Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00036
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text




Your parents didn't put you through school

to work for the wrong company.

We think we're the right company.
We're big, but not too big.
We've climbed halfway up Fortune's
Directory of 500 Largest Corporations.
But compare the share of sales that
paper companies plow back into research.
Suddenly, we're no less than second.
What does this mean when you're
considering a career in paper production?
It means that production engineering
atWestvaco is influenced by continuous
research feedback. It means lots
of development work. Diversification.
Excitement. Research has given us
processes and equipment to make better

papers for printing, packaging, and
structures. But we need to continually
improve our processes. Speed them up.
Make them more efficient. That's your job.
Research has given us useful by-products,
too. High-grade specialty chemicals for
coatings, pharmaceuticals, inks and waxes.
And activated carbon adsorbents and
systems to alleviate water pollution.
But we need good engineers to recover
these by-products more efficiently. To
improve them. To find new uses for them.
In our company, working with paper
and paper by-products can mean good
careers in design engineering,

fluid dynamics, specialty chemicals,
process control, process R & D
and product development. And more.
Chances are, whatever you liked
and did best in college, we're doing
right now. And doing it well.
But find out for yourself. See our
campus representative, or contact
Andy Anderson, Westvaco,
299 Park Avenue, New York 10017.
Remember, all your parents want for
you is the best of everything. The least
you could do is join the right company.
An equal opportunity employer


i* *, -.;
,* *n ^^ --.,

, '-

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett

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Chemical Engineering Education

eh Te eootma edicaioa
62 ChE Technology Education,
George Burnet
62 Baccalaureate Programs in ChE Technology,
Jesse J. Before
66 Associate Degree ChE Technology Programs,
John Kushner
70 Peaceful Coexistence of Engineering and
Technology in the University,
M. A. Larson & R. C. Seagrave
54 The Educator
Fritz Horn of Rochester
56 Departments of Chemical Engineering
92 The Curriculum
Implementing Changes in Engineering
Education J. Edward Anderson
The Classroom
78 Comments on a Proctorial System of In-
struction Allen H. Pulsifer
80 Building a Multicomponent Distillation Com-
puter Program, J. P. Leinroth, Jr. & D. M.
Watt, Jr.
74 The Laboratory
Polymer Processing at Brooklyn Polytechnic,
Chang Dae Han
100 Ch E Division Activities

AIChE Reports
83 Plans for Academic and Industrial Research
Interaction, K. D. Timmerhaus
88 Foreign Language Requirements for the PhD
R. L. Kabel & T. F. Evans
85 Acknowledgments
60, 100 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year to non-members of the ChE Division of ASEE, $6 per year mailed to members
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Individual copies of Vol. 2 and 3
are $3 each. Copyright ( 1972, Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.


1M P educator

FRITZ HORN of Rochester

This article was prepared by Barbara Hale, Public
Relations, University of Rochester.

Theoretician Friedrich Horn insists, with a
gentle Viennese lilt to his voice that he was not
very good in school. That he was, in fact, a high
school drop out. Well, not quite-"You see," he
adds with a twinkle, "I had 'difficulties' in high
school because I only did what I wanted to do."
As a result, he could not finish academic high
school and went to technical school instead.
Still an individualist, Horn is currently doing
what he wants to do as professor of chemical en-
gineering in the College of Engineering and Ap-
plied Science at the University of Rochester,
Rochester, New York.
Horn rarely enters the laboratory today. His
chief tools are paper, pencil, and his own mind.
An innovator in many fields, he has an incisive
way, reports one UR colleague, which enables
him to move from one field to another clearing up
"foggy notions." Among the fields Horn has con-
tributed to are chemical reactor theory, the theory
of periodic processes, optimal design of chemical
systems, transport phenomena, and separation
theory, including chromatography.
Horn's academic "difficulties" as a young boy
in Vienna, Austria, where he was born in 1927,
were not repeated. The unhappy stint at high
school was followed by a successful turn at tech-
nical school during which he lost his early in-
terest in chemistry while developing a taste for
mathematics. His new interest persisted after
graduation and prompted him to try to study
mathematics at the University of Vienna. How-
ever, according to Horn, previous study of Latin
was a prerequisite for mathematics at the Uni-
versity. For Horn, who had no background in
Latin, the only outlet for an interest in math was
theoretical physics. So once again he altered
course, graduating with a Dipl. Ing. (equivalent
to an American master's degree) in theoretical
physics. Economic conditions forced him to look
for work immediately after graduation, and he
took a post as physicist in Frankfurt, West Ger-
many, at Farbwerke Hoechst, at that time one of
the three largest chemical industries in Germany.

CEE features an international
scholar with background at
Vienna, Frankfort, London, Minneapolis,
Houston, Pittsburg, and Rochester.

"This book is very dry; if there was
another flood you could use it for a raft"

The department in which Horn worked was
directed by the well-known physical chemist, L.
Kichler, and had a large chemical engineering
component. Horn says of this period that he
"didn't know anything about chemical engineer-
ing." He adds, "I didn't even know what a re-
flux was for." However, he knew things that some
of the chemical engineers didn't. He soon learned
about refluxingg" and a few other things from
Horn stayed with Farbwerke Hoechst from
1954 until 1962. He completed the Dr. Tech.
(equivalent to the American PhD) in 1958 at
the Technical University of Vienna while work-
ing and traveling back and forth between Frank-
furt and Vienna. Horn doesn't recommend the


Although he never wrote a computer program, he won the Max Buchner Preis der Dechema
fur 1963 for his development of new mathematical models of chemical processes and optimization
of processes with the computer.

During 1955-56, when computers were used
for the first time in German industry, Horn con-
structed models and proposed problems. Although
he never wrote a computer program, he won the
Max Buchner Preis der Dechema fiur 1963 for
his development of new mathematical models of
chemical processes and optimization of processes
with the computer. A UR colleague notes that
Horn's work on the optimal design of chemical
systems was at that time the mainstay of German
research in this area. Similar mathematics was
being developed in the U.S. and the Soviet Union,
but Horn worked independently and applied his
ideas directly to chemical systems.
Horn says that he found his industrial post
interesting and stimulating; nevertheless he did
something which in retrospect, he says, "appears
quite risky." He quit. He not only left industry
for academia but also left Germany for England,
without having studied English. Horn became a
lecturer in chemical engineering at Imperial Col-
lege, University of London, largely at the invita-
tion of K. G. Denbigh who was then at Imperial
and was interested in chemistry and mathematics
and their application to chemical engineering.
(Horn had met his future host in May, 1957, at
the first European Symposium on Chemical Engi-
neering in Amsterdam where Denbigh presented
a paper.)
At Imperial, Horn continued his work with
computers, particularly in chemical reactor
theory, and gradually became interested in the
theoretical aspects of chromatography and other
separation processes. He worked at clarifying the
fundamentals and, as always, his ideas were
picked up and built upon by others.
Horn taught at Imperial from 1962 to 1964,
when he received an invitation from Rutherford
Aris and Neal Amundson to lecture at the Uni-
versity of Minnesota. During his Minnesota visit,
he looked into the possibility of teaching in the
U.S. He insists that he was "very naive" about
American universities. "The U.S. has the ten
best and the ten worst universities, and I couldn't
tell them apart at the time," he jokes. "Fortu-
nately," he adds "I accepted a position at Rice
University in 1964."
At Rice, Horn helped to develop a new mathe-
matical sciences department, and became its first

chairman. In 1967 he also served as acting chair-
man of Rice's Department of Chemical Engineer-
ing. He continued research on optimization, ex-
ploring the question of whether non-steady-state
operation could improve reactor or plant produc-
tivity. In addition, he supervised eight PhD theses
among them those of D. C. Dyson, now associate
professor at Rice University and of J. E. Bailey,
assistant professor of chemical engineering at
Houston. Horn speaks of his students with quiet
pride, predicting of them that "they have already
done some very good things and should go on to
do more."
Horn's graduate students at the University of
Rochester (where he has been a faculty member
since 1970) speak of him with a mixture of ad-
miration, awe, and amusement. Amidst stories of
his wit (a typical class opening line: "This book
is very dry; if there was another flood you could
use if for a raft"), they will tell you of his ex-
pertise ("He's amazing, capable of seeing things
you never dreamed of") and kindness ("You can
go to him with the slightest problem. He wants
you to understand fully so that you don't waste
time doing something wrong."). As one student
put it, "He makes you work hard. He's inspiring
and fun."
After Rice, Horn spent a year as visiting pro-
fessor at Carnegie Mellon University, where his
interests shifted from plants and reactors back to
reaction kinetics and theoretical work in poly-
merization kinetics.
At the University of Rochester, as professor
of chemical engineering, Horn has continued his
studies in kinetics. He has, he says "become very
interested in the kinetics of biochemical systems,"
especially in certain kinds of oscillatory behavior
he calls "funny business." Up-coming publications
detail this work more fully.
Horn's contributions to chemical engineering
have been many. He will, but only when pressed,
modestly admit that he has contributed "maybe
five or six little ideas." Those "little ideas," ac-
cording to one UR colleague, have given people in
industrial practice new ways for better use of re-
sources. "The kinds of things he's done," the
colleague continues," make young people think
seriously about approaching a job in chemical
engineering." D



This article on a top-rated department was
written for CEE by "A. Committee"

"[In the face of financial adversity] we are
determined to maintain the quality of Princeton
as a university committed to providing excellent
undergraduate and graduate programs in care-
fully selected fields." These recent words of the
current Provost and President-designate provide
a succinct statement of Princeton's agenda for the
Much of Princeton's attractiveness derives
from its size-less than 5000 graduate and under-
graduate students-and its location-a town of

INA department

25,000 in exurban New Jersey, between New York
and Philadelphia and fifty miles from each. The
University's unique character, however, stems
from dual objectives: (1) to provide an under-
graduate education of high quality with the close
student-faculty interaction usually found only at
small liberal arts colleges, and (2) to attract
faculty and graduate students who will make sig-
nificant, original contributions to fundamental
The firm and long-standing commitment to
the "teacher-scholar" idea may seem romantic,
even anachronistic, to those weaned at the multi-
versity but the University's success in meeting
its objectives is undeniable. As one peruses the
catalogue, he cannot but be struck by the im-
posing number of distinguished faculty members
in subjects as disparate as Astrophysics, Music
and Economics. Yet the entire faculty is small
enough to meet once a month to act on matters
of University business. Such cohesiveness (and
democracy) is particularly important to the
School of Engineering and Applied Science, as is
the Administration's strong commitment to the
importance of technology in modern society.
Despite a growing, national bias against tech-
nology, there is a grudging recognition of the
requirement for technically trained people, willing
and able to apply their skills to a broad range
of national and international problems. Equally
pressing is the need for a technologically aware,
educated citizenry. A tentative step in the latter
direction is underway at Princeton, which is at-
tempting to make the School of Engineering and
Applied Science more accessible to students who
are not planning engineering careers. The School
intends to mount courses that will draw sub-
stantial elections from the student body as a
whole. Though quantitative, these courses will
place the opportunities and problems of a tech-
nological age into an historical and sociological
Instruction in engineering at Princeton dates
back to Cyrus Fogg Brackett and, indeed, the
School will observe its first centennial during
1973. The Department of Chemical Engineering
was founded in 1929 by Sir Hugh Taylor, then
Chairman of the Chemistry Department and later
Dean of the Graduate School. Taylor's choice for


The close-knit integrated character . is accentuated in the microcosm of the Department
where the student/faculty ratio is . about 6/1 counting both graduate and undergraduate students.

the first chemical engineering faculty member was
his former student, Joseph C. Elgin. Standing
witness to the wisdom of that choice is Joe Elgin's
distinguished career as a chemical engineer and as
Dean of Engineering from 1955 until 1971.
One of Joe's prime achievements as dean was
the conception and building of the Engineering
Quadrangle, first occupied in 1962. While local
critics may decry the Quadrangle's exterior as
deriving from the Women's State Prison style
of architecture, the interior is modern and func-
tional and the whole surrounds a lovely interior
courtyard. The latter is replete with towering
birches and pines and is graced by a modern
bronze sculpture of startling aspect ("That thing
has at least six rear ends," was the pungent
assessment of the late Richard Wilhelm). Twice
during the past year the student AIChE chapter
hag hosted the faculty and staff of the Department
for broiled hamburgers in the courtyard, just up-
wind from that sculpture.
The Chemical Engineering Department initi-
ated the first engineering doctoral program at
Princeton in 1942 and graduated its first PhD in
1947. A quantum jump in the strength of the
graduate program, as well as the major part of
the faculty's expansion to its present size, took
place during Dick Wilhelm's chairmanship from
1955 until his death in 1968.


The Departmental faculty spans a wide spec-
trum of backgrounds, personalities and research
interests. Five took their terminal degrees in
chemistry, one in mechanical engineering, and one
in physics. Seven have spent a significant portion
of their careers in industry; several spend sum-
mers in cooperative industry-university pro-
grams; active consulting practices serve to keep
many attuned to contemporary problems and op-
portunities in industry and government.
The close-knit, integrated character of the
University is accentuated in the microcosm of
the Department where the student/faculty ratio
is particularly low-about 6:1 counting both
graduate and undergraduate students. An easy in-
formality exists between students and faculty,
and the relationship is closer to one of compan-

ions in learning than of pupil and master. In the
Departmental research laboratories one fre-
quently sees faculty members, undergraduates
and graduate students working together. The
same familiarity extends to the tennis and squash
courts; to several annual, intra-departmental
tests of alcoholic capacity; and to the Depart-
ment's most recently organized sub-unit, a rock
music group called "Pegasus".
Egalitarian principles govern the assignment
of both graduate students and of seniors for
independent work. For example, assistant pro-
fessors comprise approximately 30% of the cur-
rent faculty and supervise approximately 30% of
both graduate and undergraduate dissertation
research. Both groups of students are given a
wide latitude in their choice of research topics
and for many years the split between experi-
mental and theoretical work has been roughly


The Department offers two programs of grad-
uate study, one leading to the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy, the other to that of Master of Science
in Engineering. Although most of the 50 to 60
students in residence are doctoral candidates, the
number of students who elect to terminate at the
masters level has risen in recent years reflecting
changing patterns of need in industry and re-
search organizations.
The only requirements for the masters degree
are the successful completion of six courses, not
specified except that they must be at the graduate
level, and the submission of an acceptable thesis.
These requirements can be met readily in one
calendar year.
There are no course requirements for the doc-
toral degree, but the candidate must demonstrate
a broad grasp of chemical engineering in the
general examination, an ability to translate scien-
tific material in a modern foreign language, and
competence and creativity in research not only
in the dissertation but also in the preparation of
a major research proposition in an area of chem-
ical engineering different from that of the dis-
sertation. The candidate must present a regular
departmental seminar on the dissertation and


Following is a current faculty roster along
with primary research interests and a hopefully
not too immodest mention of monographs, books
and awards.

R. P. Andres-Associate Professor. Kinetics of gas
phase reactions; nucleation phenomena, molecular beams.
R. C. Axtmann-Mobil Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering for Environmental Science. Environmental stud-
ies; energy conversion; radiation chemistry; Mossbauer
effect. Editor of and contributor to "Rescuing Man's En-
vironment: Nine Essays on Environmental Reform."
J. K. Gillham-Associate Professor. Polymer chemis-
try; mechanical spectroscopy of polymers.
E. F. Johnson-Professor and Director of Graduate
Studies. Automatic process control; thermonuclear power
generation; chemical kinetics. Author of "Automatic Pro-
cess Control."
M. D. Kostin-Associate Professor. Chemical kinetics
and thermodynamics; bioengineering.
L. Lapidus-The Class of 1943 Professor and Chair-
man of the Department. Optimization and control; nu-
merical methods. Author of "Digital Computation of
Chemical Engineers," "Optimal Control of Engineering
Processes," "Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential
Equations." AIChE Professorial Progress Award (1966);
ASEE Distinguished Lecturship in Chemical Engineering
B. Maxwell-Professor and Chairman of the Polymer Ma-

trials Program. Mechanical behavior and properties of
polymers. Designer of the Rheometer that bears his
D. F. Ollis-Assistant Professor. Catalysis; field ion
microscopy; biochemical technology; enzymes.
L. Padmanabhan-Assistant Professor. Optimal con-
trol and stability.
L. Rebenfeld-Visiting Lecturer with the rank of Pro-
fessor and President of the Textile Research Institute.
Structure and properties of polymeric fibers.
D. A. Saville-Associate Professor. Fluid mechanics;
interfacial phenomena; electrohydro-dynamics.
W. R. Schowalter-Professor. Fluid mechanics; rhe-
ology; multiphase flows. ASEE Distinguished Lectureship
in Chemical Engineering (1971).
N. H. Sweed-Assistant Professor. Separations; para-
metric pumping;: reaction engineering.
R. K. Toner-Professor and Assistant Chairman. Co-
author of "Conservation of Mass and Energy."
J. C. Whitwell-Professor. Physics and chemistry of
fibers; statistics. Co-author of "Conservation of Mass
Energy." Western Electric Fund Award for Excellence
in the Instruction of Engineering Students (1972).
G. L. Wilkes-Assistant Professor. Physical chemistry
of polymer materials; biological materials.
Professor J. C. Elgin, former Dean of the School of
Engineering and Applied Science, teacher, scholar, re-
cipient of the W. H. Walker Award of the AIChE (1957)
and the Lamme Award of the ASEE (1969), is retiring
this June after 43 years at Princeton.

defend the dissertation and the proposition in a
final public oral examination. Each candidate
must also serve one term as a part-time assistant
in instruction. Since no work is required of the
student beyond the meeting of his or her degree
requirements, the residence time for the doctoral
degree is relatively short, typically three and a
half years from the baccalaureate.
The variegated research interests of the fac-
ulty are, of course, reflected in the broad range
of research conducted by graduate students for
their dissertations. Some of the researches are
conducted in cooperation with related programs
and agencies such as the Textile Research Insti-
tute, the Polymer Science and Materials Pro-
gram, the Center for Environmental Studies, and
the Program in Applied Mathematics.
Although the doctoral program is firmly
focused on research, to assure continuing intel-
lectual growth all students are encouraged to take
courses regularly both within and without the
department. No grades are reported for depart-
mental courses; an internal record of performance
is maintained only for first year courses so as to
help the student in preparing for the general ex-

The graduate students come from a wide va-
riety of backgrounds and schools, except, by long-
standing departmental policy, they do not include
Princeton undergraduate alumni. Roughly a third
are foreign nationals and males predominate in
numbers, but not in talent nor in beauty.
Unmarried graduate students live at the Grad-
uate College, a handsome Gothic complex in which
students of all disciplines have opportunities to
interact intellectually and socially. Medieval cus-
toms persist there; for example, students wear
academic gowns (some of uncertain hygenic con-
dition) at the evening mean.
Married graduate students live in University
apartments at one of two sites on the perimeter of
the campus. The residential character of the Uni-
versity and the relatively small size of the Gradu-
ate School (circa 1400) make possible the housing
of most of the graduate student population on or
near the campus.
A large fraction of the graduate alumni have
entered teaching and now may be found on most
of the faculties of the major departments of chem-
ical engineering in the United States and Canada.


