Citation

## Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

## Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

## Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

## UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

Full Text

chmica ee education

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

INDUSTRIAL SPONSORS: T /llowins compu1e0 hase donated

fs a Me tw dap2Oal o CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION da~i~w 1973:

C F BRAUN & CO

MONSANTO COMPANY

THE 3M COMPANY

DEPARTMENTAL SPONSORS: A /oawiuf 12.9 depateia kw

co &dewil ia Me Lapef o4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1973

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Bulk subscription rates at $4/yr each with a$25.00 minimum for six or
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AIChE members at $6 yr. EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32601 US ISSN 0009-2479 Editor: Ray Fahien Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Business Manager: R. B. Bennett (904) 392-0861 (904) 392-0881 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn Chairman of Publications Board Clemson University Homer F. Johnson University of Tennessee Vincent W. Uhl University of Virginia CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti University of Toledo Camden A. Coberly University of Wisconsin WEST: William H. Corcoran California Institute of Technology George F. Meenaghan Texas Tech University SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump University of Houston James R. Couper University of Arkansas EAST :G. Michael Howard University of Connecticut Leon Lapidus Princeton University Thomas W. Weber State University of New York NORTH: J. J. Martin University of Michigan Julius L. Jackson Wayne State University Edward B. Stuart University of Pittsburgh NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton University of Washington Charles E. Wicks Oregon State University PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers University of California SUMMER 1973 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME 7, NUMBER 3 SUMMER 1973 Departments 106 The Educator Professor C. J. Pings 112 Departments of Chemical Engineering SUNY at Buffalo, J. G. Vermeychuk and J. A. Bergantz 117 The Classroom Introduction to ChE Analysis, T.W.F. Russell and M. M. Denn 142 International Chemical Engineering A New Traditional Unit Operations Laboratory Course, Aage Fredenslund 110 Book Reviews Special Aai'tawto 9d^dae 122 The Undergraduate ChE Laboratory, H. S. Fogler, A. T. Perna, and F. H. Shair 126 Bernoulli's Equation with Friction, Noel de Nevers 129 The ChE Design Laboratory, Harry Silla 132 Flow Modeling and Parameter Estima- tion Using Radiotracers, R. W. Rousseau, R. P. Gardner, and R. M. Felder 136 A Computerized Undergraduate Process Dynamics and Control Laboratory, R. A. Schmitz 144 An Evolutionary Experiment, A. Meisen 146 A Forced Convection Demonstration Using Solid CO, Sublimation, D. A. Mellichamp and 0. C. Sandall 148 An Integrated Reactor Engineering Lab- oratory, R. D. Williams CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is$10 per
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0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.
105

F educator

ALIAS NEAL PINGS*

JACQUELYN HERSHEY
California Institute of Technology

Once upon a time a university professor
could, with a clear conscience, hew to his schol-
astic specialty and let administrative chips fall
where they might. But at Caltech those days are
long gone. In fact, it's a rare scholar who doesn't
have an administrative assignment outside his
classroom and lab. But "rare" is hardly adequate
to describe a man who takes on three or four.
Take C. J. Pings, professor of chemical en-
gineering and chemical physics, who is also execu-
tive officer for chemical engineering, vice provost,
and dean of graduate studies. Membership in a
clutch of committees and professional societies,
co-editorship of the journal Physics and Chemis-
try of Liquids, and editorship of a new journal
Chemical Engineering Communications round
out his multifaceted and admirable career.
Admirable, that is, except for his troubles
with the FBI. This blot on the escutcheon of
someone who has risen to such heights at his
alma mater-and become a highly respected
scientist elsewhere as well-dates back to 1951
when Neal was a senior at Caltech. Though he
had acquired the name "Cornelius" at birth in
1929 (via his father, his great-grandfather, and
"Neal" for all practical purposes. But the solemn-
ity of a possible job with the Atomic Energy
Commission after graduation led him to inscribe
"Cornelius" on his application. The AEC sent a
standard request for a recommendation to chem-

*Based on an article in Engineering and Science magazine,
Technology.

istry professor Ernest Swift. His crisp reply that
he had never heard of any Cornelius Pings
brought a swarm of FBI agents buzzing around
"Living under an alias was over," says Neal.
"Before applying for any more jobs, I knew I
had to make the switch from Neal to Cornelius. I
started by going to the Registrar's office to get
my name changed on my transcript-and that's
when I found out my troubles had just begun.
There was no way, I was told, to make the change.
I produced my birth certificate; the Registrar's
lied about my name when I entered Caltech; they
suggested I get a court order for them to make
the alteration. I think we finally compromised by
putting Cornelius in parentheses on the records."
Cornelius John Pings is a native of Conrad,
Montana, a small rural community on the east
side of the Rockies. His family lived in Montana
because his grandfather had left the family home
in Wisconsin to take out a homestead in the West.
(A generation earlier his great-grandfather had
immigrated to the United States from Germany,
about the same time that his mother's ancestors
arrived from Ireland.) Neal's father struggled
through the Depression years as an electrician
with the Rural Electrification program, and
finally in 1942 went looking for his greener pas-
tures in California.
Those early years of economic insecurity gave
Pings some sturdy opinions about what an educa-
tion is for. The quest for knowledge excited him,
but a strong motivation for getting a college de-
gree was its promise of economic benefits.
Neal entered Caltech planning to become a
nuclear physicist-an ambition that lasted just
one term. But chemistry immediately filled the

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

verbal collision
with the
dietitian.

-3>

void-perhaps, he suggests, partly because of the
quality of instruction he received. Linus Pauling
and Norman Davidson taught him freshman
chemistry, and Ernest Swift was his instructor
in sophomore year. ("Anyone who survived that
course will testify to its intellectual thorough-
ness.") Howard Lucas, professor or organic
chemistry, taught him most of what he knows
With visions of going to work eventually for
a chemical or petroleum company, Neal took his
BS in applied chemistry-having financed four
years of college with a combination of scholar-
ships, summer jobs, and student loans. And with
the hope that this eventual job would be one of
substantial technical responsibility in industry,
he persisted through a PhD program in chemical
engineering. It was with some surprise, then,
that in 1955 he found himself turning down some
attractive job offers in industry to go with his
fellow alumnus Dave Mason, then on the staff at
JPL, to set up a new CHE department at Stan-
ford. "I decided to try academic life for one
year," he says, "and I've been at it ever since. So
much for my industrial aspirations. But I often
career advice. My experience is that flexibility is
an asset."
Neal will testify that a little flexibility can
take a man a long way-to northern Greenland,
for instance. Thanks to his reading a notice
posted on a campus bulletin board, that's where
he spent the summers of 1955, '56, and '57. Grad-
uate student Mark Meier, now a noted authority
on glaciers, was organizing a geology field trip
and recruiting a staff.

"There's a component of engineer in me but I
wanted to go into the hard science aspects of
the liquid state ... Now, the problems are
far from solved, but I think we've made
some progress."

Right then, Neal liked what that job offered-
summer work, distance from Pasadena, outdoor
life, and moderately good pay. It also made good
use of his research background (heat transfer
3-CHEM ENG-10 cent on 12-20 11957 Bill
and thermodynamics), and he is still proud of
three professional papers resulting from the ex-
perience. ("And my children are still young
enough to be impressed when I point to Green-
land on the globe and say, "I was there.' ")
After four years at Stanford, Neal came back
to Caltech in 1959 as associate professor and as
resident associate for Fleming House. Two prob-
lems cropped up soon after he arrived. The first
was overcoming his student-bred reticence at
calling senior faculty members by their first
names. Will Lacey, now professor emeritus, cured
that difficulty with a few well-chosen words.
"You've graduated from calling me Doctor," he
said. "My name is Will!"

He and .
Marjorie
were married
in 1960 ....

i. __-6

r n-

The other problem was that hardy perennial
-complaints about student-house food. As resi-
about it with the dietitian and manager of the
student houses. Marjorie Cheney. His recollec-
tion of the effectiveness of his battle in behalf
of an improved cuisine is hazy.( Marjorie says:
"At first I thought that he would be easier to
cope with than the undergraduates, but .!")
One result was an "honest-to-God campus ro-
mance." He and Marjorie were married in 1960.

SUMMER 1973

Neal made a decision in his first year at Stan-
ford about the general area of research he wanted
to pursue-to understand liquids at the molecular
level. He was struck by the fact that a fairly
sizable body of knowledge existed about gases and
solids, but comparatively little about liquids.
"There's a component of engineer in me," he
says, "but I wanted to go into the hard science
aspects of the liquid state. My experiments have
been designed to lead ultimately to better theory,
which may then be applied to practical problems.
Now, 16 years after I started, the problems are
far from solved, but I think we've made some
progress."
Neal and his research group are currently in-
terested in mixtures. Understanding mixtures by
the brute force of numbers of experiments is
hopeless; there are too many possibilities. The
aim is to develop some rules for utilizing what
is known about simple substances to say how they
will behave when they are combined.
Essentially, the research is divided into three
sub-groups, each involving use of a different
technique and the simplest available systems
(monatomic rare gases such as argon and kryp-
ton, which are liquid at the temperatures and
pressures used in the experiments).
The technique Neal started working with,
which is still the backbone of his research, is that
of X-ray diffraction. Using it, his students are
able to measure the structure of fluids-the aver-
age number of neighboring atoms and their dis-
tance apart.
The second technique is a study of the refrac-
tive index of fluids, chiefly between liquid and gas.
The refractive index is a measurement of how
much a beam of light is bent as it stabs through a
liquid. The amount of bending is indicative of the
electrical environment of local areas of the liquid
and also gives some idea of its density.
The third technique is to use lasers for light-
scattering to study the motion of the molecules in
fluids. This is fairly new, and with it Neal says,
"We can make some very exciting measurements
and get some wholly new information. And we
don't yet have any idea of its full potential."
While the orientation of Neal's research
group is basically experimental, he makes sure
that they keep in touch with theoreticians. "We
try to find experiments to challenge or confirm
the theories we hear about," Neal says. "Then,
from our data, we are able to suggest new
approaches to the theoreticians, and we listen

except for
his troubles
with the FBI ...

when they suggest what we should be doing in
the laboratory."
Of course, Neal doesn't listen to just the local
theoreticians. He is a regular participant to scien-
tific meetings, including the Gordon conferences.
The Gordon Research Conference on the Physics
and Chemistry of Liquids meets biennially, and
Neal has attended the last seven of them. (He
was chairman of the one in 1969). Attendance is
limited to 120 researchers, carefully chosen for
a good mix between already established and
younger scientists. "Those conferences are a
beautiful experience," Neal says. "For one whole
and experimentalists-in continuing conversa-
tion. And we correspond over the intervening
making suggestions. I grumble a lot about meet-
Bringing ability and good nature to his meet-
ings, Neal makes both friends and progress in the
process. Some of his success must surely stem
from his genuine commitment to Caltech and to
higher education. "I want to do what I can to help
both of them thrive, to adapt to changing times,
and to stay ahead of their problems," he says.
Neal has taken some razzing about the num-
ber of jobs and titles he carries, but he doesn't
feel that his case is noteworthy. "A lot of people
and practicing the trade simultaneously," he says,
"and it's not all that hard. The bureaucracy is
minimal, which makes it possible to get hold of
people and talk things out. Of course, you have to
make choices. I regret losing some of the rapport
I used to have with undergraduates. I missed
teaching last year, so I'm glad to be back at it
now-giving the thermodynamics course.
I suppose there's some ham in me, but to stand

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

up in front of a class and feel you're conveying
knowledge and maybe affecting attitudes can be
very satisfying. But I won't go into class half
prepared."
Juggling the requirements of his various
posts and his available time also keeps Neal from
getting into the lab to make his own measure-
ments. But he meets with his research group
(smaller in these days of funding difficulties than
it used to be) as often as he can, and he makes
himself available for conferences on individual
problems. The formalities of setting up such
meetings are a little more complex than they once
were, but he feels responsible for keeping track
of what's going on and trying to be helpful.
William Corcoran, professor of chemical engi-
neering and vice president for Institute relations,
who has known him since 1952, puts the matter
succinctly: "Nobody ever gets short changed by
Neal."
The list of Neal's contributions over the years
on many Caltech administrative and faculty com-
mittees is a long one, and his chairmanship of the
Ad Hoc Committee on the Aims and Goals of the
Institute (1969-1970) epitomizes that kind and
degree of service. Rodman Paul, Harkness Pro-
fessor of History, who has known Neal since he
taught him history as an undergraduate, was
also a member of that committee. He recalls that
through all the long months of its deliberations
Neal "displayed tremendous fairness, calmness,
and breadth of understanding. He is a good scien-
tist who deals with human beings in human ways.
When Harold Brown was chosen as president of
the Institute, it was clear that somehow he would
have to be thoroughly briefed. It was Neal more
than anyone else who pointed out that the report
of the Aims and Goals Committee would be ex-
actly what was needed to do the job. So, we
shoved it through with a speed that didn't seem
possible, and gave it to the president. I think
it was the most thorough analysis and appraisal
of Caltech that has ever been made."
Neal says, "Working on that committee con-
vinced me-and others-that an institution like
this doesn't run itself. We're fortunate here that
the faculty is involved in decision making. It was
clear at the time the committee was appointed
that we were heading into a period when we were
going to be subject to severe constraints, that we
were going to have to live by our wits. There
were going to be choices and decisions, and if the
faculty wanted to get in on those, it was going to

posts include executive
officer, vice provost,
studies.

have to make its views known and some of its
It's probably not a coincidence that 60 percent of
the committee's members have ended up in ad-
ministration."
Neal's own administrative posts include being
executive officer for chemical engineering, vice
provost, and dean of graduate studies. One reason
he continues as executive officer is that the chemi-
cal engineering faculty is, on the whole, very
young and involved in starting their own research.
"It doesn't make sense to dilute their time with
administration at this point," says Neal. "We're
really victims of our own strategy, because we
have deliberately been recruiting young men-
but it will pay off in the long run."
Most of the day-to-day operations of the grad-
uate office-admission and support of students,
management of the office, direct contact with the
various option representatives, and participation
in national and regional groups concerned with
graduate education-have been turned over to
Associate Dean Stirling Huntley, with Neal being
involved in policy making, budgeting, and work-
ing with the Graduate Studies Committee.
As vice provost, he has specific responsibility
for all new and renewal appointments on the re-
search ladder, for the faculty portion of the Insti-
tute's Affirmative Action Program, for the library
and the Industrial Relations Center, and for in-
terdisciplinary programs. Basically, however, he
Provost Robert Christy. Somewhat ruefully he
points out: "We have to handle questions that
once didn't even arise: How do you try to do as
much, and maybe more, research on less money?
How do you keep a young faculty when you can't
afford to appoint new people?
"There are lots of kinds of jobs around here,
and I like to sample them," says Neal. "I enjoy

SUMMER 1973

feeling useful; I like to free time for others to do
what they want to do. And there's enough of the
competitor in me that I don't mind working at
being successful. Each of my jobs calls on differ-
ent talents, responses, parts of temperament, and
combinations of whatever abilities I have. And
each makes vulnerable different kinds of short-
comings. Research demands analytical thought
processes plus whatever creativity I have, and
that rather severely exposes the limits of my in-
tellect. Supervision of personnel and administra-
tion in general require exercising judgment on
problems dominated by values and the ramifica-
tions of human personality. I often find myself
failing in these situations-either because I try
to find an exact answer to a diffuse problem or, at
the other extreme, I compromise in making a
difficult decision because I give in to a desire to
be liberal or compassionate."
Administrative work is harder than either
teaching or research as far as Neal is concerned
-a fact which, he thinks, may reflect his lack
of training in its techniques. The problem boils
down to persuading other people to do things for
him, and he attacks it by assuming that the people
he deals with are reasonable individuals.
Like many another Caltech professor, Neal
often takes a loaded briefcase home. Even when
he leaves his work at the office, he finds it hard
to take a real break from his duties unless his
family can lure him out of town-preferably to
the mountains or the beach. He feels that he is
overdue for a leave of absence for about six
months at another university. Such breaks in
routine lend perspective. But he expects the ex-
perience will just confirm his conviction that Cal-
tech really is an outstanding place.
He has been investing in that conviction for
a long time. As an undergraduate Neal Pings was
a member of the Beavers, the Board of Control,
the Interhouse Committee, Throop Club, and-
with real devotion-the varsity football team. All
this adds up to top-notch credentials for his elec-
tion to the board of directors of the Alumni Asso-
ciation. He took on this three-year job in 1970
not only because he was interested but because he
had a two-way feeling of responsibility. He be-
talents of the alumni, and that the alumni could
do a lot more for Caltech. As a man with a foot
in each camp, he thinks he may be able to im-
prove communications between the two groups.

If Neal's services as vice chairman of Pasa-
dena's Community Redevelopment Agency seem
tangential to the academic circle in which he
usually operates, the appearance is only super-
ficial. He's not there as an official representative
of Caltech, but he points out: "I'm concerned
that 20 years from now Caltech will be located in
a city where it's still pleasant to live and to send
children to school. The decisions that are being
made right now will affect that. Faculty members
here have always been involved in national
affairs, but local involvement is just as important.
Caltech can't isolate itself from Pasadena, and
maybe I can be a bridge."
Not even the FBI could find anything wrong
with that.

IM book reviews

Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analysis,
T. W. F. Russell and M. M. Denn, 502 pp., John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1972

