Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00040
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00040

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Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2 SPRING 1973



Departments
56 The Educator
R. B. Beckmann
60 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Michigan
96 The Classroom
Teaching Experience with Design and
Simulation Projects
D. R. Woods, T. W. Hoffman, and
A. I. Johnson
66 Curriculum
A Professional Program in Engineering
R. N. Maddox and J. B. West
Book Reviews
54 W. R. Schowalter
55 R. E. Meredith

Sawt~4 School ,o4 6'he T7eache's
Graduate Education Colloquium
84 Industrial Viewpoint, S. E. Isakoff
87 Industrial Viewpoint, R. B. Long
89 Academic Viewpoint, J. E. Vivian
92 Academic Viewpoint, C. J. Pings
Workshops
72 Chemical Process Design and Engineering
C. J. King, A. S. Foss, E. A. Grens,
S. Lynn, and D. F. Rudd
76 Integration of Biomedical and
Environmental Examples into
Undergraduate ChE Coursework
R. C. Seagrave and G. R. Cokelet
80 Numerical Methods for ChE Problems
Brice Carnahan and J. 0. Wilkes



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $6 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright @ 1973. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.


SPRING 1973









I letters
Sir: I read with great interest the article by Kenneth
J. Bell (CEE, 6, No. 4, Fall 1972) detailing his views
on the requirements for a course in Process Heat Transfer.
The thinking of Dr. Bell no doubt influenced by his close
association with some of the greats in this field, is closely
parallel to that of members of the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Salford, England,
who were influenced by those same greats through their
writings.
Students at Salford during the final two years of their
studies are required each week to attempt problems
which require between six and twelve hours calculation for
their solution. Many of these are concerned with process
heat transfer calculations and are also used as a basis
for developing computer programs for the routine solution
of such design problems. We, too, were initially handi-
capped by the absence of a suitable textbook, a circum-
stance which led Heinemann Educational Books Ltd,
London, to publish 'Heat Transfer' by F. A. Holland,
R. M. Moores, F.A. Watson and J.K. Wilkinson in No-
vember 1970. The text consists of twenty calculations
presented in full detail in Anglo-American units with a
parallel presentation of key results in SI units. There is
also a section on the estimation and correlation of physical
properties of fluids presented in consistent SI units, with
five fully detailed examples. To make the book self con-
tained there are ten chapters which present an abridged
theoretical treatment of all the methods used in the design
calculations, including a chapter on conversion of units.
The 612 page book has been made available in the USA
through American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc. for less
than $20 for the hardback edition.
I hope this information may prove of interest to those
in other Departments of Chemical Engineering who have
felt the need for such a text. The book was reviewed in
the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 14
pp 1879-1880, 1971.
F. A. Watson
University of Salford
Salford M5 4WT, England


book reviews

Polymers in the Engineering Curriculum. Pro-
ceedings of the Third Buhl International Con-
ference on Materials, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
October 28-29, 1968, Hershel Markovitz, ed.,
Pittsburgh: Carnegie Press, Carnegie-Mellon Uni-
versity, 1971. 311 pages. Reviewed by W. R.
Schowalter, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
This unusual volume deserves review if for no
other reason than to publicize the fact that, in
spite of the title, the book contains several con-
cise, readable, and authoritative reviews on cer-
tain areas of polymer science.
Since 1963 the Buhl Foundation of Pittsburgh
has supported a series of conferences on the sub-


ject of materials. Dr. Markovitz describes the
origin of the third conference as follows:
The choice of the subject of the Third Buhl Inter-
national Conference on Materials Polymers in the
Engineering Curriculum-grew out of the concern of
the organizers that engineering schools, almost uni-
versally, had not been responding to the obvious up-
ward trend in engineering applications of polymeric
materials. There is little doubt that a large fraction
of the graduates of engineering departments will have
to deal with these materials during their professional
lives. If it is granted that an important task of engi-
neering schools is to prepare the student for his
career, it is surprising that so few educational institu-
tions had modified their curriculum in light of this fact.
The conference organizers decided that it
would be useful to devote the first day of the
meeting to "an overview of the polymer industry
and the underlying science important for the
understanding of macromolecular behavior." It is
this portion of the conference that generated the
reviews mentioned above. One should not be sur-
prised, given the origin of the volume, that an
enormous difference in emphasis and style exists
among the authors. The review talks are probably
bounded in these respects by C. Truesdell's de-
scription of "Classical and Modern Continuum
Theories" and A. V. Levy's address titled "Pro-
ducer-User Cooperation to Utilize Polymers as
Engineering Materials, A Necessity." Other
papers of a review nature include
Some Fundamentals of Polymer Chemistry W. H.
Stockmayer and C. W. Pyun
Mechanical Behavior of Polymers H. Markovitz
The Morphology, Properties and Structure of the
Crystalline State of Polymers R. S. Stein
Mechanical Analysis of Plastics Fabrication Processes
T. Alfrey, Jr.
Application of Modern Continuum Mechanics to the
Design of Polymer Melt Processes J. R. A.
Pearson.
In addition there are some interesting statistics
showing the impressive growth rates for produc-
tion of various kinds of polmers. Historical notes
about the polymer industry are also included.
The wide assortment of talks and audience
backgrounds led to some amusing discussion ex-
changes, most of which were transcribed. For
example:
A: . did you vary only a single variable at a
time?
B: It was done on a statistical basis.
A: I'm asking for that basis if you can give it.
B: I don't remember the details of which variables
were varied . .
A: In other words you were assuming a simplicity
here, no interactions of these variables, or you really


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








wouldn't be able to hold so many constant while you
varied a few. I gather your results pretty well justify
that there were only several of these that were quite
influential. Is that correct?
B: Yes.
C: The procedure in most laboratories is to set up
what you want to do and then send it over to the
math group. They set up the statistically designed ex-
periment so that they can analyze the results properly.
A: I'd like to point out that that is a rather
dangerous procedure.
C: Our math group has some chemical engineers.
A: That certainly helps a lot.
Given the broad range of outlooks typified by
this discussion, one doesn't expect, and doesn't
find, uniform agreement on educational objectives
or procedures in the second half of the volume,
which is devoted to papers and discussion on
present and future polymer curricula. An over-
simplified but perhaps reasonably accurate sum-
mary is that an undergraduate major in polymer
science is unwise, but that elective courses should
be available. At the graduate level there is no best
approach since local conditions will determine the
optimum structure of a polymer program, depart-
ment, or institute. It is clear that there is no
unique solution to the "materials science" vs.
"polymer science" problem that is especially acute
when a materials science group, probably com-
posed primarily of metallurgists, is encouraged
to expand its scope to include polymers. One
speaker noted that in such cases the band theory
all but excluded the bond theory.
The second section of the proceedings could
be a useful sourcebook for university faculty and
administrators who are wondering how best to
fashion a polymer program into the educational
structure. The reader will not find the answer,
but he can at least be exposed to the hopes, fears,
successes, and frustrations of some who have
wrestled with this problem.




From Electrocatalysis to Fuel Cells, Edited
by G. Sandstede, University of Washington
Press, Seattle, 1972, 415 pp, $12.50. Reviewed by
R. E. Meredith, Oregon State University, Cor-
vallis, Ore.
This book contains more than thirty papers
which were presented at a three day seminar,
under the same title, at the Battelle Seattle Re-
search Center. Unlike many publications of this
nature, the articles are well grouped and edited
to give the book the appearance and utility of a
SPRING 1973


text on the subject. The participating authors
include Bockris, Cairns, Kordesch and others
who have worked extensively in the field for
many years. Emphasis is placed on presenting
the latest developments and applications along
with the current standing of research
The coverage given in this book to the studies
in developing inexpensive catalysts to compete
with the heretofore unchallenged domain, of the
platinum family should be especially interesting
to the investigators who have developed an almost
economic fuel cell except for the cost of the cata-
lyst. Disclosures are presented on the behavior
and properties of inexpensive and novel catalysts
such as tungsten carbide, bronze compounds and
organometallic complexes. It is pointed out that
the stimulating work in this area has encouraged
the examination of a great many other com-
pounds and these studies may very well lead to
cheap electrodes for acid electrolyte fuel cells in
the near future.
The section on fuel cells is categorized not
only as to whether the system is acid or alkaline
but also with regard to fuel and application. The
problems associated with each system are covered
in discussions and summaries. For instance, it
is noted that in spite of the fact that the electro-
chemical problems of the hydrazine cell have been
practically solved, the cost of hydrazine continues
to make that unit uneconomical. It is also men-
tioned that although the alkaline systems appear
to have the advantage on the state of development
at the moment that recent advances in the acid
electrolyte cells promise to place them in a strong
competitive position in the near future. As an
example of the completeness of fuel cell coverage,
a rather short but interesting section is devoted
to the state of development of implantable fuel
cells in the body for the operation of pacemakers.
Not to be excluded are topics such as solid
electrolytes, thermocatalytic hydrogen generation,
power generation using coal, organic cathodes,
metal-air systems, and the use of fuel cells for
practical energy conversion systems.
The book concludes with a section on "Developmental
Goals and Prospects" which state the restrictions on fuel
cell applications in a realistic manner. It is suggested that
anti-pollution forces are going to have to become a lot
stronger or else the country will have to be very con-
cerned about "hydrogen ecology" before applications would
be created to cause industrial capital to be spent in the
volume needed to develop and market fuel cells in large
quantities. Fuel cells would appear to find their best ap-
plication in areas now covered by combustion engines but
they fail to adequately compete because of unfavorable
"power density" and "value per dollar."









educator

This feature article was prepared by Prof. Joseph
Marchello, Univ. of Maryland.


1A3 Bechmann

DEAN AT MARYLAND
As one of the leading engineering educators in
the United States Robert Beckmann has had a
distinguished career in teaching, research and
college administration. His first concern has al-
ways been with students. Even today, while ad-
ministering a large engineering college and serv-
ing on many national committees he makes time
to teach a senior seminar in chemical engineering.
Rapport with students and an interest in their
career development is a hallmark among his many
activities.
Bob Beckmann is well known for his fine work
on many national committees. He is a member of
the Board of Directors of ECPD, is Chairman of
the Research Committee of AIChE and is a mem-
ber of the Engineering College Administrative
Council of ASEE. In 1959 while on the faculty at
Carnegie Institute of Technology he was President
of the General Faculty Assembly.
Robert Bader Beckmann was born in St. Louis,
Missouri, on September 15, 1918. Bob grew up in
St. Louis and spent many of his summers in Colo-
rado. He started his college education at the Uni-
versity of Oklahoma in 1936 where in addition
to his engineering studies he was a member of
the ROTC horse cavalry. Bob later transferred
to the University of Illinois and received his B.S.
degree in chemical engineering in 1940.
From Illinois he went to the University of
Wisconsin for graduate study. His Ph.D. thesis
advisor was Professor Olaf A. Hougen. Bob's
research dealt with the catalytic hydrogenation
of codimer and the theoretical analysis and experi-
mental data were included by his advisor in
"Chemical Process Principles, Part three, Ki-
netics and Catalysis."
After receiving his PhD ('44) Bob was em-
ployed as a chemical research engineer by Humble
Oil and Refining Company in Baytown, Texas.
In 1946 he joined the faculty of the Chemical
Engineering Department at Carnegie Institute of
Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon University)
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


While at Carnegie, Bob was very instrumen-
tal in the development of their fine chemical en-
gineering program. He is perhaps best remem-
bered for his interesting and challenging process
design problems. However, his courses in reaction
kinetics and the chemical process laboratory
course also standout in the minds of many former
students as worthwhile relevant experiences.
In 1961 Bob moved to the University of Mary-
land as Professor and Head of the Chemical
Engineering Department. Under his able leader-
ship the Department grew to become one of the
major chemical engineering departments in the
United States. In addition to modernizing the
curriculum and expanding the research program
at Maryland, Bob increased the faculty and set
the stage for the $1.6 million addition to the
building which is now nearing completion.
In addition to his teaching, administration
and many other activities, Bob established and
maintained excellent research programs in re-
action kinetics and mass transfer both at Car-
negie and at Maryland. He has been thesis advisor
to 29 Ph.D. students over the years, 18 at Car-
negie and 11 at Maryland.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


or Ii









In recognition of his accomplishments with
the Chemical Engineering Department Bob was
appointed as Dean of the Engineering College at
the University of Maryland in 1966. He has
appropriately expanded his sights and is now
busily working to improve the programs, faculty
and facilities of the College.
Throughout his career, Bob has served as an
active member to a number of professional socie-
ties. Some of his current committee activities
include:
AIChE-Education & Accreditation (Chairman, 1964-68)
Research (Chairman)
AIChE Representative to the ECPD Board of
Directors (1968-)
ASEE-Engineering College Administrative Council
ECPD-Member of Board of Directors (AIChE) (1968-)
Purposes & Structures Comm.
Graduate Accreditation Comm.
Nat'l. Commission on Accrediting-ECPD Liaison
Comm. (Chairman).
ORAU-University of Maryland Councilor to ORAU
(1967- )
Special Projects Committee
National Academy of Sciences/Engineering & National
Research Council-Committee on Hazardous Mat'ls.
(Advisory to the Coast Guard)
National Association of State Universities & Land Grant
Colleges- The Engineering Commission
Engineering Society of Baltimore-Education Committee

The easiest way to illustrate the philosophy
and goals of Bob Beckmann is through his writing
and speeches. The remainder of this article has
been taken from such sources. It is based pri-
marily on the Phillips Petroleum Lecture given
by Bob on December 10, 1968, at Oklahoma State
University. During the five years since that lec-
ture he has implemented many of the ideas at
Maryland. A number of his observations are
even more true today and serve to confirm his
position as a leader in engineering education.
"Despite the fact that the chemical engineer
has had the broad field of chemistry 'all to him-
self' in the six decades of the profession's true
existence, he has not availed himself of the full
scope of opportunities that this has presented.
This is not to say that it has not been a dynamic
profession or educational process; in fact, it has
been just the opposite and perhaps it is this in-
ternal dynamicism that has so occupied the chemi-
cal engineering educators that they have neglec-
ted to visualize the broadening steps that are now
vitally needed.
"During this same period of time the chemi-
cal process industries were changing from the


heavy inorganic chemical and manufactured-gas
industry base to the dynamic petroleum, petro-
chemical and synthetic, tailor-made chemicals in-
dustry of today. This partnership of two chang-
ing and progressive counterparts was a vital force
in the development of chemical engineering as an
educational entity and profession. The time has
now come for the chemical engineering educators
and the profession in general to broaden their
horizons within the context of the true meaning
of chemical engineering.
"For the future, chemical engineering educa-
tors must turn their attention to the develop-
ment of the field as (1) an educational force with-
in the university community and (2) a broaden-
ing of the professional horizons of the field to
encompass the many facets of the field of chemis-
try and hence to truly implement the 'benefit of
mankind' aspects of the engineering.
"With the exception of a few intramural
service courses within the engineering complex,
the engineering community today does virtually
nothing to serve or interact, academically speak-
ing, with the rest of the university community.
Even the intramural efforts within the engi-
neering community are generally limited to the
fundamentals of applied sciences with limited
interaction beyond these primer areas. The chemi-
cal engineers, perhaps through no fault of their
own, are often most vulnerable to this charge. The
chemical engineering educators for example,
should have a course or course sequences avail-
able for social, natural and life scientists to ac-
quaint them with the realm of the chemical engi-
neer; this doesn't have to require integral cal-
culus and Laplace transforms, for it is to serve
a different function, that of interest and aware-
ness, than that associated in the true disciplinary
sense. Similarly there should be opportunities for


SPRING 1973


























the chemical engineer to stress auxiliary areas
in the allied fields of engineering or within his
humanities program if he so wishes. Generally
speaking, we use the smorgasboard method in
both these areas at the present time.
"Broadening the horizons of chemical engi-
neering is going to be difficult because it means
overcoming the carefully nurtured definitions and
provincialisms generated over the years. Consider
the definition of the goal of chemical engineering
education (CEP, 63, No. 8, p36, August, 1967)
as that of relating ChE education to research,
design, development and operation in the chemical
process industries. This borders on defining ChE
education as a training process and not as an
educational entity in the true context of higher
education. I should like to attempt to restate the
definition along the following lines:
The goal of chemical engineering education is the
development of the intellectual capacity and abilities
to apply the principles of transport phenomena, equi-
libria, and kinetics, involving chemical transformations,
to the creative resolution of technological problems
for the benefit of mankind and his environment.

Here, the chemical process industries are but a
special case within the above context.
"If chemical engineering is to serve the ca-
pacity as indicated above, it seems that two, and
'possible three, chemistry routes of emphasis
should be available in the junior and senior years
of the chemical engineering curriculum. Assum-
ing that the first two years will include some
form of general and/or physical chemistry and
also organic chemistry, the final two years would
include, possibly, the conventional advanced phy-
sical chemistry route, an advanced inorganic and/
or solid state chemistry route, and perhaps a bio


"Broadening the horizons .. means
overcoming the carefully nurtured
definitions and provincialisms
generated over the years. .. ."

and/ physiological chemistry path; each coupled
with the characterizing attributes of chemical
engineering. Such options available to the chemi-
cal engineering student would afford the maxi-
mum opportunity and preparation either for a
professional chemical engineering career, per se,
in a variety of fields or for using the chemical
engineering educational process for a stepping
stone for further educational training in a variety
of the newer graduate engineering disciplines. The
traditional chemical engineering emphasis on the
the organic-physical chemistry coupling route
ignores the advent of nuclear chemistry with a
consequent loss, or at least a dilution, of an ob-
vious partnership with nuclear engineering. The
field of sanitary-now called environmental-
engineering was similarly ignored in the past and
the chemical engineers are belatedly trying to ful-
fill their obligations, but now with considerable
opposition. Even in the chemical process industry
area of engineering materials the chemical en-
gineering profession has failed to respond ade-
quately to the needs.
"If you examine enrollment trends dating
back for several decades or more you will note
that every engineering profession that has closely
allied itself with a particular industry, or type of
industry, has inevitably declined in popularity
regardless of the prosperity of that industry. For
example, mining engineers, petroleum engineers,
ceramic engineers and even 'electrical' engineers








... he is a member
of the Board
of Directors
of ECPD...


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









in the sense of power transmission and the utili-
ties industry. The growth of electrical engineering
has been primarily catalyzed by their response
to include electronics, solid state devices and
computer systems engineering all within the elec-
trical engineering framework. In short they have
responded to include all those phenomena having
a foundation stemming from electrical, electronic
wave and even optic phenomena within their
purview. They have capitalized on the develop-
ments in the science base of their field; ChE's
have not, insofar as chemistry is concerned, except
in the classical organic-physical chemistry sense.
"Thus for the future I feel that engineering
educators must broaden the horizons of engi-
neering education to accommodate three kinds of
engineering students: (1) that student who
wishes to proceed to professional engineering
work in his basic engineering discipline, (2) that
student who wishes to use the background of one
of the primary engineering disciplines for a
foundation upon which to enter one of the newly
emerging, but not yet disciplinarily identified,
engineering fields; and (3) that student who does
not plan on professional engineering as a career
but wishes to use the intellectual challenge and
development abilities of an engineering education
as a means of furthering non-professional-engi-
neering career objectives-such as graduate work
and an ultimate career in law, medicine, business,
etc. In brief, engineering becomes a truly general
educational process for a single objective-that
of professional engineering.
"To fulfill the above objectives of structuring
engineering education as a general route for seek-
ing a higher education, let me propose something
along the lines shown in Table 1.
"The format shown in Table I would interest
and challenge the superior student-attract him
through the various avenues of career achieve-








... He has been
thesis advisor
to 29 PhD
students . .


"For the future, ChE educators must turn
their attention to the development of the field
as an educational force within the university
community and a broadening of the
professional horizons of the field."


Table I. Engineering Education
Freshman-Sophomore Years
About 85-90% "interchangeable and/or common." The
remaining 10-15% should permit one of perhaps three
paths to be stressed from an engineering viewpoint: (1)
mechanical physics, (2) electrical-physics, and (3) chemi-
cal. "Interchangeable and/or common" does not neces-
sarily mean "identical"; rather, that a student can change
to any of the alternate routes by summer school attend-
ance at the end of the sophomore year.
Junior-Senior Years
The three alternate routes for an engineering education
will take form during the Junior and Senior years with
the curriculum content forming along the following paths:
20% Humanities and Social Studies; Engr. Sciences, Math.,
Physical Sciences, etc. Electives and/or required as fol-
lows:
I.* The BS Route. 50-55% in a designated major field.
II.* The BS-Engr. Route. 30-35% in a primary engineering
field plus 20-25% in a secondary engineering program.
III* The BA-Engr. Route. 30-35% in a primary engineer-
ing field plus 20-25% science, but not engineering
field.
*The important facet here is not the specific degrees
conferred, but rather that there are three distinct and
definable routes through each basic disciplinary engineer-
ing area to allow the student the maximum opportunities
for fulfilling his career objectives.

ment and approach that are possible. This coupled
with the environment is one way to regain stu-
dent interest for an engineering education and to
help stimulate multidisciplinary awareness to and
from engineering.
"Admittedly Table I is but one approach to
one facet of the development of engineering edu-
cation for the future. Engineering education, is
currently at a crossroad or milestone point in its
history. The educational decisions made today and
in the near future will affect us and our success as
engineers for years to come. We need all the
astute wisdom and vision that we can find to
insure that engineering will be able to respond
to the technological and environmental challenges
that face society, and I sincerely hope that the
chemical engineers will play a leading and pio-
neering role in planning the future ahead." E


SPRING 1973


1









department



MICHIGAN

This paper was submitted by the Chemical Engi-
neering Faculty, The University of Michigan,
J. 0. Wilkes, Chairman.