A non-inclusive list of distinguished teacher-
alumni might count Cohen of Pennsylvania, Deans
of Rice, Dranoff of Northwestern, Gilbert of Ne-
braska, Grethlein of Dartmouth, Hanratty of
Illinois, Lamb of Delaware, Manning of Tulsa,
Prausnitz of Berkeley, Quinn of Pennsylvania,
Schiesser of Lehigh, and Weaver of Tulane.
Even larger numbers have gone into industry
where many have risen to high levels of corpo-
rate responsibility. Others have joined consulting
organizations, national laboratories or govern-
mental units, while some have become business
entrepreneurs, financial specialists, lawyers, phy-
sicians, and clergymen. Finally, there is a per-
sistent report that a Princeton PhD in chemical
engineering now serves as short-order cook at a
pancake house in Providence, although no strong
effort has been made to verify the rumor.

An undergraduate chemical engineering stu-
dent has many interests. As do his peers, he wants
to participate in extracurricular activities, and he

does. He will be found on the athletic field, in
band and glee club, in undergraduate government,
and he has distinguished himself in all of these
and similar groups. However, his principal reason
for attending college is to obtain an education,
and so naturally his primary concern is with the
The undergraduate chemical engineering cur-
riculum may be considered as a tree with 38 com-
ponents. The roots are eleven courses in mathe-
matics, chemistry, and physics. These supply the
theoretical sustenance for the main trunk of eight
required departmental courses in the areas of
mass and energy balances, staged operations,
transport phenomena, thermodynamics, kinetics,
and design. Such a program provides the student
with the necessary education to enter graduate
study or to begin an industrial career. The re-
maining 50% of his curriculum is either elective
(complete freedom of choice) or selective (choice
within categories). At least nine of these choices
are technical, and the student may utilize them in
one of two ways.
To continue the arboreal metaphor, if he
wishes to arrange his study like a clump of birch
trees, he will develop another trunk running par-
allel with his chemical engineering major by
taking his technical electives in a cognate or topi-
cal area such as pre-medicine; bio-engineering,
or a similar subject oriented toward the life
sciences; environmental studies; energy conver-
sion and resources; engineering physics; another
science such as chemistry; applied mathematics;
or materials science, especially in the field of
polymers; etc. In the past students have chosen
all of these alternatives, but at the moment elec-
tives in the life sciences attract most of the stu-
dents who wish to specialize in both chemical
engineering and another field. Last year and this,
a student in the senior class has qualified for both
a BSE degree in Chemical Engineering and an
AB degree in Biology.
However, a student may not wish to concen-
trate so heavily in a second field. He may use his
technical electives in smaller groups of two or
three or even singly to secure branches, as it were,
augmenting his major interest in chemical engi-
neering. Both groups of students will complete
their programs with eight to ten non-technical
electives chosen from any area of study within
the University. These may be looked upon as the
leaves which give overall attractiveness to the
final product.


To complete this analogy, just as no two
trees in a forest are identical, so are no two stu-
dent programs the same. It is the intention of the
Department to provide each of its students with
a program tailor-made to his interests and career
objectives, involving just enough rigidity to give
depth and meaning to his study, and yet allowing
adequate flexibility to permit him to make the
most of his talents.
Students come to the Chemical Engineering
Department from many social and economic back-
grounds. Some students have definite ideas con-
cerning their future careers; others are quite
vague about what they wish to do; and nearly all
change their focus during the four years. It is,
therefore, important to keep as many doors open
as possible, since past experience has indicated
that Princeton's chemical engineering graduates
continue in chemical engineering study to the
MS or PhD degree, go on to graduate school but
in some other field such as chemistry, business
administration, law, or medicine, or enter indus-
try directly upon graduation. Traditionally our
students have come to us directly from public or
private secondary schools, but in recent years we
have had considerable success with students trans-
ferring from junior colleges or other universities
at either the sophomore or junior level. We en-
courage this trend, for some of our best and most
dedicated students in the recent past have been
transfer students.
Although students and their programs differ
widely, there are certain features of the curricu-
lum worthy of special note. A significant portion
of the senior year is devoted to independent work
leading to a thesis. Each student is allowed to
choose a topic which interests him and on which
he works independently under the guidance of a
faculty advisor who will have at most only three
such students. This independent work has not in-
frequently led to a publication, but in any case
it provides the student with the chance to bring
together loose ends and to apply his theoretical
background under his own initiative to a solution
of a problem. If he is one of those students en-
gaged in a topical program in addition to his
chemical engineering studies, the independent
work often bridges the two fields.
Since the University is best qualified to teach
principles, it relies upon industry to give the
student some experience with the world of appli-
cation and practice. Students are required to have
at least one summer of industrial employment,

normally between the junior and senior years.
Coming after a student has had most of his back-
ground courses but before he has made his final
career decisions, this industrial experience is not
only helpful as an adjunct to the classroom, but
has proved of real value in orienting the student
toward a successful career not previously con-
Perhaps one of the most important educational
benefits received by the chemical engineering stu-
dent at Princeton is the opportunity to room with,
eat with, study with, and relax with those whose
major interests are other than his-in economics,
literature, music, philosophy, art, politics, or any
of the other fields of study available at Princeton.
To be a member of a relatively small department
in a modestly sized School of Engineering and
Applied Science which itself is part of a large
liberal arts university provides the student with
a variety of experiences almost unattainable under
other conditions. Our students have proved that
they have the imagination and motivation to make
the most of their opportunities. E

M ol book reviews
Introduction to Thermodynamics: Classical and
Statistical, R. E. Sonntag and G. J. Van Wylen,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 813 pages, (1971).
The relation of thermodynamics to textbook
authors is similar to that of sex to movie pro-
ducers: the same material can be presented again
and again; there is no end to its fascination. Our
libraries are packed with thermo texts and the
flow of new ones continues unabated.
Professors Sonntag and Van Wylen from the
University of Michigan have written a large book
intended for engineering undergraduates who are
being exposed to thermodynamics for the first
time. Having previously written the successful
texts Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics
and Fundamentals of Statistical Thermodynam-
ics, the authors have now combined the essentials
of both of these earlier works into a new text
suitable for students at the junior level.
As in their earlier books, the authors have
written their text with remarkable clarity and
simplicity; their style is lucid, straightforward
and free of scholarly jargon and pomposity. The
text speaks directly to the beginning student in
language he can understand and read with ease.
The sentences are short, to the point and free of
(Continued on page 73)


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GEORGE BURNET, Symposium Chairman
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010
This symposium consists of three papers pre-
sented as part of the program of the Chemical
Engineering Division, ASEE at the Annual Con-
ference, Annapolis, Maryland, June 24, 1971.
Overall it serves to review the development of
chemical engineering technology education in the
United States, report the present status and look
to the future. Speaking for the authors, we are
indebted to CEE for early publication of the sym-
posium which we feel deals with an important
and timely topic.
In 1969-70 there were 24,001 two-year asso-
ciate degrees and 4,105 bachelor's degrees
awarded in engineering technology in the United
States1 Of these only 374 and 14, respectively,
were in chemical engineering technology. The
same year there were 42,966 bachelor's degrees
conferred in engineering 3,730 of which were in
chemical engineering. In light of these numbers,
one might ask why should we in chemical engi-
neering be concerned about technology education?
The answer to this question is becoming in-
creasingly apparent. Since World War II, the en-
gineering practice content of our curricula has
been greatly reduced to accommodate more work
in mathematics, socio-humanistic subjects and the
engineering sciences. While those in industry
recognize the need for a significant number of
young engineers so educated, the suppressed frus-
tration resulting from a steady diet of only this
type of new hire has recently surfaced in articles
appearing in Chemical Engineering2,3 and else-


where. The main point seems to be that colleges
should at least offer students an option of taking
a less theoretical course than is presently given.
This option could be a separate technology pro-
gram at the baccalaureate level or a bifurcated
(parallel) program within an established depart-
ment. The recently released Interim Report of the
ASEE Engineering Technology Education Study4
recommends that technology programs be "strong-
ly differentiated" from engineering programs in
terms of admission standards, faculty, adminis-
tration, etc. One of the papers in this symposium
offers as an alternative a program administered
within a single department and leading to the BS
in four years or the Masters in five. In either
case, the Masters as the first professional degree
is likely to become more common.
AIChE responded in 1969 to the need to be-
come more involved in technology. The Com-
mittee is active in curriculum studies, accredita-
tion, programming and technician affiliation.
Arnold Gully, the present chairman, served on a
panel with the speakers to answer questions dur-
ing a spirited discussion which followed the sym-
posium. 0

1. Alden, J. D., Engineering and Technology Degrees,
1969-70. Engr. Ed., 61, 431 (1971).
2. Reid, W. C., A Critical Appraisal of Today's Educa-
tion of Chemical Engineers. Chem. Engr., 77, No. 23,
106 (1970).
3. Calling for a Change in Ch.E. Education. Chem.
Engr., 78, No. 7, 99 (1971).
4. Interim Report, Engineering Technology Education
Study, ASEE, 53, June 1971.

Baccalaureate Programs in ChE Technology

Washington, D. C.

The baccalaureate technology curriculum is a
fairly recent development within the higher edu-
cation enterprise in the United States.
This is in contrast with engineering educa-
tion, which has in this country a history of
nearly two centuries, dating back to the founding

of the Military Academy at West Point in 1802,
followed shortly thereafter by the inauguration of
"civil" engineering at various institutions and
also by the establishment, in 1824, of Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, the first American insti-
tution of higher education devoted exclusively to
engineering education.
The brief history of baccalaureate engineering
technology education is also in contrast with the
*Present address: University of Florida, Gainesville,
Fla. 32601.


Jesse DeFore holds the PhD degree in Education from
Florida State University. He recently served as a full-time
assistant to Dr. L. E. Grinter, Director of the ASEE
Engineering Technology Education Study. Presently he is
a member of the Technical Education Section, College of
Education, University of Florida.

extended history of associate degree engineering
technology programs. These-in a precursor
form-existed as early as the 1820's as "me-
chanics institutes." Most of the early mechanics
institutes have failed to survive, although one-
the Ohio Mechanics Institute, now renamed Ohio
College of Applied Science and recently incorpo-
rated into the University of Cincinnati-exists to
this day. Hence, two-year programs in engi-
neering technology have a heritage of about 150
years duration.
Baccalaureate technology programs are ap-
preciably more recent than either engineering
programs or associate degree technology pro-
grams. There are records of only three institu-
tions offering baccalaureate technology programs
prior to World War II, and only about a dozen
schools were involved by 1950. The majority of
the programs now in existence-and some 110
institutions offer such curricula-were established
subsequent to 1960 and hence are less than ten
years old.

Perhaps the most noticeable attribute of bac-
calaureate programs in chemical engineering tech-
nology is their scarcity. This observer has been
able to identify only three institutions which offer
such curricula:
Lowell Technological Institute
Southern Illinois University
University of Dayton
These are apparently the only schools directly

involved in baccalaureate chemical technology
education. (And, even in one of these cases-the
University of Dayton-the bachelor's degree is in
"Technology," but is based on an associate degree
in "Chemical Technology.") There are, of course,
a number of schools indirectly involved. Some
institutions, for example, accept associate degree
chemical technology graduates-natives or trans-
fers-into the upper division of bacalaureate
technology programs that emphasize management,
supervision, or the like. There are, also, insti-
tutions which accept associate degree chemical
technology graduates into professional chemistry
curricula. Doubtless there exists a wide variety
of other similar articulation agreements and
program options which allow individuals to
achieve the objectives of a bacalaureate chemical
technology program, but the institutions which
have formally published curriculum guides for
such programs are limited to the three just named.
The existing baccalaureate chemical tech-
nology programs constitute an almost negligible
portion of the national enterprise in technological
education; such programs have apparently at-
tracted less interest, relatively, than either asso-
ciate degree chemical technology programs or
professional chemical engineering programs, as
the following will indicate:

Institutional Involvement. There are approximately 110
institutions in the U.S. which offer baccalaureate engi-
neering technology curricula; four of these, 4%, offer a
bachelor degree in chemical technology. In contrast, there
are some 840 institutions involved with two-year, post-
high-school, occupational education in this country, of
which 20% offer associate degree programs in chemical
(or chemical engineering) technology. And there are 274
engineering schools, of which about 40% offer chemical
Graduates. In 1969-70, 6.7% of all first degrees in
engineering were awarded in chemical engineering. In
that period, only about 1.5% of the associate degrees in
technology were in chemical technology, and a mere 0.3%
of the baccalaureate technology degrees were in the
chemical area.
Enrollments. In 1969-70, 7.2% of all engineering en-
rollments were in chemical engineering. The comparable
figure for associate degree engineering technology pro-
grams was 1.2% and that for B.E.T. programs was about

Thus, considering numbers and proportions of
institutions, graduates and students enrolled, the
educational enterprise related to baccalaureate
curricula in chemical technology represents a
lower level of educational activity than does the
corresponding effort in associate degree chemical


technology curricula or professional chemical en-
ginnering curricula.


The number of cases available for study is too
small to use as a basis for determining the "typi-
cal" structure of a baccalaureate chemical tech-
nology program per se. These curricula, however,
constitute a subset of baccalaureate engineering
technology curricula in general, and hence can
be expected to conform reasonably well to the
set of characteristics associated with such pro-
grams. For example, it was revealed in ASEE's
Engineering Technology Education Study that
baccalaureate engineering technology curricula
accredited by ECPD in 1970 had the following at-
tributes :
Length: 124 to 135 SH, Mean = 130 SH.
Mathematics: 12 to 15 SH, usually algebra, trigo-
nometry and two courses in analytic geometry and cal-
Physical Science: 8 to 12 SH, usually two courses in
physics; chemistry was frequently, but not always, re-
Technical Studies: 55 to 65 SH, including technical
sciences, the technical specialty, and courses to support
the major.
General Education and Other Studies: 20 to 30 SH
(mean = 26) of communications, humanities, social stud-
ies; about 20 SH of other subject matter which may in-
clude technical or non-technical electives.
Faculty: Varies with heritage of program. Where the
program evolved from an Industrial Arts Education back-
ground, many faculty members had degrees in education.
If the program grew from a former technical or voca-
tional-trade program, some faculty were without college
degrees. And if the program was closely allied to or split
from an engineering program, many faculty members were
engineers with B.S. and M.S. degrees. In every case, there
were a few faculty members with degrees in math,
physics, or other sciences.
Students: In many institutions, the junior class
seemed to contain a large number of transfers; while
"natives" constituted the majority, transfers sometimes
represented 40% of the upper division classes.
Graduates: Graduates were readily being employed,
in general, at salaries about 8% less than those com-
manded by newly graduated engineers. The data which
were available suggested that the majority of jobs of-
fered to recent graduates contained the word "engineer"
in the title, such as:
Sales Engineer
Production Engineer
Customer Engineer
Manufacturing Engineer
Assistant Engineer
Associate Engineer, etc.
None of the reports available showed use of the term

Perhaps the most noticeable attribute
of baccalaureate programs in chemical
engineering technology is their scarcity.

"technologist," but many other nouns did appear-
"supervisor," "manager," "director," "agent," and "super-
intendent" being among them.


It is interesting to compare the curriculum
guide for one of the four existing baccalaureate
chemical technology programs to the summary
data found in the ASEE study. Data for com-
parison appear below:

Curricular Area
of Illustration
Technical Specialty Studies
(Courses in the Major)
Related Technical Studies
(Supporting the major)
Technical Science
Physical Science
Humanities/Social Studies
Other (P.E., etc.)

Curricular Area,
ASEE Study Data
Technical Science, Techni-
cal Specialty, and Related
Technical Studies
Basic Science
General Studies






Percent Of



Percent Of


It is readily apparent that the illustration given
conforms closely with the population to which it
is being compared. (The illustration was not an
ECPD-accredited curriculum; in fact, there are
no chemical engineering technology curricula
among the baccalaureate engineering technology
curricula accredited by ECPD; an exception some
times possible is the undesignated "Technology"
curriculum at the University of Dayton.)
The illustrative curriculum falls well within
the guidelines which the Advisory Committee
of ASEE's Engineering Technology Education
Study has recommended for the future. These
guidelines are as follows:


Curriculum Guidelines
Subject Matter Area Time Allocation

Mathematics, basic science,
Technical Studies
Basic Science
Technical science, technical
specialty, and related
technical studies
Communications, Humanities and
Social Sciences, and electives
outside the major.

