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  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Ohio State
 Turk Storvick of University of...
 Nebraska's integrated process development/design...
 Computerized cost engineering in...
 The use of flowsheet simulation...
 Cost estimating by computer in...
 Teaching plant design to chemical...
 Expansion and contraction losses...
 The chemical engineering profession...
 Book reviews
 Seeing entropy
 News
 Back Cover










Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00044
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Summer 1974
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00044
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00044

Downloads
Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 105
    Ohio State
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Turk Storvick of University of Missouri-Columbia
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Nebraska's integrated process development/design laboratory
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Computerized cost engineering in the process design course
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    The use of flowsheet simulation programs in teaching chemical engineering design
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Cost estimating by computer in process design
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Teaching plant design to chemical engineers
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Expansion and contraction losses in fluid flow
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    The chemical engineering profession and cooperative education
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Book reviews
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Seeing entropy
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    News
        Page 156
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text









chmial enine M education








We're expecting a few extra people

for dinner tonight.


Tonight, the world will have
213,000 more mouths to feed than
it had last night.
Unfortunately, we're not
growing food as fast as people.
But there's still hope of revers-
ing the trend.
Modern technology is increas-
ing the production of staple food
crops in many countries.
This "green revolution" is
something Union Carbide is very
much a part of.
We make insecticides that not


only save food crops from bugs,
but destroy themselves afterwards.
Another of our products
protects high-moisture feed grains
against spoilage from molds. So
more of the crop ends up as meat.
We've also developed better
ways to store, transport and
package food.
And we're working on other
new ideas: A seed tape that's
already helping farmers
grow more food per acre of land.
An amazing gel that helps


plants grow faster with less water.
And a sea farm where we're
raising salmon by the thousands.
Helping the world grow more
food is not the only thing we do.
But it's one of the most important.
Because those 213,000 guests
are coming -whether we're ready
or not.


Today, something we do
will touch your life.
An Equal Opportunity Employer








EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
(904) 392-0881

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Chairman of Publications Board
Clemson University
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump
University of Houston
James R. Couper
University of Arkansas
EAST :G. Michael Howard
University of Connecticut
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES
UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers
University of California, Santa Barbara


SUMMER 1974


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME VIII NUMBER 3 SUMMER 1974


FEATURES
116 Nebraska's Integrated Process
Development/Design Laboratory
P. Reilly, D. Timm, J. Eakman

120 Computerized Cost Engineering
in the Process Design Course
T. Cadman

124 Use of Flowsheet Simulation Programs in
Teaching Chemical Engineering
J. Gaddy

130 Cost Estimating by Computer in Process
Design
P. Lashmet and K. Sorensen

134 Teaching Plant Design to Chemical
Engineers
E. Oden

138 Expansion and Contraction Losses in
Fluid Flow
J. Martin

DEPARTMENTS

112 The Educator
Turk Storvick of U. of Missouri-Columbia

106 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Ohio State
142 Curriculum
The Chemical Engineering Profession and
Cooperative Education, W. Tucker

142 Classroom
Seeing Entropy, M. Sussman

146 Book Review

156 News



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $6 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright ) 1974. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copi-s replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

































a


--~
.,*~


ChE FACULTY
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio 43210

N 1974, THE DEPARTMENT of Chemical
Engineering at The Ohio State University will
grant its 3000th degree. The lucky lad or lass
who receives it will be joining the graduates of
one of the most senior engineering departments
in the nation. Three-quarters of a century have
passed since the university granted its first
"bachelor of science in chemistry for the Engi-
neering College."
Headquartered in a four-story glass and
brick building located in the midst of The Ohio
State University engineering-physical science
complex, the Chemical Engineering Department
today has 13 faculty members, is the occasional
home for visiting professors and post-doctoral
students, grants degrees at the bachelors, masters,
and doctoral level, and is the site of a diversified
research program.


Ohio State's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment has one of the best-equipped "Unit Opera-
tions" laboratories available today. The modern
four-story laboratory provides basic "hands-on"
training for every student of chemical engineer-
ing. It is equipped for work in distillation, ab-
sorption, evaporation, drying, extraction, filtra-
tion and sedimentation. The equipment is ar-
ranged in such a way that a variety of experi-
mental projects can be carried out by operating
each unit individually or as part of an integrated
process. The lab has a central control room and
much of the equipment is being adapted for com-
puter control.
The building contains a number of special
laboratories such as a physical-measurements
laboratory; micro-plant process development
laboratory; and a Class 1, Group D, high-ventila-
tion laboratory for polymerization and drag-re-
duction research. The department facilities in-
clude a nuclear laboratory; reservoir engineering
laboratory; combustion research laboratory;


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









theological laboratory and an analytical labora-
tory equipped with gas chromatographs, ultra-
violet and infra-red spectrophotometers, and a
mass spectrometer.
In addition to these special laboratories,
there are 13 research laboratories equipped for
two to four students. A number of special pieces
of research equipment are in use, such as PVT
apparatus, rheogoniometer, mass transfer appara-
tus for flow in micro-porous solids, recycle
catalytic reactor system, and absorption appara-
tus.

DUAL COMPUTER SYSTEM
AVAILABLE FOR TEACHING and student
research is a PDP-15 dual computer system
that is unique in that it is a combination of two
computers working together as a dual processor.
The computer with its accessories is versatile
and fast because of this configuration. It has
four principal uses in the chemical engineering
department: data acquisition and analysis;
process dynamics and control; simulation and
optimization; and support of classroom and labo-
ratory instruction. Considerable analog comput-
er equipment is also available and can be run in
conjunction with the digital facilities.
The PDP-15 has a variety of input and output
devices. Inputs to the computer can come from
the Unit Operations Laboratory and simul-
taneously from any of several other labs through-
out the building. The computer may be used for


Karl Svanks, Ed Haering and Al Syverson scan the
results of an adsorption-reaction experiment in the
catalyst laboratory.


'Slip' Slider watches
as Web Kay prepares
for PVT measurement.






control for which output voltage signals may be
sent to experimental units at various locations.
Data, computations, and programs can be stored
on paper or magnetic tape. While a line printer is
available, remote teletypes and video displays are
often used for the output of experimental data.
In the main computer room there are three types
of video outputs.
The polymer research and rheology facilities
allow a complete range of experimentation.
Equipment in this area includes a 21/2" NRM -
24/1 plasticating extruder equipped with a sheet
line, beta gauge thickness measuring unit and
all that is needed for real-time on-line data ac-
quisition. Also in the polymer research area is a
complete Waters Assoc. Model 200 Gel permeation
chromatograph with dual pumping system and a
Weissenberg rheogoniometer equipped for on-line
real-time computer data acquisition.
The department has a well-equipped labora-
tory for the determination of the PVT properties
of liquids and gases covering a range in pressure
and temperature from ambient conditions to 125
atm and 350� C. An array of special equipment
is used for precision measurements and to insure
purity of all chemical components. Vapor pres-
sure, saturated liquid- and vapor-densities from
low temperatures and pressures to the critical
point, compressibility of gases and vapor/liquid
equilibrium compositions in mixtures both at low
and high pressures can be determined.
Extensive equipment exists for studies in drag
reduction and on the basic fundamentals of
turbulent flow. Of major importance is the visual


SUMMER 1974










The department has a long tradition of
close relationships with students, alumni
and industry. . . We recognize that for most
practicing engineers, the undergraduate experience
serves largely as a catalyst for a lifetime of learning.





study loop which consists of a test section and
system for transport of the high-speed camera
and light source. Temperature control is within
0.1� C. A boundary-layer facility is available that
utilizes the same camera transport system. Other
turbulence measuring equipment is available.
The main reason that this great array of
equipment has been assembled is for enhancing
the educational opportunities for our students.
The student is the center of focus for all pro-
grams; the existence of any facet of our educa-
tional endeavors depends upon the benefits he re-
ceives.
The department has a long tradition of close
relationships with students, alumni and industry
which have had a substantial influence on the
educational philosophy and goals of the depart-
ment. We recognize that for most practicing en-
gineers the undergraduate experience serves
largely as a catalyst for a lifetime of learning.
The effectiveness, versatility and adaptability of
the chemical engineer, so important in the past
and so promising for the future, arises from a
broad base of fundamentals in his training
coupled with the ability and motivation to put
these to practice. Thus, the general aims of the
undergraduate programs are to provide the stu-
dents with a broad and intensive background in
fundamentals of science and engineering and
practice in applying these to the creative solu-
tions of real problems. Approximately 45 stu-
dents complete the baccalaureate requirements
each year.

UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM
T HE UNDERGRADUATE curriculum begins
with courses in physics, mathematics, and
chemistry. Studies in chemical engineering begin
in the sophomore year with courses in material
and energy-balances and an introduction to trans-
port processes. During their junior year, students


continue studies of the fundamentals in courses
dealing with transport phenomena, thermody-
namics, chemical engineering operations and pro-
cess control and analysis. This classroom work
is illustrated and applied in several laboratory
courses.
During the senior year, a semi-integrated se-
quence of courses deals with reaction kinetics,
economics, and process development, followed by
a rigorous process design course. The final project
of the senior year is the synthesis, analysis, simu-
lation, and optimization of a commercial scale
process encompassing most of the undergraduate
work.
An important aspect of the senior year is the
opportunity for the student to gain depth, as
well as breadth, in an area or areas of his interest
through a Technical Option or Elective Program.
Available to chemical engineering students are 18
credit hours for programs in bio-engineering and
















Chris Geankoplis and Ed Smith are shown the sample
probe for the particulate collection apparatus by Tom
Sweeney.

biochemistry, environmental engineering, ad-
vanced mathematics, petroleum-reservoir engi-
neering, polymer engineering, nuclear engineer-
ing and process dynamics and control. Many of
these courses may be taken outside of the depart-
ment. Additionally, there is a pre-medical option
that prepares the student for entrance to medical
school. A rearrangement of elective courses in
biology and zoology allows the student to take the
medical school examination during the Spring
quarter of the junior year.
A large university, of which Ohio State is per-
haps a typical example, can provide unusual edu-
cational opportunities. The University offers in-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








struction in 150 subject areas through 114
academic departments and 7800 individual
courses. Outstanding university-wide supportive
facilities such as libraries, computers and inter-
disciplinary centers and programs are available.
Two elective programs are required in order to
expose the student to areas not in the skeleton
curriculum. Thirty quarter hours must be taken
in the social sciences and humanities. An addi-
tional twelve hours of "free" electives are re-
quired. Each student is encouraged to select, with
the assistance of a departmental faculty adviser,
a coherent sequence of courses that explores in
depth an idea or theme of special interest to her
or him.

GRADUATE PROGRAMS
A T THE POST-BACCALAUREATE level, 45
to 55 full-time students are enrolled in any
year. In an average year, 18 students receive a
masters degree while from six to seven students
complete their doctoral program.
Requirements for the master of science degree
include 36 quarter hours of course work and a
research thesis for a total of 45 quarter hours.
The course requirements include completion of a
series of courses in transport processes, thermo-
dynamics, reaction kinetics and mathematics. The
remainder of the course program is planned with
the assistance of an adviser to meet the needs
and desires of the student. A wide variety of
courses is available both within and outside the
Department. A final oral examination on the
thesis completes the requirements. Most students
with adequate undergraduate preparation obtain
the degree in one calendar year.
The doctoral program provides the student
with the opportunity to carry out independent
study under the general supervision of his ad-
viser. The aim of the program is to provide
meaning to research as well as a greater depth
of understanding of chemical engineering. The
program requires 135 quarter hours beyond the
bachelor degree of which three quarters must be
in residence. Students may continue with the
Master's degree adviser or through a student/
faculty-interaction process may select another
adviser. The student with assistance and guidance
of his adviser will plan a program of 75 quarter
hours of course work (including those required
for the Master's degree). A core of advanced
courses in chemical engineering and mathematics


Emy Lynn and Bob Brodkey inspect the last few meters
of the more than 15 kilometers of sheet recently
produced with the extruder.

is required. The balance of the course require-
ments is chosen from other chemical engineering
courses supplemented by a minor outside the de-
partment.
The doctoral language requirement is the
satisfactory completion of two college-level
courses (or the equivalent) in a single foreign
language. Written and oral General Examina-
tions are taken upon the completion of the course
requirements. Research culminating in a satis-
factory dissertation and an oral defense of the
research complete the requirements.

FACULTY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
T HE RESEARCH INTERESTS of the 13
faculty members of the department range
over most areas of chemical engineering. The
balance between staff and graduate students al-
lows close personal contact, an essential ingre-
dient for effective teaching in research. Students
are expected to explore research opportunities
with a number of faculty members before select-
ing a specific area.




An important aspect of the senior year
is the opportunity for the student to gain depth
as well as breadth in an area of his interest
through a Technical Option or elective program.


SUMMER 1974








Fundamental research in fluid mechanics by
Professors Robert Brodkey and Harry Hershey
involves visual and anemometry studies of normal
and drag reducing fluids in turbulent shear flows.
Such studies are designed to elucidate the
mechanism of these quasi-random processes.
Studies in bioengineering are diverse. They
include the phenomena of blood clotting in the
presence of plastic replacement parts being
studied by Professor Brodkey and diffusion of
proteins in blood by Professor Christie Geankop-
lis. Professors Brodkey and John Heibel are
studying computer applications such as speech
pattern recognition and x-ray data gathering in
hospitals. Professors Ed Smith and Geankoplis
are doing research in diffusion of enzymes and
proteins in milk and gels and fermentation and
growth rates of microorganisms in biological
processes. Professor Aldrich Syverson is study-
ing the kinetic factors related to catalyst and
reactor design using immobilized enzymes in
food plant waste utilization or treatment.
Professor Tom Sweeney is involved in re-
search in air pollution-control techniques and de-
vices, small-particle technology, and process modi-
fication. Professors Smith and Karl Svanks are
studying the concentration, distribution, and
analysis of nutrients in Lake Erie water and
problems in acid mine drainage treatment.
Professor H. C. Slider is studying methods
of maximizing the producing rate and ultimate
recovery from subsurface gas and oil reservoirs
by doing research in miscible displacement funda-
mentals and single well secondary recovery. Pro-
fessors Smith and Svanks are studying methods
of processing high molecular weight petroleum
oils and methods for analysis of solid fuels such
as coal.
An integrated approach to the varied prob-
lems in polymer engineering research is being
conducted in the department. Professor Emerson




Available to ChE students are 18 credit hours
for programs in bio-engineering, biochemistry,
environmental engineering, advanced
mathematics, petroleum-reservoir,
polymer and nuclear engineering,
and process dynamics and control.


Ed Freeh, Harry Hershey and John Heibel go over a
recent change in the PDP-15 operating manual.



Lynn is doing research on polymerization and
polymer recovery. The basic extrusion mechanism
is being investigated visually by Professors Brod-
key and Lynn and the extruder system is being
modeled on a real-time digital computer by Pro-
fessors Ed Freeh, Lynn, and Heibel. Research
on the rheology of polymers using a kinetic
theory approach for viscoelastic systems is being
done by Professor Brodkey.
The role of mechanisms of reactions, high-
speed adsorption at reaction conditions and trans-
port of adsorbable gases in gaining a better in-
sight into the physico-chemical phenomena in
heterogeneous catalysis is being studied by Pro-
fessors Syverson and Ed Haering. Professor
Brodkey is doing research on the interplay be-
tween turbulence, mixing and kinetics. Reactor
design scale-up, and modeling research is being
conducted by Professors Haering and Freeh. Re-
search on the thermodynamic properties and
phase behavior of polar and non-polar mixtures
is being done by Emeritus Professor Webster Kay
and Professor Hershey.
Studies in the Knudsen and transition diffu-
sion of gases in capillaries and porous solids as
well as diffusion and chemical reaction in liquids
are being conducted by Professor Geankoplis.
Professor Sweeney is doing experimental and
computational studies of the contact resistance
to heat transfer at the interface between two
solids. Basic chemical engineering concepts are
being used by Professor Smith in research in
combustibility of materials and the modeling of
fires in buildings. Professor Haering is doing


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









work toward providing better chemical engineer-
ing techniques for industrial process design.
The department's real-time, time-share digital
computer is under the direction of Professors
Freeh and Heibel. Application of this facility is
being made to many of the problems cited else-
where and is extensively used as an on-line data
acquisition system and for process control. Pro-
fessors Brodkey and Hershey are working in
modeling of heat and mass transfer in turbulent
flows as well as various optimization procedures
for model evaluation. Professor Slider is model-
ing three-dimensional, multiple-phase displace-
ments in petroleum reservoirs in studying oil dis-
placement efficiency.

EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS

The purpose of this paper has been to de-
scribe the department as it is today. Since the
present has evolved from many rich traditions
of the past, a very brief history of the depart-
ment seems appropriate.
Chemical Engineering at The Ohio State
University evolved from an industrial chemistry
program which began about the turn of the cen-
tury. Chemical Engineering was a division of the
chemistry department from 1902 to 1924 when it




During the past 70 years, the department has
granted 1850 B.S. degrees, 857 M.S.
degrees and 267 Ph.D. degrees.




was granted the status of a department in the
College of Engineering. (To those who are deal-
ing with budgets today it might be of interest to
note that the total budget for the department for
1925 including salaries, supplies and equipment
was $13,837.59.)
A five-year program for the Bachelors degree
along with an honors or "combined" program for
the M.S. degree was established in 1945 and con-
tinued until 1969 when the present four-year
program was adopted. Dr. James R. Withrow di-
rected the program from 1906 to 1923 when
chemical engineering was a division in Chemistry
and served as the first Chairman of the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering from 1924 to
1948. Dr. Joseph H. Koffolt was Chairman from


1948 to 1968, followed by Dr. Aldrich Syverson,
the present Chairman.
During the past seventy years, the Depart-
ment has granted 1850 Bachelors degrees, 857
Master of Science degrees, and 267 Doctor of
Philosophy degrees. There are at the present
time approximately 2250 active alumni employed
by more than 500 industrial firms, government
agencies or academic institutions throughout the
United States and in more than forty foreign
countries. Seventy-one alumni are teaching in 50
colleges or universities in this country; twenty-
five are teaching in 16 foreign countries. E


SUMMARY OF UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM


Quarter Hours


MATHEMATICS and SCIENCES
Mathematics 28
Chemistry 39
Physics 15

82

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Mass and Energy Balances 6
Transport Processes 9
Thermodynamics 6
Chemical Engineering Operations* 11
Kinetics 3
Process Analysis and Control* 4
Economics 3
Process Development* 4
Process Design 5
Inspection Trip 2
Senior Seminar 1
Technical Electives 18

72
*Includes laboratory

OTHER
Engineering Mechanics 5
Engineering Graphics 5
Introduction to Computers 3
Engineering Survey 1
English (includes technical report writing) 8
Basic Education (Humanities and Social
Sciences 30
Free Electives 12
Physical Education 2

66
Total 220


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The faculty expresses its sincere thanks to "Chuck"
Piatt, Editor of Engineering Publications for his editorial
assistance and photographic work.


