec-
tions and a complementary fourth part:
Background: In this first three-week segment,
the philosophic basis for planning disciplines is
laid down. Mathematical principles of data
analysis, elements of probability functions and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








games theory are introduced. Particular stress is
laid on the character of linear and exponential
growth. Examples of the latter mode were drawn
from the Club of Rome Study on the Limits of
Growth (11).
The Tools of TF: The second segment (four
weeks) is devoted to a consideration of major
practical approaches to the technological planning
function. Intuitive, huristic and normative
methods of forecasting are outlined. Major ap-
proaches considered in detail include:
trend extrapolation
Delphi interrogation
structured interview
relevance tree construction
substitution theory
input, output tabulation
scenario writing
As a course guide here, we have used J. R.
Bright's A Brief Introduction to Technology Fore-
casting (Pemaquid Press, Austin Texas, 1972),
but emphasis was placed in case histories drawn
from published reports of Institutes such as Stan-
ford Research, Battelle, etc.
TF & Planning Workshop: The third and major
portion of the course is 6 weeks long with addi-
tional consultation sessions arranged between
instructors and students. The students were divid-
ed into working teams (5-6 individuals per team),
each team selecting a topic on which they would
develop a scenario depicting the future techno-
logical status (5-10 years away) of the industry
relating to the topic. The scenario had to con-
sider various non-technological options, such as
a surprise-free future, major changes in political,
environmental or social attitudes toward a given
section of technology, the resource base from
which the industries must operate, etc. A major
need was to identify threats to opportunities for
existing technology and innovative technology
respectively, and to identify events in the fore-
cast span which could be used as signals as to the
validity (or non-validity) of the planning forecast.
The completed scenario was used as the solo
source for determining each student's standing
in the course.
Supplementary Lectures: A group of lectures
(four in the 1975 term) given by invited senior
spokesmen from industries and governments, deal-
ing with special aspects of technology planning,
its management, transfer and assessment, com-
plemented the formal content of the course.


Though inevitably only loosely interconnected,
the lectures served their purpose in providing in-
sight into the role of technology and of the en-
gineer in various occupational spheres and at
various career stages.

INITIAL COURSE EVALUATION
W E ARE UNDER NO illusion as to the hazards
involved in presenting a course of this type
to engineering students, and as to the difficulty
in deciding on the content and methods of pre-
senting the material. We have much to learn, but
are pleased with the response obtained in our
first year of operation.
It was evident that the engineering students
(about 2/3 of a total of 23-the remainder had
backgrounds in economics and business adminis-
tration) initially approached the subject with
misgivings and were distinctly cool about the
ultimate value of the course to their fund of
knowledge. Matters began to change noticeably
in the second portion of the course; the case



Our view of the technological age recognizes we live
in an era of unprecedented concern for husbanding
natural resources, for the protection of public and
environmental safety and for the economic and
societal consequences of technology and its
spreading use.



examples involved here ranged from "classical"
illustrations of substitution theory (steamship
technology replacing sail, jet engines replacing
piston plants, etc.) to analyses and extrapolations
of the development of computer technology, and
Delphi-based statements on the future competi-
tion between audio-visual communication methods
and public transportation (both long and short
distance). In each of these examples, further
evidence was presented to support the thesis that
technological growth patterns can be categorized,
that to some degree the technology of the future
can be planned for and controlled. Consequently,
the students began to comprehend their role as
future coordinators of the multidisciplinary pres-
sures upon and arising from their activities in
the technological sphere.
The work-shop section was enthusiastically
accomplished, notwithstanding the fact that the
average time input far exceeded the formally


FALL 1975








scheduled period of 18 hours. Scenarios were pro-
duced on:

Evolution of steel-making technology (1975-
2000)
The competitive balance between the steel
and plastics industry in 1985.
Plastics recycle technology in 1985.

The final results lack the authority and
balanced viewpoints of professional reports. They
are by no means academic exercises, however, and
have provided some interesting insights into the
future stance of industries important to the re-
gional and national economies. Beyond any doubt
the authors have a truer view of the nature of
these industries and of the environment in which
they will probably be operating during the
students' working careers. We believe that as a
result of this training, this group may accommo-
date more quickly to the realities of the in-
dustrial and business worlds; and thus make their
presence felt to their benefit and to the benefit of
society in general. O

REFERENCES

1. E. Jantsch, Technological Forecasting in Perspective
O.E.C.D. Paris (1967).
2. J. R. Bright and M. E. F. Schoeman, A Guide to
Practical Technological Forecasting. Prentice-Hall
(1973).
3. A. T. Olenzak: "Technological Forecasting: A Prag-

POLLUTION CONTROL: Manning
Continued from page 173.
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AIChE, N. Y.
Dick, R. I., (1972), "Sludge Treatment," Chapter 12 in
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Wiley Interscience, N. Y.
Donaldson, E. C., (1974), "Subsurface Waste Injection
in the U.S.," U.S.B.M. Information Circular 8636.
Eckenfelder, W. W., and P. Krenkel, (1972), "Advanced
Wastewater Treatment," AIChE Today Series, AIChE,
N.Y.
Federal Register (1974), "Petroleum Refining Point
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16575.
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, (1967),
"The Cost of Clean Water: Industrial Waste Profile
No. 5, Petroleum Refining," Washington, D. C.
Ford, D. L. and F. S. Manning, (1974), "Oil Removal
from Wastewaters," Presented at Short Course,
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, Nov. 11-
15.
Kannapell, P. A. and J. G. Seebold, (1975), "Introduction
to Noise Control in the Process Industries," AIChE
Today Series, AIChE, N. Y. also Seebold's T. U.
Short Course Notes, October 1974.


H. P. Schreiber graduated with B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from
the University of Manitoba and obtained his Ph.D. at the University
of Toronto. Following post-doctoral work at N.R.C. Ottawa, he joined
Canadian Industries Ltd. in 1955, and served until 1973 as research
chemist, Research Scientist and Group Leader, concentrating on
polymer. He is Professor of ChE Ecole Polytechnique. Dr. Rigaud
is a graduate of Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, and holds bachelors,
masters and Ph.D. degrees from that Institution in metallurgical
engineering. Until 1974 Chairman of the Metallurgical Engineering
Department, he is currently Associate Director for Research at Sid-
bec-Dosco, Contrecouer.


matic Approach" Chem. Eng. Progress (No. 6) p.
27 (1972).
4. D. M. Kiefer "Chemicals 1992" Chem. and Eng.
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5. H. Kahn and Bruce-Briggs: "Things to Come,
Thinking about the 70's and 80's." MacMillan, New
York (1972).
6. R. U. Ayers, Technological Forecasting and Long-
Range Planning. McGraw Hill, N. Y. (1966).
7. J. P. Martino, An Introduction to Technological Fore-
casting. Gordon and Breach (1972).
8. J. P. Martino, Technological Forecasting for De-
cision Making. American Elsevier, N. Y. (1972).
9. J. H. Hallomon "Technology and the Productive Pro-
cess" Lecture, Sloan School of Management, M.I.T.
June (1974).
10. 1974 Engineering seminar conference on Technology
Assessment. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
(1974).
11. D. Meadows, Donnella Meadows, J. Randers, W.
Behrens III. The Limits to Growth. Potomac As-
sociates (1972).


Manning, F. S. (1973), "Petroleum Refinery Waters and
Wastewaters," Presented at PAHO Short Course,
Trinidad, W. I., December 3-7.
Nelson, W. L. (1968), "Petroleum" Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology Vol. 14, 2nd Ed., p. 835, J.
Wiley & Sons, N. Y.
Novotny, V., and A. J. Englande, Jr., (1974), "Equaliza-
tion Design Techniques for Conservative Substances
in Wastewater Treatment Systems," Water Research
8, No. 6, p. 325.
Philoon, W. C. (1974), "Use of Talk-Back Closed Circuit
Television in Continuing Engineering Education,"
Proc. 9th Annual Midwest Section A. S. E. E., Wichita,
Kansas, March 28-29.
Reed, R. D. (1973), "Furnace Operations," Gulf Publ Co.,
Houston, Texas.
Sarofin, A. F. and W. Bartok, (1973), "Methods for Con-
trol of NOX Emissions," AIChE Advanced Seminar,
AIChE, N. Y.
Schnelle, K. B. and K. E. Noll (1972), "Meteorology and
Air Pollution Control," AIChE Today Series, AIChE,
N. Y.
Soper, M. L., D. H. Atwell, and F. S. Manning (1975),
"Mixing Effects in Surface-Aerated Basins," Water
Research (accepted for publication).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









BRAUN

Engineers Constructors







0












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requires new ideas YOURS


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Jersey 07974.


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER


FALL 1975









4e a44t^e in


ENZYME CATALYSIS


CHARLES F. WALTER
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004

AT FIRST GLANCE it surprises enzymolo-
gists that enzymes are not utilized much
more widely in batch chemical engineering pro-
cesses. This attitude comes from the enzymolo-
gists' creed: "Enzymes will catalyze virtually
any chemical reaction, and they will do it better
than any other catalyst."
At second glance, however, the surprise is
gone. The problems associated with using enzyme
technology in chemical engineering processes are
immense: They range from the lack of educa-
tion about enzymes amongst chemical engineers
and the lack of education and interest about ChE
applications among enzymologists, to the severity
of the problems well trained biochemical en-
gineers must solve in order to keep enzymes happy
in environments dictated by engineering con-
siderations.
The apparently recent realization that the
earth is a finite system has accelerated interest
in waste treatment processes, solar energy utili-
zation, clean-burning fuels, food technology, hu-
man population control, and environmental quali-
ty. Each of these important engineering problems
is related in some way to biological (and therefore
enzyme-catalyzed) processes. Biological degrada-
tion of waste is the oldest and still most widely-
used process of waste disposal. The sole energy
source in biology is the sun, so living systems are
old hands at capturing and utilizing solar energy.
Because micro-organisms have to co-exist with
what they excrete, relatively clean burning fuels
are the natural product of many biological fer-
mentations. Food is a biological material so its
manipulation and interconversion by enzyme-
catalyzed processes is clearly involving obvious
biological components.
For these and other reasons it became clear
that the catalysis program in our department


should include a graduate level course about
enzyme catalysis. We designed this course to pro-
vide engineers and students in the sciences with
a basic understanding of how enzymes and multi-
enzyme systems function as catalysts. Special
emphasis is on enzyme specificity, efficiency and
control, and how these characteristics relate to
potential applications in biochemical engineering.
The course is structured so that the student is
exposed to: [1] basic concepts about enzymes
and enzyme catalysis and [2] the methodologies of
enzyme chemistry and enzyme kinetics.
The course is designed for first level graduate
students in engineering, but senior-level under-
graduate students in chemical engineering,
chemistry, or the biological sciences, as well as
graduate students in these sciences, and interested
medical students are welcome to register. I would
expect adequately prepared students in any of
these categories to be able to do well in this
course. Obviously, a knowledge of biochemistry


The enzymologist's creed: "Enzymes will catalyze
virtually any chemical reaction, and they will do
it better than any other catalyst."


and/or enzymology would be helpful, but it is not
essential. The prerequisites listed for the course
are calculus, physical chemistry, organic
chemistry, and elementary computer pro-
gramming. The principle reference material in-
cludes the following four books: Enzyme Reac-
tions and Enzyme Systems [1], Biochemical Regu-
latory Mechanisms in Eukaryotic Cells [2], Steady-
state Applications in Enzyme Kinetics [3], and
Immobilized Enzymes [4].

DISCUSSION OF COURSE MATERIAL
I. The Chemical Structure of Enzymes
The purpose of this part of the course is to


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









introduce the student to basic concepts about
enzyme structure and function.
The first section outlines the nomenclature
recommended for enzymes in the 1961 Report of
the Commission on Enzymes of the International
Union of Biochemistry [5]. The second section
provides the student with an understanding of
the role in protein structure and enzyme activity
of the peptide bond, other covalent bonds, hydro-
gen bonding, apolar associative forces, and other

TABLE I
Course Outline
I. The Chemical Structure of Enzymes
A. Enzyme nomenclature
B. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
structure
C. The concept of the "active site"
D. The concept of the "regulatory site"
E. Cofactors
F. Control properties implicit in chemical struc-
ture
II. Kinetic Properties of Single Enzymes in Solution
A. The general theory of enzyme kinetics, the
law of mass action
B. Initial transient kinetics
C. The quasi-steady-state approximation and its
validity in enzyme kinetics
D. Quasi-steady-state models
E. Near-equilibrium techniques and their kinetic
analysis
F. Near-equilibrium versus quasi-steady-state
tracer distribution kinetics
G. Simulation of enzyme models on analog and
digital computers
H. Computer methods for generating rate equa-
tions for enzyme models
I. The collection and analysis of enzyme kinetic
data with on-line computational facilities.
III. Kinetic Properties of Multi-enzyme Systems
A. The general theory of control; applications in
biochemical engineering
B. The theory of far-from-equilibrium systems;
applications to multi-enzyme systems
C. Kinetics of multi-component systems without
feedback control
D. Kinetics of multi-component systems with
feedback control
E. Integrated reaction kinetics of enzyme reactors
F. Simultaneous reactors and diffusion in enzyme
reactors
IV. Immobilized Enzymes and Enzyme Systems
A. Types of support
B. Covalent coupling methods
C. Effects due to coupling on enzyme activity
and other enzyme properties
D. Theoretical effects of immobilization on enzyme
kinetics
E. Consideration of physical and diffusional con-
straints imposed by the carrier on enzyme
catalysis


Charles F. Walter received his B.S. (1957), M.S. (1959), and Ph.D.
(1962) degrees in chemistry at Florida State University. He was ap-
pointed Assistant Professor (1964) and Associate Professor (1968)
of Biochemistry at the University of Tennessee Medical School in
Memphis. In 1970 he was appointed Associate Professor of Bio-
mathematics and Associate Professor of Biochemistry at the Uni-
versity of Texas System Cancer Center, M. D. Anderson Hospital and
Tumor Institute in Houston. In 1974 Dr. Walter was appointed to
his present position as Professor of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Houston. His research and teaching interests include
enzymology applied to biochemical engineering problems in hydro-
gen generation from cellulose, the chemistry of nucleotide-nucleotide.

non-covalent interactions. Section C, about the
catalytic sites of enzymes, emphasizes current
ideas about the indigenous nature of certain sites
on enzyme surfaces, and how sites not indigenous
on the enzyme surface can be induced by the
proximity of a ligand (usually the substrate) to
the site area. Similarly, Section D, which is about
regulatory binding sites on enzymes, emphasizes
current concepts about how these noncatalytic
sites, when associated with specific ligand mole-
cules, interact with catalytic sites and thereby
alter catalytic activity. General models involving
cooperative interactions between regulatory and
catalytic sites and stimulation or inhibition of
catalytic behavior are emphasized [6, 7]. Section
E deals with the role of cofactors in the induction
of non-indigenous substrate binding sites, and
the last section is about the type of control of
catalytic activity that is "built in" by the primary,
second, tertiary, and quaternary structure of
enzymes.

II. Kinetic Properties of Single Enzymes in Solution

The purpose of this part of the course is to
provide the students with a fundamental under-
standing of the kinetics and control properties
of single isolated enzymes in homogenous solu-
tions.


FALL 1975








The first section reviews the law of mass ac-
tion and its applications to enzyme models. The
overall chemical reaction, the development of em-
pirical kinetic equations for enzyme-catalyzed re-
actions, the relation between these kinetic equa-
tions and initial rate equations, and a description



The apparently recent realization that the earth is a
finite system has accelerated interest in waste
treatment processes, solar energy utilization,
cleanburning fuels, food technology, human
population control and environmental quality.
Each of these ... is related in some way to
biological (and therefore enzyme-catalyzed) processes.



of a general initial quasi-steady-state rate equa-
tion for multisubstrate enzyme models are in-
cluded in Section A. The second section is about
the kinetic behavior of enzyme-catalyzed reac-
tions prior to the attainment of a quasi-steady-
state. Section C includes a rigorous discussion of
the concept of a quasi-steady-state in a closed
system, and a derivation of the relationship be-
tween the error introduced by using the quasi-
steady-state approximation, the magnitude of the
kinetic constants for the enzyme, and the experi-
mental initial conditions used. Section D is a re-
view of quasi-steady-state enzyme models, the
use of the King and Altman algorithm [8] to de-
rive them, and the relationship between these
approximate mathematical models and the real
chemical mechanisms they approximate. Sections
E and F are about the relaxation kinetics of
enzyme reactions that have been perturbed
slightly from thermodynamic equilibrium. Pertur-
bation techniques that are discussed include step-
wise temperature changes, periodic pressure
variations, and the addition of small quantities
of a radioactively labelled reactant. In section F
the usefulness of kinetic experiments involving
the addition of traces of labelled reactant to an
enzyme and its reactants near thermodynamic
equilibrium, and kinetic experiments wherein
large quantities of labelled substrate are added
to an enzyme and its reactants far from equili-
brium, is compared. Section G is about the simu-
lation of enzyme models on analog computers, and
their numerical "simulation" on digital machines.
For the digital simulations we have chosen the
program by Chance, Shephard and Curtis, "The


University College London Enzyme Simulator"
[9]. This program is especially easy to use because
it "automatically" translates the individual
chemical steps into mathematical relationships
via a built-in equation translator routine. Section
H explains the use of a computer program [10, 11]
that uses the King and Altman [8] algorithm to
derive quasi-steady-state rate equations for any
enzyme model. The last section of this part is a
description of how enzyme kinetic data is properly
analyzed. This section includes a comparison of
the graphical and "standard" statistical pro-
cedures usually employed in the analysis of en-
zyme rates, a discussion of one-line methods for
the collection and analysis of data from enzyme-
catalyzed reactions, a critical evaluation of in-
tegrated forms of quasi-steady-state rate equa-
tions, and the use of experimental data and digital
computer programs like "The University College
London Enzyme Simulator" [9] to estimate in-
dividual rate constants in assumed enzyme models.

III. Kinetic Properties of Multi-enzyme Systems
The purpose of this part of the course is to
provide the students with a comprehensive under-
standing of the kinetics and control properties of
a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a
homogeneous solution.
The first section reviews the general theory
of control for linear and nonlinear systems. Ap-
plication of the Lyapunov direct method to biolo-
gical control systems of interest in biochemical
engineering is illustrated, and the existence and
significance of limit cycles in biochemical systems
is discussed. The next section is about the theory
of far-from-equilibrium chemical systems; dis-
sipative structures and the spatial and temporal
organization of such systems are discussed from
the point of view of the rich organizational be-
havior implicit in the nonlinear partial differential
equations that describe them. Sections C and D
are about the dynamics, stability, and control
properties of nonlinear multi-chemical systems
with or without feedback control; emphasis in
these sections is on multi-enzyme systems with
negative feedback of the Yates and Pardee [12]
type, or positive feedback of the type thought to
be responsible for the limit cycle concentration
oscillations of the components in the glycolytic
pathway [13, 14]. Analysis of the stability pro-
perties of these control systems is carried out
with the aid of: [1] the usual analysis for


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









linearized systems [15, 16]; [2] perturbation
theory; [3] the Aisermann conjecture [17]; [4]
the Lur's transformation and algorithm for ob-
taining a global Lyapunov function [18]; and [5]
computer simulations of the nonlinear differential
equations [19, 20]. The analysis of the control
properties is carried out by comparing the sensi-
tivity of metabolic levels of the components in
the models to parameter variations. The last two
sections are about applications of the theory of
enzyme kinetics and control to chemical reactor
processes. Section E deals with situations where
diffusion is not important, and Section F with
examples where the effects of diffusion must be
included in the differential equations describing
the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the reactor.


IV. Immobilized Enzymes and Enzyme Systems
The purpose of the last part of the course
is to acquaint students with heterogeneous en-
zyme catalysis and its role in problems in bio-
chemical engineering.
The first two sections review the various types
of supports and covalent coupling methods used
to bind enzymes. Section C is about the effects of
immobilization methods on enzyme structure, and
especially on those aspects of structure changes
which effect enzyme activity via modification of
the active site and/or control sites. This section
introduces the student to possible effects of these
structural modifications on the overall kinetics of
the immobilized enzymes. The next section com-
pares the kinetics of homogeneous and hetero-
geneous enzymes or enzyme systems. The last
section examines the physical and diffusional con-
straints imposed on enzymes or multi-enzyme sys-
tems by immobilization. Ol


REFERENCES
1. C. Walter, Enzyme Reactions and Enzyme Systems,
Marcel Dekker, Inc., Publishers, New York, 1975.
2. C. Walter, Ch. 11 in Biochemical Regulatory Me-
chanisms in Eukaryotic Cells, Edited by E. Kun and
S. Grisolia, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Interscience
Publishers, New York 1972.
3. C. Walter, Steady-state Applications in Enzyme
Kinetics, Ronald Press Publishers, New York, 1965.
4. 0. Zaborsky, Immobilized Enzymes, Edited by R.
Weast, Chemical Rubber Company Press Publishers,
Cleveland, 1973.
5. Report of the Commission on Enzymes of the Inter-
national Union of Biochemistry, Pergamon Press
Publishers, London, 1961.


6. J. Botts, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 593 (1958).
7. C. Walter, Proc Biophys. Soc. 14, 120a (1970).
8. E. King and C. Altman, J. Phys. Chem. 60, 1375
(1956).
9. For a description of this program, see reference 1,
Chapter 4.
10. D. Fisher and A. Schultz, Math. Biosciences 4, 189
(1969).
11. A. Schultz and D. Fisher, Canadian J. Biol. Chem.
47, 889 (1968).
12. P. Yates and A. Pardee, J. Biol. Chem., 221 (1956).
13. A. Ghosh and B. Chance, Biochem. Biophys. Res.
Commun. 16, 174 (1964).
14. J. Higgins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 51, 989 (1964).
15. C. Walter, Biophys. J. 9, 863 (1969).
16. G. Viniegra-Gonzalez and H. Martinez, Proc. Bio-
phys. Soc. 13, 210A (1969).
17. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 23, 23 (1969).
18. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 23, 39 (1969).
19. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 27, 259 (1970).
20. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 44, 219 (1974).


BOOK REVIEW
Continued from page 183.

processes and the treatment is thorough and com-
plete and certainly not elementary. The funda-
mentals are covered in 5 chapters in Section I and
then in Section II two chapters are devoted to
modeling and rate process fundamentals followed
by 5 chapters on adsorption, distillation and ex-
traction. In these chapters several different models
are proposed and then selected ones are used to
model actual field results for industrial columns.
For example a packed distillation column 34 ft.
high and containing 9260 lbs. of Pall Rings is
modeled in detail as is a packed extractor 72 ft.
high and 5 ft. in diameter handling 12,000 barrels
of kerosene per day. There are other examples for
plate towers. The results appear to be uniformly
good. Calculated and experimental product com-
positions agree well over wide variations in the
input parameters.
The book should be useful in a senior or grad-
uate level design course. There are numerous
problems and plenty of references. If very much
use was to be made of the techniques, access to a
computer would be needed for solving sets of
equations for separations involving many com-
ponents and many plates. The book should also be
useful to industrial designers although I would
think that most would already be familiar with
the methods in this book since the techniques
have been published in various journals and
theses. O


FALL 1975










4 owua4e in4


CRITICAL PATH PLANNING OF GRADUATE RESEARCH


L. F. DONAGHEY
University of California
Berkeley, California 94720

THE CRITICAL PATH method (CPM) has
proven to be exceptionally beneficial over the
last fifteen years for the control of project opera-
tions, and for task planning and control in many
industries. In addition to its proven success in
industry, the critical path method has been applied
successfully in the education educational sphere
for the planning of ChE curricula [1]. The vast
majority of the literature on CPM concerns ap-
plications requiring computer solution of the
critical path by parametric, linear programming
[2], whereas non-computer methods are needed for
the routine application of this method in small
laboratory research projects. In this paper, a
simplified procedure is presented for applying
the critical path method to graduate research
programs, using noncomputerized techniques
readily available to the student. Recent experience
with the method is drawn from several graduate-
level ChE research programs.

TWO DIFFERENT FORMS

THE BASIC CONCEPTS of critical path
planning were initially developed in two
fundamentally different forms. The "probabilistic"
approach was known as Program Evaluation of
Research Tasks (PERT) or PERT with costs
(PERTCO) [3]. In this form, individual research
and development tasks, whose duration and cost
could not be accurately estimated, were assigned
a range of probable duration and cost. These



The critical path method is applied to
graduate research programs ... Experience
shows a high correlation between task identification
and effective task completion by the student.


TABLE I. Steps in the Critical Path Method
Phase I. Project decomposition into a realistic network
of task sequences.
A. Assignment of individual tasks.
B. Estimate of times and cost benefits.
C. Construction of a precedence-contribu-
tion matrix.
D. Assignments of topical sequences.
Phase II. Critical path determination for a normal
project rate.
A. Construction of an arrow diagram.
B. Determination of the critical path.
Phase III. Time-cost-benefit optimization
A. Estimation of times and cost-benefits
for highest rate.
B. Calculation of incremental cost slopes.
C. Determination of the critical path.

data were then incorporated into a computerized
critical-path control program. A second form of
CPM, called Project Planning and Scheduling
System (PPSS), was predicated on a more de-
terministic approach, where the controlling
variables of individual tasks are assumed to be
estimated with reasonable accuracy [4]. The
latter approach has been utilized effectively in the
chemical and construction industries [4, 5]. The
deterministic approach is more suitable for
graduate research planning provided that the
controlling variables can be quantitatively
assessed.

NONCOMPUTER CPM
THERE ARE THREE important phases of the
CPM method developed here for graduate re-
search. These are summarized in Table I. In the
first phase, the overall project is divided into
distinct tasks. It is useful to divide long project
operations into a sequence of separate tasks.
The tasks are then ordered into topical sequences
with the aid of a precedence-contribution matrix:
each task follows its precedents, but should come
before tasks to which it contributes. An arrow
diagram is then constructed from which the
critical path is determined, again using informa-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









tion in the precedence-contribution matrix. The
program is finally optimized by calculating the in-
cremental cost-benefits per unit of time saved,
for alternative forms of the project tasks.
The noncomputer critical path method pro-
posed for graduate research planning is perhaps
best illustrated with an example. Consider a
typical set of research tasks arising in a project
having both analytical and experimental com-
ponents. Following the steps listed in Table I, one
first lists the individual tasks of the project and
assigns values of the time required and the cost-
benefit to each, as shown in the left-hand part of
Table II. Dead times requiring no work input
are separately listed. Next, a precedence-contri-
bution matrix is constructed, as shown in Table
III, where the precedent steps are identified, as
are subsequent steps which benefit from each
step. The information on precedents is then used
to construct the topical sequences shown in Table
III. Here, for example, task 2 is listed following
task 1 in sequence because task 1 is a precedent,
whereas task 3 is placed at the start of a new
sequence because no precedent step is required.
All duplicate tasks numbers in this table could
be deleted to simplify the table.
The second phase of the method is the deter-
mination of the critical path for a normal project
rate. For this, an arrow diagram is first con-
structed from the information in Tables III and
IV, with arrows connecting each step to its re-
quired precedent steps, as shown by the solid lines
in Fig. la. Then, Table II is examined to deter-
mine the first subsequent step to which a given
step contributes. These contributions are denoted
by the dotted lines in Fig. la.
It is evident from Fig. la that task 3 could
proceed task 1, but there is no clear precedence
requirement. It is appropriate, therefore, to fur-
ther subdivide task 1 into two parts, where one


a)




b)

0 50 100
Time (days)






o0 O Time (days) 100
FIGURE 1. Task sequencing of a typical graduate research program:
a) arrow diagram, b) critical path for a normal program rate, c)
critical path for an accelerated rate.

part requires task 3 as a precedent. Note also,
that several tasks are in parallel (i.e., 2, 4 and 6)
and could be performed by a large work force.
The graduate student constitutes a one-man crew,
however, and therefore an addition criterion must
be supplied to determine the task sequence. Two
criteria are proposed here: (i) Table II is
examined for each task in a parallel group (i.e., 2,
4 and 6). The number of contribution entries in
the column for each is counted, and the task with
the highest number of "C" entries is performed
first. Alternately, (ii) the parallel tasks should
be further subdivided and ordered so that the
graduate student alternates his time between
them, thereby gaining experience with all the
tasks early in the program. Following criterion
(i), one can readily arrive at the critical path
program shown in Fig. lb for the normal program
rate. The critical path is denoted by double ar-
rows, while idle time durations are denoted by
wavey arrows (e.g., for task 2).

(Continued on page 203.)


TABLE II. Time, Cost and Cost-Slope Estimates for a Typical Project


Task Name
Define Problem
Order Supplies
Lit. Survey
Construct App.
Experimental
Analyt. Calc.
Data Reduction
Compare Theo & Exp.
Write Reports


Normal Rate Accelerated Rate
Time (d) Cost-Benefit ($) Time (d) Cost-Benefit ($)
5 100 5 100
30* 520 30 520
5 100 5 100
20 1000 10 2000
20 400 20 400
20 700 10 1000
10 200 5 200
10 200 10 200
10 200 10 200


Incremental
Cost S ope ($/d)
00
00
00
100
00
150
0
00
00
co
co
100

150
0
Co
co


Task
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


*29 day dead time.


FALL 1975












MEASURES OF EXCELLENCE

OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE DEPARTMENTS:

A CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EXAMPLE


CHARLES L. BERNIER, WILLIAM N. GILL
and RAYMOND G. HUNT
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14214

THE PURPOSE OF this study was to deter-
mine how such measures1 of departmental
and research quality as number of citations of
current research papers, number of citations of
the research of a lifetime, number of Ph.D.'s
graduated, funds expended for research, number
of papers published, and others, correlate with
one another and with the quality or visibility of
departments as measured by peer evaluations
such as those conducted by Cartter [1] and more
recently by Roose and Andersen [2]. The number
of citations by others correlates best with the
other measures in the present study.
Numerous studies of citation analysis have
been reported relatively recently [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].
Also, the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)


has conducted a citation study for the National
Science Foundation of all professors in the 78
leading chemistry departments listed in the Roose-
Andersen report [2]. Several questions arise re-
garding the use of citations as measures of the
quality of the research of an individual or group.
First, does the number of citations provide a
reasonably valid measure of research quality?
Second, should one be concerned primarily with
citations of recent work or of the work of a life-
time in assessing the value of the contributions
that one has the potential for making in the
future? Third, do citation counts correlate with
other measures of quality, both objective and sub-
jective? Fourth, can one compare the quality of
individuals or groups in different disciplines on
the basis of citation counts?
In the present study a simple random sample
of 21 departments of chemical engineering in
the U.S. universities was selected. Citations were
counted in the Science Citation Index (SCI) (11)


TABLE 1


Spearman Rank Order Intercorrelation Coefficients for Departments of Chemical Engineering
N = Number of Departments Correlated in the Measure


No. N Measure
1 21 Citations by others
2 21 Total citations
3 21 Citations/professor
4 21 Papers with 5-9 citations
5 21 Self-citations
6 21 Lifetime citations
7 21 Number of papers
8 17 Research expenditures
9 9 Papers with 10+ citations
10 12 Papers/professor
11 21 Citations/paper
12 21 Papers with 0-4 citations
13 16 1970 Rating of Graduate Programs
14 21 Ph.D.'s graduated
15 21 Ph.D.'s./professor


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


9 10 11 12 13 14 15


.99 .95 .93 .91 .87
.95 .93 .93 .87
.89 .87 .82
.93 .84
.82


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


9 10 11 12 13 14 15


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








for 1965-9 (cumulative), 1970, 1971, and through
June of 1972. The departments were ranked by
number of citations, etc., and the rankings were
compared with the unpublished Roose-Andersen
rankings (that were supplied by Andersen) by
use of the Spearman rank-order intercorrelation
coefficients between all pairs of rankings. Results
are in Table 1. All correlations are significant at
least at the five percent level of confidence.

RESEARCH CITATIONS

T HE NUMBERS OF citations to research by
professors in different ChE departments varies
much more than do other measures. In the 21
departments studied, the average number of life-
time citations' per professor varied in different
departments from 275 in one department to 8
in another department with a mean of 79 for all
professors in all departments; average number
of citations1 of 1967-9 articles per professor varied
from 40 to 0.9 with a mean of 13 per department;
number of papers published per professor in
different departments varied from 6.5 to 0.63
with a mean of 3.6. The variation among in-
dividual professors is much greater than among
departments. For example, lifetime citations vary
from 0 to 1,100 and those of 1967-9 articles from
0 to 162. Thus, it seems that the recognition, as
measured by the number of citations to works of
professors in different departments, varies much
more than does the rate at which they publish
articles, and departments with professors who
publish more, on the average, seem to be the
source of work that is used (cited) more. These
data dispel the myth that those who publish
prolifically, publish less significant work; quantity
and quality are correlated highly positively.
Our low correlation coefficient, 0.17, between
the number of articles and peer recognition
(Roose & Andersen (RA) study (2)) contrasts
with the 0.67 obtained by Hagstrom [12] for
biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics de-
partments. This suggests that there may be a
difference, on the average, between the impact
of science and applied science articles.
Departmental reputations as measured by the
RA study [2], tend to correlate slightly better
with lifetime citations than with '67-9 depart-
mental citations.1 That is, it is not only the work
that is presently being done or has been done in
the recent past, but also the work that has been
done years ago, that contributes significantly to


the reputation among peers of individuals and
departments. Our results show the correlation
coefficient between peer judgment (RA) and the
first-author citations to be 0.65; Hagstrom [12]
obtained 0.69. Also, our results for both first-au-
thor lifetime citations and total '67-9 citations
are 0.65 and 0.62, respectively; Hagstroms and
our results are on the same order but are some-
what lower than the 0.75 obtained in the recent
study of 78 leading chemistry departments carried
out by ISI [13]. On the other hand, our correlation
between citations per article and the RA ratings
is 0.66 whereas the ISI correlation is only 0.48.
The ISI counting by computer was the most com-
prehensive, ours was next, and Hagstrom's was
the least since he apparently used first-author
data for only 1966.

CITATION OVERLAP
W E HAVE CONSIDERED essentially five
different measures of excellence including
various types of citation counts, research support,



We have considered essentially five different measures
of excellence including various types of citation
counts, research support, numbers of papers
published, peer evaluations and Ph.D.'s produced.



numbers of papers published, peer evaluations
and Ph.D.'s produced. Clearly, the various types
of citation counts overlap in items counted and
therefore high correlation coefficients between
these counts are not surprising. The other four
measures are not so obviously related to one an-
other or to citation counts. Therefore, we might
wish to ask which of the ways of counting cita-
tions has the highest mean correlation with the
four non-citation measures. On this basis citations
by others and total citations per department
correlate most highly with the other measures
(0.70 and 0.69) and these are followed by citations
per professor (0.63).
It is somewhat surprising that number 15,
Ph.D.'s graduated per professor has among the
lowest correlation with the other measures. How-
ever, number 14, Ph.D.'s graduated per depart-
ment, correlates quite well, on the same order
as citation counts, with the peer evaluations of


FALL 1975









TABLE 2

Data on Measures


No. MEASURE
1 Citations by others/dept.
2 Total citations/dept.
3 Citations/professor
4 Papers with 5-9 citations
5 Self-citations/dept.
6 Lifetime citations/dept.
7 Number of papers/dept.
8 Research expenditures/yr.
9 Papers with 10-plus citations
10 Papers/professor
11 Citations/paper
12 Papers with 0-4 citations
13 Withheld
14 Ph.D's. Graduated/yr.
15 Ph.D's./professor/yr.
16 Lifetime citations/professor
17 Professors/school


the Roose-Andersen 1970 Rating of Graduate
Programs. This implies that department size is
important and larger departments are more
visible to others in the field.
Maxima, minima, means, and medians of the
measures in Table 1, plus numbers 16 and 17,
are given in Table II. It is interesting to note that,
on a departmental basis, the citation counts per
professor show means and medians that do not
differ greatly. However, number 16 in Table II,
which refers to the lifetime citations per in-
dividual, shows a mean of about 79 and a median
of 33. This indicates that, on an individual basis,


Relationship between


A A
2a 140
O PEOPLE IN A CATEGORY
PAPERSPER PERSON 26 130
A 07 69 CITATIONS PER PERSON
A LIFETIME CITATIONS PER PERSON
24 120



1a a.


14 70
12 61

8 40
4 O
S20
2 10
0 0
353 4044 45 49 5054 55 59 60 AND OVER
AGE CATEGORIES
FIGURE 1
age and productivity in Chemical Engineers.


the distribution of citations is highly skewed and
that a relatively small number of highly talented
people contribute work that is highly cited and
which accounts for a large fraction of all of the
citations of the entire group. Thus, the mean
does not reflect the performance of the average
individual because the average is so strongly in-
fluenced by those with outstanding citation
records. The median seems much more represen-
tative of average individual performance.
It does not seem reasonable to compare the
quality of departments in different disciplines by
the measures discussed. For example, the average
chemistry article is cited close to 10 times (one
department was lowest with 5.3, another had 25.3
in the ISI study) whereas the average ChE article
is cited about 3 times or less. Some data were ob-
tained on various engineering departments to see
if citation rates differ among them. It appears
that civil and mechanical engineers cite somewhat
less frequently (1/3 to 1/2) than do chemical
engineers, and electrical engineers cite perhaps
twice as frequently as do chemical engineers.
The relationship between age and productivity
of chemical engineers is interesting. As shown in
Figure 1, all measures of research productivity
peak in the 40-44 age group; individuals in this
group published an average of approximately 5
papers each during the two-year period, 1967-9,
and these papers were cited approximately 5 times
each; the lifetime citations for this group
averaged about 126 per professor.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


MAXIMUM
428
495
40
23
74
3,847
118
$664,K
18
6.5
6.9
75

12
0.93
1,194
21


MINIMUM

7
7
0.9
0
0
58
5
$28,K
1
0
1.1
4

1
0.09
0
5


MEAN

151
179
13.4
8.9
27.4
963
46.4
$265,K
8.1
3.7
3.3
28


4.4
0.36
78.6
12.1


MEDIAN

89
111
11.4
6
21
772
39
$251,K
7.5
3.6
2.9
21


4
0.30
32.5
11










PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

E VALUATION OF THE performance of in-
dividuals and departments is difficult at best,
but it is customary and necessary. Appointment,
funding, promotion, ranking, selection, and tenure
depend upon the results of evaluation. Objective
data, such as those discussed here, are useful (if
crude) measures that enable one to minimize un-
realistic appraisals. It certainly seems that the
number of citations should be included in any
evaluation of the research performance of in-
dividuals or departments. Indeed, the dossier of
every candidate for tenure or promotion should
include a citation analysis of his published work.


DEFINITIONS

1. Citations by others: Number of non-self citations of
works published between 1967 and 1969 and listed
in the American Chemical Society Directory of Gradu-
ate Research, 1971 [10] (including those works in




















Charles L. Bernier, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D., is listed in American
Men of Science. He is professor at the State University of New
York at Buffalo in the School of Information and Library Studies.
He was Editor of Chemical Abstracts and Director of ASTIA. He has
been associated with: the National Library of Medicine, National
Institutes of Health, Rutgers-The State University, Squibb Institute
for Medical Research, International Flavors and Fragrances; American
Dental Association; Auerbach; Computer Sciences Corporation; Hor-
ton Steel Works, Ltd.; International Flavors and Fragrances; National
Library of Medicine; National Institute for Neurological Diseases and
Blindness; University of Missouri Medical Center; and Hooker
Chemical Corporation. His research interests in information science
include: condensed literatures such as indexed abstracts, extracts,
and terse literatures; information centers and services; data processing
(spectral, organoleptic, organostructural, etc.); and measurement of
knowledge transfer. (LEFT)
William N. Gill took his Ph.D. at Syracuse University and re-
mained there on the faculty until 1965 at which time he joined the
Department of Chemical Engineering at Clarkson College of Tech-
nology as Chairman. In 1971 he became Provost of the Faculty of
Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Chemical En-


which the author studied is not listed first on the
work). Science Citation Indexes: 1965-9 cumulative,
1970, 1971, and the first half of 1972 were used for
the random sample of 21 departments of chemical
engineering in the U. S.
2. Total citations: Self-citations plus citations by
others.
3. Citations/professor: Total citations of '67-9 works
divided by number of faculty members.
4. Papers with 5-9 citations: Works published in the
'67-9 period per department-with 5-9 total citations.
5. Self-citations: Authors' citations of their own '67-9
works (including those works on which their names
do not appear first).
6. Lifetime citations: The number of citations, in-
cluding self-citations, to all works on which a faculty
member is first or only author.
7. Number of papers: Works published in the '67-9
period.
8. Research expenditures: Dollars spent per depart-
ment for research per year, averaged for the '67-9
period.
9. Papers with 10-plus citations: Works published in

(Continued on page 202.)


gineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He has
written about 100 articles on theoretical and experimental studies
in transport phenomena. Recently his main research activities have
been in reverse osmosis, including hollow fiber systems, and the de-
velopment of a new theory of unsteady convective diffusion in which
a generalized dispersion model is derived from first principles.
(CENTER)
Raymond G. Hunt is Director of the Survey Research Center, and
is Faculty Professor of Social Sciences and Administration at the
State University of New York at Buffalo. He received his Ph.D. from
the University of Buffalo where he was formerly Professor of Social
Psychology and chairman for Graduate Studies in the Department
of Psychology. He has also served as Acting Director of the Social
Science Research Institute at SUNYAB and was previously Professor
in the Department of Community Service Education, College of Human
Ecology, Cornell University. Professor Hunt is a Fellow of the
American Psychological Association and a member of the American
Sociological Association, the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Sciences, the Association of Research Administrators, and
the Academy of Management. He is author or co-author of four books
and of numerous articles and papers. (RIGHT)


FALL 1975









views and opinions


SHOULD ENGINEERING STUDENTS BE TAUGHT TO


BLOW THE WHISTLE ON INDUSTRY?*


JOHN BIERY and RAY FAHIEN
University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla. 32601

T HE QUESTION to be answered is not only
should an engineer blow the whistle on in-
dustry but whether students of engineering
should be taught to do so. This leads to the broad
question of whether moral or ethical standards of
any kind should be taught to engineering stu-
dents. Our answer is that we consider our students
to be free individuals who must ultimately make
their own choices based on their own sense of
values. The teacher cannot play God; he cannot
program them with a list of rules or a set of ab-
solutes. What he can do, however, is to assist
them in seeing the alternatives and to familarize
them with the way others have approached moral
problems. The teacher can tell them how he might
act in a given situation and he can make them
conscious and aware of the consequences of moral
decisions (or indecisions) but he should not and
cannot make the decisions for them.
However, in order to give the student a basis
for making his moral decisions we would present
for his consideration the following hierarchy of
moral values that have been proposed by the
philosopher Robert Hartman:
1) Extrinsic values: These are basically ma-
terial values, e.g. the monetary value of
an automobile, a house, a boat, a heat ex-
changer, or of any material thing.
2) Systemic values: These deal with systems
or organizations. Loyalty to an organiza-
tion such as one's employer, to a fraternity,
to a school, to a profession, to a depart-
ment in a university, to one's country, or
to a political system are systemic values.