2% to 3'A years
About V2 year
About 1/ year

About 2 years

% to 1%1 years,
to Total 4 years

The Committee, in writing these curriculum
guidelines, has commented on the need for broad
technical science coverage, for technical courses
which are "up-to-date in the current state of the
art in a particular technology," and for "at least
one-third of all the courses in the curriculum, in-
cluding courses in the technical specialty, [to be]
upper division courses." It seems quite likely that
technology curricula can be developed within these
additional baccalaureate chemical engineering
guidelines to provide enhanced opportunities for
study at the baccalaureate level by graduates of
associate degree chemical engineering technology

At the present time, the manpower needs for
both associate degree chemical technicians and
bachelor degree chemical technologists are un-
clear. Reports indicate that recent graduates
have all been eventually employed, but that-
especially at the associate degree level-some job-
finding difficulties were experienced, salaries were
sometimes lower than anticipated and some jobs
were outside the discipline of preparation. Fur-
thermore, the chemicals industry has historically
maintained a low technician-to-engineer or scien-
tist ratio: while nationally, this figure is now (for
all employers) about 63 technicians per 100 engi-
neers or scientists, and many observers advocate
1:1 or 2:1 ratios, it is only 0.09:1 in the chemi-
cal industries. (It is not known whether this
low figure reflects the real manpower need, is a
condition of manpower supply, or is the result of
other factors.)
In general, considering long-term trends,
there seems to be cause for cautious optimism
about increased opportunities for chemical tech-
nicians and technologists, although the immed-
iate prospects are less bright than one might
hope. Manpower needs in the chemical area are

At the present time, the manpower needs
for both.. chemical technicians and
... chemical technologists are unclear...

possibly somewhat less sensitive to fluctuations
in the national economy than are corresponding
needs in the aerospace industry, for example, but
are still related to national production levels. The
employment outlook situation for chemical tech-
nicians and technologists is unlikely to be sub-
stantially improved until the national economy
recovers. The Advisory Committee of ASEE's
Engineering Technology Education Study urges
caution in attempts to meet future manpower
needs, especially insofar as technologists (four-
year graduates) are concerned. Although the
Committee sees a coming ". . movement upward
in production [which implies that] industry will
need an increased input of technicians and tech-
nologists," it warns that ". . it is well to balance
enthusiasm for this new development with the
recognition that the overall need for high level
technologists cannot be measured until industry
and government have had increased experience
with their employment and their productive
value. A gradual development of new programs
with continuing evaluation of results will provide
the opportunity to adjust the production of bac-
calaureate graduates to employment oppor-

Baccalaureate engineering t e c h n o logy
(B.E.T.) programs in general are a fairly recent
development in American higher education. As
yet, chemical engineering technology curricula
constitute a relatively small proportion of the
B.E.T. programs which exist.
B.E.T. programs which were accredited by
ECPD in 1970 had course patterns in which typi-
cally 45% of the work was devoted to technical
studies, 20% to math and science, and 35% to
general education and other studies. A chemical
engineering technology curriculum examined as
an illustration showed close agreement-47%,
19.5%, 33.5%, respectively-with the "typical"
accredited B.E.T. program.
The employment outlook for chemical tech-
nologists, the graduates of four-year programs
in chemical technology or chemical engineering
technology, is as yet unclear, although some
reasons for cautious optimism exist. 0


Associate Degree ChE Technology Programs

Broome Technical Community College
Binghamton, N. Y. 13902

Programs that lead to an associate degree in
Chemical Engineering Technology have developed
predominantly since World War II. A major fac-
tor in the establishment of most programs was the
report of the President's Commission on Higher
Education and Manpower Needs For The Post-
World War II Period. This report was released in
The findings of the Commission led to the
recommendation that two-year post-high school
educational institutions set up programs to train
personnel to fill the manpower gap that existed
between the engineers and/or scientists and the
skilled craftsmen. This gap was to be filled by
the engineering technician, a sub-professional,
who would have enough theoretical background
and laboratory experience to do the benchwork or
hands-on work that engineers and scientists were
doing because the skilled workers could not do it.
There was also the feeling that such a growth in
science and technology would develop that there
would not be enough people to train at the four-
year and graduate levels and that too much time
would be required to educate B.S. and graduate
students. Technicians could be turned out in one-
half to one-fourth of the time needed to produce
B.S. and graduate school diploma recipients.
The Commission's report felt that optimally
there would be a multiple number of technicians
under the supervision of a scientist or engineer.
The technicians would free the scientists and engi-
neers from bench work to devote more time to
thinking about and designing projects.
The recommended two-year colleges or techni-
cal institutes would be located in a geographical
area with enough industry that could use tech-
nicians. New York State established five experi-
mental institutes at Binghamton, Buffalo, Brook-
lyn, Utica, and White Plains in 1946. Only Utica
did not have a program to train chemical tech-
nicians. The Ag and Tech colleges at Farming-
dale and Canton also instituted similar programs.
The institutions opened in September 1947. Other
states followed and the number of programs in-

creased as well as the geographical distribution.
Not all the initial programs or present programs
were or are E.C.P.D. approved. Many would not
provide funds for equipment or manpower to
meet E.C.P.D. standards.

The early programs were set up with the aid
of advisory committees composed of technical and
scientific personnel from area industries. An at-
tempt was made to satisfy as many industrial
needs by including appropriate subject matter as
was possible. Most curricula included the stand-
ard courses in general chemistry, quantitative
analysis, organic chemistry and chemical engi-
neering (stoichiometry, unit operations). Satisfy-
ing industrial wants required the inclusion of
courses in metallurgy, strength of materials, pho-
tography, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and physical
chemistry. Some curricula contained only one or
two specialty courses; some had three. An early
curriculum at Broome Technical Community Col-
lege (originally the New York State Institute of
Applied Arts and Sciences) follows.

Subject Hours
1st Quarter
Mathematics 5
Electricity 4%
General Chemistry 51/
Engineering Drawing 2
English 3
Modern Society 3

2nd Quarter
General Chemistry
Qualitative Analysis


3rd Quarter
Mathematics 4
Qualitative Analysis 3
Quantitative Analysis 6
Organic Chemistry 6
English 3

Subject Hours
1st Quarter
Quantitative Analysis 6
Organic Chemistry 6
Mechanics 4%

*Metals and Alloys 4%
2nd Quarter
Organic Chemistry 6
Industrial Chemistry 6
Instru. Methods 3
Sociology 3
Human Relations 3
*Health 2
3rd Quarter
Industrial Chemistry 6
Instru. Methods 31/
*Physical Chemistry 4
*Strength of Materials 4%
Non-tech Elective 3

*To satisfy specific
industry needs.



John Kushner graduated from the Colorado School of
Mines in Metallurgical Engineering holds the MS and the
PhD degrees in Education from Cornell University. Fol-
lowing eight years of industrial experience, he joined
Broome Technical Community College where he has
served for 24 years; most recently as Chairman of the
Chemical Technology Department. He has served as a
Regional Chairman for the ECPD Engineering Technology

The quarter terms were 12 weeks long. The
half-credit hours are the result of giving a 11/2
credit hours for a three-hour laboratory. The
students had 28-30 contact hours. The credit
hours and contact hours at Broom were very high
but about the same as other two-year institutions.
The curriculum contained the standard courses
found in the first two years of undergraduate
study in chemistry and then some. The humani-
ties and social sciences were minimal.
The early two-year college graduates had a
difficult time finding employment. The early gradu-
uates may well have been offered jobs so that
industry would not be in the awkward position of
not wanting what it had stated was desirable and
The work of the Broom graduates was fol-
lowed closely and the result was a change in the
curriculum during the middle fifties. The new
curriculum had mathematics, physics, English,
general chemistry, and a social science elective in
the first year. Organic, analytical chemistry in-
cluding instrumental methods, unit operations,
and a social science course were in the second

E.C.P.D. entered the technician education pic-
ture decisively in the mid-fifties with its set of
guidelines. The mathematics level was upgraded to
include teaching of the calculus and its use in
problem solving. Industry had learned to use the
graduates effectively and now wanted them upon
graduation. The compliance with E.C.P.D. guide-
lines led to the upgrading of instruction so that
many four-year institutions granted considerable
transfer credit to graduate technicians. The move
by technicians to transfer to B.S. programs was
encouraged by people in industry and existing
personnel policies with regard to promotion.
New Chemical Engineering Technology pro-
grams instituted during the sixties were struc-
tured to meet E.C.P.D. guidelines. Essentially
they contained mathematics, physics, English,

The technicians would free the
scientists and engineers from
bench work and to devote more time
to thinking about and designing projects

general chemistry, and an elective in the social
sciences in the first year and organic chemistry,
analytical chemistry (including instrumental
methods), chemical engineering (stoichiometry
and unit operations), physical chemistry, com-
puter programming, and a calculus course in the
second year. Engineering drawing also was and
is a basic first year course for two credit hours.
E.C.P.D.-accredited programs in Chemical En-
gineering Technology now exist in fourteen insti-
tutions. There are four in New York, three in
Connecticut, three in Pennsylvania, three in the
midwest (Ohio, Wisconsin, Iowa), and one in
South Carolina. Non-E.C.P.D. accredited pro-
grams are located in four New York institutions,
one in Pennsylvania, and one in Massachusetts.
Most non-accredited programs usually lack courses
and facilities in the chemical engineering areas.

To obtain up-to-date information on curricu-
lum and enrollment, eleven schools where chemical
engineering associate degree programs are offered
were contacted. A response was received from
eight. The names of those responding are: Iowa
State; SUNY Ag and Tech College at Farming-
dale; Hudson Valley Community College; Mid-
lands Technical Education Center at Columbia,
South Carolina; Hazelton Campus of Penn State
University; Norwalk State Tech College, Norwalk,
Connecticut; Waterbury State Tech College,
Waterbury, Connecticut; Broome Technical Com-
munity College, Binghamton, New York.
The programs reported show some change
from previous programs. Physical chemistry has
been deleted in most cases. It has been replaced
by a nontechnical elective or no substitution has
been made and contact and credit hours have been
reduced. Most programs offer more calculus as an
elective or as a requirement. The credit hours
vary from 96-120 quarter credits or 64-80 se-

ECPD-accredited programs in
chemical engineering technology
now exist in fourteen institutions ... Most
non-accredited programs usually lack
course and facilities in the chemical
engineering area.


Enrollment statistics are depressing. There has been a steady decline in entering students
and in the number of graduates. The decrease in the number of first-year
students in the responding colleges for the past five years varies between 30-65%.

mester credits for the A.A.S. degree and can be
summarized as shown below. Not all institutions
require all the courses shown.



x Math (Alg, Trig, Analyt, Calc)
x General Chemistry
x Physics
xx Drawing
x English
xx Computer Programming
xx Stoichiometry or Tech Calc

x Organic Chemistry
x Analytical (including
Instr. Methods)
xx Math (Calc)
(Stoichiometry or Tech Calc

Quarter Credit Hours
Mini- Maxi- Ma-
mum mum jority
10 15 12
12 15 12
12 16 12
1 4 2


(Unit Operations
x Social Science
x Year-long sequence
xxOne quarter course

The Chemical Engineering
gram has a counterpart, the Chen

Freshmen Graduates
1967 254 106
1971 145 66
Some colleges have had such poor enrollments
that their programs have been phased out. The
outlook is not bright. Three or four E.C.P.D.-
accredited programs are or will be phased out by
June 1971, and two non-accredited programs are
now being phased out or may soon be phased out.


9 9 9 The placement of graduates has been very
0 5 3 good until 1971 when recruiters have been looking
and hiring technicians in restricted numbers. This
restriction is not due to a lack of job opportuni-
uarter Credit Hours ties but to the management-dictated freeze on
[ini- Maxi- Ma- employment.
aum mum jority The largest number of graduates has gone
4 15 12 into chemistry areas rather than into the engi-
8 15 12 neering areas. In some colleges most graduates
3 4 3 have gone into engineering-type positions. One
0 5 4 deterrent to engineering-type work by graduates
has been the union bargaining settlements that in-
0 15 10 clude most positions in the production areas. Man-
9 15 9 agement and the graduates usually have not cared

to have the technician subjected to union regula-
tion of rank, pay, and promotion. The laboratory
technologyy pro- route to production supervision has by-passed
nical Technology the union problem.

or Technician program in chemistry. The non-
engineering programs usually do not have engi-
neering drawing, engineering calculations (chemi-
cal engineering stoichiometry), or unit operations.
They may include more non-technical courses and
a non-chemistry science. These programs are gen-
erally structured after the first two years of B.S.
programs but contain more analytical chemistry
than is normally required for a B.S. degree and
more lab time.
Enrollment statistics are depressing. There
has been a steady decline in entering students and
in the number of graduates. The decrease in the
number of first-year students in the responding
colleges for the past five years varies between
30-65%. The decrease in the number of graduates
for the past five years varies between 30-50%.
The following figures have been compiled from the
responses of the eight schools reporting.

Future curricula will include more transfer-
rable courses. More calculus will be required or be
made available to students as will more courses
in the so-called general education area. The course
theory will parallel that of similar courses given
at institutions to which students will transfer.
There will be a cut in laboratory hours to provide
more math and non-technical courses.
This personally projected trend in the curri-
culum will lead to the demise of the chemical engi-
neering technology programs. The initial intent of
the programs was not to provide transfer credits
for entry into the third year of engineering or
chemistry programs. Some four-year institutions
have set up special programs for two-year college
graduates so they can graduate in two or three
years after transferring. These two or three years


Future curricula will include more transferrable courses. More calculus will
be required or be made available to students... There could be a cut
in laboratory hours to provide more math and non-technical courses.

are the minimum time for students who have
completed the first two years at the B.S. granting
Most graduates of the E.C.P.D.-accredited pro-
grams do not go to work but transfer to B.S.
granting institutions. The number has increased
with time. Two colleges reported that 80 % of the
graduates aspire to or go on to four-year col-
leges. The colleges for the eastern part of the
country show a spread between 50-80% going
on to four-year colleges. The figures reported else-
where are lower.
There is little question of the future need for
engineering technicians. Industry has learned how
to utilize their backgrounds. The question that
arises is: "Will there be technicians to hire?"

The preceding portion of this paper has
covered the suggested topics that may be of in-
terest to anyone connected or concerned with the
Chemical Engineering Technology programs. It
has probably raised some questions about the de-
cline in enrollments, graduates, and number of
institutions involved in these programs. These
questions may include the following. The answers
shown are those that have been developed in dis-
cussions with persons in the academic and in-
dustrial worlds.
Q. Does industry need the present level of education
for technicians or does it desire this level now because it
has been provided?
A. Industry is happy to get technicians as well-trained
as possible and pays them according to their abilities. It
would and could use technicians with lesser backgrounds
but would have lower entry salaries than those it pays
technicians with the current high level backgrounds.
Q. Has the B.S. degree syndrome of parents, industry,
and society cut off applicants, and graduates from becom-
ing technicians?
A. There is little question that there are persons en-
rolling in B.S. programs who do not complete the pro-
grams but who might have become good technicians. The
A.A.S. degree is still not regarded as a sign of a quality
education by too many people.
Q. Have the programs become too transferrable be-
cause of course and faculty requirements?
A. The graduates of chemical engineering technology
programs are being accepted more readily by many in-
stitutions as third-year students. Options in mathematics
lead to a good level of mathematical competence; the

level of the chemistry texts and the treatment of subject
matter approaches or equals that in many four-year
institutions. A high point average is the key which makes
the graduate acceptable to most institutions. Faculty may
unconsciously or consciously be dividing their students into
groups as technicians or as transfer candidates. The
faculty requirements in courses have moved upward over
a period of years so that potential technicians could not
measure up to the higher level of instruction.
Q. Has industry's hiring and promotion policy required
A.A.S. degree holders to get a B.S.?
A. Industry says that it pays its workers for perform-
ance of required work and potential. There is often similar
work done by A.A.S., B.S., and B.A. degree holders with
different scales. Since the technician cannot usually get
the same pay for the same work because of his A.A.S.
degree, he quickly decides to get a four-year degree and
he no longer wants to be or is classified as a technician.
But is he entirely happy? Perhaps. He is not if he is
still doing technician work. He wonders why he had to
get a four-year degree if his work doesn't require a
higher formal level of education.
Q. Do faculty want to upgrade teaching effectiveness or
upgrade the rigor of courses?
A. The hardest part of teaching is teaching to the
average student fundamentals which he can understand
and use. This is not glamorous or "exciting" work. Most
faculty would probably prefer teaching at a level where
they would be intellectually stimulated. This is a normal
preference. Excitement and satisfaction can be obtained
by devising and trying to teach more effectively at a level
that the average technician can understand. The student
who can pass rigorous course requirements does not be-
come or stay a technician.
Q. What measures can be taken to insure that these
programs will not fade out of the educational picture and
leave the technician area again void of well-qualified
A. The measures needed to insure the continuation of
the A.A.S. degree programs are manifold. Those who are
concerned have their own varying views. Some are:
Lower the present rigor of courses.
Restructure programs.
Publicize the need for technicians.
Upgrade the "social status" of the A.A.S. degree.
Encourage closer contact with students to help
them overcome difficulties or situations.
Make remedial work mandatory (?).
Develop better rapport with high schools to obtain
students for the programs.
One cannot be at all optimistic about the fu-
ture of programs in Chemical Engineering Tech-
nology as they are currently structured and im-
plemented. There has to be a critical assessment
made and change is mandatory for survival and
regeneration or rebirth. E



Peaceful Coexistence of Engineering

and Technology in the University

Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010

The current concern among engineering edu-
cators with regard to the place of technician,
technology, and engineering programs has re-
sulted from a gradual shift in the technology spec-
trum over the last 40 years. Because of rapid ad-
vances in technology, the number of practitioners
has rapidly increased, and as a consequence, the
functions of the individual practitioners have nar-
rowed and stratified. While this was due in part
to the demands of the various industries who
employed people with technological interest, some
of the stratification was a result of the trend in
engineering education toward more science and
Within chemical engineering education we
have seen in the past 15 years increased emphasis
on transport phenomena, mathematics, process
control, thermodynamics, kinetics and reactor de-
sign at the expense of practice oriented labora-
tories and plant design courses. Those depart-
ments most successful in contributing to the litera-
ture in these fields were given high marks on the
prestige scale, and the better students sought out
these schools. As a result, our better graduates
in chemical engineering became, for the most part,
"science oriented" rather than "practice orien-
ted." "Practice" had fallen into disrepute.
This is not to say that this change in emphasis
was bad. It was sorely needed and was, in the
main, highly beneficial and indeed necessary to
our profession. It has however, caused rather
wide gaps in the technology spectrum. Dean Loh-
mann (1) has illustrated this evaluation for the
whole engineering profession in a recent discus-
sion in Professional Engineer. His description is
totally applicable to chemical engineering. Figure
1 illustrates Dean Lohmann's picture of this eval-
uation of the technology spectrum. The gap which
appeared in the early 60's was filled in part by
engineers. However, by-in-large the engineers
filling that gap were educated for more creative
and challenging technical work, causing dissatis-
faction in the employer as well as in the engineer.
Often we in education heard the complaint that


Craftsman Engineer Scientist
Pre-World War II


Craftsman Engineer -- Gap Scientist

Immediate Post-World War IT


Craftsnan -[ Gap-- Engineer Scientist

Early 1960's

Associate S. Degree
Craftsman Degree Tenhnologist Engineer Scientist

Figure I. Teehnoltgy Spectrum (M,R. Lohmann, Professional Engineer ,
Nov. 1970, p. 30.).

our graduates were not educated to 'do' anything
but only to analyze or theorize.
But when 'gaps' appear, nature, or man, hur-
ries to fill those gaps, and today we see an in-
creasing tendency for schools of higher learning,
whether they be community colleges or universi-
ties, racing to provide programs which will edu-
cate students to fill the gaps.

