Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00034
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00034

Full Text





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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett

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FALL 1971


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME 5, NUMBER 4 FALL 1971

a4&&a& on QniqHd4 eao4aeA

168 Thermodynamics: Theory with Applications
R. C. Reid and M. Modell
174 Transport Phenomena
T. G. Theofanous
178 Heterogeneous Catalysis
Sol W. Weller
180 Computer Aided Process Design
A. W. Westerberg
184 Mathematical Modeling
R. L. Kabel
188 Noncatalytic Systems
C. Y. Wen
192 Statistical Analysis and Simulation
J. H. Beamer
196 Optimization of Large Scale Systems
D. M. Himmelblau


Departments

151 Editorial
154 A Founder of the!Profession
W. L. McCabe by E. M. Schoenborn
152 Book Review
152 Letters
165 Views and Opinions
How Industry Can Improve the Usefulness
of Academic Research, James Wei
166 Relevance of Graduate ChE Research,
J. B. Tepe
200 Index to Volumes I-V


Feature Articles

155 Where Do We Go from Here ?-A Founder's
View, W. L. McCabe
159 Where Do We Go from Here?-An Industrial
View, E. A. Gee

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year to non-members of the ChE Division of ASEE, $6 per year mailed to members
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Individual copies of Vol. 2 and 3
are $3 each. Copyright ( 1971, Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Cddittat/al


A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS


As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school.
In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in your
growth toward confidence, independence, and ma-
turity. On the other hand, we recognize that some
of you wish to go directly to industry. If this
option interests you, we invite you to read the
article on this subject by E. A. Gee.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of some
of the areas of graduate chemical engineering, we are
continuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate
courses as they are taught by scholars at various universi-
ties. Previous issues included articles on applied mathe-
matics, momentum and energy transfer, reactor design,
fluid dynamics, particulate systems, optimal control, diffu-
sional operations, thermodynamics and certain specialized
areas such as air pollution, biomedical and biochemical en-
gineering. We strongly suggest that you supplement your
reading of this issue by also reading the articles published
in previous years. If your department chairman or profes-
sors cannot supply you with the latter, we would be
pleased to do so at no charge. But before you read the ar-
ticles in these issues we wish to point out that (1) there is
some variation in course content and course organiza-
tion at different schools, (2) there are many areas of
chemical engineering that we have not been able to
cover, and (3) the professors who have written these
articles are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize that
particular area of study.

What is the nature of chemical engineering
graduate research?
One way in which you can obtain an answer


to this question is to read papers in the technical
publications; but another way you may obtain
insight into graduate research is to learn some-
thing about the people who are outstanding
chemical engineering scholars. To assist you in
doing so we are again this year including an
article on one of the "Founders of Chemical En-
gineering," Dr. Warren McCabe of North Caro-
lina State University. Dr. McCabe has not only
made numerous significant contributions to the
literature, but he has also had an enormous
impact on his students-many of whom are the
unseen readers of his excellent textbooks.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself by
doing graduate work at an institution other than the
one from which he receives his bachelor's degree.
Fortunately there are many very fine chemical engineer-
ing departments and each of these has its own "person-
ality" with special emphases and distinctive strengths.
For example, in choosing a graduate school you might
first consider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have
a specific research project in mind, you might want to
attend a university which emphasizes that area and
where a prominent specialist is a member of the faculty.
On the other hand if you are unsure of your field of
research, you might consider a department that has a
large faculty with widely diversified interests so as to
ensure for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a
small enrollment of graduate students. In any case, we
suggest that you begin by writing the schools that have
provided information on their graduate programs in
the back of this issue. You will probably also wish to
seek advice from members of the faculty at your own
school.
But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.
Sincerely,
RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN: See page 240.


FALL 1971










from our READERS
HOW TO APPLY TO GRADUATE SCHOOL
In the interest of improving communication between
potential graduate students and the schools to which
they apply, I would like to paraphrase the typical letter
of inquiry, 'I am a student in chemical engineering at
Flapdoodle University and would like to continue in grad-
uate school at the University of Colorado. Please send
me bulletins, admission forms, and information on finan-
cial assistance. Thank you. Cornelius Bucolic."
This is so typical of the letters which I assume many
of us receive. The omissions are many: 1) Exactly
when is the student going to complete his work and
when does he wish to enter the University of Colorado?
2) What are his interests; why should Colorado be a
good school for him? 3) How good a student is he; what
is his grade point average? 4) What is his citizenship;
should he prove to be a competent student, is he eligible
for U.S. Government sponsored fellowships and trainee-
ships ?
I recommend that early in the fall every school ask
a teacher of seniors to have a heart-to-heart father-and-
son (or daughter, as the case may be) conversation with
students who are planning to apply for graduate school,
and ask them, please, to be specific in stating their
qualifications and reasons for being interested. It will
save many frustrations, lost time, and wasted dollars.
R. Curtis Johnson
University of Colorado


Book reviews

Man's Impact on Environment, Thomas R. Det-
wiler, McGraw Hill, (1971) 731 pp. $5.95.
On cursory examination, Thomas R. Detwiler's
"Man's Impact on Environment" appears to be
another rush job non-book to serve the current
environment fad. Like such books it is a collection
of papers previously printed elsewhere, and in
some cases, published many times over. But Det-
wiler provides authorship as well as careful se-
lection and organization. In addition to introduc-
tory and summary chapters, he provides a short
but useful introduction to each of the 50 selections,
giving related references which may be more cur-
rent than the paper and prove most valuable to
the reader.
The selections are grouped into 10 sections.
These sections include a wide range of topics:
thermal pollution, aquatic weeds, surface mining,
world population, air pollution, defoliation in Viet
Nam, pesticide effects, wildlife in danger, the pos-
sible biological effects of a Central American sea-
level canal, and more. They give one an insight
(Continued on page 161)


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Founder


/A54 Cea~Oa S9c"te'


WARREN LEE McCABE




E. M. SCHOENBORN
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, N. C.

A SK A JUNIOR or senior chemical engineering
student, or a process design engineer, for that
matter, to identify the name "McCabe" and he
will invariably call to mind one of the co-authors
of the McCabe-Thiele graphical method for de-
sign of distillation columns. Ask another member
of our profession the same question and he might
recall that McCabe was among the first to call
attention to the usefulness of the enthalpy-con-
centration diagram for binary solutions or the
first to enunciate the AL law of crystal growth.
Ask a contemporary and he will without doubt
associate the name with one of the most distin-
guished chemical engineering educators, re-
searchers, authors, and administrators of the last
generation.
Born just before the turn of the century in
Bay City, Michigan, Warren Lee McCabe was
early strongly attracted by science and engineer-
ing. That chemical engineering might offer prom-
ise of a fruitful career was confirmed when
young McCabe, just out of high school, took a
job as a chemist's assistant in a wood distillation
plant that consisted of what was then a very
modern, multi-column system for the production
of methanol and acetone. It was here that his in-
terest in the unit operations, especially in the
stage-wise separation processes, was aroused.
At the University of Michigan the evolving
unit operation concept was being taught by Wal-
ter L. Badger, Eugene H. Leslie, and Edwin M.
Baker so that the time was ripe for the young
student to become steeped in the new approach to
analyzing process equipment. Upon completion of
his B.S. and M.S. requirements, he accepted an
instructorship at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. Inspired and encouraged by such


Dr. McCabe continues research on his first love-crystallization.

pioneers as W. K. Lewis, C. S. Robinson, W. H.
McAdams and others, and with the close collabo-
ration of another young student, Ernest W.
Thiele, the concept and development of the now
classical method of McCabe and Thiele evolved
and was subsequently published.
Returning to Michigan for his Ph.D. and join-
ing the ranks of the chemical engineering faculty
there, Dr. McCabe rose rapidly through the ranks
of Instructor to Associate Professor. Following
ten years of fruitful service at Michigan, he ac-
cepted appointment as a full Professor and shortly
thereafter became Head of the Department of
Chemical Engineering at Carnegie Institute of
Technology.
It was during his tenure at Michigan that he
coauthored with W. L. Badger the eminently suc-
cessful text: "Elements of Chemical Engineer-
ing," a book widely used for an entire generation
by colleges and universities both here and abroad.
Some years later, he made another significant con-
tribution to the literature with "Unit Operations
of Chemical Engineering," equally successful,
whose authorship he this time shared with Pro-
fessor J. C. Smith of Cornell University. Recog-
nizing the need to keep abreast of a rapidly de-
veloping and expanding field, this definitive work


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























Dr. McCabe discusses a research problem with Professor R. W.
Rousseau.

is presently undergoing a new, third revision.
Chapters on Crystalization in Perry's "Chemical
Engineers' Handbook" together with a long list
of research publications covering a wide range of
topics give evidence of the breadth and depth
of Dr. McCabe's interests.
It is only natural and practically inevitable
that so talented a person be sought out to help
solve problems beyond the confines of the class-
room and the laboratory. As a consultant to in-
dustry and government, as Vice President and
Director of Research for the Flintcoke Company,
as an advisor to educational institutions and more
recently as Administrative Dean of the Poly-
technic Institute of Brooklyn, Dr. McCabe has


served his fellow man with great diligence and
dedication.
Space does not permit an enumeration of his
memberships and offices in numerous scientific
and professional societies. That he was the re-
cipient of the William H. Walker Award, the
Founder's Award, and of the Tyler Award of the
A.I.Ch.E., of the Distinguished Alumnus Award
of the University of Michigan, and of the Golden
Key Award with Admiral Arleigh Burke (one of
his former students) gives some evidence of the
high esteem in which he is held by all who have
come to know him.
Upon retirement from Brooklyn Poly a few
years ago he moved to Chapel Hill, North Carolina
with his devoted wife, Lillian. Not content to bask
in the light of his past accomplishments, he re-
mains as active and vigorous as ever. Today he
holds a Reynolds Professorship in Chemical Engi-
neering at the North Carolina State University at
Raleigh. He is teaching again using a new set of
notes and supervises graduate research on his
early love-crystallization. Indicative of his tal-
ent for creative investigation is the fact that he
has within the past several years elucidated the
phenomenon of contact nucleation, a significant
piece of work that other workers in the field have
hailed as being of great significance in describing
the crystallization process. He is also writing and
publishing again and, of course, when he has
little else to do, he works on the third edition of
his respected "Unit Operations."


WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?*


WARREN L. McCABE
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, N. C.

ENGINEERING HAS JUST ended its most ro-
mantic era. During the past two decades,
good engineering jobs have been available, sal-
aries and working conditions good, money plenti-
ful, public opinion of technology benign. Engi-
neering tasks have been amenable to mathemati-
cal modeling of purely physical situations, and
all the drudgery taken over by computers.

*Remarks given at the Southern Regional Conference
of A.I.Ch.E. Student Chapters, North Carolina State Uni-
versity, Raleigh, N.C. April 2, 1971.


47 6/owUdegts ZView


Suddenly, immediately after the successful
completion of the most spectacular engineering
effort of all time, this golden age ended with a
suddenness that reminds me of the collapse of the
euphoric Coolidge era in 1929. Once the human
interest of the first moon shots was satisfied, peo-
ple began to ask: "Just why did we do this, any-
way?" It was recognized, paradoxically, that the
space effort paralleled the rapid buildup of a set
of severe social, racial, environmental, and con-
servational problems that were not being solved
and which, superficially, seem to have originated
as a consequence of the very success of our tech-
nology and from our ability to improve our ma-
terial standard of living. The same engineers who
were so successful in the space program have


FALL 1971









Until now, engineering challenges have been largely solvable by the control of the inanimate
forces of nature . The big change in the world of the engineer is that the problems
now laid on his doorstep do involve emotional factors that must be taken into account.


had the traumatic experience of being those most
severely hurt by the change of mood.
It is reasonable to ask, not just what has hap-
pened, but also where do we go from here. What
I have to suggest is one chemical engineer's at-
tempt to answer the question.
If I have any business in hazarding an an-
alysis of a question about the future, it is only
that by the luck of the draw I happened to be
born at the time I was-the last year of the nine-
teenth century. Actually, the nineteenth century
world did not cease to exist on January 1, 1900,
but persisted without discontinuity until World
War I. It was irrevocably destroyed in Europe
in 1914 and here in 1917. I was in the tenth grade
in 1914 and I graduated from high school in 1917,
so my formative years were essentially vintage
Victorian. World War I was followed by a relent-
less succession of revolutionary changes in science
and technology, and in political, economic, and
social structures, which influenced all aspects of
the interaction of man-with-man and man-with-
planet earth. Our worst depression, four wars-
two of them the most murderous and destructive
in history, and one the stupidest-, the rise of
malignant militaristic police states, the opening
of South America, Asia, and Africa, the liquida-
tion of colonial empires, the population explosion,
the cold war, all have contributed to the produc-
tion of more social entropy than any other time
period of comparable length in history.
In living through such a series of changes
and participating in them in a small way, one
accumulates memories of events and people, and
gets a certain perspective of the past that may be
used in evaluating the present.
I am not trying to predict the future. This
simply is not possible. The big historical changes
come out of the blue, and cannot be foreseen.
Some examples are: the discovery of miracle
drugs, the discovery and reduction to practice of
nuclear reactions, the development of big com-
puters, the perfection of microwave transmission
of information and entertainment, the applica-
tions of the transistor, and the discovery of the
laser. What may be done is to try to sense the
kind of challenge that is looming in the immedi-
ate future and to establish a frame of reference
and an approach that has some promise of helping


to meet the challenge.
Meeting challenges is not new to the engineer.
The history of our profession consists of chal-
lenges encountered and successfully met. The
more important of them are:
1. Ground transportation, first by roads and
canals, then by railways, and then by automobiles
and superhighways.
2. Power generation from fossil fuels and en-
gines and turbines for production of power.
3. Generation, transportation, and utilization
of electrical energy, and the communication of in-
formation by currents and electro-magnetic
waves.
4. Synthesis of new materials, fuels, chemi-
cals, drugs, and the development of large-scale
processes to make them.
5. Application of nuclear energy.
6. Development of the large computer, and the
creation of mathematical models for the analysis
of large systems.
7. Air and space transportation, from Kitty
Hawk to the moon.
Personal experience illustrates the impact of
unexpected discoveries. During World War II, I
was involved in work in two of the Divisions of
the National Defense Research Committee. One
took me to the University of Chicago, and the
other to the University of Pennsylvania. At Chi-
cago, I was following work on defense against
gas warfare. Right next to our group there was a
highly secretive organization called the Metal-
lurgy Laboratory. No one, of course, knew what
went on there. In due course, the veil was lifted.
It turned out that Fermi and his associates were
building and testing the first self-sustaining nu-
clear pile, and Seaborg and his group were dis-
covering plutonium and investigating its proper-
ties.
At Philadelphia, I was engaged in studies on
the manufacture and use of liquid oxygen for
various applications by the armed services. There
was no secret about the fact that across the street
a collection of some thousands of vacuum tubes
was being assembled to make the first electronic
digital computer.
Obviously, nothing in previous experience gave
any one an inkling of the development of either


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







the atom bomb or the computer. We would now be
living in a far different world if neither of these
two events had occurred.
As a starting point for a look ahead, let me
state and compare two definitions of engineering.
The first is the definition of chemical engineering
given in the Constitution of the A.I.Ch.E.
Chemical engineering is the application of
principles of the sciences, together with the
principles of economics and human relations,
to fields that pertain to processes and process
equipment in which matter is treated to effect
a change in state, energy, or composition.
The second definition is an example of the
kind that has been used historically for engineer-
ing generally. It is
The engineer develops, designs, and builds
feasible and operable devices, structures, and
systems all of predictable performance, cost,
and effectiveness.
Although the two definitions overlap, they
express different point of view. The first empha-
sizes the method and tools of the engineer; the sec-
ond states the mission of engineering. In my opin-
ion, the second is the more pertinent to the pres-
ent. Just as any other calling or profession, engi-
neering serves the body politic and must be pre-


axe of the cave man to the moon and back.
Along another dimension, however, the record
of the interaction of home sapiens and planet
earth is mixed. I refer to his emotional proper-
ties and behaviour. Here the spectrum of his ac-
complishments and failures covers another wide
span. Drawing upon his emotions, homo sapiens
has fashioned his great religious, moral, and
ethical systems; he has shown how benevolent are
kindness, love, and consideration for nature and
his fellow man; and he has created his master-
pieces of literature, art, music and architecture.
Antithetical to his wonderful emotional creations,
as Mr. Hyde is to Dr. Jeckyll, is man's horrid
record in giving way to his other emotions, greed,
envy, fear, anger, hatred, and cruelty. These have
led him to violence culminating in the hideous
history of man's inhumanity to man. His emotions
cover the range from the gates of heaven into
the depths of hell.
Until now, engineering challenges have been
largely solvable by the control of the inanimate
forces of nature with little or no involvement in
the emotional hangups of man. There were no
farmers with shotguns waiting for our astronauts
when they landed on the moon, and nobody objec-
ted to their litter-bugging while there. Even if
possible, Shepard did not have to holler "fore"
when he made his 7-iron shot.


Just as any other calling or profession, engineering serves the body politic and must be prepared to dance


to its tune ... In the past, the engineer has not exactly
now on he must learn to respect and work with this

pared to dance to its tune. The public has no inter-
est in how the task is performed. It cares only for
the results. Whether the engineer uses advanced
mathematics and sophisticated science or relies
on experience and common sense is a matter of
indifference to those who are supporting us. And
this fact is important in plotting a course.
Considering present issues in the light of the
past half-century of experience leads me to one
conclusion. It is based on the complicated and
highly non-linear makeup of the biological species
to which we all belong We call ourselves homo
sapiens or "man the wise." At times one can feel
that the name is flattering. It is true that, when
man has applied his hand and head to objective
experimentation, careful study and observation
of nature, and constructs and uses the great ma-
chinery of mathematics and science, he has ad-
vanced, over the millenia, from the crude stone


been an admirer of the practical politician, but from
important and interesting segment of the human race.

The big change in the world of the engineer
is that the problems now laid on his doorstep do
involve emotional factors that must be taken into
account. No longer can his problems be solved by
the sole use of mathematical models, computers,
and system analysis. Emotional variables are not
subject to such objective quantifiable parameters.
There are no mathematical models or computer
soft-ware for either the creative emotions or for
hate, greed, fear, or envy. The facts of life are
becoming more obvious daily. No longer can the
engineer ram a super-highway through a ghetto;
nor plump a jet airport down in a game preserve;
nor locate a chemical plant willy-nolly adjacent to
a residential area; nor fill the skies with a fleet
of SST's. The emotional content of such situa-
tions shows in the uncritical rejection by a large
and influential section of the body politic of all
science and technology. In spite of such scornful


FALL 1971









Immediately after the successful completion of the most spectacular engineering effort of all time, this golden
age ended with a suddenness that reminds me of the collapse of the euphoric Coolide era in 1929.


rejection of rationality, which is itself an emo-
tional act, I am certain that the constructive ac-
complishments of objective and rational methods
have been of tremendous importance in the im-
provement of the conditions of human life, and I
do not agree for one minute that benefits from
such rationality have peaked out. It is equally
clear that, although sciences and technology still
are necessary, they now are far from sufficient.
What corollaries may be deduced from the
broadening of the base of engineering into the
emotional climate of man? Several seem clear.
1. The second definition of engineering, quo-
ted above, appears more relevant than ever. It is
true that the A.I.Ch.E. definition is saved from
obsolescence by the phrase "human relations"
contained in it, but I have reason to believe that
it really refers to the human problems encoun-
tered in the management of human organizations,
rather than to an expansion in the foundations of
all engineering.
2. The engineer is not a specialist in the
emotional field. Fortunately, the introduction of a
sizable core of curricular time to humanistic and
social studies has anticipated the new trend, and
emphasis and strengthening in this area are in-
dicated. Nevertheless, the real practical specialist
in the emotional field is the politician. Not all emo-
tions are political, of course, but politics is largely
emotional. In the past, the engineer has not
exactly been an admirer of the practical politi-
cian, but from now on he must learn to respect
and work with this important and interesting
segment of the human race. Not only must the
engineer rap with the politician; some engineers
will have to become politicians, as in the past
some engineers found it necessary to become
scientists and applied mathematicians.
3. The portion of man's emotional spectrum
that I refer to is, of course, the creative, moral,
and constructive end. Herein lies the real chal-
lenge. There is no doubt that the alliance of
science and technology (which is itself totally
amoral) with the cancerous emotions of war has
been horribly effective in its own terms, or that
it has reached its ultimate limit in giving the
the means of obliterating all life on the planet
above the level of the cockroach. If only we can do
as well at the other end of the emotional spec-
trum!


I do not wish to suggest in any way that
those who were responsible for the initiation and
conduct of the program leading to the production
and use of nuclear bombs were irresponsible
people. In fact they included the most humanistic
and brilliant scientists, engineers, political
leaders, educational executives, and managerial
talent we had. Ironically, the initial stimulus for
the development was provided by a blue-ribbon
group of phycisists including Albert Einstein,
one of the gentlest and kindliest of men. Their
motive in urging work in the field of atom bombs
was simple: the well-grounded fear that Nazi
Germany would make atomic bombs before any
one else and reduce the entire world to thralldom.
The crowning irony appeared when the war ended
and a mission hurried to Europe to see how far
the Germans had gone. The mission found that
the Nazis had done nothing with atomic energy.
4. Does our present situation mean that our
own branch, chemical engineering, is now obso-
lete? Not at all. Consider one of the major prob-
lem complexes in the public eye: conservation
and pollution. The chemical engineer, as described
in the A.I.Ch.E. definition, converts raw materials
into useful products, and he does so in an opti-
mum manner. What is wrong with this? It simply
is that processing as now done stops too soon.
The criterion of optimization currently used is
to maximize rate of return on investment, and
to stop when the optimum has been reached. This
method probably will have to be modified. I doubt
that it will be tolerable in the future to skim the
cream from a valuable raw material and literally
throw the residue out the window. Both sound
conservation and environmental integrity are
violated by the oversimplified method now used.
The cure for this is clear; more processing,
not less. The materials now discarded must be
recycled, reclaimed, or converted to additional
useful products not necessarily of maximum pro-
fitability as measured by conventional cost ac-
counting. Residues may be discarded only when
reduced to a harmless state that will not hurt
nature or men.
The emotional input to this problem appears
in the allocation of costs. Clearly, the expense of
conservation and pollution control is to be great.
It could be as much as 50 billion dollars per year,
(Continued on page 164)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?*

EDWIN A. GEE Vice President
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
Wilmington, Del.


A DECADE HAS GONE by since we last host-
ed one of your meetings, and we are delighted
to do so again. It's a little late in the day for for-
malities, but let me add my welcome on behalf of
the Du Pont Company.
A lot has happened in 10 years. Industry and
education have shared some progress, and in the
past year or two we have had our share of
bruises. The chemical industry has been going
through a period of consolidation and retrench-
ment, and while I don't want to, dwell on the re-
cruiting situation, it might help to take a minute
to explain our present policy and the reasons
for it.
As you know Du Pont is doing very little
recruiting this year. We hired significant num-
bers of technical graduates in 1969-1970, and
many people ask why we don't continue to do so
this year. The answer is simply that in almost
every area of our business we are now at a point
where new employment would force us to cut
people on a one-for-one basis. We have let some
people go, and the easiest thing would be to cut
much more deeply into the organization, dropping
out a lot of people who are just average or a
little above average in ability. Then we could
hire a large number of very able students coming
out of school this year. That, in our judgment,
would not be fair. We feel a primary respon-
sibility to the people on our payroll, and our
policy is to force internal transfers, retrain and
make whatever other changes are necessary to
keep them with us.
We trust that retrenchment is a passing
problem, and that the future holds consider-
ably more promise for new graduates. You see
most of the data we see, and you know that the
economy has begun to pick up. For the seventies
we are expecting a solid growth rate, and this of
course ought to mean more opportunities.
This doesn't mean that we will return to the
conditions that prevailed five or 10 years ago.
To the contrary, some basic changes have oc-
cured, and this is what I'd like to talk about in

*Presented to the Middle Atlantic Section of ASEE,
Wilmington, Del. on May 8, 1971,


At YotdaALf# View


Edwin A. Gee is a vice president, member of the Ex-
ecutive Committee and of the Board of Directors of the
duPont Company. He also serves as chairman of the
company's Environmental Quality Committee. He studied
at George Washington University (BS'41, MS'44) and
earned his doctorate in chemical engineering at the
University of Maryland. (Ph.D. '48).

terms of our mutual interests. All of us find the
present climate of uncertainty difficult to live
with, but from our vantage point in industry the
only thing we're certain of is that there will be
more uncertainty.
On the economic side, industries employing
large numbers of engineers are becoming more
competitive on an international basis.
To see the potential impact of international
competition, we only need look at what has hap-
pened already to, the small radio and TV mar-
ket, in textiles and shoe manufacturing, and in
shipbuilding. Against that, set the fact that in
our own country labor costs have been rising
faster than productivity in the past few years,
and industrial profits are down.
Despite the boom of the mid-1960's, profits
for manufacturers for the decade were substan-
tially lower than in the decade of the 1950s -
a full point lower on a base of less than 10. I
don't think we have to make the case to you on
the importance of profits, as you know this is
a basic source of funds for new investment and
for modernization of older plants. If profits fall
over a period of time, our plant and technology
will become noncompetitive just as surely as if
we stopped research and process engineering.
What this says to us is that the engineering
profession not only has a stake in profitability,
but also carries a lot of the responsibility for


FALL 1971








. . the nation is reshuffling its priorities . Some people still want maximum material progress. They
want the products, and those in lower income brackets . (need) . a steady flow of new jobs.
Other people tell us to cut back and slow down . They want expansion on a selective basis, if at all, ....


keeping the United States in a viable, competi-
tive position. We have a tough technical job on
our hands, and it should provide stimulating
work for many thousands of engineers. We have
to maximize process yields, and find quicker and
less expensive ways to develop new products. We
have to improve the efficiency of engineering
itself, to make it more reliable, more foresighted,
and less prone to those "surprises" that come
along late in the game and scuttle the cost esti-
mates and construction schedules.
Even if we stay competitive as a nation, there
will still be internal shifts that force companies
to change tactics, and place unexpected demands
on technical people. Let me give you an example.
Our Photo Products Department used to have a
fairly large technical group working on films and
printing papers for use in professional photo-
graphic studios. Today, with the shift in our eco-
nomy toward services such as medical care, the
bulk of these people are now working on x-ray
films, and instruments for use in hospitals and
medical laboratories. Needless to say, when some
of our engineers were interviewed by the Photo
Products Department, they had no idea they
would be working on devices like an Automatic
Clinical Analyzer, and neither did we.
Unfortunately, most shifts like this are easy
to see only with hindsight. In trying to plan
ahead, we collect lots of data, but much of it
proves to be contradictory. All it really tells us
is that the nation is reshuffling its priorities, and
as yet has arrived at no fixed consensus. This
is a relatively new problem for us, at least in
terms of scale. Until quite recently, industry
had strong signals on what people really wanted
us to do, so did the engineering profession. All
the vectors pointed the same way. The public
wanted to keep Tom Swift in the laboratory
inventing everything he could think of, and then
industry was supposed to scale up for high-vol-
ume low-cost production. If America had any
single economic goal, it was to optimize for af-
fluence.
N OW THE GOAL isn't so clear. The signals are
mixed. Some people still wc.at maximum ma-
terial progress. They want the products, and
those in lower income brackets know they don't


have much chance to climb up the economic lad-
der unless there is a steady flow of new jobs
created by industry. Other people are telling us
to cut back and slow down. They think we are
overcommitted to GNP. They want expansion
on a selective basis, if at all, and they are push-
ing for more attention to the environment, medi-
cal care, and urban renewal.
You've heard all this a hundred times be-
fore. My only point is that we cannot optimize
for all of society's goals at the same time, and
there is no one to tell us exactly where society
is going to make its tradeoffs.
Perhaps we'll put more emphasis on the
"quality of life," but that does not solve the pro-
blem of creating jobs for the 1.5 million people
entering the labor force each year, nor does it
tell us what to do about the five million people
now unemployed, or the growing number of un-
deremployed. We certainly do not want to kick
the ladder down in the face of the people who
are trying to work their way up to the middle
class. At the same time, it's unlikely that we are
going back to a policy of growth-at-any price.
That kind of policy has gotten us into a fair
amount of trouble in the past.
The balance must fall somewhere in between,
and it would take a very wise man to know
exactly where it will lie in 1935, or even in 1975.
This uncertainty makes it difficult to do any
definitive long-range manpower planning and
we appreciate the problems this creates for you
and your students. We continue to struggle with
this problem and have some progress, but as our
professors explained years ago, when we were
trying to learn the rudiments of engineering,
you can't take good sights unless the transit is
standing on solid ground. And in our society
today, terra firma is hard to find.
T HAT APPLIES NOT just to forecasting, but
to almost everything that involves the indus-
trial engineer. George Hammond at Caltech said
recently that the one talent his graduates need
most is a high tolerance for ambiguity. That is
certainly true if they have an industrial career in
mind.
The younger engineers coming into industry
find this is a difficult area of adjustment for


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









them. They're eager to tackle tough problems,
but they sometimes find that the greater task is
to identify the problems that need to be solved,
and rank them in order of importance. This is
still as much of an art as a science. The engineer
wants to model a new process so he can optimize
key variables, but it often turns out that there
isn't enough data to build a complete model. By
the time he gets the data, he is asked to design
a Mark II process, and frustration sets in all
over again. He finds that nothing stays nailed
down very long, and that very few important
problems are subject to final solutions.
Along with a tolerance for ambiguity, the
engineer needs flexibility. We cannot promise a
man that he will always work in his first field
of specialization. If he has real talent he is likely
to be offered a variety of assignments. Some of
my colleagues took a look at the records of five
engineers who have been with us an average of
seven years. They have had from three to six
assignments each, ranging from design to vibra-
tion analysis, instrumentation, and reaction
kinetics.
A THIRD QUALITY VERY much in demand is
the ability to put it all together. Let me clar-
ify that. I'm not trying to revive the old argu-
ment about the specialist versus the generalist.
I'm not suggesting that every engineer ought to
have a little bit of training in everything, because
that could easily produce engineers no good at
anything.
We still need highly trained specialists and
theoreticians, people who dig a mile deep but
only an inch wide. But above all there is a need
for engineers who know how to collaborate across
the disciplinary lines, people who can meld the
soft inputs and the hard ones, make allowances
for the economic and human factors as well is
the technical ones, and come out with a consol-
idated approach. We know this kind of talent
often develops in younger and smaller high tech-
nology companies. One of our main goals is to
develop more of it in our organization, because
it's just as badly needed, and when it is operat-
ing for us it has enormous leverage.
We are not sure where these three qualities
fit into the educational picture the tolerance
for ambiguity, the personal flexibility, the ability
to put it all together. Are they teachable talents
and if so, are they related in some way to aca-
demic performance, or to the type of engineer-
ing curriculum a man goes through?