SUMMER 1974









10O educator





of University of Missouri-Columbia


THE ChE FACULTY
University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri 65201

N 1946, IT WAS customary for the citizens of
Albert Lea, Minnesota, to draft their men
as eighteen-year-olds for Army service, whether
or not they had finished high school. Truman S.
Storvick started his professional career by en-
listing in the Navy because as a naval enlistee for
a two-year hitch, he was allowed to finish his
senior year and consequently had the opportuni-
ty to hear the commencement speaker, the young
mayor of Minneapolis, Hubert H. Humphrey.
After being shaped up in boot camp in San
Diego Storvick was "drafted" to play center on
one of the football teams at the Naval Air Sta-
tion in Jacksonville, Florida. Running under a
kick-off on the specialty team, he suffered a knee
injury which put him in the station hospital for
eight months and ended the start of a brilliant
naval service football career.


The thoroughness and precision of
H. C. Van Ness' presentations in thermo-
dynamics and the wide range of interests
and the boundless energy of J. M. Smith
provided additional marks.


The Navy, which does not give up very easily,
assigned Seaman Storvick to the aviation division
on the light cruiser U.S.S. Portsmouth, which was
the flagship for Admiral Sherman, commander of
naval operations, Mediterranean area. Here he
learned the old and revered saltwater art of holy-
stoning of teakwood decks, and that the energy
stored in a half-mile of 11/2" diameter tow cable,
oscillating to the breaking point between two


Meet the Turk.


warships, is huge indeed. His travels with his
naval colleagues carried him to Gibraltar, Italy,
Sicily, Greece, Malta and Algeria, which were in
a generally impoverished and damaged condi-
tion as a result of World War II action.
T HE NAVAL SERVICE was not an end in it-
self; so armed with a naval discharge Stor-
vick took up an academic career in chemistry at
St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. With
the knee injury preventing him from picking up
a football career, he became the team's trainer
and manager. With energy to spare, he and an-
other freshman, Dick Ovington, organized St.
Olaf's first wrestling team, and persuaded Pro-
fessor Hauberg to be the coach. Storvick's op-
ponents in the 165-pound class learned what it
meant to be wrestling with a "Turk." Spring
brought the track season and more diversion
from study.
Chemistry and athletics hardly filled the
week, so there was time to meet Lynn Abraham-
son, who later became Mrs. Storvick, who was
one of his fans. Another year showed that a ca-
reer in chemistry did not interest him as much as


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








he originally thought, so it was off to Iowa State
University where chemical engineering was a
full-time major.
Chemical engineering at Iowa State provided
the inspirational teaching of Gerry Beyer and a
very short but enriching experience with Morton
Smutz. Unit operations under B. F. Ruth with
those 105 heat transfer and fluid flow problems
in one quarter (at slide rule speed) made a last-
ing impression. Academic work was put in per-
spective with part-time work in the Engineer-
ing Experiment Station in the oil seed solvent
extraction laboratory directed by Doc Arnold and
the tutelage of graduate students Dennis Griffin
and Bill Juhl.

INDUSTRIAL WORLD
W ITH A B.S. DEGREE, Turk and Lynn set
out into the real world. His supervisor with
Westvaco Division of FMC in South Charleston,
West Virginia, was George Sklar who had him un-
raveling difficulties in a packed distillation tower
for the separation of by-products from ethylene
dibromide before he was assigned an office. This
led to other challenging work in the pilot plant,
field construction inspection, operation manual
preparation, operator training and plant startup
for Westvaco's methane-sulfur to carbon bisulfide
plant. Some preliminary cost analysis filled some
weeks before "we scaled up Gilman's Organic
Synthesis procedure for making unsymmetrical
dimethylhydrazine (or how do you swirl a 1000-
gallon Florence Flask) ". This led to the initial
development studies on the catalytic hydrogena-
tion process for making UDMH as the space pro-
gram demands increased.


. .... ,- . � , ..-I^ !
.. ... .' - "


"Running-the best sleeping pill I've ever foun.."
"Running--the best sleeping pill I've ever found."


After boot camp,
Storvick was "drafted to play center
on one of the football teams
at a Naval Air Station.


RETURN TO ACADEMIA
THESE EXPERIENCES convinced Turk that
there was a good deal about chemical en-
gineering that should be learned if he was going
to continue his work in engineering research; so
off he went to Purdue. The thoroughness and
precision of H. C. Van Ness' presentations in
thermodynamics and the wide range of interests
and the boundless energy of J. M. Smith provided
additional marks. Alden Emery only claims to
have "signed the forms" for the peripatetic Joe
Smith who served as dissertation supervisor, but
his style was also an important factor in the Pur-
due venture.
A semester as an instructor whetted Turk's
interest in teaching and an invitation from Gerry
Beyer to visit the University of Missouri follow-
ed. A trip on the Wabash Cannonball from La-
fayette to St. Louis, the Wabash Railroad to
Centralia, Missouri, and the final twenty miles
to Columbia on the Wabash spur provided the in-
troduction, and he joined the faculty of Old
Mizzou in February, 1959.
The calorimetry work with Joe Smith reveal-
ed some deficiencies in the p-v-T data and trans-
port properties of gases. With lots of help from
the National Science Foundation (NSF), facili-
ties were built to make p-v-T and viscosity
measurements on gases at high temperatures
and pressures to provide tests for available
theoretical models of these properties. Later, a
study of the thermal conductivity of gases led
to building an apparatus to measure the thermal
transpiration effect in gases and a hard look at
gases at low pressure.
Turk has a reputation for being where the ac-
tion is. When digital computers were introduced
to assist students in the solution of their assigned
class problems (and by the way, engineers work-
ing in industry were also encountering their
use), he worked to support this academic func-
tion by engaging in a number of academic "ad-
ministrative skirmishes." It's always essential to
maintain a sense of humor in these activities and
after decisively losing one such battle, he pre-


SUMMER 1974








sented the graduate a bottle of bourbon ("I found
out later he drank only Scotch") and a con-
gratulatory speech. The irresistible move toward
massive centralized computing systems proceed-
ed as Turk and Sam Dwyer ("the hardest work-
ing guy it's ever been my pleasure to know")


With energy to spare,
he and another freshman organized
St. Olaf's first wrestling team.


spoke for the development of engineering labora-
tories based on small, special purpose computers
for research and teaching. "The pocket-sized
desk calculator and small, special purpose com-
puters have revolutionized engineering education,
research, and practice for the fourth time in
twenty years. The next change will be miniaturi-
zation and reduced costs with yet another big
change before 1980."
Classical chemical engineering education provided
poor tools to read the chemical physics literature, so
armed with a NSF science faculty fellowship, he spent a
sabbatical year at the University of Maryland's Institute
for Molecular Physics in 1965-66. Private readings in
statistical mechanics and kinetic theory were supplement-
ed by attending formal courses taught by J. Robert Dorf-
man and Elliot Montroll. Five papers were published joint-
ly with E. A. Mason and Andrew DeRocco on the IMP
staff and Tom Spurling, a postdoc from Australia, all of
whom provided the excellent environment for work there.
The IMP seminar series broadened the horizons as the
outstanding chemical physicists living on the east coast
came through and discussed their work.
The Thermodynamics and Transport Proper-
ties Research Center was set up and directed by
Turk under a DOD Project Themis grant in 1967.
L. B. Thomas and Bob Harris from chemistry,
Paul Schmidt from physics, Dick Warder from
mechanical engineering and Jack Winnick from
chemical engineering provided the supervision
and six post doctoral and some thirty pre-doctoral
students contributed to a wide range of work
that produced about forty papers over the five-
year period of support. "This program provided
one of the Federal Government's finest expres-
sions of support for academic research and
graduate education."
His classrooms at both the undergraduate and
graduate levels are informal learning arenas.
Students rate him highly as an instructor and
look forward to getting into his classes. The
"secret, if there is any that works, is to bring
the student into an encounter with the course


material rather than with the instructor. To the
degree you can do this for each person in the
class, you can be successful." He is never too
busy to assist a student in difficulty whether he
is in the classroom, the laboratory or on the
campus.
Proceeding from the view that a "sabbatical
leave is one fringe benefit which makes the un-
savory parts of academic life bearable," as the
Robert Lee Tatum Professor of Engineering, he
was awarded a senior postdoctoral fellowship
from the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific
and Industrial Research at the Technical Uni-
versity in Trondheim, Norway. This provided
time for individual detailed study of the kinetic
theory of gases near solid boundaries. "We have
no general theory that describes the behavior
of gases in the transition flow regime. Our work
on thermal transpiration requires this theory and
it is essential that we work on this problem.
S. K. Loyalka of the UMC Nuclear Engineering
Department has made significant contributions
in this field and the opportunity to work with
him should be most interesting and fruitful as
we learn more about the slip phenomena and per-
form the necessary experiments this work sug-
gests." The hospitality of Professor Aksel Lyder-
sen and the staff in the Institutt for Kjemiteknikk
made this a once-in-a-lifetime experience for him
in 1972-73.

ACTIVE RELAXATION
O UR YEAR IN NORWAY was really family-
centered." The Storvick children, Jan, Kris
and Ole attended Norwegian schools (Ruth was a
college freshman in the U.S.), and learned Nor-
wegian, which they use currently. Cross country
skiing is a national competitive sport, but on a
winter week-end, everyone from crib to ninety
headed for the ski trails that cross the forests
covering the mountains. "The crystal beauty after
a snowfall is just spectacular, and each turn in
the trail is a picture-scene." The winter ski trails
the Storvicks traversed became their summer


Students rate him highly as an
instructor and look forward to getting
into his classes . . . he is never too busy
to assist a student in difficulty
whether he is in the classroom,
the laboratory or on campus.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






























Wood responds to careful work and attention.

hiking trails as the long winter nights were trans-
formed into the perpetual light of midsummer
night. A trip to the ancestral farm near Sundal-
sora and a visit with the Storvicks who now live
in Kristiansund provided a connection to the past.
"Traditional celebrations in Norway were familiar
since they survived the transplantation to Min-
nesota, and the passage of time, and were carried
out by my parents."
Relaxation means working with the hands.
Storvick's well-equipped home workshop trans-
forms rough-sawed, seasoned walnut into cus-
tom designed furniture. "Wood responds to care-
ful work and attention. The hidden beauty of the
grain and color become a part of the design of
the piece." Needlework, learned in Norway, has
been added to his activities ("If Rosy Grier can
do needlepoint, you can't call it lady's work in
the Ms. age."). Turk has served as an elder in
the Presbyterian Church, sung in church choirs
and recently with the Musicum Collegium group
at UMC, which performs vocal music from
church and court dating from the fifteenth to the
seventeenth century.
Contrary to popular belief, the departmental faculty at
UMC are not recruited for their distance running abilities.
Turk, a faculty member long before the F. J. Van Antwer-
pen Trophy for Physical Achievement was instituted, has
twice been a member of the winning four-mile relay team.
This past year he ran a record time of 5:24.1 for his leg
of the relay and along with Dick Angus, Marc de Chazal
and Dick Luecke, won the trophy for the third consecutive
year. Running and handball provide outlets for frustra-
tions and "the best sleeping pill I've ever found."


The Ph.D. program was initiated at Old Mizzou in
1944, but the number of graduates began to increase after
Turk's arrival. The work load certainly was shared by
those already aboard (Marc de Chazal and Gerry Beyer)
and by other recruited members. Jack Winnick (Okla-
homa), Dick Angus (Princeton), Dick Luecke (Oklahoma),
V. J. 'Tom" Lee (Michigan), Leonard Stiel (Northwestern
and Syracuse), Lloyd Sutterby (Wisconsin) and chairman
George Preckshot (Michigan and Minnesota) were
brought successively to UMC to provide the faculty for
,his program.

CRYSTAL-BALLING
W HEN ONE ASKS about the future, there is
some head-shaking. The times are confusing
and yet some important signals are showing "The
future will be much more like the present than
most people are willing to admit. Chemical engi-
neering as a profession never looked better to
me. How can we hope to attack problems in
energy resources and supply (we better look at
the consumption side of that equation, too),
minerals and materials, food production and pro-
cessing, environmental protection, etc., without
bringing all of the physical and life sciences to
bear on these problems. The only discipline in a
University that offers most of these in a single
program is chemical engineering. What a future!
The major problem lies with the university it-
self, which now reflects society where every ac-
tion and decision is politicized to the point where
it cannot be recognized. Engineers are notoriously
poor politicians and I fear we are in for rough
times. University administrations want every-
thing to appear democratic, so all faculty mem-
bers are required to spend a major fraction of
their time in their democratic responses which
are swallowed up instantly by a political ex-
pedient. Two extreme paths are open: either a
small number of faculty will serve the adminis-
tration as advisers and the rest of the faculty
will be permitted to work with students, or we
will see the management (administration)-labor
(faculty) relationship of the industrial model
prevail. The former is untested, but probably the
best model for a university. The industrial model
has been tested over many years and is often
found wanting. Only a very few great men are
willing to risk an unknown, even if it has a high
return potential, so I expect to see the industrial
model prevail in academia. Keep your productivity
up and your costs down, but how are we going
to convince a B.S. graduate he is only one more
unit from our production system?" H


SUMMER 1974









NEBRASKA'S INTEGRATED PROCESS

DEVELOPMENT/DESIGN LABORATORY


PETER J. REILLY, DELMAR C. TIMM,
and JAMES M. EAKMAN
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508


SEEMINGLY MOST RESISTANT to change in
the wave of innovation that has been so well
documented in this journal is the traditional unit
operations laboratory. Typically rather set ex-
periments are conducted by two or three-man
teams on fairly large pieces of equipment, fol-
lowed by the submission of formal reports. There
are obviously some advantages inherent in this
format. Turning valves and watching apparatus
approach steady state are good experiences for
any chemical engineering undergraduate, and ex-
posure to technical report writing has value. On
the other hand, this type of exercise has limited
flexibility. The equipment can be operated in only
so many ways, and a file of previous years' lab-
oriously written reports effectively squelches much
new thinking by even the best of students.
Until 1969 Nebraska had a three-credit senior
laboratory course in much this mold, with wetted
wall and packed column mass transfer, concentric
pipe heat transfer, and vapor-liquid equilibrium
experiments. (Distillation and evaporator exer-
cises had previously been abandoned.) In addition
there were junior transport and senior process
control laboratories, each for one credit. With the
exception of the process control course, which
featured nearly all modular equipment, we were
encountering the same lack of enthusiasm and
originality seen elsewhere.
This was probably sufficient to dictate a
change, but we had yet other reasons. Our depart-
ment has a strong tradition in thermodynamics
and vapor-liquid equilibrium and therefore offers
11/2 terms of them and only about one-half term
of kinetics. The increased emphasis on kinetics in
the last few years encouraged us to offer more,
but we did not want to de-emphasize a strength at
the same time.
These factors suggested to us that a laboratory
sequence stronger in kinetics that required more


originality from our students would distinctly
strengthen our curriculum. Properly formulated,
this sequence could serve as a wrap-up to our
whole program in that previous material could
be re-emphasized, and could in addition give our
students a taste of industrial problem-solving.
The last point was especially important to us, be-
cause Nebraska is a primarily agricultural state
and few students have any contact with either in-
dustry or engineers.

NEW SEQUENCE
T HE BEST METHOD to achieve these goals
seemed to be replace the unit operations and
transport laboratories and a three-credit design
and economics workshop course offered to second
semester seniors with a two-semester, seven-
credit, integrated laboratory and design sequence.
This sequence was conceived to allow seniors to
employ their own experimental data, along with
those they could estimate or find in the literature,
to achieve a preliminary design of a plant produc-
ing some simple but commercially unavailable
chemical. Laboratories and design sessions were
to be fairly free-form, specified laboratory times
being necessary only because some equipment had
to be used by more than one group. Equipment
was to be simple, essentially glassware with some
mixers and small metering pumps. Faculty were
to serve primarily as consultants and were not to
specify either experiments or treatment of data.


We fully believe in the advisability
of asking students to provide their own
direction, even though wasted time and
poorer experiments and designs
result from it.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Peter J. Reilly received an A.B. in chemistry from Princeton and
a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Penn. Before joining Nebraska,
he was engaged in chlorocarbon and fluorocarbon process develop-
ment at DuPont's Jackson Laboratory. His research interests are in the
fields of fermentation and enzyme kinetics. (Below Left)

Delmar C. Ti'mm was educated at Iowa State University, being
awarded the Ph.D. degree, in 1967. His industrial experience includes
two years of polyolefin plant design. Professor Timm's professional
interests are in process control and simulation, kinetics, and catalysis.
He has authored articles in the area of population dynamics of poly-
merization and crystallization systems. (Below Right)


James M. Eakman received both his B.S. and Ph.D. from the Uni-
versity of Minnesota. He worked in the area of process research for
Archer-Daniels-Midland and Ashland Chemical Co. before coming to
Nebraska in 1968. His teaching and research interests include process
engineering, computer aided design, optimization, and statistical com-
putations. (Above)


students from discovering the process in the
literature.

Table I. ESTERIFICATION SYSTEMS


The only totally fixed feature was a weekly one-
hour economics and design lecture during both
semesters.
After piloting this concept with a group of
six volunteers during the academic year 1969-
1970, we have offered this laboratory sequence to
the last four senior classes. In each year the
specified product has been an ester, hexyl capry-
late for two years; ethylene glycol dipropionate
for one year; and 2-ethylhexyl oleate for two
years (Table I). While the whole class studies
the same reaction, groups are assigned different
catalysts and operational modes to investigate so
that little duplication in experimental systems
occurs.
These systems were picked with several fac-
tors in mind. First, they were safe in that they
were liquid at ordinary temperatures and were
not flammable or explosive. Second, the kinetic
mechanisms were known but were fairly complex.
Third, there were problems in separating products
from reactants-heterogneneous azeotropes in the
first and third systems and a homogeneous one in
the second. In addition, while the raw materials
were fairly inexpensive, the products were not
made commercially in large amounts. In fact, it
is quite possible that we were the largest pro-
ducers of one or the other. This prevented our


ALCOHOL

n-Hexanol
Ethylene glycol
2-Ethylhexanol


ACID

Octanoic acid
Propionic acid
Oleic acid


PRODUCT

Hexyl octanoate
Ethylene glycol
Dipropionate
2-Ethylhexyl oleate


CATALYSTS

None
Dibutylin oxide
Sulfuric acid
p-Toluenesulfonic acid
Strong acid ion exchange resin (amberlyst 15)

OPERATIONAL MODES

Continuous
Batch


Groups are expected to obtain kinetic data in
approximately ten experiments to fit a model that
is applicable at different temperatures, catalyst
concentrations, and reactant ratios. This is, of
course, a tall order for such a few runs, and any
model obtained is admittedly only very roughly
accurate; but we have found that there are dimin-
ishing benefits to the students by prolonging this
line of attack any further. This rather draconian
limit puts a great premium on a proper choice of
experimental conditions for each run. We have be-
come exceedingly hard-nosed in expecting a plan


SUMMER 1974


I








to be formulated before any experimentation be-
gins, though we realize that changes often are
necessary after some data have been gathered.
This kinetics investigation occupies virtually
the whole first semester. The second semester is
devoted to vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria,
originally an experimental project where data
from each group were pooled, but more recently
where the behavior of each system was estimated;
physical properties, now also estimated or found
in the literature; and the plant design itself. To
add a bit of realism to the design, each group is




Seemingly most resistant to change
in the wave of innovation, is the
traditional unit operations laboratory.




required to choose a specific plant location within
Nebraska. Our more adventurous students oc-
casionally interview chambers of commerce and
take pictures of available buildings and land. We
do find, however, that often plants locate near the
students' home towns rather than at the most ad-
vantagious location. The State Department of
Economic Development has been extremely co-
operative in this venture, providing literature on
sites and lectures on factors that are important in
the choice of a location.

