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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Stanford
 Dick Seagrave, the compleat...
 Michigan State University
 Motivating for ChE
 Virginia Polytechnic Institute
 Today we will hear from the ChE...
 AIChE career guidance committee...
 Stoichiometry of a city
 Book reviews
 Turbulent transfer processes
 Improving college teaching in chemical...
 Biological reactions: Kinetics...
 Deriving three thermodynamic equations...
 Chemistry courses in 89 ChE...
 Back Cover


































Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00037
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Summer 1972
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00037
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00037

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 101
    Stanford
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Dick Seagrave, the compleat man
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Michigan State University
        Page 110
    Motivating for ChE
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Today we will hear from the ChE department
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    AIChE career guidance committee report
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Stoichiometry of a city
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Book reviews
        Page 127
    Turbulent transfer processes
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Improving college teaching in chemical engineering
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Biological reactions: Kinetics of yeast growth
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Deriving three thermodynamic equations in vapor-liquid equilibrium studies
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Chemistry courses in 89 ChE curricula
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text







aemm e ng ed ct













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Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 3 SUMMER 1972


h & Caceet qidance

110 Michigan State University, Martin C. Hawley
III Motivating for ChE, Wayne R. Kube
114 Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
Roland A. Mischke
11S Today We Will Hear From the ChE Depart-
ment, R. M. Felder
122 AIChE Career Guidance Committee Report,
Wallace Hladky

Departments
102 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Stanford
106 The Educator
Dick Seagrave, The Compleat Man
The Classroom
124 Stoichiometry of a City, C. A. Walker and
W. N. Delgass
128 Turbulent Transfer Processes, G. D. Fulford
and D. C. T. Pei

The Laboratory
134 Biological Reactions: Kinetics of Yeast
Growth, J. B. Anderson

Views and Opinions
132 Improving College Teaching in ChE,
J. M. Henry

Problems for Teachers
139 Deriving Three Thermodynamic Equations
in Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Studies,
L. C. Tao

The Curriculum
143 Chemistry Courses in 89 ChE Curricula,
J. T. Cobb, Jr.

127 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $6 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Individual copies of Vol. 2 and 8
are $3 each. Copyright @ 1972, Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.


SUMMER 1972




















department


STANFORD


DAVID M. MASON
Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305

Chemical Engineering at the Leland Stanford
Junior University became a discipline within the
Department of Chemistry during World War II
and was directed for about a decade by Carl Lind-
quist and Bob Paxton. In 1955 Dave Mason and
Neal Pings of Cal Tech moved northward across
the Tehachapi mountain range to Stanford and
were the two sole faculty members of chemical
engineering which that year became a division of
the Department of Chemistry and Chemical En-
gineering. Bill Schwartz joined the faculty in
1957, Bob Johnk in 1959, John Zahner and Andy
Acrivos in 1962, Michel Boudart in 1964, Bob
Madix in 1965, John Lind in 1967,Tud Homsy
and Channing Robertson in 1970. Neal reversed
his trek and moved southward across the Teha-
chapis to return to Cal Tech where he now heads
up the Chemical Engineering group and is Dean
of Graduate Studies there; Bill Schwarz returned
to teach at his Alma Mater, Johns Hopkins; Bob
Johnk chairs the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering at San Jose State University, and John
Zahner is an industrial tycoon in the field of
catalysis with Mobil Research and Development
Corporation.
In 1960 Chemical Engineering became a sep-
arate department in the School of Engineering,
but we have endeavored to maintain close intel-
lectual ties, as well as geographical propinquity,
with the Chemistry Department. Two of our
eight members currently have joint appointments


in the two departments, and our facilities are in
the midst of the Chemistry complex. In 1955 we
occupied a dilapidated one-story sandstone stor-
age building fondly known as the "outhouse"
which with all its nostalgia was razed in 1965.
That year the Department moved into a new
laboratory and gazebo conference building, made
possible by a grant from the National Science
Foundation with matching gifts from Mr. John
Stauffer and other private donors.
Our undergraduate student body is small,
with an average of seven bachelors degrees hav-
ing been offered per year in the past decade.
Most of our baccalaureates go on to graduate
school, usually at other institutions. During this
decade our graduate program has expanded in
scope and degrees awarded increased from 4
M.S. and 2 Ph.D. to 25 M.S. and 8 Ph.D. About
one fourth of our doctoral students have per-
petuated the species by going into teaching at
institutions all over the U.S., the remainder going
into industrial positions.

THE FACULTY
Our current faculty can be best characterized
by the group shot down in Figure 1 taken during
a recent typical faculty meeting in which we were
discussing whether or not one of the best grad-
uate students ever to come here, Warren Wonka,
had passed, conditionally passed, or conditionally
failed his Ph.D. qualifying examination. Michel
has elegantly spoken his piece and has turned
to the more serious matter of planning a lecture
junket to Brussels via Tokyo. Dave has a class
coming up and is anxious to spend a few me-
ments culling out his lecture notes from the
voluminous University committee reports in his


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















Fig. 1. Full attendance at the
"ChE Faculty Club" includes
(left to right) Professors Boudart,
Mason, Lind, Wilde, Madix, Homsy,
Robertson, and Acrivos.


brief case. He is vainly attempting to get the
debate off dead-center by offering to his col-
leagues several different cuts of Stanford spirits
from our unit operations, 20-plate bubble cap
column. To help make the deliberations even more
mellow, a trio consisting of John, Doug, and Bob
have just completed a rousing rendition of "The
Rose Bowl Fighting Song" with the Ithaca re-
corder in the key of Bb, the Palo Alto Irish tenor
in C-, and the Urbana guitar in G#. Bud and
Channing, being newcomers to the faculty, are
totally perplexed and dismayed by the whole pro-
ceedings. Andy seems particularly pleased at this
point for, most unusual for him, he is about to
pull a coup and end the debate with a stunning
motion that Wonka be passed conditionally pro-
vided that the Ph.D. research in "social thought"
he has proposed, be done in another department
or university. The deadlock was broken, and it
took merely two more liters of Stanford spirits
and three more musical verses before the phras-
ing of the motion was letter-perfect and we stood
adjourned.

THE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM
After faculty meetings, we wend our way
back to our research lairs and offices and purport-
edly engage in the following research activities
which are listed in the order of the faculty mem-
ber's surname not necessarily in descending
order of relevance and importance.

ANDREAS ACRIVOS Laboratory for Fluid Mechanics
A distinctive feature of the research effort
in this laboratory is that the research is directed
toward a number of very basic rather than ap-


plied problems in fluid mechanics, whose solution
will strengthen the theoretical foundations as
well as our overall understanding of many of
the key principles in this broad field. With this
general goal in mind, then, the research students
in this laboratory are encouraged to examine a
number of such problems before selecting a par-
ticular project which to them would seem to offer
the best opportunities for an important contri-
bution of a scientific type.
The projects currently under study both
theoretically and experimentally are as follows:
Steady High Reynolds Number Flows with
Closed Streamlines It is well known that the
classical laminar boundary-layer theory applies
only as long as the flow remains unseparated and
that at present no theories exist for describing
high Reynolds number steady flows in separated
flow regions or regions with closed streamlines.
The aim of this project then is to develop such
a theory, not only because this would be of inter-
est in itself, but also because such a theory is
essential before many of the most basic laminar
flows can be properly understood.
The Motion of Freely Suspended Particles in
Shear Flow An important area of fluid mech-
anics, deals with the motion of small spheres and
cylinders in shear flow. The main objective of
this part of our research program is to investi-
gate, both theoretically and experimentally, a
number of key problems within this broad cate-
gory, with a view to obtaining a firm under-
standing of some of the phenomena involved,
principally those associated with the rate of heat
and mass transfer from the particles to the sur-
rounding fluid,


SUMMER 1972


C.








The Development of Constitutive Equations
for Non-Newtonian Fluids Knowledge of the
constitutive equation for non-Newtonian fluids
is an obvious prerequisite for any successful study
of flow phenomena involving such complex fluids.
So, one of our efforts has been to try and obtain
such constitutive equations from a more physical
point of view using suspension theory.
Elastic and Thermal Properties of Composite
Materials A theoretical analysis has been
initiated, whose aim is to relate the bulk
elastic and thermal properties of composite solid
materials to the corresponding properties of the
constitutive parts. Specifically, one desires to
find out to what extent the addition of relatively
small amounts of suitably chosen foreign sub-
stance can affect such parameters as the bulk
elastic modulus or the thermal conductivity of a
simple solid. There are valid theoretical reasons
for believing that the effects of such inclusions
could be substantial, especially when such inclu-
sions consist of long and slender particles whose
net effect is to render the material non-isotropic.

MICHEL BOUDART Laboratory for the Study of
Adsorption and Catalysis
In building up this laboratory at Stanford
University, our guiding principle has been to
create a place where a small number of graduate
students and post doctoral fellows interact with
visitors from university and industry in the pur-
suit of knowledge in the various active areas of
research in heterogeneous catalysis.
Thus, no exclusive emphasis is placed on any
particular book, technique or method of approach.
Rather, each member of the laboratory is en-
couraged to follow his own interest and, in so
doing, he stimulates the other members of the
group engaged in their independent work.
Low Energy Electron Diffractions (LEED) -
This technique provides information on the ar-
rangement of atoms at the surface of single
crystals. The rearrangement of surface atoms
following adsorption or reaction, as well as the
superstructures exhibited by adsorbed atoms and
molecules, may explain some of the character-
istics of solid catalysis. The adsorption and de-
composition of hydrocarbons on metals are under
study in the LEED apparatus, now provided with
Auger electron spectroscopy.
Catalytic Activity of Supported Metals -
The stereospecific hydrogenation of complex
molecules on various metals is being used as a


Our undergraduate student body is small . .
most of our graduates go on to
graduate school . .

test reaction to determine how selectivity and
activity of a reaction depend on dispersion of the
metal.
Infra-red Spectroscopy of Surfaces The
performance of crystalline alumina-silica cat-
alysts in the cracking and isomerization of hydro-
carbons is strongly dependent on the type and
concentration of exchangeable cations present in
the crystal. The role of these cations in physical
and chemical adsorption of gas molecules is being
investigated with infra-red spectroscopy.
M6ssbauer Spectroscopy of Surfaces M8ss-
bauer spectroscopy is now used systematically
as a tool to investigate surface states of zeolites
and various commercial and theoretical catalysts.
The characteristics of Mossbauer spectra throw
a bridge between surface chemistry and Moss-
bauer spectroscopy.
Electronic Defects as Active Centers The
low temperature activation of hydrogen as indi-
cated by the hydrogen-deuterium exchange re-
action is studied on semiconductor surfaces con-
taining foreign transition metal ions in certain
oxidation states. New active sites have been
identified with esr spectroscopy.

GEORGE M. HOMSY Laboratory for Fluid Mechanics
and Stability
This program has just been initiated and will
have as one of its goals the treatment of applied
engineering problems using a rational approach
firmly based on continuum mechanics. Initially
at least, the emphasis will be on theoretical ana-
lyses. Projects are contemplated in the following
areas:
Fluidization Although the motions of fluid-
ized beds are felt to be describable by continuum
equations, the exact form of these equations re-
mains a source of controversy. In postulating
constitutive equations for the bed and the mathe-
matical form of the particle interaction terms,
one is almost forced to rely on intuition. It is pro-
posed to put the phenomenological treatment on
a sound basis using results from suspension
theory when possible. The problem of bubble gene-
sis in fluidized beds will be viewed as a stability
problem. Such an approach requires a wider in-
terpretation of stability than the classical linear
sense, and relies heavily upon energy considera-
tions.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Stability of Thin Films The flow of liquid
films under the action of gravity and influenced
by surface active agents is of central importance
in chemical engineering. Although the linear
theory of the stability of such films is reasonably
well understood, the mechanism of the growth
of disturbances to an equilibrium amplitude and
the accompanying changes in heat or mass trans-
fer rates have not been considered.
Rotating Fluid Mechanics Rotating fluids
seldom behave in a manner predictable from our
knowledge of non-rotating systems. In many in-
stances the fictitious Coriolis and centrifugal
forces exert extraordinary control over fluid mo-
tions, making predictions of (say) the heat trans-
fer behavior difficult. Studies of thermal convec-
tion and instabilities in geometries of engineer-
ing importance are contemplated.

JOHN E. LIND Laboratory for the Study of the
Properties of Fluids
This research is directed toward an under-
standing of the molecular structure of Newtonian
fluids and of the relation between this structure
and the transport properties. Momentum, mass
and charge transport, as characterized by the
coefficients of viscosity, diffusion and electrical
conductivity, are of primary interest. The prop-
erties as well as the equilibrium thermodynamic
properties are being measured over a wide range
of temperatures and pressures for various model
systems.
Fused Salts Of prime importance is the
question of how greatly the coulomb interactions
in a salt melt or a concentrated solution con-
tribute to transport in the melt. Contributions by
these long-range coulomb forces are difficult to
evaluate from theory. Therefore, an estimate of
this contribution is being obtained experimental-
ly by the direct comparison of the transport prop-
erties of nonelectrolytes with those of salts whose
molecules are essentially isomorphic to the mole-
cules of the nonelectrolyte except for the charge.
This comparison is made with the solvent and
salt at the same temperature and density. A
comparison equilibrium thermodynamic proper-
ties such as the compressibility also gives indi-
cations of the differences in the microscopic
structure of the liquids, and perturbed hard-
sphere equations of state are used to understand
the phenomena.
Concentrated Solutions The understanding
of fused salts is being extended to the structure


of salts when very small amounts of nonelectro-
lytes are added to the salts. Such solutions pro-
vide a very sensitive probe into the correlational
effects arising from the coulomb field in the salt.

ROBERT J. MADIX Laboratory for the Study of the
Reactivity of Solids
The research in this laboratory is directed
toward the study of collisions between gases and
solid surfaces. In particular, modulated molecular
beam techniques are employed to study corrosion
processes which lead to the formation of vola-
tile products. In addition, the energy transfer to
solids accompanying exothermic solid-catalyzed
reactions is being investigated. The objective of
this research is the simultaneous determination
of the energy accommodation and recombination
coefficients of atoms on solid surfaces.
Molecular Beams In order to study the ele-
mentary steps of adsorption and catalysis, gas
molecules in well-defined energy states must be
allowed to interact with well-characterized single-
crystal surfaces and the ensuing reaction events
observed. Furthermore, if reactions on the sur-
face are to be understood, the nature of the
surface intermediates must be known.
For such fundamental studies, the modu-
lated molecular beam offers maximum definition
of reactant conditions. A beam of gas molecules
in a selected energy state is directed on a single-
crystal surface and the reaction products are ob-
served mass-spectrometrically. The beam is in-
terrupted periodically by a shutter so that the
product signal may be detected at a particular
frequency. This a.c. detection technique allows
the determination of rate constants on clean
surfaces.
Energy Transfer in Reactive Collisions -
The energy accommodation of hydrogen atoms re-
combining on solid surfaces was studied with a
diffusion tube. Atoms were generated by an
electrical discharge at one end of a closed Pyrex
tube. Since the atoms recombined on a metal sur-
face at the opposite end of the tube, a concentra-
tion gradient was established along the tube axis.
Determination of this gradient allows calculation
of the recombination coefficient on the metal sur-
face. The energy accommodation coefficient was
determined by measuring the heat input to the
metal per recombining atom. It was found that,
in general, the molecules formed left the surface
(Continued on page 121)


SUMMER 1972




-' ru
t -. i ''
'.,. _" ..


LN educator


FROM SMOKE-FILLED ROOM
TO IVORY TOWER---


DICK SEAGRAVE,

THE COMPLEAT MAN

T. D. WHEELOCK
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010

"Dr. Seagrave is one of the few instructors
who can constantly reach into his bag of tricks,
period after period, to keep tired students on the
edge of their seats. He succeeds in relating tech-
nical principles to everyday occurrences. For
instance, in his momentum transfer course, typi-
cal questions are, 'prove or disprove the old-
timers' baseball adage that a hit baseball goes
less distance on a hot muggy day' or 'show why
the knuckleball flutters when Hoyt Wilhelm lets
one go at 60 mph on a cool day in Candlestick
Park.' Jerry Schnoor.
"Christmas crowds at the supermarket will
always symbolize diffusion of mass for me. Our
Thanksgiving turkey is no longer a feast bird;
it's purely heat transfer. Gas movements were
exemplified by Dr. Seagrave himself, charging
around the classroom at top speed, hands flying."
- Parviz Salehi.
Student remarks such as these show why Dick
Seagrave is a very popular teacher and help ex-
plain why Dick received one of the Outstanding
Teacher Awards at Iowa State University this
year. Dick's interest in transport operations runs
deep among the streamlines and eddies of this
subject but making abstract concepts meaningful
to students is a challenge he meets with unin-
hibited joy and enthusiasm. Unconventional but
fresh and illuminating analogies have become a
Seagrave hallmark. Moreover, a 'gee-whiz' en-
thusiasm about his subject easily infects those
within range.
Dick joined the Iowa State faculty in 1966
after spending several years at Cal Tech where,
in addition to teaching, he worked on oscillatory


combustion under B. H. Sage. Before that he
taught for one year at the University of Con-
necticut.
Dick's interest in a teaching career sprang
largely from his association with Ray Fahien at
Iowa State. Dick began his graduate studies at
this school in 1957 after receiving his BS degree
from the University of Rhode Island. Ray not
only guided him through the rigors of turbulent
flow phenomena but showed him that scholarly
work could be enjoyable. Thus inspired, Dick
was ready to cast himself in the academic scene
upon receiving his PhD in 1961.
At Iowa State, Dick is associated with Chem-
ical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and
the Engineering Research Institute. He has play-
ed a key role in curriculum development and has
seen to the integration of subject matter which
was formerly presented in separate courses on
unit operations and transport phenomena. He has
developed several new courses including, "Bio-
medical Applications of Heat and Mass Trans-
fer." This course led to his writing a text bear-
ing the same title which was published recently.
Dick has attracted an outstanding group of
graduate students who are working on various
problems of transport phenomena in flow systems,
some of course being physiological. This group is
accomplishing some interesting research. For ex-
ample, one of Dick's recent PhD students, M. S.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











I try to find
"down-to-earth" or
"far-out" from earth
examples to illustrate
... principles.