. . there is a need for engineers who know how to
collaborate across the disciplinary lines, people
who can meld the soft inputs and the hard ones,
make allowances for the economic and human
factors... and come out with a consolidated approach.

We don't see the correlations very clearly,
but in any case we defer to you. If these quali-
ties can be incorporated more into the educa-
tional process, we know you're likely to find the
way to do it.
I'd like to close with some comments about in-
dustry's role in adapting to uncertainty. Primari-
ly, it comes down to the way we work with our
people.
We acknowledge the incentive problem, and
as everybody knows, from a strictly financial
point of view, the lines aren't as distinct as they
used to be. The median salary for a B.S. engineer
with 15 years of service in manufacturing is
$17,000 a year. That is about what a man can
earn as an able-bodied seaman in the merchant
service, as a locomative engineer, or as a trac-
tor-trailer driver on cross-country hauling. Ob-
viously there are psychological fringe benefits
that make an engineering career worthwhile, but
we don't take them for granted. We make a
serious effort to put technical people on projects
(Continued on page 167)

BOOK REVIEW (Continued from page 152)
into the problems of the environment that is more
profound than he is likely to experience firsthand
or from perusing a newspaper or periodical.
Despite the indomitable optimists like the
editor of Look magazine who decries the fore-
bodings of the ecological Chicken Littles and fills
us with football pep-rally confidence in our ability
to overcome all obstacles, the problems of the en-
vironment described in this book deserve serious
study. The engineer might have preferred more
attention to internal and external combustion en-
gines, to methods for converting garbage and re-
cycling paper, and to greater utilization of renew-
able, non-polluting sources of energy. The author
(a geographer at the University of Michigan) ad-
vises that the course which uses this book was
taught jointly with an associate who is an engi-
neer. So, we discover, that the environment be-
longs to all of us, even engineers, and we share,
alas, in its responsibilities as well.
S. S. Block
University of Florida


FALL 1971











4 O CH E DIVISION ACTIVITIES



CH E SUMMER SCHOOL

IN BOULDER-1972

The 1972 Summer School for Chemical Engi-
neering Faculty will be held August 13 through
18, 1972 at the University of Colorado in Boulder.
Continuing the tradition of Summer Schools
sponsored by the ChE Division of ASEE, the
1972 edition will have a new format designed to
permit greater individual participation.
Mornings are devoted to five parallel work-
shops that explore important frontier areas in
ChE education in some depth. Several evenings
are set aside for colloquia on controversial topics
in ChE education. Most afternoons are free for
informal discussions, individual study, or relax-
ation. The Distinguished Lecturer and Annual
Business Meeting of the ChE Division are inte-
gral parts of the Summer School.
Workshops: Each participant will enroll in one
of the five workshops. Although the formats of
the workshops differ somewhat, all emphasize in-
dividual participation. Enrollment in each work-
shop is limited to 30. Listed below are the work-
shop topics, coordinators, and lecturers, together
with a brief summary of content.
1. Chemical Process Design and Engineering
C. Judson King, Edward Grens, Alan Foss, and
Scott Lynn, University of California at Berkeley;
Dale Rudd, University of Wisconsin
Design courses have been relatively standardized
in ChE education, and have received much less
attention than has engineering science in past years.
There is a resurgence of interest in design and the
development of that area of the curriculum. This
workshop considers recent developments in design
techniques and concepts-both qualitative and quan-
titative- which lead to significant modifications in
the design curriculum at both undergraduate and
graduate levels. Topics to be covered include syste-
matic process synthesis, process simulation, process
optimization, and the use of short qualitative prob-
lems of various sorts to develop skills in the art
of engineering.
2. Integration of Biomedical and Environmental Ap-
plications of ChE into Undergraduate Courses
Richard Seagrave, Iowa State University; Giles
Cokelet, Montana State University
This workshop demonstrates how examples of
the application of ChE in these interdisciplinary
fields can be integrated into existing basic under-


University of Colora

graduate courses. The introduction of such examples
should not only increase the student's basic under-
standing of ChE principles, but should also serve to
increase his social awareness of important new
problems in these areas. In addition, such an ap-
proach can help to stimulate added interest in the
wide applications of ChE. The workshop discusses
the introduction of such examples in five separate
areas of chemical engineering:
a) Material and Energy Balances
b) Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
c) Mechanics of Fluids and Solids
d) Mass Transfer and Reaction Kinetics
e) Process Control and Optimization
Examples are selected from the areas of applied
physiology, the design and operation of artificial
organs and life support systems, and environmental
pollution problems.
3. Application of Molecular Concepts for Predicting
Properties Needed for Design
John O'Connell and Keith Gubbins, University of
Florida; John Prausnitz, University of California at
Berkeley
Discussion centers on how the understanding of
intermolecular forces can lead to qualitative and
quantitative prediction of physical properties and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
















































.pus in Boulder, Colorado

phase behavior of real systems. The theoretical
relationships between macroscopic properties and
molecular structure and forces are outlined, as are
the classification and description of intermolecular
interactions including weak chemical interactions
such as hydrogen bonding. Applications of corre-
sponding states' theories for correlating thermo-
dynamic and transport properties of pure and mixed
fluids are stressed, particularly those based on
molecular parameters. Another emphasis is on
methods for describing fluid-phase equilibria. In
addition to methods applicable to simple fluids,
theories are developed to describe complex systems
such as alcohol mixtures, polymer solutions, and
organic solutes in water.
In all cases examples are chosen to develop phy-
sical insight as well as to illustrate practical ways
of calculating quantities needed for design. Teach-
ing methods are based on experiences of the leaders
at both undergraduate and graduate levels and
draw upon their recent books, literature, and speci-
ally developed notes.
4. Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineering Prob-
lems
James 0. Wilkes and Brice Carnahan, University of
Michigan


The workshop presents typical ChE problems that
lend themselves to numerical solution, and is largely
based on material contained in Applied Numerical
Methods, by Carnahan, Luther, and Wilkes.
The techniques to be discussed involve ordinary
and partial differential equations, integration, simul-
taneous nonlinear equations, spline polynomials and
other methods of approximation. Emphasis is
placed on the variety of practical problems that
can be solved numerically, including: piping net-
works, radiant interchange between surfaces, simul-
taneous chemical equilibria, physical-property cor-
relations, tubular reactors, free convection, and
natural gas storage.
The opportunity will be available for participants
to write computer programs related to material
studied in the workshop.
5. New Developments in Undergraduate Laboratories
Angelo Perna, Newark College of Engineering;
Scott Fogler, University of Michigan; Frederick
Shair, California Institute of Technology
As the undergraduate curriculum has evolved, the
ChE laboratory has been a subject of continuing
debate and controversy. The workshop provides
a forum for exchange of ideas on recent develop-
ments in undergraduate laboratories. A survey of
new laboratory developments has been made, and
a number of persons active in the field will be in-
vited to present their ideas. General topics to be
covered include:
a) The philosophy and purpose of the under-
graduate laboratory.
b) Full-size or small scale equipment?
c) Integration of theory and practice in experi-
mental analysis.
d) Use of analog and digital computers in the
laboratory.
e) Novel experiments.
f) New laboratory instructional techniques.
g) Demonstrations in lecture courses as a sub-
stitute for laboratories.
Colloquia: Three evenings are devoted to gen-
eral topics of current interest to chemical engi-
neering faculty. The Colloquium coordinator,
Thomas Daubert of Pennsylvania State Univer-
sity, has scheduled two of the colloquia:
Effectiveness of Graduate Chemical Engineering
Education-Industrial versus Academic Viewpoint
Sheldon Isakoff, DuPont; Robert Long, Esso; Cor-
nelius Pings, Caltech; J. E. Vivien, MIT
Training of Foreign Graduate Students-Problem
and Solution.
Harold Hoelscher, University of Pittsburgh; Darsh
Wasan, IIT; Curtis Johnson, University of Colo-
rado; Dee Barker, Brigham Young University.
The third session will be selected from topics
of controversy as the time of the Summer School
approaches.
Division Activities: The Distinguished Lec-
turer and the Annual Business Meeting will be
held Wednesday afternoon. Although the Distin-


FALL 1971








guished Lecturer for 1972 has not yet been se-
lected, previous experience suggests that the Lec-
ture will be one of the high points of the week.
Dinner Wednesday evening will be a cook-out in
the mountains.
Arrangements: Participants and their families
will be housed in modern University residence
halls. There will be an inclusive charge for room
and meals. There is also a variety of motels near
the campus. Climate in Boulder in August is
warm and dry during the day and cool at night.
Although no special program is planned for
families, the recreational resources of the Uni-
versity and the nearby mountains offer incom-
parable opportunities.
An NSF grant is being sought to support the
Summer School. Final information and applica-
tions will be distributed to Chemical Engineering
Departments in January 1972. Questions should
be directed to the Director of the Summer School,
L. Bryce Andersen, Newark College of Engineer-
ing.
Participants may wish to combine the Summer
School with Minneapolis Meeting of AIChE
(August 27-30).

NOMINATIONS FOR LECTURESHIP AWARD
The Chemical Engineering Division Lecture-
ship Award has been bestowed annually upon a
distinguished engineering educator since 1963 to
recognize and encourage outstanding achievement
in an important field of fundamental chemical
engineering theory or practice. The recipient de-
livers the Annual Lecture of the Chemical Di-
vision at ASEE's Annual Conference. The award
of $1,000 and an engraved certificate is sponsored
by the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing
Company. Qualifications for the award include:
Achievement, through formulation or creative appli-
cation of fundamental theory and principles of important
advances which have been accepted by his colleagues and
by others in his field of specialization; promise of making
further significant contributions.
Improvements of lasting influence to chemical engi-
neering education through books, technical articles, or lab-
oratory or other teaching equipment; demonstration of suc-
cess as a teacher;' as well as ability to inspire students to
high level accomplishment.
Evidence of ability to do original, sound, and produc-
tive research personally or through those under his direc-
tion and to evaluate and report the significant results ob-
tained.
Interest in furthering technical progress in chemical
engineering through participation in professional and edu-
cational societies.


Nominations should be submitted by January
1, 1972 to Professor M. H. Chetrick, Chairman,
ChE Division Lectureship Award, Department of
Chemical Engineering, Michigan State Univer-
sity, East Lansing, Michigan 48823


McCABE:-WHERE . .
(Continued from page 158)
about five percent of our gross national product.
The battle lines to establish who is to foot the
bill are now forming.
Two powerful tools are available for solving
the pollution-conservation problem. One is: our
trillion dollar economy and the other our great
technological capability. To this must be added
the will to pay the necessary price. The worst ap-
proach would be to try to solve the difficulties by
a purely emotional approach and to start by de-
stroying the means available to do the job.
One other memory comes to mind. In the
middle thirties I attended a meeting of the
A.I.Ch.E. in Pittsburgh. The principle speaker
was a famous editorial writer and commentator.
His opening remark was how pleased he was, on
passing a steel mill on his way to the banquet,
to see smoke issuing from the stacks. He stated
how wonderful it was to see the evidence that
men at last were going back to work. Such a state-
ment now sounds queer; but at that time it was
understandable and everyone there agreed with
it. People who had not seen a pay check for three
years were eager to trade off absolute air purity
for food for their families. Ten years later, dur-
ing World II, when Pittsburgh was a great engine
for producing war material, a small suburban
mill town nearly had to be completely evacuated
to prevent mass deaths from steel mill pollution.
So it is. The triumphs of one period are the men-
aces of the next.
These are the problems that you, as budding
chemical engineers, must face at the outset of
your life work. I say outset because of another
teaching of history. While current problems are
being solved, new and more difficult ones are
generated, and often become acute before people
have completely met the old challenges. There is
no evidence that this effect won't appear, perhaps
more than one, during the half-century of your
active lives. Then, maybe you will be in my po-
sition today; pontificating to your successors on
just what they should do with the messes that you
probably will be leaving them to clean up.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











V


Vieais cand Opiiaodu


How INDUSTRY can


Improve the Usefulness

of ACADEMIC RESEARCH

JAMES WEI
University of Delaware
Newark, Del. 19711

A ACADEMIC RESEARCH HAS been very use-
ful in industry. What readily comes to mind
are the thermodynamic data for ammonia syn-
thesis by Dodge, high pressure technology of
Comings, fluidized bed fundamentals by Lewis
and Gilliland, drying by Sherwood, and reactor
design by Wilhelm. The works of Wilhelm were
particularly influential in my efforts as an indus-
trial researcher, as his research interests were
guided by long term consulting associations with
Mobil Oil and Merck. Judging from recent com-
plants, we can conclude that the expansion of
academic research of the last 15 years were not
matched with a proportional increase in user
satisfaction in industry.
What is the cause of this change? Part of
the answer lies in the increasing trend of in-
dustrial funding and direction of academic re-
search by proxy-paying corporate tax to the
federal government, and letting it decide what
research should be performed. According to Na-
tional Science Foundation figures, federal fund-
ing of academic basic research was six times
greater than industrial funding in 1953, and
this ratio has grown to thirty times by 1970.
This shift has pushed us much closer to the
Soviet Union model, where all scientific research
funding comes from a central source which is
an all-seeing bureaucracy, where industries ad-
dress their pressing problems to academics only
through this intermediary bureaucracy. I have
seen institutes of catalysis doing the purest re-
search, with more than a hundred workers,

If industries would like to see more useful academic
research, they need to cultivate the professors . .
academics can only respond to societies demands,
and demand equals need plus cash.


CEE continues to bring educationally oriented AIChE
matters to our readers. The following two papers
are based on remarks made at a symposium chaired
by Prof. Bankoff at the Cincinnati meeting. They
follow his paper on the "Relevance of Academic
Research" in our Spring 1971 issue.


James Wei is the Allen P. Colburn Professor of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Delaware.
Before that, he was a Senior Scientist and Manager of
Long Range Analysis at the Mobil Oil Corp. He is cur-
rently a Director of AIChE. He received his formal
education at the Georgia Institute of Technology, M.I.T.
and the Harvard Business School.

larger than any in the Western world; and yet
when the Russians need a new catalytic process,
they have to buy the technology from abroad.
WJE HEAR DAILY CLAMORS that academ-
ics must respond to society's needs. I would
submit that academics can only respond to so-
ciety's demands, and demand = need cash.
He who pays the piper calls the tune. It is true
that basic, long-range, non-proprietary research
in the national interest should be funded by the
federal government; while short-range, proprie-
tary research should be performed by an in-
house industrial research laboratory; but re-
search of benefit to an industry is best sponsored
and directed jointly and singly by industry and
performed in academic institutions. If industries
would like to see more useful academic research,
they need to cultivate the professors by inform-
ing them where the interesting problems are,
and perhaps the best mechanism for this is a
long term consulting agreement. Businessmen
do understand that you only get what you pay
for, and funding of academic research only costs
50 cents on the dollar, by savings on federal cor-
porate income tax.


FALL 1971










RELEVANCE Of Graduate Chemical

Engineering Research

JOHN B. TEPE
E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.
Wilmington, De 1. 19898

In the hope of provoking discussion I'd like to
comment on two specific subjects:


The influence in recruiting, or in job hunt-
ing, or the relevance of the young Ph.D.
engineer's research to the potential em-
ployer's technical interests.
Ways that young engineers-in-industry
feel that their graduate research failed to
prepare them adequately for their initial
job assignments.

F rom the recruiting or job-hunting angle, I
carried out a little study. At my request our
personnel division assembled a random sample
that consisted of the recruiting of fifty-seven
recent candidates for employment largely
Ph.D. chemical engineers but including some
with majors in mechanical engineering, applied
mechanics, physics, and the like. This sample
included the range from "application reviewed
but candidate not invited for interview" to
"candidate interviewed, employment offered,
and offer accepted." I examined these fifty-seven
files "blind" (i.e., names of candidates were not
known to me) and based on my own judgment,
and on study of the interview reports, divided
them into three groups depending upon how rele-
vant the candidate's graduate research appeared
to be to our technical interests; high, low, or in
in between.
The results of my study, for whatever they
are worth, are that in 62% of the cases the grad-
uate research appeared to be relevant or highly
relevant to our interests and in only 38% of the
cases was the research remotely relevant. Of the
highly-relevant group the outcome of the recruit-
ing process was that 70% were offered employ-
ment and more than half (57% actually) ac-
cepted. Of the remotely-relevant group 27%
were offered employment-- none accepted.
Let me venture a conclusion. A graduate stu-
dent can improve his chances of success in job
hunting if he will decide where he would like to


John B. Tepe is employed by E. I. du Pont de Nemours
and Company in the engineering department as design
project manager handling all project work for the Du
Pont Plastics Department. He received the doctorate in
engineering from Yale University in 1942 and has been
employed by Du Pont in various engineering research
and plant design position since graduation.

work, find out what the technical interests of his
potential employers are and pick a research sub-
ject related to these interests.
N ow on the second subject, namely how young
engineers feel about the relevance of their
graduate research to their initial employment.
The young engineer tells me he feels especially
ill prepared in his initial work in industry to
make and meet commitments with respect to
time and cost . and ill prepared to handle the
relationships or coordination-of-effort aspects of
his initial assignment. I'll risk exaggeration to
make a point. In graduate school, time is open
ended. One of the questions I have often asked
a candidate for employment is, "When do you
expect to finish your research?" Entirely too of-
ten the answer has been, "Well, this year or
maybe next year . assuming, of course, that
all goes well."
A task in industry has to be completed with-
in a fixed time. If the task must be complete
in, say, six months, the number of people as-
signed, the number of shifts operated, the thor-
oughness of the investigation, and the degree
of confidence in the results can be varied within
limits, but the end date usually is sacred.
In graduate school the student rarely thinks of
his time as being worth anything. When he grad-
uates and gets on a job and is told his research
project or his design account has been author-
ized in the amount, of say, $100,000, his usual
reaction is "WOW !" But when the first cost report


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









S. in 62% of the cases the graduate research appeared to be relevant to our interests . .


comes in and he sees how much his own time and
the time of subordinates and cooperating indi-
viduals cost, and that his account has to carry
part of the support of the library and other so-
called "overheads", he is amazed at how fast his
$100,000 runs. through the funnel.
Finally, on the relationships aspect: The
graduate student gets some help from his ad-
visor, and if he's lucky he may have a bright
undergraduate to assist in his experiments. The
department may even have a shop and a ma-
chinist or a technician. Working smoothly and
effectively with these individuals influences his
success in his graduate program. When he gets
on the job, however, the importance of relation-
ships changes by orders of magnitude. His ac-
complishments depend largely on the cooperation
of dozens of others, and dozens of others depend
on him. The functions of engineer, technician,
designer, accountant, consultant, supervisor, and
liaison, are all complexly interrelated. He is
called on to exercise skills in relationships, in
order to employ all these talents effectively, that
he recognized as existing only intuitively, if at
all.
What do I suggest to better equip the young
engineer to make and meet time and cost com-
mitments and to help him learn a little sooner
how to work with and through others? The idea
of group graduate research that some schools are


practicing has great appeal. Rather than one
graduate student working alone toward limited
goals, several working cooperatively toward
more-ambitious goals; leadership, rather than
from the faculty, from within the student
group . passing from one student to another
as some graduate and others matriculate; the
work undertaken only after a thoroughly
thought-out proposal is developed, written up,
and "sold" to the faculty and to the sponsoring
agency; definite schedules to be met, definite
budgets to be lived within; above all a specific
task to be accomplished and by a specified time.
A working environment such as this offers the
ideal situation in which to teach and practice
some of the principles of cooperative work . .
principles of management. Perhaps the Business
School could participate and achieve objectives
of their own while aiding Engineering.
In conclusion, I feel that graduate research
in chemical engineering bears high relevance to
interests of industry . interests in research,
development, consultation, plant design . in
fact to all aspects of industrial work. Areas that
appear to offer intriguing opportunities for im-
provement are time and cost control and coor-
dination of effort. The group research approach
as contrasted to the individual approach, appears
to offer excellent possibilities for achievement in
these areas.


GEE (Continued from page 161)
really worthy of their talents, and to identify
the organization with projects that are socially
as well as technically worthwhile.
When an engineer joins us, we try to. put
him or her on a job that involves decisions. In-
experience is no sign that someone lacks pro-
fessionalism or potential, and we have found
that the youthful view often pairs well with the
seasoned judgment of an experienced engineer.
We bring about those pairings as often as we
can, beginning with the first job.
We have two selfish reasons for this proce-
dure. The process of baptism by total immersion
produces a better engineer quicker, and we don't
want to waste time any more than our engineers
do. Second, we have to do a better job of anti-
cipating the impact of technological change. I
believe the assessment process has to start with
the man in the laboratory or at the plant. He
FALL 1971


gets the early feedback-long before we could
get it from a "think tank"; so the faster we can
broaden a man's judgment and sensitivity to the
implications of his work, the less our chances
of stumbling into trouble with the side effects
of technology.
Finally, you can't adjust to a climate of un-
certainty unless you have opportunities to keep
on learning throughout your career. There is
no doubt that most engineers understand this.
They are telling us loud and clear that they want
to keep on growing on the job, and that they
will take advantage of opportunities for continu-
ing education. Our Engineering Department has
a completely voluntary series of in-house courses.
In just two years of operations, three out of
every five technical employees in that department
have participated.
Our job in industry is to keep this kind of
professional enthusiasm alive, and with your help
we will.













THERMODYNAMICS:

THEORY WITH APPLICATIONS


ROBERT C. REID
and
MICHAEL MODELL
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139


To many students, thermodynamics is a stag-
nant field and a boring subject; articles on ther-
modynamics courses usually reinforce such
opinions. If we had less enthusiasm for our
course, even the writing of this article would
itself be a chore. However, over 'thel years of
evolving our course, we" have enjoyed it more
each year; on occasion, our enthusiasm even in-
fects some of the students and we reap the ulti-
mate reward of a teacher.
To describe our first year graduate course in
thermodynamics, we have divided this article into
four brief sections. We' describe the approach,
then summarize the content, and then discuss
both the problems used and type of presentation.

APPROACH
THE SCOPE OF THE COURSE is limited to
the theory and application of classical thermo-
dynamics. Although it is presumed that all gradu-
ate students have had at least one undergraduate
course in thermodynamics, the backgrounds are
so varied that we have found it essential to start
at the fundamental level of basic concepts.
Most approaches to classical thermodynamics
follow one of two extremes: the historical ap-
proach, which parallels closely the chronological
developments of concepts (and misconceptions);
or the postulatory approach, in which axioms
that cannot be proved from first principles are
stated. There are merits and draw-backs in each
extreme.
Advocates of the historical approach contend
'that if we are to expect our students to evolve
new concepts and theories in their lifetime, we
must expose them to the historical development
of existing theories. On the other hand,: existing
postulatory approaches make no reference to his-


torical developments. The basis for the laws of
thermodynamics are impersonally stated in a
small number of postulates which cannot be
proved and can only be disproved by showing
that consequences derived from them are in con-
flict with experimentally verified facts. The postu-
lates tend to be mathematical and abstract, but
from them, the laws of thermodynamics are de-
rivable. Many students are not impressed because
little insight is provided for the necessity for de-
fining new concepts or properties.
We have attempted to blend the salient fea-
tures of the two extremes. We assume the state
of knowledge which existed in 1600 and proceed
to evolve the laws and concepts in a manner par-
allel to the historical development, but using hind-
sight to avoid the misconceptions and confusion
which existed in the preclassical period. We clear-
ly identify those principles which our ancestors
learned to accept without proof; these are stated
as postulates, but in a form which could be under-
stood by Black, Lavoisier, Kelvin, or Carnot.
If we are to develop a set of fundamental laws
of nature with few preconceived notions, we must
first develop the facility of conducting experi-
ments; that is, we need tools which are sensitive
to changes in a system so that we can quantify our
experiments. A sealed liquid thermometer is one
such tool and we associate an arbitrary 0-temp-
erature scale with this device. Using this ther-
mometer, we should be able to show experiment-
ally that certain containers are very effective in
thermally isolating systems from their environ-
ment. By a logical extension of this reasoning, we
are led to our first idealized concept-the adia-
batic wall. Historically, this concept paved the
way to calorimetry and the appreciation that mat-
ter possesses unique properties such as specific
and latent heats. (It also led to a metaphysical in-
terpretation in the form of the Caloric Theory and
the conservation-conversion dilemma, which was
not completely resolved until the mid 1800's.)
With this type of background, we introduce
the first two postulates (see Table I) to establish
the concept of the state of equilibrium and the
methodology required to quantify it. The third


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


























R. C. Reid is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Editor of the
AIChE Journal. He received a B.S. in Mechanical E.igi-
neering from Kings Point, and in Chemical Engineering
received a B.S. and M.S. from Purdue and a Sc.D. from
M.I.T. He is a registered professional engineer in Massa-
chusetts. His fields of specialization are cryogenics,
thermodynamics, and properties of materials. In addition
to having authored a number of articles in professional
journals, he is co-author with T. K. Sherwood of "The
Properties of Gases and Liquids, Their Estimation and
Correlation." He is curi-ently a Council Member of the
AIChE. (Left.)
Michael Modell is an Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Techno-
logy. He received the B.S., M.S., and Sc.D. degrees in
Chemical Engineering from M.I.T. His areas of speciali-
zation are heterogeneous catalysis and thermodynamics.


Postulate I
For closed simple systems with given internal re-
straints, there exist stable equilibrium states which can
be characterized completely by two independently vari-
able properties in addition to the masses of the particular
chemical species initially charged.
Postulate II
In processes for which there is no net effect on the
environment, all systems (simple and composite) with
given internal restraints will change in such a way as to
approach one and only one stable equilibrium state for
each simple subsystem. In the limiting condition, the en-
tire system is said to be at equilibrium.
Postulate III
For any equilibrium states, (1) and (2), for a closed
system the change of state represented by (1) -- (2)
and/or the reverse (2) -> (1) can occur by at least one
adiabatic process and the adiabatic work interaction be-
tween this system and its surroundings is determined
uniquely by specifying the end states (1) and (2).
Postulate IV
If the sets of systems A, B and A, C each have no
heat interactions when connected across non-adiabatic
walls, then there will be-no heat interaction if systems B
and C are also so connected,


TABLE II.
Subdivisions of Content
ENERGY; CONCEPTS AND CONSEQUENCES
REVERSIBILITY; CONCEPTS AND CONSEQUENCES
RELATIONSHIPS FOR SINGLE PHASE SIMPLE
SYSTEMS
SINGLE PHASE SIMPLE SYSTEMS OF PURE
MATERIALS
CRITERIA OF EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY
MULTICOMPONENT SINGLE PHASE SIMPLE
SYSTEMS
PHASE EQUILIBRIA
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA
OPTIONAL TOPICS (SURFACE THERMODYNAMICS,
EXTERNAL FORCE FIELDS, IONIC SOLUTIONS,
ETC.)

postulate, which forms the basis of the conserva-
tion of energy, is stated in terms of the mechani-
cal concept of work. The fourth postulate is the
Zeroth Law; it is enlightening to today's student
to find that it was not immediately obvious to the
seventeenth century scientist.

CONTENT

FOLLOWING THE INTRODUCTION of the
four basic postulates, the subject matter is
subdivided into eight chapters of class notes, as
shown in Table II. The theoretical basis of classi-
cal thermodynamics is established in the first
three chapters, which represents about half of
the term. (This is not to imply that the first half
of the course is entirely theoretical. As described
in the next section, most of the classroom time is
devoted to working problems which illustrate the
applications of the theory.)
The flow of concepts is illustrated approxi-
mately in Figure 1. The developments up to the
introduction of the Fundamental Equation (F.E.)
parallels the historical evolution.
The introduction of the formalism of the F.E.
and Legendre transforms is a departure from
traditional chemical engineering courses. (This
route is becoming commonplace in physics and
other engineering fields, but these are too often
highly theoretical and devoid of applications.)
The F.E. is introduced because we believe that
it is of significant conceptual value in handling
one of the central problems in engineering appli-
cation: namely, what are the minimum data re-
quired to solve a given problem and how does one
manipulate available data to more useful forms.
The F.E. (i.e., U = f(S,V,N1, , Nn) in the
energy representation) contains all thermody-
namic information for a given single phase sys-


FALL 1971






























Fig. 1.--Flow of Concepts.

tem.* All other thermodynamic properties can be
derived from it. Although we do not have avail-
able the F.E. for many materials, we can deter-
mine what other data sets have equivalent in-
formation content. Using Legendre transforma-
tions to preserve the information content, it is
shown that H = f(S,P,N1, . Nn) is also a F.E.
and, thus, a Mollier diagram contains all thermo-
dynamic information. Similarly, the F.E. of a
pure material can be reconstructed given the
equation of state and heat capacity. Thus, any
problem can be solved using P-V-T and Cp data,
i.e., if these data are available, we need not search
for any other data.
The last half of the course focuses on the ap-
plication of these principles to systems of in-
creasing complexity (see Table II). Following a
discussion of single phase systems of pure ma-
terials, the criteria of equilibrium and stability
are introduced so as to set the stage for treating
mixtures and phase equilibrium.
Single phase mixtures are synthesized from
pure materials using the criteria of equilibrium to
mix reversibly. Paralleling the pure material de-
velopment, the type of data necessary to describe
a mixture is discussed. The concept of ideal mix-
ing is then appreciated as an idealization for
which mixture properties can be synthesized from
pure component data. Many common mixture
properties (e.g., chemical potential, fugacity, ac-
tivity coefficient) are explored as alternative
methods of presenting similar information.