Do not be misled by the title of the book: this
is not just another textbook for an introductory
stoichiometry course. The fundamental approach
is that of an integrated view of the entire typical
chemical engineering curriculum. The authors
have decided that it is time to use something
other than furnaces and sulfuric acid plants to
form the background for such an introductory
course. Their choice is the fluid-filled vessel, in
many of its ramifications. Real chemistry is used
throughout.
Those familiar with the structure of the chem-
ical engineering curriculum will find that there
are several mini-texts included here. Kinetics,
design, extraction, reactors, energy balances, pro-
cess dynamics, and mixing are all present. The
introduction does a good job of intriguing the
student, and the second and third chapters form
a reasonable introduction to modeling principles.
There is also a chapter on data analysis in the
midst of other topics.
The first law of thermo-energy balances is
covered well. There are accompanying mini-texts
on convective heat transfer, non-isothermal re-
actors, and gas behavior.
Perhaps of more interest to the potential
user is what is not in this book. There is no sepa-
rate treatment of material balance principles.
(Continued on p. 128)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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J. GREGORY VERMEYCHUK and
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In a brief existence spanning but a dozen
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at the State University of New York at Buffalo,
which began with a faculty of three and a hand-
ful of students, has rapidly developed into a full-
scale operation with thirteen faculty members
and a sizeable graduate program. Buffalo's ChE
department is the only such department in the
State University of New York. The SUNY system
comprises four major graduate centers, many
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tutions, and a number of special purpose installa-
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an enrollment of 22,000, distributed among two
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throughout the city and its environs.
On a 1000 acre site to the North of the city,
construction proceeds apace on a totally new, 650 million campus. This, and a number of other fac- tors, suggest a period of continued growth for our department. The Department of Chemical Engineering is one of six engineering departments in the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences. FEAS and six other Faculties constitute the University Cen- ter at Buffalo. Due to the nature of this form of organization, students and faculty can work within the atmosphere of a small engineering school, yet have the tremendous diversity and varied human and material resources of a major university within easy reach. THE STAFF AND ITS ACTIVITIES It is a truism that the quality of an academic department may be gauged by the qualifications of each faculty member. The staff of our depart- ment incorporates expertise in all the classical areas of ChE, and in a number of specialized areas related to ChE, such as process metallurgy, environmental and biomedical engineering, and modern control theory. The faculty maintains an extensive and productive program of research, as indicated by approximately 50 journal articles published during the 1971-72 academic year. Several books and edited conference proceedings by faculty have also appeared during the past two years. Since our departmental faculty is drawn from a range of educational backgrounds (three of our number received the Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry), joint research projects crossing de- partmental bounds are inevitable. Many of our research publications result from collaboration with cell biologists, mechanical engineers, physi- cians, geologists and chemists. In addition to the usual man-to-man research collaboration, the structure of the University allows the development of more formal means of interdisciplinary academic activity. A Center for Process Metallurgy was formed in 1969 to per- form research on problems related to the steel and other metallurgical industries. Two of the three professors involved in the center, including the director, are members of the Department of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION In ... but a dozen years, the Department which began with a faculty of three has developed into a full-sized operation with 13 faculty members and a sizeable graduate program. Chemical Engineering. This Center, in addition to funding provided by industrial firms, has re- ceived a grant from the NSF/RANN program for the investigation of the applications of optimiza- tion to the steel industry. Three chemical engineers are members of the Center for Theoretical Biology, which carries on investigations in many diverse areas germane to the biological sciences, and which publishes the Journal of Theoretical Biology. Two other mem- bers of our faculty have provided papers pub- lished in this journal. Another member of our department founded and has served as Master of the Rachel Carson College, an established undergraduate center for the study of modern technology and its impact on the environment. For the area of undergraduate and graduate teaching, our department is comparably active. Innovation in teaching has been an important theme. Two noteworthy new courses appearing in the present academic year are a lower division offering in Introduction to Chemical Engineering, providing a modern approach, and a graduate course in the Applications of Immobilized Enzymes. ChE faculty members also serve as instruct- ors in FEAS-wide sophomore level courses in thermodynamics and materials science. These two courses provide the basic introduction to these topics for all engineering students within the University. The matter of undergraduate advisement ranks high in importance. Advisement seminars are presented to all engineering freshmen, and an extensive advisement brochure assists our undergraduates in tailoring their individual pro- grams to specific needs. Perhaps the best way to provide an in-depth look at our department is to consider each mem- ber of our faculty on an individual basis. JOE BERGANTZ is the man responsible for the crea- tion of the department and served as our first chairman. In this position, Joe hired most of the present faculty. Additionally, he has served as Acting Provost of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Joe's cur- rent research interests lie in the investigation of gas- solid reactions which can be used to purify manufac- tured gaseous fuels (i.e., resulting from the gasification of coal) without loss of thermal efficiency. Joe Bergantz: the man responsible for creation of the department. DON BRUTVAN, one of the original members of the department, now holds but a one-eighth-time appoint- ment, since his prime function lies in University Admin- istration. Don is Associate Dean of the Division of Con- tinuing Education which serves some 6500 students, in both credit-carrying and credit-free programs. HARRY CULLINAN, our present chairman, joined the department in 1964. Harry is continuing his experi- mental program for the determination of selected liquid- phase diffusion coefficients. This program makes use of a novel ultracentrifugal equilibrium sedimentation tech- nique for the determination of the composition deriva- tives of chemical potential for multicomponent liquid mixtures. He is also conducting theoretical work to show how the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics apply to the solution of coupled transport phenomena. During 1972-73, Harry has been on Sabbatical leave at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, England. PAUL EHRLICH, a physical chemist by training, teaches both graduate and undergraduate courses in poly- mer materials, polymerization, and thermodynamics. Paul has completed experimental measurements and a theoreti- cal analysis of the volumetric properties of ethane-n-hep- tane mixtures in the supercritical region, including the vi- cinity of the critical locus, and plans to extend his work to other paraffin mixtures. Plans are also underway for new studies of the observed divergence from classical predic- tions of thermodynamic and transport properties of ma- terials at the critical-locus. Paul also has completed an ESR study of crystallizable, high-molecular weight polythenylacetylene. This work promises to be of sig- nificance in the design of improved polymeric semiconduc- tors and photoconductors. SUMMER 1973 Bill Gill, Provost, also supervises two post-docs and nine graduate students. BILL GILL, who joined us in September, 1971, is Provost of FEAS. The heavy administrative load has not impeded his program in teaching and research, however, Bill currently supervises a group of two post-does and nine graduate students. With R. Sankarasubramanian, he continues the development of a new solution technique for convective diffusion problems by generalization of their original approach to dispersion problems to include interphase transport and chemical reaction. Bill and M. Doshi are working on a countercurrent ion exchange unit and have succeeded in markedly increasing the efficiency of such units. This work has led to a simple model which seems to explain the effects of bypassing quite adequately. He is studying both theoretically and experimentally the properties of tubular and hollow-fiber reverse osmosis systems. Experimental work with L. Derzansky has shown that natural convection in tubu- lar R. O. systems has a significant bearing on perform- ance. An analysis of hollow fiber systems has led to an approach to optimal design which appears to hold promise. In collaboration with GREG VERMEYCHUK a study is underway on the oxygenation of liquids in open- channel turbulent flow. Greg and Bill are preparing an experimental study of the effectiveness of diffusion boundary layer withdrawal in the improvement of per- formance in R. O. systems. Alternating sections of selec- tive and non selective membranes will be used. Another physical-chemistry trained member of our department is BOB GOOD. Bob has recently shown that certain anomalies in the rate of penetration of a liquid into a porous body such as a bed of powder, or a capillary, can be explained with the aid of a generalization of the Washburn equation for capillary flow. He has discovered an anisotropic effect in the wetting of stretch-oriented polymers, and a heat effect in the peeling of a pressure- sensitive tape. He has developed a general theory of the contact angles of liquids on solids and has very recently published a theory that is an important advance in the understanding of interfacial separation in adhering sys- tems. He has shown that the adhesion of living cells to each other in tissues is due to forces that physical chemists and chemical engineers have been studying for a number of years, with respect to the stability of emul- sions and solid-in-liquid dispersions. This last develop- ment has important consequences in embryology, and in research on cancer. Bob is also a member of the Center for Theoretical Biology. JOHN HOWELL'S research is directed toward many important problems in the environmental area. He is currently performing theoretical and experimental in- vestigations on the effects of wall growth of organisms in biological reactors. Such effects have been shown to be of great significance when scale-up of biological re- actions is to be done. John is currently performing studies on the use of certain types of biological reactors for the production of single cell protein to be used as an animal feed supplement, and for the treatment of indus- trial wastes. John is offering a new graduate course in immobilized enzyme technology, and, with the help of Greg Vermeychuk, produced a totally new selection of undergraduate advisement materials. John had served as Master of the Rachel Carson College until recently, when he left the post in order to devote full time to the department. KEN KISER'S research work shows a strong inter- disciplinary orientation. He collaborates with members of the Civil and Mechanical departments in the use of their unique rotating models of Lakes Erie and Ontario to characterize the spread of material and thermal pol- lutants in these bodies of water. With members of Mechanical Engineering and the medical School he seeks to experimentally determine velocity profiles in the aortae of living dogs. This work will provide information neces- sary for the design of better artificial heart valves for human patients. Ken is also conducting experimental work on mixing in turbulent jets. HARMON RAY'S interests in process modelling, optim- ization and control have led him into many diverse fields. He has developed rigorous quantitative descriptions for a number of polymerization systems including copoly- merization and heterogenous polymerization reactors. Another major area of interest has been the modelling and optimization of catalytic reactors experiencing cat- alyst deactivation, and he has developed several efficient optimization algorithms for treating these problems. More recently, Harmon has collaborated with JULIAN SZEKELY to apply modern optimization and control techniques to the problems of the steel industry. In order to acquaint the metals processing industry with these ideas, Harmon and Julian have (for the past 3 years) put on a 3-day intensive course entitled "Optimization in Process Metallurgy" which has been well attended by industrial people and professors alike. Harmon and Julian's interest in Optimization, as applied to a number of fields, have led to their recently published monograph entitled "Process Optimization" (Wiley 1973). Harmon has also been active in the field of process dynamics, estimation and control and has contributed papers in a number of areas. These include the control of systems having time delays in the state, control, or measuring device, as well as the dynamic behavior of chemical re- actors. Harmon's research efforts in process control were recognized in 1969 when he was presented the Donald P. Eckman Award of the American Automatic Control Council. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION JULIAN SZEKELY, Director of the Center for Process Metallurgy is active both within the field of Chemical Engineering and Process Metallurgy. He is one of the pioneers of the application of chemical en- gineering techniques to metals processing operations. The co-author of two texts, Rate Phenomena in Process Metallurgy (with N. Themelis) and Process Op- timization with Harmon Ray, he has also edited two volumes, Blast Furnace Technology and The Steel In- dustry and the Environment. Julian's research ranges from bubble dynamics, turbu- lent flow in solidification to gas-solid and solid-solid re- actions, and scrap-melting kinetics. Julian publishes ex- tensively in both the chemical engineering and the metallurgy literature and his work has been recognized by the "Junior Moulton Medal" (British Institution of Chemical Engineers, 1964), the D.Sc (Eng) degree (Uni- versity of London, 1972), The extractive Metallurgy Di- vision (A.I.M.E.) Science Award (1973) and the Mathew- son Gold Medal (A.I.M.E.) also in 1973. Laboratory in the center for Process Metallurgy. S K GREG VERMEYCHUK is extending his work on suboptimal feedback control of systems described by partial differential equations. He is developing new com- putational algorithms and applying them to models of tubular reactors with the goal of providing more effec- tive and reliable software packages for direct digital control installations. It is expected that this work will extend the range of direct digital control to include more complex systems of practical importance. Since joining the department in September, 1971, Greg has started to branch into other research areas. He is collaborating with Bill Gill on a combined theoreti- cal and experimental study of the use of specially de- signed membranes to improve reverse osmosis systems for desalination of water and other applications. Greg will work with Bill in the study of mixing and dispersion in open channel flows. This work will have great im- portance in assessing the downstream effects of concen- trated sources of pollution, such as industrial discharges. Greg has also developed a new sophomore-level intro- ductory course in chemical engineering. TOM WEBER has developed a number of models to describe the behavior of adsorption beds. For gas-solid systems, one model accounts for the coupling of the heat transfer and mass transfer effects. This model was suc- cessfully tested using a gas mixture of ethane and helium with activated carbon. More recently, he has turned his attention to liquid-solid systems because of their potential importance in waste water treatment. Both pore-and solid-diffusion models are being explored, as well as the possible effects of axial dispersion. Tom has collaborated with Ken Kiser in a recent study of heat transfer in pulsed laminar flow. Tom is also interested in process dynamics and control. He is carrying on some work on multivariable processes with interactions. As an outgrowth of his teaching in- terests in control, he has written an undergraduate text- book, An Introduction to Process Dynamics and Control, which will be published by Wiley-Interscience in June. Tom also coordinates credit-free technical courses and programs in the Division of Continuing Education. Last, but by no means least, comes our present Acting Chairman, SOL WELLER. Far from new to administra- tive matters, Sol has served as Acting Chairman before, as well as having held research management posts in industry before joining the Buffalo faculty in 1965. Sol's study of the supported metal and transition metal oxide catalysts has shown that the special chemical properties of surface ions can help to explain their catalytic behavior and their tendency to sinter. He is using alumina-deficient mordenite to develop a simple picture for the catalytic action of zeolites. And he is applying the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of ignition and quenching at the surface of catalytic wires as a tool to optimize activation techniques for metals. As chairman of a U.N. committee, he is active in establishing inter- national standard test methods for catalysts. Finally, as a member of the Center for Theoretical Biology at Buffalo, he is involved in planning Viking experiments to search for the existence of life on Mars. THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM The undergraduate program in chemical en- gineering of Buffalo has many unusual features in addition to the rather standard offerings which typify such programs. Within a University-wide framework of thirty-two courses of four credit- hours each as a requirement for the Baccalaur- eate degree, we have designed our program to afford each student the maximum flexibility in tailoring a program which suits his or her indi- vidual needs. In addition to standard lower-divi- sion requirements of mathematics, chemistry, and physics, there are required faculty-wide courses in the principal engineering sciences. The courses in materials and engineering thermodynamics are often taught by members of our department. The courses in thermodynamics are worthy of note, since the Department of Chemistry accepts these SUMMER 1973 courses as sufficient preparation for the second course of a two-course sequence in physical chem- istry. The normal requirement of the first course is waived for ChE students. As soon as they are identified, departmental majors are assigned faculty advisors who help the student make the most out of his or her elec- tive courses. Since ChE undergraduates often enter graduate or professional programs in man- agement, law, medicine, and other diverse fields, the needs of different students vary widely. Certain unique features of our undergraduate program include the two-semester senior level course sequence entitled Applied Chemical Engi- neering, or simply, "ACE." In the ACE sequence, students are exposed to detailed treatments of ChE unit operations from a theoretical point of view, coupled with a series of small design proj- ects. With modifications, over the years, this course has been quite successful, especially with the more practically oriented students. Since the course requires intensive preparation, it is usually team-taught by two professors. Undergraduates interested in environmental problems have the opportunity to enroll in the Rachel Carson College, a comprehensive living- learning unit specializing in technological/en- vironmental studies. The students provide valuable feedback on the degree of success of our teaching efforts in evaluations conducted each semester by the Office of the Provost. In such a climate, dedication to teaching obviously flourishes. We have had some success in encouraging women to enter the profession. Of our 1973 senior class of twenty there are three women. THE GRADUATE PROGRAM The department offers courses of study lead- ing to both the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemi- cal Engineering. Of the 50 students in residence at this time, 20 are formally pursuing Ph.D. re- f lWeller and Howell at informal faculty gathering. Scanning Electron Microscope. search. Up to June of 1972, 16 Ph.D. and 55 M.S. degrees have been awarded. Of the Ph.D.'s, 6 have obtained university teaching positions, both in the U.S. and abroad. The department expects to award 17 M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the 1972- 73 academic year. Graduate research is very active, as detailed in the section on the activities of the staff. To speak in general terms, however, our graduate program offers definite strengths in process metallurgy, materials (notably polymers) and environmental studies as well as the more com- mon aspects of chemical engineering. These strengths are expected to be developed further when the department moves to the new North Campus in 1976-77. Graduate course offerings are many and varied. Students are encouraged to take courses outside the department in order to augment their research interests and to broaden their back- ground. IN SUMMARY From all that has been presented above, and from observation of the day-to-day workings of our faculty and students, one may characterize the department at Buffalo as young, and prepar- ing to enter a phase of growth. The addition of Drs. Gill, Ray, and Vermey- chuk, all in the past two and one-half years, has increased the scope of departmental research. For September 1973, Professor Eli Ruckenstein will come to Buffalo as Faculty Professor of En- gineering and Applied Sciences. Professor Ruck- enstein is already interacting on research prob- lems with three members of the department, and will be offering courses within the department CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION I classroom INTRODUCTION TO CHE ANALYSIS T. W. F. RUSSELL and M. M. DENN University of Deleware Newark, DE 19711 The transition of chemical engineering educa- tion during the past two decades from an empiri- cally based, design oriented curriculum to the so- called "engineering science" approach has been neither smooth nor totally successful. Today's curricula have been justifiably criticized for fail- ing to teach applications of principles, and the new trend appears to be a "return to design." A principle-based curriculum can be oriented to- wards practical engineering application and pro- vide the necessary blending of design and engi- neering science. The resolution lies in imagina- tive use of the introductory course in chemical engineering, usually taught at the sophomore level. The sophomore course in Industrial Stoichio- metry has changed little during the era of major modification of upper-class undergraduate and graduate curricula. Though "modernized" at times by introduction of the digital computer to assist in the solution of large problems, the course content remains by-an-large the solution of steady state mass and energy balances for existing pro- cesses. Skills are haphazardly developed through many example problems and little attention is paid to the development of a consistent logical approach to engineering problem solution. Recent developments which have greatly improved and expanded high school and university freshman courses are ignored. The student's mathematical skills are not adequately reinforced with practice in engineering problems and almost no attention is paid to his improved abilities in elementary calculus and basic chemistry. In an attempt to "simplify" problems for the sophomore level many concepts, particularly in basic thermodynamics, are introduced incorrectly and a re-learning must take place in the courses which follow. Con- siderations of design are never included because the concept of a rate is usually not introduced. The type of problem considered has little to do with the creative aspects of traditional chemical engineering practice or the extension of chemical engineering skills to a broader class of problems. The inadequacy of the traditional sophomore course is compounded by the lack of continuity between it and the "engineering science" courses which immediately follow: There is a difference in approach, type of problem, and analytical level. The transition is a difficult one for many students, and in 1965 the Chemical Engineering Depart- ment at Delaware initiated a program to study, modify, and if necessary, reorganize the intro- ductory course in the curriculum. This study has resulted in our present "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analysis" course, which meets the following three objectives: To reinforce, amplify, and apply in an engineering environment the material covered in basic chemistry, physics, and mathematics. To develop the basic skills needed as a sound founda- tion for upper level courses. To develop an early appreciation for design by involv- ing the student in simple but significant chemical engineering design problems. Because of the considerable discussion in the profession about the proper direction for under- graduate education it seems to us that it is useful to recount our approach and the evolution of the course and our thinking. We do this because what seemed to us and many colleagues to be obvious remedies for the deficiencies noted above were not successful at all, and the final course outline differs considerably in content and tone from our first attempts. The course in its present form is a result of some five years experience teaching the subject to sophomore students in both the regu- lar and extension programs. Some portions of the material have also been used with engineers and chemists who participated in AIChE con- tinuing education courses at both the national (Today Series) and local levels. For three years we taught the course together at the same hour, each with a section of about twenty-five students. The material was coordinated on a lecture to lecture basis and its impact on students was evaluated after each lecture and again after each major topic had been covered. Substantial stu- SUMMER 1973 T. W. Fraser Russell received the Bachelors and Masters Degrees at the University of Alberta. He worked as a research engineer for the Research Council of Alberta and as a design engineer at Union Carbide Canada be- fore receiving the PhD ('64) from Delaware. He is on leave for 1972-73 at ETH Zurich. Professor Russell re- ceived a University of Delaware Excellence in Teaching Award in 1968. His primary research interest is on two phase system analysis and design, and he has a book in progress in the area. (left) Morton M. Denn received the Bachelors Degree at Prince- ton University and the PhD (64) at Minnesota. He has been at the University of Delaware since 1964 and was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1971-72. Professor Denn's major research areas are the fluid mechanics and rheology of polymeric liquids and optimization and optimal control. dent feedback has been received, and several undergraduates and graduate students have worked with us for extended periods in evalua- tion and revision. This method of teaching has allowed us to experiment with various ways of organizing and presenting the material, and we feel that we have found a very effective way to introduce students to chemical engineering. In the first year, we taught a slightly modified industrial stoichiometry course, followed by an applied mathematics course which concentrated on solutions of various types of differential equa- tions encountered in chemical engineering. This latter course replaced the more classical course in differential equations taught by the mathema- tics department. It quickly became apparent that the major problem the student faced was develop- ing the equations that described a particular sit- uation. Since he did not feel adequately trained in this skill, there was a strong tendency to sep- arate the mathematical description and its be- havior from the situation which it described. This had two equally undesirable effects. Some students concentrated on the mathematical mani- pulation and thought little about the relationship Today's curricula have been justifiably criticized for failing to teach applications of principles and the new trend appears to be a "return to design." to the physical situation, while others became confused as to the role of mathematics and tended to dismiss the material as being an academic exercise unrelated to physical reality. (This is not unlike what has happened outside the Uni- versity in professional practice. It has been our experience in continuing education activities that the greatest number of engineers who profess a need for "more mathematics" are really in need of a better understanding of model development). In an attempt to overcome these serious prob- lems and also to revise what we considered to be inadequate or incorrect presentation in the stan- dard stoichiometry course, we decided to restruc- ture both courses and to concentrate on develop- ing the skills which would enable the student to see clearly the relationship between mathematical description and physical reality. We attempted to meet this goal the first time we taught the integrated course by developing mathematical models for a series of increasingly complex physi- cal situations. This "case study" approach was moderately successful and, although it did not principles No Yes Matihernatical foll""e"'ited o Enough equations? M Fully exploited model Constitutive relation Fig. 1. Model development for any physical situation. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION meet our goal of developing a systematic pro- cedure for model development, the students did develop some facility for seeing the proper role of mathematics in the study of engineering. The logic procedure outlined in Fig. 1 was introduced on the third try at the course. We emphasized this time the need for experimental verification of constitutive assumptions, as dis- tinct from the application of conservation prin- ciples. This emphasis on the role of experiment in engineering is, paradoxically, the key to a student's understanding of the role of mathe- matics. At this time we oriented the course to- wards liquid phase reactor performance and con- centrated on a complete study through design using a single conservation principle (mass) before introducing a second. We also found as we progressed through the third year that it was necessary to drop some of the mathematical skills we had stressed so that the more important as- pects of analysis could be properly covered. We eliminated material on differential equations with variable coefficients and reduced our discussion of the Laplace transform. An initial review of the third year's classroom experience produced a course outline similar to what now exists and pointed out a need for still more emphasis on the experimental aspects of engineering and the use of the mathematical de- scriptions for simple design. Thus we decided once more to reduce the mathematical content, result- ing in total elimination of the Laplace transform. (Students with the need for such mathematical skills learn them in the senior Process Dynamics and Control course). We concentrated in our fourth year on better organization of the material with respect to the model development step in analysis and we reor- ganized, using more experimental data, the methods by which constitutive relationships were employed. Our goal was to make sure that all the relevant material normally covered in the stoichio- metry course was introduced in a rational and consistent manner. Since then the emphasis has been mostly on polishing and minor changes. The sophomore courses, ChE. 230 and 231, are taught for two shortened semesters, totaling twenty-seven weeks. The relationship of these sophomore courses with other ChE courses at the University of Delaware is shown in Table 1. Since our students are not required to take a separate course in differential equations, but rather study the subject as part of the chemical engineering Freshman Year TABLE 1 Basic Departmental Course Structure Introduction to the art and science of engineering EG 125 (Introduction to Engineering) EC 130 (Introduction to Engineering Research) Sophomore Aquisition of the basic engineering skill of Analysis-- Year How to proceed from experiment to design Junior Year Senior Year ChE 230, 231 (Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analysis) The basic phenomena are studied from an engineering viewpoint Applied Physical Applied Chemical engineeringg Sciences Engineering Sciences ChE 341 ChE 325, 332 (Fluid Mechanics) (Thermodynamics ChE 342 and Kinctics) (Hoat and Mass Transfer) ChE 345 (Chemical Engineering Lab) Skills are integrated by studying complex engineering problems in class, in the labo- ratory, and by individual thesis. ChE 432 (Chemical Process Analysis-Design) ChE 443 (Transfer Operations) ChE 445 (Chemical Engineering Laboratory) ChE 473,474 (Senior Thesis) ChE 401,466,etc. (Electives in Control, Pollution Abatement, Polymer Processing, Chemical Economics etc.) analysis course, a one-semester course employing a major fraction of our outline is possible. Em- phasis is on the analysis of liquid phase systems, for this enables the student to treat meaningful design problems during his first semester of engi- neering study. He takes this course concurrently with the final semester of calculus and two semes- ters of physical chemistry. The topics covered follow our book, Introduction to Chemical Engi- neering Analysis, Wiley, New York, 1972. INTRODUCTION. We start with a brief description of three chemical engineering problems, where the emphasis is on "putting together the pieces." We discuss a typical chemical process, the manufacture of ethylene glycol; the operation of an artificial kidney; and the design of a bio- oxidation reactor for sewage treatment. This introduces the idea of reactor, separation process, etc. We then turn to a detailed study of the analysis process, which we define as follows: 1) Description of a physical situation in mathematical symbols. SUMMER 1973 Student response has been excellent ... 2) Manipulation of the mathematical model to deter- mine expected behavior of the physical situation. 3) Comparison of the model with the true physical situation. 4) Careful study of the limitations of the mathema- tical model. 5) Use of the model for equipment design and pre- diction of performance. ANALYSIS. Several days are spent discussing the basic concepts involved in analysis and the total analysis process is described by means of the simple example of an emptying tank. The model development step is illustrated using real data to develop a relationship between outflow and height of liquid (the orifice equation). Next the laws of conserva- tion of mass, energy, and momentum applied to a well-defined control volume are shown to be the basic source from which mathematical descriptions are de- rived. A careful distinction is made between general conservation principles, universally applicable, and spe- cific constitutive relations applicable only to certain situations. The necessity of experimental data for the development of constitutive relationships is stressed and dimensional analysis is introduced as one means for planning this needed experimental program. A series of logical procedures is developed to show the student how mathematical descriptions for a physical situation are developed. The ultimate logic is shown in Figure 1. NON-REACTING LIQUID SYSTEMS. Model develop- ment for well-mixed tank-type liquid systems in transient and steady state isothermal operation is illustrated in detail, with an experimental check of the perfect mixing assumption and a critical appraisal of the role of the density-concentration constitutive equation. The purpose is to give the student practice in the model development step of analysis with simple problems, so that he can clearly see the relationship between the mathematical description and the physical situation. The simpler aspects of basic calculus are employed to determine model be- havior and, as a secondary aim, practice with manipula- tion of the mathematical description to determine model behavior is stressed. As one example to meet this latter aim we exploit the draining tank problem and design a simple feed back controller. This also shows the student something about the design aspect of analysis. REACTION RATE. Reacting, well-stirred single phase liquid systems are studied next. The reaction rate arises naturally in the component mass balance and reasonable phenomenological forms are deduced. Emphasis is on the use of batch reactor data to determine the validity of constitutive assumptions for the rate and to find the values of the parameters. Real batch data are used in all cases. REACTOR DESIGN. The steady state model equations for a well-stirred continuous flow reactor are used for two design problems. In the first, a reactor is sized to meet production requirements for a single, irreversible first order reaction, taking capital and operating costs and depreciation of the reactor and separation unit into account. (The economics are obviously simplified). The other is the problem of sizing a reactor to obtain a required distribution of mono-,di-, and tri-ethylene glycol (a process introduced earlier). The sophomores take this material nicely in stride and take pride in their ability to use the mathematical descriptions. We intro- duce the plug flow tubular reactor here for comparison. MASS TRANSFER RATE. Two-phase, well-stirred sys- tems are studied to introduce the concept of mass trans- fer and to further develop modeling skills. The rate of inter-phase mass transfer arises naturally in the com- ponent balances and, like the reaction rate, reasonable phenomenological forms are deduced. Batch data are used to study the approach to equilibrium. For a continuous flow process the equilibrium stage is shown to be a good approximation for typical mass transfer data. Stage efficiency and reaction in a two-phase system are briefly examined. STAGED PROCESSES. Multistage solvent extraction is studied analytically and graphically (McCabe-Thiele). Calculations are done for minimum solvent requirements and numbers of ideal stages. The triangular diagram is used for single stage calculations. The material nicely illustrates the use of graphical techniques in the model behavior step of analysis. This is roughly the end of our first semester, together with some mathematical topics as needed, including least squares fitting to data. The student deals routinely with dynamical situations as well as the steady state, but he never requires mathematical concepts not already used in his calculus course. The interplay between laboratory experiment (measuring reaction rates, mass transfer co- efficients, equilibrium constants, etc.), mathematical modeling, and engineering design calculations is brought home. This works because there is simply no easier practical problem in chemical engineering than the sizing of a liquid phase reactor with uncomplicated chemistry. The student is motivated to go on to engineering science courses and learn, for example, why a mass transfer coefficient is of a given order, or how to estimate one in the absence of an experiment. Most important, he has learned a systematic approach to solving problems. At this point we turn to non-isothermal systems. In some curricula it might be desirable in a one semester course to skip some or all of the material on mass trans- fer processes and include some of the non-isothermal material. Emphasis is on the operational definition of thermodynamic quantities and, to avoid the complication of compressibility, liquid phase systems are studied first. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. Internal energy is in- troduced and the principle of conservation of energy applied to a flowing system. The square root orifice equa- tion is derived using the energy balance. Internal energy and enthalpy are related to temperature by defining the heat capacity. Partial molar enthalpy is defined and used to define the heat of solution and the heat capacity of a mixture. Students are prepared to deal with partial molar quantities at this level because it comes sufficiently soon after seeing partial differentiation in the calculus course. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION The student is continually referred back to relevant sections of his calculus and chemistry texts, developing, in his eyes, a logical continuity between his basic science courses and creative engineering. Physical chemistry laboratory experiments are often discussed in our classroom. MIXING AND HEAT TRANSFER. In parallel with the isothermal system development, we model non-reacting liquid systems. Consideration of temperature effects in batch mixing is followed by construction of the enthalpy- concentration diagram and graphical solution of the same problems. This is then repeated for steady state con- tinuous mixing. The analysis of mixing is done rigorously, using partial molar enthalpies, for otherwise the student learns incorrect procedures which ensure the wrong answer when working with multi-phase systems. Heat transfer between adjacent chambers leads naturally to the rate of heat transfer and definition of the heat trans- fer coefficient. Area and flow rate calculations are carried out for cooling a tank by a jacket and a coil. REACTING LIQUIDS. Reacting liquid systems are dealt with after the student has seen how partial molar quanti- ties are used in the simple mixing situation. The heat of reaction is defined in terms of the partial molar enthalpy and the batch reactor equations derived which demon- strate how to measure it. Calculation of the heat of reaction from tabular data is discussed. The Arrhenius temperature dependence of reaction rate is demonstrated and the transient adiabatic batch reactor equations for a single reaction are integrated using numerical quadrature. (This still requires only the calculus course as prepara- tion.) The energy balance for a continuous flow stirred reactor is derived. A numerical solution of the steady state is obtained, and the qualitative behavior of the non- isothermal reactor is discussed using the Van Heerden slope argument and phase plane construction via the method of isoclines. The non-isothermal tubular reactor is touched upon very briefly. By this point the student is becoming quite skilled in making his mathematical skills work for him to understand physical problems. TRANSIENT REACTOR BEHAVIOR. We include this material as the practical application for linear differential equations, which are included in the course. The section can be omitted without serious loss. The reactor equa- tions are linearized in the neighborhood of the steady state to obtain a linear second order system with constant coefficients. Applications are to the stability of the steady state, response of a stable system to a feed disturbance, and proportional feedback control by coolant flow rate adjustments. Students have no trouble with the notion of linearization. They have seen a number of examples in which the physical problem is severely limited in order to obtain a tractable mathematical model, and they recognize the virtue and limitation of such a trade-off. GAS SYSTEMS. To show that analysis skills can be readily extended we deal with gas systems as a final topic. Non-reacting and reacting batch systems are re-examined with the compressibility term retained in the energy equation. Constitutive equations are introduced for the ideal gas and several non-ideal gases and the compres- sibility chart and mixing rules are introduced. MATHEMATICS. At appropriate times we cover numeri- cal methods for solving algebraic equations, and, towards the end of the course, analytical solution of linear, non- homogeneous differential equations with constant co- efficients and elementary numerical solution of nonlinear differential equations. Student response to the course has been excel- lent. We feel, with some pride, that this is at least in part a reflection of the course content and organization, particularly chemical engineering courses seem to the student to be a natural out- growth of the analysis course. There is another factor, however, which helps considerably. The student is continually referred back to relevant sections of his calculus and chemistry texts, de- veloping, in his eyes, a logical continuity between his basic science courses and creative engineering. Physical chemistry laboratory experiments are often discussed in our classroom. This blending is in stark contrast to the nearly total discontinu- ity which existed under the old program. Colleagues unfamiliar with the details and student performance often express concern over the level of material and wonder whether sopho- mores can really handle it. Our emphatic "yes" supported by formal AIChE student chapter and Student Government Association evaluations, is most easily justified by a related fact. Last year we introduced a course for non-majors based on our first semester course. We will discuss that course in detail at another time, but it is quite similar in content and level to the first semester course for chemical engineering majors. We have had participation from students to biology, chem- istry, economics, home economics, and secondary education, among others, some of whom have studied no chemistry. Registration went from eight in the first year to thirty-two in the second, and the course is recommended now by the chem- istry department for its undergraduate majors. The students rated the course 4.7 out of a possible 5.0 in the SGA evaluation. It is clear from the performance of the non-engineers that our engi- neering procedures for problem solving are appre- ciated by a much larger portion of the student body than we originally anticipated. When the concepts can be grasped by non-majors, it is evi- dent that the material belongs at the sophomore level in a Chemical Engineering curriculum. SUMMER 1973 *1-t16haip THE UNDERGRADUATE CHE LABORATORY* H. S. FOGLER', A. J. PERNA2, and F. H. SHAIR3 The laboratory workshop format consisted of a number of speakers each discussing a particu- lar aspect of a laboratory. The papers presented can be classified in four categories: 1) the phi- losophy and objectives of the laboratory, 2) com- puter aided laboratory instruction, 3) types of laboratories and experiments, and 4) different approaches and instructional techniques. To assess the attitudes of laboratory instruction along with current and future trends in each of the above categories, a 10-page questionnaire was prepared and mailed to over 50 chemical enge- neering departments (primarily those who had faculty members registered for this workshop) in the U. S. and Canada and to a significant number of industrial contacts. I. PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES The major results of the survey were dis- cussed in the first paper of the session by H. S. Fogler. The consensus indicated that the most im- portant goals of the laboratory were to * Demonstrate or reinforce principles or phenomena discussed in class, * Give the students practice in planning and interacting with the experiment, * Develop the students' interest in experimentation, * Develop a proficiency in technical report writing, and * Expose the student to open-ended experiments of a re- search or design nature. Information on the philosophies of the laboratory at various universities along with ideas about experiments which impart a sense of learning to the student and leave him with a sense of accom- plishment were also summarized in this paper. The results of one question, when averaged, showed the following allocation of the student's time currently spent on a given experiment. 1. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. 2. Newark College of Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102. 3. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109. 15% of the time should be spent in preparation for the experiment 30% should be used for setting up and carrying out the experiment 25% should be spent on computation and analysis for the raw data 30% should be used for writing the report on the ex- periment. Many felt that too little time was currently being spent on giving the students practice at planning and interacting with the experiment to learn the process of experimentation, i.e., the technical and managerial skills required to carry out effective experiments. In the future, it is hoped that most laboratories will provide the student with the opportunity to plan meaningful experiments and experimental programs in which the outcome is not known or is uncertain and in which one must allow for contingencies. Also discussed in the first paper were a few techniques used at The University of Michigan to complement the standard laboratory exercises in order to increase the student's capabilities for planning effective experiments. In particular, the use of guided design instruction in the synthesis of experimental projects at the sophomore level has proven quite effective. Here, a group of 3-4 students (1) define and develop the need for an experiment which they would like to perform, (2) state the constraints on the experimental pro- gram (3) determine the key or critical measure- ments to be made, (4) suggest methods of pro- cessing and analyzing the data, (5) support alter- nate approaches to various segments of the proj- ect, (6) suggest possible outcomes and means of evaluating the effectiveness of the programs. Each group receives feedback from the instruc- tor at various stages of the planning and then gives an oral presentation and defense to the other groups at the end of the semester. Methods of implementing the open-ended approach laboratory were presented by R. Clift and 0. M. Fuller. They described a ChE Labora- tory course at McGill, in which a special format *Report on the Undergraduate Laboratories Workshop at the ASEE Summer School in Boulder, CO 1972. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Shair Fogler called the Evolutionary Laboratory has been de- veloped in order to place emphasis on the process of experimentation itself. The distinctive features are specialization of the staff for optimal use of teaching personnel, and the conference period for rapid feedback and evaluation. Work on each unit of apparatus is directed by an experiment controller (EC) who acts both as technical expert and teacher. The EC has suffi- cient freedom in planning so that he may, for example, direct a logically connected sequence of experiments rather than repetitive exercises. Fol- lowing each laboratory exercise, the students have a conference with the EC which consists of an oral report, a teaching session, and an occasion for feedback on instructions and apparatus. The conferences permit flexible planning and evolu- tionary changes in the exercises. The teaching of experimentation requires, among other things, a description of the process in terms of observable behaviors and a methodology for planning ex- periments. For this purpose, the McGill program offers a description in terms of instructional ob- jectives and an extension of PERT for planning. In addition to comments on the laboratory received from industry on the questionnaire, in- formation was gathered and presented by Drs. C. C. Zimmerman and D. N. Burdge of Marathon Oil Company who view the laboratory as a tool to increase the student's problem solving capabili- ties through experimentation. They reinforced earlier presentations suggesting that greater emphasis be given in the laboratory to problem definition and analysis and to experimental plan- ning. This is to help insure that the student or employee may learn to decide which measure- ments will be meaningful and not to carry out unnecessary experiments whose results could have been obtained by other means, such as a combina- tion of reasoning and calculation. They encour- aged greater development of the student com- munication skills primarily through report writ- ing but also through oral reports to the instruc- tor. It is interesting to note that while only 50% of the universities returning the questionnaire stated that report writing was a major objective of the laboratory, every industrial reply suggested that improvement in the students report writing should receive major attention. II. TYPES OF LABORATORIES AND EXPERIMENTS F. H. Shair reported the survey results con- cerning the attitudes expressed by ChE faculties towards the laboratories in chemistry and physics which are required by students who enroll in the ChE curriculum. Generally the ChE faculty were satisfied, but certainly not enthusiastic about the chemistry laboratories. On the other hand, the ChE faculty generally expressed moderate dissat- isfaction with the physics laboratories. Over half of the persons answering the questionnaire stated that they believed their required physics labora- tories to be of little value in aiding their students in developing important laboratory techniques, in helping their students to analyze experimental error and uncertainty, in helping their students develop report writing, in helping their students develop oral presentations, and in helping their students formulate an experimental path aimed at obtaining desired answers with the least effort. The merits of the undergraduate laboratories de- veloped by E. C. Stone and D. W. Skelton at Caltech discussed in some detail. Professor Shair also described a ChE inte- grated concepts and laboratory course which has been given during the last five years at Caltech. SUMMER 1973 The fundamentals of ChE are emphasized along with both oral and written presentations. The laboratory experience involves open-ended proj- ects which are also of interest to someone outside of Caltech. Recent experimental topics involved the internal combustion engine, the melting of icebergs, the spreading of oil slicks, the decay of ozone within buildings, transport across pul- monary membranes, and transport across artifi- cial kidney membranes. Students participate in the planning as well as in the conducting of ex- periments. Several projects are in some stage of being published in the open literature. Exams are given in the form of scenarios. The most im- portant aspect for course update and improve- ment involves the recycle of the top 10% of the class into teaching assistants during the follow- ing year. Discussed by A. J. Perna were those results of the 10-page questionnaire relating to the Unit Operations Laboratory. A summary of the over thirty schools responding showed that: All had either conventional Unit Operations Labora- tory or a Transport Laboratory; Laboratory experience ran the gamut from a three level approach (sophomore-junior-senior) to only a senior year (majority) course; Laboratories were primarily hardware rather than computer oriented; In general, laboratory experiments were a blend of pilot plant size and transport size; Integrated Lab-Theory courses were rare with only approximately 18% of the schools using this approach; All schools have experiments designed to cover the areas of Heat, Mass and Momentum Transport in their Unit Operations Laboratory, but some schools also have incorporated experiments in kinetics, thermo and process control and dynam- ics in the lab; In general the lab improvements have been in the areas of instrumentation, open-ended experimen- tation, and reduced workload. One important factor which came out of the sur- vey was that the laboratory has become an area for exposing the students to concepts not taught in the classroom and that it is an extension of his learning process and not completely integrated with the material presented in theory type courses. R. D. Williams described a one hour chemical reaction engineering laboratory currently being used at The University of Arizona. In this labora- tory the student is exposed to a number of differ- ent types of reactors used in homogeneous liquid Many felt that too little time was spent on giving students practice at planning and interacting with the experiment ... phase reactions, in catalytic heterogeneous re- actions and in non-catalytic heterogeneous re- actions. A number of methods of data collection, ranging from direct sampling and titration or gas chromatography to direct temperature and pressure measurements, are illustrated in the course along with different methods of data an- alysis. The students could use these reactors to carry out reactions whose rate laws have been reported in the literature or to study reactions whose kinetics have not been reported. An alternative to the weekly laboratory in the form of a three-week intensive course was pre- sented by G. B. Williams and J. H. Hand of The University of Michigan. In this course, which is offered at the end of each winter term, the stu- dent has essentially an entire day to complete the experiment and write his report. Consequently he is not under the usual pressure to get the experi- ment working and finished within as soon a time as possible in order to rapidly go on to other course assignments. In the intensive course there is adequate time to modify and experiment with the equipment, and also time to profit from rou- tine difficulties and breakdowns of the equipment. While the faculty and students are equally en- thusiastic about conducting the course in this manner, the only two serious drawbacks appear to be centered around finding housing for the students for only three weeks after the end of the term and the lab's interference with some summer jobs and summer school. R. M. Hubbard presented a pilot plant oriented experiment which students undertake as a final experiment in the ChE laboratory at the Uni- versity of Virginia. The experiment is multi- purpose and forces students to work as a team to take data, make material balances on a process as soon as data are obtained, and to experience a continuous operation such as might be encoun- tered later in industry. A small operating chemi- cal plant produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide from the catalytic decomposition of a vaporized methanol-water mixture at 300'C and atmos- pheric pressure. The students operate the plant in shifts for most of a normal day and acquire enough data to carry out at least two complete material balances per shift. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION III. COMPUTER AIDED LABORATORY INSTRUCTION D. E. Seborg described the computer-aided student laboratory which he and D. G. Fisher have developed during the last five years at the University of Alberta. The computing facility in- cludes an EAI 590 hybrid computing system plus an IBM 1800 digital computer which oper- ates in a multi-programmed, time-shared mode and allows several research workers and student laboratory groups to have simultaneous, open- shop access to the real-time and background com- puting facilities. Typical real-time applications include control of pilot-plant processes, automa- tion of analytical instruments, and student oriented experiments designed to demonstrate particular hardware and/or software features. It was stressed that when properly used, the computer can take over the time consuming routine tasks and let the student concentrate on the important, fundamental concepts of the ex- periment. R. A. Schmitz described the on-line computing facility for undergraduate instruction which he has developed during the last three years at the University of Illinois. The system utilizes a time- sharing IBM 1800 computer in conjunction with an undergraduate process dynamics and control laboratory. The apparatus connected to the com- puter constitute simple closed-loop systems for studies of mathematical modeling and direct digi- tal control. Students using the system must write a FORTRAN program to handle the collection of data, the sending of feedback signals and any calculations involved in the data processing. The system also provides for the connection of an EAI 580 analog computer to the digital machine so that the computer control of complex systems may be simulated. The facility is being employed in a required undergraduate course on process dynamics and control and in an undergraduate projects course. IV. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES An integrated theory-laboratory course ap- proach was described by R. R. Furgason of the University of Idaho. The approach is to block out from four to six hours per week for a sched- uled three credit course and have the class meet in a lecture mode for several weeks followed by one or two weeks of class devoted to laboratory experimentation. This allows the laboratory to be utilized whenever appropriate rather than on An integrated theory-laboratory course was described .. This allows the laboratory to be utilized when appropriate rather than a fixed schedule. some fixed schedule. The main advantage is the excellent coordination between theoretical and ex- perimental phases of the class with the laboratory neither leading or lagging the course. The dis- advantage is primarily logistical in terms of class, manpower, and scheduling. The integrated laboratory-lecture approach is being carried out on a much larger scale at Wor- cester Polytechnic Institute, where it encom- passes the entire curriculum. Professor I. Zwiebel discussed the WPI project approach in which courses are viewed as elective tools to build the foundations for completing the students two major projects, which are the primary require- ments for graduation along with a competency examination and a humanities minor. Many proj- ects are inter-disciplinary in nature and require a team of students (e.g., a civil engineering- chemical engineering, etc.) each with his particu- lar responsibility, working together to obtain a solution. Special projects, sponsored by a Sloan Foundation grant, run through about 1 1/3 cal- endar years during which time the student's time is divided equally along the following four seg- ments of the project: preparing a proposal of the project plans, executing the plans, analyzing the results, and preparing written and oral re- ports. The WPI project approach offers a sig- nificant alternative to the conventional engineer- ing programs. J. 0. Maloney and G. M. Kortman of the Uni- versity of Kansas presented material on two in- structional laboratory units. The first was con- cerned with an experiment in unsteady-state-cool- ing, while the second unit treated the determina- tion of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data using an Othmer still. Especially developed for inexperienced instructors, each unit contains sufficient material that the instructor, after read- ing it and doing the experiment once or twice, would have adequate control of the experiment and would be able to estimate the validity of student results. Each unit provides the following information: equipment description, experimental procedure, extensive data, calculations, computer programs, error analysis, and suggestions for modification of the experiment to achieve variety. (Continued on p. 135) SUMMER 1973 .1ectwe .%emanondataon BERNOULLI'S EQUATION WITH FRICTION NOEL DE NEVER University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 This demonstration shows examples of flows in which inertial effects are greater than fric- tional effects and the converse. These are ex- plained in terms of Bernoulli's equation with friction. APPARATUS The apparatus consists of: 1. A one-gallon solvent can, into which a 14" IPS coupling is soldered near the bottom. 2. A one-foot length of 1/" IPS pipe with five 14" OD holes drilled in it on 2" centers. These holes are all aligned on one line in the pipe surface, parallel to the pipe axis. Both ends of the pipe are threaded. 3. Same as No. 2, except that into each of the five holes a long piece of /4" OD copper tubing has been slipped and soft-soldered in place. 4. A piece of 1", rod, 12" long. 5. A 1,4" IPS pipe cap. 6. A short length of rubber tubing. 7. One gallon of water thickened with 1.0 wt%
Methocel 4000, estimated viscosity 100 to 150 cp.

