Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00035
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00035

Full Text







chemicl l engrng e ci










































L _


Your parents didn't put you through school

to work for the wrong company.


We think we're the right company.
We're big, but not too big.
We've climbed halfway up Fortune's
Directory of 500 Largest Corporations.
But compare the share of sales that
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Suddenly, we're no less than second.
What does this mean when you're
considering a career in paper production?
It means that production engineering
at Westvaco is influenced by continuous
research feedback. It means lots
of development work. Diversification.
Excitement. Research has given us
processes and equipment to make better


papers for printing, packaging, and
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Make them more efficient. That's your job.
Research has given us useful by-products,
too. High-grade specialty chemicals for
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But we need good engineers to recover
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In our company, working with paper
and paper by-products can mean good
careers in design engineering,


fluid dynamics, specialty chemicals,
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Chances are, whatever you liked
and did best in college, we're doing
right now. And doing it well.
But find out for yourself. See our
campus representative, or contact
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299 Park Avenue, New York 10017.
Remember, all your parents want for
you is the best of everything. The least
you could do is join the right company.

Westvaco
An equal opportunity employer


V









EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett

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WINTER 1972


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1 WINTER 1972

Feature Articles
Chemid t 4wal,, .ele u- 1971
14 The Art and Science of Rheology,
W. R. Schowalter
Sffgmpa iacM-Wm&e. C dacaios
36 Preparing the Engineer for His Unique Role,
L. Waldo Leggett, Jr.
40 ChE Education for the Seventies,
R. E. Balzhiser
45 Diversified and Special Programs in Under-
graduate ChE Education, R. A. Keppel,
R. W. Fahien, and M. Tyner
Departments
4 The Educator
John Happel of NYU
8 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Montana State, Lloyd Berg
23 The Curriculum
23 Undergraduate Curricula in ChE (1969-70),
C. W. Balch
25 Undergraduate Curricula in ChE (1970-71),
Dee H. Barker
28 The Laboratory
Single Drop Liquid Extractions,
0. C. Sandall
30 The Classroom
The Thermodorm, A. F. Gangi,
N. E. Lamping, and P. T. Eubank
AIChE Annual Reports
48 Education and Accreditation Committee,
S. G. Bankoff
50 ChE Education Projects Committee,
C. Judson King
44, 52 News
15 Ch E Division Activities
35 Book Review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year to non-members of the ChE Division of ASEE, $6 per year mailed to members
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Individual copies of Vol. 2 and 3
are $3 each. Copyright () 1972, Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.






New Math?
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TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your
department chairman to write R. B. Bennett, Business Manager, CEE, Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 32601.
Bulk subscription rates at $4/yr each with a $25.00 minimum for six or fewer
subscriptions. Individual subscriptions are available to ASEE-CED and AIChE
members at $6/yr.


WINTER 1972









F )educator


JOHN APPEAL

OF NYU*


"Be sure it isn't a case of the Greener Grass
Law" advised Ken Watson as John Happel decided
to leave his industrial career for teaching. His
first position after leaving M.I.T. began at the
laboratories of the Standard Oil Company of
New York in Brooklyn. There after ten years
he had become a supervisor in charge of a sec-
tion of fifty scientific personnel engaged in a
variety of activities from design of refining
equipment to running a fleet of test cars. During
World War II, he was one of a technical com-
mittee charged with the design and initial opera-
tion of the world's largest butadiene plant for
production of synthetic rubber. Following the
war he worked with several major chemical com-
panies on petrochemical projects, obtained his
doctorate at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
and after seventeen years in the oil industry ac-
cepted a position at New York University in
1948.
He regards his second career, as a professor,
as being particularly rewarding, especially as
he was fortunate in meeting Dorothy Merriam.
She became his wife soon after he started teach-
ing at New York University and along with his
academic activities he launched on the project
of being the father of three children, Jill, George
and Ruth now 17, 15 and 13 years old. Shortly
after joining New York University, Happel be-
came chairman of the chemical engineering de-
partment, a position which he holds at the pre-
sent time. His teaching duties involved the
initiation of a plant design course based on
economic process principles learned in industry,
which form the basis of his textbook, "Chemical
Process Economics". His research and teaching
interests have centered in the field of fluid dy-
namics and more recently in chemical kinetics
and catalysis. He has co-authored a book on "Low
Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics" and trans-
lated part of a Russian book on "Catalysis by
*Prepared by Professors Kapfer, Treybal, and Parker of
Chemical Engineering Department of New York Univer-
sity.


Non-metals" in addition to publishing a hundred
papers and patents in these fields.
Happel's career with Socony, the first of a
number of metamorphoses of the organization
now called Mobil, began with trips to the numer-
ous refineries of the company located throughout
the United States. Low temperature analytical
fractionation of gases had recently been devel-
oped and it proved very attractive economically
to modernize the gas recovery facilities of many
of these refineries to incorporate light ends into
gasoline which were formerly being wasted as
fuel gas.
Soon a more exciting prospect developed. Eu-
gene Houdry, the father of modern catalytic
cracking, had been "discovered" in France by
Harold Sheets a director of the Vacuum Oil
Company, which had just merged with Socony.
Houdry, the son of a wealthy steel magnate and
a racing car enthcsiast, had found that a French
druggist could make a very superior grade of
gasoline by contacting oil fractions with clay
as a catalyst. He and his entire organization had
been imported to the United States together with
a small pilot plant for catalytic cracking of
petroleum. Happel and two other scientists at


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I ` i











The Happel family at Madison,
Conn., showing, left to right,
Jill, John, Ruth, Dotty, and
George.





Socony were given the assignment of evaluating
his process. They lived with Houdry and worked
with his group at the Paulsboro refinery of Vac-
uum Oil Company for a number of months. It
was demonstrated that the process was truly
catalytic. Though the process was not yet ripe
for immediate commercialization, Sun Oil Com-
pany and Socony-Vacuum continued to work with
Houdry developing it from an engineering stand-
point. It, together with alkylation formed the
basis for the production of high octane number
aviation gasoline, of such great importance sev-
eral years later.
During the years following, the petroleum
refining industry developed considerably in the
technology of producing "tailor made" molecules
whether for use as liquefied petroleum gas,
special solvents, fuels and lubricants or as feed-
stocks for the chemical industry as ethylene and
butylene fractions. Happel was successful in
convincing the technical management of the Com-
pany that the formation of a chemical engineer-
ing group to make designs, cost estimates and
plant tests would be a useful asset. This group
-served many of the Company domestic refineries
as well as producing and refining operations in
Europe and other foreign countries. Projects in-
cluded asphalt blowing stills in Australia, stabi-
lizers for hydrogen sulfide removal in Iraq, crude
rerunning stills in Austria. Happel was also re-
sponsible for an automotive laboratory consist-
ing of engines for gasoline and lubricating oil
evaluation as well as a small fleet of test cars
used for road testing of gasoline on Long Island.
With the beginning of World War II, Happel
was assigned to the Petroleum Industry War
Council, an organization formed by the U.S.
Government and charged with the development
of strategic military requirements for petroleum
products. Development of sources of aviation al-
kylate, catalytic gasoline blending stock and
toluene were important goals. At about that time
the Manhattan project was getting under way

WINTER 1972


Happel's philosophy of education, shared by his
colleagues at NYU, is that in addition to theoretical
training a young engineer should have some
substantive experience early in his career.

and Happel was about to be assigned to it, when
Pearl Harbor changed military priorities
abruptly.
The United States was cut off from Malay
rubber and only a limited stockpile was available.
It was critically necessary to develop a source
of butadiene for the manufacture of synthetic
rubber to replace the natural product in automo-
bile, tank and aeroplane tires. A technical team
composed of one representative from each of five
major oil companies in the Beaumont, Texas area
was charged with the responsibility of selecting,
designing and putting into initial operation a plant
to make 100,000 T/yr. of butadiene, the world's
largest plant capable of handling 20% of the
total United States rubber demand. This plant
was also to be the prototype of others built for
the U.S. Government by the oil industry. Happel
was designated as the Socony-Vacuum Oil Com-
pany representative of this team. They took to
the road, visited all major companies doing re-
search in this area and designed a plant which
was erected by the Lummus Company. The plant



John and George mountain
climbing in the high peaks reg-
ion of the Adirondacks looking
toward Saddleback Mountain.


which cost $60,000,000 went on stream as
planned, and produced at a rate well in excess of
design capacity. There were more than a few
anxious moments. One well remembered incident
was the occasion of formal celebration of the
opening of the plant by Bradley Dewey, the Rub-
ber Director. In the course of his speech in which
prepared notes were thrown away, he congratu-
lated all involved,-though the plant had not yet
started and indeed there were serious problems
in initial running of the solvent extraction towers.
Together with other rubber facilities, this plant
was turned back to private industry ten years
later and is still operating economically today.

5












At Novosibirsk in Russia, John
with Prof. G. K. Boreskov, Di-
rector of the Catalysis Institute
at the Staff club house.





For this work along with the other members of
the Technical Advisory Committee, Happel was
awarded the Navy's Certificate of Achievement.
After the war, Happel was engaged in several
surveys with major chemical companies looking
toward a possible joint petrochemical venture. It
was not until a number of years later that Mobil
ventured into the petrochemical business based
on ethylene. At this time Happel completed his
requirements for the doctorate at Polytechnic
Institute of Brooklyn under the direction of Don-
ald F. Othmer. Soon after, he accepted a position
in the chemical engineering department at New
York University and became Chairman in 1949.
He teaches an undergraduate course in plant
design and a graduate course in chemical engi-
neering kinetics. In teaching, Happel feels that
his industrial experience enables him to make
a special contribution in the design course which
integrates academic knowledge learned by lower
classmen and applies it to industrial situations.
The student gains confidence in the use of techni-
cal knowledge guided by economics as a tool for
decision. Happell believes that economics and cost
estimation are still too often neglected subjects
among engineers. To arrive at an economic opti-
mum in the design of any plant both economic and
technical factors must be combined. Graduate
teaching has been intimately concerned with his
researches in the field of hydrodynamics and cata-
lysis undertaken in most cases with advanced
students as well as colleagues.
Happel feels that hydrodynamics as a field is
attractive in that it is accessible to a completely
rigorous methematical approach, which at the
same time can be verified experimentally and
serves as the foundation for motion of fluids rela-
tive to particulate systems. These systems are
encountered in fluidization, sedimentation and
flow through porous media. In chemical engineer-
ing the creeping motion equations can serve as
a basis for modeling systems involving simul-


Happel believes that a scientist or engineer should
endeavor to be acquainted with intellectual
developments outside of his own field of
specialization.




taneous transport processes and chemical reac-
tions. The researches of Happel and his brilliant
student and later colleague, Howard Brenner,
resulted in the publication of a book in this area.
The main thrust of Happel's researches
throughout his career and especially in recent
years has been in the area of kinetics and cataly-
sis. Following his work on petrochemicals in in-
dustry, he has studied similar hydrocarbon sys-
'tems to. a considerable extent. One area of
continuing interest has been the development of
techniques for high temperature pyrolysis for pro-
duction of acetylene. Production of acetylene from
carbide seems to be basically cumbersome and pre-
sents a continuing challenge for production direct-
ly from hydrocarbons. Some of his recent re-
searches promise to develop a process for making
very cheap acetylene which could compete with
ethylene, the present major petrochemical
building block.
In the field of heterogeneous catalysis, he and
his colleagues have developed new theories and
techniques for the study of complex reactions by
means of isotopic tracers. These researches have
been sponsored by such organizations as the Na-
tional Science Foundation and the National Air
Pollution Control Administration. Systems stud-
ies have included hydrocarbon hydrogenation and
dehydrogenation, the conversion of sulfur di-
oxide to alleviate atmospheric pollution, and the
mechanism of the water gas shift reaction.
In connection with his studies he has made a
number of trips abroad to assess development in
catalysis. A several month trip to Japan spon-
sored by the National Science Foundation has
resulted in the chemical engineering department
being host to a number of visiting scientists from
Japan. On the occasion of the IV International
Congress on Catalysis, he presented a paper in
Moscow and made an extended trip to Russia
sponsored by the Soviet and U.S. Academics of
Science. More recently under sponsorship of
NATO he visited Germany and has instituted a
cooperative research program on catalysis with
Professor Jochen Block of the Fritz-Haber In-
stitute in West Berlin. Many foreign scientists


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

































At St. Croix, Whim estate, remains of an old rum still.

will contribute to a conference on tracer applica-
tions to catalysis being organized by his colleague,
Professor M. A. Hnatow and himself next sum-
mer under the sponsorship of the New York
Academy of Sciences.
Happel has been active in many organizations.
He has served on both the Admissions Committee
and the Program Committee of the AIChE. He
has also served on Committees of the Combustion
Institute, the American Rocket Society, the
Board of Directors of the Petroleum Research
Foundation of the ACS. He is a past president
of the New York-New Jersey Catalysis Club and
is currently serving as vice-chairman of the
Catalysis Section of the New York Academy of
Sciences. He was also a member of the Senate
of New York University, elected as a faculty
representative of the School of Engineering and
Science.
Happel believes that a scientist or engineer
should endeavor to be acquainted with intellec-
tual developments outside his own field of special-
ization. In his own case doing this has not
presented any problems for his wife is an ac-
complished concert violinist, at present concert
master of the Greenwich Philharmonia. Through
her he has become acquainted with much of what
happens in the musical world and met many
musicians. He feels that the two culture distinc-


tion of C. P. Snow is largely overdrawn. The
main distinction between engineers and artists
is that the latter work for less compensation in
many cases.
For many years Happel's relaxation has var-
ied among various athletic sports including ski-
ing and skating in the winter, tennis and swim-
ming in the summer. He has spent many sum-
mers in the Adirondack mountains of New York
hiking and mountain climbing. A few years ago
he became a 46er, one of a group which has
climbed all 46 peaks 4000 ft. in altitude or higher.
These peaks including a number without trails
offer a unique opportunity for exploring one of
the few remaining areas of unspoiled virgin for-
est in the East. Lately he has built a small green-
house to extend his gardening season. Foods
flavored by a variety of fresh homegrown herbs
are a useful by-product.
Happel's philosophy of education, shared by
his colleagues at New York University, is that in
addition to theoretical training a young engineer
should have some substantive experience early
in his career. This may be making decisions which
really are put into practice, in plant operation
or best of all some direct contact with experi-
mental work either at school or in industry. He
recalls how during his own undergraduate days,
he was interested in the ideas of professors who
had been out practicing the kind of engineering
he was still studying in theory.
What is it that has made his academic life
such a satisfying career? Happel cites advan-
tages such as variety of occupation, independence
of thought and action, and time for leisure. Per-
haps more than all of these he feels that the
organization he has been associated with and the
pleasure of working with intelligent and coopera-
tive colleagues at all levels has been a lasting
source of satisfaction. Of course, one of the great-
est challenges and joys in the academic life is
the students. Many of these have found careers
in both industry and teaching. Among the latter
are Robert Pfeffer at the City University of New
York; Jack Famularo, Chairman of Chemical
Engineering at Manhattan; Howard Brenner at
Carnegie-Mellon; Dean W. H. Kapfer at New
York University; Norman Epstein at Vancouver.
"My own children are growing up, so I can see
that I'm getting older," says Happel, "but each
year my students in the senior plant design
course are the same age with their ever renewed
problems and questions. Here is a real fountain
of youth!" E


WINTER 1972







































Cobleigh Hall: ChE occupies the 3rd and 4th floors.


C CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WAS established
at Montana State University (then known as
the Montana State College of Agriculture & Me-
chanic Arts) in 1925 by the late William Cob-
leigh. John Beal joined the staff in the early
1930's and they operated a small department un-
til 1942. During World War II, Cobleigh retired
and Beal left for an industrial position. The de-
partment remained dormant until Lloyd Berg
and Al Saner reactivated it in 1946. Returning
war veterans made for rapid growth and in 1948
Montana State became the first ECPD accredited
chemical engineering department in the Rocky
Mountain region. Bob Nickelson, a 1951 Montana
State graduate, completed a Ph.D. at Minnesota
and joined the staff in 1956. Mike Schaer and Bill
Genetti were obtained from Oregon State in 1965
and 1968 respectively. Giles Cokelet arrived from
Cal Tech in 1968 and Phil McCandless was added
to the staff in 1968 after completing his Ph.D.


r*JM0 department


MONTANA STATE

LLOYD BERG
Montana State University
Bozeman, Montana 59715

at Montana State. In the 25 years since 1946,
there have been only three staff resignations.
The staff has generally been industrially ori-
ented with the bulk of the graduate programs
attuned to industrial problems. In the 1950's
Berg and his graduate students developed the
world's first economical Diesel fuel desulfurizer
for the Husky Oil Co., developed a benzene puri-
fication process for Jones & Laughlin Steel Co.,
and a synthetic coke process for Koal-Krudes.
All Saner and his graduate students contributed
to the development of FMC Corp's soda ash-
from-trona process. In the 1960's Berg's students
worked out the catalytic refining of shale oil into
a petroleum substitute for Esso Research & Engr.
Co.
Current research interests of the staff include:
Berg: Liquifaction of western coals and lignites
for Avco Corp.
Nickelson: Desalination of water by reverse os-
mosis for OSW.
Schaer: Sulfur emission detection equipment for
Hoerner Waldorf Corp.; Low temperature
fuel cells for NSF: Computer simulation of
non-ferrous metal industries for Anaconda Co.
Cokelet: Blood flow properties for NIH; Rheo-
logy of highly loaded suspensions for NSF;
Static mixer studies for Kenics Corp.
McCandless: Catalyst mechanism studies for
Petroleum Research Fund; Separation of xy-
lenes through membranes; Separation of ter-
penes by adduct formation; SO, recovery
processes.
Genetti: Fluidized bed heat transfer for Idaho
Nuclear Corp.; High mass transfer studies
for NSF.
In 1956 the Department awarded the first
earned PhD degree in the state of Montana to
Fred Baughman, now a Taylor Fibre Co. vice-
president. Since then 36 additional PhD's in
chemical engineering have been completed. Berg's
24 completed PhD theses have made him the
state's most prolific doctoral advisor. Nickelson


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Lloyd Berg his
department leads
Western States in
per capital ChE
production...
enrollment
increased 150%.




with nine completed PhD theses ranks 4th at
Montana State.
Hallmarks of a Montana State chemical engi-
neer have been his ability to calculate correctly
and his knowledge of chemistry and chemical pro-
cesses. To this day, nine quarter credits of stoich-
iometry and nine credits of chemical processes
are required. The senior design course has em-
phasized the potential for new process industries
based on local resources and which will fit into
the economy of Montana. Examples of industries
which were established after first being examined
for economic potential by the students are the
bentonite plant at Glasgow, the barbecue briquet
plant at Pablo, a coke plant at Red Lodge, an
antimony plant at Thompson Falls, a tungsten
plant at Dillon and a talc plant at Three Forks.
The student reports have been influential in pre-
venting the establishment of a number of schemes
that appeared to be sure losers. The reports
are sent to the State Planning Board and made
available to the Chamber of Commerce concerned.
A AFTER THE BIG YEARS following World
War II when chemical engineering graduat-
ing classes had frequently reached twenty-five
or more, enrollment dropped off. In 1961 the
graduating class was sixteen and by 1962, it
had dropped to twelve. Additionally, the quality
of the graduating class in Chemical Engineering
was no better than the entire senior class of the
University. Ten percent of the chemical engineers
would be in the upper ten percent of the class
and so down. In order to stem this decline in
quality and quantity, and industrial scholarship
program for freshmen was begun.
The program as worked out probably fits only
the special circumstances encountered at Mon-
tana State and is perhaps not widely applicable
in toto. Some parts of it may be of general inter-
est however. Montana State University serves


Table I. Scholarship Donors, 1970-71
COMPANY NUMBER
Continental Oil Co. (1959) 4
Dow Chemical Co. (1959) 3
UOP Corp. (1959) 2
Hoerner Waldorf Corp. (1959) 4
FMC Corp. (1961) 2
3M Company (1962) 4
Union Carbide Corp. (1963) 1
Standard Oil Co. of Calif. (1963) 4
Shell Oil Co. (1963) 2
Monsanto Co. (1965) 4
Stauffer Chemical Co. (1966) 2
ITT Rayonier (1966) 2
Crown Zellerbach Fdn. (1968) 2
Idaho Nuclear Corp. (1968) 2
Humble Oil & Refining Co. (1968) 2
Vulcan Materials Co. (1968) 2
Procter & Gamble Co. (1968) 2
Pan American Petroleum (1968) 2
Atlantic Richfield Hanford (1969) 1
Anaconda Aluminum Co. (1970) 1
Mobil Oil Corp. (1970) 2

50
principally Montanans. Out-of-State enrollment
is less than five percent. Montana contains about
680,000 people and is rather isolated from the
urban centers of the United States. There are no
other chemical engineering departments in the
state. Costs at MSU are approximately $400 for
fees and $1450 total for the school year. Starting
twelve years ago with six $250 scholarships, we
now have twenty-three sponsors providing a total
of fifty $250 scholarships, Table I. The scholar-
ships are awarded to high school graduates solely
on merit and are paid in three equal installments
during the college freshman year provided only
that (1) the recipient be a full-time freshman
chemical engineering student at Montana State,
and (2) that he maintain a grade point average
of 2.7 based on A -= 4. The scholarships do not
extend beyond the freshman year.
Table II shows what happened to the enroll-
ment in that period. The enrollment of chemical
engineers has kept pace with the University as
a whole, 150%, while the College of Engineering
was increasing by only 22%. In 1959, Engineer-
ing enrolled about a third of MSU's students;
today it is only a sixth. We believe that the in-
dustrial scholarship program caused this in-
crease. There is no other reason that we can sug-
gest to account for it. The following will describe
everything we do. We are not sure that every-
thing in the program is effective; some things are
probably worthless but we have not experimented
to see what doesn't contribute to the program.