*Neglecting surface and body forces.


Phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium
are treated as progressively more complex appli-
cations of the building blocks covered previously.
In these areas especially, it is stressed that ther-
modynamics is of little practical utility without
sound engineering judgment. A phase diagram
can only be constructed when there is prior knowl-
edge of what phases do in fact exist and what
properties (e.g., information equivalent to the
F.E.) each phase exhibits. Similarly, the concept
of chemical equilibria is of little use in the com-
plex systems engineers generally face until there
are data or insight into the kinetically feasible
routes.
Through the class notes, solutions to prob-
lems are illustrated. These problems are similar
in nature to those described in the following sec-
tion.

PROBLEMS
P PROBLEMS ARE GENERALLY formulated to
help the student understand and apply prin-
ciples. The better problems are ones which force
students to analyze real and/or practical situa-
tions and which encompass new ideas that differ
from their prior experience. Further, we have
found that the way a problem is stated is very im-
portant. It is poor methodology to ask for an
answer given some input data, e.g., what is the
change in entropy during compression of isobuty-
lene at.... Rather, the problem statement should
pose a real situation wherein the student is moti-
vated to use creativity in devising a solution.
The most instructive problems have an ad-
ditional challenge. They are so conceived that
there are multiple solutions depending upon how
the real situation is modeled. A good case in point
would be the following:
During emergency launch operations, to fill a missile
with RP-4 (a kerosene-based fuel), the ullage volume
of the fuel storage tank is pressurized with a gas and,
after a predetermined level is attained, the fuel forced
out of a bottom drain line to the missile. Normally,
banks of high-pressure nitrogen cylinders supply the
pressurizing gas. We have recently received a sugges-
tion from our launch director to substitute air for nitro-
gen since the base has a large source of compressed air
available at all times. Several of us are concerned about
the safety of the operation should air be used, and we
would appreciate a memorandum from you comment-
ing upon this proposed change.
We would still pressurize rapidly from atmospheric
pressure to about 150 psia. The fuel storage tanks are
horizontal and cylindrical in shape with an ullage vol-
ume of about 10 percent.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The introduction of the formalism of the Fundamental
from traditional ChE courses.


Additional information can be provided in the
problem statement regarding fuel tank dimen-
sions, conditions in the compressed air supply, etc.
The problem is true-to-life in that the solution
is not clean-cut. Various questions immediately
plague the student in his quest for an answer.
Would any significant heat transfer occur between
the pressurized ullage gas and the liquid fuel tank
walls? Would the ullage gases be well-mixed dur-
ing pressurization or would there be a stratifica-
tion with each incoming element of fresh gas
compressing the gas already present (an unmixed
case) ? The solution for various limiting cases
with an assessment of their probability must be
made. For a completely-mixed case it can be dem-
onstrated that the temperature rise of the air
entering the tank is always less than a typical
flash point of kerosene. On the other hand, for an
unmixed case, the air adjacent to the fuel can
heat to temperatures well in excess of the flash
point (assuming no heat transfer to the liquid
fuel). Thus, two physical models of the process
lead to opposite recommendations. The many al-
ternate possibilities force the student to separate
the physics from the thermodynamics, i.e., such
a problem illustrates one of the real weaknesses
of thermodynamics in that the latter is only of
value after the physical processes are clearly de-
fined. The importance of considering fluid me-
chanics, mixing, and mass and heat transfer si-
multaneously with the thermodynamics is essen-
tial in most real problems.
Our graduate students gain confidence in their
ability to analyze new applications of thermo-
dynamics through such problems. As most of
our problems originated in our consulting prac-
tice, they also provide a student with incentive to
solve as homework what someone else actually got
paid to handle !
Illustrative of other typical problems assigned
in the past year or so, Table III was prepared.
Note the attempt to involve the student emotion-
ally in a real process-yet if these statements are
dissected, it will be found that no esoteric analy-
sis is necessary-just basic thermodynamics with
a good dose of engineering judgment and common
sense.
... most of our problems originated in our
consulting practice . .


Equation and Legendre Transforms is a departure



PRESENTATION
U UNDERLYING THE FORMULATION of this
subject is our strong conviction that the appli-
cation of thermodynamics to real situations is far
more difficult to grasp than the theory. Thus, lec-
tures in the ordinary sense are few and the usual
class hour is devoted to a discussion of the as-
signed problem (s).
Although the manner of presentation is closely
tied to the preference of the instructor, the kind
of problems covered is particularly amenable to a
dialogue-type presentation. As early as possible a
first-name basis is established in the class; and,
in a problem discussion, we act more as modera-
tors or devil's advocates than as teachers. As one
student flounders or hesitates -we often immedi-
ately shift to someone else to continue-or we
encourage spontaneous outbursts of indignation
should another make a statement of fact or as-
sume a point with which there is disagreement.
Perhaps 10 or 15 students may be involved in
setting up the solution of a problem, and even at
the conclusion there still may be a minority objec-
tion. Such a class routine is difficult to describe
and sounds as though bedlam exists! Sometimes
this is so, and in such cases the role of the in-
structor is very important in leading the discus-
sion to a conclusion (with help from the class)
and showing that some avenues of approach are
either incorrect or fruitless. Yet each student who
proposes a path must be satisfied on an intellec-
tual basis why his is not the optimum route.
The ideal class period finishes with a general
agreement regarding the approaches and models
formulated and, minimizing all arithmetic, with
the final answer (or answers!).
We feel that this type of approach is exciting
and that student involvement soon unites the
members of the class so that each begins to see
and appreciate alternate approaches and ideas.
Certainly, our stated objective in the course is to
teach the basic concepts of thermodynamics, but
equally important we must teach students to an-
alyze new problems, recognize and evaluate al-
ternate approaches, and arrive at conclusions
based upon the best theory and data that are
available. Our course is, as W.K. Lewis so often
proposed and practiced, to encourage the stu-
dents to initiate or follow a proposed solution,


FALL 1971









offer alternate approaches, and make logical de-
cisions-in short, to think.

TABLE III. ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS
1. Our old friend Rocky Jones has been tinker-
ing in the laboratory and has produced an inter-
esting device which he calls an "integral pulsed
shock tube." As yet, we do not see a large com-
mercial market. In fact, we are not sure what it
actually does! Could you analyze this device and
answer the brief questions given later?
A long, insulated tube is divided into chambers
of equal volume by rigid, adiabatic partitions.
SMaster 1
5eiuenOer






Valve AB
Each partition has a fast-operating valve to allow
flow of gas between compartments when the valve
in open. The operation of this device is a follows:
Compartment A is initially filled with helium gas
at 40F and 64 atm. The rest of the compartments
are evacuated to zero pressure. All valves are
closed. At time zero, valve AB is quickly opened
and gas flows from A to B. Just when the press-
ures are equalized in A and B, valve AB is shut
and valve BC opens. As before, just at the time
the pressures in B and C are equal, valve BC is
shut and valve CD opened. This sequence is con-
tinued until gas enters the last compartment, G.
There is no axial heat conduction and no heat
conduction across the valves or partitions. Helium
is an ideal gas with a Cp = 5 cal/gmole--'K and
C, = 3 cal/gmole--K.
a. When valve FG has just closed, what is the
temperature and the pressure in compartment G?
b. When the sequencing is completed all valves
are opened and the pressure allowed to equalize in
all compartments. Slow axial conduction also
equalizes the temperature in all compartments.
What is the equilibrium temperature and press-
ure?
c. Rocky is a bit uncertain how much work it
requires to prepare his integral pulsed shock tube
for firing. Estimate the minimum work per mole
of helium initially in compartment A. In this cal-
culation, assume all compartments of the shock
tube initially contain helium at 1 atm, 40F. Any


Problem statements should pose a real situation
wherein the student is motivated to use creativity
in devising a solution.

helium that is removed must be pumped into a
large tank containing helium at a constant press-
ure of 2 atm, 40F. Also any helium used to charge
compartment A to 64 atm is to be taken from the
same tank. If, in your calculations, any heat trans-
fer occurs, assume you have a large heat sink or
source at 40F.
d. Can you suggest any use for Rocky's new
device?
2. It appears to be an established fact that, on
occasion, during rapid loading of liquid oxygen
or liquid hydrogen into missile tanks, some tanks
have imploded with catastrophic results. Such
tanks are constructed to withstand an internal
pressure somewhat above atmospheric, but they
will collapse if the ambient pressure significantly
exceeds the internal pressure.
Our information is that during this critical
loading period, the cryogen may be all gas, a mix-
ture of gas and liquid, or all liquid. The cryogen
is pumped through a side port and has intimate
contact with gas already in the tank at ambient
temperature.
Please analyze this problem and submit a list
of recommendations regarding steps to be taken
to minimize the implosion hazards. Also, com-
ment on the suggestion that there may exist a
critical quality for the operation. This critical
quality is defined as that fraction of vapor in the
feed which, if exceeded, precludes any possible
implosion.







Implosion I?







Cryogen (


(Continued on page 198)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













flmrTI


As responsible scientists, we've been aware for
years that we must "pick up after ourselves" as we
go along. While developing new products and new
technologies that make life more rewarding, we must
also see to it that we avoid upsetting our country's
vital ecological balance. This means making sure
that factory detritus does not adversely affect near-
by ponds and streams. That the air around a produc-
tion unit remains clear, sweet and refreshing. That
surrounding plant and animal life maintain normal
life cycles.
It's an exhaustive, complex and often frustrating
job. But it must be done. It's the only way to achieve
the long-range goals we've mapped for ourselves:
helping improve the health, nutrition and living stan-
dards of people around the world.
The only efficient way. Total environmental involve-
ment. At Dow Chemical, U.S.A.







_Ae


FALL 1971


D)D)(CC











7 Aoaiue in


TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

T. G. THEOFANOUS
Purdue University
Lafayette, Indiana 47907

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
AN INTEGRATED fundamental approach is
taken in teaching Transport Phenomena
(ChE 620) at Purdue. The course is offered in
the Spring Semester and is normally proceeded by
a course in Advanced Chemical Engineering Cal-
culations (ChE 527). ChE 620 is the only Trans-
port course for the terminal Master's student but
leads to the specialized courses on Heat Transfer
(ChE 622), Mass Transfer (ChE 624) and Fluid
Mechanics (ChE 635) which are offered in the
second year for those who have qualified for the
Doctoral program. As a rule, our graduate stu-
dents have had some undergraduate experience
with Transport in the sense of Bird, Stewart and
Lightfoot (BSL). New mathematical techniques
(linear algebra, partial differential equations,
cartesian tensors, etc.) are introduced in ChE
527, where experience in Transport is furthered
by frequent in-class illustrations and homework
assignments. I consider that the most important
objective of ChE 620 is to provide a strong and
simple conceptual basis on which all previous
transport experience and any future additions to
it may be arranged in well-organized structures
that provide, in their totality, a perspective of
Transport Phenomena. To meet this objective I
particularly look for continuity of course coverage
and emphasize the economy of the subject rather
than its detail. The more detailed description of
this course provided in this article should better
illustrate these points.
"Suggested" and "assigned" readings are
given on a regular weekly basis. These are de-
signed to exercise, and even strain, the self-study
habits of the individual. Simultaneously, com-
plete lists of standard references on a variety
of topics are established for easy future reference.
However, a cautious approach is taken with re-
spect to periodical literature. A "select" accumu-
lation of recent research results is compiled in a
library file for easy access. Time limits this spe-
cific activity to a minimum, but it is considered


Theo G. Theofanous, from Athens, Greece ('42), was
educated in Chemical Engineering at the National Tech-
nical University, Athens, Greece (B.S. '65), and at the
University of Minnesota (Ph.D. '69), where he also taught
as an Instructor. Currently he is an Assistant Professor
of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University.
Dr. Theofanous' research interests are in the field
of transport phenomena. He is active in fundamental
research (turbulent and multiphase systems), as well as
in application oriented work including problems from
the environmental (river reaeration), biomedical (muco-
ciliary transport) and nuclear (coolant dynamics and
safety of LMFBR) fields.

an important factor in engaging the student in
"Scholarly Activity," which, after all, is one of
the primary purposes of any graduate course.
Some discussion of recent research results of the
Instructor, whenever pertinent, serve well for
this purpose since they convey a natural enthu-
siasm and know-how.
The course meets twice a week for an equiva-
lent of three credit hours. Note-taking during
lectures is eliminated through the use of detailed
handouts on most lecture material. In class, em-
phasis is placed on ideas and their complete and
logical evolution rather than mere enumeration of
results. This approach is probably not too effi-
cient in terms of class coverage but the handout
notes compensate for the defect. A total of about
45 homework problems, which help build up the
student's confidence in problem solving, are as-
signed and carry about 35% of the total grade.
Student cooperation is encouraged for their solu-
tion. A detailed solution for each homework prob-
lem is provided via handouts. A two-hour final
examination is given at the end of the semester
and carries another 35% of the course grade.
Frequent 15-20 minute quizzes motivate the stu-
dent to keep abreast with assigned material since
they account for the remaining 30% of the final
grade.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The most important objective of this course is to provide a . conceptual basis on which
all transport experience . may be arranged in well-organized structures that provide
a perspective of transport phenomena.


COURSE OUTLINE
T HE COURSE BEGINS with a brief, but gen-
eral introduction which states the basic prob-
lem of Transport of Heat, Mass or Momentum in
a continuum. An overview of the concepts of den-
sities, fluxes, equations of change and constitu-
tive equations is given and exemplified in terms
of simple physical situations which are well-
known to the student. The role of initial and
boundary conditions and some standard difficul-
ties associated with the solution of the resulting
mathematical problems, together with the need
for intelligent simplifications, are briefly men-
tioned. Within this introduction, we discuss in
some detail the basic structure of the course and
the role and aims of each part. Finally, the intro-
duction is completed with an effort to motivate
the more casual observers in the class. Some
"exciting" transport problems are posed and some
"interesting" solutions are discussed. The choice
of topics is arbitrary and naturally biased by my
recent research activities. Taylor-Proudman col-
ums, cavitation and pressure signals, mucociliary
transport in the mammalian lung, surface tension
driven flows in alveolar clearance, and transfer
at free turbulent interfaces are some recent topics
utilized. The course is formally separated into two
parts. Part A, occupying roughly half of the
semester, is concerned with the general formula-
tion of Transport Phenomena. Part B undertakes
an organized approach to applications of the gen-
eral theory.

A. FORMULATION
Our aim is to formulate the equations of
change for a general multi-component continuum
and to consider briefly the various approaches of
constitutive theory. The mathematical machinery
and, in general, the level of abstraction required
for this part of the course cause some difficulties
to all but the best-prepared students. However,
properly paced lectures and detailed handout
notes alleviate most of the problems. Further com-
fort and a sense of security are provided by the
sections on shell balances, equations of change,
constitutive equations and macroscopic balances
of BSL, which are evenly distributed as self-
study assignments during the period occupied


by this part of the course. A large number of
homework problems chosen primarily to enhance
the physical feel of a variety of transport situa-
tions is assigned in this period. But development
of mathematical skills is also sought to the
greatest possible extent.

1. Equations of change
We start with discussion and examples of
scalar, vector, and dyadic fields. The tensorial
character is discussed in physical terms of zero,
first and second order tensors. The entity nature
of tensors is thus emphasized and its relation
to the collection of its components is exemplified.
Vector dyadicc) notation is adopted throughout
for the inherent conceptual clarity it conveys.
Components are not introduced until just before
the part of the course dealing with applications.
The basic vector differential invariants are then
introduced in terms of their coordinate-free rep-
resentations. General control volumes are intro-
duced, and a number of important operations and
theorems (Green-Gauss, Reynold's Transport
Theorem) are discussed and interpreted physic-
ally. The basic "conservation principles" are first
discussed for the conceptually easier case of a
collection of discrete particles, and the conti-
nuum ideas are then obtained in the limit.
Cauchy's equation of motion, mass continuity, and
total energy and, in addition, the equations of
change of kinetic energy and vorticity are derived
in a completely rigorous fashion for a multicom-
ponent reacting continuum in both integral and
differential forms. The role of the material control
volume in isolating diffusive fluxes is -noted
throughout.

2. Constitutive theory
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics provides the
most practical and unifying tool for the deriva-
tion of linear constitutive equations. The pre-
viously-obtained equations of change are utilized
in the entropy balance equation for a material
control volume, and the diffusive flux and rate
of production of ent:opy are readily identified.
This actually provides a good basis for discussion
of the nature of diffusional phenomena in general
(heat, mass or momentum) which is the very


FALL 1971










foundation of the Transport Phenomena ap-
proach. Linear phenomenology is then introduced
to arrive, with relatively little effort, at the trans-
port coefficients and driving forces as given in
equations (18.4-1) to (18.4-13) of BSL. This de-
velopment is particularly desirable since it clear-
ly elucidates the role of chemical potential (iso-
thermal) gradients (or concentration and pres-
sure gradients) and body forces in mass diffusion
processes. With a slight variation of the above
development, Stefan-Maxwell type equations are
obtained and are utilized to introduce in a con-
cise fashion the concept of effective diffusivity
for dilute multicomponent systems. At this point
homework problems are assigned which bring out
certain important features of mass and energy
transport in multicomponent systems.
For a brief illustration of approaches de-
veloped within the framework of Rational Me-
chanics, the most general stress-strain relation-
ship for a purely viscous (Stokesian) fluid is de-
rived. The principles of "material indifference"
and "isotropy" are of main concern here. How
isotropy leads to symmetries that restrict the
form of the constitutive equation involves a very
instructive argument which is given in detail.
We thus arrive at equation (3.6-11) of BSL,
which is used as the starting point for a number
of homework assignments in non-Newtonian fluid
flow. Finally molecular mechanisms are con-
sidered from the simple kinetic theory approach
given in BSL. An elementary, one-dimensional
random walk is discussed and a diffusion process
is obtained in the limit as a stochastic process.
The main aim in these discussions is to provide
the basis for interpretations of diffusivities in
terms of the frequency and distance (velocity)
of fluctuation processes, since these concepts are
also useful in turbulent phenomenological theo-
ries.


3. Transition to components
Flexibility in choice of a co-ordinate system
is important for the most convenient solution of
any transport problem. Furthermore, the transi-
tion from the general vector equations to compon-
ent forms must be thoroughly understood. These
goals are achieved by discussing some elements
of differential geometry for orthogonal curvi-
linear co-ordinate systems. Explicit general ex-
pressions for the vector differential invariants
are obtained in terms of the "physical compon-


In class, emphasis is placed on ideas and their
complete and logical evolution rather than
mere enumeration of results.

ents," by referring their co-ordinate-free repre-
sentations to a local cartesian basis. Finally the
importance of an intelligent choice of co-ordinate
systems, which takes advantage of the symme-
tries of the problem, is illustrated by examples of
simple diffusion problems in elliptic geometries
and of convective diffusion in stagnation flow
(material co-ordinates). An immediate applica-
tion follows by introducing the concept of the
stream function, which is then related to the phy-
sical components of the velocity vector by satis-
fying the equation of continuity in a general
orthogonal curvilinear system for two-dimension-
al or axisymmetric incompressible flow. In this
part, and throughout the course, topics on the
algebra and calculus of tensors are reiterated
whenever possible to provide the student with
the required familiarity.
B. APPLICATIONS
B Y THIS TIME THE students have solved a
large number of problems and they have seen
the abstract developments of the theoretical
foundations. At this point they are ready and, in
fact, anxious for the in-class applications which
they were promised at the beginning of the
course. Again the basic economy of ideas is em-
phasized. It is essential, nevertheless, that the
student be introduced to a number of important
chemical engineering applications in addition to
the specialized topics of multicomponent diffusion
and non-Newtonian flow which were treated earl-
ier. The general areas of interphase transfer at
fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces in both strati-
fied and dispersed (bubbles-drops-suspensions)
systems are in the center of such interest and,
in addition, provide unlimited opportunity for in-
structive discussions. The basic problems are
posed at the outset for both deterministic and sto-
chastic (chaotic) systems. Their solutions are
discussed throughout the remainder of the course
in terms of the possible variety of approaches.
In all applications, an effort is made to reduce
the procedure to a number of elementary steps.
Simplifications are introduced at two levels, and
in both, a clearly-understood list of the restric-
tions imposed by the simplifying assumptions is
compiled. We first simplify the vector equations
(change-constitutive) as we utilize them to under-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








stand the "physics" of the specific problem. This
examination leads also to the most convenient
co-ordinate system. Further simplifications are
then introduced in the component forms of the
equations. The boundary conditions are then dis-
cussed in light of the requirement for a well-posed
mathematical model.
The classification of applications is in terms
of the interplay between convection and diffusion,
on the one hand, and between deterministic
laminarr) and stochastic (turbulent) systems on
the other. Methods of obtaining fundamental
knowledge of the physical processes in stochastic
systems are discussed. Convection-diffusion con-
siderations are an important input for these dis-
cussions as well as for the analysis of determinis-
tic systems. Now the homework assignments are
more closely related to the lecture material than
before.

1. Similarity-Interphase Transfer
We start with a brief account of dimensional
considerations. The "natural" units which are pro-
vided by the physical parameters that "enter"
the problem are discussed. The concept of self-
similarity is then introduced and illustrated by
obtaining "universal" solutions for the propaga-
tion of a strong shock wave in the atmosphere,
the flow of a heavy fluid over a spillway, and for
gas absorption into a turbulent liquid with high
turbulent intensities (recent results obtained by
the author and co-workers). The general problem
of transfer across a free turbulent interface is
posed in detail. Open channel (natural stream)
flows, annular and bubbly pipe flows, film flows
and agitated dispersed (bubble) systems are iden-
tified as important special cases, and the desira-
bility of a unified approach is thus illustrated.
On the other hand, the nature of variations be-
tween these systems is discussed in terms of the
physical motions involved and their interaction
with the diffusion processes near the gas-liquid
and comparatively solid-liquid interface. A quali-
tative discussion of the origin of hydrodynamic
instabilities that lead to periodic motions (waves)
and turbulence is given. The physical meaning of
eddies, large and small scale motions, correlation
and dissipation of turbulent energy is briefly dis-
cussed. The quantitative treatment, however, of
these topics is postponed till the end of the course.
Similarity is then used for the reduction of
partial differential equations. Problems in un-
steady diffusion and unsteady convective diffusion
FALL 1971


Non-equilibrium thermodynamics provides the most
practical and unifying tool for the derivation of
linear constitutive equations.

are solved and discussed. Invariance of a partial
differential equation under certain transforma-
tions of the independent variables is utilized as
an elementary example of the Group Symmetric
origin of the method but also as a practical means
of uncovering the precise form of the similarity
transformation. In terms of these solutions, pene-
tration and renewal concepts for turbulent inter-
faces are discussed. The previously-obtained uni-
versal solution is reinterpreted in terms of quasi-
deterministic models of turbulent interfaces. This
discussion leads to a rational look at the limita-
tions of the "correlation" approach in general.

2. Negligible convection
Rigorous elimination of the convective terms
is initially carried out for cases in which V VV
=0, V Vqi = 0 (V j V7) or V 0. A large num-
ber of solutions, previously-obtained in the home-
work problems on conduction, diffusion and recti-
linear flows, is recalled. The linearity property
and resulting superposition are pointed out and
help enlarge the class of available solutions. Some
multi-dimensional diffusion problems (including
source terms) that help familiarize the student
with Carslaw and Jaeger and Crank are solved
as homework assignments.
The approximate elimination of the convec-
tive terms occupies most of the discussion. Im-
portant classes of fluid mechanical approxima-
tions, such as creeping flow and lubrication
theory, are introduced and applied to specific
problems. Stokes' solution for creeping flow
around a solid sphere is worked out in detail and
the "paradox" of the corresponding problem for
a cylinder is discussed. Oseen's improvement of
Stokes' solution is then given. The two solutions
are then interpreted. Stokes' approximation in-
volves a symmetric diffusion of vorticity from
the sphere while Oseen's improvement incorpo-
rates (approximately) convection of vorticity by
the main flow. This consideration leads to the
genesis of the boundary layer concept which is
taken up next. Prior to that, however, the film
concept is examined and the effects of mass trans-
fer on temperature and concentration profiles are
pointed out by means of BSL's treatment of inter-
phase transfer at high mass transfer rates.
(Continued on page 199)










I eawa-e i4


HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS

SOL W. WELLER
State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, New York, 14214


H HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS, once the
darling of avant-garde physical chemists, has
been largely disavowed by chemistry departments.
During the past decade it has been increasingly
taken up and nourished by chemical engineering
departments-partly by necessity, since the ap-
plications of heterogeneous catalysis are of such
vast industrial importance that we cannot allow
the subject to go untaught and uninvestigated.
The situation has not been totally satisfactory.
Chemical engineering students, who often know
too little chemistry (especially organic) to ap-
preciate the complexities of real reactions, tend
to concentrate excessively on transport phenom-
ena (which they know relatively well), and to
hold to an innocent belief that reaction mechan-
isms can be rigorously deduced from computer-
ized curve-fitting of kinetic data.
We have adopted a compromise solution to
this problem. A one-semester, introductory gradu-
ate course in heterogeneous kinetics is offered
that is intended to provide the bare bones of a
field whose literature is now enormous. The course
is normally offered in late afternoon; it is open
to full-time graduate students, to seniors who
have already had an undergraduate course in
applied kinetics, and to qualified part-time gradu-
ate students who are employed in local industry.
Since there is substantial industrial activity in
catalysis in the Buffalo area, experience indicates
that 1/3 to 1/2 of a typical class is made up of
such part-time students.
The course is intended to walk a middle road
between theory and practice. One semester is
inadequate to present, even in elementary fashion,
all the topics one would like to cover: theories of
adsorption, catalyst preparation, catalyst charac-
terization, heterogeneous kinetics, limitations by
physical factors, mechanistic studies, theories of
catalysis, nature of surface complexes, and a sur-
vey of industrially important catalytic reactions.
A few comments on text and references may
be useful. As with most graduate courses, the
lectures are best based on one's accumulated ex-


U'sM
Sol Weller did his undergraduate work at Wayne and
obtained his Ph.D., from the University of Chicago in
1941, under the Nobel Prize winner in physics, James
Franck. After serving in the N.D.R.C. and the Manhat-
tan Project during W.W. II, he conducted research at the
Bureau of Mines from 1945 to 1950 on synthetic liquid
fuels processes and gas separations by fractional per-
meation. He was head of fundamental research at Houdry
Process Corp. from 1950 to 1958. In 1958 he joined the
Aeronutronic Division of Ford( later Philco-Ford) where,
after a stint as Manager of Propulsion Research( he be-
came Director of the Chemistry Laboratory and Acting
Director of the Materials Laboratory of Philco. He came
to SUNY/Buffalo in 1965 as professor of chemical engi-
neering; there he has since contentedly pursued research
in kinetics and catalysis, except for interludes as visiting
professor at Berkeley and acting chairman at Buffalo.
He is presently on leave, on a one-year U.N. appointment
at the Centre for Industrial Research in Haifa.

perience and eclectic notes. A one-volume text,
suitable for retention by the student as a refer-
ence, is nevertheless a convenience. After some
experimentation we have found Thomas and
Thomas, Introduction to the Principles of Hetero-
geneous Catalysis, to be quite useful for this pur-
pose. A number of recent books provide an ex-
cellent supplement in specialized areas: Ander-
son's Experimental Methods in Catalytic Re-
search, Thomas' Catalytic Processes and Proven
Catalysts, Bond's Catalysis by Metals, Krylov's
Catalysis by Nonmetals, Satterfield's Mass Trans-
fer in Heterogeneous Catalysis, and Linsen's Phy-
sical and Chemical Aspects of Adsorbents and
Catalysts. By way of multivolume references,
there is the unending series of Advances in Ca-
talysis; Emmett's Catalysis, now somewhat dated
but still very useful; and the Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology, which contains some of
the best descriptions of industrial catalytic pro-
cesses.
The lectures attempt to touch on the topics
listed in the following course outline:


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










I. Adsorption
A. Physical adsorption and chemisorption
B. Isotherm equations
C. Kinetics of adsorption
II. Catalyst Preparation
A. Clean surfaces
B. "Practical" catalysts
III. Catalyst Characterization
A. Measurement of adsorption isotherms
B. Total surface area from physical adsorption
isotherms
C. Selective chemisorption techniques
D. Average particle size
E. Physical techniques (x-ray, magnetic, electron)
F. Surface heterogeneity (heat of adsorption,
temperature-programmed desorption iso-
therms)
G. Entropy of adsorption
H. Density (bulk, particle, true), pore volume
I. Pore size distribution (adsorption, porosi-
metry)
J. Diffusion in pores
IV. Reaction Rates in Porous Catalysts
A. Historical
B. Effectiveness factor in isothermal, simple re-
actions
C. Poisoning and effectiveness factor
D. Temperature gradients: intraparticle, boundary
layer, interparticle
E. Diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests
F. Effectiveness factor in complex reactions; se-
lectivity
V. Kinetics of Surface-Catalyzed Reactions
A. General principles
B. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics
C. Alternate approaches
D. Catalyst deactivation
VI. Theories of Catalysis
A. Correlations of activity data for metals
B. Theories: geometric, electronic
C. Semiconductor compounds: Sabatier principle,
"volcano" curves, surface chemistry
D. Acid catalysis
E. Relations to homogeneous catalysis
VII. Reaction Mechanisms
A. Tracer studies
B. Stereochemistry
C. Surface species

Clearly the distribution of emphasis among
these many topics will not be uniform. A few
remarks will indicate the author's approach to
this matter:
1. Adsorption is treated in some detail for two reasons.
First, it provides a basic tool for catalyst characterization:
physical adsorption for the analysis of catalyst texture
(total area, pore eize distribution, etc.); and selective
chemisorption, including variants such as "gas titration"
techniques and isotopic exchange, for determination of
specific surface area of a supported active component.
Second, all rational treatments of catalytic kinetics require
some assumptions about adsorption isotherms.