DESCRIPTION OF DEMONSTRATION
1. The instructor sets the can on the lab bench over
a sink, with part No. 3 inserted in the coupling and the
end of No. 3 covered with the cap (No. 5). He shows it
to the class, describes it to them, and tells them he is
about to fill the can with water. He asks them to predict
which jet from the pieces of tubing will rise the highest.
After taking a poll of the class, he fills the can (using
the rubber hose). The water jet squirts highest from the
tube farthest from the can and successively lower from
the tubes nearer to the can.
2. The instructor then removes the cap from the end
of the pipe, inserts the rod, replaces the cap, and tells
the students that he will again fill the can with water.
He again asks which jet will go highest and records the
results of his poll. He then fills the can with water. This
time the water squirts highest from the tube nearest the
can.
3. The instructor removes the rod from the tube and
tells the students that he is about to fill the can with
the methocel solution. Again he takes an opinion poll on
which jet will go highest. He then pours the solution into
the can. The jet nearest the can squirts highest, but none
of the jets squirts as high as in demonstration No. 2.

4. The instructor then removes part No. 3, rinses the
can, and replaces part No. 3 with the pipe which has only
holes (part No. 2). He tells the class that he is going to
fill the can with water and again quizzes them as to which
jet will go highest. After recording the predictions, he
fills the can with water. This time there is a hump-shaped
distribution of heights, with the highest in the middle.
The streams are very unequal in width, with the stream
nearest the can the thinnest and the far stream the
thickest. The streams are not vertical, as before, but
leave the holes at an angle away from the can, with the
stream nearest the can about 100 from the vertical and
the stream farthest from the can about 30 from the
vertical. It is also observed that each of the streams
uses only part of the hole to exit through, and that part
is the part farthest from the can. The near hole issues a
stream which fills about one fifth of the hole area; this
fraction grows to about three fourths at the far hole.
5. The instructor explains the foregoing experimental
results.

THEORY
For the first three demonstrations with the
fluid rising through the small vertical tubes, the
flow (and, hence, the height to which each jet
rises) depends only on the static pressure at the
base of the vertical tubes. The sharp right-angle
turn which the fluid makes entering these tubes
prevents any of the horizontal momentum of the
fluid from being converted into vertical momen-
tum.
To find the pressures at the base of these
tubes, we apply Bernoulli's equation:

A + gz + = F ()
Here states 1 and 2 are chosen as shown in
Figure 1.

COPPER
TUBES I
Lo I fCAP
FLOW n',{

PIPE

Figure 1.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

W t~iS
Noel de Nevers earned his BSChE at Stanford and
his PhD at the University of Michigan, with a year out
in between to be a Fulbright exchange student at the
Technical Institute in Karlsruhe, Germany. He spent five
years with what is now Chervon Research and Chevron
Oilfield Research, before joining the faculty of the Uni-
versity of Utah. He spent Academic 1971-72 on leave,
working for the Office of Air Programs of the Environ-
mental Protection Agency. He is the author of a text-
book on Fluid Mechanics, and editor of a book of readings
and discussions on Technology and Society.