WINTER 1972





























Here at Dow, we're confronted with many new questions-and we're
trying to answer them. As we do, we move right ahead to the more
complex questions the answers themselves provoke.

It's tough going. We have a goal to reach.

We're deeply concerned with the basics of better living: improved
health, better nutrition, cleaner environment.

It's a real challenge.

Meeting it takes responsible men and women who come right back
for more, no matter how demanding their assignments. Who relish
problems-the knottier the better. Objective minds that perceive
both the advantages and disadvantages of an innovation.

We're convinced it's possible to achieve progress and prosperity in
this country while continuing to safeguard our precious natural re-
sources. Not easy. Nor quick. But possible. Chiefly what it takes is
drive, intelligence, ferocious determination, lively imagination. And
a tremendous amount of stamina.

Our people feel that meeting this challenge-and others-provides
real rewards. At Dow Chemical U.S.A.


4(4>^







































Anne Hazelton, Class of 1971, operates Cokelet's blood viscometer.
Table IIT-Enrollment Data at Montana State University


Year
1959
1971
% Increase


University
3500
8675
150%


Engineering
1200
1470
22%


Chem. Engr.
106
270
150%


ChE
grads.
19
38
100%


Each November we send an announcement of
scholarships to each of the approximately two
hundred high schools in Montana. These are not
as effective as you might think. A great many
high school students say they never see the an-
nouncements. We believe that high school guid-
ance counselors frequently don't like engineering.
Perhaps this is because many of them started as
engineers in college, did poorly, switched to and
graduated in Education and now are in guidance.
Secondly, they seem to take pride in the total
dollar amount of scholarships won by their grad-
uates. Thus, they will usually advise a Montana
high school graduate to accept a $1500 scholar-
ship from a large out-of-State university even
though it means that his parents have to put up
an additional $1500 per year. About five years
ago, our Engineering College brought two groups
of thirty guidance counselors to the campus for
a two-day, expense paid conference on careers
in engineering. We haven't been able to detect
the slightest effect of these conferences on engi-
nering enrollment.

WINTER 1972


TABLE III-Production of Chemical Engineers in the
Western United States.
School B.S. M.S. Ph.D.
Univ. of Washington 53 11 3
Calif.-Berkeley 43 13 7
Montana State 38 2 4
Colorado Mines 30 6 2
New Mexico 27 2 2
Oklahoma State 26 8 6
South Dakota Mines 26 6
Brigham Young Univ. 25 2 1
New Mexico State 23 2
Oregon State 22 3 3
Nebraska 22 3 1
Utah 21 17 3
Colorado 20 5 1
Kansas 19 10 8
Oklahoma 21 6 2
Washington State 15
North Dakota 16 3
Stanford 14 13 8
Idaho 14 12 1
Calif.-Davis 13 3 2
Calif.-Santa Barbara 13 5
Wyoming 13 2
So. Calif. 12 15 4
Kansas State 10 3 1
San Jose State 9 4
Denver 9 4 5
Tulsa 9 4
Cal. Tech 6 8 6

Accompanying the scholarship announcement
are application forms for the student to submit
if he wants to be considered. From our point-of-
view, the most meaningful item is his rank in
high school class. If high, we check by telephone
call or transcript and make an offer. Offers fre-
quently are made as early as November to ap-
plicants who rank in the upper tenth of the class
of a large high school. Accompanying the offer

TABLE IV.-Ranking of Western States in Production
of Chemical Engineers.


State
1. Montana
2. New Mexico
3. Utah
4. Wyoming
5. South Dakota
6. Colorado
7. North Dakota
8. Oklahoma
9. Idaho
10. Washington
11. Arizona
12. Nebraska
13. Kansas
14. Oregon
15. California
16. Nevada


1970
Population
682,000
998,000
1,061,000
332,000
681,000
2,178,000
611,000
2,498,000
698,000
3,353,000
1,752,000
1,468,000
2,222,000
2,056,000
19,715,000
481,000


Chem. Engr. Production
Production Per 106
38 55
50 50
46 43
13 39
26 38
59 27
16 26
56 23
14 20
68 20
30 17
22 15
29 13
22 11
110 6
0 0









Here 's


theway


_(414is

We need the best engineering talent we
can find.
We make things that people want and
need for ordinary living. These include
food products, paper products, toilet goods,
household cleaning products, soaps and
detergents. The technical problems involved
in doing this are formidable. So are the
problems to be solved in improving these
products and developing new ones.
But there's another reason why we need
lop engineers.
We share with you a sense of urgency
regarding the quality of our land, air and
water resources. We are wholly committed
to eliminate any Company-caused
sources of pollution.
Within the next 5 years we expect to
have a total investment in pollution control
equipment of 65 million dollars.
Our engineers are deeply involved.
The answers we seek in both
the product improvement and
pollution control areas may
require completely new
engineering techniques and totally
.; new product ingredients.
l We invite you to join us. You may
help us find the answers a little faster.
You'll certainly be given the opportunity.
See the P&G representative when he
visits your campus.

The Procter & Gamble Company
P.O. Box 599, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER M/F









TABLE V.-Honor Roll at Montana State University, Autumn Quarter 1970.


Engineering
Dept.

Chemical
Civil
Electrical
Mechanical
Industrial


Undergraduate
Enrollment

250
274
289
267
58


Freshman
28
18
20
15
0


Sophomore
20
4
11
12
0


goes the Departmental brochure, newspaper
publicity about recent graduates, and a montage
of chemical engineering problems taken from
Chemical Engineering and the Wall Street Jour-
nal.
During the year we try to keep up a fairly
steady stream of publicity in the State news-
papers. When the recruiter of a sponsoring com-
pany comes to the campus, we take his picture
with the freshman scholars. As the scholarships
are accepted, a publicity story is sent to the news-
paper serving the scholar's home town. We find
that it invariably is used. Small town papers will
even include the scholar's picture.
How well has the program worked? Table III
shows that Montana State University is exceeded
only by the University of California-Berkeley
and the University of Washington in the Western
U.S. as a producer of chemical engineers. From
a per capital standpoint, Table IV shows that
Montana ranks first in the West in production of
chemical engineers. What about quality? Table
V shows that the chemical engineers far exceed
the other engineers at MSU in proportion of the
class on the honor roll, this in spite of the fact
that the Chemistry Department is at the very
bottom at MSU in average grade given the stu-
dents. Each year the Montana Society of Engi-
neers selects one graduating engineer from MSU
as "Outstanding Engineer". For three of the past
four years, the recipient has been a chemical en-
gineer although chemical engineers are only about

TABLE VI-Placement of Chemical Engineers,
Class of 1971.


Full-time employed
Part-time employed
Employed outside field
Unemployed
Grad. asst, Post-doc.
Other grad. study
Grad. study other fields
Military
Peace Corps, etc.


Monta
National Uni
Average Number
45.8% 29
9.6 0
5.0 3
12.8 0
9.9 5
2.9 0
2.2 0
- 10.0 1
0.9 0


ina State
versity
Percent


38 100


Honor Roll
Junior Senior Total
14 11 73 29.1%
10 8 40 14.7%
11 13 55 19.0%
3 10 40 15.0%
4 5 9 15.5%
a fifth of the College of Engineering. Montana
State has an organization called Septemviri, a
group selected as the seven outstanding men on
campus. The chemical engineers were represented
in this group as follows: 1972-2, 1971-1, 1970-1,
1969-2, 1968-1; this despite chemical engineers
being less than three percent of MSU's 8500 stu-
dent body.
How does industry regard MSU's chemical
engineers? Table VI shows the placement of the
Class of 1971 compared with the national aver-
age for chemical engineers as reported in Chem-
ical & Engineering News, Nov. 1, 1971. Seventy-
six percent of MSU's chemical engineers were
employed full-time in chemical engineering posi-
tions compared to only 45.8% nationally. None
were unemployed compared to the national
12.8%.
The results of this twelve year program of
industrial scholarships to freshmen chemical en-
gineering students seem to indicate that it is an
effective means of increasing both the quantity
and quality of the graduating class. The details
of administration should be tempered to fit the
particular circumstances of a specific school. ED


I





Jack Olson, PhD 1969, operates coal hydrogenation equipment.


WINTER 1972










THE ART AND SCIENCE

OF RHEOLOGY*


W. R. SCHOWALTER
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540

I. INTRODUCTION
When I began seriously to think about the
content of this lecture, it occurred to me that
perhaps the combination of an ASEE meeting,
a depressed state of the engineering and science
community, and an opportunity for me to speak
on a subject of my own choosing all argued for
a technical talk somewhat different from the for-
mat to which most of us are accustomed.
I do intend to talk about rheology, but I wish
to use it as a vehicle for expressing some opin-
ions on a larger subject; namely, the proper in-
teraction, as seen by this writer, between
technological art and engineering science. I hope
that listeners will not consider such a topic to be
inappropriate. Certainly part of the engineer's
function is to achieve a proper match between
the art and the science of his technical field.
Rheology is an apt example for the matching-
and mismatching-of art and science since the
subject spans axiomatic continuum mechanics
and the processing problems of the plant polymer
engineer.
I wish to cite examples of the ways in which
the science and art of rheology need each other.
The former brings order and understanding to
the latter. The latter provides an essential moti-
vation to the former. I shall have reached my
goal if I persuade some that in spite of tight in-
dustrial research budgets and shrinking academic
funds for non mission-oriented research, advanced
research can be relevant-more so, in fact, than
some development programs which proceed with
no effort toward broadening our knowledge of
the subject under study. At the same time I hope
to convince others that new knowledge is not
necessarily worth having simply because it is
new. Indeed, we seem to be in danger of suffocat-
ing from an oversupply. I fear that some of the

*Presented at the 1971 ASEE Annual meeting. This
award is sponsored by the 3M Company.


1971 Atwci&d tecte,


reaction that we see today against fundamental
research is simply a consequence of the huge
supply of engineering research which has ap-
peared and proved neither fundamental (in the
sense that it really brought us to a higher level
of understanding of a subject) nor applied (in
the sense that it led to a useful application).
I shall return to this point later but wish now
to proceed to more technical matters. In the next
section several examples are presented which I
believe indicate how some of the technological
art of rhelogy has been transformed through ap-
plications of science thereby increasing our ca-
pability for predicting a priori how a given ma-
terial will respond in its flow behavior to certain
imposed boundary conditions. Following that I
shall attempt to show, again by example, some
of the challenges currently offered to the science
of rheology by the art. Finally, I close with a
few words about the interdisciplinary nature of
the subject and a renewed plea for recognition
of the interdependence of the fundamental and
applied sectors of technology.

II. CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE SCIENCE TO THE ART
For illustrative purposes I wish to describe
how applications of basic science have had an
enormous impact upon some extremely impor-
tant engineering problems dealing with flow of
non-Newtonian materials, such as polymer melts
or solutions.

A. Simple Viscometry
We consider here the matter of interpretation
of shear stress-shear rate measurements in a
simple viscometer. The resulting rheograms, the
term often given to a graphical display of shear
stress shear rate data, constitute the core of
information required for any pipeline design of
non-Newtonian flow systems. These rheological
data are fundamental to decision on pump siz-
ing, viscous heating, and many other important
engineering problems.
Suppose that we are interested in ascertaining
the ratio (stress/strain rate) for a material for


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








which we know there is some unique relation-
ship between T and strain rate

neff = T/ (1)
The classic texebook illustration of this experi-
ment is of course an apparatus in which plane
Couette flow is achieved. From the speed of one
plate with respect to the other one determines
the shear rate. The shearing force per unit area
exerted by the plate on the fluid is T, and Iieff is
readily determined as a function of shear rate.
As so often happens, the ideal experiment
cannot be the real experiment, and one ends up
with a different configuration than that described
above. The fluid may be sheared between paral-
lel disks, coaxial cylinders, cone and plate, or by
being forced through a slit or circular tube. Two
questions arise:
(1) Is the value of /ieff, determined in, say,
a plane Couette flow experiment equivalent to
the ratio of stress to strain rate in these other
flows, several of which possess shear fields which
vary spatially over the flow?
(2) If there is an equivalence of eff (Y) in
these flow fields, how does one determine eff(Y)
in flow fields for which i = j(r)?
Consider tube flow as an example. Pressure change
AP -= P1 P, is measured for steady laminar
flow over length L. From a sample force balance
one finds
AP r (2)
L 2
Also, since we can measure volumetric flow rate
Q = f 2irrvdr = 7[a ir2 dr (3)
0 0 dr
where we have integrated by parts.
Since
*=dv
r = T/Veff (4)
dr ef
T
Q Ta 2 f~ T 3
Q = T --dr = 1 fA T3dT (5)
0 eff 0 eff (Y_
The measured variables are Q and AP for a given
fluid in a tube with radius a. At this point early
workers in rheology were confronted with a
dilemma. The desired quantity is peff (j) but
since it varies with position there is no obvious
way to obtain it from Eq. (5) unless of course
one first specifies some form for /peff as, for ex-
ample, the well known power-law relation

Peff = KIl1-1 (6)


WINTER 1972


... advanced research can be relevant-
more so, in fact than some development
programs which proceed with no effort
toward broadening our knowledge.

Many years ago, however, it was found that dif-
ferentiation of Eq. (5) would achieve the desired
result. By using Eq. (2) to change the variable
of integration and then applying Leibnitz's rule
for differentiation under the integral sign one ob-
tains
d[QCAP/L)3] Ira4 iAP]3 1
d(AP/L) [L J (11eff) ra
which is customarily referred to as the Rabino-
witsch equation.1',* Although the early rheologists
solved this problem by an ingenious ad hoc tech-
nique, they were really employing a method for
solution of integral equations. Recognition of this
fact has allowed one to determine more systema-
tically those classes of viscometry problems
which are amenable to a simple inversion and
those which are not3-5. Here is an example where
knowledge of what might be considered an un-
duly esoteric subject for an engineer has had
an impact upon an important area of applied
viscometry, which in turn is fundamental to en-
gineering design of non-Newtonian flow systems.
B. Fluid Characterization
To be sure, the viscometry that we considered
above is also fluid characterization. However, I
now wish to speak in more general terms about
the subject. In dealing with an incompressible
Newtonian fluid of known density it is well known
that once the viscosity, along with its pressure
and temperature dependence, have been de-
termined, the flow behavior of the material is,
in principle, ascertainable for any flow geometry;
i.e., the coefficients which appear in the Navier-
Stokes equation of motion are known. It is also
known that the hallmark of a non-Newtonian
fluid is the lack of this simple means for charac-
terization. We spoke earlier about necessity of
rheograms for engineering design. However it
is now known that other information, such as
normal stress data, can be informative in provid-
ing measures of fluid properties which affect
flow behavior. One of the basic questions in rheo-
logy is this: What experiments need to be done
in the laboratory to characterize the flow be-
havior of a given material? The answer to this
question is strongly dependent upon the com-
*Professor J. L. White once informed me that this
procedure was first applied by Herzog and Weissenberg.2
15








plexity of the flows to which the fluid is subjected.
If we are willing to restrict ourselves to suffi-
ciently uncomplicated flows, then we can say
quite a bit about the characterization necessary
for very general materials. Probably the best ex-
ample is the remarkable generality which results
through the combination of simple fluids in vis-
cometric flows.6'7 In this paper we merely state
some of the results which have been obtained
from formal application of principles of contin-
uum mechanics.


T(Y), N1(Y), N2(Y) where

12 = )
T1-T22 = N(-) (8)
T 22-T 33 = N2(y)
and the Tij are components of the extra stress
tensor with respect to the coordinate system used
above to define components of v. Definition of
the stress in an incompressible fluid always causes
some difficulty since the stress is only deter-


. . The science and art of rheology need each other. The former brings order and understanding
to the latter. The latter provides an essential motivation to the former....