Selim, developed a general method for solving
moving-boundary transport problems in finite
media by integral transforms.
During the past academic year Dick has serv-
ed as acting chairman of the Biomedical Engi-
neering Department while Neal Cholvin, the
regular chairman, is on leave. Although this has
been a heavy load on him, Dick plans to be re-
juvenated at the Institute of Medical Physics in
Utrecht (the Netherlands), not as a patient, but
as a scholar on sabbatical starting next Septem-
ber. Here he plans to work with Dr. Jan Beneken
on the development of an automatic control sys-
tem for the administration of anesthesia and to
write a textbook on physiological simulation.
Being an American history buff, it was nat-
ural for Dick to become engrossed in politics and
thereby become chairman of the Democratic
Party in Story county. July will see Dick at the
National Convention in Miami Beach champion-
ing favorite issues and candidates. This plus other
summer activities will keep Dick moving at his
usual energetic pace. In August he and Giles
Cokelet from Montana State will be leading a
workshop on Integration of Biomedical and En-
vironmental Applications of Chemical Engineer-
ing into Undergraduate Courses at the ASEE
sponsored Summer School for Chemical Engi-
neering Faculty in Boulder, Colorado. Between
various professional activities, Dick hopes to
have a vacation with his wife, Jan, and children,
John and Katherine. Since the Rocky Mountains
are a favorite vacationing spot for the Seagrave
family, the Boulder assignment is a fortuitous
one.
Work-filled days and politics-filled evenings
are hardly sufficient to consume the Seagrave
energy, so extra steam has to be discharged in
"tennis, basketball, and running around in cir-


cles." Then, of course, when there is nothing
else to do, the neighbors can be organized for a
game of touch-football. Naturally, the major pro-
fessional and intercollegiate sports must be at-
tended to and football, basketball and baseball
pools organized to add zest.
Since no writer could do justice to the Sea-
grave personality, we taped an interview with
Dick and have included some of his remarks
below.
Q. Dick, why did you ever decide to become a chemical
engineer?
A. I was always interested in designing and building
things. In fact at one point in high school I can remem-
ber I had just about decided to become an architect, and
really I guess the turning point was high school chem-
istry. I think that my chemistry teacher, a lady who had
taught in our high school quite a while, was a very in-
fluential person in that regard. I really enjoyed (learning
about chemistry) as much as anything I ever did in high
~- ---- .._


... extra steam has
to be discharged in

"tennis, basketball or
running around in circles."






school. That was kind of coupled with a very strong
interest, if you can believe it, in mechanical drawing,
and I used to spend all of my spare time in high school
down in the mechanical drawing shop making sketches
and drawing pictures and I guess a lot of that was from
my previous desire to be an architect.

|r'j-t -
*atf*" -- B '^'-111""'i _^ ^ ^
*^F~ifel


. . IT was natural Tor UICK TO
become engrossed in politics...


SUMMER 1972










"I'm beginning to think that the engineering profession is going to need two kinds of people in
large numbers . the technologist, a person who can perform the support functions of engineering . .
(and) people who can solve the problems that haven't come up yet."


Q. You are noted for maintaining student interest in
the classroom. How do you manage to do this?
A. If there's anything I consciously do, which I think
is fun for everybody to do, it is to look for application of
the principles that we're talking about in what you might
call unusual areas. I mean, when we talk about thermo-
dynamics, it's just as easy to talk about the thermody-
namics of people or cities as it is to talk about the thermo-
dynamic system in a cylinder. I think that I try to find
'down to earth' or maybe 'far-out' from earth examples
to illustrate a lot of these principals. When we talk
about heat transfer, again it's just as easy to talk about
new-born infants as it is to talk about a cast iron sphere.
And, ever since I started teaching, I've tried to find what
you might call homely examples. Cooking time of turkeys,
a problem from Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, is a good
example. Almost everybody can stay interested in that
for a half an hour and it's just as good an example of
how to do heat transfer calculations as a melting block
of ice.
Q. What are some of the satisfactions that you get
from teaching?
A. I think the main satisfaction is helping people to
become independent thinkers and teaching young people
to have confidence in their ability to do things. It's par-
ticularly fun to see the transition that occurs between
about the junior year of college and the second and third
year of graduate school. To watch the ability to handle
problems and self-confidence develop in students is enorm-
ously satisfying.
Q. When do you think you first started seriously think-
ing about becoming a teacher?
A. I had some twinklings about that in my third or
fourth year of college as I began to near the end. I
don't know, that was a very uncertain time. You know
we were in high school during the Korean War and the
universal military training act had just been passed
and it seemed then that most of us were going to have
to serve in the military service, and I don't know, I can't
remember thinking a whole lot about what I was going
to be doing after graduating from college. I was in ad-
vanced ROTC in college and it was assumed that I'd
graduate with a commission in ROTC and serve two
years in the Army, but during my senior year they had
a cut-down in the level of ROTC, and it was at that
point that I made a definite decision to go on to graduate
school and begin thinking about what it might be like
to teach. The faculty at the University of Rhode Island
was really good. We had very small classes and a lot of
interaction.
Q. Did your graduate advisor, Ray Fahien, influence you
in such a way that you wanted to become a teacher?
A. Yes, there's absolutely no question about that. I
think Ray Fahien was one of two or three most influen-
tial people that I had encountered during my life up to
that time. I think that by example, he really stimulated
me and many people who were in graduate school at my


time. I think there were maybe ten or twelve of us during
the period that I was a graduate student, who left Iowa
State and went into teaching and I think all of us point
to Ray as being a very influential person. It was not that
he urged people to consider teaching as a career, but I
think he showed us how much fun it was to be learning
about new things. It was an exciting time in chemical
engineering anyway because the nature of graduate work
was changing. Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot's book, for
example, appeared halfway through the time I was in
graduate school and I look hack with great pleasure to
the group of us who went through that for the first time
with Ray in 1960 and 1961. I think out of that class
of about fifteen, six or eight of us alone are now in uni-
versities somewhere. Yes, Ray was a definite influence
on me as a teacher and probably as a person.
Q. What do you feel sparked your interest in Biomedical
Engineering?
A. At Cal Tech I was stimulated by Giles Cokelet, a
good friend of mine, who is at Montana State University.
He had done his PhD at MIT working on blood flow,
rheology of blood, and he and I had some very enjoyable
sessions as we began to what you might call stretch out,
and think about how principles of chemical engineering
could be applied to medical problems. And so I began to
develop an interest in medicine and there had been times
before in my post PhD period when I had seriously con-
sidered going back to school again and studying medicine.
But I felt that my expertise could be put to better use
by thinking of ways that engineering could be applied
to solve medical problems, and so when the chance came
to come back to Iowa State to work in the biomedical
engineering area and to be a chemical engineering faculty
member in a very well established graduate school, it
was an easy thing for me to do.
Q. Have you found it very difficult to make the transi-
tion from chemical engineering to biomedical engineering?
A. No. I think it's been very easy, because it's so much
fun and because a chemical engineer is probably better
prepared to do this than any other person I can think of.
A chemical engineer has all the necessary ingredients;
it's a matter of putting them together and changing
your vector, so to speak, heading off in a new direction.
But it's been very easy and in the particular kind of
atmosphere we have here at Iowa State, and the re-
lationships we have with the Veterinary College for ex-
ample have made it quite easy. There has been lots of
time spent in learning new things but, you know, you're
doing that anyway.
Q. What caused you to write your new book entitled
"Biomedical Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer?"
A. Well, let me say that I felt that it might be fun to
write down, in some formal fashion, some of the things
that I had found interesting in applying chemical engi-
neering to the study of physiology. The purpose of the
book really is to sell chemical engineering more than it
is biomedical engineering. Biomedical engineering is more


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










When we talk about heat transfer, it's just as easy
to talk about new-born infants as it is to talk about
a cast iron sphere.


mechanism than it is a profession and I think that it
was a lot of fun to develop some of these ideas, and to
write them down was an easy part of the job.
Q. What are your plans for next year?
A. When I first started at Iowa State, I never under-
stood why people would ever want to go away for a year,
why people needed sabbaticals. But, in the last year or
two I have felt the need to make a fresh start on many
things and I think a sabbatical year away like this can
provide an opportunity to do that. Next year we are going
to be at the Institute of Medical Physics in Utrecht and
I want to work on a problem there. Actually, the Insti-
tute is similar in size and activity and almost in function
to the biomedical engineering department here at Iowa
State. In fact, there's a very strong comparison between
the kind of research projects they have and what we're
doing here. The difference of course is that it's purely
a research type atmosphere.
Q. What problems do you think chemical engineers
should turn their minds to in the future?
A. No. 1, of course, is the problem of energy sources
and delivery, and I think that every chemical engineering
department ought to have something going in this area.
No. 2, which I feel is going to be a very big problem,
and this is a lot of my biomedical engineering interest,
is delivery of health care. If you live in a big city or in
a rural area right now in the United States, the health
care delivery is a national scandal. It is a massive engi-
neering problem, and I think that every area of engi-
neering, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering
and all the others, must participate in working out
schemes to deliver health care to all the citizens. No. 3,
of course, is food. We all know about the projections
which show that using current methods of technology
the capacity of the earth to produce food is not sufficient
to take us through another hundred years. So we have to
look for new ways to develop and process food and, of
course, new ways to distribute food. And I think the con-
version of things that are on the earth's surface, for ex-
ample algae, into edible, palatable food is going to be
important. No. 4, of course, is what's the relationship
of the earth going to be to the rest of the solar system.
Chemical engineers have a lot of interesting problems
that can be worked out in space travel and in design and
operation and exploitation of space stations.
Q. How can we improve the education of chemical engi-
neers?
A. Well, one of the things we've talked about at great
length this year at Iowa State is the changing needs of
the engineering profession. I'm beginning to think, although
I wasn't sold on this concept two years ago, that the
engineering profession is going to need two kinds of
people in large numbers. It's going to need what you
might call 'the technologist,' a person with a basic edu-
cation in chemical engineering who can perform the sup-
port functions of engineering and who can go out and
be a manufacturer or work in some of the more routine
design areas. To produce this person, I think we really
need a streamlined curriculum and teachers who have
experience in these areas and we've got to think about
SUMMER 1972


economic production of large numbers of these people.
But I think the engineering profession also is going to
need fairly large numbers of people who are trained to
solve the problems that haven't come up yet, people who
are going to solve some of the more exotic problems that
I was referring to earlier in health care delivery or space
travel. So we're going to need people that have a bit
more advanced training, but within the confines of an
undergraduate program.
Q. You've been pretty active in the Democratic Party
the last few years. What do you hope to accomplish by
working in organized politics?
A. I might say at the outset that it's an educational
venture. I feel that what I can learn from doing that is
useful, but I also feel that people like us have something
we can contribute to the political party system and to
government in general. It can provide an outlet for the
strong feelings you may have on issues you think are
important for your city and your state and your country.
It's a way to make your voice a little bit louder than it
would be if all you did was vote on election day. It's a
wonderful experience for people who normally lead a
very sheltered life, in that we can come into contact
with people from all different levels of society, people of
different backgrounds and views. It's really a lot of fun,
I think, is the main thing to say.
Q. Would you ever consider running for public office?
A. No. That's the subject that comes up all the time,
I think, because people don't realize that political parties
need two kinds of people to operate. They need the kind
of people who are willing to make the enormous sacrifice
to be candidates, and hold these positions of responsibility,
but parties also need people who like to do the organiza-
tional tasks, which you might call the administrative
tasks of the party, and that are willing to stuff envelopes
and ring doorbells and raise money. I really enjoy those
parts of the system. I have never even thought about
trying to run for an office.
Q. What sort of kicks do you get from sports?
A. It's been pointed out by doctors and others that
there's a certain amount of euphoria associated with all
kinds of physical activity. The good feeling that you
have after a hard hour of basketball over the noon hour,
or after running on the golf course in the Fall and the
Spring when it's particularly pretty there, is probably
perhaps psychological as well as physiological. I guess
I just feel relaxed, cleaned-out and stimulated as a result
of physical activity. I don't have enough self-discipline
to lift weights or to do calisthenics and I like basketball
and tennis because they're just kind of fun to do.
Q. How do you explain your work to your children?
A. That's a problem I haven't solved yet. I'm not sure
they think I work. They probably think, if someone would
ask them, that I was probably earning my living working
for the Democratic Party. From the part of my life that
they see, I think that's probably a good conclusion for
them to make.
Q. Do you have any hobbies we haven't discussed yet?
A. Well, I spend an awful lot of time reading. You might
say I'm an American history buff and I enjoy keeping up
with American fiction. I manage to read most of the
things that make their way to the top of the best seller
lists. I probably enjoy that most of all, although it gets
increasingly harder to find time to get everything read
I'd like to. O










ChE CAREER GUIDANCE AND RECRUITMENT

Editor's Note: Following are several articles that deal with the guidance of qualified students into chemical
engineering. The papers by Professor Hawley, Kube, and Mischke were presented at the 1971 ASEE meeting.


Michigan State University

MARTIN C. HAWLEY
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48823

The faculty members of the Department of
Chemical Engineering at Michigan State Univer-
sity have been actively involved in providing high
school students information on Chemical Engi-
neering for future career decisions. The methods
used for communicating this information have
been a motion picture, poster mailings, special on-
campus programs, personal visits, local AIChE
activities, and local news media.
Career guidance and recruiting by Engineer-
ing Colleges, Chemical Engineering Depart-
ments, and faculty are necessary now days in
order to partially counteract the effect of the cur-
rent economic squeeze on chemical engineering
enrollments and to maintain modern engineering
programs; however, curriculum revisions are un-
likely to have significant effects on enrollments.
Unless counteracted, the publicity and impact of
short range adjustments by government and in-
dustry for economic control will have long-range
effects on engineering enrollments, especially if
we just stand pat! It is extremely evident to those
of us in the chemical engineering profession and
education that chemical engineering has a signifi-
cant role in solving problems (particularly of
chemical nature) of industry and society both
today and tomorrow. Further, we are all aware of
the fact that modern chemical engineering pro-
grams provide a vehicle for students to achieve
a high level education as well as prepare for a
professional career.
We as educators and members of the Chemical
Engineering profession recognize and understand
the educational value and importance of these
skills. This understanding is not necessarily
shared by the public in general. One of our objec-
tives at Michigan State University is to communi-
cate in a responsible manner the story of chemical
engineering to young people and the public.


Martin Hawley is an associate professor of chemical
engineering at Michigan State University. He received his
doctorate in engineering from Michigan State in 1964.
His fields of specialization are reaction engineering and
design.


MOTION PICTURE
The Instructional Media Center and the Chem-
ical Engineering Department produced a 16 mm
color movie with sound entitled "The Chemical
Engineer." The objective of this movie is to
familiarize high school students with the pro-
fession of chemical engineering. The movie de-
scribes chemical engineering, illustrates what
chemical engineering students do, describes the
type of educational program at Michigan State,
and points out the diversity of career opportuni-
ties.
It took about one and one-half years to pro-
duce the film for a cost to the Chemical Engi-
neering Department (from special grant funds)
of about $4,000; however, the Instructional Media
Center underwrote the cost of writing, producing,
and overhead. Six copies are available in the de-
partment for circulation to high schools and in-
terested groups.
During the academic year 1970-1971, there
were 48 requests to show the movie to high school
student groups. Most of these requests came from


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Michigan high school counselors and students in
response to a poster mailing, and from high school
counselors and chemistry teachers who had prev-
iously seen this film. In some instances chemical
engineering faculty members accompanied the
film and were available to answer questions from
the students after its showing.

POSTER MAILINGS
An attractive poster was prepared with re-
turnable post cards attached inviting high school
students to inquire about the chemical engineering
program at Michigan State University. Infor-
mation on the availability of our film was included
on the poster. This poster was mailed to coun-
selors and senior class presidents in approxi-
mately 900 high schools in Michigan. There were
about 250 requests from this poster for informa-
tion on chemical engineering. These inquiries
were answered via a personal communication de-
scribing the profession, opportunities, and our
program at Michigan State University along with
a curriculum brochure and the AIChE pamphlet
"Will You Be A Chemical Engineer?".

SPECIAL ON-CAMPUS PROGRAMS
During the spring terms of 1968 and 1971,
the chemical engineering department held a one
evening program for Michigan high school chem-
istry teachers. The objectives of these programs
were to familiarize high school chemistry teachers
with the chemical engineering profession, career
opportunities, and our program at Michigan State.
This past year our program consisted of a
dinner followed by a talk entitled "Trends and


Fads" presented by H. D. Doan, former President
and Chairman of the Board of Dow Chemical
Company. Mr. Doan pointed out new challenges
and opportunities available to chemical engi-
neers along with increased demands. About 150
chemistry teachers attended each of these sessions
and copies of Mr. Doan's talk were sent to all
counselors in Michigan.

OTHER ACTIVITIES
Faculty members have cooperated with the
local AIChE section (Midland, Michigan) on ca-
reer guidance activities. Our Chairman, Dr. Chet-
rick, has appeared on local television panel dis-
cussion sessions with leaders of the chemical in-
dustry and government to inform the public of
the chemical engineering profession.
Also the College of Engineering at Michigan
State sponsors career guidance and recruiting
activities in which we participate. Michigan State
University has a very successful program for re-
cruiting merit scholars; many of these top stu-
dents over the past few years have chosen chem-
ical engineering.

SUMMARY
During the past seven years, the number of
Chemical Engineering graduates has risen from
16 in 1964 to 29 in 1971. We have had five stu-
dents place in National competition of the AIChE
student contest problem. It is difficult to assess
the effect on enrollments of career guidance
efforts. However, we believe these efforts are well
worthwhile and plan to continue these types of
activities. D


Motivating for ChE
WAYNE R. KUBE
University of North Dakota
Grand Forks, N.D. 58201
I assume that my comments will differ from
the other speakers on the program as I have no
intention of playing the numbers game. I have
read too many conflicting estimates and projec-
tions, seen many of them prove to be erroneous,
and I have been burnt too badly myself in making
estimates to indulge in this pastime. Personally,
I believe that the biggest mistake made in pro-
jections and estimates was in the number of ad-
vanced degrees required, both from the viewpoint


of demand from students and the demand by or-
ganizations utilizing the graduates.
Other differences are that I will take this
opportunity to air some of my personal prejudices
and biases. I will also briefly discuss some of the
activities of the AIChE in motivation of students
to enter chemical engineering.
Actually, we as engineering educators, or more
specifically chemical engineering educators, are
in trouble. The image of our product has been
seriously tarnished as evidenced by the decline in
interest of the bright students to pursue engineer-
ing as a career. I view this as being more serious
than the overall decline in percentage of high
school students considering engineering careers.
The present shortage of job opportunities for the


SUMMER 1972























W. R. Kube received his BS and MS in Chemical Engi-
neering from MTU at Houghton, Michigan. After service
in WW II, he taught at MTU, worked in industry, and as
a research ChE for the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Presently,
he is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Univer-
sity of North Dakota. His major interest is in low rank
fuels. He is co-chairman of the Lignite Symposia, a
series of technical meetings concerned with the technology
and utilization of Western solid fuels. Past chairman of
the National Career Guidance Committee of the AIChE,
he has served on several other national committees and
is a registered professional Engineer in North Dakota.


new graduates has also occurred at a most inop-
portune time. Lack of opportunities, coupled with
the concept that engineers are responsible for the
deterioration of environment, has "turned off"
many from pursuing engineering careers. A re-
cent article in Business Week stressed a major
decline in freshman applications even at the most
prestigious engineering schools. I have no way of
estimating what these effects are but it is my
belief that the present drying up of the student
pipeline will be seriously felt four or five years
from now. No one knows how long the present
employment situation will last, but I believe the
effect will be devastating. What we need is some
way of motivating the young people into taking
chemical engineering despite the present uncer-
tainties. We have to do more to change our image
than to call ourselves molecular engineers.
In considering the problem we should go back
to fundamentals and consider basic questions.
Let's ask ourselves these questions: (1) Why,
(2) Where, (3) When, and (4) How?