Considerable changes have occurred in our
department during the past decade. Most signifi-
cantly, about half of our present faculty have
been appointed within that period. Thus, although
we have strong roots in the past, our composition
and outlook has, we hope, kept well abreast of
the times. Also, in 1971, after a liaison of 36
years, the combined Chemical and Metallurgical
Engineering department separated into two:
Chemical Engineering, and Materials & Metal-
lurgical Engineering. This separation has proved
beneficial, giving us a renewed sense of identity
and purpose. Allowing for joint appointments,
etc., our faculty (Table 2) has a net full-time
count of 17. Current enrollments are: under-
graduates, 170; graduates, 55. Degrees awarded
during the past year were: 50 B.S.E.; 16 M.S.E.;
and 6 Ph.D.
The number and diversity of backgrounds of
our faculty allow us to offer a wide range of
viable programs at all levels. We also participate
to a considerable extent in teaching courses out-
side the department, to freshmen and other engi-
neering students. Although many of our offices
and classrooms are still in the East Engineering
building on the main Ann Arbor campus, most of
our laboratories and research facilities are housed
two miles away, in the relatively new G. G.
Brown building at North Campus. Adjacent to
the latter, construction of a Water Resources
building is about to start, and we are looking
forward to the additional facilities it will provide
for our microbiological and other biologically
oriented laboratories.
A program in chemical engineering has now
existed at the University of Michigan for 75
years. The history of the first 60 years has been
documented by Katzt, chairman from 1951-61,
and who has since been succeeded as chairman

ID. L. Katz, "Development of Chemical Engineering
at the University of Michigan," Chem. Eng. Progr. Sym-
posium Series, Vol. 55, No. 26, pp. 9-15 (1959).


by Churchill (1961-66), Van Vlack (1966-70),
Balzhiser (1970-71) and Wilkes (1971- ).
THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
Our undergraduate curriculum is outlined in
Table 1. The relation between the basic sciences
and their application to a wide variety of engi-
neering problems is emphasized. Digital-computer
techniques are integrated within the courses at
an early stage of the program, and we are build-
ing a disk-file library of documented computer
programs that can be used throughout the cur-
riculum, in areas such as optimization, design,
material balances, and laboratory data processing.
Some areas of specialization available in the
regular chemical engineering program are: bio-
chemical engineering, polymer engineering, pe-
troleum engineering, electrochemical engineering,
materials engineering, environmental engineering,
control engineering, and computers and systems
engineering. There is a particularly strong in-
terest in the biochemical option. Courses in the
chemical engineering of water and air pollution
control are also very popular among the students.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 1-Course of Study for the B.S. Degree
in Chemical Engineering
Core Subjects Common to All Eng. Programs Credits
Mathematics 16
Physics 8
Chemistry 4
Digital Computing 2
English (Freshman) 6
English (Advanced) 6
Humanities & Social Sciences 12
54
Professional and Advanced Subjects
Advanced Chemistry 20
Material Balances and Engineering Thermody-
namics (includes laboratory) 7
Rate Processes (includes laboratory) 7
Separations Processes 3
Chemical Engineering Laboratory 3
Properties of Liquids, Solids, Gases, and Surfaces 3
Engineering Materials in Design 3
Process Design 3
Senior ChE Elective 3
52
Electives
Course in mechanics of solids and a course in
electrical circuits 8
Free electives 14
TOTAL 128

THE TEACHING OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The department continues to develop and im-
plement new procedures and packages in under-
graduate instruction. A recent survey by Woodst
places our introductory course in material and
energy balances in a unique position relative to
companion institutions. Using material adapted
from the University of Pennsylvania, process
simulation and the use of computer accounting are
stressed by Professors Carnahan and Kadlec. The
rate processes are begun via a problem booklet
compiled by Professor Tek, reinforced with
printed notes developed by Professor Wilkes.
Another successful effort in teaching innova-
tion is the use of programmed learning and guided
design in our course in chemical kinetics and re-
actor design. Professor Fogler's programmed
text (see below) has been used to great advantage
with this technique. The instructor usually lec-
tures via closed-ended (convergent) problems, and
also collaborates with the students as they work

$D. R. Woods, "Material and Energy Balance Courses,"
Symposium at 65th National AIChE Meeting, New York,
1972.


There is a particularly strong interest
in the undergraduate biochemical option.


on open-ended (divergent) projects lasting several
weeks. Representative projects include: design of
a catalytic afterburner, solid-waste reactors, hol-
low fiber artificial kidney with encapsulated en-
zymes, and the fermentation kinetics in wine
making.
CEE readers have seen our view of modeling
instruction in the Fall 1972 issue, which is but
one of several courses intended to bridge the gap
between graduate and undergraduate work. In
addition, our approach to materials problems in-
volves two courses: one in properties, based on
thermodynamics and rate operations, and a sec-
ond aimed at structural and equipment problems.
These are not sacred, however, for our biologic-
ally oriented students take microbiology and
biochemical technology instead.
The familiar unit operations laboratory also
has a twist. In common with other schools, we
offer this lab on a 40 hour per week schedule dur-
ing a 3-week period following our winter tri-
mester. Professors Williams and Hand have
spearheaded this operation.
In collaboration with others, we have recently
written the following books for use in our courses:
Balzhiser, Samuels, and Eliassen, Chemical Engineer-
ing Thermodynamics, Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Carnahan, Luther, and Wilkes, Applied Numerical
Methods, Wiley, 1969.
Carnahan and Wilkes, Digital Computing and Nu-
merical Methods, Wiley, 1973.
Fogler, The Elements of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor
Calculations, Prentice-Hall (in press).
Sliepcevich, Powers, and Ewbank, Foundations of
Thermodynamic Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1971.


THE GRADUATE PROGRAM

Although the chemical engineer with a B.S.
degree can clearly be successful professionally,
we look upon graduate study not as simply a con-
tinuation of undergraduate work, but as an op-
portunity to accomplish several new objectives.
The Master's degree is also viewed as having
its own special character and not as a way-stop in
a doctoral program. We expect that many stu-
dents will have the M.S. as their educational goal
and we do not discriminate between M.S. and
Ph.D. aspirants for our first-year fellowships.
Also, we conduct a popular M.S. extension pro-
gram in Midland, Michigan.


SPRING 1973










Another successful effort in teaching innovation is the use of programmed learning and guided
design in our course in chemical kinetics and reactor design.


The objectives of the M.S. program are:


1. To build upon the B.S. in the specific fields of
reactor design, separations, and process design,
2. To allow the student to study advanced topics of
personal interest in areas such as bioengineering, com-
puting, control, mathematical modeling and optimization,
petroleum processing, and thermodynamics, etc.
3. To provide a foundation for possible subsequent
doctoral work.
No thesis is needed, and the 30 credit-hour re-
quirement can readily be met in 21/2 terms (10
months).
The faculty research interests, and those of
the students, are explored in a 1-hour Research
Survey seminar, where students learn about the
research viewpoints of the faculty and themselves
carry out reviews in several areas. Individual
students can optionally elect independent research
toward M.S. credit and some, looking toward
Ph.D. work, do this to initiate their entry into
research. The regular graduate research seminar
program throughout the year is now climaxed
by a two-day visit to the department by the re-
cipient of the Donald L. Katz Lectureship.
The written Ph.D. Qualifying Examination is
given each term and those having any interest at
all in the Ph.D. are urged to take it in their first


Jim Wilkes, Chairman.


I The Weissenberg effect
is demonstrated by
Jim Hand to his
rate processes class.









term of graduate enrollment. The subject level
is undergraduate, but the expected performance
level is such that the student must have a good
grasp of fundamentals and applications in order
to do well. Once this examination is passed, a
dissertation committee can be formed as soon as
a suitable research topic is chosen, so that a
Ph.D. program can be initiated even in the middle
of M.S. study. Afterwards, the committee guides
the academic and research programs of the stu-
dent.
The graduate program has been much re-
viewed and changed in recent years. The Ph.D.
Preliminary Examination is now the oral defense
of a written research proposal, usually in the
expected dissertation area. (Our previous "21-
day problem" has now been incorporated into
the required M.S. design course, taken by all
Ph. D. candidates.) Also, set course requirements
beyond the M.S. have been de-emphasized, thus
allowing more freedom in planning a Ph.D. pro-
gram. Graduate students have participated in
all review committees concerning the graduate
program. The two strongest influences on
the graduate program have been the back-
grounds of the new faculty joining the depart-
ment, together with a shift in the interests of
students towards computers, applications, and
biological and environmental concerns. These
have also altered the traditional concept of the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The Master's degree is viewed as having
its own special character and not as a
way-stop in a doctoral program.

thesis, with dissertations being more frequently
done in design algorithms, system modeling, and
other current application areas.

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Our research interests are outlined in Table
2. Areas of expansion in the past decade include
bioengineering, process dynamics, computer ap-
plications, pollution control, reservoir engineering,
catalysis, sonochemistry, and polymer rheology.
We illustrate by mentioning four representative,
specific projects.
(1) The Thermal Properties of Fluids Labora-
tory has been dedicated for over 15 years to ac-
curate calorimetric determinations. Currently
three separate facilities are in operation. The


Glassblower Peter Severn is a member of our
skilled and dedicated workshop staff.


TABLE 2.-Faculty and Fields of Specializations


Balzhiser, Richard E. Heat transfer and thermodynamics,
liquid metal technology, use and reuse of energy and
material resources.
Briggs, Dale E. Air and water pollution, computer control,
heat transfer, adsorption, solvent refining of coal.
Carnahan, Brice. Digital computation, numerical mathe-
matics, optimization, engineering and medical appli-
cations of digital computers.
Curl, Rane L. (Graduate Committee Chairman): Disper-
sions, pollution control, residence-time distributions,
simultaneous mass transfer and chemical reaction,
carbonate technology.
Donahue, Francis M. Electrochemistry; fuel cells, bat-
teries, electroplating, corrosion and corrosion inhibition,
electrosynthesis.
Folger, H. Scott. Kinetics and mass transfer in porous
media, fluid mechanics, sonochemical engineering.
Goddard, Joe D. Fluid mechanics, rheology, mass and
heat transfer.
Hand, James H. Molecular rheology, polymers, hydrody-
namics, boiling heat transfer.
Kadlec, Robert H. (Undergraduate Program Advisor):
Process dynamics and control, modeling and simula-
tion, reactor engineering.
Katz, Donald L. (A. H. White University Professor of
Chemical Engineering): Petroleum, natural gas, un-
derground storage, information systems, engineering
education projects.
Kempe, Lloyd L. Biochemical engineering (industrial
microbiology). Food and pharmaceutical industries.
Industrial waste and water treatment.


Martin, Joseph J. (Associate Director of the Institute of
Science and Technology): Thermodynamics, energy con-
version, properties and statistical thermodynamics,
applied mathematics, radiation chemical processing.
fParravano, Giuseppe. Polymers and polymerization re-
actions; theoretical and experimental studies in
heterogeneous catalysis and solid surfaces, thermo-
dynamics and kinetics of solid-state reactions.
Powers, John E. Separation processes, experimental de-
termination of thermodynamic properties.
Schultz, Jerome S. Biochemical engineering, production
of pharmaceuticals by fermentation, gas absorption,
transport phenomena in membranes, biomedical engi-
neering.
tSinnott, Maurice J. (Associate Dean of the College):
Physical metallurgy and materials, physical proper-
ties of fluids.
Tek, M. Rasin. Applied fluid mechanics, petroleum engi-
neering, two-phase flow, underground storage of
natural gas, mining from the ocean.
Wilkes, James 0. (Chairman of the Department): Nu-
merical methods, fluid mechanics, polymer processing,
underground storage of natural gas, two-phase flow.
Williams, G. Brymer. Separation processes, vapor-liquid
equilibrium, process design and analysis.
tYeh, Gregory S. Y. Polymers.
Young, Edwin H. Process design, process equipment de-
sign, heat transfer.
$Denotes joint appointment with Materials and Metal-
lurgical Engineering Department.


SPRING 1973








About half of our present faculty have been
appointed within the past decade.


latest of these is a recycle-flow facility that has
been built by graduate student Takaya Miyazaki
in collaboration with Professor Powers, and is
capable of operating from 110-6500K and at pres-
sures up to 1000 atmospheres. A single calorimeter
permits operation in the isobaric, isothermal, and
isenthalpic modes, and is capable of measuring
thermal properties typically within 0.1%
(2) Modeling a Marsh Ecosystem. Chemical
engineering involvement in ecological problems
in the past has tended to revolve around indus-
trial waste treatment and improvement or modi-
fication of operations to eliminate waste. Recently
Professor Kadlec has broken this imaginary
boundary and is codirecting a project to evaluate
wetlands as possible recipients of secondary sew-
age effluent. Wetlands generally have high growth
rates, thus enabling them to immobilize large
quantities of nutrients which otherwise might
pollute streams and lakes. In addition, being
"designed" for water or water-logged conditions,
additional water may not adversely affect them.
One goal of this project is to develop an eco-
system simulation capability. Extending the con-
cepts developed in programs like PACER and
REMUS to biological systems will enable gradu-
ate student Peter Parker and others to predict
ecological disasters or breakthroughs on the com-
puter. By working closely with a group in the
University's School of Natural Resources, this
interdisciplinary effort is broadening the scope
and application of standard chemical engineering
analysis.
(3) Biological Membrane Transport. The chal-
lenge to understand the processes that are respon-
sible for controlling molecular movements in liv-
ing organisms has recently been accepted by
chemical engineers. These problems of mass trans-
port into cells and across various biological bar-
riers such as capillary walls have been under
investigation by cell biologists and physiologists
since the turn of the century. Two of the phe-
nomena that have surfaced as rather crucial to
the understanding of biological transport pro-
cesses are concerned with transport through mole-
cular size pores and reaction-coupled carrier-
mediated diffusion. The fundamentals of these
membrane transport processes are being investi-
gated by Professor Schultz and his students. Spin-


offs of these studies are expected too. Some poten-
tial applications include membrane separation
processes such as reverse osmosis, water purifi-
cation, selective gas separations, and separation
of ions by specific ionophoric carriers.
(4) Thermal Auto-Emission Control Reactors.
The reduction of automotive exhaust pollutants
is a major new area that requires an extension
of traditional concepts of reactor design. The joint
efforts of automotive and chemical engineers over
the past several years have resulted in the de-
velopment of design tools applicable to non-cata-
lytic exhaust reactors. Professors Carnahan and
Kadlec, in conjunction with several graduate stu-
dents, have developed and tested design algo-
rithms which are currently in use by Ford and
General Motors. DuPont has reported that the use
of these techniques has allowed them to redesign
their reactor with a doubled effectiveness.


AIChE Student Chapter, oldest in the nation, holds a luncheon
every week.


SERVICES TO THE PROFESSION
Individual members of our faculty have con-
tinued to play prominent roles in professional and
governmental activities. Some of the more out-
standing examples are:
Balzhiser: White House Fellow, 1967-68. Assistant Direc-
tor, Office of Science and Technology, 1971-73.
Curl: President, National Speleological Society, 1970-.
Katz: President, AIChE, 1959; Chairman, National Acad-
emy of Sciences, U.S. Coast Guard Committee on
Hazardous Materials, 1964-72; Member, National Acad-
emy of Engineers, 1968.
Martin: Chairman, Ch.E. Division of ASEE, 1963-64;
Vice-President, ASEE, 1968-70; President, AIChE,
1971; President, Engineers Joint Council, 1971-.
Sinnott: Acting Deputy Director of ARPA, 1972.
Young: President, National Society of Professional En-
gineers, 1968-69; Fellow of ASME, 1972. []


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







Come closer. It's only a modacrylic.


The leopard was made by a taxidermist.
Its coat is a modacrylic textile fiber made
by Union Carbide from several basic
chemicals. It's called Dynel.
Ofcourse,man-made fibers aren't new.
But for versatility, Dynel probably has
no equal. We can make it as soft and
warm as fur for your coat. Or so tough
it approaches the strength of steel.
You' 11 find it in blankets, work clothes,
automobile upholstery, toys, jewelry. In
carpets, towels, drapes, paint rollers.
And since Dynel is chemical-resis-
tant, durable and virtually nonflamma-
ble, it's used in many more ways. On
laminated decks of boats. For tents. As


overlays for storage tanks and air ducts.
But regardless of all its practical uses,
Dynel is most famous for something
else. It's great for making wigs. For
blondes and brunettes and redheads.
Remarkable fiber? We think so. But
haven't you found that a lot of remark-
able things come from Union Carbide?


THE DISCOVERY COMPANY
270 Park Ave.. New York. N.Y. 10017


An equal opportunity employer.


7 UNIONf
tfAUB iE









M curriculum


A PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM IN ENGINEERING
R. N. MADDOX and J. B. WEST
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74074


In the early 1950's major changes were pro-
posed in the academic training and, therefore, the
philosophical attitude of young engineers. These
changes were the natural result of the experi-
ences of engineers during World War II, and the
contributions made by scientists who by necessity
were serving engineering functions during the
war period. Emphasis was placed on the science
and mathematics background training, and on
idealized mathematical analysis of physical phe-
nomena. Emergence of the high-speed digital com-
puter and the ability to quickly examine an infini-
tude of hypothetical "cases" served to reinforce
the illusion of careful evaluation and to reduce
dependence upon experience, thoughtful selection
of significant alternatives, and the exercise of
professional judgment.
Concomitant was a national decision to in-
crease the numbers of engineers and scientists at
the post-graduate level.
Scarcely had the "Grinter" report been pub-
lished and some changes in curriculum imple-
mented when cries of "over-training" and "under-
utilization of engineers" began to be heard. While
many of the changes instituted during this period
were necessary and desirable, they did produce
some negative side effects. Employers complained
that young engineers were unprepared for, and in
a few cases unwilling to adapt to, activities and
assignments of the beginning engineer. The per-
iod of orientation into industry was extended and
extensive training programs were established to
guide beginning engineers into productive work.

T HE COMBINATION OF THE continued em-
phasis on science and mathematics, and the ex-
pansion of graduate study has led to what some
call an industry-university gap-a sort of gen-
eration gap between the producers and users of
engineers. As economic conditions declined during
the late sixties and federal funding of research
decreased and/or changed to mission-oriented ob-
jectives, the problems created by the shifts in
educational emphasis made during the fifties and


early sixties became painfully evident. Educators
have searched for means to return to programs
more clearly allied with the practice of engineer-
ing. At the same time they are attempting to cope
with imperative problems and changing social at-
titudes towards technology, the utilization of re-
sources and compatability with the natural en-
vironment. This paper describes a program in
Chemical Engineering designed to educate engi-
neers who can make early contributions to the
engineering efforts of their employers, will be
adaptable to the environment of a modern indus-
trial society and be capable of, and motivated to,
provide technological leadership to both industry
and society.
Certain generalizations can be made regard-
ing the technological society in which the graduate
engineer of today will embark upon his profes-
sional career.
Technology will become increasingly complex.
The need for a "results-oriented" engineer will not
diminish.
Engineering analysis anud synthesis will become
more inclusive with factors such as safety, social impact
and ecological influence becoming as important as economic
factors in decision making.
Engineers will also likely find different func-
tions emerging as engineering technicians assume
a larger role in the manipulative functions in
plant operations and develop activities, while at
the same time computers will be used to make the
routine calculations of design and process analy-
sis.
The age-old complaint that young engineers
lack the ability to communicate will likely increase
and become even more valid because of the in-
creasing variety of people with whom engineers
must work and communicate. Solution of this
problem through formal university instruction is
unlikely, since the key to the solution-increased
awareness of the need to be able to express one-
self orally and in writing, and hence the motiva-
tion to improve-are difficult to provide in a for-
mal educational format.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























John B. West is Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Oklahoma State University. His technical areas of spe-
cialty include transport phenomena, solvent extraction
and nuclear engineering. He has a mixture of academic
and industrial experience. In professional activities he
has served as Chairman of th ChE Division of ASEE
(1965) and Chairman of the Central Oklahoma Section of
the AIChE (1960).
R. N. Maddox is Professor and Head of the School of
Chemical Engineering at Oklahoma State University.
His professional specialties include natural gas con-
ditioning and processing, treatment of synthetic natural
gas, computer applications, design and physical prop-
erties. His professional society activities include, Chair-
man I&EC Division ACS (1970), Chairman Central Okla-
homa Section AIChE (1958), National President Omega
Chi Epsilon (1968-70). His honors include Oklahoma
Engineer-of-the-Year (1972) and the First Joseph Stewart
Distinguished Service Award of the I&EC Division of
the ACS. (Left photo)

George Stoner3 has commented that two major
deficiencies of young engineers are:
They are hopelessly optimistic about short-term
schedules and cost objectives, and
They are completely pessimistic about the develop-
ment of long range programs.
Neither of these deficiencies should surprise any-
one because students, by and large, have had little
or no opportunity to develop in an environment
which provides time-cost constraints.
The typical practicing chemical engineer of
today is an employee of a large manufacturing
company in the petroleum or chemical industry.
He probably functions in research and develop-
ment, process engineering, production or design.
There is a high probability that he holds an ad-
vanced degree.4
Speculation about the future character of
Chemical Engineering is hazardous. However, a
likely development seems to be that the concen-
tration of chemical engineers in two dominant in-


dustries will decrease and the profession will be-
come more diversified. An increase in the number
of chemical engineers in governmental functions,
especially in the environmental and safety areas
seems probable and desirable.
T HE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING at Okla-
homa State University has proposed a program
which they believe will help provide the back-
ground for young engineers beginning the profes-
sion in the next two decades. Hopefully, this pro-
gram will answer many of the criticisms of cur-
rent engineering education and anticipate a few
of the most obvious needs and changes. The pro-
gram has been called a professional program for
several reasons, including:
The program will better prepare students to enter
into the practice of engineering as a profession, exercising
both technical and social responsibilities.
The institutional functions will be more directly in
the control of the faculty and practicing engineers.
Translated into specific objectives for chemical
engineers adopted by the School of Chemical Engi-
neering, these concepts are to provide for the
youth of Oklahoma the best possible opportunity
for quality education in Chemical Engineering.
In the educational program emphasis is placed
on the professional development of the student.
Special effort is made to inculcate in the student
an awareness of his professional responsibilities
together with a capability to develop and evaluate
his professional ethics and code of professional
conduct. Specific objectives are:
Develop to the maximum extent the capability of
the student to solve in a realistic, professional way the
problems of society of public interest and concern.
Provide for the student both a sufficiently broad
background and enough depth of specialization that he
will be well prepared to excell in any of the many fields
of Chemical Engineering endeavor-marketing, manufac-
turing, design, research, development, management.
Provide the graduate with a level of technical com-
petence such that he can compete favorably in employ-
ment and/or academic programs with graduates from
other quality professional schools of engineering.
Equip the student to maintain technical competence
in his chosen area of Chemical Engineering by self-study
of the current literature and new books and study in
selected courses.
Encourage the student to maintain an open-minded
attitude such that over the years, he will be flexible in
his outlook on opportunities to apply his Chemical Engi-
neering knowledge to new and unique fields.
In developing the professional program con-
cept, two areas have received attention. They are
curriculum and faculty.