2. Methods of catalyst characterization are also empha-
sized because of their utility in understanding catalyst
comparisons and time-dependent behavior of catalytic
systems.
3. In the treatment of mass transfer limitations on Re-
action rates, we have found it convenient to use Wheeler's
development. It is exceptionally lucid, easy for the student
to grasp and use without extensive experience, and effec-
tive in giving correct semi-quantitative answers in most
practical situations. (Zeolites are a notable exception.)
4. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics, particularly as ex-
tended and systematized by Hougen, Watson, and Yang,
is developed in detail because of its elegance and intellec-
tual attractiveness. However, the author's bias leads him
to alert students to questions about the validity of the
basic premises, and to caution them about drawing mech-
istic conclusions from kinetic measurements.
5. The problems of establishing reaction mechanism
are illustrated by specific examples of non-kinetic methods
that have been developed to attack this most difficult
question. We have found it necessary to guard against
over-selling one's personal enthusiasm here. For example,
it was belatedly discovered that one early class almost
unanimously concluded that IR studies of surface species
provided a cure-all for catalytic problems.

OUR COURSE IS probably as well-character-
ized by what is left out, or at least de-
emphasized, as by what is included. Several im-
portant topics are relatively slighted in the lec-
tures. A few of these should be mentioned. (1)
Theories of catalysis, and particularly electronic
theories. It is the author's observation that after
two decades of intensive effort by many people,
such theories have proved of comparatively little
predictive use in practice; and it is his feeling
that ex post facto rationalization can be left by
chemical engineers to others. (2) Detailed dis-
cussions of industrial catalysis. We feel that the
fundamental tools provided to the student by the
lectures should permit him to explore with under-
standing any specific catalytic process in which
he becomes interested. Moreover, the individual
student is required to make in depth a "case
study" of some industrially important catalytic
reaction as a term paper. (3) Contemporary de-
velopments in chemical kinetics, examples of
which are the elegant treatment of complex re-
action schemes by Wei and Prater, and Horiuti's
concept of stoichiometric number and reaction
rates near equilibrium. Such topics are not limited
in scope to heterogeneous catalysis, and they are
normally covered here in a separate graduate
course in applied chemical kinetics. (4) Catalytic
reactions over clean surfaces. The emphasis in
the course is on "practical" catalysts.


FALL 1971














COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS DESIGN


ARTHUR W. WESTERBERG
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601



INTRODUCTION

THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES a three credit
(quarter system) graduate course, CHE 617,
on computer aided process design (CAPD)
taught by the author at the University of
Florida. The course is taught as an option course
in the Spring Quarter, generally to about
half of our first year graduate students. The stu-
dents have already taken as required background
a course in linear algebra and are expected to
know how to program our IBM 360/65 computer
system using FORTRAN IV.
The class meets each week for two 50 minute
lectures and two 50 minute recitation sessions. A
typical recitation session consists of a short quiz
followed by verbal interchange with the students
on reading assignments and previous notes. The
course has also been taught as a straight lecture
course. Somewhat less material can be covered the
current way, but the students (and the author)
are definitely understanding the material better
this way.
Three approaches can be easily proposed for
presenting a course on CAPD. One can teach a
practice oriented course in which students learn
to use various existing CAPD systems available to
universities, such as PACER or CHESS (1), or
as a second approach one can teach computational
methods which have been developed for perform-
ing design calculations for specific types of pro-
cess units. As a third approach one can present a
more abstract course in which the general phi-
losophy of process design is described as a se-
quence of interrelated tasks. Specific tasks can
then be explicitly stated and the computer algo-
rithms necessary to handle them investigated. It
is this last approach which is adopted for CHE
617. A motivation for this last approach is that
it coincides with the author's research interest in
this area.


OVERALL COURSE CONTENT

T HE PRIMARY GUIDE for the course and its
contents is a 1967 review article on CAPD by
Sargent (2). This year's course outline and read-
ing assignments are given in Table 1. The main
text for the course is Strategy of Process Engi-
neering by Rudd and Watson but much of the
material is drawn from the literature. The stu-
dents are also directed to supplementary reading
from the text, Optimization: Theory and Prac-
tice by Beveridge and Schechter.
Figure 1 (which extends a similar figure in
Rudd and Watson, p. 115) summarizes for the


START


I


Ir- -







I 1-



VARIABL
OPTIMIZATI
Ch. 6-10



L- STRUCTURAL
OPTIMIZATION


STAT
VARIAB





El
CR
Ch

OBJECTIVE
E FUNCTION
ON ^ -






EXTERNAL
PARAMETERS


Figure 1. A SET OF TASKS IN PROCESS DESIGN


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE I. COURSE OUTLINE AND READING
ASSIGNMENTS
Text: Rudd and Watson, Strategy of Process Engineering,
Wiley (1968)
Supplementary Text: Beveridge and Schechter, Optimiza-
tion: Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill (1970). Chap-
ter VII.


Arthur W. Westerberg is currently .an assistant pro-
fessor in ChE at the University of Florida. He obtained
his education at the University of Minnesota, Princeton
University, and Imperial College, London, finishing in
1964. He then worked two years for Control Data Corpo-
ration, in their process control division in La Jolla, Cali-
fornia, before coming to Florida in 1967.
His teaching interests include Fortran and numerical
analysis, undergraduate and graduate process design, and
classical and optimal control. His research is in the
area of computer aided design and computer control of
processes.

students the aspects of CAPD considered in the
course. In particular the course investigates in de-
tail the algorithms necessary to do process calcu-
lations and presents introductory material needed
to consider both the variable value adjustment
and structural optimization problems for large
process systems. The topics of automating pro-
cess synthesis and of formulating an economic
criterion are covered to a lesser extent. Equip-
ment and operating cost estimation are only
briefly considered.

DISCUSSION OF TOPICS COVERED

T HE COURSE IS INTRODUCED by discussing
Figure 1 and Sargent's review article. Some
recent work by Rudd and co-workers on synthe-
sis (3) is also discussed. After quickly reviewing
the topic of cost estimation, we consider economic
criteria. Reference (4) discusses the results of
using various criteria. Next we solve a short
problem using the interest rate of return cri-
terion-where one calculates the interest rate
necessary to cause the present worth of all in-
come to equal the present worth of all expendi-
tures. The resulting equation is highly nonlinear
in the unknown interest rate giving the oppor-
tunity to review the numerical techniques (5) of
Newton's Methods and the secant method for


Week Topic
1 I. General Problem of
Design
A. Synthesis
B. Analysis
II. Costing
2 III. Economic Criteria


3 IV. Generalized Heat and
Material Balancing
A. Existing CAPD
Systems
B. Unstructured
Balances
4 C. Flowsheet Analysis
1. Precedence
Ordering
2. Tearing
5

V. Strategies for Solving
Sets of Algebraic
Equations
A. Output Set Assign-
ment
6 B. Selection of Decision
Variables
C. Precedence Ordering
D. Tearing
7 VI. Optimization of Systems
A. One Dimensional
Search
B. Multidimensional
Search
C. Lagrange, Kuhn
Tucker Multipliers

8 D. Linear Programming
9 E. Nonlinear Constrained
F. Decomposition


Assigned Reading

Reference 2
R and W, Chapters
1 and 2
R and W, Chapter 5
Reference 4
R and W, Chapters
4 and 11



References 1 and 6

Reference 7


References 8 and 9
Reference 11
Reference 12
R and W, Chapter 3




References 18 and 19
R and W, Chapter 3
Reference 14

Reference 13


R and W, Chapter 6



B and S, Sections
3.3, 4.3.
R and W, Chapter 7

R and W, Chapter 10
References 15, 16, 20


solving it. A detailed homework problem with
such items as projected design and startup costs,
periodic investments, and monthly sales and ex-
penditures is given for solution on the computer.
The students investigate the effects of including
and neglecting projected cost changes and im-
provements in plant operation to bring home
strongly the difficulties of estimating true worth
of even a simple project to a company.
Various existing CAPD systems are discussed
next using references (1,6). To illustrate the


FALL 1971









computational aspects for solving heat and ma-
terial balances within many of these systems, we
set up, in generalized nomenclature, the material
balances for a simple single recycle process. The
generalized nomenclature uses the variables
X i = Feed of component j into input stream k of unit i

P. = Output of component j in output stream k of unit i

The equations written include the connection
equations relating inputs and outputs of different
units and the model equations which solve for a
single unit's outputs in terms of its inputs and
equipment parameters. The model equations are
grouped as they would be in a FORTRAN sub-
routine. The calculations thus have a prechosen
grouping and direction for "information flow"-
i.e., from unit inputs to unit outputs. We con-
sider two solution techniques: tearing (guessing
and iterating on) the recycle stream, and Rosen's
method (7) using split fractions. The students
set up and solve on the computer a homework
problem for a reactor, flash unit system.
The students recognize quickly from these
examples that the process calculations are highly
structured, and that time spent in developing a
good solution procedure is worth the effort. Thus
the next topics covered are (1) automatic prece-
dence ordering algorithms to group and order the
calculations, and (2) tearing algorithms to lo-
cate which streams within a group one ought to
guess and iterate. The precedence ordering algo-
rithms of Sargent and Westerberg (8) and of
Harary (9,10) are both given. We then cover the
unweighted stream tearing algorithm of Barkley
and Motard (11) which discovers an ordering for
a group of units that has the fewest recycle
streams. We also cover the weighted stream tear-
ing algorithms given in Christensen and Rudd
(12).
The preselection of the direction of informa-
tion flow is then removed as a requirement. The
problem becomes one of solving sets of N alge-
braic equations in M(>N) variables. We con-
sider algorithms to choose the M-N decision or
independent variables to minimize needed tears
(13) or enhance convergence (14). The direct use
of the precedence and tearing algorithms given
earlier is included here.
Once the design problem is reformulated in
this manner, we can put specifications on unit out-
put stream values and compare satisfying these
by directly ordering the resulting equations to


The course is intended to walk a middle road
between theory and practice . (it) investigates the
algorithms necessary to do process
calculations and presents material needed
for the variable value adjustment and structural
optimization problems for large process systems.

guessing and iterating input stream values to
satisfy the given outputs. A homework problem
on a simple double pipe heat exchanger gives the
students a chance to use these algorithms and
also to investigate the local convergence eigen-
values for various choices of independent vari-
ables.
A secondary outcome of studying these algo-
rithms is that the students become reasonably
adept at using some of them to derive by hand
quite reasonable solution procedures for small
sets of equations. Some of these algorithms will
therefore no doubt find their way into undergrad-
uate numerical analysis and FORTRAN courses.
The last four weeks of the course are spent on
developing elementary optimization procedures
for handling structured systems. We first develop
the Golden Section search algorithm and then dis-
cuss methods for multidimensional unconstrained
optimization. The students are not given much
detail here as we only have time to convey the
approaches one can take in optimization.
Since many decomposition methods can be
developed using Lagrange and Kuhn Tucker mul-
tipliers, we next develop the necessary conditions
for constrained optimization which lead to their
introduction. The students' background in linear
algebra permits one to present these methods
quickly using vector concepts. For example, the
presentation for Lagrange multipliers for an N
variable and M constraint problem involves dis-
covering that the gradient to the objective func-
tion and M gradients of the equality constraints
must all lie in the same M dimensional subspace
at the optimum. Thus a nontrivial linear relation-
ship exists among them, and the coefficients in
this relationship are in fact the Lagrange multi-
pliers.
Linear programming is considered next. For
a problem with M constraints and N variables,
we discover the conditions of Dantzig that the
solution must lie at an extreme point of the fea-
sible region and that these points are a subset
of the intersection points found by setting all but
M of the variables and slacks to zero. The re-
sulting Simplex algorithm is then given in some


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Three approaches can be proposed for teaching CAPD: One can teach a practice-oriented course using existing
CAPD systems available to universities; one can teach computational methods; or, one can present a more
abstract course in which the general philosophy of process design is described as a sequence of
interrelated tasks.


detail. We develop the dual form to an LP prob-
lem using the Kuhn Tucker conditions and prove
that the Simplex algorithm in fact solves both
simultaneously.
With this background, the decomposition
methods based on Lagrange multipliers (15,16,
17) are given for optimizing structured process
designs. The students thus see the discrete maxi-
mum principle for nonserial structures and con-
sider various numerical methods to solve a prob-
lem so formulated. Notice we are in a position now
to appeal to their background in automatically
evolving solution procedures. We also consider
the computational limitations (16,17), such as
where the derivatives needed to adjust the multi-
pliers fail to exist, and the theoretical limitations
because one only has necessary conditions. The
students are then presented with recent work by
McGalliard (20), where the dual bounding nature
of the generalized Lagrange problem (17) is ex-
ploited in synthesizing an optimal flowsheet for
a process. If time permits, we also cover the de-
composition algorithm for Linear Programming.
The students use the MPS system of IBM to solve
some simple LP problems.
These last weeks on optimization are admitted-
ly very condensed and virtually no time is avail-
able to cover even closely related topics. It is the
intent here to introduce the students to the po-
tential of Mathematical Programming concepts as
they may relate to future CAPD systems. This
area is certainly not well defined for most pub-
licized CAPD systems currently used.

DISCUSSION
Many appropriate topics to CAPD are neglec-
ted in this course as time is insufficient to cover
them all. The most obvious omissions are chemical
component and mixture property calculations and
an investigation of aids to the intermediate and
final design steps. These latter include mechanical
design routines for specific units, plant layout,
piping design calculations, and so forth. An excuse
for the former omission is that the students have
already taken courses from Professors T. M.
Reed, K. E. Gubbins, and/or J. P. O'Connell in


Thermodynamics where the calculation of prop-
erties is covered in some detail. The implications
in the structuring of CAPD systems should have
been covered if time had permitted.
It is hoped that the students leave this course
with a feel for many of the actual and potential
capabilities of automatically handling the tasks
in Figure 1. For those only casually interested, the
algorithms to derive solution procedures have
been quite useful when solving numerical prob-
lems in their areas of interest.

REFERENCES
1. Evans, L. B., D. G. Steward, and C. R. Sprague,
CEP, 64, No. 4, p. 39 (1968).
2. Sargent, R. W. H., CEP, 63, No. 9, p. 71 (1967).
3. Sirola, J. J., and D. F. Rudd, Computer Aided Syn-
thesis of Chemical Process Designs, University of
Wisconsin (1970).
4. Schweyer, H. E., and F. P. May, I&EC, 54, No. 8,
p. 46 (1962).
5. Southworth, R. W., and S. L. Deleeuw, Digital Com-
putation and Numerical Methods, McGraw-Hill
(1965).
6. Hughes, R. R., Chem. Eng. Educ., 3, p. 113 (Summer,
1969).
7. Rosen, E. M., CEP, 58, No. 10, p. 69 (1962).
8. Sargent, R. W. H., and A. W. Westerberg, Trans.
Instn. Chem. Engrs., 42, p. T190 (1964).
9. Harary, F., J. of Math and Physics, 38, p. 104
(1959).
10. Himmelblau, D. M., and K. B. Bischoff, Process An-
alysis and Simulation, Wiley (1968).
11. Barkley, R. W., and R. L. Motard, Decomposition of
Nets, University of Houston (1970).
12. Christensen, J. H., and D. F. Rudd, AIChE J, 15, No.
1, p. 94 (1969).
13. Christensen, J. H., AIChE J, 16, No. 2, p. 177 (1970).
14. Edie, F. C., and A. W. Westerberg, Chem. Eng. J.,
2, No. 2, p. 114, (1971).
15. Jackson, R. CES, 19, p. 19 (1964).
16. Brosilow, C., and L. S. Lasdon, AIChE-IChE Symp.
Ser., No. 4, p. 75 (1965).
17. Lasdon, L. S., Optimization Theory for Large Sys-
tems, Macmillan (1970).
18. Westerberg, A. W., and F. C. Edie, Chem. Eng. J.,
2, No. 1, p. 9 (1971).
19. Edie, F. C., and A. W. Westerberg, Chem. Eng. J., 2,
No. 1, p. 17 (19S71).
20. McGalliard, R. L., "Structural Sensitivity Analysis
in Design Synthesis," PhD Dissertation, University
of Florida, 140 pages (1971).


FALL 1971









4 CWau4e in


MATHEMATICAL MODELING WITH EMPHASIS ON

NATURALLY OCCURRING PROCESSES

ROBERT L. KABEL
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania 16802


D EATING BACK AT LEAST to 1923 and the
publication of the 1st edition of "Principles
of Chemical Engineering" by Walker, Lewis, and
McAdams (1), the graduate with professional
training in chemical engineering has been a very
versatile fellow. Given depth and breadth in the
scientific and engineering principles required for
effective performance in the chemical process in-
dustries, he has moved easily and naturally into
the aerospace, nuclear, and bioengineering areas.
These three are merely outstanding examples,
within the recent memory of most of us, of the
interdisciplinary potential of chemical engineers.
We need not stop there with the whole world of
natural science available for understanding and
quantification. Our current sophistication in
transport phenomena, reaction kinetics, mathe-
matics, machine computation, and a host of other
subject areas of science and engineering makes
possible significant contributions to many disci-
plines which have, until recently, remained pre-
dominantly descriptive. Mathematical modeling of
naturally occurring processes is one way to con-
tribute.
Mathematical process simulation has been with
us as a tool of the trade for centuries but it has
emerged as a coherent academic subject only in
the last decade. The many specialized techniques
of model building are not all new but systemati-
zation is. The book "Process Analysis and Simu-
lation: Deterministic Systems" by Himmelblau
and Bischoff (2), which was used in a 3-credit
course presented by the author at Penn State in
the Winter Term 1971, is characteristic of this
recent development. The course followed the first
five chapters of the text as indicated in Table I.
However, consistent with the philosophy of the
previous paragraph, emphasis in both classroom
and homework activity was placed on naturally
occurring processes. In this paper, attention is
given mainly to areas in which mathematical
models were applied rather than to the modeling
techniques.


Robert L. Kabel was educated at the University of
Illinois (B.S.) and the University of Washington (Ph.D.
1961). From 1961-1963 he was a Project Officer in the
USAF Space Systems Division where he was awarded
the Air Force Commendation Medal for Meritorious
Achievement. He joined the faculty at The Pennsylvania
State University in 1963, becoming associate professor
in 1968. His research activities include reaction kinetics,
adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, process dynamics,
thermodynamics, and application of chemical engineering
principles to naturally occurring processes.


TABLE I. COURSE ORGANIZATION
A. Introduction and General Concepts
B. Models Based on Transport Phenomena Principles
Classified by Level of Physicochemical Detail
C. Transport Phenomena Models Classified by Mathe-
matical Characteristics
D. Population Balance Models
E. Principles of Subsystems Analysis

EVOLUTION
T HE COURSE EVOLVED out of my life-long
interest in such subjects as space sciences and
geology as well as my immediate desire to learn
more about the general principles of model build-
ing. Over the years I have been illustrating more
and more principles in courses such as Transport
Phenomena, Unit Operations, and Reaction Ki-
netics with examples from the natural sciences.
Something seems to arouse the students of today
when the work by Dedrick and Bishoff (3) on
barbituate distribution in the body is discussed;
especially if the human responses to morphine and
heroin are also covered.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









I became even more convinced of the role
chemical engineers could play in the earth sciences
when Professor L. H. Lattman (B.Ch.E., CCNY,
1948, but since then a geogologist) lent me a book
by Bagnold (4). Bagnold, a physicist and some-
time desert explorer, used methods familiar to all
of us to explain and quantify sand transport and
formations on the Libyan desert. His insight into
the ways of wind-blown sand was of material as-
sistance to the English in the famous desert cam-
paigns of World War II. The clincher in my de-
cision to offer this course was the work of Chap-
man (5,6), who replaced mythology and aug-
mented intuitive reasoning with aerodynamic
theory, wind tunnel experimentation, and mathe-
matical simulation in an attempt to reconcile the
origin of Australasian tektites. He showed that
these nut-sized glassy objects may be the missing
portion of an incomplete ray of the lunar crater
Tycho.

UNIQUE VIRTUES
MANY ENGINEERING accomplishments of
the past and present have depended upon ef-
fective mathematical modeling. In the emerging
age of computers this dependence will be so great
that the need for instruction in mathematical
modeling is obvious. One of the special virtues of
this subject (especially as it is described in this
paper) is that synthesis and analysis are merged
so naturally that the much discussed dichotomy of
engineering activity into these two categories
vanishes. There is much pedagogic value in rely-
ing heavily on examples from outside of the
chemical process industries. In their previous,
more traditional courses students have become
familiar with the classic functional forms, initial
and boundary conditions, etc. which appear in our
normal realm of chemical engineering activity.
Through experience they have developed a power-
ful intuitive "feel" for the behavior of practical
chemical processes.
In dealing with natural processes, the student
must consider something which has been with him
for a lifetime but which he never paused long
enough to contemplate. For example, have you
ever really considered how an icicle grows? Would
you have expected that the work of Tallmadge
and Gutfinger (7) on "Entrainment of Liquid
Films-Drainage, Withdrawal, and Removal" had
anything to do with icicle growth and dissipation?
A comfortable, yet unfamiliar, subject like this
forces the student (and teacher too) to place
FALL 1971


Mathematical process simulation has been with us
as a tool of the trade for centuries but it has emerged
as a coherent academic subject only in the
last decade.
greater reliance on physical understanding and
personal creativity. The natural process also
served excellently to illustrate the chronic di-
lemma of compromise between the need for rigor
and the need for a solution of the model. With no
previous experience in an area one is less confident
of his simplifying assumptions.
STRUCTURE
T HE TEXTBOOK AND COVERAGE of the
course have been indicated already. More de-
tails on coverage can be obtained by consulting
the table of contents of the text. There were regu-
lar reading and problem assignments, two exams,
and two projects. Class presentations of home-
work were given by students. The responsible
students were selected in advance so that they
could go beyond the specific assignment in their
preparations. Much to my surprise this method
of student presentations was endorsed by all
members of the class and was requested by stu-
dents in my next graduate course. As a mid-term
project each student was to browse through the
technical literature to find examples of the several
classifications of models mentioned in the text.
The salient features of the models were to be
pointed out and a diversity of areas were to be
included in the selection. The final project in-
volved the development and solution of a model
of some process of significance and/or interest
to the individual. The most successful of these
was a study in environmental hygiene. First a
model was established which characterized the
accumulation of mercury vapor in a laboratory as
a function of time and ventilation rate. Coupled
with this a second model expressed the accumu-
lation of mercury in the human body. The results
of these models were interpreted in terms of
published tolerance limits and diagnostic criteria
to predict the likelihood of mercury poisoning.

EXAMPLES
The following is an example of a homework
problem which resulted in at least three class
periods (plus much time out-of-class) of worth-
while discussion. Everyone has seen signs which
say, "Caution Bridge Freezes Before Road." The
Civil Engineering Department at Penn State has
a research project for the Pennsylvania Depart-









ment of Transportation (PENNDOT) to investi-
gate this phenomenon on Interstate 80. It seemed
that our class should be able to reach some useful
conclusions by modeling the situation. Our first
period was spent discussing possible meteoro-
logical conditions and thermal and physical char-
acteristics of the system. One question with sig-
nificant implications for the model is, what is
the mathematical criterion for freezing? This
question, like so many others, has a number of
rational answers. For the second class period, the
derived models were to be solved. Thus this period
was spent comparing the results of various ap-
proaches. A typical solution considered the bridge
to be a finite slab cooled from both sides and the
roadway to be a semi-infinite solid. A variety of
ambient conditions (wind,temperature, moisture,
etc.) were specified. Gurney-Lurie charts pro-
vided solutions to the microscopic balance
equations for transient conduction in the two
cases. The resulting information on temperature
profiles and heat fluxes were coupled with a
macroscopic energy balance on the water layer at
the road surface. The time to totally freeze the
water on the bridge was calculated and compared
to that for the adjacent roadway. Having achieved
considerable familiarity with the problem by this
time, we invited a professor who was active on
the PENNDOT program to spend a period with
us describing their work. Interestingly, the
PENNDOT had little enthusiasm for mathemati-
cal models so the work described to us was pri-
marily experimental. This circumstance provided
our class with considerable perspective on the
bridge freezing problem in particular and on the
role and acceptance of mathematical modeling in
general. We were pleased too that our guest lec-
turer felt that our calculations and insight had
materially improved his perspective as well.
Special lectures by the author were also used
to bring out the characteristics of various types
of models. As an illustration of the concepts of
population balance models the work of Fried-
lander and Ravimohan (8) on the effect of the
1952 London "Killer" Fog on a human population
was presented. A selection of other examples
drawn from the course are listed below for brev-
ity. One of the frustrations of teaching such a
course is that one develops more ideas than can
be pursued in the available time. Some of these
are also included.
1) growth of a tubular stalactite
2) diagnosis of an aneurysm


... The role of mathematical modeling extends beyond
the realm of engineering and natural and physical
science ...
3) off-shore breezes from the Greenland ice cap
4) dispersion in an underground water system
5) effect of convection in the earth's mantle on con-
tinental drift
6) effect of sun and rain on the melting of snow
7) formation of a cumulus cloud
8) pressure distribution in a hurricane
9) cave temperature as a function of altitude, depth,
and history
10) three-phase water balance on earth
Of course the role of mathematical modeling
extends beyond the realm of engineering and
natural and physical science. For perspective one
might begin by looking at the collection of papers
presented by Chorley and Haggett (9). This book
presents a broad coverage of map and hardware
models as well as the mathematical type and in-
cludes a variety of examples from physical, socio-
economic, and integrated systems. Finally, the
reader who has gotten this far should be rewarded
with this advice (10), "Don't fall in love with
your model."
REFERENCES
1. Walker, W. H., Lewis, W. K., and McAdams, W. H.,
"Principles of Chemical Engineering," 1st edition,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York (1923).
2. Himmelblau, D. M., and Bischoff, K. B., "Process An-
alysis and Simulation: Deterministic Systems," John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1968).
3. Dedrick, R. L., and Bischoff, K. B., "Pharmacokine-
tics in Applications of the Artificial Kidney," Chemi-
cal Engineering Progress Symposium Series, Vol.
64, No. 84, 32-44 (1968).
4. Bagnold, R. A., "The Physics of Blown Sand and
Desert Dunes," William Morrow & Company, New
York (1941), Methuen & Co. Ltd., London (1954).
5. Chapman, D. R., and Larson, H. K., "On the Lunar
Origin of Tektites," Journal of Geophysical Research
68, No. 14, 4305-4358 (1963).
6. Chapman, D. R., "On the Unity and Origin of the
Australasian Tektites," Geochimica et Cosmochimica
Acta 28, 841-880 (1964).
7. Tallmadge, J. A., and Gutfinger, C., "Entrainment of
Liquid Films-Drainage, Withdrawal, and Removal,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. 59, No. 11, 18 (1967).
8. Friedlander, S. K., "A Theoretical Model for the Ef-
fect of an Acute Air Pollution Episode on a Human
Population," and Ravimohan, A. L., "An Application
of the Model to the 1952 London 'Killer' Fog," En-
vironmental Science and Technology 2, 1101-1108
(1968).
9. Chorley, R. J., and Haggett, P., "Models in Geogra-
phy," Methuen & Co., Ltd., London (1967).
10. Golomb, S. W., "Mathematical Models-Uses and
Limitations," Astronautics & Aeronautics, pp. 57-59
(January 1968).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







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4 Qo4we in


NONCATALYTIC HETEROGENEOUS

REACTION SYSTEMS


C. Y. WEN
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia

A NEW GRADUATE COURSE dealing with
noncatalytic heterogeneous reaction systems
has been developed at West Virginia University.
This course was started originally as a seminar
course to supplement the first year graduate
course in chemical reaction engineering. Tradi-
tionally, the courses in chemical engineering kine-
tics deal mostly with the homogeneous systems,
and the catalytic heterogenous systems. How-
ever, many of the reactor design problems en-
countered by the students involve noncatalytic
heterogeneous reactions. There are a large num-
ber of solid-fluid reactions which must be treated
differently because the properties and reactives
of solid reactants change continuously as the re-
action progresses. Some of these reactions are:
combustion reaction of all the carbonaceous
materials, gasification reaction pyrolysis reaction,
calcination reactions, roasting of ores, reduction
of metallic oxides, ion-exchange reactions, re-
moval of gaseous acid pollutants by solid alkali
and by scrubbing with an alkali slurry, fluorina-
tion of uranium oxides, etc.
It is the goal of this course to systematically
organize the material to present a unified treat-
ment of noncatalytic heterogeneous reaction sys-
tems in light of developing mechanistic as well
as phenomenological models useful for design
purposes. The approach taken here is to pro-
vide analysis of practical problems involving
reactions on a single particle and to develop con-
vincing and realistic yet sufficiently simple, mo-
dels necessary to describe the phenomena. The
deficiencies and limitations of each model are
then presented carefully. These models together
with reactor flow models and heat and mass
transfer characteristics in a multiparticle sys-
tem are combined to present integral reactor
design, stressing the current state of knowledge
and uncertainties in the supporting data.


The students, who have had courses in chemi-
cal reaction engineering, thermodynamics and
transport phenomena, can choose to elect this
course. Since no specific text book is assigned,
in order to give some perspective to the course
objectives, Figure 1 presents an overall flow sheet
of the course illustrating interrelations and se-
quences of the subject matter to be introduced.
A more detailed outline of the course content and
the pertinent reference are presented in Table I.