STUDENT PERFORMANCE
SINCE THE MAIN GOAL of any curricular
change is to increase knowledge learned and
retained by students, this sequence must ulti-
mately be judged on these grounds. How have our
students done since the curriculum was changed?
Performance is appreciably better than in the
old arrangement. Participants now are challenged
to use kinetics, distillation and extraction design,
vapor-liquid equilibrium and thermodynamics.
Often they must go beyond classroom knowledge,
for instance when confronting multicomponent
distillations that behave in a highly nonideal man-
ner. They have found that sophisticated computer
methods are a great aid in design and optimiza-
tion. While often they can obtain computer pro-
grams already written, on many occasions they
have had to do their own programming.


Students are confronted with the concept of
using their experimental data further. We would
like to believe that this causes them to be more
careful and more complete, but we notice that in
many cases data are not yet fully trustworthy.
This is partly due to the use of equipment for
specific purposes for which it was not necessarily
designed, inadequate analytical methods, and a
general lack of time.
Undoubtedly more work is expended. Most of
it is gainful, but some is wasted through improper
choice of experiments, uncertain data, and lack of
proper data-collecting. We expected this when we
refrained from specifying experiments. To some
extent the wasted motion is beneficial, in that it
emphatically teaches the lesson that proper prep-
aration ultimately saves time.
We do not claim that the students are fully
happy at all times over the change. They realize
that they are working harder, and they have sev-
eral specific complaints in addition. Most deal with
the intentional formlessness of the sequence. They
would like more faculty direction and equipment
more specifically designed for the experimental
program. They are quite upset when work does
not immediately lead to useful results.
We fully believe in the advisability of asking
students to provide their own direction, even
though wasted time and poorer experiments and
designs result from it. This sequence is quite a
change from their other laboratories and lecture
courses, which are highly structured, and we ex-
pect them to be quite discomfitted.
The new sequence provides the opportunity
for procastination, especially during the begin-
ning and middle of the second term when the
initial enthusiasm has disappeared and the task
appears endless. We partially combat this by re-
quiring periodic reports (Table II) and by in-
formal questioning of results. This is a thin line
to tread, since we want the students to provide
their own direction.
Ironically, many groups are loath to seek fac-
ulty help or advice even when bogged down. Oc-
casionally faculty initiative is required to open
communciations.
Students now are challenged to think inde-
pendently, since very little information is being
fed to them. If they are successful it is a strong
prod to their self-confidence. Talks with graduates
of this sequence leads us to believe that their prac-

(Continued on page 148.)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















































WE ENCOURAGE JOB HOPPING.
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Next opening in Marketing we'll tell you. You can
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learn more and you learn faster.


* Why do we encourage job hopping? Because
we happen to believe our most valuable corporate
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know more? Ask your Placement Director when
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for a copy of our Career Guide. SUN OIL
COMPANY, Human Resources Dept. CED.
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An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F










COMPUTERIZED COST ENGINEERING

IN THE PROCESS DESIGN COURSE




THEODORE W. CADMAN
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland 20742


P RIOR TO TAKING process design, the
chemical engineering student has been ex-
posed to a variety of concepts and techniques in
topic-specific courses such as calculus, thermo-
dynamics, process control, transfer and trans-
port phenomena. In many of these courses the
subject matter and examples have been directed
towards process equipment and process opera-
tions. But seldom has the student critically
examined a processing system as a whole or
quantitatively defined and investigated the ob-
jectives of a process design.
The design course serves as the stage for a
concerted examination of processing systems and
their objectives by the detailed analysis and ap-
propriate aggregation of their component parts.
This is customarily achieved through a series of
selected design problems supplemented with
classroom presentation of required background
information and suitable generalizations as il-
lustrated by the examples.
This is by no means a simple task and makes
the design course one of the most challenging
courses not only for the student but the instructor
as well. As a result, comprehensive tools which
can serve to reduce the time required for tedious
manual calculations are more than welcomed.
It is in this vein that the computer has be-
come a welcome ally during the past decade. Ex-
perience in the use of the computer for detailed
calculations, simulation of the operation of in-
dividual equipment items, and the sizing of in-
dividual equipment items is now a common
denominator of students entering design. In addi-
tion, a wealth of auxiliary programs for in-
dividual equipment items is available with many
being of a sufficiently general nature for use in
a design course. Moreover, significant advances
have been made towards easing the completion
of the tedious mass and energy balances for


Dr. Theodore W. Cadman is an Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Maryland engaged in teaching and
research directed to process simulation. He also serves as Senior
Scientist at ICARUS Corp. on a variety of projects in the area of
process design and cost engineering.
Dr. Cadman received his BS, MS, and PhD from Carnegie Mellon
University. He is a member of the AIChE, ACS, NSPE, and ISA.

processes as a whole as PACER, CHESS, FLOW-
TRAN, and similar programs amply illustrated.
One area has, however, been noticeably ab-
sent in the spectrum of computer-aided design
techniques available for education-cost estimat-
ing. All too frequently, unexcelled sophistication
is used in determining mass and energy balances
and in sizing equipment; while cost estimating
is left as a last minute effort relying on a list
or graph of approximate values. Time and
students' interests simply do not jive with the in-
tricacies of manual cost estimating. As a result,
short cuts are made in what is certainly one of
the most significant aspects of design.
It is the objective of this paper to illustrate
that this need not be the case. In particular, the
potential role of a user-oriented cost estimating
program, COST@* (Cost Oriented Systems Tech-
nique), in the design course is examined. Ex-
perience has indicated that computerized estimat-
ing can minimize the drudgery of cost estimating
while providing a more definitive approach to
estimating than can be obtained from all but the

*COST is a service mark of Icarus Corp. registered with
the U.S. Patent Office.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








most detailed manual estimate. Computerized es-
timating is thus an ideal candidate for raising
the overall integrity of the process design course
through rapid, convenient, and consistent cost
estimating; particularly if the system is user-
oriented and is designed to assign reasonable
default values to unspecified data.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF COST
The COST� system was developed for use
by industry for the rapid estimation of chemical
processing plant investment requirements. Cur-
rently over 50 firms use the system for this
purpose.
In structure, the system consists of equipment
cost models1 for over 250 separate items rang-
ing from agitated open tanks to water cooling
tower systems. Each cost model simulates the
steps involved in fabrication and installing of the
equipment as closely as is feasible to yield as
applicable:

* Fabrication material requirements,
* Fabrication labor requirements,
* Overhead and general and administrative expenses,
* Vendor or sub-contractors profit,
* Labor and material requirements for installation.
Using a data base covering the rates of some 300
materials of construction, 38 trades crafts, the
purchased and installed cost of each equipment
model is obtained.
The system allows for three levels of input
data: minimum design input; maximum design
input; and maximum cost input. The user se-
lects the appropriate category on the basis of
data available to him and required by the system
as outlined in the User's Manual.2
To provide but one example, consider the use
of the system for estimating the cost of a heat
exchanger.
A card is prepared that details the minimum
design input and range of acceptable design in-
formation for several of the types of heat ex-
changers handled by the system. In each case,
as well as for all other models, only one card
is required to specify the minimum design input
of one equipment item.
Arbitrarily choosing a U-tube exchanger and
a fixed tube sheet exchanger for examples and
specifying material of construction, heat transfer
area, and tube pressure, the results are auto-
matically obtained upon accessing the system. A
number of additional design parameters can be


reasonably chosen by the system and the pur-
chased and installed cost as well as material
and labor breakdown for installation can be
provided for examination. Analogous user-orient-
ed instructions and results can be incorporated
for the cases of maximum design input and maxi-
mum cost input. Rapid review of the results is
easily accomplished and the user can readily de-
termine whether he should modify or further
specify his design by comparing his data with
the reasonable default values chosen by the sys-
tem.
The system provides for the aggregation of
equipment models into operational units and
operational units into a total plant. Provisions
are made for the specification of additional design
data for each aggregation either by the user or
by reasonable default values chosen by the sys-
tem. The values chosen or computed by the sys-
tem are clearly indicated for review and potential
modification by the user.

TABLE 1
Table of Contents Illustrating Scope
of COST� Report
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Estimated Capital Cost
Master Summary
Operational Unit Summary
Material Component Cost
Labor Component Cost
Labor Component Manhours
Field Labor Summary
Engineering Cost Breakdown
Construction Overhead
Maintenance and Operation Data
Equipment List By Unit Operation/Process Separation

The output of the COST� system is designed
in the form of a concise report containing the
items illustrated by the Table of Contents in
Table 1 obtained for a small plant. Particularly




All too frequently, unexcelled sophistication
is used in determining mass and energy
balances and in sizing equipment, while
cost estimating is left as a last minute
effort relying on a list or a graph
of approximate values.


SUMMER 1974







convenient are the number of summary tables
given in the report. Among the most useful for
a process design course is the Master Summary
detailing the items contributing to the total
fixed capital cost of plant.

PROCESS DESIGN COURSE OUTLINE

T HE TYPICAL DESIGN problem requires
consideration of a number of basic elements
including:
* Process configuration
* Material and energy balances
* Equipment design and sizing
* Equipment costs
* Installed process cost
* Projected market and selling price
* Operating costs
* Estimation of profit.
Most students enter design with an extensive
background in completing mass and energy
balances, preliminary equipment design, and
sizing of key equipment parameters. Background
in the other areas is generally minimal, although
a co-current process economic course is frequent-
ly taken with design.
Faced with the scope of design and the stu-
dents' backgrounds, the instructor seeks to
satisfy four principal aims in his outline of the
course:
* Integrate and unify the student's process step-oriented
background so as to be most applicable to the analysis
of full scale systems
* Provide supplemental information on the elements of
process cost, market, and profit estimation
* Provide a technically sound and usable summary of
procedures for evaluating all the elements in a de-
sign, and
* Encourage the student to exercise his ingenuity in
investigating alternate process configurations so as
to maximize the profit of the overall operating system.
These aims can be most satisfactorily attain-
ed by continual emphasis on the totality of the
design and by a judicious combination of lecture,
outside reading, design assignments, and in-class
discussion. Table 2 presents a brief outline of
such an approach for a 16 week-3 hour/week
course.
The outline suggests a total of five design
problems to be completed by each student or
group.
The first problem is designed to mesh in a
definite manner with the students' background.
Lectures, in-class discussion, and outside read-
ings and references are used to indicate the


scope of design and supplement the background
of the student in the areas of mass and energy
balances and preliminary equipment sizing.
Emphasis is also given to sources of physical
property data and alternate design methods.

TABLE 2
Process Design Course Outline
(16 weeks, 3 hr/week)


Week


Item


1 Lecture: Elements of a design, role of students'
background; Sources of additional physical
property data; Sources of additional
equipment design models.
In-Class Discussion: Review of a completed de-
sign report; Review of material for design
problem #1.
Assignment: Design Problem #1 (Formulation)
Mass and energy balances; Preliminary
equipment sizing.
Typical Outside Reading and References:

TEXT
Peters and Timmerhaus, Plant Design and
Economics for Chemical Engineers Ch. 1,
2, 3, and 12

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Perry's Handbook, Hydrocarbon Processing;
Reid and Sherwood, Properties of Gases and
Liquids; Smith and Van Ness, Introduction
to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics;
International Critical Tables

EQUIPMENT DESIGN
Peters and Timmerhaus, Ch. 13, 14, and 15; Mc-
Adams, Heat Transmission; Treybal, Mass
Transfer Operations; B. D. Smith, Design
of Equilibrium Stage Processes; J. M.
Smith, Chemical Engineering Kinetics;
Bennett and Myers, Momentum, Heat, and
Mass Transfer
2 In-Class Discussion: Review of Problem Areas
Encountered in Design Problem #1
Lecture: Supplemental as required Discussion
of Process Alternatives
Assignment: Design Problem #1
Solution and Preparation of Report
Outside Reading and References:
Supplemental as required
3-4 Lecture: Elements of Process Economics Equip-
ment Costs (Manual Estimation); Plant
Costs (Manual Estimation); Profit Pro-
jection
Assignment: Design Problem #2
Manual estimation of plant costs and profit
In-Class Discussion: Review of Design Prob-
lem #1; Review of Progress and Difficul-
ties in Design Problem #2
Outside Reading and References:


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The design course serves as the stage for a concerted
examination of processing systems and their objectives
by the detailed analysis and appropriate aggregation
of their component parts.


TEXT
Peters and Timmerhaus, Ch. 4 to 11
REFERENCES
Happel, Chemical Process Economics; Shreve,
Chemical Process Industries
5-6 Lecture: Computerized Cost Estimation Struc-
ture of Program Use of COST�
Assignment: Design Problem #3 Estimation of
Profit using COST� as a tool
In-Class Discussion: Review of a completed
COST� estimate; Practice session of use
of Program; Review of Design Problem #2;
Analysis of Design Problem #3
Outside Reading and References: COST� Sys-
tem Users Manual
7-12 Assignment: Design Problem #4
Comprehensive Design
Lecture, In-Class Discussion, Outside Reading
and References: Chosen to suit selected
problem
13-16 Assignment: Design Problem #5
AIChE Student Content Problem
Lectures, In-Class Discussion, Outside Reading,
and References: Supplemental information
not conflicting with rules established by
AIChE for the Student Contest.
The second design problem emphasizes the
manual estimation of plant costs and profit.
Primary emphasis is given to the elements which
collectively define these items.
The third design problem emphasizes the esti-
mation of equipment costs and total fixed capital
costs. The structure of the system is discussed
and the use of the system is taught in class
during a three hour practice session. The role
that the program can play in the development
of a total design is emphasized.
The fourth design problem is a comprehensive
design problem covering all important aspects. A
high degree of interaction is maintained, group
solutions are encouraged, and in-class review and
constructive criticism are continual.
The fifth design problem is a comprehensive
design completed on an individual basis. The
AIChE Student Contest Problem, completed by
the individual under the rules established for
the contest, is an excellent example of the class
of problem recommended. Other course material


may be devoted to reviews of selected design ad-
vances which do not conflict with the individuality
desired in this final design problem.

COMPUTERIZED COST ENGINEERING

A S IMPLIED BY the course outline given pre-
viously, a computerized cost estimating sys-
tem such as COST@ can be used to reduce the
drudgery of cost estimating in the design course
and permit additional emphasis to be placed on
the design aspect itself. The estimating system
can be designed so as to provide numerous ad-
vantages:
* The estimates are quite definite, are concise, and are
consistent.
* The input data is easy to prepare, requiring only cer-
tain critical size parameters to access the system.
* A comprehensive set of reasonable default values are
chosen for data not supplied and concise output details
the assumptions made.
* The output is concisely prepared and highly user-
oriented.
* The detail of the output encourages the student to
investigate labor/material relationships, purchased
versus installed cost, and the effect of design para-
meters on cost and subsequently profit.
In every respect, this approach has been found
to offer to the student a more comprehensive
cost estimate than he could ever be expected to
prepare and to offer it at only a fraction of the
time he would ordinarily have devoted to less
definitive techniques.0L

REFERENCES
1. H. G. Blecker, Simulation of Chemical Processing
Plant Investment by Computer, Presented at 1972 SSC.
2. H. G. Blecker and T. M. Nichols, COST� System Users
Manual, ICARUS Corp., Second Edition, Jan. 1973.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author expresses his gratitude to Mr. Herbert
B. Blecker, President of ICARUS Corp., for making the
course at the University of Maryland. Inquiries should be
directed to: Director of Technical Services, ICARUS Corp.,
8630 Fenton Street, Silver Spring, Md. 20910. The classes
of '72-'73 are also acknowledged for their zeal and pa-
tience with the experiments of the author.


SUMMER 1974











THE USE OF FLOWSHEET SIMULATION PROGRAMS

IN TEACHING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


J. L. GADDY
University of Missouri
Rolla, Missouri 65401

The chemical engineering design student is re-
quired to calculate the material and energy balance,
the size and cost of equipment, the operating cost,
and some profitability criterion for each process he
studies. Once the student has mastered these pro-
cedures by hand computation, repetitive calculations
become monotonous and time consuming. The result
is that often little time is available for the study
of design principles.
A computer flowsheet simulation program,
named CHESSE, has been developed at the Uni-
versity of Missouri-Rolla that does the above calcu-
lations and provides the user with the profitability
of the simulated process. The development of the
CHESSE program is discussed and several
examples of processes simulated by design students
are presented.
The use of CHESSE during the latter part of
the design course has been found to enhance the
student's education in this area. Additional cases
can be studied in synthesizing and analyzing the
optimal process and a better grasp by the student
of design principles is apparent.

T HE PROCESS OF EDUCATING chemical
engineers culminates in the design course.
This course requires the student to apply the basic
technology from other courses, such as thermo-
dynamics and transport operations, to predict the
performance and economics of chemical systems.
Students often realize, for the first time in
the senior design course, the practical application
of much of the course content of their undergrad-
uate curriculum. It is, therefore, essential that the
design course be a comprehensive integration of
technological principles from earlier courses with
design and economic procedures.
Comprehensive design coverage represents a
challenge to educators who must often accomplish
this coverage in three semester hours. Conse-
quently, new and innovative methods are con-
stantly being sought to improve the teaching ef-
ficiency.


One innovative teaching technique is
the use of flowsheet simulation programs
for the solution to classroom design problems.





FLOWSHEET SIMULATION PROGRAMS
SNE SUCH INNOVATIVE teaching technique
is the use of flowsheet simulation programs
[1,2] for the solution to classroom design problems.
These programs define the chemical process ma-
terial and energy balances from a description of
the equipment in the process [3].
A typical design problem is the ethylene proc-
ess [4] shown in Figure 1. Ethylene is produced
by cracking ethane and propane. The product is
purified in three distillation columns. Hydrogen
and methane are recovered for fuel, and ethane is
recycled. Propylene and heavier hydrocarbons are
by-products.
The material and energy balance data for the
ethylene process are shown in part in Figure 1.
These data could be obtained by hand calculation
or a flowsheet simulator could be employed to pro-
vide this information.