*Presented at the American Society for Engineering
Education Annual Conference, June 25-28, 1973 Iowa
State University Ames, Iowa 50010.


Ray Fahien is professor of chemical engineering at the University
of Florida and a former chairman of the department. He received
his bachelor's in chemical engineering at Washington University (St.
Louis), his master's at University of Missouri (Rolla) and his Ph.D.
at Purdue. He has worked for Ethyl Corporation and has taught at
Rolla, at Iowa State, at the University of Brazil, and at the University
of Wisconsin. He is now on leave as a UNESCO consultant at the
University of the Orient in Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela.
John C. Biery is Chairman and Professor of chemical engineer-
ing at the University of Florida. He received his bachelor's in
chemical engineering at the University of Michigan and his Ph.D.
at Iowa State University. He did postdoctoral work under Prof.
R. B. Bird at the University of Wisconsin and has worked at Dow
Chemical Co. and at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. He has taught
at the University of Arizona and at Florida and is the author of
papers on sodium technology, transport phenomena liquid-liquid ex-
traction, and engineering education. He is a member of the ASEE
Chemical Engineering Division Executive Committee, and chairman
of the Motivational Techniques Session at the November 1975 AIChE
meeting in Los Angeles.



3) Intrinsic values: These might also be called
human or spiritual values. They include the
idea of the infinite worth and dignity of a
human being. Intrinsic values cannot be
measured in terms of dollars and cents.
The highest of these values is that of an
individual human life.
While systemic values are rated higher than
extrinsic values, they are superseded by intrinsic
values. Everything in the world, including the
world itself, can be valued extrinsically, sys-
temically, or intrinsically. For example, a button
can be valued systemically as the product of a
button factory, extrinsically as a useful part of
a shirt, and intrinsically as an object to which a
fetishist is devoted.
An engineering student can be valued sys-
temically as another graduate or "product" of a
department, extrinsically in comparison with
other engineering students, and intrinsically in
his own uniqueness as a human being.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Let us now apply these to some possible cases
in which the engineer must make a moral de-
cision. In each case we will presume that the
financial welfare of the company is in jeopardy
and that the engineer subscribes to the above
hierarchy of values.
Case I: The company is releasing substances
or manufactures a product that will undoubtedly
result in death or serious injury; e.g. a botulism-
causing bacteria in a canned good or the release of
fluorides into the atmosphere. The engineer must
"blow the whistle" because human life, an intrin-
sic value, is more important than the good of the
company, a systemic value.
Case II: The company releases substances or
manufactures a product that may result in death
or serious injury. For example, his company is
making flammable children's pajamas or labeling
a combustible urethane foam as non-combustible.
In this case the engineer must first decide wheth-
er a high probability of human death or injury
actually does exist under the likely conditions of
use. We feel that if such a risk is real he would
be justified in informing consumer and govern-
mental groups of the potential danger-assuming
that he has done everything in his power to con-
vince management of the problem.
Case III: The company is making a product
that is to be used in a conflict that the engineer
considers to be an "unjust" war. In this case the
engineer should resign if his personal conscience
tells him that he cannot work for a company that
makes such a product. However, if there is a
legitimate difference of opinion as to whether a
war is or is not just, he should be cautious about
inflicting his own moral concepts on others by
publicly "blowing the whistle." On the other hand
he might recall that Adolf Eichman, who burned
thousands of Jews in ovens during World War II,
claimed he was innocent because he was merely
following orders and acting as a "transportation
system". This is a good example of placing sys-
temic values-presumably loyalty to the country
-ahead of intrinsic values. The chemists and en-
gineers who worked for the Krupp works in Nazi
Germany undoubtedly also felt that their re-
sponsibility was only to the company and to their
country.
Case IV: The company is releasing pollutants
that the engineer thinks are deletrious to the en-
vironment, but which are not directly dangerous
to humans. In this case, the company is probably,
under today's legal atmosphere, already taking


steps to eliminate the problem. If so, the engineer
should work within the company to accelerate the
process. He should balance the good he can do in
that manner against the good and harm he might
do by "blowing the whistle". In this case both
the good of the environment and the financial
welfare of the company can be viewed intrinsical-
ly in terms of their effects on people. In the name
of human values the environment must be pro-
tected, but also, in the name of human values, the
role of the company in manufacturing a useful
product and in providing employment to the com-
munity must be considered. Here each case must
be decided separately, but loyalty to the company
should not require them to defend a company
that repeatedly despoils the environment.
Case V: The company is selling a product that
is useless but is known to be harmless; e.g. a
battery or crankcase additive, or an ineffective
but harmless patent medicine. In this case he
should honestly inform management of the re-
sults of any tests that he had made. If the product
is then falsely advertised, he should leave the
company.

TWO SIDES OF THE COIN
We feel therefore that the engineer today
should be aware that there are really two elements
of the question of blowing the whistle on in-
dustry: One is the attempt to do it internally, to
influence management in ways that are both bene-
ficial to the company but which still satisfy the
moral integrity of the engineer as he views him-
self and as he views his job in reference to the




While systematic values are rated higher than extrinsic
values, they are superseded by intrinsic values.
Everything in the world, including the world itself,
can be valued extrinsically, systemically
or intrinsically.



company and to the society about him. The
second is to do something externally. We feel
that this should be done if the first approach
fails. Of course some may argue that the engineer
who tries to accomplish change of this type in-
ternally is doomed to failure. While this may
have been true in the past, we feel that the young


FALL 1975







engineer who is leaving the university and enter-
ing industry today has a great opportunity, if he
so wishes, to have an impact on the decision and
management processes of his company. One
possible reason for this increased influence is
the teetering balance in which the companies find
themselves between the problems of continued
profitability and the pressure of (a) maintaining
safety standards for OSHA, (b) in meeting pollu-
tion standards as prescribed by EPA, and (c) in
meeting the demands of equal employment and
non-discrimination as required by various federal
laws and as expedited by the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare. From our point
of view, one of our important jobs in education is
to inform the engineer of his position of making
his influence felt and known in the organization
that he is joining.
We also think that at this time efforts in the
direction of being immediately involved can have
definite results. The trend in many management
schemes is to try to drop the decision making
process to the lowest possible level. One company
(as we have been informed recently) is involved
in such a program in which the lowest level of
either management (or maybe non-management;
i.e. the actual operating personnel) will make the
decisions which they can make. They can influence
their job each day and possibly even influence
more than themselves; they may influence the
organization in which they are working. In the
experience of one of us at Los Alamos Scientific
Laboratory, the decision making process was
very much centered in the so-called staff member.
He was not a member of management as such but
actually the ideas for projects, the direction that
projects were to proceed came in most cases from
the staff member. We hope that our students will
go out into the industry with the idea that they
are a member of the management team and that
they can contribute directly to the decision-mak-
ing processes going on.


THE 9 TO 5 MAN
IN THIS DISCUSSION we have been influenced
to a great extent by the book, The Greening
of America by Reich. Many of his descriptions
of human nature, of the types of Consciousness I,
II, and III, from our own experience, are extreme-
ly accurate. These descriptions illustrate how
most engineers perhaps have behaved in the past
and how they possibly might behave in the fu-


ture. A good number of engineers are members
of the Consciousness II group as described by
Reich. This group is one that believes in large
organizations, large structured groups. A Con-
sciousness II engineer would believe that the de-
cisions made by the organization are not to be
challenged. He should go ahead and blindly do as




We feel that the young engineer who is leaving
the university and entering industry today has
a great opportunity, if he so wishes, to have an
impact on the decision and management
processes of his company.




he is told to do and don't worry about it. The at-
titude is: "Do your job; get your 40 hours a week
in; and then forget about it. Let's get home, let's
get to the beach, let's do our thing on the week-
end, let's live a bifurcated life, a life which in-
volves fun and family on one hand and the almost
forced involvement with a company on the other."
If we educate students to go out into industry
with the idea that this is the only possible point
of view, we are making a great mistake. We are
not priming our students or engineers to be the
effective persons that they can be in industry.
With this view in mind we are teaching a
seminar course at the University of Florida to
seniors in which we are using The Greening of
America and Man, The Manipulator by Shoestrum
as texts to look at the various stances that we as
engineers can take. The question we've asked
them is: "Can we take stances other than the
classical one?" The classical one is being a mem-
ber of Group II Consciousness. Is there a possibili-
ty of integrating some of the ideas of Group III
consciousness into our engineering profession and
into our ideas of achievement and still be strong-
ly productive and interactive? In Man, The
Manipulator, Shostrum describes the manipulative
forms that many of us find ourselves trapped in
but also describes the thrilling description of the
actualized person: the person who really can be
interactive, can be open, can express his feelings,
can share and be intimately involved in the
sharing and feedback process. Our hope is that
our engineers can take on some of these actualized
concepts.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








THE ACTUALIZED CONTRIBUTOR

A PERSON CERTAINLY HAS to have some of
the concepts or elements of the actualized
person to immediately contribute towards an
organization. He must take risks. He must speak
up. He must involve himself in a productive way
with all the decisions in which he has contact.
He has the difficulty of doing this in a way which
is acceptable to the people around him. He cannot
be overbearing; he makes no points that way. But
he cannot be under-aggressive; he again makes
no points. So, therefore, the process is one of
sensing where the other human being is, being
aware of where his managers are and of their
capabilities and maybe lack of capabilities.
Therefore, our stance today is that our stu-
dents can blow the whistle on industry, either in-
ternally or externally. But he can do it by being
a productive management team, even when we're
not so designated. Our responsibility as educators
is to set them up, to make them aware that this


is their responsibility. We find it very difficult to
preach morals or to teach a definite set of ethics.
But we feel that each person should be en-
couraged to express the set of ethics that he per-
sonally has developed. We do hope that our en-
gineers can go out and be actualized people, be
non-manipulative, be open. They can express their
concern about what the company is doing, about
its processes, about the pollution capability, about
the discrimination practices that they see, about
the quality or lack of quality of their product.
These are of direct concern to every technical
person who works with a company, and the first
step, the most productive step, is one of im-
mediately being interactive.
"Had I but served my God with the zeal
that I have, served my king, He would not,
in my old age, have left me naked before
my enemies!"-William Shakespeare


SDbook reviews

Modeling Crystal Growth Rate from Solution
By Makoto Ohara and Robert C. Reid
Prentice-Hall (1973), 272 pp.
Reviewed by Maurice Larson, Iowa State U.
This book is a good summary of the most pop-
ular theories attempting to describe the mech-
anism of crystal growth from solution. Of its 272
pages, 134 pages are devoted to appendices. It is
printed by photo-offset of the typed manuscript.
It is well organized and readable, but many of the
illustrations do not have figure numbers nor titles.
This leads to some difficulty. The index is adequate
but brief.
The seven chapters of the non-appendix por-
tion of the book are devoted to a Synopsis of the
text, four chapters describing four growth mech-
anism concepts, one chapter concerned with im-
purity effects and a chapter which compares re-
cent experimental data with theory.
The Synopsis summarizes the book well, points
out what the purpose of the book is and briefly
states the concepts of the various mechanistic
models for growth. Chapter 2 discusses the clas-
sical surface nucleation theories of growth and
shows that they are perhaps quite inadequate to
explain observed growth rates. Chapter 3 dis-
cusses crystal growth limited by mass transfer,


introduces the Burton, Caberra, Frank bulk dif-
fusion model and treats it in detail. Chapter 4 dis-
cusses surface diffusion theories, again calling on
the work of Burton, Caberra and Frank. The
chapter is quite short leaving the detailed mathe-
matical development for Appendix A which is 68
pages long. The treatment is detailed and lucid.
Layer and dislocation growth concepts are ade-
quately treated.
Chapter 5 attempts to account for the appear-
ance of microscopic growth layers and distin-
guishes them from the layer and dislocation
growth theories of Burton, Caberra and Frank.
Impurity effects are briefly treated in chapter 6.
The treatment reflects the general lack of ade-
quate theories which explain observed phenomena.
Finally chapter 7 presents data which can be ex-
plained to some degree by the theories presented
previously.
The book is largely concerned with the detailed
mathematical presentation of existing theories
and the correction of some derivation errors
found in the literature. In the words of the
authors 'the book has solved no new (italics mine)
problem' but the treatment should be helpful for
those wishing to gain an understanding of present
thought without extensive literature review. It
will be a good reference book for those new to the
field and could provide a substantial part of text
material for a course in crystallization technology.


FALL 1975









DIGITAL COMPUTATIONS: Liu
Continued from page 169.
propositions. What is perhaps the most encourag-
ing of all is the interest in this course and the
constructive criticism by the class.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The research grants provided by the Alabama's Water
Resources Research Institute and the Auburn University
Grant-in-Aid Program on projects concerning the course
subject are gratefully acknowledged. O

REFERENCES

1. Shiska, O., Appl. Mech. Review, 21, 337 (1968).
2. Bickley, W. S., J. Math. & Phys., 27, 183 (1948).
3. Landis, F., & E. N. Nilson, "The Determination of
Thermodynamic Properties by Direct Differentiation
Techniques," in Progress in International Research
on Thermodynamics and Transport Properties, p. 218,
Academic Press (1962).
4. Klaus, R. L., & H. C. Van Ness, AIChE J., 13, 1132
(1967).
5. Butcher, J. C., Math. Comp., 18, 50 (1964).
6. Howland, J. L., & R. Vaillancourt, J. Soc. Ind. Appl.
Math., 9, 165 (1961).


7. Marquardt, D. W., ibid, 11, 131 (1963).
8. Hull, T. E., W. H. Enright, B. M. Fellen & A. E.
Sedgwick, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 9, 603 (1972).
9. Lapidus, L., & J. H. Seinfeld, Numerical Solution of
Ordinary Differential Equations, Academic Press
(1971).
10. Lapidus, L., R. C. Aiken & Y. A. Liu, "The Occurrence
and Numerical Solution of Physical and Chemical
Systems Having Widely Varying Time Constants,"
in Proceedings of International Symposium on Stiff
Differential Systems, Wilbad, Germany, Edited by
R. A. Willoughby, p. 187, Plenum Press (1974).
11. Gear, C. W., Comm. ACM, 14, 185 (1971).
12. Larson, L., "Automatic Solution of Partial Differen-
tial Equations," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois
(1972).
13. Burgess, W. P., "Composite Numerical Solution of
PDE," Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University (1971).
14. Laskaris, T. E., "Finite Element Analysis of Several
Compressible and Uncompressible Viscous Flow Prob-
lems," Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
(1974).
15. Chakrabarti, S., "Approximations in Finite Element
Heat Conduction Analysis," Ph.D. Thesis, University
of Pittsburgh (1974).
16. Woodrow, P. T., "Analysis of Chromatographic Sys-
tems Using Orthogonal Collocation," Ph.D. Thesis,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1974).


MEASURES OF EXCELLENCE: Bernier, Gill and Hunt
Continued from page 197.


'67-9 and cited ten or more times.
10. Papers/professor: Works published in the '67-9 period
divided by the number of professors, publishing or
not, in the departments in that period.
11. Citations/paper: Total citations divided by the
number of '67-9 works (impact factor).
12. Papers with 0-4 citations: '67-9 works with through
four total citations.
13. 1970 Rating of Graduate Programs: Detailed data
of Roose and Andersen study on rankings of depart-
ments of ChE kindly supplied by Andersen.
14. Ph.D.'s graduated: Ph.D.'s graduated per year during
'67-9.
15. Ph.D's/professor: Ph.D.'s graduated per faculty
member per year in '67-9.
16. Lifetime citations/professor: The number of cita-
tions, including self-citations, to all works on which
a faculty member is first or only author divided by
the number of professors, publishing or not, in the
literature cited.
17. Professors/school: The number of professors, pub-
lishing or not, in the literature cited divided by
number of schools (21).

REFERENCES

1. Cartter, Allan M., "An Assessment of Quality in
Graduate Education," American Council on Educa-
tion, One DuPont Circle, Washington, D, C., 20036,
(1966).


2. Roose, Kenneth D., and Andersen, Charles J., "A
Rating of Graduate Programs," American Council
on Education, One DuPont Circle, Washington, D.C.
20036, (1970).
3. Garfield, E., and Scher, I. H., Am. Doc. 14, 195,
(1963).
4. Sher, I. H., and Garfield, E., "New Tools for Im-
proving and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Research,"
Science Citation Index, Institute for Scientific In-
formation, Philadelphia (1965).
5. Cole, S., and Cole, J. R., American Sociological Re-
view 32, 377-90, (1967).
6. Garfield, E., Nature, 227, 669, (1970).
7. Cole, J., and Cole, S., American Sociologist, 6, 23-9,
(1971).
8. Cole, J. R., and Cole, S., Science, 178, 368-75, (1972).
9. Matheson, A. J., Chemistry in Britain, 8, 202-10,
(1972).
10. American Chemical Society Directory of Graduate
Research, American Chemical Society, Washington,
D. C., (1971).
11. Science Citation Index, Institute for Scientific Infor-
mation, Philadelphia, (1965-72).
12. Hagstrom, W. 0., "Inputs, Outputs and the Prestige
of American University Science Departments," Paper
delivered at the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science, Chicago, Ill., (Dec. 28, 1970).
13. Unpublished work supplied by Malin of the Institute
for Scientific Information.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CPM METHOD: Donaghey
Continued from page 193.
The acceleration of any project step pre-
supposes a subcontracting of project labor, often
at the expense of graduate research experience.
For example, the time required for construction
of experimental apparatus can be shorted by pur-
chasing ready-made apparatus, and data-reduc-
tion tasks could possibly be shortened by hiring
an undergraduate assistant.
With accelerated project rates now accepted
for tasks 4, 6 and 7, the resulting critical path
becomes that shown in Fig. Ic. Here, the total
project time is constrained by the duration of
task 2 (i.e., waiting for ordered supplies to
arrive) rather than by steps 6 and 4. Consequent-
ly, one of the two tasks need not be shortened.

TABLE III. Precedence-Contribution Matrix
Tasks
Affected 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 P C P P P


P = Precedence


C C
C
C C C
C = Contribution


C C


TABLE IV. Assignment of Topical Sequences
Step Number
Sequence 1 2 3 4 5 6
A 1 2 5 7 8 9


4 5 7 8 9


CONCLUSIONS

THE FORM OF THE critical path method
presented here differs from earlier forms is
having these important characteristics: (1) the
educational experience derived from interacting
research tasks is counted as a cost benefit, (2)
the critical path is constructed with a minimum
of subcontracted or simultaneous tasks, and (3)
the method presented does not require a com-
puter to apply it. O

REFERENCES
1. Cunningham, R. C. and Sommerfields, J. T., Chem.
Eng. Educ. 7 (1), 18 (1973).
2. Kelley, J. E. Jr., Operations Res. 9 (3), May-June
(1971).
3. Chipman, J. S., "PERT with Costs," Technical Report
112 SRP, WSPACS Working Paper No. 4, Aerojet
General Corporation, Feb. 15, 1961.
4. Walker, M. R. and Sayer, J. S., "Project Planning
and Scheduling," Report 6959, E. J. duPont de Ne-
mours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, March
1959.
5. Fondahl, J. W., "A Non-Computer Approach to the
Critical Path Method for the Construction Industry,"
Report No. 9, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Stanford
University, Stanford, Calif., November, 1961.


Table I shows that task 6 has the higher cost
slope, and, therefore, this task should be carried
out at the normal rate.

RECENT RESULTS

T HE CRITICAL PATH method outlined above
has been tested in a number of graduate re-
search programs in solid-state electrochemistry,
process kinetics and transport phenomena during
the past few years. Experience has shown that
the initial critical path plan must be revised
periodically during the program to take ad-
vantages of new discoveries or to avoid limiting
difficulties. Experience has also shown a high
correlation between task identification and effec-
tive task completion by the student. It has also
been found that long-term segments of the total
program should be subdivided so that the student
gains familiarity with all type of program tasks
in operation terms early in the program.


Lee F. Donaghey received the B.A. degree in Physics from Har-
vard College, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Science
from Stanford University. His industrial experience has been in the
semiconductor and microwave electronics industries. Following a
postdoctoral appointment at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stock-
holm, he joined the Chemical Engineering faculty at the University
of California, Berkeley in 1970. His research interests are concerned
with the synthesis, thermochemistry and process kinetics of elec-
tronic materials.


FALL 1975











UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA
Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering


Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $6,500/year.
M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to $5,500/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Costs.
Tuition: $535/year.
Married students housing rent: $154/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $190/month.
Ph.D. Degree
Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year
courses, thesis.
M.Sc. Degree
6 half-year courses, thesis.
M.Eng. Degree
10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project.
Department Size
12 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows,
30-40 Graduate Students.
Applications
For additional information write to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6

Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and
Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De-
sign.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer,
Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ-
mental Engineering.
D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Math-
ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory.


D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
dynamics.
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.
D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Com-
puter Control, Process Identification
F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
tics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns.

Department Facilities
Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre.
Excellent complement of computing and analytical
equipment:
-IBM 1800 (real-time) computer
-EAI 590 hybrid computer
-AD 32 analog computer
-IBM 360/67 terminal
-Weissenberg Rheogoniometer
-Infrared spectrophotometer
-Research and industrial gas chromatographs

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
schools.
Enrollment of 18,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
non-denominational.
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river
valley.

Edmonton
Fast growing, modern city; population of 440,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper and Banff National Parks.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













STHE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA





The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1972
Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering, Energy and
Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re-
action-Applications to the Minerals Industry.


DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms


THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation,
Distillation, Applied Design


Packed Column


JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation


Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow-
ing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.










For further information,
write to:
Dr. J. 11'. II;te, Chairmani
Graduate Study Committee
Depaort m ( at of
Cclmical Euv11w1,iim,,g
I'uio i ,sit., of' Ai:owm
Tors(o,,W. A. i:oia Z ,oi 1 S 7l -







UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA


RESEARCH


ENERGY UTILIZATION

ENVIRONMENTAL

KINETICS AND CATALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESS DESIGN
AND DEVELOPMENT

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MATERIAL ENGINEERING

FLUID MECHANICS
AND RHEOLOGY


FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE:


FACULTY
Alexis T. Bell
Lee F. Donaghey
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
Robert P. Merrill
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Mitchel Shen
Thomas K. Sherwood
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermuelen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams



Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720



































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further


advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor J. H. Seinfeld
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1976.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering;
air and water quality.
SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution;
biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif-
fusion and membrane transport.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor,
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical
mechanics.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.
FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.






Are you sure you have the

necessary tools?"
*


Write Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


























$I
<.-


4(


St -<^MJ "'MHS8w ^Bjj
as


THE UNIVERSITY
Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed in-
stitution with traditions of excellence in Engineering and
Applied Science since 1880. In 1967, Case Institute and
Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment,
endowment and faculty make Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity one of the leading private schools in the country.
The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's University
Circle, an extensive concentration of educational, scientific,
social and cultural organizations.


ACTIVE RESEARCH AREAS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Environmental Engineering
Control & Optimization
Computer Simulation
Systems Engineering
Foam & Colloidal Science
Transport Processes


Coal Gasification
Biomedical Engineering
Surface Chemistry & Catalysis
Crystal Growth & Materials
Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Chemical Reaction Engineering


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
The department is growing and has recently moved
to a new complex. This facility provides for innovations in
both research and teaching. Courses in all of the major
areas of Chemical Engineering are available. Case Chemical
Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and
petroleum companies and have made important technical and
entrepreneurial contributions for over a half a century.


FINANCIAL AID
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research As-
sistantships are available to qualified applicants. Applications
are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
Contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


Fllf

fill


c-,


1
., a~


-64iall







DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


CLARKSON

PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORAL DEGREE IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE


Clarksons multimillion dollar Science Center was dedicated in 1970 and is one of the finest facilities o its kind in New York.

Clarkson's multimillion dollar Science Center was dedicated in 1970 and is one of the finest facilities ot its kind in New York.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY


W. R. WILCOX-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1960, University of
California, Berkeley) Crystal growth in semiconductor and
biological systems, nucleation of crystals, mass transfer in
solidification processes, metallic corrosion.

D-T. CHIN-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1969, University of Pennsylvania)
Electrochemical engineering, transport phenomena, waste treatment
and resource recovery, energy conversion.

R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. and Exec. Officer. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson
College of Technology) Boiling heat transfer, bubble dynamics,
boiling nucleation, holographic interferometry.

D. O. COONEY-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of
Wisconsin) Mass transfer in fixed beds, biomedical engineering.

E. J. DAVIS-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington) Heat
transfer and fluid mechanics associated with two-phase flow,
convective diffusion, aerosol physics, transport phenomena,
mathematical modeling.

J. ESTRIN-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation
phenomena, crystallization, phase change processes.

J. L. KATZ-Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago)
Homogeneous nucleation of vapors, homogeneous boiling, hetero-
geneous nucleation, aerosols, nucleation of voids in metals, chemical
nucleation, thermal conductivity of gases.

R. J. NUNGE-Prof. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University) Transport
phenomena, multistream forced convection transport processes,
structure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through porous media,
atmospheric transport processes.


H. L. SHULMAN-Prof., Dean of Eng. and Vice Pres. of the College.
(Ph.D., 1950, University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, packed
columns, adsorption of gases, absorption.

R. S. SUBRAMANIAN-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, Clarkson College
of Technology) Heat and mass transfer, unsteady convective
diffusion miscible dispersion, chromatographic and other
interphase transport systems, fluid mechanics, mathematical
modeling.

V. VAN BRUNT-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1974, University of Tennessee)
Transport properties, optimization, computer methods, process
control.

T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute) Process control, nuclear engineering, ceramic materials.
G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of Illinois) Ad-
sorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous media, waste
conversion processes.





For information concerning Assistantships and
Fellowships contact the Graduate School Office,
Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New
York 13676


CLARKSON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY / POTSDAM, NEW YORK 13676








CORNELL UNIVERSITY


Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering







Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
research-oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
sophy or Master of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
Master of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Engineering (general)
Thermodynamics; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations.
Bioengineering
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and re-
lated subjects in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of processes
in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.
Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Catalysis
Homogeneous kinetics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation;
simultaneous mass transfer and reaction; optimization of reactor design.
Chemical Processes and Process Control
Advanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and
chemistry.

Faculty Members and Research Interests
John L. Anderson, Ph.D. Membrane transport, bioengineering.
Kenneth B. Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi-
cal reaction engineering.
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. Light and electron microscopy, properties of materials,
solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation, agitation and aeration, pro-
cessing of biochemicals, electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons.
Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion in mem-
branes and porous solids.
J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D. Economic analyses and forecasts, new ventures devel-
opment.
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. Polymerization, properties of polymer systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid mechanics
of liquid drops and jets, convection-distorted flow fields.
Michael L. Shuler, Ph.D., Biochemical engineering.
Julian C. Smith, Chem.E. Conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing,
mechanical separations.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. Chemical engineering applications to biomedical
problems; rheology.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics of poly-
merization.
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. Liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics, effect of
radiation on chemical reactions.
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline-water
conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding,
filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis.
Robert York, Sc.D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco-
nomics, process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATION. Write to Professor K. B. Bischoff, Olin Hall of Chemical
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850.















UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

Newark, Delaware 19711

The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and
practice in the art and science of chemical engineering:
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.

A Ph.D. degree.


The regular faculty are:

Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) J. H. Olson
C. E. Birchenall C. A. Petty
H. W. Blanch R. L. Pigford
M. M. Denn T. W. F. Russell
B. C. Gates S. I. Sander
D. H. Henneman, M.D. G. C. A. Schuit (1/2 time)
J. R. Katzer J. M. Schultz
R. L. McCullough L. Spielman
A. B. Metzner James Wei

The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with in-
dustrial practice are:

L. A. DeFrate ...-_---..---- Heat, mass and momentum transfer
T. R. Keane_____ Polymer Science & Engineering
W. H. Manogue ______- Catalysis, reaction engineering
E. L. Mongan, Jr. --------Design and process evaluation
F. E. Rush, Jr. --______Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction
R. J. Samuels -______.. .Polymer science
A. B. Stiles ----___-- Catalysis
K. F. Wissbrun ______- Polymer engineering

For information and admissions materials contact:
A. B. Metzner, Chairman


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









university offlorida

offers you .


Transport
Phenomena &
Rheology
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.


Optimization
& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.


Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.


andmuct more...


A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports


Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.


Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room.227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



















APPLY TO:
DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON
HOUSTON, TEXAS 77004


J.E. BAILEY E.J. HENLEY D. LUSS J.T RICHARDSON
J.R. CRUMP W.I. HONEYWELL R.L. MOTARD FM. TILLER
A.E. DUKLER C.J. HUANG A.C. PAYATAKES C.F WALTER
RW FLUMERFELT CV. KIRKPATRICK H.W.PRENGLE F.L. WORLEY
CATALYSIS ... CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION .. TWO PHASE FLOW .
KINETICS ENERGY CONVERSION ENZYME KINETICS ... HEAT AND
MASS TRANSFER ... THERMODYNAMICS AIR POLLUTION COMPUTER
AIDED DESIGN FERMENTATION KINETICS PROCESS DYNAMICS .
BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS RHEOLOGY FLUID PARTICLE
SEPARATIONS PROCESS SYNTHESIS ... REACTOR DESIGN..













ILLINOIS



THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


* GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs with a strong
emphasis on creative research, either in fundamental engineering science or its application to the
solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be
achieved from the close one-to-one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de-
velop relevant scientific contributions.
* STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re-
search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements.
Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available, not only in terms of equipment
and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel.


Applied Mathematics
Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering
Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Reactor Dynamics
Corrosion
Electronic Structure of Matter
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Sources and Conservation
Environmental Engineering
Fluid Dynamics
Heat Transfer
High Pressure
Mass Transfer
Materials Science and Engineering
Molecular Thermodynamics
Phase Transformations
Process Control
Reaction Engineering
Statistical Mechanics
Two-Phase Flow


0 FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS:


Professor J. W. Westwater
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Adams Laboratory
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801


FALL 1975


* AREAS OF RESEARCH:


215







IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY

OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production,
Atomic Energy)
Dr. R. G. Bautista
Dr. L. E. Burkhart
Dr. G. Burnet
Dr. A. H. Pulsifer
Dr. D. L. Ulrichson
Dr. T. D. Wheelock


GRADUATE STUDY and

GRADUATE RESEARCH

in

Chemical Engineering



Transport Processes
(Heat, mass & momentum transfer)
Dr. W. H. Abraham
Dr. R. G. Bautista
Dr. C. E. Glatz
Dr. J. C. Hill
Dr. F. O. Shuck

Process Chemistry and
Fertilizer Technology
Dr. D. R. Boylan
Dr. G. Burnet
Dr. M. A. Larson


Biomedical Engineering
(System Modeling,
Transport. process)
Dr. R. C. Seagrave

Biochemical Engineering
(Enzyme Technology)
Dr. C. E. Glatz
Dr. P. J. Reilly

Polymerization Processes
Dr. W. H. Abraham
Dr. J. D. Stevens

as well as
Air Pollution Control
Solvent Extraction
High Pressure Technology
Mineral Processing


'N..


Crystallization Kinetics
Dr. M. A. Larson
Dr. J. D. Stevens

Process Instrumentation
and System Optimization
and Control
Dr. L. E. Burkhart
Dr. K. R. Jolls


write to:
Prof. M. A. Larson
Dept. of Chem. Engr. & Nuc. Engr.
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010







UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program
in
Petroleum Engineering
also
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
and
M.S. in Petroleum Management


The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.



Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants


Research Areas

Transport Phenomena
Fluid Flow in Porous Media
Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies
Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems

Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior


For Information and Applications write:

Floyd W. Preston, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922







A


UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

DEPARTIENF OF

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING
M.S. & Ph.D. Programs
Including Intensive Study in
ENERGY ENGINEERING
Energy supply and demand
Fuel combustion processes
Coal liquefaction and gasification processes
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Process and system control, and gas cleaning
Diffusion, and modelling of urban atmospheres
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
Advanced waste treatment and water reclamation
Design of physical and chemical processes
Biochemical reactor design
STIPENDS:


- it.


01


4I


WI


Excellent financial support is available
in the form of National Science Foundation
Traineeships, fellowships & assislanishrps.
HER PROGRAM AREAS:
Thermodynamics Reaclor design
Process control Transport
RITE TO: R.B. Grieves, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY 40506


7-t




























* ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY


* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


* BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING


* TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

* CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

* SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY


* POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES

* ENERGY


Massachusetts

Institute
of Technology




DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING










For decades to come, the chemical engineer
will play a central role in fields of national
concern. In two areas alone, energy and the
environment, society and industry will turn
to the chemical engineer for technology and
management in finding process related so -
lutions to critical problems. M.I.T. has con-
sistently been a leader in chemical engineer-
ing education with a strong working relation-
ship with industry for over a half century.
For detailed information, contact Professor
Raymond F. Baddour, Head of the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.


Raymond F. Baddour
Lawrence B. Evans
Paul J. Flory
Hoyt C. Hottel
John P. Longwell
James E. Mark
Herman P. Meissner
Edward W. Merrill
J. Th. G. Overbeek
J. R. A. Pearson


FACULTY
Robert C. Reid
Adel F. Sarofim
Charles N. Satterfield
Kenneth A. Smith
J. Edward Vivian
Glenn C. Williams
Clark K. Colton
Jack B. Howard
Michael Modell


C. Michael Mohr
James H. Porter
Robert C. Armstrong
Donald B. Anthony
Lloyd A. Clomburg
Robert E. Cohen
Richard G. Donnelly
Christos Georgakis
Ronald A. Hites
Jefferson W. Tester










Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA

ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman


Day Programs



Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies
-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson

(2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W.
Johnson

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.

(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek

(5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K.
G. Mayhan


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees



In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:
(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems; Energy
Conversion from Agricultural Products-
Prof. J. L. Gaddy
(b) Design Techniques and Fermentation Studies
-Dr. M. E. Findley
(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr.
R. C. Waggoner
(d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim-
rose
(e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice


(f) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer
Applications to Process Control-Ds. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-
kamp
(g) Transport Properties, Kinetics and enzymes
and catalysis-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E.
Poling
(h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley





Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and

Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid

is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


220







HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO

YOUR GRADUATE WORK

IN THE CULTURAL CENTER

OF THE WORLD?


I' I


(Itr


*1


BIOENGINEERING


POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING


FACULTY
R. C. Ackerberg
R. F. Benenati
J. J. Conti
C. D. Han
R. D. Patel
E. M. Pearce
E. N. Ziegler


RESEARCH AREAS
Air Pollution
Biomedical Systems
Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors
Fluidization
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical Modelling
Polymerization Reactions
Process Control
Rheology and Polymer Processing


Polytechnic
Institute


Formed by the merger of Polytechnic institute of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science.


Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and
Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research:
chemical engineering, polymer science and
engineering, bioengineering and environmental
studies.


Fellowships and Research Assistantships
are available.

For further information contact
Professor C. D. Han
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


:`J~- i"
Il


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n.
:.
,r I. Y-Y'


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~1
.;riJI.

























PHILADELPHIA


The cultural advantages and historical assets of
a great city, including the incomparable Phila-
delphia Orchestra are within walking distance
of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety


of college and professional sports at hand. A
complete range of recreational facilities exists
within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the
New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive.


UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA


The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League
School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex-
cellence in graduate education. A unique feature
of the University is the breadth of medically
related activities including those in engineering.
In recent years the University has undergone


a great expansion of its facilities, including
specialized graduate student housing. The De-
partment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineer-
ing has attracted national and international atten-
tion because of its rapid rise to excellence.


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


The faculty includes two members of the Na-
tional Academy of Engineering and three recip-
ients of the highest honors awarded by the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Every
staff member is active in graduate and under-
FACULTY
Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan)
Elizabeth Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins)
William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia)
Ronald L. Klaus (R.P.I.)
RESEARCH SPECIALTIES
Energy Utilization and Conservation
Enzyme Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Electrochemical Engineering


graduate teaching, in research, and in profes-
sional work. Close faculty association with in-
dustry provides expert guidance for the student
in research and career planning.


Mitchell Litt (Columbia)
Alan L. Myers (California)
Melvin C. Molstad (Yale)
Leonard Nanis (Columbia)
Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale)
John A. Quinn (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider (Michigan)

Environmental and Pollution Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques
Biochemical Engineering


For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to:
Dr. J. A. Quinn, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 19174.












LOOKING


for a

graduate education

in

Chemical Engineering ?

Consider


PENN STATE

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Research
Reactor Design and Catalysis

Transport Phenomena
Thermodynamic Properties
Separational Processes
Applied Chemistry and Kinetics

Petroleum Refining
Tribology
Interfacial Phenomena
Energy Research
And Other Areas

WRITE TO
Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Fenske Laboratory
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802


FALL 1975













Ic-'-
*--
rhK


JE


Koppel
Lim
Reklaitis
Sesonske
Squires
Theofanous
Tsao
Wankat
Weigand
Woods


Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907


Albright
Barile
Chao
Delgass
Eckert
Emery
Greenkorn
Hanneman
Houze
Kessler


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/.Iicd3











Graduate Study


in Chemical Engineering


at Rice University


Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in
the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the
student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary
proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various
areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint
program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available.

The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several
post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers
12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio,
outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in
keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer-
ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent
evaluation by the American Council of Education.


MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Chromatography
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
Blood Flow and Blood Trauma
Blood Pumping Systems
Biomaterials

Rice University
Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca-
tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac-
tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine
residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston.
There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800
graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a
complete university with programs in the various fields
of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer-
ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings.
The academic year is from September to May. As there
are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly
four months for research. The school offers excellent
recreational and athletic facilities with a completely
equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes
outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year-
round activities.
FALL 1975


FINANCIAL SUPPORT
Full-time graduate students receive financial support
with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of
$333-400 per month.

APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION
Address letters of inquiry to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

Houston
With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.



















THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

AT COLUMBIA

between the mountains and the sea
where the quality of life is good and opportunities for ambitious
students abound in this fastest growing area of the country.
Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineer-
ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemistry, physics, math-
ematics, materials and computer science.
Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are
available.

For particulars and application forms write to:
Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman
Chemical Engineering Program
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, S.C. 29208


THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY
B. L. Baker, Professor, Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process
design, environmental problems, ion transport)
M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951
(Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treat-
ment)
J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer,
fluid mechanics)
P. E. Kleinsmith, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1972
(Transport phenomena, statistical mechanics)
F. P. Pike, Professor, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in
liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria)
J. M. Tarbell, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1974 (Thermo-
dynamics, process dynamics)
V. Van Brunt, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass
Transfer, Computer Modeling)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







GRADUATE STUDY
IN


FACULTY:
ANDREAS ACRIVOS, Ph.D., University of
Minnesota, 1954. Field: Fluid Mechanics.
MICHEL BOUDART, Ph.D., Princeton
University, 1950. Field: Kinetics
and Catalysis.
GEORGE M. HOMSY, Ph.D., University
of Illinois, 1969. Field: Fluid
Mechanics and Stability.
ROBERT J. MADIX, Ph.D., University
of California at Berkeley, 1964.
Field: Surface Reactivity.
DAVID M. MASON, Ph.D., California
Institute of Technology, 1949.
Field: Applied Chemical Kinetics.
CHANNING R. ROBERTSON, Ph.D.,
Stanford University, 1969. Field: Bioengineering.

CONSULTING FACULTY:
RICHARD E. BALZHISER, Director of
Fossil Fuel and Advanced System
Programs, Electric Power Research
Institute. Ph.D., University of
Michigan, 1961. Field: Heat Transfer
and Thermodynamics.
ALAN S. MICHAELS, Senior Vice President
for Technological Resource Development,
Alza Corporation. Sc.D., Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1948. Field:
Surface, Colloid and Polymer Chemistry.
ROBERT H. SCHWAAR, Senior Chemical
Engineer, Stanford Research Institute,
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1956.
Field: Technological Development and
Process Design.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
AT


STANFORD UNIVERSITY

Stanford University offers programs of study and
research leading to master of science and doctor of
philosophy degrees in chemical engineering with a
number of financially attractive fellowships and as-
sistantships available to outstanding students pursuing
either program.
For further information and application blanks, write
to:
Admissions Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305.
Closing date for applications is Feb. 15, 1976.






CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
at
STEVENS INSTITUTE of TECHNOLOGY


MASTER'S and DOCTOR TE PROGRAMS
in
Chemical Engineering Science
Design Polymers


RESEARCH
in
Polymer Processing *Rheology
Polymer Property-Structure Relationships
Polymerization Kinetics Reaction Engineering
Mass Transfer Fluid Dynamics Turbulence
Air Pollution Waste Treatment Combustion
Energy Storage in Chemical Systems


For further information contact:
Dean L. Z. Pollara
Graduate Studies
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, New Jersey
(201) 792-2700 Ext. 330



























Programs

Programs for the degrees of Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy are
offered in both Chemical and Metal-
lurgical Engineering. The Master's pro-
gram may be tailored as a terminal one
with emphasis on professional develop-
ment, or it may serve as preparation for
more advanced work leading to the
Doctorate. Specialization in Polymer
Science and Engineering is available at
both levels.