From 1 to 2 there is no change of elevation or any
pump work done on the system, and V, is zero; so
p P V2
2 1 = F (2)
p 2
Substituting for F from the Fanning friction fac-
tor equation (1) and solving,
2

Equation 3 indicates that if 4f L/D is less
than 1, the static pressure at 2 will be greater
than at 1; and, if 4f L/D is greater than 1, the
static pressure at 2 will be less than at 1. Thus,
by adjusting the value of 4f L/D, one can cause
the water to squirt highest from either the far-
thest or nearest tubes.
This analysis is not restricted to the two end
holes. It can be applied to holes n and (n+-1),
yielding
P P V2 V2
n + 1 .n + n 1 s4f L +(4)
P P 2 Dj DI 2
Here V, is always greater than Vn,+i; so, if f 0,
P,,+i is always greater than Pn. Thus, for any
two holes, the relative jet heights are determined
by the value of (1 4f L/D) between them.
In experiments run as described above, with
the can held full of water so that the flow was at
steady state, it was found that, with no rod in
the pipe, the flow rate out of the farthest tube was
1000 cc/min; the Reynolds number in the pipe

just upstream of it was about 104. If we accept
the value of e for galvanized pipe from Perry'
as 0.006 inches, then we can read f=0.012, which
makes 4fL/D equal 0.27. We would expect the
fluid to squirt highest from the farthest tube, as
it does.
In a similar experiment, with the 0.25" OD
rod in place, it was found that the flow rate from
the near tube was about 550 cc/min. By using
the hydraulic diameter, as shown in Perry', we
can calculate the Reynolds number as 2 x 104.
Using the same absolute roughness as before
yields f=0.018 4f L/D = 1.25. This indicates that
the fluid would squirt highest from the nearest
tube, as it does.
Raising the water viscosity has the same effect
as inserting the rod. The flow is laminar, and the
friction factor is proportional to the viscosity.
For the thickened water, the friction factor is
large enough that 4f L/D is greater than one;
and the water squirts highest from the hole near
the can.
The whole subject of flow in this type of mani-
fold has been reviewed by Acrivos et al.2
The fourth demonstration is much more com-
plicated to explain than the first three because
there is no simple, one-dimensional representa-
tion of this flow. If we had placed a pitot-type
tube in each of the holes, with its exit vertical,
we would expect that from each hole the jet
would have risen the same amount if friction
were negligible. This result would have been the
same, even if the various pitot-type tubes were
of different diameters. If, however, we had tilted
the exits of these pitot-type tubes at differing
angles to the vertical, the heights of rise of the
jets would not have been equal because, at their
highest points, the jets would have had varying
kinetic energies in the horizontal direction.
In the fourth demonstration, the fluid forms
its own pitot tubes. The wall thickness of the pipe
is only about one third of the hole diameter, so
the fluid can turn through the hole without losing
all its horizontal momentum. The interesting
thing here is that, the faster the fluid is flowing,
the greater is the angle through which the fluid
must turn to exit; so the fastest-moving fluid
exits nearest the vertical. One may look at this
another way by saying that the fluid builds up a
turning vane for itself, made up of stagnant fluid
trapped in part of the orifice.
This conversion of horizontal to vertical mo-
mentum is not perfect, so the jet nearest the can

SUMMER 1973

does not rise as high as it would if the conversion
were perfect. As we proceed out the pipe, we see
two conflicting effects producing the hump-shaped
distribution:
1. The increasing efficiency of the "turning
vanes" as the velocity falls leads to higher rise;
and
2. As the angle through which the fluid must
turn to exit decreases, the fluid exits more nearly
horizontally and thus does not rise as high.

A VARIATION
For graduate courses, one may insert a 5/16"
thin-wall tubing about 10" long, open at both
ends, into the pipe in place of the rod. In this
case the flow through the tube will be great
enough that the two end jets will both rise higher
than the ones in the middle. This presents an
analysis problem suitable for graduate students.

SOME PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1. The pipe connections should be finger tight. A
small leak doesn't hurt.
2. In placing the copper tubes in the holes in part
No. 3, little care is needed to align them. After they have
been soft-soldered in place, they can be easily bent into
line by holding the pipe in a vise, inserting a steel rod
in each tube, and tapping it gently into line with a
hammer.
3. To make the pipe without the tubes (part No. 2),
use extreme care to get the holes in one axial line.
4. While running the experiments, tilt the plane of
the orifices a few degrees to one side (by rotating the
pipe) so that the jets fall free of the pipe and do not
interfere with each other.
5. Check the apparatus carefully for burrs. They can
have a pronounced influence.
6. In running the first part of the experiment, it is
well to show that the result is independent of which end
of the pipe is inserted in the can. As long as all the con-
nections are finger tight, the instructor can reverse the
position of the pipe in the can quite quickly.
7. Allow adequate time to make up methocel solu-
tion. Sugar solutions could be substituted, but they are
messy. Any viscous solution will do, but methocel is prob-
ably the cheapest and easiest.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This device was used by Dr. J. Q. Cope, former vice
president of the Chevron Chemical Corporation, to teach
young engineers several important lessons. His procedure
was:
1. Describe the apparatus to the new engineer, with-
out mentioning the insertable rod.
2. Ask him from which end of the pipe the jet will
squirt highest.
is right.
4. Go get the device, inserting the rod if necessary.

5. Demonstrate-and take his money.
The educational qualities of this procedure are ob-
vious.

NOMENCLATURE

diameter
Fanning friction factor.
lost work per pound due to friction
acceleration of gravity
length
mass
pressure
velocity
pump work
elevation
absolute roughness
density

ft

ft-lbf/Ibm
ft/sec2
ft
Ibm
lbf/in2
ft/sec
ft-lbf
ft
ft
lbm/ft3

REFERENCES
1. Perry, J. H., et al. Chemical Engineers' Handbook
(4th Ed.; McGraw-Hill, 1963), p. 5-19 et sec.
2. Acrivos, A., B. D. Babcock, and R. L. Pigford,
'Flow Distributions in Manifolds," Chem. Eng.
Science. 10 (1959), pp. 112-124.

BOOK REVIEW: (Continued from p. 110)

Atom balances, purge and recycle are not dis-
cussed. Although reactors form a central theme;
conversion, yield and extent of reaction are not
used or defined. The enumeration of the number
of equations (mass balances, mass fraction con-
straints) does not appear, for this text does not
deal with multi-unit processes in multicomponent
systems.
The mathematical content is such that a stu-
dent should have finished calculus and differ-
ential equations. Parenthetically, the student is
asked to deal with a large amount of notation to
appreciate the content. Computer methods are not
stressed, although there is material on numerical
methods. Any computer applications would re-
quire a supplementary text. Linear algebra, which
some people refer to as "the language of stoich-
iometry," is not used.
In short, one must compliment the authors on
their attempt to inject vitality and meaning into
the first text in chemical engineering. However,
their approach does not fit well in a so-called
"standard" core curriculum. Perhaps our curricu-
la will adapt: I for one concur with their phi-
losophy. For the present, the book will find use
in peripheral ways, such as refresher courses.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

THE CHE DESIGN LABORATORY

HARRY SILLA
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, N. J. 07030

A new design program for senior-undergradu-
ate chemical engineers was initiated at Stevens
Institute of Technology in the 1968-69 academic
year. One important feature of the program is
the use of the ChE laboratory as a vehicle for
teaching design. Because of the emphasis on de-
sign, this laboratory is called the ChE design
laboratory. This paper discusses the philosophy
and organization of the laboratory.

PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES
A recent report* gives the distribution of
chemical engineers according to areas of speciali-
zation. As one would expect, no one category pre-
dominates. For this reason it does not seem rea-
sonable to place the emphasis in design educa-
tion entirely on process design. In order to obtain
a broader and more flexible program in design we
have added the ChE design laboratory to our
course to complement process design. Besides
giving a student who is interested in process de-
sign a broader view, the design laboratory also
gives the student experience in project engineer-
ing and the design of experimental systems for
research and development. Furthermore, one of
the most valuable experiences any young engi-
neer can obtain is to follow a project from its con-
ception through it design stages and finally reduc-
tion to practice. The design laboratory gives the
student this opportunity.
velopment needs further discussion. An engineer
working in this area must frequently design his
own apparatus, and he must usually show results
within a year to justify the continuation of a re-
search project. A considerable amount of valuable
research time may be wasted due to errors in the
design of apparatus. There are many unpredict-
able factors in a research project that one cannot
afford to be held back by errors in design. Prob-
ably, some of the recent disenchantment with re-

*Roethel, D. A. H., Counts, C. R., Realignments in the
Chemical Profession Continue, p. 90, Nov. 15, 1971.

search productivity can be traced back to avoid-
able delays caused by poor equipment design. At
any rate, the one way a research engineer can
increase his productivity is by becoming a skilled
designer of equipment. The importance of design
in research and development is generally over-
looked.
ANATOMY OF A PROJECT
Each student is interviewed and assigned a
project according to his interest and ability. The
process begins by having each student make up a
resume of his experience, skills and career ob-
jectives. After the interview the students are
formed into teams which consists of a maximum
of three students. Teams of two students are
optimum, but economics requires that many three-
man teams be formed.
We are willing to undertake many types of
projects. Our only requirements are that the
project is useful; that someone can be found who
is knowledgeable in the area to act as an advisor
for the project; and that the project can be com-
pleted at a reasonable cost. A project may involve
designing a completely new apparatus or design-
ing an improvement or addition to an existing
system. It should be emphasized that an important
objective of the design laboratory is that the stu-
dents develop the skills required to reduce his
design calculations to practice. It is one thing to
make design computations and another thing to
translate these computations into a working sys-
tem. A typical project involves a) definition of
the problem b) design calculations c) evaluation
and purchasing of equipment d) assembling the
apparatus e) testing and trouble shooting f) col-
lecting correlating data g) and writing the final
report.
The student is usually given the objectives
of his project in a general way. To help define the
problem students are required to search the litera-
ture and read several articles to become familiar
with the theory and experimental details.
Since the design laboratory involves many
different projects, much of the information must
be conveyed through personal contact. Thus, the
student is urged to seek information from faculty
members, graduate students and industry. There
are, however, many aspects of apparatus design

SUMMER 1973

Harry Silla obtained his BS degree from City Univer-
sity of New York and his MS and PhD ('70) degrees from
Stevens Institute of Technology. His research interests
include combustion and transport properties of flame
plasmas.
that appear frequently enough to warrant discus-
sing them in lectures; for example the design of
flow systems. In the design laboratory there is no
need to withhold information from the student,
that is, the instructor knows the answer to a par-
ticular problem but withholds the answer to see if
the student can arrive at the same answer. There
are enough real problems to be solved without
creating artificial ones.
After making their design calculations the
students are ready to select standard parts such
as heat exchangers, pumps, valves and instru-
ments to produce a working system. In some cases
special parts must be designed and fabricated.
This requires a knowledge of materials, equipment
and fabrication techniques. Since the students do
not have the necessary experience to fabricate
equipment, they discuss their designs with the
who are working on experimental theses. At this
point the reliability of their design is also con-
sidered. Will the apparatus withstand the temp-
eratures and pressures? Is thermal expansion
considered? Are corrosion-resistant materials se-
lected? Is the apparatus safe?
If the necessary equipment is not available
in the department's stockroom, students are given
equipment catalogs, and they are urged to contact
sales engineers to discuss their problems. This
aspect of the design forces the students to con-
sider not only equipment costs but also the im-
portance of time as a factor in construction of
equipment.
The students are held responsible for the ac-
curacy of their work. It is not possible to check

all the detailed calculations for the many projects
that are being carried out. The laboratory instruc-
cause of their greater experience will be able to
tell if a number or design is reasonable and thus
will prevent the student from making any serious
errors. It goes without saying that when the
students construct and test their equipment their
oversights, errors in calculations and planning are
emphasized. When a student obtains 90% on an
examination, he walks away pleased, but in the
design laboratory this frequently is not enough.
To extricate himself from his miscalculations
forces him to be very inventive.

DESIGN PROJECTS
A total of twenty projects are currently under
way. These projects are listed in Table 1. Some
of these projects have been continued from the
previous year. For these latter projects, the stu-
dents begin by reading final reports of last year's
outlining a program. This feature of continuing
projects adds considerable flexibility to the course,
because all projects are eventually completed.
Many of our projects are directed toward ex-
panding our laboratory facilities. Examples of
this type of project is the design of a Karr sol-
vent extraction column and a batch reactor facil-
ity. These projects will improve our capabilities
to handle more complex problems in the future.
Other projects are to design equipment to col-
lect engineering or physical property data re-
quired for design: for example, measuring heat
transfer coefficients in falling film evaporator or
tedly, designing apparatus for measuring physical
property data does not have much glamour, but
this can be just as challenging as designing a dis-
tillation column.
One of our more novel projects is the develop-
ment of a process to extract potential antibiotics
from sea sponges. The objective in this project is
to extract sufficient material for an organic
chemist to determine the structure of biologically
active compounds. These compounds will then be
synthesized by an organic chemist. A similar pro-
ject is to determine the sex attractant dispersed by
a female lobster. The interest in studying the lob-
ster is for aquaculture and commercial trapping.
The students in this group are designing a Karr*
*We are grateful to T. C. Lo of the Hoffman-LaRoche
Co. for his help in the design of the extractor.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

TABLE 1-DESIGN LABORATORY PROJECTS
Separations
Extraction of Antibiotics from Sponges, A. K. Bose, J.
Kryschuk, H. Silla
Extraction of Sex Attractant of Lobsters from Sea Water,
A. K. Bose, R. L. Spraggins,b H. Silla
Controlled Cycling Solvent Extraction, H. Silla
Countercurrent Distribution Solvent Extraction, H. Silla
Fluid Bed Drying, H. Silla
Filtration, H. Silla
Polymers
Design of a Stress Relaxometer, C. G. Gogos
Effects of Porosity on the Physical Properties of Poly-
mers, K. C. Valanis
Development of a Hydrophilic Gel for a Gel-Permeation
Chromatograph, J. A. Biesenberger, I. Duvdevani
Instrumentation
Design of a Gel-Permeation Chromatograph, J. A. Biesen-
berger, I. Duvdevani
Reaction Engineering
Internal Recirculation Catalytic Reactor, G. B. DeLancey,
H. Silla
Catalytic Plasma Jet Reactor, M. J. McIntosh
Fluid Bed Combustion for Waste Treatment, H. Silla
Biomedical Engineering
Diagnosis of Lung Damage by Measuring Weight Shifts
in the Upper Body, J. R. Kaime, H. Silla
Ultrasonic Generation of Monodispersed Submicron Par-
ticles for Lung Studies, M. Lippmann', H. Silla

Engineering Properties
Heat Transfer in a Fluid Bed, M. Sacksa, H. Silla
Flow in a Fluid Bed, M. Sacksa, H. Silla
Heat Transfer in a Falling Film Exaporator, H. Silla
Plate Efficiencies of a Sieve Plate Distillation Column,
H. Silla
Transport Phenomena in a Flame Plasma, H. Silla
a. Doctoral student
b. Post-Doctoral Research Associate
c. M.D., College of Medicine and Dentistry of New
Jersey at Newark
d. Ph.D., New York University Medical Center

extraction colum to remove the sex attractant
from sea water.
Each year there are a few students who are in-
terested in biomedical engineering or who intend
to go to medical school. To satisfy this group of
students we have established a working relation-
ship with a local hospital to generate medical
projects. Last year two students designed and
built an automatic blood sampler which is now
being used by the hospital.** There is a need for

Besides giving a student... in process design
a broader view, the design laboratory also gives
the student experience in project engineering
and the design of experimental systems
for research and development.

rapidly locating which lung is damaged because of
accidents or diseases. This is not as simple as it
may appear. The student involved in this project
is investigating the possibility of measuring the
shift in the center of gravity of the individual
during his breathing cycle. During inspiration
the heart shifts in the direction of the damaged
lung, thus causing a shift in the individual's cen-
ter of gravity.
The design of instrumentation is a rich source
of projects and an area where many principles of
chemical engineering can be applied on a minia-
ture scale. Gel-permeation chromatography is an
example of a project of this type. In this project
the students were assigned the problem of rede-
signing an existing chromatograph with the ob-
jective of making a more reliable compact instru-
ment.

CONCLUSIONS

The design laboratory has been enthusiastic-
ally accepted by the students, who have christened
the design laboratory, "The Super Lab." Even
students who have had no prior interest in design
or who have chosen other areas of specialization
have been challenged by the projects. The design
laboratory not only is a challenge to the student,
but to the instructor as well because of the variety
of projects that must be managed, and because
the projects are constantly changing.
The design laboratory is still in the process of
evolving, and many problems will have to be
solved before the laboratory reaches maturity,
nevertheless, the results to date have been grati-
fying. One can see a student arrive in the Fall in
"rough form" and then leave in the Spring as a
much improved engineer. We have reached the
point in the design laboratory where we feel that
many of the design projects are equivalent to
industrial experience. The design laboratory
should play an important role in the undergradu-
ate chemical engineering curriculum.

**We are grateful to Dr. W. Perl of the College of
Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey at Newark for
his help in the design of the sampler.

SUMMER 1973

FLOW MODELING AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION

R. W. ROUSSEAU, R. P. GARDNER and
R. M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27607

A common method of formulating dynamic
models is to introduce a process upset (such as a
tracer injection) and to measure the subsequent
response. There are several important restrictions
on the use of this method: the upset must be
measurable without being dramatic enough to
cause system failure, the production of off-
specification product, or a threat to the safety of
people and/or equipment; in addition, the experi-
either through a control valve or tracer injection
site, and he must have the capability of monitor-
ing the process response. The latter requirement
can be fulfilled in many industrial systems only
if a radioactive isotope is used as a tracer.
In the experiment to be described, a radio-
tracer impulse is injected into a turbulent stream
flowing in a straight pipe, and the count rate at
two downstream points is measured as a function
of time. The results are used to determine dis-
persion model parameters (mean residence time
and effective axial dispersion coefficient) by the
method of moments. The estimated values of the
dispersion coefficient are then compared with
values predicted by a published dimensionless
correlation of Peclet number vs. Reynolds num-
ber.
The educational objectives of the experiment
are to expose the students to the concepts of
process modeling and experimental determination
of model parameters, to lay a basis for subsequent
presentation of material on process dynamics and
the design and scaleup of nonideal process vessels,
and to introduce the topics of tracer technology,
subjects not usually encountered in the under-
The background material presented to the
class covers fully the problems associated with
tracers such as dyes and electrolytes. It also

briefly reviews problems which have been success-
fully attacked using radioisotopes (many of which
are presented in the work by Gardner and Ely
(1967)), including the determination of flow
rates and flow channel volumes in process units,
blood vessels and rivers and streams, formulation
of models for industrial processes and biological
systems, measurements of diffusion coefficients
and kinetic rate constants, measurements of mix-
ing efficiencies in stirred tanks, determination of
the existence of channelling or bypassing and
stagnant regions in process units, and measure-
ments of currents and dispersion patterns in re-
ceiving waters. We believe that this list, as exten-
sive as it is, represents only a fraction of the
potential applications of radioisotopes to the solu-
tion of problems with which chemical engineers
are likely to be confronted, and that having once
been introduced to radioisotopes in their educa-
tion, engineers will be more likely to think of
them when dealing with such problems.

EXPERIMENTAL
A schematic of the experimental system is shown in
Figure 1. Water is fed to the system from a constant
head tank through a rotameter into a long % inch NPD
galvanized pipe, and from the pipe into a storage tank.

*Detectors

Rotameters

Sewer

Fig. 1. Schematic of Experiment.

Tracer is injected into the pipe through a regular pipe tee
fitted with a rubber septum. Detectors are mounted at
either end of a 20 foot straight section of the pipe down-
stream of the tracer injection point. The storage tank
is used to allow the radioactivity to decay to a negligible
level before the effluent is sewered.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Ronald W. Rousseau received his BS, MS, and PhD from
Louisiana State University. He has industrial experience
with the Ethyl Corporation and Westvaco, Inc. He has
been at North Carolina State University since 1969; re-
search interests include crystallization, vapor-liquid
equilibria, process modeling and applied polymer chem-
istry. He teaches mass and energy balance calculations,
transport processes and mass transfer operations.
Robin P. Gardner received his BChE and MS from North
Carolina State University and his PhD from Pennsylvania
State University. From 1961-63 he was Scientist in Charge
of Short Courses on Radioisotope Applications in Indus-
try at the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies and
later was Assistant Director of the Measurement and
Controls Lab at the Research Triangle Institute. He was
an IAEA Expert at the Institute of Radioactive Research
in Belo Horizonte, Brazil and currently is Professor of
Nuclear and Chemical Engineering at NCSU. (center)
Richard M. Felder did his undergraduate work at the
City College of New York and obtained his PhD from
Princeton. He spent a year at AERE Harwell, England
on a NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship, two years at Brook-
haven National Laboratory, and came to NCSU in 1969.
Recently he has become involved with photochemical re-
actor analysis, radioisotope applications, and applica-
tions of engineering technology to medical and environ-
mental problems. He has served as a consultant to the
government of Brazil on industrial application of radio-
isotopes. (right)

Manganese-56, in the form of an aqueous Mn(NO3)2,
solution, was selected as the tracer because it is a gamma
ray emitter and hence can be detected through metal
walls, and because it has a half-life of only 2.6 hours,
which causes it to decay to negligible levels in less than
24 hours. Geiger-Mueller tubes were the detectors; their
outputs were fed to a Nuclear Chicago rate meter coupled
to a Leeds and Northrup strip chart recorder.
Both single and two-point detection methods were
demonstrated in the experiments, using detectors placed
at distances of 6 and 26 feet from the point of injection.
While it is desirable that the detectors have approxi-
mately the same sensitivity, deviations from this condi-
tion are not serious because of the method of data

analysis. Typical output from a run using both detectors
is shown in Figure 2, which plots the counting rates re-
corded by the first and second detector vs. the time from
injection.

70 -

60 -

-50 -
0

S40 -

S3 -
F-

20 -

10 -

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

TIME sec

Fig. 2. Typical Analog Output.

COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES

Flow systems in which a measurable but finite
amount of axial mixing occurs are commonly
simulated by two-parameter models, such as axial
dispersion and tanks-in-series models. The para-
meters of these models are simply related to mo-
ments of the system impulse response function,

SUMMER 1973

and may be conveniently estimated from numeri-
cally calculated moments of experimental re-
sponse curves. In contrast, parameter estimation
techniques such as time-domain and frequency-
domain regression require considerable computa-
tional effort, and are consequently less suitable
for inclusion in a junior-level laboratory course.
The quantities needed to estimate the para-
meters of a two-parameter flow model by the
method of moments are

St Ri(t)dt

Ri (t)dt
2o

i = 1,2

(1)

2 (t-pi) 2Ri(t)dt
o. 1 = 1,2 (2)
S Ri(t)dt
where Ri(t) is Lhe counting rate at the ith detec-
tion station, and ui and -i2 are respectively the
mean and variance of this function. The pro-
cedure is to choose a model, derive expressions
for the model parameters in terms of ui and
a-i2, evaluate the latter quantities from the experi-
mental impulse responses and Eqs. (1) and(2)
by numerical quadrature, and use the resulting
values to solve for the model parameters. In the
experiments run so far, hand calculations of the
moments from analog output were required; in
the future, the output from the rate meter will
be punched on paper tape, which will in turn be
used as input to a Simpson's Rule quadrature
subroutine.
The model chosen for illustrative purposes
was the doubly-infinite axial dispersion model.
The assumptions inherent in this model and so-
lutions for the impulse response and its moments
are outlined by Himmelblau and Bischoff (1968)
and Levenspiel (1972). The relations used in the
single-detector measurements are as follows:

- L
S1 = i

i = 1,2

(3)

2
2-+ and Pi = vLi/D (4,5)
i1 Pi
where Li is the distance from the injection point
to the ith detector, v is the mean flow velocity in
the tube, and D is the effective axial dispersion
coefficient. The procedure followed was to calcu-
late ul and o-2 from the experimental Ri data us-
ing Eqs. (1) and (2), then to evaluate the ve-
locity v from Eq. (3), the Peclet number P1 from
Eq. (4), and finally D from Eq. (5). The two-
detector method provides two advantages over

the single detector method: the injection does not
have to be a perfect impulse, and errors in syn-
chronizing the time of injection with the record-
er output are eliminated. The equations for the
two detector method are
L2-L1
21 (6)

2 2
2 -1 2 (7)

v(L2-L1) (8)
D
In this case the velocity v is calculated from the
numerical moments using Eq. (6), the Peclet
number P is calculated from Eq. (7), and D is
calculated from Eq.(8).
Table 1 shows values of flow velocities deter-
mined with a rotameter and calculated as out-
lined above. It is interesting to compare the re-

Table 1-Flow Velocities

Run u(from rotameter) u,

2.01ft/sec
1.53
1.0
1.0

1.77
1.07
0.938

u, u,,
1.88 1.91
1.37 1.4l
0.945 0.9
1.03 -

sults obtained by the one- and two-point tech-
niques: the average error is 16% for the single
detector at 6 feet, 6% for the single detector at
26 feet, and 2% for the two detectors. Figure 3
in a plot of the effective axial dispersion coeffi-
cient vs. the Reynolds number, and shows that
the data fall within the range predicted by a

L
N

L_
u
o
C

(C
Z
o

r-
*

Si
0
Li
a
0i

M ----_I 111111 I I 11111 t'-
80 -
70-
60 -
50 -
>40 -
,30 -

20

10-
9-
al
6-
5 -
4-
3
2 Accepted Experimental Range

) I I IIII I 11 11 I I 1111 l

I 2 3 4 5 6 78910 20 30 40 50bU6fUU90
REYNOLDS NUMBER x IF3
Fig. 3. Dispersion Coefficient as a Function of Reynolds Number.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

.^

method of moments are

The educational objectives of the
experiment are to expose the student
to the concepts of process modeling
and experimental determination of
model parameters ...

correlation reprinted by Himmelblau and Bischoff
(1968). Since doing so would not serve any par-
ticular purpose in light of the educational objec-
tives of the experiment, we have not attempted
to confirm the negligibility of adsorption other
than to note the absence of long tails on the im-
pulse response curves.

DISCUSSION
The students are given two 3-hour laboratory
periods to complete the experiment. In the first
period they go through the entire experiment
without actually using the radiotracer. Under this
format they each get a chance to become familiar
with the equipment and injection procedure with-
out the worry of spills or other hazards. Also
during the first 3-hour session they are instructed
in fundamentals of radiation detection, particu-
larly as related to Geiger-Mueller characteristics,
and in radiation safety. In the second 3-hour
period the actual runs are made, but the injec-
tions and tracer handling are not done by the
students, who merely observe. The runs them-
selves are not particularly time-consuming, so
that each student has sufficient time to carry out
the necessary calculations and to seek individual
instruction on any aspect of the experiment.
The participating students appeared to get a
great deal out of the experiment; the only strong
objection was to the necessity of calculating mo-
ments graphically from analog output, a require-
ment which will be eliminated in the future when
digital output equipment becomes available. A
potential problem with an experiment of this sort
being given on a junior level is that the students
may have to accept on faith the utility of much
of what they are doing. This did not appear to
be a matter of concern to the students, however,
possibly due in part to the fact that they had
been introduced to elementary concepts of model-
ing (and in particular to the dynamic response
of a first-order process) in a previous course. The
experiment also served to make related material
subsequently encountered in senior courses on
reactor design and process dynamics and control
a great deal more meaningful to those who par-
ticipated in it.

Once the basic procedure for a stimulus-
response experiment of this type has been estab-
lished, it is a relatively easy matter to study a
variety of flow systems using the same technique.
We are currently making provisions for the fol-
lowing experiments:
1. Flow and dispersion in packed columns.
2. Flow in obstructed tubes
3. Detection of stagnancy and channeling
4. Residence time distribution of stirred tanks in series
5. Variation of RTD with stirring rate in a single stirred
tank-determination of mixing efficiency.
6. Impulse responses of laminar flow systems.
Our present plan is to include one of these ex-
periments (probably the one on the packed col-
umn) in the laboratory course, either in addition
to or instead of the empty tube experiment, and
to use the others as senior projects.D

REFERENCES
Gardner, R. P. and R. L. Ely, Jr., "Radioisotope Measure-
ment and Applications in Engineering," Reinhold Pub-
lishing Co., 1967.
Himmelblau, D. M. and K. B. Bischoff, "Process Analysis
and Simulation," Chapter 4, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
1968.
Levenspiel, 0., "Chemical Reaction Engineering," Chapter
9, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1972.

LAB WORKSHOP (Continued from p. 125)