WHY DO WE NEED CHEMICAL ENGINEERS?
This is a very fundamental question and one
I have never heard a chemical engineer educator
ask. However, I have heard many engineers in


industry question the desirability of graduating
more chemical engineers. Their philosophy is "the
less, the better" as they apparently believe that
they are then more certain of their position. I
usually answer them by asking, "Who are you
going to boss if there are no new chemical engi-
neers coming up through the ranks ?" We as edu-
cators, intuitively at least, feel the more the better
and never question this feeling. This is reasonable
as new students are our bread and butter, and
training in the concepts of chemical engineering
is good for everyone.

WHERE ARE THE NEW
ENGINEERS COMING FROM?
Figure 1 shows roughly where we obtain our
raw material. Obviously, the basic source is the
high schools and the majority of students enter
college directly from high school. Some, however,
may enter at any of the four years from either
having completed their service requirement, trans-
fer from a Junior College, entering from other
disciplines, or starting school after working a few
years. With the emphasis on Junior or Com-
munity Colleges one would suspect that the num-
ber of junior college transfers would be an in-
creasing source of students. However, it has been
my experience that those transferring into chemi-
cal engineering never replace by numbers those
who are lost by attrition. Attrition is a problem in
its own right and should deserve special consider-
ation. Why do we lose so many good students
who at least at one time were interested in chem-
ical engineering?
We should seriously look at whom we attempt
to motivate into chemical engineering. Most of
us, myself included, have a tendency to think in
terms of proselytizing the outstanding male high
school student. By not considering the feminine
gender, we automatically lose a large number of
possible engineers and in these days of women's


HIGH
SCHOOL


1 2 3 4
SATTRITION




GRADUATE


/f /
ARMED SERVICES, JUNIOR COLLEGES AND OTHER
Figure 1.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








lib, more women will be interested in engineering.
We should also be interested in the disadvan-
taged and minority groups. Many of these, if
properly motivated, will become good chemical
engineers. I have noticed that few children of
engineers become engineers. They seem to have
more "relevant" career goals. Sons of the lower
middle class, or blue collar workers, appear to be
more motivated towards engineering, apparently
as a method of improving their "station," and
many do well.

WHEN TO MOTIVATE?
From my observations most of our attempts to
interest students toward engineering, or more
specifically chemical engineering, have been di-
rected towards the seniors in high school. This is
a serious limitation. Most students when they are
seniors are fairly well committed towards specific
goals and their selection of courses since the 9th
grade has essentially committed them to a tech-
nical career.
Any recruiting efforts directed toward juniors
or seniors in high school might influence a student
to take chemical engineering in preference to civil,
electrical, mathematics or physics but would not
influence him towards a scientific career unless
he had already taken the basic science and mathe-
matics sequence. At least in our high school sys-
tem the student is required to submit his four
year program before entering the ninth grade.
Admittedly, this is not a hidebound or unchange-
able program, but very few students deviate much
from the original.
If general career goals are decided before the
ninth grade, this means that we must somehow
motivate grade school students towards the chem-
istry, physics, mathematics sequence. In talking
to many educators and to those in industry, I
find that they have not considered the necessity
of motivation in the lower grades. Personally, I
feel that this is perhaps our more fruitful area.

HOW TO MOTIVATE
The question of motivation, of course, is the
sixty-four thousand dollar question. Everyone has
his pet ideas about this and most of these ideas
work in special circumstances. There cannot be
any hard or fast rules concerning approaches as it
is so much a function of the personality, interest
and methods of both the student and the person
doing the motivation. Much discussion has been


By not considering the feminine gender
we lose a large number of engineers.

given concerning who or what motivates the
young people. Actually, it is difficult to find out
from students why they did choose a particular
career. Most are apparently not clear themselves.
From my experience I have the firm belief that
in the school system the person who has most
to do with selection with a scientific career is the
science, chemistry or mathematics teacher. The
professional counselors apparently have little in-
fluence and then mostly in selection of a specific
field. Apparently the parents have very little to
do with career selections. Illogically as it seems,
chance remarks or comments of their peers seem
to have a major influence.
All of this does not mean that the individual
chemical engineering professor does not play an
important role. He is very instrumental in keeping
a student in chemical engineering. His kindness
and personal dedication to the interest of the stu-
dent and the profession is necessary and impor-
tant.
I have not suggested any mechanics for moti-
vation. The mechanics depend greatly on the spe-
cial circumstances, the individual institutions, and
upon personality, dedication and individual meth-
ods of the motivator. Other speakers will un-
doubtedly explain their methods. I will briefly
talk about some of the techniques used by the
National Career Guidance Committee, AIChE,
rather than those at the University of North
Dakota.
The National Career Guidance Committee of
the Institute was established in 1952 by action of
council. The boundary of its authority was estab-
lished as: to provide information, counsel and
leadership for Local Section Committees who are
responsible for guidance for pre-high school and
high school students, supplying information for
high school faculties and parent groups concern-
ing careers in science and engineering in general,
and in chemical engineering in particular. It
shall:
a. Develop and recommend to council the scope and
basic policies of guidance activities
b. Integrate guidance committees with AIChE com-
mittees concerned with similar problems, and
c. Coordinate the Institute's guidance activities with
other educational science, engineering and service
organizations.
The Committee has evolved through the inter-
(Continued on page 141).


SUMMER 1972










Viriginia Polytechnic Institute

ROLAND A. MISCHKE
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University
Blacksburg, Va. 24061


The past few years seem to indicate that en-
gineering as a profession is losing favor with the
younger generation. Even though the anticipated
needs of society for engineers continues to in-
crease, engineering enrollments are falling. This
decline then results in a more intense competi-
tion for students among the various disciplines.
The situation at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
may not be typical, but Figure 1 shows what is
happening there. This figure shows the percentage
of engineering students who elected the various
major disciplines for the past ten years. Our stu-
dents formally elect their curriculum at the end
of the freshman year, and these figures reflect
only those students who elect to remain in engi-
neering. Since the total number of students has
remained remarkably stable (between 550 and
650 students) over this time period (even though
the total university enrollment has gone from
5,000 students to 12,000 students), the percentage
figures are very nearly representative of actual
student enrollments.
The variations in enrollment from year to year
are quite erratic, but some trends are evident. If
we apply some smoothing to the data in Figure
1, we obtain the trend lines shown in Figure 2.
The aerospace field trends follow the emphasis
and de-emphasis of government programs. The
recent upswing in civil engineering can be attribu-
ted to the fact that the environmental courses at
VPI are offered by a sub-discipline of civil engi-
neering. The rise in electrical engineering enroll-
ment is probably related to the continued and in-
creasing emphasis on electronics, digital com-
puters, and control systems. However, the varia-
tion in chemical engineering enrollment is both
unexpected and disturbing. After all, chemical
engineers are eminently qualified for work in the
control and environmental areas, if they are so in-
clined. The root of the problem of declining en-
rollments must lie in our failure to make students
aware of this situation before they choose their
curriculum. This is the situation to which we
turned our attention earlier this year.


A motiva- ..
tional ..
approach to ,a0
recruitment.






Roland A. Mischke received his undergraduate degree
from Pratt Institute (B.Ch.E. '50) and worked for six
years as a design engineer with Chemical Construction
Corporation before returning to graduate school. Follow-
ing the completion of his graduate studies (Ph.D. North-
western '61) he entered the teaching profession. He is
currently in his ninth year at Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute and State University, where he has been involved in
the teaching and direction of research in the fields of
reaction kinetics, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and
heat transfer. In addition to his teaching responsibilities
in the Chemical Engineering Department, he is also Edu-
cational Technology Coordinator for the College of
Engineering.


AN APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM
Engineers are problem solvers-that is what
they are trained to do. Therefore, as engineers we
attempted to apply some of this engineering know-
how to the analysis and solution of this enrollment
problem.
The traditional approach to engineering prob-
lem solving involves: (1) definition of the prob-
lem, (2) determination of alternate approaches
to a solution, (3) detailed analysis of each ap-
proach to yield a number of possible solutions, (4)
choice of the best solution, and (5) implementa-
tion of the chosen solution. More modern systems
approaches would include the evaluation of the
implemented solution, together with feedback and
revision stages.
The intent of this paper is not to consider a
complete solution to the problem, but to concen-
trate on the problem definition and one solution
approach.
Definition of the Problem. As we saw it, the
drop in chemical engineering enrollment was a
symptom of our failure as chemical engineers to
be effective evangelists. We had failed to interest


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









others in the broad field of chemical engineering.
To start a campaign to beat the bushes with a
high pressure enlistment program would only
introduce a new set of problems if people not


1960 1962 1964 1966' 1968
YEAR
Figure 1.-Curriculum Enrollments


1970

at VPI 1960-1971.


YEAR
Figure 2.-Enrollment Trends at VPI 1960-1971.


... our approach centers around the
development of a tape-slide presentation
to handle the animated part of the job.

really interested in the field were lured into it. We
wanted to plan a better job of selling than we are
now doing, but not to the point of pressuring stu-
dents into the program. Our problem statement
then takes the form:
Develop programs for disseminating information about
chemical engineering at the high school, junior college
and university levels, so that all capable and potentially
interested students are aware of the opportunities and
challenges of the profession.
With a problem formulation completed, we
were in a position to generate approaches to the
solution of the problem. In what follows I have
chosen only one approach, and I want to discuss
the design background for that approach in some
detail.
One Approach to a Solution. In our situation
at VPI, we have the responsibility of presenting
information about our curriculum to some 25 sec-
tions of engineering freshmen. It is not possible
for one person to present the same program 25
times during a five or six week period and to make
an enthusiastic presentation each and every time.
Our approach, therefore, is to automate the heart
of the presentation, and then put the person
representing the department into the role of a
person to answer any specific questions about
chemical engineering or the chemical engineering
curriculum.
This approach was chosen because it could
be readily adapted for use in junior colleges
around the state. We would envision sending the
automated portion out first to be used as guid-
ance material. Then, at a follow-up visit by a
member of the chemical engineering department,
specific questions from interested persons could
be handled personally.
Therefore, our approach centers around the
development of a tape-slide presentation to handle
the automated part of the job.

DESIGNING A PRESENTATION
If we accept the fact that communications can
be designed to persuade and to inform, then we
must know something of the psychological prin-
ciples we are using, just as in any engineering
design we make use of our knowledge of the phy-
sical principles involved.


SUMMER 1972









Modern youth are the children of prosperity.
The ethic of hard work and education as being the
key to a better life no longer seems to apply, as
it did in our generation. In a society of affluence,
emphasis on humanistic needs (both concerning
the self and others) comes to the fore because
the physical needs have been satisfied.
Incentives for Change. Attempts to understand
what influences and motivates human behavior
has occupied psychologists for many years. Un-
fortunately, no concrete prescriptions have been
forthcoming. Numerous theories have been postu-
lated, but substantiation of them seems quite tenu-
ous at best. Most results have been obtained from
the study of animals under very closely controlled
conditions. Extrapolation to humans operating
under very complicated conditions seems quite
risky.
Fortunately, Birch and VeroffI have presented
an organizational scheme which seems to coalesce
most of the theories into one structural whole.
They have defined seven incentive systems which
operate simultaneously, and to varying degrees,
in every person:
1. Sensory Incentive System-action is motivated as a
result of sensory stimulation, i.e. taste, sight, hearing,
smell, feeling.
2. Curiosity Incentive System-action is motivated by
the desire of a person to recognize a change in the pat-
tern of stimulation.
3. Affiliation Incentive System-action is motivated by
an attraction to another person in order to feel reassured
from the other person that the self is acceptable.
4. Achievement Incentive System-action is motivated
by a desire to perform successfully in competition with
standards of excellence or with other person's performance.
5. Aggressive Incentive System-action is motivated
(usually in response to frustration) to intentionally injure
another person; the greater the injury, the greater the
incentive.
6. Power Incentive System-action is motivated by the
desire of a person to control the forces that have power
over him, i.e., to have influence on his environment.
7. Independence Incentive System-action is motivated
by a desire to accomplish an activity without any help
from others.
From this array of incentives, we can select
three that seem to be the most pertinent in plan-
ning our work. The achievement motive (I did
something I always wanted to do, so I am some-
body), the affiliation motive (I am liked by my
fellow human beings, therefore, I am somebody),
and the power motive (I have control over people
and events, therefore, I am somebody) seem to
subsume the other motives. These three motives
also work to create a feeling of self-worth in an


... the incentive system is important, but
so are the particular needs of our audience.

individual, and seem to represent characteristics
or drives which may be fulfilled to varying degrees
within the realm of chemical engineering.
Psychological Needs. The incentive system is
important, but so are the particular needs of our
audience. A presentation that neglects these needs
will not be very effective. High school students
and lower division college students cover a wide
range of developmental status. Within this group
we will probably find everything from middle
adolescence to mature adult behavior represented.
Probably the needs of most will be closely related
to those of the senior high school student. Biehler2
notes that the age-level characteristics of this
group include:
Social Needs-
Dominated by peer group opinion and need to con-
form; concerned with opposite sex; trying to de-
velop proper social role (masculine or feminine)
Emotional State-
In conflict with parents; striving for independence.
Mental State-
Trying to acquire a value system; trying to select
and prepare for an occupation.
Not only are the actual needs important, but
the relative strengths and priorities assigned to
these needs have a bearing on how we structure
our presentation. Maslow3 has presented an order-
ing or hierarchy of needs in human beings. Ac-
cording to this theory, certain needs take prece-
dence over others, and thus a hierarchy of needs
is formed. Within this hierarchy, the lower level
needs must be satisfied before the higher level
needs have any significant effect on a person's
actions. The hierarchy that Maslow presents is:
1. Aesthetic needs.
2. Desire to know and understand.
3. Need for self-actualization.
4. Esteem needs.
5. Love and belonging needs.
6. Safety needs.
7. Physiological needs.
It is interesting to note that the things which
mean most to us as professionals (and therefore
the ones we would tend to emphasize in any
"selling" of our life-style) fall into the top three
or four categories of this hierarchy. Note also
that according to Maslow's theory, these points
will be meaningless as motivators to persons who
have not satisfied the lower level needs of security
and belonging. From the listing of age-group


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








characteristics previously presented, we can see
that the high school and lower level college stu-
dents do not have this sense of security and be-
longing. This line of reasoning then leads us to a
realization that many career guidance activities
are of questionable benefit as motivating devices.
-Altering Behavior. Motivation theories assume
that people act and react only in response to an
incentive-reward system, and that this reward or
goal may be on any of the levels of the hierarchy
noted above. However, the goal or reward must
exist in order for action to occur. In addition, the
action taken at any given time is determined by
the strongest need at that moment. Information,
as such, will not cause action. Although the re-
ceipt of new information may change the relative
strengths of current needs (as when told that we
have forgotten to do something) and activate a
different incentive system, only as information is
able to activate incentive systems will it cause a
change in behavior.
If our goal is to influence the behavior of stu-
dents so that they choose chemical engineering as
their life work, then we must show them how that
life-style will satisfy the needs they have at the
moment. If we can do that, then we may proceed
to consider the satisfaction of needs which appear
further up in the hierarchy.

STRUCTURING A PRESENTATION
Now let's turn our attention to the implica-
tions of these motivational theories in what we
are trying to do-to show how becoming a chemi-
cal engineer can meet a person's needs.
Establishing Communication. The first and
most important characteristic of any effective pre-
sentation is that it communicate with the audi-
ence. One of the most effective ways of doing this
is to establish a feeling of empathy with the audi-
ence-to reflect back to them the feelings that
they have. Many of today's youth are concerned
with the environment and with humanity. By
showing how chemical engineers have solved prob-
lems within the social and economic contexts of
earlier times, one can show how this limited out-
look has created problems for today. Then if one
can show a realization that today's youth have
concerns about people and the environment, and
sympathy with their position, the door is open to
show how the chemical engineer is attacking these
problems within today's socio-economic context,
and why the chemical engineer is best fitted to


... relate success ... to emphasis on
affiliation, achievement, and power...

solve such problems. To use an overworked word,
the topics then become relevant to the concerns
of the audience.
Using Motivational Incentives. The success of
any attempt to change behavior rests upon demon-
strating the relevance of the new behavior to
needs felt by the individual. Not all people have
the same needs, so the presentation should appeal
to several types of needs. We have previously
noted that one of the overwhelming needs of youth
is the need for acceptance in the social and peer
group contexts. These needs are tied most closely
with the affiliation motive (need for acceptance).
Somewhat related to this need is the need for
esteem by self and others, and daydreams or fan-
tasies concerning later life. Quite appropriately
these needs are closely related to the achievement
motive (achieving self-worth by doing something
in spite of obstacles). Some young people, par-
ticularly those who represent the minority groups,
will see control of others as their big need. This is
the power motive.
Effective use of such motivational schemes in
a presentation requires us to show people re-
ceiving the rewards that these incentive systems
imply while doing their jobs. This requirement is
one of the basic rules of using modeling to cause
a change in behavior. If you want to cause a
change in behavior, then you must show a person
like a member of your audience receiving the re-
wards he wants to receive while doing the things
you want him to do. Television commercials are
excellent examples of this approach. They depict
what wonderful things happen to those people
who use the sponsor's product. And they do it
by showing people engaged in activities which
constitute rewards for one of the incentive sys-
tems described.
The planning and use of such motivational
schemes must also be keyed to the hierarchy of
needs. Going back to the age-group characteristics,
we see that a prime concern of youth has to do
with security, love and belonging needs. Depic-
tion of home and community life situations which
reflect the engineer achieving these goals can be
quite valuable because the self-actualization needs
do not become important to a person until the
lower needs in the hierarchy are satisfied. Such
illustrations have much more impact than the pre-
(Continued on page 140.)


