Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text


Trends in Acreditatio

P.,.U~--- , --- *--
"g -Net


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to stop looking at life through a tunnel and find ways to protect all forms of it-from our
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turing and marketing backgrounds who'll direct their precious talents, enthusiasm and ideas
to the development of Dow products and systems for the good life. And we'll provide a
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life and wants to live it wisely, get in touch with us. Recruiting and College Relations, P.O.
Box 1713, Midland, Michigan 48640.

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
US ISSN 0009-2479

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
(904) 392-0861
(904) 392-0881
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Chairman of Publications Board
Clemson University
Homer F. Johnson
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CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
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WEST: William H. Corcoran
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EAST :G. Michael Howard
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NORTH: J. J. Martin
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NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
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Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
University of California

FALL 1973

Chemical Engineering Education

161 Applied Chemical Kinetics,
Robert P. Merrill
164 Corrosion Control,
C. E. Locke and R. D. Daniels
168 Digital Computer Process Control,
C. F. Moore
172 Economics of the Chemical Processing
Industries, James Wei
174 Polymers, Surfactants and Colloidal
Materials Harold B. Hopfenberg
176 Polymer Processing, A. L. Fricke
180 Staged Separations, John W. Tierney
184 Technology Assessment, Christopher T. Hill

155 Editorial
158 Views and Opinions
156 Letters
207 Division Activities
Eleventh Annual Lectureship Award-
Rutherford Aris
208 Book Reviews
210 News
187 Trends in Engineering Accreditation,
Thomas E. Daubert, Donald A. Dahls-
trom, William H. Corcoran, M. R. Loh-
mann, Max S. Peters
198 An Industrial Researcher Looks at the
Master's Degree, John E. Lastovica
200 Training of Foreign Graduate Students,
Lalit Gupta and Darsh T. Wasan
204 Application of Molecular Concepts of
Predicting Properties Needed for Design,
John P. O'Connell, Keith Gubbins and
John Prausnitz

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $6 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright @ 1973. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


INDUSTRIAL SPONSORS: Th jo/1owai companies hawe donated

f"u 14 &tW dlafpit o4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION &iu' 19 973:




DEPARTMENTAL SPONSORS: fh aowti 129 depai4memn khe

ccwateA d t toe tppefwo- oa CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1973

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TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your
department chairman to write R. B. Bennett, Business Manager, CEE, Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 32601.
Bulk subscription rates at $4/yr each with a $25.00 minimum for six or
fewer subscriptions. Individual subscriptions are available to ASEE-CED and
AIChE members at $6 yr.



As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school.
In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.

Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in
your growth toward confidence, independence,
and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. Previous issues
included articles on applied mathematics, trans-
port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics,
particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional
operations, computer aided design, statistical anal-
ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and
certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio-
medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in pre-
vious years. If your department chairman or pro-
fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before
you read the articles in these issues we wish to
point out that (1) there is some variation in
course content and course organization at different
schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en-
gineering that we have not been able to cover, and
(3) the professors who have written these articles

are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize
that particular area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many very fine
chemical engineering departments and each of
these has its own "personality" with special em-
phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in
choosing a graduate school you might first con-
sider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If
you have a specific research project in mind, you
might want to attend a university which empha-
sizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if
you are unsure of your field of research, you might
consider a department that has a large faculty
with widely diversified interests so as to ensure
for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department
with a small enrollment of graduate students. In
any case, we suggest that you begin by writing
the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue.
You will probably also wish to seek advice from
members of the faculty at your own school.

But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.

University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

FALL 1973






Survey Relates Quality Ratings to Teaching Load
We have made a survey of the graduate education effort
of the 58 departments of chemical engineering in the
United States that were evaluated in the Roose-Anderson
report on Graduate Education. Thirty replies were re-
ceived and the Roose-Anderson rating of each department
was used to divide the departments into groups of depart-
ments whose ratings are 17 and below (best), 18 to 38
(better), and 39 to 58 (good). Use of the Roose-Anderson
rating was merely a convenient means of making the di-
vision into groups and is no indication of our judgment of
the quality of the departments involved.
The summary table shows average values for the re-
quested information within each rating group (good, bet-
ter, or best) and an overall set of averages. The survey

Averages of Reported Values (Spring 1973)

The chemical reactor bench is a portable unit suitable for multiple use
applications. The bench has been designed in such a way that it can be
used in research and development activities as well as for instructional
Compact construction allows for ease in portability in the laboratory
and for storage for applications not requiring continuous use. Reactor
types included are 2 stainless steel externally mixed reactors (CSTR)
with stainless steel coils and mixing propellers, and a glass, jacketed
tubular reactor which may be operated either packed or open.
Reactor support equipment consists of two 5 gallon polyethylene re-
actant feed tanks for liquid reactants, an optional refrigerated-heated
bath for temperature control, motor drives for the CSTR mixers, and
three needle valve controlled rotameters. Meters may consist of any
combination of ranges from .61 to 2078 cc/min for a liquid of unit
specific gravity. The reactant tanks are air pressurized and the mixer
motors are air driven eliminating the need for pumps and electrical
power for the basic unit. The complete unit is housed in a stainless
steel support bench. Dimensions of bench are 30" W x 18" H x 18" D.
Applications include batch and semibatch kinetics elucidation of homo-
geneous liquid phase reactions and gas-liquid or gas-liquid solid slurry
reactions. The unit also may be used in the study of biochemical re-
actions and crystallization processes. As a teaching aid it can be used
to illustrate transient and steady state continuous chemical reactor be-
havior (including steady state multiplicity) and for comparisons among
reactor types. Stimulus-response techniques may be applied to the unit
to illustrate mixing characteristics of various process equimpent con-

PO Box 278
So. Highway 61
Lake City, Mn. 55041

Roose-Anderson Rating

Number Responding

Number of:
Average Class Load

Number of:
Ph.D. Candidates 15.4
M.S. Candidates 15.2
Number of Degrees granted:
Ph.D. (5 yrs)
M.S. (5 yrs) 43.0
B.S. (5 yrs) 106.0
Fed., Number 1.3
$ 3,357
Ind., Number 2.9
$ 9,962
Other, Number 0.3
$ 986

Number of:
Research Assts. 13.8
Teaching Assts. 4.0
Research Grants (1972-73 exp.) :
Fed., $ 70,898
Ind., $ 24,578
Other, $ 1,111
Papers Presented (5 yrs) 40
Journal Pub. (5 yrs)
Max. Allow. Stipends:
Teaching Assts., $ 3,500
Research Assts., $ 3,525

39-58 17-38
(good) (better)

1-16 Overall

9 11 10

20.7 28.9 21.7
26.2 20.5 20.6

63.8 73.4 62.7
166.3 176.3 157.1




18.2 28.2 20
6.2 7.7 7




86 188 120

2,853 4,603 3,460
3,066 3,977 3,521


(Continued on page 199)



Find out if the chemistry's right.

At Du Pont, the best chemistry is
people chemistry.
Anything can be achieved if you
have the right people and they talk to
each other.
So we look at you as much as at
your grades.
We look for compatibility as much
as talent.
And that goes for engineers and
chemists as well as business students.
If you want to find out what fields
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

have openings, what states you can work
in and more, meet with the Du Pont
recruiter when he comes to your campus.
Or if you've already graduated and
have experience, write Du Pont direct,
Room N-13400, Wilmington, Del. 19898.
And as you know by now, we're
equally interested in women and men of
any color.
The chemistry is what counts,


FALL 1973

views and opinions


Texas Tech University
Lubbock, Texas 79409

quently confronted with the situation in
which a student requests his opinion concerning
whether or not he should go to graduate school.
Due to the present difficulty of securing good
graduate students and the press of time, it is very
tempting to ask the student what his overall grade
point average is-and if it is above 2.8 or so-en-
courage him to attend graduate school by stating
that the future belongs to those who prepare for
it. Most of us realize however, that grades are not
the most important factor and that more impor-
tant criteria should be used to determine whether
or not a particular student should attend graduate
school. The purpose of this article is to attempt to
define some of the factors which the student
should consider before making his decision.

First of all, one can dispense with the cases
which have an obvious solution due to the present
climate in academia. Those students who have a
high grade point ratio and are interested in a ca-
reer in teaching must secure a Ph.D. to obtain a
faculty position. It is probably better for such
students to proceed directly to graduate school
after obtaining a B.S. and to enroll directly within
a Ph.D. program. This should be followed by ap-
proximately two to three years of industrial ex-
perience prior to a return to academic life. If the
prospective academic stays any longer period in
industry the industry will tend to increase his
salary level above that normally associated with
entry into academia. In addition, a longer period
in industry will greatly narrow his technical in-
terests and thereby reduce his effectiveness in
academia because of the review that will be re-
quired. This review time will make it more dif-
ficult for him to establish a research program dur-
ing the years in which he must prepare to be con-
sidered for tenure. At most universities, demon-

James E. Halligan is an Associate Professor of Chem-
ical Engineering at Texas Tech University. His research
interests include chemical utilization of animal solid
wastes, separations using liquid membranes, and oil-water
separation techniques. During 1972 he received a Univer-
sity Distinguished Teaching Award and the Outstanding
Engineering Professor Award at Texas Tech.

strated research performance is absolutely es-
sential to obtain tenure.
If the student chooses to obtain his indus-
trial experience between his B.S. and his Ph.D.
there will again be a significant review time re-
quirement upon his entry into graduate school. In
addition there is a considerable financial decom-
pression which must be overcome when he com-
pares the paychecks associated with industry and
graduate school. Finally, the average student has
an interest in starting a family ofter obtaining his
B.S. and this imposes an additional financial con-
straint upon him when he considers returning to
graduate school. Therefore, if he seriously wants
to have the option of a career in academia open to
him, the easiest path appears to lead directly to
the doctoral upon completing the B.S.

For those students who plan a career in in-
dustry the answer concerning the desirability of
graduate school is much more complex. In the
initial phases of his industrial career, the engineer




can succeed by performing in two general areas.
These areas are different in that one is basically
people oriented while the other is problem ori-
ented. A position in production or sales would be
representative of the first area, while a position
in development or process engineering would in-
volve the second area. What is most important to
the student is that the requirements for success in
these two areas differ drastically.
The most important trait that an engineer can
possess to be successful in a production position is
the ability to communicate effectively. It is abso-
lutely essential that he is able to easily communi-
cate with his associates. This may require drink-
ing coffee that tastes like mud in a dingy room off
the control room or taking an occasional chew of
tobacco. He must be prepared to do whatever is
required to convince the operators that he is a
"good ole boy" so that they will not hesitate to tell
him all they know about problems with the proc-
This trait must be combined with a consider-
able amount of political ability which will allow
him to effectively implement and sustain the op-
erating policies required to economically operate
the plant. He must be the operator's friend but yet
clearly their superior.
Finally, the engineer in production needs to
have a reasonable grasp of technical matters. He
does not have to have superior skills in this area
because there is usually a pool of engineers in a
technical division which he can call upon for sup-
port. Normally, he is so busy with day to day per-
sonnel and mechanical problems that he does not
have time to consider the technical problems in-
depth. His principal technological function is to
identify the problems for others to solve.
Therefore, if the requirements for production
engineer are listed in the order of decreasing im-
portance, they would be a good communication
skills, good political skills, and a reasonable tech-
nical ability. If the student's strengths are also
in that order and he desires a career in production
or sales, attending graduate school is not essential
since the technical background provided by a B.S.
will be adequate for success in his chosen career.
For those students who desire a career in de-
velopment or process engineering the require-
ments for success are reversed since these posi-
tions are more problem than people oriented. That
is, technical ability is the most desirable attribute
followed by political skills, and then ability to com-
municate. Almost everyone who has had industrial

Any engineer who is in a problem-oriented rather
than a people-oriented position should go to graduate
school . consider in increasing importance the skills
of communication, politics, and technical problems.

experience can cite an example of an engineer who
lacks personnel skills but whose technical capabil-
ities have made him a success in process engineer-
ing. Every organization needs a pool of real prob-
lem solvers who finish their careers as senior
technologists. Many students intuitively realize
that this order describes the actual order of their
abilities. These students need at least an addi-
tional year and one half of training to be success-
ful within the rigorous technical environment
found in such technical groups. These students
should go on to graduate school and obtain a
Master's degree.


For some students the question then becomes
where they should go to graduate school. Again, it
is tempting to tell each of them to obtain ad-
mission at a school with a high academic standing
in his area of interest. In my view, this is not the
best answer, it again depends upon the career
aspirations of the student. These aspirations are
normally poorly defined by the student but it is
better to make a judgment on the basis of his cur-
rent prejudices than to decide on no basis at all.
If the student feels confident that he desires only
a Master's degree he must be very careful in his
choice. Many departments secretly desire to pro-
duce only Ph.D.'s and the M.S. is reserved as a
consolation prize. After the student enters the
program, there is a strong pressure for him to re-
main until he gets his Ph.D. It is not uncommon
for those who leave with a Master's degree from
such schools to have difficulty in obtaining suitable
employment. Therefore, if the student desires only
an M.S., he should be certain that that degree is
an important part of the graduate program at the
school he plans to transfer to, and that it is not
regarded as a second class degree. In addition, he
does not want to attend a program which em-
phasizes research at the expense of work in the
classroom. However, in order to obtain an ap-
preciation of the problems involved with organiz-

FALL 1973

ing a research problem, he should choose a pro-
gram which requires a minor research effort for
his M.S. This will help him later in his career
when he is asked to translate research results into
a process design.

If the student is planning a career in indus-
trial research, it probably is wise to proceed di-
rectly within a Ph.D. program. Normally, how-
ever, the student is not sufficiently sure of his
objectives to know whether he really wants to
obtain a doctorate. In those cases, he should ob-
tain a Master's degree first. If he loses his enthusi-
asm for continuing on immediately, the student
has the option of returning to obtain his Ph.D.
at a later date.
Many students feel that they are tired of
coursework and the economic pressures are so
great that they must work for a while and obtain
some money and then they will come back to grad-
uate school. These are the "If I need it I'll come
back!" group who never make it back but who
always wish that they had. The reasons for this
are many but the principal ones are babies and
benefits. After a short time in industry it is
natural for the young engineer to start a family
and to participate in the benefits program. This
program is frequently referred to as the golden
Engineering departments desperately need to
improve their image among the mature engineers.
It is not unusual for a rising manager to take time
out of his career to attend business school to ob-
tain an M.B.A., however it is very rare that a
mature engineer would come back to get an M.S.
I suspect that a part of this is due to the emphasis
we place on research in the Master's program. In
addition we in education need to dispel the notion
that we can produce a finished lifetime product at
the age of twenty-two or twenty-six. We need to
instill in our students the idea that they should
return periodically for retraining. This must be
done during their bachelors program.
The entire engineering profession would
greatly benefit by a program of periodic return
for retraining. The young engineer would benefit
greatly from the personal contact with the mature
engineers, academic research would become more
relevant to industrial problems, and the mature
engineer would have the opportunity to upgrade
his technical skills. O

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47 owuee in


University of California
Berkeley, California

DURING THE PAST several years at Berkeley,
a course involving primarily the physical
chemistry of chemical kinetics has been taught
mostly to first year graduate students. This course
is markedly different from standard courses in
reactor design and reactor engineering in that it
stresses entirely the physical chemistry involved
in understanding and correlating kinetic phenom-
ena. As such it provides an opportunity to fill in
some of the gaps commonly occurring in current
undergraduate physical chemistry curricula which
have in recent years stressed quantum mechanical
description of small molecules, their spectroscopy
and other theoretical aspects of physical chemis-
The course also provides what for many stu-
dents is a first introduction to the usefulness of
statistical thermodynamics and statistical argu-
ments in relating the properties of molecules and
atoms to their behavior in macroscopic systems.
Several attempts are made to illustrate the prac-
tice of molecular engineering in its broadest sense
by demonstrating how the structure and composi-
tion of isolated molecules can be used with semi-
quantitative theory and empirical correlations to
predict and understand the kinetics of extremely
complex chemical systems. In doing this only the
canonical partition function is presented and com-
plex interactions are related to activity coeffi-
cients, volumes of activation, and the like which
can be deduced in general from well designed ex-
There are several other courses within the Col-
lege of Chemistry at Berkeley which relate to this
one. In our Department four other courses are
closely related: Chemical Reaction Analysis, Cata-
lysis, Mass Transfer and Chemical Kinetics, and
Chemical Reactor Engineering. Each of these
courses like Applied Chemical Kinetics is a one-
quarter course and scheduling and sequencing is

such that a student can deepen and broaden a
specialized interest in chemical kinetics by taking
one or more of these subsequent courses.
In the Department of Chemistry there are two
courses of interest, one is a two quarter sequence
in chemical kinetics which overlaps somewhat
with the applied course with respect to the devol-
opment of fundamental transition state theory but
diverges in that no mention is made of non-ideal
systems and complex environments, high pressure
kinetics and the like. Rather, it concentrates more
on quantum mechanical scattering theory than
traditional chemical kinetics. Nevertheless some
of our students use this to deepen their study
of theoretical kinetics substantially. The second
course in the Department of Chemistry which ties
in with the Applied Chemical Kinetics and Cata-
lysis courses, is one on the Properties of Solid
Surfaces. It takes as its departure from the in-
formation that is increasingly available from the
new and sophisticated techniques of surface re-
search like low energy electron diffraction, Auger
spectroscopy, appearance potential spectroscopy,
photo-electron spectroscopy, etc.
In the Department of Materials Science a
quarter course offering in the physics of par-
ticulate systems including flow through micropor-
ous media, flotation, and the like as well as a
quarter course in applied colloid surface chemistry
are also available.
This grouping of courses then forms the basis
of our offerings at Berkeley in chemical kinetics,
chemical reactors, catalysis and related surface
phenomena. It does present an opportunity to
sample a wide and varied approach to understand-
ing and describing this important area of applied
physical chemistry. While the course in Applied
Chemical Kinetics is not a necessary prerequisite
for any of these courses except the course in cata-

Predictions of rates may be based on collision theory,
vibrational analysis of unimolecular reactions,
and transition state theory.

FALL 1973

lysis, an attempt is made to provide a sound
enough background in the theory and application
of chemical kinetics to make this general area
more accessible to students.

The student is introduced to the concepts of
chemical kinetics as though he has no appreciable
background in the subject. Thus, basic definitions
of elementary steps, reaction mechanisms, con-
cepts of a rate determining and/or rate limiting
steps are discussed. The overall structure of chem-
ical kinetics is presented, recognizing that several
different problems each of a unique character
must be solved. A first step in understanding the
details of any kinetic system is the identification
of the stoichiometric reactions that are taking
place in the complex reaction scheme. Once all the
simple stoichiometric reactions are identified and
recognized the problem is resolved into one of de-
scribing the details of the reaction mechanism
with the set of elementary chemical reactions
which combine to produce the overall reaction
mechanism responsible for the net steady state
behavior of each stoichiometric reaction. The sort
of algebraic manipulation involved in this stage
of chemical kinetics and the solution of the result-
ing sets of simultaneous differential equations are
in general familiar to most students and only a
few examples are given for illustrative purposes.
The next problem attacked is that of under-
standing and predicting the rate at which the
elementary reactions themselves take place. In
this part of the course several different ap-
proaches to the theoretical description of chemical
kinetics are given in some detail. The first of three
is collision theory followed by a vibrational analy-
sis of unimolecular reactions, and finally the pres-
entation of transition state theory. These subjects
comprise about the first one-half of the course and
complete the theoretical presentation of funda-
mental chemical kinetics.
The remaining portion of the course is devoted
to a description of various types of technologically
important types of situations in which an under-
standing of chemical kinetics and in some cases
the coupling of chemical kinetics with certain
transport processes is essential. The first such
area covered is chemical kinetics in non-ideal en-
vironments beginning with the very high pres-
sures moving from there to kinetics in non-polar
and polar solvents and ending up with discussions
of chemical kinetics in highly ionic media. The

nature of free radical sequences is discussed in
some detail and is illustrated with polymerization
kinetics and a discussion of chemical explosions.
A careful distinction is drawn between the initia-
tion of free radical reactions and homogeneous
catalysis in the gas phase.
In the last portion of the course the kinetics
and thermodynamics of adsorption is presented as
a basis for a discussion of generalized catalytic
phenomena. Here Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics
are presented and stressed, however, care is taken
to point out the limitations imposed by the as-
sumptions inherent in the Langmuir theory and
illustrations of the use of other types of isotherms
and non-equilibrium steady state descriptions of
the concentrations of adsorbed species are also
presented. A very brief discussion of the coupling
of mass transfer and reaction kinetics is presented
for completeness but the subject is discussed in
much greater detail in the course in Chemical Re-
action Analysis which most of the students will
also take.
The syllabus used during the last time this
course was given follows:
A. Theoretical Aspects of Chemical Kinetics (12 Lec-
1. Introduction and Review of Basic Concepts
and Objectives of the Study of Chemical
2. Collision Theory
3. Unimolecular Reactions
4. Elements of Statistical Mechanics
5. Potential Energy Surfaces
6. The Generalized Rate Equation
7. Transition State Theory
8. Correlations in Chemical Kinetics
B. Homogeneous Systems (10 Lectures)
1. Free Radical Mechanisms
2. Explosions
3. Polymerization
4. Reactions at High Pressures
5. Rates on Condensed Media-Solvent Effects
6. Rates in Aqueous Media
7. Ionic Reactions
8. Homogeneous Catalysis
C. Heterogeneous Systems (8 Lectures)
1. Adsorption-Heterogeneous Kinetics
2. Langmuir-Hinshelwood Mechanisms
3. Mass Transfer in Porous Catalysts
4. Ammonia Synthesis
5. Hydrogenation Catalysis
A great deal of time in the course is spent on
a generalized development of transition state
theory. In this presentation it is recognized that
the description of chemical kinetic phenomena of


elementary reactions involves solution of two im-
portant problems. The first problem is a descrip-
tion of the potential energy of interaction between
interacting particles, a problem which in general
is not yet solved on a theoretical basis for any but
the very simplest of systems. The second problem
is that of describing the trajectory of reacting
systems across the phase space defined by the po-
tential energy surface representing the interaction
of the reacting particles. Transition state theory
is presented as a crude compromise at a complete
solution to these important problems.
The development stresses, that the only in-
formation about the potential energy surface re-
quired for the application of transition state
theory is a knowledge of the shape of the potential
well in the neighborhood of the reactants and in
the neighborhood of the transition state. It is
further emphasized that this theory assumes equi-
librium distribution functions and therefore rep-
resents only the maximum possible rate of chem-
ical reaction since the local distributions that
would be deduced from the solution of the Boltz-
man transport equation would certainly be lower
than the equilibrium concentrations because of the
finite rate of systems passing through the transi-
tion state region.
It is not necessary to assume the traditional
flat top barriers or negative vibrational frequen-
cies. Rather the form of the transition state rate
equation can be derived by a limiting process
which expands the potential energy in the vicinity
of the saddle point in a Taylor series and takes
only the first term in integrating the potential
energy portion of the canonical partition function
along the direction parallel to the reaction co-
ordinate. Thus, it becomes clear that the so-called
universal Eyring frequency, (kT/h), is merely a
product of this partition function for the transi-
tion state in the direction of the reaction coordi-
nate and the average velocity of systems passing
through the transition state region.
A development such as this clearly identifies
the nature of the assumptions and outlines the
type of detailed information that would be re-
quired about reacting systems in order to do a sub-
stantially better job of representing the kinetic
phenomena. It also emphasises that the trans-
mission coefficient, often used as a black box to
include a multitude of uncertainties in the theory,
should be taken as a unity except in certain ex-
ceptional and recognizable situations. It is also
possible to identify the certain types of reaction

systems in which transition state theory can be
expected to fail, for example, those in which the
overall activation energy is of the same order of
magnitude as the zero point and thermal energy
of the reactant species.

Emphasis on transition state theory contributes to
the student's intellectual and philosophical
background and to his arsenal of tools.

explicit introduction of the effect of non-ideal
environments into the basic kinetic equation. This
comes about through configurational integrals
whose nature is identical to those appearing in
thermodynamic descriptions of non-ideal systems.
Thus these configurational integrals can be clearly
identified with the familiar activity coefficients
which can be derived in the usual way from em-
pirical vapor pressure equilibrium and solubility
Thus the transition state theory presented in
this manner provides a suitable theoretical frame-
work on which to base the description of environ-
ments far too complex for any kind of a funda-
mental theoretical approach. It can be used in
conjunction with selected empirical equilibrium
data to describe the sort of systems which are of
necessity essential to the practice of chemical en-
Early experience with this course indicated
that students, particularly chemical engineering
students, gained very little insight from an intel-
lectual or philosophical point of view into the na-
ture of chemical kinetic phenomena unless the
theoretical aspects of kinetics were presented in
much more detail than one normally finds in text-
ual presentations. This seems to result in two
important deficiencies for the student (1) a lack
of confidence in applying the rather powerful
techniques which form the basis of the theory and
(2) a woeful gap in his intellectual perception of
the basic scientific phenomena on which the prac-
tice of his profession relies. In developing the
specific formulation that is now used in the course
and described qualitatively above both concerns
were equally important. Therefore this emphasis
on transition state theory via rather simple sta-
tistical thermodynamic arguments is as much an
attempt to contribute to the students' intellectual
and philosophical background as it is an attempt
to add to his arsenal of technological tools. O

FALL 1973

4 e06ood in


University of Oklahoma
Norman, Oklahoma 73069

ubiquitous, expensive, dangerous, and waste-
ful of our resources. Costs directly attributed to
corrosion are difficult to obtain and confirm. A
National Bureau of Standards' report issued in
1966 stated that corrosion cost in the United
States was $10 billion per year. Inflation, plant ex-
pansion, etc., may have pushed this cost to as high
as $15 billion today. This is a tremendous cost that
is not as visible to us as is raw material cost, labor
cost, interest charges, etc. Just as good managers
attempt to lower these latter costs, it behooves us
to systematically attempt to lower the corrosion
Corrosion can also be responsible for human
suffering. Catastrophic failures caused by cor-
rosion have occurred in pipelines and process ves-
sels. There have been several examples of process
vessels exploding when the vessel walls were
thinned or pitted by corrosion so that the normal
operating conditions exceed the yield stress of the
material.2 Also, hydrogen generated by the cor-
rosion reaction has been the source of process ves-
sel explosions.3,4 The Office of Pipeline Safety
in the 5th Annual Report to Congress showed that
a total of 196 failures in gas distribution and
transmission lines in 1972 were directly attribut-
able to corrosion. From these corrosion caused
leaks, 64 persons were injured and two were
The corrosion reaction returns metals to the
combined state, from which they were won at no
small expense. The combined form resulting from
corrosion is widely distributed, not concentrated
as are ore bodies, and is therefore lost to mankind.
This is very wasteful of the world's resources.
All of these factors make a case for the im-
portance of controlling corrosion. In order to con-
trol it, the engineer should have some understand-
ing of the fundamentals and technology of cor-
rosion and its control. The course entitled "High
Temperature and Corrosion Resistance of Metals"
is designed to accomplish this for the metallurgical

and chemical engineering students at the Univer-
sity of Oklahoma. This course is taught in the
School of Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science and is taken by graduate and senior level
students in chemical engineering and metallur-
gical engineering.

There are two levels of engineering courses in
the undergraduate engineering program. Courses
in one level, primarily the required courses, cover
the topics a student must assimilate to be con-
sidered an engineer. For chemical engineers,
thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport phenom-
ena are examples of courses that fit this category.
The courses in the other level cover topics that
are not absolutely essential for every engineer to
have in his bag. This does not downgrade the im-
portance of the material, but it is possible to be a
successful engineer without having covered it in
The corrosion course is considered to be in the
latter category, in that a chemical or metallurgical
engineer may do work without having been ex-
posed to formal training in the subject. He will be
a more well-rounded engineer by having studied
corrosion, but it is not as essential or basic as a
course in thermodynamics. The course is struc-
tured with these guidelines and categories in
mind. This philosophy is transmitted to the stu-
dents at the initial session of the course.
The need for an elective course in corrosion
has been amply demonstrated over the years by
the numbers of graduate engineers who have re-
turned to the University for continuing education
courses in corrosion. The University of Oklahoma
currently offers a one-week intensive course in
Corrosion Fundamentals on a schedule of three


Carl E. Locke, Assistant Professor of Chemical En-
gineering and Materials Science, joined The University
of Oklahoma faculty in January, 1973. He has B.S., M.S.,
and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering from the Uni-
versity of Texas. His teaching and research interests are
in corrosion and polymer properties. He has had eleven
years of industrial experience which have included work
in corrosion control. (Right)
Raymond D. Daniels, Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing and Materials Science, has served on The University
of Oklahoma faculty since 1958. He is also Executive Di-
rector of the University's Research Institute. He holds
B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics and a Ph.D. in metallurgy
from Case Western Reserve University. He is accredited
by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers as a
Corrosion Specialist. (Left)

times per year. In addition, the University of
Oklahoma Corrosion Control Short Course, a two
and one-half day course, taught primarily by rep-
resentatives from industry, has been offered an-
nually since 1953.