Faculty

William T. Becker
Donald C. Bogue
Charlie R. Brooks
Edward S. Clark
Oran L. Culberson
John F. Fellers
George C. Frazier
Hsien-Wen Hsu
Homer F. Johnson, Department Head
Stanley H. Jury
Carl D. Lundin
Charles F. Moore
Ben F. Oliver, Professor-in-Charge
of Metallurgical Engineering
Joseph J. Perona
Joseph E. Spruiell
E. Eugene Stansbury
James L. White
FALL 1975


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF TENNESSEE


Graduate

Studies in

Chemical &

Metallurgical

Engineering


Research

Process Dynamics and Control
Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of
Packed Beds
Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge
Studies of Macromolecules
Development and Synthesis of New
Engineering Polymers
Fiber and Plastics Processing
Bioengineering
X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission and
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Solidification, Zone Refining
and Welding
Cryogenic and High Temperature
Calorimetry
Flow and Fracture in Metallic and
Polymeric Systems
Corrosion
Solid State Kinetics


Financial Assistance

Sources available include graduate
teaching assistantships, research assis-
tantships, and industrial fellowships.



Knoxville and
Surroundings

With a population near 200,000, Knox-
ville is the trade and industrial center of
East Tennessee. In the Knoxville Audi-
torium-Coliseum and the University
theaters, Broadway plays, musical and
dramatic artists, and other entertain-
ment events are regularly scheduled.
Knoxville has a number of points of his-
torical interest, a symphony orchestra,
two art galleries, and a number of
museums. Within an hour's drive are
many TVA lakes and mountain streams
for water sports, the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park with the Gatlin-
burg tourist area, two state parks, and
the atomic energy installations at Oak
Ridge, including the Museum of Atomic
Energy.

Write

Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916







rrT


11 N

-c


West Virginia

University Chemical Engineering


Environmental Engineering
Purification of Acid Mine Drainage
Water by Reverse Osmosis
Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering
SO2 Scrubbing
Economic Impact of Environmental
Regulations

Other Topics
Chemical Kinetics
Separation Processes
Optimization
Transport Phenomena
Utilization of Ultrasonic Energy
Bioengineering
Fluidization


Energy Engineering
Coal Conversion
Potential of Coal Based Energy Complexes
Conversion of Solid Wastes to
Low BTU Gas
Energy Farming


MS & PhD Programs
Financial Aid: up to $5400/year
For further information and applications
write:
Dr. J. D. Henry
Department of Chemical Engineering
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506











CHEMICAL


ENGINEERING




DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D.
RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE:
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
PROCESS MODELING
IN: COAL GASIFICATION, WOOD PYROLYSIS, METHANATION, ECOSYSTEM
ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES
CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD
P. O. Box 6312
University, Alabama 35486


AUBURN UNIVERSITY
A Land Grant University of Alabama


GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and PH.D. DEGREES


CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS:


*LIQUID FUELS FROM COAL
POROUS MEDIA
CRYSTAL GROWTH KINETICS
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Financial Assistance:
Research and Teaching Assistantships,
Industrial Fellowships Are Available


*PROCESS CONTROL
P-V-T RELATIONS
SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

For Further Information, Write:
Head, Chemical Engineering Department
Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830


FALL 1975








DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY
LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837

For admission, address
Dr. Paul H. DeHoff
Coordinator of Graduate Studies




* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Some courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
e Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis-
tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; reaction kinetics; catalyst deac-
tivation; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of materials; mathematical model-
ing; numerical analysis; statistical analysis.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS


Faculty


R. L. Bell:
R. G. Carbonell
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:


Mass Transfer, Bio Medical Engineering
Enzyme Kinetics, Quantum Mechanics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reactor Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena


To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA


CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING


Henri J. Fenech
Husam Gurol
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp


John E. Myers
G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker


Orville C. Sandall


For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106


FALL 1975


CINCINNATI
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING

M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES

-Major urban educational center
-New, prize-winning laboratory building and
facilities-Rhodes Hall
-National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent
to campus
-Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid
-Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control,
polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction-
ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen-
eration, heat transfer.
Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head
Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221








































faculty
J. P. BELL
C. O. BENNETT
M. B. CUTLIP
A. T. DiBENEDETTO
G.M. HOWARD
H. E. KLEI
R.M.STEPHENSON
L. F. STUTZMAN
D. W. SUNDSTROM


programs
M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL


financial id Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England


We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268


... CLEMSON UNIVERSITY

A .; Chemical Engineering Department

M.S. and Doctoral Programs


THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS

Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Industrial Pollution Control
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids, Interfacial Phenomena
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U.-Digital Computer Process Control, Textile Dyeing and Finishing
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena, Pulp and Paper Processing
Edie, D. D., Ph.D., U. Virginia-Crystallization, Polymer Processing
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Kinetics and Reactor Design, Membrane Processes
Melsheimer, SS., Ph.D., Tulane-Membrane Transport, Numerical Methods, Process Control
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
Contact:
D. D. Edie, Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631


th e


university y
.of










THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY

SST74 MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

1964.
AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Kinetics Pollution Control Simulation Processes
The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the
doctorate. Financial assistance is available.


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT:
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44115




Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Uo to $5,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER
HEAT TRANSFER
FLUID MECHANICS
THERMODYNAMICS
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS
SOLID MIXING
DESALINATION
OPTIMIZATION
FLUIDIZATION
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM


FALL 1975












LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

Department of Chemical Engineering
Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015


Can you match the professor with his technical specialty(ies)?


PROFESSOR
Marvin Charles

Curtis W. Clump

Robert W. Coughlin

Mohamed EI-Aasser

Alan S. Foust

William L. Luyben

Anthony J. McHugh

Gary W. Poehlein

William E. Schiesser
Leslie H. Sperling
Fred P. Stein
Leonard A. Wenzel


RESEARCH/TECHNOLOGY
Mass and Heat Transfer
Thermodynamics
Energy/Fossil Fuels
Nuclear Technology
Polymer Materials Science
Numerical Integration
Catalysis
Chemical Reactor Engineering
Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering
Enzyme Technology
Cryogenics
Process Design
Technology Transfer
Process Dynamics
Waste Water Treatment
Air Pollution Control
Rheology
Emulsion Polymerization
Computer Simulation
Surface Science
Process Control
Transport Phenomena
Kinetics


Faculty 19









Bioengineering
Pollution Control
Process Dynamics
Computer Control
Kinetics and Catalysis
Thermodynamics
Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department e Sugar Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803





236 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












McMASTER UNIVERSITY

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS

THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS


R. B. Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) Ca
M. H. I. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) Os
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) W
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) Po
C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) Op
Y. Doganoglu (Ph.D., McGill) Flu
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) Bic
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) .. Po
T. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) .. He
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Sta
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) W
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) Ma
W. J. Snodgrass (Ph.D., U. of N. Carolina, Chapel Hill) Mc
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) ..... Po
D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) .... .Int
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) Pro

DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL
RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST


talysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
cillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
wastewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
lymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
timization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simulation
lid Mechanics, Transport Processes
logical Fluid and Mass Transfer
lymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
at Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
itistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control
wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
iss Transfer, Corrosion
delling of Aquatic Systems
lymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Processes
erfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
ocess Simulation and Control, Computer Control

CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman,
Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7


THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS


on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS


The University of Michigan awarded its first
Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D.
in 1914. It has moved with the times since and
today offers a flexible program of graduate
study that allows emphases ranging from fun-
damentals to design.
The Chemical Engineering Department, with
21 faculty members and some 65 graduate stu-
dents, has opportunities for study and research
in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor
design, transport processes, mathematical and
numerical methods, optimization, mixing, rheol-
ogy, materials, bioengineering, electrochemical
engineering, production-pipelining-storage of oil
and gas, coal processing, and pollution control.


The M.S. program may be completed in 10
months and does not require a thesis. The Pro-
fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond
the Master's and a professional problem. The
Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to
expedite entry into a research area as early in
the program as possible.

For further Information and applications,
write:
Prof. Brice Carnahan
Chairman of the Graduate Committee
The University of Michigan
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104


FALL 1975













MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
H HOUGHTON, MICHIGAN 49931


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY
H. El Khadem, D. Sc. Tech.,
Department Head
DEGREES GRANTED: M.S.


M. W. BREDEKAMP, Ph.D. Instrumentation, Process Dynamics and Control
L. B. HEIN, Ph.D. Unit Operations, Mineral Extraction
D. W. HUBBARD, Ph.D. Lake Studies, Mixing Phenomena, Turbulent Flow
J. T. PATTON, Ph.D. Biosynthesis, Waste Treatment, Petroleum Recovery
A. J. PINTAR, Ph.D. Energy Conversion, Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics
J. M. SKAATES, Ph.D. Fluid-Solid Reactions, Catalysis, Reactor Design
E. T. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. Improvement of Pulpwood Yield


Financial assistance available in the form of Fellowships and Assistantships.


For more information, write to:


H. El Khadem, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
HOUGHTON, MICHIGAN 49931


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


DO YOU THINK

OF

MINNESOTA

. .as an hyperborean haunt of horrendous weather far to the north of the
Cote d'Azur and other balmy latitudes?
.as a domain dominated by dismal theoreticians and other weird species?

IF SO

you're wrong on both counts. Our weather is brisk, to be sure, but far
from glacial. Our theoreticians are doughty not dismal; and anyway the
experimentalists outnumber the theoreticians-nor do they themselves fear
theory.

For the unexpirgated truth on graduate work at Minnesota, write:
DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES
Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455










































UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA


OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH
LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. IN THE AREAS OF:


Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Crystallization
Food Processing
Kinetics


Mixing
Polymerization
Thermodynamics
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas


FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO:


Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D.
Degrees

Research Areas
Air Pollution Monitoring and Control
Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams
Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Energy Sources and Systems
Environmental Control Engineering
Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
Process Control and Modelling of Processes
Single-Cell Protein Research
Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids
Transport in Biological Systems
WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg.,
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201
















Vy '
*- l.1 r.i


THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering


Offering Research Opportunities in
Coal Gassification
Desalinization
Polymer Science
Hydrogen Economy
Mini Computer Applications to
Process Control
Process Simulation
Hydro-Metallurgy
Radioactive Waste Management
S. and more


Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque!

For further information, write:
Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131


STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Faculty and research interests:


J. A. Bergantz
D. R. Brutvan
H. T. Cullinan, Jr.
P. Ehrlich
W. N. Gill
R. J. Good
K. M. Kiser
P. J. Phillips
W. H. Ray
E. Ruckenstein
J. Szekely
T. W. Weber
S. W. Weller


energy sources, gas-solid reactions
staged operations
multicomponent mass transfer, transport properties
polymeric materials, thermodynamics
dispersion, reverse osmosis
surface phenomena, adhesion of living cells
blood flow, turbulence, pollution in lakes
polymer morphology, structure and properties
optimization, polymerization reactors
catalysis, interfacial phenomena, bioengineering
process metallurgy, gas-solid and solid-solid reactions
process control, dynamics of adsorption
catalysis, catalytic reactors


Financial aid is available

For full information and application materials, please contact:
Dr. Harry T. Cullinan, Jr.
Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, New York 14214


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





























1HE


university UNIVERSITY

OF

OKIAHOA4A


WRITE TO:
THE SCHOOL


OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069


* CATALYSIS
* CORROSION
* DIGITAL SYSTEMS
* DESIGN
* POLYMERS
* METALLURGY
* THERMODYNAMICS
* RATE PROCESSES
* ENZYME TECHNOLOGY


FALL 1975 24:


THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY AT RALEIGH
offers programs leading to the M.S., M.Ch.E. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engi-
neering. Active research programs leading to approximately 50 journal publica-
tions per year are offered in all classical and contemporary research areas of
chemical engineering. The proximity of a large number of polymer-related re-
search facilities at the nearby Research Triangle Park and the various offices and
laboratories of the Environmental Protection Agency in and near the Park stimu-
lates strong research programs in polymers and air pollution technology at North
Carolina State University. Graduate students are further stimulated by beaches
and mountains, an early spring and a late fall, and the sister universities of Duke
and UNC Chapel Hill. Our distinguished senior faculty of K. O. Beatty Jr., J. K.
Ferrell, H. B. Hopfenberg, Warren L. McCabe, E. M. Schoenborn, E. P. Stahel and
V. T. Stannett join their colleagues in inviting your application to study chemical
engineering in North Carolina.
















































Princeton

University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY
Ronald P. Andres
Robert C. Axtmann
Robert L. Bratzler
Joseph M. Calo
John K. Gillham
Ernest F. Johnson
Morton D. Kostin
Leon Lapidus
Bryce Maxwell
David F. Ollis
William B. Russel
Dudley A. Saville
William R. Schowalter
Garth L. Wilkes


RESEARCH AREAS
Atmospheric Aerosols
Bioengineering
Catalysis
Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Energy Conversion & Fusion Reactor Technology
Environmental Studies
Fluid Mechanics & Rheology
Mass & Momentum Transport
Molecular Beams
Polymer Materials Science & Rheology
Process Control & Optimization


WRITE TO
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS


* Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control
Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Rheology Unit Operations
Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Simulation
Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request


WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210











ENERGY RESOURCE RESEARCH
POLLUTION CONTROL
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
PROCESS DYNAMICS
SThese are some of the challenging specialties
Syou can follow in graduate programs
S/ 7 leading to degrees of M.S. in chemical/petroleum engineering
b or Ph.D. in chemical engineering.
Graduate. Coordinator
Chemical/Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261







PittsbiU









Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering
MSc and PhD Degree Programs
D.W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) Waste Processing Write:
H.A. Becker SCD MIT) water and waste treatment Dr. John Downie
D.H. Bone PhD (London) applied microbiology Department of Chemical
S.C. Cho PhD(Princeton) biochemical engineering Engineering
R.H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) Queen's University
Chemical Reaction
R.K. Code PhD (Cornell) Kingston, Ontario
Engineering
J. Downie PhD (Toronto) gin ig Canada
catalysis
J.E. Ellsworth PhD (Princeton)
statistical design
C.C. Hsu PhDITexas) p
polymer studies
J.D. Raal PhD (Toronto)
T.R. Warriner ScD (Johns Hopkins) Transport Processes
B.W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) combustion
fluid mechanics
thermodynamics


FALL 1975









SRENSSELAER

RPIJ POLYTECHNIC

INSTITUTE

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
offers graduate study programs leading to M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees with opportunities for specialization in:
THERMODYNAMICS
HEAT TRANSFER
FLUIDIZATION
WATER RESOURCES
AIR POLLUTION
POLYMER MATERIALS
POLYMER PROCESSING
PROCESS DYNAMICS
SOLID WASTES

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, established in 1824
"for the application of science to the common purposes
of life," has grown from a school of engineering and
applied science into a technological university, serving
some 3500 undergraduates and over 1000 graduate
students.
It is located in Troy, New York, about 150 miles
north of New York City and 180 miles west of Boston.
Troy, Albany, and Schenectady together comprise the
heart of New York's Capital District, an upstate metro-
politan area of about 600,000 population. These his-
toric cities and the surrounding countryside provide the
attractions of both urban and and rural life.
Scenic streams, lakes and mountains, including the
Hudson River, Lake George, the Green Mountains of
Vermont, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions
of the Adirondack Forest Preserve, are within easy
driving distance, and offer many attractions for those
interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hunting, fishing,
etc.


For full details write
Mr. R. A. Du Mez, Director of Graduate Admissions,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
12181.


Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De-
partment offers M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-
doctoral programs in:

*Biochemical and Food Engineering
*Environmental and Pollution Control
*Extractive and Process Metallurgy
*Polymer Science and Engineering
*Mathematical Analysis and Control
*Transport Phenomena and Kinetics

Financial Aid: Competitive with any other Canadian
University

Academic Staff: K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton);
E. Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester); R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D.
(Princeton); T. L. Batke, Ph.D. (Toronto); K S. Chang,
Ph.D. (Northwestern); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (U.B.C.);
T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (Illinois); R. Y-M. Huang, Ph.D.
(Toronto); D. C. T. Pei, Ph.D. (McGill); P. M. Reilly, Ph.D.
(London); A. Rudin, Ph.D. (Northwestern); D. S. Scott,
Ph.D. (Illinois); P. L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich); D. R.
Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State); G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Man-
chester); B. M. E. van der Hoff, Ir (Delf); M. Moo-Young,
Ph.D. (London); L. E. Bodnar, Ph.D. (McMaster); C. M.
Burns, Ph.D. (Polytechnic Inst., Brooklyn); J. J. Byerley,
Ph.D. (U.B.C.); K. Enns, Ph.D. (Toronto); J. D. Ford,
Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E. Gall, Ph.D. (Minn.); G. L. Rempel,
Ph.D. (U.B.C.); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (U.C., Berkeley);
J. R. Wynnyckyj, Ph.D. (Toronto); I. F. Macdonald, Ph.D.
(Wisconsin); G. S. Mueller, Ph.D. (Manchester); J. M.
Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania);

To apply, contact:
The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies)
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario
Canada N2L 3G1
Further information: See CEE, p. 4, Winter 1975


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
GRADUATE STUDY IN

SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY


RESEARCH AREAS
Water Renovation Transport Phenomena
Biomedical Engineering Separation Processes
Membrane Processes Mathematical Modeling
Desalination Rheology


FACULTY
Allen J. Barduhn
R. Rajagopalan
Philip A. Rice
S. Alexander Stern


Gopal Subramanian
Chi Tien
Raffi M. Turian


Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among
the hills of Central New York State. A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering,
science, the social sciences, and the humanities exists at the university. The many diversified activities
conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both specific and general
educational goals.
As a part of this medium sized research oriented university, the Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of the
faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research, independent study and the general
atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation.
FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE
FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1974-75


For Information:
Contact: Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science
Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York 13210


Stipends:
Stipends range from $2,000 to $4,500
with most students receiving $3,400-
$4,000 per annum in addition to remit-
ted tuition privileges.


UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 14627
MS & PhD Programs


T. L. Donaldson
R. F. Eisenberg
M. R. Feinberg
J. R. Ferron
J. C. Friedly
R. H. Heist
F. J. M. Horn
H. R. Osmers
H. J. Palmer
H. Saltsburg
W. D. Smith, Jr.
G. J. Su


Mass Transfer, Membranes, Enzyme Catalysis
Inorganic Composites, Physical Metallurgy
Formal Chemical Kinetics, Continuum Mechanics
Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics
Process Dynamics, Optimal Control & Design
Nucleation, Atmospheric Chemistry, Solids
Chemical Processing Theory, Applied Mathematics
Rheology, Polymers, Biological & Ecological Processes
Interfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes
Surface & Solid-State Chemistry, Molecular Beams
Kinetics & Reactor Design, Computer Applications
Glass Science & Technology, Thermodynamics


For information write: J. R. Ferron, Chairman


FALL 1975 245


FALL 1975


245









































































CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


THINKING ABOUT GRADUATE STUDIES IN
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING?

Think about a meaningful study program in chemical engi-
neering at Texas A&M University.
TAMU's graduate program is designed to produce engineers
who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac-
tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry
and society.
Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl, there is
an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally
warm Texas friendliness, enabling you to get the very best
guidance and instruction possible.

For an information packet and application materials, write to:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Texas A&M University
College Station,
Texas 77843


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS I


TUFTS UNIVERSITY
Metropolitan Boston

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS
RHEOLOGY
OPTIMIZATION
CRYSTALLIZATION
POLYMER STUDIES
MEMBRANE PHENOMENA
CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY
BIO-ENGINEERING
MECHANO-CHEMISTRY
PROCESS CONTROL

FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE:
PROF. K. A. VAN WORMER, CHAIRMAN
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
TUFTS UNIVERSITY
MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155




Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 3 ::, 0 w ('.) z a:: w w z ('.) z w a:: 0 u. w u 0 V) z 4: u w 4: t.L 0 z 0 V) > 0 ('.) z a:: w w z ('.) z w ....J 4: u w :r: u VOLU M E IX NUMBER 4 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE MODERN THERMO HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS DIGIT AL COMPUTATIONS INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL SEPARATION PROCESSES ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION FA L L 197 5 Astarita Delgass Gruver Liu Manning McCoy Pollack ENZYME CATALYSIS Walter C RITICAL PATH PLANNING Donaghey TE CHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING Schreiber & Rigaud ALSO: Measures of Excellence of Science and Engineering Departments: A ChE Example Should Engineering Students Be Taught to Blow the Whistle on Industry?

PAGE 2

ENGINEERS: WE'VE GOT LOTS OF REASONS There are probably a lot of reasons for Engineers to settle in New England The stimulation of a diversified intellectual community for one Or the proximity to a cultural and social hub as individually accessible as it is cosmopolitan. And there's always your standard panoramic view of Mother Nature at work But we think Engineers might come because they're looking for a chance to share their imagination and ability with us, one of the world's foremost contr actors serving the petrochemical and refin ery industries. At Badger, we offer opportunities for flexibility and creativity unavailable elsewhere And because our sales have increased so dramatically, w e' ve expanded into a world-wide, internationally recognized organization. So if you're an Engineer ( chemical or mechanical) contact us We offer excellent salaries comprehensive benefits and almost unlimited opportunities to develop your professional future. And we'll throw New England into the bargain. Please send a letter or resume to Lance Forrester, Badger America, Inc ., One Broadway, Cambridge, MA 02142 I l l Badger : International Designers / Engineers / Constructors ( A Raythe on Com pan y ) An E4 u al ()ppt,rt unit y E mpl 1yt'T

PAGE 3

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Acting Business Manager: B onnie N eela n ds (904) 392-0861 Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie N e elands (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: W i ll iam H. Co r c o r an Califorruia Institute of Technology SOUTH: Hom e r F. Johnson University of Tennessee V in c e nt W. Uhl University of Virginia CENTRAL: Leslie E. Laht i University of Toledo Camden A. Cob e rly University of Wisconsin WEST: G e o r g e F. M ee nagh an Texas Tech University SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump University of Houston James R. Couper University of Arkansas EAST:G. Micha e l Howa r d University of Connecticut Leon Lapidus Princeton Uruiversity Thomas W. Weber State University of New York NORTH: J. J. Martin University of Michigan Edward B. Stua r t University of Pittsburgh NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton University of Washington Charles E. Wicks Oregon State University PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers University of California, Santa Barbara FALL 1975 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME IX NUMBER 4 FALL 1975 GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES 152 Modern Thermodynamics Gianni Asta ri ta 158 Heterogeneous Catalysis W. N. D e lgass 162 Dynamical Sy s tems and Multivariable Control, W. A. G r u ver 166 Digital Computations for Chemical Engineers, Y. A. Liu 170 Industrial Pollution Control F r ancis S. Manning 174 Separation Processes, B. J. McCo y ISO Administration of Engineering and Technical Personnel, Jo sep h Pol ac k 184 Technological Forecasting H.P. S c hreiber and M. Rigaud 188 Enzyme Catalysis, Ch ar l e s Walte r 192 Critical Path Planning of Graduate Research, L. F. Donagh e y DEPARTMENTS 151 Editorial 183, 201 Book Reviews 150 In Memorium C E. Littlejohn FEATURES 194 Measures of Excellence of Engineering and Science Departments : A Chemical Engineering Example, C. L. Be rni e r, W. N. Gill a n d R. G H un t 198 Should Engineering Students Be Taught To Blow the Whistle on Industry? John Bier y and Ra y Fah i en CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication i s edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class po s tage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs Florida Correspondence re g arding editorial matter, circulation and chan g es of address should he addressed to t h e Edit or at G a in esv ill e Fl o rid a 326 11. A d ver ti s in g r a t es a n d info r m a ti o n ar e av ailable from the advertis i ng representatives Plate s and other advertising material ma y be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeL e on Springs Florida 32028. Subscription rate U S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per ye a r, $ 7 p e r yea r m a il e d to m em b e r s o f A ICh E a nd of the C hE Divisi o n of ASEE, a nd $ 5 per y ea r to C hE f a culty in bulk m a ilin g. W r i t e for pric es o n individual back copie s C op y r i g ht 1 9 75 Ch e mi ca l En g in ee ri ng Divi s i o n o f American S o ciety for Engineerin g Education, Ray Fabien, Editor. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsiMlity for them. Defectivi, copies replaced if notified within 120 days. The International Organi za tion for St a nd a ri z ation has a s sign e d the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical 149

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In Memorium e.c .e~ A. J. PERNA New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 During the last week of May, 1975 many of us associated with Chemical Engineering were stunned and saddened with the announcement of the death of C. E. Littlejohn. To those of us who were aware of Charlie's condition, the news came as no great surprise but still left us numb with grief and disappointment. He is survived by his wife Doris and two daughters. C. E. Littlejohn, Charlie or Doc Charlie as he was known to his colleagues and students, was born on September 28, 1918 in Spartanburg, S. C. His primary education was in the main under taken at various schools in the South. He received his B. S. in Chemical Engineering from Clemson College in 1940; his M. S. from North Carolina State in 1941 and his Ph.D. from Virginia Poly technic Institute in 1952. His professional activi ties include Chairman of the Western South Caro lina Section of AIChE, Faculty Advisor to the Student AIChE Chapter, Member of AIChE ECPD Accreditation Committee, Chairman of the Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE, and Chairman of the Publication Board of CEE. He was co-author of a Chemical Engineering sopho more level text, listed in Who's Who in the U.S., and selected as Man of the Year of the Western South Carolina Section of AIChE in 1970. Charlie joined the staff of the Chemical Engineering De partment at Clemson as an Assistant Professor in 1947 and became Department Chairman in 1956. During this period the departmental staff consisted of Charlie and one other member with very little facilities of its own. However, from the students' point of view this was a positive f ea ture since in meant Charlie taught many of the courses. He was an excellent teacher genuinely concerned with student problems and educational development. He set high standards in his courses but had the rare ability to transmit a keen sense of pride and professionalism to his students. (In fact, who can forget his lab grading system of 150 blue pencil for technical errors and red pencil for grammar mistakes) In 1960 the department initiated its M.S. program followed by a Ph.D. program in 1962. In terms of educational philosophy Charlie's belief was that both the undergraduate and graduate train ing process should reflect an awareness of the industrial sector's needs. One of his quotes as sociated with the graduate program, during its initial growth stage, was the principle that, "A Differential Equation Never Built a Distillation Column." A belief that research should be used to enhance the expertise of an individual faculty member and ultimately this expertise be useful to the students in their educational development was impressed on his staff. Insofar as his students were concerned, Charlie took an active interest in their careers and accomplishments. He was always available to both students and industrial representatives for advice, counseling and recommenda tions concerning career choices. The mark of esteem and affection he was held in is exemplified by the initia tion this year of the C. E. Littlejohn Scholarship Fund initiated by industrial representatives who knew him. Wherever any of "Charlie's Boys" (as his former students liked to refer to themselves) are, each one carries a favorite story or image of Doc Charlie from their own experiences. For myself, the picture I'll always associate with Charlie in volves when our paths would cross at the AIChE Annual Meetings and we would get into long dis cussions on many topics and in my long winded way I would start a discourse on some chemical engineering educational related topic whereupon he would wait until I had finished and with a smile on his face he would properly admonish me with the introductory phrase, "Now, Angie ... ". Charlie, we are going to miss you! Editor's Note: CEE also mourns the loss of our Publica tion Board Chairman. He has been succeeded by Prof. William Corcoran of California Institute of Technology. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CJdcvuat A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school. In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them. Sho u ld you go to graduate school? Through the papers in this special graduate education issue, Chemi c al E n gineering Educa tio n invites you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional de velopment. We believe that you will find that graduate work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying experience. We al s o feel that graduate study can provide you with insurance against the increasing danger of technical obsolescence. Furthermore, we believe that graduate research work under the guidance of an inspiring and in terested faculty member will be important in your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity. What is taught in g r ad u at e s c hool ? In order to familiarize you with the content of some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate courses as they are taught by scholar s at various universities. Previous issues included articles on applied mathematics, trans port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics, particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional operations, computer aided design, statistical anal ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly suggest that you supplement your reading of this issue by also reading the articles published in pre vious years. If your department chairman or pro fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before you read the articles in these issues we wish to point out that (1) there is some variation in course content and course organization at different schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en gineering that we have not been able to cover, and FALL 1975 (3) the professors who have written these articles are not the only authorities in these fields nor are their departments the only ones that emphasize that particular area of s tudy. Wh ere s hould y o u go to g ra d ua t e s c hool? It is common for a student to broaden himself by doing graduate work at an institution other than the one from which he receives his bachelor's degree. Fo r tunately there are many very fine chemical engineering departments and each of these has its own "personality" with special em phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in choo s ing a graduate school you might first con sider which school is most suitable for your own future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a specific research project in mind, you might want to attend a university which empha sizes that area and where a prominent specialist is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if you are unsure of your field of research, you might consider a department that has a large faculty with widely diversified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a small enrollment of graduate students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by writing the schools that have provided information on their graduate programs in the back of this issue You will probably also wish to seek advice from members of the faculty at you r own school. But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that you explore the possibility of continuing your education in graduate school. Sincerely, RAY FAHIEN, Edito r CEE University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 151

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MODERN THERMODYNAMICS GIANNI ASTARITA University of Dela w are, Newark, Del. and Istituto di Principi di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli, Naples, Italy. I N THE FALL Semester of both 1973 and 1974, a somewhat non-traditional course in Thermo dynamics was given within the graduate program at the Chemical Engineering Department of the University of Delaware. The philosophy, scope and possible future evolution of this course are discussed in this report. The teaching of Thermodynamics, at both the graduate and undergraduate level, in ChE de partments is traditionally rather separate? from the mainstream of the research and teachmg ac tivity of the department as a whole. Thermo dynamics is often viewed as a self-co_ntained s~b ject, knowledge of which allows solvmg such im portant but rather traditional problems as ene:gy balances, power cycles, and physical and chemical equilibria. This subject matter is what will be referred to in the following as classical thermody namics. An analysis of the scope of classical thermo dynamics immediately shows that, as far as energy balances are concerned, only the first law is involved ; for power cycles, the only materials considered are one-component ideal fluids suffer ing at the most complex a phase change; and for Gianni Astarita has received his M.Ch E at Delaware and his Ph D at the University of Na9les He is Professor of Chemical Engineering and Director of the Institute of Chemical Eng '. neering Fundamentals at the Univers i ty of Naples, and has a part-t,me ap pointment at the University of Delaware. He has research interests in Transoort Phenomena, Rheology and Thermodynamics. He is the Italian Editor for Chemical Engineering Science, and has been the President of the Italian Societ y of Rheology in 1973-75 He is the author of "Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction,'' Elsevier 1967 of "An Introduction to Non linear Continuum Thermodynamics,'' spa Ed Chimica 1975, and coauthor of "Princi9les of non New tonian Fluid Mechanics McGraw Hill 1974. 152 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Prof. Hellinckx and Dr. Mewis of the Catholic University of Leuven are to be thanked for offering me in 1972 the first opportunity of teaching RT to ChE students. Prof. Metzner has been always very encouraging and has given all his personal support to this course. C. J. S. Petrie and S. I. Sandler gave valuable suggestions. H. B. Hopfenberg has offered useful comments. Finally, my whole approach to thermodynamic thinking has been greatly influenced by my work with Prof. Marrucci and Dr. Sarti. physical and chemical equilibria, no transforma tion at all is involved, but only equilibrium states. With these limitations, the powerfulness of the second law as a starting point for a theory of ir reversibility of processes undergone by possibly very complex materials is left entirely unex plored; and consequently the core of ChE, say the theory of transport phenomena, chemical kinetics, process dynamics, and so on is developed almost without regard to its relationship with thermodynamics. The course given at Delaware has been based on the idea that there is no reason why thermo dynamics could not, and indeed should not, have a central role in ChE methodology. An effort has thus been made towards the application of thermodynamic thinking to non-traditional areas, and particularly to those where strong research in terests exist in the department. This seems a logical requirement for a graduate course in thermodynamics if it wants to have an educational value over and above its purely tutorial content. This also poses the question of the role of thermo dynamics in ChE, which will be discussed in some detail in the "future evolution" section below. PHILOSOPHY The syllabus of the course given at Delaware in 1973 and 1974 is summarized in Table I. Par ticular emphasis was placed on the logical analysis CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of the fundamental structure of thermodynamic methodology (see sections B, Cl, and D), and applications were restricted to a subject of pre vailing interest in the research program of the department namely, polymer deformation and flow (section C2), and to the traditional subject of equilibria (section E). The philosophy of the course i s non traditional in three aspects. First of all, since frictional heat ing and dissipation in flowing polymers wants to be analyzed, a thermodynamic theory of ir reversible phenomena, with no Onsager-type reT ABLE I Syllabus of the Course Section A Mathematical preliminaries. 5 hours Section B. Classical continuum thermodynamics 13 hours Bl. Isothermal systems. 4 hours B2. Non-isothermal systems. 5 hours B3. Classical theories (Ideal fluids, Viscous fluids, Elastic solids). 4 hours Section C. Materials with memory. 7 hour s CL Thermodynamics and memory. 4 hour s C2. Thermomechanics of polymers. 3 hours Section D. Axiomatic foundation for classical equil ibria 7 hours DI. Internal state variables, Affinity, Equilibrium. 3 hours D2. Axiomatic stoichiometry. 3 hours Section E. Classical equilibria. 8 hours El. Phase equilibria. 4 hours E2. Chemical equilibria. 4 hours striction to linearity, has to be considered ex plicitly. Second since the phenomena considered involve systems the state of which is in general different at different points in space (suffice it to consider that temperature may be non-uniform, see section B2), a field theory of thermodynamics is required. Finally, since the peculiar thermo dynamic behavior of polymers is related to their complex response to mechanical and thermal stimuli, and following a trend which has become progressively stronger in the theory of transport phenomena, particular emphasis has been placed on the role of constitutive assumptions in a thermodynamic theory. RATIONAL THERMODYNAMICS A FIELD THEORY of thermodynamics applicable to irreversible phenomena in ma terials with complex constitutive equations has been developed in the last ten years mainly by Coleman, Day, Gurtin, Mueller, Owen, Truesdell and Williams; it is usually referred to as Rational FALL 1975 Thermodynamics (RT). A critical review of the relevance of RT in chemical engineering is avail able [1 ]. The material summarized in Table I has been taught following the methodology of RT. Teaching RT in an engineering department poses a major challenge. The technical literature on the subject, as well as the two books available up to 1974 [2, 3] are written for an audience of mathematicians and mathematical physicists, and are therefore largely unsuitable for direct class room use. Some moderately sophisticated mathe matical concepts are indeed essential to an under standing of the subject, but certainly much less than presupposed for the reader of the specialized literature. Furthermore, one needs to put into sharp relief the relevance of the subject to the engineering analysis of concrete problems, as well as the physical counterpart of what may at first sight appear unnecessary mathematical wizardry. In view of these difficulties, a set of classroom notes was prepared for the course at Delaware, three fourths of which ( covering sections A-C of Table I) have now been published as a short book, "An Introdu c tion to Non-linear Continuum Thermodynamics" [4]. RT is a wide and diversified field, so that teach ing it implies deciding which grounds to cover, and even more crucially where to start. Every axiomatic science must start somewhere, and a few primitive undefined concepts are required, whose only specifications are the requirements laid down in the fundamental axioms. In RT, an The philosophy of the course is non-traditional in three aspects .. a thermodynamic theory of irreversible phenomena with no Onsager-type restriction to linearity is considered; a field theory of thermo is required; finally emphasis is placed on the role of constitutive assumptions in a thermo theory. abstract mathematical structure may be develop ed, based on such primitive concepts as state and process [5, 6], and entropy is then obtained as a derived concept (see also Day [3]). One may also start from the notion of entropy, regarded directly as a primitive concept, as has been done in this course. This allows one to proceed much more quickly to results of direct engineering in terest, though this choice invariably causes some 153

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concern among professional scientists, who are not willing to accept entropy, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions, as a primitive un defined concept. Indeed, among professional scientists an "ac ceptable" primitive concept is a physical quantity of which one is entitled to speak to colleagues The most common reaction of the students after the course was to ask why they hadn't been taught thermo that way the first time they were exposed to the subject-apparently the most difficult part of the learning process was the unlearning of previously acquired biases. without being asked to define it; or perhaps one which can be introduced in a paper without worry ing that a referee may confute its meaningfulness in that context. Entropy of a system outside of equilibrium certainly does not meet these quali fications. It turns out that in classroom use primitive concepts are, or are not accepted by students in dependently of their meeting these qualifications, and in spite of a long training aimed at avoiding their asking embarassing questions, students are still open-minded enough to be about as likely to ask what a force is outside of equilibrium as they are to ask the same question about entropy -and the second question is not any more em barassing than the first one. Indeed, at the end of the seventeenth century most scientists would have nothing to do with forces outside of equili brium, and Newton felt the need to write: "In Mathesi investigandae sunt virium quantitates et rationes illae, quae ex conditionibus quibus cumque positis consequentur; deinde ubi in phy sicam descenditur, conferendae sunt hae rationes cum phaenomenis ut innotescat quaenam virium conditiones singulis corporum attractivorum generibus competant. Et tum demum de virium speciebus, causis et rationibus physicis tutius dis putare licebit" [7]. Newton's statement, with "en tropy" substituted for "force," could well be used today as a valid argument in favour of a theory of irreversibility which uses entropy as a primi tive concept. Comparison with the mechanical example of the concept of force is not the only illuminating 154 one; within the same body of thermodynamics the case of energy is an equally strong one. Energy is invariably presented as a primitive concept, the only specification for it being the requirements laid down in the first law; entropy and the second law are the exact counterpart. And indeed some rudimentary example of the validity of the second law is much easier to dis cuss and much more intuitive than any example of validity of the first law. Furthermore, students may accept with some reservations the notion of entropy as a primi tive concept, but they'll still allow the teacher to go on, and after a couple of classes they'll realize that scores of ideas which had been float ing on shaky grounds in their previous thermo dynamic training are now deduced with simple but rigorous logic from one unequivocal mathe matical statement of the second law; they'll ap preciate that by being asked to accept entropy as a primitive concept they are now offered de finitions of reversibility, irreversibility, dissipa tion, and so on. They'll find out one can discuss mathematically and precisely mixtures and their properties without ever having to postulate the existence of semipermeable membranes; and what is invariably the stumbling block of any discus sion about modern continuum thermodynamics among professional scientists is passed over smoothly and painlessly in the classroom. In deed, the most common reaction of the students after the course in 1973 was to ask why they hadn't been taught thermodynamics in that way the first time they were exposed to the subject apparently, the most difficult part of the learning process was the unlearning of previously acquired biases. (In fact, some satisfactory results have been obtained at the University of Naples, where some of the methodology of RT has been intro duced in the teaching of thermodynamics at the undergraduate level.) SCOPE OF THE COURSE THE CONTENTS OF the course, summarized in Table I, are illustrated in some detail in the following In Section A, 3 hours are dedicated to the introduction of tensors as linear transformations of Euclidean vector space into itself, and to the basic algorithm of space and time differentiation of vectors and tensors. Although the classroom notes and reference [4] include the algorithm for CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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components of vectors and tensors this is really not required in the balance of the course and was not discussed in the classroom. The remain ing two hours were dedicated to a few basic con cepts of functional analysis, including topology of function spaces and Frechet differentiation of functionals. Section B was dedicated to traditional con tinuum thermodynamics, following the method ology of RT. Thus two results are obtained: the actual learning of classical thermomechanical theories of ideal fluids, viscous fluids and elastic solids, and the appreciation of the logical rigor, simplicity and mathematical compactness with which RT can yield the classical results. In par ticular, in section Bl the second law is written in the simple form requiring the rate of heat supply divided by temperature not to exceed the rate of increase of entropy ; the classical elementary re sults of the thermodynamics of ideal fluids are then obtained as a direct consequence of the as sumption that the state is identified by the in stantaneous values of density and temperature. In section B2, the second law is written in the form of Clausius-Duhem's inequality, and shown to imply such classical results as the maximum possible efficiency of a heat pump without ever introducing a Carnot cycle. The general method The traditional areas of transport phenomena and process dynamics; the new trends in molecular engineering, rheology and biochemical engineering may be compacted into some unifying central viewpoint: modern non-equilibrium thermo is a likely candidate for such a role. of obtaining consequences of Clausius-Duhem's in equality in continuum thermomechanics consti tutes the balance of Section B2. Throughout Sec tion B, the only concrete examples of irreversibili ty which arise are heat transfer and viscous dissi pation. Section C is dedicated to the thermomechanics of polymers. In section Cl, the method of RT is applied to the analysis of materials with memory, so that irreversibility of relaxation phenomena is discussed in general terms; Section C2 applies the results obtained to the specific case of poly meric materials. Heat transfer, flow and relaxaFALL 1975 tion in polymers are discussed. The first three sections exhaust the contents of the textbook [4]. Section D covers the mathematical formalism of the methodology of RT as applied to both re acting and non-reacting mixtures. Since the aim is only to derive the classical equilibrium theory, diffusion is not discussed. In section Dl, the gener al theory of internal state variables (such as the degree of conversion of a reaction and the degree of splitting into phases of mixtures) and their change in time, of affinity, and of both strong and weak equilibrium states is discussed; the irreversible nature of chemical reactions is put into sharp relief. In section D2, the axiomatic structure of classical chemistry is introduced. This allows to deduce rigorously the theory of physical and chemical equilibria, which are then discussed in detail in section E. FUTURE EVOLUTION THE COURSE DESCRIBED above has been given both in 1973 and 1974, and taken by almost all the graduate students of the depart ment during their first semester of work. In the Fall semester of 197 4, a seminar was also held, meeting once a week, on the teaching of thermo dynamics at both the graduate and undergradu ate level. The following future evolution of gradu ate level teaching of Thermodynamics has been planned. The students will be offered two graduate courses ; the first one, to be taken in their first year of work, will be a more traditional course than the one described above, while a course in modern continuum thermodynamics will be offered to second-year graduate students starting in the Fall semester of 1976. With the background of a more traditional course, the material in sections D2 and E could well be left out from the second year course, and the 12 hours so recovered could be used for covering one or more of the following subjects: Thermodynamics of diffusion. This would complete the landscape of the theory of irrever sibility of the four basic classes of phenomena of interest to chemical engineers, namely momen tum, heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics. Thermodynamics and stability. This would fit in very well with some of the strong research interests of the Department, namely stability of non-equilibrium states (flow patterns, chemical 155