We begin by defining a simple fluid as an in-
compressible material which possesses no inherent
anisotropy and for which the stress is determined
by the history, up to and including the present,
of the deformation gradient. The deformation
gradient is a tensor quantity which is a measure
of the change in relative position of two neigh-
boring points in a material as it undergoes a
motion.6 Some reflection will show that the de-
finition of a simple fluid is very general, and, is
limited chiefly by the assumption of isotropy and
validity of a principle of local action. In essence
local action means that only the deformation
gradient at a material point of interest is rele-
vant, and one need not consider the effect of the
deformation gradient at neighboring points on
the point in question. Also needed is a statement
to the effect that the response of a body is not
affected by rigidbody translations or rotations
or, put alternatively, that the response of the
body is not affected by motion of the observer.
This is sometimes called the principle of mater-
ial objectivity.8'9 Now these elements of them-
selves do not permit one to say much in a pre-
dictive way about fluid behavior. What is re-
quired is a linking of this general constitutive
behavior with a special class of flows which we
shall call "viscometric flows". For purposes of
this lecture we interpret viscometric flows as
those of the usual viscometers. A common fea-
ture is that the flow is characterized by three
orthogonal coordinates, the axes being aligned
so that the fluid velocity is of the form v =
{v(x2),0,O)}. In fact this is an overly restrictive
definition of a viscometric flow,6 but it will serve
our immediate needs. With these ingredients one
can show how three material functions, mea-
sured in any one viscometric flow, characterize
the flow behavior of a simple fluid in any visco-
metric flow. The three material functions are
16


minable to within an arbitrary isotropic part.
This fact permits one to define r so that
tr T 1 T + T22 + T 33=0 (9)

Then, since the stress is symmetric, the state
of stress is completely determined by T, N1, and
N2. Furthermore, one can show formally, and in
accord with physical expectations, that T7(y) is
an odd function of its argument while N1 and N2
are even functions.
Full appreciation of this result requires some
knowledge of the vast variety of measurements
and constitutive laws with which the literature
of rheology abounds. Equations (8) provide a
simple means for determining which experiments
are equivalent and which are not. Hence one can
ascertain the degree to which T, N1, and N2 are
rigorously transportable from one flow to an-
other.
The results of Coleman and Noll can be ob-
tained in more than one way. Several years be-
fore their publications, Oldroyd10 used a differ-
ent argument which led to the same result.11
However, in that paper Oldroyd did not develop
the meaning and utility of the three material
functions to the extent achieved by Coleman and
Noll. It has also been shown that many of the
results of Coleman and Noll are implicit in some
simple symmetry conditions.12
In arriving at the results for simple fluids
in viscometric flows one again sees how an ab-
stract structure for fluid behavior has given rise
to consequences which are of great importance
to the practical rheologist and hence to the engi-
neer. The results are significant in both a posi-
tive and negative sense. They unify a number
of viscometric tests, but also they illustrate that,
without further assumptions, little can be said
of the generalization to nonviscometric flows.
It is natural to ask whether one can expect


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








simple fluids to exist in reality as well as by
postulate. Because of the difficulty associated
with normal stress measurements this is a diffi-
cult question to answer unequivocally. However,
limited information about the behavior of poly-
isobutylene solutions has been consistent with
simple fluid predictions.13,14
In connection with measurement of normal
stresses it is appropriate to touch briefly upon
a remarkable association between normal stress
measurement and hydrodynamic stability of
rheologically complex fluids. Persons knowledge-
able in fluid mechanics are aware of the sub-
stantial difficulties that have attended our at-
tempts to understand stability phenomena with
Newtonian fluids. This alone might be enough to
dissuade one from adding the further complication
of nontrivial rheological behavior. However, the
return may be well worth the investment. Not
only does one find whole new classes of stability
phenomena emerging from the presence of elas-
tic response in the fluid, but it seems reasonable
to believe that, because of the sensitivity of the
stability behavior to normal stresses, stability
experiments can be used to measure normal stress
differences.5'16 This is especially true for N2
which has proved particularly difficult to mea-
sure by more conventional means.
As a brief example of this sensitivity I cite
an analysis which has recently been published.17
We have considered combined momentum and
heat transfer characteristics of the flow shown
in Figure 1, where a buoyancy force has been
superposed upon plane Couette flow by maintain-
ing the lower plate at a higher constant tem-
perature T, than the upper plate, which is main-
tained at T,. It is well known from theory and
experiment with Newtonian fluids that heat
transfer from the lower to the upper plate will
occur by conduction until, at some critical condi-
tion, the buoyancy force tending to cause con-


V'2


v= jdi
y=d






y=O


z


Fig. 1.-Boundary conditions for plane Couette flow with superposed
temperature gradient.
WINTER 1972


vective motion overcomes the counteracting ef-
fects of viscosity and thermal diffusivity. This
balance is reflected in a critical value of the Ray-
leigh number, Rae = 1708, where
Ra - go,/3d4/ (KV) and g = acceleration due
to gravity, a = volume coefficient of expansion,
S/3= temperature gradient, d = distance between
plates, K = thermal diffusivity, and v = kine-
matic viscosity.
For certain viscoelastic fluids one finds that the
critical Rayleigh number is very sensitive to the
second normal stress difference N2 (see Figure
2). This interaction between normal stress be-
havior and heat transfer characteristics has im-
portant engineering implications. Additionally,
another indirect method appears for measure-
ment of N2.
2000] I I I I I


S1800-

LU
r
_J
S1600-


S1400

120 I I I
-10 0 +10
NORMAL STRESS PARAMETER ReN2/Sxy
Fig. 2.-Effect of second normal stress difference (N2) on critical
Rayleigh number (Rae). Sxy is the shear stress. Reynolds number (Re)
and Rayleigh number are suitably defined for the non-Newtonian
fluids being considered.17
Thus, we see again how practical results can
be obtained from complicated and seemingly
esoteric analysis if the persons who are know-
ledgeable about the basic engineering science also
have in mind the needs of technology.
C. Extrusion
As a final example of relevance of advanced
engineering science to practical questions, I have
chosen a subject that is still far from fully
developed. The industrially important operation
of extrusion is one of the most complicated of
all problems in transport. A polymer simultane-
ously undergoes phase change, temperature
change, and is subjected to wide variations in
stress. Even if the constitutive behavior of the
material were completely known, the process is
so complex that exact solution of the boundary-
value problem would probably not be possible.
However, availability of large computers has








made it possible to study the importance of large
numbers of variables on the extrusion process,
and operating regions have been found over which
the effects of different dimensionless groups pre-
dominate.

BARREL SCREW





FEED TRANSITION METERING
ZONE ZONE ZONE
Fig. 3.-Schematic sketch of screw extruder.
It is convenient to restrict ourselves to opera-
tion of a single-screw extruder. Solid material
enters one end of the screw apparatus as shown
in cross section in Figure 3. In the transition
zone the polymer is melted, with accompanying
heat effects, and molten highly viscous polymer
is transported through the metering section dur-
ing which there may be strong coupling between
momentum and energy-transfer aspects of the
problem because of viscous heat generation. Our
discussion will be limited to the metering zone,
and we shall see that here alone there is more
than ample complexity to challenge both the
fundamental research engineer and the persons
responsible for choosing an extruder for a partic-
ular processing operation.
My remarks are based primarily upon the
work done by Pearson and coworkers.18-20 Flow
in an extruder is, first of all, certainly nonvis-
cometric. Fortunately, however, it seems that
some progress can be made by treating the fluid
as a purely viscous inelastic material. That is to
say, we entirely neglect any effects of fluid mem-
ory. This is of course not correct for the typical
highly elastic polymer melt subjected to extrusion.
Yet, to the order of approximation currently
appropriate, the assumption does seem to be use-
ful. The power-law model, which dismisses any
effects of memory, has been used.
The first step is to write the relevant differ-
ential equations, cast them in dimensionless form,
and examine the various dimensionless groups
which appear in the governing equations. The
number of dimensionless groups, even with the
drastic simplification already made to the rhe-
ology, is too large to be manageable. However,
it is useful to consider the physical significance
of various groups and the simplifications which
obtain when some of them are restricted in their
range. Pearson20 has singled out five dimension-


less groups for consideration. These are:
Griffith number = G = bl effV2/k

Brinkman number = Br = p effV /(kA6)
Peclet number = Pe = Vh/K
2
Graetz number = Gz = Vh /(KL)
Aspect ratio = A = w/h
Where b -= temperature coefficient of eff, V -
characteristic circumferential velocity based, for
example, on rotational speed of screw, k = ther-
mal conductivity, A 0 = characteristic tempera-
ture difference between walls and melt, and L =
characteristic length scale along fluid streamlines.
Geometric factors are shown in Figure 4a.

hw

(a) (b)
Fig. 4.-Screw extruder. (a) Geometric factors. (b) Secondary flow.
The values of these dimensionless groups are
crucial factors which control the validity of vari-
ous simplifying assumptions. For example, Pear-
son notes that the Graetz number, a measure of
the relative importance of heat conduction across
streamlines to heat convection along them, can
vary between 10-1 and 104. It is also of interest
to point out that in these highly viscous flows
the Reynolds number does not appear as a sepa-
rate parameter.
Though useful in the form given above it ap-
pears that, inevitably, a more complicated and
thorough analysis should be done. We cite two
additional effects on which some work has al-
ready been reported.
(1) It now seems quite probable that sec-
ondary flow may have a substantial effect upon
transport. Consequently, even with such a sim-
ple rheological description as the power law, one
must recognize that the effective viscosity should
be expressed in terms of a combination of the
nonzero components of the rate of deformation,
namely, the second invariant of the rate of strain
tensor.



Martin19 has conducted a numerical analysis us-
ing the second invariant. The result is a compli-
cated secondary flow pattern in which there is
overturning within a given channel as well as
leakage through the flight clearance separating
channels (see Figure 4b). Though this secondary
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








flow may be a small portion of the total momen-
tum transport it clearly has a major effect on
the heat transfer portion of the problem.
(2) Our knowledge of heat transfer in poly-
mer melts under shear is still primitive. To date
it is customary to use Fourier's law of heat con-
duction and a scalar value for the thermal con-
ductivity. However, it is entirely reasonable to
expect k to exhibit directional behavior as the
polymer is aligned during the shearing process.
Indeed, measurements of this effect have recently
been reported.21

III. CHALLENGES OF THE ART TO THE SCIENCE
In the previous section the tone has been
optimistic. I have noted a few cases where applica-
tion of highly sophisticated research tools, analyt-
ical or numerical, has led to a deeper under-
standing of flow of rheologically complex fluids,
and this increase in understanding has had im-
portant practical consequences. Now I wish to
be more pessimistic in outlook, and to consider
some results which show how much remains to
be understood about rheology. To do this one
need only consider the subject of nonviscometric
flows. We spoke earlier about the great generality
in our understanding of the measurements neces-
sary to characterize fluid behavior in viscometric
flows. However, the engineer faced with process-
ing problems can argue that flows likely to be
of engineering interest will be nonviscometric.
Furthermore, suppose that after all of the effort
devoted by many people to measurement of r,
N1 and N2, we finally had unequivocal means
for making such measurements. What does that
tell one about nonviscometric flows? According to
general continuum mechanics it tells one very
little. However, by postulating certain specific
kinds of constitutive equations for a material -
or by assuming the material to behave according
to a particular fluid model one can learn quite
a bit from T, N1 and N2. Here is where the art
of rheology must be recognized. It is important
to learn which kinds of constitutive simplifica-
tions are appropriate for which fluids in which
flows. The only way that this can be done is
through collection of meaningful data in a vari-
ety of nonviscometric flows with a variety of
fluids. Bird and coworkers22'23 have expended
much effort in this direction. From a somewhat
different point of view Metzner and his students24
have done experiments with a similar goal in
mind. The Delaware workers have done much
to show how a simple constitutive equation, the
WINTER 1972


... A case has been made for the practical
utility of fundamental engineering research,
provided that those who do it are aware of
the needs of the applier.

convected Maxwell model
T + = 2 (10o)
gives rise to an ordering parameter which is a
useful guage of fluid response. Here On is a char-
acteristic relaxation time for the fluid and 8/8t
represents a convected time derivative taken
with respect to a coordinate system that is trans-
lating and rotating with the fluid. If one uses a
time scale 0p as the time over which an element
in the flow process undergoes an appreciable
change in, for example, strain rate, then the
ratio OfQ/0p is an important parameter. The mag-
nitude of this ratio, often called the Deborah
number, indicates whether the material will ex-
hibit primarily fluid or solid-like behavior.
I wish to return briefly to hydrodynamic sta-
bility. In the previous section the subject was
used as a source for examples of "contributions
of the science to the art". However, stability of
non-Newtonian fluids is still in an early stage
of development, and all of the theoretical work
cited earlier rests upon some important simpli-
fications. We are still groping for a clear state-
ment of the constitutive properties which govern
stability behavior. Once a laminar shearing flow
has become unstable it is of course no longer
viscometric. In fact since stability analysis is
performed by computing the behavior in time of
disturbances superposed upon the basic viscomet-
ric flow, one can argue that the disturbed flow is
no longer a viscometric flow. Goddard and Miller25
and Pipkin and Owen26 have produced analysis in
which they show with some rigor how one pro-
ceeds to treat small departures from viscomet-
ric flow. They show that in general one needs
several new material functions to describe small
departures from viscometric flows. Furthermore,
it is not at all clear how one would proceed to
measure these functions. There are two ways to
avoid this problem. One is to choose a specific
constitutive model which is also simple enough
to permit linear or nonlinear stability analysis
to be performed.27-30 The other is to neglect what
one hopes are terms of second-order smallness
and to proceed with a linearized stability treat-
ment.15117 Although further work is needed, there
do seem to be experimental indications that the
latter treatment has some validity.16








Before leaving the subject, I wish to note
two examples of current interest which demon-
strate our lack of understanding of hydrody-
namic stability of viscoelastic fluids:
(1) In the flow between coaxial cylinders
there are indications that instabilities can exist
at very low rotational speeds. These have been
postulated to be transient effects,31 but that ex-
planation is not yet a certainty.
(2) Secondary flow phenomena associated
with free surfaces appear to be far more com-
plicated than originally supposed. In particular,
Saville and Thompson have found secondary
flow cells associated with the Weissenberg climb-
ing effect.32 Work is underway at Princeton which
is aimed at a more detailed study of these and
other secondary flows.
A talk dealing with current topics in rheology
would not be complete without mention of the
popular subject of drag reduction. It seems clear
that the action of drag reducing agents is due
to an interaction between the turbulent eddy
structure and the macromolecules added to the
system. However, the precise nature of this in-
teraction is still unclear. As the review by Lum-
ley33 emphasizes, the proper roles of length and
of time scales are not yet understood. This fact
notwithstanding, an impressive correlation based
primarily upon length scales has recently been
proposed by Virk.34

IV. RHEOLOGY AS AN EXAMPLE OF AN
INTERDISCIPLINARY SUBJECT
From the examples already given it is ap-
parent that the subject of rheology is a meeting
ground for applied mathematician, physicist,
chemist and engineer. Consequently one can eas-
ily observe both the powers and the pitfalls of in-
terdisciplinary research. This is especially true
with the subject of suspension rheology, a final
example on which I wish to comment.
Almost all treatments of suspension rheology
begin with proper hereditary acknowledgment to
Einstein, 35 who developed the famous expression
for the viscosity of a dilute suspension of rigid
spheres in a Newtonian medium. Physical chem-
ists have shown a continuing interest in the sub-
ject because of the utility of a suspension model
as a means for understanding flow behavior of
macromolecular systems.36-38 The subject also has
appeal to those interested in flow of fluids past
rigid and deformable bodies, since most develop-
ments in the rheology of suspensions begin with
a solution for the velocity past a body placed


in a shear field.39-41 Recently there has been an
interest in the behavior of DNA and other bio-
polymers in shear fields.42 It appears that through
such studies we can gain useful information about
the conformation and flexibility of such mole-
cules.
The advantages of bringing a multiplicity of
backgrounds to bear on a problem are obvious.
However, a price has to be paid. First of all the
task of maintaining an awareness of current re-
search is greatly complicated. When it is equally
likely that a given problem may be discussed in
Biopolymers or the Journal of Fluid Mechanics,
not to mention about twenty other journals
bounded by those extremes, the individual re-
searcher is faced with a difficult task of informa-
tion collection. This is compounded by the fact
that it is even more important to be aware of
current work in various parts of the world, as
opposed to the completed projects which are re-
ported in journals.
A second difficulty is the gap in vocabulary
and approach that exists, particularly between
those trained in biological or polymer science and
those trained in applied mathematics. Useful in-
terchange requires a substantial degree of effort
and patience from all concerned.
In spite of these difficulties, which are cer-
tainly to be expected, the possible benefits from
such a broad variety of backgrounds are sub-
stantial and have, I think, been amply demon-
strated.

V. CONCLUSION
From this tour through some of the knowns
and unknowns of rheology I hope that a case has
been made for the practical utility of fundamental
engineering research, provided that those who do
it are aware of the needs of the applier. That
applier may, in the present instance, be a poly-
mer processing company, a government labora-
tory, an equipment manufacturer, or even a hos-
pital or a medical research team. One of the
claims implicit in fundamental research (if it
is engineering research) is that it will have ap-
plication to a number of specific needs. This fact
is worth remembering, particularly in universi-
ties as the pressure builds for mission-oriented
efforts by teams of faculty and students. Good
fundamental engineering research need not, and
perhaps should not, be done in the absence of
any specific need. However the result, if it is
of high quality, will transcend the particular
need for which the work was begun.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Though the activity of an industrial research
engineer is expected to be closer to specific ap-
plication than that of his academic counterpart,
one should not forget that an important func-
tion is to screen the work of others for possible
utility. To do this the industrial researcher needs
the advanced training in engineering and science
that will enable him to understand the contribu-
tions of others and to recognize those which can
be made useful.
All of these pleas have been made before, but
they need to be made again. In the current econo-
mic climate both the researcher and the applier
need all the help that they can get. I suggest
that they renew their efforts to help each other. E


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am grateful to Professor D. A. Saville for
several helpful comments.

REFERENCES

1. Rabinowitsch, B., Z. fur physikalische Chem. A145, 1
(1929).
2. Herzog, R. 0., and K. Weissenberg, Kolloid Zeit, 46,
277 (1928).
3. Pogorzelski, W., Integral Equations and their Appli-
cations, Vol. 1, p. 14, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1966.
4. Hoffman, R. L., Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University,
Princeton, N. J., 1968.
5. Tanner, R. I., and G. Williams, Trans. Soc. Rheol.,
14:1, 19 (1970).
6. Coleman, B. D., H. Markovitz, and W. Noll, Visco-
metric Flows of Non-Newtonial Fluids, New York:
Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 1966.
7. Coleman, B. D., and W. Noll, Archive for Rat. Mech.
and Anal., 3, 289 (1959).
8. Leigh, D. C., Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics, p. 141
et seq., New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968.
9. Lodge, A. S., Elastic Liquids, p. 167 et seq., New
York: Academic Press, 1964.
10. Oldroyd, J. G., Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A200, 523
(1950).
11. Lodge, A. S., and J. H. Stark, On the Description of
Rheological Properties of Viscoelastic Continua, II.
Proof that Oldroyd's 1950 Formalism Includes all
Simple Fluids, Rheology Research Center Report No.
5, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1970.
12. Astarita, G., Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 6, 257 (1967).
13. Diercke, A. C., Jr., and W. R. Schowalter, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Fund., 5, 263 (1966).
14. Rea, D. R., and W. R. Schowalter, Trans. Soc. Rheol.,
11:1, 125 (1967).
15. Ginn, R.F., and M. M. Denn, AIChE Jour., 15, 450
(1969).
16. Denn, M. M., and J. J. Roisman,AIChE Jour., 15, 454
(1969).
17. McIntire, L. V., and W. R. Schowalter, Trans. Soc.
Rheol., 14:4, 585 (1970).


18. Pearson, J.R.A., Mechanical Principles of Polymer
Melt Processing, pp. 77 et seq., Oxford: Pergamon
Press, 1966.
19. Martin, B., Theoretical Aspects of Screw Extruder
Design, Report No. 4, Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of
Chemical Engineering Polymer Processing Research
Centre, 1969.
20. Pearson, J.R.A., Heat Transfer Effects in Flowing
Polymers, paper presented at Int. Seminar on Heat
and Mass Transfer in Rheologically Complex Flaids,
Herceg Novi, Yugoslavia, September, 1970.
21. Novichyonok, L. N., Methods for Determining
Thermal Properties of Anisotropic Systems, pre-
sented at Int. Seminar on Heat and Mass Transfer
in Rheologically Complex Fluids, Herceg Novi, Yugo-
slavia, September, 1970.
22. Bird, R. B., and B. D. Marsh, Trans. Soc. Rheol.,
12:4, 479 (1968).
23. Ibid., 12:4, 489 (1968).
24. Metzner, A. B., E. A. Uebler, and C. F. Chan Man
Fong, AIChE Jour., 15, 750 (1969).
25. Goddard, J. D., and C. Miller, A Study of the Taylor-
Couette Stability of Viscoelastic Fluids, ORA Project
06673, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1967.
26. Pipkin, A. C., and D. R. Owen, Phys. Fluids, 10, 836
(1967).
27. Porteous, K. C., Ph.D. Thesis, University of Delaware,
Newark, Delaware, 1971.
28. Feinberg, M. R., and W. R. Schowalter, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Fund., 8, 332 (1969).
29. Feinberg, M. R., and W. R. Schowalter, Proc. Fifth
Int. Congr. on Rheology, S. Onogi, ed., vol. 1, p. 201,
Tokyo: Univ. of Tokyo Press, 1969.
30. Mclntire, L. V., personal communication, 1971.
31. Hayes, J. W., and J. F. Hutton, The Effect of Very
Dilute Polymer Solutions on the Formation of Taylor
Vortices. Comparison of Theory and Experiment,
paper presented at Int. Seminar on Heat and Mass
Transfer in Rheologically Complex Fluids, Herceg
Novi, Yugoslavia, September, 1970.
32. Saville, D. A., and D. W. Thompson, Nature ,223, 391
(1969).
33. Lumley, J. L., Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics,
W. R. Sears, ed., Vol. 1, pp. 367-384, Palo Alto, Cali-
fornia: Annual Reviews, Inc. 1969.
34. Virk, P. S., J. Fluid Mech., 45, 225 (1971).
35. Einstein, A., Ann. Physik, 19, 289 (1906); 34, 591
(1911).
36. Peterson, J. M. and M. Fixman, J. Chem. Phys., 39,
2516 (1963).
37. Prager, S., Trans. Soc. Rheol., 1, 53 (1957).
38. Goldsmith, H. L., and S. G. Mason, Rheology, F. R.
Eirich, ed., Vol. 4, pp. 85-250, New York: Academic
Press, 1967.
39. Batchelor, G. K., J. Fluid Mech., 41, 545 (1970).
40. Lin, C. -J., J. H. Peery, and W. R. Schowalter, J.
Fluid Mech. 44, 1 (1970).
41. Schowalter, W. R., C. E. Chaffey, and H. Brenner,
J. Coll. and Interface Sci., 26, 152 (1968).
42. Callis, P. R., and N. Davidson, Biopolymers, 7 ,335
(1969).