An outline of the topics covered in the course
on High Temperature and Corrosion Resistance of
Metals is given in Table 1. It is divided into two
main topics: corrosion and oxidation; the differ-
ence between the two being presence of water in
corrosion and its absence in oxidation. Of these
two topics, corrosion receives the greater attention
because of the variety of situations in which it
occurs and the diverse characterizations of the
damage associated with it.
The electrochemical basis of the corrosion re-
action is developed beginning with a review of
thermodynamics. The corrosion cell is compared
to electrochemical devices such as the battery, fuel
cell, and electrochemical cell for producing reac-
tions. Bockris and Reddy6 have interesting
names for these: energy producer (battery, fuel
cell) ; substance producer (electrochemical cell) ;
energy waster, substance destroyer (corrosion
cell). The corrosion cell is analyzed thermody-
namically by means of the Nernst equation; half
cell potentials and cell potentials are developed.
The bane of students of electrochemistry, the
IUPAC and American Sign conventions for half
cell potentials are discussed and examples worked
to show students that the overall cell potential is
independent of half cell sign convention. The po-
tential-pH diagrams (Pourbaix diagrams) are
discussed, and their applications and limitations
are illustrated.
The eight types of corrosion damage as clas-

sified by Fontana and Greene7 are listed. The
characteristics of each type, examples of the dam-
age, and suggested preventative measures are dis-
The kinetics of the corrosion reaction are in-
troduced. Polarization behavior (activation and
concentration) are shown to be a result of the
kinetic limitations of the reactions. These funda-
mentals lead to the development of corrosion rate
calculations and measurements from polarization
behavior. Passivity is discussed at some length
since it is so important to the stainless steels and
some inhibitor mechanisms.
Five main methods of controlling corrosion
are introduced to the students cathodicc protec-
tion, anodic protection, coatings, inhibitors, alloy-
ing). Each of these methods is related to the basic
electrochemical thermodynamic and kinetic rela-
tionships described earlier in the course. Examples
of each method are obtained from the current lit-
erature and discussed in class and a list of refer-
ences is given to the students.
The oxidation of metals is treated with em-
phasis on the processes involved and the control-
ling mechanisms in film formation and growth.
The observed scaling rate laws are introduced and
are related to the thermodynamic, kinetic, and
mechanical factors. A very brief discussion of al-
loying elements for oxidation resistance is given
at the end of the course.
Because of the philosophy of the course as dis-
cussed above, this course does not have a large
amount of homework. Problems are assigned cov-
ering the thermodynamics and kinetics of electro-
chemistry. Other assignments are given in which
the corrosion literature is used by the students to
write short reports on special examples of corro-
sion and on corrosion control methods.
The textbook, "Corrosion and Corrosion Con-
trol," by Uhligs is used, but not exclusively. The
course development does not follow the develop-
ment in the text but nearly all subjects covered in
the course are covered in the text. The book by
Fontana and Greene7 and the corrosion litera-
ture are used extensively for lecture preparation
and supplemental references for the students.
Corrosion technology has traditionally been
and still is, to some extent, more advanced than
corrosion science. Since contact with engineers

FALL 1973

currently involved with corrosion problems on a
daily basis is very beneficial to the students, plant
tours have become part of the course program. A
tour of a petroleum company's technical center
was arranged during this past semester. The stu-
dents obtained first-hand examples of practical
corrosion problems worked on by engineers and
observed demonstrations of corrosion tests con-
ducted in the laboratory. The tour was conducted
late in the semester and the students saw ex-
amples of many topics discussed in class.
A student in the class discussed his experiences
while employed in the maintenance division of
another major oil company. He related experi-
ences involving corrosion rate measurements, cor-
rosion control applications, and corrosion control
vendor contacts. The class seemed to benefit from
these practical contacts.
An inspection trip was scheduled to observe
the installation of a cathodic protection system,
but the trip had to be cancelled because of a long
period of wet weather which delayed the installa-
tion. The trip was scheduled through a cathodic
protection system supplier and who seemed to be
very pleased at the opportunity to have the stu-
dents visit a worksite.
The course, High Temperature and Corrosion
Resistance of metals, at the University of Okla-
homa receives a practical emphasis. The funda-
mentals are covered as a foundation to under-
standing the causes and control of corrosion. The
aim is to introduce the students to corrosion and
interest them in this difficult, stimulating field of
technology. fO
1. Stanley Lichtenstein, STR-3454, October, 1966, U. S.
Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Stand-
ards, Washington, D.C., (Mat. Prot., April, 1967, p.
2. H. M. Canavan, Corrosion, 17, 22 (1961).
3. J. B. Lowe, Corrosion, 17, 36 (1961).
4. J. R. Stephens and C. B. Livingston, Chem. Eng. Prog.,
69(4), 45-47 (1973).
5. Anon., Mat. Prot., 12, 42 (1973).
6. J. O'M. Bockris and A. F. N. Reddy, "Modern Electro-
chemistry" Plenum Press, New York, 1970.
7. M. G. Fontana and N. D. Greene, "Corrosion Engineer-
ing," McGraw Hill, New York, 1967.
8. H. H. Uhlig, "Corrosion and Corrosion Control," John
Wiley and Sons, New York, 2nd Edition, 1971.
I. Introduction
A. Definitions
B. Why study Corrosion

II. Corrosion-Wet Atmosphere and Solutions
A. Fundamentals-Thermodynamics
1. Thermodynamics Review-Concentrate on
free energy, chemical potential, fugacity,
activity, activity coefficient.
2. Nernst Equation
3. Electrochemical Devices
a. Types of Devices
(1) Substance producer (elec-
trochemical cell)
(2) Energy Producer (battery,
fuel cell)
(3) Substance destroyer (cor-
rosion cell)
b. Electrode Designation-
Anode and Cathode
4. Half Cell Potentials-EMF Series
a. Hydrogen Electrode
b. IUPAC Sign Convention
c. American Sign Convention
5. Cell Potentials-Polarity-Corrosion Cells
6. Potential-pH Diagrams (Pourbaix Dia-
7. Galvanic Series
B. Types of Corrosion Damage
1. Uniform Attack
2. Galvanic Couples
3. Crevice Corrosion
4. Pitting
5. Integranular Corrosion
6. Selective Leaching (parting, dezincifica-
7. Erosion Corrosion cavitationn, fretting)
8. Stress Corrosion Cracking (hydrogen
damage, corrosion fatigue)
C. Fundamentals-Kinetics
1. Polarization Behavior
(Activation and concentration polariza-
2. Mixed Potential Theory
(Evans diagrams)
3. Overvoltage-(Tafel behavior)
4. Corrosion Rate Measurement for Polari-
zation Rata
(Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization)
5. Passivity (Anodic polarization behavior)
6. Predicting Corrosion Behavior
D. Corrosion Control
1. Cathodic Protection
2. Anodic Protection
3. Coatings (organic, inorganic, metallic)
4. Inhibitors
5. Metals and Alloys
III. Oxidation-High Temperature Deterioration of Metals
A. Thermodynamics
B. Film Continuity
C. Kinetic Laws
D. Electrical Conductivity in Oxide Films
E. Film Growth
F. Alloying to Prevent High Temperature Oxida-
G. Coating to Prevent High Temperature Oxidation


Start here.


c 00000,


If all this sounds
interesting, get in
Sr touch with our represent-
ative when he comes to your
campus. In the meantime, you
// can get more information from the
(' ;college placement office or by writing
!l < to J. D. Strickler, Coordinator, Profes-
S!sional Employment, Standard Oil Company
\ / of California, 225 Bush Street-Room 106, San
Francisco, California 94104.
Standard Oil Company of California
SAn equal opportunity employer

47 Coage on


University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee

IN THE LAST DECADE advances in com-
puter technology have had tremendous impacts
on the various disciplines of engineering and sci-
ence. In chemical engineering this has been par-
ticularly true in the area of process dynamics and
process control. Over the past ten years both small
and large process computers have become widely
used to either support or replace conventional
analog equipment. These computers are linked
directly to the process units and can be used to
continuously monitor and make decisions about
the operation and the control of the process. The
memory, logic and computational capabilities of
the digital computer combined with the flexibility
of modern digital programming systems make pos-
sible the implementation of very sophisticated
supervisory and control strategies that were dif-
ficult if not impossible under conventional analog
instrumentation. The tremendous potential offered
by the process computer has served to establish
the specialized area of computer control as an in-
creasingly important segment of chemical engi-
neering education as well as practice.

numerous research and educational programs
have been established in the general area of proc-
ess computers. One such program is a three-hour
course entitled "Digital Computer Process Con-
trol" currently a graduate level course offered to
graduate and advanced undergraduate students.
The major objectives of the course are:
To introduce students to the concept of data
acquisition and control using the process
To describe in detail current industrial prac-
tices using process computers.
To integrate the related disciplines and pro-
vide a foundation upon which to see beyond
current practices.

The objectives of the course are achieved

through several types of study. Formal lectures
are given supplemented by laboratory demonstra-
tions. In addition, homework is given and each
student is assigned a term project which is pre-
sented to the class at the end of the quarter. The
text currently used is entitled Digital Computer
Process Control by Cecil L. Smith published by
International Textbooks.
The lecture material is outlined in Table I. It
consists of four sections. The first is primarily an
introduction to the use of digital computers in
process control. The concepts of digital data ac-
quisition, direct digital control, supervisory con-
trol and hierarchial control are discussed and ex-
amples cited.

General Course Outline
A. Introduction to the Concept of Digital Data Acquisition
and Control
B. A Close Look at the Process Computer System
1. Hardware Fundamentals
2. Real-time vs. Batch Programming
C. State of the Art of Current Industrial Control Practices
1. Standard Algorithms-Design and Selection
2. Controller Tuning and Evaluation
3. Selecting Sample Time
4. Dealing with Process Noise
5. Computer Back-up
D. Advanced Control Strategy
1. Simple Modification of Standard Algorithms
2. Feedforward and Cascade Control
3. Dead Time Control
4. Multivariable Control
5. Predictive Control
6. Z-Transfer Modeling and Controlled Design
7. Survey of Modern Control Theory

The next section is devoted to the process com-
puter itself. Most engineers are very familiar with
the large data processing computers and have used
such systems extensively for scientific program-
ming; however, few have any exposure to real-
time process computers. Several lectures are de-
voted to discussing computer hardware systems
with the purpose of describing the process com-


Charles F. Moore is Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Tennessee. He was edu-
cated at Louisiana State University receiving a Ph.D. in
1969. He has been with the University of Tennessee since
that time.
His teaching and research interests include process
modeling, process control, and optimization and computer
programming. He has consulted and authored numerous
articles in the area of computer control. He has co-taught
numerous industrial short courses in this area including
the "Today Series" of the AIChE.

puter and providing the student with some of the
computer jargon necessary to work in the area of
computer control. Real-time software systems are
also discussed and contrasted to standard engi-
neering programming.
The third section is a discussion of the cur-
rent industrial practices in the area of computer
process control. In this section the standard
control algorithms are developed and discussed in
detail. Practical considerations such as process
modeling, algorithm selection, selection of sample
time, and controller tuning and evaluation are
emphasized along with other practical considera-
tions such as dealing with process noise and han-
dling computer failures.
The final section is devoted to advanced con-
trol strategies and deals with those strategies and
techniques which better utilize the tremendous
potential of the digital computer. Unfortunately
the current state of the art in terms of industrial
applications is in most cases little more than dig-
ital simulations of conventional analog instrumen-

plored in this section fall generally in two
categories: advanced but simple and the advanced

but sophisticated. The advanced but simple tech-
niques include simple modifications and extensions
of conventional practices which are simple to
implement on the digital computer but would be
difficult if not impossible to implement using
analog equipment (such as the modified derivative
mode, modified proportional mode, anti-reset com-
putations, programmed tuning parameters, auto-
matic tuning and calibration, etc.). The advanced
but simple also includes strategy such as feed-
forward control, cascade control, dead time con-
trol and multivariable control. Such techniques
have been implemented using conventional equip-
ment but are considered sophisticated. They can,
however, be very simple to implement on the proc-
ess computer and usually require no additional
hardware and in some cases can be implemented
almost as easily as the standard three mode
algorithm. The advanced but sophisticated section
includes a survey of strategies which are funda-
mentally different than the conventional practice.
It includes feedforward/feedback predictive al-
gorithms, z-transform modeling and controller de-
sign, and a brief look at what modern control
theory has to offer.

AN INTEGRAL PART of the course as taught
at the University of Tennessee is the term
projects assigned to each student. The projects
serve to integrate the material presented in class
and also adjust to the various backgrounds and
interests of the students. The projects are norm-
ally small research projects which include either
a simulation oriented study or a laboratory ori-
ented study using the process computer facilities
discussed below. Project studies are summarized
as the problem areas appear in the lecture ma-
terial. Normally by midquarter all students have
selected a topic and are expected to complete the
study for a formal presentation to the entire class
by the end of the quarter. Table II lists some of
the projects which have been explored in previous

The tremendous potential of the process computer has
established the computer control area as an increasingly
important part of ChE education and practice.

FALL 1973

Typical Term Projects Topics
* Tuning Cascade Control Loops
* Effect of Modeing Errors in First-Order Lag Plus Dead
Time Tuning Correlations
* Tuning Correlations for a Second Order Lag Plus Dead
Time Plant Model
* A General Linear Regression Program for Discrete Proc-
ess Modeling
* Effect of Sample Time on the Digital Smith Predictor
* Effect of Model Errors on the Digital Smith Dead Time
* Effect of Model Errors on the Analytical Predictor
* Effect of Derivative and Proportional Mode Modification
on Controller Tuning and Performance
* Designing of a Non-interacting Integral Mode
* Multivariable Control Using a Simple Discrete Model
* Use of the Predictor Approach to Remove Process Order
* Effect of Process Constraints on Multivariable Control
* Effect of Dead Time on Multivariable Strategy


of the term projects involve the use of the De-
partmental process computer and laboratory fa-
cilities. The computer facility (described in Table
III) is a general purpose data acquisition and con-
trol utility which serves the real-time computa-
tional need of the various research and educa-
tional programs of the Department of Chemical
and Metallurgical Engineering. It consists of a
medium size digital computer, an analog interface
system and an extensive communication network
(Figure 1) which through a patch panel arrange-
ment can service equipment in 10 different labora-
tories. Table IV lists some of the laboratory facil-
ities currently using the computer. These diverse
applications provide numerous examples of tec-
hiques of digital data acquisition and control cov-
ered in the lecture. Also, the computer control lab-
oratory which contains several units designed
specially for industrial control studies is used for
advanced demonstration and can be used in the
term projects for on-line studies.

Process Computer System
PDP 15/35 (manufactured by Digital Equipment Corp-
oration) 16k core memory with Automatic Priority In-
terrupt and Extended Arithmeatic Element.
One 262,000 word fixed head disk (RS15 DEC disk) two
148,000 word magnetic tape drives (TU56 DEC tape).

High speed paper tape reader/punch, one high speed
DEC writer and keyboard, four teletype units, one data-
phone modem.
32 channels voltage input with a programmable gain
amplifier (gains of 1, 5, 10, 100, 500, and 1000). Op-
erated with a 12 bit analog to digital converter. Five

Process Computer Laboratory Communication System

10 bit digital to analog converters (output range =
10v). Eighteen double pole computer operated relays.
Eighteen contact sensors which operate on the hard-
ware interrupt system.
The various laboratories are linked to the computer
room and can be patched to available computer hard-
ware at the maxi-box termination panel (see Figure 1).
Each link contains 24 high quality analog channels and
one teletype channel.
The system supports both a data processing monitor
and a real-time monitor system. Most real-time pro-
gramming can be done in FORTRAN.

Laboratories Using Process Computer Facility
(Continued on page 197)







But Your Students
can get a Whole year's
worth of CHEMTEC It s

formagazine haeps tha em 1s
for their fut eps them
neers, p.1 s a- Cemicaj

V Chemical Technology


Basset Building
Summit, New Jersey 07901
Phone (201) 273-4923

B. J. Luberoff, Editor

MEMO TO: Chemical Engineering Students

Once I asked an old pro if I should become a chemist or a chemical
engineer. He responded "Chemical engineering's too big for any one person
to grasp. What you've got are mechanical engineers who know some chemistry
and chemists who understand engineering". That was in '45. Things have
changed a good deal since. Now there is a recognizable discipline that's
uniquely ours: Chemical Engineering Science. It's what most of our profs
do best; and if you want to be a Professor you better be pretty good at it.
But Chemical Engineering Science is not what most chemical engineers
What do they do? Well its like I was told. Many do mechanical
engineering related to chemical plants. Others are, on the surface, in-
distinguishable from chemists. (Except they tend more to continuous processes
run under more extreme conditions; they work in metal and on a big scale).
Then there are a load of us in economic pursuits, in marketing, customer service,
in law and in government agencies. And a lot of us are in businesses that aren't
even thought of as part of the Chemical Process Industries computers software
and hard, cosmetics, office machines, foods, drug and bio med engineering.
Do you know what these guys read? They read CHEMTECH. Three years ago
the American Chemical Society created it expressly for them. Its the multidis-
ciplinary magazine made especially for the mission oriented pro. He's never sure
where the mission is going to take him, but he knows he better be prepared to
function there.
If you're going to be one of those pros, when are you going to start?
Oh, you'll need the Chemical Engineering Science you learn in class; but you'll
need a lot more besides. Believe me I know. So does the Board of Directors of
the American Chemical Society who authorized me to offer you students a
preferred subscription rate for CHEMTECH: Only $4.50 for 12 issues.
Why don't you let me start sending you CHEMTECH? It's written to be read
because its written for the busiest men in the field, and they make time to read
It's written by authorities in all the fields these fellows have to keep
on top of. The ones you better and can start to keep on top of now. (I listed
sbme back in the second paragraph.)
Just send $4.50 with the coupon below. Then look inside CHEMTECH. If
you don't think its giving you your money's worth, tell me and you'll get your
money back on the unused portion of your subscription.

P.S. And Good Luck!

B. J. Luberoff, Ph.D., P.E.

I -- - - - - - - - - - -- -- -- I

American Chemical Society
1155 Sixteenth Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

0 I am a student and would like to take advantage of the special student one-year rate of $4.50.* (This is a
substantial reduction from the regular one-year rate of $18.00.)
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47 ewte ia



University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware

ECONOMICS IS CENTRAL to every engineer-
ing effort, seeking to obtain the most useful
results by expanding the least resources. The more
efficient processes and the more desirable prod-
ucts continuously displace the obsolete ones from
the market place. An engineer needs to master
science and engineering, so he can understand
nature and can make useful devices; he should also
appreciate humanities and economics, so he can
understand what should be made and by what
route. A technician is told what to make, an en-
gineer should participate in policy decisions.
Most chemical engineers work for the chem-
ical processing industries (CPI), while the rest
work for related industries (such as construction,
equipment, teaching, consulting, government reg-
ulations). The purpose of the CPI is to provide
our society with needed goods and services (with
occasional disservices), mostly in the form of
processed materials needed in final manufactur-
ing. The fortune of the CPI and the individual
firms depend on their ability to anticipate society's
needs, to provide for these needs at acceptable
costs, and to refrain from public nuisance while
performing their tasks.

This course is designed to teach the students
the forces that are the carrots and sticks to the
CPI, the dynamics of competition that alters the
fates of processes and products, the external
threats and internal strengths of companies, the
impact of dwindling natural resources and en-
vironmental protection. The theater of this course
is narrower than macro-economics, or the econom-
ics of the world and of this nation; it is broader
than nano-economics, or the Process Economics
taught in conjunction with the senior design
course. It is suitable for seniors and graduate stu-
dents, and it acquires an extra dimension when

The theater of this course is narrower than
macro-economics, or the economics of the world
and of this nation; it is broader nano-economics-as
taught in conjunction with design courses.

the class contains a sprinkling of students with
industrial experience. Students without previous
experience with macro-economics, micro-econom-
ics (or the economics of a firm), and accounting
must do additional reading to catch up. The catch-
up list consists of:
"Economics" by Paul A. Samuelson, McGraw-Hill, 1973
Chapter 2. Central Problems of Every Economic So-
4. Supply and Demand
5. Business Organization and Income
11. National Income and Product
20. Determination of Price by Supply and De-
21. The Theory of Demand and Utility
22. Cost and Supply
24. Equilibrium of the Firm: Cost and Revenue
"Management Accounting" by Robert N. Anthony, Richard
D. Irwin, 1964
Chapter 2. Basic Accounting Concepts
3. Measurement of Income
6. Fixed Asset and Depreciation
7. Income Measurement in Manufacturing
11. Financial Statement Analysis

After a few review lectures on basic prin-
ciples of economics and accounting, the students
were assigned reading materials to prepare for
each class discussion. The reading materials con-
sist of a textbook, "The Economics of the Chem-
ical Industry" by Jules Backman, Manufacturing
Chemists Association, 1970; a Senate Subcommit-
tee Hearing "Economic Dislocation Resulting
from Environmental Controls", 1971; the most
recent issue of "Facts and Figures" from the
Chemical and Engineering News; and a number
of recent journal articles and case histories:
* "The $66 billion mistake" a Mobil Oil advertise-
ment in New York Times concerning auto-
mobile pollution reduction


* "W. R. Grace & Co." and "Eli Lilly" from
Forbes, 1971-2
* "Dark Cloud on Sulfur's Horizon" and "Cata-
lysts" from Chemical Week, 1971-2
* "Outlook for Energy in the U.S. to 1985" a
study by the Chase Manhattan Bank, 1972
* "Macro-economics of Unbalanced Growth" by
W. J. Baumol in American Economic Re-
view, 1967
* "What's Happening to the U.S. Lead in Tech-
nology" by Harvey Brooks in Harvard Busi-
ness Review, 1972
* "Research, Technological Progress and Eco-
nomic Growth" by L. S. Thurow; "Amer-
ica's Technological Dilemma" by J. H. Hol-
loman and A. E. Hagen, Technology Review
* "Industrial Chemicals, Inc." a Harvard Business
School Case concerning the problems in the
organization of a research and development
* "Mobil Chemical Company" a Harvard Business
School Case concerning the development
project of a plastic milk container
The class discussion was dialectric in nature,
appropriate in problems where all the facts are
not known, and where there is no single neat and
correct solution. Woe to the student who thinks
that he has the right answer, but cannot provide
a convincing set of reasons. A skillful instructor
should not let his personal opinion be known in
advance, and should concentrate on stimulating
the students to challenge the faulty logic and mis-
information of the other students.


A NOTHER PART of the course consisted of
doing analysis on economic problems, where
the engineering students can delightfully flex their
mathematical muscles. The topics include:
* Micro-economics of the firm, productions func-
tions including the Cobb Douglas function
Price elasticities of supply and demand
Optimum production rates under atomistic com-
petition, oligopoly and monopoly
Input/output analysis of Leontieff
Income statements and balance sheets firms,
such as Texaco and Monsanto
Price forecast by the Experience Curves
A number of guest speakers were invited to
address the class and to answer questions. The
class read up on the subject before the guest lec-

James Wei is the Allan P. Colburn Professor of Chem-
ical Engineering at the University of Delaware. He re-
ceived his B.Ch.E. from Georgia Tech. in 1952, and his
Sc.D. from M.I.T. in 1955; he graduated from the Ad-
vanced Management Program from the Harvard Business
School in 1969. He worked for Mobil Research and Devel-
opmnt from 1955 to 1968, and was the Manager of Long
Range Analysis and Strategy at Mobil Oil Corporation
from 1969 to 1970.

turers arrive, so the questions can be penetrating
and substantial. The speakers in the past had
* Harvey Taufen, Vice President of Hercules, on
the "Oil Import Program" and "Multi-Na-
tional Corporations"
* Robert McBride, Product Manager of DuPont,
on "New Product Development"
* James Donnelly, Planning Associate of Mobil
Oil, on "Energy Supply"
* J. S. Whittaker, Corporate Environmental Co-
ordinate of Union Carbide, on "Curbing Sul-
fur Dioxide Emission in Marietta, Ohio"

Finally, each student prepared a term paper on
a product or a company, which gave them experi-
ence on how to find and use economic data, and
how to do comprehensive economic thinking. A
term paper on a product must include:
(a) Marketing: who needs it, how much is
needed at what price, what are the com-
petitive products and relative merits,
what new uses can be developed, what are
the external threats;
(b) Manufacturing: what process or processes
are used, what are the recent and antici-
pated innovations, what is the probability
of obsolescence by another process, what
(Continued on page 179)

FALL 1973

4 eafia" ew



North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27607

IN EARLY 1970, Warren K. "Doc" Lewis rem-
inisced on the origins of the chemical engineer-
ing profession and, in turn, on the origins of
chemical engineering education. His rich tale of
the birth of our discipline starts with the Indus-
trial Chemists in early-19th century England. Al-
though engineering skill and techniques were al-
ready acknowledged as important to the develop-
ment of the British chemical industry, there was
effective opposition to the name "Chemical Engi-
neer" and to the organization of a society of chem-
ical engineering. Instead, the British Society of
Chemical Industry was formed.

Doc Lewis' long time colleague and friend,
William H. Walker succeeded Lewis M. Norton as
the head of the new curriculum called chemical en-
gineering established in 1888 in MIT's Chemistry
Department. Walker was strongly influenced by
the instruction in physical chemistry offered by
A. A. Noyes whom Doc termed "one of the Insti-
tute's greatest teachers." Walker modeled his Lab-
oratory of Applied Chemistry after Noyes' Lab-
oratory of Physical Chemistry emphasizing the
solution of unsolved, industrially stimulated prob-
lems. Walker consolidated the first Chemical En-
gineering Department and focused the curriculum
around the same full course requirements in or-
ganic and physical chemistry as the chemists. The
engineering requirements were pared to a mini-
mum to provide ample time to consolidate the
theory and practice of chemistry.
Doc Lewis pioneered in the areas of product
engineering as well as process engineering. The
curriculum development at MIT including his
course on "Structure-Property Relationships of
Amorphous Materials" reflects the early concern
for product development in the chemical engineer-
ing curriculum.

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers
was formed in 1908 in response to the growing in-
dustrial interest in electrochemical processes in-
cluding caustic, chlorine, carborundum, and the
electro-plating of copper and nickel. As chemical
engineering grew as a profession and as an engi-
neering discipline the various engineering schools
of the major state and private universities became
the home for the emerging chemical engineering
departments. These new departments developed
more along the curriculum requirements of their
parent school than in a manner consistent with the
exigencies of chemical engineering. Chemistry re-
quirements were pared to a minimum and the
various engineering courses survived.