FIGURE I SIMPLE ETHYLENE PLANT [4I


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








The design student must proceed, exactly as
would the computer, in calculating material and
energy balance relationships for such a process.
Once the basic concepts are understood by the
student, these calculations become routine and
time consuming. Thus, the use of a simulation
system removes some of the monotony from the
design course and allows more emphasis to be
placed upon the principles of design. The incorpo-
ration of flowsheet simulation programs in teach-
ing design has been practiced for many years at
several universities [5].
Design, of course, does not stop with the ma-
terial and energy balance, but culminates with
economic analysis of the process which leads to
an optimal design [2]. In making an economic
analysis, the student is required to make detailed
estimates of the equipment and operating costs in
the process. The procedure of cost estimating must
be repeated for each case studied in arriving at
the optimal design. Again, such procedures are
routine, time consuming, and afford little learning
value to the student.
The University of Missouri has developed a
simulation program, named CHESSE (Chemical
Engineering Simulation System with Economics),
[6] which does the cost estimating and provides a
complete economic analysis of the chemical proc-
ess. This program is a modification of the basic
CHESS system [4]. The purpose for developing
such a program was to enhance the teaching of
design. Several advantages were expected:
* Provide the student the opportunity to study more proc-
esses.
* Provide the student the means of arriving at a better de-
sign since more cases can be studied in searching for the
optimum.
* Introduce the student to computer oriented design meth-
ods used by industry.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the de-
velopment of the CHESSE program and to report
on its use in teaching design. A basic understand-
ing of flowsheet simulation programs by the
reader is presumed.

CHESSE
Economic analysis is the determination of
some economic criterion, such as return on invest-
ment, that can be used to judge the worth of the
system under study. The choice of the best process
design is made by reviewing the economic cri-
terion for all processes studied and choosing the
process that maximizes the profitability. The basic


me-
Jim Gaddy received the B.S.-Chemical Engineering from Louisiana
Tech (1955), the M.S.-Chemical Engineering from University of
Arkansas (1967), and the Ph.D. from the University of Tennessee
(1972). He had eleven years industrial experience with Ethyl Corpora-
tion and Arkansas Louisiana Gas Company and has taught at the
University of Missouri since 1969. His research interests are in com-
puter aided design, stochastic simulation, pollution control and bio-
chemical energy systems.

information required for calculation of an eco-
nomic criterion is the investment and profit.
The economic calculations can be done on the
computer and are easily integrated with the usual
flowsheet simulation programs which provide
much of the data for the economic balance. The
computations can best be done in a stagewise man-
ner. First, the material and energy balance must
be converged for all recycle loops. Then the plant
investment, which is dependent upon the material
and energy balance, can be determined. Finally,
the profit, which depends upon the investment as
well as the material and energy balance data, is
found. The procedures used in CHESSE to find
the investment and profit will be summarized.

DETERMINATION OF INVESTMENT
The total investment for a chemical process is
made up of the cost of the process equipment plus
the cost of auxiliary facilities, such as the supply
of utilities. The auxiliaries cost can generally be
calculated as a function of the investment in proc-
ess equipment. Therefore, the total investment can
be found from the size and cost of each individual
item of equipment within the process.
The basis for sizing and costing the equipment
in the CHESSE program is given in Table 1. Most
of the data for these computations is available
from the material and energy balances and only a
minimum amount of additional information must
be supplied by the student.
The cost calculations for each equipment item


SUMMER 1974









TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF DATA FOR DETERMINATION OF EQUIPMENT SIZE AND COST IN CHESSE


Equipment


Cost Basis


Design Basis in CHESSE


Data Source


Distillation Tower height, diameter, Number of trays by Fenske, Underwood, Gilliland Reflux ratio, type of tray
Tower material of construction, and procedure [7]. Tray by tray determination also and material of construction
type of trays available. Tray spacing set at 2 ft. Tower by programmer. Flow rate
diameter by maximum vapor velocity method of and thermodynamic properties
Souders and Brown [8] front CHESSE.

Absorber Height, diameter, material For packed columns, height based on absorption Programmer specifies type of
of construction, and type of factor method [9], and diameter based on flooding column, material of construc-
tray or packing velocity method of Lobo [10]. For tray towers tion. Other calculations by
diameter found as in distillation. CHESSE.

Flash Column Height, diameter, and material Three feet of liquid holdup provided. Three Flow rates and thermodynamic
of construction feet of vapor disengaging space provided, properties by CHESSE. Material
Diameter same as for distillation. of construction by programmer.


Heat Exchanger Area, material of construction,
number of passes and shells,
and type exchanger


Volume, material of construction,
and type of reactor


Area from heat duty, overall heat transfer
coefficient and logarithmic temperature
difference.


None


Heat duty and temperatures
from energy balance. Coeffici-
ent and other data by programmer.

Programmer must specify volume,
material of construction and
type of reactor.


Pump and Capacity, type of pump and Work of compression calculated from specific Programmer specifies pressure
Compressor drive, pressure rise and heat ratio. Pump work from product of flow rise, type of material, and
material of construction rate and pressure rise [4]. whetherspare pump is needed.

Valve Diameter and material Valve Diameter as pipe diameter to give liquid Material of construction


of construction


velocity of 4 fps or vapor velocity Tf 10 fps.


specified by programmer


Volume and material of
construction


Tank Volume from flow rate and desired holdup.


Flow rate from material
balance. Holdup and
material of construction
by programmer.


are based on the modular cost concept of Gutherie
[11]. The cost computed is the total installed cost
including foundations, piping, wiring, instru-
mentation, etc. For each piece of equipment, the
cost depends upon the equipment size, material of
construction, pressure, and specific type, such as
steam or gas fired heat exchanger. The size is
computed by CHESSE from the appropriate flow
rate and design equation. Pressures are available
from the energy balance. The programmer must
specify equipment type and material. Options are
available for the programmer to specify the cost
separately for any piece of equipment, if the meth-
ods for costing in CHESSE are not appropriate.
All costs in CHESSE are from 1970 data and pro-
vision is made to adjust these costs to the present
time by use of the Marshall and Stevens Index
[13].
The total process equipment cost is found by
adding the costs for the individual items of equip-
ment in the process. Auxiliary equipment costs
are then found according to the percentages given
in Table 2 [12]. These percentages total about 40
percent of the process equipment cost, and the
programmer may change this percentage, if de-


sirable. CHESSE assumes a Gulf Coast location
and a location factor is provided for adjusting the
cost for a difference in geographic location. Con-
tingency is then added to give the total invest-
ment. A contingency of 10 percent is added by the
program, but the programmer has the option of
varying this percentage.


REVENUE, OPERATING COST, AND PROFIT

The basic data for the determination of rev-
enue and process operating cost in CHESSE is
summarized in Table 3. These data are computed
from the total investment and material and en-
ergy balance information.
The method of computation and the source of
the data are also given in Table 3. Revenue and
raw materials cost are calculated from the prod-
uct and input stream flow rates supplied by the
material balance. Stream prices are furnished by
the programmer. Utilities costs are determined
from the energy requirements and the prices for
power, fuel, steam and water. Labor requirements
are found from the Wessel correlation [14]. Other
fixed costs are determined as a percentage of the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Reactor


Tank














Auxiliary Facilities

Process Piping
Yard Improvement
Land Cost
Site Clearing
Parking Areas
Landscaping
Yard and Fence Lighting
Other Improvements
Utilities
Steam Generation
Steam Distribution
Water-Supply, Cool and Pump
Water-Distribution
Water Treatment
Electric-Main Substation
Electric-Distribution
Gas Supply and Distribution
Air Comp. and Distribution
Sanitary-Waste Disposal
Service Facilities
Auxiliary Buildings
Railroads
Fire Protection System
Communications

Location Factor
(Basis-Gulf Coast Location)


Percentage of Installed*
Process Equipment Cost Added [12]

20.0


2.0
0.6
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.4


3.0
1.0
1.8
0.9
0.6
1.5
1.0
0.3
1.0
0.3

5.0
0.6
0.7
0.2


0.0


Contingency 10.0
*NOTE: Installed equipment cost includes equipment instrumentation,
wiring, piping, minor steelwork, concrete foundations, substructures
insulation, and painting.


total investment, labor cost or working capital.
Cost items such as advertising, product distribu-
tion and research are computed as a percentage of
revenue [12]. CHESSE uses industry wide average
utilities prices or percentages to compute these
costs. The programmer has the option of speci-
fying values different from these averages, if de-
sirable.
The total operating cost is the sum of the
items, except revenue and working capital, given
in Table 3. The before-tax earnings are computed
as the difference between the revenue and total
operating cost. Income taxes are figured as a per-
centage of the before-tax earnings and are sub-
tracted from before-tax earnings to give net profit.
The cash accumulation is calculated as the
sum of net profit and depreciation. CHESSE pres-
ently computes two economic criteria; return on


Table 2. Summary of Investment in Auxiliary Facilities for
Chemical Process Plants


SUMMER 1974


investment and payout period. The return on in-
ventment is the net earnings divided by the invest-
ment expressed as an annual percentage. The pay-
out period is the investment divided by the cash
accumulation.
If desired by the programmer, the investment
and economic calculations in CHESSE can be by-
passed entirely.

TEACHING EXPERIENCE WITH CHESSE

The experience with the use of CHESSE in
the classroom has been encouraging. Several ex-
amples of the types of problems the students have
solved will exemplify the kinds of results obtain-
able from a program such as CHESSE.

Ethylene Process

The ethylene process shown in Figure 1 was
simulated by the design students using CHESSE.
This plant was designed to produce 115 mols/hr
of ethylene for 330 days per year, i.e., 25 million
pounds per year. A total investment of $1,008,965
is required. The investment summary of individu-
al equipment items is also available from
CHESSE.
A total operating cost of $1,445,715 is com-
puted. This represents a cost of ethylene of about
3.5 cents per pound, allowing credit for by-prod-
ucts. By comparison, Gutherie [15] gives the in-
vestment for this size ethylene plant as $1,100,000
and the operating cost as 3.2 cents per pound.
With an ethylene price of 4 cents per pound,
the return on investment is 6.2 percent per year
and the payout period is about 7 years. From this
initial design, the students proceed to evaluate the
effects of larger plant sizes, product price and
process variables on the economics of the ethylene
process.









Simulation of this process requires about 20
seconds of computer time on an IBM-360-50 ma-
chine.


Hydrocarbon Distillation Optimization

A simple distillation column with heat recov-
ery, shown in Figure 2, is used to illustrate op-
timization principles. The column splits a multi-
component paraffin mixture and the products ex-


change heat with the feed. The process variables
for optimization are tower pressure, column re-
flux ratio and approach temperatures in the heat
exchangers.


Benzene Process

Figure 3 is a typical process for the hydro-
genation of toluene to produce benzene. Hydrogen
and toluene are heated to 12500F and reacted at


TABLE 3. SUMMARY OF ECONOMIC DATA FOR DETERMINATION OF OPERATING COST IN CHESSE


Data Method of Computation Source of Data Options

Working Capital (5 percent of Investment) + (8 percent of Investment and revenue calculated by Other percentages may
revenue)[12] CHESSE be specified by programmer.

Revenue z[(Volume of product streams)x (product Volume of product streams from
prices)] material balance. Prices furnished by
programmer.

Utilities Cost Alternate unit power, fuel
Electricity (Power consumed) x ($.Ol/kwh) Power consumption from energy balance, steam and water costs may
Fuel (Fuel consumed) x ($.30/in BTU) Fuel consumption from energy balance, be specified by programmer
Steam (Steam consumed) x ($.65/i!n BTU) Steam consumption from energy balance, or programmer may specify
Water (Water consumed) x ($.10/m gal) Water consumption from energy balance, utilities cost in any
equipment item.

Raw Materials Cost Z[(Volume of Incoming Streams) x Quantity of incoming streams from
prices)J material balance. Prices specified
by programmer.

Operating Supplies (6 percent of labor) + (catalyst cost)[12] Labor cost from CHESSE. Catalyst cost Percentage may be varied
by programmer, by programmer.

Labor Costs (Operating labor hours/yr) x (labor cost/hr) Man hrs = [tons prody�t](10)(N)/ Alternate hours or cost
(Capacity, tons/day)* [[14] where N = may be supplied by
number of process steps. Capacity, pro- programmer.
duction and number of steps found by CHESSE.
Labor cost/hr of $3.50 is used.

Supervision 20 percent of labor cost (12J Labor cost from CHESSE Percentage Variable

Payroll Burden (.25) x (labor cost + supervision) [12] Labor cost and supervision from CHESSE Percentage Variable

Overhead (.5) x (labor cost + supervision) [12] Labor cost and supervision from CHESSE Percentage Variable

Maintenance 5 percent of investment [12] Investment from CHESSE Percentage Variable

Taxes and Insurance 2.5 percent of investment [12] Investment from CHESSE Percentage Variable

Depreciation (1 - Salvage visl'e) x (Investrent) Investment from CHESSE. Salvage value Salvage value and
Depreciable life = 10 Z of investment depreciable life are
variable

Interest (.1) x (Investment + Working Capital) Investment and working capital from Percentage Variable
CHEESE

Sales and Advertising 15 percent of Revenue [12] Revenue from CHESSE Percentage may be varied
by programmer

Administration 6 percent of Re.en-e [12] Revenue from CHESSE Percentage Variable

Product Distribution 3 percent of Revenue [12] Revenue from CHESSE Percentage Variable

Research and 10 percent of Revenue [12] Revenue from CHESSE Percentage Variable
Development


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The student should never
use a computer unless he knows
exactly what the machine is doing.


800 psia. The effluent from the reactor is sep-
arated by a series of flash and distillation towers.
Hydrogen and toluene are recycled back to the
reactor.

CONCLUSIONS
At the University of Missouri-Rolla the
CHESSE program is not introduced into class-
room use until about the middle of the design
course. At this time, the student has been through
several equipment design problems and at least
one detailed process design by hand calculation.
The procedures of making material and energy
balances, sizing equipment, cost estimation, eco-
nomic analysis, and optimization have been mas-
tered. The use of CHESSE is not to teach these
procedures, but rather to facilitate their use in
learning design principles.
The use of CHESSE requires no special or
prior computer programming skill. The NAME-
LIST format is used to furnish all data for the
program. These procedures are quite simple and
the student usually is ready to design a process on
the computer with a few hours instruction and
practice.
During the second half of the design course,
after CHESSE has been introduced, the student
will design and optimize about three complete
chemical processes, such as those shown in the
earlier examples. The optimization may involve
several variables and advanced optimization tech-
niques are introduced. The class may work on the
same process at one time, but each student can be
assigned a different problem by changing the plant
size or some other parameter of the system.
Students seem to enjoy the use of CHESSE.
More importantly, they seem to obtain a deeper
grasp of design principles. The economic effect of
changing values of a variable become readily ap-
parent. Important variables are more readily dis-
tinguished. The point of diminishing returns in
optimization becomes real. Computer design per-
mits study of areas, such as plant location and
distribution costs, that do not receive much atten-
tion otherwise. Furthermore, the area of process
synthesis can be stressed since the student has


more capability in the allotted time for modifying
processes.
It is not implied that the CHESSE program
provides the ultimate in design education. Many
refinements and improvements are still needed.
Improved thermodynamic capabilities, additional
unit operations, more precise methods of equip-
ment sizing, and better cost estimation are some
of the areas that are under study.
The student should never use a computer un-
less he knows exactly what the machine is doing.
Therefore, he should always be required to do
process design calculations by hand. However,
the subsequent use of computer aided design pro-
grams can be used to enhance his education. D


FIGURE 3 BENZENE PROCESS
REFERENCES
1. Lederman, Peter B., Chem. Eng., Dec. 2, 1968, p. 127.
2. Sargent, R. W. H., Chem. Engr. Prog., 63:9, Sept.
1967, p. 71
3. Evans, L. B., Steward, D. G., and Sprague, C. R.,
Chem. Engr. Prog., 64:4, April 1968, p. 39.
4. Motard, R. L., Lee, H. M., and Barkley, R. W.,
"CHESS User's Guide," Univ. of Houston, Houston,
Tex., 1969.
5. Shannon, Paul T., Chem. Eng. Educ., March 1963.
6. Gaddy, J. L., Gaines, L. D., and Doering, F. J.,
"CHESSE User's Guide," Univ. of Missouri, Rolla,
Mo., 1970.
7. Perry, J. H., et al., "Chemical Engineers Handbook,"
McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
8. Souders, M., and Brown, G. G., Ind. Eng. Chem., �6,
1934, p. 98.
9. Brown, G. G., et al., "Unit Operations," John Wiley
and Sons, New York, 1950, p. 372.
10. Lobo, W. L., et al., Trans. AIChE, 41, 1965, p. 693.
11. Gutherie, K. M., Chem. Eng., March 24, 1969, p. 114.
12. Jelen, F. C., et al., "Cost and Optimization Engineer-
ing," McGraw Hill, New York, 1970.
13. Stevens, R. W., Chem. Engr., Nov. 1957, p. 124.
14. Wessel, H. E., Chem. Engr., July 1952, p. 209.
15. Gutherie, K, M., Chem, Engr., June 15, 1970, p. 140.


SUMMER 1974










COST ESTIMATING BY COMPUTER

IN PROCESS DESIGN


PETER K. LASHMET and
KIRK D. SORENSEN
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, New York 12181

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING education at
Rensselaer includes process design in which
the students design and evaluate complex
chemical process components and systems
through the application of scientific, technolo-
gical, and economic principles. Emphasis is
placed on problem formulation and the concep-
tual, analytical, and decision aspects of open-
ended situations through integration of know-
ledge and skills gained in previous and con-
current formal course study. A significant part
of the course relates process design to economics
by such measures as return on investment and
selling price. Probabilistic aspects1 as well as con-
ventional deterministic situations are treated. Al-
though economics calculations are elementary,
they require significant student time which could
be better spent in synthesis and analysis. It is
desirable for students to study economic conse-
quences of production rate changes, manufacturing
cost variations, depreciation methods, and other
factors with a minimum of effort being expended
in obtaining the information. To assist students
in these analyses, a computer procedure to esti-
mate annual rate of return for a chemical process
was recently developed under two Master of En-
gineering projects.2,3 Although the procedure con-
siders only the deterministic situation under a
single set of circumstances, it has improved stu-
dent efficiency in preparing and understanding
the economics sections of process design reports.

FEATURES OF THE PROCEDURE
IT IS THE OBJECTIVE of the procedure to
provide an annual rate of return on investment
capital from estimates of capital and operating
costs derived from equipment specifications;
utility, product, and raw material rates and unit


costs; labor requirements and rates; on-stream
time; and similar input information. The pro-
gram, shown schematically in Figure 1, is or-
ganized into four levels of operation having the
following functions: program control, input/
output, basic calculations, and equipment cost
data.


