Citation

## Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

## Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

## Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
AA00000383_00038 ( sobekcm )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

## UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

Full Text

FALL 1972 VOL. 6, NO. 4
z
PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER Bell
|z EQUILIBRIUM THEORY Chao & Greenkorn
,BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT Cooney
z
LLI
| MODELING Curl & Kadlec ;i|
k :SURFACE CHEMISTRY Gainer
TRANSPORTT PHENOMENA Slottery
S**ION PROJECT .. Kelleher & Kafes
z ENTREPRENEURSHIP Douglas & Kittrell ',

Graduate ChE at Loughborough ....... FRESHWATER & LEES A
SA Plan for Graduate Student Research .... ... NEWMAN
Z Examining Trends in Grading ........ WHITWELL & LAPIDUS :
O

- CH E PIONEER

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IA

I!

Your parents didn't put you through school

to work for the wrong company.

We think we're the right company.
We're big, but not too big.
We've climbed halfway up Fortune's
Directory of 500 Largest Corporations.
But compare the share of sales that
paper companies plow back into research.
Suddenly, we're no less than second.
What does this mean when you're
considering a career in paper production?
It means that production engineering
at Westvaco is influenced by continuous
research feedback. It means lots
of development work. Diversification.
Excitement. Research has given us
processes and equipment to make better

papers for printing, packaging, and
structures. But we need to continually
improve our processes. Speed them up.
Make them more efficient. That's your job.
Research has given us useful by-products,
coatings, pharmaceuticals, inks and waxes.
systems to alleviate water pollution.
But we need good engineers to recover
these by-products more efficiently. To
improve them. To find new uses for them.
In our company, working with paper
and paper by-products can mean good
careers in design engineering,

fluid dynamics, specialty chemicals,
process control, process R & D
and product development. And more.
Chances are, whatever you liked
and did best in college, we're doing
right now. And doing it well.
But find out for yourself. See our
campus representative, or contact
Andy Anderson, Westvaco,
299 Park Avenue, New York 10017.
Remember, all your parents want for
you is the best of everything. The least
you could do is join the right company.
Westvaco
An equal opportunity employer

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Publications Board and Regional
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Chairman of Publication Board
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631
CENTRAL: James H. Weber
Richard S. Mayer
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio 45701
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
EAST: Miguel Hnatow
New York University
New York, N.Y. 10453
G. Michael Howard
University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268
George D. Keeffe
Newark College of Engineering
Newark, New Jersey, 07102
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14214
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES
UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers
University of California
Santa Barbara, California 93106
INDUSTRIAL: E. P. Bartkus
Secretary's Department
E. I. du Pont de Nemours
Wilmington, Delaware 19898

Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 4 FALL 1972

4Ocles o7 Qgduate cies
154 Process Heat Transfer: "Sufficient Con-
clusions From Insufficient Premises"
Kenneth J. Bell
158 Equilibrium Theory of Fluids
K. C. Chao and R. A. Greenkorn
162 Biological Transport Phenomena and Bio-
medical Engineering
David 0. Cooney
166 Modeling
Rane L. Curl and Robert H. Kadlec
171 Applied Surface Chemistry
John L. Gainer
174 Momentum, Energy, and Mass Transfer
John C. Slattery
178 Process and Plant Design Project
Edward G. Kelleher and Nicholas Kafes
181 Engineering Entrepreneurship
J. M. Douglas and J. R. Kittrell

Departments
147 Editorial
150 Founder
Reminiscences of B. F. Dodge by
Charles A. Walker
International
D. C. Freshwater and F. P. Lees
148 Letters
J. C. Whitwell and L. Lapidus

173
152
188

Problems for Teachers
News
Book Review

Feature Articles
194 A Plan for Graduate Student Research in
Engineering James A. Newman