D. J. Graves discussed the use of audio-visual
packages in the preparation phase of the labora-
tory experiment. The student prepared modules
used to describe complex pieces of equipment,
measurements points, flow paths, and complex
procedures. At the University of Pennsylvania
the audio-visual modules have reduced laboratory
time and allowed students to continue to work on
project experiments after previous groups have
graduated. Two sample audio-visual modules were
shown to illustrate their use with typical experi-
ments.
The entire proceedings of the laboratory work-
shop are to be published and can be obtained by
sending a check for $10.00 payable to The Uni- versity of Michigan to Professor H. Scott Fogler, Department of Chemical Engineering, The Uni- versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104. The price of the bound proceedings, which will be available after May 1, 1973, was established by the ASEE ChE Division in order to minimize any loss of funds from printing costs. SUMMER 1973 A COMPUTERIZED UNDERGRADUATE PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL LABORATORY R. A. SCHMITZ University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801 A project to computerize the undergraduate process dynamics and control laboratory in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Uni- versity of Illinois was begun in 1969. The plan was to use an existing IBM 1800 computer, which was operating on a time-sharing basis in the School of Chemical Sciences, to provide a facility for computer-aided instruction and for computer- aided experiments by undergraduate students. Our motivation for the project was the realization that a facility of this type would permit more ex- tensive and more meaningful laboratory studies of process dynamics, simulation and control than are possible in conventionally-equipped labora- tories. We also felt that the hands-on use of an on-line data acquisition and control system would be a valuable experience for the students and that the lecture portion of certain courses would be greatly improved by the demonstrations and vis- ual displays made possible by an on-line com- puter. Similar projects have been undertaken at a few other chemical engineering departments at universities in the United States and Canada1'7. A recent report of the CACHE (Computer Aids in Chemical Engineering Education) Committees presents a brief description of these activities. Certainly at this point in time, the use of a computerized undergraduate laboratory in ChE education is a relatively new development. Since the few facilities that are in existence were estab- lished quite dependently, each incorporates some unique features, and publications of their descrip- tions should be informative and valuable to other departments which may embark on similar proj- ects. Many such departments will probably find themselves in a situation similar to ours at Illinois at the outset of this project; that is, with an accessible time-sharing computer of the large or medium-sized variety and an existing laboratory equipped with conventional instruments and con- trollers. While the task of interfacing the labora- tory and the computer and of developing a soft- ware system in such cases may be demanding in Roger A. Schmitz received his BS degree from the University of Illinois and his PhD from the University of Minnesota. He joined the ChE faculty at the University of Illnnois in 1962. His area of specialization is the stabil- ity and control of chemically reacting systems. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1968-69 and was the recipient of the Allan P. Colburn award of the AIChE in 1970. terms of labor, the investment of dollars in hard- ware should be minimal. Departments not so for- tunately situated with regard to an existing com- puting facility will probably go the route of in- vesting in a minicomputer. THE SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION The IBM 1800 computer in the School of Chemical Sciences has 32,000 words of core memory and uses three disks (500,000 words each) for auxiliary storage. It is equipped with the usual peripherals including (1) an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter capable of receiving signals on a -5 to +5 volt range, (2) a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter capable of sending voltages on the range 0 to +5 volts, and (3) a card reader. A description of the computer system, the monitoring program and IBM's Time-Sharing Executive (TSX) System has been published.9 Three thirty-conductor cables connect the computer to the process control laboratory. These cables actually branch to nine stations connected in parallel. Four of these are chemical engineering research laboratories, another is a terminal in a room housing an EAI 580 analog computer, and the remaining four are in the process control laboratory. One cable is devoted entirely to an IBM 1053 output printer which can be connected at any of the stations. A user at any station in the process control labora- tory has access to A/D and D/A channels, a process in- terrupt switch, digital inputs (two-position switches) and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION PROCESS ( i1( level Transducers -5 to +5v Amplifiers t Drivers IBM 1053 Printer Disk-Stored Programs (2) heat exch Transducers to+5v (3) pH inCSTR to 5 psiIII- 5v tog. 1. Schematpsic Diagram of Closed-Loop Systems Fig. 1. Schematic Diagram of Closed-Loop Systems digital outputs (lights). Altogether there are eight A/D and four D/A channels, nine lights, and nine switches. The switches and lights allow for user inputs to the stored programs and for user options. To gain access to the disk-stored programs for the process control laboratory, the user at any station must activate the process interrupt switch. This causes the transfer into core and the execution of an initializing program which governs the building of the core load for the process control laboratory. The core load consists of a supervisory program along with associated sub- programs and the subroutines used-all initially stored in disk memory. When core-load building is complete, execution of the supervisory program begins. It first in- structs the computer to flash two lights at all stations in the laboratory repeatedly, waiting for the user to select, by means of switch settings, a desired subprogram. As it is presently written, the supervisory program can accommodate twenty-seven different subprograms each having a different three-digit code number. To call a desired subprogram, the user enters the three integers in the appropriate code number successively in binary form using the two switches at his experiment station. After a three-digit code is entered, the supervisory program branches to the subprogram stored under that code. Upon completion of the subprogram, control is returned to the supervisor, lights are again flashed at all stations wait- ing for another subprogram to be called. In the usual operation of the laboratory, the initializa- tion procedures are handled by the instructor or the laboratory assistant. The student then encounters the sys- tem and takes over its operation with the supervisory program being executed; that is, with lights flashing in wait of a subprogram code to be entered. The students are responsible for the writing, disk-storing, and de- bugging of the subprograms. They ordinarily work in three-man groups, and each group is assigned a sub- program code number for the course. The subject of programming will be taken up in more detail in a later section of this peper. Only one subprogram can be executed at a time as the system presently stands. This means that no two experiments in the control laboratory, both using the computer, can be carried out simultaneously. We can make programming modifications to remove this limita- tion if it becomes necessary to do so. As mentioned earlier, the computer operates on a time-sharing basis. For background jobs, that is those not involving real-time applications, each user's core load resides in the core and is executed for a short time before being "swapped" to disk-storage for a period of time. Our system monitor program presently allots a time slice of twenty seconds for core residence time. Much of the computer usage in the process control laboratory falls into this background category. Those programs, however, which make use of the real-time clock; that is, those which call for frequent interrupts for reading and/or sending analog signals at specified intervals of times, have priority status and are not swapped from the core. The computer services these frequent interrupts as a fore- ground task, returning to background jobs in the interim periods. THE LABORATORY The equipment at each of three of the four stations in the process control laboratory com- prises a simple control loop with a single meas- ured variable and one manipulated variable. One of these involves the control of the liquid level in a cylindrical column packed with Plexiglass spheres; another, the control of temperature of the effluent water from a tube-and-shell heat ex- changer; and the third, the control of pH in a stirred vessel. Each of the three setups, which are represented schematically in Figure 1, involves standard measuring and signal transducing de- vices so as to produce dc voltage signals for the measured variables on the range -5 to +5 volts for input to the A/D converter on the computer. The measurement originates from a process pres- sure (hydrostatic head) -to-current transducer in the liquid level system, from a thermocouple in the heat exchanger and from a submerged pH electrode assembly in the stirred vessel. The D/A signal from the computer is converted to a cur- rent and then to an air pressure signal in the Fig. 2. Photogaph of Liquid Level Control System. SUMMER 1973 )/A range 3 to 15 psi. The pneumatic signal is sent to a diaphragm control valve, the final control ele- ment in all three cases. The manipulated variables are (1) the flow rate of water to the packed column of the liquid level system, (2) the steam pressure on the tube side of the heat exchanger and (3) the flow rate of a hydrochloric acid solu- tion to the stirred vessel. The photograph in Figure 2 shows the physi- cal layout of the liquid level system; the others are similar. As shown in the photograph, each station is equipped with a control panel on which the process signal flow is printed. A close-up view of the control panel for the liquid level process is shown in Figure 3. The panel conceals most of the Fig. 3. Operator's Control Panel for Liquid Level Experiment. wiring connections and interfacing equipment. As can be seen in the photograph of Figure 3, the panel contains a process interrupt switch, two lights (digital outputs) and two switches (digital inputs). As is also shown in the photographs, each of the three systems is equipped with a con- ventional three-mode analog controller which can be switched into or out of the loop as desired. The equipment and the wiring connections for these systems are intended to be permanent. In working with these processes, therefore, the stu- dent in the laboratory does not assemble appara- tus or make any interface connections. Typical experiments with the three systems may involve the formulation and testing of mathematical models via step response, frequency response and analog simulation methods, and in- vestigations of the closed-loop behavior both with direct digital control and with conventional con- trol. In all experiments the subprograms called by the experimenter may contain instructions to read and store data, send feedback signals, dis- play experimental results on an oscilloscope, carry out calculations and print results or data on the output printer. Further description of the programming effort required will be given in the next section. A fourth apparatus, which makes use of the computer facility, consists of two different types of pneumatic control valves and associated signal converting and conditioning hardware. Experi- ments with this setup, depicted schematically in Figure 4, can be carried out using the control panel at the pH control apparatus. As shown on the left portion of Figure 4, voltage signals from the computer may be sent to the valves, separ- ately or simultaneously, and voltage signals, orig- inating from displacement transducers attached to the valve stems, may be sent to the A/D con- verter on the computer. In the simplest experi- ments with this system, the objective would be to study and compare the frequency response of the two valves. In such instances the subprogram called by the student would instruct the computer to send a sinusoidal signal of a specified ampli- tude and frequency to the valves and to read a voltage signal which indicates the instantaneous valve positions. If he so desires, the student may easily have his subprogram analyze the data and print information to be used in constructing a Bode diagram. He may also have results dis- played on an oscilloscope. With an analog computer inserted in the sys- tem, as shown in Figure 4, real-time simulations involving the simulation of some process on the analog computer and incorporating real valve dynamics are feasible. In experiments of this type, the student may study the effects of non- ideal valve dynamics in various control loops by experimenting with simulated feedback systems Fig. 4. System for Valve Dynamics Experiments and Real-Time Simulations. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION containing ideally simulated valves in one instance and the real valves in another. It will also be possible in advanced studies to interconnect the analog computer, digital computer and any or all of the laboratory stations to form a complex multivariable system containing some simulated components and some real ones. A TR-10 analog computer is available in the laboratory for some small scale experiments, and an EAI 580 is housed at a separate station for more extensive simulations. For either computer, the linkage from the patch panel on the analog machine to the cables from the IBM 1800 is made through a portable interface panel. The panel provides access to all D/A and A/D channels to the IBM 1800 and to all nine lights and switches. The photograph in Figure 5 shows an interconnected system comprising the TR-10 analog computer, the IBM 1800, the interface panel and a pneuma- tic control valve. This system was set up to demonstrate a real-time simulation of a chemical reactor under direct digital control. The fourth station in the process control laboratory consists simply of a laboratory bench at which the portable interface panel can be con- nected to the cables from the computer. The pur- pose of this station is to provide a versatile gen- eral-purpose facility at which a variety of bench- top experiments or demonstrations can be set up and carried out in a short time, some perhaps on a one-shot basis. Usually these experiments will involve studies of the dynamics of individual components or devices. A simple example is a study of the dynamics of thermocouples with Fig. 5. Photograph Showing a System Consisting of a Pneumatic Control Valve, a Portable Interface Panel to the IBM 1800 Computer and a TR-10 Analog Computer being used in a Real-Time Simulation by an Undergraduate Student. TABLE I. SUBROUTINE DESCRIPTIONS Subroutine Function ANDIG Read and print the instantaneous voltage on A/D channels) specified in arguments in the calling statement. ANLOG Periodically read A/D channels, send voltages on D/A channelss, (see options below) and store data. The sampling period and channel numbers are specified in arguments in the calling statement. Options: (a) data logging, no D/A signals (b) data logging with proportional D/A signal for feedback control (c) data logging with function generation (D/A voltage) for analog simulations (d) combination of (b) and (c). DIGAN Send and hold a voltage on D/A channelss. The magnitude of the voltage(s) d te chan nel numbers) are specified arguments. DISPY Send voltage data stored in INSKEL common arrays (e.g. stored during real-time operations) for oscilloscope display (i.e. cycle through the arrays). The arrsa to be displayed and the variables for the x and y axis are specified arguments. FLASH Flash lights and wait for switches (digital inputs) or process interrupt to be set before proceeding. Light numbers) and flashing frequency are specified arguments. PEROD Send sinusoidal voltage on a D/A channel ant log data from A/D channelss. The frequency and period of the sine function and the channel numbers are specified parameters. An option in the subroutine permits the user to specify some other periodic function (tabulated) in place of the sine function. PRIT Print voltage data stored in INSKEL common arrays (e.g. stored during real-time operations). The arrays to be tabulated are specified in arguments in the calling statement. various types of shielding, the computer being used to read, store, print and display the thermo- couple signals versus time. As previously indicated, an oscilloscope with an attached Polaroid camera, is available in the laboratory. Thus, by employing a display subrou- tine, as described in the following section, a stu- dent can immediately observe his experimental data and obtain a photograph for insertion in his laboratory report. PROGRAMMING In order to keep student programming re- quirements and de-bugging difficulties at a man- ageable level, we have written a number of basic programs for the process control laboratory and have stored them permanently on one of the disks. In addition to the initializing and supervisory programs which are transferred into core memory during initialization procedures, these include a number of subroutines whose functions include reading voltages, sending feedback sig- nals, storing, displaying and printing data and governing lights and switches. A list of these routines along with a very brief description of each is given in Table I. A complete description of these routines is not essential here, but per- haps a few comments, in addition to those given in Table I, on some of them are called for. Each subroutine is accessible through a standard Fort- ran call statement that includes a list of argu- SUMMER 1973 ments. Three of the routines, namely ANLOG, DISPY and PEROD, handle real-time operations. Those routines subsequently branch to various entry points in an assembly language program, also written by us specifically for the process con- trol laboratory, which resides permanently in the core memory initialization. Thus by means of Fortran calls to these three subroutines, the user has access to a variety of real-time operations. The initiation and termination of the real-time operations of data logging and sending by the computer in ANLOG and PEROD are handled by the student at the experiment site by means of switch settings. For example, when subroutine ANLOG is entered, a light is flashed (the light number is specified in the list of arguments). Periodic voltage readings and sending begin when the corresponding switch is turned on. The reading and sending end and the execution of the next statement in the student's subprogram takes place when that switch is turned off. In the meanwhile, the user can call for the storing of data over intervals of time during which a second switch (the number of which is also specified in the argument list) is turned on. The usage of subroutine PEROD is very similar. It should be noted that the subroutines in their present form do not permit the changing of parameters during the course of real-time opera- tions. Thus the values of the proportional band, sampling interval, etc., are specified prior to the call or in the calling statement of ANLOG and cannot be changed during the execution of that subroutine In order to study various values of these parameters, the student would either have to call his subprogram repeatedly or have in- serted his call statement within a loop for repeti- tive calls. As mentioned earlier, the student is required to write the Fortran subprogram to which the supervisory program branches when a certain combination of switch settings is entered. Be- cause of the available subroutines, this pro- gramming requirement is simple. For example, the following sequence of statements constitutes the set of necessary instructions for executing direct digital control with data logging, followed by an oscilloscope display and printing of stored data: CALL ANLOG (parameters) CALL DISPY (parameters) CALL PRINT (parameters). A study of frequency response would require the substitution of "CALL PEROD (para- meters)" in place of the call to ANLOG. Of course, the student may make his program quite involved to the extent of providing various ex- perimental options and of carrying out calcula- tions with the experimental data if he so desires. Though the minimal programming require- ment is quite simple, nearly trivial for some ex- ercises, we feel that it is an important part of the student's usage of the system. It gives him a greater overall appreciation and understanding of his experimental goals, of our particular sys- tem and of software aspects associated with on- line computing in general. Having to write a com- puter program for his experiment in advance of the laboratory session forces the student to study the experiment carefully and to plan his labora- tory procedure step-by-step. This in itself is a noteworthy benefit of a computerized laboratory in which the students are required to program the experiments. In the operation of the laboratory, the labora- tory assistant or instructor assists the students in disk-storing and de-bugging their subprograms on the afternoon preceding the scheduled labora- tory session. Some additional de-bugging is often required during laboratory meetings. As men- tioned earlier, the students work in three-man teams, and therefore programming is a group effort. Our curriculum contains a required course in digital computer programming in the fresh- man or sophomore year. In addition, the students will have used Fortran programming in carrying out assignments in a few courses prior to their enrollment in the process control course. In our initial or "trial" usage of the sys- tem (Fall semester, 1972) the students carried out three computer-aided experiments. We were able to give adequate programming instruction in two 90-minute workshop sessions early in the semester. The sessions included a general discussion of on-line computing and computing control in addition to specific instructions and :exercises on the usage of our system. Each student was given a laboratory manual which described the computerized laboratory and con- tained instructions on the usage of disk-stored subroutines and on the preparation of the required subprograms. It also contained sev- eral example subprograms. The workshop ses- sions were followed by laboratory demonstra- tions. We found that the preparatory instruc- CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION tions so given were quite adequate. The students were able to proceed from that stage at the level of independence which we had sought. With some minor revisions in the manual and subroutine functions, we plan to introduce several additional computer-aided experiments for the Fall term, 1973. CONCLUSION In this paper we have described briefly our system for computer-aided experiments in an undergraduate process dynamics and control lab- oratory at the University of Illinois. We have included some description of its usage, but will elaborate further on the course description and on the specific laboratory experiments and dem- onstrations in future publications. In designing the apparatus and the computer programs for the system, we placed much value on retaining basic simplicity so that students, in an introductory course, would be able to under- stand the operations of an on-line computing facility and be able to use it to advantage on a hands-on basis. We also strived for versatility so that new experiments could be incorporated easily and that utilization of the system could be extended to more advanced topics, to very com- plex networks and even perhaps to courses on other subjects, such as applied kinetics. We also felt that it was important to leave the programming of experiments to the student, but we have made available a number of subrou- tines which make this task relatively simple. There is a strong temptation for instructors in such laboratories to program the experiments completely and reduce the role of the student to that of executing the programs. While such ex- periments may be elegantly programmed and virtually fail-safe, they may also stifle most of the student's thought input. With the student in- volvement in programming, even at a very simple level, a greater appreciation of process-computer interfacing is imparted, a greater degree of open- endedness is automatically provided and presum- ably more thought input, creativity, originality and interest on the part of the student will be realized. Our facility was employed for the first time in an introductory undergraduate course on pro- cess dynamics and control in the Fall semester, 1972. Three computer-aided experiments con- ducted by the students and two demonstrations carried out by the author of this paper, were used, and the consensus of opinions of students, assistants and instructor was that the endeavor was highly successful. The student interest and enthusiasm for the laboratory were noticeably greater than they had been in previous years when similar experiments were conducted with- out the aid of the computer. We plan to introduce several additional experiments and demonstra- tions for the next offering of the course (Fall, 1973). It will be possible to discuss more defini- tive results and to present realistic evaluations after a few more semesters of experience. Hope- fully, the system we have developed as well as our experiences in implementation will be helpful to others embarking on similar projects. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project received most of its financial support through a grant from the National Science Foundation. Departmental help was provided mainly in the form of graduate teaching assistants and laboratory instructors. Most of the electronic interfacing hardware was designed and built in the electronics shop in the School of Chemi- cal Sciences. The staff of the School's computer lab pro- vided help with much of the basic programming. The author would like to acknowledge particularly the val- uable assistance of Mrs. Pat Anderson with programming and the work of Dr. Ming Fang who designed and in- stalled much of the hardware and apparatus. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Christensen, J. H. and P. M. Vargo, "Education in Real-Time Computing", Chem Engr. Ed. 5, 30 (1971). 2. Fisher, D. G., "Real-Time Computing in the Uni- versity", Chem. Engr. Ed., 5, 24 (1971). 3. Westerberg, A. W. and R. C. Eschenbacher, "A Real-Time Computer Control Facility", Chem. Engr. Ed., 5, 32 (1971). 4. Wright, J. D., "Education in Computer Control: How to Make Your Real-Time Clock Tick', Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada, 72, 4, 29 (1971). 5. Idier, M. and D. A. Mellichamp, "Computer Moni- toring and Control of a Process Dynamics Labora- tory', Paper No. 4b, 71st National Meeting of AIChE, Dallas, Feb., 1972. 6. Wissler, E. H., "Computer Aided Methods for Chemical Engineering Laboratories", Paper No. 4a, 71st National Meeting of AIChE, Dallas, Feb., 1972. 7. Moore, C. F., "A General Purpose Data Acquisition and Control Utility," 7th Annual Conf. on Use Digital Computers in Process Control, Louisiana State University, Feb., 1972. 8. Elzy, E., L. B. Evans, R. C. Weaver and A. W. Westerberg, "Real-Time Digital Computer Systems in Undergraduate Education, Paper No. 47c, 72nd National Meeting of AIChE, St. Louis, May, 1972. 9. Secrest, Don, "Time-Sharing Experimental Control on a Small Computer", I&EC 60, 6, 74, 1968. SUMMER 1973 international A NEW TRADITIONAL UNIT OPERATIONS LABORATORY COURSE AAGE FREDENSLUND Instituttet for Kemiteknik Danmarks Tekiniske Hojskole 2800 Lyngby, Denmark In 1968 the Department of Chemical Tech- nology, the Technical University of Denmark, moved from an old location in central Copenhagen to a modern, spacious campus north of town. The department was given adequate funds to de- velop new laboratory courses, and a new, tradi- tional unit operations laboratory course is now completed. It is the purpose of this communica- tion to describe the course in some detail so that other chemical engineering departments may benefit from this experience. The author will gladly furnish further information regarding de- tails of the course upon request. Before proceed- ing further, it is necessary to explain the purpose of the course. PURPOSE OF THE COURSE It is characteristic for the Danish chemical industry that it consists of many rather small units. One can therefore not depend on the indus- try to give chemical engineering graduates a professional, rounded technical training program. This, and the fact that the ChE students are sub- jected to a thorough physics laboratory course early in the curriculum, indicate that in design- ing the unit operations laboratory course, one should emphasize real process equipment rather than physical phenomena. That is to say that the course should be based on equipment resembling process equipment rather than transport phe- nomena experiments.1 In the foreword of the laboratory manual2 for the course the purpose is stated as follows: *To give an understanding of and a physical feeling for the processes and transport phenomena taking place in large scale chemical processing equipment. *To show how the principles developed during the lectures in unit operations may be used in designing and running processing equipment. *To furnish insight into how the unit operations used in the chemical industry work and the limitations of these. These purposes have had a large influence on the design of the equipment for the experiments. One might say that the course constitutes a "movement" away from transport phenomena laboratory type equipment. This does not mean, however, that transport phenomena type measure- ments (for example, single film heat transfer coefficients as opposed to overall coefficients) are not carried out in the course. Indeed they are, but the tendency is to perform the measurements in process equipment so that the students do not have to extrapolate from model experiments to real life. It is understood that a similar "move- ment" is taking place in several ChE departments in the US. COURSE CHARACTERISTICS The course is offered twice a year in three- week periods during which the students devote their full attention to the course. The maximum number of students is 70 per three-week period. Since this is an introductory course, it was found best to expose the students to as many different unit operations as possible. For pedagogic reasons it was decided to work with small teams of students (two per team). For these reasons, a relatively large number of experimental units was found necessary. It was also found necessary for the students to work with ready-made experi- mental units. If the students were to construct the equipment themselves, many of the course CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Aage Fredenslund received BS, MS, and PhD ('68) degrees from the University of Wisconsin. He has taught unit operations, transport phenomena, and ChE thermo- dynamics at Instituttet for Kemiteknik since 1968. His research interests include high pressure vapor-liquid equilibria, PVT properties of mixtures, and multicom- ponent separations. objectives could not be achieved. Later on in the curriculum, the students have a chance of con- structing their own equipment during (required) senior thesis work. Altogether 27 experiments have been designed and constructed, and these experiments are di- vided into nine groups, each containing three similar (but not identical) experiments. The students must not have more than one experiment from each group. The experimental units are de- scribed briefly below. Before each experiment is to be performed, the students are briefed as to the operating con- ditions and the report requirements. A variety of possibilities, is built into most experiments. It is found that the students can carry out the experi- ments with the aid of the laboratory manual2 without much further supervision and that they find the experiments quite challenging. The cor- rected reports are, of course, discussed with the students, who at the end of the course receive a "pass" or "fail" on the basis of the reports. The laboratory course is housed in two ad- jacent localities: an apparatus hall of ceiling height 7 m, containing a small area with ceiling height 16 m, for pilot scale experiments and an ordinary laboratory for bench scale experiments. Both locations are provided with ample steam, water, gas, and electrical supply. EXPERIMENTS A short abstract is given for each experiment below. A capital letter in the experiment number (e.g. 1A) indicates that the experimental unit is placed in the apparatus hall, and a small letter (e.g. ib) indicates that the experimental unit is located in the ordinary laboratory. 1. FLUID FLOW. Flow of water in pipes. Flow of water in tubing. Flow of air in ducts. 2. FLOW OF FLUIDS THROUGH POROUS MEDIA. Filtration. Fluidization. Flow through packed columns. 3. EVAPORATION AND CONDENSATION. Evapora- tion in a vertical tube. Evaporation in a vertical tube. Condensation. 4. HEAT EXCHANGE. Heat transfer in pipes. Heat transfer in pipes. Unsteady state heating of water. 5. DISTILLATION. Distillation in a bubble cap column. Simple and batch distillation. Continuous distil- lation. 6. ABSORPTION. Absorption in a packed column. Absorption in a bubble column. Absorption in a sieve tray column. 7. SIMULTANEOUS HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER. Drying. The wetted wall column. Air humidification in a spray tower. 8. EXTRACTION. Extraction in a rotaing disc column. Extraction in a reciprocating plate column. Ex- traction in a mixer-settler. 