SPRING 1973








In implementing the curriculum objectives
recognition was taken of the strongly increasing
role of junior colleges in the Oklahoma higher
education scheme. We believe that many students
will attend junior colleges near their homes, trans-
ferring to upper level and graduate institutions
after two years. Further, social pressures will
demand that transfer students be accepted into
professional programs with minimal loss of time
and credit.
An additional fact of academic life, that of
decreasing curricular hours requirements, must
be recognized. Current baccalaureate degree re-
quirements vary from 120 to 130 semester credit
hours. Only a few years ago 140 to 150 hours were
common in B.S. programs. A return to increased
bachelor's degree hourly requirements seems
highly unlikely to be an acceptable solution. To
expand the depth and breadth of the curriculum
through post-graduate instruction seems to be im-
perative. The proposed professional program
would include:
Two year pre-professional program (60 credit hours)
Three year integrated professional program (95
credit hours)
Admission to the professional program will come
after two years of background in science, mathe-
matics and possibly some engineering science
course work, and a minimum academic proficiency
of 2.3 overall grade point average.
At the end of the second year of professional
school the student will be certified for an unspe-
cialized baccalaureate degree in engineering, and
his academic achievement will be again reviewed
for acceptance to graduate-professional status.
After satisfactory completion of the third year of
professional school, the student will be awarded
a Master of Engineering Degree, with specializa-
tion in Chemical Engineering.
With one exception, relatively minor changes
in actual course work are envisioned initially. The
exception incorporates a project carried out under
faculty supervision in a time-constrained eco-
nomically valid atmosphere. This will be accom-
plished by requiring the student to concentrate for
at least one-half time for a minimum of three
months on a project or problem. Formal course
credit will be assigned by enrollment in "Profes-
sional Practice" up to a maximum of twelve se-
mester credit hours. The objectives for profession-
al practice enrollment are2:
Upon completion of the professional practice
project, the student should be able to:


Function as a member of an engineering team to
obtain a solution to a problem or project which requires
the application of design construction, or testing concepts
based on engineering principles.
Make an economic analysis, both long term and
short term, of an engineering project.
Assess the effect of proposed problem solutions on
the environment and society.
Select from among alternates he has proposed the
most practical solution to a problem.
Report the results of his labors and deliberations in
obtaining a solution clearly in both oral and written pre-
sentations.
Performance in the professional practice prob-
lem or project will be judged against these objec-
tives.
Implementation of the professional practice
project will be carried out either on-campus or
off-campus. On-campus projects will be under the
day-to-day supervision of an engineering college
faculty member. He will be a member of a team
including both university faculty and engineers
from industry, government or private practice
which will review the project topics, and the prog-
ress and development of the student. Topics for
on-campus projects will be solicited from both
faculty and industrial sources.
Off-campus projects will be carried on utiliz-
ing the facilities of industry or government. Day-
to-day supervision of the project will reside with
the industry or government representative-precep-
tor, with review by a team similar in make-up to
the on-campus review team. In developing the off-
campus concept two presumptions were made:
The student will be assisted with moving expen-
ses to and from the site of his off-campus ex-
perience; during the period of off-campus work,
he will be paid a salary commensurate with salary
policies for engineers of equivalent background
and experience.
Irrespective of where the project is carried
out, the key features of the project will be:
Relevance of the project to actual industrial prac-
tice, including time schedules and pressures and eco-
nomic restrictions and criteria.
Regular reporting of progress, using both written
and oral reports, will be stressed.
Selection of the project, with continuous supervision
and review of progress emphasizing the professional de-
velopment of the individual student.
D DURING THE MIDDLE FIFTIES Universi-
ties found that strenuous efforts were neces-
sary to retread existing faculties in the science
and mathematics concepts of transport phenomena
and in the application of digital computers to


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









engineering problems. A short time later the post-
sputnik emphasis and the World War II baby
boom increased the demand for engineers and pro-
moted significant expansion in graduate study.
Expanding faculties absorbed new, inexperienced
Ph.D.'s, who were research-oriented and who were
well versed in mathematical analysis and com-
puter philosophy.
The nature of the new faculties with their en-
tourages of federally supported research raised in
the minds of many older engineering practitioners
an education-industry gap. A special ad-hoc com-
mittee of the AIChE was appointed to consider
this problem. A significant fact is that the ma-
jority of the recommendations of this committee
were directed toward means of providing indus-
trial experience for University faculty.4
In our minds, an imperative is that faculty
epitomize as strongly as possible the characteris-
tice that they hope to develop in their students.
Therefore, in educating for professional practice,
the faculty must be professional engineers as well
as educators. Academic competence in engineering
principles is necessary but not sufficient. Since
the practice of engineering involves both the
application of engineering principles and the use
of judgment in making decisions based on these
applications, experience in engineering practice
is a prime factor.
In contrast to the use of Summer Institutes,
short courses and other formal instructional
methods which were successful in updating facul-
ties in the engineering science concepts, no satis-
factory simulation of, or crash short course for,
engineering experience has been found.
The Faculty of the College of Engineering at
Oklahoma State has formally adopted several
statements defining characteristics of a profes-
sional school faculty. These include:

Maintenance of continued intellectual activity and
growth by keeping well informed on current develop-
ments in engineering.
Recognition as an engineer of his responsibility to
the greater community.
A willingness and desire to involve practicing engi-
neers from industry in the education and development of
the student engineer.
In addition to the attitudes and concerns dis-
cussed above, the Member of the Professional
Engineering Faculty will strive to accomplish the
following as a result of his own professional de-
velopment :
A demonstrated interest in teaching and a demon-


strated desire to motivate the student engineer to a high
level of achievement.
Experience in the practice of engineering at a re-
sponsible level.
A continuing record of engineering activity with
a reasonable breadth.
A record of demonstrated excellence in one or more
areas of engineering specialization.
Have developed professional stature as illustrated by
a variety of activities within professional engineering or-
ganizations including speaking, writing and committee
participation.
In adopting these characteristics of an engi-
neering faculty as desirable goals, the faculty
committed themselves to a program of giving con-
tinuing professional experience as one of the cri-
teria for promotions and merit pay advances.
Summer work, sabbatical leaves, consulting
and programs such as our Week-A-Month pro-
gram, the Ford Foundation "Engineer-in-Indus-
try" program and the duPont "Year-in-Industry"
program will all be utilized to achieve these goals.
However, early implementation of the program
would not be possible without a solid base of
faculty with much industrial experience and con-
tinuing contacts with the practice of engineering.
The School of Chemical Engineering at Oklahome
State University has a faculty with just such a
broad base of industrial experience and contact.
Such criteria will also alter recruiting of new,
young faculty, making the new Ph.D. less de-
sirable and emphasizing professional experience
as an important part of a prospective teacher's
background.
In summary, the Faculty of the School of Chemical
Engineering at Oklahoma State University believe the
engineering graduate for the next decade must by educated
for engineering practice. Graduates must possess the
desire and ability to recognize the inter-relationships be-
tween technology, society and resources, and to exercise
engineering responsibility based on these factors as well
as technical competency. We believe that a Master of
Engineering program based on a professional engineering
faculty and administered through a professional engineer-
ing college can provide the necessary educational back-
ground and experience for the new breed of engineer. []

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. How to
Improve Education-Industry Relations. Report of Ad
Hoc Committee, C. R. Wilke, Chairman, 1969.
2. Oklahoma State University, College of Engineering.
Report of the Committee on Professional Col ege Policy.
K. A. McCollom, Chairman, 1971.
3. Stoner, George H. The Engineer in a Growth Industry.
J. of Eng. Ed. 59, No. 9 1029-1031 (1969).
4. VanAntwerpen, F. J., Letter Summary of Results of
First AIChE Economic Survey, dated March 5, 1971.


SPRING 1973










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYSIS IN HEAT
TRANSFER
J. ALAN ADAMS and DAVID F. ROGERS, both
of the United States Naval Academy. 1973, 480
pages, $17.00
A balanced approach between theory and analy-
sis/application of that theory is presented for all
three modes of heat transfer. A thorough de-
velopment of the methods for formulating mathe-
matical models in terms of non-dimensional para-
meters is stressed. Well documented, interactive
computer programs, written in the BASIC pro-
gramming language, are an integral part of the
text.

SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES
MERTON C. FLEMINGS, Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology. 384 pages (tent.), $16.50
(tent.). Available October, 1973.
Containing information not otherwise available
to the general reader, SOLIDIFICATION PRO-
CESSES is the only significant book in its field
at the present time. Treating the fundamentals of
solidification processing and relating these fun-
damentals to practice, this text builds on the
foundations of heat flow, mass transport, and in-
terface kinetics. Covering the engineering side of
solidification processes in depth, this book offers
also a cohesive treatment of fluid flow in solidi-
fication and thorough treatment of structure-
property relations of solidified materials.

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES WITH
FORTRAN
JAMES L. KUESTER, Arizona State University
and JOE H. MIZE, Oklahoma State University.
1973, 412 pages (tent.), $6.95 (tent.). With the
publication of this book, there is now a current
available central source of FORTRAN coded algo-
rithms for a broad spectrum of optimization
techniques. When used as a supplementary text
in optimization and operations research courses
in mathematics, engineering, business, statistics
or physical science curriculums, the provided
computer programs permit the instructor to as-
sign realistic problems for which manual calcula-
tions would be too burdensome.

METALLURGICAL THERMODYNAMICS
DAVID R. GASKELL, University of Pennsyl-
vania. 1973, 500 pages (tent.), $19.50 (tent.)
This new text provides a systematic illustration
of the application of modern thermodynamics to
the determination of equilibria in metallurgical


systems. After discussing the basic laws and
introducing the necessary thermodynamics func-
tions, application is made to increasingly com-
plex systems in the sequence, reactions between
gases, reactions between gases and pure con-
densed phases, reactions between gases and con-
densed solutions, reactions in condensed solutions
and electrochemical reactions.

PROCESS MODELING, SIMULATION, AND
CONTROL FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
WILLIAM L. LUYBEN, Lehigh University. Mc-
Graw-Hill Series in Chemical Engineering. 1973,
558 pages, $18.50
Professor Luyben has devoted his book to pre-
senting only useful, state-of-the-art, applications-
oriented tools and techniques most helpful for
understanding and solving practical dynamics
and control problems in chemical engineering
systems. Written for the undergraduate student,
this text offers a unified, integrated treatment of
mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and
process control.

APPLIED STATISTICAL MECHANICS:
Thermodynamic and Transport Properties
of Fluids
THOMAS M. REED and KEITH E. GUBBINS,
both of the University of Florida. McGraw-Hill
Series in Chemical Engineering. 1973, 496 pages,
$18.50
With an emphasis on applications, APPLIED
STATISTICAL MECHANICS is an introduction
to the various ways in which statistical thermody-
namics and kinetic theory can be applied to sys-
tems of chemical and engineering interest. Pre-
sented is a fundamental, up-to-date treatment of
statistical-mechanics with primary interest focus-
ed on molecular theory as a basis for correlating
and predicting physical properties of gases and
liquids. Material on recent theoretical approaches
such as perturbation theory and the statistical-
mechanics of nonspherical molecules is included.

AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING
HEAT TRANSFER
JOHN R. SIMONSON, The City University,
London. McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engi-
neering. 1973, 244 pages (tent.), $10.50 (tent.)
With the guidance of this step-by-step introduc-
tion to the subject of heat transfer, the student
is exposed to almost every aspect taught at the
undergraduate level in engineering courses. In


McGraw-Hill Book Company
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









FOR THE SEVENTIES


addition to the British units utilized, the new S.I.
units are incorporated into the illustrative ex-
amples within the text. For the industrial reader,
the treatment covers the transfer unit approach
to heat exchanger design and the electrical analog
network approach to radiation problems, as well
as some of the latest empirical equations of con-
vective heat transfer.

CONSERVATION OF MASS AND ENERGY
JOHN C. WHITWELL and RICHARD K.
TONER, both of Princeton University. 1973, 500
pages (tent.), $12.95 (tent.)
Unique in chemical engineering literature is the
treatment of degrees of freedom for material and
energy balances. Either chemical or physical pro-
cessing elements are handled in a unified manner.
The authors have included the first law of thermo-
dynamics, unsteady state mass and energy bal-
ances, and all pertinent physical chemistry re-
quired. The modular organization of material
offers the instructor a wide choice for his par-
ticular syllabus.

HEAT TRANSFER, Third Edition
JACK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Uni-
versity. 1972, 496 pages, $13.50
This elementary text offers a brief and concise
treatment of all phases of heat transfer. New
features include chapters on environmental prob-
lems, emphasis on numerical techniques in con-
duction problems and an increase in text ex-
amples.

ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
WILLIAM C. REYNOLDS, Stanford University
and HENRY C. PERKINS, University of Ari-
zona. 1970, 544 pages, $13.95. Instructor's Manual.
Develops the fundamentals of thermodynamics
using microscopic insight as the basis for macro-
scopic postulates, and then applies the statistical
concepts developed to actual engineering systems.

THERMODYNAMICS, Second Edition
WILLIAM C. REYNOLDS, Stanford University.
1968, 512 pages, $13.50. Instructor's Manual.
Using the basic conceptual ideas of statistical
thermodynamics rather than the details, this
principles of thermodynamics using microscopic
fundamental text develops basic macriscopic
insight.


MOMENTUM, ENERGY, AND MASS
TRANSFER IN CONTINUE
JOHN C. SLATTERY, Northwestern University.
1971, 704 pages, $19.50
An integrated introduction for the first-year
graduate student which offers original treat-
ment of four subjects often taught separately:
fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer
and mass transfer.



THERMODYNAMICS, Second Edition
KENNETH WARK, JR., Purdue University.
1971, 778 pages, $16.50. Solutions Manual.
Providing an understanding of the basic laws of
thermodynamics, the major portion of this text
is developed from a set of postulates and defini-
tions based on a macroscopic outlook on matter.
In this major revision, the concept of entropy and
the second law of thermodynamics are now ap-
proached via separate and independent classical
and statistical viewpoints.



FLUID MECHANICS
THEODORE ALLEN, JR., and RICHARD L.
DITSWORTH, both of Arizona State University.
1972, 415 pages, $15.50
Offers a unified treatment of fluid mechanics
utilizing the student's background in thermo-
dynamics and dynamics. Vectors are employed
to formulate those physical laws which pertain
to continuum fluid mechanics and a large number
of illustrated problems is included.


ANALYSIS OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
E.R.G. ECKERT, University of Minnesota and
ROBERT M. DRAKE, JR., Vice-President, Com-
bustion Engineering, Windsor, Connecticut. Mc-
Graw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering.
1972, 750 pages, $21.50
Acquaints the senior or graduate level student
with the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer.
Unlike most other books at this level, this single
volume covers conduction, convection, and ra-
diation.


1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020


SPRING 1973


ItI~u








Saunmme Schoal *1W4hokP


CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN AND ENGINEERING*

C. J. KING, A. S. FOSS, E. A. GRENS, S. LYNN
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720
D. F. RUDD
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706


The aim of this workshop was to present
novel teaching techniques and instructional for-
mats, as well as to present results of recent re-
search which lend themselves toward course ma-
terial for design and process engineering. Both
undergraduate and graduate design instruction
were considered.

BERKELEY GRADUATE PROGRAM
The graduate program in Process Design and
Engineering at Berkeley was described by Grens.
This undertaking started informally with the
introduction of courses and theses by several
faculty members and grew into a coherent pro-
gram which received grant support from the
NSF Advanced Science Education Program in
1968.
The program has no prescribed curriculum but
offers some design exposure for many graduate
students with more concentrated work, and de-
sign-oriented theses, for those with a primary
process engineering interest. Students have been
enthusiastic about the courses, and the desire for
both M.S. and Ph.D. theses in this area has ex-
ceeded the available financial support.
In the six identifiably design-related graduate
courses teaching methods include lectures and
ordinary problem work, but great emphasis is
also placed on the use of short case problems
Computer implementation is included where ap-
propriate. Several persons from industry have
presented courses and seminars. About 20 theses
have been completed in the program to date.
These remain subject to the requirement for an
original contribution, and the results are often
published2'3,4.

*Report on the Chemical Process Design and Engineer-
ing Workshop at the ASEE Summer School in Boulder,
CO, 1973.


PROCESS ANALYSIS
King discussed a class problem in which the
students are presented with a flow diagram and
operating conditions for an ethylene plant. About
20 discussion questions are brought up, relating
to the function of each item of equipment, the
reasons for the particular ordering of equip-
ment, reasons for the particular operating con-
ditions, and possible alternative process con-
figurations. Homework includes performing sup-
porting calculations to define in what ways ther-
modynamics and kinetics of various reactions
govern the reactor conditions, to select appro-
priate operating pressures for distillation col-
umns, etc. A similar problem involving hydrode-
alkylation of toluene to benzene is available5.
Several examples of trouble-shooting prob-
lems were discussed by Lynn. In this type of
problem the student is presented with a descrip-
tion of a malfunctioning piece of equipment or
simple process, and must deductively devise a
series of questions and proposed tests which im-
plement an efficient strategy for diagnosing the
cause of the malfunction. This approach has been
described by Woods and Silveston6

PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Rudd concentrated on the general principles
of process synthesis.7 His detailed discussions of
the workshop were expanded in a general lecture
examining the teaching of process synthesis as
the first course in engineering.
Process flowsheet synthesis deals with bring-
ing together the diverse concepts of engineering
to form a coherent whole which is the process
flowsheet describing the proposed process system.
Prior to 1968 little attention had been given to
the development of general principles of synthesis.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


















Grens


However, in recent years work has accelerated
and significant progress has been made.8
In particular, Rudd discussed the branch and
bound methods of synthesis with reference to
the synthesis of networks of heat exchangers,
heaters and coolers.9 By forming boundary prob-
lems which are more easily solved, the flowsheet
can be synthesized which recovers heat energy
most economically. The second topic was the use
of list processing methods in combination with
dynamic programming for the synthesis of sepa-
ration systems.10 The final topic discussed in the
workshop sessions was the synthesis of the whole
process using the decomposition and heuristic
methods of Siirola and Powers."'12
King presented a relatively structured case
problem involving the design of demethanizer
columns for ethylene plants.13 This problem and
another in which methane liquefaction processes
are generated using the digital computer stem
from thesis research on "evolutionary" ap-
proaches for process synthesis.14 In the de-
methanizer problem the class generates a process
and is then given the results of equipment sizing
and cost analysis. A hopefully better process is
evolved by endeavoring to reduce the most im-
portant cost components of the current process,
and the entire procedure is repeated a number of
times.
Lynn discussed two more qualitative problems
involving process synthesis. The first was a short
introductory example of the open-ended design
problem, in which the student is asked to extract
the most possible refrigeration from a high-pres-
sure gas stream passing through to a low-pres-
sure pipe line. The student must decide upon a
suitable criterion for "most possible" as well as
choosing various methods for extracting refrig-
eration from the stream. The second problem
was an example in which students faced with the
need for desalting a sulfate-rich brackish water
consider the possibility of using well-established


King Lynn


Solvay technology in their solution.15 The student
is asked to supply the missing link in the pro-
cessing cycle on the basis of hints given in the
problem statement.

PROCESS SIMULATION
Grens outlined a graduate course dealing with
simulation of continuous chemical processes at
the steady state by mathematical models imple-
mented with computer programs. Concurrent
reading is from the recent and current literature
-e.g., Christensen and Rudd,16 Westerberg and
Edie,17 Upadhye and Grens.18
The course begins with discussion of the na-
ture of simulation, computational background,
and process description and specification. Then
the primary subjects are considered: calculation
of recycle systems and simulation of individual
process units. Finally, the development of inte-
grated process simulations and use of general
purpose process simulation programs are dis-
cussed.
Two evolutionary case problems are utilized.
One is of large scope but is not treated in detail;
it is used to allow examination of decomposition
methods and has sufficiently complex loop struc-
ture to be useful for this purpose. The other
problem is of quite limited scope in order to per-
mit detailed computer simulation by each student.
It is designed to illustrate unit simulations and
alternative convergence procedures.19

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION
Foss described a graduate course in which the
proven methods of optimization are applied to
problems of process design and operation. Em-
phasis is placed on approaches to problem formu-
lation and solution.
Constrained problems are discussed first be-
cause nearly all realistic process optimization
problems involve minimization under constraints.


SPRING 1973


Rudd








Linear programming is treated first because of
its conceptual simplicity and because students
are equipped in a week's time to try their skill
at formulation of a complicated refiners sched-
uling problem (about 35 constraints). The con-
strained nonlinear problem is introduced by an
example (see below) in which the tasks of stating
the objective function, selection of variables, iden-
tification of constraints, and choice of a mini-
mization method are shown to be highly inter-
dependent. Definitions and conditions for con-
strained minima are discussed followed by gradi-
ent projection methods and penalty function
methods.
Unconstrained minimization methods such
as pattern methods, conjugate directions without
derivatives, the gradient methed, the Davidon-
Fletcher-Powell method, and quasi-Newton meth-
ods are discussed along with one-dimensional
search methods needed for most of these tech-
niques. Dynamic programming is briefly dis-
cussed and is shown to be of some, but limited,
usefulness in process optimization calculations.
Concurrently, students are engaged in de-
veloping a solution to a heat exchange case prob-
lem. This is a nonlinear, constrained problem in-
volving the optimal design of a simple (4 vari-
able) heat exchange network, and is assigned
to students in a series of 3 or 4 homework assign-
ments. Solution of the problem involves formu-
lation of the objective function, constraints, pro-
cess modeling, selection and programming of a
constrained minimization method. The problem
admits alternative sets of design variables, the
choice of which determines the linearity or non-
linearity of the constraints. Both gradient pro-
jection methods and penalty function methods
may therefore be used. Discontinuities in the ob-
jective function arising from a maximum size con-
dition on the exchangers complicate the one-di-
mensional searches needed in these approaches.
Various considerations needed for the solution
are treated in a series of lectures coordinated with
the students' progress on the problem. One com-
plete calculation requires about 10 seconds (CDC
6400), but students are found to spend about 13
minutes of computer time each in the development
of their programs. R

References
1. C. J. King, Chem. Eng. Educ., 4, 124 (1970).
2. R. C. Forrester, "Elimination of Calcium Chloride
Pollution in the Solvay Process," Ph.D. Dissertation,


Editor's Note: Titles of the case problems re-
ferred to in reference [1] and available from Pro-
fessor C. J. King are: Production of benzene and
xylene by hydrodealkylation. Simulation of a hy-
drodealkylation plant. Continuous drying of air.
Removal of water vapor in freeze-drying. Desali-
nation by reverse osmosis. Sulfate removal from
brackish water. An evolutionary problem in pro-
cess simulation. Removal of inerts from ammonia
synthesis gas.