Our question as chemical engineering educa-
tors is, how do we as educators and as designers
of curricula respond to these changes? What re-
sponsibilities do we have to design programs for
technicians, technologists and engineers? To com-
plicate matters, we are asked to respond at a time
when our professional organizations are continu-
ally calling for more science and more mathe-
matics in our engineering curricula. Isolated re-
sponse to the latter can only lead to more stratifi-
cation in the technology spectrum.
How then do we resolve this dilemma? Do we


Maurice A. Larson holds the BS and PhD degrees from
Iowa State University. From 1951 to 1954 he was em-
ployed by the Dow Corning Corporation. In 1955 he joined
the faculty at Iowa State where he presently is Chairman
of the College of Engineering Long-Range Study Com-
mittee. (Right)
Richard C. Seagrave received the BS degree from the
University of Rhode Island and the PhD degree from Iowa
State University ('61). He taught at the University of
Connecticut and Cal Tech prior to returning to Iowa State
in 1966. He is Chairman of the Chemical Engineering
Curriculum Committee, and is serving as Acting Head of
the Biomedical Engineering Department. (Left)

attempt to provide programs for all levels; or in
order to maintain our prestige, stand aloof and
concern ourselves only with 'engineering science';
or are we to embrace some middle ground so that
our influence can be at least felt in the organiza-
tion of all of these curricula? We believe we must
do the latter.

First, we must define the functions of the
three levels of technology for which we admit re-
sponsibility. To do this, we turn to the recent
goals report for Engineering Technology.2 Briefly
stated we define these functions as follows:
Technician: This function is regarded as routine,
requiring some rudimentary college mathematics and
an interest and knowledge in chemistry. It is a non-
managerial function not necessarily requiring a cre-
ative interest.
Technologist: This function assumes some super-
visory responsibility for engineering work. A prac-
titioner should be capable of routine design and the
direction of others. He should have some creative in-
terest. There may be considerable overlap of this
function with the engineering function.
Engineer: The basic functions of the engineer are
the creation of new designs, the performance of basic
engineering research, development and managerial
work. He has the greatest ability to extend his spe-
cific education.

Often we in education heard the complaint
that our graduates were not educated to "do"
anything but only to analyze or theorize.

We would envision technicians employed in
such positions as engineering aides, laboratory
technicians, draftsmen and process operators.
Technologists would function best as routine de-
signers, production supervisors, salesmen and
technical servicemen. Engineers will continue to
function in research, development, creative design
and managerial capacities as well as in some tech-
nical service positions.

Using these definitions, it is obvious that a pro-
gram to train technicians has significantly dif-
ferent philosophical objectives than a program
for education for the other two functions. A tech-
nician program should appeal to a less creative or
technically capable individual with somewhat
different career objectives. For this reason, we
feel that two-year, and perhaps four-year tech-
nician training programs should not and cannot
properly coexist with engineering in an engineer-
ing college of a university. Many problems arise
when more than one 'level' of undergraduate in-
struction is attempted by the same faculty body.
We feel these programs should be handled as they
largely are now-by community colleges and
specialized schools close to the students place of
residence. We do feel however, that teachers with
engineering training, outlook and experience
would be employed in curricula planning and im-
plementation of these programs.
On the other hand, technology programs have
much in common with engineering programs. The
objectives of the graduates would be similar, al-
beit for somewhat different functions. We feel
that the foundation courses should be identical
and that the technical interest and capability
should be comparable for both functions. In short,
education for both functions is properly conducted
at the university undergraduate level, and should
attract students of the same capability. The dif-
ference in the two programs should lie in the sub-
ject matter in the later years and in the depth of
the subject matter which is common. The latter
feature implies that professional engineering edu-,
cation would involve a longer educational tenure
than the technology education.
For the above reasons we feel that large
chemical engineering departments have the re-


... it is intended that the first professional
degree in engineering would be the Master of
Engineering degree and that the technology degree
would be the Bachelor's degree

sponsibility to provide technologist programs
along with their professional engineering pro-
grams. These programs should be roughly com-
parable in level to the chemical engineering pro-
grams of the late 1950's but with substantially
fewer hours. We assume that technologists will
fill many of the jobs that engineers are now hired
to fill.


To implement an integrated program for tech-
nologists (as previously described) and engi-
neers, it is necessary to incorporate as much inter-
changability as possible but yet maintain the es-
sential character of the two functions. In addition,
the common portions, especially in the first two
years, should be structured to permit as many
options as possible at the end of two years; even
the option of pursuing a non-engineering technical
or science program. We feel that the program
shown in Figure 2 satisfies most of these require-

B.s. in
Chiemial Technology
(10 or.)

S y e r s l M a s ter o f En g in
Chemical Engineering
135 cr. (225 or.)

PFigura 2. A Proposed Integrated Curriculum

The main feature of this program is that it
provides a common first two years which would be
oriented in terms of basic science toward process
engineering. This means more chemistry than
many other engineering disciplines desire. One
method of yielding to the press for commonality
among engineering disciplines is to structure the
program so that it would be appropriate for stu-
dents interested in metallurgy, ceramic engineer-
ing, sanitary engineering, engineering science and
other process-oriented students. It is clear that
with the exception of engineering graphics, the
program would be appropriate for potential
chemistry majors as well.
The subject matter offerings listed for the
final years of matriculation would be identical

for the two programs. That is, no special courses
would be taken in a given subject matter area.
For example, the technologist would take the first
two quarters of a three quarter sequence in
physical chemistry. The engineering student
would take all three. The one exception to the
above philosophy would be in design. A special
design course designed to exploit the engineering
student's greater depth would be given in the
fifth year.
We note here that it is intended that the first
professional degree in engineering would be this
Master of Engineering Degree, and that the tech-
nology degree would be the Bachelor's degree. We
would expect the technologist degree to be com-
parable in level to our current BS degrees in
engineering but requiring substantially less hours
than most of our current programs.
I B, S. Program

Basic Program

1 Year
Math 15
English 8
Chemistry 13
Graphics 6
Speech 3

2 Year
Org. Chema.
Ch. E.
SoB. Hum.

3 Year
P. Chem
Eng. Mech.
Ch. E.
Cmp. Sci.
Soc. Hum.
E. E.

3 Year
P. Chen. :
Soa. Hum.

4 Year
Design 9
T. Ops, 9
Statistics 3
Control 3
Lab 6
Thermo 3
Tech. Elec. 3
I. Ad. 3
s.oc, Hum. 6

4 Year
Tr. Ops. 9
Math .3
Thermo Kin. 6
Control 6
Computers 3
Lab 6
Physics 3
SEc. Hum. B

5 Year
Design 9
E,.. 6
Biohem. 3
Ch.E. Eler. 12
Tech. Elec. 9
Soc. Hum. 6


S1. E. Program
Table 1. Proposed Subject Matter in an Integrated Techbnology
and Engineering Curriculum.
Table 1 gives a sample outline of the subject
matter in the two programs. We note significant
overlap in the alternate final programs. The prin-
cipal differences are the orientation and the depth.
In addition to the example of physical chemistry
previously cited we note the similar nature of
the process control requirements.
Offering such programs side-by-side increases
the options of the student, enabling him to change
his objectives later in his educational career as he
develops a better understanding of his techno-
logical field. The common two-year pre-engi-
neering program provides more flexibility and will
provide the students who might wish to transfer
to chemical engineering from some other program
a greater opportunity to do so. The five year first
professional master degree program will provide
greater flexibility for a student to 'plan his own
way'-a feature which is sorely needed. Lastly,


The main feature of this program is that it provides a common first two
years which would be oriented in terms of basic science toward process engineering.
The subject matter . for the final years would be identical for the two programs.

the reduction in hours will make the engineering
and technology curricula more realistic when com-
pared to other university programs.

We do not address the graduate program here
but we feel that graduates from either program
would be fully qualified (given adequate perform-
ance) to proceed to graduate school in engineer-
ing. We would expect the ME degree holder to
proceed to the PhD directly. The BS degree holder
might first wish to work toward the ME or the
MS degree. This however, would depend on the
graduate program organization at his university
of matriculation.

In summary, we feel that as chemical engi-
neering educators we have a responsibility to
design and implement university-level bachelor
degree programs in technology to meet the need
for this function and for the student desiring to
pursue such a career. Further, we have the respon-
sibility to expand our professional program to a

BOOK REVIEW (Cont'd from p. 60)
those qualifying clauses that are so dear to
writers of articles in learned journals. The draw-
ings are pristinely schematic; they beautifully
represent situations reduced to their bare essen-
tials, free of frills and complications. There are
many worked-out problems that are discussed
sympathetically but without condenscension. At
the ends of the chapters there are an unusually
large number of problems with answers to some of
them given in the appendix. It is evident from
the care and attention to details with which this
book was written that Professors Sonntag and
Van Wylen must be experienced and highly suc-
cessful teachers.
The book moves very slowly: the second law
does not appear until page 179; entropy enters
on page 207 and the Maxwell Relations do not
show up until page 386! Since the authors are
mechanical engineers, there is a wealth of dis-
cussion of power cycles, refrigerators and simi-
lar mechanical applications. There is a chapter

more flexible five-year program and to recognize
this program as of a higher level and therefore
award the Master of Engineering degree as evi-
dence of successful completion. Finally, we feel
that these two programs complement each other
and provide for interaction of people interested
in the different functions at both the student level
and the faculty level.
With regard to technician programs, we feel
there is a definite need, but that the programs are
not compatible with engineering programs and
should be offered elsewhere. We do feel, however,
that chemical engineers have a responsibility in
the design of technician program curricula and
implementation, and that some chemical engineers
should look to this as a necessary and satisfying
endeavor and a fruitful career objective. El

1. Lohmann, M. R., The Engineer's Place in the Tech-
nology Spectrum. Professional Engineer, November,
1970, p. 30.
2. Engineering Technology Education Study, Prelim-
inary Report, American Society for Engineering Edu-
cation, December 15, 1970.

on chemical reactions which summarizes material
(e.g., flame temperatures) that chemical engi-
neers learn in stoichiometry courses. In the chap-
ter on chemical equilibria, it is a pleasant change
to read about equilibria in high-temperature com-
bustion and argon plasmas instead of the usual
synthesis of ammonia. However, discussion of real
gases, mixtures and phase equilibria is extremely
short and limited to highly idealized cases like
Raoult's law. Fugacity is mentioned briefly but
activity and activity coefficient are not mentioned
at all.
Should statistical thermodynamics be taught
to undergraduate engineering students? This
question has been debated by educators for many
years and it is clear that Professors Sonntag and
Van Wylen answer affirmatively. The last quarter
of their book is devoted to an introduction of how
statistical considerations (molecular distribu-
tions and models) can lead to a formulation of
thermodynamics which is related to molecular
properties. The authors discuss the principles of
(Continued on page 98)




Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Brooklyn, New York 11201

LYN (PIB) has long been recognized as a strong-
hold for education and research in polymer
science and engineering. More than thirty years
ago, a world-renowned polymer chemist, Dr.
Herman Mark, started the polymer science pro-
gram and established the Polymer Research In-
stitute in the Chemistry Department.
In the Department of Chemical Engineering,
Professor Paul F. Bruins has devoted his entire
professional career during the past 35 years to
education and research in Polymer Engineering
Technology. The first graduate course in Plas-
tics Technology was organized in 1939 with the
encouragement and assistance of Mr. Charles
Breskin, publisher and editor of the Modern
Plastics Magazine. After World War II, an op-
tional program of four courses in Polymer Chem-
istry and Engineering was offered as part of the
undergraduate program in Chemical Engineer-
ing. These include Polymer Chemistry Plastics
Technology and Plastics Design. This option
was very popular and was continued until 1964,
when the program was expanded and organized
into a graduate curriculum. In 1964, Professor
Bruins was fortunate to have obtained a dona-
tion from one of his former students, Mr. Jerry
M. Sudarsky, then General Manager of Interna-
tional Minerals and Chemicals Corporation. The
donation was made to help Professor Bruins set
up a Polymer Processing Laboratory in the De-
partment of Chemical Engineering. The Labora-
tory was initially equipped with some basic pro-
cessing equipment, such as an extruder with
rod, tub and film forming dies, injection molding
machine, blow molding machine, rubber roll mill,
thermoformer, compression molding press, as
well as a variety of test equipment.

With the newly equipped laboratory facilities
the Department of Chemical Engineering has in-
troduced a new graduate degree program called

Chang Dae Han has a BS from Seoul National Univer-
sity; and MS and ScD ('64) from MIT all in chemical
engineering. In addition, he earned an MS in electrical
engineering from Newark College and an MS ('70) in
mathematics from the Courant Institute at NYU. He has
industrial experience with American Cyanamid and Esso
Research and Engineering. His research interests are in
applications of functional analysis to ChE systems, poly-
mer rehology as applied to polymer processing, and bio-
rheology as related to clinical applications.

the Polymeric Materials Program. This program
is aimed at meeting the interests of graduate
students, as well as industrial scientists and en-
gineers, who wish to keep up with the rapidly
growing field of polymer engineering technology.
Since the program stresses the engineering as-
pect of polymer science, it has offered during
the past several years such subjects as: Intro-
duction to Polymeric Materials, Polymer Process-
ing, Engineering Properties of Polymer, Polymer
Manufacture, Polymer Engineering Laboratory.
Organic Coatings Technology, Selected Topics in
Polymeric Materials.
Students in the Polymeric Materials Pro-
gram are also required to take some basic courses
in polymer chemistry in the Chemistry Depart-
ment, such as: Introduction to Polymer Chem-
istry, and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. Other
advanced topics in polymer chemistry are left
as options to those who wish to take them.
Since 1967, a new course, Rheology of Non-
Newtonian Fluids, has been added to the Pro-
gram. This course, which is taught by the writer,
has been offered to students in the regular Chem-
ical Engineering Program and also in the Poly-


meric Materials Program. Its emphasis has been
to teach the modern concept of polymer rheology
from both the continuum and molecular points
of view, to help students analyze data obtained
by various experimental techniques and to illus-
trate how to rigorously treat some of the really
complicated problems encountered in industrial
polymer processing (e.g. fiber extrusion, blow
molding, and extrusion in various die geomet-

Figure 1.-The writer was taking normal stress measurements with
a slit die.


Because of the invention of new processes
and improvements in existing ones, the process-
ing technology of polymer materials has under-
gone a considerable evolution during the past
decade. A good understanding of any industrial
process requires knowledge in many branches of
science and engineering, such as polymer chem-
istry, mechanics of non-Newtonian viscoelastic
fluids, mass and energy transport. For instance,
many beautiful theories developed in the area
of continuum mechanics alone are not much help
in explaining such a simple experimental fact
as "A polymer having much long-chain branch-
ing is less viscous, and yet more elastic, than one
having little or no long-chain branching." This
simply illustrates the fact that, in order to un-
derstand many as yet unanswered questions,
knowledge of both the molecular aspect of mac-
romolecular structures under deformation and
the phenomenological aspect of viscoelasticity
theories will be required.

... It is not common to find a
Graduate Chemical Engineering curriculum
which includes a laboratory course

To illustrate the point, let us consider perhaps
one of the most well-known polymer operations,
fiber spinning. Regardless of any specific fiber
spinning techniques (wet-, dry-, or melt-spinning),
an understanding of fiber spinning requires a
knowledge of momentum, energy and/or mass
transport. In addition, knowledge of macromolecu-
lar behavior under deformation is also necessary
fgor understanding such complicated problems as
molecular orientation under stretching, crystallin-
ity under cooling, surface characteristics of the
threadline being stretched and cooied, so-called
surface morphology, etc.
There are many other polymer processing
techniques, which need to be better understood
at the fundamental level. To name some typical
industrially important processes: extrusion
(single and multiple screw), fiber spinning, film
extrusion, cold drawing, blow molding, thermo-
forming, injection molding, extrusion through
noncircular dies, etc.

It is not common to find a Graduate Chemi-
cal Engineering curriculum which includes a
laboratory course. In this sense, the Polymeric
Materials Program is unique in that it includes
the Polymer Engineering Laboratory course.
This course is intended to teach several different
types of experimental techniques and to apply
the knowledge learned in the classroom to actual
It is to be noted that a majority of industrial
polymer operations deal with bulk polymers,
which necessitates understanding the rheological
behavior of polymer melts. An obvious reason
for the use of melts, instead of polymer solutions,
is the economics involved. The use of bulk poly-
mers avoid the frequently difficult and costly
operation of solvent recovery at the end of the
processing line. On the other hand the handling
of polymer melts is more difficult than that of
polymer solutions. In particular, handling poly-
mer melts requires some extra precautions. For
example, a failure of the temperature control
system may give rise to degradation of polymers
in the equipment, and could even cause an ex-


Figure 2.-Extrudate swell behavior of high density polyethylene
from a rectangular duct at 200C.