INPUT/
CONTROL OUTPUT


BASIC
CALCULATIONS


EQUIPMENT
DATA


FIGURE 1
Organization of Process Economics Procedure


The executive routine MAIN directs the pro-
cedure by properly sequencing the routines of the
second and third levels of program hierarchy.
Each set of process specifications is considered
as a separate case, and MAIN is responsible for
array initializing and providing the required
number of case studies.
Major data input is accomplished by READ.
These data include specifications for the in-
dividual items of equipment, the current cost in-
dex, and general information concerning manu-
facturing costs: labor rates, utility rates, and
on-stream time.
All equipment costs are determined in a
general costing routine COSTN using the power-
law relation
Delivered Cost = C, (SIZE) C2
Five size ranges are available, and the co-
efficients C, and C. are transmitted from the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









equipment routines PUMP, CSTR, . . . , DRIVER
via COMMON block. Thus one general cost-
determining procedure including logic for select-
ing the proper size-related power-law coefficients
is used, resulting in an appreciable reduction in
core requirements. Logic for accommodating
equipment sizes outside the minimum and maxi-
mum size ranges is also provided. Access to these
coefficients stored in the equipment routines is
accomplished by the routine FIND.
All individual utility-related calculations are
performed or controlled by UTIL. As its first
function, the routine converts utility usage of
each item as presented in the equipment specifi-
cations to an annual rate and cost, based on the
on-stream time. Seven different utilities are con-
sidered: electricity, steam (three types), fuel,
cooling water, and an undesignated utility to be
specified by the user. The routine also accumulates
individual costs by category for presentation in
the final economic summary.
Control of capital cost determination for
drivers is the second function of UTIL. If equip-
ment specifications indicate a driver is required,
the routine DRIVER is called to supply size-
related cost parameters to the costing routine
COSTN. The proper type of driver is determined
by the utility specified.
Equipment data routines PUMP, CSTR, . . . ,
DRIVER are in a standard format and contain
two types of data: a description of the equipment
category, design, and construction material to be
printed as output; and power-law coefficients and
size limits for the costing routine COSTN. Each
item of equipment is specified by 25 input para-
meters which are summarized in Table 1 and
which determine the options within the data
routine to be used. The size-related cost coeffi-
cients and size limits were adapted from the
compilation of Dryden and Furlow4 and other
sources. Forty equipment categories are avail-
able in the procedure: Conventional processing
equipment including pumps, heat exchanges,
pressure vessels, etc. -24. Unspecified processing


A computer procedure has improved
student efficiency in preparing and
understanding the economics sections
of process design reports.


Emphasis is placed on
problem formulation and the
conceptual, analytical and decision
aspects of open-ended situations.


equipment -1. Specified drivers -3. Unspecified
driver -1.
The two unspecified categories for processing
equipment and drivers permit direct input of
capital costs obtained external to the program.
A process comprising of fifty items or less of
processing equipment (excluding drivers) can
be accommodated by the procedure. Spares or
identical items can be specified by parameters
and are not included in this limitation.
The economic analysis is performed in RE-
SULT, a general bookkeeping and output rou-
tine. Manufacturing fixed capital is determined
from delivered equipment costs and equipment
Lang factors with cost adjustments by the cur-
rent cost index. Nonmanufacturing fixed capital
is estimated from the manufacturing fixed capital,
and working capital items are provided as input.

TABLE 1. Equipment Parameters
1. External reference (refers to flowsheet item num-
ber)
2. Internal reference (designates equipment subrou-
tine called)
3. Construction material option
4. Size parameter
5. Utility type
6. Utility usage (as power)
7. Design option
8. Pressure
9. Temperature
10. Number of identical pieces
11. Utility usage (as flow rate or other)
12. Material flow rate
13. Driver flag (determines if driver is required; utility
type determines driver type)
14. Size parameter
15. Size parameter
16. - 22. Unassigned.
23. Driver cost if not calculated in subroutines
25. Installed equipment cost if not calculated in sub-
routines

Additional input information required for manu-
facturing cost estimation include flow rates and
costs for raw materials, product, and by-products,
and the labor requirements. The final economic


SUMMER 1974








analysis is summarized as six tables:
* Equipment specifications and cost details.
* Delivered equipment cost summary.
* Utility cost summary.
* Capital (manufacturing, nonmanufacturing, and work-
ing) investment summary.
* Manufacturing (chemical, utility, labor, overhead,
maintenance, etc.) cost summary.
* Annual earnings and rate of return summary.
Additional tables summarize input information.
The procedure, written in FORTRAN IV,
occupies approximately 74K bytes of storage
comprised as follows:

Equipment data routines 22K
Operation routines 17K
Total program 39K
FORTRAN compiler routines 30K
Computer operating area 5K
Support 35K
Total core requirement 74K
The procedure operates in batch mode from disc-
stored object code, and a typical plant containing
25 major items of processing equipment is cost
estimated in 10 seconds or less using an IBM
360/50 computer.

APPLICATION IN PROCESS DESIGN COURSE

T HE PROCEDURE WAS implemented on a
trial basis in the senior process design
course at Rensselaer during the spring semester
of 1973. After several instructional periods on
concepts and methods of process design eco-
nomics, a one-hour lecture was presented on the
structure and operating procedure of the costing
program. This was supplemented with a hand-
out describing specific details:

* Summary of procedure for estimating capital require-
ments and manufacturing costs.
* Outline of equipment specification elements (an ex-
tension of Table 1).
* Specifications required for each item of equipment
available in the equipment routines.
* Detailed format for input data.
* JCL instructions.
* Input and output for a sample problem.

Students applied the procedure during the design
and analysis of a solvent recovery facility, a con-
ventional design problem assigned for seven
weeks. Class-supplied instructions for the pro-
gram appeared satisfactory, and no further in-
structions or assistance were required.
In this limited application, the procedure was
successfully used. Output records, detailing the


economics of the design, were directly incorpo-
rated into the final design reports. As use of the
procedure was experimental, its use in parametric
economic studies was not considered. This initial
success will encourage more extensive use in fu-
ture classes.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

N ITS PRESENT FORM, the procedure was
successful in preparing the economic analysis
of a typical chemical process based on an annual
rate of return on investment in a deterministic
situation. This is a somewhat limited case, so
future development will be conducted in two
areas. One area of endeavor will consider re-
structing the input/output procedures and con-
trol concepts so the program will accommodate
several optional economic analyses (e.g., selling
price determination) as well as probabilistic
situations described earlier. A second effort has
as its objective the adaption of the procedure for
interactive use with a teleprocessing system.
Thus both batch and conversant modes are pro-
jected for future operation. E

REFERENCES
1. Berger, A. J., "Profitability Analysis using Probabilis-
tic Data Inputs," "Computer Programs for Chemical
Engineering," vol. 6, "Design" (R. V. Jelinek, ed.),
CACHE Committee, Natl. Acad. Engrg., Washing-
ton, D. C., 1973.
2. Davidson, L. N., "Chemical Process Costing by Com-
puter," M. Eng. Project Report, Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute, Troy, N. Y., 1971.
3. Sorensen, K. D., "Chemical Process Cost Estimating
by Computer," M. Eng. Project Report, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y., 1973.
4. Dryden, C. E., and Furlow, R. H., "Chemical Engi-
neering Costs," Ohio State University, Columbus,
1966.


Peter K. Lashmet received his B.S.E. and M.S.E. in Chemical En-
gineering from the University of Michigan and his Ph.D. from the
University of Delaware. After eight years of industrial experience
with the M. W. Kellogg Company and Air Products and Chemicals,
Inc., he joined the faculty at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute where
he is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering in the Systems
Engineering Division. Research interests include the dynamics of
adsorption processes and the application of probabilistics in chemical
process design.
Kirk D. Sorensen received both his B.S. and M. Eng. degrees in
Chemical Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1973.
He is currently a Chemical Engineer with the Chemicals and Plastics
Division of Union Carbide Corporation.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










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published by AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


Prepared by the editors of Chemical Engineering Progress


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345 EAST 47th STREET, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017
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TEACHING PLANT DESIGN TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


E. CLARENCE ODEN
Mississippi State University
State College, Mississippi 39762

F OR THE PAST TWELVE years, the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at Mississippi
State University has taught plant design in an
atmosphere similar to that which a process en-
gineer encounters in industry. The professor
utilizes his twenty years or more of industrial
experience (a large percentage of which was di-
rectly involved with plant design, expansion and
bottleneck removal programs in large industrial
plants and petroleum refineries) to teach this
course in a practical manner. The principal handi-
cap has been the three credit hours of time
allotted in the curriculum for such an important
course, a disadvantage experienced by most
schools due to so much material being squeezed
into a four year program.

OBJECTIVE AND TEACHING METHOD
The principal objective of the course is to
train engineering students to apply the materials
presented in other college courses to the practical
solution of one large plant design problem. A
problem in design must be selected from a large
list of possible chemical plants that will require
a great deal of thinking and application of
graphics, mathematical and chemical knowledge,
mass and energy balances, thermodynamics, unit
operations, and kinetics in the solution of the
problem. In addition, the students are required
to consider the instrumentation and the practical
application of economics by having to make an
economic appraisal of the proposed investment
when the plant is assumed to operate at 80, 100
and 120% of design capacity.
Another objective is to aid the students in the
transition from college courses to industrial work.
It is believed to do their best, the students must
be exposed to conditions similar to those they
generally encounter in industry. The three credit-
hour course at this institution is divided into a
one hour lecture and a six hour continuous design


period. The objective of this long design period,
consisting mostly of desk and library work, is
to permit the students to adjust to a longer period
of concentration as experienced in industry. This
longer period is better also, because it allows
them to spread their design instruments and
data out onto a drawing board. And it reduces
the percentage of time utilized in getting settled
down to work and of getting ready to leave which
takes place when equal time is distributed over
two design periods.
The students are encouraged to visit the
professor in his nearby office when they need help
or they may be permitted to visit some other
professors on the staff that may have some
specific experience or data that would be helpful
in the solution of some particular phase of their
problem. Students have the same degree of free-
dom of visiting other areas of the campus as the
need arrives by simply signing out as to when
they left and where they may be located. They
are highly discouraged from returning to their
living quarters for more than enough time to
pick up something they may have left behind.
They are to remove their name from the register
when they return to the building. This record is
normally kept in one corner of the blackboard
where it can easily be seen by all. This serves
about the same as leaving word with an office
secretary or group leader in industry. The stu-
dents are given a list of chemical plants from
which they may choose one to design. Each group
of three students works on a separate problem.
A group of three was chosen for advantages in
training in human relations; and because there
is plenty of work assigned to keep three people


We teach plant design
in an atmosphere similar to
that which a process engineer
encounters in industry.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























E. C. Oden is a graduate of the University of Alabama and Brook-
lyn Polytechnic (M.S. '38) and has done graduate work at Cornell and
the University of Michigan. He has many years experience in the
chemical and petroleum industries and is presently teaching plant de-
sign.

busy. A group of four generally does not work
out well because they often work too much in
pairs and create disciplinary problems with each
set competing or griping about the other two's
work or the like; or one student acting like an
outcast and going his own way-most common-
ly goofing off and not doing his share of the
work.
The one hour lecture is devoted to informing
the students of the general information they
need to know to follow the next progress step-
wise procedure as outlined in the "Plant Design
Instruction Manual," a book of approximately
215 pages written by the professor. The course
is divided into six steps and each step is ter-
minated by a progress report. The six major
progress reports are divided-up into progress
steps as follows:

PROGRESS REPORT 1-
Selection of Process Route
A literature survey is conducted of the
possible routes that could be selected to produce
some chemical or group of chemicals that are
used in industry on a large scale. A list of about
50 or more are given to the students to choose
from, or they may select something based on
knowledge they have learned in summer work or
in the co-operative program. Students often have
made a literature survey and know what they
wish to work on when they register for the
course.
The students are expected to make block flow


diagrams of all the routes that have been used
on a commercial basis as revealed by the litera-
ture search and describe the process in a general
manner. Then they select one of the routes and
give their reasons for selecting that particular
route over the other ones.

PROGRESS REPORT 2-
Process Flowsheet
This involves the layout of a detailed process
flowsheet using typical symbols for the equipment
for the battery unit. Each stream in numbered
with all major equipment, such as pumps, con-
densers, exchangers, reboilers, etc., shown. A
heat and material balance is required over the
overall plant as well as the individual pieces of
equipment. The size range, feed, and product
series qualities for the plant are set by the pro-
fessor and differ from any other previously de-
signed plant, but are comparable in sizes to those
being quoted in the construction box score re-
ported in the literature. Utilities are generally
assumed to be available in the complex operated
by the mother company. The unit cost figures
placed on these utilities are selected for the
region of the country where the plant is to be
located (usually the Gulf Coastal region, in our
case).

PROGRESS REPORT 3-
Site Selection, Plot Plan
This involves the selection of a plant site, as-
suming the selection has been narrowed down to
one area in each of three states. Then students
make a plot plan layout of an assumed plant com-
plex using blocks for office buildings and battery
limit units other than the battery limit plant
under design. The specific plant being designed
has a plot layout of all the major equipment that
is shown on the process flowsheet. The students
are shown aerial views of chemical plants and re-
finery layouts. Layouts in the department of
model units are discussed. A general discussion
of how to go about selecting a plant site on the
basis of tangible and intangible items takes
place before students begin this progress report.

PROGRESS REPORT 4-
Equipment Specification Details
The students submit detailed specifications for


SUMMER 1974







each major piece of equipment shown on the
flowsheet as if the specifications were being sent
to equipment manufacturers for bids. The stu-
dents survey equipment manufacturing catalogs
and list three manufacturing companies that they
would like to have bid on the various classes of
equipment such as exchangers, pumps, etc. They
also select three overall contractors from the
literature reviews that they would prefer to build
the plant (of course, without ever actually con-
tacting any of these companies). A sample cal-
culation of the size, etc., of each general type
of equipment is required, such as, that of an ex-
changer, a fractionating tower, etc.

PROGRESS REPORT 5-
Instrumentation Flowsheet, Detailed Reactor Design
A proposed instrumentation flowsheet for the
equipment shown on the process flowsheet is re-
quired. A detailed drawing of one major piece


Students are required to consider
the instrumentation and practical
application of economics by having to
make an economic appraisal.


of equipment, generally a reactor
plants will have, is required.


which most


PROGRESS REPORT 6-
Economic Appraisal
An economic evaluation of the proposed plant
showing the payout on a net profit and cash flow
basis at assumed rates of 80, 100 and 120% of
design capacity is required.

FINAL REPORT
The final report must be typed and assembled
(including a cover letter) as if it were being sub-
mitted to the Board of Directors of a company
for their consideration as a capital investment.
This course is required of all chemical en-
gineering students that have completed or are
enrolled in all their basic chemical engineering
courses. Students that enter our graduate school
who have not had a comparable course in plant
design are highly encouraged to take this course
as an elective and all foreign students are es-
pecially urged to take the course. Foreign stu-


dents from the same country are prohibited
from working together in the same group in de-
sign to facilitate their learning to communicate
in the English language.
The students are encouraged to take pride in the re-
ports they submit. It is not difficult to get their coopera-
tion, perhaps, because they are influenced by the knowledge
that their report is kept in the files in the department in-
definitely, and may be reviewed by students succeeding
them. Each class that follows is encouraged to improve
upon former students reports. No plants proposed for de-
sign ever have the same specifications as a previous re-
port. They will generally be different in feed, product
quality and annual capacity along with other variations.
The prices on equipment, utilities, etc., are generally in
keeping with inflation, and the size of plants in general
have continuously shown a general increase in size over
a twelve year period. There have been about 30 to 50
different varieties or types of plants theoretically built
and evaluated on paper. These range from inorganic
chemicals, such as caustic, chlorine, nitric acid and sul-
furic acid, to the various types of alkylates, esters, or-
ganic acids, isoparaffins, cumene, paraxylene, etc. In
general, the plants show cash flow payouts varying from
about 3 to 10 years, depending on the size, type products,
and feedstocks selected, when using current market prices
for raw materials and product sales prices known to be
realistic prices;-that companies are actually paying and
receiving for the materials involved.
The use of progress reports was selected by
the instructor because inexperienced students
and engineers make many mistakes that would
carry all the way through a design unless a care-
ful progress check is made by an experienced
engineer. By a system of checks by an experienced
engineer, the big mistakes can easily be detected
and the progress report returned to the group for
correction. Progress report 3 has been placed be-
tween 2 and 4 to allow the instructor time to re-
view the process flowsheet, the students are as-
signed the site selection and Plot Plan as a
progress report. By this time the process flow-
sheet has been corrected and approved for the
students to write out detailed specifications for
all the major equipment. Since detailed specifica-
tions will be vital to the cost estimates, these
need approval of the instructor. To allow him
time for this, the students are asked to specify
the instrumentation flowsheet and detailed re-
actor design in order to give them training in this
aspect of communication. Any mistakes in
progress reports 3 and 5 will not have any bear-
ing on the economic appraisal performed in
progress report 6. Pictures, scale model plants,
and layouts of other plants on paper are used as
aids in presenting data on how to complete
progress reports 3 and 5, in particular.El


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






























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BEG U . PAT OF









An Example Of Engineering Analysis


EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION


LOSSES IN FLUID FLOW


JOSEPH J. MARTIN
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104

IT IS GENERALLY AGREED that engineer-
ing students need experience in analysis of
practical problems. A situation that may be of
interest to engineering educators arose when the
supposedly simple problem of calculating expan-
sion and contraction losses was encountered in a
study of coolant flow through the core of a nu-
clear reactor. It was thought at first that one
merely had to go to standard texts or handbooks
to obtain the necessary information, but that
proved to be not completely satisfactory, as is
to be shown.
In long pipelines, skin friction losses usually
predominate so that estimates of minor losses
due to expansions or contractions in diameter
need not be very precise. In heat exchangers with
large headers and relatively small tubes and in
some nuclear reactor core configurations, how-
ever, it is the expansion and contraction losses
which are great and must be determined fairly
accurately. In most treatments of the subject
expansion losses are considered first. Referring to
Fig. 1A, the mechanical energy balance is written
between points 1 and 2 as
P U2 P u2 2
S++ + F (1)
p 2 p 2 e
where P is pressure, p is densiy, u is the average
velocity, and Fe is the expansion loss (friction).


A. SUD[DEN EXPA'NSTO


1 3 4
B. SUDDIEN CONTRACTION
URE 1.


Joseph J. Martin was educated at Iowa State, Rochester, and
Carnegie-Mellon University Sc.D. '47). He is professor of Chemical
Engineering and associate director of the Institute of Science and
Technology at the University of Michigan. Presently he is president
of Engineers Joint Council.


Next the momentum balance is applied between
the same points with the pressure just inside
the expanded section being the same as the
pressure inside the smaller section so that

P + P(A2-A) - P2 = A1 (u2-ul) (2)

The pressure difference, P1-P2, may be eliminat-
ed between Eqns. (1) and (2) to give the familiar
Borda-Carnot relation,
2 2
(U1-U2) 2 u 1 2
Fe 2 (1-A /A2 2 (3)

where the continuity equation uA1 = u2A2, has
been used. This relation was studied experi-
mentally by Schutt [8] and later by Kays [2] and
shown to be excellent for turbulent flow at
Reynolds Numbers of the order of 10,000 or more
in the smaller section so that velocities are fair-
ly uniform across the upstream and downstream
cross-sections. For laminar flow the losses are
somewhat less, but that was not of interest in
the reactor problem at hand.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Contraction losses posed a different problem,
for not one book showed a method of applying
overall momentum and energy balances to predict
these, probably because this case is not so simple
as with expansion. In the usual treatment of the
subject contraction losses are calculated by the ex-
pression,


2
K u2
F -
e 2
where refe
given by a
of Ke diffe
authors a:
nuclear re
several su
examined
those show
[1], give
terms of e
is much to
here.
The cu
old data, f(
(area of v
at 2 or 4)




0.4



K,

0.3




0.2




0.1


Con


The supposedly simple problem
of calculating expansion and contraction
losses was encountered in a study of
coolant flow through the core
of a nuclear reactor.