University of California, Berkeley, 1972; R. C. For-
rester and S. Lynn, paper presented at AIChE New
York meeting, November 1972.
3. R. W. Thompson, "Synthesis of Separation Schemes,"
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berke-
ley, 1972; R. W. Thompson and C. J. King, AIChE
J., 18, 941 (1972).
4. C. H. Rowland, "Calculation Methods for Gas Ab-
sorbers with Low Stage Efficiencies," M.S. Thesis,
University of California, Berkely, 1971; C. H. Row-
land and E. A. Grens, Hydrocarbon Processing, 50
(9), 201 (1971).
5. C. J. King, Case Problem CP-1A, University of Cali-
fornia, Berkeley; also included as Chapter 5 in
"Chemical Engineering Case Problems," American
Institute of Chemical Engineers (1967).
6. D. R. Woods, Chapter 3 in "Chemical Engineering
Case Problems," American Institute of Chemical
Engineers (1967); P. L. Silveston, ibid., Chapter 4.
7. D. F. Rudd, "Process Synthesis," Chem. Eng. Educ.,
7 (1), 44-52 (1973).
8. J. E. Hendry, D. F. Rudd and J. D. Seader, "Synthe-
sis in the Design of Chemical Processes," AIChE J.,
January 1973.
9. K. F. Lee, A. H. Masso and D. F. Rudd, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Funds., 9, 48 (1970).
10. J. E. Hendry and R. R. Hughes, Chem. Eng. Prog., 68
(6), 71 (1972).
11. J. J. Siirola and D. F. Rudd, Ind. Eng. Chem. Funds.,
10, 353 (1971).
12. G. J. Powers, Chem. Eng. Prog., 68 (8), 88 (1972).
13. F. J. Barnbs and C. J. King, Case Problem CP-11
University of California, Berkeley.
14. C. J. King, D. W. Gantz and F. J. Barn6s, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Proc. Des. Develop., 11, 271 (1972).
15. R. C. Forrester and S. Lynn, Case Problem CP-5,
University of California, Berkeley; see also Ref. 2.
16. J. H. Christensen and D. F. Rudd, AIChE J., 15, 94
(1969).
(1969).
17. A. W. Westerberg and F. C. Edie, Chem. Eng. J., 2,
9,17 (1971).
18. R. S. Upadhye and E. A. Grens, AIChE J., 18, 533
(1972).
19. E. A. Grens, Case Problem CP-6, University of Cali-
fornia, Berkeley.
20. A. S. Foss and J. M. Giraud, Case Problem CP-12,
University of California, Berkeley.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










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ELECTRO
CHEMICAL
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by John Newman of the University of California,
Berkeley. A unified framework for the analysis of prob-
lems in electrochemical systems. Clearly develops the
fundamentals of thermodynamics, electrode kinetics,
charge and mass transport, with a view toward their ap-
plication to a wide variety of electrochemical problems.
Emphasizes quantitative aspects, especially the prob-
lems of scale up. Introduces the beginning student to
the development, design and operation of electro-
chemical syntheses, processes, energy conversion and
storage devices, and corrosion. Problems at chapter
ends clarify and extend theories developed. Numerous
examples are worked out in the text. January 1973, 448
pp., cloth (013-248922-8) $18.95

CHEMICAL
KINETICS and
REACTOR DESIGN
by A. R. Cooper and V. Jeffreys, both of the Uni-
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more fundamental aspects of the subject and a com-
prehensive range of problems with answers, this text
serves as an undergraduate course in chemical reaction
kinetics and the design and analysis of chemical re-
actors. Contains examples of the simple and more
complicated batch reactor systems using the Laplace
transform, and discusses the energy balances in batch
and continuous reactors. Includes many graphical
representations of the results of illustrative calcula-
tions of real systems. January 1973, 400 pp., cloth
(013-128678-1) $18.95


For further information, write: Robert Jordan,
Department J-660, College Division-


PRENTICE-HALL
ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, NEW JERSEY 07632


DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR
of PROCESSES
by John C. Friedly, University of Rochester. A
complete and systematic study of the analysis of un-
steady state phenomena. Emphasizes physical inter-
pretation of dynamic linear and non-linear responses
and methods of analysis. Covers distributed paramater
and lumped systems. Classes of system models pre-
pare the reader to generalize readily to other systems
and to diverse fields of application. Over 100 detailed
examples illustrate fundamentals and varieties of
applications. Over 200 figures present results graph-
ically. Appendices include vector and matrix manipula-
tion and Laplace transform pairs for easy reference.
1972, 590 pp., cloth (013-221242-0) $18.95

MATHEMATICAL
METHODS IN
CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING
Volume 2:
FIRST-ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUA-
TIONS with APPLICATIONS by Rutherford Aris and
Neal R. Amundson, both of the University of Minneso-
ta. An extended treatment of first-order equations that
includes a wide variety of applications, particularly for
non-mathematicians. Draws on examples from a wide
range of scientific and engineering disciplines. Covers
the characteristics and craft of constructing models
dominated by convective phenomena; the differences
between linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear equations;
the traditional methods of the Laplace transform and
the connection with the calculus of variations, and
more. January 1973, 416 pp., cloth (013-561092-3)
$16.50

PROCESS SYNTHESIS
by Dale F. Rudd, University of Wisconsin,
Madison; Gary J. Powers, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology; and Jeffrey J. Siirola, Tennessee East-
man Company. This class-tested first course in chem-
ical engineering presents synthesis logic, and provides
a motivation for introductory first-course analytical
techniques of material and energy balancing. This is
the first book which considers the synthesis of
chemical processing designs in contrast to their op-
timization of analysis. The student will understand the
history of processing, be able to screen reaction
sequences for economic feasability, make a good
material balance, allocate materials to support the pro-
cess of chemistry and more. January 1973, 544 pp.,
cloth (013-066472-3) $15.95









Summer Sc scool *ad4hdop


INTEGRATION OF BIOMEDICAL AND

ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMPLES INTO

UNDERGRADUATE CH E COURSE WORK*

R. C. SEAGRAVE
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50010


G. R. COKELET
Montana State University
Bozeman, MT 59715

This workshop was used to discuss some ex-
amples of how chemical engineering principles can
be applied to problems in the life sciences and in
environmental preservation. The use of these
and similar problems in undergraduate chemical
engineering courses hopefully might have some
of the following effects:
Increase the literacy of chemical engineer-
ing students.
Make Chemical Engineering seem more
relevant.
Increase student interest in a wider range
of problems.
Increase student interest in studying chemi-
cal engineering.

GUIDELINES
The physiology knowledge required to benefit
from these examples is superficial. It should be
stressed that the "real world" is infinitely more
detailed and complicated, as it is in most prob-
lems that chemical engineers tackle.
The workshop examples are designed to be
integrated into existing courses. The workshop
was not devoted to the development of new
courses.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE COORDINATORS
Chemical Engineering curricula should pri-
marily insure that students obtain a strong under-
standing of the basic physical and chemical prin-
*Report on the workshop on Integration of Biomedical
and Environmental Applications of ChE into Undergradu-
ate Courses at the ASEE Summer School in Boulder, Co.,
1973.


ciples (Thermodynamics, Mechanics, equations of
change, etc.) on which chemical engineers depend.
Breadth is fine, but depth is more important.
There is often value in presenting problems of
this type in an historical or "escalating" fashion
-that is by beginning at a lower level and in-
creasing the sophistication throughout the pre-
sentation in order to stimulate the brighter stu-
dents. Often the mechanics of a course make this
strategy unworkable.

SUMMARY OF TOPICS DISCUSSED
1. Red Cell Lifespan (Cokelet)
This example, appropriate for freshman semi-
nar-type presentation, traces the historic scien-
tific processes used to determine the mean life-
span of red blood cells in the body. It uses basic
mathematics appropriate for freshman as well as
some simple concepts of material balances which
are easily accepted. An outstanding feature is
that the contrast between two different methods
of estimating lifetimes is shown, and the mis-
takes made by earlier scientists are uncovered.
References:
On methods used before 1940: E. Schiodt, "On the
Duration of Life of the Red Blood Corpuscles," Acta
Medica Scandinavica, 45, 49 (1938).
On the radioactive methods:
(a) The cohort labeling method: D. Shemin and D.
Rittenberg, "The Life Span of the Human Red Blood
Cell," J. Biol. Chem., 166, 627 (1946).
(b) The random labeling method: M.J. Cline and N.I.
Berlin, "Measurement of Red Cell Survival with Titrated
Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate," J. Lab. Clin. Med., 60, 826
(1962).
A review is given by N.I. Berlin in "The Red Blood
Cell," Surgenor and Bishop (ed.), Academic Press, New
York, 1964.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION



















Cokelet


Seagrave


2. Blood Volume Measurement (Cokelet)
In this example the basic concepts of conser-
vation of mass are applied to the problem of
measuring both the blood volume and cardiac out-
put in the body. Basic mathematics at the fresh-
man or sophomore level are sufficient. The con-
trast between the physiologist's approach and the
engineering approach is elucidated.
References:
H. Swan and A.W. Nelson, "Blood Volume Measure-
ment: Concepts and Technology," Journal of Cardiovascu-
lar Surgery, 12, No. 5, 389-401 (1971).
R.C. Seagrave, "Biomedical Applications of Heat and
Mass Transfer," Iowa State University Press, Ames, 1971.
pp. 42-44.
A general reference for these first two topics, with good
lists of references is "Hematology," W.J. Williams, E.
Beutler, A.J. Ersley and R.W. Rundles, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1972.

3. Material Balances in the Respiratory System
(Seagrave)

This example provides an excellent medium for
demonstrating several important concepts and
techniques in the use of material balances. Among
these are system selection, use of mole ratios,
basic humidity calculations, ideal gas calculations,
selection of proper bases, solubility and equi-
librium diagrams, and the use of operating lines.
References:
R.C. Seagrave, "Biomedical Applications of Heat and
Mass Trensfer," pp 31-37, 134-140.
J.H. Comroe, "Physiology of Respiration," Year Book
Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1965.

4. First Law of Thermodynamics and Heart
Work (Cokelet)
The first law of thermodynamics for an open
system is carefully stated and applied to the per-
formance of first the left ventricle and then the
entire heart in this example. Integration of ex-
perimental data is required to correctly calculate
the pressure-volume work done in pumping. The


basic anatomy required to appreciate the prob-
lem may be easily covered in twenty (20) minutes.
References:
Anatomy and Heart Performance:
"Circulation," B. Folkow and E. Neil, Oxford Uni-
versity Press, London, 1971.
"Cardiovascular Dynamics," 3rd Ed., R.F. Rushmer,
W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1970.
Pressure-Volume Data:
"Respiration and Circulation," P.L. Altman and
D.S. Dittmer (eds.), Federation of American Societies
for Experimental Biology, Bethesda, Md., 1971.
Articles involving calculations of heart work appear fre-
quently in the Journal of Applied Physiology and the
American Journal of Physiology.

5. Gibbs Free Energy and Osmotic Pressure
(Cokelet)

The conditions of physical and chemical equi-
librium are developed from the criteria of equi-
librium, and these concepts are then applied to
the calculation of minimum work requirements
and to the derivation of the relationship between
osmotic pressure and red cell volume. An exercise
problem is presented in which the relationship
between red cell volume and solution tonicity is
developed. This example is a good medium for
introducing the basic concepts of equilibrium to
either life science students or to engineering
students.
References:
Seagrave, pp. 18-26.
G.M. Guest, "Osmotic Behavior of Erythrocytes,"
Blood, 3, 541 (1948).

6. Energy Balances and People (Seagrave)
The first law for both open and closed systems,
along with basic material balance information, is
applied to develop an understanding of the basic
relationships between metabolic processes, en-
vironmental heat transfer, and physiological work.
The problem of linking diet, exercise, and environ-
ment in a quantitative fashion is discussed. This
is a good example to demonstrate how energy can
be converted from one form to another, and how
the efficiencies of the system affect the amount
of heat released at different stages in the process.
References:
Seagrave, pp 46-50, 61-67.

7. Wind Chill-factor Chart (Cokelet)
The principles of convective and radiative heat
transfer are applied to the problem of determining
an equivalent environmental temperature for a


SPRING 1973








person exposed to a combination of low tempera-
ture and high winds. A simple application of the
first law is also illustrated. The results are com-
pared to the type of chart often found in news-
papers and other public media during the winter.
References:
Seagrave, pp 93-102.
Y. Tamari and E.F. Leonard, "Convection Heat Trans-
fer from the Human Form," Journal of Applied Physi-
ology, 32, No. 2, 227-233 (1972).
Charts from newspapers and catalogs of sporting
clothes suppliers such as Eddie Bauer.

8. Newborn Temperature Regulation (Seagrave)

In this clinically oriented example, the basic
principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer
are applied to the special case of the tempera-
ture control problem experienced by a newborn.
Models of thermoregulation are discussed, along
with the countercurrent heat exchange mechanism
found in most species. The exercise begins with
the simple calculation of the rate at which a new-
born will initially lose body temperature, and
escalates to a fairly sophisticated model used
to describe the feedback control mechanism em-
ployed by the body.
References:
Seagrave, pp 101-102, 105-107, 108-113.

9. Various Fluid Mechanics Problems found in
Physiology (Cokelet)

In this segment of the workshop, six major
areas of current research interest were discussed.
In each segment, interesting problems appropriate
for undergraduate discussion were presented. The
basic issues involved in each area were discussed,
and the calculations required to treat each issue
were discussed and demonstrated. Some of the
principles demonstrated were use of the Navier-
Stokes equations, time and area averaging of
suspension flows, flow through different geome-
tries and through packed beds, and basic concepts
of rheology.
References:
A. Hemolysis of Blood in Flow:
C.G. Nevaril, J.D. Hellums, C.P. Alfrey and E.C.
Lynch, "Physical Effects in Red Blood Cell Trauma,"
AIChE J., 15, 707-711 (1969).
S.I. Shapiro and M.C. Williams, "Hemolysis in
Simple Shear Flows," AIChE J., 16, 575 (1970).
E.F. Bernstein, P.L. Blackshear, and K.H. Keller,
"Factors Influencing Erythrocyte Destruction in Arti-
ficial Organs," Amer. J. Surgery, 114, 126-138 (1967).
B. Blood Flow in Tapered Tubes and Simple Networks:
W.N. Bond, "Viscous Flow through Wide Angle


The physiology knowledge required to benefit
from these examples is superficial . the
examples are designed to be integrated
into existing courses

Cones," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 34, 187 (1922) and
Phil. Mag., 50, 1058 (1925).
L.C. Cerny and W.P. Walawender, "Blood Flow in
Rigid Tapered Tubes," Amer. J. Physiol., 210, 341,
(1966).
A.M. Benis and J. LaCoste, "Distribution of Blood
Flow in Vascular Beds: Model Study of Geometrical,
Rheological and Hydrodynamical Effects," Biorheology,
5, 147-161 (1968).
J.H. Forrester and D.F. Young, "Flow Through a
Converging-Diverging Tube and Its Implications in
Occlusive Vascular Disease," J. Biomechanics, 3, 297-
316 (1970).
C. Peristaltic Pumping:
A.H. Shapiro, M.Y. Jaffrin and S.L. Weinberg,
"Peristaltic Pumping with Long Wave Lengths at Low
Reynolds Number," J. Fluid Mech., 37, 799 (1969).
D. Blood Flow in Large Tubes:
E.W. Merrill, A.M. Benis, E.R. Gilliland, T.K. Sher-
wood, and E.W. Salzman, "Pressure-Flow Relations
of Human Blood in Hollow Fibers at Low Flow Rates,"
J. of Applied Physiology, 20, 954 (1965).
Standard Correlation for Flow of Newtonian Fluids
through Packed Beds (Ergun Equation).
E.M. Sparrow and A. Haji-Sheikh, "Flow and Heat
Transfer in Ducts of Arbitrary Shape and with Arbi-
trary Thermal Boundary Conditions," J. of Heat Trans-
fer, 351-357 (Nov. 1966).
E. The Fahraeus-Lindqvist Effect:
R. Fahraeus and T. Lindqvist, "The Viscosity of
Blood in Narrow Capillary Tubes," Amer. J. Physiol.,
96, 562 (1931).
R.H. Haynes, "Physical Basis of the Dependence of
Blood Viscosity on Tube Radius," Amer. J. Physiol.,
198, 1193 (1960).
J.H. Barbee and G. R. Cokelet, "Prediction of
Blood Flow in Tubes with Diameters as Small as 29
microns," Microvascular Research, 3, 17-21 (1971).
F. Flow in a Packed Bed as a Model of Blood Flow in
Tissue:
A.M. Bennis, S. Usami and S. Chien, "Effect of
Hematocrit and Inertial Losses on Pressure-Flow Re-
lations in the Isolated Hindpaw of The Dog," Circula-
tion Research, 27, 1047 (1970).
S.R.F. Whittaker and F.R. Winton, J. Physiol
(London), 78, 339 (1933).

10. Mass Transfer and Material Balance during
Hemodialysis (Seagrave)

This example begins with a simple application
of material balances, and goes on to the develop-
ment of counter-current mass transfer and a
treatment of mass transfer coefficients, overall
mass transfer coefficients, and mass transfer as-
sociated with fluid flow. It is an excellent example


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








to use in a beginning optimization course, and
in addition it introduces the student to some of
the current problems of hemodialysis, an area in
which chemical engineers have made substantial
contributions.
Reference:
Seagrave, pp 38-40, 159-162.

11. Environmental Laboratory Problems and Ex-
periments (Fred Shair)
A discussion of a successful sequence of fresh-
man laboratory projects designed to attract be-
ginning students into chemical engineering as well
as to provide beginning students with some idea
of the concepts of chemical engineering was pre-
sented. Examples included the measurement of
engine exhaust compositions, the rate of melting
of towed icebergs to be used as water supplies,
the measurement of ozone levels in campus build-
ings, and the measurement of carbon monoxide
levels in underground parking garages. The struc-
ture and functioning of the laboratory-oriented
course was also discussed.
Reference:
Fred Shair, ChE Lab., Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109.

12. Determination of Permissible Concentrations
of Hazardous Substances in Water and
Food. (Marvin Fleischman)
The concept of a basic first-order process,
coupled with a differential material balance, is
applied to the problem of calculating the accep-
table level of contaminants contained in material
destined for human consumption. A sample cal-
culation for Strontium 90 dosage in bone was
presented.
Reference:
Marvin Fleischman, Dept. of ChE, University of Louis-
ville, Louisville, Kentucky 40208.

13. Determination of Dissolved Oxygen in Red
Blood Cells (Fleischman)
The concept of a differential material balance
and the principles for gas-liquid mass transfer
are applied to the development of an experiment
in which the dissolved oxygen content of blood
compartments is determined. This involves mea-
surement of plasma oxygen, oxygen bound to
hemoglobin, and oxygen present in the gas phase
during the oxygenation process.
Reference:
Marvin Fleischman, address above.


ChE curricula should primarily insure that
students obtain a strong understanding of the
basic physical and chemical principles on
which ChE's depend. Breadth is fine, but
depth is more important.



14. Heat Balance on a Human Subject (Charles
Huckaba)
Actual laboratory data taken from a recover-
ing surgery patient is presented, and the process
of calculating the patient's oxygen consumption
and environmental heat transfer coefficient is
followed through. Important concepts covered
include the use of gas laws, flux expressions, and
an introduction to some of the empirically derived
quantitative relationships successfully used by
physiologists.
Reference:
Charles Huckaba, Box 114, Presbyterian Hospital, 622
W 168th St., New York, NY 10032.
Seagrave, Chapters 2, 4, and 6.

15. Environmental Impact of a Rapid Transit
System (Mike Matteson)
A brief summary of an interdisciplinary study
being done on the economic, environmental, .geo-
logical, sociological, and political effects of the
development of a rapid transit system in the
Atlanta, Georgia urban area was presented. The
situation abounds with interesting problems ap-
propriate for beginning engineering students.
Reference:
Mike Matteson, 1906 Westminster Way N.E., Atlanta,
GA 30307 (Dept. of ChE, Georgia Tech)

16. Studies on the Physiological Effects of Trace
Elements (Jim Christensen)
A discussion of research to determine the
modes of transport of chromium metal in the
body was presented. Evidence is accumulating
that metals such as chromium are not only an
essential physiological ingredient, but also that
such elements are difficult to supply in a form
in which they can be absorbed. Some concepts of
active ion transport were presented as a basis
for understanding one possible mechanism for
the uptake of chromium metal in the digestive
system.
Reference:
J.J. Christensen, Dept. of ChE, Brigham Young Univ.,
Provo, UT []


SPRING 1973








Samme'i School W/o'hhoftp


NUMERICAL METHODS FOR

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROBLEMS


BRICE CARNAHAN and JAMES 0. WILKES
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Over the past decade, we have developed a
course that has taught numerical methods to
seniors and graduate students; emphasis has been
placed on the computer application of these
methods to the solution of chemical engineering
problems.
The course (now ChE 508) had its origins in
the summer of 1962, during the last days of the
Ford Foundation Project on the Use of Com-
puters in Engineering Education. The project
director, Professor D. L. Katz, then suggested to
us and Professor H. A. Luther, visiting from the
department of mathematics at Texas A&M Uni-
versity, that we might prepare a manual that out-
lined typical implementations of numerical meth-
ods on the digital computer. Within 18 months, we
had prepared a 781-page preliminary edition
of Applied Numerical Methods, and its publi-
cation was appropriately celebrated on February
29, 1964. This preliminary edition contained
many illustrative computer examples written in
the MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) lan-
guage. After we had rewritten these in FORT-
RAN IV, added many end-of-chapter problems,
and made further revisions based on classroom
experience, Applied Numerical Methods was fin-
ally published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., in 1969.
Meanwhile, in spite of a ready student demand
in 1962, the introduction of ChE 508 as a legiti-
mate engineering course was vetoed by a majority
of the engineering faculty, who then thought that
numerical methods and their applications to
engineering problems could better be handled in
the mathematics department. Fortunately, this
view did not prevail for any length of time, and
we have long since been "respectable" in that
regard. The course has been given annually for
ten years with enrollments typically in the range
of 12-30, the majority of whom are graduate
students.