In early 1967 Dr. Vivian T. Stannett, an inter-
nationally recognized polymer chemist, was suc-
cessfully recruited by the chemical engineering
department at North Carolina State University.
He was recruited under a National Science
Foundation Science Development Grant to build
an effort broadly termed "polymers." His program
is actually much broader and now encompasses a
complete effort in applied chemistry including
polymers, surface chemistry, and colloid science.
Dr. Stannett's recruitment was the result of the
wise and considered decision by the senior chem-
ical engineering faculty that the strength and
uniqueness of the chemical engineering research
program depended upon emphasizing the "chem-
ical" in chemical engineering. Dr. J. K. Ferrell, at
that time newly appointed department head, con-
solidated this mandate by recruiting Vivian and
acting favorably on his request that a junior fac-
ulty member be recruited as well to broaden the
base of the proposed graduate teaching-research
effort. Although my temples are now greying,
seven years ago I was that junior recruit.
Vivian and I spent the first semester at N. C.
State proposing to the government. Our overtures


Professor Hopfenberg's S.B., S.M. and Ph.D. are from
the Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. Before joining the faculty of the
North Carolina State University in February 1967, he
supervised research at the Amicon Corporation and con-
tinued his membrane-related research at the U.S. Army
Natick Laboratories. His current research interests in-
clude membrane transport, graft copolymerization, solvent
crazing of glassy polymers, and applied surface and col-
loid chemistry.

were warmly received and broad research pro-
grams in polymer science were launched. The
department rubbed off on Vivian as Vivian did on
the department and an AEC-sponsored research
program on engineering aspects of radiation poly-
merization was jointly initiated by Vivian and an-
other younger faculty member, Dr. E. P. Stahel,
The research effort burgeoned and then leveled
in late 1969 with 12 post doctoral fellows in res-
idence and some 20 graduate students pursuing
graduate degrees based upon research in polymer
science and applied chemistry.
In that building spring of 1967, a supporting
graduate course titled "Structure-Property Rela-
tionships of Organic Materials" was proposed to
the Parkinsonian chain of university committees.
These committees had the authority to accept or
reject proposed course offerings. Just as the early
British Industrial Chemists were prevented from
describing their new discipline accurately, the
various vested interest groups on the multitude of
authorizing committees approved the course cur-
riculum without change, but made the course title
into a caricature of the effects of committee com-
promises. My attitude was simply to see how far
the committees would go and to retain the sub-
stance and flavor of the course. These rumpled
men wearing serious Robert Hall suits and

winged-tipped shoes, renamed my course "Appli-
cations of Structure Property Relationships of
Chemical Engineering Materials". The computer,
listing fall 1968 course offerings, went into
cardiac arrest and sputtered out "APPLSTRPRO-
The course in fact, was a survey of polymer
physics, surface chemistry, and colloid science.
Throughout the course, applications were empha-
sized and the course offered a perspective of those
last chapters in physical chemistry texts that are
always going to be treated in the next course.
They seldom are.

The typical student comes to the course with
a single answer to a variety of questions. When
asked why water rises in a capillary tube he con-
fidently answers: "Surface tension." When asked
why the mercury level in a capillary tube is lower
than the surrounding bulk fluid he, with imper-
ceptibly diminished confidence, replies "surface
tension." When asked why water wets glass and
not teflon he replies: "Surface tension, surface
tension." And when asked why mercury wets
neither but xylene spreads on polyethylene he
stutters, now with shattered confidence and a total
lack of eye contact: "Surface tension, surface ten-
sion, surface tension." Then slowly he is asked
what is surface tension and the graduate student
in chemical engineering beams brightly: "Surface
tension is the phenomenon that makes water rise
in a capillary tube."
The course opens with a discussion of inter-
molecular bonding compared and contrasted with
the nature of intramolecular or chemical bond-
ing. The thermodynamics of surface phenomena,
largely derived from the treatment of A. W.
Adamson's text "Physical Chemistry of Surfaces"
follow. Specific attention is devoted toward struc-
ture-property relationships of surface active
solutes. In turn, wetting, detergency, capillary
phenomena, and engineering applications of these
phenomena are treated. The development of the
Gibbs-Adsorption isotherm, the Laplace-equation
and the Young-Dupre equation are focal to this
treatment. The "surface phase" of the course lasts
approximately 5 weeks.
The middle seven weeks of the course are de-
voted to structure-property relationships in poly-
mers. Rubber elasticity, viscoelasticity, solution
behavior, mechanical properties, melt phenomena,
(Continued on page 183)

FALL 1973

4 4?0"4 Seqjae"ce in


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

T HE POLYMER INDUSTRY is a very rapidly
growing segment of the economy and one that
employs a large fraction of chemical engineering
graduates from both undergraduate and graduate
programs. Education has been slow to respond to
this need. Until recently education in polymers
was limited to one or at most two courses that
were usually entitled, "Polymer Science" or
"Polymer Engineering" and were primarily sur-
vey courses. This has been changing rapidly and
courses are now being listed by various colleges
that indicate that quantitative instruction in poly-
mer topics is becoming available.
At VPI&SU, a series of quantitative polymer
courses that are designed for the first year gradu-
ate student has been developed within the chemical
engineering department. This series has been un-
dergoing development for over three years and
student response has been very enthusiastic. The
response is due in part to the rather unique philo-
sophical approach taken in designing the courses.
The courses were not developed as survey
courses as is the case with most courses in poly-
mers. Rather, primary consideration was given to
the problems commonly faced by the chemical en-
gineer involved in polymer activities; particularly,
to the types of problems most likely to be solved
by sound application of chemical engineering prin-
ciples. Aspects of polymer science that are crit-
ically important in the solution of engineering
problems were also considered to be legitimate
topics. Finally, virtually all material includes
quantitative discussions, including quantitative
solutions of a variety of problems.
On this basis, a three quarter sequence of
three credit hour courses has been developed.
These courses can be taken in sequence or as a
two course program concentrating on thermo-
plastics or thermosets. Most chemical engineering
students interested in polymers pursue the three
quarter sequence, but most students from other

Arthur L. Fricke is Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University. He received a B.S. degree from the University
of Cincinnati and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin. Before starting his teaching career,
he worked for a number of years for Shell Development
and Shell Chemical Companies. Presently, he is studying
polymer processes and transport in polymer melts.

disciplines select the two quarter sequence on

The primary objective of the sequence is to
help the student develop a basic level of com-
petency in handling problems involved in polymer
reactor design, film and fiber extrusion, extruder
design, injection molding, polymer foaming,
thermoset formulation, reinforced plastic design,
and thermoset performance. These problems are
mostly of a processing nature and a large number
of chemical engineers are engaged in studying
them. Obviously, students will not have developed
a high level of competence in any one topic by
completing the sequence, but they will have had a
quantitative introduction to the topics that can
serve as a sound basis for further course work or
individual study.
Material that is basic to a quantitative ap-
proach to polymer processing problems is pre-
sented in the first course of the sequence, which
is considered a prerequisite for the other two
courses. The topics include polymer characteriza-


tion, thermal analysis, crystallization, non-New-
tonian flow models, diffusion, thermal conductiv-
ity, polymerization kinetics, linear viscoelasticity,
and polymer solutions. These topics can be divided
into three groups as follows:

a. Characterization-Molecular weight,
molecular weight distribution, radii of
gyration, virial coefficients, branching
b. Thermal Analysis-Transitions, thermo-
dynamic quantities, decomposition
c. Crystallization-Avrami equation, crys-
tal structure
d. Linear Viscoelasticity-Models, super-
e. Solution-Three parameter models, theta

a. Non-Newtonian Flow-Flow models and
data fitting, effect of temperature, elon-
gational viscosity
b. Diffusion-Effects of polymer structure,
non-Fickian behavior
c. Thermal Conductivity-Effects of struc-
ture, conduction in melts

a. Step and Free Radical Polymerization-
Basic models, kinetics,
probable distributions
b. Ionic Polymerization-Basic models, ki-
netics, applications
c. Co-Polymerization-Selectivity and con-
control, random vs. block co-polymers.

Approximately equal time is spent on each group
of topics and the student must complete sets of
quantitative problems concerned with these topics.
There is no one text available that is suitable for
the course; instead, a set of informal notes com-
piled from the literature and the listed references
has been prepared and are distributed to the stu-
dents. Students also make extensive use of the
Obviously, the basic course is too broad to de-
velop a high level of competency in any one topic,
but that is not the object. The objective is to pre-
pare the student for more concentrated study on
selected topics in advanced courses or independent

studies while training the student to analyze poly-
mer problems quantitatively. Even so, the students
are capable of calculating characterization quanti-
ties from basic data, of modeling fluids, of model-
ing reactions, and they are aware of the problems
inherent in the procedures used.
The second course involves study of a number
of polymer processes-die design, single screw ex-
truder design, fiber and film extrusion, molding
and foaming. The descriptive material is pre-
sented as selected outside reading so that time in
the classroom can be used for quantitative dis-
The problems studied include:

Die Design-Flow through tubes, annuli, and
diverging sections, flow between flat plates
Extruder Design-Design of metering, plas-
ticating, and feed sections
Fiber Extrusion-Melt and dry spinning by
analyses of Ziabicki and of Kase and Matsuo
Molding-Analysis of filling and cooling
cycles, approximations for injection molding
short shot, melting and cooling in rotational
Foaming-Dynamics of phase growth, prin-
ciples of solvent blowing
Films-Stresses and orientation in blown
and drawn films.

Several of these topics are in an advanced
state of treatment while treatment of others is
still developing. Lectures and discussions are
based on notes prepared from treatments avail-
able in the open literature or in monographs. For
example, study of extruder screw design is based
on work presented in Tadmor and Klein's excellent
monograph, "Engineering Principles of Plasticat-
ing Extrusion". On the other hand, very little has
appeared on the analysis of the rotomolding cycle;
however, approximations can be made by applica-
tion of non-steady state heat transfer analysis.
In every case, the similarity of treatment of
polymer processing problems and of typical chem-
ical processing problems is stressed. The student

The courses were not developed as survey courses
. primary consideration was given to the problems
commonly encountered by the chemical engineer.

FALL 1973

The primary objective is to help students develop
competency in handling quantitative problems in
polymer reactor design film and fiber extrusion,
extruder design, injection molding ...

realizes that sound engineering process analysis
can be used effectively in the study of polymer
processing and that polymer processing need not
be considered to be a very specialized engineering
study. He quickly learns to approach these prob-
lems as typical chemical engineering problems and
rapidly develops confidence in his ability to model
them. The resulting attitude of the students
toward the topics permits the instructor to effec-
tively proceed at a more rapid rate.
Quantitative problems have been developed for
most of the topics. These are graded in difficulty,
but almost all must be solved by numerical meth-
ods. The students write their own computer pro-
gram, if solution by numerical methods is re-
quired; however, the logic to be used is usually
given as part of the problem statement. Data on
physical properties is usually given as taken from
the literature; the student is expected to model
the effect of process variables on the property as
required for the problem. Calculation of the fila-
ment area, temperature, and velocity for melt
spinning; calculation of the temperature and pres-
sure profiles for an extruder screw as a function
of screw speed and discharge pressure; and esti-
mation of packing pressure and cooling cycle time
for injection molding are typical of the type and
scope of major problem assignments.
Normally, four of these major problems are
assigned to the students during the course. In ad-
dition, one or more minor problems are assigned
each week. Obviously most of the class time is
devoted to discussions of applications. Usually,
only the assumptions made in a development are
discussed in class. This is as it should be. After
all, it is presumed that graduate students can read
and comprehend.

The third course is a study of thermosets, and
the approach is somewhat different. Except for
limited general study of cross-linking, the course
consists of a study of the effects of chemical for-

mulation on gelation, cure, and properties of some
of the major types of the thermosets. These in-
clude unsaturated polyesters, urethane foams,
epoxies, rubber, and formaldehyde cured resins.
For purposes of study, a few standard formula-
tions of each type of thermoset are discussed in
detail and principles for variations in properties
with respect to change in formulation are devel-
oped, if possible. For example, a polyester formu-
lation of one mole phthalic anhydride, one mole
fumaric acid, two moles propylene glycol, and two
moles styrene with a standard promoted peroxide
catalyst system is studied as a performance stand-
ard. Effects of changes in this basic formulation
on properties are then developed in as logical a
manner as possible.
In addition to a study of basic formulation
principles, methods of fabrication are discussed
and reasons for special formulation requirements
due to fabrication methods are developed. When
appropriate, principles developed earlier are ap-
plied, such as copolymerization selectivity rela-
tions for cross-linking of polyesters by vinyl
Problem assignments consist of suggesting
formulations for particular applications with rea-
soned justification for the formulation selected,
specifying changes in formulation to accomplish
changes in specific properties, and of performing
example analyses of property evaluation methods
such as viscoelastic moduli spectra. While not as
satisfying from a chemical engineering point of
view as the types of analyses used in the second
course of the sequence, the processes of analysis
are typical of current practice. From the view-
point of instruction, relating various formulations
to a standard for each resin has proven to be a
useful vehicle for establishing order in the sub-
ject matter.
The teaching approach used in the sequence of
courses has proven to be quite effective. It relates
material presented in other required graduate
courses to polymer problems and prepared the
student for further independent study or research.
Since nine quarter hours amounts to one-fifth of
the total requirement for a M.S. degree, which is
nearly one-half of the elective hours usually taken,
this is usually all the time an M.S. student can af-
ford to devote to the subject. Therefore, the poly-
mer courses necessarily contain a broad range of
topics; however, scope is not expanded at the ex-
pense of completeness. Under these restrictions,
good performance requires a high level of motiva-


tion, but motivation has not proved to be a prob-
lem, because the interest of the student in the
topic is very high.
Perhaps the best measure is the performance
of students in subsequent courses, research, and
employment. Students have proved their ability to
use modern methods of polymer analysis without
further instruction, and their organization and de-
velopment of research projects has been sound.
Some have taken more advanced courses and per-
formed very well. Finally, several former students
who have entered the polymer field have reported
that they were prepared for their assignments
and have succeeded in handling them very cap-

There are no entirely suitable texts for the
courses and few problems for assignments are
available. About one and one-half to two manyears
has been spent in collecting and collating lecture
material, preparing notes, and designing problems
for assignments. Problem preparation has proven
to be the most difficult task, but problems are an
absolutely essential part of the instruction. Even
though the instructional burden has been heavy,
the success of the courses has made it worthwhile.
Ideally, the sequence should be taught by two or
more instructors who are specialists in particular
topics and who co-operate to preserve the con-
tinuity of the sequence. This is our next objec-
tive. E
(Continued on page 210)

(Continued from page 173)

are the major cost elements and reduction
possibilities, is there security of raw ma-
terial supply;
(c) Environmental impact: what nuisance is
created during manufacturing, use or
transportation, what are the harmful ef-
fects and do they outweigh the benefits,
can the bad effects be controlled and at
what cost.
A term paper on a company must include:
(a) Function: what business is the company
in, who are the customers and are they
likely to prosper in the future, does it have
a mix of products to render it less vulner-
able to market changes;
(b) Dynamism: is the company an aggressive
growth oriented company, making unique
chemicals for outstanding profit margin,
or a mature company making bulk com-
modity chemicals for low markup; is in-
novation of new products, processes and
markets an important activity;
(c) Past Record: what is the last ten years'
record of sale, profit, earning per share,
stock price; how does this company com-
pare with a competitor company and with
the chemical industry; how does its
growth rate compare with the Gross Na-
tional Product and population;
(d) Strengths and Weaknesses: is this com-
pany in possession of special skills or un-
usual assets, what are its weak points,

what can a good chemical engineer ac-
complish here;
(e) Threats and Opportunities: what are the
external forces that can materially affect
this company, and cause it to prosper or
to decline.
Topics of the term papers prepared by the
students include:
* Air Products and Chemicals, Atlantic Richfield,
Foster Wheeler, Joseph Schlitz, Smith-
* Petroleum in Nigeria, titanium dioxide in South
Africa, fertilizer in Brazil;
* urea, acrylic fibers, lead alkyls, nylon 66.
Selected term papers were presented orally in
class, where a jury of fellow students would rate
the talks according to organization, comprehen-
sive coverage, analysis, and clarity of presenta-
The course was given twice, to classes number-
ing 26 and 30. The classes were divided roughly in
equal parts of seniors, full time graduate students,
and extension graduate students. There were also
a handful of students from chemistry, electrical
engineering and civil engineering. Student rating
at the end of the course ranged from very good
to excellent. The rating on the usefulness and
interest in the course is 4.3 out of a possible 5.0.
95% of the class would recommend this course to
friends. We are planning to continue to offer this
course in the Spring term, with continuous up-
dating of topics and reading materials. E

FALL 1973


University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

G RADUATE COURSES in calculations for mul-
ticomponent distillation and extraction sys-
tems have been a staple part of the chemical engi-
neering curriculum for many years. These systems
are industrially important because a large part of
the capital investment in a chemical plant may be
in separation equipment. Many separation proc-
esses are carried out in staged equipment, and it
has been recognized that a common method of
analysis of all staged processes should be used.
Nevertheless, it has been our observation that at-
tempts to develop a common approach to staged
calculations have been only partly successful, and
that this is due primarily to the lack of a truly
general model for staged processes. We have re-
rently proposed a model1-4) which we believe can
be the basis for a unified presentation of staged
calculations. This article is a description of a grad-
uate course offered at the University of Pittsburgh
with this end in view.

The course has as a central theme the study of
a mathematical model for staged separation proc-
esses. The use of models is common in chemical
engineering design and analysis to describe the
variation in temperature, pressure, composition,
and other properties of materials as they pass
through a chemical process. One very useful type
of model is based on the assumption that all of the
material is contained in a finite number of well-
mixed chambers or stages, and that flow through
the process is accomplished by moving from one
stage to another. The alternative to this staged
model is the continuous model, in which the prop-
erties are assumed to change continuously as func-
tions of process dimensions. The term Staged Sep-
arations is used to designate those processes which
are described by staged models and which have the
additional restrictions that no reaction occurs and
there is more than one phase in each stage. Many
of the common industrial separation processes
such as distillation, liquid extraction, absorption,

John W. Tierney is Professor of Chemical Engineering
at the University of Pittsburgh. He teaches courses in
staged separations, process dynamics and control, and
introductory chemical engineering. His research interests
include process modelling, digital control, and flow of
dilute polymer solutions. He has also taught at Purdue
University (Assistant Professor, 1953-1956), the Univer-
sidad Tecnica Santa Maria in Valparaiso, Chile (Visiting
Professor, 1960-62), and the Universidad de Barcelona,
Barcelona, Spain (Fulbright Professor, 1968-69). He has
also had industrial experience at the Research Laboratories
of the Pure Oil Company and the Research Division of
Remington Rand Univac.

and stripping can be adequately described by these
The course is designed for the MS level student
but with suitable modification can be used for
upper level undergraduates or for PhD level
students. It is assumed that the student has under-
graduate preparation in transport operations,
linear algebra, and computer programming. Some
background in numerical analysis, particularly the
solution of implicit equations, is highly desirable.
The first aim of the course is to provide the
student with the means to solve the mathematical
models for staged separations. The essential simi-
larity of the operations of distillation, extraction,
absorption, and stripping, is emphasized by using
the same model for all these processes. A second
and equally important aim is to provide the stu-
dent with an appreciation of the factors involved
in designing and selecting separation processes.

The course is not a traditional advanced course
in distillation or extraction calculations. Some of
the novel features are summarized here.
A single model is used for all problems. The
model is a set of five matrix equations. (More ac-



curately, there are 2m+3 equations, where m is
the number of components, because two of the
equations can be written for each component.)
The kind of problem being solved determines the
method of solving the model. This is very impor-
tant because some of the equations are nonlinear
and iterative methods must be used in most prob-
The model used is very general. It provides
for any number of feeds, any number of products,
and for flow of both phases between any two
stages. Flow need not be countercurrent, and mul-
tiple column systems are solved as a single prob-
lem. Stage inefficiencies are included naturally by
adjusting the flow patterns for entrainment or by-
Solution methods are computer oriented. It
is assumed that the student is familiar with other
methods such as the graphical solutions for binary
systems, and this can often be used to illustrate a
point in discussions, but no attempt is made to
study systematically the graphical and other meth-
ods traditionally used.
The student must understand not only the
general solution methods but the computer pro-
grams as well. There is a danger in computer
oriented solution methods that "canned" programs
will be used in which the student does little more
than put the input data into the correct form. To
insure that the solution methods are understood
the student solves simple problems by hand-
usually problems with two components and two or
three stages. He then uses library programs to
solve more complex problems, and then, to insure
that the computer programs are understood, he
must modify some of the library programs.
By the end of the course the student should
understand and be able to solve quite difficult
problems. For example, a multicomponent, multi-
column distillation with nonideal liquids includ-
ing heat balancing is an assigned problem.
Methods for obtaining correction algorithms
by vector differentiation of the fundamental equa-
tions are presented. Using these methods the stu-
dent can derive correction algorithms rapidly and

Problem solving is an important part of the
course, and a computer must be used to solve all
but the most trivial problems. Good access to com-
puting facilities is needed. It is not necessary that

the computer have an exceptionally large memory
or be very rapid as long as the student can obtain
the time he needs. We have used the BASIC pro-
gramming language in the course and found it to
be very effective for student use. It is easily
learned; the interactive mode permits rapid cor-
rection of minor errors; and the built-in matrix
instructions are especially convenient for the solu-
tion of matrix equations. Obviously the students
do not have time to write more than a few pro-
grams, so most of the programs needed for the
course are stored in disc files-about 30 programs
are currently in the files. Students are encouraged
to modify these programs for their own use, and
some of the problems which are assigned require
modification. During the last few weeks of the
course, each student has a special design or re-
search problem assigned which requires that a
new program be written or an existing program
extensively modified.
Programs available in the library are of two
types-main programs and function subprograms.
The main programs solve specific problems such
as the constant flow distillation problem. The sub-
programs are used to obtain physical properties
which are needed in the main programs-equilib-
rium ratios, activity coefficients, enthalpies, vapor
pressures, and the like. When solving a problem, a
student must first of all obtain the correct main
program, then the subprograms which are needed,
and then properly combine them. Next he must
enter the data for the problem he is solving. This
is done directly at the terminal by changing
DATA statements in the main program. He then
runs the program and if necessary makes modifi-
cations. For example, it may be desirable to sup-
press some of the output or provide additional out-
put. Copies of the programs are available in the
notes for the course and can also be obtained at
the terminals by requesting a program listing.

As noted previously a single model is used for
all separation processes. The model consists of
five matrix equations.
1. The Overall Material Balance (OMB) equa-
2. The Component Material Balance (CMB)
equation. One CMB equation can be written for
each component.
3. The Sum of Compositions (SC) equation.
4. The interphase transfer equations. For

FALL 1973

The course has as its central theme the study
model for staged separations processes.

equilibrium separation, the Equilibrium Relation
(ER) equation is used. In nonequilibrium separa-
tions the Mass Transport (MT) equation is used.
Most of the course is devoted to equilibrium sep-
arations. One equation can be written for each
5. The Energy Balance (EB) equation.
The number of stages must be known in order
to write these equations. An unknown number of
stages cannot be accomodated in the model. This
is different from the graphical methods which
may determine the number of stages needed for a
given separation. A problem must normally be
staged in the "operating" form-that is, the in-
puts (feeds, interstate flow connections, and heat
duties) are specified and the outputs (flow rates,
temperatures, and compositions) are to be de-

A brief outline of the material which is cov-
ered in the course is given below. The order is the
same as that in "Notes for Staged Separations'"5"
which is the primary text for the course.
1. Introduction and Fundamental Equations.
After some introductory material, the basic vari-
ables are defined. Then the first four of the five
model equations are derived. The fact that the
equations are independent is demonstrated and
some simple problems solved. It may be necessary
to briefly review matrix operations and BASIC
language programming (1-1 weeks).
2. Extraction with Constant Distribution Ra-
tio. Iterative solution of the model equations is
introduced using a direct substitution method to
solve simple extraction problems. It is shown that
once values for the vapor flow vector are assumed,
the equations become linear, and the liquid flow
vector and the compositions can be calculated di-
rectly. Further, the assumed values for the vapor
flow vector can be checked and a corrected esti-
mate obtained. The distribution ratios for each
component are assumed to be independent of
Background material in numerical methods is
introduced, and direct substitution methods for
both single and multiple variable problems are re-
viewed. (1 week).

of a mathematical

3. Constant Flow Distillation. The constant
flow (constant molal overflow) problem is shown
to be identical to the extraction problem, except
that the flows are fixed and the stage temperatures
must be varied until a solution is found. The di-
rect substitution method must be modified because
the temperatures do not appear explicitly in the
model equations. The Newton-Raphson correction
method is derived and used to solve the single
stage, no flow (bubble point) problem. Then it is
extended to the single stage with flow (equilibrium
flash) and finally to the multiple stage constant
flow distillation. Nonderivative methods are also
used to solve these problems, and the results are
compared with the derivative methods. The equi-
librium ratio equations which are used are either
based on ideal vapor and liquid phases (Raoult's
Law) or empirical correlations. In every case they
are independent of composition. Supplemental ma-
terial on multivariable correction methods, par-
ticularly the Newton-Raphson methods, is intro-
duced as needed. (1-1% weeks).
4. Distillation and Extraction with Nonideal
Mixtures. Computer programs for nonideal liquid
solutions are introduced. The Wilson equation is
used for vapor-liquid systems and the NRTL equa-
tion for liquid-liquid systems. Distillation and ex-
traction problems for systems with nonideal liquid
phases are solved using previously developed itera-
tive methods. A review of thermodynamic prin-
ciples as applied to nonideal solutions is needed.
(1 week).
5. The Energy Balance Equation. The fifth
model equation is derived and programs are used
for calculating enthalpies. Absorber problems
with fixed flows are solved using the EB equation
to correct the stage temperatures. (1 week).
6. Distillation with Energy Balancing. Up to
this point only the correction of either tempera-
tures or flow rates has been considered. This has
been done by treating special limiting cases. Now,
the correction of both temperatures and flows is
considered. First, alternating correction methods
are used in which the temperatures and flows are
alternately corrected using methods developed
earlier in the course. Then simultaneous correction
methods are studied. This is also a good time to
discuss calculations for total reflux, use of relative


1 I g I I -

- I ' I

volatilities, and minimum reflux ratio. Analytical
equations for distillation column design using as-
sumptions such as total reflux and constant rela-
tive volatility can be introduced here as back-
ground material. (2 weeks).
7. Separation Systems. Separation system de-
sign is considered with emphasis on selection of a
system which will perform a desired separation.
Multiple column systems and combinations of ex-
traction and distillation processes are included.
During this period students are given a small de-
sign or research problem which will be due at the
end of the term. Some fundamentals of distillation
and extraction equipment designing is introduced
here. (2 weeks).
8. Advanced Topics. While the students are
working on their term problems, lectures are
given on subjects such as unsteady state operation

and control of separation systems and noneqiulib-
rium separations in which the MT equation is used
instead of the ER equation. (2 weeks).

The primary text for this course has been
"Notes for Staged Separations" by John Tierney.
The author has a few copies which can be supplied
to interested educators. Some of the texts we have
used for supplementary reading assignments are
listed below.
Amundson, N. R., "Mathematical Methods in
Chemical Engineering, Matrices and Their
Application," Prentice Hall (1966).
Hanson, D. N.; J. H. Duffin, and G. F. Som-
merville, "Computation of Multistage Sep-
aration Processes," Reinhold (1962).
(Continued on page 209)

(Continued from page 175)

thermal transitions, morphology, and processing
criteria are surveyed.
The course ends with a three week introduc-
tion to the important concepts of Colloid Science.
The concept of retarded gravitational settling of
small particles, diffuse-double layer shielding of
lyophobic colloids, and conformational rearrange-
ments on lyophillic colloids are emphasized.
There is not sufficient faculty time to present
the ideal curriculum including a three semester
sequence of polymer courses and a one semester
survey course in both surface chemistry and col-
loid science. We are fortunate, however, that the
School of Textiles supplements our course with
several polymer courses and the Department of
Chemistry offers a course in Surface Chemistry.
An advanced course in "Diffusion in Polymers" as
well as Dr. Stannett's revolving Special Topics
Course are offered annually in the Chemical En-
gineering Department.