During the past four years, the writer's re-
search activities have added some new laboratory
facilities to those already existing. They include
capillary and slit extrusion dies (essentially melt
rheometers-see Figure 1), melt-spinning equip-
ment and wet-spinning equipment. Some of these
have already been used for the Polymer Engi-
neering Laboratory course. In the very near fu-
ture, a new annular die for blow film extrusion
will be added. A small semi-automatic blow mold-
ing unit has been used in the laboratory course to
show students how to make hollow objects like
bottles. However, an analysis of polymer melt
flow through complicated flow paths (i.e., other
than circular and slit geometry) is very difficult,
and awaits future research. Therefore, the addi-
tion of the annular die should be instructive,
because the analysis of polymer melt flow through
such geometry is rather straightforward.
Recently, we have been involved with a vari-
ety of research projects in polymer melt rheology
and polymer processing. Some of the experi-
mental observations made in our laboratory have
been discussed in our classroom and laboratory
courses. Two of the recent observations made
seem to be of some general interest to our readers.
These are shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2
shows a cross-section of an extrudate of high
density polyethylene, extruded through a rec-
tangular duct of an aspect ratio of 6. Here the
aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of the long
side to the short side of rectangle. It is interest-
ing to observe from Figure 2 that swelling at the
center of the long side is much more pronounced
than at the center of the short side. An analysis
of this experimental observation has been given
in a recent paper by the writer.1 Figure 3 shows
microstructures of an extrudate of 20wt% poly-
styrene-80wt% polypropylene mixture extruded
through a circular die of an L/D ratio of 20,
at 200C. The dark areas in the pictures repre-
sent polystyrene, which is dispersed in the con-
tinous phase, polypropylene, shown white. It is

Figure 3.-Micrographs of an extrudate of 20wt% polystyrene-
80wt% polypropylene at 200C; (a) at center portion of the cross-
section; (b) in the longitudinal direction.

interesting to note from Figure 3 that mixtures
of polystyrene and polypropylene form a two-
phase system in the molten state. The observa-
tion has led us to involve ourselves deeply in an
extensive research program of studies of two-
flow of viscoelastic fluids. Some of the earlier
studies have already been reported in the litera-
ture.2 It seems worth pointing out that there
are a number of industrially important polymeric
materials, which form two phases in the molten
state. High impact polystyrene and acryloni-
trile-butadiene-polystyrene (ABS) resins are
typical examples.
In recent years, Professor Bruins has been
interested in thermoforming process, and has
developed an experimental technique, which em-
ployes measurements of uniaxial tensile creep to
predict thermoforming behavior. This technique
is believed to be very useful for predicting op-
timum temperatures for thermoforming and for
comparing the thermoformability of various
thermoplastic sheets.
We have tried, and will continue, to main-
tain a close contact between our polymer proc-
essing research and laboratory teaching in the
of polymer rheology and polymer processing. We
believe that our students can -directly benefit from
ourresearch projects. We further hope that our
continuing interest in this field will continuously
improve the experimental program in the Polymer
Engineering Laboratory course. El

1. Han, C. D., paper presented at 41st Annual Meeting
of the Society of Rheology, Princeton, N.J., October,
1970; AIChE J., in press.
2. Han, C.D. and T.C. Yu, J. Appl. Polymer Sci., 15,
1163 (1971).
3. Harris, R. L. and P. F. Bruins, SPE Journal, 27, pp.
23, May, 1971.


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Comments on a


Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010

The March issue of Engineering Education is
in large part devoted to a discussion of proctorial
instruction (PSI).* Further comments may be
in order concerning the application of PSI in
a small, purely undergraduate school and the
usefulness of PSI in motivating students. These
comments are based on the use of PSI for only
one semester, and are of necessity more qualita-
The course described in this article was the
second course in thermodynamics for Mechanical
Engineers and was taught by the author at Prai-
rie View A&M College, Prairie View, Texas.
The text used was "Thermodynamics" by G. J.
Van Wylen. The first semester course was taken
by Mechanical, Civil, and Electrical Engineering
students, and the Mechanical Engineering stu-
dents had generally done poorly with their aver-
age grade being less than C. The PSI method
was chosen for the second semester in an effort
to upgrade the performance of the ME students
who would be continuing on with this course.
The second course in thermodynamics seemed
particularly suited to the use of PSI since it
involved mainly applications of material from
the first semester. Also, if the students did not
study all of the material normally covered in the
course, they would be exposed to it in later
courses. The latter is a real concern with PSI
unless the student can be given an incomplete
and allowed to complete the course after the
term is over. The class was small, eleven stu-
dents, and this made any type of experimentation
in teaching technique easier.

At the start of the semester the students were

*Eng. Ed. 61, pp. 504-516 (March 1971).

Allen H. Pulsifer is an associate professor in the
Chemical Engineering Department at Iowa State Univer-
sity where he has taught for six years. He received a
BA in chemistry from Dartmouth College and has de-
grees in chemical engineering from MIT (MS) and Syra-
cuse University (PhD). During the 1970-71 academic
year, he was at Prairie View A & M College to assist the
administration there in establishing a chemical engineer-
ing program. During this time he also taught several
courses in the Mechanical Engineering Department.

told that the course would be taught on a self-
study basis and that each student would deter-
mine how much material he studied and his
grade in the course. The minimum passing grade
was C which the student would receive by pass-
ing the examinations on the first four topics in
Table I. A grade of B could be earned by covering
the next topic, and an A by covering all the
topics listed.
In all cases but one, each topic was considered
to be a unit and was covered by one study out-
line. A student satisfactorily completed a unit
when he scored 80 percent or more (an arbitrary
figure) on an examination covering the material
in the unit. The student could take the examina-
tion any number of times with each examina-
tion being different, but could not move on to the
next unit until a passing grade was achieved.
The exams generally consisted of three problems
and no time limit was set for completing them.
At the start of each unit, the student was
provided with a study outline. This included the
reading assignment in the text, a list of study
questions, and homework problems with answers.
In some cases an outline of the material to be
covered was included if this material was parti-
cularly difficult. Since the text in the course was
considered to be good, the study outlines and
course were tied closely to it. Although a pro-
grammed text might have been more suitable,
the use of a standard textbook, in this case, was


satisfactory and demonstrates that PSI can be
used with the study materials that are normally
The students were not required to turn in the
homework. The next time the PSI method is
used, a minimum set of homework problems will
be required for each unit and these must be
turned in before taking the exam.
At the start of the semester, a half-hour ap-
pointment was scheduled each week between the
instructor and each student. This was not en-
tirely satisfactory, perhaps because of the length
of time between appointments. The class was
then switched to a group meeting three times a
week at the time originally scheduled. This
worked out reasonably well and allowed for im-
promptu lectures when the occasion arose. Gen-
erally, the students studied during this time and
the instructor was available for individual dis-
cussion and questions.
The self study method worked out quite well
for this course. Some of the units were too long,
with 20 pages of text material being about right.
Preparation of the study outlines was no more
demanding of the instructor's time, if not less,
than the preparation of the normal lecture. Pre-
paration of the exams did not pose a problem,
as there were only 11 students in the class and
each exam could be given to several students.
Even a class of 20 to 25 students should not pre-
sent any great problem in regards to examina-
TABLE I.-Topics Covered in Course

Number of Number of
Topic Text Pages Units

Ideal Gases 22 1
Mixtures Involving Ideal Gases 20 1
Availability, Irreversibility,
and Efficiency 27 1
Thermodynamic Relations 30 1
Power and Refrigeration
Cycles 60 2
Chemical Reactions 37 1

Seven of the eleven students taking the course
had just completed the first semester of thermo-
dynamics, while the other four had taken the
first course the year before. The average grade
of the seven students increased from 2.1 (A-=4,
B=3, etc.) to 3.1. Based on observations of the
students during both semesters, this grade in-

crease was accompanied by a real increase in
student performance and knowledge. Several of
the students who received a B in the second se-
mester could have gotten an A if they had been
given a week or two more, but the end of the
semester forced termination of the course.
A change in the students' attitude toward the
course was also evident. The students seemed
to work harder and to take a greater interest in
the course material. It was also evident that the
students learned from their mistakes on the ex-
aminations, and usually showed a marked im-
provement upon repeating an examination.
The PSI method seemed to be particularly
good for the large block of students that might
be classed an average, the students who usually
receive grades B and C. Although there were
no outstanding students in this particular course,
these students usually do well no matter how a
course is taught. The poorest students, at least
in this course, did not seem to be particularly
motivated by the PSI method and did not do
the homework, postponed taking the exams, etc.
Their behavior, then, was similar to what it
would be in the standard course. The rest of the
students, responded to the self study approach,
worked harder than they normally would, and
were enthusiastic about the method.

In the course described here, the PSI method
worked well and seemed to be an improvement
over the standard lecture method. Most of the
students worked harder and performed better
than in previous courses. No more of the instruc-
tor's time was required for this course than
other, more standard courses and it was demon-
strated that PSI could be used with a standard
textbook. It was found that the individual units
need to be kept relatively short so that they can
be completed in a week or two.
No teaching method is appropriate for every
course. PSI seems particularly suited for a course
where some basic knowledge is being transmitted
along with specific application of this knowledge,
say in the form of problems. This would mean
that PSI might be considered for a large num-
ber of undergraduate courses in engineering.
PSI might be hard to use when a large number
of difficult theoretical material needs to be cov-
ered. Also, it would obviously be inappropriate
where in class discussion and interaction were
important. El


problems for teachersI

Building a Computer Program:


Cornell University
Ithaca, N. Y. 14850
In teaching stage processes to undergraduates
it is usually difficult to go beyond binary systmes,
and analytical or graphical techniques are norm-
ally presented. Multicomponent systems requir-
ing computer solution are more commonly en-
countered in industry and offer opportunities to
teach undergraduates fundamentals of computer
techniques at the same time they are learning the
theory of stage processes. In the stage processes
course given in the junior year at Cornell a multi-
component distillation program is developed in
three steps (assignments) with each succeeding
step incorporating the bulk of the previous pro-
gram. These steps are (1) writing dew point
and bubble point routines, (1) determining the
approximate number of plates required in the
column by a noniterative scheme based on as-
sumed overhead and bottoms compositions, and
(3) rating the column to determine the actual
performance and distribution of components by
an iterative technique.
The students taking the course have received
an introduction to digital computers in a fresh-
man course; consequently, the lectures on com-
puting in this course emphasize flow charts and
the assembly of large, complex computer pro-
grams from relatively simple subprograms. In
developing their programs, the students are
taught to regard subprograms as "black boxes"
with specified inputs and outputs, as emphasized
in the following quiz question:
Your are given SUBROUTINE DEW which calculates
the dew point temperature and the liquid composition in
equilibrium with a given vapor. For a distillation column
with a total condenser, specified reflux ratio, and specified
distillate composition, draw a detailed flow chart to calcu-
late the liquid composition N trays from the top.
Two weeks are allowed for each assignment
to permit adequate time for debugging. After the
initial writing of each program is completed, the

Jean P. Leinroth is visiting Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology. He taught at Cornell University from 1964-1971,
and at MIT from 1963-1964. He was with Union Carbide
for 11 years before going into academic life. He has a
BME ('41) from Cornell University and the SM ('48)
and ScD ('63) in Chemical Engineering from MIT. (Right)
David Watt received his chemical engineering degrees
from Princeton University and from the University of
California, Berkeley. Upon graduation in early 1969 until
1971 he taught at Cornell University and conducted re-
search on adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis. He is
now working at the Miami Valley Laboratories of Proctor
& Gamble. (Left)

debugging work load is sufficiently light that ad-
ditional problems not requiring computer solu-
tion can be assigned in the interim.
This article describes each of the three com-
puter programs along with the flow charts and
illustrates how the computing is integrated into
a course on stage processes. Flow charts and
FORTRAN IV listings of each program can be
obtained from the authors.

Dew point and bubble point calculations are
basic to any distillation calculation and are easily
coordinated with lectures on vapor-liquid equili-
brium which precede the material on stage proc-
esses. For simplicity, Raoult's Law is used for
calculation of K factors. In the first year the
problem was used, a program for K factors was





Fig. 1.-Subroutine DEW
written using the Lewis and Randall Rule and
data from the generalized fugacity charts. Al-
though the program worked well, the additional
complexity of this program confused most stu-
dents; thus in later years only Raoult's Law was
KX = y/ xi = Pi*y/T
where yi is vapor mole fraction of component i;
xi is liquid mole fraction of component i; 7r is
total pressure; and Pi* -= vapor pressure of com-
ponent i.
Vapor pressures were determined by the two-
constant Antoine equation.
In Pi* = Ai + BI/T
where A1, Bi are Antoine constants and T is tem-
perature, cK.
Students read in two vapor pressures with cor-
responding temperatures for each component.
The Antoine constants are calculated once, and
then used for all vapor pressure calculations. Cal-
culation of vapor pressures was a useful problem
assigned at the start of the course to enable stu-
dents to review basic input/output operations.
The Newton-Raphson method is used in both
subroutines DEW and BUBBLE. This method
was not entirely new to most students, but the
techniques used in generating the computer
proved to be different and interesting. After con-
verging to within a specified tolerance (E) the

compositions are normalized. The flow chart for
BUBBLE is quite similar to that for DEW (Fig.

The approximate number of plates in the col-
umn and the feed plate location can be determined
by sequential material balance and equilibrium
calculations repeated throughout the length of
the column. DEW is used for equilibrium calcula-
tions when calculating down from the top and
BUBBLE when calculating up from the bottom.
Constnat molal overflow is assumed. For this
problem, the composition of a four-component
liquid feed at its boiling point is specified along
with specifications for the light key (component
2) in the bottoms and heavy key (component 3)
in the distillate. For this calculation the mole
fraction of the lighter-than-light key (compon-
ent 1) is set to zero in the bottoms, and the mole
fraction of the heavier-than-heavy key is set to
zero in the distillate, permitting very close hand
calculation of distillate and bottoms flow rates
and composition as input to the computer.

Fig. 2.-Design Case

Starting from the total condenser, calculations
proceed plate by plate until the ratio of the mole
fractions of the light and heavy keys become less
than this same ratio in the feed stream. This
approximates the location of the feed plate1 and
gives NABOVE, the number of plates in the


Fig. 3.-Rating Case.

rectifying section of the column. Similarly the
number of plates in the stripping section,
NBELOW, is found by stepping up from the re-
boiler plate by plate until the ratio of the light
and heavy keys is greater than in the feed stream.
(Fig. 2).
This problem is shown to be merely an exten-
sion of the McCable-Thiele method to multicom-
ponent systems. The flow chart analysis and com-
puter algorithm enable the student to visualize
each step in the McCabe-Thiele method, thus
helping to overcome the usual tendency for a
student to visualize the McCabe-Thiele method
without knowing what each step represents. Very
little lecture time is required to go from binary
distillation to the multicomponent case. Quiz
questions relate the flow chart for this problem to
other stage processes, e,g., given a subroutine to
calculate the equilibrium composition in a liquid-
liquid extraction process with counter-current
mixer-settlers, draw a detailed flow chart for
calculating down N stages.

Once the number of trays and the feed plate
location are known, the exact distillate and bot-
toms compositions are determined using the
Thiele-Geddes method as detailed by Peiser.2 Oc-
casionally it is necessary to add or subtract a
plate to the rectifying or stripping section to
achieve the required separation.
Estimates of the distillate and bottoms com-
positions are used for an initial calculation
through the column. In contrast to the design
problem, non-zero values must be used as initial
estimates for all components, and very small
mole fractions on the order of 10-7 are normally
given as initial estimates of the mole fraction of
the lighter-than-light key in the bottoms and for
the heavier-than-heavy key in the distillate.
Calculating down to the feed plate and up to the
feed plate shows that the component molal input
AINi and output AOUTT to the rectifying section
("A") are not equal. The same is true of the
input BIN, and the output BOUT, to the strip-
ping section ("B"). The Thiele-Geddes procedure
applies this mismatch at the feed plate to correct
the initial estimates of the distillate and bottoms
compositions. A simple algorithm to reduce this
mismatch is
__ = e (3)
XBi new XBD old

FAIN. BOUT, 11/2
9 1 (4)
It will be noted that 0i is greater than unity,
the next estimate of XDj will be increased and
the next estimate of XB(I) will be decreased.
The square root is used to evaluate 0i rather than
a linear relationship in order to reduce instabil-
ity. Combining this new ratio of XD'/XBI with
a mass balance gives the new distillate and bot-
toms compositions for the next iteration. Un-
fortunately these mole fractions do not necessarily
sum to one and a factor "C" is calculated to cor-
rect 0 so that the distillate and bottoms mole
fractions sum to one.
1X = (5)* < (5)
Xi new XDi old
"C" is calculated by a Newton-Raphson iteration
using an initial estimate of C =1.
At this point in the flow chart (Fig. 3) the new
values of the distillate and bottoms composition
are known and it is necessary to decide whether


another iteration is necessary. Since each 0- ap-
proaches unity, ABSUMT converges arbitrarily
close to zero and a tolerance of 0.01-0.03 is usu-
ally sufficient.
ABSUMT = 1 9 (6)
Even with the simplifying assumptions of
Raoult's Law, ideal stages, and constant molal
overflow, the student feels a sense of achieve-
ment in designing and rating a multicomponent
distillation column. For most students this is the
first time they have generated a computer pro-
gram of such complexity. Students see each step
as a typical assignment and do not sense the
magnitude of the project until one of them pro-
crastinates and attempts to complete the third
step without completely debugging the first two.
For the normal student, debugging step three
(the rating case) without incorporating the de-
bugged form of step two (the design case) was
disastrous. Most students solved the problems
sequentially and truly enjoyed solving a 'real
problem". During the several years in which they
have been used, these problems generated enthu-
siasm which has carried over into the other ele-
ments of the course.