WINTER 1972









Your goal: Spontaneous chemical engineering education

The catalyst: McGraw-Hill textbooks.


ANALYSIS OF HEAT AND MASS
TRANSFER
E.R.G. ECKERT, University of Minnesota and
ROBERT M. DRAKE, JR., Combustion Engi-
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Engineering. 1972, 832 pages, $21.50
Unlike most other books at this level which dis-
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this one volume covers conduction, convection, and
radiation.


TRANSFER OPERATIONS
R. A. GREENKORN and D. P. KESSLER, both
of Purdue University. 1972, 496 pages (tent.),
$15.50 (tent.)
Professors Greenkorn and Kessler have designed
Transfer Operations to provide the student with
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momentum, heat, and mass are transferred and to
introduce the student to the design and use of
equations for momentum, heat, and mass.


APPLIED NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING
DAVID M. HIMMELBLAU, The University of
Texas, Austin. 1971, 512 pages, $18.50
Incorporating the results of practical experience,
this senior/graduate level text is an excellent
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HEAT TRANSFER, Third Edition
JACK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Univer-
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A Solutions Manual and five casette tapes with
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Retaining a technically correct presentation, this
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EXTENDED SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER
DONALD Q. KERN, and ALLAN D. KRAUS,
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Containing a great amount of original material as
well as numerous references to the literature, this
text provides a complete treatment of the theories
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SEPARATION PROCESSES
C. JUDSON KING, University of California,
Berkeley. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engi-
neering. 1971, 832 pages, $19.50
Departing from the classical approach to the sub-
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general problem, and stresses the many common
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ent separation processes.


THERMAL RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER
ROBERT SIEGEL, Lewis Research Center,
NASA and JOHN R. HOWELL, University of
Houston. 1972, 832 pages, $18.50
Written in a straightforward and easily readable
style, this undergraduate/graduate text contains
a comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by
thermal radiation.


ELEMENTS OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
LEIGHTON E. SISSOM and DONALD R. PITTS,
both of Tennessee Technological University. 1972,
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Assuming a basic knowledge of differential equa-
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TRANSFER IN CONTINUE
JOHN C. SLATTERY, Northwestern University.
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










uI$ Do riculum I


UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULA

In Chemical Engineering (1969-70)


C. W. BALCH,
The University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio 43606


U UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULA IN Chemi-
cal Engineering were surveyed most recently
for 1957, 1961, and 1970. It was the original in-
tention of the Education Projects Committee of
AIChE to survey on a regular basis so that trends
in programs could be detected. This report com-
pares the curricula of the survey as of 1970 with
the earlier reports of Thatcher, "Chemical Engi-
neering Education," September, 1962, and
Schmidt, "Journal of Engineering Education,"
Volume 50, October, 1959.
This survey was done by mail and covered the
schools listed in "Chemical Engineering Facul-
ties" for the 1968-69 academic year. Eighty-
eight usable replies are incorporated in the data
compiled as Table I.* The item numbers at the
left of the table are identical to those of the
previous surveys. The data are presented in the
same format so that comparisons can be made
and trends can be detected. The table shows hours
and range of semester hours for each heading
using the three surveys. For continuity, the per-
centage of schools offering the work and the
average number of credits when the material
was offered by those schools has been included.
In addition to the data tabulated, recent
changes in programs indicate curricular activity.


Recent Changes Planning Changes
34 30


1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years


Almost half of the schools teaching ChE had
either made an overhaul or were planning an
overhaul in their program within one year.

*The figure under the column "Average Number of
Credits, 1970"-Item 37 "Total Math, Chemistry, Physics,"
should be 52.6.


Clyde W. Balch received his BS and MS degrees from
the University of Maryland. He worked with the U.S.
Naval Research Laboratories in Washington, D. C. in
Confidential Research until 1939 and then went to duPont.
In 1946 he was one of the founders of the Maumee Chemi-
cal Company in Toledo, Ohio and served as Treasurer
and Vice-President until 1964.
Following the founding of the chemical company, he
taught Engineering Mechanics at the University of To-
ledo from 1947 to 1951. He received his MSES from the
University of Toledo in 1958 and in 1964 became a Pro-
fessor in and Chairman of the Department of ChE at
TU where he has served until the present time. Professor
Balch introduced a doctoral program in the department
and successfully enlarged the department and its pro-
grams. He was most recently (1967) made Dean of Adult
and Continuing Education, Director of Evening Sessions
and Coordinator of Summer Sessions at the University
of Toledo.

RESULTS OF SURVEY
Careful analysis of the table as it applies to
each individual will probably reveal more than
these observations and results, however, the fol-
lowing comments seem pertinent.
1. While the gross number of hours was down
by 9.4 from the last survey, the net was down
by only 3.9 hours-the difference between gross
and net being those courses devoted to physical
and military education, review math, and reli-
gious training. The difference between net and
gross of 10 hours in 1957 to 2.5 hours in this
survey suggests that there is a reduction in credit
allowed in remedial work and military service
towards graduation.
2. Communications skills, written and oral,
continue to decline showing shorter courses in
written work and considerably less emphasis on
oral communications with only 29 per cent of the
schools offering oral work.
3. The total cultural courses have increased
by two hours despite the efforts over the past
decade to increase this group. The total of all
nontechnical electives shows a drop of 3.6 hours,


WINTER 1972












TABLE 1. AVERAGE AMERICAN B.Ch.E. CURRICULUM OF 1969-70 COMPARED WITH 1956-57 AND 1960-61


Range of ECPD Credits, SH


Avg. Number of SH


1957 1961 1970 1957 1961 1970


Schools Offering, %

1957 1961 1970


Avg. SH when Offered

1957 1961 1970


6. Cross Credits, SH
7. Net Credits, SH
8. NON-TECHNICAL SUBJECTS
9. Written Communication
10. Oral Communication
11. Subtotal Items 9-10
12. Humanities, Required
13. Social Studies, Req.
14. Other Req. Soc-Hum.
15. Non-technical Electives
16. Subtotal, Items 12-15
17. Physical Education, etc.
18. Military Studies
19. Other non-technical
20. Subtotal Items 17-19
21. Total Items 11, 16, 20
22. MATHEMATICS, CHEMISTRY, AND PHYSICS


130-160 125-162 122-154
118-160 123-154 110-148


147.0 146.2 136.8
136.9 138.2 134.3


0-12 2-10
0-3.3 1-7
0-15 2-12
0-20 2-17
0-12 1-14
0-27.3 1-19
0-30 2-33
5.7-30.7 6-34
0-8 1-4
0-20 2-8
0-6.7 1-7
0-24 1-8
15-49 12-46


23. Intro. & Review Math. 0-10 0-10 2-3
24. Anal. Geom. and Calc. 8-16 6-22 6-1.
25. Diff. Eq. & Other 0-6 0-14 2-1:
26. Subtotal Items 23-25 12-22 12-26 11-21
27. General Chemistry 4-10 4-10 3-11
28. Physical Chemistry 6-13 0-13 3-1:
29. Organic Chemistry 5-11 3-11 3-3:
30. Quantitative Analysis 0-8 0-8 1-8
31. Qualitative Analysis 0-4 0-5 1-5
32. Other Chemistry 0-5 0-14 1-5
33. Subtotal Items 27-32 24-37 21-38 12-3:
34. General Physics 8-18 5.3-16 2-1l
35. Modern Physics 0-3 0-6 1-8
36. Subtotal Items 34-36 8-20 5.3-19 5-5
37. Total Items 26, 33, 36 49-68 49-70 36-6
38. ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
39. Total Graphics 0-9 0-9 1-6
40. ECONOMICS, BUSINESS LAW, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND ALLIED


100.0 136.8
- 100.0 134.3


98.8 97.8 92.8
43.2 45.6 28.9
98.8 97.8 92.8
63.0 72.7 66.3
59.1 55.4 39.8
22.2 20.7 22.9
76.5 82.6 79.5
100.0 100.0 100.0
50.6 51.6 44.6
48.1 49.0 18.1
23.5 14.1 19.3
84.0 77.2 54.2
100.0 100.0 96.4


79.0 53.3 6.0
100.0 100.0 100.0
44.4 81.5 98.8
100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 97.6
100.0 98.9 97.6
100.0 98.9 98.8
98.8 94.6 36.1
44.4 39.2 25.3
9.9 9.8 18.0
100.0 100.0 98.8
100.0 100.0 98.8
8.6 38.0 38.6


5
5
6
8
2
5



1
4


0
6


11.1 11.3
59.2 57.9


6.0 5.3
2.3 2.7
7.1 6.0
7.6 7.5
4.8 6.2
7.3 6.7
9.2 12.3
17.2 19.1
3.7 2.8
6.0 4.4
2.0 2.2
6.6 3.7
29.6 26.8


4.9 2.8
11.7 11.3
4.3 6.3
17.9 17.7
7.8 7.5
8.2 7.9
7.8 7.5
3.7 3.3
3.3 2.3
5.5 2.8
28.9 24.4
10.2 8.6
2.7 3.7


10.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 11.1 11.3 10.5
100.0 100.0 85.5 59.2 57.9 52.2


4.7 3.8 2.0 97.5 94.6 67.5 4.8 4.0 3.0


41. Economics, Princ. of 0-6 0-7.3 2-6
42. Economics, Engineering 0-6 0-3 1-3
43. Bus. Law, Admin., etc. 0-6 0-8 2-7
44. Total Items 41-43 0-11 0-12.5 1-9
45. MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
46. Mechanics 0-7 0-10 2-9
47. Mechanics of Materials 0-5 0-6 2-7
48. Total Items 46-47 2-10 0-10 2-10
49. ELEMENTARY ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
50. Elementary El. Eng. 0-8 0-10 1-6
51. Elementary Electronics 0-3 0-4.5 1-4
52. Total Items 50-51 0-9 0-10 2-9
53. NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS, CATEGORY A AND CATEGORY B
54. Physical Metallurgy 0-4 0-6 2-4
55. Other Category A Courses 0-3 0-4 1-7
56. Metallurgy 0-5 0-6 3-3
57. Other Category B Courses 0-5 0-4 1-3
58. Total Items 54-57 0-8 0-8 2-7
59. SUPPLEMENTARY SCIENCES AND PRACTICES
60. Biology and Geology 0-8 0-8 3-7
61. Heat Power 0-6 0-4.7 4-4
62. Shop Practice 0-3 0-2 1-1
63. Other 0-4 0-6 1-8
64. Total Items 60-63 0-8 0-8 1-8


65. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
66. Material & Energy Bal.
67. Thermodynamics
68. Chemical Kinetics
69. Subtotal Items 66-68
70. Unit Operations Theory
71. Unit Operations Lab.
72. Subtotal Items 70-71
73. Ch.E. Design
74. Chemical Technology
75. Investigational Skills
76. Intro. to Ch.E.
77. Instrumentation
78. Unit Processes
79. Trips
80. Fuels and Lubricants
81. Other
82. Subtotal Items 73-80
83. Total Items 69, 72, 82
84. TECHNICAL ELECTIVES
85. Total Tech. Electives


0-8
2-10
0-5
5-17
4-13
2-7
8-16
0-12
0-7
0-12
0-4
0-5
0-3
0-3
0-4
0-8
5-23
23-45


0-8
1-9
0-4
2.7-17
0-16
0-8
0-20
0-8.7
0-7
0-8
0-10
0-4
0-7.5
0-8
0-3
0-20
0-25
20-53


55.6 58.7
23.5 22.8
18.5 8.7
70.4 68.5


97.8 97.5 90.4
97.5 80.4 47.0
100.0 97.8 90.4


98.8 93.5 77.1
9.9 38.0 49.4
100.0 95.7 88.0


40.7 20.6
5.0 11.9
12.7 21.7
28.4 11.9
67.9 55.4


4.9 4.3
23.5 8.7
23.5 8.7
13.6 15.2
45.7 29.3


98.8 91.3
100.0 100.0
18.5 53.2
100.0 100.0
100.0 97.8
100.0 98.9
100.0 98.9
90.1 86.9
75.3 53.2
70.4 50.0
38.3 39.1
32.1 41.3
27.2 23.9
21.0 17.4
13.6 4.3
19.8 42.3
100.0 98.9
100.0 100.0


1-8
2-8
1-6
1-13
2-10
1-6
1-15
2-8
1-6
1-10
1-5
2-6
1-6
1-2
1-1
1-27
3-40
19-62


13.3
57.8
2.4
10.8
71.1


6.0
1.2
1.2
18.1
24.1


91.6
98.8
89.2
75.9
73.5
81.9
91.6
90.4
19.3
24.1
30.1
71.1
7.2
7.2
2.4
61.5
98.8
98.8


0-12 0-24 3-30 3.6 5.2 6.2 65.4 75.0 72.3


3.5 3.9
2.2 2.0
3.0 4.5
4.1 3.9


4.0 4.5
3.1 3.0
6.6 5.7


4.3 3.6
2.5 3.0
5.2 4.8


3.1 3.1
2.6 3.0
3.0 3.0
2.6 2.3
3.4 3.4


4.0 4.4
2.3 4.0
1.3 1.0
2.2 3.0
2.8 3.3


3.3 3.3
5.0 4.6
2.3 3.0
9.2 6.6
8.4 5.9
4.0 3.3
12.2 7.7
4.0 4.0
3.3 3.0
3.1 3.5
2.3 1.8
2.5 3.3
3.0 3.2
1.7 1.2
1.5 1.0
3.9 6.6
11.6 12.5
32.8 33.8


5.5 7.0 8.6







probably attributable to a slight gain in human-
ities and a drop in communications and physical
education.
4. The number of hours in mathematics is
essentially the same over the past three surveys,
but the distribution of material has changed.
Very few schools are given any work in intro-
ductory mathematics. This is compensated for
by an increase in differential equations and other
math background. This advanced material dou-
bled since the last survey and had doubled be-
tween the first and second surveys. The amount
of math has remained essentially constant, but
the level of math has increased.
5. Chemical engineers still require chemis-
try background, although there is a decrease of
almost five hours in the amount of chemistry
required. The most telling reduction is in quan-
titative analysis, which is probably being incor-
porated in other courses. It is most interesting
to note organic, physical, and general chemistry
still hold their own.
6. The amount of physics required has de-
creased slightly. The indication of a slight in-
crease in courses in modern physics and slight


.. The requirements in ChE
continue to be rigid. The total
number of hours is practically
equal to previous surveys.


decrease in the semester hours of general
physics.
7. Graphics continues to decline dropping two
hours to almost half of the previous requirements.
Mechanical and electrical engineering background
hold their own, but drop slightly, while materials
seems to have increased.
8. The requirements in ChE continue to be
rigid. The total number of hours is practically
equal to the previous surveys. Three things stand
out. There is an increase in the amount of kine-
tics. This is more than doubled. A decrease in
the amount of unit operations, and a decrease
in "other", which is probably mathematics and
advanced chemical engineering. The total num-
ber of hours holds constant at 33.
9. The total electives in the technical field
increased by only one semester hour confirming
the rigidity of most curricula. E


UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULA

In Chemical Engineering

(1970-71)


DEE H. BARKER
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84601

The "Goals of Engineering Education" re-
port has caused a great deal of discussion and
examination of the curricula of engineering
schools. The administrations in many schools
have been bringing pressure to bear to effect
some of the changes suggested. The American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, while agreeing
with some of the "Goals," is opposed to others
of them. In order to determine the current plans
of the various Chemical Engineering Depart-
ments, the author conducted a survey of all
schools listed in the "Directory of Chemical Engi-
neering Faculties"1.


... chemical engineering and
the humanities have
increased while all other
categories have decreased


The letter written to each department asked
for the course outline which would be used in
1970-71 school year. The letter also asked for
comments on an integrated five-year program
with the Master of Engineering degree being the
first professional degree, the Bachelor of Science
degree not being considered professional.
A total of 93 schools replied and the following
analysis is based on these replies. The informa-
tion was taken from bulletins, course outlines,
and other material submitted by each school.
Since this was a survey conducted by a single
individual, no attempt was made to use the for-
mat and questionnaire used in previous surveys.2'3
This was done to lessen the burden on the already
overworked department chairman and with the
hope that the number of replies would be thereby
increased. The analysis was made, however, on


WINTER 1972






















Dee Barker is Professor of ChE at Brigham Young
University. Dee earned the BS and PhD ('51) degrees from
the University of Utah. His industrial experience includes
several years with duPont in nuclear engineering and
with Hercules Inc. in atmospheric pollution, heat transfer,
and materials development. He has served foreign assign-
ments at Provo Institute of Technology and Science at
Pilani, Rajasthan, India and Birla Institute of Technology
and Science. Dee's fields of interest include nuclear engi-
neering, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, process control and
environmental control.

the same basis as the previous surveys. In some
cases it was necessary to interpret the course
content from the descriptive material furnished.
It was not possible in all cases to identify the
items in each category. As an example, materials
and communications may be somewhat in error.
Two surveys have been conducted2'3 since
1957 by the AIChE committee on undergraduate
curricula. The present survey is not as compre-
hensive as the past surveys and is limited to
looking at the broad categories rather than a
detailed analysis of the changes within a cate-
gory. The results are shown in Table 1. This
table presents a comparison of the "average"
curricula for 1957, 1961 and for the present sur-
vey, 1970 (the intended curricula for 1970-71).
The gross hours represent the total hours re-
quired while the net hours exclude physical educa-
tion, precalculus math and military classes. This
presents a problem since many schools have in-
troduced a category, "free electives" which can,
at student option, be used for military classes.
The free electives were not included in the net
hours.
Of the 93 schools included in the analysis,
32 (35%) indicated a change in hours either in
1969-70 or 1970-71.
As can be seen, there has been a decrease of
5.3 hours in the number of net hours since 1957.
Table 2 presents the change in the number of
hours in each category using 1957 as a base.