Fluid-Particle-P r u
Solid Mass & Heat
Transfer C chemical Kinetics
Solid 1 Single Particle Thermodynamics
Dlffusion
so ModelseSurfa Ce chemistry
Physical Propertieng n
& Structure a Crystallography
of Solid Pseudo
Steady State
Approximation
Effectiveness
Factor
Simultaneous
Thermal, o Reaction f
Geometrical & Selectivities
Transitional
Instability
instability Mass 8 Heat.
Transfer
Fluid Flow Models aMaterial Heat
System
Reactor
Design
Solid Mixing Models Reactor Stability
& Control


Solid-Gas Solid-Liquid Solid-Liquid-
SSystem Syem Gas System

Fixled^m_ Moving Slurry Venturi
Bed Bed Reactor Reactor
Slaking Ore
Tank Leaching
Fluid- -Entrained --,Turbulent
Bed Bed Bed
Ion Contactor
Exchange
Three Phase
.KilnC- -- Fluid Bed
S OPTIMIZATION

Fig. 1.-Overall flowsheet of noncatalytic heterogeneous reaction
systems course.

Depending on the solid properties and struc-
ture, such as porosity and crystallization char-
acteristics, as well as on the diffusional effects,
one may observe the solid reactant undergo
changes in various ways. Figure 2 shows a mi-
croscopic representation of a few typical cases


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


























C. Y. Wen obtained his BS in chemical engineering
from National Taiwan University and MSChE and PhD
from West Virginia University. He has been at West
Virginia University since 1954, and became chairman of
the chemical engineering department in June, 1969. He
has research interests in reaction kinetics, fluidization,
coal conversion and pollution problems.

TABLE I. NONCATALYTIC HETEROGENEO
US REACTION SYSTEMS COURSE OUTLINE
References
I. Introduction
A. Definition, Classification and
Scope 86
B. Purposes and Objectives
C. Overall plan
II. Fundamentals 7,15,21,24,45,61,65
A, Diffusion 22,25,56,57
B. Diffusion in Porous Solids 61,64,77,93
C. Solid Diffusion
D. Heat Transfer 22,25,56,57
E. Heat Transfer in Porous
Solids 20,43,47
F. Pseudo-Steady State
Approximation 8,9,21,35,46,73,74,86
G. Review of Chemical Kinetics in
Heterogeneous Reaction 21,24,45,61,65
H. Surface Cheminstry and Crystalography
III. Diffusional Kinetics in Surface
Reaction 6,12,13,31,83,86,87,89
A. Solid-Gas Reaction Models
B. Effectiveness Factors 30,31
C. Isothermal Untreacted-Core
Shrinking Model
D. Nonisothermal Unreacted-Core
Shrinking Model 47
E. Graphic Representation 27,29
F. Instability in Nonisothermal
Systems 2,58,63
G. Reversible Reactions 4,26,29,49,50
H. Geometries Other Than
Sphere 6,44
I. Experimental Work 1,16,18,19,23,28,36,
37,39,48,52,53,54,66,
67,75,79,90
IV. Diffusional Kinetics in Volumetric
Reaction 3,30,86


A. Isothermal Zone-Reaction
Model 3,11,44,51
B. Nonisothermal Zone-Reaction Model
C. Relation between Unreacted-Core Model and
Zone-Reaction Model 30,33,34,59,78,88
D. Other Models of Solid-Gas
Reaction 16,33,34,55,72,91
E. Experimental Work 10,16,40,79,80
V. Thermal Decomposition of Solids
A. Fundamentals in Thermal Decomposition
of Solids 29,38
B. Experimental Work 26,41,62,68,69,70
VI. Solid Diffusion and Reaction
A. Solid Diffusion in Nonporous Solids
B. Reaction of Nonporous Solids
VII. Complex Reaction Systems
A. Simultaneous Reactions of Gases
with a Solid 84,85
B. Consecutive Reactions of Solid
Reactants with Gases
C. Selectivity
VIII. Related Phenomena
A. Melting and Freezing 15,73,74,76
B. Drying 5,71,82
C. Freeze Drying 60
D. Leaching Process
E. Ion Exchange
F. Regeneration and Deactivation
of Catalysis 14,79,80,81
IX. Reactor Flow Models 45
A. Age Distribution
B. Dispersion Model
C. Compartment Model
D. Circulation Model
E. Two Phase Model
F. Bubble Model
X. Application to Fixed and Moving Bed
Reactors 32
A. Behavior of Gases
B. Behavior of Solids
C. Conversion of Gas and Solid
XI. Application to Fluid Bed and Entrained
Bed Reactors 42,92
A. Behavior of Gases
B. Behavior of Solids
C. Conversion of Gas and Solid
XII. Application to Three Phase
Systems 65
A. Slurry Reactor
B. Venturi Reactor
C. Turbulent Bed Contactor
D. Three Phase Fluid Bed Reactor
XIII. Optimization and Control 17

illustrating the ways a particle reacts with a
fluid reactant. Single particle models describing
these phenomena are also shown. Figure 3 is a
schematic diagram showing the effects of tem-
perature on apparent overall rate reaction.
In Figure 4, a schematic illustration of rate-
controlling steps is shown. The understanding
of chemical and physical phenomena on a single


FALL 1971










K Unreacted-
core model



Reaction ', Volumetric
zonlyer :: ::: I reaction
model

Pore

model




0 Grain
model


Fig. 2.-Single particle fluid-3olid reaction models.

particle paves the way to the subsequent develop-
ment of multiparticle system analysis. The in-
formation of single particle phenomena is thus
combined together with the reactor flow models
and material and heat balance to develop design
criteria for an integral noncatalytic heterogene-
ous reactor.
Design of reactors for treating solid, liquid,
or gaseous pollutants is of vital significance in
coping with today's environmental problems.
Processes such as fluidized bed incineration of
solid waste, sulfur dioxide removal from PF
boilers by limestone injection and by wet scrub-
bing with liquor containing limestone, neutrali-
zation of acid mine drainage, etc., which are of
particular significance to ecology are discussed.
Also biological reactors for treating primary ef-
fluents are included in discussion. In addition,
gasification and liquefaction of fossil fuels for
production of natural gas and petroleum sub-
stitutes to meet the national need for clean en-
ergy are presented in detail. These processes and
topics of current interest to society and to the
students are emphasized. Reactor design and
process problems associated with these processes
are discussed to encourage further research in
these areas.
Finally, optimum reactor design and selec-
tion of a proper reactor to achieve the maximum
selectivity of the products are discussed.
It is hoped that this course on noncatalytic
heterogeneous reaction systems based on both
mechanistic and phenomenological approaches


This course presents a unified
treatment of the subject in light of
developing mechanistic and phenomenological
models useful for design purposes.





0







1 T
g-











II III IV V




CA:
Cs: ...........
Fig. 3.-Schematic diagram showing three temperature zones of
solid-gas reaction systems and concentration profiles in the solid.
will lead eventually to a unified and coherent dis-
cipline for treating this important but complex
class of chemical reaction systems.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The assistance of Dr. M. Ishida and Dr. S. C.
Wang in the preparation of this article is ap-
preciated.
REFERENCES
1. Anastasia, L. J. and Mecham, W. J., Ind. Eng.
Chem., Proc. Des. Dev., 4 338 (1965)
2. Aris, R., Ind. Chem. Fundamentals, 6, 315 (1967)
3. Ausman, J. M. and Watson, C. C., Chem. Eng. Sci.,
17, 323 (1962)
4. Austin, L. G. and Walker, P. L., A.I.Ch.E.J., 9, 303
(1963)
5. Bell, J. R. and Nissan, A. H., A.J.Ch.E.J., 5, 344
(1959)
6. Beveridge, G. S. G. and Goldie, P. J., Chem Eng.
Sci., 23, 913 (1968)
7. Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E. and Lightfoot, E. N.,
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA, Wiley, New York
(1960)
8. Bischoff, K. B., Chem Eng. Sci., 18, 711 (1963)
9. Bischoff, K. B., Chem. Eng. Sci., 20, 783 (1965)
10. Bergwardt, R. H., Environmental Sci. & Tech., 4,
59 (1970)
11. Calvelo, A. and Cunningham, R. E., J. Catalysis, 17,
1 (1970)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Chemical
reaction
control


Heat
transfer
control


Mass
transfer
control


Fig. 4.-Schematic representation of rate-controlling steps.


12. Cannon, K. J. and Denbigh,
6, 145 (1957)
1i Cannon, K. J. and Denbigh,
6, 155 (1957)


K. G., Chem. Eng. Sci.,

K. G., Chsm. Eng. Sci.,


14. Carberry, J. J., Gorring, R. L., J. Catalysis, 5, 529
(1966)
15. Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C., CONDUCTION OF
HEAT IN SOLIDS, 2nd edition, Chapter XI, Ox-
ford University Press (1959)
16. Denbigh, K. G. and Beveridge, G. S. G., Trans. Instn.
Chem. Engrs., 40, 23 (1962)
17. Denbigh, K. G. and Turner, J. C. R., CHEMICAL
REACTOR THEORY, Cambridge University Press
(1971)
18. Feinman, J. and Drexler, T. D., A.I.Ch.E.J., 7, 584
(1961)
19. Field, M. A., Gill, D. W., Morgan, B. B. and Hawks-
ley, P. G. W., COMBUSTION OF PULVERISED
COAL, The British Coal Utilisation Research As-
sociation, Leatherhead, Surrey, England (1967)
20. Franel, J. and Kingery, W. D., Am. Ceramic Soc.
Journal, 37, 99 (1954)
21. Frank-Kamenetskii, D. A., DIFFUSION AND HEAT
TRANSFER IN CHEMICAL KINETICS, 2nd ed.,
Plenum Press, New York (1969)
22. Froessling, N., Gerland Beitr. Geophys., 52 170
(1938)
23. Hellinckx, L. J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 3, 201 (1954)
24. Hougen, 0. A. and Watson, K. M., CHEMICAL
PROCESS PRINCIPLE, Part II, Wiley, New York
(1950)
25. Hughmark, G. A., A.I.Ch.E.J., 13, 1219 (1967)
26. Ishida, M., Kamata, M. and Shirai, T., Chem. Eng.
Journal (Japan), 3, 201 (1970)
27. Ishida, M. and Shirai, T., Chem. Eng. Journal (Ja-
pan), 2, 175 (1969)
28. Ishida, M. and Shirai, T., Chem. Eng. Journal Ja-
pan), 2, 180 (969)
29. Ishida, M. and Shirai, T., Chem. Eng. Journal Ja-
pan), 3, 196 (1970)
30. Ishida, M. and Wen, C. Y., A.I.Ch.E.J., 14, 311 (1968)
31. Ishida, M. and Wen, C. Y., Chem. Eng. Sci., 23, 125
(1968)


32. Ishida, M. and Wen, C. Y., Ind. Eng. Chem., Proc.
Des. Dev., 10, 164 (1971)
33. Ishida, M., Wen, C. Y. and Shirai, T., "Compari-
son of Zone-reaction Model and Unreacted-Core-
Shrinking Model in Solid-Gas Reactions, Part I.
Isothermal Analysis," Chem. Eng. Sci., accepted for
publication.
34. Ishida, M. and Wen, C. Y., "Comparison of Zone-
Reaction Model and Unreacted-Core-Shrinking Mo-
del in Solid-Gas Reactions, Part II. Nonisothermal
Analysis," Chem. Eng. Sci., accepted for publication.
35. Ishida, M., Yoshino, K. and Shirai, T., Chem. Eng.
Journal (Japan), 3, 49 (1970)
36. Jarry, R. L. and Steindler, M. J., J. Inorg. Nucl.
Chem., 29, 1591 (1967)
37. Jarry, R. L. and Steindler, M. J., J. Inorg. Nucl.
Chem., 30, 127 (1968)
38. Jost, W., Chem. Eng. Sci., 2, 199 (1953)
39. Kawasaki, E., Sanscrainte, J. and Walsh, T. J.,
A.I.Ch.E.J., 8, 48 (1962)
40. Kitagawa, H., Hasatani, M. and Sugiyama, S., Ka-
gaku, Kogaku, 32, 576 (1968).
41. Kondo, T., Hasatani, M. and Sugiyama, S., Kagaku
Kogaku, 31, 806 (1967)
43. Kunii, D. and Levenspiel, 0., FLUIDIZATION
ENGINEERING, Wiley, New York (1969)
43. Kunii, D, and Smith, J. M., A.I.Ch.E.J., 6, 71 (1960)
44. Lacey, D. T., Bowen, J. H. and Basden, K. S., Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, 4, 275 (1965)
45. Levenspiel, 0., CHEMICAL REACTION ENGI-
NEERING, Wiley, New York (1962)
46. Luss, D., Can. J. Chem. Eng., 46, 154 (1968)
47. Luss, D., and Amundson, N. R., A.I.Ch.E.J., 15, 194
(1969)
48. McKewan W. M., Trans. A.I.M.E, 218, 2 (1960)
49. McKewan, W. M., Trans. A.I.M.E., 221, 140 (1961)
50. McKewan, W. M., Trans. A.I.M.E., 224, 2 (1962)
51, Mickley, H. S., Nestor, J. W., and Gould, L. A.,
Can. J. Chem. Eng., 43, 61 (1965)
52. Ogawa, Y., Tech. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 9, 175
(1929)
53. Otake, T., Tone, S., and Oda, S., Kagaku Kogaku,
31, 71 (1967)
54. Parker, A. S. and Hottel, H. C., Ind. Eng. Chem.
28, 1334 (1936)
55. Petersen, E. E., A.I.Ch.E., 3, 443 (1957)
56. Ranz, W. E. and Marshall, W. R., Chem. Eng. Prog.,
48, 141 (1952)
57. Ranz, W. E. and Marshall, W. R., Chem. Eng. Prog.,
48, 173 (1952)
58. Regenass, W. and Aris, R., Chem. Eng. Sci., 20, 60
(1965)
59. Rossberg, M. and Wicke, E., Chem. Ing. Tech., 28,
181 (1956)
60. Sandall, 0. C., King, C. J. and Wilke, C. R., A.I.Ch.-
E.J., 13, 428 (1967)
61, Satterfield, C. N., MASS TRANSFER IN HETER-
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mentals, 4, 293 (1965)
(Continued on page 200)


FALL 1971









7 lauwee in


STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION


JOHN H. BEAMER
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676

M OST CHEMICAL ENGINEERING curricula
devote several courses to the topic of model
building. In general these courses demonstrate
how fundamental laws and relationships in fluid
mechanics, mass and heat transfer and thermo-
dynamics can be used to develop mathematical
models which describe the complex system being
studied. This approach works well when the
available theory and evidence is adequate to de-
velop a unique model. However, there are many
areas of chemical engineering where such theory
often does not exist, such as in kinetics, where
one may be faced with a wide variety of possible
reaction mechanisms. This is an area where sta-
tistics could be useful in selecting the most ap-
propriate model. Unfortunately, statistics is often
neglected in chemical engineers' backgrounds and
as a result, they are weak in this area of
modeling.
In the extreme cases where little or no theory
exists, statistics can be used to develop empirical
models. Typically, this model may be just that
linear equation or polynomial which best fits a
given set of data. The use of statistics in the
social sciences for such purposes is well estab-
lished. Recently, there have been a number of
attempts at developing models of societal systems,
such as in the description of the population and
economic growth of a region. Necessarily these
models use empirical relationships as there is
very little theoretical basis for developing models
of such systems. Such studies are often inter-
disciplinary and frequently a chemical engineer
may find himself involved. Certainly this is true
for the increasing number of studies concerning
the environment or population which now are
being undertaken. Therefore, it seems that statis-
tical theory appropriate for building models of
various types should be studied by the chemical
engineer.
There are several ways in which statistics
should play an important role in a chemical engi-
neer's modeling procedures such as in parameter


estimation, design of experiments and model dis-
crimination. Where a unique theoretical model
exists, the parameters must often be estimated
from experimental data. This may be done by the
least squares method or by maximizing the like-
lihood function. The likelihood function is re-
lated to the probability distribution for the ran-
dom variable being measured. Maximizing this
function with respect to the parameters in the
model determines the values of the parameters
that are most likely to produce the observed val-
ues of the random variable.
In the problem of deciding between several
models, statistical theory can be used to design
the placement of experiments so that the maxi-
mum amount of discriminating power is given
by each experiment. The data may be analyzed
to determine which model best fits the data. The
analysis of variance, residual analysis and related
techniques can be used to further determine the
adequacy of the selected model and to discriminate
between alternative models.
The analysis of variance allows one to decide
if the proposed model adequately describes the ex-
perimental data. It also permits one to decide
which terms are insignificant and can be elimi-
nated. Residual analysis provides a further check
on the adequacy of the model. By plotting the re-
siduals (observed minus predicted values) versus
time, time trends in the data can be identified.
Similarly, plotting the residuals against other
independent variables will indicate if the funda-
tional relationship of each variable in the model
is correct. Confidence limits on the model can also
be established. A good deal of work in chemical
engineering has been done in this area in the
problem of modeling reaction kinetics. Recent
surveys include Bard and Lapidus [1] and Kit-
trell [2]. Here statistical analysis is used to de-
termine the best model from several possible
candidates by first estimating the best parameters
for each model and then utilizing the analysis of
variance and residual analysis to eliminate in-
ferior models. Once the best model has been de-
termined, the mechanism of the reaction is in-
ferred.
Where no theoretical model exists, the ap-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























John Beamer received his B.S. degree from the Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology; his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
from Stanford University. He has been employed as
Manager, Environmental Systems Division, Urban Sys-
tems Research and Engineering, 1969-1970. His areas of
interest include optimization and systems modeling and he
has taught courses in these subjects since coming to
Clarkson in 1970. Current research is in developing opti-
mization theory and applications and in modeling societal
systems.

proach most frequently used is to determine the
simplest linear model which adequately describes
the data. One approach is to propose a model in-
cluding all variables which may be important.
Linear regression is applied to estimate the co-
efficients for each variable. By using the analysis
of variance it can be determined which variables
are insignificant in the model and can be elimin-
ated and also to determine when a model has been
built which adequately describes the system.
An example of this approach is the societal
modeling problem of determining in-migration to
a region. There is no theoretical basis for de-
termining what the functional relationship for in-
migration should be. Empirically, it has been
shown that in-migration can be estimated as a
linear function of unemployment and population
in that region [3]. Other variables which have
lesser descriptive effect are wage rates in the
region and the distance of the region from major
population sources. Out migration, on the other
hand, is mainly a function of the age distribution
of the population under consideration and such
factors as unemployment rates are relatively un-
important. People in their twenties are the most
likely to migrate and they are equally likely to mi-
grate whether they are living in a prosperous reg-
ion or a depressed one. However, once having
made the decision to move, they will most likely
choose to move to a prosperous area.


Statistical theory appropriate for building models
of various types should be studied by the chemical
engineer.


T HUS FAR, ONLY deterministic models have
been discussed. However, simulation models
involving uncertainty (Monte Carlo models) are
also very useful. They have been used for prob-
lems as diverse as the design of nuclear reactors
and the optimization of the location of fire sta-
tions. These models require that the probability
distributions of the random events involved be
known. Using a random number generator, values
for the random variable are then generated with
the same frequency as the observed values. For
example, suppose the percolation of a fluid in a
porous media is being studied. A probability dis-
tribution for the size of channels is determined.
If the channel is above some critical size, the
fluid will flow through that channel. A random
number is generated to determine whether or not
fluid will flow through a given channel in the
model. From this and an assumption on how chan-
nels are connected, one could determine the degree
of penetration of the fluid. Again, statistical
theory supplies the tools necessary to carry out
such a simulation.
A course for seniors and graduate students
has been introduced this year at Clarkson, which
introduces basic statistical theory and shows how
it is useful in developing the various types of
models discussed. The majority of the applica-
tions discussed are chemical engineering exam-
ples, but other problems such as those noted
earlier, are also presented. For example, in the
area of empirical modeling, a societal modeling
problem is discussed; while a traffic problem, de-
scribed below, illustrates the use of Monte Carlo
methods.

COURSE DESCRIPTION
THE FIRST PART of the course is an introduc-
tion to probability theory. Probability density
functions are described and the normal, X2, t and
F probability distributions are introduced. En-
semble averages such as the mean, variance and
correlation coefficient are described and the ways
of estimating these from sample statistics are
given.
Next, certain statistical techniques are dis-
cussed, such as parameter estimation techniques,
interval estimation and hypothesis testing.


FALL 1971








There are several ways in which statistics should play an important role in modeling procedures such as in
parameter estimation, design of experiments, and model discrimination.


These methods are then applied to model building.
The simplest non-trivial model is a linear model
with one independent variable. Parameter estima-
tion by least squares or maximum likelihood tech-
niques are applied to this problem, and confidence
intervals are derived. F and t tests, described in
the first part of the course, are applied to sample
problems to determine if a significant relation-
ship has been obtained. These one-dimensional
problems are calculated by hand so that the stu-
dent develops an understanding of the theory in-
volved and gets a feeling for the problem.
The extension to linear models with several in-
dependent variables is straightforward. Home-
work problems are done on the computer using
available linear regression programs. The stress
here is on being able to use the tools available and
understand what one can or can not do with them.
This course adheres to the philosophy that the
computer is a useful and necessary tool with
which the engineer should be familiar. While
analyzing multidimensional linear models, the stu-
dent becomes familiar with techniques to dis-
criminate between models and to determine whe-
ther to add or delete variables to a proposed
model. This is done by using analysis of variance
and stepwise regression.
The next step is to develop parameter esti-
mation techniques for non-linear models. This is
done through least squares minimization, which
again requires the student to use existing com-
puter software.
One result of interest which the students
verified is that linear and non-linear analysis of
a given problem can differ substantially. For ex-
ample, for the catalytic oxidation of ammonia, a
proposed model is:


rN -


k [NH3] [02]


(l+b1 [NH3 ]+b2 [02 ]+b3[H20])
This can be linearized as follows:

[NH3] [02] b1 b2 b3
= + k[NH3] + k [02] + k [H 0]
N2

The parameters which appear on the right could
then be estimated from a set of experimental data
using linear regression analysis. However, this
can lead to erroneous results because the effect


of the experimental error is altered in the trans-
formation. Regression techniques give unbiased
estimates for parameters if the error is normally
distributed with zero mean. If the error between
observed values for the reaction rate and those
predicted by the experimental model has a normal
distribution and zero mean, this distribution will
be altered by the linearizing transformation.
Thus, the frequently used method of linearization
in order to use linear regression analysis can re-
sult in erroneous results and non-linear estima-
tion should be used in these cases. In non-linear
estimation, parameter values are determined by
minimizing the sum of the squares of the differ-
ence between the observed values of the depen-
dent variable and the value given by the non-
linear model under consideration. This requires
the use of non-linear optimization techniques. For
the example described, the estimates of the pa-
rameters by non-linear and by linear analysis
differed by more than an order of magnitude.
At this point, the problem of designing ex-
periments to gain the maximum amount of in-
formation is described. Often one has to decide
between several competing models, and unless
experiments are designed effectively, they may be
of little value. An example is given of determin-
ing the best kinetic model of a chemical reaction
from several proposed models by concentrating
experiments in the region where the value of the
dependent variable of the proposed models differs
the most.

T HE FINAL PART OF the course goes into
a slightly different area, that of simulation
modeling. The earlier parts of the course were
concerned only with deterministic models. How-
ever, the probability and statistical theory that
has already been introduced provides the neces-
sary basis for Monte Carlo simulation. This is a
tool that has found widespread application in
operations research but applications to chemical
engineering problems have been very limited.
The basics of simulation techniques are de-
scribed. One essential is a uniform random num-
ber generator which can then be used to generate
any required probability distribution, so that
events will occur, in the simulation, in accord with
the desired probability distribution. In a simula-
tion, one must keep a record of events as they


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








occur and their effect on the system. There are
two ways of following the course of events in a
simulation, which could be classified as time-
oriented and event-oriented. In a time-oriented
simulation, the clock is updated one time unit
and a check is made to see what events have oc-
curred. In an event-oriented simulation, the clock
is updated to the time at which the next event
occurs. Each is preferable for certain types of
problems.
In applying a simulation to a given problem,
the statistics-of that problem must be examined.
For example, the problem of examining the
length of queues at a traffic light was analyzed.
It must be determined from experimental data
what probability distribution is applicable to de-
scribe the arrival of cars, and then the parameter
for this distribution must be estimated. A X2 -
test is performed to determine if the theoretical
curve adequately fits the data.
Once the probability distribution for the ran-
dom events involved has been determined, a ran-
dom number generator can be used to simulate
the occurrence of events. Most of the rest of the
program consists of maintaining records of de-
sired information.
As an example of Monte Carlo programming
a local traffic problem was analyzed and simu-
lated. First data were collected. It was found that
at Postdam's busiest intersection the probability
distribution for the inter-arrival time between
cars is given by:

p(t)- ep (t-2.5)

for t > 2.5.
The arrival of cars can be simulated by the re-
lationship,
t 2.5 (4.7) In Y
where Y is a random number between 0 and 1
Data on operation of the traffic light were also
gathered. The length of time between signal
changes is not constant, but is affected by pedes-
trian traffic demands, which also could be ap-
proximated by an exponential distribution. A
computer program was written and information
such as the average waiting time per car was col-
lected. Then alternative traffic control options
could be considered to determine how they would
affect the average waiting time.
The application of Monte Carlo methods to
chemical engineering has been limited but some


Simulation models involving uncertainty have been
used for problems as diverse as design of nuclear
reactors and optimization of fire station location.

work related to it has been done. In numerical an-
alysis the technique may be used to approximate
solutions to various problems such as evaluating
complex integrals or solving differential equa-
tions. Physical problems also have been solved by
this technique [5]. Problems involving collisions
between molecules have been analyzed by this
method, such as the design of nuclear reactor
shielding and statistical mechanical problems. As
previously mentioned, problems involving perco-
lation of liquids in porous media have been
studied by this approach. The traffic problem
analyzed in class demonstrated the methodology
and accents the wide range of applicability of the
subject. It is hoped that looking at problems of a
diverse nature will help chemical engineers ap-
proach their problems with a fresh viewpoint
and stress the wide range of applicability of the
methods.
This course is designed to complement those
courses which emphasize model building from a
theoretical basis by demonstrating the ways in
which the methods of statistics can be used to aid
model building. It provides the student with back-
ground that is useful for continued study in the
diverse areas in which statistical concepts are
employed. These would include for example, sta-
tistical mechanics, quality control and kinetic
theory. The text used for the course is Himmel-
blau's "Process Analysis by Statistical Methods"
[4], which covers the basic statistical theory. Ex-
amples have been taken from a wide range of
sources. Hammersley and Handscomb [5] was
used as the primary source of material on Monte
Carlo methods.

REFERENCES
1. Bard, Y. and L. Lapidus, "Kinetics Analysis by
Digital Parameter Estimation," Catalysis Reviews, 2,
1, 67-112 (1968).
2. Kittrell, James, "Mathematical Modeling of Chemical
Reactions," Advance's in Chemical Engineering, 8,
97-183 (1970).
3. Hamilton, H. R., et al., "A Dynamic Model of the
Economy of the Susquehanna River Basin," Battelle
Memorial Institute Research Report (1966).
4. Himmelblau, D. M. "Process Analysis by Statistical
Methods," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
(1970).
5. Hammersley, J. M., and D. C. Handscomb, "Monte
Carlo Methods," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
(1965).


FALL 1971









4 06a."ne an mte


OPTIMIZATION OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS

D. M. HIMMELBLAU
The University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712


INTRODUCTION
T THROUGHOUT HISTORY men have employed
elaborate rituals to help them reach a decision.
They have poured libations, sacrificed animals,
read the stars, and watched the flight of birds.
They have put their faith in proverbs and rules
of thumb devised to take some of the guesswork
out of living. Today's management of decision-
making employs a new and perhaps more scien-
tific ritual, the use of the computer. Unaided, the
human mind still cannot possibly weigh the mani-
fold complexities involved in the operation of a
business enterprise, the design of a missile, the
routing of traffic or the expansion of a water re-
sources system. Accompanying the prolific capa-
bilities of digital and hybrid computers has been
a voluminous bundle of optimization techniques.
In process design, economic evaluation, con-
trol, production scheduling, quality control, main-
tenance and repairs, accounting procedures, and
capital budgeting the analyst is frequently faced
with the problem of how to optimize complex ar-
rangements of equipment, operations, or pro-
cesses. He wishes to minimize or maximize some
function termed the objective function or revenue
function representing costs, weight, throughput,
or the like subject to certain constraints. This
broad class of optimization problems is usually
termed the nonlinear programming problem. A
natural question arises as to whether such a
special topic deserves a spot in the already
crowded curriculum for graduate students in
chemical engineering.
Very few chemical engineers who have com-
pleted the expected undergraduate mathematics
requirements can use mathematics effectively in
solving optimization problems. Students are aware
that if you differentiate a function and set the
resulting expression equal to zero you can analy-
tically find a minimum or maximum. What they
do not realize is how limited in scope this par-
ticular treatment of an optimization problem is.
It will not solve problems with stationary points


nor solve constrained problems which are usually
the problems of interest. Furthermore, the actual
process of differentiation is often so tedious that
it defeats the purpose of the technique. Therefore,
it is important for the prospective practitioner
of engineering to understand what tools exist to
resolve practical optimization problems and what
the prospects are for solving such problems.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE
The course had three main objectives:
(1) To obtain an understanding of how to properly pose
nonlinear programming (optimization) problems.
(2) To review the existing practical methods for solving
nonlinear programming problems.
(3) To compare and evaluate methods of solving real
problems especially those arising in the chemical
and petrochemical industries.