Learning to use flow charts while developing
the computer algorithms enable students to use
with confidence existing library subprograms.
For example, after a preliminary hand calcula-
tion of a gas absorber design, students are asked
to find the optimal operating conditions by using
the program3 developed and kindly supplied by
Brockmeier and Himmelblau. Because students
had earlier experience in building a complex
multicomponent distillation routine from sub-
routines, they had little difficulty incorporating
the Brockmeier and Himmelblau subprogram
into a calling routine of their own writing. Over-
all, incorporating computer methods into the un-
dergraduate chemical engineering program by
intergrating this subject into the staged opera-
tions course was clearly beneficial and well re-
ceived by the students. El

1. Robinson, C. S., and E. R. Gilliland, Elements of
Fractional Distillation, 4th Ed., p. 245, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1950.
2. Peiser, A. M., Chem. Eng. 67, No. 14, 129 (1960).
3. Brockmeier, N. F., and D. M. Himmelblau, Chem.
Eng. Education, 4, 37 (1970).


Plans For Academic And Industrial Research Interaction

University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80302
O VER THE PAST few years it has become
more and more evident that the technical
programing of our AIChE meetings has become
more diverse. This is because the role of the
chemical engineer has been broadened to include
contributions to environmental, health, and food
and energy production problems of society at
large. This broadening of horizons is essential
for maintaining the vitality of our professional
society and will be encouraged wherever pos-
sible. However, there seems to have developed
over the years a noticeable division between
academia and industry and in the dissemination
of research results and in the dialogue which

should have followed these disclosures. The ten-
dency in the past few years is to have sessions
developed by academic personnel reporting on
specific academic research, and presented es-
sentially to other academic research personnel.
The situation has evolved with sessions developed
by industrial personnel. Such a situation is cer-
tainly not in the best interests of either group,
particularly when one group is trying to prepare
young people to step into roles of responsibility
in the other group.
There are certainly many factors which have
led to this gradual decrease in dialogue between
academia and industry. Many of these are en-
tirely beyond the control of AIChE and the Na-
tional Program Committee. Nevertheless, the
Executive Board of the National Program Com-



mittee has been concerned over this problem and
has been formulating plans to try to reverse
this trend. In essence, these plans include setting-
up new and, hopefully, more effective means of
To encourage improved communications,
thought is being given to revamping the struc-
ture of the present Free Forum to serve as a
sounding board for reporting academic research
activities in specific areas of chemical engineer-
ing, and then inviting comments and discussion
from various industrial counterparts.
To put this idea into motion would require an ad hoc
committee of the National Program Committee to care-
fully list a series of research areas being pursued pres-
ently in academic institutions and select one of these
areas for emphasis at one of the AIChE meetings in a Re-
search Forum. The research investigators in this area
would select two or three representatives to outline the
present research activity in this area, including both its
purpose and hoped for results in understandable, uncom-
plicated language. Representatives from industry who
would have an interest in this area would be invited to
provide both a discussion and critical appraisal of the
work as it applies to their present and future industrial
work. Questions would be encouraged by the chairman
from both academic and industrial participants. The high-
lights of the discussion would be recorded and made
available to all interested in this technical area.

F THE RESEARCH Forum generated suf-
ficient interest in this specific technical area on
the part of both the academic and industrial par-
ticipants, the next logical step would be to plan
and develop a specialist conference on the sub-
ject. This conference of several days duration
would be located in a pleasant location having
few outside distractions. The conference would
feature leading contributors in this technical
area, from academia and industry, to present a
thorough review and discussion of both the cur-
rent aspects and the future goals of research in
this area. The conferences are visualized to be
similar in nature to the Gordon Research Con-
ferences and the Engineering Foundation Con-
ferences, but dealing specifically with areas in
chemical engineering.
It is visualized that possibly ten or twelve specific
areas in chemical engineering might be elected as Re-
search Forum topics by the ad hoc committee. If one Re-
search Forum was held at each AIChE meeting, each
specific area would be reviewed approximately once every
three years. This would provide a minimum amount of
time for the development of new programs as suggested
by the last Research Forum on the subject, and permit
preliminary evaluation of some of the research results
presented at the Research Forum in an industrial situa-

Klaus D. Timmerhaus is Associate Dean of Engineer-
ing and Director of the Engineering Research Center,
University of Colorado. He was educated at the Univer-
sity of Illinois (B.S. '48, MS '49, PhD '51. His inter-
ests are in cryogenics and heat and mass transfer
and he has headed the National Cryogenic Engineering
Conference annually since 1956. In 1968 Klaus won the
ASEE George Westinghouse Award for outstanding
professor as well as the Alpha Chi Sigma Award for
his work in the science and practice of cryogenics. His
other honors include the S.C. Collins award for cryogenic
technology, the Faculty Appreciation Award, and his
selection as Faculty Mentor.

The success or failure of the Research Forums and the
follow-up specialist conferences will be directly propor-
tional to the amount of cooperation that both academic
and industrial researchers are willing to give to this com-
munication effort. Both have much to gain in an open and
frank discussion of current and future research directions
in chemical engineering.

N ADDITION to the Research Forum and
Specialist conference, the National Program
Committee has also considered the use of spe-
cialized workshops where each participant would
become directly involved in the discussions and
contribute his expertise to the discussion. To
make these types of programs successful would
require leadership that is not only highly know-
ledgeable in a specific area, but would, rather
than dominate the discussion, encourage and eli-
cit discussion from every participant involved.
Experiments with this type of workshop are now
being conducted in our AIChE Continuing Ed-
ucation Committee programs. A somewhat mo-
dified form of the specialized workshop would be
a program similar to that developed by the
AIChE Water Committee, where each partici-
pant would be required to make a short presenta-
tion of his research activities and how they re-
lated to the work of other researchers and to
real and relevant problems. D



INDUSTRIAL SPONSORS: 1o(owiW campae hae daled

kf" J0 e dappd 4 oj CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Vudwy 197-2:




DEPARTMENTAL SPONSORS: Th jellaff 131 4ep4tof ha4"e,

ca ,u4ded ihe , i. ," of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 4t 197.

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We've Got The Ingredients For

DITSWORTH, both of Arizona State University.
1972, 382 pages, $15.50
A Solutions Manual is available.
Succinct and precise in their exposition, Allen and
Ditsworth's text offers a unified treatment of
fluid mechanics. Utilizing the student's back-
ground in thermodynamics and dynamics, their
undergraduate book employs vectors, accompanied
by physical illustrations, to formulate those phy-
sical laws which pertain to continuum fluid me-
chanics. A large number of illustrated problems,
self-study questions, and assigned problems are
also included.

HEAT TRANSFER, Second Edition
BENJAMIN GEBHART, Cornell University.
1971, 608 pages, $18.50
Although different in many respects from its
predecessor, this text has retained its original
orientation: to present a description of the more
important physical processes, theories, and meth-
ods of analysis utilized in the field of heat trans-
fer. In order to accomplish this purpose, the
author has begun with a relatively rigorous ex-
amination of the fundamentals and progressed to
an up-to-date account of the state-of-the-art in
several very crucial new areas in heat transfer,
e.g., radiation transport, and natural convection.


ENGINEERS, Second Edition
JACK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Univer-
sity. 1971, 423 pages, $13.50
A Solutions Manual is available.
For students taking core courses in engineering
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of numerical examples, problems, and methods are

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Instead of examining all existing classical solu-
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Foreign Language Requirements for the Ph.D.

The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania 16802

SIn 1967 the Graduate Faculty of The Pennsyl-
vania State University transferred to the indi-
vidual departments the major responsibility for
conceiving and implementing foreign language
requirements for the Ph.D. degree. In partial re-
sponse to this opportunity, one of the authors
(TFE) conducted a poll of chemical engineering
departments granting a substantial number of
Ph.D. degrees. A total of 74 departments were
sent questionnaires in the summer of 1967 and
56 responses were returned. Interest in the matter
of foreign language requirements for the Ph.D.
was widespread and was indicated especially by
the number of respondents requesting the results
of the poll. At the Fall 1970 AIChE Annual
Meeting, one of the authors (RLK) was requested
by the Educational Projects Committee to pre-
pare a paper on the results of this study. In the
Spring of 1971 copies of 55 of the original 56 poll
responses (one of the departments had ceased to
exist) were returned to the respondees for pos-
sible amendment. Fifty of these were annotated
and returned. This paper is intended (1) to put
the matter into perspective by delineating various
contentions which have been made, (2) to ex-
amine some data relevant to the role of foreign
languages in the professional practice of engi-
neering, and (3) to present and interpret trends
which can be discerned from the two polls.
Arguments concerning language requirements
seem to be as much visceral as rational. Thus,
the spectrum of thinking is illustrated here by a
collection of comments made by academic people
in response to two questionnaires (1, this work)
sent to chemical engineering departments in the
United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico and by

**Thomas F. Evans is now with the Niagara Mohawk
Power Company, Syracuse, New York 13202.

members of the Graduate Faculty at Penn State
in debate of the issue. Other comments have been
made to the authors by friends or acquaintances.
1. "There is a wealth of needed information available
only to scholars who can read one or more foreign lan-
guages and can communicate directly with scholars lack-
ing competence in English."
2. "A chemical engineer working in industry can get
any article translated for him on request."
3. "The most common current requirements (reading
knowledge of two foreign languages) offer no guarantee
that the student will achieve even minimal competence
in foreign languages."
4. "The language requirements should be concerned
with competence in English as well as foreign languages,
both for foreign and American students."
5. "We don't ask our new faculty interviewees about
their language competence. Why should we require it of
our students?"
6. "It is my personal opinion that languages should be
a part of the general cultural equipment of all profes-
sional people. As such, there should certainly be some
language training in undergraduate programs. Even more
desirable is the current trent to begin language training
at the very early elementary school years, where such
training can be most effective."
7. "I believe [the] ECPD tight-fisted requirement that
beginning language courses are skills and cannot be con-
sidered as humanities is WRONG."
8. "Statistics is a foreign language."
9. A sociology professor-"[Foreign languages are]
absolutely necessary." Another sociology professor-
"[I] never have used them."(2)
10. "We all went through it, so they should too!"
From the foregoing comments, three primary
justifications for graduate language requirements
are seen: (1) cultural, (2) direct personal con-
tact with people of foreign tongues, and (3) read-
ing of technical literature in foreign languages.
The significance of the first two is a very sub-
jective judgment and not easily evaluated quanti-
tatively. Probably the cultural and personal con-
tact factors are of increasing importance. It is
clear that many chemical engineers find such


The first trend to be observed is the total collapse from virtual universality
of the requirement of reading knowledge in two languages... There has
also been an attempt to make the language requirement more meaningful.

relevance in their foreign language accomplish-
ments. On the other hand, for undergraduates, the
ECPD views introductory language courses as
"skill" courses and therefore unsatisfactory for
meeting the ECPD social-humanistic require-
ments for accreditation.

In order to estimate the importance of foreign
languages in the chemical engineering literature,
two issues of Chemical Abstracts in 1967 and four
issues in 1970 were surveyed to determine the
original language of articles in the selected sec-
tions. Table 1 provides a condensation of the sur-
vey data. There are few surprises, if any, in this

Table 1

Number of ------ Percent of Articles in - -
Articles English Russian German French Others
22 Physical Organic Chemistry 250/554 .54/71 29/14 5/3 5/9 7/3
48 Unit Operations and Processes 189/249 67/53 22/24 5/8 1/4 5/11
51 Petroleu, Fetroltoeum Derivatives, '112/139 35/35 34/35 '13/11 2/3 16/16
and Related Products
66 Surface Chemistry and Colloids 62/177 76/56 6/25 5/6 5/4 8/9
67 Catalysis and Reaction Kinetics 64/167 44/53 36/26 11/5 3/4 6/12
Average 55/53 26/25 '8/7 3/5 8/10
Notes: a) The numbers appearing before the slashes correspond to the April 10 and May 1, 1967
issues of Chemical Abstracts. Those following the slashes represent the data from
the May 25, June 1, 8,
b) Books and patents were not included in the survey.
c) Among "Others," Japanese was the most common language, comprising about two percent
of the papers.

table, but it is helpful to have such a quantitative
measure of frequency of appearance. It would be
desirable to extend this survey back to earlier
years, but Chemical Abstracts did not report the
language of publication before 1965. It should be
noted that complete English translations of many
of the non-English articles are available in many
libraries and that many foreign scientists and en-
gineers publish regularly in English language

In interpreting the results of the poll and the
trends observed, a brief look at the history of
Ph.D. language requirements may be helpful. In-
struction in foreign languages as a part of ad-
vanced study surely goes back to the earliest civi-

lizations. As an example of moderate antiquity,
the 196 B.C. inscription in Greek and heiroglyphic
and demotic Egyptian on the famous Rosetta
Stone (3) must have been produced by a person
or persons familiar with all three languages. This
stone later proved to be the key to deciphering
the ancient Egyptian alphabet and unlocking the
door to a lost culture. In 1932 Fuchs (2) sur-
veyed 64 American universities and several for-
eign ones in developing a Ph.D. thesis on the lan-
guage requirement for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy. The historical information presented
here is taken from his thesis. The first degrees of
Ph.D. in the United States were granted at Yale
in 1861. Although graduate studies had existed
previously, the first formal graduate school in the
United States was founded by Johns Hopkins in
Fuchs explained the background of the lan-
guage requirement in this way: "At the time of
the first awarding of this degree, very few schools
had definite legislation in regard to the language
requirement for the doctorate, and in many cases
such legislation was not enacted for some con-
siderable time later. Explanations received from
the deans or secretaries of the graduate schools
where this condition existed seem to be in agree-
ment. The number of candidates during the early
development of the graduate school was so small
that no attention was given to a definitive formu-
lation of this requirement. The deans believe fur-
ther that, although there was no general rule
compelling a reading knowledge of French and
German, the general attitude was that these tools
were necessary for the proper conduct of research
and advanced study. As a consequence, practically
all candidates for the degree did acquire this read-
ing knowledge." While many schools eventually
instituted a reading knowledge of French and
German as their first written requirements an-
other pattern also appeared frequently. This
pattern is illustrated by the University of Cali-
fornia which "had no language requirement prior
to 1888 when a knowledge of Latin equal to that
for admission to the College of Letters was re-
quired. French and German were added in 1896-
97, and the three languages were required until
1903-4 when Latin was discontinued as a general



Fuchs' survey of foreign language require-
ments in Europe in 1932 found "no statutory re-
quirement in regard to a reading knowledge of
foreign languages for the doctoral degree in Great
Britain." In Germany three and sometimes four
foreign languages (Greek, Latin, English,
French) were required. In France two languages
were required for the State Doctorate and there
were no specific language requirements for the
University Doctorate (which was the degree
sought by most Americans). It appears that the
widespread requirement of reading knowledge in
two modern foreign languages (almost always
French and German) was not a transplant from
European institutions but developed in the United
States from a real need for the competence. Evi-
dently the scientific and engineering disciplines
(especially chemistry and chemical engineering)
found these generally imposed requirements ac-
ceptable as advanced study in such technical fields
became common.
Little significant change occurred until the
period between the end of World War II (1945)
and Sputnik I (1957). In this time of political
and scientific ascent of the Soviet Union, the Rus-
sian language became an acceptable substitute for
French. Currently it is at least on a par with
German in prominence and has perhaps become
predominant. Kobe (4) documented this trend
with a survey on graduate study in chemical en-
gineering in 1956-57. He also noted that four
schools of the 47 replying to his survey required
only one foreign language; the remainder re-
quiring two. This is in contrast to Fuchs' 1932
observations which showed none of the 64 schools
included in his survey requiring only one lan-
guage or less. The near-unanimity in the require-
ment of reading knowledge in two modern for-
eign languages which prevailed over more than
three decades is remarkable. However, both Kobe
and Metzner (5), in back-to-back articles on
graduate study in chemical engineering, deplored
the lack of attention being given to optimizing the
effectiveness of any imposed foreign language re-
quirements. But change is underway now, as the
most recent polls show!

Table 2 summarizes the language requirements
existing at various times. Two polls are shown
for 1967. The first was a small part of a wide-
ranging survey of departmental affairs by John-
son (1). He polled 150 chemical engineering de-

Arguments concerning language
requirements seem to be as
much visceral as rational.