(4)


erence is to Fig. 1B and Ke is a factor over a century ago, and inserted it into K, =
n empirical graph or equation. Values (1/C,-1) 2. However, Streeter also says, "The
r by as much as 50% between various loss at the entrance to a pipeline from a reservoir
nd this was not acceptable for the is usually taken as 0.5 u ,/2, if the opening is
actor calculations. Figure 2 presents square-edged." This is obviously somewhat
ggested curves and many others were different from a value of 0.376 u /2 based on
which gave the same values as one of Weisbach's data at A,/A, O 0. Walker, Lewis,
in. Others, such as Bennett and Myers McAdams and Gilliland [10] referred to some
contraction and expansion losses in early limited experimental data that could be
equivalent length of straight pipe which represented by K, = 1.5 (1-A2/A1) / (3-A2/A1)
>o approximate for the desired results and it will be seen that this is good for mid-
range values of A,/Ai, but poor at higher and
rve of Streeter [9] is based on century- lower values. McCabe and Smith [5] and
or he tabulated a contraction coefficient Rohsenow and Choi [6] took an equation, K, = 0.4
ena contract at 3 divided by the area (1-A./A1), which Kays [2] developed for infinite
which was measured by Weisbach [11] Reynolds Number and this is much less than the
preceding formulation. Rouse [7] utilized two-
dimensional irrotational flow analysis to obtain
his results. The points on Fig. 2 are the carefully
SExprimenLrn points 11-.x Ka-s measured values of Kays [2] for both single and
multiple tube arrangements for Reynolds Num-
bers of the order of 20,000. It is seen that none
of the correlations fits the data with high pre-
cision over all ranges of the area ratio.
In view of the similarity in flows through a
sharp-edged orifice and through a sudden con-
traction, it seemed reasonable to apply known
orifice behavior to the contraction problem. An
experimental study [4] of the pressures on the
upstream face of a sharp-edged orifice plate
showed that the average pressure on the plate
differs slightly from the upstream pressure, so
that the net pressure acting on the fluid between
the upstream and the vena contract can be
given as mA,(P,-P3). The factor m is unity
for the ideal case of a perfectly uniform pressure
of P, over the upstream orifice plate face, but
differs a little from unity in actual cases. Apply-
ing the mechanical energy and momentum
0.2 0o. . 0.8 i. balances between the upstream and the vena con-
A,/Al tracta with the assumption of no losses [4] be-
FIGURE 2. fore the vena contract gives by using u1A1 =
traction Coefficient As Function Of Areas u.An =0 u3sA, where A, is the cross-sectional area


SUMMER 1974









of the vena contract,

u2 m 2(P1-P3 ) (5)


The usual orifice equation with the approach
velocity correction is written


/2(P - P )
U2 = C 2 1 3)-
/ p[1-(A2/A1) 2]
Comparison of (5) and (6) yields

C= I 1-(A 2/A )2
2 1-mA /A1


Lamb [3] reported that Kirchoff and Rayleigh
had studied ideal flow in two dimensions through
an orifice in a large chamber by complex variable
transformation and found C =-/ (7r + 2) -
.6110. The ASME Fluid Meters Report [12]
showed that for a wide range of D,/D1 and
Reynolds Numbers in turbulent flow in actual
orifices C varied from 0.590 to 0.615. Thus, a
round value of 0.6 may be taken for either an
orifice or a sudden contraction so that Eqn. (7)
becomes
1-mA 2/A 1 2
21 2 = ( 1. ) (8)
1-(A /A 1
and m is seen to be a function only of the area
ratio. In terms of m between points 1 and 3 in
Fig. 1B the momentum balance is
ulp A (u3 - ul) = mA2 (PI-P3) (9)


while the mechanical energy balance for friction-
less flow as assumed in Reference [4], is

P u, P u3
S+ 3 + 3 (10)
p 2 p 2
If now P,-P, is eliminated between (9) and (10)
instead of u3, the vena contract velocity, as was
done to get Eqn. (5), the result is
u = u (2/m-A2/A1) (11)

Between points 3 and 4 the momentum balance
is
uA1 P (u4-u3) (P3-P ) A2 (12)

and the mechanical energy balance is
2 2
P u; P u2
3 u3 4 4
-+"- + F (13)
Eliminating p between (12) and
Eliminating P--P4 between (12) and (13),


noting that u2 = u4 and using (11) gives

F, = (2/m-A2/A -1)2 u2

Comparison of (14) and (4) shows that
. .^ m . .A . (


Kc = (2/-A2/A-1) (15)
(6) where m is the function of A2/A1 in (8). It is seen
that fixing A2/A, determines Ke. This has been
done and the results compared with Kay's ex-
perimental data in Fig. 3. The agreement is
within the error of the measurements themselves.
(7'l


FIGURE 3.
Contraction Coefficient From Equations (8) and (15)

One concludes, therefore, that a sudden contrac-
tion is similar to a sharp-edged orifice up to the
vena contract and that the analysis by the over-
all mechanical energy and momentum balances
along with known orifice behavior is the correct
approach to this problem. Losses due to sudden
contraction may, thus, be calculated with excel-
lent precision by use of Eqns. (4), (8), and (15)
or the equivalent Fig. 3.
The foregoing development assumed constant density,
as for a liquid. The application can also be made to a gas
if the pressure drop is not too great so that an average
density may be used, since this was shown to be true in
the orifice study [4]. O
(Continued on page 148)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








CACHE

COMPUTER

PROBLEMS _ _

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION,
in cooperation with the CACHE (Computer
Aides to Chemical Engineering) committee,
is initiating the publication of proven com-
puter-based homework problems as a
regular feature of this journal.
Problems submitted for publication
should be documented according to the
published "Standards for CACHE Computer
Programs" (September 1971). That docu-
ment is available now through the CACHE
representative in your department or from
the CACHE Computer Problems Editor. Be-
cause of space limitations, problems should
normally be limited to twelve pages total;
either typed double-spaced or actual com-
puter listings. A problem exceeding this
limit will be considered. For such a problem


the article will have to be extracted from
the complete problem description. The
exact procedure to distribute the total docu-
mentation is evolving and may involve dis-
tribution at the cost of reproduction by the
author.
Before a problem is accepted for publi-
cation it will pass through the following re-
view steps:
1) Selection from among all the contribu-
tions an interesting problem by the
CACHE Computer Problem Advisory
Board
2) Documentation review (with revisions if
necessary) to guarantee adherence to
the "Standards for CACHE Computer
Programs"
3) Program testing by running it on a mini-
mum of three different computer sys-
tems.
Problems should be submitted to:
Dr. Gary Powers
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Penn. 15213


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SUMMER 1974








j� curriculum



THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROFESSION

AND COOPERATIVE EDUCATION


W. H. TUCKER
Tri-State College
Angola, Ind. 46703
COOPERATIVE EDUCATION, STARTING
with the program at the University of Cincin-
nati in 1906, had a linear growth in the United
States during its first 40 years. Recently, the ex-
pansion rate has become more nearly exponential.
For example, the number of United States educa-
tional institutions offering the co-op program has
increased from 55 to 369 from 1963 to 1973. While
part of this growth has resulted from activity in
the two-year colleges, it is nevertheless a fact that
cooperative education is meeting the present need
for relevance in education. Students are more
than ever wanting to relate their academic train-
ing to life in the real world. In chemical engineer-
ing, 55 institutions out of United States total of
110 now offer cooperative education-mostly on
an optional basis. [1, 2] From these references, we
can estimate that over 15% of United States
chemical engineering students are pursuing co-
operative education, usually with five years to the
B.S. degree. A parallel growth in engineering
co-op education has occurred in Canada, and in
Britain, the growth has been dramatic.
Reference 1 gives a definition of the coopera-
tive program as follows:
Cooperative education may be defined as the
integration of classroom theory with practical ex-
perience under which students have specific peri-
ods of attendance at the college and specific peri-
ods of employment.
The following factors should be adhered to as
closely as possible:
* Where possible, the student's work should be
closely related to his field of study and individual
interest within the field.
* The employment must be considered to be a
regular, continuing and essential element in the
educational process, and some minimum amount
of employment and minimum standard of per-


formance must be included in the requirement for
the degree or certificate presented by the school.
* The working experience will ideally increase
in difficulty and responsibility as the student pro-
gresses through the academic curriculum and, in
general, shall closely parallel his progress through
the academic phases.

OPERATING THE CO-OP PLAN
W THILE THERE IS CONSIDERABLE diver-
" sity in the scheduling of work periods in in-
dustry, a typical plan would be to place the stu-
dent in industry at the end of his freshman year
after he has established an academic record. Over
the next four years, the student would be on some
alternating schedule that would give him in the
neighborhood of 20 months of industrial work in
his B.S. program. The scheduling will vary be-
tween semester and quarter arrangements in the
colleges. A given company will thus be faced with
a confusing array of student schedules. Formerly,
this was a serious matter when co-op students had
to be considered as pairs, each pair filling a given
job on a continuous basis. The recent trend has
been toward giving each student a unique ex-
perience with an emphasis on project work. Thus,
there is less routine work except where it is de-
sirable in the student's development. Companies
tend now to employ students as singles, whatever
their schedules.
Most students come to a college-based pro-
gram, where the college places a student in a
situation in which neither he nor the company is



The author appeals to the ChE profession
to take a greater interest in the co-op
movement, to give the student a
more professional experience.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















W. Henry Tucker received the B.S. degree from the University
of Virginia, and the S.M. and Sc.D. from M.I.T. '47. He has had in-
dustrial experience with several companies and was in charge of
the chemical engineering cooperative education program while he
was on the faculty at Purdue University. In 1969 he received the
AIChE Winston Churchill Travelling Fellowship, which included a
study of the cooperative education program in Britain. He presently
is in charge of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum at Tri-State
College, Angola, Indiana, and has absorption refrigeration as his
primary engineering interest.

obligated as far as permanent employment is con-
cerned. The industry-based program, in which the
company selects one of its employees for a co-op
program, is sometimes found. A hybrid arrange-
ment is helpful in this period of declining engi-
neering enrollments. A given company can take
the initiative to recruit students in high school
for a college-based program, providing that their
freshman year in college is academically good.
One can also emphasize minority groups who can
be encouraged by the co-op idea.
Colleges differ in the matter of placing a stu-
dent with one company for all of the work periods
or with diversified employers. There are ad-
vantages for each arrangement in the breadth-
depth plane of experience. A single company can
certainly provide more responsibility in the latter
work periods. It is probably a safe generalization
to conclude that a large company, say one with
more than 25 engineers, can provide the needed
variety for a given student. If a company is small,
the student should work with more than one dur-
ing his program for a comparable variety. Some-
times, a company will shift a student to several
locations to give the needed experiences.
As to salary, a co-op student in engineering
would be expected to earn in the neighborhood of
$12,000 in 20 months of experience. Financially,
though, it might be more attractive to graduate in
four years on a regular program and have a year
of higher salary. The co-op, however, does min-
imize his debts while in college. But salary alone


will not justify the program; the co-op student
must have a desire for engineering experience
while in college to the same degree as his desire
for money.
This article continually refers to co-op employ-
ment by companies. It should be pointed out here
that the Federal Government is a recent strong
entry into the field, though state and local govern-
ments are slow to follow suit. The Federal scene
is described in a recent article [3].

THREE-WAY CO-OP COORDINATION
T HE COORDINATION which must take place
between the student, the college coordinator
and the company contact official is the key factor
in the successful operation of any program. It is
still too often the case that academics or employ-
ers take the program casually, assuming that the
creation of a job is all that is necessary for some
osmotic process to take place which will enrich
the student's academic experience. It turns out
that the co-op program must be managed. If a
college coordinator does his job properly, his ac-



We estimate that over 15%7 of U.S. ChE students
are pursuing co-op education, usually with
five years to the B.S. degrees.



tivities are surprisingly complex. Charles Sea-
verns has developed a meaningful list of 14 func-
tions to be fulfilled by the college coordinator [4],
making him a "placement specialist, vocational
counselor, salesman, teacher, administrator, edu-
cational recruiter, trouble-shooter, mediator, and
referral agent."
The recent Handbook of Cooperative Educa-
tion [5] amplifies many areas in the academic
area of coordination. Except in company files,
there is a distinct lack of material available to
speak to the coordination problems faced by the
industrial people where the real action is. To
help fill this gap, the author has prepared the
publication, Effective Supervision of Engineering
Cooperative Education Programs [6]. The "com-
pany contact official" is the key man in the com-
pany organization. He must keep in contact with
the student and with his progress by also work-
ing through the student's immediate supervisor.


SUMMER 1974










. . . it is a fact that co-op education
is meeting the present need for
relevance in education.


Dr. J. W. Morris has commented on his organiza-
tion at a DuPont plant [7]. He describes a high-
level Co-op Advisory Committee to set co-op pol-
icy. He also mentions the success he has had with
extra curricula supervision of co-op students by
a young employee who himself had earlier been a
co-op student employee. Companies in general find
it difficult to sustain effective coordination of a
co-op program, since it is likely that the contact
officer will spend only a couple of years, enroute
to other personnel assignments. The college co-
ordinator finds more permanence in his job.
On the industrial scene, the company contact
official will certainly be concerned with three
areas: orientation, actual work experience, and
evaluation. Proper orientation should be spread
over all of the work periods rather than to be
limited to the first day of the initial work period.
Orientation does not just cover the physical plant,
but also the organization, procedures and policies
of the organization. For an effective work ex-
perience, the projects to be handled by the co-op
student should be pre-planned. The college co-
ordinator is interested in the educational objec-
tives of the work, while the company wants to
select experiences which are reasonable within
the time frame and the ability of the student.
Many companies do not pre-plan, but engage in a
flurry of activity when the student shows up for
work. Finally, the evaluation of the student's work
is many times poorly done if one is to accept the
heavy student criticism of his evaluation. The
company contact officer and the student's super-
visors should get together with the student with
detailed and meaningful comments on his per-
formance. A summary of this evaluation is then
passed on to the college coordinator. One aspect
of the evaluation step is to begin the pre-planning
for the next work period.
The college coordinator must visit the student
and his supervisors for effective coordination. Un-
fortunately, usually limited travel budgets allow
visits only once in two years or more, and this is
inadequate. The background of the college co-
ordinator is important, too. In the United States,
one usually finds a coordination staff which is


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


completely removed from the college engineering
departments. A few colleges use chemical engi-
neering faculty as coordinators for chemical engi-
neers; Purdue University is such an example. But,
for the most part, college coordination has de-
veloped its own administrative organization. The
British represent the opposite extreme. Coordina-
tion there is managed by the chemical engineering
department chairman. He selects a coordinator in
his department, and the visitations are handled
by the entire departmental faculty with usually
two visits to the student site each work period.
The company contact official should find oc-
casion to visit the college campus. Purdue Uni-
versity has Co-op Days each spring, at which
time, company people come in to select their stu-
dents. Also, the company contact officer might be
a member of a policy committee at the college.
Professor J. G. Wohlford has described the Co-op
Advisory Council in operation at Georgia Tech [6].

CO-OP ORGANIZATIONS
SEVERAL ORGANIZATIONS are presently
looking out for the welfare of cooperative edu-
cation:
* The Cooperative Education Association is
the umbrella organization for all of cooperative
education [8]. It publishes the Journal of Coopera-
tive Education. It encourages regional training
centers for developing new coordinators.
* The ASEE maintains the Cooperative Edu-
cation Division, which is specifically concerned
with engineering programs [9].
* A policy organization concerned with estab-
lishing new programs and obtaining Federal as-
sistance is the National Commission for Coopera-
tive Education [10]. Federal financial assistance
to new or developing programs is available
through the 1968 amendments to the Higher Edu-
cation Act of 1965. Yearly assistance of about two
million dollars is presently granted.

ACCREDITATION OF PROGRAMS
Currently, there is a cooperative effort be-
tween the Cooperative Education Division, ASEE,
and the Engineering Council for Professional De-
velopment (ECPD) to develop criteria for the ac-
creditation of engineering and engineering tech-
nology co-op programs. A summary of these
criteria is given by Professor J. G. Wohlford [11].
Accreditation of co-op programs seems a cer-
tainty.








NOT UNRELATED to accreditation of pro-
- grams by ECPD is the granting of academic
credit for work experiences, except that this is an
internal matter in each college. Many college fac-
ulty members are extremely reluctant to allow
credit to be granted for work done entirely away
from campus. Nevertheless, the granting of aca-
demic credit is growing; and thus, the academic
community is asserting that a work experience
can have academic value. John H. Sherrill indi-
cates that, as of 1971, about 46% of the co-op
programs were granting credit [12] as compared
with 21% in 1969. Additional institutions grant
meaningless credit; credit that cannot be used
to substitute for other courses in the curriculum.
The few institutions that require the co-op pro-
gram for all engineering students do not need to
grant credit. There is an extreme variation of
amount of credit given and the criteria used to
decide on the academic value of the work experi-
ence. Tri-State College grants four credits but
only after the completion of several effective work
periods. In one case, credit was given back at the
university for a series of seminars in which the
students and the coordinator took up topics of
relevance to the program [13].
The trend is for more graduate programs with
the co-op flavor. Some of these are summarized in
reference [5], page 70. One can imagine that par-
ticularly in an urban environment, there can be a
great variety of programs, as a student splits his
day between work and classroom. It is necessary
to judge the relevance of the work experience to


Students are more than ever wanting to
relate their academic training to
life in the real world.


determine whether it is truly a cooperative educa-
tion program. One specific experiment involving
the major professor in the industrial program
along with the students has been reported [14].
The experiences of a student in a graduate level
co-op program are described in a recent article by
King [15]. His Ph.D. program was an extension
of his B.S. experience at the same company.

DEVELOPING BROADER PROFESSIONALISM
The excellent co-op programs in Britain and


Canada suggest the idea of exchange programs.
These could be arranged through college coordina-
tors but the extra effort and paper work are con-
siderable. A United States company can arrange
for a co-op student to spend his last work period
in any part of the world at considerable advantage
to the company and to the student (the use of a
foreign language in a working community). The
occasions in which exchanges have been tried have
not been publicized in the co-op literature.
A different kind of international emphasis is
possible-that of students from the developing
countries coming to the United States for their
work experience, as well as for their college edu-
cation. The American company would be willing
to invest in a foreign student program when the
student would indicate his intention to return
home and work as a permanent employee of the
American affiliate [6].
There are many lost opportunities to develop
the student professionally while he is on the job.
He could be made more aware of the ethics of his
profession as well as the social and political im-
plications of engineering. As a first step, one could
involve him in the program and committee ac-
tivities of the Local Section of AIChE. In the
book, "The Student in Society" [16], two emphases
are found: the student is shown how to settle into
a new community with the minimum of hardship,
and he is encouraged to use the community as a
learning laboratory to develop sociological and
political concepts.