COURSE ORGANIZATION
ChE 508 is a 3-credit hour course, lasting
for one trimester of 13 or 14 weeks. The only
formal prerequisite is a course in computer pro-
gramming. The course level automatically ensures
a reasonable background of mathematics, to-
gether with a wide exposure of typical chemical
engineering problems. Our own book' is now re-
quired, although earlier we had used the text by
Lapidus," supplemented by our notes, particularly
in the area of computer applications. There are
three lecture/recitations per week. Four or five
computer problems constitute the major part of
the homework. There is a 1-hour midterm and a
2-hour final examination, both closed book.
Our current budget allows us to allocate an
upper limit of $100 for computing charges per
student. On our IBM 360/67 system, a typical
ChE 508 FORTRAN batch job costs in the
range $0.80-$2.00. Experience shows that the
total computing charges average about $75 per
student. Although teletypewriter facilities are
available, the great majority of ChE 508 jobs are
run in batch mode. A typical breakdown of topics
covered is shown in Table 1. The order depends on
the particular computer problems assigned, al-
though whenever possible it is desirable to pre-
serve the particular sequence of: (1) numerical
approximation, (2) numerical integration, and
(3) ordinary differential equations. Three weeks
are usually allowed for the solution of each com-
puter problem.

REPRESENTATIVE PROBLEMS-
THE 1972 ASEE BOULDER WORKSHOP
Workshop No. 4 at the ASEE Chemical Engi-
neering Division meeting in Boulder gave us an
opportunity to discuss some of the approaches
used in teaching numerical methods and their
applications. The major topics covered were
the solution of ordinary differential equations,
partial differential equations, and simultaneous
nonlinear equations; to a lesser extent, poly-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




















nomial approximation, numerical integration, and
simultaneous linear equations were also discussed.
The 18 participants had the opportunity to solve
a wide variety of problems, but the majority chose
to modify and supply data for three existing pro-
grams, which were then run on the computer at
the University of Colorado. Since these three
programs are typical of material discussed in
ChE 508, we shall summarize them here.

Program 1: Cubic spline-polynomial approximation
Consider a function f(x) of which n accu-
rately known sample points (xi, f(xi)), i = 1,2,
.. ., n are available. The function may be approxi-
mated by a series of cubic polynomials p3,i(x) =
ai + bix + Cix2 + dix3 on each of the n 1 in-
tervals between successive base points. The
4 (n 1) coefficients may be determined by re-
quiring that: (a) the succession of polynomials
pass through each of the functional values, (b)
there be continuity of first and second derivatives
at each of the points i = 2,3 . n 1 and
(c) there be zero curvature at the end points.
The subsequent algebraic development (see e.g.,
Problem 1.24 of [1], or Section 6.7 of [2]) leads
to a tridiagonal system of equations in the sec-
ond derivatives of p3,i(x) at each base point;
from these, the individual cubic polynomials can
be determined.
If the base points are regarded as supports
in the x direction, this piecewise cubic spline poly-
nomial also represents the shape of a simply sup-
ported beam. This is readily apparent by noting
that (for small deflections) the deflection
y = y(x) is governed by EId2y/dx2 M, where
E is Young's modulus of elasticity and I is the
cross-sectional moment of inertia. Since the bend-
ing moment M is linear in x between supports-
and is zero at the two end supports-integration
immediately leads to the piecewise cubic poly-
nomial. Note in passing that the shape of the
cubic spline polynomial is not invariant under
rotation of axes. This problem is discussed in


Workshop No. 4 at the ASEE Chemical Engi-
neering Division meeting in Boulder gave the
authors an opportunity to discuss some of the ap-
proaches used in teaching numerical methods and
their applications. The 18 workshop participants had
the opportunity to solve a wide variety of problems
typical of those assigned in one of the senior/gradu-
ate courses at Michigan. Three of the problems are
discussed in this paper.


1

f (x)


0.5


Fig. 1.-Spline approximation for five points conforming to sin x.


SPRING 1973


TABLE 1. Typical Content of ChE 508
Topic Class Periods
Introduction 1
Solution of equations: Graeffe's method, succes-
sive substitutions, Newton's method, regular
falsi and half-interval methods. 2
Matrix algebra and solution of simultaneous linear
and nonlinear equations: Gauss-Jordan meth-
od, matrix inversion, maximum-pivot criterion,
successive substitution and Newton-Raphson
methods. 5
Numerical approximation: one-and two-dimensional
interpolation, Taylor's expansion, spline ap-
proximation, Chebyshev polynomials. 6
Numerical integration: Newton-Cotes formulas,
Romberg and composite rules, Gauss-Legendre
quadrature, multidimensional forms. Numerical
differentiation. 4
Midterm examination. 1
Ordinary differential equations: Euler, Runge-
Kutta, and multistep methods; stability;
boundary-value problems. 8
Partial differential equations: finite-difference
methods for parabolic and elliptic type
equations; stability; multidimensional prob-
lems; boundary conditions. 8
Eigenvalue and characteristic-value problems. 3
Statistical methods: polynomial and multiple
regression; random-number generators. 2
Total: 40

greater detail by Lee and Forsythe,4 who also
present the criterion of the minimization of total
strain energy for the determination of closed
(i.e., continuous) spline curves. Spline-function
approximation is also fully discussed by Ahlberg,
Nilson, and Walsh'; a related technique is de-
scribed by Akima."
Two representative cubic splines are shown in
Figures 1 and 2. The first of these passes through
the five points (x, sin x), for x = 0, 7r/4, 7r/2,
37r/4, and 7r. Representative predicted values are
p~(7r/6) = 0.4997 and pa(Or/3) = 0.8651 (cf.
sin 300 = 0.5 and sin 60 0.8660).









1


f(x)








-1 I I I I ------x
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Fig. 2.-Spline approximation for points conforming to ramp
function.
Program 2: Ethane Pyrolysis in a Tubular Reactor

In the temperature range 1200F to 17000F,
ethane decomposes essentially into ethylene and
hydrogen, with first-order irreversible kinetics.
If the reaction occurs in a heated tubular reactor,
and the development in Example 6.2 and Problem
6.20 of [1] is followed, the variations with re-
actor length L (ft) of conversion z, temperature
T (R), and pressure p (psia) are given by:

dz 2.075xl020Ap e-74,358/T z
dL nORT 1 + z '


dT q/n0 AHRdz/dL
dL (l-z)C 2H6 + z(CC24 + C ,) 2


d f 2RT (1 + z)
dL 28125x32.2xr2 pD5

Here, A (ft2) is the cross-sectional area of the
tube, D (in.) is its internal diameter, R = 10.73
ft3 psia/lb mole R, no (lb moles/hr) is the
inlet molal feed rate of ethane, q (BTU/hr-ft) is
the heat input per unit length of tube, f. is the
Moody friction factor, and m (lb/hr) is the mass
flow rate. The heat of reaction AHR (BTU/lb
mole) and the specific heats C, (BTU/lb mole-
R) are functions of temperature.
Starting from known inlet conditions (z =
0, T = 1660R, p = 30 psia), the above three
simultaneous ordinary differential equation may
be solved by a variety of conventional techniques.
In the present case, Euler's method with a step
size of AL = 5 ft proves satisfactory. For m =-
1800 lb/hr and q = 5000 BTU/hr-ft, variations
of z, p, and T with L are shown as the continu-
ous lines in Figures 3 and 4 for internal diameters
D = 4.026 and 3.068 in. Since the reaction is
endothermic, its rate is largely controlled by the


available external heat input. Therefore, once
the temperature is high enough for the reaction
to occur, the conversion is approximately linear
with respect to distance. The pressure drop is
severe for the smallest tube diameter. Since the
reaction is first order, there tends to be a lower
conversion at these lower pressures, and the
temperature level rises accordingly. The broken
lines on Figure 4 show the computed results
when an excessively large step size of AL =: 50 ft


Conver-
sion, z(

0.75

0.60

0.45

0.30

0.15

o0


30
Pressure
p (psia)

20



10


Fig. 3.-Variations of conversion and pressure along reactor.


1500
Temper-
ature
T(F)

1400



1300


n 200 400 600
Fig. 4.-Variation of temperature along reactor.


L,ft 800


is taken. The oscillations (which are particularly
evident in T) have a simple explanation. In Eu-
ler's method, the reaction rate prevailing at the
beginning of a step is assumed to be a suitable
average value for use over the entire step. How-
ever, should it be too low, T will rise unduly be-
cause of the external heat input. Conversely, if it
is too high, the correspondingly large reaction rate
will consume some of the sensible heat of the
stream, causing T to fall unduly. The effect is
clearly propagated from one step to the next.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Program 3: Simulation of a General Piping Network
The last program to be discussed accepts as
data the following parameters concerning a pip-
ing network:
1. The number of nodes, n.
2. A vector t of node types. For the ith
node, the corresponding element ti will be either
0 (free node, with the pressure pi, psig, to be
computed), 1 (pi specified) or 2 volumetricc in-
jection rate vi, gpm, specified).
3. The connection matrix, C. Each element cij
will be either 0 (nodes i and j not joined directly),
1 (a pipe joining nodes i and j), or 2 (a centrifu-
gal pump that pumps from node i to node j).
4. A pressure vector, p in which the pi are
either specified values (for ti = 1) or initial ap-
proximations.
5. An injection vector, v in which vi is
specified for each node i for which t1 = 2.
6. Symmetric matrices D, L, and E whose
elements Dij, Li and e% contain the diameter
(in.), length (ft), and roughness (in.) of the
pipe joining nodes i and j (if cij = 1). For flow
with mean velocity uij from node i to node j, the
pressure change is given by

1 2 L.. g
Pi = f pu2ij D. + pg(z zi)
13

in which f, is the Moody friction factor. For
laminar flow, fM =- 64/Re; for turbulent flow,
fM is given approximately by the Colebrook
equation.
7. An elevation vector, z whose elements
contain the elevations (feet above datum) of the
nodes.
8. Matrices A and B whose elements aij and
bij-specified only if cij 2-contain the char-
acteristics of the centrifugal pump between
nodes i and j. For normal operation, the increase
in pressure is approximated by the falling head/
discharge characteristic curve


Pj pi = aj bj Q2ij

However, the pump is also equipped with: (a) a
check valve, so that the flow rate Qij cannot be
negative, and (b) a regulator, so that Qij cannot


eeed (aij/bij1/2
exceed (a ij/b )/


, even if pi > pj.


s5=0


For units, see text. Ele-
vations not shown are z=0.
Computed p's and Q's are
circled. Pipe roughness
is E=0.01 in. throughout.
The pump head/discharge
characteristics are:
P2 P 2
= 156.6 0.00752Q012
P3 P0 2
= 117.1 0.00427Q 1.


Fig. 5.-Computed pressures and flowrates for pumping system.
9. The density p and viscosity t of the fluid,
assumed constant.
Assuming steady conditions, a material bal-
ance at each node leads to a set of nonlinear
simultaneous equations in the unknown pressures
at each node, which are then found by the New-
ton-Raphson method'. The flowrates QIj (gpm)
through each pipe and pump are then readily cal-
culated. Full details of the program are given in7.
A simple representative network is shown in
Figure 5. The pressures and flowrates computed
by the program are circled. The liquid is water
(p = 62.4 lb/ft3, M 1 centipoise). O

REFERENCES
1. B. Carnahan, H.A. Luther, and J.O. Wilkes, Applied
Numerical Methods, Wiley, New York, 1969.
2. B. Carnahan and J. 0. Wilkes, Digital Computing and
Numerical Methods, Wiley, New York, 1973 (in press).
3. L. Lapidus, Digital Computation for Chemical Engi-
neers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962.
4. E.H. Lee and G.E. Forsythe, "Variational Study of
Nonlinear Spline Curves," Report SU326 P30-12,
Computer Science Dept., Stanford University, 1971.
5. J.H. Ahlberg, E.N. Nilson, and J.L. Walsh, The
Theory of Splines and Their Applications, Academic
Press, New York, 1967.
6. H. Akima, "A New Method of Interpolation and
Smooth Curve Fitting Based on Local Procedures,"
J. of the A.C.M., 17, 589-602, 1970.
7. B. Carnahan and J.O. Wilkes, "Simulation of a Gen-
eral Piping and Pumping Network," Design Volume of
CACHE series of example problems, National Acad-
emy of Engineers (in press), 1973.


SPRING 1973









S&unme~ School e0ioicumwn


EFFECTIVENESS OF GRADUATE CHE EDUCATION*

Industrial Versus Academic Viewpoint
THOMAS E. DAUBERT
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802


The first of three evening colloquia held at the
Summer School for Chemical Engineering Teach-
ers at the University of Colorado from August
14-18, 1972 dealt with this timely topic. Four
panelists representing the petroleum industry, the
chemical industry, and two major but somewhat
different universities, MIT and Cal Tech, spoke
on various aspects of the problem and then dis-
cussed their differing points of view.
There were no votes following the session and
disagreements among participants were not re-
solved. However, many points some of which re-
appear in the remarks of several of the panelists
should be taken seriously by those who plan and
direct graduate programs.
In order not to appear as a censor by deleting
material, edited transcripts of each of the par-
ticipants remarks follow. Any inaccuries are solely
the responsibility of the colloquium coordinator
and not the participant.


Tom Daubert earned the BS, MS, and PhD ('64)
degrees from Penn State. He teaches in the areas of
heat and mass transfer, kinetics, modeling, fluid me-
chanics, phase equilibria, and economics. His research
interests include studies in kinetics of combustion, in
heat transfer, in simultaneous absorption and chemical
reaction, in gas chromatography, and in thermodynamic
and transport property estimation methods.


INDUSTRIAL VIEWPOINT:
Remarks of S. E. Isakoff, Director of Engineering Physics Laboratory-Dupont
Good evening, gentlemen. I welcome the op- agement in a large company, how we view the
portunity to participate in your examination of preparation of the graduate chemical engineer to
graduate chemical engineering education. Al- perform successfully in his initial industrial em-
though I am no expert on curricula, or the details ployment and to progress, and (2) from the point
of your university programs, I have been in po- of view of recently employed engineers (less than
sition to work with and observe hundreds of grad- 5 years) regarding their university preparation
uate chemical engineers (and other types of engi- for industrial employment.
neers and scientists) working in the chemical
industry. And I do represent a major customer of LET ME STATE at the outset that by and large
the product which you produce, namely, the gradu- -the graduate chemical engineers whom we
ate chemical engineer. I am happy to share my ob- employ are well prepared and in relatively short
servations with you, and, hopefully, help you turn time pull their weight in the programs and func-
out a product which, in the jargon of marketing tions to which they are assigned. Obviously, there
people, will have greater value-in-use. are substantial differences among individuals and
I will comment on effectiveness from two the schools from which they graduate. But we do
points of view: (1) First as a member of man- interview carefully and most of the graduate
ChE's who come and stay with us contribute to
*Report on the Effectiveness of Graduate ChE Educa-
tion Colloquium at the ASEE Summer School in Boulder, the Company's progress and thus make good
CO, 1973. individual progress. In fact, some make excellent


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








. . we in industry through closer contacts
and specific programs with the
universities can help significantly in
keying the student's education to the
experiences of the practising engineer ...

progress: About 40% of the top executives in the
Du Pont Company are chemical engineers and
more than half of these have MS or PhD chemical
engineering degrees. A large fraction of all chemi-
cal engineers move into management positions at
some point in their career. And a number who
remain in direct technical work have attained the
highest level non-management positions that our
Company has to offer. Nevertheless, the prepara-
tion of chemical engineering graduates for an in-
dustrial career varies widely, and I would like to
identify several aspects of the graduate program
on which I believe additional attention would re-
sult in important benefits for the graduate and
the industrial firm which he joins.
The first concerns the question of theoretical
versus practical orientation of the graduates. Al-
though there has been quite an outcry by indus-
trial spokesmen against the excessive stress
placed on engineering science, mathematics, and
theory, particularly in the PhD programs, the
issue needs to be more carefully defined. School
is the best place to learn fundamentals. And, make
no mistake-industry needs people, particularly
for the R&D functions, who are thoroughly
grounded in science, advanced mathematics and
computer technology, and we use them. The phy-
sical problems we face and need to reach decisions
on are very complex; we highly prize the chemi-
cal engineer who can cut through the maze and
set up mathematical models and generate com-
puter solutions which are useful for predicting
system performance and for design purposes.
But the truly effective chemical engineer does
more than this. He recognizes that the mathe-
matics and computers are a means to an end-that
for each job, he is seeking an appropriate balance
among the scientific rigor of his approach, the
costs and time required to generate results, and
judgments on what constitutes an acceptable
solution to his problem. Also, almost any new
physical problem which he tackles will require
experimental determination of certain elements in
his model or experimental verification of its va-
lidity, and the well-prepared ChE will have ex-
perience in the laboratory, some contact with
modern experimental equipment, and a first-hand


feel for the vagaries of experimental data. We
have found that those who have concentrated on
theoretical work, to the exclusion of experimental,
have difficulty-much more limited career options.
Thus, my first suggestion is that, in chemical
engineering theses or course work which get the
student deeply involved in theory or mathematics,
special care be exercised to assure that he recog-
nize the significance or practical impact of his
work-that he understands that the techniques
he is using to generate solutions are not an end
in themselves-and that the student has an oppor-
tunity to get into the laboratory and gain needed
experience in experimental work.
There is a second aspect of the effectiveness
of the PhD program on which I'd like to comment
-the thesis. Much of the educational value of the
thesis depends upon the degree to which the stu-
dent independently defines his thesis topic, his
objectives, research approach, and implementa-
tion. The experience he can gain in planning, in-
formation gathering, and decision making are
very valuable assets for industrial employment.
Too often I have seen PhD employment candidates
who have worked on narrow problems thoroughly
defined by their thesis advisors, and who are
simply not prepared and do not have the confi-
dence to undertake independent work even within
their purported specialties. In fact, I do not con-
sider that the educational value of the PhD justi-
fies the extra time and effort unless the candidate
can work independently to a substantial degree.
So my second suggestion is guide with a light
hand, and I realize that this may take unusual
restraint on your part.
Turning to another aspect of the PhD program, some
graduates clearly are broadened by the additional course
work and by the opportunity for more contacts with the
faculty and with their peer group. They have developed
interests and communication skills which are highly use-
ful to them in industry. On the other hand, there is a
danger that some students may become overly dedicated
to a narrow thesis area and make themselves less attrac-
tive, less versatile industrial employment candidates
than if they had sought employment after obtaining the
Bachelor's or Master's degree. Such graduates may be
frustrated by industrial assignments that fall outside the
field of specialty and make them feel that they are being
under-utilized by the industrial employer. It is important,
therefore, that the graduate chemical engineering student
have access to faculty advisors, that he has opportunities
to discuss his personal aspirations and career objectives,
and that his over-all graduate school program be planned
in a responsible manner. Faculty members with indus-
trial experience, or contacts with your colleagues in in-
dustry, can be quite helpful.