This broad, introductory course suits not only
our needs but has received strong and growing
subscription from students of the School of Tex-
tiles, the School of Wood and Paper Science, and
the Department of Chemistry.
Our Ph.D. graduates in industry report favor-
ably upon the utility of both the style and sub-
stance of the course. A term paper is assigned to

familiarize students with the library and the Eng-
lish language. Both seem foreign to most students.
Applied problem solving is emphasized
throughout in descriptive homework and quiz
problems. A. A. Noyes emphasized this technique
a century ago; Professor Alan S. Michaels follow-
ing Doc Lewis and Ernest Hauser put a natural
shoulder, chain smoking embellishment on this
technique in the late fifties and early sixties. The
technique works.
Typically the enrollment of the course, offered
annually, is in excess of 25 students. More im-
portant than enrollment statistics are the wel-
come comments of our alumni.
Last year in a confident maneuver modeled
after a Paul Hornung drawplay, I submitted a
"Course Revision Request Form" to the percolat-
ing procedure of the overloaded and now re-
manned course and curriculum committee. The
single revision was in title only. Within a week
an unsealed envelope, returned through the
campus mail, contained the eighteenth copy of a
form reply indicating that the title of my cher-
ished course had been changed to: "Polymers,
Surfactants, and Colloidal Materials." Now the
computer listing is accompanied only by the simple
cough: "POL SURF COLL MAT." Applied chem-
istry has found a home in the Department of
Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State
University. O

FALL 1973

4CO uee in


Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri 63130


N RECENT YEARS nearly all of us have devel-
oped a heightened awareness of the fact that
technological developments can have unanticipated
and often profound side effects. Sometimes these
side effects are highly desirable, as in the many
"spin-offs" from the manned space program in the
field of health. Just as often side effects can be
undesirable, as in the uncontrolled urban sprawl
made possible by the automobile, or as in the de-
gradation of earth's air and water due to indus-
trial growth.
Fortunately, a feeling has also been growing
that it is often possible to forecast side effects of
new technologies and to take action ahead of time
to monitor, control or eliminate "bad" effects or to
stimulate and enhance "good" ones. Efforts to ac-
complish this task are variously known as Tech-
nology Assessment, Social Impact Analysis, or En-
vironmental Impact Assessment.


For the past two years, we at Washington Uni-
versity have been experimenting with a first year
graduate course entitled "Technology Assessment
and Public Policy." In 1971 the course was taught
by Rolf Buchdahl, Affiliate Professor of Materials
Science and Engineering with assistance from
Robert Boguslaw, Professor of Sociology. In 1972
(and again in 1973) the author (an Assistant Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering) conducted the
course. In this paper I will discuss primarily my
own approach to the course.
Our course in "TA" is offered through our in-
terdepartmental Program in Technology and Hu-
man Affairs (THA) and can be taken for gradu-
ate engineering credit by Chemical Engineers. In-
cidentally, the Chairman of the THA Program is
Robert Morgan, an Associate Professor in the
Chemical Engineering Department.

Last year I conducted our course using a semi-
nar format in spite of the relatively large attend-
ance. (In an experimental course I had hoped for
at best eight students-I got 24!) Following Buch-
dahl and Boguslaw's lead, we met once a week for
21/2 hours on Tuesday evenings. Their experience
suggested, and mine confirmed, that relatively
long class sessions are necessary for the partici-
pants, who had a broad range of backgrounds and
perspectives, to overcome their distrust and hostil-
ities and to begin to grapple with some of the
thorny issues which arise at the technology-society
Class sessions were actually a mixture of lec-
ture, discussion, and student presentations. In
initial sessions we addressed a number of issues
What is technology?
How does technology develop, and what is its relation
to science?
To what extent is technology the cause and to what
extent can it be the solution to current critical prob-
Why is Technology Assessment an idea whose time
has come?
What is the role of the technologist in public policy
formulation and decision making?
As you might expect, discussions of these ques-
tions were often spirited. None of the students
could be classed either as "anti-technologists" or
as "technological optimists," but all had a genuine
concern about the direction of technology along
with a belief in man's ability to maintain at least
a semblance of control. Perhaps students holding
the extreme views are not motivated to explore
In the second part of the course we began to
deal with methodological points such as:
Technology Forecasting techniques
Environmental Impact Statements
"Hard" and "soft" science methodologies
Analytical techniques for impact assessment.
This part of the course was most exciting to the
engineers and scientists in the group, perhaps be-
cause it dealt with problems in more quantitative
terms. We reviewed the National Environmental


Christopher T. Hill earned his B.S. at Illinois Institute
of Technology (1964) and his M.S. (1966) and Ph.D.
(1969) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, all in
Chemical Engineering. Following two years at the Uni-
royal Research Center in Wayne, N. J., he joined the
Chemical Engineering Department at Washington Uni-
versity, where he is .an Assistant Professor. He currently
divides his teaching and research activities between poly-
mer composite rheology and processing and assessment of
materials and energy technologies.

Policy Act, the legislation which mandates prep-
aration of Environmental Impact Statements, and
discussed its relevance as a model for identifying
a broader range of social, environmental, and po-
litical impacts of technology.
Technology Assessment as a process, along
with all kinds of Futures Research, faces a very
knotty problem of validation of results. A suc-
cessful TA is ordinarily presumed to be one which
provides a significant input to public decision mak-
ing and it may therefore affect the lives of many
people. Thus, one hopes that the results of a TA
are reasonably "true." Scientist and engineers ar-
rive at "truth" by an essentially social process: by
replicating each other's results and by checking
hypotheses against a sufficient number of experi-
ments. In the case of TA, by the time the experi-
ment (the technological development) has been
run, the TA is no longer of interest. In addition,
the results of the TA are designed to affect the
experiment. The attempt to understand this di-
lemma, I believe, helped students gain a better
grasp of how traditional science works.
The third portion of the course was devoted to
presentations of Technology Assessments done by
interdisciplinary groups of students during the
course. Each student took part in two team efforts,
not necessarily in the same group. The groups
typically were made up of a natural scientist or
engineer, a social scientist, an architect or de-

signer, and a Technology and Human Affairs
For the most part, the Assessment groups
tackled relatively small problems on a local scale.
In a number of cases, they chose to assess existing
technologies, rather than new or emerging ones. I
now feel that this latter choice was a poor one, be-
cause it loses much of the futuristic or forecasting
nature of TA. On the other hand, studying exist-
ing problems allowed the students an opportunity
to make quantitative assessments, and to interact
with individuals who had real responsibility for
problems outside the classroom.
The Technology Assessments prepared by the
students are as follows:
Permanent vs. Disposable Utensils in University Food
Control of Automobile Density and Storage in the
Central Business District
Nuclear Energy in Developing Countries
World Modeling: An Evaluation and Assessment of
the Technologies
Checkless-Cashless Society
Computer Voting
The Electric Hand Dryer
Technological Assessment of the Campus Police De-
Mudd Hall (a new campus building).
Each of these assessments was 30-50 pages in
length, and all tried to come to grips with the en-
vironmental, social, economic, and political impli-
cations of the technologies under study. In two
cases, public preference and opinion surveys were
run to learn why people make the choices they do.
From the list of assessment titles, you can see
that TA is not only concerned with hard, engineer-
ing-type technology, but also with new forms of
social and political organization. Oftentimes these
new organizational forms are themselves made
possible by, or are a direct side effect of, other
hardware/technology developments.
TA is a rapidly changing field, and as a result
the course given in 1972 is not appropriate for
1973. This fall I plan to emphasize TA method-
ology quite heavily, both by examination of some
of the assessments which are becoming available,
and by carrying out in-depth assessments in the
After discussing some of the philosophical, his-
torical, and social issues around TA, the class will
choose a technology to assess based on the inter-
ests of the students involved. I expect that the end
product will be a publishable study. A number of

FALL 1973

classes will be devoted to working meetings in
which we will conduct brainstorming sessions,
evaluate suggested impacts, and share disciplinary
backgrounds. The methodological framework will
be one which I have developed in some detail and
which is available to readers on request. It con-
sists of the following basic steps:
1. Development of a shared background of
basic information among the study team in
the areas of the physical technology, its
overall social milieu, and projections of both
for the future.
2. Identification and description of the unin-
tended good and bad side effects or high
order impacts of the emerging technology.
3. Evaluation of the probability and magni-
tude of the side effects within different
frames of time, geography, and affected
4. Detailed consideration of those impacts of
high probability or magnitude, or both.
5. Identification and assessment of alterna-
tives and ameliorating or enhancing actions
which will influence the development of the
technology and its side effects.
6. Communication of the results of the Tech-
nology Assessment to policy and decision
makers, special interest groups, and the
general public.
No good TA textbook has yet been published,
and we are forced to fall back on excerpts from
research studies for methodology. Until recently,
nearly all the written materials on TA were es-
sentially philosophical in nature; pointing up the
need for a TA function somewhere in the society.
Among these are the NAE and NAS studies
(1, 2), the book by Kasper (3), and various gov-
ernment documents (4). More recently, assess-
ment reports (5) have been issued and method-
ological articles (6, 7) have begun to appear. A
new journal, Technology Assessment (8) is now
being published by the International Society for
Technology Assessment, and it is shaping up as a
good source of material for a course. Fortunately,
there are several good books on Technology Fore-
casting (8) which is an essential part of TA.

At this point you may be asking of what rel-
evance is Technology Assessment to us as Chem-
ical Engineers. I firmly believe that the connection
is deep and that it will be longlasting. The inter-

ests of Chemical Engineers have traditionally been
the most wide ranging among the engineering
disciplines, and they are accustomed to thinking
about systems, inputs and outputs, recycle and
waste, and economics; perhaps more than are
other engineers. Our training in chemistry also
provides a firm basis for understanding many of
the environmental problems addressed by a TA.
From a broader perspective I believe that TA
or its descendants will be a permanent part of the
engineer's world. Industry and government will be
increasingly involved in systematically forecasting
and assessing the second order consequences of
proposed new technologies. The National Environ-
mental Policy Act has already led to the prepara-
tion of thousands of Environmental Impact State-
ments, assessing the probable consequences of
federal actions for the environment. Very recent
revisions of rules for such statements by the Coun-
cil on Environmental Quality has broadened their
scope of concern beyond narrowly defined environ-
mental issues, and a number of judicial decisions
have done the same.
The National Science Foundation is, at this
writing, soliciting proposals to perform TA's in
nine areas:
Solar Energy
Geothermal Energy
Advanced Data Processing and Telecommunications
in Criminal Justice Systems
Cashless-Checkless Society
Biological Substitutes for Chemical Pesticides
Integrated Hog Farming
Conversion From the English to Metric System in the
Alternative Work Schedules
Alternative Strategies and Methods for Conserving
Congress has established an Office of Tech-
nology Assessment (OTA) which will conduct or
contract for major TA's for Congress. Much of
their work will be contracted for by think-tanks
and engineering consulting firms, and engineers
will play key roles in these studies.
It has been pointed out that a large percentage
of upper level federal, state, and local government
employees are engineers, and we believe that this
fact alone justifies a place for Technology Assess-
ment in the engineering curriculum.

I have described and given some of the ration-
ale for our graduate course in Technology Assess-
(Continued on page 201)



Will The M.S. Become

The First Professional Degree

In ChE?

Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802

The third of three evening colloquia held at the
Summer School for Chemical Engineering Teach-
ers at the University of Colorado from August
14-18, 1972 concerned this timely topic. Four
knowledgeable panelists from universities and in-
dustry representing ECPD, AIChE, and them-
selves, spoke on various aspects of the problem
and then discussed their differing points of view.

There were no votes following the session and
disagreements among participants were not re-
solved. However, many points which appear in the
remarks of the panelists will give information and
perspective to those facing accreditation in the
near future.
In order not to appear as a censor by deleting
material, edited transcripts of each of the partic-
ipants remarks follow. Any inaccuracies are solely
the responsibility of the colloquim coordinator and
not the participant.


Envirotech Corporation
The questions I was given to address myself
to are "What does industry want in a chemical
engineer, and does the M.S. degree represent the
optimum degree for industry?" The secondary
question is "What does industry think about the
M.S. degree as to whether it will become the first
professional degree in chemical engineering?"

N CONSIDERING THE latter first, I do not
think the M.S. degree will become the first
professional degree in chemical engineering. Since
I was asked to give the industry viewpoint, I'll
shock you a little bit. With all we've got to worry
about today, I think the last thing we are going
to worry about is whether the master's degree is
the first or second degree in chemical engineering.
In fact, I don't know of very many people in in-
dustry that know of the controversy that is going
on. I happen to because I do have a sincere inter-
est in education and also, at the same time, sup-
port industry. Basically, I think the chemical in-
dustry goes for the individual with certain re-
quired skills, talents, abilities and personality at
a price it can afford to pay. It lives in a competi-
tive world as it has no other choice. It also has a

wide variety of needs which in the case of the
engineers causes it to appraise technical abilities
to a greater or lesser extent, depending upon the
job involved. I would point out to you those posi-
tions that basically build on a bachelors level of
education, but require the buildup of experience
with time. Generally speaking, these are in the
categories of production or engineering, sales,
marketing, purchasing, etc. The experience that
you gain there is of far greater value, I believe,
than one more year in engineering education after
the bachlor's degree. At the same time, I would
definitely recommend a man to go out and get ex-
perience before he goes on to obtain the master's
degree. I would hope that he will get the latter
through continuing education.
Those fields such as research and development
and certain aspects of technical services need
higher technical abilities and creativity, and there-
fore a greater emphasis upon the advanced de-
Industry is always looking for, and hoping for,
a continuing increase in experience in each in-

*Report on Trends in Engineering Accreditation col-
loquium at the ASEE Summer School in Boulder, Colo.

FALL 1973

I --

dividual. In this regard, continuing education as
well as personality traits are extremely important.
I emphasize the latter frankly because I think this
is one thing we need very badly today in engineer-
ing. This is not just in our industry, but in defense
of our own profession. In the outer world, if you
don't mind my calling it that, there is an anti-
technology feeling. I believe a lot of this is caused
by the fact that engineers haven't helped sell the
things that technology has done and the general
public demands. We have not been sufficiently
vocal and persuasive in getting our story across
to the public. Technology has certainly contributed
to a very great extent to the development of the
high standard of living which we experience to-
day. Yet, the general public to a certain extent
feels that technology is bad today for some strange
reason. Yet, the solutions to our present problems
must highly involve technology in such things as
energy demands, the environment, urban renewal,
In regards to the bachelor's degree, let me give
you something from my own experience. This is
mainly how my research and development depart-
ment stacks up degree-wise. At the same time, I
will tell you that I am very proud of our research
and development effort and believe that it stacks
up very well against any of our competitors. I
think I can justify that by the fact that we have
had a million dollar research contract from the
EPA and we have been told that we have had the
best waste treatment pilot plant they have ever
run. We get several hundred thousand dollars a
year from customers paying us to do R&D, even
though we are not trying to sell it. However, we
feel we must furnish it because our customers de-
mand it. Yet, my distribution of engineers degree-
wise is 4 PhD's including myself, 12 MS degrees
and 13 bachelor's degrees. Most of the master's
are in the sanitary field for obvious reasons. If
you say to me that I must have a PhD to do re-
search and development, I'll tell you that you
don't. I think I am more interested in the man's
personality traits, his desire to work, his work
habits, his creativity, and things of this nature
rather than his degree.

.. I would say that industry wants their employees
to get their master's degree, but I don't think they
look at it as a requirement for jobs.

engineering education? I'd say first, basic
technical truths and their practical application.
Secondly, how to think and how to approach prob-
lems and gain solutions. Third, good work habits,
correct use of the tools of engineering besides
computers, but certainly also including them.
Fourth, the use of the English language written
and spoken. Fifth, the appreciation of the needs,
the abilities, and the understanding of others, par-
ticularly those he is going to have to relate to,
e.g. such things as manufacturing, accounting in
today's world, management, sales, etc.
Where does industry fall down with respect to
treating the graduates you put out? First of all,
we don't challenge them enough when they start.
We give them too routine a job. Secondly, we
don't realize that we must continue to train that
individual. He's only started down the road to
Universities today? I think it generally gets
the product of what I said earlier, but there are
three areas where we find them lacking. First of
all, not enough understanding of the applications,
the tools and the truths you have given to these
young men. They are powerful tools, but we find
them at the other end saying "I really don't know
how to apply many of those things that they
taught me". Secondly, a great lacking is the Eng-
lish language, and I would emphasize both written
and spoken. Mostly the communication an engi-
neer has is of the written variety today. There-
fore, that's where he's going to make most of his
points, sell most of his ideas, get most of his job
done. At the same time, he will have many op-
portunities orally. I think we do a poor job of
teaching the English language, both written and


Third, is the lack of sympathy with the com-
pany's objectives and goals. A company today
must have many objectives besides making a
profit. All too often, the young engineer fails to
realize these objectives in his daily efforts.
I also believe you must ask yourself a few
other questions in relationship to your own stu-
dents. First of all, are you being fair to the stu-
dent if you require him to have a master's degree
as the first professional degree? The bulk of your
product still comes out at the bachelor's level and
I think will for many years to come. You'd better
be sure that you are right if you're going to argue
them into that sort of thing. You must realize that
you have a great deal of influence upon the student
which also means you must exercise that influence
with great care. Secondly, what are you doing to
your graduate school if you insist that we better
have a master's degree as the first degree. You
must be sure that you are not lowering the quality
of the product in your graduate students. Thirdly,
I think you have to think of the economics of en-
gineering education. I've read an awful lot of the
accreditation reports this year and I'm sure all the
people here in front of the table have read them
too. There are a surprising number of them that

are talking about severe financial strains upon the
Universities they have inspected. We see it in
chemical engineering, but I'm sure it runs in the
other engineering branches in a University.
Schools are in serious difficulties and I'm not ad-
vocating the lowering of the quality of engineering
education. Nor am I saying that the cost per stu-
dent should be lowered to that of liberal arts. En-
gineering education, like medicine, dentistry, law
and many other professions, is a more costly
proposition. Furthermore, the citizen paying the
taxes or paying the tuition of a privately endowed
school wants a quality education for his children.
That is not the problem. I'm simply cautioning
you that for the foreseeable future I think a lot
of consideration is going to have to be given by
the engineering faculty to the economics of en-
gineering education. You are going to have to give
quality and I do not believe at a lower cost, but
certainly at a reasonable cost.
In summary, I would say that industry wants
their employees to get their master's degree, but
I don't think they look at it as a requirement for
jobs. In many of the areas experience after the
bachelor's degree is more important. D

California Institute of Technology
My role here is to describe the criteria for ac-
creditation, and I will review some topics that I
think you are familiar with already. At the same
time I will bring in some new topics to be explicit
on changes that are occurring. Of major import
to us all at present is the new ECPD policy to
accredit both basic and advanced-level engineering
programs. In order to implement this ECPD pol-
icy, a tentative statement on policies and pro-
cedures has been written. Changes in the write up
probably will develop over a period of time, but
for the moment the statement is controlling as we
examine programs in basic and advanced-level
curricula. Not only does the statement give policy
and procedures, but it also states why we are
where we are at the present time. The statement
is given as follows:

For Implementation of ECPD Program of Ac-
creditation of Basic and Advanced Professional
Engineering Educational Programs.

At their 39th annual meeting, October 3-5, 1971, the
Board of Directors of ECPD approved the "Final Commit-
tee Report on Objectives and Procedures for Accredited
Programs in Engineering in the United States" (see pages
12-18 of the 39th Annual Report of ECPD).
On March 27, 1972, the Engineers' Council for Profes-
sional Development received approval from the National
Commission on Accrediting (NCA) to respond to requests
from institutions to accredit professional engineering edu-
cational programs at the basic and advanced level. Ap-

FALL 1973


AIChE ... has been very vocal relative to the Goals Report and I suspect our
thinking has reflected the needs of the chemical process industries in the main.

proval was given ". . with the understanding that ac-
creditation would apply only to the professional programs
at less than the doctoral level . ."


In March, 1973, ECPD and NCA mutually agreed on
the following statement of policy:
"The ECPD deals with the accreditation of professional
engineering programs at basic or advanced levels leading
to the bachelors' and/or the masters' degrees. ECPD does
not accredit graduate programs which are not professional
in nature."
Under this policy a school may:
Seek accreditation of a basic-level program. That pro-
gram would generally terminate in a bachelor's de-
Seek accreditation of an advanced-level program.
That program would generally terminate in a mas-
ter's degree.
Seek accreditation of both basic and advanced-level
programs that would terminate with bachelor's and
master's degrees, respectively.
Request accreditation for its programs in accord with
its own goals. ECPD will be appropriately flexible in
responding to such a request but will, in general, use
items (1), (2), and (3) to guide its actions.
The ECPD program for accrediting engineering educa-
tional programs is distinguished by the willingness to con-
sider experimental programs and the exercise of flexibil-
ity in applying the various criteria. This same philosophy
must prevail in the evaluation of the advanced programs
as well. However, the institution should recognize that re-
sponsible experimentation is accompanied by the obliga-
tion to carefully evaluate the outcome of the experiment.


To proceed effectively with the accreditation of basic
and advanced-level professional programs, members of the
ad hoc visiting committees must have a clear understand-
ing of the revised and new criteria for evaluating those
The "Final Committee Report" contains:
Qualitative and quantitative criteria for assessing in
curricular content of both basic and advanced-level
professional programs.
Qualitative criteria for judging the size, competence,
and dedication of the faculty.
Qualitative criteria for judging the admission, reten-
tion, and performance of the students.
Qualitative criteria for judging the attitudes and ef-
fectiveness of the several levels of administration.
Qualitative criteria for judging the commitment of
the institution to the engineering endeavor.
The ad hoc visiting committees will be required to ex-
ercise considerable judgment in evaluating advanced-level
programs. With the exception of quantitative differences in

curricular content, criteria differences between basic and
advanced-level programs are matters of degree and thus
subject to interpretation. Moreover, the criteria on cur-
ricular content may be met by means other than courses.
Advanced-level professional programs requiring thesis or
project reports are acceptable if in the course of executing
the thesis or project report the student is exposed to ma-
terial that effectively meets the curricular content. Since
the criteria for advanced-level accreditation are largely
qualitative, the efforts of the ad hoc visiting committee
will be materially assisted by: (1) a clear statement from
the institution setting forth the goals toward which the
advanced-level programs are directed and (2) a concise but
complete description of the institutional procedures and
practices used to assure that the study program and ex-
perience of each student are consistent with these goals.
There are a variety of engineering educational pro-
grams which lead to the master's degree. ECPD's policy is
to accredit programs at either the bachelor's or the mas-
ter's level, not the degree itself. The degree designation
is considered the prerogative of the institution. For ex-
ample, an educational program leading to a Master of
Science in Electrical Engineering would be considered ac-
creditable if, in the judgment of ECPD, the program met
or exceeded all the criteria for the advanced-level profes-
sional program. Conversely, an educational program lead-
ing to a Master of Electrical Engineering degree would
not be considered accreditable if, in the judgment of ECPD,
the program failed to meet all of the criteria for the ad-
vanced-level professional program.
When a school requests evaluation of an advanced-level
program, there is always the possibility that accreditation
might not be granted. If a school has both basic- and ad-
vanced-level programs in the same field, it should ordinar-
ily request visits for both basic-and-advanced-level evalua-
tions. In the event that advanced-level accreditation is
denied, the school still might receive basic-level accredita-
tion with such designation in the Annual Report.


The "Manual of Evaluation Procedure of the Engineer-
ing Education and Accreditation Committee, 1971-72" pro-
vides guidelines for the ad hoc visiting committees as they
represent the EE&A Committee of ECPD.
Appendix A of the Manual outlines a typical schedule
for a visiting committee. Currently, the typical campus
visit for evaluating the first professional degree program
in engineering starts on the evening of the first day (Sun-
day, for example) and ends sometime during the afternoon
of the third day (Tuesday). When both basic-level and
advanced-level evaluation are to be accomplished during a
campus visit, the schedule may extend from the afternoon
of the first day to the end of the customary work day on
the third day. This schedule adds approximately two-thirds
of a working day to the previous plan. It is expected that
this added time will be allotted to the evaluation of ad-
vanced-level programs to determine if they comply with


the criteria set forth as general statements under "Imple-
mentation of Policy." Further consideration of the time
needs will be made after the first year's operation.

The above statement on policy and procedures
is in support of the point that ECPD will now ac-
cept requests for advanced-level accreditation. It
will interpret those requests and act upon them in
accord with the stated policies and procedures.
Policies and procedures will be considered in com-
bination with the criteria of accreditation shown
on page 14 of the 39th Annual Report of ECPD.
The statement there is given as follows:

"A. For those institutions which elect to prepare grad-
uates for entry into the profession at the basic
level, ECPD normally will expect the curricular
content of the program to include:
1. The equivalent of approximately two and a half
years of study in the area of mathematics, sci-
ence, and engineering. The course work should
include at least one-half year of mathematics be-
yond trigonometry, plus one-half year of basic
sciences, one year of engineering sciences, and
one-half year of design, synthesis, and systems.
2. The equivalent of one-half year as the minimum
content in the area of humanities and social sci-

That work cited above adds up to three years
so that the fourth year of the undergraduate or
basic program would be directed to whatever the
student wants to do beyond the minimum ECPD
requirements. Now for those institutions that elect
to prepare graduates for entry into the profession
at the advanced-level, ECPD will, as stated, nor-
mally expect the curricular content of the program
to include the equivalent of approximately three
and one-half years of study in the areas of mathe-
matics, science, and engineering. That course work
should include at least one-half year of mathe-
matics beyond trigonometry, one-half year of
basic sciences, one year of engineering science,
one year of design, synthesis, and systems, and
one-half year of other advanced technical subjects.
The requirement for the advanced program in-
cludes then a half year of design, synthesis, and
William H. Corcoran
Professor of Chemical Engineering, California Institute
of Technology
Chairman, EE & A Committee of ECPD
Director and Vice-Chairman of E & A Committee of
Melvin R. Lohmann
Professor of Industrial Engineering and Dean of Col-
lege of Engineering, Oklahoma State University
President, ECPD

systems beyond the basic program and a half year
of advanced work in technical areas in an indi-
vidual course of study. The extra year of effort
described by these differential criteria is a very
formidable program. Especially, the additional
half year of design, synthesis, and systems will
not be simply achieved, because I believe we are
already having trouble in many cases of showing
a half year of design, synthesis, and systems in
the basic-level program. In any event it is up to
the Visiting Team to analyze the programs and
determine the level of effort. If necessary, the
Visiting Team will have to examine each tran-
script and the work represented by each transcript
to establish whether the student has had the ad-
ditional half year of design, synthesis, and sys-
tems and the additional half year in essentially ad-
vanced technical work. That will be, I believe, the
biggest challenge to ECPD in appropriately eval-
uating the advanced-level programs in the United
Now I would like to state something about the AIChE
position. AIChE over the past few years has been very
vocal relative to the Goals Report, and I suspect that our
thinking has reflected the needs of the chemical-process
industries in the main. Those industries in general have
believed that a basic program is sufficient for entry into
the profession of engineering in their structure. There
have been some firm stands taken that the basic program
is all that need be evaluated. Consequently, chemical en-
gineers have been under significant stress in discussions of
curriculum with other engineers, and therefore we have
had some problems in inter-facing with the goals of other
engineering societies. Maybe they are right or maybe not,
but there has been significant discussion and interaction.
Nevertheless, ECPD has now taken the position as de-
scribed here on basic and advanced-level programs, and
the position will be implemented. To take note of that
point, the AIChE Council prepared a statement that was
passed onto ECPD by Mr. Van Antwerpen. It was in effect
that the AIChE will cooperate with the ECPD in carrying
out the programs on basic and advanced-level accreditation.
For the present, it will continue with basic-level accredita-
tion activities until it learns more about specifics and the
requirements for the advanced-level accreditation. In that
statement is an implication that in the not-distant-future
AIChE will also participate in advanced-level accreditation
along with basic-level accreditation. [
Max S. Peters
Professor of Chemical Engineering and Dean of College
of Engineering, University of Colorado
AIChE representative to ECPD
Former President, AIChE
Donald A. Dahlstrom
Vice President and Director of Research and Develop-
ment, The Eimco Corporation
EE & A Committee of ECPD
Former President, AIChE