SUMMARY COMMENTS
This article is an appeal for the chemical en-
gineering profession to take a greater interest in
the co-op movement, to give the student a more
professional experience. The AIChE Educational
Projects Committee sponsored a cooperative edu-
cation symposium at the February, 1972 Dallas
meeting. Subsequently, it encouraged the prepara-
tion of the manual on co-op supervision [6], but
the talking is all being done by the academic peo-
ple. AIChE industrialists related to co-op super-
vision should organize to discuss ways in which
the co-op experience could be an involvement in
professionalism so that the latent possibilities of
the program could be realized with a larger per-
centage of the students. At any rate, the fact that
15% of our students are on this program should
alert our profession to provide for its special
needs. E


SUMMER 1974








REFERENCES
1. "A Directory of Cooperative Education, '73", Coopera-
tive Education Association, 1973, S. A. Collins,
Ex. Sec., Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
2. "Chemical Engineering Faculties, 1973-74", American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., N.Y.
10017.
2. Schultheis, Robert L., "Cooperative Learning: The
Federal Scene", J. of Coop. Ed., IX, Nov. 1972, 81-90.
4. Seaverns, Charles F., Jr., "A Manual for Coordinators
of Cooperative Education", 1970, Northeastern Univer-
sity, Boston, MA 02115.
5. Knowles, Asa S., and Associates, "Handbook of Co-
operative Education", Jossey-Bass, Inc., Washington,
1971.
6. Silveston, P. I., and Tucker, W. H., "Effective Super-
vision of Engineering Cooperative Education Pro-
grams", AIChE Symposium Series, 1974, AIChE, 345
E. 47th Street, New York, N. Y. 10017.
7. Morris, J. W., "A Diversified Co-op Program in Nu-
clear Production", Chem. Eng. Prog., 68, Dec., 1972.
8. Cooperative Education Association, S. A. Collins, Ex.




e book reviews


Process Synthesis, D. F. Rudd, G. J. Powers, and
J. Siirola, Prentice-Hall, Inc., (1973), 320 pp.
Reviewed by
C. M. Thatcher, University of Arkansas

A good textbook must effectively serve a
worthwhile objective; and, even then, publication
is fully justified only if either the objective itself
or the treatment thereof is sufficiently unique. By
these standards, Rudd, Powers, and Siirola have
written a text which is not merely good, but ex-
cellent.
The authors' stated objective is to approach
process development via a careful interlacing of
synthesis and analysis, and "to present the ma-
terial in a coherent and attractive form suitable
for the students' first exposure to an engineering
course". The fact that the presentation reflects the
results of recent research in process synthesis
makes this objective as timely as it is worthwhile.
As for uniqueness, the distinction between
"design" and "synthesis" is subtle, but it is fully
and effectively exploited in this text. The major
concern is with those qualitative decisions which
precede detailed design calculations. Process de-
sign texts, in contrast, commonly emphasize the
latter and may not even mention the many prior
decisions which underlie the "given" information


Sec., Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
9. Cooperative Education Division, American Society for
Engineering Education, Alvah K. Borman, Division
Editor, Assistant Dean, Cooperative Education, North-
eastern University, Boston, MA 02115.
10. National Commission for Cooperative Education, Roy
L. Wooldridge, Executive Director, 360 Huntington
Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.
11. Wohlford, J. G., "Accreditation/Certification of Engi-
neering and Engineering Technology Programs", J. of
Coop. Ed., IX, Nov. 1972, 56-60.
12. Sherrill, John H., "A Close Look at Co-op Credit", J.
of Coop. Ed., IX, May 1973, 24-28.
13. Tucker, W. H., "Credit Seminars for Co-op Students",
J. of Coop. Ed., V, May 1969, 58-62.
14. Hoover, C. J., R. G. Tressler and W. H. Tucker, "The
Purdue-Eli Lilly Project", Chem. Eng. Prog., 69, Au-
gust 1973, 57, 58.
15. King, C. F., "A Co-op's Experience Through Grad
School", Chem. Eng. Prog., 68, December 1972, 83.
16. Lupton, D. Keith, Editor, "The Student in Society",
Littlefield/Adams, Totawa, N.J. 07511, 1969.


which they present as a starting point for quanti-
tative calculations.
The detailed and well-organized attention
given the criteria for selecting a particular process
scheme from among a number of possible alterna-
tives is equally unique. Process design texts may
consider various alternatives for a specific case at
hand; but Rudd, et al, identify with commendable
thoroughness and clarity those general criteria
which are applicable to all such cases.
The major thrust of the book is embodied in
separate chapters devoted to Reaction-Path Syn-
thesis, Material Balancing and Species Allocation,
Separation Technology, Separation Task Selec-
tion, and Task Integration (energy considerations,
primarily). Each of these chapters develops an ap-
propriate strategy for identifying those proc-
essing schemes which are likely to be feasible and
then making a specific selection from among the
several prospective alternatives.
An introductory, overall view provides some
historical prospective and sets the stage for the
successive consideration of the foregoing topics.
The two final chapters then examine two specific
applications in detail: fresh water by freezing,
and detergents from petroleum.
Does the book effectively serve the authors'
objective? As far as scope, thoroughness, organi-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




































nation, and clarity of presentation are concerned,
the answer is an unqualified "Yes". The extent to
which the text is, in fact, "suitable for the stu-
dents' first exposure to an engineering course"
necessarily depends on how it is used, however.
The authors view their approach as "a replace-
ment for the traditional course in material and
energy balancing", but admit that some tradi-
tional topics must then be treated in subsequent
courses. The synthesis-oriented approach, they
report, produces students who can screen reaction
sequences, "make a pretty good material balance",
allocate materials, select separation phenomena,
and use energy balances, all with due regard for
process economics, as they synthesize complete
process flow sheets.
Even so, the very uniqueness of the synthesis
approach makes it difficult to use this text as the
basis for a conventional beginning course in stoi-
chiometry, etc. But the book should very definitely
be of interest to the instructor who is willing to
accept the synthesis-oriented philosophy along
with or in place of the traditional first-course ap-
proach.
As an alternative to first-course use, it is rec-
ommended that the book be seriously considered


either as a text or as a key reference source for
process design studies at the senior level. De-
cisions of the type treated by Rudd, et al, are a
very real part of chemical engineering practice,
and the student should be prepared to make them.
Process Synthesis appears to be an excellent
vehicle for such preparation. D


NOTICE TO
DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN
The Fall 1974 issue of CEE is a special issue
on graduate education that will be distributed to
ChE Chemical Engineering seniors interested in
graduate school
The present rates listed below do not include
printer's set up charges.
Full page @ $150
Half page @ $80
Quarter page @ $50
If your department wishes to advertise in this
issue please write:
R. Br. Bennett, Business Mgr.. CEE.
Chemical Engineering Dept.
University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla. 32611


SUMMER 1974


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Mobil, the chemical engineer can be found in all functional areas and in
every echelon of management. At Mobil the primary need for chemical
engineers is and always will be at the Bachelor's level. However, we en-
courage all our employees to take whatever additional studies they feel are
necessary. In other words, they earn while they learn through our tuition
refund plan. Opportunities for chemical engineers are available in a wide
variety of activities in the following functional areas:
* Research * Exploration & Producing * Manufacturing
* Transportation & Logistics * Marketing Mo b iI

If you're interested, write to: Mr. R. W. Brocksbank, Manager-College Recruiting
Mobil Oil Corporation, Dept. 2133 * 150 East 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10017 Mb m
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER
%ki M 0










NEBRASKA'S INTEGRATED PROCESS LAB: Reilly, Timm, Eakman
(Continued from page 118.)


tice in independent thinking and their added self-
confidence have been helpful to them in industry.

Table II. REPORT SUBJECTS

First Semester
Analogous commercial processes-Esterification mech-
anisms
Possible rate equations-Proposed kinetics experimental
design
Interim kinetics data
Final kinetics data and model evaluation

Second Semester
Batch, tubular, and CSTR sizing
Reactor costing
Estimated boiling points
Estimated vapor pressure curves
Estimated vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria
Final report-Plant design, product cost, and location


The more perceptive students quickly recog-
nize the link between theory and experiments, and
they use theory successfully to design experi-
ments. The lesson is later solidified, since experi-
mental data must be extrapolated with theory to
obtain proper design.
Eventually the usefulness of proper experi-
mental design becomes apparent to nearly every-
one. Unfortunately for many of the students, this
awareness often does not come early or easily. If
we were primarily interested in good results dur-
ing this laboratory, we would take a more direct
hand in helping students set up their experiments.
Since, however, we view the laboratory mainly as
4 learning tool, we allow quite a bit of slipping
and sliding before stepping in.
One of the unexpected results was that three-
man groups were over any extended period more
unstable than groups of either two or four mem-
bers. Usually one or occasionally two of the three
did not carry a fair share of the load. This of
course led to hard feelings, even though we
pointed out to the aggrieved parties that they
probably learned more that way. The problem was
solved by going to two-man groups. Only a very
exceptional person has the temerity to leave the
whole load on his partner. Conversely, the dom-
inant partner, if one emerges, realizes that civility


enlists more cooperation than alternate modes of
behavior.

POSTSCRIPT

T O SOME EXTENT this approach has some
flavor of reinventing the wheel, since we
learned long after undertaking it that the late
Professor Vilbrant at VPI had trod a similar path
a number of years ago. However, the development
of this sequence has educated us during the past
five years perhaps more than any of our students.
Our appreciation goes to those students who have
volunteered advice, some of it perhaps not so well
received at the time, that indicated which of our
many changes were successful and which were
not. No course of this type can ever stand still.
We, therefore, hope that our students in the future
will be equally free with their help. E


EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION
LOSSES: Martin
(Continued from page 140.)

REFERENCES
1. Bennett, C. 0., and Myers, J. E. Momentum, Heat,
and Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
York, N.Y. (1962).
2. Kays, W. M., Trans. A.S.M.E. 72, 1067 (1950).
3. Lamb, H., Hydrodynamics, 6th Ed., Dover Publica-
tions, New York, N. Y. (1932).
4. Martin, J. J. and Pabbi, V. R., A.I.Ch.E. Journ. 6,
318 (1960).
5. McCabe, W. L. and Smith, J. C., Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Co., New York, N. Y. (1967).
6. Rohsenow, W. M., and Choi, H. Y., Heat, Mass, and
Momentum Transfer, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
Cliffs, N. J. (1961).
7. Rouse, H., Elementary Mechanics of Fluids, John
Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y. (1946).
8. Schutt, H. C., Trans. A.S.M.E., 51, 83 (1929).
9. Streeter, V. L., Fluid Mechanics, 2nd Ed., McGraw-
Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y. (1958).
10. Walker, W. H., Lewis, W. K., McAdams, W. H., and
Gilliland, E. R., Principles of Chemical Engineering,
3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y.
(1937).
11. Weisbach, J., Die Experimental Hydraulik, J. S.
Englehardt Co., Freiberg, Germany (1855).
12. Fluid Meters-Their Theory and Application, 5th
Ed., American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New
York, N. Y. (1959).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Classroom


SEEING ENTROPY - The Incompleat Thermodynamics

of the Maxwell Demon Bottle


M. V. SUSSMAN
Tufts University
Medford, Mass. 02155

M OST OF US have heard of Maxwell's Demon
but entirely too few know of the Maxwell
Demon Bottle [1, 2, 3]. This fact, although for-
giveable is entirely unfortunate because the
bottle not only has sealed within it a Maxwell
Demon-but also contains means for elucidating
in a visible and even amusing fashion many of
the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics.
What is the Maxwell Demon Bottle?
The Maxwell Demon Bottle (hereinafter
called MDB) is the simple device shown in Figure
1 which consists of a long necked, sealed, flask
containing a number (usually 10) of colored
cork or rubber spheres. As usually constructed,
5 of these spheres are black and 5 are white.
When the flask is held in a neck down position the
spheres fall into the neck in a columnar array.
But what does this have to do with thermo-
dynamics?
Well an important part of thermodynamics
is concerned with the fact that Nature is not at
all even-handed in the direction in which she
moves phenonema. For example, apples fall from
branches above to the ground below, and never
move spontaneously in the opposite direction. A
steel ingot always cools when taken from the
furnace. Humpty-Dumpty never gets put to-
gether again. We grow older.
Nature's processes abound in irreversibility.
They move easily in one direction and not at all
or only with great effort in the reverse.
Why? Why, for example, is it easier to move
from cream and coffee-separate entities, to-
cream and coffee-mixture, than in the reverse
direction? The MDB evolved from an old demon-
stration aimed at answering this very question; a
demonstration to illustrate that statistics, rather
than design, lies behind the irreversibility of a
mixing process [4].


The demonstration is shown in Figure 1, 2
and 3. Starting with the flask in the neck down
position and an array of 5 black spheres sur-
mounted by 5 white spheres, the flask is tilted
to allow the neck contents to run into the body.
When the flask is reinverted the spheres again
run into the neck but usually not in the initial
array. The reason is, of course, that there are
252 possible arrays or permutations of 5 black
and 5 white balls (10!/5!5!) and once the initial


Figure 1. The "Maxwell Demon Bottle" in its initial state.
Figure 2. Tilting the bottle disarranges the initial state . . .

array is destroyed, the likelihood of reforming
that array is very small.
In mixing solutions we are intermingling not
10 particles but numbers of particles in the order
of 1023. Therefore, the number of possible per-
mutations of these particles is astronomically
large and the likelihood of regaining the original
array by chance is so small as to be considered
impossible.
Thus, it is seen that mixing processes owe
their irreversibility to statistics-that is, to the
negligible likelihood that a unique array of an
astronomically large number of particles, once
disturbed, can be regained by chance selection-
rather than to forces or to design.


SUMMER 1974
























Dr. M. V. Sussman is peripathetic professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Tufts University and the man who first bottled the Maxwell
Demon (U.S. Patent No. 3,289,321). He is also the author of -hat
recently published (Addison Wesley) thermodynamics textbook, with
a perpetual motion machine (courtesy of M. Escher) on its dust
jacket. Among other singular activities are works on continuous gas
chromatography and "muscle" turbines. His thermodynamic rumina-
tions have appeared in this journal previously ("Approaches to
Statistical Thermodynamics," Chem. Eng. Ed., p. 113-118, Summer
1968).


MORE THERMODYNAMICS:
ASSIGNING AN ENERGY TO THE MDB

But the MDB contains more thermodynamics
that this. For example, an energy can be assigned
to the MDB by the following strategem. Assume
that the black spheres each have unit mass,
while the white spheres are merely massless
spacers. If the bottle is supported in a neck down
position as in Figure 3 with the top of the neck
resting at table level, we can assign an energy
value to each ball position corresponding to its
elevation above the ground or reference level.
Thus, we will assign an energy of zero units to
the lowest position in the neck of the bottle and


energies of 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., energy units to each
subsequent level. For example, the energy of the
array in Figure 1 is
Ez1 = 0+1+2+3+4 = 10 energy units

whereas the energy of the array in Figure 3 is
E =P 0+4+5.+7+8 = 24 energy units,
and in general

q = | niVi (1)
i1=

where ni is the number of black balls in the "i"th
level and may be either 0 or 1, and ei is the energy
magnitude of the "i"th level, which may have
any integral value between 0 an M, the maxi-
mum energy level that can be reached. Now en-
gaging in a flight of fancy nomenclature, let us
call each array a "state." We have already point-
ed out that with 5 white and 5 black balls the
system can have 252 "states." The states can
have energies ranging from 10 units (state
0,1,2,3,4) to 35 units (state 5,6,7,8,9). The states
are specified by the 5 Ei's of the black balls. One
would therefore expect that on the average the
energy of the MDB will be
252
p L. (2)

where pr is the probability of state ,.,', or the
chances of getting a particular permutation of
black and white balls;
E. is the energy magnitude of that state as
given by equation (1) ; and
is the expected energy, or the probable
average of future energies, of the MDB, taking
into consideration all possible permutations or
"states."
If we now apply elementary calculus to Equa-
tion (2) we find that the differential of the ex-
pected energy of the MDB equals

d = dp + - p (3)

which says that there are 2 ways of changing
the energy :
(I) by changing the p1's while holding E.'s
constant: and
(II) by changing the E,'s at constant P.'s
Equation (3) is intriguingly similar to the
equation in classical thermodynamics for the
differential of energy in a simple system:

S= dREV- dREV (4)


Figure 3. Re-inverting the bottle usually does not restore it.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







































INITIAL STATE FINAL STATE
Figure 4. The energy of the "Bottle" may be increased by a Reversible
Work Effect.
which also says that the energy can be varied in
two ways:
(I) by a heat effect, dQREv; and
(II) by a work effect, -dWREv.
On the strength of the analogy between equa-
tions (3) and (4) we will call
L,.p, dQ v (5)

or the bottle analog of heat
'p dL -d REV (6)

or the bottle analog of work and,
- U or the bottle analog of internal
energy.

(WORK AND HEAT EFFECT)
A WORK EFFECT OCCURS when the P, are
held constant and the E. are varied. This is
easily accomplished by changing the elevation
of the bottle. If the bottle is raised, for example
as in Fig. 4, the magnitude of each of the Ej'S is
increased without disturbing the ni's. Hence, the
E. are changed without changing the r, In short,
work is performed on the MDB system by a
change of an external parameter, the elevation,


much like work is done on a gas by changing an-
other external parameter, the volume.
Continuing the analogy, a heat effect, Edp ,
is accomplished by changing the probability of
a given state of black balls without changing the
elevation. This may be done by adding or remov-
ing white balls from the bottle thereby changing
the number of permutations and therefore the
probability of a given permutation or state.
A profound difference between reversible
work and heat becomes apparent when equal
amounts of these forms of energy are added to a
MDB. For example, the 2 black ball one white
ball MDB of Fig. 5a has an expected energy of
2 units, (all arrangements are equally likely),
which can be increased to 4 units either by rais-
ing the entire system one diameter (adding 2
units of work energy, 5b) or by adding 2 white
balls (adding 2 units of heat energy, 5c).
Now although the 5b and 5c systems have
the same store of expected energy, they differ in
the availability of that energy for doing work.
The 5b system can release 2 units of its energy
as work by simply dropping to the 5a position,
whereas the 5c system cannot drop and therefore
cannot release energy as work (unless perhaps
means are found to drain off excess white balls
without reducing ).


,E> = 4 E> 2
(ADD 2
WHITE FALLS)


(B)












= 4
(RAISE SYSTEf
ONE DIAMETER)



C B
BUT
AVAILABILITY < AVAILABILITYg
Figure 5. Changes produced by equal heat and work effects: Al-
though (B) and (C) have equal interval energies, (B) can release work,
whereas, (C) cannot, therefore (B) has more Available Energy.


SUMMER 1974


B







The generalization of this observation is that
if two systems store the same amount of energy,
the more disordered of the two can do less work
than the less disordered. I know no simpler illus-
tration of this fundamental thermodynamic
principle.