SPRING 1973








So my third suggestion for more effective gradu-
ate chemical engineering education is: take the
time, in a planned way, to counsel your graduate
students so that the programs they pursue en-
hance their probability of achieving their personal
and career goals.
S WITCHING To AN entirely different subject,
you are doubtless aware that chemical engi-
neers in industry are becoming involved to a much
greater extent than in the recent past in defining
and developing new chemical processes for by-
product utilization, pollution abatement, and con-
servation of scarce raw materials and energy.
They are being called upon for new classical
routes for these purposes. The emphasis is on
synthesis and innovation in reaction systems engi-
neering and separations technology, rather than
analysis and optimization. I question whether
many of our current graduate chemical engineers
are prepared for this type of assignment. While I
am not suggesting that graduate ChE education go
back to the emphasis on descriptive process tech-
nology courses which were the vogue in the '30s
and '40s, I do think that this need and trend
must be recognized. The graduate chemical engin-
neer who has interests and strength in process
chemistry will find many opportunities in indus-
try.
I'd like to switch now to how our recent grad-
uates view the effectiveness of their preparation
for an industrial career-what I have learned
from direct discussions with young engineers and
their supervision. Young engineers find that they
need more knowledge in one or more technical
areas, but this becomes apparent only after they
start work-and it depends highly on the assign-
ments or projects which they have. Based on this
study, I cannot pinpoint any one technical area
where there is a clearly unsatisfied educational
need. But in a non-technical sense, one thing
comes across very loud and clear. They would
like much more of a peek under the curtain of the
industrial scene-how things are accomplished
and what will be expected of them.
Specifically, many of our recent employees have
been surprised by the amount and type of com-
munications required to get things done. They
were not aware of the degree to which their work
would involve interaction with people of diverse
background and function even on projects of
modest size. They find that their contributions
depend to a considerable extent on the effective-
ness with which they can communicate and the


smoothness with which they can work with others.
For a graduate chemical engineer in an R&D or-
ganization, engineering department or plant tech-
nical group, this may mean working with tech-
nicians, draftsmen, designers, computer special-
ists, crafts people, accountants, engineers other
than chemical, chemists, patent attorneys, and
representatives from marketing, manufacturing,
and engineering organizations. Oral and written
communications which stress technical signifi-
cance, costs, timing, and commercial impact rather
than technical reporting per se have proved a
troublesome stumbling block for them. They have
stated that they would like to have had more ex-
posure to and practice with this type of com-
munications, rather than with written reports
aimed at impressing their professors with their
technical erudition. They would have liked to learn
how to write better and faster. The recent gradu-
ates would also have liked an opportunity to prac-
tice and develop skills in working with people of
different backgrounds.
A second area for improvement identified by
a number of our younger people is concerned with
the relevance of the course work to the practical
goals of engineering work in industry. They would
have liked more examples of how the information
presented or studied in school is used in industry.
We find that the recent employees who have taken
part in co-op programs or have had worthwhile
summer employment have a significant head start
over those who have not had such experience.
In summary, it is my conviction that the
average graduate chemical engineer has the tech-
nical background to perform effectively and make
worthwhile contribution to the assignments he
faces in the chemical industry. In my somewhat
biased view, his is the most versatile, valuable
training for the chemical industry. For some stu-
dents, greater exposure to experimental work
and effort aimed at developing and appreciation
for the practical significance of their technical
programs, summer employment, and intelligent
efforts would certainly be worthwhile. Co-op
counseling with regard to career expectations are
all helpful.
I am convinced that we in industry through
closer contacts and specific programs with the
universities can help significantly in keying the
student's education to the experiences of the
practising engineer, and help you produce engi-
neers who can adapt, contribute, and progress
more rapidly in the industrial environment. El


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









INDUSTRIAL VIEWPOINT:
Remarks of Robert B. Long, Scientific Advisor,
The talk that I will give is really divided into
two parts. The first part is a survey that we
have made at Esso Research of what our PhD
Chemical Engineers do and how they stack up
against bachelor's and master's degrees in those
same fields. This is a compendium of the opinions
of the engineering department people of which
I am not a member, and I will vouch for their
having formulated the first part of the talk. The
second part is more related toward the research
engineer rather than the engineering engineer.
This is the man that does the R&D and the com-
ments that I make about him will be my own
and Esso Engineering is not responsible. In con-
sidering the effectiveness of chemical engineering
graduate education, I think it is important to
remember that there are different kinds of
chemical engineers and the two particular types
that I am going to be concerned with are the engi-
neering types who use existing knowledge in
contrast to what I call the research academic
type who is really involved in the synthesis of
new knowledge a lot more than just the use of
old knowledge.
R EMEMBER NOW, UNTIL I tell you differently, I
am talking about the engineering department
and not research. We have a large research fa-
cility and a large engineering organization that
has about 1,000 engineers in it. These spread
among the skills of chemical, mechanical, civil,
electrical, and other engineering. About half of
this total in each age bracket are chemical en-
gineers and when I talk to you tonight about the
evaluation of these chemical engineers I am going
to be talking mostly about the 30-39 year old age
group of which about half are chemical. We show
an overall average for the engineering depart-
ment of 10% PhD's and 40% MS. About 8-17%
of PhD's are in each age group. This means we're
hiring at a fairly constant level so in some years
we go over because we get more acceptance and
in some years under. Since essentially all of the
PhD's are chemical engineers it means that our
chemical engineering population is really about
20% PhD's. Now again, we are going to look
at the 30-39 year age group. In this group there
are 50 PhD's and this is the group we are con-
cerned with. It would be better for us to use the
younger group of 21-29 as more representative
of the recent chemical engineer PhD's but our


Esso Research and Engineering Company
evaluation of these younger people is not com-
plete and furthermore we have problems of their
initial adjustment to industrial conditions .which
can make some of these early evaluations not too
representative. So we are talking about the 30-
39 year old PhD's of which there are fifty.
One of the practices of the company is that
every year our supervisors rank their people
in order of their value to the company without
regard to what their present salary is and with-
out regard to what degree they hold. (BS, MS,
PhD.) We do this in five year age groupings in
order to minimize the distortion of ranking so
that we don't rank a young fellow against an old
guy with all sorts of experience. We have ranked
47 PhD's out of the original 50. It turned out that
some of them hadn't been with us long enough for
us to get what we consider a good enough reading
to include them in the population. Of the 47
PhD's that were ranked we had 12 (just about
25%) in the top quartile although it is interesting
that the best man in the whole group was a PhD,
the fellow at the very top. The second quartile
has 15 PhD's in it leading to a median level of
60% for all our PhD's against all our Bachelor
and Master people. The third group and fourth
group made a total of 20 PhD's that ranked lower
on the average in terms of company value than
the bachelor and master people. The bottom PhD
was at the 10% level indicating they were spread
out pretty well. What this shows in spite of our
selectivity of admission and a fairly large incre-
ment in starting salary is that there is about an
even chance that a PhD with today education
and/or experience will be about 10% more valu-
able to us than a bachelor or masters man in the
same age peer group.
A second problem that we have is that the
work interests of the PhD do not match too well
with the engineering organization's need for
people. About 60% of our overall engineering
efforts is related to what we call capital projects-
large design and related work for large projects.
This does not include any of the usual dog work
like drafting, purchasing and supervision of con-
struction forces like many other large companies.
When we need this we get it by international con-
tractors rather than by doing it ourselves. The
work is highly technical but you can see that
although 60% of the effort is in the field of the


SPRING 1973









PhD's we have only about 25% who are interested
or useful at this kind of work. The other 40%
of the work that we do in engineering is for
small consulting studies in operating plants. This
might be a little piece of or a bottle neck removal
for an operating plant that already exists. The
other 20% is in R&D which is partly engineering
technology and partly the support of research that
is done in other areas of the company-in other
words economic studies, evaluation of alterna-
tives and the like. Here you can see that our PhD's
interests fit better. The fact is that almost half of
them would like to do work in the research or
engineering portion of the company. They might
even rather do research alone. These are the PhD's
in the engineering department. We rarely offer
employment to PhD's in other engineering disci-
plines because the chemical engineer comes closest
to our needs of all the engineering types. When
you consider the rankings that I discussed, Bache-
lor vs. Master vs. PhD there does not appear to be
any relationship of degree with work interest. In
other words the PhD rankings were the same
whether they were working on capital projects,
R&D or consulting studies, or engineering studies.
Turning now to some opinions, these again are some
opinions of our engineering department on what the pres-
ent lack of balance in orientation of PhD's in chemical
engineering is leading to. We expect the oversupply to
continue. The research growth rate has slowed down, as I
guess all of you know, and in our opinion it will continue
at a lower level than before for some time. Based on our
experience we believe industry will have fewer needs for
new PhD Chemical Engineers who want only research.
Now we have generally been taking new PhD's something
on the order of 10-15% of the BS level and our com-
pany experience suggests this is probably too high. It is
our best guess including our future needs (recognizing
other companies may have different degrees of research
interests from ours) that about 5% BS's going to PhD's
is about the right level. And if new PhD's continue to ex-
ceed this 5%, more PhD's will have to do something other
than research or teaching and this may have some effect
on starting salaries as you can imagine.
Some possible future action that we would
make is first to set realistic quantitative objectives
for PhD programs by finding out how many you
need for teaching and how many we need for
employment in the R&D side of industry. One
other suggestion is the operation of a research in-
stitute with the help of Doctoral candidates. This
might help in the PhD area to find out more about
what they like to do before they get turned loose.
Secondly, we could get periodic customer ap-
praisals of the value of PhD programs such as is
being done by many universities through visiting


Today's PhD's seem very well trained to do
the research in basic engineering such as
transport phenomena, adsorption, mixing,...
But they are not nearly as well trained
to do process research.


committees. The third is a very controversial
item. Perhaps we should be willing to reduce or
drop some PhD programs and encourage more
good students to stop at the MS level. This is
a very tender topic for academic prestige reasons
if nothing else, but some of the programs certainly
must be marginal and we know that they all are
very expensive per student trained. As unpalat-
able as that kind of suggestion might be it still
should be thought about. Fourth is the engineer-
ing oriented PhD which is very low in our priority
because we can't see how such programs would be
of significantly higher value unless the PhD
would be granted without a thesis requirement. So
we don't put very strong emphasis on replacing
research oriented PhD programs with engineer-
ing oriented doctorals. In general we believe more
good students should be encouraged to stop with
a terminal MS before their interests narrow to
research. Remember I'm still talking from an en-
gineer's viewpoint. These people don't do much
research so we are talking about the PhD in
Chemical Engineering doing engineering work.
Our company has contributed to several programs
of this terminal MS type and we would recom-
mend that other companies do likewise.
I would like to include a few comments on the engi-
neers attitudes on the use of computers. The problem is
one of judgment on when and how to use computers. The
tendency has been for our young people to assume auto-
matically that all calculations should be made with great
precision on the computer. Concern is not with computer
time here although the engineering department charges
are about one hundred thousand dollars a month, but
with the hidden costs such as time to analyze the results
and the delay in project completions which may run as
high as ten thousand dollars a day. These are the things
that we are worried about. By far the largest amount of
our engineering work isn't sufficiently repetitive to war-
rant the cost of programming and maintaining the neces-
sary computer programs. The questions that should be
asked here are: (1) how accurate are the input data and
assumptions, (2) what accuracy is needed on the answer,
(3) how fast is it needed, (4) what is the value of early
completion, (5) should the digital computer be used and
if so how many runs are justifiable on it, and (6) is the
program available now or does it have to be prepared and
if so is it justifiable or could we do it better by hand or
with the smaller computing machinery that has become
so available and so rapid.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









That's the story on the engineering side; now
we'll see that things are different in research. As
we just saw, the engineering department feels
that the PhD's that we have in engineering are
over trained in research for their needs. Quite
the opposite feeling exists in the R&D divisions.
Our corporate research lab, for example, employs
20 chemical engineers and everyone was a PhD
when he was hired. We didn't even consider BS
and MS people because we did not feel that they
were trained sufficiently for fully research ori-
ented jobs. The other research divisions, however,
are not that extreme but do use more PhD's. Here
we show a total of 490 chemical engineers in the
engineering division with 110 PhD's for a per-
centage of 22%. In the research divisions we have
fewer people but a total of 206 chemical engi-
neers with 93 PhD's, a total of 45%. I would
like to point out that some of the personnel in
research divisions is hangover because our product
line research divisions have hired in the past a
much higher percentage of PhD than they claim
to be going to hire in the future. They say it's
how smart the guy is and not how he was trained
for their particular purpose.
What does the research PhD do? Well, he
works in laboratories, he supervises other lab
workers, he plans experiments, and he interprets
results. His work resembles that of a university
faculty without a teaching load to a large extent.
Thesis can be a very big help if it is in research
and this is in contrast to a computer thesis where
the man gets no laboratory experience at all.We
like to see laboratory experience in our research
oriented PhD's. We would discourage PhD pro-
grams where thesis is largely done by modeling
and computing to the detriment of laboratory
time. We feel our R&D PhD's need lab time. The
kinds of problems research PhD's work on in the
laboratory are in three major areas in our corpo-
ration: petroleum processes, chemical processes,
and basic engineering.
Today's PhD's seem very well trained to do the re-
search in basic engineering such as transport phenomena,
absorption, mixing, and the like. But they are not nearly
as well trained to do process research. Perhaps this is
due to lack of interest or lack of experience with processes
on the part of the faculties. Particular help here to the
people we hire would be a little more training in chemis-
try. The research PhD would then be a little more broadly
chemical-chemical engineer rather than an engineering-
chemical engineer. We would like to emphasize that we
believe course work for engineers at universities should
stay very strong on fundamentals and not stray over in
the watered down survey courses which tend to promote


technical obsolescence as the priorities change in the
future. Furthermore, the PhD program should emphasize
bringing out the versatility of the man while still main-
taining enough depth to make him productive. For example,
even the first assignment of a new employee may not
bear very much relation to what he did for his PhD thesis.
The second and third assignments are going to get even
farther away so what he needs is good fundamental train-
ing in engineering principles and a thesis that broadens
him rather than narrows him and also teaches him how
to do research. This might be a desirable object for the
research engineer.
In summary, we feel there are basically two
types of PhD chemical engineers and their opti-
mum training may be partially incompatible.
However we think it is important to decide which
type you are training and then act accordingly. El



ACADEMIC VIEWPOINT:
Remarks of J. E. Vivian
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This colloquium is a timely study in view
of the large changes in graduate engineering
education, both in quantity and kind, which have
occurred over the last decade. During times of
rapid change original goals become fuzzy, and
targets shift under the momentum of the process
of change. Periodic assessments such as this
are extremely valuable if over-shooting the tar-
get is to be avoided or a re-assessment of goals
becomes necessary.
N TRYING TO evaluate the performance of any
system whether it is a reactor system or a sys-
tem of graduate education, one needs to formu-
late a basis against which performance can be
measured. Consequently I will direct my remarks
first to some of what I think we ought to try to
accomplish in our graduate programs, and then
comment on how we are doing or what we might
do.
I assume as a first premise that we are at-
tempting to operate an educational program for
graduate engineers as opposed to graduate
science majors.
Engineering is the profession which applies
the sum-total of man's knowledge of his environ-
ment for the good of society. This is a broad task,
and requires a breadth of understanding far be-
yond the mastery of basic underlying principles
of science and technology. The fact, that sufficient
breadth of understanding is often lacking in
making technological applications, accounts for


SPRING 1973









much of the "anti-technology" sentiment evident
today.
While this "anti-" sentiment can hardly be
taken seriously in the long run since anyone with
an average intellectual capability must soon
appreciate that an acceptable social structure
could not exist without the support of modern
technology, nevertheless in the short-term, the
complaints against science and technology are
indicative of technological applications being
made without adequate regard for social values.
To achieve its mission in society, engineering needs to
maintain a high level of professionalism, which not only
can meet the demands for outstanding technical compe-
tence but also can provide the technically trained leader-
ship with breadth of outlook to exercise responsible judg-
ment on technological applications.
Engineers who provide this leadership will have skills
in various engineering sciences, acquired to a large extent
in one or more of the various undergraduate and graduate
disciplines, and in addition, they will have developed the
capability to synthesize and integrate data derived from
various sources such as the sciences, economics, and human
and social factors in order to handle competently new and
unfamiliar situations. This of course requires an approach
involving the whole problem: the integrated approach
characteristic of real engineering.
To help meet the need for these engineering
leaders, it should be the objective of engineering
graduate schools to provide the educational en-
vironment within which potential engineer leaders
can develop. The focus of attention should be on
the engineer in his broadest sense rather than
limited to the engineering science and technician
aspects of engineering. Graduate programs should
be industry oriented rather than academic
oriented.
Most graduate engineering programs current-
ly appear to be geared to the PhD as the terminal
degree. Furthermore, in line with its science
counterparts, it is still primarily a research de-
gree. A few schools operate bona-fide terminal SM
programs, and fewer still operate terminal En-
gineer degree programs.
In the light of our needs for technically
trained talent, the relative importance of these
degree programs and their graduates need to be
thoroughly reviewed, not only by academia but
also by industry. Present PhD programs, which
involve so much time on academic research pro-
jects, tend to train our best young talent only in
relatively narrow technical areas, limit their
motivation and interest for work beyond academic
research, and set an unnecessarily high price on
the cost of their education. What ever the value
the academic research may have, the wisdom of


consuming three to five potentially productive
years of the young engineer's career, shielded
from the real world, is questionable. One wonders
whether the degree of maturity accomplished
during this period could be obtained more efficient-
ly in other ways.
The PhD psychosis which has swept the country dur-
ing the last decade appears to have reached the stage
where it is not only uneconomic on a national scale but
has produced some frustrated and disillusioned graduates
by appearing to over-train, and hence prehaps over-price,
them with respect to many fields of technical activity.
This psychosis is partly due to a kind of intellectual
snobbery which has developed in the technical community,
and is sustained by industry maintaining an unjusti-
fiable large differential between the SM and PhD starting
salaries for comparable men.
A N ADDITIONAL FACTOR, which has injected a
degree of artificiality into graduates programs,
stems from the rapid growth of graduate schools
and associated faculty recruitment policies dur-
ing the sixties.
As graduate students, many found the life on
campus to be relatively comfortable, adequately
if not richly supported, free of real responsibility
since only a minimum accountability for their
support was required. To satisfy staff require-
ments of the expanding graduate schools, some
of these graduates willingly recycled into academic
departments, directly from graduate work, with
the result that graduate educations programs be-
came self-propagating. Unless particular care
was taken, the tight loop of graduate student-to-
research assistant-to-professor developed a com-
fortable graduate school academic research en-
vironment with increasing detachment from the
real world of engineering.
What is needed at this point is a re-vamping of cur-
ricula to insure adequate synthesis and integration along
real hard-nosed engineering lines. At the PhD level, there
should be far less reliance on the current typical academic
research thesis as an education tool for engineers as well
as a drastic reduction in the time devoted to it.
In considering the re-ordering of the distri-
bution of our young talent between the three de-
gree levels a proposal which deserves discussion
by both industry and engineering education sug-
gests the development of the D. Eng. as a non-
research degree, based on a program which em-
phasizes the overall aspects of engineering, in-
cluding economics, management and design, as
well as a high degree of competence and breadth
in engineering science. An alternate proposal
suggests a joint degree with management. Un-
fortunately this latter has operational problems,
if both disciplines are to be major in the degree
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









title as well as in acceptance by industry.
If we can get over the Doctor's degree ob-
session, a better scheme would appear to be to
keep the degree as a research degree, reserved
mainly for graduates who have the interest and
temperament to make research their life work,
and to depend on outstanding SM, and particu-
larly Engineer degree programs, to provide lead-
ers for the engineering profession in industry.
In building these programs to provide the
competence required, the sharp distinction be-
;tween graduate and undergraduate programs
should be clearly recognized. Graduate subjects
should not be designed just to make-up for gaps
in the undergraduate program, or provide just
more of the same. At the graduate level, the em-
phasis should be on developing techniques for
handling material in depth, on problem solving
techniques, interpretation, evaluation, of alter-
nates-techniques which will be useful in handling
tomorrow's engineering problems when today's
technology is obsolete, rather than striving for
coverage of today's science and technology. Fur-
thermore, the thrust should be on the techniques
for attacking and solving technical problems of
real value, and not merely for developing elegant
mathematical models of grossly constrained simu-
lations of the actual problem.
A real environment is needed to provide the compon-
ents of real problems. At the risk of over-simplification,
there are three parts to all real problems. First, there is
the formulation of the specific problem and of the course
of action, following the recognition of a need; second,
there is the investigation to obtain results in response
to the specific problem statement; and third, there is the
interpretation of the results, and the formulation of con-
clusions and recommendations. In general, the academic
classroom and laboratory can do a pretty good job of
teaching the techniques required to handle the second
part of the problem, namely, the investigation, either
theoretical or experimental, to obtain results in response
to a specified problem. But what is lacking in handling
the first and last third of the problem is the necessary
environment within which to work, and which is a integral
part of every problem. Perhaps in more modern language,
a structure is required within which to do systems en-
gineering.
To provide the environment and structure
within which to work, engineering schools, par-
ticularly graduate engineering schools, must de-
velop direct contact with or exposure to the real
world of engineering, so as to maintain a con-
tinuously evolving program which maintains a
realistic basis on which future leaders of industry
can develop. It is only through direct coopera-
tion with industry can such perspective be ac-


The PhD psychosis is partly due to a kind of
intellectual snobbery which has developed in
the technical community, and is sustained
by industry ...


complished, but the coupling must be close. The
usual co-operative programs are not coupled
closely enough, although they do serve to point out
to the student engineer the marked differences
between academic and industrial work-unfor-
tunately without "on the spot" guidance and
correlation. Faculty part-time work in industry,
faculty consulting with industry, visiting faculty
drawn from industry and the Practice School
system seem to provide the best interaction of
industry and academia. Of these, the Practice
School system with its professional structure, in
which teachers and student interns work together
on industrially important assignments, seems to
provide the greatest benefits.
In the Practice School the teachers, who are
both engineers and academic faculty in residence,
benefit from the close interaction of the academic
and the practical. The students as industrial in-
ternes under faculty guidance, learn by doing and
thereby develop a feel for the whole problem.
Such programs offer an opportunity, not other-
wise provided, for synthesis and integration in
developing the techniques for handling new and
unfamiliar situations. A judicious combination of
such practical experience under guidance, together
with practically oriented classroom instruction,
can go far to providing the structures within
which leaders in engineering can develop effec-
tivity.
While much can be said here against current
graduate engineer education, it is nevertheless po-
tentially an outstanding group of disciplines for
training leaders both in engineering and in many
areas which are not strictly engineering, and such
demands will keep capable engineers in short
supply in the long run. This is particularly true
for Chemical Engineers.
I am not disturbed simply because recently
not all graduates had six offers before graduation
day, and I believe it is a serious error to ad-
vocate reducing enrollment either by restricting
admission or by curtailing publicity about engi-
neering as a challenging profession. We are trying
to operate a process which has a holdup of four
to eight years or so depending upon the degree.
The probability of determining admissions, so


SPRING 1973








that all graduates will turn out to be engineers
in the strictly professional sense, or so that po-
tential talent is not missed, is rather low, human
nature being what it is. Thus from a purely
statistical point of view, to obtain the best pos-
sible leadership in engineering, a somewhat larger
number of students should be processed through
our engineering schools to insure needed talent.
The same will be true to a lesser extent in our
graduate engineering schools. Thus it is not sur-
prising at times to find not all engineering gradu-
ates ending up with engineering jobs.
What we need to realize, however, is that
this is not all bad, since an engineering education,
properly carried out with respect to breadth of
outlook, judgment and management, serves as an
excellent basis for many related activities, such
as in business, government, commerce, medicine
to mention only a few. In many respects such
breadth of interest in a student group can con-
tribute much to the educational process, pro-
viding that the main objective of training out-
standing engineering talent is not relaxed.
Continuous and improved communication with
the public about what the real role of engineering
is in modern society is urgently needed to increase
the flow of talent into the profession if real
shortage a decade ahead is to be avoided.


... a proposal.. suggests the D.Eng.
as a non-research degree, based on a program
which emphasizes the overall aspects of engineering
as well as a high degree of competence and
breadth in engineering science.