SUMMER 1972










"Today We Will Hear From

The ChE Department"

R. M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27607
Once a year each engineering department at
N. C. State gets a 15 minute shot at the fresh-
men, in which a faculty representative attempts
to convince them that they would make a tragic
mistake not to enroll in his department's cur-
riculum. Several years ago, we came to the un-
original and inescapable conclusion that boring
the pants off someone is not the most effective
way to convince him of anything. Coupling this
conclusion with the firm belief that chemical engi-
neering is at least as good as any other curricu-
lum and career choice for most engineering stu-
dents, we evolved The Lecture, which is given
below for those who wish to pick up some of the
ideas it presents, or to suggest others.
Several points are worthy of mention before
the lecture commences. Two years ago, the time
allotted for the departmental presentation was 50
minutes. One year ago, the time was cut to 15
minutes. Somehow or other, the same lecture has
been found suitable for both time periods; the
15 minute version merely requires a slightly
faster delivery, fewer side comments, and shorter
pauses for laughs and breath. Many of the ideas
in The Lecture were lifted from a talk given by
Professor Harold Hopfenberg of our Department.
Finally, in each of the past two years, the number
of freshmen who chose chemical engineering at
year's end was three to four time greater than
the tentative (pre-Lecture) preregistration en-
rollment. Our rigorous background in the scien-
tific method prohibits our drawing any causal in-
ferences from this data; nonetheless ....

THE LECTURE
The usual lecture entitled "What is Chemical
Engineering" is a collection of boring generali-
ties and information which no one at your stage
of the game could possibly care about. For in-
stance,
Chemical Engineering is an important and interest-
ing field, in which the basic principles and techniques
of chemistry, physics and mathematics are applied to
industrial chemical manufacturing and processing. Here


"The lecture"--
North Carolina
State's "15 minute
Shot at the freshmen."






Richard M. Felder did his undergraduate work at the
City College of New York, and obtained his PhD ('66)
at Princeton. He spent a year at A.E.R.E. Harwell,
England, on a NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship, followed
by two years at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and
came to North Carolina State in 1969. Professor Felder's
research in graduate school and immediately thereafter
concerned the physics and chemistry of hot atoms; more
recently, he has become involved with photo-chemical re-
actor analysis, radioisotope applications, and applica-
tions of engineering technology to medical and environ-
mental problems. He has served as an industrial consul-
tant on artificial organ development, and as a consultant
to the government of Brazil on industrial applications
of radioisotopes.

at State we have a fine department and well-rounded
curriculum, which is designed to provide sufficient
preparation for either an industrial career or further
study in graduate school. The Chemical Engineering
curriculum begins in the sophomore year with a course
in basic stoichiometry, and continues with . . We
on the faculty are eager to help you in any way we
can-feel free to call on any of us at any time. Now,
my first slide shows a cutaway view of a typical
bubble cap distillation tower, which is a device to ...
and so on for 45 minutes in the same sparkling
vein.
Most of these things are true, but all of them
are pretty much irrelevant to someone trying to
make a career choice for himself. Chemical engi-
neering is important, but so are lots of other
fields. We think our department is good, but we're
not the only good department in the school. Some
of us are very useful people for you to meet now,
knowledgeable about prerequisites and career ob-
jectives and things like that, while others of us
wouldn't begin to know what to do with you if
you suddenly materialized in our offices. And if
we told you, for example, than in your sixth se-
mester as a potential chemical engineer you would
be required to take a course in thermodynamics,
your proper reply would be "So what?"


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








What should we be telling you then? It might
help to tell you exactly what chemical engineering
is, or what you would most likely do for a living
as a chemical engineer. The problem is that we
really don't have a good definition of chemical en-
gineering, and we have no idea at all what you
would end up doing as a chemical engineer. If you
pressed the point, we might ask what kinds of
things you would like to do, and when you told us
we would say that they're probably what you'll
be doing if you still feel the same way in four
years, which you probably won't.
Incidentally, questions like "What do chemical
(and civil and mechanical and electrical) engi-
neers do" are precisely the kind of questions you
should be asking now, and probably aren't. Ac-
cording to our unofficial statistics, 1% of you are
in engineering school because you studied the al-
ternatives and concluded that you were born to
be engineers, 13% are here because your fathers
or somebody had the idea that you should be
engineers, 23% because someone told you that
engineers earn more money than anyone else, and
the remaining 63% because English and history
are a drag and pure science and math are too
hard, so what else is there?
You're going to keep doing the same thing,
too, if past history is any guide. "I don't like
Chemistry 101-I'd better not go into chemical
engineering." "Physics 205 is too tough-better
forget engineering mechanics and electrical engi-
neering." Eventually you back into one field or
another, go through four years, get a job and
maybe then realize that while there's nothing
about your job that you hate, there's nothing
much to like about it, either, and that what you'd
really like to be doing is .... Unfortunately, by
then it's usually too late: one man in a hundred
is sufficiently motivated to switch fields completely
after he gets out of college. The time to start
thinking about what you'd like to do is now, and
if you make your decisions on the basis of how
you like one or another of your freshman courses,
you're blowing it, and you deserve whatever you
get. (Incidentally, Chemistry 101 has almost
nothing to do with chemical engineering.)
All right, what do you want to do? You don't
know, probably, Let's throw out a few sugges-
tions, then-call it games chemical engineers play.

THINKING ABOUT GOVERNMENT WORK?
Become a chemical engineer and join the CIA,
and diagnose aerial reconnaissance photos of


... we came to the unoriginal and
unmistakable conclusion that boring the
pants off someone is not the most effective
way to convince him of anything.

chemical plant facilities in Russia or China or
whoever the bad guys are at the moment, or talk
to visiting bad guy chemical engineers and subtly
extract useful information from them.

INTERESTED IN THE HUMAN BODY?

Become a chemical engineer, specializing in
biomedical applications. Things like the heart,
lungs, kidneys, and blood circulation are biological
analogs of the kinds of things chemical engineers
have always dealt with and chemical engineers
have consequently been among the leaders in the
development of artificial organs and physiological
systems. The application of engineering principles
to the design of a device to remove wastes from
blood when the kidneys fail, for example, is some-
thing for which a chemical engineer is trained and
a physician is not.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS CONCERN YOU?

There are several ways to attack the problem
of a pollutant being released into the air, or into
a river or lake. You can (a) treat the pollutant in
some way to make it less offensive (a chemical
reaction approach), or (b) separate the pollutant
from the harmless stuff it's being carried along
with, and dispose of it separately in a nonpollut-
ing way (a material separation approach), or
(c) arrange conditions so that the pollutant is
dispersed in such a way that its harmfulness is
eliminated or minimized (a transport phenomeno-
logical approach). Several branches of engineer-
ing deal with one or another of the techniques
needs to implement these approaches; chemical
engineering deals with all of them.

HOW ABOUT NAPALM PRODUCTION, AND
SUCH THINGS?

You can go either way. If you think that this
is the kind of thing you'd like to do, then go to
work for the company that does it and do it; if
you don't think much of the idea, tell that com-
pany exactly why you have no intention of
working for them. (Talk about your effective
protests!)


SUMMER 1972








MANAGEMENT, FINANCE, LAW?
Become a chemical engineer, and move into
production, research, or design supervision, or
go to work for a firm that specializes in chemical
industry venture appraisal, or go into patent law.

SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS?
Some chemical engineers are indistinguish-
able from pure scientists and applied mathema-
ticians, except that the engineers are a little more
likely to wonder occasionally about the short
range applicability of whatever they're doing.

LAST, BUT
far from least, you can go to work in one of many
capacities within the chemical (or petroleum or
plastics or pulp and paper or textile) industry,
which is what all chemical engineers used to do
and most still do, although there are many excel-
lent chemical engineers who become ill within 20
miles of a chemical plant, downwind at any rate.
Notice the variety of possibilities just listed,
and the list is by no means exhaustive. Also notice
the responsibility-you decide for yourself whe-
ther to make napalm or artificial kidneys!
Since, as we have indicated, most chemical
engineers end up in industry, it might be instruc-
tive to consider industrial chemical engineering
games in greater detail. It all starts in a labora-
tory, when an enterprising research and develop-
ment engineer discovery a reaction that gives you
something valuable from something not as valu-
able. Let's say our man discovers that if you com-
bine a grain, say corn, a sugar, and a bacterial
agent, say yeast, a reaction called fermentation
occurs, and if you boil the resulting mixture in a
device known as a distillation column, or still, the
part that comes off as a vapor and is then con-
densed has some very interesting properties.
Next comes an engineer who lays out a step-
wise procedure for carrying out the new process
on a large scale. He might propose something like
taking the corn, sugar and yeast, and allowing
them to ferment in a tank for 7 to 14 days; the
tank should be buried in a field or located well
back in the woods, since the reaction is easily
disturbed by outside agents. The wet mash is then
put through a separation unit, the liquid skimmed
off the top is boiled in a still, and the vapor is
condensed in a cooling coil. The liquid that comes
out is known as the raw product, which is no
exaggeration at all. The product may be sold as


... There's no better field than chemical
engineering for keeping your options open.

it is, or subjected to an adsorption step on char-
coal beds to increase its purity, so that it may be
sold at a higher price. The creative process engi-
neer also notes that the economics of the process
may be improved by taking the mash residue and
selling it as hog feed instead of throwing it away.
This is an excellent example of a chemical
engineering problem. You have to deal with the
movement of material from one unit to another
(fluid flow), supplying heat to a still (heat trans-
fer), chemical reactions (unit processes), sepa-
ration processes, such as skimming, distillation,
and adsorption (unit operations), quality con-
trol, economics, etc. This is not to say that some-
one who isn't a chemical engineer can't do things
like this-it's just much easier if you are one. The
same applies to everything else mentioned here:
a chemist or a physician who is particularly am-
bitious may be able to teach himself enough to be
able to design a heart-lung device, but the things
he would need to know are the things chemical
engineers are taught as a matter of course.
Returning to the process, another chemical
engineer calculates the size and construction ma-
terials of the process units and pipes in the sys-
tem, and estimates the costs; another trained in
market analysis determines whether or not it will
pay to do the whole thing; another engineer lays
out the plant and supervises its construction; an-
other supervises the plant operation and sees to it
that his product meets his customers' require-
ments; another sells the product (which may
also be process equipment or instrumentation),
and still another runs the show and becomes rich.
Finally, some who are unsuited to any of these
functions go into teaching chemical engineering.
Again, consider the variety of occupations,
some of which we haven't yet mentioned: chemis-
try, mathematics, biology, medicine, spying, pol-
lution control, industrial research, academic re-
search, law, banking, weapons development, auto-
mation, economics, teaching, inventing, building,
producing, selling, supervising people who invent,
build, produce and sell, experimentation, theory,
and on into the night. If any of these things ap-
peals to you, you might consider chemical engi-
neering as a career, and equally important, if
you're still not sure which way you want to go,
there's no better field than chemical engineering
for keeping your options open. D


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









STANFORD (from p. 105)
hot. The energy accommodation was as low as
ten percent in some cases.
DAVID M. MASON Applied Chemical Kinetics
Laboratory
Our group is engaged in research directed at
a better understanding of the physical and chem-
ical processes underlying combustion, direct en-
ergy conversion, and industrial reactions.
Heat Transfer in Reacting Systems We are
currently investigating the role chemical kinetics
plays in the transfer of heat, mass and momen-
tum in flowing fluids. With fast, exothermic re-
actions, unusually large heat-transfer rates can
occur in such devices as chemical reactors, rocket
chambers, and space-vehicles undergoing aerody-
namic heating upon re-entry.
Oscillating Chemical Reactions The mech-
anism of oscillating chemical reactions is being
investigated with the sodium dithionite reaction
in aqueous solution as the experimental model.
An electron-spin-resonance spectrometer is avail-
able to detect possible oscillations in the concen-
tration of free radicals that are present in this
system.
Effect of Pressure on Reaction Rate Coeffi-
cients The effect of very high pressure in in-
creasing the rate coefficients of gaseous chemical
reactions is being studied in an attempt to be able
to predict in general pressure effects in reactions
of industrial importance.
Fuel-cell Electrode Kinetics The rate and
detailed chemistry of the oxidation of hydro-
carbon fuels at electrodes are a central problem
in the generation of electrical energy by oxi-
dizing readily available hydrocarbons on inex-
pensive electrode-catalysts at room temperature.
With fuels like hydrogen and methanol, platinum
is currently the best electrode material as far as
giving sufficiently high reaction rates for prac-
tical use. We are attempting to learn more about
the nature of electrocatalytic processes with
selected hydrocarbons with the hope that a less
expensive catalyst can be found for use in prac-
tical devices.

CHANNING R. ROBERTSON Biomechanics and
Environmental Sciences Laboratory
The objectives of the research program in
this laboratory have a dual nature. One aspect of
our work deals with the application of basic
transport theories to biological systems, whereas


the other stresses the use of these same theories
in obtaining a better understanding of man's
effect on the biosphere. A unique feature of this
work is its interdisciplinary nature.
Biomechanics In recent years engineers
have been playing an ever increasing role in
providing original and unique insight into the
functioning of the human body. At Stanford we
have established the Stanford-Ames Biomechan-
ics Group to bring together the combined talents
of people from several departments, Applied
Mechanics, Aeronautics and Astronautics, Elec-
trical Engineering, and Chemical Engineering.
In addition, scientists from the Ames Research
Center of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration and faculty from the Stanford
Medical Center are also participating in the
joint effort.
The primary goal of this research is to in-
crease our knowledge of bodily processes which
will then result in new and improved diagnostic
techniques and prosthetic devices.
Our laboratory is planning to conduct studies
in the area of hemodynamics, in particular, blood
flow through pumps and valves. Important un-
solved problems include wall-erythrocyte inter-
actions which are thought to be fundamental to
the formation of thromboses.
Environmental Sciences It is a simple fact
that no living system can survive in its own
waste, and largely because of this, many research-
ers in various fields of specialization have turned
their attention to seeking new ways of preventing
further deterioration of our biosphere. The effort
in this laboratory is focused on obtaining new
knowledge about mechanisms of dispersion and
transport of pollutants in the atmosphere, river
systems, lakes, and oceans.

DOUGLASS J. WILDE Optimization and Control
Group
This group is engaged not only in establishing
fundamental, rigorous principles in optimization,
but also in applying these concepts to large,
complicated industrial systems of economic and
social importance. Optimization theory involves
the mathematics of achieving economic minima
or maxima.
Current theoretical work in optimization in-
volves generalized polynomial optimization, direct
elimination optimum-seeking methods, combina-
torial optimization and optimization under un-
certainty. O


SUMMER 1972










S CAREER GUIDANCE

COMMITTEE

Dec 71
f(Career Guidance) dCG
Jan 71

WALLACE HLADKY
Salsbury Laboratories
Charles City, lowa 50616

"What right have you to guide students into
Chemical Engineering when I'm out of a job.
Whose side is AIChE on?" And,
"I'm sorry I can't make the meeting. My com-
pany has cut back and I'm swamped with work.
And my travel budget has been cut."
Each of the above statements has been made
to this Chairman this past year-the first one,
twice; the second, many times. I do not believe
a high percentage of our members advocate sus-
pension of guidance activities because of the job
market. However, for those out of work, a seri-
ous situation exists and such thinking is under-
standable.
Possibly my loyalty to this committee colors
my thinking. However, my contention is that
guidance activities should continue for the follow-
ing reasons.
* First, a cessation of guidance activities would not
significantly reduce the output of chemical engineers
for five or six years. Those already "in the mill"
will continue to graduate. This time lag between
career decision and actual graduation points up that
in order to assist the currently unemployed, guid-
ance activities should have ceased in 1967 or 1968-
a time when frantic recruitment caused spiraling
wage offers and, in itself, was a lure to the engi-
neering profession.
* Secondly, mere replacement of those who retire, die,
and otherwise attrition themselves from the pro-
fession, dictates a minimum number of graduates
each year to keep our profession alive. I estimate
this number to be approximately 3000 graduates.
* Finally, any high school senior has the right to
information which assists him in making a career
decision. And this includes data on employment and
unemployment. More, we hope this minimum num-
ber of graduates will be those of high caliber.
Admittedly, our AIChE guidance effort is com-
posed of a variety of volunteer workers, and,
depending upon the degree of training in this
work, sometimes it takes on an attitude of re-


Anntal R'epa&l&.


Wallace Hladky is Manager of the ChE Department
and supervises the Environmental Services Department of
Salsbury Laboratories, Charles City, Iowa, a manufacturer
of animal health products and organic chemicals.
Mr. Hladky received his BSChE from Iowa State Uni-
versity in 1950. In addition to other appointments, he
served as Career Guidance Chairman of the Iowa Section
of AIChE, was advanced to National Vice Chairman in
1966 and was appointed Chairman in 1969.


cruitment. This is not intended. Our philosophy
is to pass on to the student unbiased information
so that he can make an informed decision.

A TAR-BABY ECONOMY
Hard core economy is a sticky monster which
quickly traps volunteer activities and expendi-
tures. Travel funds, secretarial time, postage and
duplication expense as well as basic "time avail-
able" for the career guidance committee members
fell prey this year. As a result, a general reduc-
tion in progress was noted in this committee.

PROGRESS ON SOME FRONTS
"Tell me how to get rolling!" many newly
appointed Local Section Career Guidance Chair-
men write. To assist them, Mr. Howard Phillips
has developed a portfolio with visual aids, bibli-
ographies, and job descriptions. Mr. Galluzzo's
Career Guidance Manuel for Chemical Engineers
is included. The draft is now in the hands of
National whose job it is to proof, type, and dis-
tribute the copies via our liaison system to the
above-named chairmen. The liaison system of the
Committee is being organized by Mr. Henry
Brown, Chairman of the Subcommittee on dis-
advantaged youth and will serve the needs of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









, . What right have you to guide
students into chemical engineering
when I'm out of a job?

the full Committee as well. That is, if the liaison
can find out the name and address of the local
section contact.

WHICH BRINGS US TO
A complaint of mine: I, and others, have re-
quested that National mandate all Local Sections
to standardize their fiscal and officer year.
Whether it is January to December or Septem-
ber to August matters not. But as things now
stand, maintaining an accurate accounting of
section representatives is a Chairman's greatest
challenge. C'mon, National, let's whip this out.