"SEEING" ENTROPY

LET US SUPPOSE that as suggested above,
white balls, the massless spacers, can in
some manner be added to the bottle at will, and
starting from a system containing only 5 black
balls, examine the effects of successive additions
of white balls.


Nature's processes abound
in irreversibility . . . they move easily
in one direction and not at all or only
with great effort in reverse.


With only 5 black balls (Figure 6a) the sys-
tem has an energy of 10 units (0+1+2+3+4).
On addition of 1 white ball (6b), the system may
have any one of the 6 energies between 10 and
15 as the white ball occupies any of the 6
possible positions between e' and ed. For example,
Figure 6b shows the system when it has an
energy of 12 units. With 2 white balls added (6c),
the energy of the system can take on values from
10 to 20 units and the balls can form:
7!
5 =- 21 states or permutations.
5! 2!
Three white balls, (6d), make possible energies
between 10 and 25 and allow:
7! .


5!3!


-= 56 states


and as previously noted, 5 white balls allow
energy states ranging from 10 to 35 units and
permit 252 states.
In general nw white balls added to a 5 black
ball system will make possible energies ranging
from 10 to 10+5nw units with
(5+nw) !
-5 nw, ! possible states.
5!nw!
The introduction of white balls has two
effects. It makes it possible for individual black
balls to climb higher into the neck of the flask
to higher energy levels making possible increased


values of ; and in addition it has the curious
effect of introducing indeterminacy into the sys-
tem, because each white ball increases the
number of ways black balls and individual
energy levels may be permuted.
The number of possible permutations of black
balls in accessible energy levels is an intriguing
characteristic of the MDB which we shall make
the basis of a property here christened "Bottle
Entropy," and defined as:
S'=k In w (7)
Thus, S' is proportional, to the natural logarithm
of the number of permutations, w (k is a con-
stant). Clearly S' increases as we add white balls
and increase the possible states of the system,
and S' goes to 0 as the number of white balls goes
to 0 and the permutations drop to unity.

EXTENSIVE NATURE OF "S"
L ET US AGAIN CONSIDER an MDB con-
taining only two black balls and one white
if all these states have equal probability then,
ball. This system can exist in 3!/2! or 3 states,
and if all these states have equal probability then,
S' = k In 3
The three states are shown as columns of B's
and O's in Table la.
If we were now to place a second identical
MBD alongside the first, that is, if we were to
double our system, the entropy of the doubled
system consisting of MDB, and MDB2 would be
Si+2 -k In w,+2
where w1+2 is the number of states available
when 2 MDB's are considered simultaneously.
Now if bottle 1 were in state (0, 1) (Table
Ib), bottle 2 could be in any of its three possible
states. Similarly, if 1 were in state (0, 2) bottle
2 again could be in any of its three possible
states. The magnitude of w1+2 is therefore found
by combining every state of one bottle with all
possible states of the other bottle. Or

WI+" = I * 2 = 3 x 3 + 9

and S +2 k in w 1 w2
= k In w1 + k In w2
01 s 2 = + s, (8)

and S (of M identical MDb's) - M(S ) (9)
or S depends on the number of bottles comprising
the system and therefore is an extensive property.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











CONDITION (a)
THE POSSIBLE STATES OF A 2-BLACK, I-WHITE BALL
M D B


CONDITION (b) CONDITION (c)


THE POSSIBLE STATES OF TWO MDB's STATES OF TWO MDB's HAVING DISTINGUISHABLE
PARTICLES WHICH MIX


0 B B
B O B
B B 0


2
, I


NUMBER OF STATES - 1' 3
S 3


00 80 BO
BB OB B B
BB B B OB

OB B B B
BO 00 BO
BB BB OB

OB B B B B
BB OB BB
BO BO 00


BR BR BB AR RB RB
BO RO RO BO BO RO
OR OB OR OB OR OB



aSM1 * E 2411 6
�' -.1=


NUMBER OF STATES = 3X3 = 9

S, = & M 3X3 = 2S,
Table 1 (b)


Table 1 (b) TabiB 1 Cc)
* -rik~.n.1nx.


THE ENTROPY OF MIXING

If, by some unspecified diffusion process, the
black balls of bottle one can interchange posi-
tions with those of bottle 2, the entropy effect is
that described in the previous paragraph be-
cause the black balls are all indistinguishable. If,
however, the particles of bottle one are dis-
tinguishable from those in bottle 2, for example
if 2 has red spheres and 1 has black spheres, (or
if 2 has heavier spheres than 1), then there is a
large and additional entropy increase because a
large number of new 2-color states are created
by the diffusional mixing. (Table Ic).

The total states in a system consisting of a 2
black sphere-one white sphere MDB, and a 2
red sphere-one white sphere MDB, is all the
states of a two-bottle system, multiplied by the
number of ways the 2 red and 2 black spheres
can be interchanged or permuted in each of these
double-bottle states. Now, each of the double
bottle states can be permuted. (2+2) !/2!2!=6
ways (Table 1 c, d)

Therefore nb r + n nb = 3x3x6 = 54 (10)


Consequently S+ = k In wr + k in wb + k In wixin


Sr+b = Sr b + mixing

(nr+nb) !
mixing n !nfb !


S . .ing = -nk xiln xi (14)

where xi is the fraction of particles that are of the
"i" kind, and n is the total number of particles.
If in addition k is taken to be the Boltzmann

constant or, R/N, the gas constant divided by
Avagardo's number, then nk becomes NR, the
total number of moles multiplied by the gas con-
stant. Equation (14) is then the classical ex-
pression for the entropy of mixing ideal solu-
tions:

Smixing =-NR x In xi (15)

TABLE l(n) L RJJIPYUElElPGY OIF ilXLi ;

POSSIBLE STATES AND ENERGIES OF (WQ MUB'S
T'E COLORED PARTICLES OF 4HICH ARE DLSTII'guISHAALE ANID INTERCH1 GLE POSITIONS


0 iR RN RR IB AR RB
1 4 2 6 4 4

oN O on nP nOR o1
I i L' RO T0 NO
1 ,P 1 RNo w7 To Te
FR Rh R), 1 IR Ril
7 7 3 9 5

2 OR OR O. NR 0O 1I
1 ITR I3 BP RI R RP
S Co RO RO BO BO RO
10 8 6 10 8 ,


10 Ho AO RO RO RO
OR OR OR OR on Ob
BR R! RR _B BR Ri
5 5 3 9 7 7

TNR IR RN PR RO1 Ril
on on oo oo oo oo

8H 4 12 8


oR OR OR !l oR o01
Ro RO RO SO BOe RO
11 9 7 13 11 '9


BO BO BO RO RO RO
BR RR RB BR 8B RB
OR OP OF OB OP oti
b 8 O, 10 8 10


ICl RNo Po :i' no RO
OR OR Rl OB OPR A
9 11 7 13 9 11


BA RI; PR ],, ,R
00 00 00 OR 00 00
12 12 111 14 12 12


SI+ T L IA 3x3x +1 = E+ + ;,, AS,ixN1 L= 6


When we deal with very large numbers of
particles as for example in the preparation of
solutions of liquids or gases, Stirling's Approxi-
mation for ln(n!) may be employed


In(n!) = In n (n) - n

in Equation (12) which transforms it to


-r . 1 | = [ + I


['ISE T ,!17
S I> l'I


Table I (d)


ENERGY OF MIXING: IDEAL SOLUTIONS


(13) TN CONTRAST to the entropy, the total energy

does not change on mixing, if the mixing


SUMMER 1974


Table 1 (a)


or


where


CONDITION (b)


CONDITION (c)


Table 1 (c)









occurs as in Table ic and Id. To illustrate this
we assign a mass of one unit to the black balls
and of three units to the red balls. The pure red
ball MDB at ground level, therefore, may have
energy states of 3, 6, and 9 energy units and an
expected energy
= 6 energy units

whereas the pure black ball MDB has an expect-
ed energy
b = 2 energy units

If there are no energy effects on mixing, it must
follow that the energy of the mixed system

r = + = 2 + 6 = 8 energy units
r+b 1 2




The entropy function of classical
thermodynamics is seen to be a monotonic
measure of the number of ways that the particles
that make up the system can be permuted in the
energy levels available to that system.




That this is indeed the case may be seen by
examining the energies of all the states in Table
1(d). The possible energy states of the mixed
system range from a low of 2 to a high of 14e.u
(which is greater than the 4 to 12 range of 2
unmixed systems). Thus the average or expect-
ed energy is
= 8

Mixing ( A<>mixing) = 0 (16)
It also follows that, if there are no elevation
changes during mixing
LHmixing (< �U - (FX)) = 0 (17)
Consequently the free energies of mixing
miing mixing ixing Amiing = -TSmixing = NRT xiln xi (18)

Equations (15), (16), (17) and (18) are the
classical expressions for the isothermal mixing
properties of ideal solutions. In fact, they define
the "ideal solution."


BOTTLE AND CLASSICAL ENTROPY

A FITTING CLOSE to our entropic elucida-
tion would be to relate "Bottle Entropy"


(Equation 7) to the classical entropy defined as
dQrev
dS - T (19)
A general expression of S' may be written as


S -k p4ln pp


(20)


which reduces to equation (7) when the pl's all
have the same constant value
1 (21)
This is always true when one permutation is as
likely as another because


p7= 1


(22)


Furthermore it can be shown that S is a maxi-
mum when
e-g/kT
p - = ZT (23)
where k is the same constant as in Equation (7)
and T and Z depend only on and not on any
of the p,.
Equation (23) reduces to Equation (21) when
T-- oo.
From Equation (20) it follows that:
dS' = -kJ(In p + 1) dp, (24)

and if In p, is expressed in terms of Eq. (23) :

ds' = -kJ - (E,/kT) - In Z + 1 I dp, (25)
1 L _J
but on substituting Eq. (22) in (25) :
S dp
ds'= (26)

which on using Eq. (5) becomes:
dS' - (27)

Thus, the function S defined by equation (20),
which is related to the number of permutations
of particles in accessible energy levels, or more
generally to the probability of all such permuta-
tions, is seen to be the differential of the bottle
analog of heat divided by T, which we recognize
as the classical definition of the differential of
Entropy.
Put another way; the entropy function of
classical thermodynamics is seen to be a mono-
tonic measure of the number of ways that the
particles that make up the system can be per-
muted in the energy levels available to that sys-
tem. It is a measure of the freedom enjoyed by
the system's particles to move through the energy
levels accessible to these particles. It also may be
looked upon as a measure of the uncertainty as-
sociated with an assignment of the system to any
one of its accessible states.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










C L
7
6
5
4
3
2


O 10

co= 1
0o~


E, 10-15 Ez= 10-.20 E3= 10--25
(E, 12 .5 (E,)- 15 (E) 17.-5
W.) 6 s = 21 W3~ = I =56


S 5 In ew =-- ENTROPY
Figure 6. Seeing Entropy. Entropy is a measure of the permutability
of a system. Adding white balls increases the number of energy
levels accessible to the black balls and hence increases ihe permu-
tations of black particles and energy levels.

RESPECTABLE DEGENERACY

WE CONTINUE OUR examination of the
thermodynamics of the Maxwell Demon
Bottle by looking more closely at the 252 allowed
states of the 5 black, 5 white ball system. Each
of these states can be described by a unique com-
bination of 5 integers representing the 5 energy
levels occupied by each of the black balls. The
energy of any state ,s., will be designated as E
and is given by the sum of these integers.
The individual quantum states (w's) are
unique. The E., however, or not, and the number of
1 states that have the same E. is called the de-
generacy of energy state E, , or w" i. Values of
Ey , WE and 1 for the 5 white-5 black system are
shown in Table II. The degeneracy has a maxi-
mum value of 20 when EP equals 22 or 23.

PARTITION FUNCTION
The constant Z in Equation (11) is called the
Partition Function and can be determined by
combining Equation (10) with (11), from which
it follows that
e-E /kT


Therefore z 2 -k (28)

The summation is over all possible quantum
(1) states. Z may also be expressed as a summa-
tion over energy, (ei) states
35 e-[/kT (29)

in which the summation index Ek takes on all


integral values between 10 and 35 and each pi
term is multiplied by its degeneracy "E :. Thus Z
in Equation (27) has the same value as in Equa-
tion (26).

CONVENTIONAL THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS

W E HAVE TAKEN a simple set of black and
white balls and ascribed to the set proper-
ties that we usually associate with thermo-
dynamic systems. We have given the MDB an
"energy" and have shown how this "energy" can
be changed by "heat" and "work" effects. We
have also shown that a system whose energy ac-
cumulation is the result of heat effects can do
less work (has a lower availability) than a sys-
tem of equal energy accumulated as the result of
reversible work effects. In addition we have de-
termined an "entropy" for the balls which is re-
lated to the number of ways the black balls may
be arranged in the energy levels available to each


5/32"
BALL BEARING
(LOOSE


CROSS SECTION OF BLACK SPHERE
Figure 8. Cross-section of a black sphere.


black ball. We could also have derived the con-
ventional relationships for the thermodynamic
properties in terms of the partition function of
the bottle. We are able to do all this because our
system, like all physical systems, may be de-
scribed in terms of discrete particles having dis-
crete energy levels; and also because we have de-
fined entropy by Equation (20). An implicit and
essential part of this definition is that the pi in
equation (20) have that set of values which
maximizes S. These pi are evaluated by standard
mathematical maximization techniques (2, 5)
that take into account such constraints as Equa-
tion (22), which says that the set of states must
be exhaustive; and Equation (2), which says
that the energy magnitudes of all the accessible
quantum states is known as is the average or ex-
pected energy of the system. The maximization


SUMMER 1974










E V 1, 11 12 13 14 F 10 '7 19
W 1 ] 1 2 3 - 9 11 14
01234 01235 0123 1 01 38 023 01 01231 01249 01259 01269
01245 0124F 01247 01248 01258 01266 01278
01345 0125 0C1257 01267 01349 01359
01346 01347 01348 01358 01368
02345 01356 01357 01367 01458
02346 01456 n0157 01467
12345 02347 02348 02349
02356 02357 02358
12356 02456 02367
12347 02457
12356 03456
Table II 1234
12456
Quantum State, " Onergy States
Degeneracy of the
5-Black, 5-Whlte Sphere
MAXWELL DEMON BOTTLE


19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
16 18 19 20 20 19 18 16 14 11 9 7 5 3
01279 01289 01389 01489 01589 01689 01789 02789 03789 04789 05789 66989 16789 26789
01369 01379 01479 01579 01679 02589 02689 03689 04689 05689 14789 15789 25789 35789
01378 01469 01569 01678 02489 02679 03589 04589 05679 13789 15689 24789 34789 45689
01459 01478 01578 02389 02579 03489 03679 04679 12789 14689 23789 25689 35689
01468 01568 02379 02479 02678 03579 04579 05678 13689 15679 24689 34689 45679
01567 02369 02469 02569 03479 03678 04678 12689 14589 23689 25679 35678
02359 02378 02478 02578 03569 04569 12589 13589 14679 24589 34589 45678
02368 02459 02568 03469 03578 04578 12679 13679 15678 23679 34678
02458 02468 03459 03478 04560 12489 13489 14579 23589 25678 35678
02467 02567 03468 03568 12389 12579 13579 14678 23679 34678
03457 03458 03567 04567 12479 12678 13678 23489 24579 34579
12349 03467 12369 12379 12569 13479 14569 23579 24678
12358 12359 12378 12469 12578 13569 14578 23678 34578
12367 12368 12459 12478 13469 13578 23479 24569 34569
12457 12458 12468 12568 13478 14689 23569 24578
13456 12467 12667 13459 13568 23469 23578 34568
13457 13458 13468 14567 23478 24568
23456 13467 13567 23459 23568 34567
23457 23458 23468 24567
23467 23567


procedure yields the set of p1's given by Equa-
tion (23), wherein the probability of a quantum
state is a function of its energy magnitude (ex-
cept at infinite temperature).
Equation (20) provides a formalism for as-
signing p1's in an objective fashion. We, there-
fore, need not hypothesize ergodic behavior and
have no difficulty establishing the thermody-
namics of a five, or, for that matter, a single
particle system.
It is interesting to note that the MDB particles
behave as "Fermions" that is, like electrons, in
that two particles can not occupy the same quan-
tum level. The diameter of the neck of the bottle
imposes a "Pauli Exclusion Principle" on the sys-
tem.


AND IN CONCLUSION: THE MAXWELL DEMON


THE READER MAY have wondered how does
one get the bottle back to the state of Figure
(1) in preparation for a repeat demonstration.
One could, of course, make repeated trials and
trust to chance that the initial state would be
restored. But how much nicer it would be to call
upon Maxwell's Demon to perform the separation
for us. It was alleged at the beginning of this
article that the Demon is sealed within the bottle.
To demonstrate that this is no empty allegation,
and to invoke the Demon, one grasps the flask at
the base of the neck in a neck-up position as in
Figure 2 and swirls its contents using a circular
wrist motion. Then the flask is turned to the
neckdown position while the swirling is continued
so that the spheres are held in the body of the
flask by centrifugal force. On reducing the rate
of swirling, the spheres rolling inside the flask
body follow a spiral path into the neck with the
black spheres falling into the neck before the
white ones. The "Demon," or whatever other
name one may wish to give this gentle deception,
lies in the black spheres which are constructed so


as to lose momentum rapidly. A "demon" design
that has worked satisfactorily is shown in Figure
8. Commercially bottled demons are available,
(3). O


REFERENCES

1. Sussman, M. V., J. Chem. Educ. 40, 49 (1963).
2. Sussman, M. V., "Elementary General Thermody-
namics" p. 233 Addison Wesley, 1972.
3. Sargent, Welch Scientific Co. Cat. No. 1710C 7300 N.
Linder Avenue, Skokie, Illinois 60076.
4. Urbain, G. and Boll, M., "La Science" p. 372-3, Li-
brarie Larousse, Paris (1934).
5. Tribus, M., "Thermostatics and Thermodynamics"
Van Nostrand, 1961.



10il news


ENVIRONMENTAL CONFERENCE AT WORLD'S FAIR

Washington State University will sponsor a
three-day conference, "Environment and the
Economy: Exploring the Tradeoffs," in Spokane
September 5-7 in cooperation with the world en-
vironmental fair, EXPO '74.
Program chairman for the conference is Dr.
Joseph Brink, chairman of the WSU Chemical
Engineering Department. The meeting will be
managed by the Engineering Extension Service.
According to Brink, the agenda will focus on
the interface between the environment and the
economy, the benefits and limits of growth, land
use, costs of pollution control, the political
framework as it relates to energy, resources, and
recycling.
Among the featured speakers will be Donald P. Hodel,
Bonneville Power administrator; Dr. Eric Farber, solar
energy researcher, University of Florida; Brock Evans,
Sierra Club, Washington D.C.; Dr. John McKetta, chemical
engineer, University of Texas; and Dr. Roger Cortesi,
director of the Washington Environmental Research
Center of the Environmental Protection Agency. ]


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


33 34 35
2 1 1
36789 46789 56789
45789




























tl ^ ^ - e7 6, F











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