9. OTHER UNIT OPERATIONS. Preparative gas chromatography. Reverse osmosis. Crushing and grinding. The experiments do not, of course, cover the whole field of unit operations. The very important area of crys- tallization is, for example, omitted. However, they should ensure that the students come in close, practical contact with a broad spectrum of chemical processing equip- ment. REMARKS The experience with the course has generally been good. The students and faculty seem to find the course an interesting worth-while experience. As mentioned above, one argument against a course of this type is that using finished, fixed experimental units does not leave much room for student initiative. However, this was recognized as a danger from the very beginning of the planning, and attempts have been made to make the course as interesting and challenging as pos- sible in other ways. Where possible, large scale glass equipment is used so that one may visually observe the phenomena of interest. Adequate in- strumentation has been provided so that many tedious measurements are avoided and so that the students may concentrate on the central prob- lems (on the other hand, automation is kept to a minimum as "push-button experiments" are not desired). In addition, the fact that most of the experiments are concerned with separation pro- cesses, a specialty of chemical engineering, stimu- lates interest. (Continued on p. 152) SUMMER 1973 AN EVOLUTIONARY EXPERIMENT A. MEISEN The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C., Canada M ANY CHEMICAL ENGINEERS are involved in the development of industrial processes which consist of several articulated operational steps. Since data for such development are fre- quently lacking and are only obtainable through experimentation, the engineer must be capable of devising experimental equipment and procedures. The usual undergraduate laboratory courses do not prepare the engineering student well for such tasks. Most experiments are intended to demonstrate a single rather than a sequence of concepts or operations, and their interdependency, which is so essential for industrial processes, is not apparent. Since the experimental apparatus is usually provided, the student is primarily re- quired to follow an established procedure and analyse his results. He plays virtually no role in selecting the experimental equipment and tech- niques. Hence, in order to give students some experi- ence with developing a process, an "Evolutionary Experiment" was recently introduced into an ex- isting, Senior laboratory course at UBC. The term "evolutionary" suggested itself because students worked on the process in turn and it thus evolved during the academic year. The present note de- scribes an Evolutionary Experiment on electro- winning of copper and emphasizes the organ- izational rather than technical aspects. This approach was taken because the latter are thought to be of less general interest. ORGANIZATION The class was divided into groups of three or four students and each worked on the project for two days spaced one week apart. Since only a brief outline of the process was provided and students were required to investigate all major aspects in the course of the academic year, the first group started by making a literature survey. In addition it formulated a detailed work plan and documented its findings in a technical report. Subsequent groups always began by reading previous reports and determining their specific Axel Meisen received the BS degree from Imperial College, the MS from Caltech and the PhD ('70) from McGill University. His teaching and research interests include air pollution control, process control, and design of undergraduate experiments. objectives commensurate with the general work schedule. These decisions were discussed and sometimes modified in a brief meeting with the laboratory instructor before the groups pro- ceeded. When experimental equipment had to be built or modified, this could usually be accom- plished during the week between laboratory periods. The work of each group concluded with writing a technical report and making recom- mendations to future groups. The very last group in the academic year prepared a summary report. THE PROCESS Due to time limitations, a simple process had to be chosen and electrowinning of copper from a leachable ore was selected for the first Evolu- tionary Experiment in 1970. This process is quite well understood and consists of three basic opera- tional steps: ore leaching, purification of the leach liquor and electrolysis to yield copper. A further advantage of this process is the production of an important, final product rather than an inter- mediate requiring further chemical treatment. The relevancy of this project was therefore clearly apparent to the students. Approximately 300 lbs. of ore were kindly provided by the Anaconda Company from its mine in Weed Heights, Nevada. The ore is readily leachable with dilute sulphuric acid and yields a liquor sufficiently strong for electrowinning. No CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION The term "evolutionary" suggested itself because students worked on the process in turn and it evolved during the year. special problems of analysis arose since the acid consumption and copper content of the rock or leach liquor could be determined by titration and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. ACHIEVEMENTS Based on the literature survey prepared by the first group, the second group decided that the leaching operation should be conducted by either percolating the acid upward or trickling it down- ward through a fixed bed of ore. The important variables were thought to be acid concentration and flow rate. Temperature and rock size could also be varied but were regarded as less signifi- cant. The supplied rock was approximately -3 +5 mesh and was used in this form without further crushing or screening. The second group designed and assembled a simple leaching apparatus whose main compon- ent was a 3 in. ID, 2 ft. long glass column con- taining the rock. The acid was delivered by a cen- trifugal pump from a 10 gallon holding tank through a valve and rotameter to the leaching column from which it returned to the tank. The piping, which consisted of polyethylene, was arranged to permit operation in the percolation and trickle modes. Samples of leach liquor were withdrawn from the holding tank to determine copper content and acidity. Initial tests showed that the liquor flow rate could not be kept constant and it was up to the third group to rectify this problem. Careful ex- perimentation revealed that small rock particles became lodged in the valve thus restricting the flow. After several other attempts which proved unsuccessful, a by-pass was installed around the pump. This allowed the valve to be opened more fully and thereby reduced the chance of blockage. The subsequent three groups studied the leach- ing rate as a function of acid concentration, flow rate and mode of operation. By applying Leven- spiel's tests1, the results were found to be repre- sentable by the unreacted-core model with the major resistance to mass transfer lying in the leached, outer layer of the rock particles. Hence varying the flow rate and operational mode did not significantly affect the leaching rate. The acid consumption was almost stoichiometric with re- spect to copper indicating that few other rock constituents were attacked. The sixth group was originally scheduled to investigate purification of the leach liquor neces- sary for electrolysis. However, since the iron and particulate content of this liquor were unex- pectedly low, the group concentrated on design- ing an electrolytic cell and washing the leached rock. The latter ensued from the realization that copper sulphate adhering to the rock constituted an economic loss and environmental hazard if discharged. Washing with water was shown to be complete in less than one hour. The electrolytic cell consisted of a 3 in. by 5 in. lead anode and similar copper cathode situated in a rectangular, plastic tank. The spacing of the electrodes was variable and the leach liquor was continuously passed between them by letting it overflow the anode and discharge through the bottom of the cell. Poor liquor distribution re- sulted and the evolution of gas bubbles interfered with the electrolysis. These problems were re- solved by the seventh group which modified the cell by introducing the electrolyte at the bottom and forcing it to flow upwards between the elec- trodes. The effects of flow rate, electrode spacing and current density on copper deposition were in- vestigated and current efficiencies in excess of 90% were achieved. The final group prepared a summary report and indicated areas requiring further work. Furthermore, it considered the problems asso- ciated with scale-up of the laboratory data. STUDENT REACTION Student response to the Evolutionary Experi- ment was quite favourable because it provided a break from the more traditional laboratory work. They enjoyed the flexibility of the project and the ability to formulate their own objectives. Since each group started where the previous one had left off, the work seemed more original than usual. Finally, students appreciated the oppor- tunity to study an industrially significant process and gain practical experience with developing ex- perimental equipment. Since each group worked on a different aspect of the Evolutionary Experiment, students recog- nized the necessity for clear and concise technical reports. Needless to say, they were not overjoyed by this realization, but it made the task easier. (Continued on p. 147) SUMMER 1973 A FORCED CONVECTION DEMONSTRATION USING SOLID CO2 SUBLIMATION D. A. MELLICHAMP and 0. C. SANDALL University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 One of the features of the transport processes sequence presently taught to chemical engineer- ing undergraduate students at UCSB is the weekly laboratory which is used to illustrate selected principles from the lectures. Experi- ments performed during the laboratory period usually take the form of a demonstration where data are taken to be analyzed by the students in an assigned home problem. In this way many of the home problems cover a practical transport problem involving the analysis of real data. The department sub-sonic wind tunnel is used for the majority of these demonstrations. Hence, in the fluid dynamics course the demonstrations start with simple air stream velocity measure- ments, cover the standard demonstrations of drag on a bluff object, boundary layers, etc. In the course on heat transport, demonstrations cover such topics as heat transfer from a cylinder in transverse air flow. In the concluding course dealing with an- alogous mass transport phenomena, the difficul- ties encountered in designing appropriate demon- strations are significantly greater. The authors, in a recent paper', described an experiment de- veloped by students as a term project which covers mass transfer from a cylinder in trans- verse air flow. In this experiment the cylinder is cast from naphthalene with a liquid nitrogen quench to obtain a very fine grain structure at the surface of the cylinder. The low sublimation rate of naphthalene, even under conditions of forced convection, requires running times in the wind tunnel on the order of a full day to achieve measurable material loss from the cylinder. The advantage of the naphthalene cylinder experi- ment, however, is that simple mechanical methods can be used to measure accurately the rates of mass transfer. These data can then be compared to analogous data from heat transfer experi- ments. Obviously this experiment requires too much time to serve as an effective demonstration. Con- sequently, we have developed a complementary experiment, utilizing a dry ice cylinder, to furnish a rapid visual demonstration of mass transfer in transverse air flow. Solidified carbon dioxide has a much higher vapor pressure than most common solids; hence, with a vastly increased driving force for mass transfer, wind tunnel demonstra- tions can be run in several minutes. A further advantage of the use of a dry ice cylinder is that normally there is enough moisture in the ambient air which condenses in the vicinity of the cylinder to provide effective visual evidence of boundary layer formation and separation, vortexing in the cylinder wake, and the flow patterns in the vicin- ity of the rear stagnation point. The experiment is quite simple to carry out. A mount (shown in the accompanying figure) supports the cylinder in the wind tunnel test sec- tion. The mount is adjusted to hold the cylinder Figure 1 Dry Ice Cylinder Mounted in Wind Tunnel. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Orville C. Sandall is currently an assistant professor in Chemical Engineering at the University of California at Santa Barbara. He obtained his education at the Uni- versity of Alberta (BSc, MSc) and the University of Cali- fornia at Berkeley (PhD). His teaching and research in- terests are in the areas of heat and mass transfer. (left). Duncan A. Mellichamp is an assistant professor in Chemical Engineering at the University of California at Santa Barbara. He received the BChE at Georgia Tech, studied one year at the Technische Hochschule Stuttgart (Germany), and obtained the PhD at Purdue University. His present interests are in the fields of process dynamics and automatic control. (right). in compression with dense foam rubber (in our case, rubber backed carpeting) gaskets used to insulate the cylinder from the mount and to maintain the compressive force as the ends of the cylinder sublime. Preparation of the cylinder is very simple, if somewhat novel. An ordinary three pound block of dry ice is set-up in our ma- chine shop metal lathe. It is quickly turned to the required diameter by standard machining techniques and immediately brought to the wind tunnel for the demonstration. After mounting the dry ice cylinder in the wind tunnel the air flow is turned on and is quickly adjusted to correspond to the desired Reynolds number. It was found that at prevailing air relative humidities of approximately 50%, the streamline patterns of condensed moisture were clearly visible at air velocities of approximately 50 ft./sec. For the 2-inch diameter cylinders used in the demonstration, this corresponds to a Rey- nolds number of about 50,000. At this Reynolds number the laminar boundary layer separates before it becomes turbulent, the point of separa- tion occurring at an angle of about 80 degrees from the forward stagnation point. The stream- line patterns clearly show the separation point and the angle of separation is easily estimated by the students to be at approximately 80 degrees The department sub-sonic wind tunnel is used for demonstrations in fluid mechanics and heat and mass transport phenomena. fro mthe forward stagnation point. The stream- lines in the downstream turbulent wake are also clearly visible particularly near the rear stagna- tion point. After running the demonstration for about five minutes the wind tunnel is turned off and the dry ice cylinder may be inspected. This length of time is sufficient for a protruding ridge to appear at the separation point. This ridge indicates the sharp minimum in the local mass transfer co- efficient that occurs at the point of boundary layer separation. REFERENCE 1. Sandall, 0. C., and Mellichamp, D. A., "A Simple Forced Convection Experiment", Chemi. Engi. Edu. Vol. 5, 134-136 (1971). MEISEN: (Continued from p. 145) Report writing was further simplified by the fact that students did not primarily write for the in- structor but rather for their class-mates whose technical competence they knew. CONCLUDING REMARKS Although it is clear that not all undergraduate experiments should be replaced by Evolutionary Experiments, the addition of one or two can con- siderably enliven a laboratory course. In order to maintain student interest, the topics should be frequently changed. The following projects, which have either been conducted or are planned at U.B.C., may serve as further examples of Evolu- tionary Experiments: production of crystalline copper sulphate from an Arizona ore, extraction of protein from fish meal, manufacture of fur- furaldehyde from sawdust and recovery of metals from scrap tin cans. The latter two projects were initiated by Dr. K. B. Mathur and Dr. A. P. Watkinson, respectively. REFERENCE 1. 0. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, p. 338, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1962. SUMMER 1973 AN INTEGRATED REACTOR ENGINEERING LABORATORY R. D. WILLIAMS University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 Chemical Engineering is unique among other engineering specialties in that its basis is in chemistry. Since this is so and since chemical rate phenomena are an important part of chem- istry, the body of knowledge including not only chemical rate phenomena but also the coupling of such phenomena with physical processes is worthy of intensive coverage in the training of chemical engineers. Two pressures familiar to academicians in- volved in curricula review are the pressures from outside the University (industry) to make the curriculum more relevant and practical, and pres- sures from inside the university to make the curriculum attractive to interested students. These two pressures are not complementary in that the former results in the addition of new experiments or new laboratories and hence tends to increase the rigor of the curriculum whereas the latter results in just the opposite. At the University of Arizona we have at- tempted to compromise these considerations in the area of chemical reaction engineering by integrating as much as possible of relevant prin- ciples, concepts, and techniques from the theory course into a one unit laboratory in the semester following the presentation of the theory. As will be brought out, the number of items deemed im- portant for inclusion into the lab necessitates careful selection of experiments such that each covers several of these important items. It is in this sense that the term "integration" is used in this paper and not in the sense that the theory and lab have been integrated time-wise. This paper will first discuss laboratory objectives and then illustrate their implementation by giving specific examples of experiments being conducted. OBJECTIVES In 1969 we conducted a poll of 152 departments of chemical. engineering, principally in the United States and Canada. The response to the poll was high (102/152= 67%) so that meaningful conclusions may be drawn as to trends across the country. Of the 102 responding de- partments, 61 stated that they currently had some lab experience in kinetics and 41 did not. Of those who did, only 8 had labs completely devoted to the subject and of those who did not the majority (33/41) anticipated the addition of such experience in the future. The responding departments indicated that their most popular experiments utilized single phase systems in batch, CSTR, and tubular reactors. Almost as popular was the heterogeneous catalytic type of reaction conducted in a differential tubular reactor with analysis by gas chromatography. From this it may be deduced that the demonstration of reactor behavior with simple (single phase) systems is generally of highest priority and that to illustrate more complex (heterogeneous) systems the differential reactor is being used, presumably due to its simplicity, ease of analysis, adaptability and compatibil- ity with gas chromatography. The objectives selected for our laboratory are: *To complement the theory course with practical ex- perience. *To provide a variety of experience in reactor types, types of reacting systems, methods of data collection, methods of data analysis. *To provide a laboratory environment in which some degree of success is assured. The specific experience areas from the theory course which were desirable for the laboratory were: 1. Reactor types. A. Batch. Homogeneous isothermall, adiabatic). heterogeneous slurry. B. Continuous stirred tank. C. Continuous integral tubular. D. Continuous differential tubular. 2. Reacting Systems Types. A. Homogeneous. B. Heterogeneous catalytic. C. Heterogeneous noncatalytic. 3. Data Collection Methods. A. Direct rate monitoring. Titration. Gas chroma- tography. Optical measurement. B. Indirect rate monitoring. Temperature meas- urement. Pressure measurement. 4. Data Analysis Methods A. Integral method. B. Differential method. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Richard D. Williams has been at the University of Arizona since 1968. He studied at Texas Tech University (BS) and obtained his doctorate in Chemical Engineering at Princeton University. His current area of specializa- tion is chemical reaction engineering. The experiments which have been run using homogeneous systems are listed below. Each of these four experiments is run by all the student groups and collectively they occupy about one-half to two-thirds of the course: 1. Batch kinetics determination by direct sampling. 2. Prediction and experimental verification of single and multiple CSTR performance. 3. Prediction and experimental verification of packed and unpacked tubular behavior. 4. Batch kinetics by an indirect method-the adiaba- tic reactor. The heterogeneous experiments which have been implemented are given below. Each student group will take one of these experiments as an independent project for the time remaining at the end of the semester. 1. Hydrogenation of nitrobenzene on Pd-charcoal in a slurry reactor, with indirect pressure measure- ment. 2. Dehydrogenation and dehydration of IPA on Pt-- charcoal in a continuous microreactor, analysis by gas chromatograph. 3. Noncatalytic TCC catalyst regeneration. Each of the experiments will now be briefly discussed giving its advantages to the lab. EXPERIMENTS-HOMOGENEOUS The first experiment involves the verification of a postulated reaction order and determination of rate constant temperature dependence for a homogeneous reaction in a batch reactor. To date we have used the ethyl acetate saponification re- action. Figure 1 is a schematic of the experi- mental apparatus which consists of a constant Fig. 1. Reactor Bench temperature bath and a three liter glass-stainless steel reactor. Data is typically collected by direct sampling and titration. The methods of excess and/or half-lives may be used but in any case an integral method is used for data analysis. Our experience indicates that many students lack sufficient lab technique to get good results with this experiment. In accord with our objective of providing an environment to insure some success and especially in light of time limitations we are considering changing this experiment (and the two to follow) to automate the analytical tech- nique. The second experiment has been the experi- mental study of the transient startup of a CSTR sequence. Figure 2 illustrates our reactor bench in more detail. Reactants are contained in two pressurized 5-gallon polyethelyene carboys and are passed through coils in the constant temper- ature bath before being metered into the continu- ous reactor being studied. The experimental re- sults may be checked against theory by using the reaction rate expression developed in Experi- ment 1. Degrees of non-ideality may be controlled by changing mixing RPM, reactor baffling and nearness of inlet and outlet ports. Fig. 2. Reactor Bench Detail SUMMER 1973 The third experiment uses the same feed system as Experiment 1 but in conjunction with a jacketed glass tubular reactor. In this experi- ment steady state conversion is obtained as a function of mean residence time for both an open tube and with the tube packed with 1/4" glass Raschig rings. These first three experiments all conducted on the same reactor bench serve to give the student a better understanding of how mixing in a chemical reactor determines reactor behavior. Other experiments which could be run on this very adaptable apparatus include resi- dence time distribution determinations and demonstration of steady state multiplicity. These experiments are currently being prepared for future use. The last homogeneous experiment run was chosen for several reasons. It demonstrates the operation of an adiabatic batch reactor with an exothermic reaction. Unlike the isothermal ex- periments which precede it, this experiment re- quires that an energy balance be made for data analysis. Further, since the coupled material and energy balances are nonlinear the integral method of analysis will not work. Fortunately, the differ- ential method comes to the rescue and is fairly accurate since the continuous temperature-time trace may be easily differentiated. The reaction used is that between hydrogen peroxide and sod- ium thiosulfate and unlike the ethyl acetate saponification reaction it has a nonobvious stoi- chiometry which may be experimentally deter- mined. Figure 3 is a schematic of the experi- mental arrangement. THERMOCOUPLE COLD JUNCTION 500 ML BEAKER MAGNETIC STIRRER 10-2 _d(Tdt (F- T) TEMPERATURE RECORDER Fig. 3. Apparatus for the Adiabatic Reactor. In a typical experiment the reactants are mixed together and the sigmoidal temperature increase with time is recorded. The temperature rise will depend on the volume of the reaction mixture and the amount of limiting reactant present. If the volume is held constant (at 400 cc for example) and the initial reactant ratio is 3m 90 80 70 60 AT (C) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 VOUE OF 2 N H202 / VOUM OF 2 M NA2S203 6 7 8 Figc. 4. Temperature Rise as a Function of Initial Reactant Ratio. varied then the temperature rise will go through a maximum when the initial reactant ratio is equal to the stoichiometric ratio. This is shown in Figure 4 with student data from last year. The different symbols correspond to different student groups. From this graph it appears that of the possible stoichiometrys listed, the appropriate one is the last equation listed. Theoretically, it can be shown that if the rate of temperature change divided by the approach to the final tem- perature squared is plotted against reciprocal temperature an Arrhenius plot results (Figure 5). The experimental activation energy found using student data compares very well with that 3,0 3.1 3.2 3,3 3,4 1000/T (K)-1 Fig. 5 Arrhenius Plot for Na2S2O0-H20, Reaction CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 2 N2S23 +H202= N62 06 + 2 WH % NA0.0l0= NA2SA+N2O 3 NA2S03 + 4 = 2 NA2%06 + 2 N'O + 3 H20 &2S203 4 2 + N0~ = 2 6O 4 + 50 H reported in the literature as shown. Table 1 gives a more complete list of experimental values ob- tained from student data compared with litera- ture values. The agreement is quite good. TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF STUDENT A.D LITERATURE VALUES -AH kcal/mole VAiB -a2S203 Student 2 142 7 Literature 2 142.5 ko E liters/mole- kcal/mole sec 18.7 7.33 x 1011 18.28 .3 b.85 x 1011 EXPERIMENTS-HETEROGENEOUS The remainder of the experiments utilize heterogeneous systems and each student group will work with just one of these for the rest of the semester. An apparatus used to study the catalytic de- composition of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is shown in Figure 6. Helium carrier gas is bubbled through H Fig. 6. Microreactor. IPA dehydrogeneration and dehydration. the IPA and then passes through a microreactor containing Pt-charcoal catalyst. The reactor efflu- ent may be sampled and analyzed by gas chroma- tograph. IPA will decompose to give either pro- pylene and water or acetone and hydrogen, de- pending on reactor conditions, particularly tem- perature. The temperature of the reactor is main- tained by a sandbath and sampling is accom- plished with a multiport sampling valve. This is an easy experiment to run and demonstrates well the reaction selectivity dependence on tempera- ture, the use of a differential reactor for obtain- ing initial rate data, and the use of a gas chrom- atograph for analysis. The apparatus is very flexible in that various different reactions and catalysts may be used. Another good example of a heterogeneous sys- tem is the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene over Fig. 7. Slurry Reactor. Hydrogenation of Nitrobenzene. Pd-charcoal catalyst in a slurry reactor such as depicted in Figure 7. We use a one liter Parr autoclave with a gas storage volume and mercury manometer though the experiment can be just as well studied in glass as reaction pressures are not high. Nitrobenzene and catalyst are charged to the reactor before assembly. The air space over the nitrobenzene is flushed with nitrogen and then with hydrogen before pressurizing the sys- tem with hydrogen by reference to the mano- meter. To initiate the reaction, agitation is begun, dispersing the hydrogen and catalyst into the nitrobenzene. Hydrogen pressure is recorded as a function of time from which reaction rate may 0,15 0.10 LN (P/P) 0.05 0 0 I I I I I I I I I I I 0 10 20 30 TIME (MIN.) Fig. 8. Pressure ratio verses time and catalyst loading for nitro- benzene18 hydrogenation. SUMMER 1973 0.10 - Lu (PJ/P) 0.05 CATALYST LOADING - = S0.5 GRAMS 0.05 0 10 20 :d TIME (6IN.) Fig. 9. Pressure ratio verses time and mixing rate for nitrobenzene hydrogenation. be calculated. Theoretically the expected behavior is first order with the effective reaction rate con- stant being dependent on temperature, agitation rate, and catylyst loading. Figures 8 and 9 illus- trate the type of data which is obtained. The first order behavior is verified and rate constant de- pendence on catalyst loading and agitation rate is shown. Figure 10 summarized the results of Figure 9, giving the reaction rate constant as a function of mixer RPM. The high RPM asymp- tote corresponds to chemical reaction rate control and the low RPM asymptote results from a dif- fusion controlled regime. Data at temperatures other than room temperature would allow for the determination of the activation energy and pre- exponential factor of the chemical reaction rate constant. Empirical correlations for catalyst load- 250 200 (MIN.) 150 100 I I 200 500 750 1000 1250 1500 Fig. 1. Effective rate constant verses mixing rate for nitrobenzene hydrogenation. ing and RPM (or mixing power input) are also possible alternatives. Other heterogeneous experiments which are currently under development include the high temperature, noncatalytic regeneration of coked Thermofor catalytic cracking catalyst and the leach recovery of metals (e.g., copper) from their ores. ACKNOWLEDGMENT In developing such a laboratory one should be alert for experiments which others have developed which have proven to be successful and which complement the lab- oratory objective. In this regard, I must acknowledge the use of ideas of Drs. James B. Anderson at Yale and Gordon B. Youngquist of Clarkson They have been espe- cially helpful in suggesting experiments which we have used successfully. FREDENSLUND: (From page 143) The stated course objectives appear to have been met satisfactorily, although improvements in the course are still being-and will continue to be-made. Before starting the design of a course of this type, the purpose of the course must be very clear, since the equipment design may vary a great deal with the objectives. These objectives are likely to differ somewhat from department to department. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to thank all colleagues in Lyngby, Lund, and Trondheim, who have contributed to the de- velopment of the course. REFERENCES 1. Crosby, E. J., "Experiments in Transport Phe- moment", Wiley, New York, 1961. 2. Fredenslund, Aage, "Experiments in Unit Opera- tions", Den private Ingeniofond, Copenhagen, 1972 (270 pp. in Danish). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION CATALYST LOADI N = 0.5 GRAMS ' I I I I I Hes locked into childhood by a disease that's already licked. What happened was measles. -5- . Common measles. And what's - tragic is that it should never have happened at all. To most people, measles is simply a childhood nuisance. But statistics don't bear them out. During the height of the mea- sles season, 10,000 children are stricken every three days. 60 are hospitalized, 10 develop inflamma- tion of the brain, 3 become men- tally retarded. And one dies. There's just no excuse for this disastrous waste. Since 1965, the measles vaccine developed by Dow has more than proved its worth. - And the cost of immunization is. low compared to the consequences .. of the disease, the staggering expenditure in medical care and the enormous number of school days missed. But after several years of dra- matic decline, measles is now gal- loping back. Because even the best preventive is powerless if peo- ple refuse to use it. The answer is not more of our vaccine. There's already plenty of that. It's community awareness of the threat measles poses to our children. And community action to stop the disease in its tracks. At Dow, we're concerned with more than chemistry. We're con- cerned with life. And despite our imperfections, we're determined to share its promise. Wisely. For a booklet on measles vac- cination and your children, write to: .77 The Dow Chemical Company, ':-- - Midland, Michigan 48640. ... ' 400,0^ HO W TO MAKE YOUR FUTURE OUT OF PAPER. 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And that's why we're interested in innovative, naturally Curious people who can see the future in paper the way we do. With them, we think we can help shape the S future for everyone. Westvaco 299 Park Avenue New York, N.Y. 10017 An Equal Opportunity Employer Full Text xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd INGEST IEID E8XKY3F4Y_VDTQ4Q INGEST_TIME 2011-09-21T15:08:39Z PACKAGE AA00000383_00041 AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC FILES PAGE 1 Nud P""1' OF CALTEC H CHE AT SUNY BUF FA LO SPECIAL LABORAT ORY I SSUE FOGLER PERNA S H AIR: Underg,aduat. 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A..t,..lt~ tbot....,tkot1hlo....,, ... jot,.....,ldbo,.,.of tubwo0Ual ... hnl<0I ,.._ lbllilJ'I i...:l..,ry, ~i~1;2?~i~ ... .... _,, ,. .r11 1o1 ....-.--.,. :'./!:::7.', :-: ::;."lolos ll PAGE 6 s .. 1.,...aI. -lolb",lllo,-,el,lodiride,lio1<>1l,""' s-r.:~-:-~.:= ...... ... 11qo ........ ,_,...., .... ---1,lhe .. ,..;-,. ~~tEi~f ~".iii~iti?: :::~:,~.-=~ ':.7::i :.=:;;;,: "":.r.:::,::-: .. "'~ .. .!""'...?...1 ... 1..i,1E~i=\ht~:~s ondeot-wi.u,,-1,1 .... tioa.Aod"" -~.:_ t.oi: Ito ;".,.:""1-_:.mo ... -, .. .....-...-.... tllo PAGE 7 ;.,,..,.,., .... 1 ... ,_ .. -.-.y1.,. -lo,laint~k ofwllat"lr'>loooodlryinlo!)olle l olul. W ili i mCo""'""p,of_,ofdb....ithof-...ll u tl1thoo1Mloo lthhumaobolnp\o hu""""W&J'> ;:;.~ .. ::::11:::,:.;-: ,:;-_:::-~"':!.~ o ... i.t,o1horou1hlybriofed 1t... s .. 1,,.,... ~t:~;?i~ ... ,-,.i.1 0 ........ l-.u.i..-.Hwu _, ..... u .. w-1oo .... ,... ..... }t!f.~~~ r.,.11ywol1<>p PAGE 8 J f N .,.l'ootnicoo .. .i.t,ho ;n nono/ P .,.. :::..~~:;: =~ f~ti.:-.: ::t::~ .:':": :..-:...::: ~-;~";!;,."';~ .:.;~~lt=~=;t~ .. =~:S:~~2-~-:~ ..... i.. ... o1 .,.-1 ...--im .. ,io..a1 lfir1,botlotolln ol-tloju,t .. l m Po"""' Co l l; h ,on tloolateitat l f f ..,.,, p oudo1111oo f U..-:t h io lt...tJ-,....u.., ... .-roroolot~ __ ,,, __ Tho_tal __ lttlwol..,1n....,.,.tedrlo,tolthoN1tiootrJo PAGE 9 Over h a lf the t o wn s in th e United States are forced to dump the i r wastewater in our ri v ers. Th e r easo n i s s ad ,......., __ .,..,,. ~-., .... .... ~==:~~~ ""'""~'i-,,_....,,.,.,.. -----------------~--- PAGE 10 SUNY AT BUFFALO I. Glll'.011.Y \'f;R)IIIYCIIUK -1 ,o,u;r111<. Hl:R GANTZ ochool, >'ft ..... l ho ,,-_ di...,Bity 000 -----....i-lerial--ol,...,O, l-'1'w1Uli-,- PAGE 11 Chom-,I f!nrl...,;n ,. Thi C,n!o,, in Mldition t<>fuodiru,:provldntll'WllthoNSF / R A/mpat>bly & l'&tiollintea.ehinKhM!Mn&nimportan\ U1em,.Twonol..-orthy_<00,_,opurinK;" thop,_.,t..,adom;,y .. raolo,.,rdMoioll .,,,-,ri n., inlnln>doo tiontoChomk.&lf:ng; ... nnr prorldin1 a modern,oo"'"h, a ndradu,te :~;~;;;~:;; ~;I~=: !heml00\fn>mi <0o ndmo te ri>ls1l<>ope PAGE 12 UILLGlll. w .............. ...-,,1011,' ,.,-_ .. ...,_.I........... ....... ... .. ____ ...._,, ~,, -~----"""'" ----"-... .,_ ION..llo11U,. .. _lo __,_ ------~ -------............. ... -------.. .... ____ .. __ ., .... ...... __ ... .. __ .. __ .... _... .. ___ .... .... --.......... ,_ .. .....,_,_,.. ____ _,_ __ ,. _____ ____ ,, i;,.,v.,_,...._..-..,.,_,,,_,....,_ .. _,,.....,._,_.....,, _, ............ .... .......... ,.,.,_c.,~-.. ..... ,.n ... _,....,.,._,_,,"_,.. U.' PAGE 13 Jnu>t .. UIU.T .,_.,..,.,,_..., __ ,,.,...,_ .... _.._ .... .. _______ ... .. ...... -. ...... _., __ __ .. __ __ .,, __ .... ,_ --, !-N.-) ... ,._O,.. ... _,.__..,_ ..... __ ,_ ,,_T,.---- ~ -., ... .. .,.,_ -~-------..... ----...... --,-... ,_..., ........ ___ ... _____ ..,_ ... __ .. ... __ ,. _1_ ...... .. """""'-"''"" .. ,u,, ... 1._ ... ,u ... _,., o! ,_ ,rn,, TM,,,-,,,. 11, ~ """"'""' -_._. _,.. .. .,,,._ -.. .,.,..,.,.,_..._,_ ..... ____ ______ ............ ... _, ___ ..,_,, ____ ..._ ______ .., __ ___ ,. .... ____ __ ... _.,____ ___ .. __ __ ... .. __ ,., ....., ... .. ____ -----........ ...-.,_ ..... .. __ __ .. ____ ... ... ,. ____ ____ .,..,_ .. __ ., ___ ,...._._ .... ,_ .. .. ... __ ,._.,_ -.. -.. -.... ,,_.., _____ ...... ----...,, ......... ___ _,_., --.. ---~ ____ ..... ..... _____ ,._,.... __ ______ ., __ ______ ..... ... .. _... .. ____ ., __ --------... -.. .. --"'"'' __ T_ ... --=-.. -...... .... T_io ______ .............. _. ___ .... -.... ..... ... .,_..,_ .............. __,, ... ~,.,_,.., ,.,_ ,,, ... .,. "' c_,.._ ................. ,....,.., __ .. T -oloo __ ,.....,,_,.__ ... __ ...... ,_ .. """'"' .. -1,o.,_..,.,., ____ __ c,,.;,_ ""' IIU.Kll. Po,,_ --~ .......... .......... CW.-..,_ .. __ .. ___ __ __ .. -_ ......... -, .. ,_ -. .......... ___ _... ..... ... .... __ ,, ____ .. __ ......... -.... ... ,_,,_,,,. __ ..... ----.. ...,_ ....... ........ .......... -~----. .. -.. -.. -... .. ___ ,,._A,....,_ ... ~.,..-.. ~----.. -... --. __ ,, ... ,,...,., .. -.. ......... ~-... .. _, ........ .. _,_ ... .,,_ .. ,. ..... ... PAGE 14 liill -~ -r&Y"""r>dori .. ::: :S:.':':';;..'.:"~~r. o!>d P"'P" Thoo1Jolllou l' a,u11y p..,r -"' i;:" .,i-,;111r...i A ...... s.-. f'n,f-11.u,k. -., .i.1....... ,_.,., -wttl, U, __ ., .... .,..,_~ .... illbooll'ori ..... ,....-;tMthe..,.,_ PAGE 15 fiJD cl ass room INTRODUCTION TO CHE ANALYS I S T.W. ".RUSSELLndM.H.D t : N N u., ...... .,, f 0,1,.~ .. .\" m,l. 1)~"19711 TIH,t,.n>itioool.11ottsorprincio l ea ndlh< .. ,..,,.,odapp,ar,loboa",.tmtodMlcu,riu,..innofthedl,ritalronu"lnls .. idtoU ,..t.,,, k>pn,,ntof a tent~I opp,,,..,hto,n,.i.,..rin1P........,""Mioo .~ ettnl do,-,1<>p,nent.hiehlt>1-.1,..tlyimo=,..! nd e,oon\i "I >kill,,,.. not odblny """"""" oo>tkulo,ly In bulethennodynomi<> ,,. intl'OO,.,.dln><=tlyand a N-l,,min1m",t ~:: .. =: ;1 :.':g:-::::.:~'~:,.:;;7~:;; '""""""'f a rn1,u...-, ,;.,'"~h '[/; e%.~,7:";,,.:";t:ia,jj~!\'~~:;,~ en,.l,-riorp""'to,lbt<1<\enolonofd,...,ical ....,,...tin1w1111o,t...,....,.,i.o,,ofp,wiomo. Th"'7 ... ,.tyia .. ., .. ....,,.. .... .. .... T o ........... .. ...... .............. ,-. ... .. __ -. ......,_,.a,, "' ,,. __ .... ..... ............ _.,,.,,.,_kol ..... ..... -,..,. ..... ,,,,.con,i ..... bled i !opropnlt...,,,,.too>thatitlooNful to rtunt ooPP"'""h an d lh,.-.olutlon ofU.. ec,o,-andooth i n ki n1 W,doth; ,-~u .. whot ... ....ito .. an d mnool-toboob.louo .-.-:li .. fo,theO-. .... ,...ot ...,_,,f,ltll a ndthofinlrou,..ontline d;n.,....,.,i PAGE 16 T.w r, -_,_, ... .___.. ... ,._.. .. .. 11-""1oandrovl-.Tllil-u.o.!aftNdiftH ~~~.:.:.:5::':!.:'':h~=-~= .. ..i.uo .. ot,..,_,,,..otdill'moti&l llou -l -I~.... 'J1m .. ..,._,....,i....itho--.. iodil!.-W __ ._.."" ... _._ :=::.~'.~-~-=--= ~E!!.~;..:-=-e ~~1--::-:rr~::'!":": .......... _, .. ...i.tho ____ ,..1,,.,.,n~U-rbtllt1lo.-1thoffi0tlonohlp IOtho~o,Ulotiolo,qjk<>then -r-lllo_.t_tiau,cl--.i ,._..,, ... .,.l PAGE 17 r l -~--'"'' """~-...... -.-.. _____ ... ..... _________ --~-........... -, ... ....... _,, ....... .. __ __ ... ____ ... ----------... .......... ___ I)_ .. __ ,..,_,. __ PAGE 18 IJ..... -.. ___ ,, ... ___ "~ ..... ....... ,_ .......... --....... ... .,.., __ ,1 _,.,., __ ___ .. ,... 1 __ ...... ____ ...... __ ,._.,__,. ... __ ,.. .. :.:::::-..::-___,. ___ ,. .. .. _. ______ .. ~~-;;:.:~ ...... A ........ ,_ ... __ .. ____ .... .... _, .... ,-"" ..... _::::;---'"""= ~..,';:'":."-.:.::::-"!' !":::! =-:::--!-~~ ... =':.: ~g;-= L~?::: :~ < a ............... _. ..... __ ----.,, .... ..... ------'!.::= ..,..,_,,... ............ ... ... .. .... ,,,_,...,...,_,,,._ ... _, ... ~;~r-::~~=~ __ ,._ .... .._ .... .... __ =;7.~::i.:~"""'!... ...... ..=.-:;.'!'..-.-:::.:::: __..,_,N __ ,._ ... ~11.uro1111.n......, ..... ___ ,., __ ..., ______ _., .. __ ,, ... ,...,._,. ....... ::::-.-=-':'"..::...:-:.,."::;':~ _.,, ... .... __ -,no ____ ....,.,_..., .......... _.,, ___ ,. __ __ _,_,.__ .... __ PAGE 19 ~AS ,.NIUT Tll. Cl-... ------------.. ---~_ ,...,_ ____ ,, ... __ ., __ ,... __ ,_ ... ..._ __ ,,_.,.., __ ___ ... _,_,_ ... ,._ _, _______ .., __ _. ..__, ... ...,----.H-t ,,._,.,.,.,_.-,.__n_ .. ,.,.,,,,. ............ ............. ............ ,,.._ ,., __ A_,_._,,,.,_,....,.,.,. ..... _, .. .... ,.,.,)M ....... ... KA cri,;c 1 1~ ~ "'---n ... l< ,..,...,_ ... _.,, __ .. -....... ............... _...._ ........ ., _,.,..,_ .... ...... ..,. ... _,_ ... ....... ____ ........... _..__ ......... .. _,_ __ .,_ ... ..__ ... -.. ---........ ______ ------, ....... __ ... __ .,_ _,..,,._,.,.,._,.., __ io_A __ ,,..__ ...................... _......_.,..,_ ....... _,_., ______ -------~ _,, .... ...._ .... __ __ ---... ---___ ,__..,. ... _.._..,.,,>111, _., ....... ...... _,_ Tl .: > T N ... t(TOR ~KH ,. IOR W o ..., ... ... ..... .. .......... ,,_ ........... ... .. ,. _, .......... .. ,.,,_ ..... ___ .,_ ... _____ .._ __ ,._,,., __ ,_, .. ..... ....... _,,_, _____ A __ ,.,.__ ..... __ ......... ._ ....... --. _____ .,. __ -------.. -,,,.,. .... ___ ,,_ ....... .. __ .. ___ .. ------_____ ,, __ GAa~ '"""._T, _____ ., .. --------_____ .,. ____ ....... _____ _,.,.,. _, .... .,_..,..., ___ ,._, .. .. _,.. _____ ... .. ,_ ............... _,.,_ .Tll"&A< ____ ... ... _____ ,. __ ,,,., ___ ......... __ ----___ ,,, __ ,, --111.-,,_..,,i.o_w __ ). ~~1ff~~~ row1ho ftht, .. ,,_,.__,__n,.,..i,_.ho, fod or how.t vor, hlt..i..ttlo'-""'11 "' ,,_,.,.,.....i..,kl<>ttO.V..,t =-~~~=i:-.:;:.:~.~~,," :.':'.: ~I, bal PAGE 20 THE UNDERGRADUATE CHE LABORATOR Y' n.,1o,-,,,..,,..orkohopfonaat-.,t,dol -ot,..,....,._d,......;nso,-.ticu. i., .. ,,..1otolaboroto,1.Thopoporapr,,i,nt,d behro nd ol,)tl-o/ 0 ,o loborotoey Z)o,n,. puteroklo,lla!.,rotor)'l ... ..,.,...,_,1typMof .. .,.,,. .._,ndo,porimonta,ond4 )d i ll't.rtt"p,rol\llo-'"t,y K. 8 r ..,. ... _,,.. __ ... ic,le :::..: 1!) :=~(!7 :::.::. ';.'.:. "7:: .-ln""da,i.a!ytln11hodoto.1$) .. 1>POri&tl<< ..... _.._to,o.-...,.,..uo flhopn, ...,c., ... ..--i,,.. .. ._...i_., ............... tffocti.--"' 11,t ..... !(a'"' .....i,_ ,,_ u.. ... ,_ ..... ... ,__., ... ,._...., __ ~=:re;.:::.::: """ __ ''>'._,._. .... ,,,.H.Cllft ud0.Jl.,.llor.111tJ'-rihedaC1iF.~ ""7-no&lllcGill.lOwMrirla,...-iol!.. --..,~.. .....,,....__w,.,_., ... uu_.....,,. __ co,m.