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kinetics) and control theory. The connection be tween process dynamics, stability theory and thermodynamics has been the subject of some very interesting research [8, 9]. Relationship between continuum thermo dynamics and statistical thermodynamics. Al though RT is strictly a phenomeno-logical con tinuum theory, it is by no means at odds with statistical thermodynamics; the aim of the latter is to obtain a priori predictions on the constitu tive properties of specific materials, while one of the main aims of the former is to obtain general restrictions on the allowable forms of the con stitutive equations imposed by the second law. Particularly in the case of polymeric materials, the two approaches may be complementary, as shown by some recent research [10]. Also, the structural modeling of materials may put some of the basic axioms of RT in a correct physical perspective: witness the case of material ob jectivity, which has been shown to be valid only if Coriolis forces on structural elements can be neglected [11, 12]. It is perhaps interesting, before concluding, to examine the role of thermodynamics teaching in ChE in a historical perspective. ChE has under gone, at twenty years intervals, two major re organizations of its patterns of thought, research and teaching In the late 1930's, ChE evolveq. from the early stage where the emphasis was on In dustrial Chemistry of Processes, to the stage where Unit Operations were seen as the core. In the late 1950's, the new change was the switch from Unit Operations to Transport phenomena. Both changes, when looked upon from a distance in time, have the same character: unification of a variety of parallel elements which had grown too large for detailed analysis ( the chemical processes up to 1930, the unit operations up to 1950) into a more compact form which allows the traditional material to be seen from some central viewpoint. A somewhat similar evolution may be in the making, and the late 1970's appear as just about the right time. The traditional areas of transport phenomena and process dynamics; the new trends in molecular engineering, in rheology and in bio chemical engineering may be compacted into some unifying central viewpoint; and modern non equilibrium thermodynamics is a likely candidate for such a role. The trend is already showing up 156 concretely in the area of transport phenomena: two recent books on the subject [13, 14] dedicate a substantially larger fraction of their contents than traditional to the role of thermodynamics in the theory of transport phenomena. The course given at Delaware in 1973 and 1974 is a first effort in this direction; inclusion of sections F, G and H would extend the area of thermodynamic influence to the whole of trans port phenomena, to process dynamics, molecular engineering and rheology, with only biochemical engineering left out. Of course, this would still be only an initial effort, which should and could extend to the methodology of teaching and think ing at the undergraduate level. Equally of course the traditional areas of physical and chemical equilibria, energy balances and ideal fluids should not be excluded from thermo dynamics, but neither should they be regarded as exhausting the subject. REFERENCES 1. G. Astarita, G. C. Sarti, ModM-n T hermodynamics in Chemical Engin eering and Chemistry, Chim Ind. (Milan), in press 2. C. Truesdell, Rational Th ermodynamics, McGraw Hill, N ew York 1969 3 W. A. Day, Th e Thermodyna1n ics of Simple Materials with Fading M e mory, Springer-Verlag, Berlin New York, 1972 4. G. Asta r ita, "An Introduction to Nonlinear Con tinuum Thermodynamics," S.p.A. Editrice di Chimica, Milan 197 5 5. B. D. Coleman, D. R. Owen, A Mathematical Founda tion for Th ermodynamics, Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal., 54, 1, (1974) 6. M. E. Gurtin W. 0. Williams, "An Axiomatic Foun dation for Continuum Thermodynamics," Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal., 26 83, (1967) 7. I. N ew ton, Principia, 1687 8. J. C. Williams, "Dissipative dynamical systems. Part I. General theory," Arch. Ratl. M ech. Anal., 45, 321, (1972) 9. J. Wei, "An axiomatic t rea tment of chemical reaction syst e ms," J. Chem. Phy s., 36, 1578, (1962) 10. G. Astarita, G. C. Sarti, A Thermomechanical Theory for Structured Materials," T rans. Soc. Rh eo l in pre ss 11. I. Muell er, "On the Frame Dependence of Stress and Heat Flux ," Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anal., 45, 242, (1972) 12. J. L. Lumley, "Toward a Turbulent Constitutive Equa tion," J. Fluicl Mech., 41, 413, (1970) 1 3. F. P Foraboschi, "Principi di Ingegne r ia Chimica," UTET, Firenze 1973 14. J C. Slattery, Momentum, Energy and Mass Tran s fer in Continua, McGraw Hill, New York 1972 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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332 of ourpeople left their jobs last year. We'reproud of that record. Job hopping is something we encourage through our Internal Placement Service. We happen to believe our most valuable corporate assets are people. The more our people know, the stronger company we are. So just over a year ago we initiated IPS. In the first year, 332 Sun people changed jobs within the system Here's how it works. Say you're an engineer. You'd like to broaden your experience and feel that you d make a contribution in Marketing You check the weekly job opening notices. When there's an opening in Marketing you think you can fill, you apply-and get first consideration. You have freedom to experiment and move around at Sun. You learn more and you learn faster. You want to learn more right now-about Sun and IPS? Ask your Placement Director when a Sun Oil recruiter will be on campus. Or write for a copy of our Career Guide. SUN OIL COMPANY, Human Resources Dept. CED I 608 Walnut Street, Philadel phia, Pa. 19103 An equal opportunity employer m/f. A Diversified Energy and Petrochemical Company

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HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS W. N. DELGASS P urdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 AS THE BACKBONE of the chemical and petroleum industries and a key to the solu tion of current problems concerning energy and the environment, heterogeneous catalysis is firm ly rooted in the domain of chemical engineering. The intersection of chemistry, physics, and engineering in catalysis provides a broad spec trum of intriguing fundamental and practical questions. The breadth and complexity of the subject, however, require a balance of s urvey versus depth in presentation of material in a one semester graduate course. The choice of organiza tion and specific topics must be geared to the make-up of the class as well as to the prejudices of the in structor At Purdue a class of 25 students in this course may include chemists (,,.....__.,15 % ) chemical and non-chemical engineers bound for the Ph.D., Heavy reliance on original papers slows the pace but helps achieve one of the course goals familiarity with the literature and the ability to read it critically Master's and, in a few cases, B.S. degree. This diverse class background and the desire to make the course available at the graduate level without prerequisites necessitate inclusion of a review of chemical kinetics. The prejudice of the in structor has dictated organization of the course primarily in terms of theoretical concepts. No text with the orientation and emphasis outlined in Table 1 is available, but J. M. Thomas and W. J. Thomas, Introduction to the Principl es of Hete rogeneous Catalysis, Academic Press, New York (1967), supplemented by Alfred Clark's 158 W N Delgass received his B S degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Mi ch igan and M.S and Ph.D degrees from Stanford University He joined the Yale faculty as an Assistant Pro fessor of Engineering and Appli ed Science in 1969 after a post doctoral year at the Univ ersity of California, Berk e l ey In 1974 he became an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Purdue Univ e rsity. His principal research interests are heterogeneous catalysis, surface chemistry, Mossbauer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy book The Th eory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Academic Press, New York (1970), or J. J. Thompson and G. Webb, H eterogeneous Catalysis, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1968), represents a reasonable compromise. Additional sources of material and some key papers read by the students and discussed in class are also in cluded in Table 1. Heavy reliance on original papers slows the pace but helps to achieve one of the course goals: familiarity with the litera ture and ability to read it critically. PROVIDING ORIENTATION DETAILS OF THE COURSE material are best discussed with reference to Table 1, which also indicates the approximate class time spent on each area. Section I was an experiment last year to provide orientation to the field and moti vation for the array of topics that follows. Sin f elt's elegant investigation of ethane hydro genolysis over supported metals proved to be a good vehicle for this purpose, in spite of difficul ties the students had initially in dealing with terms and concepts that were not fully developed until later in the course. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Sections II, III and IV of the course outline represent a view of catalysis from the gas side of the gas-solid interface and also include details of physical characterization of catalysts. The emphasis in Sections III and IV is on establishing criteria for the validity and chemical significance of kinetic parameters. Simple expectations such as the exothermicity of adsorption or a rate of adsorption not exceeding the collision rate with the surface, for example, can help prevent a com puter's propagating physical or chemical non sense from a mathematical fit of kinetic data. Working knowledge in this area is stressed through homework problems and student reviews of recent papers presenting kinetic analyses. A more complete review of kinetics and quantitative discussion of design and heat, mass and momen tum transfer in chemical reactors is the province of "Chemical Reactor Design," which, along with courses in thermodynamics, transport, and mathematics, makes up the graduate core curricu lum in chemical engineering at Purdue. Sections V and VI present a view of catalysis from the solid side of the gas-solid interface. These sections contain much new subject matter and are the most difficult for many students. The material is presented to help students establish a basis for the understanding and construction of chemical models for catalyst behavior and to provide them with criteria for comparing different catalysts. Unique explanations of the catalytic action are difficult to achieve, but concepts such as ensemble, or surface geometry, effects on catalytic selectivity and modification of the electronic properties of metal surfaces by alkalai adsorption or semiconductor surfaces by contact with metals, for example, can contribute to progress in the field. Section VII reinforces some of these concepts, introduces others and also provides discussion of industrial applications of catalysis. Many students choose deeper study of industrial reactions for their term papers. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES A N APP ARENT OMISSION in the outline is a general section on experimental techniques. This area is covered in literature readings, a tour of the extensive catalysis research facilities in the School of Chemical Engineering, the term paper option, and a requirement that teams of two students prepare for distribution to the class a one page summary of a particular technique. FALL 1975 The summary includes the underlying principles, experimental requirements information available, catalytic applications, and a few directive references. Though after several revisions a note book of these descriptions of experimental techniques will become quite useful, future ver sions of the course will provide more direct dis cussion of this area through further integration of sections V, VI and VII. TABLE 1 Course Outline I) OVERVIEW (4 Lectures)-Discussion of "Cataly tic Hydrogenolysis over Supported Metals," J. H. Sinfelt, Catal. R ev 3 I 175 (1969) Emph as i s : The nature of catalysts and catalysis research. A) Relation of Hydrogenolysi s to Petroleum Pro cessing-Catalyst Selectivity B) Nature of Catalysts 1) Support 2) Metal Dispersion and its Measurement 3) Methods of Preparation C) Kinetic Analysis D) Comparison of Group VIII Metals 1) Activity Pattern 2) Correlation of Activity with Electronic Properties 3) Crystallite Size Effects 4) Support Effects 5) Ru/Cu Bimetallic Clusters (J. H. Sinfelt, J. C ata l. 29 308 (1973)) II) CHEMICAL KINETICS ( 8 Lectures)-(M. Bou dart, Kinetics of Chemical P r ocesses, Prentice Hall 1968) Emph asis : The relation between sequences of ele mentary steps and the rate expression, recogni tion of valid kinetic parameters. A) Derivation of Rate Equations from Sequences of Elementary Steps 1) Langmuir Adsorption 2) Steady State Approximation 3) Rate Determining Step Approximation B) Rate Constants for Elementary Steps-Orders of Magnitude 1) Transition State Theory 2) Collision Theory 3) Further Evaluation of Rate Parameters, (M. Boudart, D. E. Mears, and M. A. Vannice, Ind. Chim. Beige., Special Issue 36, Part I, 281 (1967), and M. Boudart, AIChE Journal, 18, 465 (1972)) C) Correlation and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters 1) Polanyi Relation 2) Van Tiggelen Formula 3) Principle of Sabatier 4) Compensation Effect D) Non-Uniform Surfaces 1) Freundlich and Temkin Isotherms 2) 2 Step Reactions 159

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Experimental techniques are covered by requmng teams of two students to prepare for distribution to the class a one page summary of a popular technique ... including the unde rlying principles, experimental requirements, information available, catalytic applications and a few directive references. III) SURF ACE AREA AND PORE STRUCTURE (3 Lectures) A) Selective Chemisorption B) BET Theory-Approximations, Results and Applications C) Pore Size Distribution 1) Kelvin Equation 2) Hysteresis in BET Isotherm 3) Mercury Porosimetry IV) HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER INFLUENCE ON KINETIC PARAMETERS (4 Lectures) (C. N. Satterfield, Mass Tran sfer in H eterogeneous Cataly sis, MIT Press, (1970)) Emphasi s : Qualitative behavior, diagnostics to in sure true kinetics. A) Bulk or Film Diffusion B) Pore Diffusion 1) Macropore 2) Micropore C) Heat and Mass Transfer Diagnostics (P. B. Weisz and J. S. Hicks, Ch.E. Science, 1 7, 265 (1962)) D) Diffusion Influence on Selectivity E) Poisoning V) PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS (7 Lectures) Emph asis : Development of important parameter s and difference s between classes of soli d s. A) Crystal Structure 1) Crystal Lattices 2) Miller Indices 3) Geometry of Surface Planes B) Electronic Structure 1) Review of Atomic and Molecular Orbitals 2) Band Structure a) Metals b) Semiconductors-Intrinsic/Extrinsic c) Insulators d) Temperature Dependence of Conductivity 3) Image Potential 4) Work Function-Changes on Adsorption 5) Collective vs. Localized Electron Picture VI) THEORETICAL CONCEPTS IN ADSORPTION AND CATALYSIS (8 Lectures) 160 Empha sis : Examination of the degree to which simple theoretical approaches can describe catalytic phenomena. A) Metals 1) Ionic Model for Adsorption 2) Localized Covalent Model for Adsorption 3) Summary of Current Theoretical Approaches to Metal-Adsorbate Bonding 4) Ensemble vs. Ligand Effects (Y. Soma Noto and W.M.H. Sachtler, J Catal., 92, 315 (1974)) a) CO Adsorption-Bridged and Linear b) Alloy Surfaces c) Infrared Spectroscopy B) Non-Metals 1) Boundary Layer Theory of Adsorption on Semiconductors a) Depletive/Cumulative b) N 2 0 Decomposition 2) Catalyst/Support Electronic Interaction a) Metal s on Semiconductors b) Semiconductors on Metals 3) Thermochemical Approach CO Oxidation Over NiO a) Carbonate Intermediate b) 1 8 0 I s otope Tracer 4) Ligand Field Approach VII) CATALYTIC REACTIONS AND CATALYTIC CHEMISTRY (11 Lectures) A) Oxidation 1) Summary of Industrial Processes and Catalysts 2) Ethylene to Ethylene Oxide a) Unique Selectivity of Ag b) 0 2 Intermediate (P.A. Kilty, N C. Rol -and W.M.H. Sachtler, in Cataly s i s Vol. 2, J. W. Hightower ed., North Holland (1972) p. 929) c) Radiation Induced Selectivity Change (J. J. Carberry, G. C. Kuczynski and E. Martinez, J Catal., 26, 247 (1972)) i) Importance of Surface Ca Impurity ii) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy B) Hydrogenation (R. J. Kokes, in Catalysi s Vol. 1, J. W. Hightower ed., North Holland (1972), p. A-1) 1) Comparison of Metal s and Metal Oxides 2) Propylene on ZnO-Details of Catalytic Chemistry C) Cracking 1) Summary of Industrial Processes 2) Carbonium Ion Reactions 3) Bronsted and Lewis Acid Sites on Silica/ Alumina and Zeolites D) Reforming 1) Dual Functional Catalysts 2) Dehydrocyclization on Clean Surfaces (G. A. Somorjai, Catal. Rev., 7, 87 (1972) )-Rela tion between Clean Surface Research and Catalysis E) NO Reduction 1) Summary of Auto Exhaust Problems 2) Molecular Orbital Symmetry Rules2NO:;;=N 2 + 0 2 as a Symmetry Forbidden Reaction CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Our company's last 4 presidents began with us as talented engineering graduates. FALL 1975 Now, we'd like to talk about your future. If you are exce ptionally talented in yo ur engi neering or scientific specialty, Standard 011 Company of California or one of its Chevron Companies can mak e y ou a surprising job offer: the opportunity to grow faster than yo u ever thought possible. W e're researching in virtually every area of e nergy production earth sciences, and petrochemicals We'r e building on-shore, off shore, in the United States and throughout th e world at the rat e of $300,000,000 per year. W e offer you the opportunity co think big, handl e something big, and move on to something bigger. W e offer you th e oppor tunity to broad e n into related fields. to modify your career to tak e advantage of yo ur mdividu a l abilities and mterests as th ey e merge and to aim for th e top. Engineers now serve as our Pr es id en t and Chairman of th e Board. And since 70 % of our top 1800 people will r e tir e within 15 yea rs, your upw ar d movement could b e rapid If you have both th e tal e nt and th e guts to tak e on this kind of opportunity, we'd lik e to talk to yo u b e for e you make your job decision. Contact our r ecrui t e r when h e calls at y our campus. Or wnte dir ec tly to Coordinator Profes sional Employment, Standard Oil Company of California, 225 Bush Street, San Francisco. California 94104. Chevron Standard Oil Company of California === An equal opportunity employer 161

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DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL An Operations Research Approach To Automatic Control Education W.A. GRUVER No r th Ca r ol i na Stat e U nive rsity R a l ei gh No r th Ca r ol in a 27607 A T MOST UNIVERSITIES in the United States, graduate education in automatic control is the responsibility of each of the traditional engineering departments-chemical, electrical a nd mechanical. This situation is partly a result of the rapid growth of control during the past 30 years which has emphasized limited areas of ap plication and, thereby, created groupings such a s process control servo control and flight control. In spite of these groupings, there has been con siderable emphasis at the graduate level on mathe matical aspects of automatic control and les s emphasis on practical questions of system model ing a nd control implementation. 1 2 This emphasi s has led to the distinction "cla s sical" or "modern" control which, in turn, has magnified the gap between theory and practice. It is generally recognized that sole emphasis on mathematics does not necessarily provide the best preparation for a career in automatic control. In addition to an appreciation of mathematical abstraction, a broadness of perspective toward system design is needed in order to solve the emerging problems of our society. According to the late L. Hyldgaard Jensen: "Engineering education of the future should realize that our industrial systems are becoming so large and so complex that knowledge of the parts taken s eparately is not sufficient. On the contrary we can expect that, often the interconnections and inter action s between the s ystem elements will he more important than the separate elements them selve s Therefore the teaching of design in automatic control will exhibit an increasing em phasis upon new explicit, and highly organized 162 techniques for dealing with system structures. The shift in viewpoint from analysis of systems to de s ign of systems and the formal emphasis upon the process of interconnecting elements into total systems will bring about a new tendency in auto matic control education ." a At North Carolina State University (NCSU), a broad outlook tow a rd Systems and Control is encouraged by its centralization within Opera tion s Research (OR). Although the association of automatic control and operations research is not new ,4 the unique feature at NCSU is that OR is a graduate program of multidisciplinary nature, supported by facult y from most branches of William A Gruver is a graduate of the University of Pennsyl vania (PhD, 1970 ) and Imperial College London (DIC, 1965) Before joining the faculty at North Carolina State University in 1974 he worked as an optimization specialist for the German Space Agency and has taught electrical engineering at the University of Pennsyl van i a and the U.S Naval Academ y. In 1973 he was recipient of a Humboldt Senior Scient i st Award at the Technical University Darm s tadt. At NCSU Dr. Gruver i s active in developing an interdisciplinary program in the s ys tems opt i mization and control area, and the use of laboratorie s i n automatic control education. His research c e nters on the computational and algorithmic aspects of mathe matical programming and optimal control CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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engineering and the physical sciences Study in OR can be undertaken in one or more of the fol lowing areas : mathematical optimization, sto chastic systems, econometrics, information and computer sciences, and dynamical systems and automatic control. Students in OR usually have degrees in engineering, mathematics, statistics or computer science. The main characteristic of Operations Re search during its brief history is that it is inter disciplinary. That is, it draws on mathematics, economics, physics and engineering and distills from among these disciplines, techniques which apply to the system under study with the objec tive of gaining understanding of the system so that it may be controlled and harnessed for man's needs. The natural means for broadening the scope of automatic control education at NCSU, therefore, has been to associate it with the Opera tions Research Program. An important benefit of this association is the rich heritage of OR with mathematical programming and numerical opti mization techniques which interfaces directly with the theory and computational methods of optimal control. DYNAMI CAL SYSTEMS and Multivariable Control is a one semester, first year graduate level course in the Systems and Control option of the Operations Research Program. Prerequisites are a knowledge of differential equations and linear algebra as usually contained in an under graduate engineering curriculum. A rudimentary knowledge of the Fortran language and card preparation is also required. The customary pre requisite of an undergraduate course in single loop feedback systems and frequency response methods is intentionally omitted in order that the course can be taken by non-engineers. Most students with a major in OR also have back grounds which include advanced calculus and probability theory. This course is _fotended to (1) provide an in troduction to ana l ytical modeling, control and op timization of dynamical systems, (2) create an awareness of the wide range of application of Systems and Control and (3-) provide ex perience in computer-aided analysis and design. Both state space and transfer function descrip tions are developed early in the course so that the student is not led to regard either approach as "classical" or "modern." Emphasis is placed on linear, stationary models with parallel develop ment of continuous-time and discrete time FALL 1975 representations. Topics include state variables, transforms flow graphs, canonical forms, system response, stability, controllability and observ ability, modal control, non-interacting control and fundamental concepts of optimal control and estimation. Multidisciplinary applicat ions are The emphasis on the mathematical aspects of automatic control has magnified the gap between theory and practice. It does not necessarily provide the best preparation for a career in automatic control. chosen from biological, chemical, electrical, me chanical and socio -e conomic systems. TABLE 1 Course Outline System RepresentationState variables, state equations, transfer functions, Laplace and z-transforms, cano nical forms and transformations of linear systems. System ResponseSystem StabilityMultivariable Control SystemsLinear Stochastic SystemsOptimal Control SystemsVector differential equations, transition matrix, eigenvector a naly sis, controllability and ob servability, phase plane, system simulation Equilibrium points and sta bili ty concepts, Direct Method of Lyapunov construction of Lya punov functions, Routh-Hur witz criteria, root locus. State space formulation, matrix transfer functions, decoupling and non-interacting control, feedforward and modal con trol, observers. Statistical concepts in time and frequency domains, Gauss-Mar kov random processes, mean square estimation and optimal filtering. Maximum Principle, Dynamic Programming, linear systems subject to quadratic criteria, combined optimal control and estimation. INTERDISCIPLINARY SPIRIT T HERE ARE PRESENTLY severa l excellent textbooks that combine the state variable 163

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Although the association of automatic control and operations research is not new, the unique feature at NCSU is that OR is a graduate program of multidisciplinary nature, supported by faculty from most branches of engineering and the physical sciences. and transfer function approaches at an intro ductory level. Most of these books, however, emphasize applicat ion s from electrical engineer ing. In keeping with the interdisciplinary sp irit of this course, the textbook by Takahashi, Rabin s and Auslander 5 provides an effective treatment of the material while keeping a good balance be tween mathematical abstractio n and physical reality. The first half of the course includes use of a computer program for obtaining time response, system reduction to canonical form, system sensitivity by root locus, etc. This pro gram is an expanded version of a package for the analysis and design of linear state variable feed back systems. The user's manual is reasonably complete and gives samp le problems for testing the routines. 6 7 The second part of the course is concerned with use of the system theoretical concepts studied previously and is intended to serve as an introduction to topics which may be studied in more advanced courses or independent study basis. The topic of multivariable control treats both state variable and transfer function ap proaches, altho ugh advanced frequency response techniques such as the inverse Nyquist array method have not been included due to lack of time and need for additiona l preparation in com plex variable theory. The topics of stochastic and optimal systems survey, in the remaining time, certain funda mental concepts of these areas and present some current applications which have included power, ecological and transportation systems. Several class sessions and homework exercises are also devoted to the use of a computer program, the Variable Dimension Automatic Synthesis Pro gram (V ASP), for implementing some of the optimal estimation and control algorithms. 8 Ex perience gained from working with these com puter-aided design programs has been a valuable means of integrating theoretical concepts with physical reality, particularly when a student is forced to discover why his program bombed! 164 The class meets three hours per week for 16 weeks. About 6 weeks are devoted to system representation, response and stability. The re maining time is divided equally among the topics of multivariable control, stochastic systems and optimal control. A graduate student teaching assistant is responsible for setting up the com puter exercises and serves as programming con s ultant. The brief exposure to system optimization is intended to interface with related OR courses which included linear and nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, optimization of engineer in g processes, variational methods in optimization techniques, vector space methods in system op timization, and computational algorithms of mathematical programming and optimal control. Cognate courses such as process dynamics, economic decision theory, biomathematics and statistical communication theory provide depth in more special ized topics. Centralizat ion of this course within the Operations Re searc h Program avo id s the u sual groupings such as process control, servo control or fli g ht control and, there by, encourages a broad outlook toward applications in the Systems and Control area. An important benefit of this association is the rich heritage of OR with mathe matical programming and numerical optimization tech nique s which interfaces directl y with the theory and computational method s of optimal control. D REFERENCES 1. Kahne, S "Formal Post-Graduate Education in the United States," Automatica, 8, 525-530 (1972). 2 Schneider, A. M., "University Curricu l a in Control Engineering," Joint Automatic Control Conference (1969). 3 Hyld gaard -Jen sen, L., "Trends in Automatic Control Education," IFAC World Congress, Paris, France (1972). 4 IF AC Workshop on Highe r Education in Automatic Contro l, Session 6-"Systems Science and Operations Research in Automatic Control Education," D res den GDR, March 15-18 (1971) 5. Takahashi, Y., Rabins, M. J., and Auslander, D. M., Control and Dy namic Syst e m s, Addison-Wesley Puhl. Co., Reading, Mass. (1970). 6. Melsa, J. L. and Jones S. K., Computer Program s for Computational Assistance in the Study of Lin ear Con trol Theory, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1973). 7. Gruver, W. A. and Leake, R. J., "Review of Com puter Programs for Computationa l Assistance in the Study of Linear Control Theory," IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, AC-17, 188-189 (1972). 8. White, J. S. and Lee, H. Q., User's Manual for VASP, NASA TMX-2417 (1971); also Kalman, R. E. and Englar, T. S., A User's Manual for the Auto matic Synthesis Prog r am, NASA CR-475 (1966). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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DIGIT AL COMPUTATIONS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Y. A. LIU Aubu rn University Auburn, Alabama 36830 A NEW GRADUATE COURSE on "Digital Computations for Chemical Engineers" has been developed recently by the author at Auburn University. The major objective of the course is to introduce to the student the theory and application of the polynomial (or functional) and finite difference approximations in the solution of mathematical models in ChE. Brief discussions on the use of these approximation techniques in the analysis of experimental data are also in cluded. The contents of the course are distributed into three broad topics: I. Introduction to poly nomial approximation and finite difference, II. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equa tions (ODE), and III. Numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE). The pro gression of the course follows the sequence given in Table I, which lists the breakdown of the course in parts and chapters. The course is divided into two three-credit-hour quarter-courses. The first three-fifths of the topics is covered in ChE 600, "ChE Analysis," and the remainder in ChE 650, "Special Topics in ChE." As Seen in Table I, the course puts less emphasis on the computa tional solution of system of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations as well as the boundary value problems in ODE. These topics are discussed only briefly within Topics II and III and are covered in more depth in courses on computer aided process design and optimal control of process systems. Although a number of the recent textual references are given in Table II, a single text book which is suitable for the course does not exist. Consequently, lecture notes have to be prepared for the course However, note-taking during the lectures is eliminated through the use of detailed handouts on most of the lecture ma terial. 166 Referring to Tables I and II a few remarks on the course contents and the source of the course material are as follows. Topic I contains a concise introduction of polynomial approxima tion and finite difference, with special emphasis on their applications to the computational analysis of experimental data. The problem of finding a polynomial of a specified degree to approximate a known function given either in an analytical form or as sets of discrete data is considered. The import ant questions related to this problem are discussed from the approximation theory 1 using finite difference table and associated linear symbolic operators. 2 The actual lectures follow much of the standard material on polynomial approximation and finite difference from reference texts 2, 5, 6, 10, and 12 in Table II. The reported The major objective of the course is to introduce to the student the theory and application of the polynomial (or functional) and finite difference approximations in the solution of mathematical models in chemical engineering. results on the development and implementation of computational algorithms on the topic subject from such periodicals as Communications of the Asso cia tion fo r Computing Machine (CACM) and Numerische Mat erma tik are discussed. An index by subject on these algorithms published in 1960-1970 is conveniently available in the reference text 4 in Table II. Weekly homework problems on applying the lecture material to such problems as the interpolation of discrete data of vapor pressure versus temperature, the differen tial and integral methods of kinetic analysis from experimental data are given. A s pecial problem on the practical application of sp line approximation to the analysis of thermod y namic data 3 4 i s also assigned CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE I. A TOPICAL OUTLINE OF THE COURSE I. INTRODUCTION TO POLYNOMIAL APPROXI MATION AND FINITE DIFFERENCE : (1) Topics-polynomial approximation, finite differ ence, interpolation and extrapolation, numerical differentiation and integra tion, orthogonal polynomials and quadrature form ulas. (2) Selected Application-analysis of thermody namic data by the spline approximation technique. II. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE): (1) Topics-fundamental concepts, Runge-Kutta and allied single-step formulas, predic tor-corrector methods, stability of multistep and Runge-Kutta methods, stiff differential equations. (2) Selected Application-digital parameter esti mation of complex chemical reaction systems. III. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF PARTIAL DIFFER RENTIAL EQUATIONS (PDE): Chapter 111-1. Fundamental Concepts Fundamental notations, first and second order PDE, system of first order PDE, initial and boundary conditions, finite difference approxima tion, functional approximation, further mathe matical background, questions raised. Chapter 111-2. Methods of Line s (MOL) and Method of Characteristics (MOC) Introduction, basic concepts in the MOL, inverse methods, consistence, convergence and stability, MOL for parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic PDE, method of characteristics, other extensions. Chapter 111-3. Finite Differenc e Solution of Parabolic Equations Introduction, model parabolic PDE, explicit and implicit finite difference approximations, con sistency and convergence, heuristic Von Neumann and matrix stability concepts, some extensions, solution of finite difference approximations, com posite solutions-global extrapolation and local combinations, explicit and implicit methods for twoand three-dimensional problems-alternat ing direction, local one dimension, fractional splitting and hopscotch methods other exten sions. Chapter 111-4. Finit e Diff ere nce Solution of Hyperbolic Equation s Introduction, model hyperbolic PDE, first order hyperbolic PDE, first order vector and vector conservative hyperbolic PDE, twoand three dimensional hyperbolic PDE, second order model hyperbolic PDE, other extensions. Chapter 111-5. Finite Difference Solution of Elliptic Equations Introduction, model elliptic PDE, finite difference approximations of twoand three-space dimen sional problems, solution of finite difference ap proximations-direct methods iterative methods FALL 1975 Y. A Liu did his undergraduate work at National Taiwan Uni versity graduate study at Tufts Un i versity and obtained his Ph D. from Princ e ton University in 1974 under Professor Leon Lapidus. He has been an assistant professor of th e D e partment of Chemical Engineering at Auburn University since 1974. He is currently work ing on research projects in the areas of applied numerical methods, process modeling, simulation and optimization, systems theory and process control, process design and synthesis applied chemical kinetics, statistical theory of particulate processes, coal liquefaction and solid-liquid separation. s parse matrix techniques, composite solutions and other methods, conversion of elliptic to hyperbolic or parabolic equation, other extensions. Chapter 111-6. Variational, Least-Square and Moment Methods Introduction, variational principles, Rayli::igh Ritz method and extensions, variational solution of parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic PDE, dy namic programming and invariant imbedding approach, leasts quare and moment methods, comparison with other methods, further exten sions. Chapter 111-7. Galerkin Methods Introduction, general features of Galerkin methods, solution of parabolic PDE-continuous time Galerkin, Crank-Nicholson Galerkin, hop scotch-Galerkin, local one dimensional Galer kin methods, solution of hyperbolic and elliptic PDE, comparison with other methods, further extensions. Chapter 111-8. Collocation M e thod s Introduction, collocation points and approximating polynomials, the line collocation orthogonal col location and finite element collocation methods, solution of parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic PDEs, comparison with other methods, further extensions. Chapter 111-9. Finite Element Methods Introduction, variational finite element methods, weighted-residual finite element method, element types and basis functions, the time dimension, finite element matrix structure and storage schemes, solution of linear equations in finite element analysis, solution of parabolic PDE finite element heat and ma ss transfer analysis, 167

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solution of hyperbolic PDE, solution of elliptic PDE-finite element method and fluid flow prob lems, comparison with other methods, further extensions. Chapter 111-10. Practical Considerations in Poly nomial (Functional) Approxima tion Methods Introduction, continuous and discrete methods of weighted residuals, the selection of weighting functions, the selection of approximating func tions, the problem specific polynomial approach, further extensions. Chapter 111-11. Selected Applications Introduction, solution of Na vier-Stokes equations, solution of problems of adsorption, chroma tography and ion exchange columns, solution of oil and gas reservoir problem, solution of phase change and related moving boundary problems, solution of water resources problems, solution of population balance equations, solution of catalytic fixed bed reactor problem. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS I N TOPIC II, the fundamental concepts and definitions in numerical solution of ODE are introduced. The practical considerations in nu merically solving ODE such as stability, ac curacy and computational efficiency are also con sidered. Here, the important material from three recent books 4, 7, and 8 in Table II is briefly dis cussed and supplemented with the excellent monograph on stiff ODE edited by Willoughby (see Table II). The specific lectures begin with some basic techniques for deriving integration formulae for ODE and related terminologies. The Taylor series expansion is used first to derive the simplest Euler's formula and the concept of trunc tion error. The forward and backward Taylor series expansions are then combined to derive the midpoint rule. These two integration formu lae provide the typical examples for defining the explicit as well as the single-step and multi-step methods. Next, both the Euler's formula and mid point rule are derived by using numerical differen tiation and / or integration formulae. The integra tion of the ODE by the trapezoidal rule gives the modified Euler's formula, which serves as an example for introducing the implicit method. The combined use of the Euler formula, the original ODE and the modified Euler's formula suggests the family of predictor-evaluation-corrector evaluation (PECE) methods. A generalized, linear, multi-step differential-difference equation with constant coefficients is then defined to sum marize the preceding discussions concisely and to encompass all previous integration formulae with168 in the same framework. The course is continued with the illustration of the concept of order by deriving, for example, the second-order Adams Bashforth predictor equation from polynomial approximation. With these preliminaries in hand, the next step in the course is to introduce the generalized Adams-Bashforth formaulae, the Adams-Moulton's forms and the Nystrom ex plicit forms, etc. The well-known Runge-Kutta processes are discussed in a vector-matrix form 5 and applied to many homework problems. At this time, a special topic on the parameter estimation in ODE from experimental data is given. A generalized nonlinear least-square, curve-fitting procedure 6 7 is introduced and a problem of com puterized kinetic analysis in the batch fermen tation of penicillin is assigned to the students. The effectiveness and comparison of different methods in solving ODE are then presented. 8 9 Topic II is concluded with lectures on the occur rence of stiff ODE in chemical engineering,1 and several efficient integration packages for solving stiff ODE such as by Gear. 11 Finally, many in teresting papers on stiff ODE from the reference text 15 in Table II are discussed. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ALTHOUGH A CONSIDERABLE amount of the latest knowledge on the numerical solu tion of PDE by polynomial (or functional) ap proximation has been reviewed in reference texts 3, 13, and 17 in Table II, such texts on the numerical solution of PDE by finite difference as 1, 6, 9-11, 14-16 in Table II contain only that literature published before 1970. A suitable book covering the up-to-date information of both types of approximations does not exist. Thus, the lec ture-notes for Topic III are mostly the original developments in the course. An outline in chapters and sections has been included in Table I. It should be mentioned that the developments of The problem of finding a polynomial of a specified degree to approximate a known function given either in an analytical form or as sets of discrete data is considered ... questions related to this problem are discussed from the approximation theory using finite difference table and associated linear symbolic operators. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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these notes would not be possible without the encouragement, support and participation of Professor Leon Lapidus of Princeton University. The computer listing of the latest publications as well as the hundreds of reference reports and reprints on the numerical solution of PDE given by Professor John H. Giese of University of Delaware have been most helpful. In addition, a number of excellent literature reviews and the latest developments on the subjects on Topic III have been found in several recent doctoral disTABLE II. SOME TEXTUAL REFERENCES OF THE COURSE 1. Ames, W. F., "Nu meri cal Solution of Partial Differential Equation," Barnes & Nobles (1969). 2. Dahlquist, G., A. Bjorck, & N. A nderson "Nu merical Methods," Prentice-Hall (1974). 3. Finlayson, B. A., "The Method of Weighted Residuals and Variational Principles," Aca demic Press (1972). 4. Gear, C. W., "Numerical Initial Value Prob lems in Ordinary Differential Equations," Prentice-Hall (1971). 5. Issacson, I., & H. B. Keller, "Analysis of Nu merical Methods,'' Wiley (1966). 6. Lapidus, L., "Digital Computatio ns for Chemical Engineers," McGraw -Hill (1962). ___ 7. Lambert, J. D., "Computational Methods in Ordinary Differential Equations,'' Wiley (1973). 8. Lapidus, L., & J. H. Seinfeld, "Numerical So lution of Ordinary Differential Equations," Academic Press (1971) 9. Mitchell, A. R., "Computational Methods in Partial Differential Equations," Wiley (1969). 10. Ralston, A., & H. S. Wilf, Editors, "Mathe matical Methods for Digital Computers," Wiley, Vol. I (1960), and Vol. 2 (1967). 11. Richtmyer, R. D., & K. W. Morton, "Differ ence Methods for Initial Value Problems," 2nd Edition, Interscience (1967). 12. Rosenbrock, R. H., & C. Storey, "Computa tional Techniques for Chemical Engineers," Pergamon Press (1966). 13. Strang, G., & G. Fix, "An A nal ysis of the Finits Element Method," Prentice-Hall (1973). 14. Varga, R. S., "Matrix Iterative Analysis," Prentice-Hall (1962) 15. Willoughby, R. A ., Editor, "Proceedi ngs of International Symposium on Stiff Differential Systems," Wilbad, Germany, Plenum Press (1974). 16. Young, D. M., "Iterative Solution of Large Linear Systems," Academic Press (1972). 17. Zienkiewicz, 0. Z., "The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science," 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill (1967). FALL 1975 sertations. For example, studies which are con cerned with the method of line for PDE 12 (Chap ter III-2), the composite numerical solution of PDE 1 3 (Chapter III-3 to III-5), finite element method for heat conduction analysis 14 and fluid flow problems 1 5 (Chapter III-9), collocation A generalized non-linear least square, curve-fitting procedure is introduced and a problem of computerized kinetic analysis in the batch fermentation of penicillin is assigned ... the effectiveness and comparison of different methods in solving ODE are then presented. method for the analysis of chromatographic sys tem 16 (Chapter III-8) have been reported. While further discussions on the course contents and source material for Topic III are not possible within the limits of this article, a detailed write up and specific subject references on the numerical solution of PDE can be obtained by writing to the author. WORK REQUIREMENTS A BRIEF REMARK about the course require ment may be of interest here. Homework problems are assigned to the class weekly. Each student is required to conduct an independent course project and to submit a term paper which includes: (a) a concise literature survey of the most important publications in the topic chosen, (b) a critical analysis of the computational techniques involved and a proper eva luation of the "state of the art," and (c) suggestions for further investigations as well as a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of the proposed research areas. Since no course examinations are given, this provides more opportunities for each student to pursue the specific subjects of interest. Typical subjects on the term projects chosen by the class during the last year include the method of characteristics, the method of lines, the ana lysis of chromatographic system, the colloca tion method, and the extrapolation technique for the solution of PDE and nonlinear algebraic equa tions. It is encouraging to mention that several of these projects conducted by the class in the course have led to some quite original research (Continued on page 202.) 169