THE BROCHURE IS COMING
A dedication to excellence led this Task Force
to scrap the text, layout, and art work of the
previous version. A professional consultant has
developed a new text. The proof is now being
coordinated with graphics. As a result, the new
official Institute brochure should be available in
quantity for the next school year. An announce-
ment of- this John Anderson-Ed Weihenmayer
product will be made in Chemical Engineering
Progress.

OH YES, THE FILM
We know it's not perfect, but it's better. The
length of our film The Chemical Engineer was
reduced from 26 to 19 minutes. The film was an
excellent film for the public mood at the time it
was developed. But moods change and the im-
provement in running time was effected by de-
leting scenes that student critics suggested. It
is now available for rent or purchase from Na-
tional. It is recommended that work on a new
film be authorized and initiated.

CAREER GUIDANCE FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH
Someone said a piano is a perfect example of
black and whites working in harmony. This
career guidance subcommittee is composed of
black and white chemical engineers. Together,
they have developed a portfolio-a program of
action for Local Sections. Although the program
must necessarily vary with each location, the
common theme is "In order to achieve success,


lose yeur identity." Work with and through or-
ganizations which are trusted by the majority
of the minority. To date, fifteen Sections of
AIChE have active programs. Mr. Henry Brown
of Squibb Institute is Chairman of this subcom-
mittee for 1972.

HAIL TO THE CHIEF
John Zimmerman, U.S. Steel Corporation,
Pittsburgh, is the new Career Guidance Commit-
tee Chairman for 1972. Give him your support.
He will be up to his elbows in issues and projects.
To mention a few: Development of a slide lib-
rary; documenting a chemical engineer's life af-
ter graduation; utilizing video tape potential;
presenting programs at national meetings; and
modernizing outmoded visual aids. He will also
influence decisions in other AIChE committees
through the Education Activities Coordinating
Board-a Board composed of Chairmen of allied
committees.

Burma Shave
Remember the road-side signs that went-
Spring has Sprung
the grass has riz.
Where last Year's
careless driver is.

As for Career Guidance and youth, we might
say-
Our yesterday world
is a helluva mess.
Their tomorrow world
is a helluva guess.
Wallace Hladky, Chairman
Career Guidance Committee
American Institute of Chemical Engineers


The Career Guidance Committee of AIChE was
ordered and initiated in 1952 by Council. The Com-
mittee consists of a Chairman, appointed by Council;
other Committee members as the Chairman may
appoint; and usually, the Local Section Chairman
of Career Guidance.
The goal of the Committee is to assist the Local
Sections in implementing the career guidance in-
terests of AIChE with students, teachers, counselors,
parents, the public, and allied organizations.
In 1968 the Sub-Committee on Career Guidance for
Disadvantaged Youth was initiated to expedite the
activities special to this interest.


SUMMER 1972










4A Y"te&duckin"asy Go4ase


s classroom


STOICHIOMETRY OF A CITY

CHARLES A. WALKER and
W. N. DELGASS
Yale University
New Haven, Conn. 06520


DURING THE FALL terms of 1970 and 1971 we
have offered an undergraduate course which
is described as follows in the course catalog:
E&AS 93a, MATERIAL AND ENERGY
BALANCES IN A CITY.
The city will be considered as a chem-
ical process. A materials flowsheet of input
items (water, air, food, fuels, etc.) and
output items (water-borne wastes, air-
borne wastes, solid wastes, etc.) will be
developed by the class and used as the basis
for calculating the energy balance. The
engineering and economic aspects of this
view of a city will be discussed and ap-
plied to the evaluation of some present
and alternative technological practices af-
fecting cities. Open to juniors and seniors
with Chemistry 10a and 15b, this course
is intended for students whose interests
are not primarily technical.
The course met for two 75-minute sessions
per week. Class discussions were devoted to the
principles of the stoichiometry of combustion
processes, basic thermodynamics relating to en-
ergy conversion, and some basic principles of the
quality control and chemistry of water and air.
The American Chemical Society's "Cleaning Our
Environment: The Chemical Basis for Action"
served as a textbook and was supplemented by
various government bulletins and articles from
periodicals. Each student in the course was ex-
pected to be responsible for acquiring some of
the data needed for the flowsheet, to participate
in the calculations leading to the flowsheet, and
to write a term paper on some topic related to
urban environmental quality control.
During the two terms that the course has
been offered it attracted a total of about 35
students. Interestingly, nearly half of them were
majors in engineering and applied science who
apparently wanted a view of engineering in a


rather direct and practical problem involving a
host of political, social, emotional and economic
considerations. The rest of the students came
from various majors in Yale College. Most of
the students seemed particularly interested in
the details of how processes and devices work.
Teaching a class of this composition presents
some interesting challenges for teachers of engi-
neering. (If such a course were offered in a school
where it attracted a larger enrollment it might
be advisable to have two instructors, one an engi-
neer and the other an economist or political sci-
entist or sociologist.)
It was interesting indeed to hear students
recount their experiences in acquiring data when
they presented their results in class for use by
other students and for comments and criticism.
Their visits to wholesale food markets, the water
company, fuel distributors, the power plant, a
sewage treatment plant, the refuse incinerator,
junk yards, etc., represented new experiences for
most of them. The combination of one such site
visit, reports of other students, and the calcula-
tion of a flowsheet has one very important result.
Even the most starry-eyed environmentalists
begin to recognize the magnitude of the efforts
that will be required for significant improvements
in the quality of urban environments. Further-
more, it is to be hoped that they learn that getting
the facts in order is a good way to approach any
problem.

T HERE HAS BEEN another interesting result of
the course, one which was not really expected.
Various New Haven City agencies and environ-
mental action groups have requested copies of
the final report and seem to be finding the flow-
sheet useful for orientation to urban environ-
mental problems.
There is, however, a significant flaw in a
course of this type. It is an interesting course to
be involved in the first time it is offered because


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION































mt- m

Professor Walker received his BS and MS degrees in
Chemical Engineering from the University of Texas and
his DEng degree from Yale. A member of the Yale
faculty for 30 years, he has had continuing responsi-
bilities in chemical engineering and has also served
as a residential college master, director of an under-
graduate major in combined sciences, and staff member
in Yale's Institution for Social and Policy Studies. He
is currently Chairman of the American Chemical Socie-
ty's Petroleum Research Fund Advisory Board. (right)

W. N. Delgass did his doctoral work at Stanford
University under Professor Michel Boudart. He joined
the Yale Faculty as an Assistant Professor in 1969 after
a postdoctoral year at the University of California,
Berkeley. His principal research interest is the study
of heterogeneous catalysis by Mdssbauer and X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy. (left photo)


there is a sense of anticipation as to how the
flowsheet will look. The second time it is offered
there is an opportunity to improve the quality


A DAY I
E&AS
Estimate


QUANTITY


ENERGY


Tons Gallons B.T.U 10-6 Item
645,000 SOLAR ENERGY -

FOOD -\
229 WFaer in Food
14.9 214 Protein -
56,7 820 Carbohydrates
23.3 755 Fts
WATER
22,600,000 N.H. Water Co.
39,500,000 Rainfall
FUEL
1,280 320,000 46,500 Reidual Fuel Oil-
490 140,000 19,200 Ditillaee Fuel Oil
260 12,500 Natural Gas -
310 110,000 12,800 Gasoline


SOLIDS
Paper
Automobiles
Packaging Materials
Appliances
Textiles
Structural Steel
Building Materials


of the data and to include factors not considered
by the first group of students. This can continue,
of course, by considering variations in time and
and space rather than just the steady state and
perhaps by using a computer to handle a more
detailed model. Such approaches are entirely
feasible if a class consists primarily of students
in engineering and science, but the course would
not then be expected to attract a general audi-
ence. Another approach would be simply to use
the flowsheet developed by the first groups in
the course as a basis for a course and substitute
plant visits and problems for the original data
collection and calculation activities. Such a course
could be readily developed into an interesting
Introduction to Chemical Engineering. It is not
intended to offer E&AS 93a again at Yale because
a new sequence of three term courses in environ-
mental quality control is becoming available in
1972 73.

REACTION TO THE course is indicated by the
following critique prepared by students on the

basis of the 1970 course, when it was taught by
C.A.W. A critique of the 1971 course, taught by
W.N.D., is not yet available. It is expected by
C.A.W. to be kinder; W.N.D. won't commit him-
self on this matter.

E&AS 93a set out to analyze the city
as a chemical process. This new and com-
prehensive view of a city's energy and
material demands tries to tie together a


N NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT
93a (STCY 48a); 1.S.S.381 ENERGY DISSIPATED
Yale Unirersity Reflection of Shortwave Radiation 64,500x106 B u
Sof aerial A Energy Flows Net Long-wave Rodiat.on 225,000xl06 B.t.u.
Evaporation, Transprallon Conveclion 453,900x106 u.
GATIS H 150n l ons6n00.nal)


New Haven, Connecticut
18.4 sq mi


137,700 people


Body Wastes
ringing Solid, 22 rons
Water Liquids
46,000 gal. 44,000 gal


-Iodorr I


CO2 115 oIn
SEWAGE 29,000,000 gal.
SEWAGE FROM OTHER TOWNS
6,400,000 gal
B.O.D. 8 tons
S.S. 6 fans
PTreyatment d
.O.D 35 ts B.O.D 227 tons BO 35 n
S. 29 tons sS. 4 lns 5.S. 2.9 ton
Sludge 40 tons
GASEOUS PRODUCTS, TONS
CO HC 502 NO Part. H20 CO2
- 02 0.4 64 14 24 1,100 4,100


- Industry & Home- 0.2 02 2 3.0 09 580 1,600
- Industry & Homes- 0.7 0.1 590 720
Vehicles-- 120 11 0.5 6.2 07 400 1,000
'- 0.2 0.1 0.5 05 38 135 410
Elecrical Energy, KWH SOLID WASTES NEW HAVEN OTHER TOWNS HEAT EVOLVED
Residential 500,000 IPper 138 tons 69 5000x106 u
Commercial 1,020,000 Ploatics,Rubber 21 11 G S
Industrial 490,000 Textiles
arbage 36 18 INCINERATOR
liver Flows Through City : GrossDr 30 5
luinnipeao 15Sx106 gl. Wod 21 RESIDUE
Min 310 a GloStoneselc. 30 5 Metal Cens 21 Tons
Wes 32x106 gl Mels 24 12 Other Metals 15
300 50 Unburned Poper 12
DEMOLITION REFUSE 4ons Glass 54
AUTOMOBILES 16 on 1
APPLIANCES 2.5 lon C.erm.,, Ash, etc. 21


SUMMER 1972


R








k




il- --------


Your parents didn't put you through school

to work for the wrong company.


We think we're the right company.
We're big, but not too big.
We've climbed halfway up Fortune's
Directory of 500 Largest Corporations.
But compare the share of sales that
paper companies plow back into research.
Suddenly, we're no less than second.
What does this mean when you're
considering a career in paper production?
It means that production engineering
at Westvaco is influenced by continuous
research feedback. It means lots
of development work. Diversification.
Excitement. Research has given us
processes and equipment to make better


papers for printing, packaging, and
structures. But we need to continually
improve our processes. Speed them up.
Make them more efficient. That's your job.
Research has given us useful by-products,
too. High-grade specialty chemicals for
coatings, pharmaceuticals, inks and waxes.
And activated carbon adsorbents and
systems to alleviate water pollution.
But we need good engineers to recover
these by-products more efficiently. To
improve them. To find new uses for them.
In our company, working with paper
and paper by-products can mean good
careers in design engineering,


fluid dynamics, specialty chemicals,
process control, process R & D
and product development. And more.
Chances are, whatever you liked
and did best in college, we're doing
right now. And doing it well.
But find out for yourself. See our
campus representative, or contact
Andy Anderson, Westvaco,
299 Park Avenue, New York 10017.
Remember, all your parents want for
you is the best of everything. The least
you could do is join the right company.

Westvico
An equal opportunity employer


rI ,


r
-c~c


j


~ --~------.-- ..~ ___ ~----- I --

i ~F~r~~-~~~ ~ ~----


,. '-









number of diverse subjects. Although a . the most starry-eyed environmentalists begin
great deal of interesting material was pre- to recognize the magnitude of the efforts required
sented, the goal of an overall perspective for significant improvements in the quality of
urban environments.
was never fully reached. urban environments.
Much of the course dealt with the waste edgeable and interesting lecturer and an
products of an industrial city and the tech- important subject, the course never really
nology available to remove them. Mr. pulled the loose ends together.
Walker had to deliver his lectures to a It seems clear that creating the flow
class with backgrounds ranging from a sheet at the start would have given the
little high school chemistry to a major in class the needed perspective. This would
science; he handled this problem remark- have provided a much better context in
ably well. The lectures were generally in- which to judge the different economic and
formative and frequently very interesting, technological alternatives open to a city.
particularly when he included anecdotes The course was an ambitious experiment
from his personal experience. However, that met with some success. With better
several classes weekly would have been structuring and more rigor, it could be
more appropriate than the single two-hour outstanding.
class session.
The readings were a source of added Several of the suggestions made by the students
information but did not play a major role were adopted when the course was offered for the
in the course. Of greater importance was second time.
the gathering of data on inputs and outputs Further details on data and calculations are
of the city. Small groups were responsible available from the author.
for each area. Toward the end of the term,
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
each group assembled a flow sheet of the
data. This was the goal of the course, but The flowsheet shown here was developed by
its importance seems to have been lost two graduate students, John Pestle of Yale and
along the way. Ultimately, therefore, the Laurence Walker of M.I.T., during the summer
term paper represented most of the work of 1971 after some additional information became
in the course. It gave an opportunity to available. It is quite similar to the flowsheet de-
look deeply at one specific area of a city veloped by undergraduates in the fall term of
and its material problems. Despite a knowl- 1970. E

n book reviews


Polymer Science and Engineering, D. J. Williams,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1972),
401 pp.
One of the peculiar difficulties in writing an
introductory textbook on polymers is the diversity
of subjects to be covered, each built upon dis-
tinctly separate fields of science. Thus, the sub-
ject of polymerization has its roots in the reac-
tions and structural analysis of organic chemistry,
solution behavior in regular solution theory, rub-
ber elasticity theory in statistical mechanics,
polymer morphology and properties in the tech-
niques of solid state physics and rheology in con-
tinuum mechanics. Scattered throughout are
various applications of probability theory, and
superimposed is the need to relate these princi-
ples to the practical properties of polymer sys-
tems. No single undergraduate curriculum does


justice to more than a fraction of these fields. If a
book of reasonable length is to be aimed at both
chemical engineers and materials scientists, it
becomes necessary to compromise, either by in-
cluding brief introductions to the fields and
showing how they apply to polymers, or by leav-
ing out some subjects entirely and concentrating
on the relationships between those aspects which
are retained. In the former there tends to be over-
simplification and a loss of coherence among the
parts; in the latter the result is less than a com-
prehensive coverage.
Dr. Williams has chosen to follow the second
course, and has done so rather successfully. The
book is intended for seniors and beginning gradu-
ate students in chemistry, chemical engineering
and materials science. It opens with an extended
(Continued on page 131.)


SUMMER 1972










MW classroom


TURBULENT TRANSFER PROCESSES

G. D. FULFORD* and
D. C. T. PEI
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada


In studying heat and mass transfer in flowing
fluid systems it is often helpful to use a unified
approach to stress the analogies and similarities
which exist among the transfers of heat, mass
and momentum. Although transfer processes in
turbulent fluid streams are of great practical
importance, only the simplest cases can be dealt
with theoretically at present by means of the
statistical approach to the study of turbulence,
and even in these cases, the unified attack has not
been used systematically. Often the topic of tur-
bulence is treated as though it affects only the
fluid-mechanical aspects of a problem, and the
concomitant heat and mass transfer effects, which
are of particular chemical engineering interest,
are not stressed.
In this note we will attempt to show by con-
sidering a simple case that the unified approach
can be readily and conveniently applied to
the study of turbulent transfer processes. A gen-
eral equation is derived describing the dynamic
propagation behavior of the dimensionless Euleri-
an double correlation parameter for the turbulent
fluctuating parts of a transferred intensive prop-
erty at two neighboring points in an incompressi-
ble isotropic turbulent fluid field. From this, it is
shown that the well-known von Karman-Howarth
and Corrsin equations fall out directly as special
cases when the intensive property is assumed to
be momentum, heat energy, or mass of a com-
ponent per unit volume of the system. Although
no new results are obtained, and although tur-
bulent transfer processes are rarely encountered
under isotropic conditions in practice, it is felt
that the generalization is of interest from a peda-
gogical viewpoint as an illustration of the unified
approach, which obviously can also be applied
usefully in the more "practical" phenomenologi-
cal approach to the study of turbulent transfer
processes.

*Present Address: Hope, Spur Tree P.O., Jamaica,
West Indies.


Relative to a stationary Cartesian coordinate
system, the general equation expressing the con-
servation of an intensive property of instan-
taneous concentration P (i.e., P is the quantity
of property per unit volume of system at any
instant, and has a time-averaged part P and a
turbulent fluctuating part P') may be expressed
for a turbulent fluid as (1):
3 3 3
+.E 1 a (v.) a- a(7( R ) ( .) + G (1)
at ii 2 j

If the time-averaged values of the property
concentration p, the molecular flux of the prop-

erty the velocity vector _, and the rates
of generation of the property at the surfaces and
within the bulk of an element of the fluid, i
and a are assumed to be zero, so that isotropic
fluctuations relative to a zero base are considered,
as is customary, the conservation equation be-
comes:


3 3 3
aP'+ jjl 3(v'P')- j 1 ( -
at 5. j
3 ax2i 2


If secondary molecular transfer processes
(such as those due to the Dufour and Soret
effects) are ignored (*), the flux Tr' can be writ-
ten in terms of the gradient of the concentration
P' and a generalized isotropic molecular kine-
matic transfer property M (assumed constant):


7(= -M 3 (P')
S ax

and equation (2) becomes:


3 3 3
ip + a (vP') 1 ap' T (.) + G'
F t J 2= 2xj
j 3,, a


Note that this restriction is not very clearly stated
in the usual treatments of turbulent transfer processes.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


$7 %isO d Ap~psac










Hence,


It X & \-
George D. Fulford is Senior Project Engineer with
Alumina Partners of Jamaica. George grew up in Jamai-
ca and earned the BSc and PhD ('62) at University of
Birmingham, England. His experience includes several
years with DuPont in photo products and three years
teaching at University of Waterloo, Ontario with special
interest in the area of transfer processes. He is a mem-
ber of AIChE and IChE, London and is a registered pro-
fessional engineer in Ontario. (left photo)
David C. T. Pei obtained his education at McGill
University, finishing in 1961. He is a member of AIChE
and CSChE and is currently serving as Associate Chair-
man of the Chemical Engineering Department at Water-
loo. His teaching interests include Fundamentals and
Applications of Momentum, Heat and Mass Transport
Processes. (right photo)


Equation (4) is now written for a point A in the
fluid by placing a subscript A on the various
quantities, and the resulting equation is multi-
plied throughout by the value of the fluctuating
concentration P'B at the same instant at a point
B distant r from A; equation (4) is also written
for point B subscriptt B on quantities) and multi-
plied throughout by the fluctuating concentration
P'A at A **. Bearing in mind that P'B is not a
function of XA, nor is P' a function of xB, though
both are functions of time, we obtain
1P 3 3 'aB2 p;%;) 3 Cr'W P')
P; 301 v' 'PTO = M E A B z J + (5)
"JA jA

P l av + 1 i P = MZ '2___ _- JBA A B-1 B (6)
S jB axB xjB

The distance vector r between the points
A and B is now written as


with


r = 'i + 6s + 6k
i = XiB xiA etc.