TABLE 1.-Comparison of Average Curricula

Category 1957 1961 1971

Gross 147 146.2 133.5
Net 136.9 138.2 131.6
Communicative Skills 8 7 5.0
Humanities 13 17 18.3
SUBTOTAL 21 24 23.3
Mathematics 13 15 16.7
Chemistry 31 29 23.8
Physics 11 11 9.7
SUBTOTAL 55 55 50.2
Mechanics 7 6 5.2
Electrical Engineering 5 5 3.7
Materials 2 2 1.4
SUBTOTAL 14 13 10.3
Chemical Eng (Required) 33 33 33.8
Chemical Eng (Elective) 2.3
SUBTOTAL 33 33 36.1
Graphics 5 4 1.4
Economics 3 3 .8
Technical Electives 4 5 6.4
Computer 1.2
Life Science 2 1 .2
Other
SUBTOTAL 14 13 11.8
TOTAL, hrs. 137 138 131.7


Chemical engineering and the humanities have
increased while all other categories have de-
creased. The increase in chemical engineering
hours may be caused by the failure to recognize
the materials course in the chemical engineering
categories.
The decrease in chemistry is caused primarily
by the merging of the first chemistry course with
analytical chemistry. Several schools indicated
an interrelationship between physics, mechanics,
and electrical engineering. In some cases, the
schools reduced the physics and in others the
electrical engineering and/or mechanics were re-
duced in hours.
Although no attempt was made to separate
the various areas within chemical engineering
subjects, several trends were noted. There is a
tendency to reduce some hours in traditional unit
operations with the addition of hours in trans-
port. In addition, 35% of the schools indicated
an elective in chemical engineering. The average,
over 93 schools, was 2.3 hours.
The "average curricula" cannot present the
entire story of the change taking place. There-
fore, the material in Table 3 is presented. The
percentage of schools offering course work in


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








TABLE 2.-Change in Course Content
Basis 1957 = 0

Category 1961 1971


-0.8
1.3


Gross
Net
Communicative Skills
Humanities
SUBTOTAL
Mathematics
Chemistry
Physics
SUBTOTAL
Mechanics
Electrical Engineering
Materials
SUBTOTAL
Chemical Engineering
SUBTOTAL
Graphics
Economics
Technical Electives
Computer
Life Science
Other
SUBTOTAL
TOTAL, hrs.


each category is shown in this table.
categories in which less than 100% of t
offer the course are noted. The remain
gories had 100% of the schools report


largest chniiges iave occur reu 111 ciuncmnun ca u
and precalculus math. This takes into account
the better preparation of the incoming high
school student. The increase in humanities re-
quirements shows the effect of the accreditation
procedures.
None of the schools replying indicated they
were planning on adopting the "Goals Report" in
regards to the B.S.-M.E. degree sequence. In
fact, those who expressed themselves were very
much opposed to the proposal. However, a re-
duction in hours is being made. Other than stu-
dents with better preparation, no reason is given
for this decrease.
The letter requesting information from the
department did not specifically ask for the details
of the introduction of common years into the cur-
ricula. However, this information was included
in the catalog and other material submitted for
analysis. One or two schools are examining a
common undergraduate engineering degree.
Others are looking at a common two-year pro-


... None of the schools replying
indicated they were planning
on adopting the "Goals Report"
in regard to the BS-ME sequence.


-13.5
-5.3 gram with the aim of facilitating the transfer
-3.0 of students from junior colleges. Of the schools
5.3 surveyed, 47% indicated a program with some
2.3 years common to the other branches of engineer-
3.7 ing. The average, based on 42 schools, was 1.2
-7.2 years. The primary problem of common years lies
-1.3 in the chemistry course taken by chemical engi-
-4.8 neers. In almost all cases, the chemistry taken by
-1.8 chemical engineers was different from the chemis-
-1.3 try taken by the other engineers. The chemical
-0.6 engineers take chemistry with the chemists, while
the remaining engineers take a terminal chemistry
3.1 course.
3.1 As pointed out by Corcoran4 chemical engi-
-3.6 neering is set apart by its "preoccupation with
-2.2 chemical change." The solution to the introduc-
2.4 tion of common years to all branches of engineer-
1.2 ing lies in the recognition of the other engineering
--1.2
-0.2 branches of importance of chemistry to their
particular branch. The solution does not lie in
-2.2 decreasing the chemistry content of chemical en-
5 gineering. The recommendations made by Cor-

Only the coran would greatly aid in the problem of intro-
he schools during common years. E
ning cate- TABLE 3.-Percentage of Schools Offering Course Work
ting. The In Selected Categories
,*,,+, (all others 100 per cent)


Category 1957 1971

Communicative Skills 99 83
Humanities 63 100
Precalculus Math 79 3
Mechanics 100 89
Electrical Engineering 99 82
Materials 68 43
Chemical Eng Electives --- 35
Graphics 98 47
Physical Education 51 35
Military 48 11


REFERENCES
1. "Chemical Engineering Faculties 1968-69," Chemical
Engineering Education Projects Committee, A.I.Ch.E.
2. Schmidt, A. X., "What is the Current B.Ch.E. Curri-
culum?" J. of Eng. Ed., 50, Oct. 1958.
3. Thatcher, C. M., "The Chemical Engineering Curricu-
lum," Chem. Eng. Ed., September, 1962.
4. Corcoran, Win. H., "Obsolete Curricula for an Obso-
lescent Profession? or What About Chemical Engi-
neering Today?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 4, 66-71 (1970).


WINTER 1972









laboratory


A SINGLE DROP LIQUID EXTRACTION EXPERIMENT


ORVILLE C. SANDALL
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, California 93106

This note describes an experiment designed
to measure mass transfer coefficients for liquid
extraction from single drops. This experiment is
one of several laboratory experiments which are
assigned as term projects in the chemical engi-
neering undergraduate mass transfer course at
the University of California, Santa Barabara.
The course is ordinarily taken by juniors and
proceeds the "transport processes" laboratory
course taken during the senior year.
Students, working in groups of two, are as-
signed individual projects which can reasonably
be completed in six to eight weeks. The experi-
ment described here is one of the more successful
experiments developed for this course. The ap-
paratus is simply constructed, quite inexpensive
and the experimental results obtained may be
bracketed by calculations based on theoretical
models for the mass transfer process.
T HE APPARATUS FOR this experiment is
shown schematically in Figure 1. The extrac-
tion column consists of a ll/4-inch diameter glass
tube four feet in length and closed at each end
with a rubber stopper. Toluene was the continu-
ous phase and the discontinuous phase, water,
was introduced into the extraction column through
a glass tubing nozzle at the top of the column.
The solute, benzoic acid, was extracted from
toluene by water. The water drops fall through
the column and coalesce in the funnel at the bot-
tom of the column. The water level in the funnel
could be maintained constant by adjusting the
flow rate of water leaving the column to that of
the water entering the column. Drop sizes could
be conveniently varied by varying the diameter
of this drop formation nozzle.
The falling velocities of the water drops were
measured using a stopwatch and the drop dia-
meters were determined by counting the drop
formation rate and by measuring the volumetric
flow rate. The students used three different drop
sizes in the experiments. The measured drop


Figure 1.-Schematic of Experimental Apparatus.


velocities were compared to velocities predicted
from the correlation of Klee and Treybal (1956).
The results of this comparison are shown in Ta-
ble I. It was found that the measured drop velo-
cities were about 9% lower than the predicted
velocities. These differences are small and may
be attributed to the effect of the solute on the
physical properties of toluene.
One of the desirable features of the water-
benzoic acid-toluene system is the relative sim-
plicity of the concentration measurements. Ben-
zoic acid concentrations in each phase were
determined by titrating with sodium hydroxide
solutions to a phenolphthalein end-point. For the
toluene phase a sodium hydroxide in ethanol
solution was used for the titrations.
Before running the extraction experiment
equilibrium data were obtained in the usual man-
TABLE I.-Comparison of Predicted and Measured
Drop Velocities


Drop
Diameter
cm
0.356
0.448
0.720


Terminal Velocity (cm/sec)
Predicted Measured
10.5 9.5
12.4 11.5
11.5 10.7

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


JanE'J























Orville C. Sandall is an assistant professor in Chemical
Engineering at the University of California at Santa
Barbara. He obtained his education at the University of
Alberta (BS, MS) and the University of California at
Berkeley (PhD). His teaching and research interests are
in the areas of heat and mass transfer.



ner using a separatory funnel. It was found that
the equilibrium curve was linear over a wide
range in concentration (up to 0.36 molar in the
toluene phase).

OVERALL MASS TRANSFER coefficients
were calculated from the measured exit con-
centration of the aqueous phase. The overall mass
transfer coefficient defined in terms of the aver-
age concentration difference is given by Equa-
tion 1.
K = NA(* ) (1)
Because the distribution coefficient of benzoic
acid strongly favors the organic phase, the con-
centration of benzoic acid in toluene did not
change significantly during the course of the ex-
periments.
To interpret the mass transfer data, students
were asked to use three theoretical models which
would represent probable limits for the individual
phase mass transfer coefficients. The overall
mass transfer coefficient can then be calculated
using the additivity of resistances concept as
stated by Equation. 2.
1 = 1 (2)
KW k W skT
w w T
The major resistance to mass transfer in this
system is in the discontinuous phase; this is
due mainly to the large value of m.
The lower limit for mass transfer rates should
be given by assuming that the drops are com-
pletely stagnant. Since the drop contact times
are short (on the order of 10 seconds), diffusion


into a stagnant drop is given to good approxi-
mation by the Higbie (1935) penetration theory:

k = 2Cw (3)
W W 7T
For stagnant drops the continuous phase mass
transfer coefficient was obtained from the cor-
relation of Ranz and Marshall (1952) for trans-
port from rigid spheres:
kTd = 2.0 + 0.60 ReI12 Sc1/3 (4)
C TD Sc
CTT
The second approach taken to model the mass
transfer process was to use the circulating drop
theory of Kronig and Brink (1950):
C d 2 64 B D 0 (5
k= 66 8 en d 5

Following the suggestion of Treybal (1963) for
the case of circulating drops, the continuous phase
mass transfer coefficient was assumed to be given
by penetration theory. The contact time in this
case is taken as the drop diameter divided by the
falling velocity.
An upper limit for mass transfer rates was
assumed to be given by the fully turbulent drop
model considered by Handles and Baron (1957).
The drop mass transfer cofficient for this case is
given by.
0.00375 C v
k w (6)
w 1 + /T
The continuous phase mass transfer cofficient for
fully turbulent drops was assumed to be given
by penetration theory as for the circulating drop
case.
Table II shows the results of the theoretical
calculations as compared to the experimental re-
sults. It is seen that the experimental results are
within the limiting behavior as predicted by the
stagnant drop and the fully turbulent drop theor-
ies and show closest agreement with the circulat-
ing drop theory (average deviation =33%). El

TABLE II.-Comparison of Predicted and Measured
Mass Transfer Coefficients

Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient,
Drop KE 105, g moles/cm2sec
Diameter ~----------
Theory
cm Experiment
Stagnant Circulating Turbulent

0.356 12.6 4.40 6.70 73.0
O.448 10.7 4.88 8.34 88.2
0.720 7.86 4.65 10.32 81.2

(Continued on p. 35.)


WINTER 1972










Classroom


THE THERMODORM, A Mnemonic

Octahedron of Thermodynamics


A. F. GANGI, N. E. LAMPING, AND P. T.
EUBANK
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843
The development, use, and construction of the
THERMODORM*1, a mnemonic octahedron in
terms of the energy functions of thermodynamics
and their variables is described. This easily con-
structed, pocket-sized device provides at a glance
the complete set of Maxwell relations and energy
function derivatives for k component systems.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
For a homogeneous phase of k components in
an open system a fundamental equation of ther-
modynamics2,3 is given by the expression for the
internal energy of the system:
U U(S,V,N.); i = 1,2 ..., k (1)
The total differential of the internal energy is:

dU = TdS PdV + [ V.dN., (2)
i=1
where the intensive variables (the temperature
T, the pressure, P, and the chemical potential,
/i) are defined by the partial derivatives of the
internal energy.4
By means of Legendre transformations, the
internal energy U(S,V,Ni) can be converted into
the other thermodynamic energy functions :5 the
enthalpy H(S,P,Nj), the Helmholtz free energy
A(T,V,Ni), the Gibbs free energy G(T,P,Ni), etc.
Their differentials are:
k
dH = TdS + VdP + iidN. = dU[P], (3)
il
k
dA =-SdT PdV + p idN. = dU[T], (4)
k
dG =-SdT + VdP + J.dN. = dU[T,P] (5)
=i1
k
d(TS-PV) = Tds PdV I Nidpi = dU[(1] (6)
=1i
k
d(TS) = TdS + VdP N.dp. = dU[P,1i]1 (7)
1=1
"Thermodynamic Octahedral Display Of the Rela-
tions of Maxwell"


k
d(-PV) =-SdT FdV d N.d=i = dU[T,1J]
i=l


k
0 =-SdT + VdP N dpi = dU[T,P,ll ], (9)
i=1
the last relation is also called the Gibbs-Duhem
equation. U, H, A, G, TS-PV, TS, and -PV will
be termed the energy functions with S, V, P, T,
Ni and II as their independent variables. The
natural variables of U are S, V, and N1 while
those of G are T, P, and N1, etc.6
A total of 7 (k + 2) Maxwell equations result
from cross differentiation of Equations (2-8) of
the type
a2U 2 U
t so v i- fvos (ao
to yield, for example,


I- s V,N (IV J)S,N


(11)


gross differentiation of Equation (9) yields re-
lations of the type
Sf a y31 = (12)
ID J (IT JP
since the phrase rule allows but k + 1 independent
intensive variables from the potentials P, T, and
i. Thus,

jas j 0, (13)
i-11 ) 1Pi v PP, T,pl

since [dT], =0, etc.
A total of 7 (k + 2) derivatives may be formed
by differentiation of the seven nonzero energy
functions with respect to their natural variables.
Of the derivatives for TS PV, TS, -PV, two are
F2-1S- T d F_-P ] P, (14)
L @s -J,i L- VJTp
as a consequence of the phase rule. Other deriva-
tives are consistent with the Maxwell relations.
For example,

v = (a(TS) T (-
( @P )S,p SI 2T)


which agrees with the Maxwell relation,
(IT a v vPi
(5- [ sP i [ F Is


(16)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


4 2"c4"iW.9 Aid






















A. F. Gangi received his BS, MS and PhD ('60) in
Physics from the University of California at Los Angeles.
While at UCLA he was associated with the Institute of
Geophysics. His doctoral thesis subject was the diffraction
of elastic waves by wedges. He was manager of the An-
tenna Department at Space-General Corp. in El Monte,
California before becoming an Associate Professor of
Geophysics at MIT. Presently he is a Professor in the
Geophysics Department at Texas A&M University. His
research interests are theoretical seismology, properties
of the earth's interior and theoretical geophysics.

Of the derivatives for H, A, and G, we find

G{ (17)
P,T,N.
where Gi is the partial molar Gibbs energy.

DEVELOPMENT AND USE
The Maxwell relations and energy function
derivatives can be remembered by means of the
thermodynamic squares6'7 with arrows pointing
along the diagonals as shown in Figure 1 for the
energy functions U, A, G, and H flanked by their
natural variables (excluding NI). The four com-
mon Maxwell relations are found using this
square. For example, the Maxwell relation
(av 1 ( 1(18)
(a s J N ( ap L S N
is obtained from this square using the following
procedure. We take the derivative of the variable
in the top left corner with respect to the variable
in the bottom left corner holding constant the
variable in the bottom right corner and on the
face. We equate this to the derivative of the
variable on the top right corner with respect to
the variable on the bottom right corner holding
constant the variables in the bottom left corner
and on the face. The sign is determined by the
arrows; the sign is positive if both arrows point
either upward or downward. Using this proce-
dure, rotation of the square 90 clockwise yields
(as 1 _ aV 1 (19)
(ap J7T, i = ta JP,N,


N. E. Lamping received his BS in Geology from the
University of Notre Dame, an MS in Geodetic Sciences
from Ohio State University and a PhD ('70) in Geophysics
from Texas A&M University. His PhD thesis subject was
"The Mohorovicic Discontinuity as a Phase Transition."
Major Lamping has been awarded the Air Force Com-
mendation Medal twice; once in 1962 for meritorious ser-
vice and in 1968 for outstanding achievement. He presently
is Chief of the Cratering Geophysics Section at the Air
Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.
P. T. Eubank was a graduate from Rose Polytechnic
Institute and received his PhD degree from Northwestern
University under Professor J. M. Smith in 1961. He has
taught thermodynamics and transport phenomena for
the past ten years at Texas A&M University and is on
the research staff of the Thermodynamics Research Center
there. He is presently pursuing his principal research
interest, the physical and thermodynamic properties of
polar vapors, under the direction of Professor J. S. Row-
linson at Imperial College, London, England. (right)


S H P A N;
Figure I.-The Common Figure 2.-The Constant
Thermodynamic Square. Temperature Square.
where now the sign is negative because one ar-
row points upward and the other downward. We
have placed N1 at the center of this square since
these four Maxwell relations are for the constant
Ni.
The square also provides the derivatives of
the energy functions such as
l Ni= T, S,Ni (' -]P,N. -

The sign is positive if the variable is at the head
of the arrow and otherwise negative.
There are six such squares, one for a fixed
value of each of the independent variables. Fig-


WINTER 1972











7


January 1972


approx. 688 pp.


(12860-3)


WILLIAMS


PERLMUTTER


BRIAN


POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
David J. Williams, The City College of the City
University of New York
Succeeds in bridging the gap between the funda-
mentals of non-macromolecular disciplines and the
underlying concepts of polymer science and engi-
neering.
September 1971 401 pp. (68563-6)

STABILITY OF CHEMICAL REACTORS
Daniel D. Perlmutter, University of Pennsylvania
NEW-comprehensive and detailed treatment of
chemical reactor stability. Emphasizes the engi-
neering uses derived from rigorous definitions.
Develops results for a variety of lumped- and dis-
tributed- parameter models.
January 1972 approx. 320 pp. (83996-9)

STAGED CASCADES IN CHEMICAL PROCESSES
P. L. Thibaut Brian, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology
NEW-introduction to cascade theory of staged
processes. Assumes no previous knowledge of
thermo-dynamics or transport theory. Ideal for
college freshmen and sophomores.
January 1972 approx. 272 pp. (84028-0)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


on

chemical engineering:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
Richard E. Balzhiser, University of Michigan; Mi-
chael R. Samuels and John D. Eliassen, both of the
A LZH ISER University of Delaware
NEW-provides an integrated introduction to classi-
et al cal mechanical and chemical thermodynamics for
undergraduate chemical engineering students.
Teacher's Manual available.


B





















DOUGLAS


PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL.
VOL I: ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
VOL II: CONTROL SYSTEM SYNTHESIS
J. M. Douglas, University of Massachusetts
Contrasts steady state versus dynamic operation of
chemical processes. Surveys the various ideas that
can be used to develop control systems.


Solutions Manual available.
Vol 1: January 1972 approx. 416 pp.
Vol II: January 1972 approx. 592 pp.


(72304-9)
(72305-6)


MEISSNER


PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS IN INDUSTRIAL
CHEMISTRY
Herman P. Meissner, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology
Focuses on the definition and quantitative study of
factors determining the form of processes involving
chemical transformations.
Solutions Manual available.


386 pp.


NUSSBAUM


(72332-0)


APPLIED GROUP THEORY FOR CHEMISTS,
PHYSICISTS AND ENGINEERS
Allen Nussbaum, University of Minnesota
The first book to show the reader in very simple
language how to use group theory in a systematic
fashion in a variety of fields: crystallography, chem-
istry, spectroscopy, atomic and solid state physics,
and theory of vibrations.
May 1971 285 pp. (04083-2)


prentice-hall
box 903 englewood cliffs n.j. 07632


WINTER 1972









ure 2, the constant temperature square, yields
Maxwell relations such as
(ap = [ 1 -= V (20)
(P ,T h 1'PT
p' IN, I P,T,Nj

(the partial molar volume) and energy function
derivatives such as
We now place the eight energy functions (in-
cluding the zero Gibbs-Duhem function) on the
triangular sides of a regular octahedron with
the six independent variables located at the
points. The energy functions are placed on the
top pyramid of the octahedron so as to reproduce
the square of Figure 1 when sighting directly
into Ni point. The bottom pyramid of the octahe-
dron reproduces the square of Figure 3 when
we look directly into the pi point. On the plane
bisecting the top and bottom pyramids of the
octahedron the U surface intersects the (TS-PV)
surface since they share V and S as natural vari-
ables likewise for G and zero which share P,
T, and etc. All six mnemonic squares may be
seen on the THERMODORM.

CONSTRUCTION
Figure 4 is a pictorial representation of a
clear plastic model which can be quickly and easily


TS- PV


V -PV
Figure 3.-The Constant
Chemical Potential Square.