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INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL FRANCIS S. MANNING Uni v ersity of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 IN 1971 THE Chemical Engineering graduate students formally requested a graduate level course in pollution control. From 1971 through 1973 Tulsa University conducted a M.S. level, EPAs ponsored program of training of engineers in oil-related water pollution control. This pro gram created a need for a graduate course which would familiarize B.S. chemical engineers with industrial pollution control practices and design procedures. Since 197 4 the ChE Department has ad ministered the University of Tulsa Environmen tal Protection (UTEPP) program-a non-profit, cooperative, petroleum industry-sponsored re search program committed to studying present and future environmental protection problems in petroleum and related industries. Obviously, stu dents working in UTEPP also require graduate level instruction in industrial pollution control. COURSE OBJECTIVES INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL not only focuses on the general theories of in dustrial pollution control to provide breadth of understanding but also emphasizes petroleum related design examples to provide the required specialization. Current industrial pollution con trol practices and design procedures are intro duced as painlessly as possible. This is accom plished by emphasizing the relevancy of conven tional undergraduate chemical engineering. In other words, biological oxidation processes are de scribed as chemical reactors ; but, of course, new concepts such as the inherently varying waste water "feed" volume and concentration and the sensitivity of "bugs" to shock loads are carefull y described. Similarly, ammonia stripping is dis cu s sed using standard ChE desorption nomencla170 ture; and liquid condensation in pressure-relief lines is treated as a standard thermodynamic "flash calculation." TEACHING FORMAT WHI~E ~HE TRADITIONAL lecture format is mamtamed, formal lecturing is minimized. For the past two years "Industrial Pollution Con trol" was taught via the Oklahoma Higher Edu cation Televised Instruction System (Philoon, 1974) thus allowing engineers from Conoco in Ponca City and Phillips Petroleum in Bartlesville to participate. This televised procedure permitted maximum use of class time because an overhead TV camera made it possible to project printed pages on the TV receiving s creens. This mini mized the timeconsuming writing of notes on the blackboard and the laboriou s copying by students. While two texts were recommended (but not required) the majority of the course material was selected from recent articles (see references for a partial listing). The references must be up dated every year because of the great current interest in this field. Frequently s tudents were F~ancis S. Manning is Professor and Cha i rman of Chemical Eng '.neering at The University of Tulsa He holds the following degrees ,n Chemical Engineering: B Eng. (Hons .) from McGill University and M S E ., A.M ., and Ph D. from Princeton University. He is a profes sional engineer registered in Oklahoma Penns y lvania and T e xas C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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supplied with reprints of key articles not readily available in the library. Because "Industrial Pollution Control" covered such a wide range of topics, expert guest lecturers were used :-e.g. Paul Buthod for petroleum re fining; Erle Donaldson for subsurface disposal; Dick Martin for noise control and Robert Reed for combustion and incineration. Plant trips to Sun Oil Company's Tulsa refinery and to William Brothers Analytical Laboratory were included. Since 1970, the University of Tulsa has spon sored ten one-week short courses for industry on wastewater and air pollution control as applied to petroleum refining and related petrochemicals. These short courses have featured many national ly-known authorities such as Milton Beychok, Frank Bodurtha, Marion Buercklin, Lee Byers, Burton Crocker, Wes Eckenfelder, Davis Ford, Bill Licht, Leon Myers, Robert Reed, George Reid, Jim Seebold and others. Students ennrolled in "Industrial Pollution Control" have always been encouraged to attend these short courses (free of charge) and were given complimentary notes for the short course. These short courses have enriched "Industrial Pollution Control" im measurably. Last fall, for example, the students attended 35 hours of lectures on air pollution con trol and received approximately 200 pages of notes and design case histories. In-class treatment of air pollution then consisted of discussing points of student uncertainty and working extra prob lems Students were graded on 1) their solutions to the design problems; 2) two "term-papers" or more comprehensive design projects; and 3) their in-class presentation and defense of their design projects. COURSE OUTLINE Petroleum Refining ( 1 hr lecture) A brief dis cussion of refining with emphasis on unit pro cessing steps and the major sources and types of wastes is conducted. The chief concept presented is: increased processing is accompanied by in creased production of potential pollutants. Nelson (1968). Refinery Wastewater Treatment (1 hr lecture) A brief summary is given of major uses of process water in a refinery emphasizing current recycling of process water and methods of minimizing volume of wastewater produced. Advantages of segregated sewers. Overview of primary, secondFALL 1975 ary, and tertiary treatment with emphasis on ar rangement of treatment steps. Manning ( 1973). Characterization of Industrial Wastewaters (1 hr lecture) The problem of describing a waste water in terms of a relatively few, standard analyses such as BOD, COD, TOC, SS, etc ., is ex plained. FWPCA (1967). The course not only focuses on the general theories of industrial pollution control to provide breadth of understanding; but also emphasizes petroleum related design examples to provide the required specialization. Current industrial pollution control practices and design procedures are introduced by emphasizing the relevancy of conventional undergraduate ChE. Biological Treatment (2 weeks, 3 problems) Biological phenomena and related importance in understanding biological waste treatment are presented. Laboratory methods for modeling aerobic growth kinetics. Current design methods for sizing activated sludge and aerated lagoons including treatability studies, common start-up and operating problems and solutions, effluent qualities typically realized, and economic aspects. API (1969); Eckenfelder and Krenkel (1972); Thackston and Eckenfelder (1972); Adams and Eckenfelder (1974). Sludge Handling (1 week; 1 problem) Sludge handling is discussed in depth with emphasis upon alternative methods-sludge conditioning, thickening, dewatering, drying and digesting. Ultimate disposal methods such as land farming and landfill were reviewed. Dick (1972); Ecken felder and Krenke} (1972). Pretreatment (2 weeks, 3 problems) The role of pretreatment on the operation of biological treatment such as activated sludge or aerated la goons is discussed. Detailed design procedures for equalization basins; neutralization; oil separators (API and CPI) ; and dissolved air flotation units. Adams and Eckenfelder (1974); Ford and Manning (1974). Tertiary Treatment (1 week, 2 problems) Biological nitrification-denitrification are review ed. Carbon adsorption and mixed-media filtration as effluent polishing steps are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the implications of EPA effluent cri teria on the selection of processes, design pro cedures, and effluent qualities obtainable in in dustrial operation. Adams and Eckenfelder 171

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(1974); Thackston and Eckenfelder (1974). Subsurface Disposal (1 hr lecture) The design and operation of underground disposal wells is reviewed including geology; economics; and the pro s and cons of subsurface versus surface treat ment. Donaldson (1974). Water Quality Standards (1hr lecture) BPCTCA: BA TEA: new source standards and 1985 "Zero Discharge" regulations are reviewed, while emphasizing their effect on current treat ment practices. Federal Register (1974). Source and Ambient Air Sampling (1 hr lecture) Procedures for stack sampling of particulates and gaseous procedures are reviewed with emphasis upon relevant case histories-isokinetic pro cedures for particulates, and analysis of SO 2, NOX and hydrocarbons. Crocker and Schnelle (1970) ; Hesketh (1972). Meteorology (2 weeks, 3 problems) Funda mentals of meteorology are presented, including mixing processes; DALR; atmospheric stability; Pasquill and Turner's classifications; dispersion models using Gaussian models; plume rise. Design case histories are used to illustrate calculation procedure s, including variations in ground-level concentration, time averaging, multiple stacks, etc. Crocker and Schnelle (1970); Schnelle and Noll (1972); Hesketh (1972). Removal of Particulates (2 weeks, 3 problems) The basic design criteria for particulate control with emphasis upon fundamental principles and mechanisms are reviewed. These principles are used to develop basic collector models, determine effects of dust size distributions, energy require ments, and optimal design criteria. Inertial separators (cyclones), filters, electrostatic precipi tators, and wet scrubbers are included. Crocker and Schnelle (1970); Byers and Licht (1974); Hesketh (1972). Control of S0 2 Emissions (1 week) Control of SO 2 emissions from combustion and process gasses by limestone / dolomite injection limestone and MgO slurry scrubbing, catalytic oxidation and alkaline scrubbing, and Claus recovery plants are discussed. Byers and Licht (1972). Incineration (2 weeks, 3 problems) Combustion fundamentals are reviewed, including fuel characteristics, fuel: air ratio, combustion temperature, heat transfer and mixing effects, effect of water vapor, heating value of fuels, speed of combustion, odor control by incineration and design methods for fluid bed and atomized suspen sion incinerators and for flares. Reed, R. D 172 (1973) ; Eckenfelder and Krenke} (1972). Hydrocarbon Losses; NOX Reduction (1 hour lecture, 1 problem) Methods of controlling NOX emissions such as low excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and inert in jection are reviewed. Sarofin a nd Bartok (1973). In-Plant Noise Control (1 week, 1 problem) An introduction to the nature of noise, health as pects, pollution economics, major nation a l sources, main concepts of in-plant noise (design versus ex ternal treatment), inplant noise legi s lation and basic physics of noise generation is presented. Kannapell and Seebold (1975). Air Standards, Environmental Impact Studies (1 lecture) We review federal legislation includ ing the Clean Air Act of 1970, establishment of national air quality sta ndard s, implementation plans and emission standards for new and exist ing sources. Environmental Impact Statements are discussed. Beychok (1973) ; Hesketh (1972). TYPICAL PROBLEMS THE MAJORITY OF C LASS TIME i s spent discussing design problems which are care fully formulated to reflect actual engineering practice. The students are not required to memorize typical operating conditions; but, hopefully they develop such engineering judg ment by working with realistic numbers. These problems illustrate how the student's basic ChE knowledge can be applied to pollution control. This teaching philosophy is illustrated below in typical problems. Biological Treatment In addition to designing activated sludge and aerated lagoons by conven tional methods (Adams and Eckenfelder, 1974) the students fit labor atory treatability data with 3 variations of the first order kinetics: thus dis covering the empirical nature of the assumed kinetic s Also if time permits, the students com pare Beychok's (1970) data on aerated lagoons with plug-flow and perfectly-mixed reactor models. They are s urpri sed to find that both models can fit the biological degradation data over the limited variation in residence time, etc. (Sop er et al, 1975). Neutralization Students plot the daily amounts of base required to neutralize an acid coke and chemicals wastewater (pH = 2.5) on probability paper. They test whether the daily requirements are normally distributed and learn what i s meant by designing for the 90 or 95 percentile. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Equalization Students plot the daily COD load from a typical (but hypothetical) refinery on probability paper. They then design an equaliza tion basin using Novotny and Englande's (1974) method which assumes random fluctuations. Class discussion compares the results of the Novotny and Englande method with a rigorous, numerical, computer solution. This shows how a major spill produces a non Gaussian distribution, and a l so indicates when Novotny and Englande's method should and should not be applied. signment is to criticize a very mislead i ng paper. S lud ge In ci n eratio n This i n cineration design in cludes comp l ete mass and energy balances; sizing combustion volume for a specified residence time; and specifying insulation Sludge atomization using steam is examined. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This course "Industrial Pollution Control" was made possible only by the advice, support, F or the p as t two yea r s "I ndustrial Pollution Control was t augh t via the Oklahoma Higher Education Te l ev i sed Instruction System-thu s allowing engineers from Conoco i n Ponca City and Phillips Petroleum in Bartlesville to participate. T his televised procedure made it possible to project printed pages on the TV receiving screens. Strip p ing Students first reconcile the design equations listed by Smith (Thackston and Ecken felder, 1972 p 140) with the standard ChE formulations for counter-current columns. They examine the relative magnitudes of the gas and liquid phase resistances. Finally the overwhelm ing effect of temperature on the feasibility of stripping is illustrated by sizing several towers. If time permits, Beychok's approach to high temperature, stripping of H 2 S NH 3 mixtures is discussed (API, 1969, revised chapter). At m osp h eric Dis p ersion Dispersion of SO 2 is estimated using the Pasquill and Turner approach. The estimates are repeated for multiple stacks and at least two plume-rise formulae. Finally the differences between continuous point sources and instantaneo u s "puff" sources are illustrated not by dwelling on the mathematical derivations but by working suitable examples. Students esti mate the dispersion coefficients thus emphasizing the uncertainties inherent in the final answers. If t i me permits, students estimate the ground con centration of H 2 S and / or mercaptan produced by releasing H 2 S and / or mercaptan from a safety re l ease valve. The resulting ground concentra tions are then compared with odor thresho l ds and EPA air quality standards. Flare Stack The design of a flare stack includes estimating potential carbon escape, steam demand for smoke suppression; sizing storage space for liquid knock-out facility; ground level radiant heat fluxes. Wherever possible students are in troduced to alternative (and somet i mes contra dictory) design rules-of thumb. In fact one asFALL 1975 and contrib u tions of many students, fac u lty, i n cluding adjuncts, indust ri al friends, and short course lecturers. The author regrets that space limitations prevent individual recognition; but special thanks are due Marion Buercklin (Sun Oil Company) and Leon Meyers (E P.A.) for serving as "foundi n g fathers." REFERENCES R ecom mended Texts Hesketh, H. E (1972), Understanding and Controlling Afr Pollution, Ann Arbor Scien ce Pub., Ann Arbor, Michigan Thackston, E L., and W W. Eckenfelder (1972), Pro cess D esign in Water Quality Eng inee ring, Jenkins Pub lishing Company, Austin, Texas. R efere n c e s Adams, C E., and W. W. Eckenfelder (1974), Pro cess D e sign T echni qu es for Indu st r ia l Wast e Tr eatment En viro Press, Nashville, Tennesse e. American Petroleum Institute, (1969), "Manual Disposal of Refinery Wastes Volume on Liquid Wastes," A. P. I., Washington, D. C Beychok M. R. (1970), "Performance of Surface Aerated Basins," Chemical Engineering Progress Symp. Series, No. 107 Vol. 67, p. 322. Beychok, M R. (1973) "Air Pollution Control Legislation, Tu l sa University Short Course Notes, January 15. Byers, R. L. and W. Licht, (1972), "Processes for Con trol of S0 2 Emissions," AIChE Advanced Seminar, AIChE, N. Y. Byers, R. L and W Licht, (1974), "Design Fundamentals of Particulate Collection for Air Pollution Control," AIChE Today Se r ies, AIChE, N. Y Crock e r, B. B. and K. B Schnelle, (1970), "Introduction (Continued on page 186.) 173

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SEPARATION PROCESSES : Particulate Systems And Column Operations B. J. McCOY University of California Davis, California 95616 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING 260 and 261 at UC Davis are each one quarter courses de signed to introduce graduate students ( and some seniors) to separation processes of particulate systems and column or cascade systems. Some students consider the courses as featuring appli cations of mass transfer, others, applications of mathematics. Some students hope to gain a deep er understanding for design of ChE unit opera tions, others desire a suitable background in a particular area so they may begin research or understand the research of others. In addition to these separate objectives the instructor hopes students in the courses are instilled with an ap preciation for the interaction and interdependence of these subjects: mathematics, transport phenomena, design, and research. Tables I and II show typical outlines of topics and lectures. These courses are not meant to over lap with other engineering courses at UC Davis, and therefore certain items are omitted that are adequately covered in the other courses. For the first course, a course in transport phenomena such as Section III in Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot [l], is pre-requisite; for the second, an additional pre requisite is a course in staged mass transfer ope rations. Some students consider the courses as featuring applications of mass transfer; others, applications of mathematics. Some hope to gain a deeper under standing for design of ChE unit operations, others desire a suitable background in a particular area so they can begin research or understand the research of others. 174 TABLE_ Outline of topics for ChE 260, Separation Processes: Particulate Systems 1. Membrane separations: colloid systems, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, problem of con centration polarization. 2. Distribution functions, population balances, moment equations. 3. Micro organisms; enzyme kinetics. 4. Birth, death, and fission kinetics. 5. Chemostat analysis: fermentation, activated sl udge, sterilization. 6. Crystallization, nucleation, zone refining. 7. Liquid-liquid systems: particle agglomeration and breakage. 8. Aerosol dynamics: Knudsen, transition, con tinuum regimes. 9. Molecular velocity distribution functions, kinetic equations, hydrodynamic equations, constitutive equations. 10. Drag and thermal forces on aerosols; pre cipitators. 11. Evaporation and growth of aerosols. PARTICULATE SYSTEMS BRIEFLY, THE FIRST COURSE is an analysis of particulate systems in, for example, pollu tion abatement and chemical process equip ment. Macromolecules, micro-organisms, colloids, crystals, and aerosols are discussed. Population balances and distribution functions are mathe matical concepts that tie the topics together and help maintain continuity. Variations of the classic ChE models, the plug flow and continuous stirred tank reactors, recur frequently as well. Usually ChE 260 begins with the membrane separations: reverse osmosis (hyper filtration), ultrafiltration, dialysis etc. The students inspect various membrane devices, and thermodynamics of osmotic pressure is reviewed ( e.g. van't Hoff equation). Flux equations for solvent or solute transfer through the membrane are based on principles of irreversible thermodynamics. The CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Benjamin J. McCoy received his B.S. degree from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and M S and Ph .D. degrees from the Uni versity of Minnesota (1967) He is presently an associate professor of chemical engineering at the University of California, Davis. His research interests are in rarefied gas phenomena molecular theory of chemical kinetics, enzyme engineering and separation processes role of concentration polarization is emphasized, and the film theory with rejection efficiency is introduced. We review correlations for mass trans fer coefficients in various configurations for laminar and turbulent flow. For example, we show the Leveque model provides an ana lytical path to the laminar-flow form of the relation between Sherwood and Peclet numbers and the diameter to length ratio [2] : Sh a Pe 1 1 3 ( d / x) 1 1 3 Techniques for increasing mass transfer and decreasing concentration polarization are dis cussed [3], including the effect of heating [4] and of pulsed operation [5]. For dewatering of cer tain food materials, the fluid is non-Newtonian. Thus the effect of the power law stress relation on transfer coefficients is studied [6] For a mathe matically more detailed description of the convec tive mass transfer in concentration polarization, the partial differential equations are written and solved by separation of variables [7]. The velocity profiles for the convective model are provided by the perturbation solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for the stream function [8]. Enzymes are macromolecules (proteins) that can be concentrated by ultra-filtration [9]. Their catalytic properties are first described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics, derived via the Briggs Haldane model [10]. Expressions for conversion of substrate in plug flow, batch and continuous stirred tank reactors are compared. R ate equa tions for various competitive reactions, as well as methods of data analyses, are developed. FALL 1975 Various immobilized-enzyme reactors are com pared. Rate equations for various competitive re actions, as well as methods of data analyses, are developed. Various immobilized-enzyme reactors are analyzed: for example, the differential equa tion for steady state diffusion and reaction of substrate in a porous spherical particle is solved for zeroth and first order kinetics due to an en zyme attached to the pore surfaces. Effectiveness factors are used to determine conversion for packed bed and slurry reactors of these porous particles [11]. Solubility and stability of proteins and colloids are discussed in terms of the electrical double lay er [12]. The Debye-Huckel theory, which makes use of diffusion-like differential equations for electrostatic potential, is reviewed for the activity coefficients of dissolved enzymes [13]. The equili brium theory of protein solubility shows how dis solved protein concentration depends on ionic strength [14]. Recent developments in affinity The first course is an analysis of particulate systems in, for example, pollution abatement and chemical process equipment. Macromolecules, micro-organisms, colloids, crystals and aerosols are discussed. Population balances and distribution functions are mathematical concepts that tie the topics together and help maintain continuity. chromatography to separate proteins are inter preted in terms of protein solubility in salt solu tions [15]. Microencapsulated enzyme is an example of the simplest model of a microorganism. Substrate diffuses through the encapsulating membrane to react with the entrapped enzyme. Monod kinetics for bacterial growth follow naturally, and are used to derive equations for the operation of the steady state chemostat. Brief mention is made of the chemostat's relation to fermentation, activated sludge, and sterilization processes. The diffusion field in and around a single spherica l cell is studied for zeroth and first order approximations to Mi chaelis-Menten kinetics inside the cell [16]. POPULATION BALANCE THE COMP ACT SECTION in Himmelblau and Bischoff [17] is followed closely to introduce and use population balance equations. A general 175

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Reynolds transport theor e m is used in this con text, and the population balance equation is shown to be a generalization of the more familiar multicomponent mass balance. Moment equations are derived from the equation for the population distribution function. A macroscopic equation for the average distribution is shown to have ob vious similarities with macroscopic equations in transport phenomena. The chemostat model for bacteria with time dependent mass is considered for special forms of birth, death, and fission terms. We briefly touch on problems of particle agglo meration and breakage in liquid-liquid systems. Crystallizer product size distributions for the "mixed suspension, mixed product removal" model are discussed. Reading from the book on particulate processe s by Randolph and Larson [18] is recommended. The basic picture of homo geneous nucleation with free energy depending on embryo size provides for a discussion of effects of supersaturation, interfacial tension, and critical cluster diameter [19 ] We also discuss a model of zone refining [20 ] The final major section of ChE 260 is based on rarefied gas transport phenomena and aerosol systems. First, the three rarefied gas regimes are defined: the Knudsen, tran s ition, and continuum regimes with, respectively, the mean free path 'A much greater than, about the same as, or much less than the characteristic geometrical length L, e.g., the particle diameter. We note qualitatively different phenomena are exhibited in the extreme regimes, but that a gradual transition bridges be tween. This is compared to sharp qualitative leaps between regimes of other phenomena, e.g. phase changes, or laminar-turbulent transition. All this is to emphasize physical laws have limits: mathe matical equations fail to describe physical reality outside the range of the model's application Because it appears in so many contexts, the equation for flux of molecules to a surface in free-molecule (Knudsen) flow is carefully de veloped. j = p /v' 21rmkT This equation is related to effusion, catalyst pore diffusion, the Knudsen vapor pressure cell, therm al transpiration, and deposition and evaporation at the surface of a particle-all processes in the Knudsen regime. Condensation and accommoda tion coefficients are defined. Knudsen regime for mulas for heat transfer from a sphere, and for drag on a sphere are presented (reference is made to Kogan's book [21] for details). 176 The continuum gas regime is next treated where intermolecular collisions dominate entirely over molecule / wall collisions. The Boltzmann kinetic equation is shown to have the same general form as population balance equations. The velocity distribution function has moments related to the observable mass density velocity, and tempera ture of the gas. The moment equations are the point (hydrodynamic) equations of change. We introduce the simple relaxation (Krook) form of the intermolecular collision operator [22] and use the Chapman-Enskog technique to derive New ton's law of stress with viscosity coefficient, /L e = T c P and Fourier's law of heat conduction with thermal conductivity coefficient, 5 k K c= 2 m T c P in terms of the collision time r c pressure p, molecular mass m, and Boltzmann's constant k. The subscript c indicates the continuum limit. We treat the transition regime by assuming that the collision frequency is the sum of col lision frequencies of molecule / wall and molecule / molecule collisions [23] : 1 = _1 + 1 __ T T K T c Such a hypothesis leads to transport coefficients obeying a well-known expression; e.g. for the viscosity, 1 1 1 -=+ /L /L K /L e The second course concerns the analysis and design of separation processes in columns or cascaded systems: distillation, leaching, extraction, adsorption, chromatography, absorption. Applied mathematics is a prominent aspect of the course including finite difference equations, probability and random walk theories, method of characteristics, and moment analysis. Expressions for fluxes cl> are usually of prime im portance; we show that 1 cI> / cI> c = 1 + GK where K = 'A / L is the Knudsen number and G depends on geometr y and molecular accommoda tion. Further, GK = cl> c/ cl> K = /J.c/,uK = T c/ T K CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE II Outline of topics for ChE 261, Separation Processes: Column Operations 1. Finite difference equations applied to stage d operations: distillation extraction, leaching, absorption. Derivation of Smoker, Fenske, and Kremser equations. 2. Rate processes in column operations: transfer unit analysis and unified design method for continuo u s contractors. 3. Axial dispersion: Taylor, random walk, other models. 4 Equilibrium theory of chromatography: bi nomial Poisson, and Gaussian probability functions. 5. Breakthrough curve analysis: Goldstein function, Parex process. 6. Method of characteristics for so:vi ng first order partial differential equations: chroma tography, parametric pumping. 7. Moment analysis of pulse response experi ments: adsorption, gas-liquid partition, gel permeation chromatography. Hermite poly nomial representation of elution curves. 8 C hromato grap hy resolution and optimization. so that quite simple formulas describe the transi tion regime, formulas that are easily constructed if one knows the continuum and Knudsen flux expressions [23]. Transition range formulas are developed for heat and mass transport near a sphere, and drag on a sphere. The well-known Maxwell equation for evaporation or growth of a droplet is derived for simultaneous heat and mass transport [24]. Remarkably, when transi tion range diffusion and heat conductivity co efficients are inserted into the Maxwell formula, one obtains preci ely the same equation derived by Fukuta and Walters [24] by quite a different approach. COLUMN OPERATIONS THE SECOND COURSE concerns the ana l ysis and design of separation processes in columns or cascaded systems: distillation, leaching, ex traction, adsorption, chromatography, absorption. Applied mathematics is a prominant aspect of the course, including finite difference equations, probability and random walk theories, method of characteristics, and moment analysis via Laplace transformation. The emphasis is on mathematics as a reflection of the physical world, and the usefulness (or necessity) of the derived equations for design of equipment is continually noted. The FALL 1975 students in ChE 261 are asked to purchase King's Separation Processes [25], from which numerous reading and problem assignments are made. We begin with the calculus of finite differences applied to staged units [26]. Analytical methods for solving difference equations are compared to methods for differential equations. Murphrey efficiencies are included in the analysis of systems whose equilibrium can be described by a linear relation or by a constant separation factor (rela tive volatility). The Smoker, Fenske, and Kremser equations are derived, and a host of problems of industrial interest are solved for homework. Depending on the interests of the students, we have sometimes treated multicomponent distilla tion for constant relative volatility systems. Here, matrix methods and computer techniques are discussed [24]. We review the analysis of two-phase separa tions controlled by int erphase mass transfer when longitudinal dispersion can be ignored [1]. The resulting expression for number of transfer units (NTU) is related to height equivalent to a theoretical stage (HETP). Descriptive notions of longitudinal dispersion in columns are introduced. The Danckwerts boundary conditions for a finite-length column are derived following the simple, yet general treatment by Bischoff [28]. A unified design method for continuous-contact mass transfer operations unifies a large class of operations with dispersion [29]. Following Feller [30], we introduce the probability concepts of binomial distribution and Bernoulli trials. The Poisson and normal Gaussian distributions are treated as approximat ions to the binomial distributions. The first and second moments of the three distributions are derived and compared. We follow King's treatment [25] of the inter mittent carrier flow model for equilibrium stages, to get the binomial distribution of sol ute among stages. We use a generating function method [30] to obtain the Poisson distribution solution to the difference-differential equation for the continuous flow equilibrium-stage model of chromatographic separators. From the Gaussian approximation we extend this analysis to develop the relations for the equilibrium model of chromatography. We also use the generating function method to analyze a breakthrough curve for a cascade of equilibrium stages. One-dimensional random walk theory is used 177

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in the conventional manner to derive the diffusion equation, a c D a 2 c ~a x 2 A solution for a delta function initial condition is derived by means of the gaussian approximation to the binomial distribution [31 ]. This solution is used as a Green's function to get superposition solutions for several other initial conditions [32 ] This material is then related to the convected dispersion problem in a tube, and conditions for the Peclet number are derived under which a chromatographic output curve is gaussian with respect to time [33]. Related topics, such as Fourier transform solutions, Brownian motion, and the Einstein formula for diffusion coefficients, have been dealt with in some years, depending on available time and student interest. There is considerable interest ... in using dynamic response methods (e.g. pulse response) to quantify parameters in a range of systems: packed-bed and slurry catalytic reactors, kidneys, distillation columns, chicken lungs, etc. TREATMENT OF DISPERSION W E NEXT TREAT dispersion in a more thorough manner by means of the Taylor Aris model via the moment analysis of convec tion and diffusion [34]. Some other models and correlations of data are discussed [35-39]. The Goldstein J-function solution for the non dispersed fir s t order partial differential equations for breakthrough curves is derived by Laplace transforms [40]. The discussion of this model and the graphical presentation of the solution by Hougen and Watson [41] is noted. The application to the Parex adsorption process for recovering p-xylene from its mixtures with other C s hydro carbons is discussed [ 42]. We also consider ion exchange processes. The method of characteristics is also useful for time-dependent problems when diffusion effect s can be ignored. Simple chromatograph y [35] and parametric pumping [ 43 ] are analyzed b y this method. There is considerable interest in our depart ment in using dynamic response methods (e.g. 178 pulse response) to quantify parameters in a range of systems: packed-bed and slurry catalytic re actor s, kidneys, distillation columns, chicken lungs, etc. The method is introduced by a pulse response analysis of an open tube; for the con centration c(t,x) we have = V __Q._ + D a 2 c at ax ax 2 The equation is Laplace transformed, and the resulting ordinary differential equation is solved for c (s,x). From the definition of the transformed concentration, c (s,x), we prove that 00 lim d k c f s~o dsk = (-l) k t k cdt, 0 where the integral is the kth moment. Therefore, we can take limits of derivatives of the solution, c (s,x), to relate the statistical moments to the parameters of the system. The moments may be calculated from experimental response data, and parameters evaluated. The technique is extended to breakthrough curve analysis (response to a step function input), and to frequency analysis (response to a sinusoidal input). Considerable effort is put into the moment treatment of adsorption chromatography [44], of which (gel) permeation chromatography is the special case when adsorption is negligible. Ad sorption (or a linear chemical reaction) may occur at the pore s urfaces of porous particles in packed columns. Pore diffusion, interparticle mass transfer, and axial dispersion all play a role. Ex pressions of moments and methods of getting in formation out of pulse response data are pre sented [45, 46 ] Since an output pulse is often nearly gaussian, hermite polynomials are defined and used to re construct the output curve in terms of moments, and thus in terms of system parameters [47]. For the separation of two solutes with gaussian out puts, a resolution criterion is defined for their separation, and optimization with regard to column length and operating velocity is discussed [48]. This approach has the advantage that con siderable semi-empirical knowledge can be or ganized by one comprehensive method. The op timization is extended to apply to product value, and equipment and operatini costs [48]. We point out the same methods can be applied to capillary chromatograph y or partition chromatography. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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... students in the courses are instilled with an appreciation for the interaction and interdependence of mathematics, transport phenomena, design, and research ... The emphasis is on mathematics as a reflection of_ the physical world, and the usefulness of the derived equations for design of equipment is continually noted. CONCLUDING REMARKS O UR EXPERIENCE INDICATES considerable material can be covered in the two 30-lecture quarters if tedious algebraic manipulations on the blackboard are kept to a minimum. Such manipulations are often assigned as homework so students may gain familiarity with the mathe matical symbols and their meaning in terms of the physical world. Lecture notes are frequently xeroxed and handed out, so lectures emphasize concepts and conclusions. Many of the papers referenced here are assigned reading, to bring students up to the frontiers of research. D REFERENCES 1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, and E N. Lightfoot, Tran sport Ph enomena, Wil ey, New York, 1960. 2. Knudsen, J. G., and D. L. Katz, Fluid Dynami cs and Heat Transf er, McGraw-Hill, N. Y. 1958. 3 Kennedy, T J., L. E. Monge, B. J. McCoy, R. L. Merson, AIChE Symposium Series, 69 (132), 81 (1973). 4. Monge, L. E., B. J McCoy, R. L. M erso n, J. Food Sci. 38, (!33 (1973). 5 Kennedy; T. J., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, Chem. Eng. Sci. 29 1927 (1974). 6 Skelland, A. H. P., Non-Newtonian Flo w and He at T ransfer Wiley, N. Y. (1967). 7 Sherwood, T. K., P. L. T. Brian, R. E. Fisher, L Dresner, I. E. C. Funds. 4, 113 (1965). 8. Berman, A. S., J. Appl. Phy s 24, 1232 (1953). 9. Carbonell, R. G., M D. Kostin, A.I.Ch.E. J. 18, 1 (1972). 10. Aiba, S A. E. Humphrey, N. F. Millis, Bioch emica l Engineering, Acad e mic Press, N. Y. 1965. 11. Marrazzo, W N R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, Biotech. Bioeng to be published 12. Shaw, D J., Introdu ction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Butterworths, London, 1966. 13. Tanford, C., Phy sica l Chemistry of Macromolecules, Wiley, N. Y., 1961. 14. Cohn, E. J ., J. T. Edsall, Prot eins, Amino Acids, and P eptides, Hafner Publishing Co N. Y., 1965. FALL 1975 1 5 Morrow, R. M., R. G Carbonell, B. J. McCoy, Bio tech Bioeng. to be published. 16. Rashevsky, N ., Mathematical Biophysics, Vol. I, 3rd Ed., Dover, N. Y 1960 17. Himmelblau D. M. K. B. Bischoff, Proce ss Analysis and Simulation, Wil ey, N. Y., 1968. 18. Randolph, A. D M A. Larson, Th eory of Particulate Proces ses Acad emic Press, 1971. 1 9 Abraham, F. F. H omogeneous Nucleation Theory, Academic, N. Y. 1974. 20. Hudgins, R. R., Chem. Eng. Educ. 5, 138 (1971). 21. Kogan, M. N., Rarefied Gas Dynamic s, Plenum Press, N. Y. 1969. 22. Vinc e nti, W G., C H. Kruger, Jr., Introduction to Physical Gas Dyna mics, Wiley, N. Y., 1965. 23 McCoy, B. J., C. Y. Cha, Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 381 (1974). 24. Fukuta, N., L. A. Walter, J. Atmos. Sci 27 1160 (1970). 25 King, C J., Separation Pro cesses, McG r aw-Hill, N. Y., 1971. 26. Marshall, W R., R. L Pigford, Applications of Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering Problems, U. Delaware P ress, Newark (1947). 27. Amundson, N. R., Mathematical Methods in Ch emica l Engineering, Prentice-Hall, N. J., 1966. 28. Bischoff, K. B., Chem. Eng. Sci 16, 131 (1961) 29. Pavlica, R. T., J. H. Olson, IEC 62, 45 (1970) 30 Fell er W., An Introd uction to Probability Theory and It s Applications, 2nd Ed., Wiley, N. Y., 1950. 3 1. Chandrasekhar, S., Rev. Mod. Phys. 15, 1 (1943); in Noise and Stochastic P rocesses, Ed. N. Wax, Dover, 1954. 3 2. Crank, J., Th e Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford, London, 1956. 33 Lev e lspiel, 0., W. K. Smith, Chem Eng. Sci. 6, 227 (1957). 34. Friedly, J. C Dynamic Beha vior of P r ocesse s, Prentice-Hall, N. J., 1972. 35 Aris, R., N. R. Amundson, A.I.Ch E J. 3, 280 (1957). 36. Bischoff, K. B., 0. Levelspiel, Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 245 (1962). 37. de Ligny, C. L., Chem. Eng. Sci. 25 1177 (1970). 3 8 Gunn, D J., T ra ns. Instr. Chem. Engrs. 47, T351 (1969). 39. Wilhelm, R. H., J. Pure Appl. Chem. 5, 403 (1962). 40. Aris, R., N. R. Amundson, Mathematical M ethods in Chemical Engineering, Vol. II, Prentice-Hall, 1973. 41. Houg en, 0. A., K. M. Watson, Chemical Process Prin ciples Vol. III, Wiley, N. Y., 1947. 42 Broughton, D. B., R. W. Neuzil, J. M. Pharis, C. S. Brearley, Chem. Eng. Prag. 66, (9), 71 (1970). 43. Pigford, R. L., D. Baker, D. E Blum, IEC Funds. 8, 144 (1969). 44. Kucera, K., J. Chromatog. 19, 237 (1965). 45. Schneider, P., J. M. Smith, A. I. Ch. E. J. 14, 762 (1968). 46. M e hta, R V R. L. Merson B. J. McCoy, A.I.Ch.E. J 19, 1068 (1973). 47. Mehta, R V., R. L. Merson, B. J. McCoy, J. Chroma tog. 88, 1 (1974). 48. Carbonell, R. G., B. J. McCoy, J. Chem Eng ., in press. 179

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ADMINISTRATION OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL PERSONNEL JOSEPH A. POLACK Louisiana State Uni v ersity Baton Roug e Louisiana 70803 E NGINEERS ARE TRAINED to deal with ob jective things-with variables that are governed by physical laws. Many of us were in fact attracted to engineering because of the elegant predictability of the material and scien tific world. The slide rule was our trademark, and now the pocket electronic calculator permits multi-digit precision in our calculations. But when it comes to matters involving people, we enter into a non-calculable, subjective, often unpre dictable world. If it is governed by laws at all, these are largely unknown, and certainly have little to do with logic. Rather, the world of people is characterized by wide individual differences, and by unquantifiable and emotional factors seemingly designed to make engineers uncom fortable. Surely, we are largely untrained in these matters. Yet engineers are people, they do have feelings, and they do behave unpredictably, just like other people. Also, whether they like it or not, engineers encounter human problems all the time; certain ly they do in their employment situations. Fur ther, if they are managers, their professional success depends in large measure on their human relations skills. Yet most engineers have not had a day's training in dealing with "people" prob lems. But that's where the action is, and that's where the opportunities for the future are. So that's why we feel it's appropriate to give some attention to this important side of engineering training, and offer this introductory course. Consider the following: We can send men to the moon, but we haven't learned to solve the traffic problems in our cities and on our campuses. We know how to build a nuclear power plant-but we don't know whether to build them. 180 Professor Polack has been Head of the Chemical Engineering Department at L. S. U. since 1970 After receiving the Sc.D. from M I. T. in 1948, he spent 22 years with the Exxon Corporation in a variety of technical and managerial posts. From 1966 to 1970, he was Director of the Esso Research Laboratories (now Exxon Research and Development Laboratories) in Baton Rouge. We know how to drill for offshore oil, but not whether to drill for it. We come up with a slick solution to a technical problem, but we are unable to persuade our bosses to implement it. The successful engineer of tomorrow must learn to deal with these human problems. The fact of the matter is that many, if not most, engineers reach the peak of their technical sophis tication while they are in school. Only a small percentage (primarily those who remain in academe) will ever be faced with problems as technically difficult as those given in a typical Ph.D. qualifying exam. But most will face very perplexing human, management and political problems that they are poorly equipped to deal with. INTRODUCING MANAGEMENT A MAJOR PURPOSE of this graduate course is to introduce the engineer to the human and organizational problems of the manager and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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to give some hints as to how these problems might be approached. Another important purpose of the course is to introduce the engineer to the body of knowledge which exists in the field of manage ment and human relations. There are principles of management, even if they seem to be proven as much by exception as by rule. Surely they are inexact in comparison to the laws of science. What is hoped is that this introduction will capture the interest of the students so that they will continue to read in the management and human relations areas. There is definitive literature in the field and it is an appropriate subject for scholarly study, rudimentary though the science of manage ment may be. Finally, the course provides some opportunity for the st udent to gain some knowledge of self and others by his participation in the case discussions which take up the bulk of the classroom time. COURSE ORGANIZATION THE COURSE IS DESIGNED to proceed from the familiar to the less familiar. At the start, we discuss what a business is, and what impact management's philosophy has on its conduct. From this we proceed to look at various models of organizational structure from the simple pyra mid to modern matrix or multi-dimensional struc tures. Some of the principles of organizational theory, i.e., the concepts of span of control, unity of command, and delegation of authority are de scribed; and case studies bring out the human problems and frustrations which arise from mis understanding of these theories and philosophical concepts. The next block of study has to do with moti vation, morale, and leadership. Research findings of Mayo, Maslow, McGregor and others are used as basis for understanding a wide variety of hu man conflicts and problems. Here, too, case his tories, drawn from the literature as well as the experience of the instructor provide the material for classroom work. Both individual and group interactions are studied. Finally attention is centered on specific management activities including communicat ion s, counselling, performance appraisal, training and the like. A detailed outline is shown in Table I. CASE STUDY FORMAT THE STUDENT IS expected to do outside reading and also prepares a term paper, discussed further below. The class period itself (one and a half hours twice a week) is given over almost ex clusively to discussion. The lecture technique is TABLE I Abbreviated Outline of Course A. Introduction Management as a Profession Philosophies of Management B. Organizational Structures; Theory and Practice Functional, Federal, Matrix Structures, etc. Traditional Principles of Organization: Span of Control, Unity of Com mand, etc. Delegation of A uthority C. Motivation and Leadership Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y Development of Participation Management of Change D. Group Processes and Social Environments The Individual in the Organization Scientific and Technical Employees 1st Line Supervision Communications Processes A ppraisal and Incentives E. Overview: Factors in Above Outline all Interact Simultaneously. So the Sequence Shown i s one of Convenience Rather than Logic. rarely used, except for an occasional guest lec ture on a special topic. The reason is that the specific factual information covered is easily ob tained by the student from his textbook and other sources. To learn about human relations and prob lems involving people, one must experience the differences of opinion and feelings that can arise. This is best done through classroom discussion, role playing and other experiential techniques. The case method is the principal study method used in this course. During the semester, fifteen When it comes to matters involving people, we enter into a non-calculable, subjective, often unpredictable world. If it is governed by laws at all, these are largely unknown, and certainly have little to do with logic. Rather, the world of people is characterized by wide individual differences, and by unquantifiable and emotional factors seemingly designed to make engineers uncomfortable. FALL 1975 181