FALL 1973 191


Dean of Engineering, Oklahoma State University

M Y TALK MAY not be very enlightening, but
I hope you will credit me for bravery to come
here representing the Enginers' Council for Pro-
fessional Development and facing one hundred
chemical engineering educators.
Accreditation of engineering programs beyond
the baccalaureate level has been discussed in
ECPD since 1934 (the year it was founded). It
appears that every decade an ECPD committee
would study accreditation of graduate programs.
Invariably, the committee reports would enum-
erate the complexities involved and recommend
further study. This long succession of studies and
reports finally culminated in the recommendations
of Dean Schultz and his committee in 1971. Bob
Beckmann was initimately involved in the discus-
sion of the Schultz report and of great assistance
in the negotiations with the National Commission
on Accrediting. He wrote extensively and his
work was presented to you by Bill Corcoran and
is included in the ECPD Annual Report.
During the past two years I did something
that I should have done thirty years ago when I
became an engineering educator. I read all of the
major ASEE reports that have been written about
engineering education-the Wickenden Reports
of 1930 and 1931, the Hammond Reports of 1940
and 1944, the Grinter Reports of 1953-1955, and
the Goals Reports of 1965-1968. From these re-
ports I gained some impressions I would like to
share with you.
It appears to me that engineers and engineer-
ing education prior to World War II (the time
that I got my basic education at the University of
Minnesota) attempted to cover the technological
manpower spectrum between the scientist, on one
hand, and the craftsman on the other. For that
time, engineering education did a good job of
educating men for this wide spectrum of technical
Through shop courses, surveying, drafting, de-
scriptive geometry and extensive laboratories,
graduates were prepared to touch hands in their
activities with the craftsman. From my under-
graduate studies, I learned to cast a pretty good
ashtray; I could machine a useable screw; I could
build a fairly decent pattern; I could do welding
with electric arc or gas; and I could do surveying.
Practically all these skill courses have disappeared

from today's engineering curricula. On the other
hand, the engineer of that time touched hands, or
thought he did, with the scientists and mathe-
maticians through his study of mathematics and
science, although I don't think many of us could
use the calculus too well.
That was the situation when World War II be-
gan. During those war years, there were great
technical developments which were really engi-
neering developments-radar, the jet engine, the
atomic bomb, and electronics. All of these new de-
velopments were culminated in the space program.
You also will recall the early 1950's. If a rocket
went up it was a scientific success and if it flopped
on the ground it was an engineering failure.
After World War II, many engineering educa-
tors were concerned with the apparent gap in the
education and the activities between the scientist
and engineer. No longer could the average engi-
neer without training in solid state, or nuclear
physics, or advanced courses in mathematics par-
ticipate in the development of the atomic bomb;
nor could he participate in the development of
rockets, spacecraft, and all the associated weap-
In the early 1950's an ASEE committee, under
the chairmanship of L. E. Grinter, conducted a
study and made the recommendation for a bifur-
cated engineering educational program. If you
were an engineering educator at that time, you
know that that suggestion was as controversial, if
not more so, as some of the recommendations made
by the Goals Committee ten years later. The
Grinter Committee suggested that one curriculum
in engineering be similar to that which was in
existence before World War II and a second cur-
riculum be established which would be scientific
in its orientation. In fact the Grinter Committee



designated the first curriculum as professional-
general and the second, professional-scientific.
Then, in my opinion, the committee made a serious
mistake by suggesting that the curriculum desig-
nated professional-scientific should have a little
star behind it in the listing of accredited curricula
in the ECPD Annual Report. Well, we all re-
membered the stars on our Sunday School reports
and we all wanted stars on our engineering cur-
riculum. As a consequence, the recommendation
was withdrawn and every curriculum became in-
creasingly scientific.
The Grinter Committee also recommended that
a half a year of additional mathematics, some
modern physics, some additional engineering sci-
ences, and a minimum of one half to one year of
humanities and social sciences be added to the
engineering curriculum. The Grinter Committee
suggested that roughly two years of additional
courses be added to the four-year curriculum and
not lengthen the curriculum. To put this much ad-
ditional course work in, something had to come
out. What came out was most of the arts of engi-
neering, most if not all of the shopwork, and
some of the laboratory work. However, this was
not serious but what was serious, in my opinion,
was the recommendation that part of the prepro-
fessional studies be completed in high school. The
high schools were required to teach what we still
call college algebra and trigonometry. As a result,
engineering is the only profession that now re-
quires a junior in high school to decide on his
profession and to do something about it while still
in high school. No other profession asks this of a
15 or 16 year old. Other students can take a reg-
ular college preparatory course before enrolling in
law, in medicine, in dentistry, in anything except
engineering. It was at this time in history, in my
opinion, that engineering educators failed to fully
recognize the growing breadth and diversity of
our nation's technological manpower spectrum.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF the more mathe-
matical and scientific curriculum opened up a
gap between the craftsman and the engineer and
this gap was quickly filled by other educational
programs. These programs include the vo-tech
certificate program, the associate degree tech-
nician program ( a program that is growing about
20 percent per year), and the baccalaureate degree
technologist program which is growing even fas-
ter in enrollments. In my opinion, there is now
great confusion in industry and in the minds of

the public between the engineering graduate from
the basic baccalaureate program and the engineer-
ing technologist from the four year baccalaureate
program. This confusion is going to increase as
the number of engineering technologists increase.
I know many of you think that engineering tech-
nology programs shouldn't exist, but this is like
saying that the tide shouldn't come in. These pro-
grams are here, and they came as a consequence of
our failure in 1953 to plan for the bifurcation that
Grinter suggested at that time.
A similar bifurcation appears to be occurring
at the master's level. In 1960, one of every five
engineering graduates with a bachelor's degree
earned a master's degree. In 1971, it was two of
every five. The United States Office of Education
projections indicate that by the mid-1970's one
half of the engineering baccalaureate graduates
will also receive a master's degree. In the late
1960's the Engineers Joint Council surveyed a
large sample from the 345,000 members of the 13
major professional-technical engineering societies.
Some of the unpublished information indicates
that over 30 percent of the total group had
achieved a degree beyond the baccalaureate; over
56 percent of those under the age of 45 had ad-
vanced degrees; and 65 percent of those between
the ages of 25 and 35 had advanced degrees. In
1972, a joint ECPD-NCA policy provided for the
accreditation of advanced professional engineer-
ing programs. ECPD does not accredit graduate
programs which are not professional in nature.

.. Projections indicate that by the mid-1970's
one half of the engineering baccalaureate graduates
will also receive their master's degree.

The Grinter Committee also reported that en-
gineering education should provide the basic tools
to solve problems of social utility as well as the
application of specific scientific principles to spe-
cific technical problems. Some believe, and I must
confess I am one, that we are witnessing a bifurca-
tion at the undergraduate level between engineer-
ing technology and engineering, and at the gradu-
ate or advanced level between the so-called pro-
fessional programs and graduate programs.
I recently had the opportunity to study the
historical development of the educational pro-
grams for some of the other recognized profes-

FALL 1973

... most professions have significantly changed
the structure and length of their professional education
programs. In contrast... engineering has remained
unchanged for over a century.

sions. I found that most of the professions have
significantly changed the structure and the length
of their professional education programs. In con-
trast, the structure and the length of the basic
program in engineering has remained unchanged
for over a century. That doesn't necessarily mean
that engineering ought to change. It's been good
for a century and it may be good for another, but
we ought to examine what has happened in the
other professions in less than a century. In 1900,
most schools of medicine granted a doctor of
medicine degree after about three years of col-
legiate level study. The Bachelor of Law degree
had just come into being in 1900; law had tradi-
tionally been an apprenticeship program. Most of
the law schools at that time were not connected
with a university, but were independent profes-
sional schools and granted the bachelor of law de-
gree after two years of post-high school study.
Dentistry was a two year program at most schools.
Architectural educational programs had not de-
veloped. It appears there were only two schools of
Business in 1900 with four year programs. Edu-
cational programs for Social Work were not yet
in existence. However, the four year program in
engineering had forty years of history by 1900.
The early technical schools, e.g., Pratt, Rensselaer,
Worcester, and Pennsylvania College and others
had engineering programs that generally were two
years in length. With the passage of the land grant
colleges act, about 1862, engineering became part
of the new land grant colleges and adopted the
four year program. Most of the two year engineer-
ing programs disappeared or changed to four
years before 1900. Thus, by 1900 engineering edu-
cation was well established as a four year program
but obviously not with the same content as today's
However, there were great changes in the
length and structure of other professional educa-
tional programs by 1940. Medicine was a four year
professional program after a three year pre-pro-
fressional program-a total of seven years. By
1940, the Bachelor of Law educational programs
consisted of two years of pre-law studies followed
by a three year law program for a total of five

years. The educational program for the degree of
Doctor of Dental Surgery was a minimum of five
years. By 1940 nearly all Schools of Architecture
had adopted the five year Architecture program.
Business was now firmly established as a four year
educational program. Social Work hadn't devel-
oped its unique educational program. Engineering
was still a four year program.
In 1972, Medical education is an eight year
program for the doctorate degree, not including
internship or specialization. However, some in-
stitutions are admitting students after three years
of pre-medical studies. The Law educational pro-
gram now consists of a four year pre-law bac-
calaureate program followed by three years of
law leading to the degree of Doctor of Juris
Prudence. The Dental Surgery educational pro-
gram is structured like the medical educational
program. Over 70 percent of all the architectural
educational programs are now a six year profes-
sional program leading to the master's degree. The
Master of Business Administration educational
program is less than thirty years old. Yet the
number of MBA degrees awarded exceed the num-
ber of master's degrees in all of the disciplines of
of engineering. The MBA is generally a two year
program. A new educational program of great
popularity is the Master of Social Work, struc-
tured like the MBA program awarded after six
years of study. So as we look back, we note there
have been considerable changes in the length and
structure of other professional educational pro-
grams and no change in the length and structure
of engineering educational programs.
I think it was John Gardner who said that the
test of any society is the ability of that society to
reform itself. Can engineering meet that test in a
reasonable span of years? It was November 1961
when Bill Everett, President of ECPD, called
upon ASEE to conduct a new study of engineer-
ing education. It was 1963 before funding was ob-
tained. A preliminary report was issued in 1965.
An interim report was issued in 1967 and a final
report in 1968. In 1972, eleven years later, ECPD
received NCA approval to accredit advanced pro-
fessional engineering educational programs, lead-
ing to the master's degree.
So much for the history. I thought you might
be interested to know that there is really nothing
new under the sun. Many of the people who have
written about engineering education had ideas
that I've expressed here, and they expressed them
some thirty or forty years ago. O



Dean of Engineering, University of Colorado

I AM PRESENTING TO you what are basically
AIChE ideas on advanced degree accreditation.
However, before we get into the specific pros and
cons I would like to make a few comments with
relation to the title for our discussion tonight. As
you know the title is "Trends in Engineering Ac-
creditation-Will the M.S. become the first pro-
fessional degree in Chemical Engineering?" We
put this title down about the M.S. being the first
professional degree in chemical engineering before
we were aware of the official ECPD action on the
accreditation of the advanced professional degree.
This is why tonight almost all of the discussion
you have heard has not been on "Will the Master's
degree, Master of Science degree, become the first
professional degree?" It has been on the subject
of what is the situation, what are the criteria,
what is the background for the official action of
ECPD to approve the accreditation using differ-
ential criteria for the advanced professional pro-
gram or the advanced program as we like to call it.
I think that you can see what is happening
from the way Pete Lohmann presented this ma-
terial or by just looking at what the situation is
for the developing four year bachelor of engineer-
ing technology. We are quickly moving toward an
official situation where, if we want to retain our
own necessary status with our peers (i.e. the civil
engineers, the electrical engineers, the mechanical
engineers, tc.), we may be forced into the situa-
tion that we will have to say yes (just like the rest
of the engineering profession) that we are going
to join you and make the advanced program or the
Master's degree the first professional degree in
engineering. As you all know, when this was pro-
posed in the Goals Report, we had debate after
debate and almost a unanimous viewpoint from
the CHE profession that this was not a desirable
way to move. Now within four or five years it is
very clear that we are moving quickly in the di-
rection of the masters degree perhaps becoming
the first professional degree. I think it's extremely
important to look at what is developing. So that
when we say the title for our symposium here to-
night is, "Will the Masters Degree Become the
First Professional Degree in Cemical Engineer-
ing?" it's a key thing for us to recognize that
we're taking the next step toward this when we
do agree with ECPD that the accreditation of the

advanced program using differential criteria is the
way to go.
The Deans of Engineering from Pennsylvania
wrote a letter to ECPD saying that they did not
agree with the Schultz Report. They did not think
that this was the way to go. The Colorado Deans
met about three weeks ago and conceived this
same kind of a statement on which I indicated my
views as follows:
We have been discussing this thing about the advanced
program of accreditation for at least four or five years. I
have been completely aware of what has been going on,
and have spoken out very openly and I think relatively
firmly against this activity. I felt at many times that there
were not many other people supporting me. When the final
vote was taken I was asked if I wanted to have a count of
the people in the room voting. I said no because I had
counted myself and there were six of us voting against it
and about thirty who voted in favor of the advanced pro-
gram of accreditation.
So when the Colorado Deans said should we object
to this I said we are about four years too late. If
you wanted to object to the advanced program of
accreditation you should have been speaking out
when a few of the others were three of four years
ago. ECPD has been very fair in telling everyone
what is going on. We had plenty of chance to
speak out and I would very much oppose the en-
gineering deans of Colorado coming out against
this. We had our chance to object four years ago.
At this time I think we have to look at this very,
very carefully and see how we should approach
it in chemical engineering. I say that there is a
good chance ten years from now our first degree
in CHE might be a masters degree. I still think it
is a mistake but nevertheless it is being done. I
think we are going to have to get together and
make at least a reasonable workable procedure.

FALL 1973


N OW LET US LOOK AT the pros and cons
trying to be just as fair as we possibly can in
our analyses. Below are listed four of the favor-
Able consequences of advanced level program ac-
* It appears that more engineers will be taking advanced
education, and the accreditation of these programs
should result in improved programs which can better
prepare engineers to function on higher levels.
* The advanced accreditation can result in more respect
for the title ENGINEER, because the general public
will feel that it represents a longer educational process
with special accreditation recognition.
The advanced accreditation could provide an elite status
for the engineer with that degree and could also possibly
serve to control the number and entrance requirements
to the profession.
In the public image, the advanced degree will become
more acceptable with the advanced accreditation.
Van Antwerpen, Bob Beckmann and I discussed
other areas that we thought we could put down
under the favorable consequence side but we
thought that these four items pretty well covered
the plus side. On the con side the unfavorable con-
sequences of the advanced level program accred-
itation are listed below.
Adding one more year to the standard B.S. as a normal
procedure for almost all engineers will make education
more expensive and possibly less attractive to those un-
decided on an engineering education.
If engineering education becomes more complex in both
time and money, it will discourage students from enter-
ing engineering.
The general acceptance of advanced degrees as the first
professional engineering degree will encourage the ex-
pansion of four-year technology programs and degrees
and will further accelerate industry's use of technology
graduates as engineering replacements or substitutes.
The accreditation actions, unless properly handled, may
stifle diversity in graduate programs and stereotype the
graduates. Graduate programs should emphasize indi-
vidual intellectual development rather than completion
of specific course work.
It will cause special problems for small schools because
of the increase in the cost of maintaining an accredited
status due to the "prestige" of having the advanced-level
These unfavorable consequences that I have
just discussed can cause us some difficulties unless
we can do something relatively quickly to go in
the direction of advanced program accreditation
slowly and with real control. If we suddenly

switch into this and say that any master's degree
is an advanced program and if it is accredited it
has to be accredited on the advanced criteria, I
think we are in real trouble. I think this is going
to tie our hands in a lot of ways as we try to get
programs that we feel should be accredited on the
masters level but don't want to meet that full
extra one year of the advanced mathematics or
the additional analysis, design, and synthesis.
It is my proposal that, to answer many of the
unfavorable consequences as indicated in the pre-
ceding, it seems the individual schools should have
a choice on their master's degree programs as to
whether or not they wish to have them accredited
on the basic level or on the advanced level, or of
course no accreditation at all. It's up to the school
to decide that, just because it's a masters degree,
does not mean it necessarily has to be accredited
with the advanced level basis. An example of this
is that we (Colorado) are trying to put through a
master of engineering degree. We have a master
of science degree which under no conditions do I
want to have accredited because we take chemists
into our master of science in chemical engineering
and we also occasionally take a mechanical engi-
neer. They come out with a master of science de-
gree in ChE but we don't force the chemists to
make up every single bit of mathematics back-
ground; we don't force them to make up all of the
humanities; we don't make them make up all these
other things. Taking the mechanical engineer, we
we don't force him to take all the organic chem-
istry. We also bring in students from India and,
when you look at what they've taken, they don't
come any place near in many cases in the neces-
sary humanities. So our master of science pro-
gram is not accreditable, but we are trying to start
a master of engineering program. This master of
engineering program would be one in which the
student would take about half of his credits in his
own program like chemical engineering with the
other half taken in any area which his guiding
committee approves. Such a man in industry
might want to take the other half in business man-
agement, or in ecology, or in biology, or in ac-
counting, or in statistics.


... The individual schools should have a choice on their master's degree programs as to whether or not
they wish to have them accredited on the basic level or on the advanced level or not at all.

Now ... it is very clear we are moving in the direction of the
Master's degree becoming the first professional degree.

Let's take a chemical engineer. He would come
in with a background degree where he could pick
up on the graduate level about 15 hours of chem-
ical engineering and take the other 15 hours in his
choice in various courses related to, e.g., business
management. We want to give him a Master of
Engineering degree. It is not accreditable on the
advanced basis but I would be willing to try to
make it accreditable using a basic criteria. This
is a typical example of one of the reasons I feel it
is so important that we convince the ECPD group
and the ECPD-EE&A Committee that schools
should be given the right, at least for the next four
or five years, to make their own decisions as to

whether they want their master degrees accred-
ited on the basic level or on the advanced level.
There is an ECPD-EE&A sub-committee of which
I am a member currently working on this, but I
don't know what the result will be because I
haven't heard from the other members. However,
I think if we can get this kind of a flexibility in
as we start, then we chemical engineers will be
able to do what I believe AIChE wants to do. That
is, move very slowly into the area of advanced
program accreditation recognizing clearly the pos-
sibility that we are therefore heading toward the
masters degree as the first professional degree. O

(Continued from page 170)

The analog and digital computer can be linked for low
speed hybrid computation. The analog is used exten-
sively for laboratory simulation for convenient pro-
gram check out.
The computer is used to collect and process x-ray dif-
fraction data. Future plans include the automation of a
three-axis goniometer.
The computer is currently linked to a gas chromato-
graph for data collection and analysis. Future plans
include the complete automation of the chromatograph
and sampler.
The computer is currently linked to an adiabatic calori-
meter for both temperature data acquisition and con-
trol. Future plans include the automation of a pulse
The computer is linked to a frost point hydrometer for
data collection and periodic temperature display on a
special laboratory console.
The computer is linked to a small scale multi-stage
flash evaporator and to a small packed column to col-
lect process data (temperature, pressure, flow rate,
The computer is linked to four small process units

(distillation column, batch reactor, a temperature con-
trol system, and a small flow system) for research of
advanced direct digital control applications.
Numerous additional links are planned for the future.
They include the following laboratories and facilities:
Scanning electron microscope (data acquisition); zone
refiner (control); Instron (data acquisition); mass
spectrometer (data acquisition); zone centrifugation
lab (data acquisition).


The course has presently been taught three
times at the University of Tennessee. It has been
modified each time it has been presented to include
recent developments in the field as well as to add
additional demonstrations and examples. The
course has been well received by students in all
areas of chemical engineering and has also been
attended by students outside the Department. The
course is primarily a survey of process computer
application and an introduction to modern control
theory and practice. It has been extremely helpful
for students interested in pursuing research in the
area of computer control by providing a broad
picture of various disciplines necessary to a solid
background in digital process control. O

FALL 1973



The Dow Chemical Co.
Freeport, TX 77541

Some education at the graduate level prior to
going to work makes a research engineer or chem-
ist more productive sooner. The advantage dis-
appears beyond the Master's level due to restric-
tions in hiring opportunities for PhD's.

Advantage of Graduate Level Work to the Employer
The employer expects his research scientists
to be familiar with basic fundamentals and to be
able to use them as a tool toward some practical
end. Thus, graduate work offers specialized train-
ing which can result in a high degree of produc-
tivity. In addition, there is generally some oppor-
tunity to get acquainted with the hardware for
doing research and the hardware of a production
plant. This is especially true when the graduate
is required to do a research thesis.
An important benefit to the employer often
resulting from a person's exposure to graduate
studies is an improvement in maturity. The grad-
uate must make many decisions in planning his
program, he establishes personal relationships of
a professional nature, and he has the chance to
apply his newly learned theories for the first time.

Advantages of Graduate Level Work to the Employee
The graduate with an advanced degree first
of all enjoys a higher starting salary than the
BS. But more important, he has a competitive
edge over the BS and is therefore more produc-
tive sooner during the first five critical years of
his career when his rate of progress is quite often
There is a considerable amount of personal sat-
isfaction resulting from having at hand the
needed tools to be able to solve new problems
facing the research man each day.
An important decision that a young scientist
must make relatively early in his career is whe-
ther to become a specialist at doing research or
whether to become a supervisor and do research

John E. Lastovica is Director of Organic Process Re-
search at the Freeport, Texas Division of The Dow
Chemical Company. He has been with the Company for the
past 18 years. He is a registered engineer (PE) in Texas.
Mr. Lastovica is a chemical engineering graduate holding
the BSc., MSc., and PhD degrees from Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University.

through other people. The added professional ex-
posure at graduate school quite often leads one to
set his own personal goal.

Some Disadvantages of Graduate Level Work
The employer who interviews graduate stu-
dents quite often discovers a concentration of
extreme personalities. The student is often moti-
vated to graduate school by a lack of confidence
in his abilities to achieve competitively in indus-
try. He feels that more and more education at the
university will help him to overcome this sense
of insecurity. I would guess that this rarely
solves his problem. This problem is more often
one of poor judgment. Scholastic excellence some-
times does not indicate a problem to the inter-
viewer; but very often, highly specialized aca-
demic training is an end in itself to the superior
One problem that is rarely admitted by the
employer is discrimination by individual super-
visors who lack an advanced degree.


. graduate work offers specialized training which can result in a high degree
of productivity. In addition there is some opportunity to get acquainted with
the hardware for doing research and the hardware of a production plant ...
especially . when the graduate is required to do a research thesis.

The larger companies often have sophisticated
organizations of specialists. Those companies pre-
fer to provide needed specialized training and
on-the-job training. By so doing, the company is
able to better set standards for applying funda-
mentals according to proven methods. Supervisory
training is certainly best obtained on the job.
The starting salary is greater for a man with
an advanced degree. In the case of the PhD, the
starting salary is quite often a restriction. The
PhD has another difficulty in being able to fit
into a training program at a company which
might feel awkward in assigning the man to a
young supervisor of lesser degree.

Possible Ways to Improve the Image of
Graduate Level Training
I believe the university must depart from an
emphasis on peer group ratings and accreditation
institutions and turn an ear towards the needs
of industry. On the other hand, industry must
express its needs to the universities and supply
ratings of the industries based on their ability
to turn out the type of people that are needed by
industry. This could occur in the way of partici-
pation in accreditation institutions. To encourage
more emphasis on applied fundamentals, indus-
try should participate more actively in providing
temporary work for professors during sabbaticals
and summer vacations. Industry should continue
to participate and encourage cooperative pro-
grams for undergraduate students to produce
graduate students with some practical experience,
whereas the universities should provide more ex-
posure to industrial hardware and practical use
of new fundamental tools.

Some graduate level work is valuable for mak-
ing an employee productive sooner. It provides a
better understanding of how to apply fundamen-
tal concepts; it tends to aid in building profes-
sional maturity and job satisfactions through
better pay and job preparedness,

On the other hand, there seems to be a trend
away from practical applications of fundamentals
which are of primary concern to an employer. As
a result of this trend and the higher starting pay
offered to graduate students, the Master's level
appears to be an optimum level to this author.
There are added social problems related to the
hiring of a PhD which limit his opportunities.
It is believed that the image of graduate level
training would be improved and its value en-
hanced if industry would more clearly state its
needs to the universities. Joint participation by
industry with the universities in accreditation
institutions might be a start in this direction.

Survey Relates Quality Ratings
To Teaching Load
(Continued from page 156)
indicated, for instance, the general levels of degree out-
put, fellowship support, grant support, and paper and
publication production for schools in the three rating cate-
gories. The distribution of support among federal, indus-
trial, and private foundation sources was also indicated. A
few especially interesting statistics are (1) the inverse
relation of teaching load to graduate quality, (2) the large
average number of federal fellowships held by the best
departments, (3) the relatively low level of research sup-
port given all departments by industry, (4) the relatively
high rate of publication by faculty at the best departments,
and (5) the relatively high stipends for teaching and re-
search assistants at the best departments.
M. R. Strunk
University of Missouri
at Rolla

available to AIChE members at a special rate of $6/yr.
Please send your remittance to
R. B. Bennett
Business Manager, CEE
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

FALL 1973


Problems And Solutions*

Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois 60616

Recent years have witnessed a growing influx
of foreign students, graduate as well as under-
graduate, into the United States. In 1950 there
were only 34,000 foreign students enrolled in
American Universities. In 1971 that number
stood at 145,000-a fourfold increase in twenty
one years. Last year graduate students not only
accounted for nearly forty-five per cent of the
foreign student population (Open Doors Report
for 1971, Institute for International Education,
809 UN Plaza, New York, N. Y. 10017) but also
constituted an estimated ten to fifteen per cent
of the total number of graduate students in the
country. From either point of view the number is
large enough to warrant and justify a debate on
the problems encountered during their training
and possible solutions to these problems. In this
connection mention must be made of a study being
conducted by the United Nations Institute for
Training and Research (UNITAR) on the de-
velopment and use of talent through training
abroad. A detailed questionnaire is being dis-
tributed to nearly 20,000 students and profes-
sionals in twenty countries. Upon completion the
study should make significant contributions to
improving the educational and employment situa-
tion in many countries.
In the following discussion we shall confine
ourselves to foreign graduate students in the en-
gineering fields, with special emphasis on chemical
engineering graduates. Needless to say, some of
the discussion will apply equally well to foreign
graduate students in other fields such as physical
and life sciences, social sciences, humanities and
education. One category of graduate students, by
and large, excluded from the discussion includes
grantees sponsored by United States or foreign
governmental and educational organizations and

*Paper presented at the ASEE Summer School in
Boulder, Colo., 1973.

foundations. These students have definite educa-
tional, financial and return plans. The problem of
graduate medical doctors are peculiar and are
also excluded.

Statistics reveal that nearly ninety per cent
of foreign students come from Asia, Latin Amer-
ica and Africa with different cultural and social
backgrounds. To say that they suffer from a
'cultural shock' upon arrival in the United States
would be an exaggeration. Their need for some
adjustment, however, is real. The process of ad-
justment can be facilitated by a clear and sympa-
thetic understanding of their problems and a non-
discriminatory approach towards their solution.
The problems encountered in the training of
foreign graduate students stem from several

The increasing number of foreign students
seeking graduate training.
The rising cost of training and living.
The deficiencies in their undergraduate cur-
The necessity of returning to their home
countries at the conclusion of their training.