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 87 .
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per year,$6 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright @ 1972, Chemical Engineering Division of American Society for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days. FALL 1972 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INDUSTRIAL SPONSORS: e 0dlloauMf compares la0e datled a d a te upotd of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION d&zidu 1972.: C F BRAUN & CO MONSANTO COMPANY MALLINCKRODT CHEMICAL CO THE 3M COMPANY STANDARD OIL (INDIANA) FOUNDATION, Inc. DEPARTMENTAL SPONSORS: h folloi i 133 dpa4tnea ce coailaed t.e a ppoed 0o CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Ai 1972 University of Akron University of Alabama University of Alberta Arizona State University University of Arizona University of Arkansas Auburn University Brigham Young University University of British Columbia Bucknell University University of Calgary University of California (Berkeley) University of California, Davis University of California (Santa Barbara) California Institute of Technology California State Polytechnic College Carnegie-Mellon University Case-Western Reserve University Clarkson College of Technology Clemson University Cleveland State University University of Colorado Colorado School of Mines Columbia University University of Connecticut Cooper Union Cornell University University of Delaware University of Denver University of Detroit Drexel Institute of Technology Ecole Polytech, Canada University of Florida Georgia Institute of Technology University of Houston Howard University University of Idaho University of Illinois (Urbana) University of Illinois (Chicago Circle) Illinois Institute of Technology Iowa State University University of Iowa University of Kansas Kansas State University University of Kentucky Lafayette College Lamar University Laval University Lehigh University Loughborough University (England) Louisiana Polytechnic Institute Louisiana State University University of Louisville McGill University McMaster University University of Maine Manhattan College Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Massachusetts University of Michigan Michigan State University Michigan Technological University University of Minnesota Mississippi State University University of Mississippi University of Missouri, Rolla University of Missouri (Columbia) Montana State University University of Nebraska City University of New York New York University University of New Mexico New Mexico State University University of New Brunswick University of New Hampshire University of New South Wales North Carolina State University University of North Dakota Northwestern University University of Notre Dame Nova Scotia Technical College Ohio University Ohio State University University of Oklahoma Oklahoma State University Oregon State University University of Ottawa University of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University University of Pittsburgh Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Princeton University Purdue University University of Quebec Queen's University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University of Rhode Island University of Rochester University of Saskatchewan South Dakota School of Mines University of Southern California State University of N. Y. at Buffalo Stevens Institute of Technology Syracuse University Technion, Israel Tennessee Technological University University of Tennessee Texas A&I University University of Texas at Austin Texas A&M University University of Toledo University of Toronto Tri-State College Tufts University University of Tulsa University of Utah Vanderbilt University Villanova University University of Virginia Wayne State University Washington State University Washington University University of Washington University of Waterloo University of Western Ontario West Virginia Institute of Technology West Virginia University University of Wisconsin Worcester Polytechnic Institute University of Wyoming Yale University University of Windsor Youngstown State University CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school. In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them. Should you go to graduate school? Through the papers in this special graduate education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa- tion invites you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional de- velopment. We believe that you will find that graduate work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate study can provide you with insurance against the increasing danger of technical obsolescence. Furthermore, we believe that graduate research work under the guidance of an inspiring and in- terested faculty member will be important in your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity. What is taught in graduate school? In order to familiarize you with the content of some of the areas of graduate chemical engineering, we are continuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate courses as they are taught by scholars at various universi- ties. Previous issues included articles on applied mathe- matics, transport phenomena, reactor design, fluid dy- namics, particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional operations, computer aided design, statistical analysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and certain special- ized areas such as air pollution, biomedical and biochemi- cal engineering. We strongly suggest that you supple- ment your reading of this issue by also reading the articles published in previous years. If your department chairman or professors cannot supply you with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before you read the articles in these issues we wish to point out that (1) there is some variation in course content and course organiza- tion at different schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical engineering that we have not been able to cover, and (3) the professors who have written these articles are not the only authorities in these fields nor are their departments the only ones that emphasize that particular area of study. What is the nature of chemical engineering graduate research? One way in which you can obtain an answer to this question is to read papers in the technical publications; but another way you may obtain insight into graduate research is to learn some- thing about the people who are outstanding chemical engineering scholars. To assist you in doing so we are again this year including an article on one of the "Founders of Chemical En- gineering," the late Professor B. F. Dodge of Yale University. Dr. Dodge has not only made numerous significant contributions to the litera- ture, but he has also had an enormous impact on his students-many of whom are the unseen readers of his excellent pioneering thermody- namics text. Where should you go to graduate school? It is common for a student to broaden himself by doing graduate work at an institution other than the one from which he receives his bachelor's degree. Fortun- ately there are many very fine chemical engineering departments and each of these has its own "personality" with special emphases and distinctive strengths. For example, in choosing a graduate school you might first consider which school is most suitable for your own future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a specific research project in mind, you might want to attend a university which emphasizes that area and where a prominent specialist is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if you are unsure of your field of research, you might consider a department that has a large faculty with widely diversified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a small enrollment of graduate students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by writing the schools that have provided information on their graduate programs in the back of this issue. You will probably also wish to seek advice from members of the faculty at your own school. But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that you explore the possibility of continuing your education in graduate school. Sincerely, RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE University of Florida Gainesville, Florida DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN: See page 189. FALL 1972 I^ letters] EXAMINING TRENDS IN GRADING Sir: In the period including May 1961 through May 1971, 173 students stood for the general examinations for the doctorate in chemical engineering at Princeton. During that period a number of minor procedural changes were made in the conduct of the examinations and a substantial number of changes were made in the faculty which formulated and graded these examinations. At the same time there appeared to be little change in number and quality of students applying for, and accepting admission to, the doctorate program. The numbers of foreign students had, however, increased appreciably. Concern was expressed by some members of the faculty that the department was either grading or formulating the examinations progressively harder, or both. To test this hypothesis the grades were examined by an arbitrarily chosen empirical linear model containing as independent variables the date, based on zero time in May 1961 expressed in years, the years which a student had spent in residence before presenting himself for the examination, the fraction of foreign students in each group of common data and common experience, and an arbitrary index to indicate students who were taking the examination a second time, having failed on the first attempt. The number of students presenting them- selves for each examination varied widely, from a mini- mum of one to a maximum of 13. It was always necessary therefore to use absolute grades since the numbers in- volved were insufficient for any normalized or otherwise adjusted curve. The model chosen may be represented as N p+l S() I I b(k)x(ik) (1) i k where k 1,2,..., (p + 1), where p is the number of variables, i = 1,2,...,N with n(j) the number of replicates at any one point in factor space; I n(j) = N where N is the total number of experimental points (i.e., grades available), x(ik) the i-th value of variable k, b(k) the coefficient estimated by a standard least squares procedure, and Y . i-th student (i.e., the i-th value of the independent variable). Various powers of these variables and various interactions were included in the model, as indicated in Table I. The response was, of course, the numerical grade given. The results of this analysis are reported here in the hope that this sort of treatment may prove of interest to other departments who suspect similar or related problems. The data were analyzed by a regression program reported by Daniel and Wood and available through Note: Items in parentheses are to be subscripts. TABLE I. Variables Investigated X, Time in Years of Residence from May 1961: 5.2 (calculated averages) X, Experience in years: 1.31 (calculated aver- ages) Xl2 - Combinations of variables initially XL 3 thought to have possible influence and, X22 consequently, included in the initial model X, A code indicating a second try of variable X4 Fraction of foreign students SHARE or VIM*.* In order to minimize correlation be- tween variables, the approximate average value of each variable was subtracted from each item of data. Thus the model was written in terms which were essentially deviations rather than the original variables. A number of passes were made to take advantage of the various features of this program. For example, as indicated in Table I, the second and third powers of time, the second power of experience, and the interaction of time and experience were included at various times to see whether their contributions to the sums of squares removed by the models contributed appreciably to improvement of the fit of the data by the empirical equation. The Mal- lows' criterion (see Daniel and Wood, op. cit., pages 86-87) was used as an aid to judging the importance of these variables. Two techniques were used to estimate whether any individual grade might not fit the general correlation or GENERALS TREND-1; DEP VAR 1: GRADE I : : .9 .9.. 9 .4 . .. ..9 Figure 1 Cumulative Distribution of Residuals. The numbers under which these programs are registered are: SHARE, No. 360D-13.6.008; VIM, No. G2-CAL-LINWOOD. Daniel C. and Wood, F.S., Fitting Equations to Data, Wiley Interscience, 1971. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION ------------- might have undue influence on the values of the coeffi- cients estimated. One was an examination of the re- siduals, representative plots of which are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The highest and lowest points which GENERALS TREND-1; DEP VAR 1: GRADE Figure 2 Residuals vs. Fitted Y. seemed to fall off the normal line were omitted and the data rerun. No appreciable influence of these points was observed, and they were returned to the data deck. The other technique is an examination of the relative influence which any point might have in establishing the estimate of the b(k) for any variable x(k). Three suspicious points (each being an exceptionally high grade) were detected by this technique and .are therefore not includ- ed in the final analysis. TABLE II. Study of Grades on General Examinations for Last Ten Years Date is years from May 1961; DEVDAT is deviation from average for variable. Exp'ce is years experience prior to first submission for exam. DEVEXP is as with DEVDAT DVD**2 and **3 are squares and cubes of DEVDAT Model is linear combination of variables retained. Ind. Var (I) Name Coef. B(I) S. E. Coef. T-Value 0 7.78096D 01 1 DEVDAT-1.33827D 00 2 DEVEXP -6.08825D 00 3 DVD**2 -2.47099D-01 No. of observations No. of Ind. Variables Residual Degrees of Freedom F-Value Residual Root Mean Square Residual Mean Square Residual Sum of Squares Total Sum of Squares Mult. Correl. Coef. Squared 2.17D-01 6 1.51D 00 4 7.19D-02 3 170 3 166 16.6 7.33415476 53.78982609 8929.11113141 11606.40677941 .2307 The summary of the regression data is given by the computer output reproduced in Table II. It will be noted that only three parameters were needed to provide the best fit but that only about 23 percent of the original variance is accounted for by the regression model (see R2 = 0.2307). The failure of the R2 statistic to act as a discriminat- ing criterion of success for regression models is, of course, well known. In this instance it is very mislead- ing since there are many replicates whose sum of squares should be removed from the remainder after accounting for regression (marked RESIDUAL SUM OF SQUARES in Table II) in order to leave a sum of squares estimating the lack of fit. The program will not perform this calculation. It does have a technique of searching "nearest neighbors" and converging on a number which should relate closely to the square root of the replication (i.e., "error") variance. In this case 6.2 to 6.3 appears to be a reasonable approximation of this standard deviation, suggesting that the error vari- ance should be 38 to 40. Calculated independently from the truly replicated values (i.e., grades taken at the same time by students with the same months in resi- dence), the error variance is 47.04. The program thus implies that the empirical model provides an excellent fit. In the experience of one of the authors the Daniel- Wood program tends to underestimate error variance when true replicates are available. It is not possible to decide whether this underestimate is a characteristic of the method and equally true when no true replicates exist. It is certainly a helpful estimate to provide some indication of the adequacy of the model if no true repli- cates exist. TABLE III. Analysis of Variance for Lack of Fit Source of Sum of Variance Squares Total 11606.41 Due to regression 2677.30 Total from regression 8929.11 * Due to replication 6089.81 Due to lack of fit 2839.30 Mean d. f. Square 170 46.85 78.87 F(36,130) = 78.87/46.85 = 1.68 R2 after removing sum of squares due to replication 2839.3 = 1.0 0.757 11606.4 * Calculated independently In the present case an exact technique for lack of fit can be applied, as shown in Table III; the sum of squares for replication ("error") is removed from those remaining from regression and the resulting sum of squares provides a mean square which can be tested by the usual techniques of analysis of variance for lack-of-fit. As noted in Table III, the F-statistic is in the 90-95 percent region for this distribution, indicating a 5-10 percent chance that the hypothesis of zero lack- of-fit is correct. While these odds are poor by absolute standards, they are excellent for purely empirical models. From these calculations, a suitable model for the grades in the period in question is (Continued on page 193) FALL 1972 ---------------------------- ------------ ----------- .............................................. .. T ------------ ------------------------------ -------------------------------------- Founder REMINISCENCES OF BARNETT F. DODGE CHARLES A. WALKER Yale University New Haven, Conn. 06520 The record of Barnett Fred Dodge's contri- butions to his profession is clearly evident from his extensive writings on chemical engineering research, education, and practice, and in the list of honors bestowed on him by his fellow chemical engineers and others. He rated the title of ex- pert in chemical engineering thermodynamics (a field in which he wrote the book), the behavior of materials and chemical reactions at high pres- sures, industrial water pollution control, and cry- ogenic engineering, and published numerous articles on these subjects. It would be easy to expand on his accomplish- ments in research, education, administration, and consulting, but these are all in the written rec- ord, and I would prefer to turn to a more per- sonal picture of this man. The primary characteristics which come to mind in thinking about Dr. Dodge are his in- tegrity, a sense of fairness in dealing with others, his openness in personal dealings, and his in- credible sense of organization of his own efforts and those of his university and professional societies. We who were privileged to work closely with him learned early in the game that he would always keep us informed as to how we stood with him, that he trusted us to do our best, that we were left to our own devices with only mini- mum guidance from him, and that his word was as binding as any contract ever written. We learned also that it was entirely possible to en- gage with him in high-spirited arguments and then go out to a pleasant lunch! It was quite an educational experience to take a course with Dr. Dodge. The first class meet- ing usually consisted of a lecture describing some of the aims of the course, some suggestions about reading and the value of books as the best learn- ing aids available, and a few problems to be solved before the second class meeting. His prob- He taught many things other than Chemical Engineering and was particularly effective in demonstrating by his every action the supreme importance of integrity. lems seemed characteristically to be simple and straightforward but usually turned out to be neither. They forced his students to search for the basic ideas and concepts which applied to a particular problem, and it wasn't often that they could be solved without one or more false starts. The second class meeting was based on the prob- lem solutions, and from then on there were only occasionally lectures in a formal sense, but there were some very rewarding discussions. He forced his students to think deeply about the subjects he taught, and he expected them to assume a considerable part of the responsibility for their own education. His grading of problem solutions was also part of the educational process since the papers were always returned promptly with helpful comments. Putting all of this on a more personal basis, I remember well arriving at Yale some thirty years ago and "taking" Professor Dodge's grad- uate course in thermodynamics. I expected a lot because of his reputation. At first it was very puzzling. What kind of teaching was this that CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION didn't involve polished lectures by the great au- thority? I must admit that during those first few weeks I sometimes wondered how he de- veloped his reputation. Then I began to notice some things: the thought that had gone into preparing the problems, his mastery of the sub- ject matter, the clarity of his thought in answer- ing questions and in outlining new topics and concepts, and his sense of fairness and integrity. By the end of six weeks it was apparent that Dr. Dodge's teaching method consisted of creating a superb atmosphere for learning. He was equally effective in all of his teaching, whether the sub- ject matter was thermodynamics or process de- sign or high-pressure research. (Incidentally, I recently had occasion to survey the accumula- . I began to notice the thought that had gone into preparing the problems it was apparent that Dr. Dodge's teaching method consisted of creating a superb atmosphere for learning.. tion of materials in his office and began to under- stand his success. Many notebooks of problem solutions were there, some for use in classes and many which he had apparently solved just to be sure he was keeping up with his field). He taught many things other than chemical engineering and was particularly effective in demonstrating by his every action the supreme importance of integrity. In dealing with grad- uate students and colleagues he also taught us that we would get better responses in all that PROFESSOR DODGE Professor Dodge was named Dean of the School of Engineering in 1960, and oversaw the conversion of the School into Yale's current Department of Engineering and Applied Science, an integral part of Yale's graduate and undergraduate curricula, the following year. He was born in Akron, Ohio, on November 29, 1895. He earned his BS degree in chemical engi- neering from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology in 1917, and a Doctor of Science degree at Harvard University in 1925. Before enrolling at Harvard in 1922, he worked for three years for E. I. duPont deNemours & Co., chiefly on explosives, and two years for the Lewis Recovery Corporation of Boston. From 1921-25 he held lectureships in chemical engineering at Harvard and Worcester Polytechnique Institute. He was appointed to the Yale faculty in 1925 as Assistant Professor, pro- moted to Associate Professor in 1930, and to full Professor in 1935. During World War II he was an official investi- gator for the National Defense Research Council, and helped develop portable oxygen generators for the Navy. He also spent a year on leave from Yale with the Fercleve Corporation working on the Man- hattan Project at Oak Ridge, Tenn. There he direct- ed all experimental investigations and plant con- trol work on the separation of uranium isotopes. During his professional career, Prof. Dodge served as a consultant to many companies and agencies, among them the Osygen Process Corp- oration of New England, the Connecticut State Water Commission, the Tennessee Valley Authori- ty, the Phillips Petroleum Company, duPont, the H. K. Ferguson Company, Oneida, Ltd., and Brook- haven National Laboratory. He was a member of the firm of Dodge, Bliss and Walker, consultants on the treatment of fac- tory wastes, since 1951, and had been an editor of Chemical Engineering Science. As early as 1930, Professor Dodge had devised several means of controlling pollution for the Con- necticut State Water Commission, but there was little interest in the processes at the time and his ideas were not implemented. Until his death he was still active in the study of industrial waste con- trol. He also was widely known as a lecturer both in the United States and abroad. He had spoken in France under Fulbright grants at the University of Toulouse, the University of Lille and the Cath- olic University of Lille, and in Spain at the Uni- versity of Barcelona, also under State Department sponsorship. These trips gave him an opportunity to exercise his linguistic ability: in France, he lec- tured in French, and in Spain, in Spanish. In 1951 he traveled to Japan as a member of an engineering mission sponsored by the American Society for Engineering Education, and he also was invited several times to the Universidad Cen- tral de Venezuela in Caracas. In 1960 he was a National Sigma Xi Lecturer speaking at colleges and universities in the Mid- west and West, and in 1963, Reilly Lecturer at the University of Notre Dame. Professor Dodge received numerous professional honors besides the Founders Award, the most re- cent being the Warren K. Lewis Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in 1963. He was elected as the first recipient of the award for his work as an educator and researcher over the past 40 years. He received the Walker Award of the AIChE in 1950 for his contributions to chemical engineering literature, and was honored as "Man of the Month" by Chemical Engineering magazine in its February, 1954, issue. He was elected vice-president of the AIChE in 1954, and president in 1955. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1960, and served as chairman of the Academy's Engineering Committee from 1960-61. He received honorary degrees from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the University of Toulouse, and the U. Central de Venezuela, Caracas. FALL 1972 1. He forced his students to think deeply and he expected them to assume a considerable part of the responsibility for their own education. we did if we approached him not simply with a problem but with a problem and our own ideas as to a solution. Then we had his complete at- tention and benefitted from his helpful comments on our proposed solutions. He was a tolerant man in most respects and was willing to accept limitations of ability, but he was not tolerant of laziness or lack of responsibility. What else did he do? He pursued a number of hobbies with almost the same intensity and pleasure as were exhibited in his professional work. For one thing, he was a fine photographer, one of those rare people whose color slides and home movies were delights to see. He worked hard at this, and I recall that he once wrote for his own benefit a paper summarizing methods of color photography. During all of his adult life he played tennis (well), swam (capably), and climbed mountains (seriously) all over the world. At age 55 or so he added skiing and ice- skating and became quite proficient at both. There were rumors that he planned to take up golf when he reached age 80, but, alas, this was not to be. Dr. Dodge "retired" in 1964, but the only change in his habits which we were able to de- tect was in his office hours. For years they had been 8 AM to 5:30 PM, Monday through Sat- urday. In retirement they changed to 8:15 AM to 5:30 PM, Monday through Saturday. Among other accomplishments during these retirement years he wrote a book on cryogenic engineering which is now in manuscript form. Dr. Dodge's widow, Constance Woodbury Dodge, will be known to many chemical engineers who have met her and to others who know from the dedication in his book on thermodynamics, that she is a novelist "who writes more exciting books". Together they created a warm atmos- phere in the department, and many former grad- uate students here will have pleasant memories of Thanksgiving at the Dodge's, where the only thing to avoid was being matched against either of them in ping-pong. She has kindly given his technical library to Yale and has authorized the placing of the contents of his office in the archives at Yale. He is also survived by a daughter, Phil- lis Dodge Putney, and a son, Richard W. Dodge. r- News WOMEN ENGINEERS BOZEMAN, MONTANA Montana State University will set a record in 1972 in the production of girl chemical engineers. The six girls being graduated there are the largest number of female chemical engineers turned out by any U.S. university in a single year. Included in the group are, from the left, Margaret Striebel of Deer Lodge who is going with Mobil Oil Corporation at Fern- dale, Wash.; Lara Larson of Sheridan, going to grad- uate school at Montana State; Lynn Sherick of Sidney who is married to a philosophy student and who expect a tour of duty with the Peace Corps this summer; Mil- dred Liknes of Great Falls who is going to Norway for the summer before locating in the petroleum or paper industry of the Pacific Northwest; Sandra Punke of Missoula, going to the West Coast petroleum industry; and Ann Berg of Bozeman who is going to graduate school at Montana State. ....... .............. ..... ... .. . NEW EDUCATION SESSION AIChE NEW YORK MEETING To stimulate innovation in education the Education Projects and the Undergradute Education Committees of the AIChE are sponsoring a unique experience at the November 26 to 30 meeting in New York. A minisession on "Free Forum on Teaching Under- graduate Mass and Energy Balance" starts a series of sessions to bring together all those who teach or have a particular interest in a certain topic in education. A second objective is to help each other by sharing ex- perience, problems, laboratory experiments that worked, teaching techniques, information on programmed texts, slide-tape presentations, computer-aided instruction, in- (Continued on page 189) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER: "Sufficient Conclusions From Insufficient Premises" KENNETH J. BELL Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 GRADUATE EDUCATION in chemical engi- neering is overwhelmingly oriented towards preparing the student for a career in research. Yet a substantial majority 80 per cent for an arguable estimate of the total professional car- eers of chemical engineers with M.S. and Ph.D. degrees will not be in research. And, to anticipate a later point, it is conceivable that even a Ph.D. chemical engineer who spends his entire career in research or teaching would benefit from an oc- casional abrasive contact with that part of the world that he is trying to improve upon. Recognizing and accepting the above state- ments as having some useful implications for graduate education, the chemical engineering faculty at Oklahoma State University has always emphasized in both course work and research the application of fundamental principles to the sev- eral aspects of chemical engineering practice. We have also emphasized the role of problems arising in practice in pointing out the most profitable areas in which to conduct research. Further, we have found it vital to at least introduce the graduate student to the philosophy and technique of solving those engineering prob- lems which must be solved and for which avail- able theory tells us little more than what cannot be done. A majority of real problems falls in this category, and I submit that it is the failure to recognize and admit this fact that accounts for much of the estrangement between academia and industry. For the long run, one basically optimistic point of view holds that research is catching up that more and more fundamental understanding is available to underpin our solutions, and that we may witness the day when real problems may be quantitatively solved in their essentials by the rigorous application of comprehensive mathemati- cal statements of the physical and chemical pro- cesses involved, subject to socio-economic con- straints and objective functions. Another point of "Life is the art of drawing sufficient conclusions from insufficient premises." Samuel Butler, Notebooks view argues that our technological problems are growing in several dimensions more rapidly than our theories and that the role of pragmatism is expanding. There are other kinetic models of engineering knowledge that may be put forth, but the common lesson of all is that chemical engi- neers practicing in industry in the foreseeable future must be proficient in knowing how to solve problems that are not well-set mathematically and indeed may be only poorly comprehended on any level. The operational imperative is that the problems must be solved; the engineer cannot be too nice about the means. One such attempt to construct and teach a course emphasizing the solution of real, full-scale problems within this context is described here. It is not the only course so conceived and so dedi- cated either at Oklahoma State or elsewhere, but it does have certain possibly unique features that are worthy of consideration if not emulation. T HE COURSE IS Process Heat Transfer, a 3-credit hour course taught in three lectures per week for 15 weeks to all M.S. and M.Ch.E. (professional program) students in chemical engi- neering at Oklahoma State. Some undergraduate students and graduate students in other depart- ments elect the course and it is available to em- ployed engineers in a number of cities in Okla- homa via talk-back TV (more about that later). Prerequisites are the usual undergraduate courses in fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermo- dynamics; a process design course and a graduate course in transport theory are considered very desirable. Chemical engineering students have all of these courses; those from other fields will gen- erally lack the latter two. In that case, particular care must be taken to provide more detailed ex- planations and outside references. Industrial ex- perience is extremely valuable. On completion of this course, the student should be able to: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Kenneth J. Bell received his BSChE at Case Institute of Technology and his MChE and PhD degrees at the Uni- versity of Delaware, where he was a graduate assistant to the late Professor Allan Colburn. He joined Oklahoma State University in 1961 after working for General Electric and teaching at Case. He is a consultant to Phillips Petrol- eum Co. and Heat Transfer Research, Inc., and was associated with D. Q. Kern until the latter's death in 1971. 0 Find, evaluate, and use fluid dynamic and heat transfer analytical solutions, empirical correla- tions and data to predict pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients in component geometries dur- ing single phase flow, boiling and condensation. Select a feasible and efficient heat exchanger con- figuration (involving both single and multiple units) to meet a given process application, using estimation techniques to quickly obtain approxi- mate sizes. Use published design procedures for rating stand- ard exchanger configurations. From available correlations, develop design meth- ods for new exchanger configurations or new pro- cess heat transfer problems. Analyze laboratory and plant exchanger data in order to develop new correlations or to trouble- shoot plant problems. One objective that cannot be described in the precise form demanded by the educational the- orists is the development of an intuitive compre- hension for what is important about a problem- less delicately put, a gut feeling for what real fluids will do in equipment of real metal built and operated by real people. The topic list of the course is as follows: I. Introductory Concepts Conduction: one-dimension, steady-state Film and overall heat transfer coefficients The basic design equation LMTD and configuration correction factors NTU E method Single phase flow inside tubes Single phase flow across tube banks Criteria for heat exchanger selection General types of heat exchangers II. Single Phase Heat Exchangers Design of double pipe exchangers Construction features of shell and tube exchangers Selection of shell and tube exchangers Analysis of shell side heat transfer and pressure drop Special shell-side problems III. Condensation and Condenser Design Two-phase flow Filmwise condensation Desuperheating and subcooling in condensers Condensation with non-condensables Approximate method for multicomponent/partial condensers Analysis of multipass and crossflow condensers Dropwise condensation Direct contact condensation IV. Vaporization and Reboiler Design Pool boiling Reboiler configurations Kettle reboiler design: narrow boiling range Kettle reboiler design: wide boiling range Thermosiphon reboiler design V. Air-cooled Heat Exchangers Extended surface; fin efficiency Finned tube banks: friction factor and heat trans- fer correlations Design of air-cooled equipment VI. Mechanically-aided Heat Transfer Mechanically-aided heat transfer equipment Heat transfer in agitated vessels Close-clearance heat exchangers Mean temperature differences in mechanically- aided equipment VII. Other Heat Transfer Equipment The course emphasis is on equipment: selecting and designing it in the first place, troubleshooting it, modifying it for a new service, or making it operate within the inherent uncertainties and in- stabilities of process systems. It follows that the student needs to learn about the construction of heat exchangers in sufficient detail that he can visualize the problems of their construction, in- stallation, operation, and maintenance. Particular attention is paid to the visualization of the physical processes occurring inside heat exchangers, especially flow patterns. Anticipation of the interrelationship between the structure of the heat exchanger, the operating conditions, and the flow mechanisms (real, not idealized for the sake of analysis) is basic to selecting valid heat transfer coefficient correlations and evaluating the basic design equation, and to calculating the local and total pressure effects in the exchanger. The student is given realistic design problems and is expected to come up with practical designs. The design methods presented in class are feasible for hand calculation (through Fair's method for thermosiphons strains that idea to its limits). FALL 1972 Computer design methods exist for most of the equipment considered and the student is made aware of their existence and, in one or two ex- ample cases, their fundamental basis and logical structure. But it is only by cranking through the sequence of preliminary design estimate, rating, design modification, relaxation of constraints, etc., that the student comes both to understand the interplay of the many variables in the design and to appreciate the design philosophy. Once the stu- dent develops some competence and flair in mak- ing the engine go, he can add the bells, gongs, and whistles that come with a computer. T HE STUDENT IS encouraged to do rapid, back-of-the-envelope calculations to come up with preliminary designs in some detail. Not only are these calculations necessary to get started on a more rigorous design procedure, but they serve to keep the student's attention on the critical factors in a problem, rather than upon the details. Also, for many purposes, the preliminary designs thus obtained are quite sufficient. With a little practice, most students are able to estimate de- signs to within the limits of uncertainty in the basic operational data and design correlations for many run-of-the-mill applications. The fact of uncertainty and the design conse- quences thereof are emphasized. Uncertainty in the basic correlations, in the way the correlations are assembled in the design method, in the physi- cal properties and flow rates and compositions of the process streams, in the fouling characteristics, seasonal variations in the service streams, long- term changes in plant product composition and rate and in operating philosophy all of these have design implications that the student should keep in mind while making his calculations. On the one hand, for example, this will keep him from making excessively precise calculations of one film coefficient when the other coefficient - or the fouling is controlling. However, the other side of the same coin is that the student is expected to take some care in calculating the con- trolling coefficient, and in estimating and allowing for its inherent uncertainty, or to choose a design where fouling is minimized or can be controlled. The student is always expected to ask himself, "How wrong can I be? What are the consequences of being wrong? What can I do about it in the design?" Optimization, in the sense in which most cur- rent literature deals with the subject, gets short shrift. Apart from ignoring the uncertainty al- . chemical engineers in industry must be proficient in solving problems that are not well-set mathematically and indeed may be only poorly comprehended on any level. luded to above, the usual heat exchanger optimiza- tion procedure misses the boat by choosing the wrong objective function (usually something to do with the cost of the heat exchanger) and failing to consider operational problems. In another sense, however, the whole course deals with opti- mization using an objective function having to do with the cost of the product. This almost always means that the heat exchange system (not just the individual units) is designed so that it will achieve the specified changes in the thermal con- dition of the process stream over the entire opera- ting cycle of the plant between turnarounds and do this with a minimum amount of attention. Avoiding a couple of days' lost production per year may completely outweigh the cost of over- surfacing or duplicating a critical exchanger. Thus, in a mild fouling situation, the student may select a single large heat exchanger for a given service, designing it to operate satisfactorily over the entire cycle; in a more severe fouling case, he may select two smaller heat exchangers piped so that one may be cleaned while plant op- eration is modified to permit the other exchanger to hold the load; in a critical fouling case, he will specify two large exchangers, i.e., full standby capability. Some day, the whole task of optimizing a plant design in this sense may be taken over by computer just as soon as one of our more creative computer manufacturers develops a ran- domly accessible crystal ball in core. More attention is devoted to the correct analy- sis of the temperature difference than is customary in textbook or even design-manual discussions of heat exchanger design. It is quite easy in process problems to specify terminal temperatures and exchanger configurations that result in a zero true mean temperature difference, whereas no one has yet managed to reduce a heat transfer coefficient to zero. The basic design equation, Ao = 0 dQ Uo (T-t) (where Ao is the heat transfer area required, Q the heat transferred, Uo the local value of the overall heat transfer coefficient, T and t the local temperatures of the hot and cold streams respec- tively) is introduced at the beginning. Only later CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION - and only after a complete exposition and care- ful examination of the assumptions and their range of validity is the idea of a mean tempera- ture difference (MTD) formulation of the design equation presented. I am something of a fanatic on the "Zeroth Assumption" in the LMTD derivation: "All ele- ments of a given stream in a heat exchanger have identical thermal histories." Specifically, this means that the MTD concept cannot be simply applied to any heat exchanger with bypassing or internal leakage, which in turn means that almost all of the heat exchanger data in the literature and the correlations developed therefrom are of questionable validity and little generality. Laying this on the class in about the third lecture is roughly equivalent to using a 2 x 4 to get their attention. Some never quite recover their faith in anything (which is at least a step in the right direction) ; most begin to show signs of thinking about their assumptions simultaneously with working through a design procedure. A S WITH ANY course, there is the question of a textbook. There is none available. The only book that comes close to having a suitable approach and objective is Kern's "Process Heat Transfer," and the students are encouraged to read in Kern to see a Grand Master at work. Un- fortunately, this book is over 20 years old, there is hardly a correlation or a design procedure in the book that hasn't been improved upon in the interim, and there is no hint of the possible role of the computer. So I wind up using notes that I have prepared and that I have cadged from others, notably Al Mueller of du Pont, Jerry Taborek and Joe Palen of HTRI, and Bill Small of Phillips. (Proprietary material is not used, but knowing what is in the proprietary material keeps one from saying a lot of things that are not true). The notes suffer from being uneven, incomplete, and often insufficiently detailed for use apart from the lec- ture material. From time to time, some of us talk about writing a textbook; something may come of it yet. This is obviously a highly personal course, one closely tailored to my interests and experience. Citing Samuel Butler again: "Every man's work, whether it be literature or music or pictures or architecture or anything else, is always a portrait of himself." I regard this as a very positive attri- bute: one of the advantages of using a live class- room teacher or lecturer in preference to or in addition to books, tapes, etc., is the opportunity There should be in every student's career one or more courses presenting the philosophy and technique of solving real problems, warts and all. of watching him in action-confronting a prob- lem, discussing the circumstances surrounding it, seeking a solution, pointing out Scylla and Charybdis, and perhaps at the end being able to say, "We tried it and it worked." I wish to avoid undue emphasis upon how unique in detail this course may or may not be. And I am not suggesting that every graduate student should be highly skilled in process heat transfer or any other particular body of engineer- ing effort. I do want to emphasize that there should be in every engineering student's academic career one or more courses presenting the philosophy and technique of solving real problems, warts and all. This is the art of engineering. This is the end to which all else of the academic curriculum and engineering research is directed. I would like to think that every engineering faculty member was capable of teaching one such course. ADDENDUM ON TV TEACHING In the spring of 1972, this course was taught on closed-circuit talk-back television for the first time. There is a state-wide TV system in Okla- homa that links the three major universities (Tulsa, Oklahoma, Oklahoma State) and the major industrial centers. TV courses may be taken for full graduate credit; homework assign- ments and solutions are transmitted by a daily courier; examinations are proctored at the re- ceiving end and then returned by courier. The on-campus students are in the TV studio, so the lecturer does have a live audience in front of him. There are two cameras, one in the back of the studio, the other vertically above the lecturer's note pad. The back camera can be focused on anything from the blackboard (green) running the width of the studio to just the lecturer's face; the vertical camera can also yield excellent close- ups of small objects held in the hand. Both cameras are always on and an operator in the control room at the back of the studio selects which image is to be transmitted to the remote viewers on the system and to the two TV sets in the studio. (Continued on page 170) FALL 1972 4 eawu EQUILIBRIUM THEORY OF FLUIDS K. C. CHAO and R. A. GREENKORN Purdue University Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Equilibrium Theory of Fluids is one of the beginning courses we offer the new graduate stu- dents in the Fall Semester. The course is an evolution of thermodynamics which has been in more or less the same position in the graduate curriculum for many years at Purdue. We changed the name of the course a few years ago to reflect its changed emphasis and contents. The objective of this course is the study of the equilibrium properties of gases and liquids that are of interest in chemical process calculations. The properties are defined and interrelated in the context of classical thermodynamics. The interpre- tation, correlation, and prediction of properties are made by appealing to molecular considera- tions. A coincident objective of the course is to impart training in classical and statistical thermo- dynamics. The usefulness of the training should go beyond the understanding of equilibrium prop- erties. The contents of the course belong in three broad areas: 1. Principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, 2. Properties of homogene- ous fluid phases, and 3. Phase and chemical equi- libria. The progression of the course coincides with the above sequence so that the semester starts with the basic principles and ends up at the frontier of current engineering literature. Table 1 shows the breakdown of the course contents in parts and sections. PART 1 CONTAINS a concise presentation of the fundamental concepts and laws of thermo- dynamics. These are shown to lead to criteria of physico-chemical equilibria, and to functions that are useful for the description of physico-chemical processes. The concept of equilibrium in physico- chemical systems is inherently more abstract than that in many other types of systems such as the mechanical or electrical. But it is central to chemi- cal process systems. We therefore think it worth- while to go through a development starting from scratch. (We are aware of the risk of repeating a substantial part of undergraduate material. Hence, we depend on the use of hand-outs to keep lecturing to a minimum.) The first section of Part 1 is in the nature of definitions. A discussion is then made of exact and inexact differentials. Thermodynamic laws are presented on the basis of this discussion re- garding state functions. The zeroth, first, and second laws are stated in terms of the state function introduced temperature, internal energy, and entropy respectively. The usefulness of the thermodynamic laws is greatly extended with the introduction of the energy functions. The concept of their association with certain natural variables is basic to this usefulness. Since these functions are related to the reversible shaft work under various conditions of constraint they provide the point of departure for the development of criteria of equilibrium and stability of physico-chemical systems. TN PART 2 WE RELATE the equilibrium prop- erties of matter in bulk to the properties of the constituent molecules. Our main concern is to develop the formalism and to present a set of useful formulas. These are illustrated extensively with examples drawn from simple systems. A dual function is served in relating the thermodynamic properties to the molecular prop- erties: (1) a deeper understanding is gained of thermodynamics as the manifestations of large collections of particles. (2) the molecular view- point provides the basis for the interpretation, correlation, and prediction of properties. We begin Part 2 with a discussion of the meaning of the micro and macro states. The micro function (for isolated systems), the canonical par- tition function (for closed systems), and the grand partition function (for open systems) are intro- duced for the representation of the system. When the statistical averages are evaluated the thermo- dynamic properties become expressed in terms of the partition functions. The equivalence of the partition functions is demonstrated. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Kwang-Chu Chao is professor of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. He received both his PhD ('56) and MS from Wisconsin, and taught at Oklahoma State Uni- versity and Illinois Institute of Technology. Before start- ing his teaching career, he was with Chevron Research Corporation, Richmond, California. He has contributed extensively to the thermodynamics of gases and liquids. R. A. Greenkorn obtained his BS, MS, and PhD ('57) degrees from the University of Wisconsin. He was a post- doctoral fellow at the Norwegian Technical Institute in Norway and from 1958-1963 was research engineer with Jersey Production Research Company in Tulsa and lec- turer in the evening division of University of Tulsa. From 1963-1965 he taught theoretical and applied me- chanics at Marquette University. Presently, he is Pro- fessor and Head of the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue and Assistant Dean for Research, Director, Institute for Interdisciplinary Engineering Studies, and Associate Director of the Engineering Experiment Sta- tion. Equilibrium properties of fluids are conven- iently considered as made up of contributions due to the motion of the isolated molecules, and the cooperative motion of the molecules in interaction. The former make up the ideal gas properties and the latter determine the deviations from ideal gas behavior. Since we are interested in real fluids, we discuss intermolecular forces in Section 4. We then separate in Section 5 the thermodynamic properties due to intermolecular forces and ex- press them in terms of configurational integrals. All the example systems studied in Part 2 are simple and elementary, such as non-interacting particles, Einstein's crystal, one-dimensional lat- tice solutions, etc. Nevertheless they serve more than purposes of illustration. The simple results become useful when re-combined and developed for the description of real fluids of considerable complexity. We might compare these possibilities to the mechanical engineer's tinkering with simple links and bars, for out of these are made complex machines. Table 1. Contents of Equilibrium Theory of Fluids 1. Thermodynamic Principles and Functions 1.1 Systems and processes 1.2 Exact and inexact differentials 1.3 Zeroth law, temperature, and ideal gas 1.4 First law and internal energy 1.5 Second law and entropy 1.6 Energy functions 1.7 Shaft work 1.8 Criteria of equilibrium and stability 1.9 Partial quantities 1.10 Jacobians 2. Partition Functions, Intermolecular Forces, and Con- figurational Properties 2.1 Micro and macro states 2.2 Micro partition function 2.3 Canonical partition function 2.4 Grand partition function 2.5 Intermolecular forces 2.6 Configurational properties 3. Gases and Gas Mixtures 3.1 P-V-T behavior and principle of corresponding states of pure fluids 3.2 Generalized correlation of volumetric behavior 3.3 Properties derived from generalized correlations 3.4 Virial equation of state and properties of gases at low densities 3.5 Equations of state 3.6 Properties derived from equations of state 3.7 Low pressure gas mixtures 3.8 Fugacity and partial functions 3.9 Equation of state for mixtures 3.10 Properties of gas mixtures from pseudo-criticals 3.11 Amagat's law and Dalton's law 3.12 Sublimiation equilibrium 4. Liquids and Liquid Solutions 4.1 The liquid state 4.2 Principle of Corresponding States of pure liquids 4.3 Raoult's law, Henry's law, and ideal solutions 4.4 Activity and activity coefficients in real solutions 4.5 Mixing and excess properties 4.6 Empirical representation of excess functions 4.7 Nearly-ideal systems 4.8 Regular solutions 4.9 Polymer solutions 4.10 Group contributions 5. Phase Equilibrium 5.1 Gibbs phase rule 5.2 Vapor liquid equilibria at low pressures 5.3 Vaporization equilibrium ratio 5.4 Solid-liquid solubility equilibrium 5.5 Liquid-liquid extraction equilibrium 5.6 Adsorption equilibrium 6. Chemical Equilibrium 6.1 The third law 6.2 Standard free energy and the chemical equilibrium constant 6.3 Thermodynamic restrictions on the rate expression 6.4 Transition state theory 6.5 Calculation of complex chemical equilibria FALL 1972 . this course is the study of the equilibrium properties of gases and liquids that are of interest in chemical process calculations. N PART 3 WE STUDY the properties of gases and their mixtures. The properties can be clearly classified into two categories: the energy functions of the entire fluid, and the chemical- potential related functions of the components in the fluid. The first type of properties are of gen- eral interest to many disciplines. The second type of properties fall within the special interest of the chemical engineer. The energy functions are needed for the de- termination of heat and work quantities that are associated with processes. Heat is always an im- portant concern with any fluids. The mechanical work of compression and expansion can also be an important consideration in the processing of gas. This consideration sets the gases apart from the condensed phases for which compressibility effects are usually of secondary importance. The chemical-potential-related functions (p, fugacity, activity, etc) are the partial properties needed for the calculation of phase and chemical equilibria. Other partial properties, such as Hi and Vi, are of interest mainly in so far as they reflect the effect on equilibrium due to changes of conditions. Thermodynamic properties of gases are dis- cussed in terms of their differences from their ideal gas values. We do not belabor the ideal gas values. Instead, we depend on the extensive tabula- tions of such properties in the literature. We are therefore free from considerations of the isolated molecules and their modes of internal motion which are adequately described in physical chem- istry. Here we concentrate on the effects of inter- molecular forces which determine real fluid be- havior in contrast to that of the ideal gas. The principle of corresponding states is the single most important tool for the general de- scription of properties of fluids. Accordingly we emphasize generalized correlations tabularr and graphical) and generalized equations of state ex- pressed in dimensionless reduced forms. For the treatment of gases, the reduced variables are formed with the critical properties. With the aid of correlations of the critical with molecular structure, it becomes possible to make quantitative calculations for diverse substances from no more information than their structural formulas, if that should be the only piece of information available. We include liquids in this Part where it is feasible to treat them as an extension of the gas phase. It is well known that a liquid partakes of the properties of both a gas and a solid to varying degrees depending on its state relative to the critical point and the triple point. Part 4 will be concerned entirely with liquids but from a differ- ent view point. The first six sections of this Part deal with pure gases. After an introductory discussion of the general qualitative features of the properties of fluids, we develop the formalism of their quanti- tative analysis in two ways: with (T,p) and with (T,V) respectively as the independent variables. With generalized correlations, (and tabular and graphical data) the set (T,p) serves well. The necessary development is adequately covered in most texts. However, a corresponding develop- ment is usually lacking with (T,V) as the inde- pendent variables. These are required in equa- tions of state calculations with the electronic com- puter and are of increasing importance as the use of computers is increased. We therefore go to some length to present the general working form- ulas, and to show their use with example equations of state. In the second part of the Part starting with 3.7 we discuss gas mixtures. The limiting behavior of low pressure gas mixtures is always completely determined by the pure component properties. From there on the formalism relating the energy functions of real gas mixtures to their low pres- sure limits remain the same as for pure gases. With mixtures, however, there is the additional task of evaluating the partial properties. including the chemical-potential and related functions in equilibrium calculations. Even though it is possible in principle to do so with the generalized correla- tions, the calculations are too tedious to be prac- tical. As a result equations of state assume added significance when applied to mixtures, for the equations are far more suited for computer appli- cations. N PART 4 WE STUDY liquids and their solu- tions. Liquids are probably the most common and least understood state of matter that occur in chemical processes. However, a systematic understanding of their behavior is basic to the rational design of separation operations involving liquids such as distillation, crystallization, ex- traction, and so on. A liquid shares the properties of gases and solids to varying extents depending on the relative CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION A dual function is served in relating the thermodynamic properties to the molecular properties - a deeper understanding is gained of thermodynamics as the manifestations of large collections of particles and the molecular viewpoint provides the basis for the interpretation, correlation, and prediction of properties. proximity of its state to the critical point and the triple point. Our main interest in Part 4 is about liquids at states far removed from the critical. Liquid states close to the critical were part of the discussion of the proceeding Part. In the in- troductory part of Part 4 we present a general molecular view of liquids. Reflecting recent pro- gress, the cell theory is developed into useful generalizations of the properties of non-polar liquids, including simple molecules, and chain molecules. We then discuss properties of pure liquids that will be needed in subsequent studies of liquid solutions. The remainder of Part 4 concerns solutions. In 3 to 5 we present the formal framework for the description of solution properties on the basis of classical thermodynamics. Then, starting with 6 we discuss the various procedures for the quantitative interpretation, correlation, and pre- diction of non-ideal behavior of solutions. The molecular viewpoint provides us with a most useful classification of liquid solutions. Our quantitative description of their non-ideal be- havior is based on the same classification. Thus in 7 we describe nearly-ideal systems in which the molecules are highly similar. A linear perturba- tion theory adequately describes their non-ideality. This theory applies to almost all superfractiona- tion systems as well as a number of other close- boiling mixture systems of exceptional importance such as propane/propylene. From there on we proceed to systems showing progressively larger non-ideality. We describe solutions of non-polar molecules of appreciably different interaction energies in 8, and of appreci- ably different sizes in 9. The procedures provide useful descriptions of hydrocarbon mixtures. The highly non-ideal behavior of solutions con- taining polar molecules is the basis of azeotropic and extractive distillations. A simple example would be the relative volatility of methanol to ethanol which can be controlled by adding water so that either methanol or ethanol can be distilled as the overhead product. All liquid-liquid extrac- tion processes similarly depend on the utilization of non-ideal solution behavior. Such highly non- ideal solution systems individually required specific and extensive experimental studies until relatively recent times. Then investigations along the lines of group contributions began to bear fruit, until today many general results have been obtained for the description of chain molecules with attached polar groups. We describe this development in 10 to conclude Part 4. N THE LAST TWO PARTS of this course, Parts 5 and 6, the materials of the first four Parts are applied to the study of phase and chemi- cal equilibria. Relatively few new principles are introduced here, but the applications serve as an effective review of the proceeding materials, as well as to make more sense of them. In summary, Equilibrium Theory of Fluids hopefully gives the students: (1) A systematic understanding of the equi- librium properties of fluids that are needed in the analysis of chemical pro- cesses, with some appreciation of what is critically important and where, and what is not so critical. (2) Some experience in the application of physico-chemical principles to industrial problems. (3) Reinforced training in thermodynamics. (4) A fair amount of factual information re- garding current industrial and engineering practice in property estimation. We prepared a set of notes for this course which has been added on and revised each time it was used during the last three years. The notes are dittoed for distribution so we do not require any textbooks. The most often cited reference books are listed below: 1. Prigogine, I., and Defay, R., "Chemical Thermo- dynamics," Longmans, 1954-for our Parts 1 and 6. 2. Rowlinson, J.S., "Liquids and Liquid Mixtures," 2nd ed. Butterworths, 1969-for our Parts 1, 2, 4, 5. 3. Hill, T.L., "Introduction to Statistical Thermody- namics," Addison-Wesley, 1960-for our Parts 2, 3. 4. Prigogine, I., "The Molecular Theory of Solutions," Interscience, 1957-for our Parts 2, 4. 5. Prausnitz, J.M., "Molecular Thermodynamics," Prentice-Hall, 1969-for our Parts 3, 4, 5. 6. Denbigh, K., "Chemical Equilibrium," Cambridge, 1964-for our Parts 1, 2, 6. 7. Stull, D.R., Westrum, E.F., Jr., and Sinke, G.C., "The Chemical Thermodynamics of Organic Com- pounds," Wiley, 1969-for our Part 6. 8. "Applied Thermodynamics," Am. Chem. Soc. 1968- for our Parts 3, 4, 5, 6. l FALL 1972 .4 ae# CSwiue. in BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT PHENOMENA AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING DAVID 0. COONEY Clarkson College of Technology Potsdam, New York 13676 A one-semester (14 week) course dealing with biological transport phenomena and biomedical engineering has been developed at Clarkson by the author and taught to seniors and graduate students. Prerequisites for the course consist of previous acquaintance with fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and mass transfer. No background in life sciences is required or assumed. As the course title suggests, one part of the material covered deals with momentum, heat and mass transport phenomena in living systems, without reference to engineering applications. Another major part of the course, as implied by the second half of the course title, deals with engi- neering as related to living systems (more specifi- cally, medical engineering concerned with hu- mans). Topics like blood rheology, heat transfer in the body, and mass transfer across cell mem- branes are typical of those in the biological trans- port category. Modeling of the body, artificial kidney devices, and artificial heart valves are sub- jects which fall into the biomedical engineering category. Besides these two general areas, the course contains a small amount of anatomy and a con- siderable content of physiology, e.g., circulatory system, kidney, and lung physiology. As can be seen from the course outline, Table I, the course stresses biological transport phenomena in the first half and biomedical engineering in the sec- ond half, with physiology interspersed through- out. This sequencing is logical in the sense that a proper consideration of the engineering appli- cations (artificial kidney, etc.) relies on a firm knowledge of the physiological and physical chemical workings of the human body. One can see from the course outline that a number of topics that could have been included do not appear, for example, nerve impulse trans- mission, physiological control systems, etc. For lack of time, it was decided to omit those topics, and areas such as bioelectronics (instrumenta- TABLE 1.-COURSE OUTLINE-BIOLOGICAL TRANS- PORT PHENOMENA AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING References* Films I. Introduction and Brief Survey of 1 F1 History of Biomedicine (1) II. The Human Body: Basic 1,11,12 Description in Qualitative and Quantitative Terms (2) III. The Human Thermal System (6) 1,3,10,12 F2 IV. Modeling the Body as Corn- 4 apartments, Production Sources, and Fluid Streams (3) V. The Properties and Rheology 7,11 F3 of Blood (3) VI. Dynamics of the Circulatory 1,6,11 F4 System (5) VII. Artificial Hearts and Heart 9 F5 Valves (2) VIII. Cell Membrane Transport (5) 1,11 IX. Physiology of the Human 1 F6 Kidneys (2) X. Artificial Kidney Devices (5) 5,9 F7 XI. Physiology of the Human 1 F8 Respiratory System (2) XII. Heart-Lung Machines 8 [Oxygenators] (5) XIII. Review and Summary (1) Note: numbers in parentheses denote the number of class periods devoted to each topic. *Selected references only. A large number and variety of sources were actually employed. tion), biomechanical devices (artificial limbs), and systems analysis. Many of these subjects seemed to be of questionable value and appropri- ateness for chemical engineers. It should be men- tioned that an advanced follow-up course has also been offered. While this course mainly goes into greater depth on subjects found in the introduc- tory course, some added items (e.g., on nerve im- pulse transmission) do appear. In general, both courses accent areas where chemical engineers have made their greatest contributions. There exists no suitable text for the course, and this has been a problem. Most biomedical engineering books in print consist of collections CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION David 0. Cooney is an associate professor of chemical engineering at Clarkson. He received a BE cum laude from Yale in 1961, and a PhD degree from the Universi- ty of Wisconsin in 1966. After three years with Chevron Research Company as a research engineer, he joined Clarkson's faculty in 1969. Dr. Cooney's research inter- ests are in biomedical engineering, fixed bed sorption, and flow through porous media. He is an avid white- water kayaker and backpacker. of research or review type articles of a wide variety. It is not uncommon that in any single book only one or two of the topics in the course outline appear. Even then, coverages of those topics are usually unsuitable. Moreover, as men- tioned, the course includes a substantial amount of standard physiology, which is usually missing from the more engineering oriented texts (a book just published which appears to be quite suit- able for parts of the course is that by Stanley Middleman'3). As the basic text for the course it was therefore decided to use Guyton's Textbook of Medical Physiology,' a large standard work, as the primary source of material on heart, lung, and kidney physiology, and on several aspects of biological transport, e.g. the elements of blood rheology and membrane transport, and the basics of circulatory system dynamics. For the other topics (or to supplement those in Guyton's book), handouts consisting of a wide variety of materials are employed. This approach works well enough, but the students would prefer having one large or two small appropriate textbooks. In preparing lectures the author found the sets of notes by Lightfoot" and by Keller and Leonard12 to be of great assistance. Parts of Lightfoot's notes seemed a little too advanced, for the seniors especially, and both references lacked material on certain subjects. However, both works are oriented toward engineers, particularly chemical engineers, and would, if developed further, constitute excellent texts for this type of course. Each week a 20 minute quiz is given on the previous week's material. Hour examinations are omitted. Students have the option of taking a conventional three-hour final examination or of submitting a term paper or term project report. This option introduces the opportunity for each student to pursue specific topics of interest in detail without jeopardizing his course grade. INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL To convey to the student a feeling for the context of present-day advances, and especially the idea that biomedical engineering is not totally new, but an ongoing activity of ancient origin, a brief historical background is given. Mention is made of da Vinci, Vesalius, Sanctorius (inventor of the first fever thermometer), Harvey, Des- cartes, Hales, Laennec (inventor of the stetho- scope), and later pioneers. From here the course moves to a very general introduction to human anatomy, illustrated by charts. The sizes, loca- tions, and functions of the major organs and other body components are reviewed. Quantitative steady-state "operating data" and time-averaged mass balances for a typical person at rest are quoted. Data include organ sizes, organ weights, volumes of body fluids, respiratory and cardiac frequencies and flow rates, 02 consumption, CO2 production, daily water balances, etc. Students are assigned the reading of K. B. Bischoff's paper2 "A Chemical Engineering View of Bioengineering," which helps them to see what chemical engineers have done, are doing, and can do in the bio-transport and biomedical engineer- ing areas. Along with this the students are asked to construct a plastic model "Human Anatomy Kit" (Renwall Products, Inc., Mineola, N.Y.,$1.69) a detailed scale model kit containing
roughly thirty pieces. After assembling all major
organs and fitting them into the proper body
cavity locations, the students find that they have
learned a great deal about human anatomy.
During the first week, a film, "Man-Made
Man," originally produced for the CBS Twenty-
First Century Series, is shown. The film contains
footage on artificial organs, organ transplants,
and other advances related to the repair or re-
placement of body parts. This, and seven other
films shown during the course (see listing below),
greatly stimulates student interest. While most of
the films are of college level, a couple are perhaps
too elementary. Although these could be deleted