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or twenty different cases are considered by the class. Following are some examples of cases covered: A manager bypasse s a supervisor and deals directly with a staff engineer on a rush job. As a result, foundations for a new compressor are poured be fore it is disco vered that the compressor specified is not available. Strained relationships result among various organizational groups. The maintenance department reduces janitorial service. So the s upervi sor in an engineering group asks the secretary to dust the conference table and de sks every day. Two weeks later, s he resigns, stating that her husband has been transferred to another city. But severa l ~eeks after that, the supervisor sees her shoppi ng in a local supermarket, and di scovers that she has another local job. A small company, in which the president is in close contact with the first line supervisors, is ex tremely successful an d expands rapidly. Mounting problem s of production require that the president bring in a new plant manager and an efficiency ex pert. Midnight one Saturday night the front line supervisors storm into the president's office, de manding that he get rid of the new supervisory employees. The above vignettes are of necessity quite abbreviated, as the cases include much more de tail. In the classroom discussion, each person is encouraged to express his view on the situation presented. It is quite amazing to hear the many different views that are brought forth on what seem to be simple problems-but aren't. The role of the instructor is to keep the discussion open in order to generate as many options as possible, and then to aid the students in seeing advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. A major purpose ... is to introduce the engineer to the human problems of the manager and to give some hints as to how these problems might be approached ... and to introduce the engineer to the body of knowledge .. in the field of management and human relations. In human relations problems, there are no "right" answers. What we try to develop is either approaches and / or solutions which can lead to better outcomes for all participants in a situation. The underlying thesis is that by working the "people" problems, the manager then makes it possible for individuals to work the "work" prob lems. (Too often, we tend to work the technical problems and ignore the "people" problems.) 182 WRITING, SPEAKING AND READING EACH STUDENT WRITES a term paper which accounts for about 40 % of his grade. A variety of topics are suggested, but the students are free to select topics of their own. Many of them do. TABLE II Typical Term Paper Topics Motivation and Cr eativity The Informal Organization Elimination of Job Boredom Group Dynamics-T Groups Management of a Non-Profit Organization Co nformity Communications Problems in Large Organizations Organization of a National Pizza C hain A ppraising Personnel Performance Table II lists some of the titles students have selected in recent years. The student is expected to make full use of the literature. He is en couraged to express his own opinions, but must document what he says with examples and / or reference to authority. Performance of students on these papers varies, depending largely on the amount of time they spend. Sometimes, a student gets deeply interested in a subject and does a spectacularly good job. For example, one student did a study on creativity, which itself was most creative and, in the instructor's opinion, worthy of being the starting point for some substantial original work. Some students who are industrially employed make studies of their own company organizations, using the insights they have gained from the course. If the class is small enough, the students give oral reports on their term papers. While guest speakers are not extensively used, speakers from the Psychology and Speech de partments have been quite effective in lecturing and leading discussions on communications and human interactions. Such speakers introduce variety and help to give the students an apprecia tion of the talent available in the university com munity in fields other than engineering. The textbook used is "Human Behavior at Work" subti tled "Human Relations and Organi zational Behavior" by Keith Davis (McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, 1972). There are many texts dealing with this subject and the choice is a matter of the individual instructor's preference. All of the texts basically cover the same material (just like CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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various texts on thermodynamics). I like the Davis text because it is comprehensive, the ma terial is well documented, and it is written in a readable, interesting way. Also, each chapter has case studies for use in class, and there is an ex cellent collection of cases which comprise the appendix to the book. In addition, the students are given a reading list (see Table III) and are encouraged to read on their own. To keep them honest, they are quizzed on certain specific reading assignments during the term. The reading list is liberally supplemented by reprints of articles from journals such as the Harvard Business Review. THE STUDENTS O NLY GRADUATE STUDENTS may take this course. Many are part-time students who are currently employed by local industry. By offering the course in the early evening, we make it easy for such students to attend after work. This is an ideal group of students. Having experienced some of the vicissitudes of industrial organiza tional life, they readily recognize the reality of the case studies. They are eager to participate in the discussions, for they feel that the ma terial is directly relevant to their day-to-day work. The students learn from each other, and the instructor learns from them, too. Most of the full-time students have usually had at least sum mer employment in industry, and they, too, take an active part. On the other hand, it is somewhat more difficult for a totally inexperienced student to participate in and thereby benefit from the course. My own feeling is that undergraduates could benefit by some exposure to this subject matter. TABLE III Excerpts from Reading List Drucker, P.-The Practice of Management The Concept of the Corporation McGregor, D.-The Human Side of the Enterprise Greenewalt, C.-The Uncommon Man Argyris, C.-Personality and Organization Likert, R.-New Patterns in Management The Human Organization Whyte W. H.-The Organization Man The Harvard Business Review Publications of the Amer ican Management Association FALL 1975 However, for undergraduates I would recommend a different course design-one which would thrust the student into an experiential situation Some sort of simulation of a real work problem would, I think, be necessary for the student to really ap preciate the feelings which are engendered in such situations. SUMMARY In summary, the major challenges facing the engineer of tomorrow are as much nontechnical as technical. This c ~ mrse introduces the engineer ing graduate student to the body of knowledge which exists in the management and human rela tions field and hopefully provides him with some insight into dealing with problems in these im portant areas. People have a tremendous poten tial for achievement, and the modern corporation is a remarkable device for accomplishment of high purposes. Progressive managers concentrate on helping people to fulfill their own aims and to achieve a greater proportion of their potential. In this way, organizational achievement can be maximized. ti Na book reviews Fundamentals and Modeling of Separation Proc esses, Absorption, Distillation, Evaporation, and Extraction. By Charles D. Holland Prentice-Hall. 430 pages. Reviewed by Verle N. Schrodt, Monsanto Agri cultural Products Company. When asked to review this book I agreed to do so without remembering that I had reviewed an other of Dr. Holland's books some 11 or 12 years ago. This previous work, "Unsteady State Proc esses with Applications in Multicomponent Dis tillation" was quite good but had a somewhat mis leading title since it was only concerned with dis tillation. I thought perhaps this one would be equally good and would really cover other proc esses and would be fun to read so I went ahead with the review. The book was a pleasure to read. It covers the fundamentals of the four named basic separations (Continued on page 191.) 183

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TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING H.P. SCHREIBER AND M. RIGAUD Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Quebec, Canada T HE FULL TITLE of the course is "Tech nological Forecasting : An Aid to Decision Making." It is a one trimester course (13 weeks) offered to graduate students in engineering and open to extension service students. The existence of this course reflects our view of the technological age for which we are training graduate engineers. That view accepts the role of the engineer in in dustry, business or in the public service, as an expert technologist, as a prime agent for tech nological innovation, for technology transfer from pilot to full production scale, and so on. It also recognizes that we live in an era of unprecedent ed concern for the husbanding of natural re sources, for the protection of public and en vironmental safety and for the economic and so cietal consequences of technology and its spread ing use. Further, it considers the engineering graduate and more particularly the holder of Masters or Doctoral degrees as a decision maker who will function in that capacity at a very early stage of a professional career. It is no longer reasonable however, to make decisions on tech nological matters without taking into account the possible economic, societal, environmental and political motivations for these decisions and in turn, the impact of the decisions on these inter related factors. Our course is designed to in troduce the graduate engineer to the complex interactions between technological and the non technological factors noted above and to create in him an awareness of the complex crossimpacts which must be weighed in the decision-making process. In short, we hope to give him a balanced preparation for the complex roles which he will in all probability, be asked to perform in the course of a professional career. The growing discipline of technological fore184 casting (TF) appears to offer a suitable vehicle for coping with the intellectual problems outlined above. In recent years TF has become a staple of planning groups in business and government. Such professional organizations as the Hudson Institute, the Stanford Research Institute, Boston Consulting Group, etc have become widely recognized spokesmen for the importance of this planning aid. Though far from a precise discipline, TF has now taken on some aspects of analytic science (1-8) and has been the subject of train ing courses offered mainly to executives in in dustry and government We believe there is a need in the graduate engineering curriculum for a view of this evolving discipline, in a version which stresses the analytic concepts of data analysis and trend extrapolation, and which particularly stresses application of TF methods to situations relevant to regional and national needs touching upon technology. We are not alone in this belief; to give a few examples, J. H. Hal lomon, of M.I.T.'s Center for Policy Alternatives, has recently urged universities to act as focal points for the development of skills in techno logical planning, technology assessment and in evaluating the impact of technology on those who should use it (9). The widewing concern in En gineering faculties over the functions and power of Technology Assessment offices, has led to Symposia on this complex topic (10). To the best of our knowledge, however, our just-completed exposure (winter 1975) of the TF course makes the first formal appearance of this "soft" discipline in an approved curriculum. COURSE CONTENT The TF course is divided into three main sec tions and a complementary fourth part: Background: In this first three-week segment, the philosophic basis for planning disciplines is laid down. Mathematical principles of data analysis, elements of probability functions and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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games theory are introduced. Particular stress is laid on the character of linear and exponential growth. Examples of the latter mode were drawn from the Club of Rome Study on the Limits of Growth (11). The Tools of TF: The second segment (four weeks) is devoted to a consideration of major practical approaches to the technological planning function. Intuitive, huristic and normative methods of forecasting are outlined. Major ap proaches considered in detail include: trend extrapolation Delphi interrogation structured interview relevance tree construction substitution theory input, output tabulation scenario writing As a course guide here, we have used J. R. Bright's A Brief Int roduction to Technology Fore casting (Pemaquid Press, Austin Texas, 1972), but emphasis was placed in case histories drawn from published reports of Institutes s uch as Stan ford Research, Battelle, etc. TF & Planning Workshop: The third and major portion of the course is 6 weeks long with addi tional consultation sessions arranged between instructors and students. The students were divid ed into working teams (5-6 individuals per team), each team selecting a topic on which they would develop a scenario depicting the future techno logical status (5-10 years away) of the industry relating to the topic. The scenario had to con sider various non-technological options, such as a surprise-free future, major changes in political, environmental or social attitudes toward a given section of technology, the resource base from which the industries must operate, etc. A major need was to identify threats to opportunities for existing technology and innovative technology respectively, and to identify events in the fore cast span which could be used as signa ls as to the validity (or non-validity) of the planning forecast. The completed scenario was used as the solo source for determining each student's standing in the course. Supplementary Lectures: A group of lectures (four in the 1975 term) given by invited senior spokesmen from industries and governments, deal ing with special aspects of technology planning, its management, transfer and assessment, com plemented the formal content of the course. FALL 1975 Though inevitably only loosely interconnected, the lectures served their purpose in providing in sight into the role of technology and of the en gineer in various occupational spheres and at various career stages. INITIAL COURSE EVALUATION WE ARE UNDER NO illusion as to the hazards involved in presenting a course of this type to engineering students, and as to the difficulty in deciding on the content and methods of pre senting the material. We have much to learn but are pleased with the response obtained in our first year of operation. It was evident that the engineering students (about 2 / 3 of a total of 23-the remainder had backgrounds in economics and business adminis tration) initially approached the subject with misgivings and were distinctly cool about the ultimate value of the course to their fund of knowledge. Matters began to change noticeably in the second portion of the course ; the case Our view of the technological age recognizes we live in an era of unprecedented concern for husbanding natural resources, for the protection of public and environmental safety and for the economic and societal consequences of technology and its spreading use. examples involved here ranged from "classical" illustrations of substitution theory (steamship technology replacing sail, jet engines replacing piston plants, etc.) to analyses and extrapolations of the development of computer technology, and Delphi-based statements on the future competi tion between audio-visual communication methods and public transportation (both long and short distance). In each of these examples, further evidence was presented to support the thesis that technological growth patterns can be categorized, that to some degree the technology of the future can be planned for and controlled. Consequently, the students began to comprehend their role as future coordinators of the multidisciplinary pres sures upon and arising from their activities in the technological sphere. The work-shop section was enthusiastically accomplished, notwithstanding the fact that the average time input far exceeded the formally 185

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scheduled period of 18 hours. Scenarios were pro duced on: Evolution of steel-making technology (19752000) The competitive balance between the steel and plastics industry in 1985. Plastics recycle technology in 1985. The final results lack the authority and balanced viewpoints of professional reports. They are by no means academic exercises, however, and have provided some interesting insights into the future stance of industries important to the re gional and national economies. Beyond any doubt the authors have a truer view of the nature of these industries and of the environment in which they will probably be operating during the students' working careers. We believe that as a result of this training, this group may accommo date more quickly to the realities of the in dustrial and business worlds; and thus make their presence felt to their benefit and to the benefit of society in general. REFERENCES 1. E. Jantsch, Technological Forecasting in Perspective O.E.C.D. Paris (1967). 2. J. R. Bright and M. E. F. Schoeman, A Guide to Practical Technological Forecasting. Prentice-Ha-II (1973). 3. A. T. Olenzak: "Technological Forecasting: A PragPOLLUTION CONTROL: Manning Continued from page 173. to Air Pollution Control," A.I.Ch.E. Today Series, AIChE, N. Y. Dick, R. I., (1972), "Sludge Treatment," Chapter 12 in Physicochemical Processes, W. J. Weber, Jr., Ed. Wiley Inte rscience, N. Y. Donaldson, E. C., (1974), "Subsurface Waste Injection in the U.S.," U.S.B.M. Information Circular 8636. Eckenfelder, W. W., and P. Krenke!, (1972), "Advanced Wastewater Treatment," AIChE Today Series, AIChE, N.Y. Federal Register ( 197 4), "Petroleum Refining Point Source Category," Vol. 39, No. 91, May 9, p. 1655916575. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, (1967), "The Cost of Clean Water: Industrial Waste Profile No. 5, Petroleum Refining," Washington, D. C. Ford, D. L. and F. S. Manning, (1974), "Oil Removal from W astewaters," Presented at Short Course, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, Nov. 111 5 Kannapell, P. A. and J. G. Seebold, (1975), "Introduction to Noise Control in the Prncess Industries," AIChE Today Series, AIChE, N. Y. also Seebold's T. U. Short Course Notes, October 1974. 186 H. P Schreiber graduated with B .Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Univer sity of Manitoba and obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto. Following post-doctoral work at N.R.C. Ottawa, he joined Canadian Industries Ltd. in 1955, and served until 1973 as research chemist, Research Scientist and Group Leader, concentrating on polymer. He is Professor of ChE Ecole Polytechnique. Dr Rigaud is a graduate of Ecole Polytechniqu e, Montreal, and holds bachelors, masters and Ph .D. degrees from that Institution in metallurgical engineering. Until 1974 Chairman of the Metallurgical Engineering Department, he is currently Associate Director for Research at Sid bec-Dosco Contrecouer matic Approach" Chem. Eng. Progress (No. 6) p. 27 (1972). 4. D. M. Kiefer "Chemicals 1992" Chem. and Eng. News, July 10, 1972 (p 6). 5. H. Kahn and Bruce-Briggs: "Things to Come, Thinking about the 70's and 80's ." MacMillan, New York (1972). 6. R. U. Ayers, Technological Forecasting and Long Range Planning. McGraw Hill, N Y. (1966). 7. J.P. Martino, An Introduction to Technological Fore casting. Gordon and Breach (1972). 8. J. P. Martino, Technological Forecasting for De cision Making. American Elsevier, N. Y. (1972). 9. J. H. Hallomon "Technology and the Productive Pro cess" Lecture, Sloan School of Management, M.I.T. June (1974). 10. 1974 Engineering seminar conference on Technology Assessment. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1974). 11. D. Meadows, Donnella Meadows, J. Randers, W. Behrens III. The Limits to Growth. Potomac As sociates (1972). Manning, F. S. (1973), "Petroleum Refinery Waters and Wastewaters," Presented at PAHO Short Course, Trinidad, W. I., December 3-7. Nelson, W. L. (1968), "Petroleum" Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Vol. 14, 2nd Ed., p. 835, J. Wiley & Sons, N. Y. Novotny, V., and A. J. Englande, Jr., (1974), "Equaliza tion Design Techniques for Conservative Substances in Wastewater Treatment Systems," Water R esearch B, No. 6, p. 325. Philoon, W. C. (1974), "Use of Talk-Back Closed Circuit Television in Continuing Engineering Education," Proc. 9th Annual Midwest Section A. S. E. E., Wichita, Kansas, March 28-29. Reed, R. D (1973), "Furnace Operations," Gulf Puhl Co., Houston, Texas. Sarofin, A. F. and W. Bartok, (1973), "Methods for Con trol of NOX Emissions," AIChE Advanced Seminar, AIChE, N. Y. Schnelle, K. B. and K. E. Noll (1972), "Meteorology and Air Pollution Control," AIChE Today Series, AIChE, N. Y. Soper, M. L., D. H. Atwell, and F. S. Manning (1975), "Mixing Effects in Surface-Aerated Basins," Water Research (accepted for publication). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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BRAUN Engineers Constructors engineering for more energy requires new ideas YOURS With a background of 65 years of engineering for the process industries, C F Braun & Co occupies a unique ground-floor position in three of the newer energy fields coal gasification, oil shale processing, and nuclear fuels. Our nuclear projects include plants for fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, and power gener ation. We are also engineering and will construct plants to convert coal and oil shale to clean commercial fuels You, as an engineer, recognize that your future job security and shortest route to promotion I ie in areas of new industrial technology. You want individual recognition for your ideas. You want to be involved with new concepts You want to work in a congenial atmosphere with senior engineers who can help you advance rapidly in your career. You want to work in a company that provides the ideal environment for your professional growth. All of these, you will find at Braun. The rapid growth of our engineering and construction work for the energy-conversion industries has opened many career positions in our Engineering Headquarters at Alhambra, California and in our Eastern Engineering Center at Murray Hill, New Jersey. For more infor mation please write to C F Braun & Co, Department K, Alhambra, California 91802 or Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER FALL 1975 187

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ENZYME CATALYSIS CHARLES F. WALTER University of Houston Houston, Texas 77004 A T FIRST GLANCE it surprises enzymolo gists that enzymes are not utilized much more widely in batch chemical engineering pro cesses. This attitude comes from the enzymolo gists' creed: "Enzymes will catalyze virtually any chemical reaction, and they will do it better than any other catalyst." At second glance, however, the surprise is gone. The problems associated with using enzyme technology in chemical engineering processes are immense: They range from the lack of educa tion about enzymes amongst chemical engineers and the lack of education and interest about ChE applications among enzymologists, to the severity of the problems well trained biochemical en gineers must solve in order to keep enzymes happy in environments dictated by engineering con siderations. The apparently recent realization that the earth is a finite system has accelerated interest in waste treatment processes, solar energy utili zation, clean-burning fuels, food technology, hu man population control, and environmental quali ty. Each of these important engineering problems is related in some way to biological (and therefore enzyme-catalyzed) processes. Biological degrada tion of waste is the oldest and still most widely used process of waste disposal. The sole energy source in biology is the sun, so living systems are old hands at capturing and utilizing solar energy. Becau se micro-organisms have to co -exist with what they excrete, relatively clean burning fuels are the natural product of many biological fer mentations. Food is a biological material so its manipulation and interconversion by enzyme catalyzed processes is clearly involving obvious biological components. For these and other reasons it became clear that the catalysis program in our department 188 should include a graduate level course about enzyme catalysis. We designed this course to pro vide engineers and students in the sciences with a basic understanding of how enzymes and multi enzyme systems function as catalysts. Special emphasis is on enzyme specificity, efficiency and control, and how these characteristics relate to potential applications in biochemical engineering. The course is structured so that the student is exposed to: [1] basic concepts about enzymes and enzyme catalysis and [2] the methodologies of enzyme chemistry and enzyme kinetics. The course is designed for first level graduate students in engineering, but senior-level under graduate students in chemical engineering, chemistry, or the biological sciences, as well as graduate students in these sciences, and interested medical students are welcome to register. I would expect adequately prepared students in any of these categories to be able to do well in this course. Obviously, a knowledge of biochemistry The enzymologist's creed : "Enzymes will catalyze virtually any chemical reaction, and they will do it better than any other catalyst and / or enzymology would be helpful, but it is not essential. The prerequisites listed for the course are calculus, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, and elementaTy computer pro gramming. The principle reference material in cludes the following four books : Enzyme Reac tions and Enzyme Systems [1 ], Biochemical Regu latory Mechanisms in Eukaryotic Cells [2], Steady state Applications in Enzyme Kinetics [3], and Immobilized Enzymes [4]. DISCUSSION OF COURSE MATERIAL I. The Chemical Structure of Enzymes The purpose of this part of the course is to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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introduce the student to basic concepts about enzyme structure and function. The first section outlines the nomenclature recommended for enzymes in the 1961 Report of the Commission on Enzymes of the International Union of Biochemistry [5 ] The second section provides the student with an understanding of the role in protein structure and enzyme activity of the peptide bond, other covalent bonds, hydro gen bonding, apolar associative forces, and other TABLE I Course Outline I. The Chemical Structure of Enzymes A. Enzyme nomenclature B. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure C. The concept of the "active site" D. The concept of the "regulatory site" E. Cofactors F. Control properties implicit in chemical struc ture II. Kinetic Properties of Single Enzymes in Solution A. The general theory of enzyme kinetics, the law of mass action B. Initial transient kinetics C. The quasi-steady-state approximation and its validity in enzyme kinetics D. Quasi-steady-state models E. Near-equilibrium techniques and their kinetic analysis F. Near-equilibrium versus quasi-steady-state tracer distribution kinetics G. Simulation of enzyme models on analog and digital computers H. Computer methods for generating rate equa tions for enzyme models I. The collection and analysis of enzyme kinetic data with on-line computational facilities. III. Kinetic Properties of Multi-enzyme Systems A. The general theory of control; applications in biochemical engineering B. The theory of far-from-equilibrium systems; applications to multi-enzyme systems C. Kinetics of multi-component systems without feedback control D. Kinetics of multi-component systems with feedback control E. Integrated reaction kinetics of enzyme reactors F. Simultaneous reactors and diffusion in enzyme reactors IV. Immobilized Enzymes and Enzyme Systems A. Types of support B. Covalent coupling methods C. Effects due to coupling on enzyme activity and other enzyme properties D. Theoretical effects of immobilization on enzyme kinetics E. Consideration of physical and diffusional con straints imposed by the carrier on enzyme catalysis FALL 1975 Charles F. Walter received his B.S (1957 ), M S (1959) and Ph.D. (1962) degrees in chemistry at Florida State University He was ap pointed Assistant Professor (1964 ) and Associate Professor (1968) of Biochemistr y at the University of Tennessee Medical School in Memphis In 1970 he was appointed Associate Professor of Bio mathematics and Associate Professor of Biochemistry at the Uni versity of Texas System Cancer Center, M. D Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute in Houston. In 1974 Dr. Walter was appointed to his present position as Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston His resea r ch and teaching interests include enzymology appl i ed to biochemical engineering problems in hydro gen generation from cellulose the chem i stry of nucleotide-nucleotide non-covalent interactions. Section C, about the catalytic sites of enzymes, emphasizes current ideas about the indigenous nature of certain sites on enzyme surfaces and how sites not indigenous on the enzyme surface can be induced by the proximity of a ligand (usually the substrate) to the site area. Similarly, Section D which is about regulatory binding sites on enzymes, emphasizes current concepts about how these noncatalytic sites, when associated with specific ligand mole cules, interact with catalytic sites and thereby alter catalytic activity. General models involving cooperative interactions between regulatory and catalytic sites and stimulation or inhibition of catalytic behavior are emphasized [6, 7]. Section E deals with the role of cofactors in the induction of non-indigenous substrate binding sites, and the last section is about the type of control of catalytic activity that is "built in" by the primary, second, tertiary, and quaternary structure of enzymes. II. Kinetic Properties of Single Enzymes in Solution The purpose of this part of the course is to provide the students with a fundamental under standing of the kinetics and control properties of single isolated enzymes in homogenous solu tions. 189

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The first section reviews the law of mass ac tion and its applications to enzyme models. The overall chemical reaction, the development of em pirical kinetic equations for enzyme-catalyzed re actions, the relation between these kinetic equa tions and initial rate equations, and a description The apparently recent realization that the earth is a finite system has accelerated interest in waste treatment processes, solar energy utilization, cleanburning fuels, food technology, human population control and environmental quality. Each of these ... is related in some way to biological (and therefore enzyme-catalyzed) processes. of a general initial quasi-steady-state rate equa tion for multisubstrate enzyme models are in cluded in Section A. The second section is about the kinetic behavior of enzyme-catalyzed reac tions prior to the attainment of a quasi-steady state. Section C includes a rigorous discussion of the concept of a quasi-steady-state in a closed system, and a derivation of the relationship be tween the error introduced by using the quasi steady-state approximation, the magnitude of the kinetic constants for the enzyme, and the experi mental initial conditions used. Section D is a re view of quasi-steady-state enzyme models, the use of the King and Altman algorithm [8] to de rive them, and the relationship between these approximate mathematical models and the real chemical mechanisms they approximate. Sections E and F are about the relaxation kinetics of enzyme reactions that have been perturbed slightly from thermodynamic equilibrium. Pertur bation techniques that are discussed include step wise temperature changes, periodic pressure variations, and the addition of small quantities of a radioactively labelled reactant In section F the usefulness of kinetic experiments involving the addition of traces of labelled reactant to an enzyme and its reactants near thermodynamic equilibrium, and kinetic experiments wherein large quantities of labelled substrate are added to an enzyme and its reactants far from equili brium, is compared. Section G is about the simu lation of enzyme models on analog computers, and their numerical "simulation" on digital machines. For the digital simulations we have chosen the program by Chance, Shephard and Curtis, "The 190 University College London Enzyme Simulator" [9]. This program is especially easy to use because it "automatically" translates the individual chemical steps into mathematical relationships via a built-in equation translator routine. Section H explains the use of a computer program [10, 11] that uses the King and Altman [8] algorithm to derive quasi-steady-state rate equations for any enzyme model. The last section of this part is a description of how enzyme kinetic data is properly analyzed. This section includes a comparison of the graphical and "standard" statistical pro cedures usually employed in the analysis of en zyme rates, a discussion of one -line methods for the collection and analysis of data from enzyme catalyzed reactions, a critical evaluation of in tegrated forms of quasi-steady-state rate equa tions, and the use of experimental data and digital computer programs like "The University College London Enzyme Simulator" [9] to estimate in dividual rate constants in assumed enzyme models. Ill. Kinetic Properties of Multi-enzyme Systems The purpose of this part of the course is to provide the students with a comprehensive under standing of the kinetics and control properties of a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a homogeneous solution. The first section reviews the general theory of control for linear and nonlinear systems. Ap plication of the Lyapunov direct method to biolo gical control systems of interest in biochemical engineering is illustrated, and the existence and significance of limit cycles in biochemical systems is discussed. The next section is about the theory of far-from-equilibrium chemical systems; dis sipative structures and the spatial and temporal organization of such systems are discussed from the point of view of the rich organizational be havior implicit in the nonlinear partial differential equations that describe them. Sections C and D are about the dynamics, stability, and control properties of nonlinear multi-chemical systems with or without feedback control; emphasis in these sections is on multi-enzyme systems with negative feedback of the Yates and Pardee [12] type, or positive feedback of the type thought to be responsible for the limit cycle concentration oscillations of the components in the glycolytic pathway [13, 14]. Analysis of the stability pro perties of these control systems is carried out with the aid of: [1] the usual analysis for CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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linearized systems [15, 16]; [2] perturbation theory; [3] the Aisermann conjecture [17]; [4] the Lur's transformation and algorithm for ob taining a global Lyapunov function [18]; and [5] computer simulations of the nonlinear differential equations [19, 20]. The analysis of the control properties is carried out by comparing the sensi tivity of metabolic levels of the components in the models to parameter variations The last two sections are about applications of the theory of enzyme kinetics and control to chemical reactor processes. Section E deals with situations where diffusion is not important, and Section F with examples where the effects of diffusion must be included in the differential equations describing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the reactor. IV. Immobilized Enzymes and Enzyme Systems The purpose of the last part of the course is to acquaint students with heterogeneous en zyme catalysis and its role in problems in bio chemical engineering. The first two sections review the various types of supports and covalent coupling methods used to bind enzyJneS. Section C is about the effects of immobilization methods on enzyme structure, and especially o~ those aspects of structure changes which effect enzyme activity via modification of the active site and / or control sites. This section introduces the student to possible effects of these structural modifications on the overall kinetics of the immobilized enzymes. The next section com pares the kinetics of homogeneous and hetero geneous enzymes or enzyme systems. The last section examines the physical and diffusional con straints imposed on enzymes or multi-enzyme sys tems by immobilization. REFERENCES 1. C. Walte r En z ym e R e a c t i ons and En z ym e Sy s t e ms Marcel Dekker, Inc., Publishers, N e w York, 1975. 2. C Walter, Ch 11 in Bio c h e m ica l R e g u latory M e c han is m s in Euka ry o tic C e lls, Edited by E Kun and S. G r isolia, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Interscience Publish e r s New York 1 9 72. 3. C. Walt e r, St e ady-s t a te A p pl ic a t io ns in En z ym e Kineti cs Ronald Press Publishers, New York, 196 5 4. O Zabo r sky, Im m obili ze d En z ym es Edited by R. Weast, Chemical Rubber Company Pr e ss Publishers, Cleveland, 1973. 5. Report of the Commission on Enzymes of the Inter national Union of Biochemistry, Pergamon Press Publishers London, 1961. FALL 1975 6. J. Bott s Tran s Faraday So c 5 4, 593 (1958) 7. C. Walter, Pro c Bi op hys. So c 14, 120a (1970). 8. E. King and C. Altman, J Phy s Ch m n. 60, 1 3 75 (1956). 9. For a d e scription of thi s program, see reference 1, Chapter 4. 10. D. Fisher and A Schultz, Math. Bioscien c e s 4, 189 (1969). 11. A. Schultz and D. Fisher, Canad i an J. Biol. Chem 47, 889 (1968). 12. P. Yates and A. Pardee, J. B i ol. Ch e m., 221 (1956). 13. A. Ghosh and B. Chance, Bio c h e m. Biophy s Res. Commun 16, 174 (1964). 14. J. Higgins, Pro c Natl Acad. S ci 51, 989 (1964). 15. C Walter, Biophy s J. 9, 863 (1969) 16. G. Viniegra-Gonzalez and H. Martin e z, Proc. Biophy s So c 13, 210A (1969) 17. C. Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 23 23 (1969). 18. C Walter, J. Theor. Biol. 23, 39 (1969). 19. C. Walter, J. Th e or Biol. 2 7, 259 (1970). 20. C Walter, J. Th e or. Biol. 44, 219 (1974). BOOK REVIEW Continued from page 183 processes and the treatment is thorough and com plete and certainly not elementary. The funda mentals are covered in 5 chapters in Section I and then in Section II two chapters are devoted to modeling and rate process fundamentals followed by 5 chapters on adsorption, distillation and ex traction. In these chapters several different models are proposed and then selected ones are used to model actual field results for industrial columns. For example a packed distillation column 34 ft. high and containing 9260 lbs. of Pall Rings is modeled in detail as is a packed extractor 72 ft. high and 5 ft. in diameter handling 12,000 barrels of kerosene per day. There are other examples for plate towers. The results appear to be uniformly good. Calculated and experimental product com positions agree well over wide variations in the input parameters. The book should be useful in a senior or grad uate level design course. There are numerous problems and plenty of references. If very much use was to be made of the techniques, access to a computer would be needed for solving sets of equations for separations involving many com ponents and many plates. The book should also be useful to industrial designers although I would think that most would already be familiar with the methods in this book since the techniques have been published in various journals and theses. 191

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CRITICAL PATH PLANNING OF GRADUATE RESEARCH L.F. DONAGHEY Uni v ersity of California Berkeley, California 94720 THE CRITICAL PATH method (CPM) has proven to be exceptionally beneficial over the last fifteen years for the control of project opera tions, and for task planning and control in many industries. In addition to its proven success in industry, the critical path method has been applied successfully in the education educational sphere for the planning of ChE curricula [l]. The vast majority of the literature on CPM concerns ap plications requiring computer solution of the critical path by parametric, linear programming [2], whereas non-computer methods are needed for the routine application of this method in small laboratory research projects. In this paper, a simplified procedure is presented for applying the critical path method to graduate research programs, using noncomputerized techniques readily available to the student. Recent experience with the method is drawn from several graduate level ChE research programs TWO DIFFERENT FORMS T HE BASIC CONCEPTS of critical path planning were initially developed in two fundamentally different forms. The "probabilistic'' approach was known as Program Evaluation of Research Tasks (PERT) or PERT with costs (PERTCO) [3]. In this form, individual research and development tasks, whose duration and cost could not be accurately estimated, were assigned a range of probable duration and cost. These The critical path method is applied to graduate research programs ... Experience shows a high correlation between task identification and effective task completion by the student. 192 TABLE I. Steps in the Critical Path Method Phase I. Project decomposition into a realistic network of task sequences. A. Assignment of individual tasks. B. Estimate of times and cost benefits. C. Construction of a precedence-contribu tion matrix. D. Assignments of topical sequences. Phase II Critical path determination for a normal project rate. A. Construction of an arrow diagram. B. Determination of the critical path. Phase III. Time-cost-benefit optimization A. Estimation of times and cost-benefits for highest rate. B. Calculation of incremental cost slopes. C. Determination of the critical path. data were then incorporated into a computerized critical-path control program. A second form of CPM, called Project Planning and Scheduling System (PPSS), was predicated on a more de terministic approach where the controlling variables of individual tasks are assumed to be estimated with reasonable accuracy [4]. The latter approach has been utilized effectively in the chemical and construction industries [4, 5]. The deterministic approach is more suitable for graduate research planning provided that the controlling variables can be quantitatively assessed. NONCOMPUTER CPM THERE ARE THREE important phases of the CPM method developed here for graduate re search. These are summarized in Table I. In the first phase, the overall project is divided into distinct tasks. It is useful to divide long project operations into a sequence of separate tasks. The tasks are then ordered into topical sequences with the aid of a precedence-contribution matrix: each task follows its precedents, but should come before tasks to which it contributes. An arrow diagram is then constructed from which the critical path is determined, again using informaCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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tion in the precedence-contribution matrix. The program is finally optimized by calculating the in cremental cost-benefits per unit of time saved, for alternative forms of the project tasks. The noncomputer critical path method pro posed for graduate research planning is perhaps best illustrated with an example. Consider a typical set of research tasks arising in a project having both analytical and experimental com ponents. Following the steps listed in Table I, one first lists the individual tasks of the project and assigns values of the time required and the cost benefit to each, as shown in the left-hand part of Table II. Dead times requiring no work input are separately listed. Next, a precedence-contri bution matrix is constructed, as shown in Table III, where the precedent steps are identified, as are subsequent steps which benefit from each step. The information on precedents is then used to construct the topical sequences shown in Table III. Here, for example, task 2 is listed following task 1 in sequence because task 1 is a precedent, whereas task 3 is placed at the start of a new sequence because no precedent step is required. All duplicate tasks numbers in this table could be deleted to simplify the table. The second phase of the method is the deter mination of the critical path for a normal project rate. For this, an arrow diagram is first con structed from the information in Tables III and IV, with arrows connecting each step to its re quired precedent steps, as shown by the solid lines in Fig. la. Then, Table II is examined to deter mine the first subsequent step to which a given step contributes. These contributions are denoted by the dotted lines in Fig. la. It is evident from Fig. la that task 3 could preceed task 1, but there is no clear precedence requirement. It is appropriate, therefore, to fur ther subdivide task 1 into two parts, where one a) b) 50 Time (days) 100 c) 50 Time (days) 1 00 FIGURE 1 Task sequencing of a typical graduate research program: a) arrow diagram b) critical path for a normal program rate, c) critica I pa th for an accelerated rate part requires task 3 as a precedent. Note also, that several tasks are in parallel (i.e., 2, 4 and 6) and could be performed by a large work force. The graduate student constitutes a one-man crew, however, and therefore an addition criterion must be supplied to determine the task sequence. Two criteria are proposed here: (i) Table II is examined for each task in a parallel group (i.e., 2, 4 and 6). The number of contribution entries in the column for each is counted, and the task with the highest number of "C" entries is performed first. Alternately, (ii) the parallel tasks should be further subdivided and ordered so that the graduate student alternates his time between them, thereby gaining experience with all the tasks early in the program. Following criterion (i), on e can readily arrive at the critical path program shown in Fig. lb for the normal program rate. The critical path is denoted by double ar rows, while idle time durations are denoted by wavey arrows (e.g., for task 2). (Continued on page 203.) TABLE II. Time Cost and Cost-Slope Estimates for a Typical Project Normal Rate Accelerated Rate Incremental Task Task Name Time (d) Cost-Benefit ($) Time (d) Cost-Benefit ($) Cost S ope ($ / d) 1 Define Problem 5 100 5 100 00 2 Order Supplies 30 520 30 520 00 3 Lit. Survey 5 100 5 100 00 4 Construct App. 20 1000 10 2000 100 5 Experimental 20 400 20 400 00 6 Analyt. Cale. 20 700 10 1000 150 7 Data Reduction 10 200 5 200 0 8 Compare Theo & Exp. 10 200 10 200 00 9 Write Reports 10 200 10 200 00 29 day dead time. FALL 1975 193

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MEASURES OF EXCELLENCE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE DEPARTMENTS: A CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EXAMPLE CHARLES L. BERNIER, WILLIAM N. GILL and RAYMOND G HUNT State University of New York Buffalo, New York 14214 T HE PURPOSE OF this study was to determine how such measures 1 of departmental and research quality as number of citations of current research papers, number of citations of the research of a lifetime, number of Ph.D.'s graduated, funds expended for research, number of papers published, and others, correlate with one another and with the quality or visibility of departments as measured by peer evaluations such as those conducted by Cartter [l] and more recently by Roose and Andersen [2] The number of citations by others correlates best with the other measures in the present study. Numerous studies of citation analysis have been reported relatively recently [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Also, the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) has conducted a citation study for the National Science Foundation of all professors in the 78 leading chemistry departments listed in the Roose Andersen report [2] Several questions arise re gardi n g the use of citat i ons as measures of the quality of the research of an ind i v i dual or group. First, does the number of citations provide a reasonably valid measure of research quality? Second, should one be concerned primarily with citations of recent work or of the work of a life time in assessing the value of the contributions that one has the potential for making in the future? Third, do citation counts correlate with other measures of quality, both objective and sub ject i ve? Fourth, can one compare the qua li ty of individuals or groups in different disc i plines on the basis of citation counts? In the present study a simple random sample of 21 departments of chemical engineering in the U.S. universities was selected. Citations were counted in the Science Citation Index (SCI) (11) TABLE 1 S p ear m an Rank O rder l n tercorrel a ti o n C oeffi cie n ts for Depart me nts of Chemical E ngi n e e ri n g N = Number of Departments Correlate d in the Measure No. N Measure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 21 Citatio n s by others .99 .95 .93 .91 .87 .85 .82 .87 .74 .81 .76 .63 50 .31 2 21 Total citations .95 .93 93 .87 84 .81 .87 .72 .83 .74 .62 .47 .27 3 21 Citations / professor 89 .87 .82 .79 .71 .79 .83 .82 .68 .60 .42 32 4 21 Papers with 5 9 citations .93 .84 86 .71 .71 .71 .73 .74 .42 30 .10 5 21 Self citations .82 86 .79 .57 .71 .69 .77 .40 .36 .16 6 21 Lifetime citations .70 .59 .78 .54 .79 57 .65 .48 .25 7 21 Number of papers .67 .65 .84 .44 .94 17 .43 .25 8 17 Research expe n ditures .77 .59 .58 .65 .58 .45 28 9 9 Papers with 10+ citations 5 0 .72 .49 .56 .29 .13 10 12 Papers / professor .42 .78 .15 .38 .36 11 21 Citations / paper .30 .66 27 .19 12 21 Papers with 0-4 citations -.02 44 22 13 16 1970 Rati n g of Graduate Programs .58 .58 14 21 P h. D.'s graduated .93 15 21 Ph D.'s ./ professor l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 194 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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for 1965-9 (cumulative), 1970, 1971, and through June of 1972. The departments were ranked by number of citations, etc. and the rankings were compared with the unpublished Roose-Andersen rankings (that were supplied by Andersen) by use of the Spearman rank-order intercorrelation coefficients between all pairs of rankings. Results are in Table 1. All correlations are significant at least at the five percent level of confidence. RESEARCH CITATIONS THE NUMBERS OF citations to research by professors in different ChE departments varies much more than do other measures. In the 21 departments studied, the average number of life time citations' per professor varied in different departments from 275 in one department to 8 in another department with a mean of 79 for all professors in all departments; average number of citations 1 of 1967-9 articles per professor varied from 40 to 0.9 with a mean of 13 per department; number of papers published per professor in different departments varied from 6.5 to 0.63 with a mean of 3.6. The variation among in dividual professors is much greater than among departments. For example, lifetime citations vary from Oto 1,100 and those of 1967-9 articles from 0 to 162 Thus it seems that the recognition, as measured by the number of citations to works of professors in different departments, varies much more than does the rate at which they publish articles, and departments with professors who publish more, on the average, seem to be the source of work that is used (cited) more. These data dispel the myth that those who publish prolifically publish less significant work; quantity and quality are correlated highly positively. Our low correlation coefficient, 0.17, between the number of articles and peer recognition (Roose & Andersen (RA) study (2)) contrasts with the 0.67 obtained by Hagstrom [12] for biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics de partments. This suggests that there may be a difference, on the average between the impact of science and applied science articles. Departmental reputations as measured by the RA study [2], tend to correlate slightly better with lifetime citations than with '67-9 depart mental citations. 1 That is, it is not only the work that is presently being done or has been done in the recent past, but also the work that has been done years ago, that contributes significantly to FALL 1975 the reputation among peers of individuals and departments. Our results show the correlation coefficient between peer judgment (RA) and the first-author citations to be 0.65; Hagstrom [12] obtained 0.69. Also, our results for both first-au thor lifetime citations and total '67-9 citations are 0.65 and 0.62 respectively; Hagstroms and our results are on the same order but are some what lower than the 0.75 obtained in the recent study of 78 leading chemistry departments carried out by ISI [13]. On the other hand, our correlation between citation s per article and the RA ratings is 0.66 whereas the ISI correlation is only 0.48. The ISI counting by computer was the most com prehensive, ours was next, and Hagstrom's was the least since he apparently used first-author data for only 1966. CITATION OVERLAP WE HAVE CONSIDERED essentially five different measures of excellence including various types of citation counts, research support, We have considered essentially five different measures of excellence including various types of citation counts, research support, numbers of papers published, peer evaluations and Ph.D.'s produced. numbers of papers published, peer evaluations and Ph.D.'s produced. Clearly, the various types of citation counts overlap in items counted and therefore high correlation coefficients between these counts are not surprising. The other four measures are not so obviously related to one an other or to citation counts. Therefore, we might wish to ask which of the ways of counting cita tions has the highest mean correlation with the four non-citation measures. On this basis citations by others and total citations per department correlate most highly with the other measures (0.70 and 0.69) and these are followed by citations per professor (0.63). It is somewhat surprising that number 15, Ph.D.'s graduated per professor has among the lowest correlation with the other measures. How ever, number 14, Ph.D.'s graduated per depart ment, correlates quite well, on the same order as citation counts, with the peer evaluations of 195