Ni
A
UG
T
H ,'
S
TS PV
TS-PV A
Figure 4.-The Energy
THERMODORM.


fabricated. The points of the octahedron have
been planned normal to the major axes to pro-
vide small squares for lettering the independent
variables. A common soldering gun with a fine
point is adequate for lettering. The arrows,
S T, Ni -- /i and P V, can be set
directly in the mold if the device is cast. Other-
wise, a negative sign should be placed before S,
N1, and P. The minus sign is then used when
forming Maxwell relations and energy deriva-
tives but is ignored where it appears in the de-
nominator of a partial derivative.
A collapsable paper THERMODORM can be
easily constructed from the pattern provided by
Figure 5. THERMODORMS can be also made for
S(U,V,NJ), V(U,S,Ni), and Ni(U,S,V) and the
functions obtained by Legendre tranformations


/f- -
/
/



Figure 5.-Paper Mnemonic THERMODORM.
Assembly Instructions
1. Cut along solid lines.
2. Score and fold down along dashed lines.
3. Connect sides with same letters.
A.F. Gangi, N.E. Lamping, 1971



\
\


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









analogous to that for the energy functions. Trans-
forms of the entropy are termed Massieu func-
tions which yield relations upon cross differentia-
tion analogous to those of Maxwell.

SUMMARY
The theoretical basis, use, and construction
of a mnemonic octahedron for the representation
of the energy functions and their derivatives to-
gether with the Maxwell equations, has been pre-
sented. The device, which is easily constructed
to any size-desk top or pocket version, should
be valuable to both students and teachers. Al-
though classic thermodynamics requires a mini-
mum of memorization, we hope the THERMO-
DORM will aid the student in understanding
and unifying the energy functions together with
their variables and prove to be more than an
optimal crib-sheet for closedbook exams. E]

REFERENCES
1. Gangi, A. F., and N. E. Lamping, Thermodynamic
Functions and Potentials with their Corresponding
Maxwell Relations Derived and Displayed on THER-
MODORMS, Patent Disclosure, Texas A&M Univer-
sity, College Station, Texas (January, 1970).
2. Denbigh, K., The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium,
pp. 74-80, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, Eng-
and (1961).
3. Buckingham, A. D., The Laws and Applications of
Thermodynamics, pp. 56-59, Pergamon Press, Oxford,
England (1964).
4. Callen, H. B., Thermodynamics, p. 31, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., New York (1960).
5. Ibid. 98.
6. Ibid, 117-121.
7. Koenig, F. 0., J. Chem. Phys. 3, 29 (1935).



SANDALL-(Continued from p. 29)
Nomenclature
A., B. Eigenvalues
C Molar concentration
d Drop diameter
D Diffusion coefficient
k Individual phase mass transfer coefficient
K Overall mass transfer coefficient
m Slope of equilibrium curve
NA Average mass transfer rate
Re Reynolds number
Sc Schmidt number
v Drop velocity
x Average mole fraction benzoic acid in water
phase
x* Mole fraction benzoic acid that would be in
equilibrium with the bulk toluene phase
concentration
0 Contact time
/I Absolute viscosity


[gle book reviews

Processes and Systems in Industrial Chemistry,
H. P. Meissner, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
N.J. (1971), 386pp., $14.95.

This book is primarily an introductory dis-
cussion of reaction kinetics and associated ther-
modynamics from an industrial chemical point of
view. The author, however, includes chapters on
liquid-solid equilibria, material balances and en-
ergy balances. There is also a chapter on the fre-
quently neglected topic of electrochemical opera-
tions. Roughly one-third of the book is devoted to
problems. The book is noteworthy in relating the
discussion and the problems to specific chemical
processes.
R. S. Kirk
University of Massachusetts

Ed. Note. The author has classified processes "by (1)
types of equilibria, (2) types of energy management prob-
lems, (3) types of rate problems (including catalysis),
and (4) types of flow sheet patterns and materials hand-
ling problems." The book contains eleven chapters titled:
Equilibrium in homogeneous systems; Heterogeneous re-
action equilibria; Liquid-solid equilibria involving ions;
Management of materials; Management of heat energy;
Homogeneous reaction rates; Catalytic reactions and re-
actors; Reactions between gases and solids; Chemical re-
actors; Reactions having an unfavoragle AF; and Indus-
trial electrochemical operations. There are 125 realistic
case-type problems for effective illustration of the ma-
terial.


Subscripts:
T
w


Toulene phase
Water phase


REFERENCES
1. Handlos, A. E. and T. Baron, "Mass and Heat Trans-
fer from Drops in Liquid-liquid Extraction", AIChE
Journal, 3, 127 (1957).
2. Higbie, R., "The Rate of Absorption of a Pure Gas
into a Still Liquid During Short Periods of Exposure,"
Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs, 31, 365 (1935).
3. Klee, A. J. and R. E. Treybal, "Rate of Rise or Fall of
Droplets," AIChE Journal, 2, 444 (1956).
4. Kronig, R. and J. C. Brink, "On the Theory of Extrac-
tion from Falling Droplets," Appl. Sci. Research, A2,
142 (1950).
5. Ranz, W. E. and W. R. Marshall, "Evaporation from
Drops," Chem. Eng. Prog., 48, 173 (1952).
6. Treybal, R. E., Liquid Extraction, 2nd ed., McGraw-
Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 188 (1963).


WINTER 1972









ChE UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION:

PATTERNS TODAY-

EXTRAPOLATION TO TOMORROW


A. W. ALDAG
University of Oklahoma
Norman, Oklahoma 73069
A. G. FREDRICKSON
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minn. 55455

N ORDER TO develop the most effective and
efficient undergraduate educational programs
it is necessary to pause occasionally and consider
our present posture, evaluate what we see as
the future needs and determine if we are pro-
ceeding in the proper direction. This type of an-
alysis is particularly crucial in a rapidly ex-
panding discipline such as chemical engineering
which is increasing in scope and at the same
time besieged with pressure both to reduce the
required number of credit hours for graduation
and expand the number of non-technical elec-
tives. Should our programs remain as general as
possible or should each university develop its own
special areas of emphasis? How should our in-
structional techniques be modified to take full
advantages of new teaching aids such as "talk-
back" T.V. systems and realtime computers?
What modifications should be made in the tradi-


SmfmpodiUnm


tional chemical engineering laboratories? Are
we producing graduates which are in phase with
the needs of industry?

THE FOLLOWING PAPERS were presented
in a symposium on Chemical Engineering under-
graduate education at the 68th Annual Meeting
of the AIChE in Houston. Although there was
insufficient time to review all of the aspects of
our undergraduate educational structure, many
of the important trends and projects were con-
sidered both from the standpoint of industry and
its needs and the university and its goals.


A. W. Aldag A. G. Frederickson


PREPARING THE ENGINEER FOR HIS UNIQUE ROLE


L. WALDO LEGGETT, JR.
Esso Inter-America Inc.
Coral Gables, Florida 33134

I am not here today to speak as an expert in
undergraduate engineering curriculum, but as a
chemical engineer in industry who has a strong
interest in his profession. I have observed many
newly graduated engineers begin their careers
in industry and have developed some ideas perti-
nent to the role and education of engineers that
I wish to share with you.
36


I will discuss two basic areas: first, a concept
of the unique role of the engineer, and second,
using this concept, important areas in the engi-
neer's education required to best prepare him
for this unique role. I plan to deal with this sub-
jective and complex subject in a very simple
form in order to concentrate on a few basic con-
cepts.

AN ENGINEER'S ACTIVITIES require him
to work in three basic areas (Figure 1). These
are economics, mathematics and the physical
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


~








MATHEMATICS


mam
L. WALDO LEGGETT, JR. is Senior Advisor of Cor-
porate Planning and Economics for Esso Inter-America,
Inc. in Coral Gables, Florida. His previous assignment
was Department Head at the Baytown Refinery of Hum-
ble Oil & Refining Co. in Baytown, Texas, where he ob-
served about 400 new engineers, mostly chemical engi-
neers, begin their careers. He received his BA and BS
degrees in chemical engineering from Rice University in
1958. Since then he has been very active in AIChE and
served as a director of that organization.


MATHEMATICS


Figure 1


ECONOMICS


sciences. By physical sciences, I mean physics,
chemistry, biology, etc. Of course, there are other
activities in which an engineer must get involved.
An example is the engineer's increasing involve-
ment in the ecological and social concerns related
to technology. Yet we can still consider that the
engineer's basic role consists of the aforemen-
tioned three areas.
The engineer is not a specialist in economics,
mathematics, physics or chemistry, for then he
would be an economist, mathematician, physicist,
or chemist. However, he is very knowledgeable
and comfortable with these areas (Figure 2).
He acts as a translator between these sciences
and relates them to the physical world. This is
the engineer's unique role. He is able to trans-
late physical sciences into mathematics and into
economics and vice-versa.
For example, a chemical engineer is able to


/ ENGINE Figure 2



ECONOMICS PHYSICS
CHEMISTRY


translate chemical reactions from the test tube
into economical processing units. Here chemis-
try is related to physics as well as mathematics
and economics. Neither a physicist, chemist,
mathematician, nor economist is properly trained
to do this job effectively, only a chemical engineer
is uniquely trained for this assignment. He, how-
ever, uses the tools and expertise of these other
professions.
A good engineer uses math as an invaluable
tool for predicting results rather than relying
on inefficient trial and error methods. Yet he
does not work in the abstract alone. It is impera-
tive that he also be able to relate his results to
the physical world. He must be able to usefully
apply his results.
A good engineer is also always conscious of
economics and cost-benefit relationships. Feasi-
ble results can be meaningless unless they con-
tribute to the goals of an organization, especially
when these goals are economic. Even non-profit
organizations want the best cost-benefit relation-
ship.
If we could plot the course of the engineering
profession on the previously mentioned triangu-
lar coordinates, I think we would find that it
has shifted during the last 30 years, on Figure
3, a movement from "A" and "B". Whereas we
MATHEMATICS





B \Figure 3


ECONOMICS PHYSICS
CHEMISTRY


WINTER 1972








were once more closely tied to physics and chem-
istry and made use of correlation techniques, we
now have become more mathematically and theo-
retically inclined and more conscious of funda-
mental understanding of the sciences. During
this period, economics has retained its emphasis.
Of course, we have become more sophisticated in
all three sciences.
Continuing on our plot, I think we would find
a typical researcher located somewhere near the
line between math and physics/chemistry point
C. A typical process design engineer would be
near the center of the plot, point B.
Our engineering education institutions vary
considerably on the plot. Some schools achieve a
balance of these sciences, others are more mathe-
matically inclined, while still others emphasize
chemistry and physics. Few schools are strongly
economics oriented. Industry needs engineering
graduates from each of these schools with their
various emphases. On the average, I think engi-
neering schools have moved from "D" to "E"
during the last 30 years, a direct movement to-
ward a more mathematical and theoretical orien-
tation. Economics has retained its minor em-
phasis.
W ITH MY CONCEPT OF the engineer and
his unique role, how can we best prepare stu-
dents for the engineering profession? Of course
a good foundation in physics, chemistry, mathe-
matics and economics is essential. There is yet
this other skill of extreme importance. That is,
the ability to relate these sciences and to be able
to translate between them. Today's engineering
graduate is overall better prepared than any of
his predecessors in the technical knowledge of
the day. While his technical, analytical, and ma-
nipulative skills are being keenly developed. I
believe his ability to translate and relate is not
as sharp as that of some of his predecessors. How,
then, does one develop this skill?
In dealing with this question, let me discuss
some changes I have observed in undergraduate
engineering curricula during the last decade or
so which I believe have improved the engineer's
education, but which I also believe may be weak-
ening somewhat his ability to serve as the trans-
lator between the essential sciences discussed
in this paper. These changes are primarily due
to the very rapid growth of technology, the
greater emphasis on theory and fundamentals,
and the development of new scientific tools such
as the computer. I will address myself to some
changes in the chemical engineering curriculum


A good engineer is always conscious of economics
and cost-benefit relationships ..-uses math
as an invaluable tool for predicting results ...
-is able to translate chemical reactions from the
test tube into economical processing units.

with which I am familiar.
Among these changes, courses in mechanical
drawing and descriptive geometry at some
schools for certain engineering disciplines have
been dropped, quantitative and qualitative chem-
istry courses have been reduced, and laboratory
courses in general have been decreased. The time
spent in these courses was not as meaningful
and valuable as it became when spent in new
courses evolving from technology growth. Yet
these courses had helped the student, in an ineffi-
cient way, relate his studies to the physical world.
Descriptive geometry had helped him visualize
concepts on paper, but a full year of mechanical
drawing was not necessary. "Quan and qual"
analysis had helped him physically perceive what
he was doing with chemical equations and his
slide rule, but two years of these courses and
long labs were not efficiently using educational
time. Still, such courses had helped him to relate
and develop the skill of translating.
The unit operation courses and labs have been
modernized, often reduced in scope, made more
relevant, and in some cases displaced by theoreti-
cal courses. It is true that the student need not
become an expert in "hardware." He has plenty
of time to become expert if he chooses this area
after he is in industry. But, an effective course
in unit operations does help him relate his chemi-
cal engineering to the physical world and develop
skill as a translator.
The general reduction of laboratory courses,
along with other improvements, has allowed
more efficient use of time and the introduction of
valuable new courses. The new courses and lab-
oratories that have emerged are more abstract.
I refer to such courses as Applied Differential
Equations, Transport Phenomena, and lab courses
such as computer programming. Valuable as
these may be, overall these changes have been
a movement away from developing the skill of
relating the sciences and translating between
them.
In industry during recent years, I have seen
new engineering graduates even with advanced de-
grees who have had a limited ability to visualize
their problems, relate the various facets of the
problem, recognize and define open-ended prob-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








lems, and convert theory into practice. Many of
these people had heavily oriented computing
backgrounds. While technology is moving for-
ward requiring new concepts and new tools like
the computer, we must not overlook our objec-
tives and become overly concerned with our new
tools or new developments in pure science. We
must be able to use these in relating and trans-
lating.
Years ago, a new engineering graduate might
have received several years of apprenticeship be-
fore being assigned major responsibilities, so
that the skill of translating and relating could
even have been developed on the job. Today new
graduates are given more responsibility earlier in
their careers. It is not unusual to find a young
engineering graduate in a large corporation de-
signing a million dollar project after he has been
on the job less than a year. So it becomes increas-
ingly important that the translating and relating
skills be developed during his education.
In developing the skill of translating and re-
lating, I don't think you need long labs and
"make work". The educator does need, however,
to be sensitive to the importance of teaching his
students to translate. Obviously a single course
cannot teach this, but the coordinated efforts of
all courses can accomplish it. Certainly some
courses help the student acquire this skill more
than others. Meaningful laboratory courses are
very effective. The type of problems assigned in
the courses have a significant impact on develop-
ing this ability. Relevant open-ended problems in
which solutions can be related to physical results
are very beneficial. Educators with industrial
experience can be effective in developing mean-
ingful problems. Plant tours, especially when as-
sociated with a problem-solving course, help stu-
dents visualize their results. Well taught design
courses are perhaps the most effective courses in
developing the translating skills. Summer jobs in
industry involving engineering applications are
important to a student's development. The former
co-op student who combined his education with
industrial assignments invariably is superior to
his colleagues in his ability to translate. MIT's
well-known practice school has achieved good re-
sults. I am confident that creative faculties can
develop many effective methods for developing
the skill of translating and relating.
During the last decade as engineers have be-
come more mathematically inclined a vacuum
has been created in the area of economics. Accord-
ingly, the MBA has moved in to fill this area, as


The engineer acts as a translator between
economics, mathematics, physics, and
chemistry and relates them to the physical
work, .. the curriculum must help him
relate abstract problems to the physical world
and translate results in different forms
to other sciences.



MATHEMATICS





AFigure 4
ENGINEER
AMBA

ECONOMICS PHYSICS
CHEMISTRY


can be seen in Figure 4. Neither the engineer nor
the MBA is as effective as the man who truly has
the ability to relate both areas. A few courses
such as Operations Research are sometimes in-
cluded in engineering curricula, but the transla-
tion of math/physics/chemistry into economics
has not had the emphasis or the growth as the
translation between the other sciences. We nor-
mally think of the translation into economics as
being unsophisticated and elementary. However,
the work interfacing math and economics in re-
cent years has proven to be quite the contrary.
I refer to such subjects as optimization tech-
niques, resource allocation, and economic evalua-
tions. The engineer will not be as effective in the
area of economics unless it is given more atten-
tion. The chemical engineer normally works in
a capital intensive industry where capital, pro-
fits, and cost play a very important role, while
such policy restraints as safety, pollution, and
legal and social concerns are met.
If the engineer of today and tomorrow is going
to fulfill the ever increasing requirements of his
unique role, he must be better equipped to serve
as the essential translator between economics,
mathematics, physics and chemistry. To prepare
him for this role, the student's curriculum must
help him relate abstract problems to the physical
world and translate results in different forms
to other sciences. E


WINTER 1972










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


S9mnpao4u


EDUCATION FOR THE SEVENTIES


RICHARD E. BALZHISER
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104

The decade of the Sixties has brought about
technological change at a continuously increasing
rate. Computers have become a household word;
exploration of the moon is taken for granted;
and the fashion world flourishes with an abun-
dance of brightly colored synthetic fabrics de-
signed to stretch, conform or tear away depend-
ing on their mission. But more important than
these technological advances is the dawning of an
awareness of the impact that technology can have
on our earth where we are attempting to accom-
modate millions of additional human beings each
year. Yesterday's solutions have become today's
problems. Pesticides, fertilizers, detergents,
throw-away containers plus a multitude of other
products, all with a market and a mission at the
time of their development have caused problems
as serious as those they were initially created to
relieve.

ChE EDUCATION IN THE SIXTIES
Chemical engineering education has also un-
dergone transformation in the past decade. A
significant trend to shorten the undergraduate
program to four years or 128 hours has been
evidenced throughout the country. Transport
phenomena has become a principal component of
most curricula which used to be built around unit
operations alone. At the beginning of the decade
the Ford Foundation supported a major effort to
introduce the computer into engineering educa-
tion at The University of Michigan. The results
of this experience were shared with engineering
faculties across the country. Today the computer
has become as close to the engineering student as
was his slide rule in the Fifties. However, the
computer has meant more than simply a high
speed computational device to replace desk cal-
culators and sliderules. It has resulted in changes
in the mathematics content of many curricula as
well as the introduction of new modeling and
analytical courses within engineering.


During this same period it has been made in-
creasingly apparent that the complexities of the
society within which we live require that engi-
neers emerge from universities with more than
a mere technical competence in their chosen pro-
fessional area. They must be exposed to course
sequences in the social sciences and humanities
which properly sensitize them to the citizen role
which they must also fulfill in the future. Such
courses have increased in the last decade while
the total program has been contracting. Yet it
should be recognized that a student of today re-
ceives more advanced mathematics, science, and
engineering in fewer credit hours than did his
predecessor ten years ago. This has produced
frustrations in many of our students as they find
it difficult to assimilate all of the material which
is considered essential for the B.S. level engi-
neer. As we look to the Seventies, we cannot
ignore the lessons of the Sixties. We must assess
our performance as educators at the present time
as well as the challenges ahead to which we must
address ourselves.

AGENDA FOR THE SEVENTIES
At the top of the agenda for the Seventies is
the need to assess the environmental impact of
our exploding technology and population. Of
equal importance is the need to establish priori-
ties for the use of our limited supply of natural
resources, particularly our energy reserves.
Though neither of these concerns will occupy
only the chemical engineer in the decade ahead,
he must assume a more prominent role if solutions
are to be found. Chemical engineers are trained
in the disciplines that relate directly to the clean-
ing up of our water, air and land. Separation pro-
cesses and chemical reaction engineering form
the basis of any attack on pollution and both have
been a major component of chemical engineering
curricula for years.
Though chemical engineers have not been pri-
mary contributors to the power producing indus-
tries, they have long played a primary role in
the extraction, refinement and transportation of
natural gas and crude oil resources. As such, they


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION














FI o
ett

A -*^'"'.