PAGE 21

:::-:~=~~t~:; =:~::h "':!.': ....i ................ _,,.o1111<,t0Mnt ..... :;~=-~1;:.:r:,:;'~:~ ::f..:.! .,n;,i.-1os,._U..,rll;,oa1rM"I. .,, ..... 1 ... ro1,1oo,....,..; ...... q-... .... ,........,,ropon .. ,m., ..... -.;.ro11;,,ti ... :~ ... -~ .. ~-==-=..-= -w.-..-.ior.,_,_ .. f'Jf1SOf...-..lOOIUAHO...,._Nn F.K.$1oir_....u.. .. ,,-.,-.-iu-. ..,..JorlM .. .. ...,-b)"ChEfatllllioo ::::r...i:!""...':~;-:.::...~!"t.7.=,~ Cl, !'; ,.nl PAGE 22 U..l"-1.&loelCIIL t :N...... ood-s ==2?:-=-=ii :_ c~ =::.:: ::" .!..,-:: -.....~~oloil-~clocuol -'O'llllll>llilcli .... t,,...,...,..,._ .. 1. -,-,-i:..-...i,...--.,.;a. = ;.~-:-=-: 1:::-.:.r:.:-::. pon-1a.....-.i ,...,jt, PAGE 23 . cowvttIOIDU""""'""'-Hl>CTIQH .. .!.It~ ~bod ... ~'":~~ hoft~ri-.tholMlllft100no11L1n1 plonlU)ll800ditii.lN1mP11t,rhlOdi01aot...,otW .. "1i.....ttoothi PAGE 24 B E RNOU LLI S EQUAT I ON W IT H F R ICTI O N SO!!LDEN!!l'F. R S ::::::.c1/:;:&411Z Tki,_,,.,...,-,__,, .... o1-. I ohltll l .. ttlol .tied""'..,...,_, tit.an fri,. ..... 1.rr ..... &n<1t11<..,., .... ...... ~'::!. in i.mu or 11,,.,.,.1 1 1 oquat ion .. _,. __ ... .. --.... -, ............... 00....,.,..,.._ .. r-..n-...,., .. .. ___ ._ ......... --. .......... ... .......................... .......... .. ....... .... __ _, ... ... __ ,. ___ .. ,. ..... __ ... ----.. .,.,._.,._._,r __ L ... ._., ........ ......... .. __ ___ ,, ___ ._. .... ...... .... -_ ... ... _, ... .. .... ,.,.., ............................... ........ ...... --, ..... ,.,_., ...... .. ONolN._l_, .. .. ..... ,~.0,.11,",_, .. ,....__,,..,._,,,_,,Mt,<1< ....... io ................... n, .. ,,....,,._ ..... i,,,_ ... _., ___ ..,,_ ....... ...,.,. .... .,, .. .... .... -... .--,...... "' ............... ,_, .. .... ,.,_,_.., ____ ._ ____ ..,_,_ ...... ., _________ ..... -.. -........ -... ... .... _"'_ .. ___ ..... ... __ ..,_ .... ,....., ... __ .......... ,_ ... ... ... ..... ....__ __ ... ,_ ... __ ., ... .. _,.., .. ~_ .......... .... ... ......... .. ..._ __ ,. .. ...... "'.., ... -" ..... _.. ... _,,_ .... .. .... "' __ ,.. _____ .,,._Jolo_rt, .......... _,._N._I. ~--, ... .._,. .. s a._.., ~.~":-:-:~:-~~ ~~~:-ii;:! ...!... ....... ,_ .. ___ .. r.,lhe.,..,~ .... ._,.,_,..ftlilhe ftulondo .. 1r..,Hu1;,_,,,..10,. ~;.:~;;s;id:S:::ia;::: ~:!dr...,,,,,.1,.._,..rl PAGE 25 M_,.,.._._..,.....,.,_ ... ..,,._D ..... C--ol)O--..... _,_ ... .._.. __ .,.., _,_., _____ ... ... .......... -~_,.__._ ...... """"'" ____ ... _, ..... ... ~..._ ... A.IO!l,O .. ,._ __ ,.. ... -. .. Alr.._,.._ot, .. ""'1 ,...., ...... A.....-,,Ho~,.__..,_,,,.,,. .................. ... ........... ... .. .. T_, ... PAGE 26 --riMMll.lrltMlt.,.ldillh<-w.,_peri..,.As_prGONd .. tlho,;.,._ .. ~:.:::::-.. ..,. p noducin~U..~-~p. ........... LLPirf .... ....,._ .................... Eac. _,..,,.).-11 .. .. 10011 lEVIEW ~-,. 11 oi f:7~~=1~7:T :,:;:,-:.i.:.:::-.~-=:::. ':; --.,1 .... .,,. .... .... iu--1c1 .... :!':=:".:""io,,.:~i=-~= ~~.:= ..... pli-UNMltho,o ...... ._ .. tolojtlo.-oJ.-.;-.,.. H _..... ~~=::.:-~.:.:.:= ::.=...~:~ ';..:.':"',:.:"!Qu.:.i-: lo,..,i,....tal"'J'O,""'hMofl.-,.,.,.,__ R OBF. RTH K ADLF,C IJN IVER$1TYO F MICHIC,\N

PAGE 27

THE CHE DESIGN LABORATOR Y IIARRY\$U.W. S"""''""l .. .,TJtl..,.IUN>l'I ffpl~ 1h...,rt, It dotirn ,,._and ~noll1 ~~i::\ ~~.: ... lobontor, ,.; ... tho n.1.._.,t.i,.;p1n,-,cl,and"" ""'-"' .... ,..-,.-.A....i .-1 .. 1,u,i..,.._,_,.,._ .... ..... .. ,.., ....... _,, __ .;u,1o,,-,1ei-,,.(1 ... _u,uot;..ro ... -""'~ .. _....,.. __ ,,,,_ ,_,c1,11--,,bo~ute11.-of 1 herentdi..,..M.nt....,1.-l1h,._ -D.A,lt."-C.&.._ ..... ,._ .,__, .. N, ~- I I,. lt1L _..., .......,.,,u, too ,,_ boo a...W. oblodob,.touood..,._oqo.J-lololo,._udal,;lit.,,n., __ bo,rl .. i,, ... ,; .. .. -... ,__o1h1o .. ,..;.-_o1,;11,u,1,.....,.o1>~;E !.~,::E.; :~m,:.;..""'1,o-:=""'";,_,.,.,....,,,,h,_ w ,,. willill<> """'~"'"'""" of ,..,;..,,._ Ou only ,..., 1.......,,. ,,.. tho tho pn,;.,tlo,.,.flolcthol-hofouodho ~-~=.:::.:::~-;..-,:: :::=. pltdata--.A,..;..t-,;........ ..-,_pioul)'_.a_ ... .,.,. .. ,.._ 1.... --... ..... ... 11 _1<1 .............. u.., .. ;........,.i .i,;.,,;,-.,o1u..-.nw..r....,.uu.a,11,o .i.,.,.,1n,t1op,tio,~11o,...;_...,...,_h1, ""'~.Ulo.,.,ethlo1\0 =:,:-:.. """.!'~~ion:':'!.;~~~~~.: \em Atypltalprojoctln"'"-)do!\ni\Hlllot U.. -b).._.,:,,,aO,ul,.i-,<) ........ io =-::.~.:..-:..~~=;~,: ~=~::::;_-:--..,:: ofhio,..;..tl a__....-q.To..,.p..U.. ~:s.i~~1ra-z:: <1i11,....,ton> J .. to ,m 0
PAGE 28

11,..,. __ ... ..,..,. ... ,_ra,~ ..... ,..,,, .. ...... ..,u ..... o,~,,..,,_,,_ 11,,. oo l oo!U"MTo,._,.,n,-..,.,1 ... ,.,., ....... .................... ,,,_,_., ..

PAGE 29

_., __ ,__._..__, _.,_A __ .,,_,_ ... ., ._ ..... ....... __ c-.---L-. .,.___,.,. __ Lo_N __ n.n-H,_ -"*---,C.G ....... .,, ...... _,_,,__...., ........... ,..._ .. ,,,,..._,;,,, ..... .... ,_,.., c.._.._n,..,.,.. .,.., ,.,....., --"""'""-"-.l.""._,. ~... .. .... ____ .., .. __ .. ,........ .. ,__.,._ .. __ "":::"~C:b..~~r,, ,..,,,._,,.,_,......,_11, ....... H ........ ._ ............. .... .. 11 .. ,,--.,1,,,,0 ... f\ lo,~ .......... H r,,N_ ........... """'""'"'""""""- T __ ,_,.,,..__.,_ __ H ...... .. ,.,,., __ ,A_ .._,,_,,_ .. __ __, .. ~.. ............ v ... 11-., ........ .,_ "''"""*""'".-,.., .... ,tt....un, Eatl< .......................... _; .. ,....,...1.-.iRC1-n....... 1...... io-,..1-.To;,i-y11o ... --.....wo,1,;,.,..,.., ..... :'1~~ i!.. -:.."':':'!~~= :.:::::\ .. ":!1.~-'"~:::" .!::: ........ ioe.t1..-..-lolrll11o..-ia....__.1;,oraaM.r -..-d-Thioioaot .. .; ........ 11 --.Tllo .. -1-lolhio,...;.,t ~0l~~~t!~ff7i~~~@ l.1h .. ,ao,lnrot1tlftlntl1lo"""',-t;..,.._ Tllo.. -...... .... .. 111-;,.. ollf-"'ti,,tllo .. -.wl,o"'.,.,t,1 .......... labora''7,"TlloSope,-la."Y.no o1..it,, .. ,..1,o..,,olladnop,;..,;,_1,,1ao1,.. Ei~~s::.:~~F:E::: ~ \ ?%~~-:~: .. -: :1~= :~!~ ,:= thovroj0<110,.....,otontl1,honoin1 Tho,laol .. 1ai-a10,ylao111Jlotheo,,,,_ot .. ..i.-1 ............ ..-, .. iut,,,,....,1,o oolvll>o -lholal,o,.''7-""'turi.,.. ,.....-_ tho ,_1 .. ..... ha"' paU r,-;,...ON .. -ot-m.,.;.111o ro11;. :=" io!:::,. oad-'~~~~.i-: .. = pc,iotllho-..-....,.,.-~-r..iu,,, _ot,..,._ .. p..,joct,a,....,.;,.....,. .. 1a,1..,,1o1 .. ...-.. ,,., -... labo
PAGE 30

FLOW MODELING AND PARAMETER ESTIMA T ION USING RADIOTRACERS R.W.ROUSSr.,UJ,R.f'.C"-IIOXER ... R .M.l' :U>V.ll s ... c""'-~'4UI./,.;..,,-.;,, 11.i,;.a.~...,c-... n601 ,1-.--i.o.tofformul>tinrdf .. .,1< ..-a.Jotolntt<>dUNIP,..,._-(_.t, .. '"""'rlnjtctioo,I o..ito....,.u,."1.,.l1lloro,thoprodu; ::: d io po,wioo _..,_, ,,. lhw >mo,a,I th =~,~~~,.,i! :.!"!i~ ~!:i.OO:::. TM o
PAGE 31

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A COMPUTERIZED UNDERGRADUATE PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL LABORATORY R.A .SC HJll TI: u ;-,, 1111,..., u-.11.e to, ~x;~=:~ro::~ ...,..ltyor 111;..,.,.., .....,. io 1 '69 .Tho pl.on wulooulollnrlHM 18')(l>n'lputet, ~-hlasl,ln tho lln"'"te,.. a1dtd .. ,,.r1....,,.1,y.,.;,,.,.... .... ,,wen1o. 0.r,mClv U... lo, II pto
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fiUfiil International A #EW TRADIT I ONAL UNIT OPERATIONS LABORATORY COURSE AAGY.l' MY. l>Y.SSI.USO i=.::,i:;! f~n!:':!';~211001 .y.8h 1 m ... ,t I n l Kllho J )oioart .... tofO>oMi<&lToth =!:.'::'!"::!.~\:';::'.{,.~~.::= ... .. -...... --of--. 11,o,.~LwM.i-odoqoa1e Uaniol, ,hMrin paduo!M ...,,1..i-1,....,,w1o,1to<1,.1e.i,....i.1nrp,........_ Tt,i1.""Tl
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AN E V OLUTIONARY EXPER I MEN T A.1111mn:s ft.;......,,o11ble thl'<>IWI ...... ,.,.~.,11e....,1_,,,.,,.,bo,apobloof ,io,lolo,o,porl,...ntol ... ul_.tandproc,,;I"..,. Thououaloncle.,..adool&lobora\oeyc<,u. ,io_p,....rell1 .. o1..,.rinro\u....,t,allror ~ltt~~~il{~:~ .. -11:J ,,...-. ......... .. ..,.;-,;ty .... ::!~ ... ':i,.';:,:..._"" n :".:.,~.:;-=-::::.,. .... ..... ~... -,.... ... 11-., ........ -1 ..... -.-.,. ...... __ ;u,.....,..,,p... ~-., r.,po,;.e,,..... -u,,.,roc1uooc1;.1o ....... ~~.:'..~~ .... '"'.!.t"\".;"r .. ..!.: 1!'..!.': __ .. ,1>o.,,,..._1., ......... ;,u. ............. dorinrtti. .. ..-,.,,... n..p,_.tt>OtePtri-llnl'70.Tli"l..,,._l,o.,.i .. ==-=-.!:;=.:,:.?:,:= .............. .. -.... ..-... .... l-t.lMI ......... ...U-lll,u, .. i-. _,. ,-lriq l'lonhff -.:al,_._ Bo-onq.(thiopn,io1< wl!b dilul ... .... ~ne ..... ,.;.w.. llqvo,rouffl
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PAGE 44

A F ORCED CONV ECTI ON DEMONSTRATION USING SOLID CO SUB LI MATION D.A.Mf:L..LICIIAMl'ud0.C.SANDALL i:..i--.,,.,c"4,f.,... S..olo/lo,loo,.,C.tt31QI O...ofU.,f .. \o,..ofU1t,a .. pottp,__ i:~:.~ :7"'~~::--:;. --ee~IT lol.,rato,, whloh ;, uMd to i l lol!r ato gff~7~~L~~E .,...,.._........,,__1nthu...,.11Wtof tho-...--pra<1.i<&II,.....,... p .......... 1 ...,i.; !ManalY'ioot..i ... ..._ n..c1tpo,._ .. i.-;. ..;..iwo""' is. tor U..-J.itsf .... .-. u -. ::~~~~:.!.,S..:~ ,:,:. ":," ~; .. ':;:!7 =.:~ ~~~2~}:7~::'::.:.::: ~,':':':-"':'.!~::.~.=-=~ri~ :~: .,,.t,..,,.,.,1in111 .. u .... to,.T1>e,01,-,,.., l-tpoo>er',doooerimentde. = .:!. ~=f~r;:..: :-;;,;~ ;:: ,.,,..,1,11ow. l nthiooxpori,,,.,.1tho<1lindt r is ...,,..,.. .. p1,u..-..;n.aliq,,idolt,_ .................. thoourf-olU..oli....,..The..,._,....,;.,, ..... o1 .. ~----f =::r.:~-==:'2~~~~~ ~:;t~~=;.:~;;:; ~.';.""..,._
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PAGE 46

AN INTEGRA T ED R E ACTOR ENGINEERING LABORATORY K .D.WII.UA1t8 v.;..,_,,.,A.,,_ r-,Allil7tl C....,,i,ri-Uuniquoomonr.U enrl-.lo""'l lt'-lU..tllabui1loln < h eml.o1,,.s1 ... ,h1 ,1, .. &l'ld>Jna,<11emkal ,. .. ...,_,,. olmportantJ>"rtof,hom1,tr7,thoboolyorkoo,.i..u,o i n< l, d;, ,.~..,1y ,MffliofthoU--,, .M,rlll ~!.""'i.:.:i...""':'!::. ':: =~= ..,..n,1-.toxpori-u-'ilhat:;:" _-::. "=i;=.:.,~:..::: = ::"'.-.:4 =~-= ~!':.. ::1;!!:!:'"1!:':.!~-;:.-; ,pon ....... .,,. .... .,..i.. -., ..... ...... .. __ .. ,_, ___ ..... u ..... ...... -~,,,,_ .. ............. .. .. .,,., ...... .. ___ ....... .. "'"..,.,_.,,,,_,.,, o, ... .. ____ ., ., __ .,, ..... ... .. ....... ... .. .. ............... .... ....... ,., ,._ .. .... ............ ___ .. ..... "" .... ._ .......... .. -("' "' __ .... .. _.,..,_ ... ..... ,_R ___ .. ................. .. _____ _.,en.__. __ ~ .. -.. ,,... ., __ -----... ... -.... ..... -, .. .... ... _,_., _____ ,_ .. .. __ ....... .. _, ___ ,,_,_ ... __ .. ____ ..._ .... -....... -_ ... ___ ... ... -.... '""'""Jtl--f0tiaborotorJ ..... ..... _, .... __ .,,_ t..C---_ol_. D,._ .. _.., __ ._ __ .._ ---.._ _____ c.,_ ,......, ___ .. _____ '-""'"~-......

PAGE 47

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He's l o cked in to childh ood b y a di sease that s alrea d y licke d. eon!,1:=~~~=,"' .... -------~ .. .. ...... """'IJ~"'"' ""'1><-.1 .. .oll To_J>NP< _.,..,....,,, :~ .. :~~== 8u< .i..~=.~~,IJ~::..-:-: .. .. knl.......,,i-.-J.,,60...:~:~~: S~E.5~?:;;r~ "'*"""""' .. "''"'''"'"""'" ~~:::2~:;;2,:;~~ J,r,m ,,..J m,e 11;:~r,.,,_.,,.,~1 ,,.,,., ,; ::i Jui,,n,ct>oc< U.uuw<"'"'"" "" V ,en "I'<'' -,r,..._ P"''"/:,.''; o:"'",,.,.,,, --.,( '"""""""n,,. ,.c,,1,n,lrrl,m, ofo h" l t>
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HOWTO MAKE YOUR FUTURE OUT OF PAPER. i~ci~::~~.~;5~~ ;&i;~:~ 7 ?~;~::~ ,~:i : .:::i::.::'."'o1""~~~.!:"~ I-::: z:;1;::'~.:-:.:-;.nhdpoh,P" 1 be proo:1..,.., .... ..,,-1 ,~ r ... ,., .... -..,-. i~C~~ 7 "-F.<] .. lOppMunityEmployer