FALL 1972

they are kept in the course for their value in
creating variety. They are:
F1 "Man-Made Man" (produced by CBS for "21st Cen-
tury" Series), McGraw-Hill Films, New York.
F2 "Control of Body Temperature," Encyclopedia Brit-
tanica Educational Corp. (EBEC), Chicago.
F3 "The Blood," EBEC, Chicago.
F4 "Circulation of the Blood," produced for American
Heart Assn., obtainable from National Medical Audio-
visual Center, Atlanta.
F5 "The Human Heart" (produced by CBS for "21st Cen-
tury" Series), McGraw-Hill Films, New York.
F6 "Work of the Kidneys," EBEC, Chicago.
F7 "Gift of Life" (describes daily life of an artificial kid-
ney patient), obtainable from National Medical Audio-
visual Center, Atlanta.
F8 "Respiration in Man," EBEC, Chicago.

THE HUMAN THERMAL SYSTEM
This topic is considered next because it allows
the student to get back to familiar ground (heat
transfer) and enables him to relate his engineer-
ing knowledge to a living system. Also, this topic
is more "compact" and less complex than, say,
mass transport in living systems.
We first quickly review the basic processes of
digestion and the conversion of food into meta-
bolic energy. Chemical reaction (stoichiometric)
equations and overall energy balances are written.
Having learned about heat production, we then
consider the quantitative description of heat dis-
sipation from the body's surfaces via radiation,
evaporation, convection, and conduction. A few
interesting homework problems in thermal phe-
nomena are listed in Table II. The class reads
Eugene Wissler's paper3 "A Mathematical Model
of the Human Thermal System" to learn how
standard analytical modeling techniques can be
used in this area. Finally, we consider heat trans-
fer within the body, such as between arteries and
veins via tissue conduction and perfusion through
connecting capillaries. The development of models
for such processes and the setting up of appro-
priate equations are demonstrated. However, de-
tails of their solution are not presented (the ad-
vanced follow-up course pursues these aspects).
Thermo-regulation mechanisms (e.g., vasocon-
striction) are mentioned only briefly.

MODELING THE BODY
The paper by Wissler introduces them to the
idea of modeling. This is continued by having the
class read Bischoff and Brown's "Drug Distribu-
tion in Mammals."4 In lectures we also consider
a variety of additional body models which have

. the course deals with momentum,
heat, and mass transport phenomena
in living systems and medical
engineering concerned with humans.

TABLE 2.-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HOMEWORK
PROBLEMS USED IN THE COURSE
Heat Transfer
1. Effect of Zero Heat Loss on Body Temperature Rise
2. Sensible Heat Loss Associated with Respiration
3. Effect of Wind Velocity on Convective Heat Loss from
the Body
4. Importance of Countercurrent Arterial-Venous Heat
Transfer in Maintaining Body Core Temperature
5. Heat Transfer Under Extreme Environmental Condi-
tions
Circulatory System Dynamics
1. Blood Velocities and Residence Times in Capillaries
2. Calculation of Theoretical Horsepower of the Heart
3. Interconversion of Kinetic Energy and Pressure
Throughout the Circulatory System
4. Hydrostatic Contributions to Pressure Distribution in
the Circulatory System
Artificial Kidney Systems
1. Membrane Area Needed to Produce a Given Mass
Transfer Rate
2. Treatment Time for Patient Connected to a Flat Plate
Dialyzer (Body Modeled as a Single Stirred-Tank)

appeared in the literature. The notions of splitting
the body into appropriate compartments, produc-
tion sources (or sinks for elimination), and fluid
streams are taught. Problems of obtaining ac-
curate and meaningful parameter values are dis-
cussed. In addition, the general solution schemes
for the sets of linear equations which usually re-
sult from compartmental analyses are reviewed.
The experience in modeling that the student gains
here is useful in a large part of the remainder
of the course

FLUID MECHANICAL PHENOMENA
An understanding of blood rheology and of
the dynamics of the human circulation is essential
to a very wide variety of biomedical problems, in-
cluding extracorporeal blood flow in artificial
organs, studies of capillary-tissue mass transfer,
analyses of atherosclerosis, etc. This important
area is introduced by a discussion of the composi-
tion, properties, and rheological characteristics of
plasma and whole blood. The non-Newtonian be-
havior of blood, effects of rouleaux formation at
low shear, the high shear Fahraeus-Lindquist
effect, plasma skimming, and other aspects are
covered.
The next two weeks are spent discussing the
human circulatory system. After describing the

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

general features volumes, flow rates, vessel
sizes, locations of laminar and turbulent regimes
- we consider the structure and properties of
vessel walls. The various kinds of wall compon-
ents, their effects on vessel stability, and their
roles in modifing flow pulsations are discussed.
Application of Bernoulli's equation to various
parts of the circulatory system are demonstrated
in class (these are approximate analyses, neglec-
ting pulsations). Here we show how high pressure
is created in aneurisms, why low pressure prevails
in stenoses, what the theoretical horsepower of
the heart should be, and so forth. Typical home-
work problems dealing with circulatory system
dynamics are cited in Table II.
ARTIFICIAL HEARTS AND VALVES
This subject area, involving many fluid flow
problems, is treated next. At this stage of the
course the students are anxious to learn about real
hardware, and they find this topic quite satisfying
from that standpoint. Some discussion of blood
hemolysis, protein denaturation, thrombus forma-
tion, and the broad subject area of biomaterials
comes first. Then various designs for heart valves,
total heart replacements, and partial heart sub-
stitutes (ventricular boosters and bypasses) are
discussed from engineering and physiological
viewpoints. A life-sized model of the human heart
is displayed and passed around to familiarize the
students with the organ under discussion. The
section of Eugene Guccione's paper9 dealing with
these devices is handed out for reference. Also,
the film "The Human Heart" (another CBS "21st
Century" production) is shown. This excellent
film contains demonstrations of artificial heart
construction, surgical implantation of heart assist
devices and interviews with noted surgeons (Bar-
nard, Debakey).
BIOLOGICAL MASS TRANSPORT
The second half of the course concentrates on
topics involving mass transport phenomena to a
large degree, especially membrane transport. We
begin by reviewing the basics of ordinary, or
passive, transport-diffusion resulting from con-
centration, electrical potential, or pressure gradi-
ents (no carriers, no biological energy consump-
tion). This material is familiar to the student
from earlier coursework.
Next we consider the structure, composition,
and permeation properties of biological mem-
branes. The importance of lipid solubility, pres-

ence or absence of "pores," and effects of solute
character are pointed out. Facilitated and active
transport mechanisms are discussed in some de-
tail. With respect to the former, equations are
written for the system 02-hemoglobin-oxyhemo-
globin to illustrate the effects. With respect to the
latter, little of a quantitative nature can be
written. However, details of proposed "Na-K
pump" mechanisms are scrutinized.
Having obtained a background in passive,
facilitated, and active transport the student is
then ready for consideration of the natural lungs
and kidneys and their artificial counterparts.

KIDNEYS-REAL AND ARTIFICIAL
Two lectures are spent on the physiology of
the natural kidneys. Impressive data are given
which convince the student of the tremendous
capacity, selectivity, and efficiency of the human
kidneys. Countercurrent concentration of urine
via active transport is discussed in detail. This
material gives the student the proper perspective
toward the next subject artificial kidneys.
Leonard and Dedrick's paper, "The Artificial
Kidney Problems and Approaches for The
Chemical Engineer"5 provides a good reference
here. The major kinds of artificial kidneys in
current use (coil, flat plate, hollow fiber) are re-
viewed, and their operating characteristics dis-
type are made clear. Mathematical descriptions
of these devices are formulated on a simplified
basis. Consideration is also given to modeling the
artificial kidney-patient system as a whole (using
a compartment model for the patient). Rough cal-
culations of treatment times for typical patients
and dialyzers are also performed. An excellent
film (F7) showing actual clinical and home di-
alyses complements the lectures nicely. Demon-
stration units of coil and hollow fiber artificial
kidneys, set up and run with "blood" (colored
water), are used here also. Finally, some mention
is made of "novel" and alternative approaches to
uremia e.g., fixed-bed sorption devices, ultrafilters,
peritoneal dialysis.

LUNGS-REAL AND ARTIFICIAL
The course format here is virtually identical
to that relating to real and artificial kidneys. Two
lectures on the physiology of the natural lungs
are given, with emphasis on the kinetics of 02-CO2
(Continued on page 185)

FALL 1972

is the strong emphasis on
modeling blended with
mathematics. The required
text is "Your Last Calculus Book" .

MODELING

RANE L. CURL AND
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104

For a number of years our Department taught
a rather traditional course along the lines of Mick-
ley, Sherwood and Reed's Advanced Mathematics
in Chemical Engineering. The content varied a
bit with the inclinations of the instructors but
was, mathematically, "soup to nuts." Such a
course is literally applied mathematics: take a
large measure of calculus from ordinary to par-
tial and another measure of examples and prob-
lems from Chemical Engineering. Blend well and
serve.
Over the years it was found that the students
had little difficulty with the mathematical con-
tent. Once the bag of mathematical tricks had
been presented and practiced, few had difficulty
in finding the right tool for the given mathe-
matical situation but this was not the case with
the physical situation. If the student could form-
ulate the problem, he could solve the solvable
mathematics; inevitably, the problem was in the
formulation. There seems to be a lesson in the
organization of all engineering math texts: a
dozen chapters on mathematical tools and one on
formulation or modeling. Perhaps we should try
to teach modeling, and pass along the mathe-
matical stuff as we go, almost as entertainment!
The first thing that had to go was a one-term
marathon. After the mathematics is crammed in,
there is no time for contemplation of what one
is actually doing when obtaining a model, or one
of several possible models, for a situation, nor
for carrying out with any deliberativeness an
analysis of what one has done in the process of
going from a problem statement to the mathe-
matical statement. The second thing that had to
matics. .." and the students' minds are already
made up that they are there to learn mathematics,
the preliminaries being just trying to cast this
week's problem into this week's mathematics. So
we called it, naturally, Mathematical Modeling
in Chemical Engineering, with a I and a II.

Splitting the conventional content of an ad-
vanced calculus course into two terms is not a
hard thing to do. We proceeded by straddling the
undergraduate transition, the first course being
offered at the Senior level (ChE 407), and en-
compassing mostly problems in one dimension,
and the second offered at the graduate level (ChE
507), but available to qualified undergraduates,
and extending into multidimensional problems.
But if a structure of mathematical dimension-
ality can be called a vertical ordering of mathe-
matical content, the philosophy and practice of
modeling is orthogonal horizontal and can-
not be divided in the same fashion. In fact, the
same concepts of modeling apply unaltered to
both categories of mathematics. The pedagogical
problem, then, is to provide for the students
taking both courses an interesting second course
using the same philosophy of modeling superim-

TABLE 1. Interaction of Mathematics and Modeling

MATHEMATICS
ChE 407
Algebraic Systems
Ordinary Differential Eqns.
Linear
Nonlinear
Series Solutions
Method of Frobenius
Well-known Functions
The Laplace Transform
Formalisms
The Spectral Domain
Partial Differential Eqns.
Reduction to o.d.e.

ChE 507
Partial Differential Eqns.
Solvable
Linear
Matrix Methods
Separation of Variables
Orthogonal Functions
More well-known functions
Sturm-Liouville
Fourier Integral and Transform
Laplace Transform and p.d.e.

MODELING
1. Problem Definition
2. Systems)
Coordinate systems
Assumptions and Pre-
.sumptions
Notation, symbols
Differential balances
Laws, correlations
3. Preliminary Combination
4. Initial Conditions
Boundary conditions
Constraints
5. Simplification
Dimensional considerations
6. Selection of Solution Pro-
cedure
SMathematics
Interpretation
7, Calculation
8. Reporting

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Robert H. Kadlec has a BS from the University of
Wisconsin, and MS and PhD ('62) from the University
of Michigan, all in chemical engineering. He has taught
at Michigan since 1961. His current research interests
include modeling and simulation, in the areas of unsteady
processes, automobile emission control reactors, and eco-
logical systems. (left photo)
Rane L. Curl received both his BS and SeD from
MIT, finishing in 1955. After six years with Shell De-
velopment Company in Emeryville, California, he spent
one year at University College London and two at the
Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven, before coming to
Michigan in 1964.
His teaching interests include rate processes, mathe-
matics and statistics. His research is in areas of liquid-
liquid dispersion interaction, mass transfer with and
without chemical reaction and karst geomorphology.

posed upon the higher dimensional mathematics.
The key to doing this is to introduce more ad-
vanced formulational methods along with the
This interaction is shown in Table 1. The list
of mathematical topics is typical, but not in-
clusive of all topics that have been treated. There
is little new here. The complementary list of
modeling topics is also unoriginal; they are nec-
essary no matter how "advanced mathematics"
is to be taught. What differs from tradition is
the strong emphasis on modeling blended with
mathematics. The required text is "your last
calculus book"; we can use no other as we seek
to avoid giving modeling a mathematical frame-
work.

WHY MODEL
There is a single statement which sums up
the reasons for modeling: It allows the logical
restructuring of descriptions, providing insight
and the capability to produce quantitative re-
sults in response to questions. It is no accident
that the fields of study in chemical engineering
have organized themselves according to the type

of question to be answered and the correspond-
ing modeling and restructuring procedures. These
areas, together with the general question asked
are as follows:
Research. What are the basic laws, which when
used in the structure representing the system, will
produce the observed effects?
Parameter and Property Evaluation. What are the
numerical values of the symbols which characterize
the system (parameter) or the material (property)
being described?
Design. Among the parameter and property values
which we may choose, what set of values will pro-
duce the desired result?
Optimization. Among the sets of values which may
be chosen for a given process, what set will yield
the best value of the desired result?
Simulation. Given all the parameters and values
and functions necessary to determine the operation
of the process, what result may one expect?
Control. Given a process and a specified mode of
operation, how can one ensure that it will continue
to operate in this fashion?
Only the first three of these were generally
thought to be important in the quantitative mod-
eling sense until approximate a decade ago. The
remainder of the questions were asked, but an-
swering them remained an art until machine
computation appeared on the scene.
One particularly important aspect of com-
munication is the ability to read the current
literature in an area of interest. The vast majori-
ty of contemporary technical writing depends
heavily upon and is oriented toward a mathe-
matical approach. To be conversant in these
terms requires abilities in both model building
and in mathematics.
There is in this connection a common state-
ment that needs a mild rebuttal. It is: "I am (or
mathematical stuff. I need to learn how to deal
with people." This is incorrect by virtue of being
overstated. It is necessary to use manpower to
the limit of its ability in a competitive environ-
ment, and to do so requires an understanding of
these abilities. Therefore it is imperative to un-
derstand mathematical modeling from the view-
point of "know what it can do", so that one can
properly direct the efforts of those who "know
how to do."
THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS
The solution of a modeling problem is a
tortuous path, traversed with a cloudy mirror
before the engineer. Only experience can give
clues as to where the path is leading-while all

FALL 1972

the work behind is visible, including errors. A
prescription on how to proceed is very necessary.
Logically, the first question is: Where am I
going? A clear problem statement must be had.
To illustrate:
1. Problem Statement: Glycerin is to be heated with
condensing Dowtherm A at atmospheric pressure.
The glycerin enters a 360 ft. multipass exchanger
at 180F. The tubes are 1 % inch BWG 12 copper.
The glycerin mass flow is 2.7 x 106 lbm/ftyhr per
tube. Calculate the exit glycerin temperature.
Next, all pertinent information is assembled.
It helps to draw a picture of the physical process
to be described. Labeling such a sketch provides
instant organization of some nomenclature; the
whole can be listed eventually. Now select the
portion of the system which can be described by
the basic laws available. This may be an entire
process, a process unit such as a reactor, or a
differential portion of a process unit if spatial
variations are anticipated.
2. Assembly of Information.
Diagram:
Dowtherm A Vapor

Z80F I ">
GZycerin C )

V Condensate
System: V = glycerin within the exchanger
Nomenclature: x = length, ft
L = total tube length, ft
T temperature
G = mass velocity, lbm/ft2hr
Subscripts: i inside tube
o outside tube
e entrance to exchanger tube
L exit from exchanger tube
Subsystem: AV = glycerin within a differential
length of tnbe
Q

a -o,- A,

The selection of the basic laws both kind
and number-is deeply affected by the assump-
tions and presumptions made concerning process
behavior. There is an often-neglected difference
between these which should be pointed out. An
assumption refers to something taken for grant-
ed, and hence is usually not checked. A presump-
tion is a belief unsupported by evidence-or in
other words an assumption about which we feel
uneasy. There is no safe course in making as-

Perhaps we should try to teach modeling,
and pass along the mathematical stuff as
we go, almost as entertainment!

sumptions and presumptions. Assume too much
and you get a wrong answer; assume too little
and complications prevent getting any answer.
Presume too much and you are called ignorant;
presume too little and you are called a coward.
The proper approach is to occupy the most de-
fensible position while obtaining results in the
desired length of time.
Presumptions:
1. Constant properties
2. Turbulent flow on tube side
Assumptions:
1. No Multiple-tube effects
(horizontal arrangement, one tube
thick)
2. Constant (saturation) temperature
for Dowtherm
3. Arithmetic average inlet film temp-
erature difference, can be used in
the correlation for condensing co-
efflcient
The selection of the basic laws to be used is
influenced somewhat by the choice exercised
above, and in turn influences that choice. Should
a statistical or deterministic approach be taken?
Are we worried about time behavior? Is it nec-
essary to know distribution of variables within
a process unit? We must discard some of the very
small, the very large, the very fast, the very
slow aspects of the process, depending upon the
desired result. A partial explanation is all we can
ever expect.
There are certain axiomatic rules which are
not violated except under extremely unusual cir-
cumstances, and may be considered to be uni-
versally applicable. In contrast, there are also
descriptive laws, which apply only in a limited
number of circumstances and which are never
universally applicable. This latter group origi-
nates either from a theory regarding material
behavior in a given situation, or from the corre-
lation of a body of physical data.
The remaining laws, which apply to only
specific situations, may be divided into two
groups. They are either algebraic statements of
the observed relations between system variables
or statements of the dependence of the rate of an
elementary process variables.
There remains a class of mathematically
true statements which are in no way related to
the real world. Certain definitions bear a remark-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

able resemblance to either basic laws, rate laws
or correlative equations.

Axiomatic Laws: Conservation of Energy
[GCci(D 2 /4)Tix [G C (D 12 /4)Tix + Ax Q(RIDiAx)
Rate Laws: Heat flow
Q = U( i)
Correlations:
Nu = 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr0.4
ho 0.725 [ kf 3Pfg2! 1/4
[ DQof J
G = mass velocity, lbm/hr ft2
D = diameter, ft
C = heat capacity, BTU/lbm F
p = density, lbm/fts
,u = viscosity, Ibm/ft hr
K = thermal conductivity, BTU/hr ftF
Re = Reynolds number
Pr = Prandtl number
h= heat transfer coefficient, BTU/hr ft"oF
U = overall heat transfer coefficient, BTU/hr ft2oF
R heat transfer resistance, hr ftF/BTU
Q = heat transfer rate, BTU/hr ft2
g = acceleration of gravity, ft/hr2
X = latent heat of condensation, BTU/lbm
Subscripts:
f = film (outside)
w wall
F = Fouling

Following this listing of the mathematical re-
lations, a certain amount of "condensation" is
usually possible. Added bits of information, such
as boundary conditions, are found to be neces-
sary.
8. Combination. Divide energy balance by
[Gi ( D 2/4)]
and let Ax -> 0.
dT5 4Q
dx GiCiD,
Substitute rate law:
dTi 4U
x= CC--D(To T)
4. Boundary Conditions.
at v = 0, Tj = 180F Tie
5. Simplification.
4U
GA CiD
Then:
dT1
= A (T Ti ) (o) T i; A (To, e.)
dx
Having formulated a mathematical structure,
it is quite unlikely that one may immediately
proceed to compute the desired answer. It is far
more likely that the next step is to restructure
the math problem-e.g., solve differential equa-
tions.

Modeling allows the logical restructuring of
descriptions, providing insight and the capability
to produce quantitative results in response
to questions.

6. Mathematics. Separate variables and integrate.
TiL dT LT o -AL
di Adx or l2-- = -AL
"7e To 0 To Tie
TL =To T -iT)-A
7. Numerical Results. The information given plus
data on the two fluids, yield a value of A =
4.18 x 10-3 and To = 495.8F, TL =- 425.8F
8. Discussion of Results. With the assumptions given,
the glycerim is heated to 425.SF. However, a
check of the constant property assumption shows
that it is seriously in error. For example, at
1800F, A = 29cp; at 425.3 F, A, = 1.2cp. There-
fore, it appears necessary to "iterate" back to
step 2 and change the presumptions. Only part of
the next iteration will be shown here. Presump-
tion 1 must be abandoned; flow on the tube side
is confirmed to be turbulent.

Words and numbers are ultimately required
from the model. One does not submit a differen-
tial equation to management, nor does one frame
a computer program and hang it on the distilla-
tion tower. It is the responsibility of the modeler
to communicate his results either by interpreta-
tion, or by providing statements so clear that
others can interpret them easily and without
possibility of error. This feature of modeling is
frequently ignored, fostering battles of misunder-
standing between the model builder and the po-
tential model user.

1. Statement

2. Information Assembly

3. Combination

Boundary and z "S
4.Initial Conditions 10

.0i 0M
5. Simplification
0 0
6. Mathematics

7. Numerical

8. Report

Figure 1. A Model Building Algorithm with Iteration

FALL 1972

In the example that we have been carrying
along as a guide, we find that we aren't ready to
communicate our results as they violated a pre-
sumption. An iteration of the model is required.
However iterations are possible at several differ-
ent levels, as shown in Figure 1, which rests on
the lists of modeling steps in Table 1.
2-II. Assembly of Information.
Assumptions:
1. Temperature dependent fluid properties.
2. Turbulent flow on tube side.
3. No multiple tube effects.
4. Constant Dowtherm temperature.
5. Variable film temperature, and Tempera-
ture difference.
New correlations are needed, and the solution
method becomes a computer technique.
8-11. The value of the exit temperature is 464.70F.

3. Trial by fire. A student is asked to solve
a problem before the class, with no prior
preparation. The whole reasoning process
is thus brutally exposed. A kinder ap-
proach is to successively question class
members to develop the model step-by-step,
following the modeling algorithm of
Figure 1.
4. Tweak by paradox. A "completely logi-
cal" example is presented, which leads
to a clearly ridiculous result. The location
of the flaw in reasoning is a superb edu-
cational device.
5. Math made illegal. A fairly detailed re-
port, containing no math but explaining
the model and results, is requested on a
problem. D

PEDAGOGY

It is moderately difficult for the instructor,
and unsatisfactory for the student, to spend much
time talking about the philosophy or even the
structure of modeling. It seems so self evident
that it is boring-but still the students go astray
simply by virtue of overlooking a modeling step.
Therefore, to make all this work, and to make it
interesting at the same time, a variety of peda-
gogical tricks have been developed and used.
These have included:
1. Omit problem statement. The "problem"
is presented as a demonstration: a ves-
sel is allowed to drain through a square
hole and the level measured vs time; a
hot sphere is immersed in a vessel of
water and its temperature measured; a
beaker of molten paraffin is allowed to
solidify. Model this situation is the in-
struction. This focuses thought upon se-
curing a precise problem definition. The
students must pry it out of both the in-
structor and reality.
2. Give problem solution. A problem from
a preceding course (where it is presumed
that the principles of modeling had not
been taught!) is chosen and the instruc-
tion is to recast it into the algorithmic
solution format given in Figure 1. This
focuses the student's attention upon
procedure: the work of "solution" has
been completed in advance within some
other procedure, be it derivation or
formula-plugging.