** When P is a vector quantity, the i-component of
the equation (4) at A is multiplied by P'kB and the k-
component of the equation at B is multiplied by P'iA.


= -a a Z;,a2 =a a
S1iA ~~ acX x (8)
Using these definitions, equations (5) and (6)
are added and the sum is then time-averaged to
give


B(P) a (v' ^p' v'') 2M 'a (75F) +
at, + A1--- -BAAI -' -10 A B
(i) j (ID (iii)

-. a .77 .P? ) ++ ( ;-; i (9)
AB6 JBA J2(
(IV) (V)

Table 1. Dils i onIeIs Eulerian sptia correlation para ter* for transpot of property of
coentration P in iotropi c inco.pr.elibl. tbrbolent field (*)
Correlation oDe n -mfintion
P s vector quantity (oonponnto P, P o0 Il quntity
~', P) (mO t=u tr- fer) (heat, tra fer)
Fir.t-type k (,II)/( (1o) ) = (I ) //(P'v (11)
(i oom.ponent of vector I) (ai component of v.tor i)
S od-ty. C1 = ( /p")2 (12) ( )/(P 2 ( 13)
(doubl correlation c' (12) (13 3)
(ij component of teoor 2 ) (calar)
Third-type A) U1 t'^ 1P1n2) (4) 1 )/E[ P (15)
(ijw component of third-o der tensor (i component of victor C I)

(*) Siplification. e bo een I. de by invokiag th properties of ho~o neous isotropic pulationse
P Z A P = P ; = P"= P", tc., here the double pri. denotes the r.-... -va e of the
rorroopondix flueto tiog qontity.
(*O) Note that in the = t tr fer c. a t.he f.luct. ingi pt of t.he ttic pre.ur p i.
ed by oonen-tioe .

The first, second (double) and third type
dimensionless Eulerian spatial correlation coeffi-
cients c', c", c"' between fluctuations of
quantities at points A and B at the same instant
in time are now defined in general form as shown
by equations (10) (15) in Table 1. In terms of
these correlation coefficients, equation (9) can
then be written:
(i) for P as a scalar quantity:








(ii) for P as a vector quantity:
II + (v,2 3 III 11 3
S3 I62




3
1 (6 M E) + I (7 r r ) (16)







1 3 B A JA





tum, heat, or mass of component X, per unit
volume of multicomponent incompressible fluid.
I j 8 (Y-_.-TOq .+ 1(. (+
(p 2 1 (P 5

These general equations can then be rewritten
simply for the commonest cases of transport in
a turbulent field, when P represents the momen-
tum, heat, or mass of component X, per unit
volume of multicomponent incompressible fluid.


SUMMER 1972











Table 2. Equivalents of terms in general equation for cases of Heat, Mass and Homentum
transfer in an incompressible isotropic turbulent field.

General term Equivalent for
Momentum transfer Heat transfer Mass transfer of con-
ponent X in mixture
of X and Y.
p'(*) p'= p. P'= pC T' P'= Po
(intensive Tmetumunit vol.) (heat content per (as of component
property unit volume) X per unit volume)
transferred)
7t' 7r= 7r1' a- -
(Molecular fnux (momentum flux, shear (heat flux)() (a!ss flux)()
of property) stress) (*)
rF' F' p'r 0 () p =' 0 (*)
(rate of genera- (static pressure)
tion of property
per unit surface
o' o0 () -' = ;P (++)
(rate of bulk (constant gravity (1st order hoeO-
genration ef acceleration force) genous reaction)
property per
unit volume)
M MH n M =. M =D
(inaeatic (kinematic riscosity) (thermal diffusivity) (as iffusivity)
transport
property)
CI (#) = )/Ap" ri HI= (-Hv,)/T"V" V" ( )/n; e"
(first-type =(0 0 =0
correlation
paraneter)
Ible MCII ( )/(12 T = (T )/(T2 YCII ( /A(Px2
correlation
parameter)
CIII __,(AB) _=_ T tIII_ C III= (X )
(third-type =(V TA2 2
correlation (v')3 VIT") )
parameter)

(+) Constant p (incompressibility) is assumed throughout. The additional
complexities arising when the fluid is compressible (p = p + p') can
be readily appreciated at this point.
( +) It is assumed that the heats of mixing and homogeneous chemical reaction
can be neglected in comparison with other terms.
(+ +) A first-order chemical reaction (homogeneous) of component X is assumed.
Simple relationships are possible only for this case and the case of no
reaction. The problem is discussed in detail by Corrsin (H).
(*) The fluxes are defined here as the quantities of momentum, heat or mass
transferred per unit time per unit area normal to the transfer direction
by molecular mechanisms relative to the mass-average velocity of the
system.
(**) It is assumed that the viscous dissipation of flow energy to heat is
zero. This is customary, but is never exactly justified.
(***) There is no mechanism by which mass of component X may be generated at
a surface in a fluid phase. Generation of X at a catalyst surface, for
instance (surface of a fluid phase) by heterogeneous reactions must be
taken into account by boundary conditions imposed on the transfer
equations.
(#) It is readily shown that all the first-type correlation parameters
reduce to zero for isotropic turbulence.

The corresponding equivalents of each term in
the general equations (16), (17) are given in
Table 2. Substituting these equivalents, we obtain
the propagation equations for c" in the cases of
Momentum transfer:
B M I + T 3 K-III M- 1 I 2- MIIT
( C) + (l1 ( Ci, jk Cijk(Ai,B)) 2 1 C( C i, (18)
3 357
J
Heat transfer:
HT Ti3 3 lIT
a C ) (W av ( TCI TCII 2) i at s1 it i2

Mass transfer:

(mcI) vl2 elI mIl 3 CsI) k (mC11) (20)

Sj
As can be seen, the equations describing the
behavior of c" also involve the next higher
correlation, c'", as a result of the closure prob-
lem.


.. .we show that the unified approach
can be readily and conveniently applied to the
study of turbulent transfer processes.

Up to this point, no use has been made of the
assumed isotropic nature of the turbulent field
except to somewhat simplify the definitions made
in Table 1. The isotropic properties of the tur-
bulence can now be invoked to represent c" and
cT" in terms of scalar functions f, h, q, w of
the time t and the distance r between measure-
ment points which have the appropriate trans-
formation properties. Using the usual manipula-
tions *(2, 3, 4, 5), which need not be repeated
here, we finally obtain the von KArmAn Howarth
equation (6) for the dynamic behavior of the
Eulerian double velocity correlation:

[wv'2f] = 2P(v")2( + 4)(f v"h) (21)
ht r r hr 7

the Corrsin equation (7) for the dynamic be-
havior of the Eulerian double temperature cor-
relation:

q2f = d.T'2 2 T 2(T)v' T + 2IT) (22)
t r,2 r Ir r -r

and the Corrsin equation (8) for the dynamic
behavior of the double concentration correlation
(for the case involving a first-order chemical re-
action) :

I 2DXY(p'2 v wV7 + (Cpr, v + 2qm 2k;( 2 (23)
t pL3- r r r r rh
With suitable assumptions as to the behavior
of the third-order terms (h, q), these equations
have been solved for particular cases to obtain
the decay of the respective double correlations
under isotropic turbulent conditions (5). These
results are of some practical interest since the
double autocorrelation terms (for the special case

when r = 0 are closely related at a given level
of turbulence to the Reynolds stresses, and analo-
gous heat and mass transfer terms, which appear
in the phenomenological studies of turbulence.
To sum up, we feel that the unified approach
used here underlines the similarity between the
turbulent transport of heat, mass and momentum
even in so esoteric an application as the one con-
sidered here. The main sources of difference also
become clear, such as the fact that in momentum
transfer the quantity transferred is a vector
quantity, while in heat and mass transfer, the


An additional operation of contraction must be
carried out in the case of equation (18), where P is a
vector quantity.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











Nomenclature.
C, II, CIII general first-, second-, and third-type dimensionless
Eulerian spatial correlation parameters, defined in Table 1.
MC, C, TC special cases of the corresponding C CII CI parameters
for momentum, mass and heat transfer.
C isobaric heat capacity (assumed constant throughout).
D.X Molecular mass diffusivity of X in binary mixture of X and
Y (assumed constant throughout).
f = f(r, t) scalar function replacing nMII in isotropic turbulence.
F = f + F' rate of generation of general property per unit surface area
in fluid.
g gravity acceleration (assumed to be only body force).
G = G + G' rate of bulk generation of general property per unit volume
of fluid.
h = h(r, t) scalar function replacing C in isotropic turbulence.
J=J + molecular mass flux of component X relative to mas -average
velocity.
k; first-order homogeneous chemical reaction rate constant
(assumed to be a true constant).
M cinematic molecular transport property for general property
of system.
p = p + p' static pressure.
p = P + P' quantity of general property per unit volume of system.
q = q + q conduction heat flux, relative to mass-average velocity.
qm = qm( t) scalar functions replacing mCI and TCII, respectively, in
q T qT(, t) isotropic turbulence.
r scalar radial distance in isotropic turbulence.
r= i + 6 + 6k vector distance between points at which correlation is
determined.

t time.
T temperature.
v, v velocity vector and its components
wm = Wa(r. t) scalar functionsreplacing mCI and CI respectively, in
T T(, t) isotropic turbulence.
x, x Cartesian coordinates.
(C thermal diffusivity (assumed constant throughout).
6 = xiA xiB x.-component of distance between points A, B at which
0 correlation is determined.
o dynamic viscosity.
Skinematic viscosity (assumed constant throughout).
7r= 7r,+ molecular flux of general intensive property.
o density of fluid (assumed constant throughout).
p mass concentration of component X.
= T + molecular momentum flux (or shear stress) relative to
mass-average velocity of fluid.
Subscripts.
B quantities measured at points A, B, distant r apart, at same
instant in tine.
i, j, k in dir-ctions of xi, x xk axes.
X, Y components X, Y of binary mixture.
Q, 3, sncalar, vector, tensor (2nd-order tensor), and third-order
S tensor quantities Q.
Superscripts.
q' fluctuating part of Q.
Q" r.m.s. value of fluctuating part of Q
Stime-averaged part of Q.
l, mt T momentum, mass, heat transfer quantity, respectively.


property is a scalar, leading to slightly different
forms of the main equation. The appearance of
chemical reaction term in the mass transfer case
is also of interest. It can also be seen that the
generalized equation will make it relatively sim-
ple to obtain equations for the dynamic behavior


under the conditions considered here of other
turbulently pulsating conserved quantities, .such
as electric charge per unit volume, which may
become important in the study of turbulent
plasmas. O

REFERENCES

1. G. D. Fulford and D. C. T. Pei, A unified approach
to the study of transfer processes, Ind. & Eng.
Chem., 61(5), 47-69 (May, 1969).
2. J. O. Hinze, Turbulence, McGraw-Hill, New York,
1959.
3. G. K. Batchelor, The Theory of Homogeneous Tur-
bulence, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1956.
4. R. S. Brodkey, The' Phenomena of Fluid Motions,
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967.
5. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart and E. N. Lightfoot,
Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, 1960.
6. T. von Kdrmin and L. Howarth, On the statistical
theory of isotropic turbulence, Proc. Roy. Soc. (Lon-
don), A164, 192-215 (1938).
7. S. Corrsin, The decay of turbulent isotropic tem-
perature fluctuations in an isotropic turbulence, J.
Aero. Sci., 18, 417-423 (1951).
8. S. Corrsin, Statistical behavior of a reacting mix-
ture in isotropic turbulence, Phys. of Fluids, 1,
42- 47 (1958).


BOOK REVIEW (from p. 127)
summary of the principal characteristics of ma-
cromolecular systems, followed by the three ma-
jor sections of the book, dealing with polymer
synthesis, solid state properties, and polymer
rheology. The author has managed to organize
and unify the main features of polymer science
quite satisfactorily. The transition from subject
to subject is smooth, and the informal style and
sense of awareness of the students' background
should make the book eminently readable and
useful as an introductory text. The introductory
section, the section on polymer physics, large por-
tions of the section on polymer systhesis, and the
chapter on linear viscoelasticity of polymer solids
are especially well done.
The coverage is by no means comprehensive,
however. It omits such important subjects as
polymer solutions, molecular characterization, the
chemistry and statistics of crosslinking, and
effects of molecular structure on flow properties.
Indeed, the weakest part of the book is its treat-
ment of rheology and polymer processing. Also,
the discussions of the glass transition, ionic poly-
merizations of all kinds, crystallization kinetics,
and the quantitative techniques for characterizing
crystalline polymers are rather cursory. Some
telescoping is necessary for the reasons discussed
(Continued on page 140.)


SUMMER 1972









n0p views and opinions


IMPROVING COLLEGE TEACHING In

Chemical Engineering


JAMES M. HENRY*
Yale University
New Haven, Conn. 06520
This paper touches upon some aspects of a
program which would better prepare prospective
college teachers for their careers and at the same
time be of benefit to small and/or young Schools
of Engineering.

THE NEEDS OF PROSPECTIVE COLLEGE
TEACHERS
Many Chemical Engineering Departments
have long realized that some experience in teach-
ing assistance by graduate students is a valuable
part of the educational program. As such, most
graduate students during their tenure serve at
least one semester as Teaching Assistants. This
experience, however, seems to be insufficient for
the student who does plan to enter a career in
college teaching.
A prospective college teacher needs to have
experience in all espects of teaching in order to
be prepared for his profession. Among those
aspects are preparing lectures, delivering lec-
tures, assigning homework, preparing examina-
tions, counselling students, preparing laboratory
sessions, directing laboratory work, and grading
student work. It is only the last two that are
ordinarily encountered by the Teaching Assist-
ant.

THE NEEDS OF DEVELOPING COLLEGES
For the purpose of discussion, "developing
college" may be considered one in which the
Chemical Engineering program is below accredi-
tation level and has four or fewer faculty mem-
bers (at publication time there are some 10 or 12
institutions meeting this description). The pros
and cons of actual accreditation are not consider-
ed here, but it is assumed that the specifications
for accreditation are sound educational require-
ments. Selected qualifications for an accredited

Present address: U.S. Bureau of Mines, 4800 Forbes
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213


program as set forth by the American Institute
of Chemical Engineers2 are (1) instructional
methods should provide close faculty-student
contact, (2) teaching loads must not be excessive,
and (3) staff activity in research is desirable.

THE NEEDS OF ACADEMICALLY DISADVANTAGED
STUDENTS
There are many students now in college and
soon heading for college whose academic back-
ground is not of top quality, both in terms of
subject matter coverage and motivating influ-
ences. Students of this type are in need of some
motivation to stimulate them to more fully real-
ize their abilities and opportunities. Such stu-
dents in engineering need a modern presentation
of fundamental engineering and an introduction
to advanced engineering developments. Many
students meeting this description are now in or
plan to attend the previously mentioned develop-
ing colleges (the reasons for this may be family
or ethnic tradition or admission policies or other,
but will not be discussed here).

PROPOSAL
Generalities. It is proposed that a partial ful-
fillment of all the needs as mentioned above can
be realized by a program under which graduate
students are placed as short-term faculty mem-
bers in some developing colleges. This program
should be optional and voluntary, simply an op-
portunity open to any interested graduate stu-
dent. The experience gained in this teaching
situation can materially benefit the graduate stu-
dent in his teaching career and also be an aid in
his own education as he more clearly organizes
the fundamentals of engineering.
The college can gain needed manpower to help
in the instruction of laboratory and computa-
tional classes (both of which can be most effec-
tively conducted by recently educated engineer-
ing graduates) and in reduction of teaching load.
Then, too, if the teaching assignment were little
enough to allow the graduate student to continue
his thesis research, this example could infuse


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























Jim Henry received his chemical engineering degrees
at Rice and Princeton Universities. He was a Woodrow
Wilson Teaching Intern at Prairie View A&M College
for two years in the Electrical Engineering Department
before finishing his graduate work. Dr. Henry has been
a Lecturer at Yale University in Engineering and Ap-
plied Science and is presently at the Pittsburgh Energy
Research Center of the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

within the other college personnel an ambition to
further their professional activity. The youthful
approach to instruction and close faculty-student
contact which the graduate student should ex-
hibit could contribute added freshness to the col-
lege's program, faculty, and students.
The example set by this graduate student in
achievement and his personal counselling would
be of tremendous benefit to the student body. The
interim teacher could advise on higher career
objectives to the students, possibly encouraging
some to continue their education in graduate
school.