Table 2

Nuembr of Reading Reading Comprehensive Knowledge
Year Schools Knowledge in Knowledge in in One or Reading None Source
Polled() TWo Languages (hbc) One Language Knowledge in Two
1932 64 62(d) 0 0 0 Fucha(2)
1956-7 47 43 4 0 0 Kobhe(4)
1967 71 29 26 10 6 Johnson(l)
1967 '56 21 23 10 2 TFE Poll
1971 50 1 25 5 18 RLK P.1oll
Notes: a) The 1932 poll was of graduate schools gener ally. The reainng Ifour polls were of
chemical egineering departments.
b) Schools aith noe ntringent nequlrents aro included in thin co-nu.
c) In a few versions, non-foreign language substitutions could be made for one of the
,o required languages.
d) It is likely cthat this number should be 64. Fuechs' tabulations and text are ambiguous
on this point.

apartment heads in Canada, the United States, and
Puerto Rico and received 78 replies, 71 of which
were of value with regard to the language ques-
tion. One month later the TFE poll was sent to
the 74 departments in the United States granting
the largest number of Ph.D. degrees in chemical
engineering. Despite the somewhat different popu-
lations polled, the results of these two independent
surveys are seen to be quite consistent.
The first trend to be observed is the total col-
lapse from virtual universality of the require-
ment of reading knowledge in two languages.
About one-half of the changes have been simply
to require only a single language. There has also
been an attempt to make the language require-
ment more meaningful to present day professional
engineers by stressing more comprehensive
knowledge of a single language. This is even more
clear from the elaboration provided on many of
the questionnaires. Also clear from the comments
is that many of these well intentioned attempts
have been abandoned only a few years later in
favor of no language requirement at all. The ex-
ploding number of departments with no require-
ment may well be understated by the date of ap-
pearance of this paper. The question is under
consideration by many faculties at this time.
At the time of the 1967 TFE poll, of those
18 departments who had not revised their require-
ments within five years 78% required a reading
knowledge of two languages. The rest required
one language. Of those 38 departments with some
changes, 18% still required two languages, 53%-
one language, 21%-two languages or one in
depth, and 8%-none at all. Between the 1967
TFE poll and the 1971 RLK poll, 30 departments


changed their requirements. Of these, 50% went
to no requirement at all. Seven and 43% went
to comprehensive and reading knowledge of one
language, respectively. In one outstanding in-
stance, a department now requires reading knowl-
edge of one language where before it had no re-
Other changes are occurring as well. Among
departments requiring language competence there
has been extensive liberalization as to which
languages are acceptable. Increased usage of other
areas of study (such as computer programming,
statistics, specialized research techniques, or other
coherent learning experiences) as substitute for
a language is evident. This too may be subsiding
in the rush to eliminate all language requirements.
Although this point was not specifically ex-
plored by the questionnaires, it is clear from
many comments that the opportunity for change
resulted largely from the decisions by graduate
schools around the country to allow the individual
academic departments to set their own language
requirements. In 1969 Educational Testing Ser-
vice polled the 287 member institutions of the
Council of Graduate Schools. Responses were re-
ceived from 197 schools, of which 96 had a gradu-
ate school-wide foreign language requirement for
advanced level degrees and 96 did not (five schools
did not respond on this question) (6). It may be
helpful to illustrate the result of the relinquish-
ment of uniform requirements. At Cornell, some-
time before 1967, about two-thirds of the aca-
demic departments retained a language require-
ment while one-third eliminated it. Table 3 shows
the results at Penn State two years after the de-
partments became responsible for setting their
own requirements (7).
Requirement Total
Reading knowledge of two languages, compre-
hensive knowledge of one language, or choice
between these two requirements 17
Reading knowledge of one foreign language with
some additional requirement such as study in
another language or in some other pertinent
field 29
Reading knowledge of one foreign language 13
No language requirement 22
Total 81
These results were for 1969. As such, they can be
compared to the results for chemical engineering
departments in Table 2. The distribution of re-
quirements are seen to be quite consistent. The
Penn State actions are also seen to be quite simi-

lar to those which occurred at Cornell. It might
be noted that only five of the 81 Ph.D. granting
departments at Penn State left their require-
ments unchanged.

The importance of accomplishment in foreign
language in the conduct of scholarly work re-
sulted in a remarkably uniform and stable pat-
tern of foreign language requirements for the
Ph.D. degree in American universities. The ex-
periences of the authors suggest the following ob-
servations. Following World War II improved
communications and transportation technologies
have led to decreased need for individual talent
for translation and placed greater importance on
conversational fluency and cultural awareness.
These changes are reflected in the strong trends
toward decreased, and in some cases more mean-
ingful, language requirements among chemical
engineering departments. Now individualization
of language instruction to meet personal needs is
of prime importance. Fortunately, outstanding
self instruction in practically any desired foreign
language is available via tape recordings and ac-
companying textual materials. Already the pres-
ence of the computer is being felt in the moderni-
zation of language instruction. Universities, com-
mercial publishers, public libraries, government,
and industrial organizations should be able to
provide excellent assistance to any individual in
fully and effectively satisfying his foreign lan-
guage need in the immediate future. E

1. Johnson, R. C., "Results from a Miscellaneous Ques-
tionnaire," dittoed copy sent to department heads,
University of Colorado (August 1967). Also a portion
was published as a Letter to the Editor, Chemical
Engineering Progress 64 (January 1968).
2. Fuchs, G. 0., "Standards and Practices in Adminis-
tering the Modern Language Requirement for the
Doctor of Philosophy," Ph.D. thesis, University of
Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska (June 1932).
3. Budge, E. A. W., "The Rosetta Stone," The British
Museum, London (1939).
4. Kobe, K. A., "Graduate Work in Chemical Engi-
neering," in "Chemical Engineering Education-
Academic and Industrial" Chemical Engineering Pro-
gress Symposium Series No. 26, 55, 35 (1959).
5. Metzner, A. B., "Chemical Engineering Education
at the Graduate Level," ibid, p. 43.
6. Graduate School Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 3, The Penn-
sylvania State University (October 2, 1970).
7. Graduate School Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 1, The Penn-
sylvania State University (July 1, 1967).


- I




University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minn 55455


I believe the world really does face a series
of crises of immense proportions if it continues
the policies, practices and attitudes of the past.
People who know most about these crises seem
also to be the most concerned. For example, Secre-
tary General U Thant recently stated:
"I do not wish to seem overdramatic but I can only
conclude from the information that is available to me
as Secretary General that the members of the United
Nations have perhaps ten years left in which to sub-
ordinate their ancient quarrels and launch a global
partnership to curb the arms race, to improve the
human environment, to defuse the population explo-
sion and to supply the required momentum to develop-
ment efforts. If such a global partnership is not forged
within the next decade, then I very much fear that the
problems I have mentioned will have reached such
staggering proportions that they will be beyond our
capacity to control."

The crises we face are not sudden calamities
which characterized most crises of the past. To-
day's crises have been creeping up on us for some
time. They are upon us because of accumulations
of millions of separate actions, not one of which
by itself is particularly harmful. Today's crises
are difficult to comprehend because they are not
completely evident to a person standing in one
place at one time. Their comprehension requires
some depth of understanding not only of present
events at remote places, but of the probable ef-
fects of continuation of present trends into re-
mote times. There is no way of knowing if man
will be able to cope with the problems described
by U Thant, but we must try just as hard as we
did when we met the challenge of physical attack
back in 1941.
In order to solve the problems of our natural
and man-made environments, we need a great
deal of detailed information about them. Many
scientists and engineers have been collecting and
interpreting such information for the general

"Presented at the Houston AIChIE Meeting, March 1971.

J. Edward Anderson is Professor of Mechanical En-
gineering at Minnesota. He is a graduate of Iowa State,
University of Minnesota, and MIT where he received
the PhD ('62) in Astronautics. He was Adjunct Profes-
sor of Public Affairs and in 1967-8 he was a National
Academy of Science Exchange Professor in the Soviet

public. It is encouraging that this has resulted in
some political action which has led to more de-
tailed attempts to gather data and to some en-
vironmental improvement programs. Unfortunate-
ly, present actions are generally far too modest
to be more than a beginning. We see, however,
that they are expanding and creating many needs
for trained people.
To solve our environment problems, we need
not less technology as some have suggested. We
need instead a much more sophisticated tech-
nology. By comparison, the technology of the past
has been somewhat like a bull in a China shop,
charging ahead to achieve its objective with too
little regard for its effects on the surroundings.
Engineers of tomorrow must tiptoe through the
China shop; they must design systems which are
humanizing rather than dehumanizing, which
bend to meet real needs of people rather than
forcing people to bend to the needs of relatively
crude machines. To do this requires a new kind
of engineer. One much more sensitive to the
delicate ecological balances of nature, to the fi-
niteness of resources, and to social and psycho-
logical needs of people.
One place to start is with undergraduate en-
gineering education. We need to examine its rele-
vance to the needs of the 70's and 80's. This
process has been underway at the University of
Minnesota for several years, and at the present
time we are in the process of implementing


... a committee would supervise the Lower Division freshman engineering
students; introduce experiences in environmental awareness, inter-
disciplinary study, independent study....

changes which have been recommended by an
Engineering Programs Study Committee. In this
paper, the major conclusions of this Committee
will be presented and some of the processes under-
way for implementing desired changes will be

During the Summer of 1968, the Dean of the
Institute of Technology at the University of Min-
nesota formed an Engineering Programs Study
Committee. Working over a year and a half un-
der a foundation grant, the Committee produced
a document entitled "Education of the Engineer,"
which, through inputs for students, faculty and
professional engineers, critically examines en-
gineering education at the University of Minne-
sota and gives a series of recommendations for
The changes in the undergraduate program
have been under the general supervision of a
Director of Undergraduate Studies. Because of
the special needs of the Lower Division, a Commit-
tee on Lower Division Engineering Programs
was formed. The first task of this Committee was
to condense from the volume "Education of the
Engineer" a succinct set of Guidelines. These
are given in Appendix A and will be discussed
after we discuss the rationale for the Lower Di-
vision Committee.

Lower Division Committee
Because of the increasing emphasis on re-
search and graduate studies during the 50's and
60's, the content of Freshman and Sophomore
engineering curriculum became more and more
the province of Departments of Physics and
Mathematics. Engineering faculty found little re-
ward in involving themselves at that level. During
the 60's the need for socially relevant education
came more and more into the minds of entering
students, more commonly the brighter ones. To
an alarming extent, such students transferred to
the social sciences although they had the aptitude
to become excellent engineers. They either began
to think engineering contributed to more than it
solved societal problems or they simply could not
see the relation between the physics and mathe-

matics they were taking and work on the types
of engineering problems they envisioned.
In appeared quite clear that immediate at-
tention needed to be given to the Lower Division
in a formal way. An appropriate mechanism for
this was a Lower Committee which would super-
vise the Lower Division freshman engineering
students, introduce experiences in environmental
awareness, interdisciplinary study, independent
study, and generally to carry out recommenda-
tions of the Engineering Programs Study Com-
mittee. In order to give the Committee power
to influence change, it was given the authority
by the Engineering Faculty to certify completion
of the Lower Division. Without such authority,
the Committee would have been relegated to a
relatively ineffective advisory role.
In practice, the process of certification will
actually simplify the administrative procedures
for supervising students progress and will per-
mit greater flexibility in student programming.
The certification paper is a simple contract be-
tween the student and the Lower Division Com-
mittee through the advisor which states the
courses he will complete to finish the Lower Di-
vision. The important effect of this process is
that it gives authority and substance to recom-
mendations for change agreed upon by the Lower
Division Committee.

In order to develop criteria upon which to
base certification of a student's Lower Division
program and to aid in understanding of the ap-
propriate functions of the Lower Division Com-
mittee, the Report of the Engineering Programs
Study Committee was carefully analyzed to di-
gest from it a series of operational statements
which could be used as guidelines (Appendix A).
These guidelines are divided into three parts:
A statement of the purpose of engineering: a
series of seven statements giving the desired
characteristics of engineering graduates: and a
series of sixteen operational statements which
are guidelines for revising the structure of our
engineering programs. The form of these state-
ments has been discussed extensively by our
Lower Division Committee and has been accepted
by the Committee. Ample time was also allowed


for comment by the entire Engineering faculty;
however, few comments were received. Hopefully,
this means we have a consensus. Realistically,
faculty members are busy people and many would
not take a document like these Guidelines seri-
ously until they would perceive some effect on
their activities.
I would like to make some comments on each
of the three sections of the Guidelines. The first
gives our interpretation of the purpose of engi-
neering. Traditionally, engineers have worked to
find technological solutions to problems of inter-
est to a particular client. We augment this with
a statement of responsibility to society i.e., that
the engineer must as a part of his job see that
the social costs and benefits of his systems are
examined and taken into account. We recognize
that techniques for analyzing many of the social
costs and benefits are poorly developed, but that
one of the responsibilities of the engineering pro-
fession must be to take the lead in seeing that
appropriate methods are developed.
This process, called Technology Assessment,
should be carried through as a normal part of
every design and hence should be included in
undergraduate course work in some way. At the
present time, we are working on development
of the technique in a broad interdisciplinary ur-
ban transportation project. As the technique
develops, we hope to include it in a formal way
at least in our design courses.
The second part of the Guidelines gives de-
sired characteristics of the engineering graduate.
He is a person who has acquired a working
knowledge of the basic sciences and of engineer-
ing methods; he should have acquired an under-
standing of the setting within which he works,
i.e., the cultural, historical, social and physical
environment; he has learned how to draw from
his store of knowledge the bits that are needed
in a particular situation; how to apply the spark
of creativity; how to communicate to obtain data
and make his results useful; and, finally, he has
learned in such a way that he can continue the
process throughout his professional life.
To mold engineering students into graduates
with these qualities is difficult and it will require
some rather basic changes. We do a commendable
job in teaching basic and engineering sciences
for that has been one of the main aims of engi-
neering education over the past ten to fifteen
years. Students are, however, too accustomed to
being spoon fed and too easily confused by prob-
lems which require a combination of disciplines

.. engineering freshmen have been
"demotivated"... through the way
Freshman English has been taught...

learned in several courses. To overcome this, stu-
dents should be given more open-ended design
problems even though this means they will be
able to cover less material in a given course. We
give lip service to the philosophy that the four
undergraduate years do not complete the educa-
tion of an engineer and that he must expect to
continue his learning process throughout his ca-
reer; however, when it comes to determining
course content, we still often assume tacitly that
the student must have acquired certain definite
bits of knowledge during his undergraduate
years, and as a matter of fact, many more bits
than he can absorb.
To get students into the habit of independent
study, we should require a certain amount of
material in every course be learned independently
without the benefit of a lecture. A great deal of
undergraduate engineering could be learned this
way and would leave the instructor free to spend
more time on the difficult points. True, it runs
contrary to habits developed by many students,
but it is essential if we are to build habits whereby
an engineer can continue to study on his own.
The third part of our Guidelines is a series
of 16 operation statements concerning the struc-
ture of engineering programs. While these state-
ments are difficult to classify, they recognize the
need for motivation, for greater flexibility, for
more options, for interdisciplinary experiences,
for concentration in fields other than, but related
in a broad sense, to engineering, and for the use
of increased subjective judgement rather than
rigid requirements.
The task of the Lower Division Committee
has been to develop ways of carrying out these
recommendations in the Freshman and Sopho-
more programs.

Now I will discuss some of the specifiic actions
we have taken and are taking to meet the objec-
tives set down in our Guidelines. Here we move
from theory to practice. Here the practical dif-
ficulties of budgets, student-teacher ratios, time
constraints, varying departmental interests, and
varying experience and orientation of individual
faculty members have to be resolved. The result
is that the changes we can make this year or next
are not as dramatic as we would like; however,


we must retain a healthy level of impatience and
persistence if any worthwhile goal is to be at-

Criteria for Lower Division Programs
The first thing we did after establishing our
Guidelines was to settle on a set of criteria (Ap-
pendix B) against which to approve Lower Di-
vision programs of students and departments.
These criteria were to be broad policy guides
designed to permit the greatest flexibility possible
individual student programs within constraints
imposed by ECPD requirements, our own concept
of engineering education, and other practicalities
such as the fact that 50% of our upper-division
student complete their lower-division work in
junior colleges, state colleges and private colleges
in Minnesota.
The results are 1) that the proportions of
math, natural science, engineering science and
liberal education are roughly unchanged, but that
2) the credit load will be reduced by 5 to 10%,
3) students will be able to change engineering
majors at a later date than before without pen-
alty, and 4) the flexibility of engineering pro-
grams will be more visible to the student. In ad-
dition, we now explicitly encourage students to
take courses in ecology and in the relationship
between technology and society. Finally, we re-
quire development of courses at the Freshman
level to increase environmental awareness, to
expose the student to conceptual design processes
and to otherwise show the student how his educa-
tion can lead to a constructive, socially-relevant

Pilot Project in Freshman Engineering
One of the ways engineering freshman have
been demotivated in the past has been through
the way Freshman English has been taught. This
year we have conducted a pilot program involv-
ing 150 Freshman engineering students, in which
the main emphasis has been on teaching English
composition. But instead of taking topics from
the classical literature, students have been writ-
ing themes related to environmental issues,
science fiction, careers in engineering, etc. In
addition, this group has been exposed to a series
of lectures on various engineering subjects by
carefully selected engineers from local industry.
The whole effect seems thus far to be markedly,
but perhaps not surprisingly, positive and will

... To help the Freshman see the relevancy of his
math and physics.. .engineering faculty are recruited
to take recitation sessions...

form the basis for the way we will conduct courses
for all engineering Freshmen next year.

Engineering Faculty in Freshman Math and Physics
Another problem has been to help the Fresh-
men see the relevancy of his math and physics.
A related problem has been to make the engi-
neering faculty sufficiently aware of the content
of these courses so that meaningful comment and
change can be made. Both are being solved by
recruiting engineering faculty to take recitation
sessions of Freshmen math and physics. This re-
quires a small enough portion of a faculty mem-
ber's time to be feasible and seems to be a signi-
ficant improvement over use of physics graduate
students to teach these sessions. The main prob-
lem is to convince enough engineering faculty
members to donate their time.

As a final topic in innovative education, I
will discuss an experimental course entitled,
"Ecology, Technology and Society," which we are
offering this winter quarter for the second time.
The course grew out of an Honors Seminar en-
titled, "Technology, Man and the Future," which
I was privileged to lead in the fall quarter of
1969. The reading I did in preparation for this
seminar gave me a much greater depth of aware-
ness of the environmental crisis than I had had
before. In essence, it converted me from an en-
vironmentally-concerned person into one whose
entire career is now dedicated to solution of prob-
lems of the human environment.
With the help of a small committee, I devel-
oped the outline for an interdisciplinary course
which would treat what we judged to be the most
critical environmental problems of the coming
decade. The outline began with a series of lec-
tures on the philosophy of integrative education,
the history of environmental concern and the
ecological basis of life on earth. We then con-
sidered subjects such as resource limitations;
national priorities; air, water and ground pollu-
tion; electric power, food production and its en-
vironmental effects; population growth and con-
trol. With this background, we turned to the
social sciences. He we considered the relationship


between environmental issues and the possibi-
lities of relief through legal and governmental
means, and we considered economic problems of a
recognizably finite earth. Finally, we considered
the meaning of all that preceded for human
After developing the outline and limiting the
scope of our considerations, we made a careful
selection of lecturers. The aim here was not only
to present the student with a broad range of
views but to pick faculty with genuinely-de-
veloped concerns for the environment from what-
ever view they approached the subject. In order
not to encroach too deeply on faculty time, no
lecturer was asked to give more than two lectures
and most gave only one. As a matter of principle,
none of the lecturers is directly compensated but
joins us because of genuine interest and concern.
The question is now whether this is an inter-
disciplinary course or whether it is merely multi-
disciplinary. The latter is a lecture series-the
former is much more. We want to do more than
just expose students to a collection of environ-
mentally relevant topics, however admirable that
goal may be. To attempt to make the course in-
terdisciplinary, we do the following:

We brief each lecturer in detail on the purposes of
the entire course and the content of the other lecturers
and we ask each lecturer to try as well as he can to
relate his material to the course as a whole.
We ask each lecturer to provide a series of ques-
tions on his topic and its relation to other topics in the
series. These questions are distributed to all lecturers
and to the class at the beginning of the quarter. The
students are told that these questions will form the basis
for the final exam.
We divide the class into student-led discussion
groups of 10-15 students each. They choose their own
time and place to meet and try to work out responses to
the study questions.
The moderator and teaching assistant attend all
sessions and try to help relate the various topics in in-
troductory comments.
We brief the class at the first lecture on the his-
tory and importance of integrative thought.
Finally, we remind the student that true integra-
tive education comes finally in the individual mind to
the degree that that mind contemplates the relationships
between various inputs. Careful selection of discussion
questions aids this process greatly.