BELL (Continued from page 157)
The lecturer has a small monitoring screen on
the desk in front of him that shows exactly what
is going on to the viewers. (The monitor is an
insidious and ruthless device: lecturers have been
known to start yawning in boredom while watch-
ing it.) The studio audience mostly watches the
two TV screens, because that's where the action
is when the lecturer is working on the note pad;
this is somewhat distracting to an experienced
lecturer, who relies upon eye contact to see if the
audience is with him. I don't use the board be-
cause it is hard to remember to work in properly
scaled modules so that the whole image fits the
TV screen and yet is legible. This is readily con-
trolled by using a 6 in. by 8 in. buff-colored note
pad. The material to be presented in class is
written or drawn upon the pad in yellow ink,
which is readily visible to the lecturer and nearly
invisible to the camera; during the lecture, the
notes, etc. are made visible to the audience by
writing over them with a black felt-tip pen. (By
forcing the lecturer to do the writing, the speed
of the presentation is held closer to the speed at
which the students can make notes.)
Acclimatization to the TV system took only
two or three lectures. The most important single
change that I noticed was that I was better pre-
pared to lecture when I came to the studio. Hav-
ing to prepare the notes in yellow ahead of time
not only forced me to review, but also to organize
the material so that the contents of each sheet

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

4 Cdiw~d 4Z

APPLIED SURFACE CHEMISTRY

JOHN L. GAINER
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, Va. 22901

contain a course in applications of surface phe-
nomena, yet the need for background in applied
surface chemistry arises daily in the industrial
production of foams, detergents, emulsions, pa-
per, and textile fibers, as well as in processes
involving adsorption, such as reinforced plastic
and rubber systems, heterogeneous catalysts, and
crystallization. The properties of the material
surface are also important in lubrication prob-
lems of certain types and in the selection of ma-
terials to be used for biological applications, and
in numerous other situations. Since such systems
are encountered so frequently in almost any
manufacturing process or, in fact, in most ex-
perimental research projects, there appears to
be a need for the teaching of a few fundamental
concepts combined with practical applications.
My own interest in this area began with
graduate courses in colloid chemistry and poly-
mer chemistry. But it was not until I was involv-
ed in industrial research that I realized the need
for a more practically-oriented type of approach.
I was working for what was then called the
Silicones Division of Union Carbide Corporation,
and, of course, most silicone products are sold
because of some beneficial surface property. Also
at that time I noticed that the same fundamental
ideas were applicable to many different kinds of
products such as fibers, rubber, foams, and
waxes. I'm sure that this is obvious to someone
knowledgeable in the area of surface chemistry,
but it was quite a revelation to me at the time.
When I came to the University of Virginia
there was a course called, appropriately enough,
Applied Surface Chemistry. So after I expressed
an interest in developing a course which would
apply certain fundamentals in many broad areas,
this seemed the perfect place to do it, although
the course had previously emphasized somewhat
different aspects. I felt that the only prerequisite
necessary for the student should be a course in

physical chemistry, and that the course should be
offered as an elective for seniors and graduate
students. I see no need for differentiating be-
such a course as both really have the same back-
ground in surface chemistry (i.e., relatively lit-
tle).
The reception of the course at the University
of Virginia has been both encouraging and some-
what enthusiastic. A number of students take
the course each year, both seniors and graduate
students, and from other departments as well as
from Chemical Engineering. The students usual-
ly quickly find an application for the material.
A number of graduates have written me that
they were finding numerous uses for the course
material in their subsequent jobs, whether in
production, development, or research. The course
is also a natural one for a short-course because
it can be shortened without deleting any of the
important concepts simply by not covering as
many applications. I have taught it both as a
one-week course and as a two-day course in the
Today Series of the AIChE.
With this background, then, let me now de-
scribe the content. But first, let me stress again
my belief in having a little knowledge go a long
way; that is, using many applications which
really involve the same fundamental ideas. This
philosophy will be quite evident in the outline
of the course, and is also a criticism one might
make. Some people may feel that it is better to
go into some areas deeply, and, of course, that
is a good approach in many instances. However,
I feel that the survey approach is better for
this course, which is, after all, only the first one
in a possible series of surface phenomena
courses.
In general my course outline follows the
istry of Surfaces" by A. W. Adamson, Second
Edition, Interscience, 1967. In fact, I assign

FALL 1972

John Gainer earned the BSChE from West Virginia
University, the MS from MIT, and the PhD ('64) from
Delaware. His industrial experience includes several
years in the Silicones Division of Union Carbide. John
was Visiting Fellow, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm
in 1971. His research interests include mass transfer,
polymer and surface chemistry, diffusion in biological
systems, and enzyme engineering.

that book as the text for the course, although
I really do not use it to any great extent. Some
of the students feel that perhaps I should not
assign it as an official textbook, but instead make
it an optional reference. My reasons for not doing
so are based on two observations: (1) students
rarely refer to suggested reference books, and
(2) I think that it is quite valuable to have a
good compilation of experimental methods for
certainly is. Thus by becoming at least somewhat
familiar with the material in the book, the stu-
dents will know in the future how to go about
setting up a given type of apparatus. In order
to accomplish this familiarity, I usually suggest
son. There are other books which one could use
for such a course, but the variety of experi-
mental apparatus covered in Adamson is much
greater than in other texts, thus making it a
valuable reference book for future use.
An Outline of Applied Surface Chemistry
I. Introduction concerning the importance of know-
ing surface characteristics.
II. Thermodynamics of Surfaces
A. Concept of surface free energy
B. Derivation of surface thermodynamic proper-
ties from surface tension.
III. Capillarity
A. Physical definition of surface tension
B. Fundamental equation of capillarity, and in-
fluence of surface geometry on surface tension.
C. Ways to measure surface tension, and ways
to estimate it from other data.

D. Influence of surface tension and size on ther-
modynamic properties of small drops.
IV. Concentration Effects on surface tension
A. Gibb's adsorption and surface excess concen-
tration
B. Surface active agents
1. Levelling agents
2. Detergents
C. Micelle formation
V. Films and Monolayers
A. Formation of monolayers on liquid surfaces
1. Surface pressure
2. Surface viscosity
3. Use as evaporation supressants
B. Formation of a liquid film on a liquid surface
1. Work of adhesion and of cohesion
3. Antifoaming agents
VI. Liquid-Solid Interfaces
A. Development of Young-Dupr4 equation
B. Definition of work of cohesion, work of ad-
C. Wetting agents
D. Coatings for water repellency
E. Further discussion of detergency
F. Ore flotation
VII. Liquid-Liquid Interfaces
A. Emulsions
1. Factors affecting stability
2. Emulsifying agents
B. Microencapsulation
C. Emulsion polymerization
VIII. Foams
A. Gibb's theory of elasticity
B. Marangoni effect
IX. Solid-Solid Interfaces
A. Lubrication, stressing boundary lubrication in
particular
X. Fluid-Solid Interfaces
1. Isotherms, with special emphasis on Lang-
muir, B-E-T, Temkin, Freundlich.
3. Heterogeneous catalysts
a. Models for unimolecular and bimolec-
ular reactions
b. Temperature dependency
1. Ordinary monomeric solutes
2. Polymers
a. Reinforced plastics and rubber
XI. Miscellaneous
A. Nucleation and crystal growth
B. Membranes
C. Electrical properties of surfaces.
As is readily apparent from the preceding
outline, the scope of the course is quite large.
Thus, of necessity, the topics are not covered in
great depth. For example, one could easily de-
velop a course merely on electrical properties
of surfaces, but, for a first course, I believe that
the survey is better. Basically, I try to empha-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

size that surface tension is important in various
systems, and that it is a function of geometric
shape, temperature, concentration, and electrical
charge. Most of the topics build on this.
One of the most important aspects of any
course, in my opinion, is to have daily problem
assignments. There is no easy source of prob-
lems for all of these areas. However, I have com-
piled a large set of what I call "pseudo-industrial
applications" which I assign each time. These
problems have come from my experiences and
reading, and are, for the most part, designed to
put the student in a position of a "trouble-
shooter" or development engineer. I am listing
two examples of such problems at the end of this
a critical review of one article in the literature
(of his choice) toward the end of the course. I
think that this is quite valuable in demonstrating
to the student that he can now understand much
of the literature concerning surface phenomena,
at least in a superficial sense.
One of the topics I would like to cover in
more detail is that of biomaterials. Last year,
while I was on leave, another member of our
staff taught this course and added a section con-
cerning this, especially in relationship to throm-
bus formation on implants. This has now been
expanded and next year a course will be offered
at the University of Virginia covering just bio-
materials. Thus the need for me to add material
on this subject no longer exists, and the students
will be able to learn this area from teachers
much more expert than I. However, I believe that
it should be kept in mind when developing any
general surface phenomena course. El

] P11 Mproblems for teachers

Problems from Professor Gainer's course on "Applied
Surface Chemistry."
1. A. As Product Manager of Emulsions, Inc., you are
responsible for the new product composition. Your
laboratory has given you the following data which
was obtained at 250C:

Compound
For dispersed phase:
A
B
For continuous phase:
C
D

Density
g/ml

A and B are both relatively insoluble in both C and D.
a. Which system of the four possible systems will
make the most stable emulsion at 250C. without
the use of an emulsifier?
b. Will this be the most stable emulsion at 500C?
Do you need more data? If so, what?
c. Name two ways to break the emulsion.
B. It has now been decided to use an emulsifier to
stabilize the emulsion picked in problem IA. You
have three (3) emulsifiers to choose from:

Emulsifier Mol. Wt. A

Solubility (g/1l) in
B C D

150 0.08 0.15 0.25 0.50
150 0.15 0.15 0.25 0.40
250 0.08 0.10 0.35 0.50

a. List the emulsifiers in order of stabilization (list
the emulsifier producing the most stable emulsion
first, etc.) Why did you choose this order?
b. Are there other factors to be considered in pick-
ing the best emulsifier to be used commercially?
If so, what data do you need?
2. You have been hired by the Super Detergent Com-
pany. It is a small company, and you are their expert
in surface chemistry. The boss has an idea for a new
detergent which must be commercially competitive.
He calls you in his office, hands you a box of the new
detergent (Super X) and tells you that he has the
The organic part of the detergent molecule con-
tains approximately 10 carbon atoms. (Molecular
weight is 260).
A surface tension-concentration curve has been
obtained as is shown in Figure 1.
Other commercial detergents of this type sell for
16 cents per pound with recommended use of 1.2
ounces per gallon at 100C.
Super X will sell for 18 cents per pound.
It will be your job to evaluate Super X as follows:
a. What minimum concentration of Super X must
be used (in ounces per gallon) for maximum
detergency? Is Super X competitive with other
detergents? Show comparative costs.
b. Would you recommend this amount to be used for
washing at higher temperatures? Explain.
c. Can you make any recommendations about making
a new detergent, Super XX, which might be
cheaper to use than Super X provided that .the
manufacturing costs of Super XX are the same
as for Super X? 0

Viscosity
Mol. Wt. cp

0.8 100 0.8
1.0 150 0.9

Concentration, gmoles/ liter of solution

FALL 1972

MOMENTUM, ENERGY, AND MASS TRANSFER

JOHN C. SLATTERY
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois 60201

Sometimes I feel that our department has had
almost continuous discussions over the last fifteen
years about the objectives to be sought in teach-
ing graduate courses. A positive effect of these
discussions has been to encourage experimenta-
tion.
Among other courses, a two-quarter sequence
in momentum, energy, and mass transfer has
understand the approach that I have taken in
presenting this area to our students, let me first
discuss my objectives.
courses without first saying something about our
concept of the undergraduate sequence. So let me
begin there.

we have two objectives. We would like to help the
student both understand the ideas underlying the
subject and achieve some facility with the most
useful approaches to analyzing practical problems.
in momentum, energy, and mass transfer, I begin
with fundamentals. These are the mass, moment-
um, and moment-of-momentum balances, if we
are discussing fluid mechanics. But I do not spend
much time in solving the corresponding differen-
tial equation of continuity or the differential equa-
tion of motion. A greater variety of experimen-
tally motivated problems is open to analysis by
undergraduate students in a relatively short peri-
od of time, if the emphasis is placed upon the
integral macroscopicc, system, or control-volume)
balances.
There is at least one difficulty with placing
this much emphasis on the integral balances in
the undergraduate courses. Assumptions are re-
quired that must be justified by experience, by
one's intuitive feel for a physical situation, or by
available experimental data. The students need

assistance here. I help them gain some experience
by discussing the qualitative aspects of real flows
and by having them perform as many experi-
ments as possible within our time limitations.

Our objectives are much the same in the be-
ginning graduate sequence, but the emphasis is
different. I stress the fundamentals feeling that,
the more precisely a person understands the
approximations which he is making in analyzing
a given situation, the more likely it is that he
will be able to make a correct judgment about
their applicability.
This beginning sequence is recommended both
for those who are seeking a terminal M.S. degree
as well as for those who are considering a Ph.D.
Our department encourages students to develop
a broad and versatile background during their
year of M.S. study. In designing this sequence, I
have tried to keep in mind that it should form a
firm foundation upon which the graduate can
build his "engineering experience" after he leaves
school.
This does not imply that a terminal M.S. candi-
date should have the same course background as a
Ph.D. man. To supplement his initial sequence,
we regularly offer courses that cover limited as-
pects of the area in greater depth: Applied Trans-
port Processes (applications of fundamentals in
the design of commercial equipment and pro-
cesses), Electrochemical Engineering, Heat
Transfer, Physiological Transport Processes,
Rheology.

ROLE OF MATHEMATICS
An instructor must quickly decide what role
vector and tensor analysis will play in his lectures.
Courses in applied mathematics are important.
But no matter whether they are taught in mathe-
matics departments or engineering departments,

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

John Slattery received his degrees in ChE from Wash-
ington University (BS) and the University of Wisconsin
(MS and PhD). In 1959 he joined Northwestern Uni-
versity, where his current research interests are inter-
facial behavior and multiphase flows.

physical problems are introduced merely to illus-
trate the mathematics.
In teaching a course in momentum, energy,
and mass transfer, physical problems are our
primary concern. Mathematics is used to illumi-
nate the physical ideas. It is a tool or language
rather than the objective.
Tensor analysis is the language in terms of
which mass, momentum, and energy transfer can
be presented in the simplest and most physically
meaningful fashion. This does not mean that every
student should be capable of transforming the
equation of motion from one curvilinear coordi-
nate system to another. That capability will be
important for Ph.D. students who are going to
specialize in this area. Everyone else will find
that their needs are almost always filled by tabula-
tions of the various differential equations in
cylindrical and spherical coordinates.
Rather, it is most important for a student to
learn to think about physical problems in terms
of vectors and tensors. I would like a student to
think of a velocity vector as a directed line seg-
ment or arrow. A second-order tensor is a trans-
formation of one vector into another. He should
visualize the stress tensor as transforming the
unit normal to a surface into the stress vector
acting upon the surface.
Because tensor analysis is the language, I be-
gin my lectures by introducing it. But I do not
recommend that all the details of tensor analysis
be explained at the beginning. I have found that
it is easier to retain the class interest, if no more
than one or two days are spent in reviewing vector
analysis before we begin kinematics. Thereafter,
FALL 1972

explaining the mathematical notation becomes an
inseparable part of my discussions of the transfer
processes. For example, I make no attempt to
introduce the concept of a second-order tensor
before it becomes necessary in the derivation of
the equation of motion.
I want the student to realize that mathematics
can be used to clarify engineering problems
rather than to obscure them.

APPROXIMATIONS
The objection is sometimes raised that it is
really useless to spend much time in developing
analytic solutions to problems in momentum,
energy, and mass transfer, since the situations
that can be handled in this manner are trivial.
This is obviously an exaggeration, but there is a
point to be made: Most interesting problems
either require numerical solutions or are suscep-
tible only to approximate solution.
My feeling is that the best way to introduce
this material is through the use of problems that
can be solved analytically. These problems are
required preparation for those who wish to study
more sophisticated problems numerically. It seems
unreasonable to attack an involved problem if the
straightforward ones are still giving you trouble.
As a further practical matter, analytic solutions
for limiting cases are highly desirable in order to
check the validity of whatever numerical work
is performed.
It is also true that most interesting problems
are susceptible only to approximate solutions.
There are at least four classes of approximations
that should be recognized by a student.
1. Idealization of the physical problem. Some-
times the physical problem in which we are pri-
marily interested is too difficult for us to handle.
One answer is to replace it by one that has most
of the important features of the original situation,
but that is sufficiently simple for us to analyze.
A good example is provided by flow through a
tube. An experimentalist is always concerned
with flow through finite tubes, but sometimes the
entrance and exit regions are of lesser importance
to him. In this case, we can replace the real prob-
lem by an idealized one in which entrance and
exit effects are negligible: flow through a tube
of infinite length.
2. Simplifying the differential equation. Even
after such an idealization, the resulting mathe-
matical problem may be too difficult to solve. We

With any undergraduate course, we have two objectives to help the student understand the ideas
underlying the subject and achieve some facility with useful approaches to analyzing practical problems.

may wish to consider a limited case in which one
or more terms in a differential equation are neg-
lected. I place special emphasis upon the way in
which one should argue to arrive at such an
approximation. The classic examples of such argu-
ments are provided in the context of fluid mech-
anics: creeping flow (for small Reynolds
numbers), potential flow (for large Reynolds
numbers outside the immediate neighborhood of
phase interface), and boundary-layer theory (for
large Reynolds numbers in the immediate neigh-
borhood of a phase interface).
3. Integral averages. Many times our require-
ments do not demand detailed solutions of the
differential balances. Perhaps we are interested
only in some type of integral average. There are
four types of averages that have been found use-
ful in the literature. The traditional approach to
turbulence is in terms of time-averaged variables.

I want the student to realize that
mathematics can be used to clarify
engineering problems rather than obscure them.

Area averages are useful in justifying one-di-
mensional descriptions of flows. I use the concept
of local volume averages in discussing momentum,
energy, and mass transfer in porous media.
Finally, there are the integral balances that are
nothing more than averages over arbitrarily de-
fined systems.
4. Mathematical approximations. This is really
the problem with which one is primarily con-
cerned in carrying out numerical solutions. A
mathematical approximation is applied repeatedly
in order to arrive at a solution for a differential
equation or the value of an integral.

BOOK
I have recently published a book ("Momentum,
Energy, and Mass Transfer in Continua," Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1972) that is based upon the lectures
I have given in our beginning graduate sequence
over the past seven years. It should give you a
better indication than any course outline as to how
I have implemented these ideas.
The appendix on tensor analysis has been
written with three types of people in mind. Only
some of the sections are marked as required read-
ing for the many first-year students who are

TABLE 1

Momentum Energy Transfer
Transfer Transfer Mass

Fundamentals Ch. 2 Ch. 5 Ch. 8
Solution of differential
balances 3 6 9
Integral averaging
techniques 4 7 10

anxious to consider applications as quickly as
possible. Other sections are suggested for those
students who are more curious about the founda-
tions of continuum mechanics. The complete ap-
pendix is recommended for those who wish to do
serious research in any of the subareas of mo-
mentum, energy, and mass transfer.
Following an introductory chapter on kine-
matics, Table 1 indicates how I have devoted three
chapters to momentum transfer, three to energy
transfer and three to mass transfer. For each
transfer process, there is one chapter (Chs. 2, 5,
and 8) concerned with the fundamental postulates
and descriptions of material behavior. A second
chapter (Chs. 3, 6, and 9) is devoted to solutions
of the differential balances. Considerable emphasis
is placed upon the limiting cases that correspond
to large or small values of particular dimension-
less groups. Finally, there is a third chapter (Chs.
4, 7, and 10) concerned with the integral averag-
ing techniques. It is here that I consider turbul-
ence, flow in porous media, and the various
integral balances. I make a particular effort in
these sections to discuss the preparation of the
empirical data correlations that often must be
introduced when integral averages are used.
While I hope this book will be useful to others,
I recognize that many instructors feel a textbook
is inappropriate for a graduate course. In a sense,
I agree with them. An instructor should never
course. He should experiment with the new ap-
proaches and the new ideas developing in the
literature. Chemical engineering has never been
a static field and there is every reason to believe
that even greater changes are in store for us.

THE CHOICE
Students and faculty interested in either tak-
(Continued on page 197)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

She cleans her face

every night and washes her

blood three times a week.

In most respects, this young ". I
woman is like us all. Except that
she lost her kidneys.
And if we never think twice
cause while we rely on our bodies, T-
she has to rely on a machine. *
Today, kidney disease ranks
fourth -after heart disease, can-
cer and pneumonia- and claims .- '
the lives of close to 55,000 peo-- -
pie a year.
Now, however, there's good
news for anyone whose blood mu st '
be mechanically cleaned and
restored.
It's a new blood purifying unit
developed by Dow, using a tech-
nique first created for desalting
water. Slightly bigger than a flash- ':.,
light, it's filled with about 11,000 7
hollow fibers that look like tiny
soda straws. Smaller and simpler
than previous devices,it can shorten
the time that patients must remain
immobile.
Even though artificial, it fil-
ters much the same as a human
kidney. And to anyone who needs
his blood washed, that's what
counts.
At Dow, we're concerned ,t ih th
more than chemistry. We're con-
cerned with life. And despite our 9 N
imperfections, we're determined to
share its promise. Wisely. '
The Dow Chemical Company, g a-',B
Midland, Michigan 48640.
^s>- fs~!i-^^^U

PROCESS AND PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

EDWARD G. KELLEHER AND
NICHOLAS KAFES
Manhattan College
Bronx, New York 10471
T HE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Department at
Manhattan College has had in effect for the
past five years a "design-oriented" master's de-
gree program geared toward those students who
wish to pursue career objectives in the process
industries. This is a cooperative program with
industry encompassing one complete calendar
year. An initial internship is provided in the
form of summer employment of the students
by the participating companies* involved in the
phase entails an intensive effort in applying
fundamental engineering principles to the so-
lution of industrial problems.
A total of thirty credits are necessary for
the Master of Engineering (ChE) degree,
eighteen of which are in required courses in
mass transfer, fluid mechanics and heat transfer,
kinetics and reactor design, and process evalu-
ation and plant design. A prime requirement for
the completion of the program is the submission
of a Project Evaluation Report summarizing a
comprehensive process and plant design project.
The course, Process and Plant Design Project,
serves as the vehicle for guiding the student
through the many phases of the project includ-
ing initiation, assessment of processing alterna-
tives, design and specification of equipment, and
economic evaluation.

OBJECTIVES
T HE OVERALL OBJECTIVE of the project is to
unify and build upon a diversity of scientific
and engineering principles by application to a
comprehensive, open-ended problem. Specific
objectives of the course are to develop the capa-
bilities of the student in the area of process
synthesis, technical and economic evaluation of

* Presently participating in the program are Celanese
Plastics Co., Esso Research & Engineering Co., FMC
Corp., Mobil Oil Corp., Pfizer, Inc., Stauffer Chemical
Co., and Texaco, Inc.

alternatives, process optimization and communi-
cation skills.
The comprehensive nature of the project re-
quires that a diversity of subjects be employed.
Integration of these subjects to solve a single
problem requires a thorough understanding not
only of a specific area but also of its interrelation-
ship with many other areas. Being open-ended,
emphasis is placed on organizational ability to
formulate a plan of attack prior to execution of
any specific project detail.
The development of an overall process flow-
sheet based on information available in the litera-
ture or on an innovative idea involves the concep-
tualization of the overall problem and technical
and economic evaluation of alternatives at many
points in the process. Once a scheme has been
developed, optimization of the entire process as
a unit would be most desirable, but is usually
limited to segments of the process to facilitate
completion of the project during the academic
phase of the program.
A salient objective of the project is the im-
provement of communication skills. The Project
Evaluation Report is treated in the same manner
as a thesis, that is, it must be both technically
correct and well presented. In addition, each stu-
dent must present his project orally and defend
it.