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TABLE 2 Data on No. MEASURE MAXIMUM 1 Citations by others / dept. 428 2 Total citations / dept. 495 3 Citations / professor 40 4 Papers with 5-9 citations 23 5 Self-citations / dept. 74 6 Lifetime citations / dept. 3,847 7 Number of papers / dept. 118 8 Research expenditures / yr. $664,K 9 Papers with 10-plus citations 18 10 Papers / professor 6 5 11 Citations / pa per 6.9 12 Papers with 0 4 citations 75 13 Withheld 14 Ph.D's. Graduated / yr. 12 15 Ph.D's .I professor / yr. 0.93 16 Lifetime citations / professor 1,194 17 Professors / school 21 the Roose-Andersen 1970 Rating of Graduate Programs. This implies that department size is important and larger departments are more visible to others in the field. Maxima, minima, means, and medians of the measures in Table 1, plus numbers 16 and 17, are given in Table II. It is interesting to note that, on a departmental basis, the citation counts per professor show means and medians that do not differ greatly. However, number 16 in Table II, which refers to the lifetime citations per in dividual, shows a mean of about 79 and a median of 33. This indicates that, on an individual basis, 0 PEO PL E I N A C ATEGORY P APERS P ER PERSON fl 67 69 CITA TI ONS PER PERSON 26 lJO 60 6 l---+----1----+h l ltL IF +-ET 1 'TA-tT 1 o Ns '"+-so N --j-----j 24 1 20 22 110 1 0 !ill 4 20 2 10 O O L---'-----'---...L---'--.L-~ ~-~ ---:-:' 0 0 25 29 30 < 34 35 39 4 0 -4 4 4 5 -49 50 54 55 59 60 AND OVER AGE CATEGOR I ES FIGURE 1 Relationship between age and productivity in Chemical Engineers 196 Measures MINIMUM MEAN MEDIAN 7 151 89 7 179 111 0.9 13.4 11.4 0 8.9 6 0 27.4 21 58 963 772 5 46.4 39 $28,K $265,K $251,K 1 8.1 7.5 0 3.7 3.6 1.1 3.3 2.9 4 28 21 1 4.4 4 0.09 0.36 0.30 0 78.6 32.5 5 12.1 11 the distribution of citations is highly skewed and that a relatively small number of highly talented people contribute work that is highly cited and which accounts for a large fraction of all of the citations of the entire group. Thus, the mean does not reflect the performance of the average individual because the average is so strongly in fl.uenced by those with outstanding citation records. The median seems much more represen tative of average individual performance. It does not seem reasonable to compare the quality of departments in different disciplines by the measures discussed. For example, the average chemistry article is cited close to 10 times (one department was lowest with 5.3, another had 25.3 in the ISI study) whereas the average ChE article is cited about 3 times or less. Some data were ob tained on various engineering departments to see if citation rates differ among them. It appears that civil and mechanical engineers cite somewhat less frequently (1 / 3 to 1 / 2) than do chemical engineers, and electrical engineers cite perhaps twice as frequently as do chemical engineers. The relationship between age and productivity of chemical engineers is interesting. As shown in Figure 1, all measures of research productivity peak in the 40-44 age group; individuals in this group published an average of approximately 5 papers each during the two-year period, 1967-9, and these papers were cited approximately 5 times each; the lifetime citations for this group averaged about 126 per professor. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION EVALUATION OF THE performance of individuals and departments is difficult at best, but it is customary and necessary. Appointment, funding, promotion, ranking, selection, and tenure depend upon the results of evaluation. Objective data, such as those discussed here, are useful (if crude) measures that enable one to minimize un realistic appraisals. It certainly seems that the number of citations should be included in any evaluation of the research performance of in dividuals or departments. Indeed, the dossier of every candidate for tenure or promotion should include a citation analysis of his published work. DEFINITIONS 1. Citations by others: Number of non-self citations of works published between 1967 and 1969 and listed in the American Chemical Society Dir ector y of Gradu ate R esearch, 1971 [10] (including those works in Charles L. Bernier, B.Sc., M Sc., Ph D., is listed in American Men of Science. He is professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo in the School of Information and Library Studies. He was Editor of Chemical Abstracts and Director of ASTIA. He has been associated with : the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Rutgers-The State University, Squibb Institute for Medical Research, International Flavors and Fragrances; American Dental Association; Auerbach; Computer Sciences Corporation; Hor ton Steel Works, Ltd.; International Flavors and Fragrances; National Library of Medicine; National Institute for Neurological Diseases and Blindness; University of Missouri Medical Center; and Hooker Chemical Corporation. His research interests in information science include: condensed literatures such as indexed abstracts, extracts and terse literatures .: information centers and services; data processing (spectral, organoleptic, organostructural, etc.); and measurement of knowledge transfer (LEFT) William N. Gill took his Ph D at Syracuse University and re mained there on the faculty until 1965 at which time he joined the Department of Chemical Engineering at Clarkson College of Tech nology as Chairman In 1971 he became Provost of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Chemical EnFALL 1975 which the author studied is not listed first on the work). Science Citation Ind exes : 1965-9 cumulative, 1970, 1971, and the first half of 1972 were used for the random sample of 21 departments of chemical engineering in the U. S. 2. Total citations: Self-citations plus citations by others. 3. Citations / professor: Total citations of '67-9 works divided by number of faculty members. 4. Papers with 5-9 citations: Works published in the '67-9 period per department-with 5-9 total citations. 5. Self-citations: Authors' citations of their own '67-9 works (including those works on which their names do not appear first). 6. Lifetime citations: The number of citations, in cluding self-citations, to all works on which a faculty member is first or only author. 7. Number of papers: Works published in the '67-9 period. 8. Research expenditures: Dollars spent per depart ment for research per year, averaged for the '67-9 period. 9. Papers with 10-plus citations: Works published in (Continued on page 202.) gineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo He has written about 100 articles on theoretical and experimental studies in transport phenomena. Recently his main research activities have been in reverse osmosis, including hollow fiber systems, and the de velopment of a new theory of unsteady convective diffusion in which a generalized dispersion model is derived from first principles. (CENTER) Raymond G Hunt is Director of the Survey Research Center, and is Faculty Professor of Social Sciences and Administration at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Buffalo where he was formerly Professor of Social Psychology and chairman for Graduate Studies in the Department of Psychology. He has also served as Acting Director of the Social Science Research Institute at SUNYAB and was previously Professor in the Department of Community Service Education, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University Professor Hunt is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a member of the American Sociological Association, the American Association for the Advance ment of Sciences the Association of Research Administrators and the Academy of Management He is author or co-author of four books and of numerous articles and papers. (RIGHT) 197

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[jn plll views and opinions SHOULD ENGINEERING STUDENTS BE TAUGHT TO BLOW THE WHISTLE ON INDUSTRY?* JOHN BIERY and RAY FAHIEN University of Florida Gainesville, Fla. 32601 THE QUESTION to be answered is not only should an engineer blow the whistle on in dustry but whether students of engineering should be taught to do so. This leads to the broad question of whether moral or ethical standards of any kind should be taught to engineering stu dents. Our answer is that we consider our students to be free individuals who must ultimately make their own choices based on their own sense of values. The teacher cannot play God; he cannot program them with a list of rules or a set of ab solutes. What he can do, however, is to assist them in seeing the alternatives and to familarize them with the way others have approached moral problems. The teacher can tell them how he might act in a given situation and he can make them conscious and aware of the consequences of moral decisions (or indecisions) but he should not and cannot make the decisions for them. However, in order to give the student a basis for making his moral decisions we would present for his consideration the following hierarchy of moral values that have been proposed by the philosopher Robert Hartman: 1) Extrinsic values: These are basically ma terial values, e.g. the monetary value of an automobile, a house, a boat, a heat ex changer, or of any material thing. 2) Systemic values: These deal with systems or organizations. Loyalty to an organiza tion such as one's employer, to a fraternity, to a school, to a profession, to a depart ment in a university, to one's country, or to a political system are systemic values. Pres e nted at the American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, June 25-28, 1973 Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50010. 198 Ray Fahien is professor of chemical engineering at the University of Florida and a former chairman of the department He received his bachelor's i n chemical engineering at Washington University (St. Louis), his master's at University of Missouri (Rolla) and his Ph D. at Purdue He has worked for Ethyl Corporation and has taught at Rolla, at Iowa State, at the University of Brazil, and at the University of Wisconsin. He is now on leave as a UNESCO consultant at the University of the Or ient in Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela. John C. Biery is Chairman and Professor of chemical engineer i ng at the University of Florida. He received his bachelor's in chemical engineering at the University of Michigan and his Ph.D at Iowa State University He did postdoctoral work under Prof R B B ird at the University of Wisconsin and has worked at Dow Chemical Co. and at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. He has taught at the University of Arizona and at Florida and is the author of papers on sodium techno logy transp or t phenomena liquid-liquid ex traction, and engineering education He is a member of the ASEE Chemical Engineer i ng Division Executive Committee, and chairman of the Motivational Techniques Session at the November 1975 AIChE meeting in Los Angeles 3) Intrinsic values: These might also be called human or spiritual values. They include the idea of the infinite worth and dignity of a human being. Intrinsic values cannot be measured in terms of dollars and cents. The highest of these values is that of an individual human life. While systemic values are rated higher than extrinsic values, they are superseded by intrinsic values. Everything in the world, including the world itself, can be valued extrinsically, sys temically, or intrinsically. For example, a button can be valued systemically as the product of a button factory, extrinsically as a useful part of a shirt, and intrinsically as an object to which a fetishist is devoted. An engineering student can be valued sys temically as another graduate or "product" of a department, extrinsically in comparison with other engineering students, and intrinsically in his own uniqueness as a human being. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Let us now apply these to some possible cases in which the engineer must make a moral de cision. In each case we will presume that the financial welfare of the company is in jeopardy and that the engineer subscribes to the above hierarchy of values. Case I: The company is releasing substances or manufactures a product that will undoubtedly result in death or serious injury; e.g. a botulism causing bacteria in a canned good or the release of fluorides into the atmosphere. The engineer must "blow the whistle" because human life, an intrin sic value, is more important than the good of the company, a systemic value. Case II: The company releases substances or manufactures a product that may result in death or serious injury. For example, his company is making flammable children's pajamas or labeling a combustible urethane foam as non-combustible. In this case the engineer must first decide wheth er a high probability of human death or injury actually does exist under the likely conditions of use. We feel that if such a risk is real he would be justified in informing consumer and govern mental groups of the potential danger-assuming that he has done everything in his power to con vince management of the problem. Case III: The company is making a product that is to be used in a conflict that the engineer considers to be an "unjust" war. In this case the engineer should resign if his personal conscience tells him that he cannot work for a company that makes such a product. However, if there is a legitimate difference of opinion as to whether a war is or is not just, he should be cautious about inflicting his own moral concepts on others by publicly "blowing the whistle." On the other hand he might recall that Adolf Eichman, who burned thousands of Jews in ovens during World War II, claimed he was innocent because he was merely following orders and acting as a "transportation system". This is a good example of placing sys temic values-presumably loyalty to the country -ahead of intrinsic values. The chemists and en gineers who worked for the Krupp works in Nazi Germany undoubtedly also felt that their re sponsibility was only to the company and to their country. Case IV: The company is releasing pollutants that the engineer thinks are deletrious to the en vironment, but which are not directly dangerous to humans. In this case, the company is probably, under today's legal atmosphere, already taking FALL 1975 steps to eliminate the problem. If so, the engineer should work within the company to accelerate the process. He should balance the good he can do in that manner against the good and harm he might do by "blowing the whistle". In this case both the good of the environment and the financial welfare of the company can be viewed intrinsical ly in terms of their effects on people. In the name of human values the environment must be pro tected, but also, in the name of human values, the role of the company in manufacturing a useful product and in providing employment to the com munity must be considered. Here each case must be decided separately, but loyalty to the company should not require them to def end a company that repeatedly despoils the environment. Case V: The company is selling a product that is useless but is known to be harmless; e.g. a battery or crankcase additive, or an ineffective but harmless patent medicine. In this case he should honestly inform management of the re sults of any tests that he had made. If the product is then falsely advertised, he should leave the company. TWO SIDES OF THE COIN We feel therefore that the engineer today should be aware that there are really two elements of the question of blowing the whistle on in dustry: One is the attempt to do it internally, to influence management in ways that are both bene ficial to the company but which still satisfy the moral integrity of the engineer as he views him self and as he views his job in reference to the While systematic values are rated higher than extrinsic values, they are superseded by intrinsic values. Everything in the world, including the world itself, can be valued extrinsically, systemically or intrinsically. company and to the society about him. The second is to do something externally. We feel that this should be done if the first approach fails. Of course some may argue that the engineer who tries to accomplish change of this type in ternally is doomed to failure. While this may have been true in the past, we feel that the young 199

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engineer who is leaving the university and enter ing industry today has a great opportunity, if he so wishes, to have an impact on the decision and management processes of his company. One possible reason for this increased influence is the teetering balance in which the companies find themselves between the problems of continued profitability and the pressure of (a) maintaining safety standards for OSHA, (b) in meeting pollu tion standards as prescribed by EPA, and ( c) in meeting the demands of equal employment and non-discrimination as required by various federal laws and as expedited by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. From our point of view, one of our important jobs in education is to inform the engineer of his position of making his influence felt and known in the organization that he is joining. We also think that at this time efforts in the direction of being immediately involved can have definite results. The trend in many management schemes is to try to drop the decision making process to the lowest possible level. One company (as we have been informed recently) is involved in such a program in which the lowest level of either management (or maybe non-management; i.e. the actual operating personnel) will make the decisions which they can make. They can influence their job each day and possibly even influence more than themselves; they may influence the organization in which they are working. In the experience of one of us at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, the decision making process was very much centered in the so-called staff member. He was not a member of management as such but actually the ideas for projects, the direction that projects were to proceed came in most cases from the staff member. We hope that our students will go out into the industry with the idea that they are a member of the management team and that they can contribute directly to the decision-mak ing processes going on. THE 9 TO 5 M AN I N THIS DISCUSSION we have been influenced to a great extent by the book, The Greening o f A m erica by Reich Many of his descriptions of human nature, of the types of Consciousness I, II, and III, from our own experience, are extreme ly accurate. These descriptions illustrate how most engineers perhaps have behaved in the past and how they possibly might behave in the fu200 ture. A good number of engineers are members of the Consciousness II group as described by Reich. This group is one that believes in large organizations, large structured groups. A Con sciousness II engineer would believe that the de cisions made by the organization are not to be challenged. He should go ahead and blindly do as We feel that t h e y oung engineer who i s leav i ng the univer si ty and en t e ri ng i ndustry today has a g r eat opportuni t y, i f he s o w i shes t o have an impact o n the deci s ion a n d managemen t pro ces se s o f h i s c ompan y. he is told to do and don't worry about it. The at titude is: "Do your job; get your 40 hours a week in; and then forget about it. Let's get home, let's get to the beach, let's do our thing on the week end, let's live a bifurcated life, a life which in volves fun and family on one hand and the almost forced involvement with a company on the other." If we educate students to go out into industry with the idea that this is the only possible point of view, we are making a great mistake. We are not priming our students or engineers to be the effective persons that they can be in industry. With this view in mind we are teaching a seminar course at the University of Florida to seniors in which we are using The Greening of America and Man, The Manipulator by Shoestrum as texts to look at the various stances that we as engineers can take. The question we've asked them is: "Can we take stances other than the classical one?" The classical one is being a mem ber of Group II Consciousness. Is there a possibili ty of integrating some of the ideas of Group III consciousness into our engineering profession and into our ideas of achievement and still be strong ly productive and interactive? In Man, The Manipulator, Shostrum describes the manipulative forms that many of us find ourselves trapped in but also describes the thrilling description of the actualized person: the person who really can be interactive, can be open, can express his feelings, can share and be intimately involved in the sharing and feedback process. Our hope is that our engineers can take on some of these actualized concepts. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE ACTUALIZED CONTRIBUTOR A PERSON CERTAINLY HAS to have some of the concepts or elements of the actualized person to immediately contribute towards an organization. He must take risks. He must speak up. He must involve himself in a productive way with all the decisions in which he has contact. He has the difficulty of doing this in a way which is acceptable to the people around him. He cannot be overbearing; he makes no points that way. But he cannot be under-aggressive; he again makes no points. So, therefore, the process is one of sens ing where the other human being is, being aware of where his managers are and of their capabilities and maybe lack of capabilities. Therefore, our stance today is that our stu dents can blow the whistle on industry, either in ternally or externally. But he can do it by being a productive management team, even when we're not so designated. Our responsibility as educators is to set them up, to make them aware that this [eJ ij #I book reviews Modeling Crystal Growth Rate from Solution By Makoto Ohara and Robert C. Reid Prentice-Hall (1973), 2 7 2 pp. Reviewed by Maurice Larson, Iowa State U. This book is a good summary of the most pop ular theories attempting to describe the mech anism of crystal growth from solution. Of its 272 pages, 134 pages are devoted to appendices. It is printed by photo-offset of the typed manuscript. It is well organized and readable, but many of the illustrations do not have figure numbers nor titles. This leads to some difficulty. The index is adequate but brief. The seven chapters of the non-appendix por tion of the book are devoted to a Synopsis of the text, four chapters describing four growth mech anism concepts, one chapter concerned with im purity effects and a chapter which compares re cent experimental data with theory. The Synopsis summarizes the book well, points out what the purpose of the book is and briefly states the concepts of the various mechanistic models for growth. Chapter 2 discusses the clas sical surface nucleation theories of growth and shows that they are perhaps quite inadequate to explain observed growth rates. Chapter 3 dis cusses crystal growth limited by mass transfer, FALL 1975 is their responsibility. We find it very difficult to preach morals or to teach a definite set of ethics. But we feel that each person should be en couraged to express the set of ethics that he per sonally has developed. We do hope that our en gineers can go out and be actualized people, be non-manipulative, be open. They can express their concern about what the company is doing, about its processes, about the pollution capability, about the discrimination practices that they see, about the quality or lack of quality of their product. These are of direct concern to every technical person who works with a company, and the first step, the most productive step, is one of im mediately being interactive. "Had I but served my God with the zeal that I have served my king, He would not in my old age, have left me naked before my enemies!" -William Shakespeare introduces the Burton, Caberra, Frank bulk dif fusion model and treats it in detail. Chapter 4 dis cusses surface diffusion theories, again calling on the work of Burton, Caberra and Frank. The chapter is quite short leaving the detailed mathe matical development for Appendix A which is 68 pages long. The treatment is detailed and lucid. Layer and dislocation growth concepts are ade quately treated. Chapter 5 attempts to account for the appear ance of microscopic growth layers and distin guishes them from the layer and dislocation growth theories of Burton, Caberra and Frank. Impurity effects are briefly treated in chapter 6. The treatment reflects the general lack of ade quate theories which explain observed phenomena. Finally chapter 7 presents data which can be ex plained to some degree by the theories presented previously. The book is largely concerned with the detailed mathematical presentation of existing theories and the correction of some derivation errors found in the literature. In the words of the authors 'the book has solved no new (italics mine) problem' but the treatment should be helpful for those wishing to gain an understanding of present thought without extensive literature review. It will be a good reference book for those new to the field and could provide a substantial part of text material for a course in crystallization technology. 201

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DIGITAL COMPUTATIONS: Liu Continued from page 169. propositions. What is perhaps the most encourag ing of all is the interest in this course and the constructive criticism by the class. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The research grants provided by the Alabama's Water Resources Research Institute and the Au burn University Grant-in-Aid Program on projects concerning the course s ubject are gratefully acknowledged. D REFERENCES 1. Shiska, 0., Appl. Mech. Review, 2 1, 33 7 (1968). 2. Bickley, W. S., J. Math & Phys., 27, 183 (1948). 3 Landis, F., & E. N. Nilson, "The Determination of Thermodynamic Properties by Direct Differentiation Techniques," in Progr ess in Int ernat ional R e s earc h on Thermodynamics and Transport Properti es p. 218, Academic Press (1962). 4. Klaus, R. L., & H. C. Van Ness AIChE J., 13, 1132 (1967). 5. Butcher, J. C., Math. Comp ., 18, 50 (1964). 6. Howland, J. L., & R. Vaillancourt, J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math 9, 165 (1961). 7. Marquardt, D. W., ibid, 11, 131 (1963). 8. Hull, T. E. W. H. Enright, B. M. Fellen & A. E. Sedgwick, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 9, 603 (1972). 9. Lapidus, L., & J. H. Seinfeld, Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations, Academic Press (1971). 10. Lapidus, L., R. C. Aiken & Y. A. Liu, "The Occurrence and Numerical Solution of Physical and Chemical Systems Having Widely Varying Time Constants," in Proceeding s of Int ernatio nal Symposium on Stiff Differential Systems, Wilbad, Germany, Edited by R. A. Willoughby, p. 187, Plenum P ress (1974). 11. Gear, C. W., Comm. ACM, 14, 185 (1971). 12. Larson, L., "Automatic Solution of Partial Diffe re tial Equations," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois (1972). 1 3 Burgess, W. P. "Composite Numerical Solution of PDE," Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University (1971). 14. Laskaris, T. E., "Finite Element Analysis of Several Compressible and Uncompressible Viscous Flow Prob lems," Ph D. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1974). 15. Chakrabarti, S., "Approximations in Finite Element Heat Conduction Analysis," Ph .D. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh (1974). 16. Woodrow, P. T., "Analysis of Chromatographic Sys tems Using Orthogonal Collocation," Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1974). MEASURES OF EXCELLENCE: Bernier, Gill and Hunt Continued from page 197. '67 -9 and cited ten or more times. 10. Papers / professor: Works published in the '67-9 period divided by the number of professors, publishing or not, in the department s in that period. 11. Citations / paper: Total citations divided by the number of '67-9 works (impact factor). 12. Papers with 04 citations: '67-9 works with through four total citations. 13. 1970 Rating of Graduate Programs: Detailed data of Roose and Andersen st ud y on rankings of depart ments of ChE kindly supplie d by Andersen. 14. Ph.D.'s graduated: Ph.D.'s graduated per year during '67-9. 15. Ph.D's / professor: Ph.D.'s graduated per faculty member per year in '67 -9. 16. Lifetime citations / profes sor : The number of cita tions, including se lf-citations, to all works on which a faculty member is first or only author divided by the number of professors, publishing or not, in the literature cited. 17. Professors / school: The number of professors, pub lishing or not, in the literature cited di v ided by number of schools (21). REFERENCES 1. Cartt e r, Allan M., "An Assessment of Quality in Graduate Education," American Council on Educa tion, One DuPont Circle, Washington, D. C., 20036, (1966). 202 2. Roose, Kenneth D., and Andersen, Charles J., "A Rating of Graduate Programs," American Council on Education, One DuPont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036, (1970). 3 Garfield, E., and Scher, I. H ., Am. Doc. 14, 195, (1963). 4. Sher, I. H., and Garfield, E., "New Tools for Im proving and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Research," Science Citation Index Institute for Scientific In formation, Philadelphia (1965). 5. Cole, S., and Cole, J. R., American Sociological R e view 32, 377 90, (1967) 6. Garfield, E. Nature, 22 7, 669, (1970). 7 Cole, J., and Cole, S Am erican Sociologist, 6, 23-9, (1971). 8. Cole, J R., and Cole, S., Science, 178, 368-75, (1972). 9 Matheson, A. J Chemistry in Britain, 8, 202-10, (1972). 10. American Chemical Society Directory of Graduat e R esearc h American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C (1971). 11. Science Citation Ind ex, Institute for Scientific Infor mation, Philadelphia, ( 1965-72). 12 Hagstrom W. 0., Inputs, Outputs and the Prestige of American University Science Departments," Paper delivered at the American Association for the Ad vancement of Science, Chicago, Ill., (Dec. 28, 1970). 13, Unpublished work supp lied by Malin of the Institute for Scientific Information. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CPM METHOD: Donaghey Continued from page 193. The acceleration of any project step pre supposes a subcontracting of project labor, often at the expense of graduate research experience. For example, the time required for construction of experimental apparatus can be shorted by pur chasing ready-made apparatus, and data-reduc tion tasks could possibly be shortened by hiring an undergraduate assistant. With accelerated project rates now accepted for tasks 4, 6 and 7, the resulting critical path becomes that shown in Fig. le. Here, the total project time is constrained by the duration of task 2 (i.e., waiting for ordered supplies to arrive) rather than by steps 6 and 4. Consequent ly, one of the two tasks need not be shortened. TABLE III. Precedence-Contribution Matrix Task s Affected 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 p C p p p 2 p 3 4 C p 5 C C C p 6 C C p 7 C C p 8 C p 9 C C C C C P = Precedence C = Co ntribution Table I shows that task 6 has the higher cost slope, and, therefore, this task should be carried out at the normal rate. RECENT RES UL TS THE CRITICAL PATH method outlined above has been tested in a number of graduate re search programs in solid -state electrochemistry, process kinetics and transport phenomena during the past few years Experience has shown that the initial critical path plan must be revised periodically during the program to take ad vantages of new discoveries or to avoid limiting difficulties. Experience has also shown a high correlation between task identification and effec tive task completion by the student. It has also been found that long-term segments of the total program should be subdivided so that the student gains familiarity with all type of program tasks in operation terms early in the program. FALL 1975 TABLE IV. Assignment of Topical Sequences Step Number Sequence 1 2 3 4 5 6 A 1 2 5 7 8 9 B 3 C 4 5 7 8 9 D 6 CONCLUSIONS THE FORM OF THE critical path method presented here differs from earlier forms is having these important characteristics: (1) the educational experience derived from interacting research tasks is counted as a cost benefit, (2) the critical path is constructed with a minimum of subcontracted or simultaneous tasks, and (3) the method presented does not require a com puter to apply it. REFERENCES 1. Cunningham, R. C and Sommerfields, J. T., Chem. Eng Educ. 7 (1), 18 (1973). 2 Kelley, J. E. Jr., Operation s Res 9 (3), May-June (1971). 3. Chipman, J. S., "PERT with Costs," Technical Report 112 SRP, WSPACS Working Paper No. 4, Aerojet General Corporation, Feb. 15, 1961. 4. Walker, M. R. and Sayer, J. S., "Project Planning and Scheduling," Report 6959, E. J. duPont de Ne mours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, March 1959 5 Fondahl, J. W., "A Non-Computer Approach to the Critical Path Method for the Construction Industry," Report No. 9, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif ., November, 1961. Lee F Donaghey received the B A degree in Physics from Har vard College, and the M S and Ph.D degrees in Materials Science from Stanford University His industrial experience has been in the semiconductor and microwav e electronics in dustries Following a postdoctoral appointment at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stock holm, he joined the Chemical Engineering faculty at the University of California Berkele y in 1970. His research interests are concerned with the synthesis, thermochemistry and process kinetics of elec tr on ic materials. 203

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UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Ph D Candidates : up to $6,500 / year. M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates : up to $5,500 / year Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships and limited travel funds are available. Costs. Tuition: $535 / year Married students housing rent : $154 / month. Room and board, University Housing : $190 / month Ph.D. Degree Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year courses, thesis. M.Sc. Degree 6 half-year courses, thesis. M.Eng. Degree 10 half-year courses, 4 6 week project. Department Size 12 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows, 30-40 Graduate Students. Applications For additional information write to : Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6 Faculty and Research Interests I. G Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota) : Kinetics, Hetero geneous Catalysis. D. G. Fisher, Ph D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process De sign. A. E Mather, Ph.D (Michigan) : Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics W. Nader, Dr Phil. (Vienna) : Heat Transfer, Air Pol lution Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap plied Mathematics. F. D. Otto, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan) : Mass Transfer Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environ mental Engineering D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Math ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory 204 D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan) : Thermal and Volu metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo dynamics. J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy Economics and Supply. D E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Com puter Control, Process Identification F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo logy of Complex Fluids S. E. Wanke, Ph.D (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine tics. R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern) : Process Dynamics and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns. Department Facilities Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre. Excellent complement of computing and analytical equipment : -IBM 1800 (real-time) computer -EAi 590 hybrid computer -AD 32 analog computer IBM 360 / 67 terminal -Weissenberg Rheogoniometer -Infrared spectrophotometer Research and industrial gas chromatographs The University of Alberta One of Canada's largest universities and engineering schools. Enrollment of 18,000 students. Co-educational, government-supported, non-denominationa I. Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river valley. Edmonton Fast growing, modern city; population of 440,000. Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra, professional sports. Major chemical and petroleum processing centre Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains and Jasper and Banff National Parks. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M S and Ph D graduate programs Financial support is available through gov ernment grants and contracts teaching, research assistantships traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor Ph D Oregon State University, 1973 Transpiration Cooling Heat Transfer i n Biological Sys tems, Blood Processing JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor and Head Ph D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor Ph D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody namics lnterfacial Phenomena RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Asst Professor Ph D., Princeton University, 1972 Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering, Energy and Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re action-Applications to the Minerals Industry. DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena Particulate Processes Explo sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Applied Design JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor Ph D., University of Wisconsin, 1968 Real-Time Computing Process Instrumentat i on and Con trol, Model Building and Simulat ion Tucson has an excellent cl im ate and many recreational opportunities It is a grow ing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information write to: Dr. J. W. White, Chairman Graduate Study Committee D epartment of Chemical Engineering Univ er sity of A rizona T ucson, Arizona 85721

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA RESEARCH ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MATERIAL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE: FACULTY Alexis T. Bell Lee F. Donaghey Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N Hanson C. Judson King (Chairman) Scott Lynn David N Lyon Robert P. Merrill John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M. Prausnitz Mitchel Shen Thomas K Sherwood Charles W Tobias Theodore Vermuelen Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720

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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his program of study. In this way a student can properly pre pare himself for a productive career of research, develop ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding technological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special terminal M S option, involving either research or an integrated design project is a newly added feature to th e overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanc e d study. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicant s r e gardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Professor J. H. Seinfeld Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It is advisable to submit applications before Fern1ary 15, 1976. FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice President for Institute Relations Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology Kinetics and catalysis; biomedical engineering; air and water quality. SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor Ph D. (1954), University of Illinois Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution; biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif fusion and membran e transport. GEORGE R. GAV ALAS, Profe s sor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization; coal gasification. L. GARY LEAL, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor, Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical mechanics JOHN H SEINFELD, Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Control and estimation theory; air pollution. FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies of various environmental problems. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure property relations in polymers ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois Solid state and surface chemistry. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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208 '' Are you sure you have the necessary tools?" Write Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon Un1ver s1ty Pittsburgh Pennsylvania CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY THE UNIVERSITY Case Institute of Technology i s a pr i vately endowed in stitution with traditions of excellence in Engineering and Applied Science since 1880 In 1967 Case Inst itute and Western Reserve Un i versity joined together The e nrollment endowment and fa c ulty make Case Western Reserve Uni versity one of the lea ding private schools i n the countr y. The modern urban campus is located in Cleveland's University Circle, an extensive concentration of ed ucational scientific social and cultural organizations ACTIVE RESEARCH AREAS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Environmental Engineering Control & Optimization Computer Simulation Systems Engineering Foam & Colloidal Scien ce Transport Processes Coal Gasification Biomedical Engineering Surface Chemistry & Catalys is Crystal Growth & Materials Laser Doppler Velocimetr y Chemical Reaction Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The department is growing and has recently moved to a new complex This facility provides for innovations in both research and teaching Courses i n all of the major areas of Chem i cal Engineering are available. Case Chem ic al Engineers have founded and staffed major chemical and petroleum companies and have made important technical and ent repren eurial contributions for over a half a centur y FINANCIAL AID Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research As sistantships are available to qualified applicants Application s are welcome from graduates in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Contact: Graduate Student Advisor Chemical Engineering Departmen t Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio 44106

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CLARKSON PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORAL DEGREE IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE Clarkson's multimillion dollar Science Center was dedicated in 1970 and is one of the finest facilities ot its kind in New York. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY W R WILCOX Prof and Chmn (Ph D 1960, University of California, Berkeley) Crystal growth in semiconductor and biological systems, nucleation of crystals, mass transfer in solidification processes, metallic corrosion. D-T CHIN Assoc Prof (Ph D 1969, University of Pennsylvania) Electrochemical engineering, transport phenomena waste treatment and resource recovery, energy conversion R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. and Exec. Officer (Ph.D 1966, Clarkson College of Technology) Boiling heat transfer bubble dynamics, boiling nucleation, holographic interferometry D 0 COONEY .:._ Assoc. Prof (Ph D 1966, University of Wisconsin) Mass transfer in fixed beds biomedical engineering E J DAVIS-Prof (Ph D., 1960, University of Washington) Heat transfer and fluid mechanics associated with two phase flow, convective diffusion, aerosol physics transport phenomena mathematical modeling. J ESTRIN Prof (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation phenomena crystallization, phase change processes J L KATZ Prof (Ph D., 1963, University of Chicago) Homogeneous nucleation of vapors, homogeneous boiling, hetero geneous nucleation, aerosols, nucleation of voids in metals, chemical nucleation thermal conductivity of gases. R J NUNGE-Prof. (Ph D 1965, Syracuse University) Transport phenomena, multistream forced convection transport processes, structure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through porous media, atmospheric transport processes H L. SHULMAN-Prof., Dean of Eng. and Vice Pres. of the College. (Ph D., 1950, University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, packed columns adsorption of gases, absorption R. S SUBRAMANIAN-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, Clarkson College of Technology) Heat and mass transfer, unsteady convective diffusion miscible dispersion, chromatographic and other interphase transport systems, fluid mechanics, mathematical modeling. V VAN BRUNT-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1974, University of Tennessee) Transport properties, optimization, computer methods, process control. T. J WARD-Assoc Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) Process control, nuclear engineering, ceramic materials. G R YOUNGQUIST-Prof. (Ph D 1962, University of Illinois) Ad sorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous media wast e conversion processes. For information c oncerning Assistantships and Fellowships contact the Graduate School Office, Clarkson College of Te c hnology Potsdam, New York 1 3 676 CLARKSON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY/ POTSDAM, NEW YORK 13676

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CORNELL UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Three graduate degree programs i n several subject areas are offered in the Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a research oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo sophy or Master of Science or may study for the professional degree of Ma s ter of Engineering ( Chemical) Graduate work may be done in the follow ing subject areas Chemical Engineering (general) Thermodynam i cs; applied mathematics ; transport ph e nomena, including flu i d mechanics, heat transfer and diffusional op e rations Bioengineering Separation and purification of biochemicals ; fermentation engineering and re lated sub i ects in biochemistry and microbiology ; mathematical models of processes i n pharmacology and environmental to xi cology ; artificial organs Chemical Microscopy Light and e lectron microscopy as applied in chemistry and ch e mical engine e ring Kinetics and Catalysis Homogeneous kinetics ; catalysis by solids and enzymes ; catalyst deactivation; simultaneous mass transfer and reaction ; optimization of reactor design Chemical Processes and Process Control Advanced plant design; process d e velopment; petroleum refining; chemical engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com puter methods Materials Engineering Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics metallurgy and sol i d-state physics biomaterials Nuclear Process Engineering Nuclear and reactor engineering and s e l e cted courses in applied physi c s and chemistry Faculty Members and Research Interests John L. Anderson, Ph.D Membrane transport bioengineering Kenneth B Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi cal r e action engineering. George G. Cocks, Ph D. Light and electron microscopy properties of materials, solid state chemistry crystallography. Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation ag i tat i on and aeration pro cessing of biochemicals electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons. Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis process control, diffusion i n m e m branes and porous solids. J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D Economic analyses and forecasts new ventures devel opment Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D Polymerizatio n, properties of polymer systems George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence fluid mechanics of liquid drops and jets convection-distorted flow fields. Michael L. Shuler, Ph D. Biochemical engineering. Julian C. Smith, Chem.E. Conductive trJnsfer processes, heat transfer mixing, mechanical separat i ons James F Stevenson, Ph.D Chemical engineering applications to biomedical probl e ms; rheology Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phas e equilibria flu i d flow kinet i cs of poly merization. Robert L Von Berg, Sc D, Liquid liqu i d e x traction, react i on k i netics, effect of radiation on chemical reactions Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline water conversion direct contact heat transfer Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis Robert York, Sc D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco nomics, process development, design, and evoluation FURTHER INFORMATION Wr i te to Professor K. B Bischoff Olin Hall of Chemical Eng i n ee ring Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14850

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212 UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Newark, Delaware 19711 The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and practice in the art and science of chemical engineering: An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem. An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the Delaware Valley chemical process industries. A Ph.D degree. The regular faculty are: Gianni Astarita time) C. E. Birchenall H. W. Blanch M. M. Denn B. C. Gates D H. Henneman, M.D J. R. Katzer R. L. McCullough A. B. Metzner J. H. Olson C. A. Petty R. L. Pigford T. W. F. Russell S. I. Sandler G. C. A. Schuit( time) J.M. Schultz L. Spielman James Wei The adjunct and research faculty who provide extensive association with industrial practice are: L. A. Defrate _____ Heat, mass and momentum transfer T. R Keane Polymer Science & Engineering W. H. Manogue Catalysis, reaction engineering E. L. Mongan, Jr. Design and process evaluation F. E. Rush, Jr. Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction R. J. Samuels Polymer science A. B. Stiles Catalysis K. F. Wissbrun Polymer engineering For information and admissions materials contact: A. B. Metzner, Chairman CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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~iversity of florida Transport Phenomena& Rheology Drag-reducing polymers greatly modify the familiar bathtub vortex, as studied here by dye injection. offers you Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics llfustrating hydrogen-bondin g forces between water molecules. and mucJimore .. A young, dynamic faculty Wide course and program selection Excellent facilities Year-round sports Optimization & Control Part of a computerized distillation control system. Biomedical Engineering & Jnterfacial Phenomena Oxygen being extracted from a substance similar to blood plasma. Write to: Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering-Room 227 University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

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Chemical Engineering Graduate Study Programs UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON APPLY ro DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON HOUSTON, TEXAS 77004 INTERESTED IN CHE APPLY FOR $4,800-$7,200 STIPEND ENTER PHO PROGRAM J.E. BAILEY J.R. CRUMP A.E DUKLER RW. FLUMERFELT GRADUATE STUDY GPA )3 AND ADMITTED + MASTER OF SCIENCE ,CHE 2 4 CREDIT HOURS O F COURSES 6 CREDIT HOURS OF THESIS ACCEPT PROBATI ONARY ADMI SS I ON MASTER OF SCIENCE UNDIFFERENTIATED CHOOSE SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTAL BIOMEDICAL 24 CREDIT HOURS OF CO URSES 6 CREDIT HOURS OF THESIS ACCEPT ENTRY INTO MASTER OF CHE PR O GRAM MASTER OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 24 CREDIT HOURS OF COURSES DESIGN PROJE CT C HOOSE THESIS ADVISOR AND TOPIC i---___, E.J HENLEY D. LUSS W.I. HONEYWELL R.L. MOTARD C.J HUANG A C. PAYATAKES CV. KIRKPATRICK H.W. PRENGLE J.T RICHARDSON FM. TILLER C r. WALTER F.L. WORLEY CATALYSIS CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION TWO PHASE FLOW KINETICS ENERGY CONVERSION ENZYME KINETICS HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER THERMODYNAMICS AIR POLLUTION COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN FERMENTATION KINETICS PROCESS DYNAMICS BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS RHEOLOGY FLUID PARTICLE SEPARATIONS PROCESS SYNTHESIS REACTOR DESIGN

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THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN GOALS OF GRADUATE STUDY: This Department offers M S. and Ph.D programs with a strong emphasis on creative research, either in fund a mental engineering science or its application to the solution of current problems of social concern. Truly exceptional educational experiences may be achieved from the close one-to one interaction of a student with a professor as together they de velop relevant scientific contributions STAFF AND FACILITIES: The faculty of the Department are all highly active in both teaching and re search; they have won numerous national and international awards for their achievements. Moreover, outstanding support for graduate research is available, not only in terms of equipment and physical facilities but also from the many shops, technicians, and service personnel. AREAS OF RESEARCH: Applied Mathematics Biological Applications of Chemical Engineering Chemical Kinetics Chemical Reactor Dynamics Corrosion Electronic Structure of Matter Electrochemical Engineering Energy Sources and Conservation Environmental Engineering Fluid Dynamics Heat Transfer High Pressure Mass Transfer Materials Science and Engineering Molecular Thermodynamics Phase Transformations Process Control Reaction Engineering Statistical Mechanics Two-Phase Flow FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS: Professor J. W. Westwater Department of Chemical Engineering 113 Adams Laboratory University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 61801 FALL 1975 215

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Biomedical Engineering (System Modeling, Transport. proces s) Dr. R. C Seagrave Biochemical Engineering (Enzyme Technology) Dr. C E. Glatz Dr. P. J. Reilly Polymerization Processes Dr. W. H. A braham Dr. J. D. Stevens as well as Air Pollution Control Solvent Extraction High Pressure Technology Mineral Processing write to: OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Energy Conversion (Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production, At omic Energy) Dr. R. G. Bautista Dr. L. E. Burkhar t Dr. G. Burnet Dr. A. H. Pul sifer Dr. D. L. Ulrichson Dr. T. D. Wheelock Crystallization Kinetics Dr. M.A. Larson Dr. J. D. Stevens Process Instrumentation and System Optimization and Control Dr. L. E. Burkhart Dr. K. R. Joll s Prof. M.A. Larson Dept. of Chern. Engr. & Nuc. Engr. Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50010 GRADUATE STUDY and GRADUATE RESEARCH in Chemical Engineering Transport Processes (Heat, mas s & momentum transfer) Dr. W. H. A braham Dr. R. G. Bautista Dr. C E. Glatz Dr. J. C Hill Dr. F. 0. Shuck Process Chemistry and Fertilizer Technology Dr. D. R. Boylan Dr. G. Burnet Dr. M.A. Larson

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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering M.S. Program in Petroleum Engineering also Doctor of Engineering (D.E.) and M.S. in Petroleum Management The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro leum Industry. Research Areas Transport Phenomena Fluid Flow in Porous Media Process Dynamics and Control Water Resources and Environmental Studies Mathematical Modeling of Complex Physical Systems Reaction Kinetics and Process Design Nucleate Boiling High Pressure, Low Temperature Phase Behavior Financial assistance is available for Research Assistants and Teaching Assistants For Information and Applications write: Floyd W Preston, Chairman Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas, 66044 Phone (913) UN4 3922

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY DEPART~ENr OF CHEM101L ENGINEERING M.S. & Ph.D. Programs Including .Intensive Study in ENERGY ENGINEERING Energy supply and demand Fuel combustion processes Coal liquefaction and gasification processes AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions Process and system control, and gas cleaning Diffusion and modelling of urban atmosphere s WATER POLLUTION CONTROL Advanced waste treatment and water reclamation Design of physical and chemical processes Biochemical reactor design STIPENDS: Excellent financial support is available in the form of National Science Foundat i on Traineeshi_p ~, fellowsh j ps & assistantsh ips OTHER PROGRAM AREAS : Thermodynamic s Process control Reactor des i g n Transport WRITE TO: R.B Grieves Chairman Dept. of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY LEXINGTON KENTUCKY 40506

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ENVIR0NMENTAL QUALITY BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES ENERGY FACULTY Raymond F. Baddour Robert C. Reid Lawrence B Evans Adel F Sarofim Paul J. Flory Charles N. Sat t erfield Hoyt C Hottel Kenneth A. Smith John P. Longwell J. Edward Vivian James E. Mark Glenn C. Williams Herman P Mei s sner Clark K. Colton Edward W. Merrill Jack B. Howard J Th. G Overbee k Michael Model! J R. A. Pearso n Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For decades to come, the chemical eng i neer will play a centrai role in fields of national concern In two areas alone, energy and the environment society and industry will turn to the chemica l engineer for technology and management i n finding process related so lutions to critical problems M I.T has con sistently been a leader in chemical engineer i ng education with a strong working relation ship with industry for over a half century For detailed information contact Professor Raymond F. Baddour Head of the Depart ment of Chemical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 C. Michael Mohr James H Porter Robert C. Armstrong Donald B Anthony Lloyd A. Clomburg Robert E. Cohen R i chard G Donnelly Christos Georgakis Ronald A. Hite s J e fferson W Tester

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2 20 Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman Day Programs M.S and Ph.D. Degrees Established fields of specialization i n which re search programs are in progress are : (l) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies Drs J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson (2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr J. W Johnson (3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr E. L. Park Jr (4) Mass Transfer Studies Dr. R M. Wellek (5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K. G. Mayhan I n addit i on, research projects are being carried out in the following areas : (a) Optimization of Chem i cal Systems ; Energy Conversion from Agricultural Products Prof J. L. Gaddy (b) Design Techn i ques and Fermentation Studies Dr. M E F i ndley (c) Multi component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr R. C Waggoner (d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr R. A. Prim rose (e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques Dr. H H. Grice (f) Process Dynamics and Control; Computer Applications to Process Control Os. M E. Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen kamp (g) Transport Properties Kinetics and enzymes and catalysis-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E. Poling (h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Dr. D. B. Manley Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. CHEM I CAL ENGINEE RI NG EDUCAT IO N

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? i =ssl 55 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg R F. Benenati J J. Conti C D Han R. D Patel E. M. Pearce E. N Ziegler Polvtechnic lnsfitute @~~Wcw[k Formed by the merger o f Po l ytech ni c In s titute o f Bro o klyn an d New York U niversity S ch oo l o f Engineering an d Science Department of Chemical Engineering Progra m s lea d ing lo Master's, E n gineer and Doctor's d egrees Areas of study a nd r e search: chemical engineering, polymer science a nd engineering, bioengineering and environmental studies RESEARCH AREAS Air Pollution Biomedical Systems Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Mathematical Modelling Polymerization Reactions Process Control Rheology and Polymer Processing Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available For further information contact Professor C. D Han Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Institute of New York 333 Jay Street Brooklyn New York 1120 1

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PHILADELPHIA The cultural advantages and historical assets of a great city, including the incomparable Phila delphia Orchestra are within walking distance of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. A complete range of recreational facilities exists within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex cellence in graduate education. A unique feature of the University is the breadth of medically related activities including those in engineering. In recent years the University has undergone a great expansion of its facilities, including specialized graduate student housing. The De partment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineer ing has attracted national and international atten tion because of its rapid rise to excellence. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING The faculty includes two members of the Na tional Academy of Engineering and three recip ients of the highest honors awarded by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Every staff member is active in graduate and underFACULTY Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan) Elizabeth Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins) William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania) David J. Graves (M.I.T.) A. Norman Hixson (Columbia) Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia) Ronald L. Klaus (R.P.I.) RESEARCH SPECIAL TIES Energy Utilization and Conservation Enzyme Engineering Biomedical Engineering Computer-Aided Design Chemical Reactor Analysis Electrochemical Engineering graduate teaching, in research, and in profes sional work. Close faculty association with in dustry provides expert guidance for the student in research and career planning. Mitchell Litt (Columbia) Alan L. Myers (California) Melvin C. Molstad (Yale) Leonard Nanis (Columbia) Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale) John A. Quinn (Princeton) Warren D. Seider (Michigan) Environmental and Pollution Control Polymer Engineering Process Simulation Surface Phenomena Separations Techniques Biochemical Engineering For further information ori graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to: Dr. J. A. Quinn, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadeli:,hia, Pa. 19174.