SCOPE OF THE COURSE
IN THE OPTIMIZATION of a real process, the
parameters and/or variables are connected by
physical laws (such as the conservation of mass
energy) that must be incorporated in the non-
linear programming problem as equality con-
straints even if they are only inferred. A second
group of constraints incorporates existing limits
on variables or parameters that ensure their phy-
sical realizability or compatibility with the pro-
cess; the second group comprises the inequality
constraints. In addition, empirical expressions,
and other artifices are often introduced into a
process model to describe what is occurring in
the real process. It is vital that the student be
able to translate the physical situation into mathe-
matical form if the optimization problem is to be
properly formulated. Consequently, after a brief
initial review of about one week to bring the
class members up to the same level in background
information, about one week was spent in writ-
ing the functions for the nonlinear programming
problem from various problem statements. Ap-
pendix A is one of the simpler problems used
for such translation.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























David M. Himmelblau is Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Texas, Austin, Texas. He
received a B.S. in Ch.E. from the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology in 1947; an M.B.A. in Business Administra-
tion at Northwestern University in 1950; an M.S. in
Ch.E. at the University of Washington in 1956; and a
Ph.D. in Ch.E. at the University of Washington in 1957.
After serving as an instructor in Chemical Engineering
at the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
from 1955 to 1957, he joined the faculty of the University
of Texas in 1957. His industrial experience includes em-
ployment at International Harvester Company and Excel
Battery Company. His numerous technical papers include
several books. He has been active in the AIChE and other
professional societies.

The balance of the course was devoted ap-
proximately equally to (a) unconstrained opti-
mization and (b) constrained optimization tech-
niques. The broadest types of problems were ex-
amined and their solution techniques discussed,
excluding, however, the following special cases:
(1) variables restricted to integer values (nonlinear
integer programming)
(2) constraints involving the parameter time in the
form of differential equations.
It was felt that these two topics involved special
considerations that could not suitably be covered
in the available time of one semester.
As might be expected, none of the existing
nonlinear programming algorithms has proved
to be definitely superior for all nonlinear pro-
gramming problems under all circumstances.
After describing the algorithms, in order to evalu-
ate them, the course first examined the question
of what criteria to use in evaluation, and then
the students examined the results of several com-
parative studies of the various algorithms.

METHOD OF CLASS PRESENTATION
A S IS USUAL IN graduate courses, about 60%
of the class sessions were devoted to lectures


Very few ChE's who have completed the expected
undergraduate math requirements can use math
effectively in solving optimization problems.

describing the available optimization techniques,
and going over homework that was assigned to
the students. In this respect the course followed
the format of a typical graduate course.
However, because of the nature of the topic,
certain special features were introduced into the
course which occupied the remaining 40% of the
time. First, each student received a large number
of computer codes, and he was asked to solve an
unconstrained and a constrained problem that he
selected on each of the computer codes. Thereafter
each student reported his results in class, and
was questioned by the remainder of the class con-
cerning his experience with a particular program-
ming algorithm. The instructor participated only
as a moderator, and these exchanges of informa-
tion among the class were not only stimulating
but produced a worthwhile appraisal of the vari-
ous techniques.
Both unconstrained and constrained optimiza-
tion were treated in this way, in two separate
series of evaluations. Because the constrained pro-
gramming codes required more user effort to ex-
ecute, the extent of the exchange of information
was more limited.
A second phase of the course was the assign-
ment of individual projects in lieu of a last ex-
amination. These projects consisted of
(1) modification of existing algorithms to improve the
algorithm based on the experience gained by the
student in the course
(2) solution of complicated industrial problems
(3) programming of new algorithms _-based on
articles in the recent literature or based on con-
cepts evolved by the student from his reading and
class discussion.
For students who had some knowledge of pro-
gramming, the amount of creative effort intro-
duced into the assigned project was often quite
substantial.
One of the benefits to the student from these
two phases of the course was that he was able to
take away with him a substantial amount of soft-
ware and documentation pertaining to effective
optimization algorithms with known characteris-
tics. By paying only for the cost of the cards, the
student was able to obtain about 15 to 20 uncon-
strained algorithms and 4 or 5 of the more effec-
tive constrained algorithms. Because he had used


FALL 1971









many of the programs in his class work, he would
be able in the future to introduce these algorithms
as subroutines into some of his other programs or
use them for class work in other courses. It was
this particular feature of the class that attracted
many of the students into the course because,
although there were other related courses being
taught in other departments, the general level
of applicability of the material in those other
courses was quite small. Students felt that they
were unable to solve real problems after having
completed the other courses.

CONCLUSIONS FROM THE COURSE
T HE COURSE SERVED a definite need in em-
phasizing the applications of the techniques
associated with large scale optimization problems.
Although the student was not trained to be a prac-
titioner, he was able to obtain a firm grasp of the
techniques available to solve real optimization
problems. The course enabled the student to gain
a broad mastery of nonlinear programming tech-
niques through reading and practice. Further-
more, it fitted in well with the courses on linear
and nonlinear programming, dynamic program-
ming, control theory, network flow theory, queue-
ing theory, and the other courses required to ob-
tain a firm foundation in management science
and operations research. The role played by the
student in the exchange of information between
students (and the instructor) seemed to provide
considerable motivation for the course as did the
provision of the computer routines and documen-
tation.


APPENDIX A

The power consumption of a heated stirred
vessel is given by the relation:
P = 2.63 x 10-3P.sL5( -- )3
For Reynolds numbers ( a dimensionless group en-
corporating the speed of rotation N and the di-
ameter of the blade L) greater than 150, relation
=.( )0.05
3750 snL2
and for Reynolds numbers smaller than 150,
33.3
(3750 snL2)0.75

find the lowest power constfiption to mix a
vessel containing 6000 gallons, of a fluid for
which s = 0.8 and t- = 200.
Data: Assume for simplicity a 8 inch clear-
ance between the impeller and the tank wall. The
Reynolds number is defined as
3750 snL2

The cost of the tank is $100 per pound of metal,
and the wall thinkness must be at least 1/4" up to a
6 foot height and 3/8" for greater height. As-
sume capital charges per year of 0.25 of the cost
of the tank and a power cost of $0.01 per kwh.
The operating hours are 600 per year.

NOTATION
F = empirical relation
L = impeller diameter, ft.
n = impeller speed, rpm
s = specific gravity, dimensionless
tt = viscosity, lb/(ft) (hr)


REID & MODELL (Continued from page 172)
Some relevant data are given below:
C, (vapor) = 5.8 (H2) ; 7.0 (O0), Btu/lbmol-R.
Assume ideal gases.


Saturation
Temperature
at 37psia, R


Heat of
Vaporization
Btu/lb


3. Our Advanced Technology Laboratory is
still attempting to find ways to separate oxygen
from air. One of their more recent ideas involves
the trapping of oxygen with potassium oxides, i.e.,
K0,O would be reacted with oxygen to form K,02
and KO,. Then with a pressure- or temperature-
swing cycle, oxygen gas would be released. We in
the Engineering Division have been asked to com-


ment upon this scheme and to prepare a pre-
liminary flowsheet.
The data at our disposal are a bit fragmen-
tary. Experiments were carried out to determine
the equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen over
molten potassium oxides. Samples of pure KO,
were placed on a MgO boat in an evacuated tube.
The tube was inserted into an oven at a sufficient-
ly high temperature that the oxide melted. The
pressure of the evolved oxygen was measured
after equilibrium was attained. From this pres-
sure measurement, the tube volume, and oven
temperature, the moles of oxygen evolved could
be ascertained. From this value and also the orig-
inal sample weight, the atomic 0/K ratio of the
oxide liquid could be calculated. Next, a known
amount of oxygen was bled out of the system, and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








the system allowed to come to equilibrium again.
Again the oxygen pressure was measured, and the
liquid O/K ratio calculated. The data indicate that
at any given temperature level the oxygen partial
pressure depends only on the liquid O/K ratio.
Data are shown below at 500, 600, and 650C for
various O/K ratios.


O/K ratio


Partial Pressure of Oxygen, atm.
5000C 600C 6500C


0.018
0.10
0.26
0.43
0.61


0.070
0.13
0.26
0.40
0.55


There is essentially nothing known about the
structure of the liquid phase. It is black, probably
has a high electrical conductivity, and contains
some or all of the following species, K+, 02-, K2O,
KOz, KO,, etc.
We need, immediately, an accurate value for
the energy evolved or absorbed if a reaction occurs
so that the liquid melt absorbs oxygen iso-


thermally at 600C and changes the O/K ratio
from 1 to 1.4. Express your answer on a basis
of 1 gram-atom of potassium.
Also, from the data given, please formulate a
simple process flow diagram to remove oxygen
from air and indicate possible problem areas.
4. Concentrated sulfuric acid (100%) is to be
mixed with water before being added to a batch
reactor. For optimum control of the reactor, the
dilute acid should be fed between 5 and 10C. The
inlet reactor concentration is to be 20 wt % acid.
To minimize heat exchange equipment, it has
been suggested that the dilution step be carried
out by pouring the concentrated acid over the
requisite amount of ice (4 lbs.). Assuming we
adopt this scheme and also precool the concen-
trated acid originally to 0C, what specifications
would you place on the heat exchange equipment
to bring the dilute acid to 10 C?
Freezing points of sulfuric acid solutions, par-
tial pressures of water over sulfuric acid solu-
tions, and ice vapor pressure data are attached
if needed.


THEOFANOUS (Continued from page 177)
3. Boundary layers
The classic exact solution for laminar flow in-
duced by an infinite rotating disc is derived in
detail to illustrate more clearly how convection
may limit the growth of a diffusion layer. At
this point the student is ready to be convinced of
the rationale for the boundary layer assumptions.
Laminar boundary layers of momentum, mass,
energy are considered in detail for flat plates and
solid spheres. The role of the Reynolds, Schmidt
and Prandtl numbers in these phenomena is em-
phasized, especially as a means to understand the
limitations of the boundary layer assumptions.
Previously tackled problems of transfer at
turbulent interfaces are re-examined in terms of
boundary layer concepts and solutions. In particu-
lar, renewal concepts are discussed in terms of
the small penetration approximations as well as
eddy models.

4. Negligible diffusion
The complete solution of a boundary layer
situation requires adequate consideration of the
diffusion-free region of the domain. The usually
non-trivial case is concerned with the fluid me-
chanical problem. The concepts of inviscid (ideal)


flow and irrotational flow are introduced and con-
trasted. The vorticity-free flow (W 0) around
a growing bubble in a viscous fluid illustrates
this distinction and elucidates how solid surfaces,
in general, act as vorticity sources for viscous
fluids. Here the ideas are clarified by considering
the boundary conditions required for a well-posed
problem of a flow starting from rest when it is
cast as ideal flow in terms of the velocity poten-
tial on the one hand or is described by the Navier-
Stokes equation on the other.
The remainder of the material covered in this
section is concerned with construction of irro-
tational flows while the depth and extent of cover-
age depend largely on how far behind schedule we
are at this point.

5. Hydrodynamic Stability-Turbulence
The physical concepts associated with system
isolation from surroundings and random inputs
form the basis for application of small perturba-
tion analysis of stability. Due to time limitations,
a semi-rigorous derivation of the Orr-Sommer-
feld equation is given, and the origin of turbu-
lence is discussed in terms of random inputs at
random time. Statistical and phenomenological
approaches as well as physical models are illus-
trated and contrasted in terms of potential and


FALL 1971









purpose. The physics of turbulent motions are
recalled from previous discussions and are placed
on a more concise and, whenever possible, quan-
titative basis. Turbulent intensity, correlations,
Fourier decomposition and the turbulent energy
spectrum are introduced for this purpose. Finally
the well known quantitative results of the Univer-
sal Equilibrium theory are introduced to define
characteristic length and velocity scales for this
range. Scalar transport in turbulent flows is now
discussed in terms of large and small scale mo-
tions and comparisons with experiments are given
for stratified and dispersed systems. The course
is completed with a brief discussion of interfacial
turbulence.



WEN (Continued from page 191)
64. Shirotsuka, T., Togami, T., and Yokoyama, I., Ka-
gaku Kogaku, 34, 1079 (1970)
65. Smith, J. M., CHEMICAL ENGINEERING KINE-
TICS, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Hill, New York (1970)
66. Smith, N. D., and McKewan, W. M., paper presented
at the Blast Furnace, Coke Oven, and Raw Materials
Conference, Detroit (1962)
67. Suga, K., Otake, T., et al., J. Chem. Soc. Japan,
Ind. Chem. Sec., 69, 2035 (1966)
68. Sugiyama, S. and Hasatani, M., Kagaku Kogaku,
28, 355 (1964)
69. Sugiyama, S. and Hasatani, M., Kagaku Kogaku,
29, 158 (1965)
70. Sugiyama, S. and Kito, M., Kagaku Kogaku,28,
810 (1964)
71. Sugiyama, S., et. al., Kagaku Kogaku, 31, 1081 (1967)
72. Szekely, J. and Evans, J. W., Chem. Eng. Sci., 25,
1091 (1970)


73. Tao, L. C., A.I.Ch.E.J., 13, 165 (1967)
74. Tao, L. C., A.I.Ch.E.J., 14, 720 (1968)
75. Themelis, N. J. and Gauvin, W. H., Trans, A.I.M.E.,
227, 290 (1963)
76. Tien, L. C. and Churchill, S. W., A.I.Ch.E.J., 11, 790
(1965)
77. Wakao, N. and Smith, J. M., Chem. Eng. Sci., 17,
825 (1962)
78. Walker, P. L., Jr., Rusinko, F., Jr. and Austin, L. G.,
ADVANCES IN CATALYSIS, Vol. XI, p. 133,
Academic Press, New York (1959)
79. Weisz, P. B. and Goodwin, R. D., J. Catalysis, 2,
397 (1963)
80. Weisz, P. B. and Goodwin, R. D., J. Catalysis, 6,
227 (1966)
81. Weisz, P. B. and Prater, C. D., ADVANCES IN
CATALYSIS, Vol. VI, p. 143, Academic Press, New
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82. Wen, C. Y. and Loos, W. E., Wood Science, 2, 87
(1969)
83. Wen, C. Y. and Wang, S. C., Ind. Eng. Chem., 62
30 (1970)
84. Wen, C. Y. and Wei, L. Y., A.I.Ch.E.J., 16, 848
(1970)
85. Wen, C. Y. and Wei, L. Y., A.I.Ch.E.J., 17, 272 (1971)
86. Wen, C. Y., Ind. Eng. Chem.,60 (9), 34 (1968)
87. White, D. E. and Carberry, J. J., Can. J. Chem. Eng.,
43, 334 (1965)
88. Wicke, E., "Fifth Symposium on Combustion," p.
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89. Yagi, S. and Kunii, D., "Fifth Symposium on Com-
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91. Yoshida, K. and Kunii, D., Chem. Eng. Journal
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93. Youngquist, G. R., Ind. Eng. Chem., 62, (8), 52
(1970)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION INDEX Volumes I-V

AUTHOR INDEX


Abraham, W. H.
Acrivos, A. .-.....--
Adler, R. J -.-----
Ahler, R. C. ---
Amundson, N. R.
Andersen, L. B. .
Anderson, J. B.
Aris, R. -...---_--
Avery, B. M. --


Baird, M. H. I.
Balzhiser, R. E.
Bankoff, S. G. .-
Barron, C. H. -
Bartkus, E. P.


------ I, 30
-. II, 62
-... II, 52
----- III, 14
------- III, 174
II, 10, 51; V, 96,
-- V, 78, 130
. II, 36; III. 48
----- III, 20


...---.. --.-- IV, 112
------ ---__........ III, 11
. II, 94; V, 50, 55
-.-- ----__.-------- IV, 33
....._........------ II, 70


Bates, H. T. ..-------
Beamer, J. H. -----
Berg, J. ------
Berg, L --..... I, 12,
III, 55; IV, 107
Biery, J. C. ------
Bird, R. B. -----
Bischoff, K. B. -.....---
Block, S. S. ---
Blum, E. H. -
Bobal, M. A. __-
Boudart, M. -------
Brainard, A. J. ---.
Brockmeier, N. F.
Brodkey, R. S. -_
Brown, H. T. --.-


---------.--------- I, 37
---.---- V, 192
---- IV, 162
44; II, 78, 148;


S V, 64
4; III, 142
126; V, 51
V, 152
III, 6
II, 52
IV, 166
-- IV, 90
- IV, 37
--- II, 45
-- III, 14


Burkhart, L. E. -
Burnet, G.
Burr, A. A. ..--
Butt, J. B. ......---

Calvert, S.
Canjar, L. N. --
Carberry, J. J. __
Chilton, T. H.
Christensen, J. H.
Christensen, J. J.
Churchill, S. W. -
Cohen, L. -
Cohen, W. C.
Collins, E. V.
Condiff, D. W. -


---- I, 1
----..- II, 52
-...------------.--- I, 7
---__-..------- III, 199

------ II, 76
------ II, 11
I -- ---- II. 84
--.------ I, 9
.------_- V, 30
------- __ I, 14
-- III, 10, 59, 178
----- III, 109
-_ ---- II, 156
------- IV, 8
._ III, 45; IV, 188


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Conger, W. L. ...--.
Conn, A. L. .--.---
Cooney, D. 0.
Corcoran, W. H.
IV, 66; V, 56
Coughanowr, D. I
Culberson, 0. L.
Cumming, J. T.

Davidson, B. ...- -
Davidson, R. R.
Denn, M. M. --
Dougharty, N. A.
Douglass, J. M. ---


Edwards, L. L. ---
Ellington, R. T.
Erb, P. W. -- ------
Eschenbacher, R. C.
Evans, L. B. .-.-----.----


Fahien, R. W.


- ------------ V, 122
1- II, 167; IV, 198
V, 12
II, 51, 174;

. II, 54
----_----- IV, 24
..-__- ..-............ II, 52
D
.----..------------- V, 57
IV, 137
---- ---- IV, 180
------III, 218
------ I, 72; V, 103


-- IV,
-- -- II,
-------- III,
----------- V,
-------------- V,


II, 3, 51, 99, 147;


III, 3, 44, 107, 150, 154, 163; IV,
155; V, 3
Fair, J. R. ------ --- IV, 61
Felder, R. M. ..___--_--- IV, 178
Fisher, D. G. -------- V, 24
Fitzgerald, T. J. -....-- -- II, 46; V, 8
Ford, J. D. ----------- V, 128


Foresti, Jr., R. --__---
Fredrickson, A. G. -
Friedly, J. C. --
G
Gee, E. ------
Genereaux, R. P. --
Gerster, I. A ... ---
Gibson, C. H. .--.-..---.....
Gilliland, E. R. ---
Gorber, D. M. ----
Gordon, R. J. -----
Greenberg, D. B. -_
Greenkorn, R. A. --
Grieves, R. B. --
Griffin, J. F. ..---..
Griffith, D. E. -.......---
Grinter, L. E ----...-...
Griskey, R. --
Grossmann, E. D. --
H
Hamielec, A. E.
Hamrim, C. E. .----
Hanratty, T. J. -....---
Hansen, D. ---_._- -
Hashemi, H. T. ---
Havens, J. A. .....--..
Heidemann, R. A. -.-
Henley, E. J. ----
Hiestand, J. H. .-..--.-.--
Hightower, J. W. --
Himmelblau, D. M. -...--
Hoelscher, H. E. -...--.
H
Holland, C. D. ---
Hougen, 0. A. .-.....---


IV, 44; V, 3
----- III, 124
---- V, 90

-------------------- V,
-- I-- 27
-..-.. IV, 10
.-------- III, 90
---- IV, 156
---- V, 141
-------- V, 103
----- IV, 132
.---. III, 32
------ V, 88
.---- II, 88
-----.---------- I, 1
.--------- III, 222
----- II 181
---- IV, 28

---- I, 52
---- III, 207
--- III, 184
----- III, 64
-- II, 109
--------- V, 4
---- IV, 28
II, 120; III, 34
-------- .V, 116
-- -- III, 118
- IV, 37; V, 196
---------- III, 5

---- IV, 62
------- III, 168


Hubbard, R. M.
Hudgins, R. R. -....--.
Hughes, R. R. -.....--
Hulburt, H. M. --
Humphrey, A.
I
Irey, R. K. ----
J
Johnson, J. A. -
Johnson, R. C. ---
Jolls, K. R. ---
Jones, C. F. -
Juul-Dam, T.
K
Kabel, R. L. -----
Kanitz, P. T. F. -
Keller, K. H. --
Kenny, D. H. -....--
Kenyon, R. L.
Keppel, R. A.
Kershenbaum, L. S.
Kiker, J. E. ---
King, C. J. -_..----
Kintner, R. C. --
Kiser, K. M. ---
Klei, H. E. ---
Klinzing, G. E. --...
Koffolt, J. H. -.
Koppel, L. B. -....---
Krantz, W. B.
Kroesser, F. W. -
L
Lacksonen, J. W. -
Lapidus, L.
Lawson, J. D.
Lee, V. J. ----
Lee, W. ------
Lenz, R. E. -...---....
Leonard, E. F. --
Lessells, G. --
Levenspiel, 0. _.-
Licht, W. ---
Lightfoot, E. N. -..
Lih, M. M -.... II, 5i
Littlejohn, C. E. -..
Lohmann, M. R. -.
Lowry, F. ---.
Lynn, S.
M
Maddox, L. A. --
Madonna, L. A. -.-
Manning, F. S. .--
Martin, J. J. -.-- II,
216
Massaro, T. A. -
McCabe, W. L. --
Millichamp, D. A. -
Metcalf, L. ----
Metcalfe, T. B. -
Metzner, A. B. --
Miller, S. A. --.---
Mischke, R. A. -
Modell, M. -------
Molstad, M. C. -...--


------ I, 10
-- III, 42; V, 138
----.------ III, 113
----- III, 190
---- III, 56

-- II, 95, 137, 184

-.- ------ IV, 4
----- V, 152
------ IV, 86
----- III, 70
-- -- IV, 118

------ V, 184
-- ------- V, 128
----- II, 20
--------- II, 180
------ I, 45
III, 154
S-...-.--.----- IV, 28
------ II, 98
-..-..... IV, 124
----- V. 108
------- I. 48
---- IV, 41
IV, 142: V, 126
------- II, 52
---------------- IV, 168
----- IV, 145
----- V, 112

.----.-- IV, 76
---- III, 200
----- IV, 118
---- III, 126
----------------- V, 144
---..-------- II, 80
-----IV, 172
_-- --- III, 14
I--- 55; II, 46
.----.- IV, 176
III, 194; IV, 106
2; III, 108; IV, 44
_-- II, 52; IV, 58
-.------ II, 51
.------ V, 99
.-... --- III, 167

_-- IV, 118
-------- I, 24
------ II, 11
52, 149; III, 212,

----------- ------... III, 5
---.---- V, 155
----- -- V, 134
-- II, 148, 149
----- II, 52, 139
--- -- IV, 180
--.-- I, 72; II, 52
------- V, 68
--- -- V, 168
--- ---.---- II, 149


Morgen, R. A. -......---
IV, 55
Morton, E. L. --
Moulton, R. W. --
Murphy, G. -.----.------
Myers, A. ----------
Myers, I. .-----
N
Nelson, L. E. --
Neumann, R. W. _


II, 52; III, 228;

-.--- IV, 132
---- II, 52, 104
.--------------- I, 3
- .--- --- V, 72
---- ~~ V, 72

-------- III, 44
----- III, 118


Obert, E. F. --------.------------------ IV, 94
O'Connell, F. P.--_-._- IV, 126
Orr, Jr., C. --------- V, 52
Ozawa, Y. -------- V, 144
P
Peck, R. -- --- ------------II, 46
Peiffer, C. C. ------- IV, 138
Peters, M. S. __--- II, 51, 78
Pfeffer, R. ---------- I, 13; III, 109
Pings, C. J. -......--_---- IV, 18, 92, 187
Poehlein, G. -.---- __ III, 100
Pohl, J. H. ------ II, 95, 137, 184
Powers, J. E. -- ----- IV, 186
Prausnitz, J. M. ----------- III, 204
R
Randolph, A. D. .------ V, 145
Rase, H. F. ------- IV, 118
Reid, R. C. -------- IV, 160; V, 168
Richardson, G. A. -- II, 52
Riffle, S. E. ------- III, 118
Roberts, G. W. .....----.-------- IV, 3
Rodriguez, F. --..-------_--------------- V, 82
Rosen, E. M. ----- --- II, 120
Ryan, N. W. -......------ --------------- IV, 108
S
Sandall, 0. C. -.....---------.----.. -- V, 134
Scharer, J. M. -.......----_.-------.-- V, 141
Schmidt, A. X. ------------ I, 13; III, 109
Schoenborn, E. M. V, 154
Scriven, L. E. .-..--- II, 150; III, 26,
94; V, 44
Seader, J. D. --------..-------------..__ IV, 108
Seagrave, R. C -----.--- III, 84
Sell, G. R. -.----.....--...............-- IV, 94
Shilling, G. D. ------ III, 130
Shreve, R. N. ------------ III, 55
Sleicher, C. A. -...-------_---..... -- II, 66
Sliepcevich, C. M. ---- II, 109; III, 45
Smith, J. M. -........--- II, 52; III, 218;
IV, 97; V, 18
Snyder, J. R. -..........------------.----__ I, 11
Starling, K. E. -------- V, 4
Stearns, S. R. -_-- __-- III, 74
Stevens, W. F. ---- --- II, 27
Stout, T. M. -....--------.........--... V, 116
Sundstrom, D. W ......----------. IV, 41
Sussman, M. V. ------ II, 113
Swenson, S. T. ----------------. III, 118
Syverson, A. -.........---- _.... II, 8
T
Tepe, J. B. -........--------. ----------- V, 166
Theofanous, T. G. ---------- V, 174
Thiele, E. W. --....----- ---------... II, 98


FALL 1971










Thorpe, R. G. --
Throne, J. L. -.-----
Thygeson, Jr., J. R.
Tiller, F. M. -------
Timmerhaus, K. D
Tomkowit, T. W.
Toor, H. L.
Tsao, G. T. .- ---------
Tyner, M. ---------


Uhl, V. W. -._

Vadovic, C. J.
Vargo, P. M.


I----- 63
I, 70; II, h,8, 139
. -........ IV 28
---- III. 23; V, 99
.... ---- -V, 96
---- 11, 32
IV, 188
----- IV, 192
---...--- ----- III, 154

-------------- V, 58

----- III, 69
..---...-- V, 30


Wales, C. E. --
Wallis, G. B. ---.--
Ward, H. C.
Wasan, D. T. ---
Watkins, P. H. -.
Weaver, R. E. C.
Weber, J. H. -... II
IV, 72
Wei, J. __-----
Weller, S. W. ---
Wen, C. Y. ---
West, R. E. --
Westerberg, A. W.


---- iI, 129
-- II, 160; III, 74
----- III, 25
S--- V, 108
-- 167
.--.-..- II, 52
52, 135; III, 165;

.- III, 103; V, 165
-__--- V, 178
---__-_ V, 188
----.-. ... V, 98
------.... V, 32, 180


Wheelock, T. D.
White, J. L. -.
Williams, G. C. -
Willis, M. T. -..
Wills, G. B. --
Wing, R. H. --...
Wise, D. L ...
Wissler, E. H. __
Woods, D. R. -....
Woodside, D. J.