At the end of the spring quarter last year,
we asked the students to give reactions to the
course. These reactions have made wonderfully
inspiring reading. Many students said the course
was the best they had ever taken, that they de-
voted a great deal more time to it compared to

... an experimental course entitled
"Ecology, Technology, and Society" has attracted
a great deal of attention in the Twin Cities
and in the state...

other courses of comparable length, that they
liked the idea of hearing many different lecturers
in one course. The latter was gratifying in terms
of one of the motives in using many lecturers.
With concerned faculty, we felt each would put
more effort into his lecture than he would into
each of the lectures he would give in an extended
An indication this quarter of students inter-
est in the course is the following: We reserve
the lecture hall for the hour following the lecture
and invite the class to stay on an optional basis
to question the lecturer. In almost every period,
nearly the full class remains the full optional
The course has attracted a great deal of at-
tention in the Twin Cities, and in the state, e.g.,
whe have had many calls inviting various of the
lecturers to speak, and the course is taped and
carried over the University of Minnesota radio
station. A number of people take the course for
credit via the radio and the comments we have
received are most gratifying. It is clearly evident
we are serving a real need.

By way of concluding remarks, I would like to
offer the following:
Continued life on this planet in any sense
meaningful to us today is going to require a much
more sophisticated form of engineering than we
have practiced in the past. The engineer needs to
develop real understanding of and concern for the
physical environment and he needs to learn to
humanize his technology to a much greater extent
than in the past.
These qualities must be impressed upon the
engineering student during his undergraduate
years in ways that will stick with him. Doing this
will require persistent, painstaking efforts in-
volving education of both faculty and students.
Direct proof of the appropriateness of recom-
mended changes usually can come only over a
period of many years. It, therefore, appears that
the collective wisdom of enlightened and con-
cerned engineering faculties is one of the primary
keys to successful resolution of the environmental



Guidelines* For the Committee for Lower Division
Programs in Engineering, Institute of Technology, Uni-
versity of Minnesota.

I. The Purpose of Engineering

The central purpose of engineering is to pursue solu-
tions to technological problems in order to satisfy needs
and desires of society.
In pursuing solutions to technological problems, the
engineering profession is responsible not only for the
technical performance of systems devised and for needs
and desires of users, but for identification of the social
costs of these systems and for development and use of
procedures whereby these costs will be accounted for in
ways which will be fair and equitable to all affected

II. Desired Characteristics of Engineering Graduates

1. Engineering graduates should be sufficiently
grounded in chemistry, physics, and mathematics so that
they can apply them to the solution of engineering prob-
lems in a chosen field of specialization.
2. Engineering graduates should understand the phy-
sical, mathematical and computational processes by which
constrained optimum solutions to engineering problems
are found and should be able to participate in the solu-
tion of such problems.
3. Engineering graduates should have an apprecia-
tion for and be sentitive to the broad societal, economic
and physical environments within which they live and
work and to the impacts major technological systems have
had on these environments and on human values.
4. Engineering graduates should be able to perceive
their technical, social and humanistic education as an
integrated whole.
5. Engineering graduates should understand the role
of creativity and innovation in solution of engineering
problems from first-hand experience.
6. Engineering graduates should be able to perceive
their technical ideas and concepts verbally, graphically
and mathematically.
7. Engineering graduates should have developed
study habits which will enable them to continue inde-
pendently to extend the scope of their knowledge, and
should have developed an appreciation for the significance
of the limited scope of the knowledge they possess.

III. The Structure of Engineering Programs

1. Engineering programs should be designed so that
the above characteristics are developed continuously
rather than in discrete time blocks.
2. All of the characteristics listed in II should be
present to some degree in every engineer! however; be-
cause of varying individual motivations, societal needs
and human limitations, many alternative engineering pro-
grams should be provided with somewhat different

*Digested from The Report of the Engineering Pro-
grams Study Committee, January 1970.

objective but with each containing a minimal content
common to all.
3. The programs and courses should be designed
with recognition that some students are motivated to-
ward careers in engineering science, others toward pro-
fessional engineering activities, and still others toward
engineering careers which maximize social interaction.
4. To allow the student sufficient time to establish
his interests, some programs should be designed so that
he can delay his choice of department major to the great-
est degree possible consistent with other objectives,
desirably to the third quarter of the sophomore year.
5. Courses should be developed to introduce students
to engineering at the freshman and sophomore level.
These courses should acquaint the student with processes
of creative synthesis and should motivate freshman engi-
neers to a more intelligent commitment to their disci-
6. Engineering programs should be constructed to
permit students freedom to explore a number of fields
within a given engineering discipline but require them
to examine engineering methods in some depth using at
least one field as an example.
7. In the social and humanistic areas, students should
be provided with broad options rather than prescribed
sets of courses.
8. Both laboratory and design courses should be
offered on an elective basis, above and beyond basic re-
quirements, and strong efforts should be made to recruit
faculty to teach them.
9. Practice in written communication should be made
a part of upper-division engineering courses. For ex-
ample, in cooperation with the English and Journalism
Departments, reports could be required which would be
corrected and commented upon by these departments.
10. Interdisciplinary engineering programs, some with
heavy involvement in the socio-humanistic areas, should
be encouraged as optional paths when the objectives are
well developed and viable and the substantive course
content is available.
11. All one-quarter courses offered by I.T. which are
not exclusively for graduate students should normally
have a minimum of four credits, except for those pri-
marily for freshmen; these should normally have a mini-
mum of five credits. Exceptions to these guidelines should
be carefully reviewed.
12. The time required for the average student to
complete the work of a course should be about thirty total
hours per quarter credit.
13. To assist the student in allocating his efforts, he
should be provided with a guide to the way most students
would be expected to divide their time among the various
activities required by each course.
14. If an individual Upper Division student so desires,
he should have an opportunity to concentrate his efforts
to the extent that a full quarter of fifteen credits could
be devoted to one project or one subject of instruction.
15. To the extent practical, subjective judgment by
faculty and students should be favored over rigid re-
quirements for admission, for entrance into specific
courses, or for degrees.
16. The premise that the need for personal advice
and counsel is the greatest need of all engineering educa-
tion should be given formal recognition.


A student will be certified to have completed the Lower
Division if he receives the recommendation of the LDC
Department Representative of the department in which
he wishes to pursue Upper Division work and the con-
currence of the Lower Division Committee. The student
has the right to appeal the decision of the Department
Representative to the full committee by request to its
A Lower Division Program submitted by a student is
to receive the Department Representative's recommenda-
tion for approval if in his judgment it shows evidence
that the student has acquired the knowledge normally
possessed by students who have completed programs
which are included within the framework outlined below.
It is up to the discretion of the Department Representa-
tive, subject to appeal to the full committee, to deter-
mine the type of evidence upon which the recommendation
is to be based.
1. Liberal Education. The student is to have com-
pleted approximately half of Liberal Education require-
ment established by the Institute of Technology in
accordance with the all-University policy on liberal edu-
cation. Only in unusual cases would the program have
deviated by more than one course from the half-way
point, i.e., from 18 credits.*
2. Mathematics. Normally the student would have
been expected to have completed 23 credits of calculus-
level mathematics up to and including an introduction to
differential equations. With reasonable cause, and with
the concurrence of the department the student wishes
to enter, the fifth math course may be replaced by a
* Quarter credits. One quarter credit is expected to re-
quire a total of three hours per week.

BOOK REVIEW (Cont'd from p. 73)
probability, statistical mechanics and quantum
mechanics and then give a few common illustra-
tions: molecular velocity distribution in a gas,
specific heat of a Debye solid, electron gas in a
As in the earlier parts of their book, the au-
thors write clearly and succinctly but their con-
viction and authority are now notably lower.
Whereas the utility and power of classical thermo-
dynamics were evident throughout, it is not at all
apparent to the reader where all this statistical
material is going to lead in the sense of engi-
neering application. The intellectual beauty of
statistical thermodynamics is nicely conveyed but
the engineering student who wants to see practi-
cal results will be disappointed. The chapter on
quantum mechanics is probably too difficult for
undergraduates who have not had a strong course
in physical chemistry or atomic physics.

discipline-oriented math course, e. g., statistics. This
option is not available to the undecided student.
3. Natural Science. The student is to have completed
12 credits in calculus-level physics; 4 credits in chem-
istry; and 4 additional credits in either physics, chemis-
try, biology, geology, ecology, or some other natural
sciences. The first 16 of these credits are exclusive of
4. Engineering Science. Each engineering department
program is to include at least two engineering science
courses or 8 credits from the five options: mechanics,
electric circuits, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and
materials. In order to minimize the problem of transfers
between departments, it is suggested that the department
programs recommend a third course in either engineer-
ing science or natural science. The undecided student
is to have completed at least three 4-credit courses or 12
credits from at least three of the above five options.
5. Laboratory. A minimum of 4 credits in observa-
tional and manipulatory laboratory work must be com-
pleted in the Lower Division.
6. Introduction to Engineering. Normally this will in-
clude 6 credits of work in engineering orientation, moti-
vation, elementary problem solving, and conceptual de-
sign; environmental awareness; computer programming;
and engineering graphics, split approximately equally
among these four subject areas.
At least 90 equivalent credits are required to com-
plete the Lower Division.
If a student's program deviates by more than two
courses from the program recommended by his pros-
pective major, he would be expected to make up this
difference as part of his Lower Division Program. The
first two make-up courses would be taken as a part of the
student's Upper Division program. A department pro-
gram will be within the spirit of these criteria if it
will permit a student to transfer to another department
with only two make-up courses.

This text is admirably suited for a one-year
thermodynamics course for general engineering
students in their third (or possibly even their
second) college year. It is likely that students will
react warmly to this text because, unlike so many
other books, it was written to meet student needs
rather than to show off the authors' erudition, to
practice pedagogy rather than to portray the au-
thors' particular research accomplishments. Pro-
fessors Sonntag and Van Wylen are to be con-
gratulated for having produced a major contribu-
tion to undergraduate engineering education;
their book deserves, and no doubt will achieve,
wide adoption. However, for chemical engineering
students it will be necessary to supplement this
book with another one, suitable for undergradu-
ates dealing with the equilibrium properties of
mixtures. That book, unfortunately, remains to be
written. J. M. Prausnitz

University of California, Berkeley


What I like about Celanese

is the professional elbow room.

You had offers from other go
companies. How did you come
pick Celanese?

How did you-feel when y

You think that so much indepe
d(lence is a good thing?

Expect to make a career wi


There were a lot of reasons. One thing I
liked-the recruiter I talked to was a
Celanese project engineer, so he could tell
me about the kinds of jobs I'd be working on.

o u Nervous! I was afraid of being stuck on one
of those eternal company training pro-
grams. But at Celanese I was treated like a
professional from the start. For a while,
knowing that results were up to me was a
little scary. But I found that when I needed
help, it was right there.

in- It works. I think it's one reason why some
basic ideas like epoxies, and an engineering
resin-Celcon plastic-that's used to replace
metals, and fibers like Fortrel polyester and
Arnel triacetate all got their start at
Celanese. A lot of new things are in the
works, too. Right now I'm helping to scale
up production of a composite material that
will save weight in airplanes and rockets.

th Who can say? All I know is I'm busy doing
something worthwhile. I'm moving. I'm
helping to make things happen.

Maybe Celanese is for you. If you have ques-
tions about how Celanese fits your plans for
the future, have your placement office set up
an interview. Or write to
Dr. S. T. Clark, Celanese Cor-
poration, 522 Fifth Avenue,
New York, N.Y. 10036. CELANESE
An equal opportunity employer
:- ." ..... i' .'-. . ** . -



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W. .
LIA, ir,


Handbook of Laboratory Unit Operations for
Chemists and Chemical Engineers, J. Pinkava.
English translation edited by J. Bryant. Gordon
and Breach Science Publishers, New York,
(1970), 446 pp.
The author of this book, the first edition of
which was published in Czechoslovak, is associate
Professor of Chemistry at the Institute of Chemi-
cal Process Fundamentals Czechoslovak Academy
of Sciences. In his preface he states: "Where the
book will be of particular value to the chemical
engineer is in helping him to reduce considerably
the cost of construction and testing of experi-
mental and small-scale installations emphasizing
as it does the use of glass as a constructional ma-
terial." The book comprises five sections of thirty
chapters. Section 1 on measurement covers flow
measurement, thermometry, manometry, level,
densitometry, viscometry, refractometry, hygro-
metry, and other quantities. Section 2 describes
control of flow, temperature, pressure, level and
time. Section 3 describes the operations of pump-
ing, mixing, thermal operations, fluidization, dry-
ing and others. Section 4 is devoted to basic model
components such as valves, solenoids, lubricants,
packing, cements, joints, and insulation. Section 5
discusses safety precautions against electrical
accidents, fire, poisons, corrosives, pressures and
This is not a textbook. It is, rather, a very
good reference compendium of experimental tech-
niques and devices useful to the researcher in a
process development laboratory. These devices are
illustrated by 463 line drawings which are abbre-
viated schematics but they serve well enough to
give the experimenter direction in applications to
a small pilot plant operation. If the experimenter
requires more detailed information, a bibliography
of 12 pages is keyed to the chapters. A List of
References containing 1596 items provides still
more information if it becomes necessary to
search still more for details.
The Index comprises 12 pages. It appears to
be more extensive than many indices seen by this
This volume is not a good example of the book-
makers art. The paper is too thin and translucent
for the printing is faintly visible through the
page. The binding boards are paper-covered and
thus unable to sustain heavy usage.

For the chemist or chemical engineer who is
engaged in experimental process development es-
sentially in glass on a bench scale, this book
should be very valuable and to them it is highly
recommended. R. F. Heckman
S. Dakota School of
Mines & Technology



The 1972 Summer School for Chemical Engineering
Faculty will be held August 13 through 18, 1972 at the
University of Colorado in Boulder.
Questions should be directed to the Director of the
Summer School, L. Bryce Andersen, Newark College of
Engineering, Newark, N.J. 07102.
Although most of the Chemical Engineering Division
activities will be concentrated at the Summer School in
Boulder, there will also be a program at the ASEE
meeting at Lubbock, Texas, June 19-22. Dr. Arnold Gully
of Texas Tech is Program chairman.
Wednesday, June 21
12:00-1:30 Division Luncheon
1:45-3:30 The Master's Degree-Goal of the Next
Decade? A. J. Gully, Chairman
3:45-5:30 Department Heads Discussion (open to all
members) "Faculty Teaching Loads and Pro-
ductivity," E. B. Stuart, and R. E. Slonaker,
Discussion Leaders

publishes a special Fall issue devoted to graduate educa-
tion. This issue contains articles on graduate courses that
are written by professors at various universities and of
advertisements placed by departments of chemical engi-
neering describing their graduate programs. Each depart-
ment is provided with several free copies to distribute
to seniors interested in graduate work. Since we are now
planning a similar issue for Fall 1972,. we would be
interested in learning if you would like to contribute a
paper on your graduate course. These papers are to be
no more than 10 double-spaced typed pages (or their
equivalent in sketches, tables and drawings.) Our final
selection of papers is based on the objective of achieving
a balance among areas, schools and authors in a given
issue and in preceding ones.
If you would be interested in preparing a paper please
write the editor, Ray Fahien, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Fla. 32601. Include title of course and date
paper will be submitted.



This could

be the start

of a





Ecology is part of it. So is toxicology. And
most important of all, chemical technol-
ogy. It takes a professional knowledge of
all these disciplines, plus determination,
to help protect our natural surroundings.
We're developing new methods for con-
trolling industrial contamination of our
air, water, soil and surroundings. For
some of us this constitutes a full time ca-
reer. But it's a major concern for all of us.
In today's world industrial sophistication
and expansion have reached the point
where complete careers can be found in
environmental protection. Not only can be
found; MUST be found. Preserving our
natural resources takes a lifetime of ex-
perience, skills and stubborn resolve.
Everyone must participate in helping to
maintain the vital ecological balance. For
environmental involvement is literally the
breath of life for everyone.
Dow Chemical, U.S.A.


If it doesn't shrink on their backs,
why should it shrink on yours.

Animals wear leather all their lives. And
they don't worry about rain or dirt or
cracking or hardening.
But as soon as they lose their hides.
that's when the trouble can start. With-
out protection, baseballs can shrivel uLp,
mini-skirts become micro-skirts, size 9
shoes become size 8.
Union Carbide got together with the
tanners to save a little bit of the world

from shrinking.
Wetooka little known chemical called
Glutaraldehyde and refined it and de-
signed it so it could be added to the
tanning process.
Togiveyou a leatherthat resists hard-
ening. A leather that resists cracking. A
leather that doesn't shrink at the sight
of water.
We're out to save your hide.

* .. 'N
-.,*' .* .iL .'

tE mI
B1 I],

Full Text