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LOOKING FALL 1975 for a graduate education in Chemical Engineering? Consider PENN STATE M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered with Research In Biomedical Engineering Environmental Research Reactor Design and Catalysis Transport Phenomena Thermodynamic Properties Separational Processes Applied Chemistry and Kinetics Petroleum Refining Tribology lnterfacial Phenomena Energy Research And Other Areas WRITE TO Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head 160 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pa. 16802 223

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Albright Barile Chao Delgass Eckert Emery Greenkorn Hanneman Houze Kessler DUE Koppel Lim Reklaitis Sesonske Squires Theofanous Tsao Wankat Weigand Wo ods Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M-D -Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available. The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent evaluation by the American Council of Education. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization, Stability, and Process Control Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Polymer Science BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma Blood Pumping Systems Biomaterials Rice University Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston. There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800 graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a complete university with programs in the various fields of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings. The academic year is from September to May. As there are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly four months for research. The school offers excellent recreational and athletic facilities with a completely equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year round activities. FALL 1975 FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of $333-400 per month. APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION Address letters of inquiry to: Houston Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Rice University Houston, Texas 77001 With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company, which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and Museum of Natural Science The air-conditioned Astro dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers and the site of many other events 225

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226 THE UNIVERSI TY OF SOUTH CAROLINA AT COLUMBIA between the mountains and the sea where the quality of life is good and opportunities for ambitious students abound in this fastest growing area of the country. Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineer ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemstry, physics, math ematics, materials and computer science. Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are available. For particulars and application forms write to: Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman Chemical Engineering Program College of Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, S.C. 29208 THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY B. L. Baker, Professor, Ph D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process design, environmental problems, ion transport) M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treat ment) J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D ., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer, fluid mechanics) P E. Kleinsmith, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1972 (Transport phenomena, statistical mechanics) F. P. Pike, Professor, Ph.D University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid liquid systems vapor-liquid equilibria) J.M. Tarbell, Assistant Professor, Ph D., University of Delaware, 1974 (Thermo dynamics, process dynamics) V. Van Brunt, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass Transfer, Computer Modeling) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EPlJCATION

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FACULTY: ANDREAS ACRIVOS, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1954. Field: Fluid Mechanics. MICHEL BOUDART, Ph.D., Princeton University, 1950. Field: Kinetics and Catalysis. GEORGE M. HOMSY, Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1969. Field: Fluid Mechanics and Stability. ROBERT J. MADIX, Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley, 1964. Field: Surface Reactivity. DAVID M. MASON, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1949. Field: Applied Chemical Kinetics. CHANNING R. ROBERTSON, Ph.D., Stanford University, 1969. Field: Bioengineering CONSULTING FACULTY: RICHARD E. BALZHISER, Director of Fossil Fuel and Advanced System Programs, Electric Power Research Institute. Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1961. Field: Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics. ALAN S. MICHAELS, Senior Vice President for Technological Resource Development, Alza Corporation. Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1948. Field: Surface, Colloid and Polymer Chemistry. ROBERT H. SCHWAAR, Senior Chemical Engineer, Stanford Research Institute, Ph.D., Princeton University, 1956. Field: Technological Development and Process Design. GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY Stanford University offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering with a number of financially attractive fellowships and as sistantships available to outstanding students pursuing either program. to: For further information and application blanks, write Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305. Closing date for applications is Feb. 15, 1976.

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at STEVENS INSTITUTE of' TECHNOLOGY ,-,.. > __ :_ _:. : ,,. : ~ r MASTER'S and DOCTORATE PROGRAMS zn Chemical Engineering Science Design Polymers RESEARCH zn Polymer Processing Rheology Polymer Property-Structure Relationships Polymerization Kinetics Reaction Engineering Mass Transfer Fluid Dynamics Turbulence Air Pollution Waste Treatment Combustion Energy Storage in Chemical Systems For further information contact: Dean L. Z. Pollara Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, New Jersey {201) 792-2700 Ext. 330

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Programs Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are offered in both Chemical and Meta l lurgical Engineering The Master's pro gram may be tailored as a terminal one with emphasis on professional develop ment or it may serve as preparation for more advanced work leading to the Doctorate Specialization in Polymer Science and Eng i neering is available at both levels Faculty William T Becker Donald C Bogue Charlie A. Brooks Edward S Clark Oran L. Culberson John F Fellers George C Frazier Hsien-Wen Hsu Homer F Johnson Department Head Stanley H Jury Carl D Lundin Charles F Moore Ben F Oliver Pro f essori n-Charg e of Metallurg i ca l Eng i neering Joseph J Perona Joseph E. Spruiell E Eugene Stansbury James L. Wh i te FALL 1975 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Graduate Studies in Chemical& Metallurgical Engineering Research Process Dynam i cs and Control Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of Packed Beds Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge Studies of Macromolecules Development and Synthesis of New Engineering Polymers Fiber and Plast i cs Processing Bioengineering X-Ray Diffraction Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy Solidification Zone Refining and Welding Cryogenic and High Temperature Calorimetry Fl ow and Frac t ure in Metallic a nd Polymeric Systems C orrosion S o li d Stat e K i net i c s Financial Assistance Sources available include graduate teaching assistantships research assis tantships and industrial fellowships Knoxville and Surroundings With a population near 200,000, Knox ville is the trade and industrial center of East Tennessee In the Knoxville Audi torium-Coliseum and the University theaters Broadway plays musical and dramatic artists and other entertain ment events are regularly scheduled Knoxville has a number of points of his torical interest a symphony orchestra two art galleries and a number of museums Within an hour s drive are many TVA lakes and mountain streams for water sports the Great Smoky Mountains National Park with the Gatlin burg tourist area two state parks and the atomic energy i nstallations at Oak Ridge i ncluding t he Museum of Atomic Energy Write Chemical and Metallurgical Engineer i ng T he University of Tennessee Kn oxville Tennessee 37916 229

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West Vlrg1n1a Un1vers1ly Chemical Engineering Environmental Engineering Purification of Acid Mine Drainage Water by Reverse Osmosis Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering SO2 Scrubbing Economic Impact of Environmental Regulations Other Topics Chemical Kinetics Separation Processes Optimization Transport Phenomena Uti I ization of Ultrasonic Energy Bioengineering Fluidization Energy Engineering Coal Conversion Potential of Coal Based Energy Complexes Conversion of Solid Wastes to Low BTU Gas Energy Farming MS & PhD Programs Financial Aid: up to $5400/year For further information and applications write : Dr J. D. Henry Department of Chemical Engineering West Virginia University Morgantown West Virginia 26506

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D. RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE: HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL PROCESS MODELING IN: COAL GASIFICATION, WOOD PYROLYSIS, METHANATION, ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD P. 0. Box 6312 University, Alabama 35486 AUBURN UNIVERSITY A Land Grant University of Alabama GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and PH.D. DEGREES CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS: LIQUID FUELS FROM COAL PROCESS CONTROL POROUS MEDIA P-V-T RELATIONS CRYSTAL GROWTH KINETICS SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Financial Assistance: For Further Information, Write: Research and Teaching Assistantships, Head, Chemical Engineering Department Industrial Fellowships Are Available Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830 FALL 1975 231

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232 DEPARTMENT o F CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837 For admission, address Dr. Paul H. .DeHoff Coordinator of Graduate Studies Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Some courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings. o Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; reaction kinetics; catalyst deac tivation; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of materials; mathematical model ing; numerical analysis; statistical analysis Assistantships and scholarships are available For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS Faculty R L. Bell : R. G Carbonell A. P. Jackman: B. J. McCoy : J. M Smith : S Whitaker: Mass Transfer, Bio Medical Engineering Enzyme Kinetics Quantum Mechanics Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution Molecular Theory, Transport Processes Water Pollution, Reactor Design Fluid Mechanics, lnterfacial Phenomena To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To : Graduate Student Adv i sor Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Davis, California 95616 C HEMI CA L ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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Henr i J Fenech Husam Gurol Owen T. Hanna Duncan A. Mellichamp UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING Orville C. Sandall John E. Mye rs G Robert Odette A. Edward Profio Robert G Rinker For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara 93106 CINCINNATI DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES FALL 1975 -Major urban educational center -New, prize-winning laboratory building and facilities-Rhodes Hall -National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent to campus -Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid -Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control, polymers, applied chemistry, systems foam fraction ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen eration, heat transfer Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head Dept of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 233

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CLEMSON UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering Department M.S. and Doctoral Programs THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS Alley, F. C. Ph D. U. North Carolina Industrial Pollution Control Barlage, W. B Ph D ., N. C. State Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids, lnterfa c ial Phenomena Beard J N ., Ph D ., L.S U .Digital Computer Process Control Textile Dyeing and F i nishing Beckwith W. F ., Ph D ., Iowa State Transport Phenomena, Pulp and Paper Proce s sing Edie, D. D Ph.D U V i rgin i a Crystall i zation Polymer Processing Harshman R C. Ph D ., Oh i o Sta t e Kinetics a n d Reactor Design Membrane Processe s Melsheimer SS Ph D Tulane Memb r ane Transport, Numerical Methods Process Con t rol Mullins, J. C. Ph.D ., Georgia Tech Thermodynam i cs Adsorpt i on FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships Con t ac t: D D Edie Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineer i ng Clemson Un i ve r sity C lemson S C. 29631 faculty J P. BELL C. 0. BENNETT M B. CUTLIP A. T. DiBENEDETT0 G. M. HOWARD H. E KLEI R M. STEPHENSON L. F. STUTZMAN 0 W. SUNDSTROM programs M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering most aspects of Chemical Engineering Research projects concentrate in four main areas : KINETICS AND CATALYSIS POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships Fellowship s location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut convenient to Boston, New York and Northern New England We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities for an education at UC0NN please write to : Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Connecticut Storrs Connecticut 06268

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THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY Kinetics MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Pollution Control Simulation Processes The program m ay be d e sig ned as terminal o r as pre p aration for furt h er advance study leading to the doctorate F i nancial ass i stance is ava i lable FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT : Department of Chemical Engineer i ng The Cleveland State Un i versity Euclid Avenue at East 24th Stree t Cleveland Oh i o 44115 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Uo to $5,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Department of Chemical Engineering Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas 66502 F ALL 1975 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER HEAT TRANSFER FLUID MECHANICS THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS SOLID MIXING DESALINATION OPTIMIZATION FLUIDIZATION PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 2 35

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LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 Can you match the professor with his technical specialty(ies}? PROFESSOR Marvin Charles Curtis W Clump Robert W Coughlin Mohamed EI Aasser Alan S Foust William L. Luyben Anthony J McHugh Gary W. Poehlein William E. Schiesser Leslie H. Sperling Fred P Stein Leonard A Wenzel RESEARCH / TECHNOLOGY Mass and Heat Transfer Thermodynamics Energy / Fossil Fuels Nuclear Technolog y Polymer Materials Sci e nc e Numerical Integration Catalys i s Chemical Reacto r Engineering Fermentat i on and Biochemical Engineering Enzyme Technology Cryogenics Process Design Technology Transfer Process Dynamics Waste Water Treatment Air Pollution Control Rheology Emulsion Polymer i zat i on Comput e r S i mulation Surface Science Process Control Transport Phenomena Kinetics Graduate Enrollment 60 Faculty 19 Bioengineering Pollution Control Process Dynamics Computer Control Kinetics and Catalysi s Thermodynamics Ecological Modeling Write: Chemical Engineering Department Sugar Technology Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 236 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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McMASTER UNIVERSITY Hamilton, Ontario, Canada M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS R B Anderson (Ph. D. Iowa) M H. I. Baird (Ph D. Cambridge) A. Benedek (Ph.D ., U of Wash i ngton) J L. Brash (Ph D Glasgow) . C. M Crowe (PhD Cambridge) Y Doganoglu (Ph D ., McGill ) . I. A Feuerstein ( Ph D., Massachusetts ) A E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto ) T W. Hoffman (Ph.D McG i ll) J F MacGregor (Ph.D Wisconsin) K. L. Murphy (Ph D Wisconsin) L. W Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) W J Snodgrass (Ph.D. U of N Carolina, Chapel Hill) J. Vlachopoulos (D Sc Washington U. ) D R. Woods (Ph D., Wisconsin) J D Wright (Ph D ., Cambridge) Catalysis, Adsorption, Kinetics Oscillatory Flows Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques Polymer Chemistry Use of Polymers in Medicine Optimization Chem i cal Reaction Engineering, Simulation Fluid Mechanics Transport Processes Biological Fluid and Mass Transfer Polymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes Heat Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr Simulation Statistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control Wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations Mass Transfer Corrosion Modelling of Aquatic Systems Polymer Rheology and Processing, Tran sport Processes lnterfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems Process Simulation and Control Computer Control DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST CONTACT: Dr. A. E. Hamielec, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 4L7 THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS The University of Michigan awarded its first Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D. in 1914. It has moved with the times since and today offers a flexible program of graduate study that allows emphases ranging from fun damentals to design. The Chemical Engineering Department, with 21 faculty members and some 65 graduate stu dents, has opportunities for study and research in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor design, transport processes, mathematical and numerical methods, optimization, mixing, rheol ogy, materials, bioengineering, electrochemical engineering, production-pipelining-storage of oil and gas, coal processing, and pollution control. FALL 1975 The M.S: program may be completed in 10 months and does not require a thesis. The Pro fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond the Master's and a professional problem. The Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to expedite entry into a research area as early in the program as possible. For further Information and applications, write: Prof. Brice Carnahan Chairman of the Graduate Committee The University of Michigan Department of Chemical Engineering Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 237

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MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY If JI~ D E PA R T M E N T O F C H E M I S T RY 'I._), HAND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ou GHTON, MICHIGAN 49931 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY H. El Khadem, D Sc. Tech., Department Head M. W. BREDEKAMP, Ph D Instrumentation, Process D yn amics and Control L. B HEIN Ph D Unit Op erations, Mineral Extraction D W. HUBBARD Ph D. Lake Studies, Mixing Phenom e na Turbulent Flow J T. PATTON Ph D Biosynth esis, Waste Treatment, Petroleum Recov e ry A. J PINTAR, Ph.D Energy Conversion Transport Phenomena Applied Mathematics J. M. SKAATES Ph.D. Fluid Solid Reactions, Catalysis Reactor D esign 238 DEGREES GRANTED : M.S. E T WILLIAMS, Ph D Improvement of Pulpwood Yield Financial assistance available in the form of Fellowships and Assistantships For more information, write to : H El Khadem, Head Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HOUGHTON, MICHIGAN 49931 DO YOU THINK OF MINNESOTA as an hyperborean haunt of horrendous weather far to the north of the Cote d'Azur and other balmy latitudes? as a domain dominated by dismal theoreticians and other weird species? IF SO you're wrong on both counts. Our weather is brisk, to be sure, but far from glacial. Our theoreticians are doughty not dismal ; and anyway the experimentalists outnumber the theoreticians-nor do they themselves fear theory. For the unexpirgated truth on graduate work at Minnesota, write: DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D. Degrees Research Areas Air Pollution Monitoring and Control Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Energy Sources and Systems Environmental Control Engineering Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Process Control and Modelling of Processes Single-Cell Protein Research Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids Transport in Biological Systems WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg., University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201 UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA OFFER! T G GRADUATE STUDY A l D RESEARCH LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. I N THE AREAS OF: Biochemical Engineering Computer Applications Crys talliza lion Food Proc essing Kinetics Mixing Polymerization Thermodynamics Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics and other areas FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON FINA CIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO: Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508

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240 THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Offering Research Opportunities in Coal Gassification Desalinization Polymer Science Hydrogen Economy Mini Computer Applications to Process Control Process Simulation Hydro-Metallurgy Radioactive Waste Management ... and more Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque! For further information, write: Chairman Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty and research interests: J. A. Bergantz D. R. Brutvan H. T. Cullinan, Jr P. Ehrlich W.N.Gill R. J. Good K. M. Kiser P. J. Phillips W H Ray E. Ruckenstein J. Szekely T. W. Weber S. W. Weller Financial aid is available energy sources, gas-solid reactions staged operations multicomponent mass transfer, transport properties polymeric materials, thermodynamics dispersion, reverse osmosis surface phenomena, adhesion of living cells blood flow, turbulence, pollution in lakes polymer morphology, structure and properties optimization, polymerization reactors catalysis, interfacial phenomena, bioengineering process metallurgy, gas-solid and solid-solid reactions process control, dynamics of adsorption catalysis catalytic reactors For full information and application materials, please contact: Dr Harry T. Cullinan, Jr. Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14214 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WRITE TO: THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY AT RALEIGH offers programs leading to the M.S M Ch E and Ph D. degrees in chemical engi neering. Active research programs lead i ng to approximately 50 journal publica tions per year are offered in all classical and contemporary research areas of chemical engineering. The proximity of a large number of polymer-related re search facilities at the nearby Research Triangle Park and the various offices and laboratories of the Environmental Protection Agency in and near the Park stimu lates strong research programs in polymers and air pollution technology at North Carolina State University. Graduate students are further stimulated by beaches and mountains, an early spring and a late fall, and the sister universities of Duke and UNC Chapel Hill. Our distinguished senior faculty of K. 0. Beatty Jr J. K. Ferrell, H. B Hopfenberg, Warren L. McCabe, E. M. Schoenborn, E. P Stahel and V T. Stannett jo i n their colleagues in inviting your application to study chemical engineering in North Carolina. I-IE UNIVERSITY OF 0Klt4HOMA CATALYSIS CORROSION THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIGIT AL SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE DESIGN The University of Oklahoma POLYMERS Engineering Center METALLURGY 202 W. Boyd Room 23 THERMODYNAMICS Norman, Oklahoma 73069 RA TE PROCESSES ENZYME TECHNOLOGY FALL 1975 241

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242 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE OHIO ST A TE UNIVERSITY M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Rheology Unit Operations Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Simulation Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 Princeton University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Ronald P. Andres Robert C. Axtmann Robert L. Brat zler Joseph M Calo John K Gillham Ernest F Johnson Morton D Kostin Leon Lapidus Bryce Ma x well David F Ollis William B. Russel Dudley A. Saville Will ia m R. Schowalt er Garth L. Wilkes RESEARCH AREAS Atmospheric Aerosols Bio engineering Catalysis Chem i cal Reactor / Reaction Engineering Computer-Aided Design Energy Convers i on & Fusion Reactor Technology Environmental Studies Fluid Mechanics & Rheology Mass & Momentum Tran sport Molecular Beams Polymer Materials Science & Rheology Process Control & Optimization WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08540 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ENERGY RESOURCE RESEARCH POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY PROCESS DYNAMICS These are some of the challenging specialties you can fol low in graduate programs leading to degrees of M.S. in chemical / petroleum engineering or Ph.D in chemical engineering. Graduate Coordinator Chemical/Petroleum Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pa 15261 UniJ:ersity PiOsb Q!!een's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D.W Bacon PhD ( Wisconsin) H.A Becker scD 1M 1TJ D.H. Bone PhD(London) S.C. Cho PhD Princeton) R.H. Clark PhD l lmperialCollege J R. K. Code PhD ( Cornell ) J. Downie PhD ( Toronlo ) J.E Ellsworth PhD (P rinceton ) c.c. Hsu PhD !Texas) J D Raal PhD !Toronto) T.R Warriner Sc-D (John s Hopkin s) B.W Wojciechowski PhD (O ttawa ) FALL 1975 Waste Proce ssi n g water a nd waste tr eatment app li ed mi c robiolo gy biochemic a l enginee rin g Chemi ca l R eaction Engineering catalysis stat i stica l design polymer studies Transport Pro cesses combustion fl uid mechanic s thermod ynam ic s Write: Dr John Downie Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's Un i versity K in gston, Ontar i o Canada 243

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RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING o ffers gra d ua te st u dy programs l ead ing to M .S. and Ph D de g r ees w ith opp ortuniti es fo r s p ec iali z ation in : THERMODYNAMICS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDIZA TION WATER RESOURCES AIR POLLUTION POLYMER MATERIALS POLYMER PROCESSING PROCESS DYNAMICS SOLID WASTES Renssela e r Polytechnic Institute established in 1824 "for the application of science to the common purposes of life," has grown from a sc hool of engineering and applied science into a technological university, serving some 3500 undergraduates and over 1 000 grad u ate s tudents. It is locat ed in Troy, New York, about 150 mi l es north of New York City and 180 miles west of Bos t on. Troy, Albany, and Schenectady tog e ther comprise the heart of New York 's Capital District, an upstate metro po l itan area of about 600,000 pop ul ation. T h ese his toric cities and the surrounding count r yside provide t he attractions of both urban and and rural life Scenic st r eams, l akes and mountains, i ncluding t he H udson River, L ake George, the Green Mounta i ns of Vermont, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions of t h e Ad ir ondac k Fo r es t P r eserve, are wi th in easy driving distance, and offer many alt r ac t ions for th ose interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hun t ing, fishing, etc. For full details write Mr. R. A. Du Mez, Director of Graduate Admissions, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12181. 244 L a k e Hu ro n University of Waterloo L o nd o n L a k e Er i e Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De partment offers M.A Sc., Ph.D. and post doctoral programs in: Biochemical and Food Engineering Environmental and Pollution Control Extractive and Process Metallurgy Polymer Science and Engineering Mathematical Analysis and Control Transport Phenomena and Kinetics Financial Aid: Competitive with any other Canad i an University Academic Staff: K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton); E. Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester); R. R Hudgins, Ph D. (Princeton); T L. Batke, Ph D (Toronto) ; K S. Chang, Ph D (Northwestern) ; F A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (U B.C.); T Z Fahidy, Ph.D. (I l linois) ; R. Y-M Huang, Ph D. (Toronto); D. C. T P e i, Ph.D. (McGill); P. M Reilly, Ph.D (London) ; A. Rud i n Ph D (Northwestern); D S Scott, Ph.D. (Illinois); P L. S i lveston, Dr Ing. (Munich) ; D. R. Spink, Ph.D (Iowa State) ; G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Man che s ter); B M E van der Hoff, Ir (Delf); M. Moo-Young, Ph.D (London); L. E Bodnar, Ph D. (McMaster); C. M. Burns Ph D (Polytechnic Ins t. Brooklyn); J. J. Byerley, Ph D ( U.B C. ); K Enns Ph.D. (Toronto ); J. D. Ford, Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E Gall, Ph.D. ( Minn.) ; G. L. Rempel, Ph D. (U B C. ); C. W Robinson Ph D (U C. Berkeley); J R. Wynnyckyj, Ph.D. (Toronto) ; I. F Macdonald, Ph.D. (Wisconsin ); G S. Mueller Ph.D (Manchester) ; J. M. Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania); To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo Ontario Canada N2L 3G 1 Further information: See CEE, p 4, Winter 1975 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY IN SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AREAS FACULTY Allen J. Barduhn Water Renovation Biomedical Engineering Membrane Processes Des a Ii nation Transport Phenomena Separation Processes Mathematical Modeling Rheology R. Rajagopalan Philip A. Rice S. Alexander Stern Gopal Subramanian Chi Tien Raffi M. Turian Syracuse University is a private coeducational university lo c ated on a 640 acre campus situated among the hills of Central N ew York State A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering, science, the social scie nc es, and the humanities exists at the university. The many divers ifie d activities conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both specific and general educational goals. As a part of this medium sized research oriented university the Department of Chem ic al Engineering and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broaden i ng interest of the faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Res e arch, independent study and the general atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation. FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 197 4-75 For Information: Stipends: Contact: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Stipends range from $2,000 to $4,500 with most students receiving $3,400$4,000 per annum in addition to remit ted tuition privileges. Syracuse University Syracuse, New York 13210 T. L. Donaldson R. F Eisenberg M. R. Feinberg J. R Ferron J. C. Friedly R.H. Heist F. J. M. Horn H. R. Osmers H J Palmer H. Saltsburg W. D. Smith, Jr. G. J Su FALL 1975 UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 14627 MS & PhD Programs Mass Transfer, Membranes, Enzyme Catalysis Inorganic Composites, Physical Metallurgy Formal Chemical Kinetics, Continuum Mechanics Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics Process Dynamics, Optimal Control & Design Nucleation, Atmospheric Chemistry, Solids Chemical Processing Theory, Applied Mathematics Rheology, Polymers, Biological & Ecological Processes lnterfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes Surface & Solid-State Chemistry, Molecular Beams Kinetics & Reactor Design, Computer Applications Glass Science & Technology, Thermodynamics For information write: J. R. Ferron, Chairman 245

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246 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS THINKING ABOUT GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING? Think about a meaningful study program in chemical engi neering at Texas A&M University. TAMU's graduate program is designed to produce engineers who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry and society. Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl, there is an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally warm Texas friendliness, enabling you to get the very best guidance and instruction possible. For an information packet and application materials, write to: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843 TUFTS UNIVERSIT'I CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS Metropolitan Boston RHEOLOGY OPTIMIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION POLYMER STUDIES MEMBRANE PHENOMENA CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY BIO ENGINEERING MECHANO-CHEMISTRY PROCESS CONTROL FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF. K. A. VAN WORMER, CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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STUDY WITH US AND ENJOY NEW ORLEANS TOO! DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TULANE UNIVERSITY A Vigorous Faculty Meaningful Research Excellent Faci I ities The Good Life For Additional Information, Please Contact Duane F. Bruley, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Tulane University New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 THE FACULTY: Raymound V Bail ey, Ph D. (LSU) ---Systems Engineering, Applied Math, Energy Conversion Duane F. Bruley, Ph D (Tenn ) ----Process Dynamics, Control Biomedical Engineering Robert P. Chambers, Ph.D (Calif Berkeley) ____ Enzyme Engineering, Process Development, Metals Recovery, Catalysis H Gordon Harris, Jr ., Ph.D (Calif Berkeley) --Thermodynamics, Phase Equilibria, Extractive-Metallurgy Daniel B Killeen, Ph D (Tulane) ---Use of Computers in Engineering Education Victor J Law, Ph D (Tulane) ______ Optimization Control, Agris ','ste ms Samuel L. Sullivan, Jr ., Ph D (Texas A&M) Separation Process, Transport Phenomena Numerical Methods Dale U. von Rosenberg Sc.D. (MIT) ___ Numerical Methods Petroleum Production Robert E C. Weaver, Ph.D. (Princeton) ________ Resource Management, Operations Research and Control Biomedical Engineering VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. AND Ph.D. DEGREE PROGRAMS W Wesley Eckenfelder Thomas M. Godbold Thomas R Harris Knowles A. Overholser John A. Roth Karl B. Schnelle, Jr. Robert D Tanner W. Dennis Threadgill Biological and Advanced Waste Water Treatment Processes Process Dynamics and Control Mass Transfer Physiological Systems Analysis, Transport Phenomena Biomedical Engineering, Tracer Analysis Combustion Physics, Biorheology Reaction Kinetics and Chemical Reactor Design, Gas Chromatography, Industrial Waste Management and Control Air Pollution, Instrumentation and Automatic Control Dispersion Studies Enzyme Kinetics, Fermentation Processes and Kinet i cs Pharmaco kinetics, Microbial Assays Unit Operations, Food and Dairy Industry Waste Treatment FURTHER INFORMATION : W Dennis Threadgill, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Box 1821, Station B, Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee 37235 FALL 1975 247

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248 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chem ical Engineering Seattle, Washington 98105 GRADUATE STUDY BROCHURE AVAILABLE ON REQUEST WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs AIR POLLUTION : Submicron Particulate Collection / High Temperature Catal ysis / Global Monito ing & Meteorological Interaction / Atmospheri c Chemistry & Trace Analyses / Odor Perception / Phytotoxicity ENERGY : Combustion & NO x SO x Control / Coal Minerals Recovery / Petrochemical Substitutes From Coal / Process Development & Design TRANSPORT PHENOMENA: Laser Doppler Velocimetry / Single & Multi Phase Flow & Heat Transfer / Foam Flow NUCLEAR ENGINEERING: Radioactive Waste Management / Fuels Reprocessing / LMFBR Technology / Radiocarbon Dating / Neutron Activation Analy ses POLYMER ENGINEERING : Electroiniated Polymerization / Polymeric Encap su lation BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING : Biorheology BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Fermentation Kinetics Several Fellowships, Assistantships and Full-time Summer Appointments Available Contact: J. A. Brink, Jr., Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Wa. 99163 / Tel. 509 335-4332. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY ST LOUIS, MISSOURI GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Washington University is located on a park like campus at the St Louis City limit. Its location offers the cultural and recreational opportunities of a major metropolitan area combined with the convenience of a University surrounded by pleasant residential areas with many apartment houses where single and married graduate students can obtain housing at reasonable rates The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies a modern bui !ding with well-equipped laboratory facilities for research in a large variety of areas There is close interaction with the research and engineering staffs of major St Louis chemical companies and also ex tensive collaboration with the faculty of the Washington University School of Medicine in the biomedical engineering research activities PRINCIPAL RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical Engineering Rheology Chemical Reaction Engineering Technology Assessment Environmental Science Thermodynamics Polymer Science Transport Phenomena For application forms, a catalog, and a brochure which describes faculty research interests, research projects and financial aid write to: FALL 1975 Dr. Eric Weger, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Washington University St. Louis, Missouri 63130 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. R. Fisher, PhD J.Jorne, PhD thermodynamics-process design kinetics-molecular lasers electrochemical engr. -fuel cells environmental engr -kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments multi-phase flows-environmental engr. R.H. Kummler, PhD C. B. Leffert, PhD R Marriott, PhD J H. McMicki ng, PhD R. Mickelson, PhD P K. Roi, PhD E. w_ Rothe, PhD S. K. Stynes, PhD FOR FURTHER INFORMATION on admission and financial aid contact: Dr. Ralph H. Kummler Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 249

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Colorado offers excellent op portunit ies for graduate study and research leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineer ing. Research interests of the faculty include cryo geni cs, process control, polymer s cience cataly sis, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer, computer aided design, air and water pollution, biomedical engineering, and ecological engi neering M.S. For application and information, write to: Chairman, Graduate Committee Chemical Engineering Department University of Colorado, Boulder NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEWARK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR AND IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PH D DEGREES Biomedical Engineering Basic Studies-Chemical Biochemical Engineering Engineering Environmental Engineering Basic Studies-Applied Polymer Science and Chemistry Eng i neering Process and Design Studies For details on applications and financial aid, write: 250 Dean Alex Bedrosian Graduate Division New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 High Street Newark, New Jersey 07104 THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA Iowa City M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering Emphasis on Materials Engineering Rheology Transport Processes Chemo-mechanics Stress Corrosion Irreversible Thermodynamics Membrane Processes Surface Effects Reaction Kinetics Radiation Effects Assistantships are available. Write: Chairman Chemical Engineering Program University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: Thesis and non-Thesis programs leading to the M.S. degree are available. A full-time student can com plete the program in a calender year Research and Teaching assistantships ar e available. PROJECT LIGNITE: UND's Chemical Engineering Department is engaged in a major research program under the U S Office of Coal Research on conversion of lignite coal to upgraded energy products A pilot plant is under construction for a coal liquefac tion process. Students may participate in project-related thesis problems or be employed as project workers while taking course work in the department. BUREAU OF MINES: The Department of Chemical Engineering and the U.S Bur ea u of Mines Energy Research Laboratory offer a cooperative program of study related to coal technology. Course work is taken at the University and thesis research per formed at the Bureau under Bureau staff members. Fellowships are available to U S citizens. FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58201 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Do any of these names ring a bell? Elzy Fitzgerald Knudsen Levensp i e l Me re d it h M r a z e k W i ck s They're our Department We offer advanced study in straight chem i cal en g ineering and joint pr o gr a ms with bi o chemi s tr y environmental and ocean engineering, etc. It's exciting here at OREGON STATE UNIVERS I TY Curi o us? Questions? Write Dr. Charles E. Wicks Chemic al Engineering Department O reg o n State U niversity C o rvallis, Oregon 97331 University of Rhode Island Grad u ate Study Chemical Engineer i ng MS PhD Nuclea r Engineer i ng MS AREAS OF RESEARCH Adsorption Biochemical Engineering Boiling Heat Tran s fer Catalysis Corrosion Desalination Dispersion Proce sses Distillation Fluid Dynamics Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics Liquid Extraction APPLICATIONS Ma ss T rans fer Materials Engineerin g Membrane Diffusion Metal Finishing Metal Oxidation Metallurgy Nuclear Technology Phase Equilibria Polymer s Process Dynamics Thermodynamics Water Resources X-ray Metallography Apply to the Dean of the Graduate School, Uni versity of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881. Applications for financial aid should be re ceived not later than February 15. Appointments will be made about April. FALL 1975 T H E UNIV E RS ITY OF TE XA S AT AU STIN M.S. and Ph.D. Progr a ms in Chemical Engineering Faculty research interests include materials, separation processes, polymers, fluid properties, surface and aerosol physics, catalysis and kine tics, automatic control, process simu l ation and optimization. F o r ad di tional information w rite: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineer i ng The University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND C IRC ULAT ION (Act of August 12, 1970: Section 3 685 Title 3 9. United States Code) 1. Title of Publication-Chemical Engineering Education 2 Date of Filin g-8 / 29 / 76 ( orig i nally ) 3. Frequency of Is s ue-Quarterly: I s sues are l abeled in seque nc e each year as Winter Spring, Summer & Fall 3A Annua l Subscription PriceA. Member of AIChE, ASEE or chemical eng in eer in g department $7 / year. B. A ll not members of above may subscribe for $10 / year. Thi s includes libr a ri es 4 Location of Known Office of Publication-Rm. 317 ChE B ld g. Chemica l Engineering Dept., U. of Fla., Gai n esville, Fla. 32611 5. Location of the Headquarters or General Business Offices of the Publishers-Same as Number Four Above 6. Publisher-Chem. Engr. Div.-Amer. Soc. for Engr. Education, 1 DuPont Cir., Washington D C 20036-Editor Dr. R. W. Fabien, Rm. 319 ChE Bldg., Chem Engr Dept., U. of Fla. Gainesville, FL. 32611 Managing Editor Actin g Bu s iness Manager-Bonnie J. Neelands, Rm. 317 ChE Bldg., Chem. Engr. Dept. U. of Fla., Gainesv ill e, FL. 32611 7. Owner-Official Pub li cation of Publisher as Listed Above Any Mail Addressed to "Owner" S h ould go to th e Editor as Listed Above 8 Known Bondholder s Mortgages, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Perc e nt or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages or Other S e curities None 9. For Optional Complet i on by Publishers Mailing at t h e Regular Rates-Dr R. W Fah i en, Editor 1 0 For Comp l et ion by Nonprofit Organizations Authorized to Mail at Special Rates (Sect i on 132.122 Postal Service M a nual ) Non-Profit, Not Private Foundation T ax Exempt Status Estab. by IRS 1 / 28 / 74 Under Sec. 609 (a) (2) Have Not Changed D uring Preceding 12 Month s 11. E x tent and Natur e of Circu l ation Actual number Average No. of Cop i es of Cop i es Each Single Issue Is s ue During Published Preceding Near es t to 12 Months Filin g Date A. Total No. Copies Printed 2082 1760 B Paid Circu l at ion 1. Sales Thr oug h Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors and Counter Sales 2. Mail Subscriptions C Total Paid C i rculation D. Free Di stribut i on by Mail, Carrier or Other Means Samples, Compli mentary, and Other Free Copie s E. Total Di stribution F. Copies Not Di str ib uted 1. Office Use, Left-Over Unac counted, Spoiled After Printing 2. Returns From New s Agent s G. T otal I certify that t h e stat e ments made complet eBonnie J Nee!ands by None None 1469 1446 1469 1446 416 174 1 8 85 1620 197 1 3 0 None None 2082 1760 me above are correct and 251

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The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships Available. EPA Traineeships in Water Supply and Pollution Control. For more details write: Dr Leslie E. Lahti Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TEXAS TECH Join a rapidly accelerating department (research funding has increased an average of 26 % per year for the last three years) Graduate research proje c ts available in PROCESS ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY Texas Tech Chemical Engineering graduates are among the most sought-after by industry in the country Be one of them! For information brochure and application mate rials, write 252 Dr R M Bethea Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 CONSIDER UTAH This is a small ad for people who recognize that bigger isn't necessarily better. The University of Utah has a small chemical engineering depart ment (8 faculty) where the emphasis is not on size but on equality. If you are interested in a small, high-quality chemical engineering depart ment having a variety of important research activities and located in one of the world's most pleasant cities in a unique geographical setting, write for more information to: Professor Noel deNevers Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 y Yale Chemical Engineering Department of Engineering and Applied Science CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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University of New Brunswick DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING A One Year M.Eng. Program in Chemical Engineering Practice Applications are invited from recent graduates, or those who e x pect to graduate in l 976, for admiss i on to the M Eng program For the Ch.E. graduate the course requires two terms of advanced study plus an industrial project, to be completed in collabora tion with industry during the summer months The proiect will be carried out within the r-,lant and will b e of immediate relevance to the company concerned For 1976 projects are available in the areas of thermal and nuclear power generation pollution control e x tract i ve metallurgy and heavy chemicals. Persons holding B Sc. degrees in science or other areas of engineering are also eligible but may require three terms of study. Financial Support: Up to $4000 Research in Chemical Engineering For those who are more interested in research M.Sc ./ Ph D proje els are available with assistantships valued at up to $5500 p.a FURTHER INFORMATION Contact: Dr. D. M. Ruthven Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Brunswick Fredericton, N.B. Canada ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
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We're looking for people who are looking for the good life. The good life involves a lot of the things we've always taken for granted. Like the availability of enough food to feed an ever-growing population. A cure for disease Thick forests. A clean environment. And the time to relax and enjoy it all. Except now we're going to have to stop looking at life through a tunnel and find ways to protect all forms of it-from our homes to the farthest corner of the earth. Because life is fragile. And its protection is a major concern at Dow. So we're looking for people with scientific, engineering, manufac turing and marketing backgrounds who'll direct their precious talents enthusiasm and ideas to the development of Dow products and systems for the good life. And we'll provide a dignified, motivational environment to work and grow. If you or someone you know loves life and wants to live it wisely, get in touch with us. Recruiting and College Relations, P O. Box 1713, Midland, Michigan 48640 0 Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company Dow is an eq u al opporlunlfy employer male/femal e DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.


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