CONCLUSION
In conclusion, graduate school curricula, while
insuring strength in engineering science, should
emphasize the function of the engineer in coping
with the whole problem, and should provide a
means for the development of those characteris-
tics such as analysis, synthesis and integration
of pertinent factors so necessary for effective
leadership in technological application.
To accomplish this, engineering schools will
have to have faculties which include scientists,
engineering scientists and practicing engineers,
and especially facilities which include real en-
vironments to help maintain respect by the gradu-
ate engineer for the complexity of the world in
which we live. Furthermore real efforts need to
be made to insure a steady flow of talent into
engineering if serious shortages in the not too
distant future are to be avoided. EO


ACADEMIC VIEWPOINT: Remarks of Cornelius J. Pings, California Institute of Technology


The Effectiveness of Graduate Programs in
Chemical Engineering is a complex subject that
has been much discussed at these meetings in the
past and in other forums, and I think relatively
little has been resolved.
I have three points that I will dwell on for a
moment. The first point on this topic is that it is
a study in frustration because industry does not
know what it wants. And my second point is a
further study in frustration because we at the
university really don't know what we are doing.
Finally, in spite of this mutual frustration, it is
my own conviction that the system is working
reasonably well. We should be cautious about
trying to change it radically but aware of some
obvious improvements that I think can be made.

FIRST, LET ME COMMENT on industry. I am
going to be critical, and I feel a bit guilty about


this because it's difficult to give a representative
view point. If I could pick out 2 or 3 companies
that I think handle things relatively well, by
coincidence, they seem to be represented on this
panel. What is it that industry needs or expects
in this matter of graduate education? I think it
is clear to me that there is no single answer to this
nor is there even a coherent set of answers. I
will say this is true of industry in general, whe-
ther you mean the petroleum or chemical or
whatever industry we touch as our constituency,
and furthermore I believe it is largely true with
individual companies. If individual companies or
if the industry did have a position on what they
anticipated or needed in the way of a graduate
program in our universities, then I would submit
that this must be a logical part of some sort of a
long range plan for investment in and for the
utilization of personnel. It is my experience that


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








I have several tangible suggestions: we
should do more in the way of continuing
education . there should be more
university-industry joint research ... we
need a flow of people back and forth ...

such long range plans for utilization of technical
personnel are totally lacking in most instances.
If you need another indication, it has been
clearly revealed in recent recruiting practices.
A number of our most prominent companies
stopped hiring altogether rather abruptly. Some
of them even dropped their campus contacts which
in years past they assured us they valued so
highly. Now this bothers me, but being frank I'm
not sure it bothers me as much as what went on
five years ago when they were hiring everybody
they could find, stockpiling them, and using them
very ineffectively. I will agree to much of the data
I saw here a few minutes ago that suggests that
the PhD is not utilized well, particularly in some
engineering and applied departments. I think
the blame for that has to be shared. I agree with
Ed Vivian's concept that there perhaps was an
unwarranted salary bias in favor of the PhD who
could not perform better that the MS of equal
brilliance.
I have another point that I think is an indi-
cation that industry really doesn't have a plan
or has not thought out what it needs in this
matter. We are all aware of the acute current
funding problems for our graduate schools. Cur-
rently industry has in office nationally a business-
man's administration, and yet it has stood silently
by as the Office of Management and Budget has
quickly cut the throats of graduate deans in our
universities over an 18-month period. I have
heard no outcry of protest from industry. I don't
think the industry could respond that fast in
stepping in to provide stop gap funding. I realize
that might take a little longer but I hope it is
forthcoming. But I really wish there had been
some intervening with the administration and
with the committees of Congress that have put
together this disastrous policy for the financing
of our graduate programs.
When you talk to people in industry about
what they want, of course you will get varying
answers. We have all experienced this. It will
depend on what company you talk to and what
representative happens to be doing the recruiting
at a particular time. It may be a plea for more
statistics, more optimization, more heat exchanger


design. Frankly, I don't believe any of them any-
more, except for one simple answer which I think
is very refreshing, and which when I do hear it
I believe it to be honest. I think those companies
that say to me that they are looking for "bright
individuals who are intellectually disciplined,"
then that company has likely thought out its
future as far as utilization in personnel is con-
cerned.
I may seem unduly harsh on my industrial
friends in their corporate ambivalence, so let me
suggest that we at universities are suffering from
an institutional schizophrenia. If we are asking
what we are doing in our graduate program, we
are caught in the bind of compromising the his-
tory of our institutions with the present needs.
It's a conflict between our mission to educate and
our mission to train. Our predecessor institutions,
of course, historically educated the social and
economic elite. But as the professions developed
and as the base of the educational process en-
larged, there has been enfused a strong com-
ponent of professional training. In the process,
universities have become an agent of economic
improvement and any of those of you who were
children of the depression will know what I am
talking about in that matter. And more recently
we see our universities becoming an agent of up-
ward social mobility. Now that's the conflict as I
see it as of today- the conflict between the his-
torical mission to educate and the more recent de-
mand that we train in the professions. To be a lit-
tle more dismal, the question of where we are
going in the future to me is even less clear. We are
now trying to educate greater than 50% of our
high school graduates. There are universities that
are advocating and practicing open enrollment,
and there are universities "without walls." As we
spread our higher education to a broader and
broader base I can't see the future, but it's prob-
ably going to change qualitatively. I think the
pressures and the tensions that tear us within
our schools in terms of trying to establish what
our objectives are are going to become even more
acute.
WHAT ARE WE TRYING to do then? Let's nar-
row it down to chemical engineering, chemi-
cal engineering at the graduate level. Are we
trying to turn out the educated man or woman, or
are we training professionals, or are we without
even admitting it merely trying to perpetuate a
system in our own image? I do think you need
to ask about your objectives within your own de-


SPRING 1973


I








apartments, within your own schools, and within
your own university. My own chemical engineer-
ing faculty went through this exercise just a few
weeks ago. It was flushed out by the fact that we
were trying to reach an agreement on a relatively
minor matter, and could not, and it eventually
evolved that the the reason we could not was that
we didn't understand or that we didn't agree on
what we were trying to accomplish overall in
terms of our program. Let me read off to you
what we have now come up with as a tentative list.
You can listen to it, scoff at it, admire it or
whatever you want, but it's one faculty's attempt
to come to grips with what it's supposed to be
doing. There are four points. I'll go through them
as quickly as possible, but I'll tell you in advance
that the first two in my mind set apart what is
a PhD from lower degree levels, the third hints
at what the engineer is and the fourth perhaps
what a chemical engineer is.
The four objectives as we found them were
as follows:
1. To develop breadth of outlook in science and engi-
neering as well as powers to investigate engineering
problems independently and efficiently.
2. To develop powers of clear and forceful self
expression both orally and in written language. (I think
those two points generally would be agreed are typical of
PhD degree programs in our universities.)
3. To develop basic engineering abilities for analysis,
design, and synthesis of complex systems.
4. To develop specific capabilities in the fundamentals
of chemical engineering including basic expertise in ther-
modynamics, transport phenomena and chemical kinetics.
I would welcome criticism. I think you might
have a go at this if you haven't done something
similar. Maybe all of you have. We hadn't in
our department and we have found it somewhat
useful in trying to define a little better some of
the subsidiary rules that govern how we admit
students, what we expect of them in course work,
and what we expect of them in a thesis and in
final oral examinations.
Having indicated both the sides of the camp,
let me make several concluding comments about
where I think we stand and what we might do.
First of all I am a strong advocate of diversity
and experimentation. If the companies ever did
the unlikely and came up with an "industry point
of view" of what they expected in graduate edu-
cation, we probably should negate it forthwith as
a standard graduate program. We would cer-
tainly keep our eye on it, and try out a few things
at different schools and at different times. I do


. . there is a problem and a challenge ...
the solutions to our deficiencies will come about
from involving more people on both sides,
students going into industry ... industrial
people coming on to our engineering faculties
. . greater involvement of our faculties
in industrial positions

believe that in this matter the universities are
going to have to lead. But that cannot be done
in a vacuum, and we will have to continue to
look at industry hopefully for guidelines, par-
ticularly on the professional aspects of engi-
neering.
I have several tangible suggestions, and many
of them have already been made here tonight.
The first is on an area where I feel rather strongly
there has been a default on the part of the uni-
versities. We could and should do more in the way
of continuing education. I just don't believe that
our obligation to our students, to our alumni, to
our constituents in industry stop at the BS, MS
or PhD degree. There should be a better involve-
ment of our schools, in cooperation with industry,
in something more effective than is going on cur-
rently in life-time education.
Secondly, I think there should be more uni-
versity-industry joint research, and this is not
simply a plea to my industrial colleagues for
support in joint research activities wherein there
would be a broad based program going on for
some years with the hard engineering aspects
being carried out in industry and the more basic
part committed to the university laboratory of a
professor and several students. Most of all we
need a flow of people back and forth so the in-
dustry can find out what it is that's going on
new in the way of research. More importantly
our students can realize as they are in the process
of education what the real-life engineering world
is like.
The following point has also been said but I
think it's most important and I'll say it again.
There is a need for general exchange of person-
nel. More of our faculty should go into industry
in the summer. There is a responsibility of the
department chairman and deans of the univer-
sity and a serious responsibility on the side of
industry to foster this. There should be a true
exchange; there should be more industrial people
in our university faculties on temporary basis.
Students between their junior and senior year and
(Continued on page 104.)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













HOWTO


MAKE YOUR FUTURE


OUT OF PAPER.


Paper. You might think it's almost
too simple to be interesting. News-
papers, napkins, towels, cups. Simple.
But have you heard about the paper
that's used as the core of high-impact
plastic laminates? Or the pre-lubri-
cated communication paper tape for
data-processing equipment? Or the
specialty papers with complex coat-
ings for keeping packaged foods fresh?
Or the 3-ply paperboard made with
polyethylene film, virgin pulp
and recycled pulp which
together create an
excellent moisture
barrier?
And did you know
about our chemical
products that are used qq&


in environmental systems for air and
water purification? Or our specialty
chemicals used to make products in
almost any industry you name?
And about the research involved in
all this? The physical, organic and in-
organic chemistry? The physics, math-
ematics and biology? The mechanical,
chemical and electrical engineering?
At Westvaco, making paper is a
whole lot more than just making paper.
And that's why we're interested
in innovative, naturally
curious people who
can see the future in
paper the way we do.
With them, we think
we can help shape the
,,- future for everyone.




Westvaco
299 Park Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10017


An Equal Opportunity Employer


SPRING 1973











Classroom


TEACHING EXPERIENCE WITH


DESIGN AND SIMULATION PROJECTS*


D. R. WOODS, T. W. HOFFMAN and
A. I. JOHNSON
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Two media are used to convey creative and
innovative experience to seniors at McMaster:
a four-credit course to illustrate the fundamentals
and the overall strategy for solving open-ended
problems.1 and a four-credit project laboratory
that has no lectures. This paper describes some
of our experiences with the project laboratory.

OBJECTIVES

Some educational objectives for a project
laboratory are given in Table 1. We would expect
to teach our students or give them experience in:

* Creativity and Evaluation. Creativity can be defined
as the ability to generate alternatives to satisfy a set
of criteria. More detailed elaborations on the meaning of
these terms are given by Bloom et al.2 for levels 5 and 6.
We want them to learn how to generate the alternatives,
to ask the right questions, to identify criteria and to test
if an idea matches the criteria and is sound.
* Problem definition. We want our students to learn how
to define a problem once the questions have been posed.
Preferrably the problem is real and not imaginary. This
gives the students confidence that they can operate in the
real world.
* Problem formulation when the problems are open-
ended with unknown phenomena and data, and theory
may not be available. This helps to develop engineering
judgement.
* Problem solution that illustrates how fundamental
scientific knowledge is applied in practice, shows that
multiple solutions exist with the accuracy of the solu-
tions depending upon the original questions asked, and
the resources available. The solution of the problem
should provide a sense of accomplishment in solving a
problem that no one else has solved. They should learn
the importance of a particular answer in the context of
a bigger system.

*Based on a paper presented by D. R. Woods at the
153rd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society
Miami Beach, April 10, 1967 and one presented by T. W.
Hoffman at the ASEE Conference at Clarkson College of
Technology, Oct. 15, 1971.


* Dealing with large interacting systems which means
the scheduling and apportioning of time and energy to
meet deadlines.
* Working with people; his fellow classmates, with
graduate students, with (not against) professors, and
with engineers, scientists and technicians in industry. He
is working as a member of a team mounted together
against a problem. The experienced engineers interact
almost on a one-to-one basis and demonstrate the im-
portance of a logical attack of the problem.

We used a systems approach in which the ex-
pertise of each of the several faculty involved was
used. The projects can also serve such depart-
mental objectives as to encourage multidiscipli-
nary attacks on problems and getting professors
to work together, to establish good liaison with
industry and a better appreciation of their prob-
lems, to introduce industry to the department, its
staff, students and curriculum, to introduce and

TABLE 1
S__yCTlES UNDERGRADUATE PROJECTS

E XPER I E N C E IN:

1. CREATIVITY (SYNTHESIS) AND EVALUATION
TEST IF IDEA SOUND
NEED TO ASK RIGHT QUESTIONS
2. PROBLEM DEFINITION
DEFINE PROBLEM ONCE QUESTIONS POSED
3. PROBLEM FORMULATION
OPEN-END PROBLEMS. UNKNOWN PHENOMENA, UNAVAILABLE DATA
(DEVELOP ENGINEERING JUDGEMENT)
4. PROBLEM SOLUTION
TRANSLATING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE TO PRACTICE
PLACE OF SOPHISTICATED ENGINEERING SCIENCE & MATHEMATICS
IN REAL WORLD
IDEA OF MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS ACCURACY OF ACTUAL SOLUTION
DETERMINED BY TIME & MONEY CONSTRAINTS OR ACCURACY
REQUIRED-TO ANSWER ORIGINAL QUESTIONS
SENSE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT
5. DEALING WITH LARGE INTERACTING SYSTEMS
SCHEDULING, APPORTIONING TIME & ENERGY TO MEET DEADLINES
6. WORKING WITH PEOPLE
TEAM, ENGINEERS


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




























illustrate how the latest fundamental concepts
can be applied to practical problems and finally to
yield spin-off for research ideas.
Traditionally many of these or similar ob-
jectives are achieved through a design or research
project. Our experience has been that these ob-
jectives can be achieved extremely well through a
simulation of an existing chemical or industrial
process.
Students see the details and processing hard-
ware of a real process and are faced with the
problem of obtaining a consistent set of data. Fur-
thermore, simulation can be viewed as the central
link among design, research and operations.
Since 1963 we have experimented with the
mechanics of running the projects, and the type
of project. The characteristics of some of these are
summarized in Table 2. In all the projects someone
coordinated the project and all or most of the staff
participated; the problem had a realistic need and
a real plant; and the students presented their
results before the company representatives.
The technical aspects of how to simulate are
summarized elsewhere.3 In this paper we empha-


A. I. Johnson has teaching and research interests in
computer aided process analysis and design. He has
taught at Johns Hopkins University, the University of
Toronto, McMaster University, and is currently Dean of
Engineering Science at the University of Western Ontario.
He is Chairman of the Associate Committee on Automatic
Control of the National Research Council of Canada,
a member of the CACHE Committee of the National
Academy of Engineering, and a member of several tech-
nical and professional societies. (Left photo)

T. W. Hoffman works for and consults with Hercules
Inc. He teaches, consults and does research in heat trans-
fer, fluidized and transported bed reactor systems and
in process systems analysis and simulation.
D. R. Woods worked with Distillers Co. Ltd., British
Geon, Unilever, Imperial Oil and Polymer Corp. Ltd. His
interests are in fluid dynamics and surface phenomena,
separation of particulate systems, information manage-
ment, economics and plant design. (Right photo)


size how to use simulation projects in education.
In discussing this we find it beneficial to trace the
evolution of our approach. This may bring out
more clearly what difficulties and advantages
different approaches offer. Then the advantages
and disadvantages of the different approaches


YEAR 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 67- 68 68 69 1969 1970
TYPE OF PROJECT Design Simulate Design Simulate Simulate Simulate Economic Develop- Simulate
ment Simulation
TOPIC Styrene Sulfuric Sulfuric Alkylation Alkylation Bayer Process Hydrocarbon Waste Water
Acid Acid Processing
STARTING None None Previous None Previous Grad course Ph.D Theses Lab Data from
BACKGROUND Year's Year plus Simulation Simulations Grad Course
Simulation Summer
STUDENTS 5 work 8 together Two teams of 8 together 6 together 11 together 8 together 12 together
independently 6 each
STAFF 2 Coordinate 1 Coordinate 1 Coordinate 1 Coordinate 2 Coordinate 1 Coordinate 1 Coordinate 2 Coordinate
(DRW,AEH) 3 (AIJ) 4 (CMC) 1 (AEH) (AIJ-TWH) 5 (TWH) 4 (AIJ) 2 (TWH-DRW) 2
available assigned to assigned to assigned assigned to assigned pro- assigned to assigned to
for con- equipment each team. equipment equipment cess area equipment equipment
sulting Others avail. area
COOPERATING COMPANY Dow CIL CIL Shell Shell Alcan Polymer BP Refinery
Polymer _
GRADUATE ASSISTANTS 0 1 3 7 4 5 4 4
TIME CALENDAR 80 100 100 120 120 120 120 120
MAN-HRS ESTIMATED 80 350 200 170 to 220 300 250 350 480
COMPUTER TIME Mins. 0 6000 1800 3000 3000
AVAILABILITY OF Chem.Eng. -Crowe et al (1971)
RESULTS AND Education Shannon Shaw(1969)
REFERENCES Woods and t al (1966) Project Project Project Project
REE____RN__EoHamielec t al (1966) Report Report Report __Report


SPRING 1973










are summarized. Finally, we offer suggestions and -----------
encouragement to others to try this approach. .. ...-...
lI
DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFIC EVALUATION

An evaluation from both student and faculty
viewpoints was made of the approach taken and
the project accomplishments for the projects listed
in Table 2. This is available 4-27 or in summary
form by writing to the authors directly.

Shaw20 extended this work to include the economic and [ ..... ...
business considerations. His simulation is now given to
the seniors in the complementary course on 'Cost Esti- -
mation .and Process Analysis' (1) as a project in im-
proving the operation of the plant.

A sample evaluation is given for the Group
Simulation of a Bayer Plant (1968-69). .

Description of Approach: The class simulated the Bayer ..,
process for the production of alumina from bauxite. The
plant in question was owned and operated by the Alumi-
num Company of Canada at Arvida Quebec. Figure 1
shows the flow and information flow diagrams. The
GEMCS and MACSIM executive systems were both used.
The objectives were to simulate the complete plant to
answer economic questions relating to the interactions (a) Flow Diagram
caused by the recycle. Six specific questions posed by our
colleagues in industry were to be answered. We visited
the Arvida plant in September; throughout the year a
combination of weekly telephone calls plus visits to 90
McMaster by engineers from Alcan provided the inter- I 99 92 5 94 54
play between university and industry. No plant tests 65 112
were done by the students; they were done by the engi- 36
neers at Arvida, however. 4
As part of a graduate course in simulation and from 89 6 7 95
a short course on simulation offered at McMaster the so
preceding spring, we had already established a very ap- 9 /
proximate simulation of much of the process. Detailed 10 27 59
reports of this work were available to the students. This 29 76
process offered a unique challenge to us. It was the largest 69 8 6
and most complex process we had considered, it was over 3 78
500 miles away, some of the processing technology was o1 77
new to the students, and there was proprietory informa- 29 7'
tion. The distance and the proprietory problems were 63 3 75 62
minimized because the coordinator assumed the responsi- 16 ,7 14 64 42
ability for expediting information transfer. In particular, he (1
exercised judgement on the use of the proprietory in- 29 41
formation that was kept at McMaster rather than having 11 69 70 2 83
to request continually for clearance from Arvida. 2 '6
At McMaster, a student-graduate faculty team tackled 14- -- 14 -o
each of the five major sections of the plant (digestor, 3 3 28 33
flash evaporation, filtration and washing, primary pre- 1 1 72 7
cipitation, and secondary precipitation and washing) and 7 22 1 2 2 3 108 9 34
one team considered the overall system. The coordinator 1 19 46 54 52 52 3 49 114
assumed direct responsibility for two groups of students. 3 5 116
The groups studying the overall system investigated the 55 40 67 47 9
applicability of a newly developed time-shared executive, 43 4
GEMCS,23 the order of the process, the convergence pro- 50 45 6
motion of the simulation for each major subsection and Go
for the whole plant, and developed some models for the (b) Information flow diagram for a simulation.
material balances. Fig. 1.-The Bayer Process for the production of alumina.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Project Accomplishments: We did not achieve a con-
verged base case simulation and hence could not answer
the questions posed. The GEMCS system proved to be
easier to learn to use, to maintain and to update and
provided very rapid turn around time.
Evaluation: The project was very ambitious. In this
project, partly because of the problem of how to handle
proprietory information, partly because of the distance
between the plant and the university so that all inter-
action between industry and the team was funnelled es-
sentially through one man and partly because the in-
dividual professors in the subgroups did not assume suf-
ficient responsibility for an overall appreciation of the
system, the simulation project gradually swung so that
the coordinator was essentially leading all the groups.
As the project progressed the coordinator had to assume
too much responsibility and the subgroup leaders with-
drew rather than advancing to assume more responsi-
bility. We did not work effectively as a team.
The project partly bogged down because of a lack of
correlations of physical properties and for guidelines for
consistent terminology and units of measurement. We did
learn a lot about the strategy of solving large problems
and especially the importance of starting simply and
gradually increasing the sophistication where needed.
More use should have been made of the time-shared facili-
ties and the GEMCS system, in general, especially when
models are being developed and tested.
Despite the disappointment the students experienced
in not being able to get the complete simulation running,
they evaluated the project high because of the broad
spectrum of real, practical problems they encountered
and the involvement in a demanding problem.24

SUMMARY OF ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF THIS APPROACH

The Disadvantages: This approach requires an ex-
tremely large amount of time and effort for both staff and
students. There must be a plant engineer who is willing
to devote considerable time to the project. For the stu-
dents, this detracts from other courses and is particularly
difficult to account for in courses outside our own de-
partment.
There is a disproportionate amount of time spent on
coding the models and 'fighting' with the computer with
a relatively small amount of time available to use the
simulation imaginatively.
Finally, the students do not get an appreciation for
the costs and 'return on investment' in a company en-
vironment. Often the number of alternative operating
conditions in most plants is less than one might imagine
and many of these alternatives can be ruled out by a
serious think session.
The Advantages: We believe that the objectives listed
in Table 1 are achieved reasonably well. In particular,
these projects offer excellent industrial experience for
both students and faculty; the students gain confidence
in their ability to work in the real world and they ex-
perience real world problems with data quality, interact-
ing with people and company policies. They see processing
equipment. They learn to use the computer as a tool.
There is a definite criterion for success: the model
must match the data. In design projects there often is

SPRING 1973


insufficient feed back to show when an idea does not work.
The students are enthusiastic. They felt as though they
were working with-not against-the staff toward an out-
side objective.
The projects encourage industry-university interaction.
This is a two-way street. The companies see our students
first hand; they also see new techniques and how they
can be used to improve their processes. It brings in out-
side ideas to scrutinize our operation. The engineers meet
the university staff. The professors learn of new indus-
trial problems, and these often result in subsequent re-
search projects: the crystallization of alumina, the effect
of a filter in the microorganism recycle line in the waste
treatment process and in alkylation reactions.21
Because of the shared responsibility for the project, no
one staff member was saddled with the overwhelming
task of the design project and furthermore more ambi-
tious projects could be tackled.
Finally, such projects knit the department together;
we all must work together if the project is to succeed.