Growing Demand for Graduate Training:
There are many reasons why increasing numbers
of foreign students desire graduate training.
Some of the motivating factors are the same as
those which influence students everywhere to
seek graduate training. Foremost is the realiza-
tion that a four or five year undergraduate pro-
gram cannot adequately cover the large and di-
verse body of knowledge required for creative
work. In addition to the greater knowledge to
be acquired, there is increasing impetus to ap-
ply more advanced methods in the solution of
problems. Economic advantages accruing from a


Darsh T. Wasan obtained his BS degree in ChE from
the University of Illinois and his PhD at the University
of California at Berkeley. His research interests include
mass transfer, interfacial phenomena, and particle science
and technology. He received the 1972 Western Electric
Fund Award of ASEE for contributions to education and
research and the IIT Award for excellence in teaching. He
is serving on the editorial board of the International
Journal on Powder Technology published by Elsevier
Publishing Company and is the newly appointed editor-
in-chief of an advanced series in Particle Science and
Technology published by Academic Press. (right)
Lalit Gupta obtained his BS ChE at the Indian In-
stitute of Technology in Bombay and his Master's and
PhD degrees at Illinois Institute of Technology working
with Professor Wasan. He is active in sports and games
and has been bridge champion at IIT three times as well
as a Junior Master of the American Contract Bridge
League. (left)

graduate degree are also an important considera-
tion. Other motivating factors are peculiar to
foreign students. The educational system in un-
derdeveloped countries, in particular, is inade-
quate to provide advanced curricula in specialized
fields. Very often returning foreign graduates
find themselves elevated to higher social status.
In a few cases, foreign graduates prolong their
graduate studies merely to tide over unemploy-
ment and visa status problems.
Presumably, the factors outlined above will
continue to operate and increasing number of
foreign students will continue to seek higher
education. An immediate offshoot of this trend
will be the need for a rationalized basis of selec-
tion. Furthermore, not all of the incoming foreign
students can receive adequate financial support
and this brings us to the financial aspect of the
problems of training foreign graduate students.
Financial Problems: The cost of training, like
the cost of living has risen substantially over the
years. Its impact is particularly severe on foreign

students from developing countries whose stand-
ards of living and per capital incomes are con-
siderably lower than those of the United States.
The rates of foreign exchange between these
countries and the United States only serve to
compound the problem. To cite an example, four
thousand dollars (which is a reasonable estimate
of annual expenses for an individual student here)
amount to nearly thirty thousand rupees in India
at the official rate of exchange. An engineer fresh
from school, in the United States can earn that
amount in, perhaps, five months. In India, it
would take nearly five years for him to do so.
For most foreign students, then, financial
considerations are of paramount importance. Un-
less they receive some sort of aid from the schools
they attend or from their governments, they are
compelled to seek part time employment else-
where. Current economic cutbacks and stricter
enforcement of Immigration Service laws, how-
ever, make such part time employment a difficult
proposition. But, the adverse effects on their
studies are easy to see.
Deficiencies in Undergraduate Curricula: Two
of the main shortcomings of the undergraduate
curricula of foreign students stem from lack of
financial resources. These relate to the use of the
digital computer and the use of workshop tools
and machinery. Another deficiency arises from
their educational system itself which places in-
adequate emphasis on the problem-solving ap-
proach so essential in the training of engineers
and technologists.
Deficiencies in the use of the English language
by foreign students cannot realistically be at-
tributed to shortcomings in their undergraduate
curricula since very often they receive instruc-
tion in their native languages. Nevertheless, these
deficiencies must be recognized and eliminated if
the students are to make the most of their formal
education and training in the United States.
Forced Return to Home Countries: Foreign
students are normally granted training visas for
a period of twelve or eighteen months at the
conclusion of their studies if they gain meaningful
employment in their fields. They are then required

.. selection of foreign students for graduate
training should be placed on a more rational basis
. results of the GRE are not always reflective of
the ability and caliber of foreign students.

FALL 1973

Two of the main shortcomings of the undergraduate
curricula of foreign students stem from lack of
financial resources . use of the digital computer
and the use of workshop tools and machinery.

to return home unless they change their status to
that of permanent residents. In view of the cur-
rent tight job situation, their prospects of gaining
meaningful employment which will enhance their
professional abilities are not very bright. Recent
restrictions on the granting of permanent resi-
dency visas have served to make matters worse
because employers are understandably reluctant
to hire those who can stay in the country no
longer than eighteen months after graduation.
This state of affairs also adds to the financial
problems of foreign students who see little chance
of recovering the huge investment they have
made in their education as graduates.

The selection of foreign students for graduate
training should be placed on a more rational basis.
The results of the Graduate Record Examination
are not always reflective of the ability and
caliber of foreign students. The judgment of the
Admissions Committee is subject to considerable
error because of its inadequate knowledge not only
with regard to the grading system in foreign uni-
versities but also with respect to their educational
standards. It is suggested that a central advisory
pool of educators be set up either in the United
States or in the foreign country. This pool should
be constituted by people familiar with the stand-
ards and the grading system of foreign univer-
sities and applications for admission to United
States schools may be channeled through the
pool. The pool can then rate each student and
pass the information onto the concerned school.
Once a student is admitted for a graduate
degree program, he should be given a placement
examination to determine his deficiencies, if any,
in the basic courses. His graduate program can
then be suitably modified. He should also be
given tests to determine his ability to use the
English language and if necessary, be required
to take special courses in English.
A course on the use of the digital computer
should be made an integral part of his program.
He should also receive instructions and training
in the use of workshop tools and machinery.

Departments which require a thesis as part of
the MS degree program might consider offering
students a design option as an alternative to in-
vestigative research. A design oriented thesis
is likely to be of more immediate value to the
foreign student. The feasibility of initiating grad-
uate co-op programs anod placing students in
the MIT like practice school should be examined.
Understandably, universities can do little to
alter the job situation or the immigration laws
of the country. Nevertheless, they can and should
exert greater efforts in finding meaningful em-
ployment for their foreign students especially
those who cannot stay long in the country. Such
students may be prepared to work at lower sal-
aries in order to receive the kind of training they
desire. For morale purposes, however, their
salaries should be treated as stipends and they
can be viewed as a special kind of industrial ap-
prentice, possibly with tax exemptions. It might
be possible to establish a central clearing house
for all such applicants. The benefits of such a
program are obvious. The employer gets a fully
qualified professional to work for him at a reduced
'salary' and the professional receives the kind of
training he desires before he returns to his
country and still gets paid for his efforts. It
might be mentioned here that a National Program
of Industrial Internships in Physics and Astron-
omy, financed jointly by the federal government
and industry, has recently been proposed by the
American Institute of Physics (Physics Today,
June 1972, page 66).
To summarize, foreign students and their
training present peculiar problems which deserve
serious consideration and support of efforts
toward their solution. We have made some sug-
gestions with regard to their solution which
require close cooperation among universities and
interaction between industry and the universities.
We hope that such cooperation will be forth-
coming in order that the training of foreign stu-
dents may become more rewarding not only to
themselves and their countries but also to the
universities where they study and the country
they visit.
Acknowledgement is due to Dr. H. W. Bretz, Associate
Dean, Graduate School, Dr. R. C. Kintner, Professor
Emeritus, and Mr. M. A. Anvaripour, Assistant Dean,
International Student Affairs-all at Illinois Institute of
Technology-for reading the manuscript and their help-
ful comments.





University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
University of California
Berkeley, California

the Workshop on Applications of Molecular
Concepts at the ASEE Summer School gave the
historical development of chemical engineering
thermodynamics teaching and the basis of its par-
ticular emphasis on fluids and their mixtures.
Presently due to the increased abstractness of
physical chemistry courses and the increased so-
phistication of industrial design computation, "we
must assume the burden of teaching some classical
physical chemistry and we must also teach stu-
dents how to apply physical chemistry, through
the computer, to chemical engineering design". Al-
though much of what we talked on may have been
familiar to the audience, we hoped that some new
aspects emerged from the discussions. The work-
shop aim was "breadth not depth, to present ideas
and techniques which are suitable for course work
. . perhaps some of them will strike you as in-
teresting and useful for your own particular edu-
cational objectives". We tried to have "novel ways
of looking at old ideas" result from reviewing to-
gether our collective experience, because, as John
Prausnitz reminded us what St. Augustine said,
"the essence of good preaching is Non Nova Sed


T HE INITIAL SESSION was a review by John
O'Connell of the fundamentals and terminology
of classical thermodynamics so that everyone
would begin at the same level. Of most interest
was setting out expressions for thermodynamic

properties, in terms of equations of state and for
fugacities of condensed phases, which are vital for
calculating phase equilibria involving liquids and/
or solids. Discussion was made of the importance
of vapor-phase nonidealities, activity coefficient
conventions for subcritical components and for
supercritical components, and liquid phase refer-
ence fugacities for both situations. Much of this
material is found in Prausnitz' book "Molecular
Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria"'.
The second session by Prausnitz covered
phenomenologicall theories" for fluids. While ex-
amples of empirical equations of state were given
(see ref. 2, for example), it was emphasized that
all of these have essentially arbitrary rules :to
combine pure component parameters to obtain
properties of mixtures. Since fugacity coefficients
significant in mixtures are often quite sensitive-to
the rules, errors often occur. This is even more of
a problem for vapor-liquid equilibria calculations
when a single equation of state is used for both
phases since liquid properties are particularly
sensitive to the rules. As a result, different ap-
proaches are taken for the two phases: equation of
state for the vapor and activity for the liquid. For
liquid phase activity coefficients, the distinction
was made between enthalpy-dominated models,
such as the Wohl generalization of the Scatchard-
Hildebrand theory (solubility parameter) and the
NRTL equation, and entropy-dominated models
such as the Flory-Huggins and Wilson equations.
Illustration of a practical multicomponent ex-
ample was made through the NHs-H,-N2-CH4-Ar
system where only binary information is used3
Both the value and the limitations of empirical
theories were discussed, leading toward molecular-
based analyses and correlations to allow greater
Report on the Thermodynamics Workshop at the
ASEE Summer School in Boulder, Colorado, prepared by
J. P. O'Connell.

FALL 1973

Keith Gubbins then outlined the formalisms of
statistical thermodynamics, describing the rela-
tions between partition functions and macroscopic
properties although he emphasized the more re-
cently developed radial distribution-function theo-
ries for fluids. This material can be found in the
new book by T. M. Reed and K. E. Gubbins "Ap-
plied Statistical Mechanics"'. John O'Connell fol-
lowed this with a description and classification of
intermolecular forces and their effects on physical
properties, particularly liquid phase mixing func-
tions (see ref. 4, chap. 4). Division of forces was
made into those of repulsion, dispersion (nonpolar
attraction), polarity, induction, and nonclassical
attraction (e.g., hydrogen-bonding). Dispersion
and repulsion always contribute significantly ex-
cept when nonclassical effects are very large as in
carboxylic acids. Analytic potential models, with
parameters for the nonpolar forces, the use of
angle averaging for polar molecules to obtain ef-
fective parameters, and mixing rules for unlike
interactions were shown. Due to the sensitivity of
properties to mixing rules 55 6 it appears that at
least one state independent binary parameter is
necessary to describe unlike interactions accur-

Corresponding-states' theory was discussed by
Prausnitz, referring to the review article by Le-
land and Chappelear' for a general description, to
Vera and Prausnitz8 for application to a mixture
of simple substances, to Bondis book9 for glasses
and amorphous polymers, and to Patterson10 for
the Prigogine-Flory corresponding states theory
for polymers and mixtures. The most important
effect to account for in fluids is the effect of den-
sity on molecular rotation, so the inclusion of a
properly chosen third parameter allows correla-
tion of thermodynamic properties of a wide vari-
ety of substances. For mixtures, conformal solu-
tion theory has been recently applied by Ellis and
Chao1" and the van der Waals mixing rules for
one-fluid approaches to mixtures are referenced by
Leland, et al12.
The virial equation of state, which is useful
for low to moderately-dense gases was outlined by
John O'Connell showing both microscopic and
mahroscopic considerations. The series in pres-
sure and in density are essentially equivalent
in accuracy when only the second coefficient is

used, but if the third coefficient is also used,
the density series is much better. The order
of magnitude of the second coefficient for various
systems, particularly for cross coefficients, was
outlined, followed by calculational methods from
intermolecular potentials and generalized correla-
tions (see ref. 4, chap. 7). Also shown were the
effects of vapor-phase nonideality on relative
voltatilities and on the solubility of solids and
liquids in compressed gases. It was concluded that
the virial equation is a valuable tool because of its
considerable range of application and its exact
mixing rules.
A newer development in formal statistical
thermodynamics is perturbation theory within
the radial distribution function framework. Keith
Gubbins showed how hard-sphere fluids are used
as a basis (see ref. 4, chap. 8, 9) as well as the use-
fulness of a simple approximation to predict solu-
bilities of gases and of polymers in liquids,13,14 and
for properties of gases in electrolyte solutions.
Impressive results'', 16 were also shown for simple
systems using more complete expressions. It was
pointed out that perturbation theory shows that
anisotropies of intermolecular forces primarily af-
fect heat capacities and pressures (at a given
temperature and density) but not energies.
Closely following this was John Prausnitz'
discussion of a generalized van der Waals model
which leads to similar expressions as perturbation
theory but is derived from the partition function.
Various recent equations of state for liquids can
be derived with different approximations not only
unifying the development, but suggesting new
ideas for better equations.
Group contribution methods were covered by
John O'Connell, illustrating both pure-component
and mixture properties. For pure components
there are methods to calculate thermodynamic
functions of formation", ideal gas heat capacities18
and intermolecular potential parameters"1. For
mixtures, the Pierotti correlations"2 and the solu-
tion of groups method21 for activity coefficients
were discussed.
Two diverse topics were discussed in one ses-
sion by John Prausnitz: polymer solutions and
systems with strong interactions. Polymer solu-
tion theory is reviewed by Flory22 and by Patter-
son23 and a pedagogical introduction is given by
Pattersono1. Data for polymer systems can be
found in the Polymer Handbook24 and for polymer


solutions in an article by Sheehan and Bisio25. The
"chemical theory" of fluids includes gases26' 27 (see
also ref. 1, p. 134H, where eq. 5.10-11 should have
the 1/2 on the LHS not the RHS), and liquids,
where both Prigogine and Defay28 and Prausnitz
(ref. 1, p. 314H) show how the concepts of con-
sidering new species to be formed by strong bond-
ing can describe nonidealities in mixtures.
A final topic on thermodynamic properties was
electrolyte solutions a topic usually ignored in
chemical engineering courses, but one of great
relevance not only in inorganic chemical indus-
tries, but also organic processes where water con-
tacts gases like ammonia and carbon dioxide. The
macroscopic phenomena, and the complex formula-
tions for describing them were discussed by John
O'Connell, based on the book by Robinson and
Stokes"9. A brief derivation of the Debye-Huckel
expressions and its modifications were shown.
Since these are accurate only for very low con-
centrations, various empirical theories for concen-
trated electrolytes were illustrated, as were those
for mixed electrolytes29. Finally, a remarkably
simple but accurate corresponding-states' treat-
ment for molten salts was described31.

to transport properties, Keith Gubbins de-
scribing the macroscopic nonequilibrium thermo-
dynamics development of Fitts32 and of Reed and
Gubbins (ref. 4, chap. 12 and 13). Particular at-
tention was paid to multicomponent diffusion since
much confusion and error can arise in the defini-
tions of the coefficients. Statistical mechanics of
transport were developed along the time correla-
tion function formalism because of its simplicity

and the fact that it leads naturally to correspond-
ing-states' treatments.
Dilute gas theories using intermolecular po-
tential functions were illustrated by John O'Con-
nell, including the use of angle-averaging for
polar species4. The lack of sensitivity of the data
to the details of the potential function was shown
clearly by Hanley and Klein33. The use of corre-
sponding states was shown for dense fluid trans-
port coefficients, particularly the three parameter
form of Tham and Gubins34 and of Doan and
Brunet"3. These simple methods are impressive in
their accuracy and broad application to nonpolar
liquids. Finally, Keith Gubbins discussed calcula-
tion of dense fluid transport coefficients from sta-
tistical mechanical theories. Of particular inteerst
was the Enskog hardsphere methods436.
The variety of course structures for teaching
this material showed up in several of the discus-
sions. While most undergraduate Chemical Engi-
neering curricula contain one Physical Chemistry
course with the elements of molecular concepts,
except for occasional small portions of a chemical
engineering thermodynamics, no opportunity is
usually available to teach much of the present ma-
terial. As a result most departments leave this for
graduate work or never do it. The leaders felt that
this may be some disservice to many of our stu-
dents who will encounter the need to use methods
of design correlation and analysis which will in-
creasingly be based on molecular concepts. Inte-
gration of this material into the undergraduate
curriculum can be done by a few illustrative ex-
amples in usual courses, such as those given above,
or more intensive study can be given by thorough
use of the books by Prausnitz and Reed and Gub-
bins as texts in separate Chemical Engineering
Course, as is done at the University of Florida.

John P. O'Connell
John P. O'Connell

Keith Gubbins

FALL 1973

John Prausnitz


The leaders felt the Workshop group, though
small, was enthusiastic and responsive. We
learned a great deal in the process of trying to
organize what we thought could be "teachable" to
undergraduates and graduates. Hopefully this
brief guide to some of the topics and the literature
sources will help others to bring molecular con-
cepts into greater emphasis in teaching.


1. Prausnitz, J. M., "Molecular Thermodynamics of
Fluid-Phase Equilibria", Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, (1969).
2. Tsonopoulos, C. and Prausnitz, J. M., Cryogenics, 9,
315 (1969).
3. Alesandrini, C. G., Lynn, S., and Prausnitz, J. M.,
Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 11, 253 (1972).
4. Reed, T. M., and Gubbins, K. E., "Applied Statistical
Mechanics", McGraw-Hill, New York, (1972).
5. Singer, K. and Singer, J. V. L., Mol. Phys., 11, 279
6. Eckert, C. A., Renon, H., and Prausnitz, J. M., Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fund., 6, 58 (1967).
7. Leland, T. W., and Chappelear, P. S., Ind. Eng.
Chem., 60, #7, 15 (1968).
8. Vera, J. H., and Prausnitz, J. M., Chem. Eng. Sci.,
26, 1772 (1971).
9. Bondi, A., "Physical Properties of Molecular Crystals,
Liquids and Gases", Wiley, New York, (1968).
10. Patterson, D., Macromolecules, 2, 672 (1969).
11. Ellis, J. A., and Chao, K. C., A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 18,
70 (1972).
12. Leland, T. W., Sather, G. A., and Rowlinson, J. S.,
Trans. Farad. Soc., 68, 320 (1972).
13. Tiepel, E., and Gubbins, K. E., Proc. Internat. Sol-
vent Extraction Conference, (Soc. Chem. Ind., London,
14. Tiepel, E. W., and Gubbins, K. E., Can. J. Chem. Eng.
50, 361 (1972).
15. Leonard, P. J., Henderson, D., and Barker, J. A.,
Tran. Farad. Soc., 66, 2439 (1970).
16. Rogers, B. L., and Prausnitz, J. M., Tran. Farad. Soc.,
67, 3474 (1971).
17. Benson, S. W., Crookshank, F. R., Golden, P. M.,
Halgen, G. R., O'Neal, H. E., Rogers, A. S., Shah, R.,
Walsh, R., Chem. Rev., 69, 279 (1969).
18. Thinh, T. P., Durran, J. C., and Ramalho, R. S., Ind.
Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 10, 576 (1971).
19. Galloway, T. R., A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 18, 833 (1972).
20. Deal, C. H., and Derr, E. L., Ind. Eng. Chem., 60, #4,
28 (1968).
21. Deal, C. A. and Derr, E. L., "Distillation", Brighton
Soc. Chem. Ind., (1969).
22. Flory, P. J., Disc. Farad. Soc., 44, 7 (1970).
23. Patterson, D., and Delmas, G., Disc. Farad. Soc., 44,
98 (1970).
24. Mark, H., and Immergut, E. Ed., "Polymer Hand-
book", Interscience, New York (1966).
25. Sheehan, D. J., and Bisio, A. L., Rubber Chem. Tech.,
39, 149 (1966).
26. Mason, E. A., and Spurling, T. H., "The Virial Eq-

nation of State", Pergamon, New York, (1969).
27. Tsonopoulos, C., and Prausnitz, J. M., Chem. Eng. J.,
1,273 (1970).
28. Prigogine, I., and Defay, R., "Chemical Thermody-
namics", Longmans, London, (1954).
29. Robinson, R. A., and Stokes, R. H., "Electrolyte Solu-
tions", 2nd Ed. Rev., Butterworths, London, (1965).
30. Resibois, P., "Electrolyte Theory", Harper and Row,
New York, (1969).
31. Young, R. E. and O'Connell, J. P., Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fund., 10, 418 (1972).
32. Fitts, D. D., "Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics", Mc-
Graw-Hill, New York, (1962).
33. Hanley, H. J. M., Klein, M., J. Chem. Phys., 50, 4765
34. Tham, M. J., and Gubbins, K. E., Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fund., 4, 63 (1970).
35. Doan, M., and Brunet, J., Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 11,
356 (1972).
36. Tham, M. K., and Gubbins, K. E., J. Chem. Phys., 55,
368 (1971).

(Continued from page 186)
ment and Public Policy. The practice of Tech-
nology Assessment, while not a traditional engi-
neering function, has attracted and involved many
engineers and scientists and will continue to do so.
Chemical Engineers, we believe, will play a key
role in this new and exciting area. E


1. A Study of Technology Assessment, Report of the
Committee on Public Engineering Policy, National
Academy of Engineering, July 1969.
2. Technology: Processes of Assessment and Choice, Re-
port of the National Academy of Sciences, July 1969.
3. Kasper, R. G. ed., Technology Assessment, Praeger,
N. Y., 1972.
4. Technical Information for Congress, Report to the
Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development
of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U. S.
House of Representatives, April 25, 1969.
5. Weisbecker, L. W., Technology Assessment of Winter
Orographic Snowpack Augumentation in the Upper
Colorado River Basin, Stanford Research Institute,
May 1972.
6. Jones, M. V., et. al., A Technology Assessment Meth-
odology, six volumes, MITRE Corporation, June 1971.
7. Coates, J. F., Technology Assessment, 1, 109 (1973).
8. Technology Assessment, Official publication of the
International Society for Technology Assessment,
Gordon and Breach, Publishers.
9. Cetron, M. J. and C. A. Ralph, Industrial Applica-
tions of Technological Forecasting, Wiley-Intersci-
ence, N. Y. 1971.
10. Martino, J. P., Technological Forecasting for De-
cision-Making, American Elsevier, N. Y., 1972.



Eleventh Annual Lectureship
Award to Rutherford Aris

Rutherford Aris was born and raised in the
county of Dorset on the south coast of England
where he went to Canford School. Leaving there
soon after the end of the war, he went to work
for Imperial Chemical Industries at Billingham-
on-Tees and obtained a B.Sc. in Mathematics as
an external student of the University of London.
After graduate study at the University of Edin-
burgh from 1948-1950 he returned to work for
I.C.I. for the next five years.
The happy coincidence of a visit to Billingham
by N. R. Amundson as a time when Dr. Aris was
trying to get back to a university led to a year's
research at Minnesota and in 1958, after a spell
back in Edinburgh as a Lecturer in Technical
Mathematics, he was appointed Assistant Profes-
sor in the Department of Chemical Engineering
at Minnesota. Since then he had done his best not
to traduce the high standards of his colleagues,
getting the London Ph.D. in 1960 and the higher
doctorate in 1964, publishing a number of papers
and a book or two. His monograph on "The Mathe-
matical Theory of Diffusion and Reaction in
Permeable Catalysts" is to be published by the
Clarendon Press, Oxford in the near future and an
examination of the structure of this subject will
be the burden of his annual Lecture to the Chem-
ical Engineering Division of A.S.E.E.

The 1973 ASEE Chemical Engineering Di-
vision Lecturer was Dr. Rutherford Aris of the
University of Minnesota. The purpose of this
award lecture is to recognize and encourage out-
standing achievement in an important field of
fundamental chemical engineering theory or prac-
tice. The 3M Company provides the financial sup-
port for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate.
These were presented to this year's Lecturer at
the Annual Chemical Engineering Division Meet-
ing June 26, 1973 at Iowa State University in
Ames, Iowa. Dr. Aris spoke on "Diffusion and Re-
action in Porous Catalysts-a Chemical Engineer-
ing Symphony."

1963, A. B. Metzner, University of Delaware,
"Non-Newtonian fluids."
1964, C. R. Wilke, University of California, "Mass
transfer in turbulent flow."
1965, Leon Lapidus, Princeton University, "As-
pects of modern control theory and applica-
1966, Octave Levenspiel, Illinois Institute of Tech-
nology, "Changing Attitudes to Reactor De-
1967, Andreas Acrivos, Stanford University,
"Matched Asympototic Expansions."
1968, L. E. Scriven, University of Minnesota,
"Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces."
1969, C. J. Pings, California Institute of Tech-
nology, "Some Current Studies in Liquid State
1970, J. M. Smith, University of California at
Davis, "Photo chemical Processing-Photo
Decomposition of Pollutants in Water."
1971, William R. Schowalter, Princeton Univer-
sity, "The Art and Science of Rheology."
1972, Dale F. Rudd, University of Wisconsin,
"Synthesis and Analysis Engineering."

FALL 1973

[book reviews

Dynamic Behavior of Processes, John C. Friedly,
Prentice Hall, 1972. Morton M. Denn, University
of Delaware.
The basic premise of Friedly's "Dynamic Be-
havior of Processes" is that process dynamics is
an area of fundamental importance in chemical
engineering which transcends specific applica-
tions. Thus, he believes, process dynamics should
be studied with an eye towards its broad applica-
tion, rather than within the usual restrictive con-
text of process control. One need not accept this
viewpoint to appreciate the virtues of the book.
Freed from the need to provide an adequate treat-
ment of process control, Friedly has utilized the
space to cover a significantly wider range of ap-
proaches to studying dynamical behavior than
can be found in any presently available text.
The book is divided into three parts. The first
is a sketchy discussion of process modelling and
some basic analytical tools. It is an unfortunate
beginning, for the section is the weakest part of
the book. The treatment of energy balances is in-
correct, as it so often is in books on process dy-
namics. Thus, for example, Eqs. (2.3-9) -
(2.3-12) on page 31 erroneously contain deriva-
tives of the heat capacities, and the discussion on
page 52 is totally wrong. Eq. (2.6-19) on that
page is the proper formulation even when the
heat capacity is temperature dependent. This error
is repeated elsewhere in the text, though the as-
sumption of constant heat capacity is always made
at some point and incorrect solutions are not ob-
The major part of the book consists of parallel
sections on the dynamical behavior of lumped and
distributed parameter systems. This covers input-
output representation and the use of transfer
functions, state space representation and some of
the ideas of modern control theory, approximate
representations, and analytical methods for non-
linear systems. While most of the material on
lumped parameter systems is available in other
texts, the coverage here is complete and generally
well done.
The real strength of the book is in the treat-
ment of the dynamics of distributed-parameter
processes. Friedly nicely illustrates the signifi-
cance of wave-like and diffusive responses, and
the chapter on construction of approximate trans-

fer functions is particularly instructive. Here, un-
fortunately, there is no discussion of the weighted-
residual methods which have achieved prominence
in recent years.
Overall, this reviewer is impressed with the
content of the book, but sees no way in which he
could use it as a course text. The material is not
suitable for most undergraduates. Few schools
can afford the luxury of separate first graduate
courses in dynamics and control, and a control
course based on the book would require too much
supplementary material. Finally, there are no
homework problems. The book should be available
as supplementary reading in graduate and under-
graduate courses, however, particularly the chap-
ters on distributed parameter systems, and every
graduate student in chemical engineering should
be aware of its contents for use as a possible
reference. O

Staged Cascades in Chemical Processing, P. L.
Thibaut Brian, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
N. J., 1972. Joseph D. Henry, Jr., West Virginia
The primary goal of this text is to introduce
the concepts of staged cascades to beginning chem-
ical engineering students. It is intended for a first
course in chemical engineering taught to freshmen
or first semester sophomores. Three separation
processes are discussed: washing of finely divided
solids, liquid-liquid extraction and distillation.
Numerous discussions and problems introduce the
student to economic concepts as well as the analy-
sis of equilibrium staged processes.
The chapter on simple linear cascades, which
discusses the washing of finely divided solids
(alumina mud), presents an analysis based on
steady state material balances of both cross flow
and countercurrent cascades. The washing prob-
lem provides a very effective first example of an
equilibrium cascade because the equilibrium ex-
pression is very simple, i.e., the dissolved solute
concentration in the overflow and underflow are
equal. The familiar Kremser equation is the re-
sult of the analysis for the countercurrent cascade.
The optimum allocation of wash water is discussed
and cross flow and countercurrent configurations
are compared with respect to wash water con-
The chapter on liquid-liquid extraction while
maintaining the simplicity of constant distribu-


tion coefficients treats two modes of operation in-
cluding single stage and countercurrent extrac-
tion. Calculation procedures for fractional extrac-
tion cascades are developed by algebraic expres-
sions of the Kremser type and graphical tech-
niques. Several variations of the countercurrent
cascade including multiple feed, multiple solvents
and extraction with reflux are discussed.
Binary distillation is discussed next. It is the
first separation process that is considered which
has a nonlinear equilibrium relationship. Expres-
sions for the operating lines are developed for the
rectifying and stripping sections by utilizing the
constant molal overflow assumption. Stage to
stage calculations are illustrated by using nu-
merical values of equilibrium composition ob-
tained from an x, y diagram. An extensive treat-
ment of the McCabe-Thiele diagram then follows
with detailed discussions of feed plate location,
feed quality, minimum reflux, partial and total
condensors (and reboilers), and multiple feed
and product streams. Several methods of handling
the case of variable molal overflow are then dis-
cussed. Finally the economic balance of operating
costs versus column investment costs is discussed
in enough detail for the student to appreciate the
subtleties of the trade offs that are involved.
The final chapter on multicomponent distilla-
tion is far beyond the scope of most introductory
courses in chemical engineering. The discussion of
Lewis-Matheson method is appropriate since it is
a direct extension of the binary case with variable
molal overflow. The discussion of the Thiele-
Geddes procedure illustrates the incentive for dig-
ital computation to perform the interactive calcula-
tions associated with multicomponent distillation.
The Underwood equations for minimum reflux
are presented early in the chapter on multicom-
ponent distillation and are typical of the rather
advanced level of presentation. First year gradu-
ate students often have difficulty applying these
equations. This treatment would be particularly
evasive for students in a first course in chemical
engineering. The only incentive seen by this re-
viewer for discussion of multicomponent distilla-
tion in an introductory course is to illustrate the
importance of digital computation.
The major strengths of this text which justify
its use in an introductory course are: 1) The
choice of subject matter, separation processes, is
central to all chemical engineering practice, 2) the
level of mathematical treatment is easily within
the grasp of the freshman or sophomore student,

and 3) economic considerations are introduced
early and should give the student some perspective
on engineering decision making.
Many schools will find it difficult to devote
their first chemical engineering course entirely to
staged cascades. Other perhaps more basic con-
cepts such as physical and chemical material bal-
ances with recycle and energy balances often re-
quire extensive illustration and practice. The
chapters on washing and extraction certainly pro-
vide an effective introduction to staged separa-
tion processes. While mathematical developments
throughout the text are accessible to beginning
students many of the physical concepts in the
latter sections would be excessively difficult for
many beginning students.
In addition to use in a beginning course this
text should find application in more advanced
undergraduate courses, e.g., we base one of our
junior design projects on a process similar to the
mud washing problem of chapter 2. This text
could also be recommended to first year graduate
students whose undergraduate education is not in
chemical engineering.