Yerazunis, S. --


--- I----- 5
- -- V, 37
II----- I, 128
------------- I, 46
- -- III, 233
.------------------ II, 41
-------I------- I, 24
------ II, 16
I, 19, 52; II, 162
------- IV, 108

----- I, 7; III, 64


A

AIChE Annual Reports ...... V, 96
Allan P. Colburn .......... III, 168
A. P. Colburn-A Distinguished
Career .................. III, 173
Approaches to Statistical
Thermodynamics .......... II, 113
Are Engineers Selling Their
Birthright For a Place in the
Ivory Tower? ............. II, 41
Arizona's Alan Randolph ..... V, 64
Assistance Program in
Ecuador, An ............ IV, 142
At the University of Florida
A Real Time Computer
Control Facility ........... V, 32
Attrition of ChE Undergrads .. IV, 24
Audio-Module Experiments ... V, 126
B

Book Review, As I Remember II, 180
Conservation of Mass Energy IV, 8
Design Studies in the Manufacture
of Ethylene by Pyrolysis of
Naptha .................. IV, 61
Elementary Chemical Reactor
Analysis .................. V, 51
Engineering Thermodynamics II, 135
Fundamentals of Chemical
Reaction Engineerng ....... I, 48
An Introduction to the Engineering
Research Project ........ III, 128
Kinetics of Chemical
Processes ................ III, 199
Book review, Man's Impact on
Environment .............. V, 152
Mass Transfer in Heterogenous
Catalysis ................ IV, 97
Material and Energy Balance
Computations ............. V, 98
Molecular Thermodynamics of
Fluid-Phase Equilibria .... IV, 160
Nonlinear Differential Equations of
Chemically Reacting
Systems ................ III, 103


TITLE INDEX
Non-Newtonian Flow and
Heat Transfer ............ II, 45
Optimal Control of Engineering
Processes ................ II, 94
Process Analysis and Simulation:
Deterministic Systems .... V, 145
Process Systems Analysis
and Control ................ I, 30
Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering ........... III, 25

C

Caltech .................... II, 174
Canon and Method in the Arts
and Sciences ............. III, 48
Case Problems in Chemical Process
Design and Engineering .... IV, 124
Changing Attitudes to Reactor
Design .................... I, 55
Chemical Engineer in Management,
The .................... IV, 198
Chemical Engineering Approach
to Entropy, The ............ I, 70
ChE Division Activities .... II, 10;
III, 165; IV, 205
ChE Education in Western
Europe .................. IV, 33
ChE Information and Education II, 70
ChE Problems For Teachers ......
II, 46, 95, 137, 184; III, 44, 142;
IV, 137, 178, 216; V, 99, 144
ChE Summer School in Boulder-
1972 ..................... V, 162
Chemical Engineering Professorial
Staff as a Function of
Student Load .............. I, 13
Chemistry-Chemical Engineering
Merry-Go-Round, The .... III, 228
Chemistry for Chemical
Engineers ................ II, 167
Chemistry Makes the Chemical
Engineer ................. II, 32
Closing the University-Industry
Gap ..................... IV, 62
Common Thermodynamics Course


For Engineering Sophomores, II, 11
Complement to Design, A Trouble-
Shooting Problems ......... I, 19
Computers and Applied Math in the
Engineering Curriculum ... IV, 130
Course in Biochemical Engineering,
A ...................... IV 192
Course in Bioengineering,
A ...................... IV 172
Course in Chemical Reaction
Engineering Reactor Design,
A ...................... III, 218
Course on Computer Aided Process
Design, A ............... V, 180
Course in Control and Optimization
Optimal Control of Reaction
Systems, A ............. III, 200
Course in Design of Air Pollution
Control Systems, A ...... IV, 176
Course in Heat and Mass
Transfer, A ............ IV, 188
Course in Heterogeneous Catalysis,
A ....................... V 178
Course in Kinetics of Chemical
Processes, A ............ IV, 166
Course in Mass Transport Diffusional
Operations, A .......... III, 194
Course in Noncatalytic Heterogeneous
Reaction Systems, A ....... V, 188
Course in Mathematical Modeling,
A ....................... V 184
Course on the Optimization of Large
Scale Systems, A ......... V, 196
Courses in Process Control . IV, 168
Course in Statistical Analysis and
Simulation, A ............ V, 192
Course in Thermodynamics Molecular
Thermodynamics of Phase
Equilibria, A ............ III, 204
Course in Thermodynamics, A. The
Graduate Student Versus
Thermodynamics ........ III, 212
Course in Thermodynamics: Theory
with Applications, A ...... V, 168
Course in Transport Phenomena,
A ....................... V, 174


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Course on Separation Processes,
A ...................... IV 186
Curriculum Analysis and Multifurca-
tion of Undergraduate
Curricula ................... I, 1
D
Dartmouth's Doctor of
Engineering .............. III, 74
Delaware .................. IV, 10
Demonstration Experiment in Non-
Newtonian Flow, A ........ V, 82
Dick Balzhiser of Michigan .. III, 10
Dick Wilhelm of Princeton .... II, 60
Diffusion and Reaction in
Catalyst Pellets .......... V, 130
Dilemma of Innovating Societies,
The .................... III, 124
"Doc" Lewis if MIT ........ IV, 156
Does the Entropy of a Compound
System Always Maximize in the
Equilibrium State? ....... IV, 90
Drexel ...................... II, 54
Duane Bruley of Clemson .... IV, 58
Dynamic Optimization ........ II, 27
E
E. B. Christiansen-High on
Horses and Ideals ........ IV, 108
Education For a New Environment:
Biomedical Engineering .... III, 84
Electronics and Instrumentation
Techniques For ChE Grad
Students ................. IV, 86
Engineering and Public Affairs:
Some Directions for Education
and Research .............. III, 6
Engineering Opportunities For
Negro and Indian Youth .... III, 20
Environmental Focus for Engineering
Education, An ............ III, 76
Environmental Studies ...... V, 112
Enzyme-Catalysis Experiment V, 141
Evaluation of an Approach to
Plant Design .............. I, 52
Expanding Frontiers at
Clarkson .................. V, 12
F
Facility for Education in RealTime
Computing, A ............. V, 30
Final "Goals" Report ........ II, 78
First Aid to Ailing Thermo-
dynamics .................. I, 37
Flexible Curricula Can Be
Strong .................. III, 154
Flow and Transfer at Fluid
Interfaces Parts I, II, III ........
II, 150; III, 26, 94
Fluid Dynamics ........... III, 184
Frank Groves Favorite
Professor ................ II, 171
G
Gators Go, The ............ III, 150


Graduate Course in Chemical
Reactor Engineering, A .... II, 84
Graduate-Engineering and Tech-
nological Accreditation .... III, 222
Great Teacher Olaf A. Hougen,
A ........................ II, 100

H
Hail Purdue! .............. III, 32
How Industry Can Improve the
Usefulness of Academic Research
V, 165
Humanities and Social Science in
Engineering Curricula ..... II, 66

I
Illinois Tech .............. V, 108
Impressions of Engineering Education
in the Southern Tier ...... V, 44
Industry Needs Scientific Engineers
Not Engineering Scientists .. II, 78
Inexpensive Laser Grating
Interferometer, An ........ II, 88
In The Shadows of Power .... III, 11
Innovation and Motivation-A
Freshman Design Course ... IV, 44
Innovations in a Process Design and
Development Course ...... II, 162
Interfacial Phenomena ...... IV, 162
Integrity of Chemical Engineering,
The ....................... I, 72
Irreversible Thermodynamics II, 109

J
Joe and His Jewels ........... II, 8
Junior Knows Best-Or Does
H e? ...................... I, 12
K

Kinetics ................... II, 126

L
Little Red School House, The IV, 94

M
Mass Transfer Operations ... V, 122
Mass Transport Phenomena in the
Human Circulatory System II, 20
Max Peters University of
Colorado ................ III, 110
Method of Matched Asymptotic
Expansions, The .......... II, 62
Microcatalytic Tracer Experiment,
A ...................... III, 118
Mr. Jefferson's Academical
Village ................... V, 58
M. S. Core Courses .......... V, 88

N
Nebraska .................. IV, 72
New Chemical Engineering Option
in an Engineering-Science-Oriented
Core Curriculum, A ........ I, 24


New Directions for Engi-
neering .................. III, 59
New Mold, John McKetta University
of Texas, A ................ IV, 4
New Stoichiometry, The ..... II, 120
New View of Bifurcation, A .... I, 1
Non-Newtonian Pipeline Flow V, 128
North Carolina State's Warren
Lee McCabe ............. V, 154

0
Obsolete Curricula For an Obsolescent
Profession? Or What About
Chemical Engineering Today? IV, 66
Ocean Engineering .......... III, 90
On the Recruitment of Chemical
Engineers ................ III, 34
On the Treadmill of the Windfall
of Windfall Research ..... V, 103
On What Sort of Place, If Any,
Theoretical and Mathematical
Studies Should Have in Graduate
Chemical Engineering
Research ................. II, 36
On W isconsin ................ II, 4
Open-Ended Course in Chemical
Plant Design, An ........ IV, 126
Optimization Applications and
Limitations ............. III, 113
Oregon State's Octave Levenspiel V, 8
Overhead Projector, a Teaching
Aid, The .................. I, 11

P
Personality of a Profession,
The .................... III, 70
Photochemical Processing: Photode-
composition of Pollutants in
W ater .................... V, 18
Pollution Control Technology III, 100
Polymer Science and Engineering
at Tennessee .............. V, 37
Process Computers and Chemical
Engineering Education .... V, 116
Process Dynamics and Control II, 156
Process Dynamics, Without
Control ................... V, 90
Programmed Gas Absorber
Calculations .............. IV, 37
Programs in Water Pollution
Control .................. IV, 41
Providing Meaningful Laboratory
Experience for Undergraduate
Students in Transport
Phenomena ............... II, 16

R
Real-Time Computing in the
University ................ V, 24
Relevance of Academic Chemical
Relevance of Graduate ChE
Research ................ V, 166
Engineering Research ...... V, 55
Rensselaer ................. III, 64


FALL 1971










Rensselaer Program for Engineering
Education, The ............. I, 7
Report of Education and Accredita-
tion Committee ............ V, 50
S

Scaling Initial and Boundary Value
Problems as a Teaching Tool
for a Course in Transport
Phenomena .............. IV, 145
Science, Technology or Both? .... I, 3
Self-Pacing, Auto-Graded Course,
A ....................... III, 130
Semi-Notes Can Help ........ V, 68
Shri Jyant Saraiya, Engineer .. I, 44
Simple Forced Convection
Experiment, A ........... V, 134
Some Current Studies in Liquid State
Physics, 1 and 2 ........ IV, 18, 98
Soviet Education: from Detsky Sad
to Aspirant ................ V, 72
Speaking Out ........ I, 9, 2, 45, 63
Specialization in Fine Particle
Technology ................ V, 52
Stability of Reaction Systems .. V, 78
Statistical Theories of Particulate
Systems ................ III, 190
Stuart W. Churchill of the University
of Pennsylvania .......... III, 56


A
Academic and Industrial
Research .......... V, 165, 166
Accreditation ............. III, 222
Accreditation and Education ... V, 50
Accreditation, Graduate .... III, 222
Accreditation, Technological III, 222
Acrivos, A., Lecturer ........ II, 62
Adiabatic flame temperature III, 142
AIChE committee reports V, 50, 96
Asymptotic expansions ....... II, 62
Attrition of ChE undergrads IV, 24
Audio-module experiments ... V, 126
Award Lecture ........ 1967-II, 62;
1968-II, 150; III, 26, 94;
1969-IV, 18, 98; 1970-V, 18;
Axial diffusion ............. III, 42
B

Balzhiser, R. E., Educator .. III, 10
Biochemical engineering .... IV, 192
Bioengineering ...... IV, 172; V, 141
Biomedical engineering II, 20; III, 84
Book reviews: Analysis and
simulation-V, 145; Control-I, 30; II,
94; Design-IV, 61; General-II, 180;
III, 128; V, 152; Kinetics and re-
actors-I, 48; III, 103, 199; IV, 97; V,
51; Stoichiometry-IV, 8; V, 98;
Thermodynamics-II 135; IV, 160;


Students, Faculty and
Professionalism .......... II, 181
Student, The Teacher, The Psycho-
logist View Programmed Instruction,
The ................... ... II, 129
Survey of 5 Year and Cooperative
Chemical Engineering Curricula
of 1963-1964, A ............ I, 14
Systems Approach, A ....... IV, 28
T

Taylor-Axial Diffusion ...... III, 42
Technical Aids for Chemical
Engineering ................ I, 10
Teaching Optimization: The Best of
all Possible Approaches .... IV, 82
Technical Careers For the
Disadvantaged ............ III, 14
Theories, Correlations and Uncer-
tainties For Waves, Gradients
and Fluxes .............. III, 178
Thermodynamics: Death and
Transfiguration .......... II, 139
Things Are Humming at
McMaster ............... IV, 112
Toward a Contemporary Course in
Graduate Kinetics and Reactor
Design .................... IV, 76
Transport Phenomena Equations



SUBJECT INDEX
Transport phenomena-II, 45; Unit
Operations-III, 25
Bruley, Duane ............. IV, 58

C

Caltech .................. II, 174
Canon and method .......... III, 48
Career development ...... III, 20, 14
Career opportunities .......... I, 45
Case problems .............. IV, 124
Catalysis ......... V, 130, 141, 178
ChE division activities ...... II, 10;
III, 165; IV, 205; V, 162
ChE laboratory .... Control-II, 156;
General-IV, 28, 86, 138; V, 126, 138,
141; Kinetics-II, 126; III, 118; V,
78, 130; Laser-II, 88; Real-time
computing-V, 24, 30, 32; Transport
phenomena-II, 16; III, 42; V, 82,
128, 134
ChE research ......... V, 165, 166
ChE student attrition ........ IV, 24
ChE summer school ........ V, 162
ChE today ............ .. IV, 66
Chemical reactors ............ V, 78
Chemistry ...... II, 32, 167; III, 228
Christiansen, E. B., Educator IV, 108
Churchill, S. W., Educator ... III, 56
Clarkson College of Engg. .... V, 12
Colburn, A. P., Founder III, 168, 173


of Change .............. III, 126
Transport Phenomena: We Have Not
Gone Far Enough ........ IV, 106
Two Courses in Fluid
Mechanics .............. IV, 180
Two-Option Curriculum, A .... I, 5
U

Undergrad ChE Laboratory,
An ...................... IV, 138
Unit Operations to Transport
Phenomena ................ I, 46
University in International
Affairs, The .............. III, 23
University of Washington ... II, 104
Use of Visual Interactive Display
in Process Design ........ IV, 118
W

What They're Using ...... I, 30, 48
Where Are the Engineers? ... II, 139
Where Do We Go from Here?
V, 155, 159
Why a Scholarship Program in
Chemical Engineering? ..... II, 78
Why Mathematics? ........ III, 174
Z
Zone Refining, A Student
Experiment .............. V, 138


Complex systems ............ V, 144
Computer program .......... IV, 37
Computers ...... IV, 130; V, 24, 30,
32, 116
Computers in design IV, 118; V, 180
Continuing education .. IV, 94; V, 96
Control .................... II, 156
Control of reactors .......... II, 27
Convective diffusion ........ III, 94
Courses, Freshman .......... IV, 44
Curriculum Analysis .......... I, 1
Curriculum, General I, 3, 5, 7, 14, 2;4
II, 32, 66, 167; III, 59, 74, 84, 154,
228; IV, 33, 41, 66, 106, 130; V, 52,
88, 116
Curriculum Multidisciplinary V, 112
D
Dartmouth ................. III, 74
Degree programs ........... V, 112
Delaware, U. of ............ IV, 10
Design I, 19; IV, 44, 118, 124; V, 180
Design, Freshman course .... IV, 44
Dielectric and critical state .. IV, 98
Directions for engineering III, 6, 59
Disadvantaged students .. III, 14, 20
Doctor of Engg., Dartmouth III, 74
Drexel ..................... II, 54
E
Ecuador .................. IV, 142


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Education and accreditation ... V, 50
Education projects ........... V, 96
Electronics and instrumenta-
tion ...................... IV 86
Engineering and change ..... V, 155
Engineering and public affairs III, 6
Engineers in industry ....... V, 166
Engineers vs. engg. scientists II, 41, 78
Enrollment ................ II, 139
Entropy ...................... I, 70
Environmental studies III, 76, V, 112
Enzymes .................... V, 141
F

Fine particles ............... V, 52
Florida, U. of .............. III, 150
Fluid mechanics II, 150; III, 26, 178,
184; IV, 145, 180; V, 82, 128
Forced convection ........... V, 134
Founders ........ III, 168; IV, 156

G

Goals report ................ II, 78
Groves, F., Educator ....... II, 171
H

Heat and mass transfer .... IV, 188
Heterogeneous catalysis ..... V, 178
Heterogeneous reactions ..... V, 188
Hougen, 0. A., Educator .... II, 100
Human circulatory system .... II, 20
Humanities and social science II, 66;
III, 48, 124
I

Illinois Tech ................ V, 108
Industry ...... I, 27; III, 70; IV, 198
Industry, ChE's in ............ I, 9
Industry-University .... I, 63; IV, 62
Information and education .... II, 70
Innovating societies ........ III, 124
Instrumentation ............ IV, 86
Interfacial phenomena ...... II, 150;
III, 26; IV, 162
Interferometer, laser grating II, 88
International education ...... III, 23;
IV, 33, 142; V, 44, 72
K

Kinetics ......... I, 55, 126; III, 200;
IV, 76, 166; V, 18, 130
Koffolt, J. H., Educator ...... II, 8
L

Laboratory II, 16, 88, 126, 156; III, 42,
118; IV, 28, 86, 138; V, 24, 30, 32,
78, 82, 126, 128, 130, 134, 138, 141
Laboratory kinetics ......... V, 130
Large scale systems ......... V, 196
Lecture improvement ........ V, 68
Levenspiel, 0., Educator ...... V, 8
Lewis, W. K., Founder ...... IV, 156
Liquid structure ........ IV, 18, 98


Me

McCabe, W. L., Founder ..... V, 154
McKetta, J., Educator ........ IV, 4
McMaster U............... IV, 112
M
Management .............. IV, 198
Mass transport ........... III, 194;
V, 122, 134
Mathematics ........ II, 36; III, 174,
184; IV, 130
Modeling .................. V, 184
Momentum transport ...... III, 184
N
Naturally occurring processes V, 184
Nebraska, U. of ........... IV, 72
Negro and Indian youth ..... III, 20
New directions ............. III, 59
Non-Newtonian flow ..... V, 82, 128

0
Ocean engineering .......... III, 90
Optimization ...... II, 27; III, 113,
200; IV, 82; V, 196
Option programs ...... I, 1, 3, 5, 24;
III, 154
Overhead projector ........... I, 11
P
Particulate systems ........ III, 190
Particle technology .......... V, 52
Personality of a profession ... III, 70
Peters, Max, Educator ...... III, 110
Photo decomposition .......... V, 18
Pings, C. J., Lecturer ..... III, 160;
IV, 18, 98
Plant design ......... I, 52; IV, 126
Pollution ...... III, 100; IV, 41, 176;
V, 18, 88
Pollution, Air ................ V, 88
Pollution, Water ............ IV, 41
Polymers .................... V, 37
Polytropic processes .......... V, 99
Problems for teachers II, 46, 95, 137,
184; III, 44, 142, 216; IV, 90, 137,
178; V, 99, 144
Problem solutions .......... II, 137
Process control ........ IV, 168, 176
Process design .... IV, 118, 124, 162;
V, 180
Process dynamics ..... II, 156; V, 90
Professionalism .. II, 41, 181; III, 70
Professional development ..... II, 41
Programmed instruction . II, 11, 129;
III, 130; V, 122
Public affairs ............ III, 11, 6
Purdue U ................. III, 32
R
Randolph, A., Educator ....... V, 64
Reactors .......... I, 55; II, 27, 84;
III, 118, 130, 218; IV, 76; V, 78, 130
Reaction systems ... III, 200; V, 188


Real-time computing ... V, 24, 30, 32
Recruitment ...... I, 12, 44; II, 139;
III, 14, 20, 134; IV, 24, 44
Relevance of research V, 55, 165, 166
Rensselaer ................. III, 64
Research .................... V, 103
Russian education ........... V, 72
S
Saraiya, S.J., Engineer ........ I, 44
Scholarship programs ........ II, 78
Schowalter, W., Lecturer .... V, 107
Scriven, L.E., Lecturer .. II, 107, 150;
III, 26, 94
Self-paced courses . III, 130; V, 122
Semi-notes .................. V, 68
Separation processes ........ IV, 186
Shadows of power .......... III, 11
Simulation ................. V, 192
Smith, J.M., Lecturer IV, 205; V, 18
South America .............. V, 44
Soviet education .............. V, 72
Staff requirements ............ I, 13
Staff vs. student load ......... I, 13
Statistical analysis .......... V, 192
Statistical mechanics .... IV, 18, 98
Stoichiometry .............. II, 120
Systems analysis ............ V, 144
Systems approach .......... IV, 28
T
Teaching aids ............ I, 10, 11
Teaching improvement .... V, 68, 126
Teaching load ................ I, 13
Technology ................ III, 222
Technology, Accreditation ... III, 222
Tennessee, U. of .............. V, 37
Thermodynamics I, 37, 70; II, 11, 46,
95, 109, 113, 139, 184; III, 204, 216,
218; IV, 90, 137; V, 168
Tracer experiment ......... III, 118
Transport at fluid interfaces .. II, 150
Transport phenomena .. I, 46; II, 16,
20, 150; III, 26, 44, 126, 178, 194;
IV, 106, 145, 188; V, 134, 174
Trouble-shooting problems .... I, 19
Tubular reactor ........... IV, 178
U
Undergraduate laboratory ... IV, 138
Unit operations ...... I, 46; IV, 186
University-Industry .......... IV, 62
V
Virginia, U. of .............. V, 58
Visual aids ................ V, 126
W
Washington, U. of .......... II, 104
Waves, gradients, and fluxes III, 178
Western Europe ............ IV, 33
Wilhelm, R.H., Educator ..... II, 60
W isconsin, U. of .............. II, 4
Z
Zone refining .............. V, 138


FALL 1971












UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA
Graduate Programs in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering


Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $5,000/year.
M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to $4,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Costs.
Tuition: $535/year.
Married students housing rent: $120/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $100/month.
Ph.D. Degree
Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year
courses, thesis.
M.Sc. Degree
5-8 half-year courses, thesis.
M.Eng. Degree
10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project.
Department Size
15 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows,
40-50 Graduate Students.

Applications
Return postcard or write to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
Application deadline for the academic year is May 1st.
Late applications considered only in exceptional cases.

Faculty and Research Interests
R. G. Bentsen, Ph.D. (Penn. State): Flow Through Por-
ous Media, Secondary Recovery Mechanisms.
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
P. M. Dranchuk, M.Sc. (Alberta): Pattern Flooding,
Reservoir Wettability, Flow Through Porous Media.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and
Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process
Design.
D. L. Flock, (Associate Dean), Ph.D. (Texas A & M):
Petroleum Reservoir Analysis, Secondary Recovery
Mechanisms.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.


F. D. Otto, Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer
Design of Separation Processes, Polymerization.
D. Quon, Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Mathematics, Optimi-
zation, Statistical Decision Theory.
D. R. Robinson, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal
and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Termodynamics.
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Two Phase Flow, Fluid
Mechanics.
D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Ad-
aptive Control, Stability Theory.
F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
tics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns.

Department Facilities
Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre.
Excellent Complement of computing and analytical
equipment:
-IBM 1800 (real-time) computer
-EAI 590 hybrid computer
-AD 32 analog computer
-2 IBM 360/67 terminals
-Weissenberg Rheogoniometer
-Infrared spectrophotometer
-Research and industrial gas chromatographs

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and Engineering
schools.
Enrollment of 18,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
non-denominational.
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river
valley.

Edmonton
Fast growing, modern city; population of 420,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper National Park.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








You don't have to dig your
Honda out of a snowdrift
each morning to earn an ad- -l '
vanced degree in Chemical
Engineering. .







The University of Arizona at Tucson has excellent advanced degree programs in Chemical engineer-
ing and you won't have to put on chains once unless you want to go skiing in the nearby mountains.

The Ch.E. department at Arizona is young and aggressive with a fully accredited undergraduate de-
gree program and MS and PhD graduate programs. Financial support is available through NSF and
NASA traineeships, teaching and research assistantships, and industrial grants. The faculty of eight
in this medium-sized department assures full opportunity to study in the major areas of chemical
engineering interest. Some graduate study areas of particular interest to the faculty are:


* reaction kinetics
* fluid flow
* thermal transport
* polymer processing


' process dynamics & simulation
* particulate systems
* crystallization
* minerals processing & recovery


Several interesting interdisciplinary research projects are being initiated including:
biomedical (with Pathology and Urology Departments)
solid state (with Electrical Engineering)
advanced automotive fuel systems (with Electrical Engineering)

Tucson, abounding with recreational opportunities, is a pleasant modern city of 300,000 yet retains
much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.











For further information,
write to
Dr. D. H. White
Head
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721





































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum of three years
subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis re-
search and further advanced study.


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties.

APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Prof. C. J. Pings
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109

It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1972.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; gas chromatography;
plasma chemistry.
SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; particle-surface
interactions; interfacial transfer; diffusion and
membrane transport.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process dyna-
mics; control and optimization.
L. GARY LEAL, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics; rheology.
CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor, Executive
officer, and Vice-Provost.
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical
mechanics.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.

FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; combustion.

NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials
and dilute polymer solutions.

ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state chemistry and physics, particularly
effects of high pressure.

W. HENRY WEINBERG, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.


208 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY

CASE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, a privately endowed insti-
tluion lwilh a tradition of excellence in Engineering and Applied
Science has long offered a variety of courses and research areas
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering.
In 1967 Case Institute and Western Reserve University joined to-
gether. The enrollment and endowment make Case Western Reserve
S University one of the largest private schools in the country.

Iaai'* '' Students interested in graduate work
in Chemical Engineering or Applied
SChemistry should consider the varied
opportunities available in the Chemi-
cal Engineering Science Division. Of
L ? special interest are strong programs
in systems optimization and control,
pollution, catalysis and surface chem-
.,0 istry, polymer science and engineer-
S0 ing, biomedical engineering, mass
... p transfer, reactor design, and others.
..... Within these broad categories are
many individual research projects
f and course offerings.




S .* 'FINANCIAL
A_ ASSISTANCE

Graduate Assistantships are offered
N with stipends ranging from $415 to
$515 per month (depending on back-
W Bground and marital status) from
which $170 per month tuition charge
is deducted. Appointments are made
by either the academic or the calen-
dar year.
Fellowships and Traineeships are
available providing stipends from
$200 to $350 per month plus full
tuition. Additional allowances for
teaching and for dependents are in-
eluded with some.
Predoctoral loans of substantial
amounts are available.

ROBERT J. ADLER, Head
FOR FURTHER Chemical Engineering Science Division
INFORMATION YOU ARE School of Engineering
INFORMATION YOU ARE Case Western Reserve University
INVITED TO WRITE: University Circle
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


FALL 1971
















































PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORAL DEGREE IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE

We are the recipient of an NSF Departmental Development Grant in the
amount of $590,000. As a consequence we have available attractive Assistant-
ships and Fellowships. For information on programs and stipends contact the Grad-
uate School Office, Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New York 13676


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY


J. ESTRIN-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation phe-
nomena in crystallizing systems; condensation of vapors.
W. N. GILL-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1960, Syracuse University) Re-
verse osmosis desalination; dispersion in fluid systems; heat trans-
fer from free and forced convection; porous wall reactors.
H. L. SHULMAN-Prof. and Vice Pres. of the College. (Ph.D., 1950,
University of Pennsylvania) Mass transfer, packed columns;
adsorption of gases; absorption.
A. F. BURKE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967, Princeton University) High
temperature, electrochemical, and electric arc processes; shock
tube studies; chemical kinetics; combustion; corrosion.
R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson College of Technology)
Boiling heat transfer; liquid film dynamics.
E. J. DAVIS-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington)
Two-phase flow fluid mechanics; convective diffusion; aerosol
physics and bubble and droplet transport phenomena.
J. L. KATZ-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago) Nuclea-
tion phenomena; thermal conductivity of gas mixtures; the equa-
tion of state.


R. J. NUNGE-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University) Dis-
persion and flow in porous media; pulsating turbulent flow; heat
transfer in multistream systems.
T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Rensselear Polytechnic Insti-
tute) Process systems analysis; multivariable control; analog simu-
lation; properties of materials; thermodynamics.
G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of Illinois)
Kinetics of catalytic reactions; reactor analysis; kinetics and
equilibria of adsorption; crystallization.
J. H. BEAMER-Asst. Prof (Ph.D., 1970, Stanford University) Optimi-
zation; desalination; societal systems.
D. 0. COONEY-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of Wisconsin)
Multi-component absorption; biomedical engineering; unstable
fluid flow; membrane separation processes; pharmacokinetics.
C. S. LU-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967, California Institute of Technology)
Multiphase equilibrium; optimization methods; complex chemical
reaction systems.
R. A. SHAW-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967, Cornell University) Nuclear
engineering; reverse osmosis; radioactive tracers; nuclear reactor
effluents.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The Cleveland State University



Graduate Study and Research in


CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

Leading to the Master of Science :
Degree in Chemical Engineering |

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Thermodynamics Pollution Control Transport Processes
A limited number of fellowships and assistantships with stipends up
to $4000 per calendar year, plus tuition remission, are available for
full time students. The master's program may be tailored to be ter-
minal or to serve as preparation for more advanced work leading to
the doctorate at another institution.

Students with a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry are invited to apply.


COURSE OFFERINGS 1971-1972
Fall Quarter Winter Quarter Spring Quarter
ChE 500 Chemical Engineering ChE 481 Chemical Engineering ChE 561 Transport Phenomena II
Analysis Fundamentals
ChE 520 Applied Thermodynamics I ChE 521 Applied Thermodynamics II ChE 626 Biology for Engineers
ChE 615 Principles of Air ChE 560 Transport Phenomena I
Pollution Control
ChE 630 Biological Wastewater ChE 571 Turbulent Flow ChE 636 Industrial Water
Treatment Pollution Control


Inquiries and application forms may be obtained from:
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Cleveland, Ohio 44115


The Cleveland State University/Cleveland, Ohio 44115


FALL 1971











CORNELL UNIVERSITY


Graduate Study in

Chemical Enaineering








Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
research-oriented course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
sophy or Master of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
Master of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Engineering (general)
Thermodynamics; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations.
Bioengineering
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and
related subjects in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of
processes in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.
Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Catalysis
Homogeneous kinetics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation;
simultaneous mass transfer and reaction; optimization of reactor design.
Chemical Processes and Process Control
Advanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and
chemistry.

Faculty Members and Research Interests
John L. Anderson, Ph.D. Membrane transport, bioengineering.
Kenneth B. Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi-
cal reaction engineering.
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. Light and electron microscopy, properties of materials,
solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Victor H. Edwards, Ph.D. Kinetics and process control in fermentation.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation, agitation and aeration, pro-
cessing of biochemicals, electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons.
Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion in mem-
branes and porous solids.
J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D. Economic analyses and forecasts, new ventures deve-
lopment.
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. Polymerization, properties of polymer systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid mechanics
of liquid drops and jets, convection-distorted flow fields.
Julian C. Smith, Chem.E. Conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing,
mechanical separations.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics of poly-
merization.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. Chemical engineering applications to biomedical
problems; rheology.
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. Liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics, effect of
radiation on chemical reactions.
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline-water
conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding,
filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis.
Robert York, Sc.D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco-
nomics, process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATION, Write to the Graduate Field Representative, Olin
Hall of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850.







"Oe


university offlorida

offers you ,


'.


Transport
Phenomena &
Rheology
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.


Optimization
& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.


Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.


and muclj more...


A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports


Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.


Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 231
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


Hi

^4'i



















Petrochemical
Industry

Medicine

Space


Faculty


Department


Facilities


Financial Aid






INQUIRIES
ARE DIRECTED
TO:
Head, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004


The Real Vorld

of Chemical

Engineering
The University of Houston is located in the midst of the
largest complex of chemical and petrochemical activity in
the world. This environment provides unequalled oppor-
tunities for graduate students in .... THE REAL WORLD
OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING.