Richard E. Balzhiser has been Assistant Director in
the President's Office of Science and Technology (OST)
since September 1971 and is responsible for OST's acti-
vites in environment, -energy and natural resources. He
was chairman of the Chemical Engineering Department
at the University of Michigan and project director for
liquid metal research for atomic reactors and space en-
ergy systems. Simultaneously, he was a Special Assis-
tant to the Vice President for State Relations and Plan-
ning and active on seven different academic committees.
As a White House Fellow (1967-68) he worked in the
office of Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. At the
time of his selection as a White House Fellow, he was
City Councilman and "mayor pro tem" of Ann Arbor,
Michigan. Since then, Balzhiser has served on the White
House Fellows selection committee.

have had a primary role in the fueling of power
units all over the world. Today, as fossil fuel
reserves are rapidly consumed, the need to de-
velop alternate energy sources becomes more
pressing. Safe, economic nuclear power requires
continued effort to produce improved fuels and
to develop reprocessing schemes for removing re-
actor poisons while recovering fissionable materi-
als. The fusion process will continue to receive at-
tention as will efforts to make greater use of solar
energy for a portion of our total energy needs.
As high quality fuels are consumed it will be nec-
essary to develop methods that permit the use
of marginal energy reserves, such as oil shale,
in the future. The need to look to more remote
parts of the globe for additional gas and oil will
create new problems such as those currently en-
countered with the Alaskan pipeline. An angered
public is already demanding assurance that oil-
coated beaches and wildlife resulting from off-
shore drilling accidents and leaking or ship-
wrecked tankers be eliminated.
Water, present on the earth in a finite
amount, is rapidly being polluted to the point
where our fresh water sources may soon prove
inadequate as an increasing population here and
abroad places heavier demands on the available

WINTER 1972


At the top of the agenda ... is
the need to assess the environmental impact of our
exploding technology and population. Of equal
importance is the need to establish priorities
.. criteria, other than profit, must be developed ...
Technology... will be increasingly
concerned with survival . .


supply. This demand is focused in highly indus-
trialized societies and those relatively arid coun-
tries of the world supporting substantial popu-
lations. Desalinization efforts are progressing;
the cost remains high, but the prospects for fur-
ther reduction are promising.
While air and water receive the principal at-
tention because of their direct relation to the life
processes, it is becoming increasingly apparent
that we must make major strides as regards dis-
posal and recycle of solid waste materials. Raw
materials, such as ores, trees, oil and gas are also
available in limited amounts. Failure to place
a priority on their utilization is rapidly depleting
known reserves. Meanwhile, waste accumulates
in dumps and landfills producing visual pollu-
tion over increasingly large areas of our country.
The separation and conversion processes neces-
sary to recycle material are very much within
the domain of chemical engineers.
The chemical engineer will continue to play
an important role in feeding, clothing and hous-
ing an increasing population throughout the
world, but hopefully one that he, along with
others, can assist in bringing under control. The
need for substitute and synthetic foods and ma-
terials will become increasingly critical in the
years ahead. Though fertilizers and pesticides
have improved the productivity of our lands im-
mensely in the years past, today we recognize the
need to refine these products and exercise greater
discretion in their use if we are to avoid perma-
nently degrading the environment. New fibers and
plastics are certain to emerge which will provide
new building materials, fabrics and, quite prob-
ably, new problems for society to adjust to.
Simulation of body organs and functions by
laboratory models, mathematical and experi-
mental, is becoming increasingly common. The
participation of the chemical engineer in artificial
organ development, blood oxygenization and
other areas closely related to the medical field
is attracting increasing interest as well as many
new demands.
Engineers in future years will have to con-









sider design criteria other than profitability. The
consumption of resources and the disposal prob-
lems related to the product and manufacturing
cycles will enter into plans more often in the
future. It seems that proprietary developments
within the private sector will be subjected to in-
creased scrutiny by federal technology assess-
ment units or other regulatory agencies before
products are marketed on a mass basis. While
such practices are presently used in the food and
drug industry, they are relatively uncommon for
most products.
Concerns of these types are already apparent
as we look ahead to the decade of the Seventies-
We can't even begin to comprehend all of the
concerns that will emerge before the decade
passes. Certainly we will have to learn to adjust
to shorter work weeks as a result of increased
automation. Many adjustments will have to be
made politically, socially, economically and educa-
tionally as the benefits and liabilities attributable
to technology become better identified in the
future.

CURRICULA TRENDS FOR THE SEVENTIES
The decade ahead will produce both struc-
tural changes in higher educational degree pro-
grams and content changes in curricula to meet
societal demands. One can frequently predict
what changes will occur at the undergraduate
level by examining what has developed in grad-
uate curricula in preceding years. Today change
is occurring at such a pace that this natural pro-
cess of curriculum evolution may be inadequate
to accommodate to industrial and societal needs.
However, one important point to be made is the
continued importance and relevance of the heart
of any chemical engineering program-chemical
reaction engineering and separation processes.
These two subject areas uniquely belong to chemi-
cal engineering and they must play a basic role
in addressing the challenges listed earlier.
Though chemical engineers are probably better
trained today to deal with most environmental
problems-air, water and land pollution in-
cluded-we have failed to create sufficient visibi-
lity of these capabilities. Ironically most other
engineering programs at Michigan have recently
reduced chemistry requirements to one semester
at a time when its importance is increasing rather
than lessening in contemporary technology.
Chemistry of course, will remain at the heart
of chemical engineering, though the specific con-


The academician must modify the content of
many courses if he is to optimize the assimilation
of the computer into the educational process.
.. Increased interest in environmental and
bioengineering have resulted in course additions
to curricula.


tent will likely vary. Analytical chemistry has
virtually vanished from the curriculum. At Michi-
gan the undergraduate of today takes 19-22
hours of chemistry offerings as compared to the
26-28 hours which had been part of the program
since 1912.
The trend of incorporating more engineering
science in chemical engineering offerings will
certainly continue into the Seventies. Courses in
chemical engineering thermodynamics today in-
clude an appreciable amount of physical chem-
istry, particularly as it involves solution behavior
and chemical equilibria. Though there is reluc-
tance to reduce physical chemistry requirements,
the pressures of the four-year program combined
with the increased emphasis it receives in engi-
neering courses will result in a change in the
content and amount of physical chemistry taken
by chemical engineers. I believe we must seek
more microscopic treatment of matter from the
physical chemist as we move more of the macro-
scopic content into our engineering courses.
Kinetic theory, statistical and quantum mechan-
ics as related to the prediction of thermodynamic
and transport properties are becoming an in-
creasingly necessary part of a chemical engineer's
training. Such courses in combination with a
properties course in chemical engineering should
be designed to develop an engineering approach
to property correlation and production which
when coupled with the computer will open the
way to process synthesis-another big advance
likely to come in the Seventies.
The computer's impact on curricula has been
dramatic in the past, but will be even more so
in the future. Software development will evolve
that will permit engineers to synthesize as well
as optimize and control processes. The mathe-
matical base has developed rapidly as has our
ability to model increasingly complex systems
for computer simulation of unit and process
operations. The opportunities on this horizon
seem limited only by our ability to understand
and describe the nature of matter sufficiently
well to develop computer programs that can
generate the thermodynamic and transport prop-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







Structural changes in engineering programs
will be as important as content changes in
the next ten years...

erties required in design. Methods of calculating
viscosities, conductivities, free energies, activity
coefficients, etc. for compounds and solutions
given basic elemental parameters will be the ob-
jective of continued faculty and graduate re-
search in the future. Equations of state formerly
of academic interest only because of their com-
plexity can now be programmed on computers
and utilized far more extensively.
The academician must modify the content of
many other courses, as well, if he is to optimize
the assimilation of the computer into the educa-
tional process. Many of the complex procedures
for sizing distillation columns and reactors are
currently handled routinely by programs now
available in corporate computing centers. Less
time should be devoted to the drudgery of com-
plex calculations and more to developing the stu-
dent's ability to interface with computers. This
includes the ability to model processing units
and systems in mathematical terms and to formu-
late the data packages needed for solution. He
should be sufficiently educated in the logic and
limitations of the computer to know when its
use is justified.
The increased interest in environmental and
bioengineering have already resulted in course
additions to curricula. Many of these have been
patterned after the technological courses of ear-
lier years. They have served to give the neces-
sary visibility as well as the state of the art to
students with an interest in these areas. More
quantitative treatments of this subject matter
must be developed and extended to these fields of
emerging importance. Chemical engineering is
the logical engineering discipline to expand into
this phase of "human systems engineering". These
treatments will likely include more of the basic
science in biochemistry, biology and ecology in
future years. Courses in these basic areas will
likely become required courses in the chemical
engineering programs of the future.

SHIFTS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATIONAL PATTERNS
Structural changes in engineering programs
will be as important as content changes in the
next ten years; indeed, some of the changes in
the latter will result from a restructing of degree
programs. Though the current economic picture


and governmental policy with respect to student
support may alter the short range picture, longer
range changes which will be more profound re-
late to less transitory phenomena than the eco-
nomy or government policy.
Though industry, until recently, has readily
absorbed the spectrum of graduates produced by
our engineering programs, they have admitted
with increasing frequency that many of the peo-
ple they hire are really over-educated and over-
paid for their needs. They get from the univer-
sities and colleges principally B.S. and Ph.D.
level people, but seem to feel that technologists
or someone nearer the M.S. level would better
meet their needs. The desire to get outstanding
people, particularly at the graduate level, has
forced them to recruit Ph.D.'s, as the best have
traditionally pursued that goal. However, in too
many instances the student has reached a point
of diminishing returns, as regards his initial
value to a company, long before his thesis is
completed. Though of some value to those plan-
ning academic careers, the degree seems to mean
increasingly less in terms of preparing an in-
dividual for industry in relation to the time re-
quired.
A second factor of increasing importance is
the rapidly rising cost of higher education today.
This factor impacts in several ways on students.
First, many are choosing to remain at home and
study for two years in a junior or community
college before embarking on an engineering pro-
gram. Second, a student and his family must
decide how much they can afford to invest in
higher education before a payoff is realized. The
Sixties produced a proliferation of graduate stu-
dent support programs which are rapidly van-
ishing today. In the absence of this support from
government, industry or universities, fewer stu-
tents are likely to remain on campus for three
to five years beyond a B.S. degree, particularly
if fewer companies seem willing to compensate
them for their incremental investment, which in-
cludes not only schooling costs, but the income
sacrificed by remaining in school.
Pressures within universities to economize
are mounting rapidly as well they should. Wage
and salary increases in most sectors of the eco-
omy are at least in part related to increased pro-
ductivity. Had faculty salary increases been
linked to such a factor in the last decade, I'm
certain we'd be far worse off than we currently
are. That is not to say that the typical professor
in our department doesn't work 50-60 hours a


WINTER 1972









The B.S. degree will gradually
merge with the M.S. degree with
a resulting five-year program which
may well contain a pre-professional
program.

week, but merely to point out he is doing it no
differently than he did ten years ago. I sense a
developing pressure to increase the number of
common offerings across the engineering college
in an effort to better control class sizes. This may
in time lead to major organizational changes in
engineering where departmental lines become
subordinated to disciplinary affiliations.
Simultaneously, however, educators must re-
examine the process itself. Can we increase our
our productivity? Can we better motivate our
students? Student frustrations seem to increase
not only with society and Vietnam, but also with
their academic experience. Professors expect
more out of them in less time (128 versus 142
hours) than was true earlier. The increasing af-
fluence of the last decade has caused many to
factor salary and job security into their future
plans less than was true of depression-raised
students. Thus the demands of engineering seem
to be too high a price to pay for many who see
society's real needs as falling outside of the physi-
cal sciences and engineering.
Consideration of these factors suggests sev-
eral likely changes in the years ahead. The num-
ber of engineering technology programs, both
two and four year will increase, particularly in
community colleges. The B.S. degree will grad-
ually merge with the M.S. degree with a result-
ing five-year program which may well contain
a two-year pre-professional program (which
could be obtained in a community college). Fewer
students will choose to pursue the Ph.D. as we
currently know it, though some of these may
choose to continue study beyond the first degree,
but without the traditional thesis. Such a pro-
gram would permit a project with greater
breadth than the Ph.D. thesis, but quite relevent
to societal and industrial needs. Continuing edu-
cation programs will be developed by industry
and universities, with likely competition from
enterprising and innovative individuals who will
quickly move into the area if universities fail to
respond.
The advantage of a cooperative education
program should not be overlooked. Many insti-
tutions are currently using such programs in
cooperation with industry around the country to


KINN' SO news

ONE DAY SCHOOL FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
A sub-committee of the Education Projects Committee
of AIChE has organized a "One Day School" for chemi-
cal engineering faculty from colleges within the Metro-
politan New York and Mid-Atlantic areas. This school
will be sponsored by the FMC Corporation at their Prince-
ton, New Jersey Research and Development Center. March
24, 1972 is the date and the theme of the program will be
Coal and Its Conversion to Higher-Value Energy
Products. FMC personnel will present papers on coal as
a natural resource, fuidized-bed pyrolysis of coal, hydro-
genation of coal-derived oil, and the Cogas venture. A tour
of the FMC coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation plant is
part of the program.
This program has been planned for the Projects Com-
mittee by R. E. White of Villanova, R. T. Eddinger of
FMC, and C. W. Clump of Lehigh.


their mutual satisfaction. It not only provides
the student with an opportunity to apply class-
room material to engineering practice, but
equally important today, it provides him an op-
portunity to earn while he learns. Certain insti-
tutions by virtue of their geographical locations
are ideally oriented to move into cooperative
education and should certainly explore the ad-
vantages that such programming provides.
It is essential that we not overlook innovative
methods of instruction. Programmed learning
where appropriate should be used; other audio
and visual techniques should be investigated in-
cluding the use of television, both live and tape,
in an attempt to educate not only on campuses
but also in corporations and homes across the
country. Tapes and films as well as texts should
comprise a portion of the faculty's scholarly ef-
fort in the future.
Certainly society, as well as the chemical en-
gineer of tomorrow, faces not only the challenges
cited above, but also others which remain un-
defined and in some cases beyond our compre-
hension at this point. Several predictions can be
made with virtual certainty, (1) change will con-
tinue at an accelerating rate in the decade ahead,
(2) criteria must be developed other than profit
which will guide industry and the government in
their future decisions and (3) as we experience
continued population growth and consumption of
our natural resources, technology, its application
and direction, will become increasingly concerned
with survival, not just convenience or return on
investment. E


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










DIVERSIFIED AND

SPECIAL PROGRAMS


in Undergraduate ChE Education


R. A. KEPPEL, R. W. FAHIEN AND M. TYNER
University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla. 32601

About six years ago, the Chemical Engineer-
ing Department at the University of Florida be-
gan redesigning the undergraduate curriculum
to introduce more flexibility and diversity into
the student's educational experience. The con-
siderations leading to the decision to do so and
a description of the program which was developed
have been reported.* The present paper is in-
tended to provide conclusions about the value of
the program and its acceptance by students.

EVOLUTION OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS
The curriculum, prior to 1965, was quite rigid
(as were most ChE curricula). Although it was
contemporary-students were required to take
courses in transport phenomena, reaction kine-
tics, process control, economics and computer
programming-there was little or no opportunity
for development of the special talents or career
objectives of the student. If he wished to sample
the fruit in another orchard or to discover fron-
tiers in other fields he was forced to take such
courses as an overload. But few students could
do this since loads were already high and the
chemical engineering curriculum is noted for its
difficult requirements.
In 1965 the faculty was inspired to develop
a curriculum which treated each student as an
individual-one whose interests, talents and
career objectives could be expressed through
selection of an option program. Each option pro-
gram was formulated to represent high level
work in a particular area which the student
elected to study. A comparison over the past
seven years of the credits allotted to electives and
options is summarized below:

*R. W. Fahien, M. Tyner, and R. A. Keppel, Flexible
Curricula Can Be Strong, Chem. Eng. Ed. 3, 154-56 (1969).


Degree


1964-65
Trimester
Calendar
1966-67
Trimester
Calendar
1967-68
Quarter
Calendar


S4m0TdOirn


Option Nontech.
Cr Elect.


Total
Degree
Cr


BChE None 9 150SH(225QH)


BChE*** 22*
BSChE 6


140SH(210QH)
140SH(210QH)


BChE*** 16*" 6 142SH(213QH)
BSChE 16 6 142SH(213QH)


1968-1970 Little change from 1967-68.

*10 credits specified to be from ChE offering
**4 credits specified to be from ChE offerings
***This designation was used for the Practice Options.
It has been dropped but the options are available un-
der the BSChE degree designation.
The considerations underlying the develop-
ment of the option program may be recapitulated
as follows:
1. The chemical engineering curriculum should
provide broad education and professional
training, and allow for differences in stu-
dent goals and talents and treat him as an
individual.
2. All programs should contain those funda-
mental, core courses required for the prac-
tice of chemical engineering. No program
should be considered an easy path to a
cheap degree.
3. Option programs should not entail more
than 10% of total degree requirements so
that students would not be unduly penalized
if wrong choices were made.
4. Choice of option should be deferred until
the senior year in most cases.
5. Substitutions for a few courses in the op-
tion program should be permitted when the
student has a sound reason.
6. Residence requirements and credits should
not be increased beyond the four-year pro-
gram already established by the college


WINTER 1972










and generally found to be favored by stu-
dents, educators and employers.

THE CURRICULUM FOR 1971-72

Pre-Engineering

Florida students are not enrolled in the Col-
lege of Engineering during their first two college
years. Instead, they may enroll in any of the
thirty or more junior colleges or in University
College. This procedure has necessarily led to the
development of pre-engineering curricula which
are not under the administration of the College
of Engineering. In most cases however, the lower
division colleges strive to meet the standards of
preparation which have been negotiated with
University College. The credit hour requirements
in various subjects are listed in Table 1.
Deficiencies in any of the subject areas are
made up after transfer to the College of Engi-
neering, in which case the student is required to
earn more credits than the minimum shown for
the BSChE degree. In some cases, the student
has acquired credit such as organic chemistry
which may be transferred to upper division.

TABLE 1. PRE-ENGINEERING CURRICULUM


Comprehensive English
American Institutions
Humanities
Analytic Geometry and Calculus
Elementary Differential Equations
General Chemistry
Physics With Calculus (Including Lab)
Engineering Graphics
Engineering Concepts and Studies
Physical Fitness, ROTC, or Personal
Development
Department Requirements and Elective
Total, QH


9
12
20
3
12
12
2 OR MORE
1

6
10
96


Upper Division Core Courses

Upon transfer to the College of Engineering
the student reports to his departmental advisor
and a program for the next three quarters or
more is laid out based upon his state of prepara-
tion. Generally, this will involve courses identi-
fied as 300 level although some 400 level courses
such as physical chemistry and thermodynamics
must be taken as pre-requisites for senior ChE
courses. The core courses for all chemical engi-
neering students are given in Table 2.
There are many details of the core program
which could be discussed but perhaps the above
listing is sufficient to show that essential subject


TABLE 2. CORE COURSES IN CHE CURRICULUM


A. Engineering & General Subjects
(Common to most Dept.) (
Computer Model Formulation (Incl. Programming)
Introduction To Electrical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics 1 (Statics & Dyn.)
Engineering Mechanics 2 (Dyn. & Strength)
Engineering Statistics
Materials Of Engineering
Seminar
Nontechnical Electives


B. Chemistry (After General Chemistry)
Organic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
Physical Chemistry Lab
Instrumental Anal. Lab


C. Chemical Engineering
1. Process Operations Analysis
Introduction To CHE (Mass & Energy Bal)
Measurements Lab
Systems Analysis
Analog Computer Lab
Fluid Flow Operations
Heat & Mass Transfer Opns.
Staged Systems Operations
ChE Operation Lab 1
ChE Operation Lab 2
Process Control Theory
Process Control Lab


2. Thermodynamics And Rate Processes
Seminar in CHE Thermodynamics
Molecular Phenomena In CHE
CHE Thermodynamics
Chemical Kinetics
Kinetics Lab
Elementary Transport Phenomena
Transport Phenomena Lab


3. -Economics And Design
Cost Est. Of Process Design (Case Studies)
Process Design


4. Technical Electrives In Option areas
Total (Including 10 Cr. Previously Noted
Which May Be Taken in U.C. or J.C.)
Total Credit For BSChE Degree, QH

matter has not been left out in order to
room for the option program.