Environment, Power, and Society, Howard T.
Odum, 331 pp., Wiley-Interscience, New York,
1971. Carl N. Shuster, Jr., Office of Environmental
Quality Federal Power Commission.
This exciting, powerful book immerses the
reader in a profound discourse on the macroscopic
approach to understanding the environment and
society. It explains the methodology of the ap-
proach and urges the reader to use it in attempt-
ing broad interpretations of all kinds of interrela-
tionships among major components of this Earth,
including large-scale problems affecting human
society. It is the type of book that should be read
first to become acquainted with its overall mes-
sage; application of this message comes later,
after the methodology has been assimilated in
some detail.
Although "intended for the general reader...,"
probably more than one reader will have to dis-
cipline himself to stay with the book, for it pre-
sents a formidable array of ecological concepts,
mathematical formulations, electrical circuitry
analogs, etc., and their pertinence to societal prob-
lems. Yet, one will stay with it if one takes the
author's words to heart: one need be neither
biologist, engineer, or humanist; one need only to
see the value of and utilize the macroscopic

FALL 1973

aI--B^Nnvs---------- ----
Dr. Joseph A. Brink is the new chairman of the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at Washington State Uni-
versity, Pullman, Washington. He succeeds Dr. George
Austin who resigned the post to return to full-time teach-
ing and research. Before joining the WSU engineering
faculty, Brink was development director for Monsanto
Enviro-Chem Systems Inc. in St. Louis, Mo. Brink has the
distinction of being the only engineer in Monsanto's history
to have a line of products bear his name. Brink instru-
ments, filters and mist eliminators (all air pollution de-
vices) have been installed in 1500 plants worldwide.
During his 19 years with the chemical industry he
worked in research, development, engineering, in engineer-
ing sales and production supervision, specializing in the
development of air pollution control equipment.
Brink was a member of the Purdue University faculty
from 1949 to 1954 and received his Ph.D. from Purdue.

method of looking at the "forest instead of the
The author defines the "instrument" for look-
ing at the large-scale environmental systems, in-
cluding our industrial civilization, as the "macro-
scope." This macroscope is clearly a product of
our times and in large part attributable to Pro-
fessor Odum, his brother Dr. Eugene P. Odum,
and their associates. It is still evolving; develop-
ing largely as a result of our growing awareness
of systems in the environment. This viewpoint has
been stimulated also by our ability to view situa-
tions and conditions from afar and to synthesize
large amounts of data, as in weather photography
from satellites and in world-wide macroeconomic
statistical summaries.
The essence of the macroscopic technique is a
survey of the environment to identify and classify
its major components and their interrelationships.
These major units are then linked together in a
network diagram simulating a simplified circuit.
This circuitry provides a model which can be
manipulated experimentally to test its validity and
to learn the effects of changes in any of the com-
ponents. The ultimate configuration of the model
usually is a network of symbols representing the
major components (e.g., the sources of energy
and units of photosynthesis, energy-storage, and
self-maintenance consumers) connected by lines
which show the direction of energy flow between
the components. Switches and gates are placed in
the lines to indicate the controlling actions (e.g.,
thresholds at which energy flow is shut off or
turned on and actions which have gain, retarding,

or multiplying effects) on the energy flow in the
An analogy with another method of visualiza-
tion of complex conditions may be proper here.
Patterns of water flow can be shown clearly by
use of a free-flow table on which barriers are
placed to disrupt the water flow. No amount of
equations can adequately explain the resulting pat-
terns, especially to a non-mathematician, but per-
sons of different training can view and mutually
discuss their interpretations of the flow patterns.
Similarly, this is what Odum's energy diagrams
perform, a clear demonstration of major relation-
ships among component parts of large environ-
mental-societal systems which can be understood
and discussed by a wide audience.
It is apparent too, that the macroscopic sys-
tems approach is nurtured best in an interdis-
ciplinary setting of high order. The problem at
the present time is the lack of numbers of people
who are trained or experienced in the development
of the energy diagrams; one of the objectives of
the book is to obviate this situation.
The author shows how power, i.e., the rate of
flow of useful energy, is an integral part of all
natural systems and pervades all facets of man's
activities and, hopefully, could lead to a new
morality. In doing this he deals with a diversity
of subjects including history, industrialization,
economics, and religion. The concluding chapter
focuses upon the alternatives of energy supplies
in the future: of power expanding, constant, and
receding. The author believes that whichever con-
tingency does obtain, mankind will be better
equipped to deal with it if he has developed be-
forehand a morality which blends the best of re-
ligion and science.
This book should be studied by all architects,
engineers, planners, and decision-makers (espe-
cially those making decisions regarding legisla-
tion, land use development, and zoning). They
will find that Odum's energy system approach pro-
vides a tool that, when fully and knowingly ap-
plied, will be most useful in developing environ-
mentally-compatible projects. Anyone preparing
or reviewing the generally bulky environmental
assessments, reports, and impact statements so
essential to Federal compliance with the National
Environmental Policy Act of 1969, should be
greatly interested in energy diagrams as a means
of summarizing environmental interrelationships.1
The series of papers prior to and succeeding
this book give evidence to the evolution and rele-



vance of the macroscopic approach. In the two
years since publication, except for the excellent
application of its tenets by Dr. Odum and his as-
sociates, signs of use of the macroscopic approach
are few. Understanding of these recent papers
(examples below1-') is predicated largely on the
reader's knowledge of the methodology and sym-
bolism developed in the book.
There is little doubt, however, that the macro-
scopic approach will gain additional adherents and
increasing use. So, with Professor Odum, I enjoin
you to learn how to use the macroscope and apply
it in the search for a better understanding of the
large-scale interrelationships among living things
and the environment; being mindful that societal
objectives are a critical driving force in the en-
vironment and must be incorporated into the
macroscopic analysis in most cases. EO

1. Odum, H. T. 1972. Use of energy diagrams for environ-
mental impact statements. In: Tools for Coastal Zone
Management, Marine Technological Society; 197-213.
2. 1972. Chemical cycles with energy circuit mod-
els. In: Changing Chemistry of the Oceans, Wiley In-
ter-science; pp. 223-259.
3. with B. J. Copeland and D. C. Cooper. 1972.
Water quantity for preservation of estuarine ecology.
In: Conflicts in Water Resources Planning, University
of Texas Center for Research in Water Resources; 107-
4. with O. F. Wetterqvist, L. L. Peterson, B. A.
Christensen, and S. C. Snedaker. 1972. Identification
and Evaluation of Coastal Resource Patterns in Flor-
ida, University of Florida (study for the Florida
Coastal Coordinating Council); 125 pp.

(Continued from page 179)

1. Baer, E. "Engineering Design for Plastics", Reinhold,
2. Bernhardt, E. C. "Processing of Thermoplastic Ma-
terials", Reinhold, 1959.
3. Billmeyer, F. W. "Textbook of Polymer Science",
Interscience, 1971.
4. Boenig, H. "Unsaturated Polyesters", Elsevier, 1964.
5. Eirich, F. R. "Rheology" Vol. IV, Academic, 1967.
6. Ferrigno, T. H. "Rigid Polymer Foams", Reinhold,
7. Flory, P. J. "Principles of Polymer Chemistry",
Cornell Press, 1953.
8. Harry, D. H. and R. G. Parrot, Poly. Eng. Sci. 10, 209
9. Kamal, M. R. and S. Kenig, SPE Antic 30, #2, 679

10. Kase, S. and T. Matsuo, J. Poly Sci. A-3, 2541-2554
11. Ke, B. "Newer Methods of Polymer Characterization",
Interscience, 1964.
12. Lee, H. and K. Neville "Handbook of Epoxy Resins",
McGraw-Hill, 1967.
13. McKelvey, J. "Polymer Processing", Wiley, 1962.
14. Meares, P. "Polymers: Structure and Bulk Proper-
ties", Van Nostrand, 1965.
15. Miller, M. L. "The Structure of Polymers" Reinhold,
16. Odian, G. "Principles of Polymerization" McGraw-
Hill, 1970.
17. Ohsawa, Y., Nagano, Y., and T. Matsuo, J. Appl.
Poly. Sci. 13, 257-283 (1969).
18. Paul, D. R., J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 12, 2273-2298 (1968).
19. Pearson, J. R. A. "Mechanical Principles of Polymer
Melt Processing", Pergamon, 1966.
20. Ritchie, P. D. "Physics of Plastics", Van Nostrand,
21. Rodriquez, J. "Principles of Polymer Systems",Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1970.
22. Tadmar, Z. and I. Klein, "Engineering Principles
of Plasticating Extrusion" Reinhold, 1970.
23. Ziabicki, A., Koll.-Zeit. 175, #1 (1961).

(Continued from page 183)
Henrici, P., "Elements of Numerical Analy-
sis," Wiley (1964).
Holland, C. D., "Multicomponent Distillation,"
Prentice Hall (1963).
King, C. J., "Separation Processes," McGraw-
Hill (1971).
Lapidus, L., "Digital Computation for Chem-
ical Engineers," McGraw-Hill (1962).
Prausnitz, J. M., C. A. Eckert, R. V. Orye, and
J. P. O'Connell, "Computer Calculations
for Multicomponent Vapor-Liquid Equilib-
ria," Prentice-Hall (1967).

1. "Distillation Calculations with Nonideal Mixtures,"
J. A. Bruno, J. L. Yanosik, and J. W. Tierhey, Ad-
vances in Chemistry, Number 115, p. 122, American
Chemical Society (1972).
2. "Solution of Equilibrium Stage Models for Solvent Ex-
traction Processes," J. W. Tierney, J. L. Yanosik, J. A.
Bruno, and A. J. Brainard, Proceedings International
Solvent Extraction Conference, 1971, p. 1051, Society
of Chemical Industry (London).
3. "Simultaneous Flow and Temperature Correction in
the Equilibrium Stage Problem," J. W. Tierney and
J. L. Yanosik, AIChE Journal, p. 897 (1969).
4. "Equilibrium Stage Calculations," J. W. Tierney and
J. L. Bruno, AIChE Journal, p. 556 (1967).
5. "Notes for Staged Separations," J. W. Tierney, Chem-
ical Engineering Dept., University of Pittsburgh.

FALL 1973


Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $5,000/year.
M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to $4,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Tuition: $535/year.
Married students housing rent: $140/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $115/month.
Ph.D. Degree
Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year
courses, thesis.
M.Sc. Degree
5-8 half-year courses, thesis.
M.Eng. Degree
10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project.
Department Size
12 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows,
30-40 Graduate Students.
Return postcard or write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Process
Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applica-
tions, Process Design.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer
Design of Separation Processes, Environmental Engi-
D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Math-
ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory.

D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.
D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Ad-
aptive Control, Estimation Theory.
F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns.

Department Facilities
Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre.
Excellent complement of computing and analytical
-IBM 1800 (real-time) computer
-EAI 590 hybrid computer
-AD 32 analog computer
-IBM 360/67 terminal
-Weissenberg Rheogoniometer
-Infrared spectrophotometer
-Research and industrial gas chromatographs

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
Enrollment of 18,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river

Fast growing, modern city; population of 440,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper National Park.



The chemical engineering department at the University of Arizona is young and
dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and MS and Ph.D.
Graduate Programs. Financial support is available through government grants,
teaching and research assistantships, and industrial grants. The faculty assures
full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.


WILLIAM P. COSART, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1972
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,

JOST O.L. WENDT, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1972
Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering Energy and
Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re-

DON H. WHITE, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Membrane Sep-
aration Processes, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc, Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Control Minerals Industry
Instrumentation, Model Building and Simulation

Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow-
ing, modern city of 350,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.

For further information,
write to
Dr. D. H. White
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721

University of California, Berkeley



The answer to the above question is YES. Now for the rest of our quiz for the ambitious chemical engineering
senior. You'll probably finish in 4 minutes, and it may influence your next 4 years.

Is the Department well rated professionally?
The most recent American Council on Education sur-
vey, which samples faculty opinion nationwide, rated
us #2 for "strength of graduate program" and #3 on
"graduate faculty." This must mean we try hard, too.
What areas of graduate research are represented?
Which aren't? With an experienced and distinguished
faculty of 20 professors, the Department can offer
a tremendous variety of work. For details, please
Let's try specifics. How about research related to the
At least 7 faculty members have been active in such
work. Projects have included: extraction of pollut-
ants from wastewater, electrostatic precipitation of
dusts, scrubbing S02 out of stack gases with sea-
water, NOx removal from car and plant effluents,
design of substitute nonpolluting processes,....
The biological sciences seem to be coming to the fore
in engineering disciplines. Is this true at Berkeley?
Four ChE faculty members are involved in these
interface areas, specifically in biochemical, biomed-
ical, and food processing and production research.
Does this mean that traditional areas are underrepre-
No way! (See the second question.) Actually, many
such areas are represented by more than one profes-
sor-electrochemical engineering, fluid mechanics,
kinetics and catalysis, mass transfer, 'materials,
process development and design, and thermodynamics.
It sounds like a big operation. Doesn't this lead to an
impersonal quality of education?
We don't think so. It's true that the campus is big
(27,500 students), although not unusually so these
days, and that we have a pretty big graduate group
for ChE departments-45 M.S. and 67 Ph.D. candi-
dates. But we have eight graduate advisers, in
addition to each student's thesis adviser, and nu-
merous social and sporting interactions-for example,
the summer softball team (can anybody out there
pitch?). All together, there is ample opportunity for
student-faculty contact.
What is the mean temperature in Berkeley?
Summertime highs average 70F, wintertime 56"F.
Outdoor "summer" sports are year-round activities.
Some people get bored with this... but climatic ex-
tremes can be reached easily by car.
Can I get to the key libraries and computing facilities
Chemistry Library-60 ft., Physics-60 yd., Math-
100 yd., Engineering-250 yd., main library- 150 yd.
(Excuse the English units.) The College has its
own computer, and the campus Computer Center-
only 100 yd. away-is as close as the terminal in
our building.
What opportunities do graduate students have to ex-
plore the teaching experience?
Ph.D. students act as teaching assistants for one
quarter in each of 3 years during their studies here.
M.S. students may occasionally have an opportunity
to teach, if they want.

*Write: Professor D. N. Hanson, Chemical Engineering
Department, Gilman Hall, Graduate Admissions,
University of California, Berkeley, Ca. 94720.

Many urban schools impress the eye as being predomi-
nantly concrete. What's the Berkeley picture?
Two branches of Strawberry Creek run through cam-
pus, one within a stone's throw of the ChE Dept.
Numerous redwood trees. Tallest grove of eucalyptus
in the U.S. The 1300 ft. Berkeley Hills rising steep-
ly behind campus, to the east. San Francisco and 25
miles of Bay Area in view to the west. Parklike
landscaping, lots of it-honest. Let's get back to
basics now.
What are the course work requirements for graduate
For the M.S., 20 graded quarter units, of which 12
must be ChE graduate courses. (Another 10 units
must be amassed for the degree, but thesis research
and other Pass/Not Pass courses are allowable.)
For the Ph.D. no units are officially prescribed, but
students are strongly encouraged to explore classes
in our department and elsewhere. The catalogue
lists 20 ChE regular graduate courses as well as
many seminars. The real problem is limiting your-
self, in view of the great selection of interesting
courses on campus.
How does the Department happen to be in the College
of Chemistry?
Simply because we grew out of the Department of
Chemistry. Having a two-department College is very
cozy, and the strength of the Chemistry Department
(e.g., Nobel laureates Calvin, Giauque, Seaborg) is
especially helpful for chemical engineers.
How about traditional recreational opportunities in the
Bay Area?
You must be joking. We wouldn't try to capitalize on
sailing on the beautiful Bay; skiing and hiking in the
majestic Sierra Nevada; the amateur and professional
baseball, football, basketball, hockey; the superla-
tive restaurants, museums, and music of San Fran-
cisco and the whole Bay Area (Berkeley itself is
full of artistic and musical happenings) would we?
Don't even consider it.
How are thesis research projects assigned to new
Students usually select their own projects, from
among those offered by the faculty. The only con-
straint is that Research Assistants must choose
from funded projects; fellowship holders are not re-
stricted in this way. Indeed, if you bring your own
fellowship, you might even try to design your own
project and convince some faculty member to spon-
sor it.
What is the job market for a Berkeley graduate?
Over the past decade our advanced-degree grads
have had exceptional opportunities. Of our Ph.D.'s
1/3 have gone into teaching, 1/3 into chemical and
petroleum firms, and 1/3 into other industries. With
tightening of the economy, fewer offers are being
made everywhere, but industrial prospects are pretty
good here. In last year's grim job market, all our
M.S. and Ph.D. grads got good professional jobs,
and the general employment situation is improving.
Berkeley is visited by more industrial recruiters
than any other western school, and the Placement
Center is vigorous. The faculty cares, too.

PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further

advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor J. H. Seinfeld
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1974.


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; plasma chemistry; bio-
medical engineering; air and water quality.
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution;
biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif-
fusion and membrane transport.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical

JOHN H. SEINFELD, Associate Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.
FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.





& * .* .. sa" ..*- ,-" J
S 1 '" *' .t.,

On the southern brow of the Hill Campus, Clarkson's massive new Science Center now stands complete, its laboratories, classrooms, and corridors
teeming with student activity. The $5.5-million structure is the first educational building to be constructed "on the hill."


E. J. DAVIS-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1960, University of
Washington) Heat transfer and fluid mechanics associated with
two-phase flow, convective diffusion, aerosol physics, bubble and
droplet transport phenomena, Mathematical modeling.
R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. and Exec. Officer. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson
College of Technology) Boiling heat transfer, bubble dynamics,
boiling nucleation.
D. O. COONEY-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of
Wisconsin) Mass transfer in fixed beds, biomedical engineering,
unstable flow in porous media.
J. ESTRIN-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation
phenomena, change processes.
E. W. GRAHAM-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of
California, Berkeley) Chemical reaction kinetics and related
theoretical problems, catalysis, fuel cells, air pollution.

J. L. KATZ-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago)
Homogeneous nucleation of vapors, homogeneous boiling,
heterogeneous nucleation, aerosols, equations of state, nucleation of
voids in metals, thermal conductivity of gases.

R. A. MARRA-Instructor. (M.S., 1972, Clarkson College of
Technology) fixed bed sorption and ion exchange, dispersion with
chemical reaction.
R. J. NUNGE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University)
Transport phenomena, multistream forced convection transport
processes, structure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through
porou'; media, atmospheric transport processes, transient dispersion.

R. A. SHAW-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967, Cornell University) Nuclear
engineering, reverse osmosis, radioactive tracers, environmental
effects of power generation.
H. L. SHULMAN-Prof., Dean of Eng. and Vice Pres. of the College.
(Ph.D., 1950, University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, packed
columns, adsorption of gases, absorption.
R. S. SUBRAMANIAN-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, Clarkson College
of Technology) Heat and mass transfer problems, unsteady
convective diffusion-miscible dispersion, material and thermal
pollution, chromatographic and other interphase transport systems,
fluid mechanics.
S. K. SUNEJA-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1970, Illinois Institute of
Technology) Transport phenomena, transport in aerosols and
hydrosols, air pollution, water pollution.
T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Renssalear Polytechnic
Institute) Process control, nuclear engineering, ceramic materials.
G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of
Illinois) Adsorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous

For information concerning Assistantships and
Fellowships contact the Graduate School Office,
Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New
York 13676



Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering

Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
research-oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
sophy or Master of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
Master of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Engineering (general)
Thermodynamics; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations.
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and
related subjects in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of
processes in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.
Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Catalysis
Homogeneous kinetics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation;
simultaneous mass transfer and reaction; optimization of reactor design.
Chemical Processes and Process Control
Advanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and

Faculty Members and Research Interests
John L. Anderson, Ph.D. Membrane transport, bioengineering.
Kenneth B. Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi-
cal reaction engineering.
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. Light and electron microscopy, properties of materials,
solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation, agitation and aeration, pro-
cessing of biochemicals, electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons.
Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion in mem-
branes and porous solids.
J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D. Economic analyses and forecasts, new ventures deve-
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. Polymerization, properties of polymer systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid mechanics
of liquid drops and jets, convection-distorted flow fields.
Michael L. Shuler, Ph.D., Biochemical engineering.
Julian C. Smith, Chem.E. Conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing,
mechanical separations.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. Chemical engineering applications to biomedical
problems; rheology.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics of poly-
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. Liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics, effect of
radiation on chemical reactions.
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline-water
conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding,
filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis.
Robert York, Sc.D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco-
nomics, process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATION. Write to Professor K. B. Bischoff, Olin Hall of Chemical
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850.


Newark, Delaware 19711

The chemical engineering department offers graduate instruction and research
in all the major areas of the profession. These include:

Catalysis and reaction engineering
Energy, environmental control and natural resources problems
Structure, properties and processing characteristics of polymers
Fluid mechanics and rheology
Surface and interfacial phenomena
Modern separational processes
Applications of chemical engineering to problems in biology and biotechnology
Development and control of technical innovations in society

The application of molecular and microscopic insights to solution of engineer-
ing problems couples the sciences very closely with engineering. Students and
faculty benefit from an extensive visiting faculty program and by close association
with leading practitioners in the nearby Penna., N.J. and Delaware heartland of
the chemical process industries.

B. E. Anshus J. H. Olson
C. E. Birchenall C. A. Petty
M. M. Denn T. W. F. Russell
B. C. Gates S. I. Sandler
J. R. Katzer J. M. Schultz
R. L. McCullough J. Wei
A. B. Metzner
Prof. G. Astarita, University of Naples
Prof. G. C. A. Schuit, Technical Univ. of Eindhoven

Graduate study inquiries and requests for financial
aid invited; personal visits encouraged.

Contact: A. B. Metzner, Chairman


university offlorida

offers you

Phenomena &
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.

& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.

Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.

and mucl more...

A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports

Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.

Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



I ~^^




Financial Aid

Head, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004

m1e Real world

of Chemical

The University of Houston is located in the midst of the
largest complex of chemical and petrochemical activity in
the world. This environment provides unequalled oppor-
tunities for graduate students in .... THE REAL WORLD

Houston is the national center for manufacturing, sales, research and
design in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. Most of the
major oil and petrochemical companies have plants and research
installations in the Houston area. The headquarters of many of these
organizations are here.

The world famous Texas Medical Center is located in Houston.

The NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is located in the Houston area.
There is continuous interaction through seminars, courses and
research between the faculty and graduate students of this depart-
ment and the engineers and scientists of this large technical community.
The research of 14 faculty members encompass a wide range of
subjects in chemical engineering. Faculty members are active in the
interdisciplinary areas of biomedical, environmental urban and
systems engineering.
The department is one of the fastest growing in the nation. The
current enrollment includes 50 seniors and 45 full-time graduate
students; a 200% increase in the enrollment over the past 5 years.
Research grants and contracts currently in progress exceed 1.2
million dollars.
Over $900,000 of modern research equipment is located in 50,000
square feet of research and office space.

Fellowship stipends are available to qualified applicants.

The temperate Gulf Coast area with its year-round outdoor weather
offers unlimited recreational opportunities. An equal number of
cultural opportunities exist in the sixth largest and fastest-growing
city in the country. Houston has an outstanding symphony orchestra
several theatre companies, fine museums, and a stimulating intellect-
ual community.



The Departmenl of Energy Engineering


Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of



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S ,, a J. ..?J.1 ni r it of Oklahomi:a,.. 9 .* ,

-,. Assoeite Prof esor
p :;.rr, 2- '.., rvng :J"h. , ",%,.-,*

S.-, : I U;pr .; i a.p *l* A.

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-. rh..,Pi Prcelon Unh easily, 1970
4* 6r ,~4.;r 4nt,. '6. 4.; ,

S....k Profesor: L
?" 4. .* 4 *. Stephen4Szqpt ;

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E 4 .fl;t i .* i ;i .an '?- ,t*. f-amscift2 fq ifi. t

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Chemical kinetics; combustion, simultaneous
transport phenomena; and chemical process design.

Forced convection; mass transfer cooling;
non-Newtonian fluio meenanies and heat transfer.

Kinetics of gas reactions; energy transfer
processes; molecular lasers.

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of
fluids, solids and solutions; kinetics of liquid
Chemical engineering; bioengineering; membrane
transport processes; mathematical modeling.

Transport properties of fluids and solids;
heat and mass transfer; isotope separation;
fixed and fluidized bed combustion.
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering; optimiza-
tion; environmental and pollution problems.

Fluidization; heat transfer; nuclear fuel
reprocessing; nuclear reactor safety.

Process dynamics and control; process optimiza-

Professor Harold A. Simon, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680

441.44 ),'

: L .. --





First Land Grant school (1862). Largest College of Engineering west of the
Mississippi River and fifth largest in the U.S. Ranks ninth in Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering. Current enrollment of 300 undergraduates and
60 grad students in Chemical Engineering.

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Five year integrated program for M.E.

Graduate faculty of 18 in Chemical Engineering having a variety of back-
grounds and interests.

New, fully equipped Chemical Engineering building with 50,000 square
feet of laboratory, office, and classroom space. Adjacent to computer
center and to library. Excellent technical support from Engineering Research
Institute and technical service groups. Affiliation with the Ames Laboratory,
the only National Laboratory of the U.S. AEC located on a university campus.


International reputation in the following areas:

Biochemical Engineering (Tsao)
Biomedical Engineering (Seagrave)
Coal Research (Wheelock)
Crystallization (Larson)




Fluidization (Wheelock)
Polymer Kinetics (Abraham)
Process Chemistry (Burnet)
Simulation (Burkhart)

Outstanding programs also in electronic instrumentation, computer appli-
cations to process control, air and water pollution control, extraction, thermo-
dynamics, kinetics and reaction engineering, liquid metals technology, fluid
mechanics and rheology, heat and mass transfer, and interfacial and surface

Teaching and research assistantships and industrial fellowships available.