Technicalities. This proposed program could
be developed on a continuing basis among several
colleges or as ad hoc relation for a particular
college or student. It is thought that a convenient
time in the graduate student's tenure to partici-
pate in such a program would be the semester
following the qualifying for the Ph.D. candidacy
or a semester during which his advisor is on
leave (or some combination of the two). The
length of the teaching assignment should be de-
termined as a balance between short term (one
semester) which would be least interfering to
the graduate student's progress, and long term
(three or more semesters) which would be of
greater value to the school and its students. One
year, or two semesters, seems to be a "natural"
suggestion because of various mundane outside
constraints (e.g., "standard" contracts, registra-
tion in graduate school, draft boards, housing ar-


rangements).
The continuing of research by the graduate
student would probably be restricted to theoreti-
cal or computational aspects and/or experimental
design in connection with his thesis topic. Even
the performance of some preliminary experi-
ments may be feasible, not ruling out some
cooperation from the school's Chemistry De-
partment. It is not uncommon to find good,
well-equipped Chemistry Departments in small
colleges, eager to utilize research man-power.
Salary arrangements for the teaching student
should be solely between the school and the stu-
dent. This period at "regular pay" will surely be
welcomed by the graduate student and will re-
lease his assistanceship from the graduate de-
partment for other use. Whether either of these
latter benefits is real or not may be debated.
The single evident hindrance to implementa-
tion of this proposition is the matter of reloca-
tion. With some coincidental exceptions this
teaching appointment would require a change of
residence by the graduate student. A working
spouse or school children would make this par-
ticularly troublesome.
Alternatives. With respect to the needs of
the developing colleges and their students, sev-
eral alternative teacher-placement services are
in operation. These range from the ASEE ar-
rangements for retired faculty, through various
programs for visiting professor appointments,
to the Woodrow Wilson Teaching Intern program
for graduate students and new Ph.D.'s.
The needs of most Chemical Engineering
graduate students, as discussed above are not
fully met by existing arrangements. Satisfying
these needs in post-doctoral appointments is en-
tirely reasonable, and is not to be discredited;
however, post-doctoral appointments usually em-
phasize the research rather than the teaching
activity of universities. The placement of gradu-
ate student teachers as proposed here is intended
to supplement and quite possibly even reinforce
existing internship programs at the post-doctoral
level. In addition, most likely the graduate stu-
dent returning from this proposed teaching
assignment can stir interest for college teaching
in Chemical Engineering among other graduate
students.

CONCLUSIONS
A program for college teaching practice as
proposed here will be of benefit to the growth in


SUMMER 1972









Chemical Engineering education. The experience
gained by the practice teacher is not incompatible
with developing professional engineering experi-
ence. By considering a broad definition of engi-
neering, the profession of developing available
resources to be useful to men,3 the services rend-
ered in assisting developing colleges and training
under-achieving students are definitely legiti-
mate engineering activities. In addition, the ex-
perienced teachers that the program can provide
will be an asset in whatever positions they may
assume after graduate school. As beginning facul-
ty in universities, the trial of initial teaching
duties will not be unduly burdensome at a time
when some new research interests are being ex-
plored.
The small Chemical Engineering Departments
that may participate in this program will be
benefited in the short term simply with respect


Ii} laboratory


to more faculty. In addition, possibly some of the
"practice teachers" will be induced to return to
the same college and aid its development. The
benefits to the students of a practicing teacher
may be more psychological than educational. The
new teacher will make mistakes in academic mat-
ters at the expense of the students, but as a
symbol of youth and scholarly excitement, the
new teacher can favorably motivate many stu-
dents to higher goals. E

REFERENCES
1. A.I.Ch.E., Chemical Engineering Faculties, 1969-
1970 (1970).
2. A.I.Ch.E., "Qualifications for an Accredited First
Professional Degree Curriculum in Chemical Engi-
neering", January 1, 1968.
3. Jones, F. D., and P. B. Schubert, Engineering En-
cyclopedia, Third Edition, Industrial Press (1963).


hiem al R/eact, lia4a,'sato


BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS:

KINETICS OF YEAST GROWTH

JAMES B. ANDERSON*
Princeton University
Princeton, N. J. 08540


This is the third in a series1 of articles describ-
ing an undergraduate chemical reactor laboratory
designed for seniors in the Department of Chem-
ical Engineering at Princeton. Professor Richard
H. Wilhelm provided the inspiration for the suc-
cessful development of the laboratory. The basic
objectives are outlined in the first article of the
series.
The experiment described here provides stu-
dents with an introduction to biological proc-
esses and techniques by demonstrating the trans-
fer of reaction engineering knowledge learned
in non-biological systems to the kinetics of yeast
growth. The increasing understanding of bio-
logical systems and recognition of their impor-
tance in chemical processing indicate the value
of familiarity with biological processes. The
growth of yeast under aerobic conditions is a
relatively simple experiment for which the kinet-
*Present Address: Department of Engineering and Ap-
plied Science, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 06520.


ics of growth may be compared with theoretical
behavior.
The experiment is patterned after the com-
mercial process for growing yeast in which an
initial charge of yeast in a nutrient solution is
allowed to multiply and grow. An excess of all
nutrients except sugar is provided. Under these
conditions the rate of growth is a function of the
yeast present and the amount of sugar present.
After an induction period the yeast growth rate
is rapid. As the sugar present is depleted the
growth rate decreases and falls to zero at the
end of the experiment. The yeast cell volume and
sugar concentrations are measured over the peri-
od of the experiment and the results compared
with predictions.
The growth of yeast is carried out over a
ten-hour period. An additional three hours is
required for analysis of samples for sugar con-
centration. Yeast cell volume is determined by
centrifugation while sugar concentration is de-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The experiment is patterned after the commercial
process for growing yeast .. and it demonstrates
the transfer of reaction engineering knowledge
learned in non-biological systems to the
kinetics of yeast growth.

termined by a modification of a colorimetric
method commonly used in analysis for sugar in
blood.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Several general reviews of the application of
engineering techniques to biological processes
are available2. The kinetics of reactions in micro-
organisms have been treated in books by Hinshel-
wood3 and Bray and White4. Humphrey and
Diendoerfer5 have furnished an excellent review
of fermentation.
Yeasts are formally classified as plants, but
like animal organisms they utilize the oxidation
of carbon in the form of sugar to carbon dioxide
as a source of energy. Under anaerobic conditions
yeast is able to use the oxygen in the sugar mole-
cule, giving off alcohol and carbon dioxide as
waste products, but growth is relatively slow.
Under aerobic conditions yeast growth is greatly
enhanced and the waste products are primarily
acids and aldehydes together with carbon dioxide.
In addition to sugar and oxygen yeast requires
a nitrogen source in the form of ammonia or
amino acids and several minerals and vitamins
in order to grow and multiply.
The kinetics of yeast growth follow a pattern
similar to that of adsorption and catalysis in that
a large number of parameters, each with sat-
uration effects, is involved. After an initiation
period in which the yeast becomes accustomed to
a new environment, the growth rate is first order
in yeast concentration and also depends on the
concentrations of sugar, oxygen, available nitro-
gen, minerals, vitamins, hydrogen ion concen-
tration and temperature. Hinshelwood3 formu-
lated the rate equation as a product of terms for
each of the vital substances,

dY s b o n ()

where Y is the yeast cell volume per unit volume
of solution, k is a rate constant, Cs is the sugar
concentration, bs is a constant for sugar, and so
forth for oxygen (o), nitrogen (n) and others.
It is assumed that other variables such as temper-
ature and pH are constant. For an excess of any
of the nutrients the product bC becomes large


compared to unity and the term in brackets ap-
proaches unity.
In the experiment considered all nutrient sub-
stances except sugar are supplied in large excess
so that the rate expression becomes
bC
dY = kY (2)
dt + bCs
Since yeast growth occurs both by the growth
of individual cells and by cell division with fur-
ther growth and division of new cells, a rate
equation for the number of cells per unit volume
may differ slightly from that for the volume of
yeast per unit volume.
A material balance for the sugar may be used
to relate sugar and yeast concentrations:
R(Y YO) = Cso Cs (3)
where 1/R is the yeast cell volume which results
from the utilization of a unit amount of sugar
and the superscript o indicates an initial value.
Combining with Eqn. (2) to eliminate Cs yields
Sb_(Co R(Y y))
dY=kY 1 ] (4)
dt LI + bs(CsO R(Y y))
which may be integrated for the initial condition,
Y = Yo at t = 0, to give

[bb on + RYo)
y = Yo ekt (Y Yo) (5)
s
The growth curve of Eqn. (5) will not include
the induction period and transition at the start
of growth nor the loss of cell volume after the
sugar has been consumed.

APPARATUS
The reaction is carried out in a 30-liter fer-
mentor equipped with an agitator, water coils,
air sparger and sampling ports. Temperature is
controlled by circulating water from an auxil-
iary constant-temperature bath through the fer-
mentor coils. A photograph of the fermentor is
shown in Figure 1.
Air supplied to the sparger located below the
agitation blades is passed through a 1-inch dia-
meter, 0.8 micron pore-size Millipore filter to
remove contaminants. A 1.2-SCFM rotameter is
included in the air feed line.
Samples of the medium are placed in 12-ml,
tapered, graduated centrifuge tubes which are
subsequently placed in a high speed centrifuge.
A lower cost centrifuge would probably be ade-
quate.
If samples to be analyzed for sugar are to be
stored, a freezer is required. The colorimeter


SUMMER 1972

































Figure 1. Fifteen-liter fermentor for yeast growth.

analysis is carried out with a Beckmann Model
DU Spectrophotometer. In addition an assort-
ment of specialized laboratory glassware is re-
quired.

PROCEDURE
The growth medium used is 500 g of dextrose
(cane sugar) and 200 g of nitrogen base (Bacto,
dehydrated) containing nitrogen and necessary
trace elements and vitamins all dissolved in 15
liters of water. Since yeast is fairly resistant to
disease, complete sterilization is unnecessary but
the sugar and nitrogen base are heated to 90C
for 5 minutes prior to use. Distilled water is used.
The solution is placed in the fermentor and heat-
ed to 29'C. The air flow is started and 20 g of
Fleischmann's dry yeast is added.
Samples are taken with a pipette at intervals
of one-half to one hour for approximately ten
hours or until yeast growth has ceased. Since
the yeast tends to concentrate in the foam pro-
duced by sparging, care must be taken to obtain
representative samples.
To eliminate its effect on growth the pH of
the medium is kept constant in the range of 5.0 to
5.5 units. The pH is tested at 15-minute inervals
with pH paper and excess acidity is neutralized
with concentrated ammonium hydroxide.


Samples are placed in centrifuge tubes and
centrifuged to produce a compact yeast mass at
the bottom of the tubes. Cell volume is recorded
as the volume of the yeast mass produced. Since
the yeast may continue to produce carbon dioxide
which may swell the volume of the yeast mass,
readings of cell volume must be taken immediate-
ly after centrifugation.
The supernatant liquid is collected for subse-
quent sugar analysis. Some yeast remains in this
liquid and must be prevented from decreasing
the sugar content. A drop of phenol is added
and the solution is frozen.
The sugar determination is made by the colori-
metric method of Nelson6-10 which is not affected
by the presence of other compounds. Samples
are thawed and diluted to give sugar concentra-
tions of about 0.2 mg per ml. Duplicates of each
unknown are desirable. Both samples and stand-
ard solutions are treated by boiling with a copper
reagent and adding an arsenomolybdate color
reagent. The absorbances of the resulting solu-
tions are measured at 500 mu with a Beckmann
Model DU Spectrophotometer using standard
techniques.
Results are compared with Eqns. (2) and (5)
with allowance for an initiation period of one to
two hours. The constants Cs and Y are known
from direct measurement. The value of k is de-
termined from the rate during the initial growth
period when sugar is present in excess and Eqn.
(2) becomes
dinY k (6)
dt
When sugar concentration affects the rate the

term sC becomes important and bs

may be evaluated from the slope of a plot of

k d in Y vs. c-1 vs. Cs-1. The value of R is de-
termined from yeast and sugar balances. Once
the constants are known the integrated rate equa-
tions may be tested.

STUDENT PERFORMANCE
Students are enthusiastic about this experi-
ment and attack it as an adventure in a new
area. The yeast growth and measurements of cell
volume are carried out without difficulty. Left
on their own the students usually fail to obtain
consistent results for sugar concentration. Close
supervision and detailed recipes are required for
successful analyses.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















Figure 2 Growth of yeast
for a 12-hour period in a
student experiment.


TIME, HOURS
Typical results of a student experiment are
shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4 in which cell volume
and sugar concentration are plotted vs. time and
the agreement with Eqn. (5) is indicated.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXPERIMENT

Yeast was chosen for this experiment because
of its rapid growth rate, its insensitivity to ex-
perimental conditions and its resistance to dis-
ease. A number of trials were made before
suitable temperature and concentration variables
were determined. Several batches of yeast were
killed (obvious from the smell) for unknown
reasons in the development runs.
Attempts to measure yeast concentration by
counting cells in a small volume under a micro-


Figure 3. Consumption of
sugar by yeast of Figure 2.








\ o


0 I I I I I I I
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
TIME, HOURS
Figure 4. Comparison of theoretical growth curve
with data of student experiment. Experimental points
are those of Figure 2. The solid line is the theoretical
behavior as calculated from Eqn. (5) with YO = 0.0037,
Cs -= 22.5 gm/liter, R = 935 gm/liter, bs = 0.105 liter/
gm, k = 0.4 hr-1. The curve is displaced one hour to
allow for the induction period.
scope were unsuccessful. The combined problems
of representative sampling and the time re-
quired for counting eliminated use of this method
of analysis. Turbidity measurements were at-
tempted briefly but eliminated because differences
in sample transmittance were small.
Foam formed in the latter stages of growth
creates problems in taking representative sam-
ples. An anti-foam agent added at the end of a
run eliminated the foam within seconds. The
effect on yeast growth has not been tested but
such agents are used routinely in biological lab-
oratories. O
REFERENCES:
1. J. B. Anderson, Chem. Eng. Education 5, 78 (1971);
ibid. 5, 130 (1971).
2. F. E. Warner, A. M. Cook and D. Train, Chemistry
and Industry 1954, 114.
3. C. N. Hinshelwood, The Chemical Kinetics of the
Bacterial Cell, Clarendon Press, London, 1946.
4. H. G. Bray and K. White, Kinetics and Thermo-
dynamics in Biochemistry, Academic Press, New
York, 1952.
5. A. E. Humphrey and F. H. Deindoerfer, Ind. and
Eng. Chem. 53, 934 (1961).
6. N. Nelson, J. Biol. Chem. 153, 375 (1944).
7. P. A. Shaffer and M. Somogyi, J. Biol. Chem. 100,
695 (1933).
8. M. Somogyi, J. Biol. Chem. 160, 61 (1945).
9. M. Somogyi, J. Biol. Chem. 195, 19 (1952).
10. J. T. Woods and M. G. Mellon, Ind. and Eng. Chem.
Anal. Ed. 13, 760 (1941).


SUMMER 1972


2 4 6 8 10 12
TIME HOURS


j_ _






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An equal opportunity employer M/F.









N problems for teachers


Deriving Three Thermodynamic Equations

In Vapor- Liquid Equilibrium Studies

LUH C. TAO
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508


One of the interesting and difficult aspects
of teaching thermodynamics is to find the sim-
plest way of presenting the rigorous derivations
of equations especially for multicomponent sys-
tems. This note shows such a pathway of deriving
three equations in the area of phase equilibrium.
They are simpler than those in available text-
books. This results in time-saving in presentation
and facilitates learning. It was found very useful
for the instruction purposes.
The derivation graph uses all conventional
notations such as f for fugacity. Superscripts V
and L indicate vapor and liquid phase, a bar -
implying a mixture and for most cases also par-
tial molal quantity, for ideal gas and o for
standard state. Subscripts x,y,z, indicate com-
position of mixtures and i,1,2,n, are component
identities.
The first equation on the graph refers to the
total variation of Infi as the sum of three con-
tributors on the right-side. They refer respec-
tively to those due to changes of temperature,
pressure and composition vector z, i.e. (z1,z2,...,
z,). It is basically the chain rule of differentiation
with the use of a restrictive differential (dlnf) p,
to represent a group of partial composition de-
rivatives.
Following this pathway, students are made
aware of all restrictions carried along. For ex-
ample, the Gibbs-Duhem equation does not in-
clude the phase equilibrium criteria while the
other two equations do. Therefore, to use this
equation for vapor-liquid equilibrium criterion
f-l = into yi = Tf/x.
These equations are available in literature.
Reference 5 shows the unrestricted multicom-
ponent Gibbs-Duhem equation and the Enthalpy-
difference equation for binary systems. Articles
3 and 4 have Enthalpy-difference equation and


Luh C. Tao is a Howard S. Wilson Professor of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Nebraska.
He received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin
in 1952. Since 1959, he has been at the University of
Nebraska. Before that, he was with Titanium Metals
Corporation of America in Henderson, Nevada. His
research interests are in thermodynamics, transport phe-
nomena and their applications to food systems.


Derivation Graph


SUMMER 1972


1e64nod&yzamics


I








Clapeyron equation for multicomponent systems.
Classical and lengthy derivations of Clapeyron
equation for a binary system in reference 1. This
type of derivation was recently extended to a
multicomponent system (ref. 2).

REFERENCES
1. Dodge, B. F. "Chemical Engineering Thermo-
dynamics" McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1944) p. 135
(eq. IV. 156).
2. Edmister, W. C. and Lee, B., Distillation 1969,
p.3B:117, Inst. Chem. Eng. (London).
3. Tao, L. C. AIChE Journal 15, 460 (1969).
4. Tao, L. C. AIChE Journal 15, 362 (1969).
5. Van Ness, H. C. "Classical Thermodynamics of
Non-electrolyte Solutions" McMillian Co., N. Y.
(1964) p. 79, eq. 4-21; p. 138, eq. 6-42.

BOOK REVIEW (from p. 131)
earlier, and some of the choices come down to
questions of personal taste. However, it seems to
me that the author missed at least one good op-
portunity to reinforce his earlier discussions of
polymer synthesis by failing to point out some
of the well established connections between flow
properties and molecular structure.
In summary, the book gives a good general
survey of polymer science. The omissions can be
handled by supplementary lectures and outside
reading. It should make a very suitable textbook
for introductory courses.
William W. Graessley
Northwestern University


MISCHKE (from p. 117)
sentation of salary statistics or results of surveys
which conclude that chemical engineers have hap-
pier marriages than other professions.
Emphasis of Presentation. One last point to
remember is that our main function is one of guid-
ance rather than that of strong persuasion. Our
job is not to get as many people enrolled in chemi-
cal engineering as possible, but to attract those
to whom chemical engineering will be inherently
satisfying. Therefore, we should emphasize the
choice of a career over the choice of a discipline.
The flexibility and breadth of application and
use of chemical engineers in a wide variety of
industries-not just the chemical process indus-
tries-should be stressed, as well as how other
branches of engineering can be served by chemical
engineers.
Sources of Information. Some of the most


meaningful data that we can present about chemi-
cal engineering is our own testimony of what we
know about chemical engineering and what chem-
ical engineering means to us. In doing this we
should remember that such feelings probably will
not be motivating to the audience until the basic
needs have been shown to be satisfied. The AIChE
publishes an excellent career guidance booklet4
which contains information on programs for pri-
mary schools, secondary schools, junior colleges,
and universities. The booklet also contains current
statistical data on job opportunities, salary levels,
etc., which are needed to answer questions. Inci-
dently, a study of the list of typical questions in-
cluded in the publication gives insight into the
concerns and feelings of students.