SUGGESTIONS FROM THIS EXPERIMENTATION

A survey of teachers of design indicated that
the major problems in mounting a design course
were insufficient time, choice of project topic, in-
adequate student background, vague teaching ap-
proach and creativity28. Here are our opinions on
these and other topics based on the experiments
tried.


Insufficient Time

Most of our attempts were too ambitious and
usurped the time the students could devote to
other subjects. The pressures of the presentation
day, and from the reputation of past project
achievements and from the practical test that
the predicted values must match the real plant
operation were such that other things were sacri-
ficed to try to satisfy the project objectives. The
following changes were or could be made to mini-
mize this difficulty:

1. Change the time allocation within the senior year.
The course was distributed over two semesters and the
presentation day was advanced to three weeks before ex-
aminations. Although this works reasonably well, we
still had difficulty in finishing the projects.
2. Use critical path method to advantage. We try
this every year but it works only if all the staff are con-
cerned and keep the project on the path. The overall
strategy is summarized in Figure 2. An example outline
of activities and timing is shown in Table 3.
3. Reduce the content of the project. We did this
several years when we realized that the scope was broad.
However, in retrospect, it should be done for each project
because even as our experience has developed we still
have not been able to reach our objectives. By reducing
the content we mean supplying physical property pack-
ages and simple base case simulations, etc.












DEFINE

SHOULD WE SIMULATE ? NO

WHAT QUESTIONS ARE TO BE ANSWERED ?

LEARN PROCESS 8 OPERATIONS

SELECT STREAM LIST I
|COLLECT AVAILABLE DATA

CONSTRUCT INFORMATION FLOW DIAGRAM

PERFORM PLANT SUFFICIENT CORROBORATING DATA ?
TESTS YES
SENSITIVITY ATTEMPT BASE CASE SIMULATION
ANALYSIS DEVELOP CONVERGENCE PROMOTION
CONTROL MODELS a HIERARCHY
RUN BASE CASE SIMULATION
[IDENTIFY SENSITIVE VARIABLES
RESORCE--- ---- --- I
RESOURCE FLOWCHART UNIT COMPUTATIONS
ANALYSIS EC
DATA 'SUFFICIENT DATA ?
-- -- NO YES
YES SUFFICIENT N /
TIME,MONEY--

SREPHRASE INSUFFICIENT MONEY, TIME ?
QUESTIONS? W I
DEVELOP
MODELS WRITE UNIT COMPUTATIONS
STUDY
SYSTEM REDUCE EXECUTION TIME

MODELS ACCURATE ENOUGH ? -NO

ANSWER QUESTIONS

Fig. 2.-Overall strategy for developing a simulation [From Crowe
et al. (1971)].

4. Having the students, graduate students and staff
work as a team. It used to be fashionable, and indeed still
is, to have the staff serve only as consultants and to
charge a fee for consulting. We have avoided such ap-
proaches and believe that the team effort is very beneficial.
A factor in knitting the team together is that the staff
often knows very little about the process or possibly
even about the processing technology, but the students
and staff acquire this knowledge together. In assigning
the staff and the students to the parts of the plant, we
have found it is better to allocate people to the sections
of the plant rather than to unit operations or equipment
scattered throughout the whole plant.
5. By providing additional experience on topics re-
lated to the project in previous or concurrent courses.
Since most of us cooperate on the project, we are aware
of the student's problems and can use the project prob-
lems as examples in other senior year courses. This has
been tried but does not supply significant relief. An idea
that has not been explored in detail yet is to assign a
process in the sophomore year and keep the project and
the class together in the subsequent years. Some examples
of the distribution of content is shown in Table 4. To a
limited extent, this was tried with the fat hydrolysis
project in that the second year students prepared mass and
energy balances on parts of this plant in the sophomore


TABLE I
OUTLINE OF PROJECT ACTIVITIES


TIME ACTIVITIES
Spring pre- Screen possible projects.
ceeding the Contact company and begin making arrangements for interested
project faculty to contact the company.
Summer pre- Collect some data, perhaps have simple model simulation
ceeding the started, prepare physical property package. Perhaps have a
project summer student project either at University or in Industry.
Fall Pro2ect Starts-With Senior Students:
October Visit plant, learn process, identify objectives
and questions to be answered.
Nov. & Dec. Develop information flow diagram simple models
Jan. 4-10 Finish formulating, programming and testing
models. Adjust parameters to meet base case
conditions.
Jan. 11-17 Plant case studies; finish parameter ad-
justment and deal with convergence problem.
Jan. 18-24 Prepare for plant tests; develop new models.
Finish preparation for tests and new models.
Start writing description of plant.
Jan. 25-30 Carry out plant tests.
Feb. 1- 7 Analyze plant data; establish new base case;
parameter adjustment for new base case.
Write report on data collection.
Feb. 8-14 Develop economic models; start new models.
Feb. 15-21 STUDY BREAK
Complete new models; case studies, write
description of models.
Mar. 1- 6 Finish case studies; write report on case
studies conclusions. Submit brief report
for presentation day to company for approval.
Mar. 7-13 Finish complete report and typing.
Mar. 15 Presentation day.
April Submit complete report to company for approval
for publication.
June & July Send authorized report to interested people

mass and energy balance course using the GEMCS execu-
tive system and then studied in depth the system in the
final year.
6. By streamlining communications. We had weekly
meetings organized by the coordinator to keep everyone
aware of the progress. Everyone-all participating staff,
graduate assistants and students-must attend and have
done their homework.
7. By having two coordinators with one assuming
the responsibility for writing the report and all com-
munications and the other concentrating on getting a
converged simulation and answering the questions posed
at the start of the project. This is particularly important
at the end of the project.


Choice of the Project Topic

It is difficult to select a good topic. The objec-
tives of the project must be feasible; the problem
should be realistic and timely. An industry with a
problem they can talk about must be found.

It is easy to simulate for the sake of simulating;
what is needed are some meaningful questions that need
answers. Consider first the question of whether to have
a project to simulate or to design. An elaboration on the
distinction between simulation and design is given else-
where.3 Computer aided design is always feasible but
computer aided simulation may not be feasible because we
cannot adequately describe the operation of the equip-
ment or even identify the information that should be
transferred. From an educational viewpoint, whether the
project is one of simulation or of design is debatable.
What is missing in the design project is the importance
of the consequences of the design decisions. The students


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










TABLE 4
SBUOESTEOIHTUROCTIOBETWEEN THE.PROECT.040 OTHER.COURSES

YEAR COURSE CONTENT AND CONTRIBUTION TOWARD OVERALL PROJECT
Sophomore Mass and Energy Mass and energy balance. Introduction to the
B.lnce.s executive system .
Information Literature review, collection of physical properties,
I nagement visit to the plant. Systems cepts. Computer
Programmingo
Junior Heat Transfer Unit Computations for Heat exchange equipment
Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Study and Unit Computations for reactor
Statistics ,Correlation models, discrimination & sensitivity studies
Senior Reaction Kinetics Models of reactors.
Reactor Design
Process' control Convergence oromotion, linear systems work,control and
dynamic system study.
Cost Estimation & Cost and business aspects.
Process Analysis
Diffuslonal Models of Separation Devices
Operations
Project Overall study of process design and process
improvement.


under usual academic conditions know that they do not
have to build their designs; they only propose them. De-
signing can however be creative. Simulation projects on
the other hand normally lack the abundance of oppor-
tunities for creative thinking. However, they do present
strong feedback about the student's decisions. The stu-
dents see and must live with the accuracy and funda-
mentals they incorporate into their models. They also
very clearly see the importance of starting simply and
the law of optimum sloppiness.
From an industrial viewpoint, a simulation experience
points out to the young engineer the challenge of im-
proving plants and problems of production and often
illustrates the interplay among design, research and
development and plant operations. All too often the stu-
dents leave from traditional programs with the impres-
sion that the only worthwhile activity for an engineer is
design. On the other hand, companies use computer aided
design, but the merits of a simulation of existing processes
in industry rests with a careful cost-benefit study. Thus,
the student may be using simulation not necessarily as
a new tool to use upon graduation, but as an extremely
good medium for achieving what we believe are worth-
while objectives as listed in Table 1.
Regardless of the relative merits of design versus simu-
lation, with either, the students acquire a strategy for
solving large complex problems and an appreciation of
how to consider the interaction among equipment units.
Consider now the choice of topic assuming that it is for
a simulation project.
From our experience it is very important to have a
project that the students feel is important and not just
an academic exercise. Furthermore, a timely and signifi-
cant project makes it easier to shift the emphasis so that
the students are working with the staff.
Timely, realistic problems where non-trivial
contributions can be made are difficult to find.
First a cooperating company is needed with a
process where some arrangement can be made
about proprietory information. There must be
some engineer at the plant who is willing to de-
vote considerable time to the project. Next the


project must have some interest to sufficient staff
members that a viable simulation group can be
mounted. At least one of the group must have
systems experience and knowledge of the execu-
tive program. There must be enough fundamental
knowledge and plant data available that there is
some hope of generating a simulation that can be
extrapolated beyond the base case conditions.
Finally, ready access to the computer and the
enthusiastic cooperation of the staff of the com-
puting center are needed. For example, the sul-
furic acid plant had relatively simple technology,
a willingness on the part of the company to col-
lect extensive additional data. When we entered
into the project the objective was more to see if
it could be done rather than to suggest improve-
ments although later experience, such as the
changes in stack gas emission regulations and
the fact that CIL was building a new plant at
Copper Cliff, gave us future use for the models,
and the data were used for subsequent research
programs.10 The alkylation plant lacked a funda-
mental knowledge for the reactor and the de-
canters. Yet, this process had a number of pro-
cessing alterations that were of interest to the
company. This work was continued as research
projects20',21 The Bayer process was- extremely
complicated, but it was a very important national
industry and there definitely were questions to be
answered. This work was continued as a research
project and as consulting. Because of the im-
portance of the pulp and paper industry to Canada
we did a feasibility study of a simulation of the
grinding and screening circuits of a local pulp
and paper mill. We found that insufficient data
were available for an adequate simulation. For the
waste treatment process, we had the choice of a
domestic treatment plant or an industrial treat-
ment process. We chose the latter because it had
many more possibilities for alternative processing
sequences.
In our graduate course program on water and
waste water a number of pertinent experiments
were done before the project was started. Con-
cerning data, there was a lot of information in
the traditional units of measurement namely
BOD, COD. However, we wanted to do -carbon
balances so that this project required that we
collect and analyze a lot of data.
We made colored movies of some of our earlier
simulation exercises and used these in discussions
with companies with prospective processes we
would like to study.


SPRING 1973








Other characteristics of the project that we
looked for were that it would offer some experi-
ence in collecting and analyzing plant data, and
the process should have some recycle or processing
alternatives.
In summary, useful projects can be located
provided a cooperating company can be found.

Inadequate Student Background
Care must be taken to ensure that the stu-
dents have a good background in computer pro-
gramming and in numerical methods. Otherwise
the project becomes one large debugging exercise.
They also should have a good background in unit
operations and some appreciation of the structure
of processes and of a strategy for tackling large
problems.
Consider computer programming; we intro-
duce computer programming in the fall semester
of the sophomore year as part of an information
management course. This is used in the spring
semester of a course on mass and energy bal-
ances. Sometimes as a project in this course, the
students work on a simple simulation of a real
process. Confidence in searching the literature,
interpreting data and communication is given to
the students in the information management
course.
Experience in handling large, complex pro-
jects and some appreciation of the structure of
processes is given in the Cost Estimation and Pro-
cess Development course.1

Teaching Approach
Our emphasis is to teach by working with the
students. Our most successful attempts were
when we assigned the students to work with spe-
cific staff members and graduate assistants. Any
barriers that might impede the close cooperation
between the groups can be minimized by removing
any consulting fee structure. Keeping the lines
of communication as smooth as possible can be
achieved by specifying standard formats for pro-
grams, by the liberal use of comment cards in the
program, by standard units and nomenclature, by
keeping binders of pertinent references, measured
data, and group progress reports readily avail-
able to all. Attendance at the progress meetings,
often weekly meetings, should be mandatory for
all. One or more rooms should be set aside as
project rooms where the critical path chart can
be displayed.
The coordinator of this activity can be very


busy, and probably this should be his sole under-
graduate teaching responsibility in the spring
semester.
A second requirement, besides the mechanics
discussed so far, is that the project must be di-
rected towards an objective that allows the stu-
dents and the staff to join forces. This starts by
having a presentation day to which many outside
people are invited. In addition, with the design or
simulation project handled in conjunction with a
company, the staff and students learn the know-
how and technology about the process together.
This helps to weld the staff-student team and also
illustrates to the students the approach the staff
takes to come to grips with the problem quickly.
A second question about the teaching approach
is whether this should be an individual or group
project. We feel that it does not make much dif-
ference. Indeed probably a group project has more
merit because of the importance of team effort
in industry. The student working on his own sees
the complete process and is responsible for all
decisions and their implications. However, he does
not gain the depth in one area. The student as a
member of a team learns the importance of team
work but he sees a limited area in depth. Either
way is beneficial, and we do not feel that one has
a definite advantage.
A final question about teaching approach con-
cerns balancing the experience the different stu-
dent-staff groups obtain. For many processes the
fluid mechanical problems are relatively trivial;
perhaps this group could work on the simple
models to get the simulation started, the optimi-
zation models or help with the complete plant
simulation. The physical properties should not
be the responsibility of a student party.

Synthesis (Level 5) and Evaluation (Level 6)
Experience
We have found that to get students to be
creative we need to do more than offer the oppor-
tunity. An open-ended problem specification is
just the beginning. For example, in the individual
design project4 all the students chose the same,
fairly well-defined, well-described process. None
tried an innovation.
To combat this we placed the constraint that
they could not design the well-described process
from the literature (because the outside com-
mittee would purchase the turn-key plant from
well-established contractors). They had to present
an innovation. This system worked well.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The simulation projects offer opportunities
for synthesis and evaluation as well. Throughout
the project the student faces such questions as:
In Establishing the Base Case:
* What alternative questions can be asked about the
process and which ones can we achieve with the re-
sources available? The student needs to establish the
appropriate criteria and judge the various alternative
questions he has generated.
* What subquestions must I answer to identify the level,
sophistication and type of model to build into each
information Unit Computation?
* How do I change the modeling so that the model re-
sponds more closely to the real plant?
* What data do I need to adequately test my model, how
can I collect the data without interfering with plant
operation, how do I interpret the data?
* What strategies, policies and methods do I use to get
the simulation to converge?
In Using The Model For Plant Improvement:
* What criteria satisfactorily describe "improved op-
eration"?
* How can operation be improved, does the model agree
with my expectations and if so, why and if not, why
not?
Thus, there is adequate scope for the students to ex-
perience synthesis and evaluation.

SUMMARY

Many have expressed interest in our final year
projects, some have questioned the educational
value of simulation as opposed to design, others
have wondered how we run the program, while
still others are interested in the details of indi-
vidual projects.
In this paper, we have tried to answer these
questions. The paper is written for both indus-
trialists and educators because without the en-
thusiastic response of industry such projects as
described here cannot be undertaken. We have
tried to point out the advantages and disadvan-
tages from both the industry's and the univer-
sity's viewpoints.
In the paper, a number of years of experience
in experimenting with design and simulation
projects are summarized. We feel that simulation
projects have a lot to offer educators as a means
of offering to the students experience in problem
definition, formulation and solution, dealing with
large interacting systems, working with people
and synthesis (creativity). While it might be
argued that more opportunity for synthesis exists
in a design project, the degree of student enrich-
ment depends upon the initial constraints placed
on the design project. Furthermore, a surprising
amount of synthesis is experienced by the stu-


dents in the simulation projects we have studied.
In addition, simulation projects offer the students
experience in dealing with real processing equip-
ment, problems of collecting and establishing a
consistent set of data and immediate feedback to
show when a decision was made correctly.
In addition, the projects offer benefits to the
faculty and to the participating company.
Suggestions are given for the optimimum use
of the time available, the choice of project topic
and the type of background needed by the student.
We elaborate on the teaching approach we use
and the type of synthesis and evaluation experi-
ence that the students can experience.

REFERENCES
1. Woods, D. R., "Innovations in a Process Design &
Development Course," Chem. Eng. Ed., 2, No. 4
162 (1968).
2. Bloom, B. S. et al., "Taxonomy of Educational Objec-
tives: Handbook I: Cognitive Domain," David McKay
Co., New York (1956).
3. Crowe, C. M., Hamielec, A. E., Hoffman, T. W.,
Johnson, A. I., Shannon, P. T. & Woods, D. R.,
Chemical Plant Simulation, Prentice-Hall (1971).
4. Woods, D. R. & Hamielec, A. E., "Evaluation of an
Approach to Plant Design," Chem. Eng. Ed. 1, 3,
p. 52 (1966).
5. Shannon, P. T., Johnson, A. I., Crowe, C. M., Hoffman,
T. W., Hamielec, A. E. & Woods, D. R., "Computer
Simulation of a Sulfuric Acid Plant," Chem. Eng.
Prog. 62, 6 p. 49 (1966).
6. Coome, M. G., Disaivo, P. A., Friedman, P., Mc
Gregor, J., Pacey, W., Patel, G. K., Renaud, G. &
Yallop, J., "A Study of a Contact Sulfuric Acid
Plant Using PACER," Final year Report, Chem.
Eng. Dept., McMaster University, Spring (1965).
7. Friedman, P., "A Student Evaluation of the Final
Year Undergraduate Project, contribution to "The
Digital Computer Simulation of a Contact Sulfuric
Acid Plant Using PACER," Paper presented at the
C.I.C. Conference, Quebec City, October 1965.
8. "Computer Simulation in the Chemical Industry,"
Chemistry in Canada, p. 46, Sept. (1965).
"Digital Computer Mirrors a Real Chemical Plant,"
Chem. Eng. Sept. 27 (1965).
"Computers and Chemistry," CIL oval Fall (1965).
"PACER in the news," British Chemical Engineering,
January (1966).
9. Shannon, P. T., "The Integrated Use of the Digital
Computer in Chemical Engineering Education," Chem.
Eng. Ed., March (1963).
Mosler, H. A., "PACER-A Digital Computer Ex-
ecutive Program for Process Simulation and Design,"
M.S. Thesis, Chemical Engineering Department, Pur-
due University (1964).
10. Chartrand, G., "Optimization of the Oxidation of Sul-
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SPRING 1973









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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is with pleasure that we acknowledge the coopera-
tion and participation of our colleagues at McMaster and
in industry.
At McMaster
C. M. Crowe, A. E. Hamielec, M. H. I. Baird, K. G.
Pollock, J. D. Norman, K. L. Murphy, J. D. Raal, R. B.
Anderson, J. W. Hodgins, G. L. Keech, W. H.
Fleming & D. J. Kenworthy.
Our undergraduate and graduate students since 1963
who participated in the projects.
From Industry
Canadian Industries Ltd., N. E. Cooke, J. T. Woyzbun,
C. D. Atherton, G. M. Cameron, C. A. Miller, H.
M. Jones, J. A. Labash, R. H. Geist & J. D. Mc-
Irvine.
Shell Canada Ltd. I. J. 0. Korchinski, 0. K. Miniato,
R. C. Brawn, B. Kopp, J. B. Rico, G. G. Myers & R. J.
Leflar.
The Aluminum Company of Canada Ltd. H. S. Mona-
han, K. I. Verghese, R. P. Brown, P. F. Bagatto and
J. A. Fraser.
The Polymer Corporation Ltd. D. E. McLellan, P. M.
Reilly, W. Komarnicky, N. J. Little, D. W. Montgomery,
William Porter, W. N. Brown & A. J. Newton.
B.P. Refinery Canada Ltd., A. R. Hale, N. A. Barron,
R. S. Manson, W. Oliver & J. DeVries.
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the
Chemical Engineering Division of the Chemical Institute
of Canada, the National Research Council, the Department
of University Affairs of the Province of Ontario, and
and the Canadian General Electric Co. of Canada.

PINGS: (Continued from p. 94)
between their senior year and first year of gradu-
ate school should be in industry and there should
be a greater volume by an order of magnitude of
summer jobs. Students and faculty should be find-
ing out what is going on. I think that is probably
the most effective way that industry is going to
change and influence what goes on in our uni-
versity life.
So if I could sum up, I think there is a prob-
lem and a challenge. I would suggest that the
solutions to our deficiencies will not come about
from committees or reports or discussions, even
like this one tonight, or from revisions of curricu-
lum. I think basically they are going to come about
from involving more people on both sides, stu-
dents going into industry in the summer, indus-
trial people coming on to our engineering facul-
ties, and greater involvement of our faculties in
part-time and consulting bases in industrial po-
sitions. If this happens, I don't think we are
going to be able to stop the inevitable, and we will
evolve towards a more effective graduate pro-
gram. E


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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