ORGANIZATION
PROCESS AND PLANT Design Project is offered
as a three- credit course during the spring
semester. However, the projects are actually
selected during the fall semester. Since it is a
required course, this presents no particular diffi-
culty with regard to who will be enrolled, etc.
The students normally work in teams of two;
partners are selected by lot; each team works on
a different project. The team approach applies
only to the technical phases of process and equip-
ment design; each individual is responsible for
his or her own Project Evaluation Report. Proj-
ects can be concerned with any appropriate type
of industrial design problem, but have typically
involved the preparation of an organic or in-
organic chemical. Some of the recent projects

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Nicholas Kafes received his BS degree at the Massa-
chusetts Institute of Technology and his PhD at Lehigh
University. He joined the faculty of Manhattan College
in 1970. He has a background of over 10 years experience
with The Lummus Company, a major engineering con-
struction firm specializing in the erection of petroleum/
petrochemical processing plants, and has held positions
as a process design engineer, startup engineer and pro-
cess research engineer. (right photo)
Edward G. Kelleher received his BChE from Man-
hattan College and MS and EngScD degrees from Colum-
bia University. He has worked with Celanese Plastics
Company and American Cyanamid Company, and is
currently associated with Ecolotrol, Inc. in process de-
sign for environmental control. His teaching interests
include mass transfer, process and plant design, and
numerical methods. He is a member of AIChE, ACS,
Sigma Xi, and ASEE. (left photo)

were process designs for the synthesis of urea,
terephthalic acid, isoprene, vinyl chloride, and
vinyl acetate from basic raw materials.
Early selection of the project enables the
students to complete their literature search during
the first semester. During this period, teams
usually complete a preliminary process flowsheet,
preliminary material balance, and a set of process-
ing alternatives to be evaluated. Although no
formal classes are held, groups meet informally
with their project advisor to discuss progress.
provides the students with the background nec-
essary to make marked progress during the fall
semester. In particular, the Kinetics and Reactor
Design and Process Evaluation and Plant De-
sign courses are organized so as to provide direct
input to the development of the project. The
latter part of the Kinetics and Reactor Design
course, which is given in the first semester, in-
cludes several case studies in reactor design. At
least one of these is extended to include the de-
velopment of a down-stream processing scheme
and the effects thereon of varying reaction con-
FALL 1972

editions. The two-semester course in Process
Evaluation and Plant Design emphasizes the in-
tegrative case study approach to develop in the
students the concepts of process synthesis, evalu-
ation of alternatives, economic evaluation, and
optimization. Typical case studies covered in
depth in this sequence include hydrogen reform-
ing, ammonia synthesis, nylon-6 synthesis, power
recovery cycles, and hydrocarbon separation
schemes.
In addition to the supplementary material
given in the aforementioned courses, the back-
ground of the students is further reinforced by
a seminar series that is an integral part of the
overall program. The companies participating in
the program provide the speakers for these sem-
inars on topics of industrial importance. Recent
seminar titles illustrating their contributive role
include:
Selection and Design of Commercial Fractionation
Equipment,
Non-Linear Matrix Algebra and Engineering Appli-
cation,
Profitability and Engineering Projects,
Implementation of a First Level Process Computer,
Process Modeling in Chemical Engineering,
Catalytic Reforming,
Materials Engineering in the Petroleum Industry.
The project course itself is offered as a two
lecture hour course with a two hour discussion
period. The lecture period topics are selected to
augment the material presented in basic courses,
providing the student with a fundamental under-
standing of several areas which are important
considerations for any overall industrial prob-
lem. These include:
1. Equipment design and specification
2. Safety
3. Control
4. Plant layout
5. Offsites
6. Process economics
7. Technical writing
Equipment design is limited to major specifica-
tions and does not include detailed mechanical
design. Safety is considered from the viewpoint
of safety in equipment design and safety in an
overall processing scheme. Control schemes,
rather than instrumentation, are discussed for
individual units and overall segments of a process.
Process economics includes estimation techniques
for total capital investment, total product cost,
profitability parameters, and evaluation of al-
ternatives. Several lectures are devoted to the
basic principles of improved technical writing

skills.
The discussion period has no fixed format,
but is usually devoted to a discussion of common
technical problems among the groups or to dis-
cussion with the individual groups. In addition to
these formal meetings, groups meet regularly on
an informal basis with their project advisor to
discuss problems, review progress, and plan.
These informal discussions are not limited to
their project advisor. The groups are free to and
do consult with all members of the faculty who
have a diversity of backgrounds, experience, and
interests.
It is difficult to illustrate the depth to which
the various phases of the project are carried,
Project Evaluation Reports is given in Table I
as a general guide. The process flowsheet in-
cludes all equipment, a complete material bal-
ance, and all major controls. The cost estimates
are all based on the cost of the equipment. All
equipment must be sized and reasonable details
given, but without mechanical details. Specifica-
tions include all materials of construction and
costs for each item.
I. Summary
II. Introduction
III. Presentation
A. Description of Process
a. Chemistry of Process
b. Special Features and Innovations
c. Process Description
d. Process Flowsheet
B. Description of Major Equipment
C. Plant Layout and Location
D. Economics of Process
a. Cost of Equipment
b. Estimated Capital Investment
c. Total Product Cost and Profit
d. Depreciation
e. Profitability
E. Conclusions and Recommendations
IV. Discussion
V. Nomenclature
VI. Bibliography
VII. Appendix
A. Properties of Materials
B. Design Data
C. Sample Calculations
D. Long Tables and Computer Programs
E. Equipment Specifications

DISCUSSION
T HE PRESENT ROLE of the overall program seems
particularly important in enabling students
to make the transition from the classroom to an

industrial environment. Judging by the input
from industrial representatives, it has been par-
ticularly effective in improving the competence
of young engineers by affording them an in-
tensive, guided experience in developing their
capabilities in handling industrial problems.
The students have found that the compre-
hensive nature of the process and plant design
project has been effective in giving them a broad-
er perspective of chemical engineering. They
have learned to think more effectively in terms
of the overall result of changing a single prob-
lem variable. They are better prepared to evalu-
ate alternatives on both technical and economic
bases. They are more aware of the total implica-
tion of a single engineering decision.
The lecture material of the course contributes
to this broader view of engineering. Although
many of the topics are in actuality the domain
of specialists in their respective fields, the stu-
dents develop at least a basic working knowledge
of these areas and an appreciation of their role
in the overall engineering picture.
The continual interaction of the students
with the faculty is conducive to the meaningful
cross fertilization of ideas. Reinforced by the
summer internship in industry and continued
contact with practicing engineers during the
seminar program, this manifests itself in real-
istic approaches to the solution of a given prob-
lem. Needless to say, this does require a con-
siderable commitment in time and effort on the
part of the faculty and the participating com-
panies.
The emphasis placed on teamwork in the
project has many obvious benefits. It does make
the workload more reasonable and allows time
for creative effort. It also leads to discussions of
tremendous mutual benefit to the students as
well as to some innovative ideas in processing
techniques. At the same time, individual effort
is required to prepare the final Project Evaluation
Report. Improved communication skills result
from the emphasis placed on the written presen-
tation of the report and from the oral presenta-
tion of the project in a seminar.
Overall, student reaction to the project has
been extremely favorable. Students have found
it to be the unifying agent within their graduate
education. This is not as much due to the fact
that the project represents the culmination of
the program as it is that it serves to interlace
much of the knowledge previously held to be
unique and isolated. O

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

ENGINEERING ENTREPRENEURSHIP

J. M. DOUGLAS and J. R. KITTRELL
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01002

T HE DOMINANT TREND in engineering edu-
cation for the last 10 to 15 years has been to-
ward engineering science. Much of the research
effort has been concerned with the development of
new techniques to solve technical problems, the
the available methods used to describe physical
systems, and the laboratory courses are used to
support the theoretical material presented in the
lectures by demonstrating that experimental data
generally agree with theoretical predictions. Al-
though this increased effort to develop new ap-
proaches to problem solving has led to some sig-
nificant advances in technology, it has been
accompanied by a de-emphasis in the search for
economic solutions to real problems. In fact, eco-
nomic analysis of engineering problems is gen-
erally discussed only in a senior-year design
course, rather than being integrated throughout
With these changes occurring in engineering
education we are training students to have an
appreciation for the fundamental methods of engi-
neering instead of the actual practice of engineer-
ing. Since the practice of engineering usually
requires efficient, economic solutions to problems
that have never been solved before, a student
needs to acquire the ability to recognize how to
complete the statement of a problem, how to de-
cide on the best approach, how to determine the
required accuracy of any solution he develops, and
how to sell his solution either to his management
or to the public. Unfortunately, many present
engineering programs ignore most of these ques-
tions. After entering industry, a student often
realizes that the intuitive notions he gained from
his courses frequently are more valuable than the
quantitative methods, that it is often more efficient
to solve a problem experimentally rather than
undertake a theoretical analysis, that it is much
more advantageous to use a highly directed ap-
proach to get quick answers to a problem rather
than a scholarly understanding in depth, etc. Thus
the university needs to find ways to give engineer-

ing students an enhanced ability to perform in the
real world of engineering practice.
One approach we are using to improve the
balance between theory and practice at the Uni-
versity of Massachusetts is to introduce an elective
course in entrepreneurship, described below. The
purpose of this course is to get students to gener-
ate ideas that they would then translate into com-
mercial ventures. We anticipate that most of the
projects will continue to be in such areas as
household items or sporting goods because the
students have a better overall background in these
fields than they do in the chemical industry; for
example, they are better able to relate to the prob-
lems of the expected sales price and potential total
sales in the development of a new ski than in the
development of new chemical products. Although
we would prefer for a larger number of our stu-
dents to focus their efforts on industrial chemistry
the advantages gained by having a student realize
the balance between theory, estimation, experi-
mentation, marketing, and sales in the quick and
reliable solution of an unsolved problem seem to
us to outweigh the disadvantages of deviating
from a chemical orientation. Moreover, we have
found that a high level of enthusiasm is generated
in the students when they recognize the realism
of the unsolved nature of the problem (compared
to most laboratory exercises), the expected com-
mercialization of the final product, and, of course,
the necessity of the student to find the capital re-
quired to finance his venture. This capitalization
requirement means that realistically we have to
restrict our interests to projects having low in-
vestment costs.
To date we have offered this course on entre-
preneurship on an experimental basis to a class of
four "hand-picked" graduate students in a 3
credit hour course, and to eight freshmen in a 1
credit-hour course. These graduate students all
ferent personalities and interests. As might be ex-
pected, the student performance varied widely,
and the performance seemed to correlate better

FALL 1972

The university needs to find ways to give engineering students an enhanced
ability to perform in the real world of engineering practice.

with an interest in entrepreneurship or person-
We were highly pleased with the progress and per-
formance of both groups of students. (We are in-
vesting our time and capital in several projects
for future commercialization -the most sincere
grade a student can be given.) Also we plan to
expand it into an option in our Master's Degree
Program and to offer the material to sophomores
studies program. It is too early to assess any im-
provement in the ability of the students to prac-
tice chemical engineering, although we are opti-
mistic that an enhancement of these abilities is
taking place.

COURSE DESCRIPTION

In a few introductory lectures we discussed
some of the recent surveys that demonstrate the
decreasing competitive position of the United
States in the world market, the fact that over
100,000 manufacturing jobs have been lost in
Massachusetts alone in the last 5 years, and the
the role of engineering in improving this position.
The purpose of engineering is to find ways to
create new wealth, and often this is accomplished
by translating scientific ideas into specific pro-
ducts that people will buy to make their lives
more pleasant in some sense. One of the keys to
the development of a new product lies in the
original idea, but no idea has value unless it can
be translated into a successful commercial ven-
ture. Therefore, the two main topics covered in
the course were idea generation and the pro-
cedures required to develop and commercialize a
new idea, termed idea exploitation.

Idea Generation
Most industrial corporations have an established or-
ganization to develop new products for the company. Norm-
ally they attempt to accomplish this goal by looking for
new applications for existing company products, searching
for new uses of by-product materials, hunting for new
sources of raw materials, and evaluating the effects of
modifying existing processes and products. The search
for new opportunities is restricted to those that are in
general conformity with the company's goals and past
experience. On the contrary, a private inventor frequently
tunities, perhaps by finding out what frustrates people
and looking for a product that will relieve that frustra-

tion, by close observation of how present devices work
and then discovering a better way to do the same task,
or by recognizing that a technique someone has used to
solve a particular problem can also be applied to a new
area. Thus a private inventor is limited only by his imagi-
nation and the extent of his knowledge. In class we pre-
sented numerous illustrations of published inventions in
four categories: looking for applications of an existing
body of the inventor's expertise, looking for ways to
satisfy existing needs in the marketplace, looking for
ways to fill "holes" in a market even though a need is
not readily apparent, and looking for new applications of
existing products or new ways to produce existing pro-
ducts.
After discussing a large number of examples of idea
generation in class, we asked the students to generate
some ideas of their own. We were very surprised at how
well they did, and there were many more projects of po-
tential than we had time to pursue. Similarly, the con-
cepts of idea generation were presented in a Freshman
Engineering Module (a four-week short course) and the
freshmen also came up with some outstanding ideas. The
students seemed to enjoy this part of the course tremend-
ously, and it went very smoothly.

Idea Exploitation
An idea has value only if it can be translated into a
commercial venture. About 59 out of 60 ideas that initially
appear to be promising fail somewhere along the line,
and frequently the marketing difficulties are much tougher
to overcome than the technical problems. With a high
potential failure rate it is necessary to find a way to
screen ideas very quickly for both their technical and
marketing potential, rather than to complete a lengthy
technical development of a product and then find that it
can't be sold. Thus the best approach to use in developing
a new product is a method of successive approximations,
sometimes called the engineering method, where an at-
tempt is made to get a complete solution to the whole
problem as quickly as possible by ignoring all but the
most essential details of the solution; this procedure must
be developed by practice in the course. If the results of
this initial solution look promising, we then determine the
most critical areas of the solution and attempt to fill in
the details of the analysis. By using this approach of
obtaining successive solutions, which are more accurate
as more of the details are considered, we have the ad-
vantages of quickly dropping projects with little promise
either from a technical or a marketing standpoint, of ob-
taining a rapid assessment of the critical areas of the
development of the product, and of having a fast solution
to the overall problem that we may be able to implement
with an appropriate use of safety factors. Similarly, the
application of the engineering method is normally the
most efficient approach because even though we solve the
same problem many times in varying degrees of detail,
we avoid going down dead ends or wasting time in a
lengthy analysis of parts of the problem that are not
very important.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

The purpose of engineering is to find ways to
create new wealth by translating scientific
ideas into specific products that people

A useful set of questions to consider during the initial
screening of a project are: Is it technically feasible? Can
it be sold? Is there a significant market? Has it been
done before? In answering these questions, we simultane-
ously consider: How difficult will it be to commercialize?
What are the critical problems to be solved? Answers to
these questions should be determined initially only by
guestimates or by order-of-magnitude calculations. It is
somewhat surprising how many projects will be dropped
after spending only an hour or so thinking about these
questions. Of course, part of the reason for this rapid
rejection is that projects compatible with the low levels
of available capital normally yield a small profit; the
amount of effort required to solve the technical and
marketing problems, along with the uncertainties associ-
ated with the development, often makes the project not
seem to be worthwhile.
Once a project has passed the initial screening test,
it is desirable to take a more formal, although still itera-
tive, approach. After the critical stages in the develop-
ment have been identified, then it is reasonable to proceed
through the line presented below:
1. Complete the statement of the problem and define
the critical steps of the problem
2. Translate the problem into engineering or market-
ing terms (costs and values)
3. Make a sketch or diagram of the system or opera-
tion
4. Use the sketch to try to guess a better answer
5. List the assumptions you need to make to under-
take the simplest possible analysis of the problem
6. Estimate a solution based on the assumption in
step 5
7. Evaluate if the solution is reasonable
8. Determine the effect your analysis has on your
original overall solution to the problem
9. Examine the importance of the assumptions you
10. If your analysis still leaves you with the critical
wise, rerank the priorities of the critical problems
and apply the procedure to the next most critical
item.
The list above should be considered only as a guideline
since in many cases it will be possible to skip several
steps, iterations will take place within the main loop, or
the steps will be rearranged into a different order. Never-
theless, the list provides a useful guide, particularly near
the beginning of a course when a student tends to get
bogged down in sophisticated solutions to technical prob-
lems that are similar to those he encountered in his pre-
vious course work. In fact, it is a difficult matter to get a
student to use order-of-magnitude calculations, when he
knows that he could get an exact solution by solving a
partial differential equation, i.e., there is a tendency to
substitute many hours worth of straightforward but tedi-
ous algebra for one hour of thought.
FALL 1972

COURSE OPERATION

W E WERE QUITE convinced, even with no
experience in teaching this type of course,
that it would not be possible to teach the practice
of engineering by lectures alone; hence, the course
was run as a mix of lectures and discussions of
individual projects carried out by the students.
The lectures were designed to be relevant to the
stage of development of the individual projects
and the presentations were so timed.
The initial four weeks of the semester were
allocated to lectures on idea generation and the
use of the engineering method in idea exploitation.
During this time the students practiced "taking a
problem apart" in generating about 100 ideas for
exploitation in the home industry, ranging from
basement finishing to the manufacture of plastic
headboards for beds (the ideas need not be orig-
inal, except to the students involved). The stu-
dents then generated a number of ideas individu-
ally, conducted an initial screening of their ideas,
and reported their results to the class. The other
students in the class questioned their analysis and
the class as a whole held a "directed" brainstorm-
ing session. Here we tried to reevaluate the po-
tential of the idea, to look for avenues providing
even more profitable operation, or secondary prob-
lems that could be attacked if the original one
failed. Then each student chose a project and
started to proceed toward the commercialization
of his idea. Class periods were spent by having
the students define the critical problems of the
moment, to present the priorities they placed on
these problems, to discuss how they used the engi-
neering method to solve the problems, to illustrate
the kinds of order-of-magnitude calculations they
found to be helpful, and to describe the work they
planned to pursue. A significant number of com-
ments were offered by the remainder of the class,
and the teachers used this direction as a primary
vehicle for teaching the practice of engineering.
The students claimed that they learned a lot about
"problem solving" from this part of the course,
and we feel they progressed significantly as engi-
neers.
Of course, the students often encountered prob-
lem areas where they had no background, such as
procedures for obtaining patent protection or how
to start a corporation (as well as the cost of these
endeavors). The students thus learned how to
quickly learn specific points of information in
foreign subject areas; the faculty also provided
some such information in a lecture format. We

183

. no idea has value unless it can be
translated into a successful commercial
venture.

expect to broaden the presentation of information
of this type next year when we plan to start the
Master's Degree Program because several faculty
participate in the course.

CASE STUDIES

Several case studies have been generated which
we plan to continue using as an illustration of the
practice of engineering. Due to space limitations,
the two studies that we have chosen to present
here failed rather early, allowing a short but
relatively complete description of the problems.
We also have longer failures for class use. All
successful projects are still being pursued by the
students after termination of the class, and will
probably not be recycled as case studies for at
least a year.

Manufacture of Maple Syrup in the Home

As an initial example of idea generation, Dr. Douglas
told the students about his ten year old son's attempt to
make his own maple syrup. Using sugar maples in his
front yard, a tap which cost 25 cents and a plastic milk
jug to collect sap, it seemed to be a low cost venture to
produce maple syrup by boiling off 40 parts of the sap to
the one part retained as syrup. However, when Dr. Doug-
las returned from work every day to find the kitchen
literally filled with steam, when he started to worry about
the effect of the steam on the woodwork and the wall-
paper, and when two pans were allowed to boil dry and
were ruined, he was convinced that there must be a better
way to make maple syrup at home. Thus the students
developing a home unit to make maple syrup?"

Solution
Most students seemed interested in the problem and
realized that their chemical engineering background could
be helpful to them, as they envisioned problems of evap-
oration and level control. They quickly realized that, by
leading a hose from the top of the pot to an aspirator on
the kitchen faucet, it would be possible to relieve the
problem of steam filling the room and also increase the
rate of evaporation by pulling a vacuum on the system.
Then they developed a wide variety of devices for auto-
matically measuring either the viscosity or density of the
material in the pot and turning off the stove when the
end point was reached. Hearing their tentative approaches
to the problem increased their interest in doing additional
work, and several students proposed conducting some ex-
periments to gather information they thought might be
useful.

The best approach to use in developing a
new product is successive approximations,
sometimes called the engineering method .

In our critique at the end of their first attempt to
develop a solution, we noted that the most natural tend-
ency for people with their background (they were all
Ph.D. students) was to quickly become immersed in the
technical details of the problem and to forget every-
thing else. However, when we discussed the initial screen-
ing procedure with them, all students were confident that
all the technical problems could be solved, even though
they didn't examine any specific techniques for doing so.
Moreover, one student suggested that a unit could be
made to sell at about $15 because large automatic coffee makers with thermostatic controls were available at that price. All the students agreed that they were fairly cer- tain that it hadn't been done before and from the relative success of home ice cream makers and home wine making kits, they thought that a home maple sugar kit, including tap, bucket, and evaporation unit, could be sold if the price was right (considerable less than$15). However,
they recognized that the potential market was extremely
small because it was limited to the population in New
England, or similar climates where sugar maples were
available, that there would be few sales in large popula-
tion centers such as cities or their suburbs because not
many sugar maples existed in those locations, and that
many farmers would not be interested because they made
their own syrup for sale. Thus the major market was in
small towns in New England, and the profit potential
associated with the size of this market seemed to be so
small that they would prefer to consider other ideas that
might be more lucrative.
After reviewing the results of the screening procedure,
spective on engineering analysis. They realized that no
matter how elegant a technical solution they might have
devised, the market limitations probably would have made
this a wasted effort. Similarly, they were convinced that
they could make estimates of the technical feasibility of
some projects without worrying at all about the technical
details and that it was possible to establish an approxi-
mate retail price of the product by analogy with the cost
of an electric coffee pot.

Cigarette Filters
In early 1972, the Surgeon-General of the U.S.P.H.S.
announced that cigarette smoking had begun increasing
again, and that a more effective filter must be devised if
we are to protect the populace from the tars and nicotine
thought to contribute to lung cancer.
From our experience in the oil industry, we realized
that tars and nicotine were simply basic aromatic com-
pounds. Furthermore, such compounds have traditionally
been removed from process streams by adsorption on
high surface area solids, such as charcoal or clay. Char-
coal is, of course, a component of one present cigarette
filter. However, we reasoned that a high surface area solid
acid, such as silica alumina or zeolite, should be even
more effective. One of our students was thus assigned the
task of making a preliminary evaluation of this proposal
in two days, under our direction-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Solution
The obvious question relating to the marketability of
a new cigarette filter is the cost of the absorbent per pack
of cigarettes. Using the volume of charcoal in a Lark
filter, the assumption that the new adsorbent could be
used in the existing plastic cap on Doral cigarettes (or an
equivalent specially manufactured cap), and the present
market price for zeolites (the most expensive of the solid
acids under consideration), we calculated that the incre-
mental cost of the filter would be less than % cent per
pack. Hence, the project was deemed to be sufficiently
reasonable to define how the effectiveness of the new
filters could be tested.
To determine how tars and nicotines are evaluated for
cigarettes, in one day we called without success, the
following:
(1) The U. Mass. Public Health Department; (2) The
Mass. Dept. of Public Health; (3) the U. Mass School of
Pharmacology; (4) The FDA office in Boston; (5) The
U.S. Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Dept.; (6) The R. J.
Reynolds Tobacco Co.
Finally we called the Tobacco Institute Testing Lab-
oratory, where we talked to a laboratory technician who
gave us a complete discussion of the gravimetric technique
used as well as literature references describing the test.
That night we looked up the Journal of the Associa-
tion of Official Analytical Chemists to find the specifics of
the tar and nicotine test. We found that a smoking machine
is used to test 10-20 cigarettes to obtain an average tar
and nicotine level. The smoke is drawn through a com-
mercially available filter unit; a volume of 35 ml. of
smoke is puffed for a duration of 2 secs, once each minute.
The filter paper is weighed before and after 10-20 cigar-
ettes are smoked, the weight gain representing total tars,
nicotine and moisture. The filter paper is soaked in an
isopropanol-ethanol solution for extraction of water; the
water content of the solution is determined by gas chro-
matography. The solution is then steam distilled to remove
alcohol, and the nicotine then steam distilled from the
tars; the nicotine content of the distillate is measured by
infrared absorption at three wavelengths. The amount of
tar is obtained by difference.
It became quickly apparent that we could neither dupli-
cate this procedure in our laboratory nor afford the ex-
pense and time delay of sending our experimental filters
to an independent testing laboratory. However, in review-
ing the reported magnitudes of the tar, nicotine, and
water levels on the filter paper, we realized that the
water represents only 20-25% of the weight gain of the
filtered paper. Since we were interested in significant im-
provements in tar and nicotine levels (e.g. up to 90%
reduction of present levels), it appeared likely that simple
measurements of the total weight gain of the filtered
paper would be sufficient to indicate filter performance;
the involved analysis procedure could be used to confirm
the performance of those filters which were superior in
our simpler tests, and those detailed tests would be per-
formed by the Tobacco Institute Testing Laboratory.
Having established that our solid acid adsorbent con-
cept was economically feasible and that a simple and in-
expensive testing program could be initiated, we next
turned to the patent literature to determine if such con-
cepts had been previously invented. Much to our chagrin,
FALL 1972

we found not only 200 patents disclosing cigarette filters
but also a 1958 patent covering the use of zeolites in
cigarette filters and several more recent patents improv-
ing on this idea (e.g. changes to prevent the zeolite from
drying out the tobacco, to prevent the adsorption of low
molecular weight aromatics contributing to taste, etc.).
At this stage, after about two man-days of effort, the
project was abandoned.
Even though this project was terminated after only
two days, the activity was of value to the student. They
had learned to rapidly define the critical steps in an in-
vestigation, to simplify complex tasks for initial screen-
ing purposes, and to rapidly assimilate information in an
unfamiliar field. We suggest that these are among the
diagnostic arts important to the successful practice of
engineering. Other important areas, such as the methods
the student would use to sell his idea to tobacco company
management and the relative importance of marketing,
were not covered in detail with this problem. These items
are more logically pursued with other, more successful,
projects.

CONCLUSIONS

Obviously it would be nice to be able to say that
several projects were brought to a successful com-
pletion during the course. However, the students
appreciate the fact that an actual attempt at
entrepreneurship will make artificial university
time schedules meaningless, and they were willing
to continue their efforts throughout the summer.
Similarly, it might be of interest to describe the
projects that appear to have sufficient promise
that we are willing to supply our own capital to
finance them, but one thing an entrepreneur learns
very early in the game is to never reveal promising
ideas until they have been exploited and sold!
Nevertheless, we hope to make some successful
case studies available in the not too distant future.
D

COONEY (Continued from page 165)
exchange across the respiratory membrane.
For a discussion of artificial oxygenators, no
suitable reference has yet been found. A chapter
by Gallettis in the Advances in Biomedical Engi-
neering and Medical Physics series has been used.
However, this treatment is not aimed at the novice
and is not appropriate. A welcome addition to the
to the biomedical literature would be a paper con-
taining illustrations and describing the available
oxygenator designs (film, disc, membrane, bubble)
in simple, clear terms. The mathematical model-
ing of oxygenators is normally given some treat-
ment, but not any extensive elaboration. This is
an area which soon becomes complex and is best

. the students construct a plastic
model "Human Anatomy Kit" .

TERM PROJECTS
The term projects, which may be selected by
the student (the choice of topic is largely left to
the student, subject to the professor's approval)
in lieu of taking the final examination, have
proven to be popular and interesting. Typically,
they consist of ten page paper reflecting in-depth
reading or analysis of some biomedical topic, or
a report on an experimental investigation or on
a computer study.
Last year reports were received on: experi-
mental studies on primary perception by plants
(e.g., galvanic response to distant "threats") ;
computer studies on countercurrent heat transfer
in the leg and on artificial kidney-patient systems;
and papers on biorythyms, mathematical analyses
of pulsatile blood flow, and modeling the effects
of anabolic steroids on the body.

ASSESSMENT OF THE COURSE
This course has been favorably received and
has generally sparked the interest of the students.
vanced course. The author's impressions of the
course are several. First and foremost, as the
course now stands, a large number of topics is
covered in only 14 weeks and, consequently, the
treatment of many topics is too superficial. After
deducting from each week the time required for
quiz giving, quiz discussion, homework discussion,
film showing, etc. too little lecture time remains
for the amount of material involved. This prob-
lem could be alleviated by shifting some topics to
the follow-up course. While this would make the
first course less of a survey and be disadvantage-
ous to those students who take only the first
course, some shifting is imperative.
Secondly, the course seemed a bit too qualita-
tive to the author. Under pressure of time, many
mathematical formulations were omitted and the
course was overly accented towards physiology
per se. By shifting some material to a second
semester, this problem could be ameliorated.
A third problem, mentioned earlier, was the
lack of a really suitable text. This problem will
hopefully be solved by the gradual development of
a complete set of handouts for the course.

CONCLUSION
The reader, especially if he teaches in the same
field, may have different views as to course con-
tent. However, the present syllabus seems reason-
able and appropriate for chemical engineers. Ad-
ditionally, a number of important topics omitted
from the first course (e.g., nerve impulse trans-
mission, physiological control systems, etc.) are
conveniently covered in a second course.
As a preparation for advanced work the course
seems to be effective. Several seniors have chosen
to pursue advanced work in formal biomedical
programs or in medical schools, and they consider
the course to have been appropriate.
To the author it is exciting to be engaged in
teaching at the interface of two great disciplines.
Hopefully, this paper will serve to further the
institution and development of similar courses in
many more chemical engineering departments
than presently offer such. E

REFERENCES
1. Guyton, A.C., Textbook of Medical Physiology, 4th
2. Bischoff, K. B., "A Chemical Engineering View of Bio-
engineering," AIChE Student Members Bulletin, 11(2),
9 (1970).
3. Wissler, E. H., "A Mathematical Model of the Human
Thermal System," CEP Symposium Series 62, No. 66,
66 (1966).
4. Bischoff, K. B., and Brown, R. G., "Drug Distribution
in Mammals," CEP Symposium Series, 62, No. 66,
33 (1966).
5. Leonard, E. F., and Dedrick, R. L., "The Artificial
Kidney-Problems and Approaches for the Chemical
Engineer," CEP Symposium Series, 64, No. 84, 15
(1968).
6. Burton, A. C., Physiology and Biophysics of the Circu-
lation, Yearbook Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1965.
7. Whitmore, R. L., Rheology of the Circulation, Perga-
mon Press, Oxford, 1968.
8. Galletti, P. M., "Advances in Heart-Lung Machines,"
in Advances in Biomedical Engineering and Medical
Physics, Vol. 2, S. N. Levine, ed., Interscience, New
York, 1968.
9. Guccione, E., "Biomedical Engineering," Chem. Eng.,
January 30, 1967.
10. Ruch, T. C., and Patton, H. D., eds., Physiology and
Biophysics, 19th edition, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1965.
11. Lightfoot, E. N., Biomedical Transport Phenomena,
AIChE Today Series, AIChE, New York, 1969.
12. Keller, K. H., and Leonard, E. F., Applications of
Chemical Engineering to Problems in Biology and
Medicine. Part I. Engineering Analyses of the Func-
tions of Blood, Twelfth Advanced Seminar, AIChE,
New York, 1968.
13. Middleman, S. Transport Phenomena in The Cardio-
vascular System, Interscience, New York, 1972.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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And many towns that have complete
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So, because of money, towns are forced
into polluting our streams and rivers.
Union Carbide has discovered a new
wastewater system that costs less. It's called
the Unox System. Its the first substantial
change in wastewater treatment in thirty
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Instead of the conventional aeration sys-
tem that cleans water by mixing it with the
air, Unox forces pure oxygen into a series
of closed treatment tanks. This forced oxy-
gen technique cleans wastewater in less

time, less space and reduces the total cost
up to forty percent.
It means a town can boost its wastewater
system by simply adapting the Unox Sys-
tem to the existing system. And towns with
limited means can now afford a complete
system.
A number ofcities and industries through-
out the country have already chosen the
Unox System. And more installations are
being planned.
We've discovered a cheaper way to treat
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can't afford to wait.