SUMMARY
The problem of declining enrollments in
chemical engineering is symptomatic of poor effec-
tiveness in the career guidance work now being
carried on by chemical engineers.
A number of factors operate during career
guidance presentations. If these factors are con-
sidered, a presentation's effectiveness can be en-
hanced. If they are neglected during the design
of the presentation, its effectiveness can be se-
verely reduced. These factors include:
* The psychological needs of the audience are
very different from those of the speaker.
* Motivational incentives are different for var-
ious members of a given group.
* The needs of security and belonging take pre-
cedence over the need for success.
Improved presentations may be obtained if:
* Presentations are designed as carefully as the
other things which engineers design.
* Current knowledge of motivational systems
and student needs is used in the design.
* The hierarchical structure of need fulfillment
is recognized and made a part of the design.
* The presentation is made relevant to the cur-
rent needs of the audience. O

LITERATURE CITED
1. Birch, D. and J. Veroff, "Motivation: A Study of
Action," Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Calif., 1966.
2. Biehler, R. F., "Psychology Applied to Teaching,"
Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1971.
3. Maslow, A. H., "A Theory of Human Motivation,"
Psychological Review, 50, 370 (1943).
4. Galluzo, J. F., "Career Guidance Manual for Chemical
Engineers," A.I.Ch.E., Career Guidance Committee,
1970.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









KUBE (from p. 113)
evening years and presently has the relation within
the Institute as shown in Figure 2. The Career
Guidance Committee is directly responsible to

RELATIONSHIPS
CAREER GUIDANCE COMMITTEE


Figure 2.


the Council. Activities with the Institute are
coordinated with the education activities coordi-
nating the board which consists of the chairman of
the Career Guidance, Education and Accredita-
tion, Professional Development, Student Chapters,
Continuing Education, and Chemical Engineering
Education Project Committees. The Committee
has attempted liaison with outside guidance or-
ganizations, quite frequently with only mediocre
success. Typical organizations are Engineers
Council for Professional Development, American
Chemical Society, Manufacturing Chemists Asso-
ciation, National Science Teachers Association,
Engineers Joint Council, American Personnel
Guidance Association. Perhaps the two most suc-
cessful arrangements have been with the Junior
Engineers Technical Society (JETS) and ECPD.
Arrangements in a limited area are under dis-
cussion with ACS and MCA.
Primarily the National Career Guidance Com-
mittee works with the Career Guidance Chairman
of the local sections of the Institute. Each section
is supposed to appoint a career guidance chair-
man who has a goal, the education of students,
counselors, teachers and parents in what com-
prises chemical engineering as a profession, so
that the student can make an informed decision
in choosing his life's working. The philosophy is
supposed to be one of information not recruit-
ment. I presume I set the activities of the Com-
mittee back by many years by constantly refer-
ring to the activities as proselytizing.
The National Committee has a responsibility
of providing the Local Section Committees with


the necessary information and tools to carry out
the basic guidance work. The responsibilities of
the Local Section Committee is to make the direct
contacts with students, teachers, counselors, and
others.
All of this works fine on paper but the prob-
lem is that all of these positions are nonpaying
and are in addition to the regular duties of the
people involved. Consequently, only those who are
extremely dedicated do any work in this field.
A disadvantage of working only through Local
Sections is that the sections are usually in areas
of high population and even under the best of cir-
cumstances, do not get coverage of schools outside
their immediate area. Again, any contribution is
made through the personal efforts and dedicated
activities of those in the Local Sections.
To provide contact, and to disseminate in-
formation to the Local Sections, a newsletter con-
taining developments and suggestions is distribu-
ted three times a year. To provide some
continuity, a portfolio consisting of visual aids,
career guidance brochures and general instruc-
tions are provided to each Local Section Chair-
man. It is a continuing activity to update and im-
prove this portfolio. Use of symposia and training
sessions at National Meetings are useful. Data,
statistics, mailing lists, bibliographies and other
working documents pertinent to science and engi-
neering professions are distributed as available.
Many suggestions have been made concerning
work in areas effecting activities of students,
teachers, counselors and parents. With the stu-
dent, some effective activities are lectures at ca-
reer days, being judges at science fairs, organize
planned trips for students, give them summer
jobs in plants, provide pertinent literature, assist
with JETS chapters and science and chemistry
clubs, and even provide scholarships. The
teachers and counselors can generally be educa-
ted in the facets of profession and find out what
chemical engineering is if taken on plant trips, or
provided summer jobs in significant positions.
An effective method has been to invite science
teachers and/or counselors to Local Section at
dinner meetings. One year we had the slogan,
"Take a Science Teacher to Lunch."
It is apparently more effective to establish
rapport with the science teacher rather than the
counselor. If one can get a high school science
teacher enthusiastic about a summer project, this
carries over very well into the classroom and is
highly effective. With parents it is suggested that


SUMMER 1972









a Local Section representative accept speaking
engagements with organizations such as parent-
teacher associations.
Essentially all the National Career Guidance
Committee can do is suggest possible methods of
contact and furnish some basic material to the
Local Sections. Special circumstances for each
Local Section makes it impossible to be quite
specific. What may work in a New York section
would not be applicable to an Iowa or the Minne-
apolis-St. Paul section.


BROCHURE
Many times it is nice to have something to
send or to hand out specifically directed towards
chemical engineering. The National Career Guid-
ance Committee planned a two-step procedure.
For the first step they developed an ad printed in
a throw-away type brochure entitled, "Chemical
Engineering and You." This brochure was to
serve as initial contact with a second more ex-
tensive and permanent type brochure to be avail-
able for more interested students, counselors or
high school science teachers. Meanwhile the JETS
organization devoted one of their Journal issues
to chemical engineering and Volume 16, No. 6,
Feb. 1969, was published. There has been at least
two reprintings of the issue and over 15,000 re-
prints distributed. This great demand for
reprints indicates the necessity of completing
an attractive permanent type brochure.

FILM
Most of you are familiar with the film put out
by the Institute entitled, "The Chemical Engi-
neer."
It has been edited to remove dated material
and the revised film is available from the National
Office.

DOCTOR HECKMAN'S PROGRAM
Dr. Heckman, Chairman of ChE in South Da-
kota School of Mines, initiated a program of direct
contact with high school students. The basis of
this was selection of students who were appar-
ently qualified to become chemical engineers as
evidenced by their ACT or other college test
scores. Contact was made by personal letters ex-
plaining what chemical engineering is and in-
viting further inquiries. Under the circumstances


at South Dakota this worked amazingly well. Dr.
Heckman has been successful in the last few years
in vastly increasing enrollment in ChE in his
department. National Career Guidance Committee
wanted to find out if this method would work at
other institutions, and at present have three
additional schools working on a modification.
Circumstances at the various schools differ but
basically the programs are the same as Dr. Heck-
man's. Each of the three additional schools have
reported significant increases in enrollment, us-
ually in the face of a declining overall enrollment
in their engineering college. Apparently the meth-
ods work but there are a few pitfalls. By "grape
vine" I understand that Dr. Heckman's program
is in some difficulty because student organizations
have claimed that he has violated some "freedom"
by making a selection based on test scores (abil-
ity) and the selection procedures are no longer
available to him.

PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH

Previously I have mentioned that minority
groups could be a particularly fruitful area for
recruitment for engineers. Children in minority
groups are often disadvantaged in regards to their
basic education but not ability. Very few finish
high school with a background to take engineering
in college. Again the problem is motivation and
the National Career Guidance Committee has a
permanent subcommittee to work on this specific
problem. Some 15 Local Sections have special
programs in this area. The main thrust of the
programs are towards motivation of the junior
high school students so that they would take the
required high school courses and be so motivated
that they would do well. The program has not
been underway long enough to have any measure
of success, but potentially it could be very suc-
cessful.
I have attempted to ask some basic questions
in regards to the motivation of students into
engineering and specifically chemical engineering.
No one has all of the answers. What works under
one set of circumstances may not be applicable
in a different situation. The secret is that of a
dedicated person working as best he knows how
to contact and motivate bright young minds into
the engineering fields. There is no substitute for
the personal touch and this is best achieved
through much practice and above all, dedication
and interest in what is best for the student. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Icrcurriculum



Organic and Physical

CHEMISTRY COURSES

In 89 ChE Curricula


JAMES T. COBB, JR.
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Penn. 15213

The School of Engineering at the University
of Pittsburgh has a one-and-a-half year common
curriculum for its freshmen and first-term sopho-
mores. As a result, the Chemical Engineering
curriculum requires Chemical Engineering majors
to take seven credits of organic chemistry and
eight credits of physical chemistry in their junior
year.
The faculty of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment is concerned that this requirement
places a severe burden on our juniors. As a tool
to guide the faculty in studying this problem, a
review has been made of the organic and physical
chemistry requirements of 89 chemical engineer-
in curricula which were on file in catalogs in
the University of Pittsburgh libraries.
Table I shows the credits and timing of or-
ganic and physical chemistry by the 89 schools.
It also shows the number of years in the com-
mon curriculum and whether the chemical engi-
neering curriculum is accredited by AIChE.
The following conclusions have been drawn
from the data in Table I:
1. Nine schools provide no set curriculum, only
guidelines and general course requirements.
2. Of the other 80, 53 make essentially a com-
plete separation between organic and physical
chemistry. The other 27 overlay these two areas;
however, 13 of these stagger the courses some-
what. Only 14 schools out of 89 require both
organic and physical chemistry at the same time
completely.
3. Five of the 14 schools requiring complete
overlap of organic and physical chemistry report
a two year core sequence. The following table
summarizes the "core" situation:


SuweUM


James T. Cobb, Jr. received the S.B. degree from
M.I.T. and the MS and PhD degrees from Purdue Uni-
versity. Following two years in the weather modification
group at the Naval Weapons Center in China Lake,
California, he was an engineer for three years at the
Esso Research Laboratories in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
His current interest is in reaction engineering. He is
active in AIChE at both the local and national level.


Years in Core
0


Number of Schools
43
35


Those schools with two or more years in the
"core" are clearly in the minority. The two schools
with two core years without complete overlap in
organic and physical chemistry accomplish this
by (1) moving the first organic course into the
second core year and (2) moving physical chem-
istry to the senior year.
4. Miscellaneous facts about organic and physi-
cal chemistry:
(1) 19 schools offer physical chemistry below
the junior year.
(2) 44 schools offer organic chemistry above
the sophomore year.
(3) 13 schools go outside the sophomore and
junior years to offer portions of organic
and physical chemistry.
(4) Six schools teach some or all of the
organic and physical chemistry courses
in the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment. Only one of these schools lacks a
Chemistry Department. O


SUMMER 1972













TABLE I. CREDITS AND TIMING OF ORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY IN 89 CHE CURRICULA.


Years Organic Chemistry
in Core Fl F2 S1 S2 Jl J2 Sl S2 5th


Physical Chemistry
Fl F2 S S 2 Jl J2 Sl 2


School Accredited


3 5

4*
3 3
4 4
4# 4#
5 3
4# 4#
4 4
*4#1 2#
3 3
5c 56
3 3
3 4
4# 31
4 4
4 4
6 3
30 40

4 4
4# 4#
4 4
3 3
4 3
4#
31 2#
4# 4#1
---5-----*
3 4
4 4
4 4
5
3# 1#
3 5
4 4
3 3
4 30
41 4#
5# 3#
4 4
4 4
3 3
5 5
4 4
4 4
4 4
5 5
3 3
3 3 2
5 3
4 3
--8----*
3
4 4

5 5
3 3 2
--8-----*

4 4
4
21 2#


3 3 3

4# 41
3 2


3 3

3 3

5#
4 4

443;
5.51 45


4*
4 4
3
4# 41
5 3
4# 41
4 4
3# 3#

46

44
4#

35


4 4
4# 4#

4 4
4
3#
4# 4#
2# 3# 2#
-3------*
3 5
33
3
3 4
3# 3#
33
4 4
44
3 5
5# 5#1
3# 4# 4#
4 4
4 4
4 4
5 5
4 4
3 5
4 3
5 5
3 5
3 5
3 3
3 4 1
341
---9-----*
3 3
44

4 4
5 3
--8-----*

3 4
43
2# 4#
4 4
4# 4#
21 4# 1#

4 4
4 4
4# 4#
5# 5#1
---*
4 3
4# 5#
44
4 4
31 3#
4 4
45
4e 4
4 4
---4*


44
44
4# 2#
5# 5#
--*
44
3# 2#
35
1 3
4# 2#
44
35
4 4
33
--3-*


1
2
3
4
5
3* 6
7
8
9
10
11
4 1 12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
3# 4# 27
28
29
4 4 30
31
32
4# 3# 33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
1 68
69
70
71
72
73
4 4 74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89


University of Alabama (1970)**
University of Illinois at Urbana (1969-70)
University of Missouri at Rolla (1970-71)
University of Oklahoma (1970)
Newark College of Engineering (1975)
University of Pennsylvania (1970-71)
University of Calif. at Berkeley (1969-71)
Cornell University (1970-71)
Stevens Institute of Technology (1970-71)
Massachusetts Institute of Tech. (1969-70)
University of Maine
University of Arizona (1970-71)
California Institute of Tech. (1970-71)
Kansas State University (1970-71)
Auburn University (1970-71)
Bucknell University (1971-73)
University of Calif. at Davis (1969-70)
Case-Western Reserve University (1970-71)
University of Cincinnati (1969-70)
Clarkson College of Tech. (1970-71)
Clemson University (1970-71)
Cleveland State University (1970-71)
Colorado School of Mines (1970-71)
University of Colorado (1970-71)
Columbia University (1969-70)
Cooper Union (1970-71)
Dartmouth College (1970-71)
University of Dayton (1970-71)
Georgia Institute of Tech. (1969-70)
Grove City College (1970-71)
University of Idaho (1969-71)
Illinois Institute of Tech. (1969-70)
University of Illinois at Chicago (1969-70)
Indiana Institute of Technology (1970-72)
Iowa State Univ. of Science & Tech. (1969-71)
University of Kansas (1970-71)
University of Kentucky (1970-71)
Lafayette College (1969-70)
Lamar State College of Tech. (1970-71)
Lehigh University (1970-71)
Louisiana Polytechnic Institute (1969-71)
Louisiana State University (1970-71)
Lowell Technological'Institute (1970-71)
Manhattan College (1970-71)
University of Massachusetts (1969-70)
Michigan Technological University (1971-72)
University of Minnesota (1969-71)
Mississippi State University (1970-71
University of Mississippi (1970)
Montana State University (1970-72)
University of New Hampshire (1969-70)
New Mexico State University (1969-70)
New York University (1969-70)
N.C. State Univ. at Raleigh (1968-70)
University of North Dakota (1970-72)
University of Notre Dame (1969-70)
Ohio State University (1970-71)
Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn (1969-70)
Pratt Institute (1970-71)
Princeton University (1970-71)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. (1970-71)
University of Rhode Island (1969-70)
Rice University (1970-71)
University of Rochester (1968-69)
Rutgers, The State Univ. (1970-72)
San Jose State College (1970-72)
University of South Carolina (1970-71)
S.Ikta School of Mines and Tech. (1968-70)
University of Southwestern Louisiana (1969-70)
Stanford University (1970-71)
Syracuse University (1969-70)
Tennessee Technological Univ. (1967-70)
University of Tennessee (1970-71)
Texas A & I University (1970-71)
Texas A & M University (1970-71)
University of Texas (1968-70)
University of Toledo
Tri-State College
Tulane University (1971-72)
University of Tulsa (1970-71)
University of Utah (1970-71)
Vanderbilt University (1970-72)
Washington State University (1970-72)
Wayne State University (1970-71)
UtVight Institute of Tech. (1970-71)
University of Wisconsin (1967-69)
Worcester Polytechnic Inst. (1970-71)
University of Wyoming (1970-71)
Yale University (1970-71)


C taught by Ch.E. Dept; 1 quarter system. Credits approximate only; *student plans own program. Suggestion only but prerequisites and course
series may lock student into "normal" program; **Year of catalog or curriculum.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















E4RL,

ERNIE,

JOE,

and HARLEY

TELL IT

STRAIGHT.


They're Sun Oil recruiters.
You might meet one of them
face-to-face in a campus job
interview.
If you do, they'll tell you straight
about the petroleum industry, Sun
Oil Company and job opportunities.
Any other way, and you took a
job with Sun, you probably wouldn't
stay very long.
Take Ernie (he's black). He'll tell
you being black doesn't make very
much difference at Sun. He could
suggest that sometimes it helps,
citing the recent action of placing 25
million dollars of group insurance
with an all-black company.
Sun's not color-blind, or any


other kind of blind. It's just that in
our work, color or race or religion or
sex (within certain limitations)
doesn't have anything to do with it.
Then about the industry. Sure,
there's some pollution, but we're
working and spending like sin to
minimize it. We're also necessary.
Without gas, oil and grease for fuel,
power and lubrication America
would be in a mess.
Another point. Our industry is
responsible for nearly 11/2 million
jobs. That's a lot of opportunity.
So-if you've got the urge to
get into petroleum, and want to
check out one of the industry's
exciting, progressive companies,


see Earl Pearce, Ernie Harvey,
Joe Pew or Harley Andrews. Your
Placement Director will know when
they'll be on campus.
For more information, or a copy
of our Career Guide, write SUN OIL
COMPANY, Human Resources Dept.
CED, 1608 Walnut Street,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103. .
SUNOCO
An Equal Opportunity
Employer MI/F











If it doesn't shrink on their backs,

why should it shrink on yours.


Animals wear leather all their lives. And
they don't worry about rain or dirt or
cracking or hardening.
But as soon as they lose their hides,
that's when the trouble can start. With-
out protection, baseballs can shrivel up,
mini-skirts become micro-skirts, size 9
shoes become size 8.
Union Carbide got together with the
tanners to save a little bit of the world


from shrinking.
Wetooka little known chemical called
Glutaraldehyde and refined it and de-
signed it so it could be added to the
tanning process.
To give you a leatherthat resists hard-
ening. A leather that resists cracking. A
leather that doesn't shrink at the sight
of water.
We're out to save your hide.



S-.


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THE DISCOVERY COMPA


INY


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~RL




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