Ames, a small city of 40,000 in central Iowa. Site of the Iowa State Center
(pictured above), which hosts the annual Ames International Orchestra
Festival and athletic events of the Big Eight Conference.

Write to:
George Burnet, Head
Chemical Engineering Department
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Research

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Chemical Engineering
Petroleum Engineering
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
M.S. in Petroleum Management

The Department is the recent recipient of a $150,000 industrial grant for research
and teaching in the area of Fluid Flow and Transport Phenomena Applicable to the
Petroleum Industry.

Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena

Fluid Flow in Porous Media

Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies

Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems

Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design

Nucleate Boiling

High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior

For Information and Applications write:

Don W. Green, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922




M.S. & Ph.D. Programs
Including Intensive Study in

Energ, supply\ and demand
Fuel combustion processes
Coal liquefat lon and gasification processes
Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Process and system control, and gas cleaning
Diffusion, and modelling of urban atmospheres

Advanced \waste treatment and water reclamation
Design of physical and chemical processes
Biochemical reactor design


Excellent financial support is available
in the form of Environmental Protection Agency
Traineeships, fellowships & assistantships.


Electrochemical engineering Reactor design
Process control Transport

WRITE TO: R.B. Grieves, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical Engineering

; 9 *'1'-
*. r;
; - ~iFi!V'~
. ~IJt:










of Technology


For decades to come, the chemical engineer
will play a central role in fields of national
concern. In two areas alone, energy and the
environment, society and industry will turn
to the chemical engineer for technology and
management in finding process related so -
lutions to critical problems. M.I.T. has con-
sistently been a leader in chemical engineer-
ing education with a strong working relation-
ship with industry for over a half century.
For detailed information, contact Professor
Raymond F. Baddour, Head of the Depart -
ment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.

Raymond F. Baddour
Lawrence B. Evans
Paul J. Flory
Hoyt C. Hottel
Herman P. Meissner
Edward W. Merrill
J. Th. G. Overbeek
Robert C. Reid
Adel F. Sarofim

Charles N. Satterfield
Kenneth A. Smith
J. Edward Vivian
Glenn C. Williams
Clark K. Colton
Elisabeth M. Drake
Jack B. Howard
Michael Modell
C. Michael Mohr

James H. Porter
Robert C. Armstrong
Lloyd A. Clomburg
Robert E. Cohen
Richard G. Donnelly
Samuel M. Fleming
Ronald A. Hites
Gary J. Powers
Jefferson W. Tester

Department of Chemical Engineering



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman

Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies
-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson

(2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W.

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.

(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek

(5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K.
G. Mayhan

In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:

(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Prof. J. L.

(b) Evaporation through non-Wettable Porous
Membranes-Dr. M. E. Findley

(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr.
R. C. Waggoner

(d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim-

(e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice

(f) Process Dynamics and Control-Drs. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-

(g) Transport Properties and Kinetics-Dr. O. K.
Crosser and Dr. B. E. Poling

(h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley

Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and

Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowship. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.



The cultural advantages and historical assets of
a great city, including the incomparable Phila-
delphia Orchestra are within walking distance
of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety

of college and professional sports at hand. A
complete range of recreational facilities exists
within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the
New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive.


The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League
School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex-
cellence in graduate education. A unique feature
of the University is the breadth of medically
related activities including those in engineering.
In recent years the University has undergone

a great expansion of its facilities, including
specialized graduate student housing. The De-
partment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineer-
ing has also undergone considerable change and
growth, attracting national attention because of its
rapid rise to excellence.



Stuart W. Churchill
William C. Forsman
David J. Graves
A. Norman Hixson
Arthur E. Humphrey
Ronald L. Klaus
Mitchell Litt

Alan L. Myers
Melvin C. Molstad
Leonard Nanis
Avinoam Nir
Daniel D. Perlmutter
John A. Quinn
Warren D. Seider
Vladimir Zakian

Enzyme Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Electrochemical Engineering

For further information on graduate studies in
this dynamic setting, write to: Dr. A. L. Myers,
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engi-
FALL 1973

Environmental Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques

neering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania 19174


for a

graduate education

Chemical Engineering ?



M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In

Separation Processes
Kinetics and Mass Transfer

Petroleum Research

Unit Processes
Thermodynamic Properties

Catalysis and Applied Chemistry
Air Environment


Nuclear Technology

Transport Properties
Lubrication and Rheology
And Other Areas

Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Chemical Engineering Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802




offers graduate study programs in Chemical Engineering leading
to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with opportunities for specialization in:


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, established in 1824
"for the application of science to the common purposes
of life," has grown from a school of engineering and
applied science into a technological university, serving
some 3500 undergraduates and over 1000 graduate
It is located in Troy, New York, about 150 miles
north of New York City and 180 miles west of Boston.
Troy, Albany, and Schenectady together comprise the
heart of New York's Capital District, an upstate metro-
politan area of about 600,000 population. These his-
toric cities and the surrounding countryside provide the
attractions of both urban and and rural life.
Scenic streams, lakes and mountains, including the
Hudson River, Lake George, the Green Mountains of
Vermont, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions
of the Adirondack Forest Preserve, are within easy
driving distance, and offer many attractions for those
interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hunting, fishing,

For full details write Mr. R. A. Du Mez, Director of Graduate
Admissions, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York

FALL 1973

ENC Graduate Study

in Chemical Engineering

at Rice University

Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in
the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the
student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary
proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various
areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint
program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available.

The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several
post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers
12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio,
outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in
keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer-
ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent
evaluation by the American Council of Education.

Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science

Blood Flow and Blood Trauma
Blood Pumping Systems

Rice University
Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca-
tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac-
tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine
residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston.
There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800
graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a
complete university with programs in the various fields
of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer-
ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings.
The academic year is from September to May. As there
are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly
four months for research. The school offers excellent
recreational and athletic facilities with a completely
equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes
outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year-
round activities.

Full-time graduate students receive financial support
with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of
$300-350 per month.

Address letters of inquiry to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.


Chemical Engineering

Stevens Institute of Technoloqq

Chemical Engineering Science
Design and Plant Operations
Polymer Engineering

Chemical Reaction Engineering Rheology
Polymer Property- Structure Relationships
Thermodynamics of Polymer Deformation
Polymerization Kinetics Combustion
Polymer Processing Mass Transfer
Optimal Control Waste Treatment
Flame and Arc Plasmas

Full and Part-time Programs

For further information contact:
Castle Point Station Navy Building, Room 315
Hoboken. New Jersey 07030
FALL 1973





Graduate Studies in
Chemical & Metallurgical

Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of
Philosophy are offered in both Chemical and Metallurgical Engin-
eering. The Master's program may be tailored as a terminal one
with emphasis.on professional development, or it may serve as
preparation for more advanced work leading to the Doctorate.
Specialization in Polymer Science and Engineering is available at
both levels.

Faculty and Research Interests
WILLIAM T. BECKER, Ph.D., Illinois Mechanical Properties and
Deformation; DONALD C. BOGUE, Ph.D., Delaware, Rheology,
Polymer Science and Engineering:CHARLIE R. BROOKS, Ph.D.,
Tennessee, Electron Microscopy, Thermodynamics; EDWARD S.
CLARK, Ph.D., California (Berkeley), Polymer Crystallography;
ORAN L. CULBERSON, Ph.D., Texas, Operations Research,
Process Design; JOHN F. FELLERS, Ph.D., Akron, Polymer
Chemistry; GEORGE C. FRAZIER, JR., D. Eng., Johns Hopkins,
Kinetics and Combustion, Transfer with Reaction; HSIEN-WEN
HSU, Ph.D., Wisconsin, Bioengineering, Transport Phenomena,
Optimization; HOMER F. JOHNSON, D. Eng., Yale (Department
Head), Mass Transfer, Interface Phenomena; STANLEY H. JURY,
Ph.D., Cincinnati, Sorption Kinetics in Flow Systems; WILLIAM J.
KOOYMAN, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, Reaction Kinetics in Flow
Systems; CARL D. LUNDIN, Ph.D., Rensselaer, Physical
Metallurgy, Welding; CHARLES F. MOORE, Ph.D., L.S.U.,
Computer Process Control; BEN F. OLIVER, Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University, (Professor-in-Charge of Metallurgical

Engineering), Solidification, High Purity Metals; JOSEPH J.
PERONA, Ph.D., Northwestern, Mass Transfer and Kinetics, Heat
Transfer; JOSEPH E. SPRUIELL, Ph.D., Tennessee. X-ray
Diffraction, Electron Microscopy, Polymer Science and
Engineering; E. EUGENE STANSBURY, Ph.D., Cincinnati.
Thermodynamics Kinetics of Phase Deformation, Corrosion:
JAMES L. WHITE, Ph.D., Delaware, Polymer Science and Engi-
neering, Rheology, Separation Processes. Regular Part-Time:
LLOYD G. ALEXANDER, Ph.D., Purdue, Fluid Flow, Heat
Transfer; BERNARD S.BORIE, Ph.D., M.I.T., X-ray Diffraction;
ALBERT H. COOPER, Ph.D., Michigan State, Process Design,
Economics; JOHN M. HOLMES, Ph.D., Tennessee, Economic'
Analysis and Design; CARL J. McHARGUE, Ph.D., Kentucky,
Physical Metallurgy; ROY A. VANDERMEER, Ph.D., Illinois
Institute of Technology, Physical Metallurgy; JACK S. WATSON.
Ph.D., Fluid Mechanics.

Laboratories and Shops
Computer complex (DEC, PDP 15/35 with interfaces to research
labs and analog computer), High-speed automatic frost point
hygrometer, Mass and heat transfer in porous media, Polymer
rheologyand processing (Weissenberg rheogoniometer, Instron
theological tester, roll mill, extruder, Vibron viscoelastometer).
Polymer characterization (gel permeation chromatograph,
osmometer), Mass spectograph, Continuous zone centrifuge,
Process dynamics, X-ray diffraction (including single crystal
diffuse scattering analysis), Electron microscopes (Philips EM75
EM300, AMR900), Calorimetry (25-10000C), Electrical resistivity
measurements for studies of structural and phase changes,
Single crystal preparation facilities, Mechanical fabrication and
testing, (metallograph, optical microscopes and melting, etc.),
High purity materials preparation, Electronic and mechanical
shops staffed by 16 full-time technicians and craftsmen.

Financial Assistance
Sources available include graduate assistantships, graduate
teaching assistantships, research assistantships, and a variety of

Knoxville and Surroundings
With a population near 200,000, Knoxville is the trade and
industrial center of East Tennessee. In the nearby Auditorium-
Coliseum, Broadway plays, musical and dramatic artists, and
other entertainment events are regularly scheduled. Knoxville
has a number of points of historical interest, a theater-in-the-
round, a symphony orchestra, two art galleries, and a number of
museums. Within an hour's drive are many TVA lakes and
mountain streams for water sports, the Great Smoky Mountains
National Park with the Gatlinburg tourist area, two state parks,
and the atomic energy installations at Oak Ridge including the
Museum of Atomic Energy.

The Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering has
230 undergraduate and 60 full-time graduate students enrolled at

WRITE: Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering,
The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916






Applied Mathematics
Porous Media
Polymer Processing
Transport Processes
Teaching and Research Assistantship
Fellowships Available
Competitive Stipends

Study To Be A


Chemical Engineer



Whatever your career plans, The School of
Chemical Engineering at Oklahoma State Uni-
versity offers a degree program to help you
achieve your objectives:
The traditional, research-oriented
Master of Science
The School of Chemical Engineering is now
considering applicants for the OSU GRADUATE
This new program is designed to provide
Professional training
Professional experience

Professional practice

At the School of Chemical Engineering of Okla-
homa State University, you will find
e A professionally-oriented faculty
Excellent library facilities
(open until midnight every day)
A complete computer center with IBM
System 360/Model 65, plus computer
facilities in the College of Engineering
available for student use 24 hours a
Well-equipped research laboratories
For information on Graduate Professional education at OSU,
Dr. Robert N. Maddox, Head
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074

FALL 1973




R. L. Bell:
R. G. Carbonell
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:

Mass Transfer, Bio-Medicine
Enzyme Kinetics, Quantum Mechanics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reactor Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena

Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616




For admission, address
Dr. Paul H. DeHoff
Coordinator of Graduate Studies

* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
* Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis-
tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; mathematical application in
chemical systems; reaction kinetics; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of
materials; biomedical engineering.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.




Henri J. Fenech
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp
John E. Myers

G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker
Orville C. Sandall

For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106

Case Institute of Technology


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Current Research Topics

Environmental Engineering
Coal Gasification
Systems Optimization and Control
Catalysis and Surface Chemistry

Crystal Growth and Materials
Engineering Applications of Lasers
Process Development
Biomedical Engineering

General Information
Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed institution with a tradition
of excellence in Engineering and Applied Science since 1880. In 1967 Case Insti-
tute and Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment, endowment
and faculty make Case Western Reserve University one of the leading private
schools in the country. The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's Uni-
versity Circle, an extensive concentration of education, scientific, social and cultural
For more information, contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106

FALL 1973 235

FALL 1973



Chemical Engineering Department

...... M.S. and Doctoral Programs

Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Air Pollution, Unit Operations
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U., Chemical Kinetics, Hybrid Computation
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena
Bruley, D. F., Ph.D., U. Tennessee-Process Dynamics, Bio-medical Engineering
Hall, J. W., Ph.D., U. Texas-Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Design
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Chemical and Biological Kinetics, Design
Littlejohn, C. E., Ph.D., V.P.I.-Mass Transfer
Melsheimer, SS., Ph.D. Tulane-Process Dynamics, Applied Mathematics
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
C. E. Littlejohn, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631






Pollution Control

Transport Processes

The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study
leading to the doctorate at another institution. Financial assistance is available.

Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44115

t h

univers it

M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:

financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England

We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas
of Polymer Science, Biochemical and Food Engineering, Gas Engineering, Bio-
medical Engineering, and Particle Technology.

W. M. Langdon
R. E. Peck
B. S. Swanson
L. L. Tavlarides
J. S. Vrentas
D. T. Wasan
H. Weinstein

Environmental Control and Process Design
Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics
Process Dynamics and Controls
Biochemical Engineering and Reactor Engineering
Polymer Science and Transport Phenomena
Mass Transfer and Particle Dynamics
Biomedical Engineering and Reactor Engineering

For inquiries write to: D. T. Wasan, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Department
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd Street
Chicago, Illinois 60616

FALL 1973 23'


Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-

Financial Aid Available
Uo to $5,000 Per Year
Professor B. G. Kyle
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502



Lehigh University

Department of Chemical Engineering

M. CHARLES Center for
C. W. CLUMP Surface &
A. S. FOUST Coatings
W. L. LUYBEN Research
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015

Graduate Enrollment- 80

S Faculty-- 19

Pollution Control
Process Dynamics
Computer Control
Kinetics and Catalysis
Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department Sugar Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

R. B. Anderson (Ph.D., Iowa) . .
M. H. I. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) .
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington)
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) . . .
C. M. Crowe (Ph.D., Cambridge) .
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts)
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) .
J. W. Hodgins (Ph.D., Toronto) . .
T. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) . .
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin)
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) .
J. D. Norman (Ph.D., Rice) .
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) . .
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.)

D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . . Int
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) . . Pr

talysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
cillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
wastewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
lymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
:timization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simul-
logical Fluid and Mass Transfer
lymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
lymerization, Applied Chemistry
*at Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
atistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer
wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
wastewater Treatment, Biochemical Reactions
ass Transfer, Corrosion
lymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Proc-
erfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
ocess Simulation and Control, Computer Control
CONTACT: Dr. C. M. Crowe, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7

FALL 1973 23




The University of Michigan awarded its first
Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D.
in 1914. It has moved with the times since and
today offers a flexible program of graduate
study that allows emphases ranging from fun-
damentals to design.
The Chemical Engineering Department, with
21 faculty members and some 70 graduate stu-
dents, has opportunities for study and research
in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor
design, transport processes, mathematical and
numerical methods, optimization, materials, mix-
ing, bioengineering, electrochemical engineer-
ing, rheology and pollution control.

The M.S. program may be completed in 10
months and does not require a thesis. The Pro-
fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond
the Master's and a professional problem. The
Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to
expedite entry into a research area as early in
the program as possible.

For further Information and applications,
Chairman of the Graduate Committee
The University of Michigan
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104



L. B. HEIN, Ph.D., Department Head


M. W. BREDEKAMP, Ph.D. Instrumentation, Process Dynamics and Control
E. R. EPPERSON, M.S. Phase Equilibria
D. W. HUBBARD, Ph.D. Lake Studies, Mixing Phenomena, Turbulent Flow
J. T. PATTON, Ph.D. Biosynthesis, Waste Treatment, Petroleum Recovery
A. J. PINTAR, Ph.D. Energy Conversion, Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics
J. M. SKAATES, Ph.D. Fluid-Solid Reactions, Catalysis, Reactor Design
E. T. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. Improvement of Pulpwood Yield

Financial assistance available in the form of Fellowships and Assistantships.
For more information, write to: DR. L. B. HEIN, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering




Applications are invited for Monash University
Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering. The awards are
intended to enable scholars to carry out under
supervision, a programme of full-time advanced
studies and research which may lead to the
degrees of Master of Engineering Science and/
or Doctor of Philosophy.
Facilities are available for work in the general
fields of:
Solid-gas Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Packed Tubular Reactors
Crystal Nucleation and Growth
Computer Control and Optimisation

Gas Absorption with Reaction
Waste Treatment Engineering
Process Dynamics
Biochemical Engineering
Fluid Particle Mechanics
Mixing of Liquids
Submerged Combustion

Scholarships carry a tax-free stipend of $A2,500
per annum. Detailed information about the
awards and the necessary application forms may
be obtained from the Academic Registrar. Tech-
nical enquiries should be addressed to the
Chairman of Department, Professor O. E. Potter.
Postal Address: Monash University, Wellington
Road, Clayton,
Victoria, 3168, Australia.



Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Food Processing

Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas


Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508

Tired of pollution, traffic jams and the big city life?
That is one reason why you might consider spending the next two or three years in Fredericton, working
for an M.Sc. or Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering at
Here are some more reasons:
Small, friendly department with a well established research record and an active social life.
Variety of interesting research projects in fire science and molecular sieve technology as well as in traditional areas of chemical
Financial support ($4100-4600) including payment for some easy but interesting teaching duties.
Fredericton is situated in the scenic Saint John river valley. Excellent recreational facilities including sailing, skiing, hunting and
fishing are all available within a few minutes drive from the campus.
The Faculty and their Research Interests

D. D. Kristmanson (Ph.D. London)
J. Landau (Ph.D. Prague) . .
K. F. Loughlin (Ph.D. U.N.B.) .
C. Moreland (Ph.D. Birmingham)
D. R. Morris (Ph.D. London) .
J. J. C. Picot (Ph.D. Minnesota) .
D. M. Ruthven (Ph.D. Cambridge)

F. R. Steward (Sc.D. M.I.T.)
For further information write to:

Mixing, pollution control
Mass transfer, liquid extraction
Molecular sieves
Fluid-solid systems, process dynamics
Electrochemistry, Corrosion
Transport phenomena in liquid crystals
Sorption and diffusion in molecular sieves; adsorption separa-
tion processes
Combustion, radiation, furnace design and fire science
D. M. Ruthven
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, N.B.




Students seeking a commitment to excellence
in careers in Chemical Engineering will find a
wealth of opportunity at Newark College of En-
The ChE Department at NCE has a well de-
veloped graduate program leading to the degrees
of Master of Science in Chemical Engineering or
Master of Science with major in such interdisci-
plinary areas as Polymer Engineering or Polymer
Science. Beyond the Master's degree, NCE offers
the degrees of Engineer and of Doctor of Engi-
neering Science.
Over sixty on-going projects in Chemical En-
gineering and Chemistry provide exceptional re-
search opportunities for Master's and Doctoral
candidates. Research topics include the follow-
ing areas:

* Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer
* Thermodynamics Process Dynamics
* Kinetics and Catalysis Transport Phenomena
0 Mathematical Methods

NCE is located on a modern, twenty-acre
campus in Newark, within 30 minutes of Man-
hattan. Tuition for New Jersey residents is $35
per credit; for non-residents, the cost is $45 per
credit. Fellowships and financial assistance are
available to qualified applicants.
Mr. Alex Bedrosian, Assistant Dean
Graduate Division
Newark College of Engineering
323 High Street, Newark, N.J. 07102





* Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Desigr
Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoi
Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Rheology Unit Operatior
Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dyn
Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request

WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210

and Control

r Engineering

amics and Simulation


offers programs leading to the M.S., M.Ch.E. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engi-
neering. Active research programs leading to approximately 50 journal publica-
tions per year are offered in all classical and contemporary research areas of
chemical engineering. The proximity of a large number of polymer-related re-
search facilities at the nearby Research Triangle Park and the various offices and
laboratories of the Environmental Protection Agency in and near the Park stimu-
lates strong research programs in polymers and air pollution technology at North
Carolina State University. Graduate students are further stimulated by beaches
and mountains, Thompson and Burleson, an early spring and a late fall, Dave and
Don Buckey, and the sister universities of Duke and UNC-Chapel Hill. Our distin-
guished senior faculty of K. O. Beatty Jr., J. K. Ferrell, Warren L. McCabe, E. M.
Schoenborn, and V. T. Stannett join their colleagues in inviting your application to
study chemical engineering in North Carolina.

FALL 1973





The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069



These are some of the challenging specialties
you can follow in graduate programs
leading to degrees of M.S. in chemical/petroleum engineering
or Ph.D. in chemical engineering.
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical/Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261

Ui er sity





Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science.

Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to Master's, Engineer and
Doctor's degrees. Areas of study and research:
chemical engineering, polymer science and
engineering, polymeric materials, bioengineering
and environmental studies.

The Faculty and their interests
R. C. Ackerberg-fluid mechanics, thermodynamics
R. F. Benenati-heat and mass transfer, computer
W. Brenner-polymeric materials, coatings and
P. F. Bruins-plastics technology and engineering
J. Crump-bioengineering, physiology
C. D. Han-process dynamics, rheology and
polymer processing
M. E. Hnatow-catalysis, chemical kinetics
R. Mezaki-applied kinetics, mathematical modeling
Y. Okamoto-organic reactions, materials science
D. F. Othmer-water desalination, thermodynamic
R. D. Patel-transport processes, fluidization
L. Wikstrom-electrochemical phenomena
E. N. Ziegler-air pollution control, reactor design

For further information contact
Dr. Robert F. Benenati
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201





write to Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
Lafayette, Ind. 47907

FALL 1973




MS & PhD Programs

J. H. Anderson, Jr.
R. F. Eisenberg
M. R. Feinberg
J. R. Ferron
J. C. Friedly
F. J. M. Horn
H. R. Osmers
H. J. Palmer
H. Saltsburg
W. D. Smith, Jr.
G. J. Su

Adsorption & Catalysis, Materials Science
Inorganic Composites, Physical Metallurgy
Formal Chemical Kinetics, Continuum Mechanics
Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics
Process Dynamics, Optimal Control & Design
Chemical Processing Theory, Applied Mathematics
Rheology, Polymers, Biological & Ecological Processes
Interfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes
Surface & Solid-State Chemistry, Molecular Beams
Kinetics & Reactor Design, Computer Applications
Glass Science & Technology, Thermodynamics

For information write: J. R. Ferron, Chairman



between the mountains and the sea

Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Engineering. Strong
interdisciplinary support in chemistry, physcs, mathematics, ma-
terials and computer science.

Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are

For particulars and application forms write to:
Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman
Graduate Studies Committee
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, S. C. 29208



M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Faculty and research interests:

J. A. Bergantz
D. R. Brutvan
H. T. Cullinan, Jr.
P. Ehrlich
W. N. Gill
R. J. Good
J. A. Howell
K. M. Kiser
W. H. Ray
E. Ruckenstein
J. Szekely
J. G. Vermeychuk
T. W. Weber
S. W. Weller

energy sources, gas-solid reactions
staged operations
multicomponent diffusion, nonequilibrium thermodynamics
polymeric materials, thermodynamics
dispersion, reverse osmosis
surface phenomena, adhesion of living cells
biological reactors, waste treatment
blood flow, turbulence, pollution in lakes
optimization, polymerization reactors
physico-chemical hydrodynamics
process metallurgy, gas-solid and solid-solid reactions
applied math, optimization, polymerization reactors
process control, dynamics of adsorption
catalysis, catalytic reactors

Financial aid is available
For full information and application materials, please contact:
Dr. Harry T. Cullinan, Jr.
Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, New York 14214



Water Renovation Transport Phenomena
Biomedical Engineering Separation Processes
Membrane Processes Mathematical Modeling
Desalination Rheology

Wayne S. Amato
Allen J. Barduhn
James M. Mozley
Philip A. Rice

S. Alexander Stern
Gopal Subramanian
Chi Tien
Raffi M. Turian

Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among
the hills of Central New York State. A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering,
science, the social sciences, and the humanities exists at the university. The many diversified activities
conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both specific and general
educational goals.
As a part of this medium sized research oriented university, the Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of the
faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research, independent study and the general
atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation.

For Information:
Contact: Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science
Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York 13210

Stipends range from $2,000 to $4,500
with most students receiving $3,400-
$4,000 per annum in addition to remit-
ted tuition privileges.

FALL 1973 24'



Think about a meaningful study program in chemical engi-
neering at Texas A&M University.
TAMU's graduate program is designed to produce engineers
who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac-
tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry
and society.
Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl, there is
an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally
warm Texas friendliness, enabling you to get the very best
guidance and instruction possible.

For an information packet and application materials, write to:
Dr. P. T. Eubank
Department of Chemical Engineering
Texas A&M University
College Station,
Texas 77843



Metropolitan Boston



We are seeking entrepreneurial, innovative Colleagues for



Coal Processing
New Polymer Fibers
Electronics, Measurements, and Control
Chemical Laser Engineering
Isotope Separation
Chemical Microengineering
Cryogenic Chemical Syntheses
Food Processing
Biochemical Engineering
Heterogeneous, Homogeneous, and
Multiphase Catalysis

Financial support is available for programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Uni-
versity is Virginia's Land Grant University located
in the mountains of beautiful Southwestern Vir-

ginia at Blacksburg. Research in Chemical Engi-
neering emphasizes applied science and the
practical application of new science and technol-
ogy to important current problems with service
and profit as major objectives. The department is
one of the largest in the country, a large supplier
of well-trained engineers to national employers,
and the graduate program reflects a close relation-
ship with the potential users of new develop-
ments. The faculty represents a wide range of
industrial, academic and government experience.

WRITE TO: Dr. Henry A. McGee, Jr.
Head, Department of Chemical
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chemical Engineering Seattle, Washington 98105

FALL 1973


Washington University is located on a park-like campus at the St. Louis City limit. Its location offers the cultural and recreational
opportunities of a major metropolitan area combined with the convenience of a University surrounded by pleasant residential areas
with many apartment houses where single and married graduate students can obtain housing at reasonable rates.
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies a modern building with well-equipped laboratory facilities for research in a large
variety of areas. There is close interaction with the research and engineering staffs of major St. Louis chemical companies and also ex-
tensive collaboration with the faculty of the Washington University School of Medicine in the biomedical engineering research activities.


* Biomedical Engineering
* Chemical Reaction Engineering
* Environmental Science
* Modeling and Simulation
* Polymer Science

* Process Dynamics and Control
* Rheology
* Technology Assessment
* Thermodynamics
* Transport Phenomena

For application forms, a catalog, and a brochure which describes faculty research interests, research
projects and financial aid write to:
Dr. Eric Weger, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri 63130

West Virginia

Universly Chemical Engineering

Environmental Engineering
Purification of Acid Mine Drainage
Water by Reverse Osmosis
Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering
SO2 Scrubbing
Economic Impact of Environmental

Other Topics
Chemical Kinetics
Separation Processes
Transport Phenomena
Utilization of Ultrasonic Energy

Energy Availability
Coal Conversion
Potential of Coal Based Energy Complexes
Conversion of Solid Wastes to
Low BTU Gas

MS & PhD Programs
Financial Aid: up to $5400/year
For further information and applications
Dr. J. D. Henry
Department of Chemical Engineering
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506


Full Text