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For additional information on our activities, write to Union Carbide Corporation, Department of University Relations, 270 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, An equal opportunity employer.

NION^^
R 0B1

book reviews

Transport Phenomena for Engineers, Louis Theo-
dore, International Book Company (1971) xiv
plus 338 pages Scranton $12.00 This book emphasizes the bare skeleton of transport phenomena. It teaches the systematic formulation and solution of boundary value prob- lems involving momentum, energy, and mass transfer, and combinations of the same, in solids, and in liquids in laminar flow. The coverage in- cludes chemical reactions involving heat effects. A student who studies this book will become proficient in setting up transport phenomena boundary value problems. He will have an oppor- tunity to apply his mathematical tools: Leibnitz rule for differentiating integrals, Gauss' diverg- ence theorem, separation of variables and Laplace transform methods for solving partial differential equations, properties of Bessel functions and the error function, Runge-Kutta and finite difference methods for solving ordinary and partial dif- ferential equations. He will develop insight into the physical significance of the pertinent partial differential equations. Chapter 2 provides some mathematical tools. Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 are the meat of the course. In Chapter 2, the author teaches the funda- mentals of vector analysis. In chapters 3, 4, 5 he derives the equations of continuity, motion, en- ergy, and mass transfer. He uses the vector method and a stationary volume element. In each of these chapters he tabulates the equations in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordi- nates. He assumes all physical properties are con- stants. He restricts discussion to binary mixtures, and he uses a simplified form of Fick's law. In sections 3.6, 4.6, 5.6, 6.3, and 6.5 he teaches by presenting a series of well planned examples. These show the student how to "extract" the equations for a particular case from the tables of general equations, how to choose appropriate boundary and initial conditions, and how to solve a boundary value problem after it has been for- mulated. He emphasizes systematic procedures. The examples are stimulating. Most are adapted for self study. A few are specially suited for in- class discussions. Problems at the ends of chap- ters 3, 4, 5, 6 give the student a chance to drill. These problems also are well planned and stimu- lating, and are not overly difficult. In most part the author writes unusually well. He helps his reader proceed rapidly by leaving in the intermediate steps. And he encourages the student to participate in the thought process. The format of the book is conducive to study. The print is large. Bold face type effectively sets off chapters, sections, examples, figures, and tables. Equations and text are nicely spaced out. Figures are numerous and well drawn. The page size, type, and format are reminiscent of Transport Phe- nomena by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot, John Wiley and Sons, publisher. Most of the nomenclature is consistent with that of Transport Phenomena by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot. There are some differences. For example: Symbol Units df L2 differential surface element, p. 40. dr L3 differential volume element, p. 45. lbm pounds moles p. 191. of Q time average of Q in turbulent flow, p. 58. To supplement this book the student will need a table of Laplace transforms, a handbook of nu- merical tables of functions, and Dwight's Tables of Integrals and Other Mathematical Data, the MacMillan Company, publisher. Some observations and suggestions: The author uses Liebnitz rule many times, but he does not include this rule in his chapter 2 on mathematical preliminaries. On pages 78, 84, 145, 203 he applies the rule implicitly. The author does a good job of deriving the equation of change by the vector method. Some students will ask about r-df, p. 83 and will question the Gauss type divergence theorem, p. 85. More mathematics in chapter 2 would take care of such questions. The reviewer feels that the shell balance method is the least ambiguous method for de- riving the equations of change. There are only two examples of shell balances in the book, see index. Both are confusing. A more explicit ex- planation of the sign convention for 7 would help. The author uses a simplified form of Fick's law. The reference velocity for the mass flux vectors JA and jA pp. 193-195 is not clear. This book is a text not a handbook. Never- theless it contains considerable useful reference material. A list of the tables would provide a con- venient index to this material. A concise summary of the examples and their solutions is tabulated pp. 247-251. There are 50 problems total at the ends of chapters 3, 4, 5, 6. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION This book "evolved from notes prepared by the author for a required one-semester three- credit course given to senior chemical engineering students The course is offered as an elective to other engineering disciplines ." The book has been pared down to the bone. Prediction of transport properties, shell balances, turbulence, convective coefficients, and macroscopic balances are discussed very briefly or not at all. Even the bibliography has been omitted. The author de- pends on the teacher to provide embellishments. The drastic abbreviation in content adapts the book to special applications. Foremost is that of text for a 3 credit senior course like that the author teaches. All three transport phenomena can be covered in a single semester. Ideally such a course would be preceded by a more traditional two course sequence in momentum, energy, and mass transfer. The senior course would then fix the structure of transport phenomena in mind and stimulate interest in applications and ad- vanced study. This book would be useful as the text for a refresher course for practicing engi- neers. For this purpose the current edition of Transport Phenomena, by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot would be a good companion volume. J. Lloyd Sutterby University of Missouri-Columbia NEWS (Continued from page 152) teraction with industry, information about new textbooks being written or evaluated etc. A third objective is to interject into the whole educational system the exciting and new experiments and ideas that are being done. The format of the minisession is unique. From the responses to a questionnaire circulated in June, some will be selected to briefly describe the unique features and challenges in presenting this material. These will be very brief, say 2 to 10 minutes, with the main purpose being to introduce people and ideas. The meeting may break up into smaller buzz sessions or group discussions; again the main purpose is for everyone to get to know each other and to have some idea of what everyone is doing. Available at the back of the room will be copies of course descriptions, hopefully from each and every school. We may also have sample textbooks or manu- scripts on display. After the formal session, we then adjourn to have lunch together (in groups of 6 to 10) in various locations so that the discussion can continue informally. The minisession forms part of the "Free Forum on Undergraduate Education" with G. F. Bennett, University of Toledo, Chairman, and G. M. Howard, University of Connecticut, Co-Chairman. The minisession is co-chaired by D. R. Woods, McMaster University, Hamilton, M. J. Gluckman, City University of New York and Drs. Ben- nett and Howard. For more information contact: D. R. Woods, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 416-522-4971 Ext. 292, or G. F. Bennett, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606. ANNOUNCEMENT The Latin American Teaching Fellowships program is now accepting applications for positions in Latin America from individuals in the social and natural sciences, engi- neering, business, law, and medicine who hold PhD's, professional degrees, or are PhD candidates. Placement possibilities exist for the 1973-74 academic year. These opportunities are part of a service program to assist latin American universities to develop advanced programs. Salaries are geared to moderate subsistence level rather than being competitive with North American salaries. Address inquiries to Latin American Teaching Fellow- ships, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 To AIChE MEMBERS: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is now available to AIChE members at a special rate of$6/yr.
R. B. Bennett
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

TO DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN:
The staff of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA-
TION wishes to thank the 55 departments whose
We also appreciate the excellent response you gave
to our request for names of prospective authors. We
regret that, because of space limitations, we were
not able to include some outstanding papers and
that certain areas are not represented. In part our
selection of papers was based on a desire to comple-
ment this issue with those of 1969, 1970 and 1971.
As indicated in our letter we are sending automatical-
ly to each department for distribution to seniors
interested in graduate school at least sufficient free
copies of this issue for 20% of the number of bach-
elor's degrees reported in "ChE Faculties." Because
there was a large response to our offer in that letter
to supply copies above this basic allocation, we were
not able to fully honor all such requests. However,
if you have definite need for more copies than you
received, we may be able to furnish these if you
write us. We also still have some copies of previous
Fall issues available.
We would like to thank the departments not
only for their support of CEE through advertising,
but also through bulk subscriptions. We hope that
you will be able to continue or increase your support
next year.
Ray Fahien
Editor
Mack Tyner
Associate Editor
R. B. Bennett

FALL 1972

U international

D. C. FRESHWATER and
F. P. LEES
University of Technology, Loughborough,
Leicestershire, England.

differ in certain respects from those at
American schools. The course at Lough-
borough has some features of both sys-
tems. There are also close links with the
United States through an M.Sc. course run
jointly with Georgia Institute of Tech-
nology.

INTRODUCTION
has been offered at Loughborough for over 20
years, but in the last few years major changes
have occurred, so that the present courses bear
little relationship to what went before. We are
not writing here about changes in subject mat-
ter or course content, as these will change nat-
urally with the development of the subjects and
with the interests of the faculty members who
teach them, but rather about changes in the in-
stitution itself and in the Department's philoso-
phy. Since these changes have had a significant
effect on the shape of the present graduate
courses, it seems sensible to outline them in order
to give a background against which to see the
present structure.

BACKGROUND
Although the College is over 70 years old
and has a history of courses in chemical engi-
neering for 30 of these years, it only became a
University, i.e., in U.K. parlance a degree-
granting institution, in 1966. Since that time it
has offered both M.Sc.'s and Ph.D.'s in chemical
engineering, although prior to this graduate
studies were carried out in which candidates
worked for the degrees of external bodies. These
changes in status were accompanied by rapid
growth in size and it is only natural therefore
that there should have been a very marked evo-

lution in graduate work. In all this a general
their beginnings in specialist subjects which were
the interests of faculty members and on which
they were doing research and then expanded so
that now we have a graduate course which is
broadly based and general for the first four
months and then splits up into a number of op-
tions, allowing students to study some subject
area in greater depth.
This course pattern reflects to some extent
the undergraduate course in which the first two
years are spent in general chemical engineering
training followed by a final year in which stu-
dents select four or five subjects out of a possible
8, and study these in depth. Four different
courses are offered at undergraduate level. These
are

* Chemical
* Chemical
* Chemical
* Chemical
years)

Engineering (4 years)
Engineering (3 years)
Engineering and Management (4 years)
Engineering and Polymer Technology (4

The last three of these are new and to that ex-
tent experimental. The four-year courses include
a period of industrial training which occupies
the whole of the third year.
The undergraduate courses are thus becoming
increasingly modular in nature. Nor is this situ-
ation confined to the universities. There is a
considerable educational ferment going on in
British schools. So far we have been able to as-
sume a considerable degree of uniformity in the
educational background of students entering our
matics, physics and chemistry being normal.
Now, not only is there a growth in less usual
combinations of subjects, but the content of, say,
a mathematics course may vary widely. Some
students will have done a good deal of matrix
and linear programming work, others virtually

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

D. C. Freshwater is Professor and Head of Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering. He graduated in chem-
istry at Birmingham and then worked in industry for a
number of years before returning to University to take
a PhD in Chemical Engineering. His research interests
include mass transfer, equipment design and filtration
and he is a founder member of INCOFILT. He has
presented papers at several AIChE annual meetings and
is currently editor of the Chemical Engineering Journal.
F. P. Lees is Senior Lecturer in the Department of
Chemical Engineering. He received a BSc and a PhD in
Chemical Engineering respectively at Imperial College,
London in 1959 and at Loughborough in 1967. He worked
in the steel industry for two years and in Imperial
Chemical Industries for 11 years. His research interests
are process modelling, computer control, human operator
control, and reliability engineering. (right photo)

none. This obliges us increasingly to tailor study
programmes to the individual student.
The fact that most of our own graduates have
some industrial experience we regard as a con-
siderable advantage. Six or seven years of aca-
demic studies without industrial application is
not really an ideal training for an engineer.
In describing the graduate education at
Loughborough, many differences will become ap-
parent between what we do and common practice
in the United States. Some of these are peculiar
to our approach at this institution, others are
inherent in the British system, two features of
which should be explained. The first is that
courses consists of three academic terms of ten
weeks each, beginning in early October, with
breaks of about 3 weeks at Christmas and 3
weeks at Easter, and ending in June. The second
is that it is possible in most British universities
to work for a Ph.D. without any formal require-
ment to undertake course work. In fact Lough-
borough is probably unique amongst U.K. chem-
ical engineering departments in its require-

ment, which was instituted two years ago, that
all doctoral students should have first completed
a master's degree by course work. Once this
course work requirement is fulfilled, however,
no further course work is required of the doc-
toral student, although he may attend appro-
priate courses of his own volition.

In developing a formal course of education
it is necessary to have some ideas of the purpose
of the course. We regard the aim of the master's
course as being to give the students a broad
training in what we see as some of the main-
stream areas of chemical engineering at a level
higher than that which can be reached in the
normal undergraduate course, followed by in-
depth study of a selected subject area, involving
both book work and project work. The doctoral
training we see as complementing this by pro-
viding firstly a training in research methods and
secondly an opportunity to demonstrate a capaci-
ty for original thought.

THE MASTER'S COURSE
There are in the department four main re-
search groups. This is reflected in the four spe-
cialist options offered within the Master's course.
These are:
Chemical Systems Engineering
Particle Technology
Process Engineering and Economics
Transfer Processes
The course is of twelve months' duration and
consists of three parts, as shown in Table I. Part
I is a common core, which is taken in the first
two terms. Part II consist of the option subjects,
which are selected from those shown in Part II
of the table in accordance with the option chosen.
These are taken mainly in the second and third
terms. Many of the subjects listed are covered,
of course, at undergraduate level, but the content
on the Master's course is more advanced. Part III
is a project, in the subject area of the option
taken, which starts at a low level in the second
term and is than pursued full-time from the end
of June through the summer. There are written
examinations at the end of the second and third
terms and oral examinations at the end of the
second term and of the course.
The largest research group in the department
is that of particle technology. The activities of

FALL 1972

. it is possible in most British universities to work for a Ph.D. without any formal requirement to take
course work. In fact Loughborough is probably unique amongst U. K. chemical engineering departments
in its requirement that all doctoral students should have first completed a master's degree in course work.

this group cover the whole range of particulate
systems, including particle characterisation, par-
ticle production, particle-fluid and particle-
particle systems. The process dynamics and con-
trol group is concerned with mixing theory,
process modelling, estimation theory, computer
control, human operator control and reliability
engineering rather than control theory. The pro-
cess technology group has interests in process
economics and in reaction engineering. The trans-
fer processes group works in the area of fluid
flow and heat and mass transfer. Although these
groups are convenient and effective as a means
of organising both research and teaching, there
is nothing rigid about them, and many individ-
uals have a foot in two camps.
The Master's course is built around these re-
search groups. A certain number of contact hours
are time-tabled for each subject and the lecturer

TABLE I. Outline of Master's Course
Part I Foundation Subjects
Mathematics 1
Statistical Methods
Matrix Methods 1
Optimisation
Computing
Research Methods
Fluid Mechanics
Part II Elective Subjects
Mathematics 2
Matrix Methods 2
Operational Research
Chemical Process Modelling
Control Engineering
Systems Engineering
Particle Characterisation
Particle-Particle Systems
Particle-Fluid Systems
Particle Production
Process Economics
Plant Design and Evaluation
Project Engineering and Management
Heat and Mass Transfer
Transfer Processes 1
Transfer Processes 2
Applied Thermodynamics and
Separation Processes
Petroleum Industry, Technology and
Economics
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Part III Project

concerned is left free to use these as he thinks
fit. Usually about half the time is devoted to
formal lectures and the other half to tutorials.
Unlike many American courses, lecture courses
are not built around a particular textbook but
represent a re-distillation of the lecturer's read-
ing and his own original work in the subject
area.
The number of students on the course is of
the order of 15-20. About half of these will
terminate their studies after taking their M.Sc.
and about half will go on to doctoral studies.
The object of requiring prospective Ph.D.
students to take the M.Sc. course is to give them
a more thorough training in their specialist area.
Although we regarded this as worthwhile in its
own right, we did expect to have to pay some
penalty in that the time available for the doctoral
thesis itself would be less. It is perhaps too early
to be sure, but it is our impression that this is
compensated by the students' increased effective-
ness due to their Master's training.

THE DOCTOR'S COURSE
After completing the M.Sc. students who are
considered suitable and who wish to do so, go on
to take a Ph.D., working usually in the same
subject area, though not necessarily on the same
precise topic. There are no pre-doctoral tests
other than the Master's examination and the stu-
dent is expected to work on his chosen topic and
to present a thesis on this, normally within two
years after taking his M.Sc.

LOUGHBOROUGH GEORGIA TECH COURSE
As a result of the Department's activities in
particle technology, links have developed with
other centres with similar interests. One of these
is Georgia Institute of Technology and we now
run a joint Master's course in particle technology
with this Institute. At the Loughborough end
this is based on the particle technology option
within the M.Sc. course. There is an exchange
of students, six months being spent in each insti-
tution. This scheme is now in its second year and
we are anxious to see it develop.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

. We do not have the coursework
system with "homework" having to be
handed in and marked.

TRENDS: (Continued from page 149)
X 77.81 1.338[X(1) 5.2] 0.2471[X(1)-5.2]2

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Most of the financial support for graduate
work in the U.K. comes from the Government
via the Science Research Council, which is rough-
ly analogous to the N.S.F. This body provides
studentships both for graduate courses and for
Ph.D. work. It also awards research contracts,
although students are not normally supported
in this way. Another source of support for stu-
dents is research contracts from industry. At
Loughborough over the past few years about
half our Ph.D. students have been supported
in this way. The research grants are nicely calcu-
lated to cover the student's bare living costs and
pay his fees.

Through frequent visits to the United States
and also through our exchange with Georgia
Institute of Technology, we have learnt of some
of the problems which British graduates have
when they go to do graduate work in the United
States and of those which American graduates
encounter here. The biggest problem our stu-
dents find across the water is not the difficulty
but the sheer volume of the work which they are
expected to do. It is our impression, gained both
from first-hand experience and from talking to
students, that the quantity of work set in the
average Master's degree in the United States is
so great as to make it rather difficult for the
student to take time off to pursue subjects on his
own and to appreciate intelligently just what he
is doing in an overall sense. On the other hand,
since we do not have the course work system
with "homework" having to be regularly handed
in and marked, American students who come
here find themselves very much at a loss for the
first week or two. They are not useT-to our sys-
tem which assumes that the student knows how
to work for long periods on his own and which
only covers in lectures a relatively few important
topics. However, we have found that those stu-
dents from the United States who have come
to us have settled down quickly and progressed
well. Both systems evidently have their merits.
We prefer our own, but often find the results
of the American system impressive. OE

6.088[X(2)-1.311 (2)
where
j= average grade, estimated by Eq. (2),
x(1) = time in years based on zero time in May 1961,
and
x(2) = time in residence, in years, prior to taking
the examination.
The line represented by Equation (2), at an average
experience such that x(2) = 1.31, is shown in Figure 3.
Of the 35 data points available, only those for which
x = 1.3 are included.

COMPUTED CURVE AND
REPRESENTATIVE EXPERIMENTAL
POINTS

80-

70

60-

iD

MAY MAY MAY MAY
61 63 65 67
FIGURE 3

MAY MAY
69 71

Figure 3 Final Computed Average Grade vs. Date
and Experimental Points.

On the basis of these results, the department has
concluded that, in the period from May 1961 through
May 1971:
1. There was a definite tendency for the grades to
decrease and that this tendency accelerated in the later
part of the period.
2. There was an apparent disadvantage in prolong-
ing the time in residence before standing for the exam-
ination, the reason for which is not clear but the evi-
dence therefore being incontrovertible from this analy-
sis of the data.
3. None of the lowering of the grades in the later
years of the period studied can be attributed to an in-
crease in the proportion of foreign students, with po-
tentially concurrent language and communication prob-
lems.
4. A correction should be made for the obviously
increased difficulties which the faculty had suspected
were progressively being built into the examinations;
suitable action was taken in October 1971 with a gratify-
ing improvement in the average grade of the eleven
students who presented themselves for the examination.
J. C. Whitwell
L. Lapidus
Princeton University

FALL 1972

RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING

JAMES A. NEWMAN
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Ontario

IT IS THE AUTHOR'S opinion that a great many
graduate students in engineering research fail
to achieve their desired objectives in an efficient
manner because of poor planning and lack of
foresight.
One approach to the solution of complex prob-
lems is that of systems engineering and it would
seem logical because of its success in so many
other areas, to extend its use to the design of a
graduate research program. The purpose of this
article is to attempt to show how this process
could be systematized and to indicate to the stu-
dent how he might conduct his research program
with greater success than that generally achieved.
A system, in general, can be envisaged to
consist of five major components; a process, in-
puts and outputs of the process, feedback and
evaluation. A model of the proposed system which
incorporates all of the above elements is shown
in the figure. Five separate overall phases can
be identified: 1. problem formulation; 2. design;
3. production; 4. operation; and 5. completion.
It is not suggested that this scheme is the only
one that could be envisaged; nor is it expected
to cover every possible contingency. No doubt
such a plan does not account for every possible
situation that might arise. It does however rep-
resent an outline with which a graduate student
could organize his research program and does
provide guidelines along which the research can
proceed.

PHASE I PROBLEM FORMULATION

The student, at the beginning of his research,
will usually find himself with what appears to
be a rather vaguely defined problem (e.g., "A
Study of the Behaviour of ..." or "An Investi-
gation of ..."). This vaguity will prevail since
at this point the student and his advisor can
seldom formulate the research topic in terms of
simple explicit questions. The purpose of Phase I
is to help overcome this difficulty.
The needs analysis is essentially a critical
look at the overall situation with a view to identi-

fying a specific research problem, i.e., an engi-
neering statement of the project. Relevant fac-
tors affecting this process, i.e. inputs, include
various aspects of the student's character, that
of the research advisor and of the University
itself.
This analysis will yield two specific outputs.
These are, a desired course work program and
the definition of a general area in which to per-
form the literature survey.
The course work program cannot (and should
not) be dictated solely by the nature of the re-
search project. However, since one major func-
tion of course work is to prepare the student to
solve his research problem, the course work pro-
gram must have some definite relation to the
anticipated research activities.
PHASE I PROBLEM FORMULATION
course availability library facilities and
and scheduling information retrieval
capabilities
evaluation (NEEDS ANALYSIS) evaluation
[program J uvyaraj
[ENGINEERING STATEMENT
LOF EsEACH PROBLEM]
PHASE II DESIGN
tech. information mathematical insight
reatEvEty ability and intuition
evaluation (RESEARCH SYNTHESIS) evaluation
[experimental design]-- _--L[theoretical design]--j
[RESEARCH PROPOSAL]
PHASE III PRODUCTION
tech. information &
assistance, fabricating photography, typing,
facilities drafting facilities
evaluation (PRODUCTION) evaluation
..experimental portion of thesis
apaaratus
PHASE IV OPERATION
computational, lab., computational facilities
maintainence facilities physical property data.
student's skills
(EXPERIMENTAL & THEORETICAL ,n
..... ) A ANALYSIS ,
evaluation evaluation
[experimental doata]- evalatSon --- [theoretical data] --a

RESEARCH RESULTS]
PHASE V COMPLETION
typing, photographic.
drafting facilities
(THESIS PRODUCTION)
I evaluation
[THESIS] em
Fig. 1. Model of proposed system.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

J. A. Newman has taught mechanical engineering at
University of Ottawa since 1969. He has BASc and PhD
('69) from University of Waterloo and MSE from Prince-
ton all in mechanical engineering or aerospace and mechani-
cal sciences.

Commensurate with the course work, the stu-
dent should conduct an extensive literature sur-
vey. This point cannot be overemphasized. If the
student is ever to get a clear picture of what
needs to be done, he must be familiar with what
Like the course work (which is evaluated by
examinations), the literature survey itself should
be evaluated. It is important, when attempting
to formulate a problem, to be sure that the litera-
ture survey is complete (within reason) and that
the student has a fairly good comprehension of
the pertinent related research material. It is not
uncommon for students to spend a great deal of
time trying to solve problems which are either
unsolvable or have already been solved. The
evaluation of the literature survey should be con-
ducted by the student and his advisor on a fairly
regular basis throughout Prase I.
The graduate course work together with the
literature survey should eventually lead to a
crystallization of the specifics of the research
problem and hence to a relatively clear engineer-
ing statement of the project. This becomes the
major input to Phase II.
PHASE II DESIGN
This phase of the process represents the first
step toward finding a solution to the problem
previously formulated.
Generally speaking the research activity will
call for both theoretical and experimental analy-
sis. The relative importance of each will of course
depend on the previous activities. One can loose-
ly describe three different kinds of relationships

between experiment and theory and it is helpful
if the student recognizes them at this stage.
They are:
1. An experimental analysis to confirm or deny
some previously documented theoretical analysis.
2. A theoretical analysis to be performed to ascer-
tain the important parameters responsible for a
particular observed behaviour. (More often than
not this observation has been made by the re-
search advisor in some prior experimental work).
3. Experiment and theory are developed simultane-
ously, one complementing the other in an attempt
to a) learn the important parameters and observe
a real system's behaviour and b) to predict system
behaviour both within and outside of the range
of experimental analysis.
The first approach has one serious pitfall in
that the student can attempt to design the ex-
periment to confirm (or deny) the predictions
of a theoretical model which (due to various as-
sumptions and approximations) is in itself far
removed from reality. Hence the experiment be-
comes the representation of a fictitious situation
and the subsequent experimental results can
serve very little practical purpose. The second
approach above has the inherent drawback that
the student himself, in an attempt to explain an
observed phenomenon, can become enveloped in
the fog of his theoretical hand-waving and risks
losing sight of the actual physical system under
consideration.
Assuming approach (3) is utilized the Design
Phase should entail the simultaneous develop-
ment of appropriate experimental and theoretical
models. Let us consider each of these activities
separately to establish the important inputs and
outputs of each of the sub-processes.
Exactly what patterns of behaviour the ex-
periment must be capable of illustrating should
be relatively well established from Phase I. A
successful design must have as inputs the perti-
nent technical information from equipment sup-
pliers and a certain amount (the more, the better)
of that somewhat elusive property, creativity.
Both of these are essential to a good experimental
design. At the same time, a dialogue must be
established and maintained between the student
and technical support staff. All too often a poor
design is the result of the student's inability to
comprehend the difficulties associated with the
construction and operation of the experimental
equipment. This results from the common lack
the "nuts and bolts" world of practical engineer-
ing. The experience of the machinist, the tech-

FALL 1972

A methodology for research does exist and the
scheme described herein represents a useful
and valid approach to this problem.

nologist, and any resident project engineer is a
commodity to which the student must avail him-
self if he hopes to produce a workable experi-
ment.
Also important to the above activity is the
interchange of ideas between the student and
other students working in similar fields. The
greatest contribution that these colleagues may
make however will usually be in the area of the
theoretical model proposals. Other students do
not have as clear a picture of the aims and pur-
poses of the experimental analysis and hence can
usually contribute little to the design of the ex-
periment. However the basic laws of nature as
represented by the usual mathematical symbols
should be reasonably well understood by all in-
volved in research. In this case it is not unlikely
that other students may be able to suggest possi-
ble approaches to the structuring of the theoret-
ical model.
The theoretical model proposal at this stage
is really no more than an attempt to define the
pertinent equations, assumptions, approxima-
tions, etc., that are necessary or required. In
this regard a vital input is the student's mathe-
matical insight. This is much akin to the creativi-
ty input of the experimental design process. Both
of these properties are rather intangible and will
vary radically depending on the particular stu-
dent's abilities.
As with any other process there must be an
evaluation phase. When the student and his ad-
visor are reasonably confident of their efforts,
an evaluation should be conducted by some com-
mittee. The composition of this committee is a
matter for each particular institute to decide,
but would usually include two or three faculty
members and perhaps even one or two students
whose activities are aligned with those of the
A written proposal of the aims and purposes
of the research along with the experimental
design and the suggested theoretical approaches
should be presented to the committee for study
and evaluation. The committee should look for
shortcomings, apparent hurdles and errors in
analysis or judgment. It should then make sug-
gestions accordingly. The outcome of this evalu-
ation will be suggested modifications to the ex-
perimental design and possible guidance to the
solution of the theoretical model.
196

Following this, the student is ready to enter
the next phase.