UH
3
5
5
5
3
3
1
9


34
QH
8
7
2
2
19
QH

5
1
2
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
28
QH
1
3
3
4
1
3
1
16
QH
3
3
6
QH
24
127
213
make


The Option Program
The option that most closely resembles the
current concept of chemical engineering curric-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









... the faculty was inspired to
develop an option program
which treated each student
as an individual...

ula is called the Process Option. The subject
matter specified is given in Table 3.
The option is designed for the student who
feels sure that he wants to stay in chemical
engineering and that he should prepare himself
to accept career employment in the chemical in-
dustry or to undertake graduate work in chemical
engineering.
The Systems Option and the Science Option
are quite similar in course listings and involve
replacement of one or two courses (Polymeric
Materials and/or Advanced Design) by Matrix
Methods and another math or science course. The
Systems Option is designed for the student who
wishes to apply computers and mathematical
modelling to automation of chemical complexes.
The Science Option is primarily for the student
definitely planning to do graduate work leading
to a career in research and/or teaching.
The Interdisciplinary Options were introduced
because it was felt that chemical engineering
problems were to be found in a variety of indus-
tries not ordinarily considered to be the domain
of chemical engineers; e.g., problems of reaction
kinetics in rocket propulsion, problems involving
interfacial transport phenomena in microelectron-
ict, and problems relating to mass, momentum
and heat transfer in human organs.

TABLE 3. PROCESS OPTION COURSES
Multidimensional Transport Phenomena* 3
Polymeric Materials* 3
Reactor Dynamics And Design* 3
Advanced Process Design* 3
Mathematical Methods In CHE 3
Technical Electives 9
Total, QH 24
*Second level courses in subject area.

TABLE 4. BIOMEDICAL OPTION COURSES
Intro. Zoology Lab (Includes Anatomy and Physiology) 4
Principles Of Animal Biology 5
Embryology 5
Cellular Physiology 5
Tissue And Organ Physiology 5
Total, QH 24
The Bio-medical Option (Table 4) was de-
veloped with the cooperation of the counselor for
the pre-med students. The courses listed are from


his recommendations and assurances that a chem-
ical engineer having this option with good overall
grades could gain acceptance to most of the
leading medical schools of the country.
In addition to the relationships with estab-
lished disciplines a new graduate program in
Environmental Engineering was being developed
TABLE 5. ENVIRONMENTAL OPTION COURSES
Water Supply Engineering 4
Water And Waste Water Analysis 4
Treatment of Waste Water 4
Environmental Engineering 3
The Chemistry Of Water Treatment 5
Electives 4
Total, QH 24
at the University of Florida which needed a sup-
ply of students with undergraduate training
closely allied to chemical engineering. It was felt
that the problems of air and water pollution
abatement should be solved through the applica-
tion of chemical engineering principles and that
the chemical engineer who also has studied En-
vironmental Engineering is ideally qualified to
do so. This program is shown in Table 5. Another
option introduced in the fall of 1971 is Computer
and Information Science. Several other engineer-
ing departments at the University of Florida are
also offering this option which will specify courses
offered by the newly created CIS Department.
There are several other options available to
students in the general area that we have called
Applied Science in our catalog description. It
does not seem necessary to give details of each
of these. The important fact is that in each case
an attempt has been made to get a recommended
list of courses from counselors of the department
involved so that the option represents more than
introductory work in the field.
In contrast to the options discussed so far
there have been three Practice options offered
since 1966 and they are retained in the 1971-72
catalog. The Business and Sales Option has an
attraction for many chemical engineers who
might want to strive to become managers and
directors of chemical complexes. They will need
a technical background as well as advanced
course work in management and/or sales. Some
excellent students have chosen this option which
is shown in Table 6.
The Operations Option (Table 7) is designed
to expose students to practice oriented course-
work such as corrosion, polymeric materials,
management and process economics.


WINTER 1972









TABLE 6. BUSINESS AND SALES OPTION COURSES
Basic Technical Writing 3
Public Speaking 4
Principles Of Management 4
Principles Of Organization 4
Business Law 5
Process Economics (Advanced) 3
Total, QH 23
TABLE 7. OPERATIONS OPTION COURSES
Process Economics (Advanced) 3
Corrosion or Electrochem Eng 3
Polymeric Materials 3
Management Electives 14
Total, QH 23
The Liberal Studies Option has not so far
been very popular with chemical engineering
students. Only one student has chosen it. When
the option was introduced it was thought that
it might attract students who wanted to pursue
two goals simultaneously; that is, a technical
career and a broader knowledge of himself and
society. The program has not been advertised and
since its availability would not ordinarily be
known to counselors in junior college or Univer-
sity College, it is probable that students are un-
aware of its existence. But it may also be that
students who have choose engineering for a
career have not been interested in taking any
more humanities or social studies courses beyond
those required.

RESULTS AND EVALUATION OF THE OPTION
PROGRAM
Student acceptance and use of choices which
are made available to them are probably as good
indicators of the value of the program as one
can find. Statistics which have been compiled for
the period June 1969 to June 1971 indicate a
wide diversity in selection of options, (see Table
8).
Many students, of course, do not immediately
find the type of employment which corresponds
to the option they chose. But they are still pre-
pared for chemical engineering work and only
a few students in the lowest percentile standing
have had difficulty finding employment. Thus far,
all of our ChE graduates have found jobs.
It seems fair to conclude that the option pro-
gram is doing what was intended-preparing
students with a sound foundation in chemical en-
gineering yet permitting them to branch into
other fields if the opportunity arises and they are
so inclined.


Since most of the option courses are taken
outside the department, the curriculum has not
led to a large increase in teaching loads. In fact
some of the departmental courses were already
being taught as electives, as articulation courses
for new graduate students, or as service courses
for students outside the department. Further-
more, since we have a faculty of nineteen it has
not been difficult to find faculty to teach our
courses without excessive teaching loads. Hence
the cost of the flexible curriculum is quite small
in proportion to its benefits.
These benefits include in addition to student
satisfaction, a steady (or at times increased)
student enrollment in contrast to decreases else-
where and in the face of the competition among
twelve engineering degree programs in the Col-
lege of Engineering. While other departments
have reduced their requirements to 202 QH, we
have been the only department in the College to
maintain 213 QH. It has so far seemed more im-
portant to our faculty to maintain a high quality
but flexible program than to seek additional stu-
dents through a reduction in hours.

TABLE 8. OPTIONS CHOSEN IN THE CHE
BACHELOR'S DEGREE PROGRAM AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


OPTION
Process
System
Science
Interdisciplinary
Environmental Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Food Science
Other (No Duplications)
Business and Sales
Operations
Liberal Studies
Total Chosen


1
100


The program has not been without some draw-
backs. More time is needed for counselling stu-
dents. There are some students who tend to defer
making decisions, who would rather be told what
to study than to assume any of that responsibility
themselves. It sometimes takes several meetings
between counselor and student to seek out an area
that might be of special interest-one which
might fire his imagination and motivate him to
greater achievement. But experience has been
that for the most part our flexible curriculum has
succeeded in doing so. El


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













EDUCATION & ACCREDITATION COMMITTEE


S. GEORGE BANKOFF, Chairman
Northwestern University
Evanston, Ill. 60201
The principal business of the Education and
Accreditation Committee continued to be formu-
lation of appropriate recommendations to Coun-
cil concerning accreditation of ChE departments
reviewed by ECPD during the past academic
year. A total of 36 accreditation actions were
recommended, four resulting from reports and
the remainder from visits.
An extensive revision of the booklets, "Quali-
fications for an Accredited First Professional
Degree Curriculum in Chemical Engineering,"
and "Instructions to AIChE Designated Evalua-
tors of First Professional Degree Curricula in
Chemical Engineering," was completed by a sub-
committee chaired by S. W. Churchill. Copies of
the revised booklets have been mailed to all mem-
bers of the Ad Hoc Visitors List for Chemical
Engineering of ECPD, and the Qualifications
booklet has been mailed to heads of accredited
chemical engineering departments in the United
States.
In an effort to improve the informational con-
tent and effectiveness of the accreditation visit
reports prepared by instructors, comments are
now obtained from members of the Education
and Accreditation Committee, and, after slight
editing, are forwarded back to the inspector. Up
to now there has been no formal channel by
which inspectors could learn about the good and
weak points of their reports.
A formal request has been transmitted by
Council to the Engineering Education and Ac-
creditation Committee by Council to the Engi-
neering Education and Accreditation Committee
of ECPD not to schedule any accreditation visits
involving chemical engineering later than March
15. This is quite necessary in order to allow the
AIChE evaluation procedures to be carried out
smoothly. It is our understanding that this re-
quest will be complied with, insofar as possible.
During the year, J. G. Knudsen and George
Burnet served as members of the Engineering
Education and Accreditation Committee of


ECPD, representing AIChE, W. H. Corcoran
served as AIChE Observer. All are currently
officers of the AIChE Education and Accredita-
tion Committee. In addition, S. W. Churchill and
M. S. Peters represented AIChE on the ECPD
Executive Committee. J. G. Knudsen will replace
S. G. Bankoff as Chairman, AIChE Education
and Accreditation Committee, as of January 1,
1972, subject to approval by Council. M. S. Peters,
who is currently a member of the AIChE E & A
Committee, has taken Knudsen's place on the
ECPD EE & A Committee. S. W. Churchill and
H. W. Prengle will finish their terms of service
on the AIChE E & A Committee as of December
31, 1971. Both have been extremely effective and
valuable committee members.
The following individuals were added to the
Ad Hoc Visitors List of ECPD, on recommenda-
tion of the AIChE E & A Committee:


A. E. Dukler
R. R. Hughes
A. E. Humphrey
D. E. Jost
E. R. H. McDowell


J. Y. Oldshue
J. W. Prados
R. S. Schechter
J. H. Weber


SAIChE representatives to ECPD from the
E & A Committee have been active in taking part
in deliberations within ECPD concerning a re-
structuring of that organization, in connection
with the proposed assumption of new functions
in accreditation of 4-year engineering technology
curricula and Master's-level curricula. Council
has requested from the E & A Committee its
recommendation concerning the proposal for ac-
creditation of first professional degrees in engi-
neering at either the Bachelor's or the Master's
level, which was adopted by ECPD in October.
It has been recommended that for the present we
retain our present structure of accreditation
based upon the baccalaureate content. In the
meantime, we will follow closely the progress of
the two-level accreditation activities in other
areas of engineering. D


WINTER 1972


V












ChE EDUCATION

PROJECTS COMMITTEE

C. JUDSON KING
University of California
Berkeley, Calif. 94720

The charge of the Chemical Engineering Ed-
ucation Project Committee is to initiate, stimu-
late and receive from others suggestions for im-
portant projects of general interest and value
to chemical engineering teaching, and to promote
such projects or recommend to Council that ar-
rangement be made for others to do so. The Com-
mittee is composed of a large number of sub-
committees, each composed of one or several
individuals, and the work of the Committee on
various projects is carried out through these sub-
committees.
A major new activity during 1971 has been
the formation of a Subcommittee on Industrial
Participation in Education. This effort was
started with a pilot group charged with identi-
fying meaningful activities in this area. We have
kept contact with the work of the Professional
Development Committee and have agreed with
them that PDC concern will be with the involve-
ment of educators in industry, while our concern
is with the involvement of industrial personnel
and facilities in education. Two task forces have
formulated specific plans for projects; these will
be discussed and launched at the annual meeting.
One group (King, Kabel and Olson) has devel-
oped a plan for publication of a series of short
write-ups of current examples of industrial parti-
cipation in education. Chemical Engineering
Progress will be sought as the vehicle, with the
aim being to catalyze new arrangements in-
spired by the existing examples. The second
group (Danner, Lynn and Watkins) is consider-
ing systematic promotion of Visiting Professors
and/or advisory committees from industry.
During the year the question was raised to
the Committee of AIChE co-sponsorship of the
journal, Chemical Engineering Education, which
is published by the Division of ASEE. A mail
poll indicated unanimous support both of this
proposal and of another proposal that this Com-


mittee volunteer to serve as a liaison body.
Several members indicated a desire to work on
the project. The recommendation of the Commit-
tee was forwarded to EACB, who in turn have
forwarded a generally positive response on co-
sponsorship to Council.
David Himmelblau is Chairman and Donald
Paul is Vice-Chairman of the Subcommittee on
Chemical Engineering Faculties. This subcom-
mittee published the 20th edition of the directory,
Chemical Engeering Faculties, as of September
30, 1971, and plans publication of the 21st edi-
tion in October, 1972. 750 copies of the most
recent edition were printed, and are being dis-
tributed to contributing departments and sold
through national AIChE Headquarters. This
publication continues to be very well received.
The Computer Program Exchange Subcom-
mittee is chaired by Oran Culberson, and is a
new, joint activity with the Machine Computa-
tions Committee. Brief descriptions of computer
programs, which their writers are willing to
supply free to anyone interested, are published
in Chemical Engineering Progress in a classi-
fied ad format known as the "Computer Program
Swap Shop." The June issue listed three pro-
grams, and the August issue, eleven. Over 100
responses have been received on each of several
of the programs. CEP has not yet found it pos-
sible to allocate a certain amount of space each
month for continued listing of the programs on
a push-down basis. Such a policy is desirable;
otherwise this project will probably not be self-
sustaining.
Henry Tucker and Peter Silveston are Co-
Chairman of the Subcommittee on Cooperative
Education. The principle activity during the past
year has been to schedule and organize an all-
day symposium at the February, 1972, Dallas
AIChE meeting, chaired by Henry Tucker and
entitled "The AIChE and Cooperative Education."
Fourteen papers are scheduled, five of which in-
volve speakers from industry.
The Design Subcommittee, Howard Turner
and Scott Lynn, Co-chairmen, organized an all-
day symposium on undergraduate and graduate
design education at the 1970 Chicago AIChE
Meeting. Although overall attendance was good,
industrial attendance was small, despite there
being several speakers from industry. Another
activity of prime interest to this group is the
Workshop on Design Education, which includes
King and Lynn among the leaders and will be


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







part of the ASEE Summer School for Faculty, to
be held in Boulder, Colorado, in August, 1972.
Because of the overlap in concern between this
subcommittee and the newly-formed one on In-
dustrial Participation in Education, the Design
Subcommittee has been merged into that group.
The Subcommittee on One-Day Schools or-
ganized a program devoted to pulp and paper
technology and hosted by Scott Paper Company
inii Philadephia in March, 1971. 51 faculty from
17 colleges and universities in the surrounding
area attended. Plans for 1972 are in the early
stages, with the host company being the FMC
Corporation at their Princeton, N.J., Develop-
ment Center. Subcommittee workers during 1971
included Curtis Clump, Chairman; Q. C. Weaver
of Scott Paper, and Robert White.
The Graduate Language Requirement Sub-
committee, Robert Kabel, Chairman, has prepared
a paper entitled "Foreign Language Require-
ments for the PhD in Chemical Engineering."
authored by Kabel and Thomas F. Evans. This
paper is being circulated for Committee approval
and is intended for submission to Chemical Engi-
neering Education. The paper is based upon sur-
veys made in 1967 and 1971, and it reports a quite
dramatic reduction in the requirements.
Robert Hubbard, Chairman of the Films Sub-
committee, has prepared several short films suit-
able for instructional use. The intention of the
subcommittee at present is to establish contact
with various faculty who have prepared films
that are not readily available commercially and
to help make these films known and/or avail-
able to other schools.
The Subcommittee on Laboratory Experi-
ments worked with Professor B. E. Lauer on
Volume III of "Chemical Engineering Labora-
tory Experiments," which was published during
1971, with committee approval. The members of
the Subcommittee have been Henry Tucker,
Chairman, Herbert Bates, James Gary and Angelo
Perna. Dr. Perna has also organized a Workshop
on Laboratory Instruction for the aforementioned
ASEE Summer School. Because of the ad-hoc
nature of this subcommittee, its chairman has re-
commended that it now be dissolved.
The Programed Learning Subcommittee has
been disbanded, following the recommendation
made in the 1970 Annual Report. It is now recom-
mended that the Graduate Outcomes Subcommit-
tee be disbanded, for lack of current active inter-
est in this area.


New committee members during the past
year are Ronald Danner (Pennsylvania State
University), Nicholas Sylvester (University of
Notre Dame), A. C. Olson (Chevron Research
Company), Michael Gluckman (C.U.N.Y), and
H. Gordon Harris (Tulane University). Com-
mittee members who withdrew during the year
are Bollen, Christensen, Evans, Gomezplata,
Keeffe, Schmidt, Thygeson and Von Rosenberg.
Oran Culberson continues as a Vice-Chairman of
the Committee, and Robert Kabel has assumed
the other Vice-Chairmanship. E



AL

14 CHE DIVISION ACTIVITIES




CHE SUMMER SCHOOL

IN BOULDER-1972

The 1972 Summer School for Chemical Engi-
neering Faculty will be held August 13 through
18, 1972 at the University of Colorado in Boulder.
Continuing the tradition of Summer Schools
sponsored by the ChE Division of ASEE, the
1972 edition will have a new format designed to
permit greater individual participation.
Mornings are devoted to five parallel work-
shops that explore important frontier areas in
ChE education in some depth. Several evenings
are set aside for colloquia on controversial topics
and most afternoons are free for informal dis-
cussions, individual study, or relaxation.
Workshops: Each participant will enroll in one
of the five workshops. Although the formats of
the workshops differ somewhat, all emphasize in-
dividual participation. Enrollment in each work-
shop is limited to 30. Listed below are the work-
shop topics.
1. Chemical Process Design and Engineering
2. Integration of Biomedical and Environmental Ap-
plications of ChE into Undergraduate Courses
3. Application of Molecular Concepts for Predicting
Properties Needed for Design
4. Numerical Methods for ChE Problems
5. New Developments in Undergraduate Laboratories
Questions should be directed to the Director of
the Summer School, L. Bryce Andersen, Newark
College of Engineering, Newark, N.J. 07102.


WINTER 1972







secretary of the American Institute of Chemical Engi-
neers, at the society's annual meeting held recently in
San Francisco, Calif.


UN News


COLUMBIA, MO.-Four professors at the College of
Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, are the
new national record holders of this year's four-mile relay
for U.S. chemical engineering faculty members. This
annual track event, sponsored by the AIChE, provides
for the recognition of physical achievement by chemical
engineering faculty members and is open to all colleges
and universities in the country.
Running against the clock times submitted by other
teams, the UMC engineering professors posted a winning
time of 23:00.1 for the four-mile relay. Faculty runners
at the University of Wisconsin finished second with a
four-mile time of 23:50.0 and the University of Colorado
took third with 24:30.0. All times were certified by quali-
fied track officials.
The UMC engineering professors, all dedicated
runners as distinct from weekend joggers, trained for the
four-mile relay by running anywhere from six to 20 miles
a week on the university's 1/8-mile indoor dirt track. The
oldest (50) ran his mile only 3.7 seconds slower than the NEW U.S. CHAMPIONS-Winners of this year's nationwide four-mile
youngest member (35) of the team. As a result of their relay for chemical engineering faculty members are these professors
victory this year, the name of the University of Missouri- at the College of Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. From
Columbia will be engraved on the permanent trophy do- left, with their times for the mile in parentheses, they are: Dr.
nated by the University of Pennsylvania. The winning Truman S. Storvick (5:25.8), Dr. Richard H. Luecke (5:43.0), Dr. J.
time was announced by F. J. Van Antwerpen, executive Lloyd Sutterby (5:53.8), and Dr. L. E. M. de Chazal (5:57.5).






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The leopard was made by a taxidermist.
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haven't you found that a lot of remark-
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Full Text