PHASE III PRODUCTION
After consideration of the recommended de-
sign modifications, the construction of the ex-
perimental equipment can be undertaken. Much
of this construction will often be performed to
a large extent by persons other than the student
(i.e., machinists, electronics technicians, etc.).
As a result he will find some time available.
However instead of continuing to develop the
theoretical model, the student can receive a great
deal of satisfaction in beginning to prepare his
thesis. At this point many of the figures can be
drawn (especially those pertaining to the experi-
mental apparatus) and at least a good portion
of the introduction can be completed. In addition
to the fact that this procedure is time-saving, it
provides something of a welcome relief from the
intense activities leading up to the committee
evaluation of Phase II.
The length of time required for Phase III
will depend of course on the complexity of the
experimental design, the availability of machin-
ists, drafting facilities and so on. The evalua-
tions shown in the figure should be conducted
by the student and his advisor and may entail
the building of prototype equipment, the run-
ning of preliminary experiments to check-out
the apparatus, the modification of figures and
write-up etc.
At the end of this production phase, the stu-
dent should be ready to enter Phase IV.

PHASE IV OPERATION
It is this phase of the overall process that
will yield answers to the research problem. Most
of the activities here will be conducted solely by
the student since, to be sure, he will know more
about the research project than anyone else. The
performing of the experiments and attempting
to solve the theoretical model become a rather
private affair. The dialogue between the student
and advisor will be primarily a transfer of infor-
mation from the student to the advisor relating
the progress of the research.
The experimental and theoretical analyses
are indicated in the figure as a single process
even though, of course, they can hardly be con-
ducted simultaneously. Nevertheless, both must
be conducted at regular intervals (i.e., a test
program followed by theoretical analysis follow-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

A system can be envisaged to consist of
five major components: a process,
inputs and outputs of the process,
feedback and evaluation.

ed by another test program and so on). Undoubt-
edly, the completion of any one sub-process will
indicate to a certain extent the subsequent sub-
process.
The inputs to this process include the stu-
dent's skills and attitudes, the availability of
computational facilities for data reduction, curve-
fitting etc., and other equipment and facilities
(e.g., chemistry laboratory, darkroom, mainten-
ance equipment etc.).
As with all other processes there will be an
evaluation stage. During this time the experi-
mental data is compared with existing data and
with the predictions of the theoretical analysis.
Modifications to the experimental test program
can thence result. Similarly the theoretical data
is evaluated in terms of required accuracy,
range of variables considered and is compared
with the experimental observations. The evalua-
tion here could lead to a modification of the ana-
lytical techniques and a relaxation or tightening-
up of certain approximations.
Eventually, after perhaps several trips
around the feedback loops, there will be compiled
a complete set of research results that satisfied
the problem initially formulated in Phase I. This
is however, not the end of the graduate student's
activities. The information collected in Phase IV
is of little value until it is transmitted to others.
This is normally accomplished by the writing of
a report or thesis.

PHASE V COMPLETION
Of all the graduate student's activities, this
one tends to be the most tedious. The excitement
of discovery is over. There remain the rather
mundane tasks of preparing assorted graphs,
tables and drawings and in the seemingly end-
less writing and rewriting of text.
Throughout its production, the thesis will be
constantly evaluated in terms of its accuracy,
clarity, and completeness. After a period of time
(usually much longer than anticipated), the
thesis will be completed to the satisfaction of the
student and his advisor. It will, at that time,
usually be subjected to the further scrutiny of
other readers and quite possibly further changes
could result. In addition an oral defense of the
thesis will normally take place.

The thesis, the output of Phase V, is in fact
the physical satisfaction of the need first consid-
ered in Phase I.

CONCLUSIONS
In an attempt to make graduate students
aware of the various aspects of a graduate re-
search program and to enable such students to
cope with them in an efficient manner, a formal
systematic procedure for graduate research has
been suggested. This plan is felt to be applicable
to most situations. Deviations from it can be
conceived; however, they would in general be a
reflection of an individual's inability to adhere
to a formal logical systematic plan for research.
It is the writer's contention that, like the design
process itself, a methodology for research does
exist and that the scheme described herein repre-
sents a useful and valid approach to this prob-
lem. O

SLATTERY (Continued from page 176)
ing or developing courses in momentum, energy,
and mass transfer, are faced with unchanging
alternatives: survey or in-depth study? I will
agree with you if you maintain that every course
is a survey. But I will also insist that we do have
more of a choice here than is commonly apparent
in most areas.
Years ago, there was not much of a decision
to be made. It was essential that a student have
an in-depth understanding of piping design, heat
exchanger design, and (distillation, extraction,
absorption) column design, since nearly all of our
students went into either petroleum refineries or
the large-scale production of chemical intermedi-
ates. While these are still very useful skills to
have at one's command, they are not sufficient
for the wide variety of industries that are becom-
ing possibilities for employment.
The beginning graduate sequence that I have
been discussing here is a survey of momentum,
energy, and mass transfer. By no means can you
tell a student everything that is important to
know in two or three quarters. My aim in teaching
these courses is to fill in some of the more glaring
holes that are of necessity left by a typical under-
graduate sequence and to give a student a good
foundation upon which to grow, no matter
whether he is thinking in terms of a terminal
M.S. or Ph.D. degree. El

FALL 1972

UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

Graduate Programs in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $5,000/year. M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to$4,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Costs. .
Tuition: $535/year. Married students housing rent:$120/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $100/month. Ph.D. Degree' Qualifying axarfinqtion, minimum of 13 half-year courses, thesis. M.Sc. Degree 5-8 half-year courses, thesis. M.Eng. Degree 10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project. Department Size 15 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows, 40-50 Graduate Students. Applications Return postcard or write to: Chairman Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Faculty and Research Interests R. G. Bentsen, Ph.D. (Penn. State): Flow Through Por- ous Media, Secondary Recovery Mechanisms. 1. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero- geneous Catalysis. P. M. Dranchuk, M.Sc. (Alberta): Pattern Flooding, Reservoir Wettability, Flow Through Porous Media. D. G. Fisher, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applica- tions, Process Design. D. L. Flock, (Associate Dean), Ph.D. (Texas A & M): Petroleum Reservoir Analysis, Secondary Recovery Mechanisms. A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics. W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol- lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap- plied Mathematics. F. D. Otto, Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer Design of Separation Processes, Polymerization. D. Quon, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Mathematics, Optimi- zation, Statistical Decision Theory. D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu- metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo- dynamics. J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Two Phase Flow, Fluid Mechanics. D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Ad- aptive Control, Stability Theory. F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo- logy of Complex Fluids. S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine- tics. R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns. Department Facilities Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre. Excellent complement of computing and analytical equipment: -IBM 1800 (real-time) computer -EAI 590 hybrid computer -AD 32 analog computer -2 IBM 360/67 terminals -Weissenberg Rheogoniometer -Infrared spectrophotometer -Research and industrial gas chromatographs The University of Alberta One of Canada's largest universities and Engineering schools. Enrollment of 18,000 students. Co-educational, government-supported, non-denominational. Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river valley. Edmonton Fast growing, modern city; population of 420,000. Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra, professional sports. Major chemical and petroleum processing centre. Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains and Jasper National Park. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech- nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his program of study. In this way a student can properly pre- pare himself for a productive career of research, develop- ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding technological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com- pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research or an integrated design project, is a newly-added feature to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de- gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup- ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Prof. C. J. Pings Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91109 It is advisable to submit applications before February 15, 1973. FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice- President for Institute Relations Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology Kinetics and catalysis; plasma chemistry; bio- medical engineering; air and water quality. SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution; interfacial transfer; diffusion and membrane transport. GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization. L. GARY LEAL, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor, Executive Officer, and Vice-Provost Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical mechanics. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Control and estimation theory; air pollution. FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies of various environmental problems. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure- property relations in polymers. ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois Solid state chemistry. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis. I University of California, Berkeley CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at BERKELEY?? The answer to the above question is YES. Now for the rest of our quiz for the ambitious chemical engineering senior. You'll probably finish in 4 minutes, and it may influence your next 4 years. Is the Department well rated professionally? The most recent American Council on Education sur- vey, which samples faculty opinion nationwide, rated us #2 for "strength of graduate program" and #3 on "graduate faculty." This must mean we try hard, too. What areas of graduate research are represented? Which aren't? With an experienced and distinguished faculty of 20 professors, the Department can offer a tremendous variety of work. For details, please write.* Let's try specifics. How about research related to the environment? At least 7 faculty members have been active in such work. Projects have included: extraction of pollut- ants from wastewater, electrostatic precipitation of dusts, scrubbing SO2 out of stack gases with sea- water, NOx removal from car and plant effluents, design of substitute nonpolluting processes,..... The biological sciences seem to be coming to the fore in engineering disciplines. Is this true at Berkeley? Four ChE faculty members are involved in these interface areas, specifically in biochemical, biomed- ical, and food processing and production research. Does this mean that traditional areas are underrepre- sented? No way! (See the second question.) Actually, many such areas are represented by more than one profes- sor-electrochemical engineering, fluid mechanics, kinetics and catalysis, mass transfer, materials, process development and design, and thermodynamics. It sounds like a big operation. Doesn't this lead to an impersonal quality of education? We don't think so. It's true that the campus is big (27,500 students), although not unusually so these days, and that we have a pretty big graduate group for ChE departments-45 M.S. and 67 Ph.D. candi- dates. But we have eight graduate advisers, in addition to each student's thesis adviser, and nu- merous social and sporting interactions-for example, the summer softball team (can anybody out there pitch?). All together, there is ample opportunity for student-faculty contact. What is the mean temperature in Berkeley? Summertime highs average 70 F, wintertime 56 F. Outdoor "summer" sports are year-round activities. Some people get bored with this... but climatic ex- tremes can be reached easily by car. Can I get to the key libraries and computing facilities conveniently? Chemistry Library-60 ft., Physics-60 yd,, Math- 100 yd., Engineering-250 yd., main library- 150 yd. (Excuse the English units.) The College has its own computer, and the campus Computer Center- only 100 yd. away-is as close as the terminal in our building. What opportunities do graduate students have to ex- plore the teaching experience? Ph.D. students act as teaching assistants for one quarter in each of 3 years during their studies here. M.S. students may occasionally have an opportunity to teach, if they want. *Write: Professor D. N. Hanson, Chemical Engineering Department, Gilman Hall, Graduate Admissions, University of California, Berkeley, Ca. 94720. Many urban schools impress the eye as being predomi- nantly concrete. What's the Berkeley picture? Two branches of Strawberry Creek run through cam- pus, one within a stone's throw of the ChE Dept. Numerous redwood trees. Tallest grove of eucalyptus in the U.S. The 1300 ft. Berkeley Hills rising steep- ly behind campus, to the east. San Francisco and 25 miles of Bay Area in view to the west. Parklike landscaping, lots of it-honest. Let's get back to basics now. What are the course work requirements for graduate degrees? For the M.S., 20 graded quarter units, of which 12 must be ChE graduate courses. (Another 10 units must be amassed for the degree, but thesis research and other Pass/Not Pass courses are allowable.) For the Ph.D. no units are officially prescribed, but students are strongly encouraged to explore classes in our department and elsewhere. The catalogue lists 20 ChE regular graduate courses as well as many seminars. The real problem is limiting your- self, in view of the great selection of interesting courses on campus. How does the Department happen to be in the College of Chemistry? Simply because we grew out of the Department of Chemistry. Having a two-department College is very cozy, and the strength of the Chemistry Department (e.g., Nobel laureates Calvin, Giauque,. Seaborg) is especially helpful for chemical engineers. How about traditional recreational opportunities in the Bay Area? You must be joking. We wouldn't try to capitalize on sailing on the beautiful Bay; skiing and hiking in the majestic Sierra Nevada; the amateur and professional baseball, football, basketball, hockey; the superla- tive restaurants, museums, and music of San Fran- cisco and the whole Bay Area (Berkeley itself is full of artistic and musical happenings) would we? Don't even consider it. How are thesis research projects assigned to new students? Students usually select their own projects, from among those offered by the faculty. The only con- straint is that Research Assistants must choose from funded projects; fellowship holders are not re- stricted in this way. Indeed, if you bring your own fellowship, you might even try to design your own project and convince some faculty member to spon- sor it. What is the job market for a Berkeley graduate? Over the past decade our advanced-degree grads have had exceptional opportunities. Of our Ph.D.'s 1/3 have into teaching, 1/3 into chemical and petroleum firms, and 1/3 into other industries. With tightening of the economy, fewer offers are being made everywhere, but industrial prospects are pretty good here. In last year's grim job market, all our M.S. and Ph.D. grads got good professional jobs, and the general employment situation is improving. Berkeley is visited by more industrial recruiters than any other western school, and the Placement Center is vigorous. The faculty cares, too. All things considered, would I enjoy and profit from a graduate experience in chemical engineering at Berkeley? Try-y-y it, you'll li-i--lke it! CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY IN K IF1 | tA r"'^ ~ll 'NNW CASE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, a privately endowed insti- tution with a tradition of excellence in Engineering and Applied Science has long offered a variety of courses and research areas leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. In 1967 Case Institute and Western Reserve University joined to- gether. The enrollment and endowment make Case Western Reserve University one of the largest private schools in the country. Students interested in graduate work in Chemical Engineering or Applied Chemistry should consider the varied opportunities available in the Chemi- cal Engineering Division. Of special interest are strong programs in sys- tems optimization and control, en- vironmental engineering and pollu- tion control, catalysis and surface chemistry, polymer science and engi- neering, biomedical engineering, ma- terials and reactor design. Within these broad categories are many in- dividual research projects and course offerings. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate Assistantships are offered with stipends ranging from$430 to
$555 per month (depending on back- ground and marital status) from which$200 per month tuition charge
by either the academic or the calen-
dar year.
Fellowships and Environmental
Protection Agency Traineeships are
available providing stipends from
$200 to$350 per month plus full
teaching and for dependents are in-
cluded with some.
Predoctoral loans of substantial
amounts are available.

FOR FURTHER Chemical Engineering Division
School of Engineering
INFORMATION YOU ARE Case Western Reserve University
INVITED TO WRITE: University Circle
Cleveland, Ohio 44106

FALL 1972 201

PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORAL DEGREE IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE

For information concerning Assistantships and Fellowships contact the Graduate
School Office, Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New York 13676

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY

J. ESTRIN-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University)
Nucleation phenomena in crystallizing systems; condensation of
vapors.
H. L. SHULMAN-Prof and Vice Pres. of the College. (Ph.D., 1950,
University of Pennsylvania) Mass transfer, packed columns;
A. F. BURKE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967, Princeton University) High
temperature, electrochemical, and electric arc processes; shock
tube studies; chemical kinetics; combustion; corrosion.
R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson College of Technology)
Boiling heat transfer; liquid film dynamics.
D. 0. COONEY-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of Wisconsin)
Multi-component absorption; biomedical engineering; unstable
fluid flow; membrane separation processes; pharmacokinetics.
E. J. DAVIS-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington)
Two-phase flow fluid mechanics; convective diffusion; aerosol
physics; mathematical modelling.
J. L. KATZ-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago) Nuclea-
tion phenomena; thermal conductivity of gas mixtures; the equa-
tion of state.

R. J. NUNGE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University) Dis-
persion and flow in porous media; pulsating turbulent flow; heat
transfer in multistream systems.
R. A. SHAW-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967) Cornell University) Nuclear
engineering; reverse osmosis; radioactive tracers; nuclear reactor
effluents.
T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Renssalear Polytechnic Insti-
tute) Process systems analysis; multivariable control; analog simu-
lation; properties of materials; thermodynamics.
G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of Illinois)
Kinetics of catalytic reactions; reactor analysis; kinetics and
S. K. SUNEJA-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1970, Illinois Institute of Tech-
nology) Polymer engineering; air and water pollution; transport
processes.
M. A. BRYNER-Instructor (M.S., 1970, Clarkson College of Tech-
nology) Fluid mechanics;

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

CORNELL UNIVERSITY

Chemical Enaineering

Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
research-oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
sophy or Master of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
Master of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Engineering (general)
Thermodynamics; applied rppthematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, and diffusionaloperations.
Bioengineering
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and
related subjects in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of
processes in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.
Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Catalysis
Homogeneous kinetics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation;
simultaneous mass transfer and reaction; optimization of reactor design.
Chemical Processes and Process Control
Advanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and
chemistry.

Faculty Members and Research Interests
John L. Anderson, Ph.D. Membrane transport, bioengineering.
Kenneth B. Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi-
cal reaction engineering.
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. Light and electron microscopy, properties of materials,
solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Victor H. Edwards, Ph.D. Kinetics and process control in fermentation.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation, agitation and aeration, pro-
cessing of biochemicals, electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons.
Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion in mem-
branes and porous solids.
J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D. Economic analyses and forecasts, new ventures deve-
lopment.
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. Polymerization, properties of polymer systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid mechanics
of liquid drops and jets, convection-distorted flow fields.
Julian C. Smith, Chem.E. Conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing,
mechanical separations.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics of poly-
merization.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. Chemical engineering applications to biomedical
problems; rheology.
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. Liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics, effect of
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline-water
conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding,
filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis.
Robert York, Sc.D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco-
nomics, process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATLON, Write to Prof. Peter Harriott, Olin Hall of Chemical
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850.

university offlorida

offers you ___

Transport
Phenomena &
Rheology
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.

Optimization
& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.

Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.

and mucl more...

A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports

Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.

Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 231
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

II~
3'

W .
a -I ^*0 1. is-

The Deparlment 01 Energy Engineering -

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO CIRCLE

The Department of Energy Engineering

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Faculty and Research Activities
in the field of
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Lyndon R. Babcock,
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1970,
Associate Professor
David S. Hacker,
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1954,
Associate Professor
James P. Hartnett,
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1954,
Professor and Head of the Department

John H. Kiefer,
Ph.D., Cornell, 1961,
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori,
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969,
Assistant Professor
Irving F. Miller,
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960,
Professor
Satish C. Saxena,
Ph.D., Calcutta University, India, 1956,
Professor
Edward J. Schlossmacher,
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1970,
Assistant Professor
Stephen Szepe,
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966,
Associate Professor
The Department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. To obtain application forms
or to request further information,

Air Pollution modeling; environmental problems;
polymerization.

High temperature chemical kinetics; combustion
and plasma processes; simultaneous transport
phenomena.
Forced convection; mass transfer cooling;

Kinetics of gas reactions; energy transfer
processes.

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of
fluids, solids and solutions; kinetics of liquid
reactions.
Chemical engineering; bioengineering; membrane
transport processes; mathematical modeling.
Transport properties of fluids and solids; thermo-
dynamics and statistical mechanics; isotope
separation; solid waste management.
Process dynamics and control; process optimiza-
tion.

Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering; optimiza-
tion; environmental and pollution problems.
Professor John H. Kiefer, Chairman
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680

IOWA STATE
UNIVERSITY

PROGRAMS

FACULTY

FACILITIES

First Land Grant school (1862). Largest College of Engineering west of the
Mississippi River and fifth largest in the U.S. Ranks ninth in Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering. Current enrollment of 300 undergraduates and
60 grad students in Chemical Engineering.

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Five year integrated program for M.E.

Graduate faculty of 18 in Chemical Engineering having a variety of back-
grounds and interests.

New, fully equipped Chemical Engineering building with 50,000 square
feet of laboratory, office, and classroom space. Adjacent to computer
center and to library. Excellent technical support from Engineering Research
Institute and technical service groups. Affiliation with the Ames Laboratory,
the only National Laboratory of the U.S. AEC located on a university campus.

RESEARCH

International reputation in the following areas:

Biochemical Engineering (Tsao)
Biomedical Engineering (Seagrave)
Coal Research (Wheelock)
Crystallization (Larson)

FINANCIAL AID

LOCATION

TO APPLY

Fluidization (Wheelock)
Polymer Kinetics (Abraham)
Process Chemistry (Burnet)
Simulation (Burkhart)

Outstanding programs also in electronic instrumentation, computer appli-
cations to process control, air and water pollution control, extraction, thermo-
dynamics, kinetics and reaction engineering, liquid metals technology, fluid
mechanics and rheology, heat and mass transfer, and interfacial and surface
phenomena.

Teaching and research assistantships and industrial fellowships available.

Ames, a small city of 40,000 in central Iowa. Site of the Iowa State Center
(pictured above), which hosts the annual Ames International Orchestra
Festival and athletic events of the Big Eight Conference.

Write to:
Chemical Engineering Department
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Research

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs

Chemical Engineering
Petroleum Engineering
also
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
and
M.S. in Petroleum Management

The Department is the recent recipient of a $150,000 industrial grant for research and teaching in the area of Fluid Flow and Transport Phenomena Applicable to the Petroleum Industry. Financial assistance is available for Research Assistants and Teaching Assistants Research Areas Transport Phenomena Fluid Flow in Porous Media Process Dynamics and Control Water Resources and Environmental Studies Mathematical Modeling of Complex Physical Systems Reaction Kinetics and Process Design Nucleate Boiling High Pressure, Low Temperature Phase Behavior For Information and Applications write: Don W. Green, Chairman Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas, 66044 Phone (913) UN4-3922 UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY M.S. and Ph.D. Study in Chemical Engineering including A Unique Program in AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Kinetics and equilibria of atmospheric reactions Micrometeorology Diffusion in the atmosphere: modelling of urban areas Air sampling and analysis Process and system control; air cleaning Effects of pollutants on man, materials, and environs A Specialized Program in WATER POLLUTION CONTROL Physical and chemical treatment process design Biochemical engineering Water quality engineering instrumentation Industrial waste control Excellent E.P.A. Traineeships available At U.K.-a nine-man faculty, new laboratory and class- room facilities, a complete graduate curriculum, a variety of research topics . Contact: Robert B. Grieves Dep't of Chemical Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 208 Chemical Engii . offering master of science, and doctor of philosophy degrees, and a master of science in sugar engineering. Master's candidates may pursue a degree under thesis or course options; the thesis option is encouraged for master's-only candidates. The department-with new, modern facilities-is equipped with laboratories for research in reacting and thermal fluids, high poly- mers, and lasers; and with analog, digital, and hybrid computers. The Nuclear Science and Computer Research Centers also service the department. LSU Library holdings near 1,300,000 volumes. Undergraduate enrollment is 190; and graduate enrollment, 90 (70 master's, and 20 doctoral candidates). Last year, 74 degrees were awarded, including 55 bachelor's, 13 master's, and 6 doctoral degrees. LSU, a campus of about 19,000 students, is located in Baton Rouge, a major petrochemical center and inland port, capital city, 80 miles north of New Orleans. LSU 4 k For more information, contact: Dr. Joseph A. Polack, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, La. 70803 RESEARCH INTERESTS THE FACULTY N Philip A. Bryant, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Clayton D. Callihan, Professor, Ph.D. Jesse Coates, Alumni Professor, Ph.D. James B. Cordiner, Professor, Ph.D. Armando. B. Corripio, Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Richard C. Farmer, Associate Professor, Ph.D. David B. Greenberg, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Frank R. Groves Jr., Professor, Ph.D. Douglas P. Harrison, Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Adrain E. Johnson, Jr., Professor, Ph.D. Edward McLaughlin, Professor, Ph.D. Paul W. Murrill, Professor, Provost and Vice-Chancellor, Ph.D. Ralph W. Pike, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Jerome A. Planchard, Jr., Assistant Profes- sor, Ph.D. Joseph A. Polack, Professor and Head, Sc.D. Bernard S. Pressburg, Professor and Asso- ciate Dean of Engineering, Ph.D. Roger W. Richardson, Professor and Dean of Engineering, Ph.D. John J. Seip, Associate Professor and Superintendent of the Audubon Sugar Factory, Ph.D. Cecil L. Smith, Associate Professor and Chairman,. Computer Science Depart- -ment, Ph.D. Edgar C. Tacker, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Alexis Voorhies Jr., Visiting Professor, Honoris Causa. Albert H. Wehe, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Bert Wilkins, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Bioengineering Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design. Ecology and Pollution Control Estuarine Studies Microbiological Laser Irradiation Physical, Chemical and Thermo- dynamic Properties of Materials Polymer Chemistry Process Control and Dynamics Pulp and Paper Research Sugar Technology Synthetic Foods Transport Phenomena 9J4trl A * ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY * BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING * BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING * TRANSPORT PHENOMENA * CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS * SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY * POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES * ENERGY Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For decades to come, the chemical engineer will play a central role in fields of national concern. In two areas alone, energy and the environment, society and industry will turn to the chemical engineer for technology and management in finding process re- lated solutions to critical problems. M.I.T. has consistently been a leader in chemical engineering education with a strong working relationship with in- dustry for over a half century. For de- tailed information, contact Professor Raymond F. Baddour, Head of the De- partment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cam- bridge, Massachusetts 02139. Raymond F. Baddour Edwin R. Gilliland Hoyt C. Hottel Herman P. Meissner Edward W. Merrill J. Th. G. Overbeek Robert C. Reid Adel F. Sarofim FACULTY Charles N. Satterfield Kenneth A. Smith J. Edward Vivian Glenn C. Williams Lawrence B. Evans Jack B. Howard Michael Modell James H. Porter Lloyd A. Clomburg Clark K. Colton lan F. Davenport Richard G. Donnelly Samuel M. Fleming Ronald A. Hites Gary J. Powers Jefferson W. Tester A DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND 20740 "1856- The Department offers graduate work in chemical, materials, and nuclear engineering leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Some of the fields of specialization of the faculty are: Chemical Engineering Process Control Systems Heat and Mass Transfer Turbulent Transport Solvent Extraction Design and Cost Studies Reaction Kinetics Catalysis Multiphase Flow Process Dynamics Computer Simulation Biological and Environmental Engineering Aerosol Mechanics Membrane Separations Artificial Organs Bioengineering Environmental Health Air Pollution Control Nuclear Engineering Nuclear Reactor Physics Nuclear Reactor Design Nuclear Reactor Operation Radiation Induced Reactions System Dynamics Radiation Shielding Radiation Engineering Thermionics Engineering Materials Reaction of Solid Surfaces Solid State Behavior Composite Materials Statistical Thermodynamics Structure of Metallic Solutions Applied Polymer Science Polymer Physics Graft Polymerization Polymerization Kinetics Non-Newtonian Flow The general requirements are set forth in the Graduate Catalog. The chemical engineering program is designed for qualified bachelors chemical engineering students. The materials and nuclear en- gineering programs are open to qualified students holding bachelors degrees in engineering, the physical sciences, and mathematics. Address inquiries to Dean, Graduate School or Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering FALL 1972 Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Established fields of specialization in which re- search programs are in progress are: (1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies -Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson (2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W. Johnson (3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr. (4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek (5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K. G. Mayhan In addition, research projects are being carried out in the following areas: (a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Prof. J. L. Gaddy (b) Evaporation through non-Wettable Porous Membranes-Dr. M. E. Findley (c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr. R. C. Waggoner (d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim- rose (e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques- Dr. H. H. Grice (f) Process Dynamics and Control-Drs. M. E. Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen- kamp (g) Transport Properties and Kinetics-Dr. 0. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E. Poling (h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium -Dr. D. B. Manley Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, Industrial Fellowships and Fed- eral Sponsored Programs. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION LOOKING for a graduate education in Chemical Engineering ? Consider PENN STATE M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered with Research In Separation Processes Kinetics and Mass Transfer Petroleum Research Unit Processes Thermodynamic Properties Catalysis and Applied Chemistry Air Environment Bio-Engineering Nuclear Technology Transport Properties Lubrication and Rheology And Other Areas WRITE TO Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head 160 Chemical Engineering Building The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pa. 16802 FALL 1972 PHILADELPHIA The cultural advantages and historical assets of a great city, including the incomparable Phila- delphia Orchestra are within walking distance of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. A complete range of recreational facilities exists within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex- cellence in graduate education. A unique feature of the University is the breadth of medically related activities including those in engineering. In recent years the University has undergone FACULTY a great expansion of its facilities, including specialized graduate student housing. The School of Chemical Engineering has also under- gone considerable change and growth, attract- ing national attention because of its rapid rise to excellence. Stuart W. Churchill William C. Forsman David J. Graves A. Norman Hixson Arthur E. Humphrey Ronald L. Klaus Alan Myers Melvin C. Molstad Leonard Nanis Daniel D. Perlmutter John A. Quinn Warren D. Seider RESEARCH SPECIALTIES Enzyme Engineering Biomedical Engineering Computer-Aided Design Chemical Reactor Analysis Electrochemical Engineering For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to: Dr. D. D. Perl- mutter, School of Chemical Engineering, Univer- Environmental Control Polymer Engineering Process Simulation Interfacial Phenomena Separations Techniques sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Mitchell Litt Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available. The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence, The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer- ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent evaluation by the American Council of Education. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization, Stability, and Process Control Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Polymer Science BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma Blood Pumping Systems Biomaterials Rice University Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca- tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac- tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston. There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800 graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a complete university with programs in the various fields of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer- ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings. The academic year is from September to May. As there are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly four months for research. The school offers excellent recreational and athletic facilities with a completely equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year- round activities. FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of$300-350 per month.

APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

Houston
With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.

FALL 1972

215

Chemical Engineering
at

Stevens Institute of Technoloqq

MASTER'S and DOCTORATE PROGRAMS
in
Chemical Engineering Science
Design and Plant Operations
Polymer Engineering

RESEARCH
in
Chemical Reaction Engineering Rheology
Polymer Property- Structure Relationships
Thermodynamics of Polymer Deformation
Polymerization Kinetics Combustion
Polymer Processing Mass Transfer
Optimal Control Waste Treatment
Flame and Arc Plasmas

Full and Part- time Programs

For further information contact:
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Castle Point Station Navy Building, Room 315
Hoboken. New Jersey 07030
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY of TENNESSEE

Chemical & Metallurgical

Engineering

Programs
Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of
Philosophy are offered in both Chemical and Metallurgical Engin-
eering. The Master's program may be tailored as a terminal one
with emphasis,on professional development, or it may serve as
Specialization in Polymer Science and Engineering is availableat
both levels.

Faculty and Research Interests
WILLIAM T. BECKER, Ph.D., Illinois Mechanical Properties and
Deformation; DONALD C. BOGUE, Ph.D., Delaware, Rheology,
Polymer Science and Engineering:CHARLIE R. BROOKS, Ph.D.,
Tennessee, Electron Microscopy, Thermodynamics; EDWARDS.
CLARK, Ph.D., California (Berkeley), Polymer Crystallography;
ORAN L. CULBERSON, Ph.D., Texas, Operations Research,
Process Design; JOHN F. FELLERS, Ph.D., Akron, Polymer
Chemistry; GEORGE C. FRAZIER, JR., D. Eng., Johns Hopkins,
Kinetics and Combustion, Transfer with Reaction; HSIEN-WEN
HSU, Ph.D., Wisconsin, Bioengineering, Transport Phenomena,
Optimization; HOMER F. JOHNSON, D. Eng., Yale (Department
Head), Mass Transfer, Interface Phenomena; STANLEY H. JURY,
Ph.D., Cincinnati, Sorption Kinetics in Flow Systems; WILLIAM J.
KOOYMAN, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, Reaction Kinetics in Flow
Systems; CARL D. LUNDIN, Ph.D., Rensselaer, Physical
Metallurgy, Welding;. CHARLES F. MOORE, Ph.D., L.S.U.,
Computer Process Control; BEN F. OLIVER, Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University, (Professor-in-Charge of Metallurgical

Engineering), Solidification, High Purity Metals; JOSEPH J.
PERONA, Ph.D., Northwestern, Mass Transfer and Kinetics, Heat
Transfer; JOSEPH E. SPRUIELL, Ph.D., Tennessee, X-ray
Diffraction, Electron Microscopy, Polymer Science and
Engineering; E. EUGENE STANSBURY, Ph.D., Cincinnati,
Thermodynamics Kinetics of Phase Deformation, Corrosion;
JAMES L. WHITE, Ph.D., Delaware, Polymer Science and Engi-
neering, Rheology, Separation Processes. Regular Part-Time:
LLOYD G. ALEXANDER, Ph.D., Purdue, Fluid Flow, Heat
Transfer; BERNARD S. BORIE, Ph.D., M.I.T., X-ray Diffraction:
ALBERT H. COOPER, Ph.D., Michigan State, Process Design,
Economics; JOHN M. HOLMES, Ph.D., Tennessee, Economic'
Analysis and Design; CARL J. McHARGUE, Ph.D., Kentucky,
Physical Metallurgy; ROY A. VANDERMEER, Ph.D., Illinois
Institute of Technology, Physical Metallurgy; JACK S. WATSON,
Ph.D., Fluid Mechanics.

Laboratories and Shops
Computer complex (DEC, PDP 15/35 with interfaces to research
labs and analog computer), High-speed automatic frost point
hygrometer, Mass and heat transfer in porous media, Polymer
rheology and processing (Weissenberg rheogoniometer, Instron
rheological tester, roll mill, extruder, Vibron viscoelastometer),
Polymer characterization (gel permeation chromatograph,
osmometer), Mass spectograph, Continuous zone centrifuge,
Process dynamics, X-ray diffraction (including single crystal
diffuse scattering analysis), Electron microscopes (Philips EM75
EM300, AMR900), Calorimetry (25-10000C), Electrical resistivity
measurements for studies of structural and phase changes,
Single crystal preparation facilities, Mechanical fabrication and
testing, (metallograph, optical microscopes and melting, etc.),
High purity materials preparation, Electronic and mechanical
shops staffed by 16 full-time technicians and craftsmen.

Financial Assistance
teaching assistantships, research assistantships, and a variety of
fellowships.

Knoxville and Surroundings
With a population near 200,000, Knoxville is the trade and
industrial center of East Tennessee. In the nearby Auditorium-
Coliseum, Broadway plays, musical and dramatic artists, and
other entertainment events are regularly scheduled. Knoxville
has a number of points of historical interest, a theater-in-the-
round, a symphony orchestra, two art galleries, and a number of
museums.. Within an hour's drive are many TVA lakes and
mountain streams for water sports, the Great Smoky Mountains
National Park with the Gatlinburg tourist area, two state parks,
and the atomic energy installations at Oak Ridge including the
Museum of Atomic Energy.

Students
The Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering has
present.

WRITE: Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering,
The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

0- 1

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
Chemical Engineering Department
M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS

Areas of Interest
Transport/kinetic processes
Solution thermodynamics
High pressure technology
Environmental Control
Nuclear engineering
Special Research Organizations
Center for Thermochemical Studies
Engineering Fluid Mechanics Research
Group
High Pressure Laboratory
Center for Environmental Studies

Faculty
Dee H. Barker
James J. Christensen
Dwight P. Clark
Ralph L. Coates
Joseph M. Glassett
H. Tracy Hall
Richard W. Hanks
M. Duane Horton
Bill J. Pope
Vern C. Rogers
L. Douglas Smoot, Chairman
Grant M. Wilson

FOR INFORMATION CONTACT
Dr. Richard W. Hanks
234 FELB, Chemical Engineering
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84601

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY
LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837

Dr. Paul H. DeHoff

* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
* Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis-
tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; mathematical application in
chemical systems; reaction kinetics; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of
materials; biomedical engineering.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS

Faculty
R. L. Bell:
N. A. Dougharty:
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:

Mass Transfer, Bio-Medicine
Catalysis, Chemical Kinetics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reactor Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena

Write To:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA

CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING

Graduate education is not for everyone. We believe, however, that it is the
best means for an engineer to develop his potential and at the same time become
better equipped to influence society in a positive way.

Owen T. Hanna, Chairman

Henri J. Fenech
Duncan A. Mellichamp
Paul G. Mikolai
John E. Myers

G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker
Orville C. Sandall

For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106

FALL 1972

THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY

MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Thermodynamics Pollution Control Transport Processes

The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study
leading to the doctorate at another institution. Financial- assistance is available.

Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44115
Telephone: (216) 687-2569

.. CLEMSON UNIVERSITY

. : Chemical Engineering Department

So........oo M.S. and Doctoral Programs

THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS
Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Air Pollution, Unit Operations
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U., Chemical Kinetics, Hybrid Computation
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena
Bruley, D. F., Ph.D., U. Tennessee-Process Dynamics, Bio-medical Engineering
Hall, J. W., Ph.D., U. Texas-Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Design
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Chemical and Biological Kinetics, Design
Littlejohn, C. E., Ph.D., V.P.I.-Mass Transfer
Melsheimer, SS., Ph.D. Tulane-Process Dynamics, Applied Mathematics
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
Contact:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Ur to $5,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Department of Chemical Engineering Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66502 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER HEAT TRANSFER FLUID MECHANICS THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS SOLID MIXING DESALINATION OPTIMIZATION FLUIDIZATION PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FALL 1972 Newark, Delaware 19711 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY B. E. Anshus J. H. Olson C. E. Birchenall C. A. Petty M. M. Denn E. Ruckenstein B. C. Gates T. W. F. Russell J. R. Katzer S. I. Sander R. L. McCullough J. M. Schultz A. B. Metzner J. Wei Graduate study inquiries and requests for financial aid invited. Write: A. B. Metzner, Chairman CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Lehigh University Department of Chemical Engineering M. CHARLES Center for C. W. CLUMP Surface & R. W. COUGHLIN C Catal A. S. FOUST Coatings W. L. LUYBEN Research A. J. McHUGH G. W. POEHLEIN W. E. SCHIESSER L. H. SPERLING F. P. STEIN L. A. WENZEL Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS: Transport Phenomena Polymer Engineering Biomedical Engineering Air and Water Pollution Thermodynamics Particulate Dynamics Catalysis Solid-Liquid Separation Cryogenics Chemical Reactors Leading to the Degrees of Plasma Research M.Eng. Fluidisation and Ph.D. and others GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING McGILL UNIVERSITY MONTREAL. QUEBEC. CANADA McMASTER UNIVERSITY Hamilton, Ontario, Canada M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS R. B. Anderson (Ph.D., Iowa) . M. H. I. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) . A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) . C. M. Crowe (Ph.D., Cambridge) . I. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) . A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) . J. W. Hodgins (Ph.D., Toronto) . T. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) . J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . J. D. Norman (Ph.D., Rice) . L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) . J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) . DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND i RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON I Catalysis, Adsorption, Kinetics Oscillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques Optimization, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation Blood Flow, Transport Phenomena Polymer Reactor Engr., Transport Phenomena Polymerization, Applied Chemistry Heat Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation Statistical Methods in Process Analysis Wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations Wastewater Treatment, Biochemical Reactions Mass Transfer, Corrosion Polymer Rheology, Heat Transfer Interfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems Process Simulation and Control, Computer Control CONTACT: Dr. C. M. Crowe, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Hamilton, Ontario, Canada THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS The University of Michigan awarded its first Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D. in 1914. It has moved with the times since and today offers a flexible program of graduate study that allows emphases ranging from fun- damentals to design. The Chemical Engineering Department, with 21 faculty members and some 70 graduate stu- dents, has opportunities for study and research in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor design, transport processes, mathematical and numerical methods, optimization, materials, mix- ing, bioengineering, electrochemical engineer- ing, rheology and pollution control. The M.S. program may be completed in 10 months and does not require a thesis. The Pro- fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond the Master's and a professional problem. The Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to expedite entry into a research area as early in the program as possible. For further Information and applications, write: Chairman of the Graduate Committee The University of Michigan Department of Chemical Engineering Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 FALL 1972 99 MONASH UNIVERSITY CLAYTON, VICTORIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIPS Applications are invited for Monash University Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart- ment of Chemical Engineering. The awards are intended to enable scholars to carry out under supervision, a programme of full-time advanced studies and research which may lead to the degrees of Master of Engineering Science and/ or Doctor of Philosophy. Facilities are available for work in the general fields of: Solid-gas Thermodynamics and Kinetics Packed Tubular Reactors Crystal Nucleation and Growth Fluidisation Rheology Computer Control and Optimisation Gas Absorption with Reaction Waste Treatment Engineering Process Dynamics Biochemical Engineering Fluid Particle Mechanics Mixing of Liquids Submerged Combustion Scholarships carry a tax-free stipend of$A2,200
per annum. Detailed information about the
awards and the necessary application forms may
be obtained from the Academic Registrar. Tech-
nical enquiries should be addressed to the
Chairman of Department, Professor 0. E. Potter.
Victoria, 3168, Australia.

LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. IN THE AREAS OF:

Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Crystallization
Food Processing
Kinetics

Mixing
Polymerization
Thermodynamics
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas

FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO:

Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

224

STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS

* Environmental Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer
Nuclear Chemical Engineering

* Process Analysis, Design and Control
Polymer Engineering
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Thermodynamics

* Rheology Unit Operations
Solid and Liquid Fuels Process Dynamics and Simulation

Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request

WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210

AT

NEWARK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Students seeking a commitment to excellence
in careers in Chemical Engineering will find a
wealth of opportunity at Newark College of En-
gineering.
The ChE Department at NCE has a well de-
of Master of Science in Chemical Engineering or
Master of Science with major in such interdisci-
plinary areas as Polymer Engineering or Polymer
Science. Beyond the Master's degree, NCE offers
the degrees of Engineer and of Doctor of Engi-
neering Science.
Over sixty on-going projects in Chemical En-
gineering and Chemistry provide exceptional re-
search opportunities for Master's and Doctoral
candidates. Research topics include the follow-
ing areas:

* Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer
* Thermodynamics Process Dynamics
o Kinetics and Catalysis Transport Phenomena
0 Mathematical Methods

NCE is located on a modern, twenty-acre
campus in Newark, within 30 minutes of Man-
hattan. Tuition for New Jersey residents is $35 per credit; for non-residents, the cost is$45 per
credit. Fellowships and financial assistance are
available to qualified applicants.
Mr. Alex Bedrosian, Assistant Dean
Newark College of Engineering
323 High Street, Newark, N.J. 07102

FALL 1972

DEGREES OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN
-- CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
AND THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILO-
SOPHY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
As the oldest engineering school west
of the Alleghenies we have an out-
standing school with competent de-
partmental faculty prepared to offer
work in the traditional fields of
research. We also provide special-
ization in bioengineering, transport
phenomena, process dynamics and con-
trol and petroleum production.
For information write:
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
Department
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

KINETICS

TRANSPORT

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

BIOENGINEERING

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

write to Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
Lafayette, Ind. 47907

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

226

We are seeking entrepreneurial, innovative Colleagues for

NEW VENTURES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

New Polymer Fibers
Electronics and Control
Chemical Lasers
Stratospheric Chemistry
Chemical Microengineering
Cryogenic Chemical Syntheses
Food Processing
Agriculture
Enzyme Engineering
Heterogeneous, Homogeneous, and
Multiphase Catalysis
Financial support is available for programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Uni-
versity is Virginia's Land Grant University located
in the mountains of beautiful Southwestern Vir-
ginia at Blacksburg. Research in Chemical Engi-

neering emphasizes applied science and the
practical application of new technology to im-
portant current problems with service and profit
as major objectives. The department is one of
the largest in the country, a large supplier of
well-trained engineers to national employers, and
the graduate program reflects a close relationship
with the potential users of new developments.
The faculty represents a wide range of industrial,

WRITE TO: Dr. Henry A. McGee, Jr.
Engineering
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

FALL 1972

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS 11B^,

TUFTS UNIVERSITY
Metropolitan Boston

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS
RHEOLOGY
OPTIMIZATION
CRYSTALLIZATION
POLYMER STUDIES
MEMBRANE PHENOMENA
CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY
BIO-ENGINEERING
MECHANO-CHEMISTRY
PROCESS CONTROL

FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE:
PROF. K. A. VAN WORMER, CHAIRMAN
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
TUFTS UNIVERSITY
MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chemical Engineering Seattle, Washington 98105
GRADUATE STUDY BROCHURE AVAILABLE ON REQUEST

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs available in
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Transport Phenomena
Nuclear Science and Engineering
Optimization
Chemical Process Analysis and Design

For application to the following current active
research areas:
Solid Waste Pyrolosis in Fluidized Beds
Purification of Acid Mine Drainage
Ultrasonic Energy Utilization
Coal Gasification and Liquifaction

For applications and information write to:
Dr. C. Y. Wen, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS
Water desalination, kinetics, statistical
mechanics, thermodynamics and phase
equilibria, coal gasification, mass
transfer, shale oil and coal hydrogenation,
waste energy recovery, solid waste
disposal, nuclear fuel processing.

FACULTY
Dr. D. L. Stinson
Dr. R. D. Gunn
Dr. L. L. Hovey
Dr. R. C. Miller
Dr. V. A. Ryan
Dr. H. F. Silver

LOCATION: Situated in the Rocky Mountains between the Snowy and Laramie
Ranges.

FINANCIAL AID: Support for all qualified graduate students up to $4800. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE: Prof. R. D. Gunn, College of Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82070. FALL 1972 MS and PhD Degrees Research Support Level About$280,000 Per Year
Excellent Student-Faculty Ratio
Assistantships and Fellowships
Summer Support
Research Areas
Oil from Solid Wastes, and
Food Synthesis from Wastes A. H. Weiss
Air Pollution Control I. Zwiebel
Diffusion in Porous Solids, and
Microwave Freeze Drying Y. H. Ma
Synthesis of Molecular Sieve Zeolites L. B. Sand
Turbulent Combustion C. W. Shipman
Process Development W. L. Kranich
Non Newtonian Fluid Mechanics J. W.
Diffusion in Liquids R. E. Wagner
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
S. D. Weinrich
Write to: Dr. W. L. Kranich
Department of Chemical Engineering
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester, Mass. 01609

Study To Be A

PROFESSIONAL

Chemical Engineer

at

OKLAHOMA STATE

UNIVERSITY

Whatever your career plans, The School of
Chemical Engineering at Oklahoma State Uni-
Master of Science
Ph.D.
and a new PROFESSIONAL DEGREE
MASTER OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The School of Chemical Engineering is now
considering applicants for the OSU GRADUATE
PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.
This new program is designed to provide
Professional training
Professional experience
for
Professional practice
by
PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS
At the School of Chemical Engineering of Okla-
homa State University, you will find
A professionally-oriented faculty
Excellent library facilities
(open until midnight every day)
A complete computer center with IBM
System 360/Model 65, PLUS computer
facilities in the College of Engineering
available for student use 24 hours a
day.
Well-equipped research laboratories
For information on Graduate Professional education at OSU,
write:
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074

LOUGHBOROUGH UNIVERSITY
OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Chemical Engineering
M. S. and Ph.D. Programs available in Ad-
vanced Chemical Engineering with specialist
options in
Chemical Systems Engineering *
Particle Technology
Process Engineering and Economics
Transfer Processes
Based on process control and systems engineering
and including modelling, optimisation, statistics, operational
research and reliability engineering.
Also joint M.S. course in Particle Technology
with Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
Georgia. Students spend six months in each
institution.

For further information
Mr. J. Harris, Department
Engineering,
University of Technology,
Loughborough, LEl 1 3TU,
Leicestershire, England.

of Chemical

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The Department of Chemical Engineering at
the University of Colorado offers excellent op-
portunities for graduate study and research
leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of
Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering.

Research interests of the faculty include cryo-
genics, process control, polymer science, cataly-
sis, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer,
computer aided design, air and water pollution,
biomedical engineering, and ecological engi-
neering.

For application and information, write to:
Chemical Engineering Department

230

UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK

PROGRAM OF STUDY: The central research effort involves
the experimental analysis of natural phenomena with a view
to improving the design and control of industrially impor-
tant processes. Studies are done in catalysis, transport pheno-
mena and transfer operations, fire science and materials
science. M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees are given in a program
requiring both course work and research work. Residence
requirements are one year for the M.Sc. and three years
for the Ph.D. The Fire Science Centre carries out research
of an inter-disciplinary nature on naturally occurring fires.
The Department offers a number of Post-doctoral Fellowships
each year.
FINANCIAL AID: The range of assistantship available is
presently from $4000 p.a. to$5500 p.a. The Department
has an Atlantic Sugar Fellowship (Altantic Provinces stu-
dents) and an Alcan Fellowship (open to foreign students).
Several research contracts are held (assistantships open to
foreign students) as well as NRC grants for research (as-
sistantships restricted to Canadian citizens or landed im-
migrants.)

INFORMATION: Please direct all enquiries to:
Dr. David R. Morris
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of New Brunswick

Do any of these names ring a bell?

Elzy
Fitzgerald
Knudsen
Levenspiel
Meredith
Mrazek
Wicks

They're our Department.

We offer advanced study in straight
chemical engineering and joint programs with
biochemistry, environmental and ocean
engineering, etc.

It's exciting here at

OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

Curious? Questions? Write

Dr. Tom Fitzgerald
Chemical Engineering Department
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

Department of Chemical Engineering

FACULTY
PROFESSOR JOHN HAPPEL Chairman
PROFESSOR ROBERT E. TREYBAL
PROFESSOR WILLIAM H. KAPFER
PROFESSOR ROBERT 0. PARKER
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR WALTER BRENNER
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR REIJI MEZAKI
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR HENRY SCHWARTZBERG
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR LEONARD L. WIKSTROM
ASSOCIATE RESEARCH PROFESSOR YOSHIYUKI OKAMOTO
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR MIGUEL HNATOW

All Classical and Contemporary Fields of Chemical
Engineering are available.
Assistantships and Fellowships Available.
For application and information,
write to:
PROFESSOR JOHN HAPPEL Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
New York University
Bronx, N. Y. 10453

University of Rhode Island

Chemical Engineering

AREAS OF RESEARCH

Biochemical Engineering
Boiling Heat Transfer
Catalysis
Corrosion
Desalination
Dispersion Processes
Distillation
Fluid Dynamics
Heat Transfer
Ion Exchange
Kinetics
Mass Transfer

Materials Engineering
Membrane Diffusion
Metal Finishing
Metal Oxidation
Metallurgy
Nuclear Technology
Phase Equilibria
Polymers
Process Dynamics
Thermodynamics
Water Resources
X-ray Metallography

APPLICATIONS
Apply to the Dean of the Graduate School, Uni-
versity of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island
02881. Applications for financial aid should be re-
ceived not later than February 15. Appointments

FALL 1972

THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS
AT AUSTIN

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in Chemical Engineering

Faculty research interests include materials,
separation processes, polymers, fluid properties,
surface and aerosol physics, catalysis and kine-
tics, automatic control, process simulation and
optimization.

Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

St. Louis, Missouri

* A distinguished faculty and well equipped
laboratories
* Beautiful park-like campus
* Cosmopolitan environment of a major metro-
politan area
* Close interaction with the research and engi-
neering staffs of local major chemical com-
panies
* Cooperation in biomedical research with one
of the world's great medical centers

For further information on graduate study op-
portunities write to:

Dr. Eric Weger, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri 63130

CENTENNIAL

The University of Toledo

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

Assistantships and Fellowships Available.
EPA Traineeships in Water Supply and
Pollution Control.

For more details write:
Dr. Leslie E. Lahti
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio 43606

THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN
ONTARIO
CHEMICAL, BIOCHEMICAL, FOOD AND
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Applicants are invited for admission to programs
leading to the degree of M.E. Sc. and Ph.D. in the
field of chemical, bio and environmental engi-
neering. Current programs are related to air and
water pollution, applied catalysis, fluidization and
fluid particle mechanics, electrical phenomena in
industrial processes, development of biochemical
processes and continuous fermentation systems,
single cell proteins, development of processes for
conventional and unconventional food produc-
tion, food preservation, flavours, additives and
pollutants.
For further information and application, contact:

U Dr. M. A. Bergougnou, Chairman
Chemical, Bio and Environmental
Engineering Faculty of Engineering
Science
The University of Western Ontario

E4RL,

ERNIE,

JOE,

and HARLEY

TELL IT

STRAIGHT.

They're Sun Oil recruiters.
You might meet one of them
face-to-face in a campus job
interview.
If you do, they'll tell you straight
Oil Company and job opportunities.
Any other way, and you took a
job with Sun, you probably wouldn't
stay very long.
Take Ernie (he's black). He'll tell
you being black doesn't make very
much difference at Sun. He could
suggest that sometimes it helps,
citing the recent action of placing 25
million dollars of group insurance
with an all-black company.
Sun's not color-blind, or any

other kind of blind. It's just that in
our work, color or race or religion or
sex (within certain limitations)
doesn't have anything to do with it.
there's some pollution, but we're
working and spending like sin to
minimize it. We're also necessary.
Without gas, oil and grease for fuel,
power and lubrication America
would be in a mess.
Another point. Our industry is
responsible for nearly 1 /2 million
jobs. That's a lot of opportunity.
So-if you've got the urge to
get into petroleum, and want to
check out one of the industry's
exciting, progressive companies,

see Earl Pearce, Ernie Harvey,
Joe Pew or Harley Andrews. Your
Placement Director will know when
they'll be on campus.
of our Career Guide, write SUN OIL
COMPANY, Human Resources Dept.
CED, 1608 Walnut Street,

SUNOCO
An Equal Opportunity
Employer M/F

energy

The energy to keep straining toward your chosen goal-and even
as you attain it, look forward to the ones beyond.
The energy to explore, evaluate, create, bring needed changes.
Energy to burn, figuratively-that wealth possessed by the
young, in mind no less than body.
Energy to burn, literally, because ideas-freedom, equality, well-being,
conservation of our natural environment-must be turned into
realities-food, shelter, warmth, access, economic independence
and the physical means to accomplish our goals.
Atlantic Richfield is an energy company-in all these ways. One of the
nation's thirty leading industrial corporations, and one of the
ten companies producing most of our energy needs. A company that
is forward-looking in management. Imaginative in organization and
operation. Open to fresh thinking. Responsible in outlook.
While our specific requirements continually change, we typically
offer opportunities to financial and systems analysts, accountants,
auditors, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, sales representatives,
agronomists and programmers.
We invite your interest. See our representative on campus or your
Placement Director.

AtlanticRichfieldCompany Q
An equal opportunity employer M/F.

~. ~-
Id -.

Full Text