Houston is the national center for manufacturing, sales, research and
design in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. Most of the
major oil and petrochemical companies have plants and research
installations in the Houston area. The headquarters of many of these
organizations are here.

The world famous Texas Medical Center is located in Houston.

The NASA Manned Spacecraft Center is located in the Houston area.
There is continuous interaction through seminars, courses and
research between the faculty and graduate students of this depart-
ment and the engineers and scientists of this large technical community.
The research of 14 faculty members encompass a wide range of
subjects in chemical engineering. Faculty members are active in the
interdisciplinary areas of biomedical, environmental urban and
systems engineering.
The department is one of the fastest growing in the nation. The
current enrollment includes 50 seniors and 45 full-time graduate
students; a 200% increase in the enrollment over the past 5 years.
Research grants and contracts currently in progress exceed 1.2
million dollars.
Over $900,000 of modern research equipment is located in 50,000.
square feet of research and office space.

Fellowship stipends are available to qualified applicants.

The temperate Gulf Coast area with its year-round outdoor weather
offers unlimited recreational opportunities. An equal number of
cultural opportunities exist in the sixth largest and fastest-growing
city in the country. Houston has an outstanding symphony orchestra
several theatre companies, fine museums, and a stimulating intellect-
ual community.



























Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, the
first school to be established under the 1862
Land Grant Act, has a long tradition of lead-
ership in Engineering and Applied Science.
Today it ranks seventh in the nation in Ph.D.
degrees granted in Engineering and ninth in
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Its College
of Engineering is the largest west of the
Mississippi River.

To those interested in Chemical Engineer-
ing, Iowa State offers a variety of courses and
research areas leading to the M.E., M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees. The Department of Chemical
Engineering is one of the oldest in the United
States and enjoys a rich heritage of excellence
in teaching and research. The staff numbers
22 and the enrollment consists of 300 under-
graduate and 70 graduate students.

In addition to facilities available in a new
Chemical Engineering building, research is


I Georae Burnet. Head


conducted in the Ames Laboratory, a Nation-
al Laboratory of the US Atomic Energy Com-
mission, located on the Iowa State campus. A
staff of nearly 1,000 at the Laboratory con-
ducts basic research of long-range interest to
the nuclear industry.
Ames lies amid the gently rolling hills of
central Iowa. Typical of the picturesque yet
modern campus is the new cultural center
shown above, now half complete. This fall the
Festival of Concerts at the center auditorium
was opened by the New York Philharmonic.
The 14,000-seat coliseum will host many Big
Eight Conference athletic events.
A large variety of assistantships and fellow-
ships are filled each year by new graduate stu-
dents in Chemical Engineering. Living accom-
odations are available for single students in a
new eight-story graduate dormitory, and for
married students in more than 1300 apart-
ments operated by the University.


Chemical Engineering Department
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010

Please send application.forms and further information on your graduate program.

Name Undergraduate School

Number and Street

City State Zip Code


FALL 1971


GereBre.Ha







UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS


Department of Chemical


and Petroleum Engineering Research


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in
Chemical Engineering
Petroleum Engineering
also
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
and
M.S. in Petroleum Management


The Department is the recent recipient of a $150,000 industrial grant for research
and teaching in the area of Fluid Flow and Transport Phenomena Applicable to the
Petroleum Industry.



Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena

Fluid Flow in Porous Media

Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies

Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems


Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design

Nucleate Boiling

High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior


For Information and Applications write

Don W. Green, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922












UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY


M.S. and Ph.D. Study in Chemical Engineering


including

A Unique Program in AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

Kinetics and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Micrometeorology
Diffusion in the atmosphere: modelling of urban areas
Air sampling and analysis
Process and system control; air cleaning
Effects of pollutants on man, materials, and environs

A Specialized Program in WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
Excellent E.P.A. Traineeships available

At U.K.-a nine-man faculty, new laboratory and class-
room facilities, a complete graduate curriculum, a variety
of research topics . .



Contact: Robert B. Grieves
Dep't of Chemical Engineering
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506


FALL 1971








Chemical Engii

. . offering master of science, and doctor of philosophy degrees,
and a master of science in sugar engineering. Master's candidates
may pursue a degree under thesis or course options; the thesis option
is encouraged for master's-only candidates.
The department-with new, modern facilities-is equipped with
laboratories for research in reacting and thermal fluids, high poly-
mers, and lasers; and with analog, digital, and hybrid computers.
The Nuclear Science and Computer Research Centers also service the
department. LSU Library holdings near 1,300,000 volumes.
Undergraduate enrollment is 190; and graduate enrollment, 90
(70 master's, and 20 doctoral candidates). Last year, 74 degrees
were awarded, including 55 bachelor's, 13 master's, and 6 doctoral
degrees.
LSU, a campus of about 19,000 students, is located in Baton
Rouge, a major petrochemical center and inland port, capital city,
80 miles north of New Orleans.


For more information, contact:

Dr. Joseph A. Polack, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, La. 70803


LSU


1711ml-


at6


I -1 1 .


A


RESEARCH INTERESTS


THE FACULTY
Philip A. Bryant, Associate Professor, Ph.D.
Clayton D. Callihan, Professor, Ph.D.
Jesse Coates, Alumni Professor, Ph.D.
James B. Cordiner, Professor, Ph.D.
Armando B. Corripio, Assistant Professor,
Ph.D.
Richard C. Farmer, Associate Professor,
Ph.D.
David B. Greenberg, Associate Professor,
Ph.D.
Frank R. Groves Jr., Professor, Ph.D.
Douglas P. Harrison, Assistant Professor,
Ph.D.
Adrain E. Johnson, Jr., Professor, Ph.D.
Edward McLaughlin, Professor, Ph.D.
Paul W. Murrill, Professor, Provost and
Vice-Chancellor, Ph.D.
Ralph W. Pike, Associate Professor, Ph.D.
Jerome A. Planchard, Jr., Assistant Profes-
sor, Ph.D.
Joseph A. Polack, Professor and Head,
Sc.D.
Bernard S. Pressburg, Professor and Asso-
ciate Dean of Engineering, Ph.D.
Roger W. Richardson, Professor and Dean
of Engineering, Ph.D.
John J. Seip, Associate Professor and
Superintendent of the Audubon Sugar
Factory, Ph.D.
Cecil L. Smith, Associate Professor and
Chairman,. Computer Science Depart-
-ment, Ph.D.
Edgar C. Tacker, Associate Professor, Ph.D.
Alexis Voorhies Jr., Visiting Professor,
Honoris Causa.
Albert H. Wehe, Associate Professor, Ph.D.
Bert Wilkins, Associate Professor, Ph.D.


Bioengineering
Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design
Ecology and Pollution Control
Estuarine Studies
Microbiological Laser Irradiation
Physical, Chemical and Thermo-
dynamic Properties of Materials
Polymer Chemistry
Process Control and Dynamics
Pulp and Paper Research
Sugar Technology
Synthetic Foods
Transport Phenomena












DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND 20740








The Department offers graduate work in chemical, materials, and nuclear engineering leading to the M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees. Some of the fields of specialization of the faculty are:


Chemical Engineering

Process Control Systems
Heat and Mass Transfer
Turbulent Transport
Solvent Extraction
Design and Cost Studies
Reaction Kinetics
Catalysis
Multiphase Flow
Process Dynamics
Computer Simulation

Biological and
Environmental Engineering

Aerosol Mechanics
Membrane Separations
Artificial Organs
Bioengineering
Environmental Health
Air Pollution Control


Nuclear Engineering
Nuclear Reactor Physics
Nuclear Reactor Design
Nuclear Reactor Operation
Radiation Induced Reactions
System Dynamics
Radiation Shielding
Radiation Engineering
Thermionics
Engineering Materials
Reaction of Solid Surfaces
Solid State Behavior
Composite Materials
Statistical Thermodynamics
Structure of Metallic Solutions
Applied Polymer Science
Polymer Physics
Graft Polymerization
Polymerization Kinetics
Non-Newtonian Flow


The general requirements are set forth in the Graduate Catalog. The chemical engineering program
is designed for qualified bachelors chemical engineering students. The materials and nuclear en-
gineering programs are open to qualified students holding bachelors degrees in engineering, the
physical sciences, and mathematics.


Address inquiries to

Dean, Graduate School or Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering


FALL 1971










Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA

ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman

Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies
-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson

(2) E:ectrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W.
Johnson

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.

(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek

(5) Ctructure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K.
G. Mayhan


In addition, research projects are being carries!
out in the following areas:

(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Prof. J. L.
Gaddy

(b) Evaporation through non-Wettable Porous
Membranes-Dr. M. E. Findley

(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr.
R. C. Waggoner

(d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim-
rose

(e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice

(f) Process Dynamics and Contro!-Drs. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mo'len-
kamp
(g) Transport Properties and Kinetics-Dr. 0. K.
Crosser

(h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley


Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and

Research Assistantships, Industrial Fellowships and Fed-
eral Sponsored Programs. Aid is also obtainable through

the Materials Research Center.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













LOOKING for a
graduate education

in
Chemical Engineering?

Consider


PENN STATE

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In

Separation Processes

Kinetics and Mass Transfer

Petroleum Research

Unit Processes
SThermodynamic Properties

Catalysis and Applied Chemistry

Air Environment
. Bio-Engineering

Nuclear Technology

Transport Properties

Lubrication and Rheology

And Other Areas

WRITE TO
Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Chemical Engineering Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802


FALL 1971




























PHILADELPHIA


The cultural advantages and historical assets of
a great city, including the incomparable Phila-
delphia Orchestra are within walking distance
of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety


of college and professional sports at hand. A
complete range of recreational facilities exists
within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the
New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive.


UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA


The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League
School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex-
cellence in graduate education. A unique feature
of the University is the breadth of medically
related activities including those in engineering.
In recent years the University has undergone


a great expansion of its facilities, including
specialized graduate student housing. The
School of Chemical Engineering has also under-
gone considerable change and growth, attract-
ing national attention because of its rapid rise
to excellence.


SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY
Michael S. Chen, Ph.D. (Kansas State)
Stuart W. Churchill, Ph.D. (Michigan)
William C. Cohen, Ph.D. (Princeton)
William C. Forsman, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves, Sc.D. (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson, Ph.D. (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey, Ph.D. (Columbia)
RESEARCH SPECIALTIES
Enzyme Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Electrochemical Engineering

For further information on graduate studies in
this dynamic setting, write to: Dr. D. D. Perl-
mutter, School of Chemical Engineering, Univer-


Ronald L. Klaus, Ph.D. (R.P.I.)
Mitchell Litt, D. Eng. (Columbia)
Alan Myers, Ph.D. (California)
Melvin C. Molstad, Ph.D. (Yale)
Leonard Nanis, D. Eng. Sci. (Columbia)
Daniel D. Perlmutter, Ph.D. (Yale)
John A. Quinn, Ph.D. (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider, Ph.D. (Michigan)


Environmental Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Transport and Interfacial
Phenomenon
Separations Techniques


Optimization


sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
19104


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















GRADUATE STUDY AT
POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF BROOKLYN

Tomorrow 's


Innovations

will come from


Today's Ch.E.


Graduates


The graduate student at Polytechnic may be in-
volved in a research project to develop a new artifi-
cial kidney, or work on the control of atmospheric
pollution, or develop an optimal control scheme for
study of the theological properties of fluid whether
they be polymers or from the human body. In any
case the student pursuing a graduate degree in Chem-
ical Engineering at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
is on the forefront of today's challenges and tomor-
row's innovations in science and technology.
The Department offers a wide range of graduate
courses and conducts significant research programs in


D] Environmental control
] Fluid dynamics
-] Rheology
-] Process control
-] Polymer technology
El Transport phenomena
[] Reactor design
-] Fluidization


E] Membrane phenomena
n Optimization
-] Thermodynamics
E[ Design and synthesis
E Biomaterie
El Bio-chemical systems
[- Simulation


Polytechnic, located at the heart of the Metropo-
litan New York area, is convenient to a wealth of
sources for studies in graduate Chemical Engineering
and urban problems.
Qualified applicants are encouraged to apply for
Fellowships and Assistantships, which are available
in amounts of $4600 to $5600 per annum.
For details and applications, contact Prof. I. F.
Miller, Head, Chemical Engineering Department,
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, 333 Jay Street,
Brooklyn, New York 11201; telephone (212) 643-2852.


POLYTECHNIC INSTIT U T E OF BROOKLYN
223


FALL 1971







Chemical Engineering
at

Stevens Institute of Technoloqq


MASTER'S and DOCTORATE PROGRAMS
in
Chemical Engineering Science
Design and Plant Operations
Polymer Engineering

RESEARCH
in
Chemical Reaction Engineering Rheology
Polymer Property- Structure Relationships
Thermodynamics of Polymer Deformation
Polymerization Kinetics Combustion
Polymer Processing Mass Transfer
Optimal Control Waste Treatment
Flame and Arc Plasmas

Full and Part- time Programs

For further information contact:
PROFESSOR JOSEPH BIESENBERGER, HEAD
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Castle Point Station Navy Building, Room 315
Hoboken, New Jersey 07030







UNIVERSITY of TENNESSEE
Graduate Studies in Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering


Programs







Faculty
and
Research
Interests









Laboratories
and
Shops



Financial
Assistance


Knoxville
and
Surroundings


Students


Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are offered in both Chem-
ical and Metallurgical Engineering. The Master's program may be tailored as a terminal one with
emphasis on systems and design, or it may serve as preparation for more advanced work leading
to the Doctorate. Specialization in Polymer Science and Engineering is available at both levels.

WILLIAM T. BECKER, Ph.D., Illinois, Mechanical Properties and Deformation; DONALD C. BOGUE,
Ph.D., Delaware, Rheology, Polymer Science and Engineering; CHARLIE R. BROOKS, Ph.D., Ten-
nessee, Electron Microscopy, Thermodynamics; ORAN L. CULBERSON, Ph.D., Texas, Operations
Research, Process Design; JOHN F. FELLERS, Ph.D., Akron, Polymer Chemistry; GEORGE C.
FRAZIER, JR., D. Eng., Johns Hopkins, Kinetics and Combustion, Transfer with Reaction; HSIEN-
WEN HSU, Ph.D., Wisconsin, Thermodynamics, Transport Phenomena, Optimization; HOMER F.
JOHNSON, D. Eng., Yale (Department Head), Mass Transfer, Interface Phenomena; STANLEY H.
JURY, Ph.D., Cincinnati, Sorption Kinetics in Flow Systems; WILLIAM J. KOOYMAN, Ph.D., Johns
Hopkins, Reaction Kinetics in Flow Systems; TADAO KOTAKA, Ph.D., Kyoto University, Polymer
Science; CARL D. LUNDIN, Ph.D., Rensselaer, Physical Metallurgy, Welding; CHARLES F. MOORE,
Ph.D., L.S.U., Computer Process Control; BEN F. OLIVER, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University,
(Professor-in-charge of Metallurgical Engineering), Solidification, High Purity Metals; JOSEPH J.
PERONA, Ph.D., Northwestern, Mass Transfer and Kinetics, Heat Transfer; JOSEPH E. SPRUIELL,
Ph.D., Tennessee, X-ray Diffraction, Electron Microscopy, Polymer Science and Engineering; E.
EUGENE STANSBURY, Ph.D., Cincinnati,Thermodynamics Kinetics of Phase Deformation, Corrosion;
JAMES L. WHITE, Ph.D., Delaware, Polymer Science and Engineering, Rheology, Separation
Processes. Regular Part-Time: LLOYD G. ALEXANDER, Ph.D., Purdue, Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer;
BERNARD S. BORIE, Ph.D., M.I.T., X-ray Diffraction; ALBERT H. COOPER, Ph.D., Michigan State,
Process Design, Economics; KENNETH H. McCORKLE, Ph.D., Tennessee, Colloidal Systems; CARL
J. McHARGUE, Ph.D., Kentucky, Physical Metallurgy; ROY A. VANDERMEER, Ph.D., Illinois Institute
of Technology, Physical Metallurgy; JACK S. WATSON, Ph.D., Tennessee, Fluid Mechanics.

Analog computer (Expanded EAI, PACE 221R) and digital computer (DEC, PDP 15/35 with inter-
faces to research labs and analog computer), High-speed automatic frost point hygrometer, Mass
and heat transfer in porous media, Polymer theology and processing (Weissenberg rheogonio-
meter, Instron theological tester, roll mill, extruder, Vibronviscoelastometer), Polymer characteriz-
ation (gel permeation chromatograph, osmometer), Mass spectograph, Continuous zone centrifuge,
Process dynamics, X-ray diffraction (including single crystal diffuse scattering analysis), Electron
microscopes (Philips EM75 EM300, AMR 900), Calorimetry (25-1000C), Electrical resistivity meas-
urements for studies of structural and phase changes, Single crystal preparation facilities,
Mechanical fabrication and testing, (metallograph, optical microscopes and melting, etc.), High
purity materials preparation, Electronic and mechanical shops staffed by 13 full-time technicians
and craftsmen.

Sources available include graduate assistantships, graduate teaching assistantships, research
assistantships, and a variety of fellowships.


With a population near 200,000, Knoxville is the trade and industrial center of East Tennessee.
In the nearby Auditorium-Coliseum, Broadway plays, musical and dramatic artists, and other
entertainment events are regularly scheduled. Knoxville has a number of points of historical
interests, a theater-in-the-round, a symphony orchestra, two art galleries, and a .number of
museums. Within an hour's drive are many TVA lakes and mountain streams for water sports,
the Great Smoky Mountains National Park with the Gatlinburg tourist area, two state parks, and
the atomic energy installations at Oak Ridge including the Museum of Atomic Energy.

The Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering has 230 undergraduate and 50 full-
time graduate students enrolled at present.


WRITE: Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916










BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
Chemical Engineering Department
M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS


Areas of Interest
Transport/kinetic processes
Solution thermodynamics
High pressure technology
Environmental Control
Nuclear engineering
Special Research Organizations
Center for Thermochemical Studies
Engineering Fluid Mechanics Research
Group
High Pressure Laboratory
Center for Environmental Studies


Faculty
Dee H. Barker
James J. Christensen
Dwight P. Clark
Ralph H. Coates
Joseph M. Glassett
H. Tracy Hall
Richard W. Hanks
M. Duane Horton
Bill J. Pope
Vern C. Rogers
L. Douglas Smoot, Chairman
Grant M. Wilson


FOR INFORMATION CONTACT
Dr. Richard W. Hanks
Graduate Coordinator
234 ELB, Chemical Engineering
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84601


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY
LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837

For admission, address
Dr. Paul H. DeHoff
Coordinator of Graduate Studies


* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
* Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly
distillation and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; mathematical applications in
chemical systems; reaction kinetics; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the
science of materials; nuclear engineering.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty
semester-hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS


Faculty


R. L. Bell:
N. A. Dougharty:
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:


Mass Transfer, Bio-Medicine
Catalysis, Chemical Kinetics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reaction Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena


Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA


CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING


Graduate education is not for everyone. We believe, however, that it is the
best means for an engineer to develop his potential and at the same time become
better equipped to influence society in a positive way.

John E. Myers, Chairman


Henri J. Fenech
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp
Paul G. Mikolaj


Robert G. Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker
Orville C. Sandal


For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106


FALL 1971











COMPLIMENTS OF
THE DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




Carnegie-Mellon University


PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA
Howard Brenner
Duane Condiff
Edward Cussler
Anthony Dent
Kun Li
Clarence Miller
Carl Monrad
Matthew Reilly
Stephen Rosen
Robert Rothfus
Raymond Zahradnik







.CLEMSON UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering Department

M.S. and Doctoral Programs


THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS
Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Air Pollution, Unit Operations
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U., Chemical Kinetics, Hybrid Computation
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena
Bruley, D. F., Ph.D., U. Tennessee-Process Dynamics, Bio-medical Engineering
Hall, J. W., Ph.D., U. Texas-Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Design
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Chemical and Biological Kinetics, Design
Littlejohn, C. E., Ph.D., V.P.I.-Mass Transfer
Melsheimer, SS., Ph.D. Tulane-Process Dynamics, Applied Mathematics
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
Contact:
C. E. Littlejohn, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631










UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

Newark, Delaware 19711


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY


B. E. Anshus
C. E. Birchenall
M. M. Denn
B. C. Gates
J. R. Katzer
R. L. McCullough
A. B. Metzner
J. H. Olson


C. A. Petty
E. Ruckenstein
T. W. F. Russell
S. I. Sandier
M. R. Samuels
J. M. Schultz
V. K. Stokes
J. Wei


Distinguished visiting professor: G. C. A. Schuit
Technische Hogeschool
Eindhoven, Netherlands

Graduate study inquiries and requests for financial aid invited.
Write: A. B. Metzner, Chairman


Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $5,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER
HEAT TRANSFER
FLUID MECHANICS
THERMODYNAMICS
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS
SOLID MIXING
DESALINATION
OPTIMIZATION
FLUIDIZATION
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM


FALL 1971










































CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS:
Transport Phenomena
Polymer Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Air and Water Pollution
Thermodynamics
Particulate Dynamics
Catalysis
Solid-Liquid Separation
Cryogenics
Chemical Reactors
Plasma Research
Fluidisation
and others


GRADUATE
STUDY IN
CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
McGILL UNIVERSITY
MONTREAL. QUEBEC, CANADA


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I


230












THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS

on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS


The University of Michigan awarded its first
Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D.
in 1914. It has moved with the times since and
today offers a flexible program of graduate
study that allows emphases ranging from fun-
damentals to design.
The Chemical Engineering Department, with
21 faculty members and some 70 graduate stu-
dents, has opportunities for study and research
in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor
design, transport processes, mathematical and
numerical methods, optimization, materials, mix-
ing, bioengineering, electrochemical engineer-
ing, rheology and pollution control.


MONASH UI
CLAYTON, N
DEPARTMENT 0
ENGINE
RESEARCH SCI
Applications are invited for Monash University
Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering. The awards are
intended to enable scholars to carry out under
Facilities are available for work in the general
fields of:
Solid-gas Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Packed Tubular Reactors
Crystal Nucleation and Growth
Fluidisation
Rheology
Computer Control and Optimisation
Scholarships carry a tax-free stipend of $A2,200
per annum.
Detailed information about the awards and the
necessary application forms may be obtained
from the Academic Registrar. Technical enqui-


The M.S. program may be completed in 10
months and does not require a thesis. The Pro-
fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond
the Master's and a professional problem. The
Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to
expedite entry into a research area as early in
the program as possible.

For further Information and applications,
write:
Chairman of the Graduate Committee
The University of Michigan
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104


DIVERSITY
VICTORIA
F CHEMICAL
RING
IOLARSHIPS
supervision, a programme of full-time advanced
studies and research which may lead to the
degrees of Master of Engineering Science and/
or Doctor of Philosophy.
Gas Absorption with Reaction
Waste Treatment Engineering
Process Dynamics
Biochemical Engineering
Fluid Particle Mechanics
Mixing of Liquids
Submerged Combustion

ries should be addressed to the Chairman of
Department, Professor 0. E. Potter .
Postal Address: Monash University, Wellington
Road, Clayton,
Victoria, 3168, Australia.


FALL 1971














UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA


OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH
LEADING TO THE M.S. OR Ph.D. IN THE AREAS OF:


Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Crystallization
Food Processing
Kinetics


Mixing
Polymerization
Thermodynamics
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas


FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION ON
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WRITE TO:


Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508


GRADUATE OPPORTUNITIES IN ChE

AT

NEWARK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Students seeking a commitment to excellence
in careers in Chemical Engineering will find a
wealth of opportunity at Newark College of En-
gineering.
The ChE Department at NCE has a well de-
veloped graduate program leading to the degrees
of Master of Science in Chemical Engineering or
Master of Science with major in such interdisci-
plinary areas as Polymer Engineering or Polymer
Science. Beyond the Master's degree, NCE offers
the degrees of Engineer and of Doctor of Engi-
neering Science.
Over sixty on-going projects in Chemical En-
gineering and Chemistry provide exceptional re-
search opportunities for Master's and Doctoral
candidates. Research topics include the follow-
ing areas:


* Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer
* Thermodynamics Process Dynamics
* Kinetics and Catalysis Transport Phenomena
0 Mathematical Methods
NCE is located on a modern, twenty-acre
campus in Newark, within 30 minutes of Man-
hattan. Tuition for New Jersey residents is $27
per credit; for non-residents, the cost is $40 per
credit. Fellowships and financial assistance are
available to qualified applicants.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS:
Mr. Alex Bedrosian, Assistant Dean
Graduate Division
Newark College of Engineering
323 High Street, Newark, N. J. 07102










GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS


* Environmental Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer
Nuclear Chemical Engineering
Rheolocv


e Solid and


Liquid Fuels


* Process Analysis, Design and Control
Polymer Engineering
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
e Thermodynamics
Unit Operations
Process Dynamics and Simulation


e Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods

Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request

WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210


FALL 1971


GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL AND
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LEADING TO
DEGREES OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
AND THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILO-
SOPHY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

As the oldest engineering school west
of the Alleghenies we have an out-
standing school with competent de-
partmental faculty prepared to offer
work in the traditional fields of
research. We also provide special-
ization in bioengineering, transport
phenomena, process dynamics and con-
trol and petroleum production.

For information write:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
Department
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213



UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH





















TRANSPORT


SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

BIOENGINEERING

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ^ _


write to Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
Lafayette, Ind. 47907


UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 14627
MS & PhD Programs


J. H. Anderson, Jr.
R. F. Eisenberg
M. R. Feinberg
J. R. Ferron
J. C. Friedly
F. J. M. Horn
H. R. Osmers
H. J. Palmer
H. Saltsburg
W. D. Smith, Jr.
G. J. Su
I. A. Wiehe


Adsorption & Catalysis, Materials Science
Inorganic Composites, Physical Metallurgy
Formal Chemical Kinetics, Continuum Mechanics
Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics
Process Dynamics, Optimal Control & Design
Chemical Processing Theory, Applied Mathematics
Rheology, Polymers, Biological & Ecological Processes
Interfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes
Surface & Solid-State Chemistry, Molecular Beams
Kinetics & Reactor Design, Computer Applications
Glass Science & Technology, Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics, Liquid Structure, Polymer Science


For information write: J. R. Ferron, Chairman


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


234
































PROGRAM OF STUDY
The Department of Chemical Engineering at Texas
A&M University offers programs of study for the Master of
Science, Master of Engineering, and Doctor of Philosophy
degrees.
Thirty-two credit hours consisting of twenty-four credit
hours of course work and an eight-credit hour research thesis
are required for the Master of Science degree. As an alter-


Texas A & M University

GRADUATE OPPORTUNITIES
IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

nate program of study, the Master of Engineering degree
consists of thirty-two credit hours of course work and a four-
credit-hour research paper, which is often a literature review
and need not be an original contribution to the chemical
engineering literature.
STAFF
R. G. Anthony, Polymer Kinetics, Phase Equilibria
Ronald Darby, Rheology, Biomedical Engineering, Electro-
chemistry
R. R. Davison, Desalination, Liquid Solution Thermo-
dynamics
L. D. Durbin, Process Dynamics and Control
P. T. Eubank, Gas Phase Thermodynamics
D. T. Hanson, Bio-Engineering
C. D. Holland, Separation Processes-Distillation, Adsorption
W. B. Harris, Flow Through Porous Media
W. D. Harris, Heat Transfer
A. Kreglewski, Thermodynamic Properties of Mixtures
W. W. Meinke, Bio-Engineering
E. A. Schweikert, Activation Analysis
R. E. Wainerdi, Activation Analysis


For information concerning the graduate program contact
Dr. P. T. Eubank, Graduate Advisor, Texas A&M University, De apartment of Chemical Engineering, College Station, Texas 77843








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS T



TUFTS UNIVERSITY

Metropolitan Boston

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS
RHEOLOGY
OPTIMIZATION
CRYSTALLIZATION
POLYMER STUDIES
MEMBRANE PHENOMENA
CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY
BIO-ENGINEERING
MECHANO-CHEMISTRY

FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE:
PROF. K. A. VAN WORMER, JR.
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
TUFTS UNIVERSITY
MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155


FALL 1971


235



































UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chemical Engineering Seattle, Washington 98105
GRADUATE STUDY BROCHURE AVAILABLE ON REQUEST


Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

West Virginia University


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs available in
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Transport Phenomena
Nuclear Science and Engineering
Optimization
Chemical Process Analysis and Design


For application to the following current active
research areas:
Solid Waste Pyrolosis in Fluidized Beds
Purification of Acid Mine Drainage
Ultrasonic Energy Utilization
Radiation Chemical Processing
Coal Gasification and Liquifaction


For applications and information write to:
Dr. C. Y. Wen, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






































































FALL 1971


MS and PhD Degrees
Research Support Level About
$200,000 Per Year
Excellent Student-Faculty Ratio
Assistantships and Fellowships
Summer Support

Grant Support for Research in-
Air Pollution Control
Molecular Sieve Zeolites
Oil from Solid Wastes
Turbulent Combustion
Multicomponent Adsorption
Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis
Diffusion in Porous Solids
Waste Recycle in Space Flight

Write to: Dr. W. L. Kranich
Department of Chemical Engineering
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester, Mass. 01609


UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
GRADUATE STUDY

The Department of Chemical Engineering at
the University of Colorado offers excellent op-
portunities for graduate study and research
leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of
Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering.

Research interests of the faculty include cryo-
genics, process control, polymer science, cataly-
sis, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer,
computer aided design, air and water pollution,
biomedical engineering, and ecological engi-
neering.

For application and information, write to:
Chairman, Graduate Committee
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Colorado, Boulder


McMASTER UNIVERSITY
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada


INTERDISCIPLINARY


BALANCE S INNOVATION


DEPTH


Simulation, Optimization and
Computer-Aided Analysis
Water & Waste Water Treatment
Polymers
Catalysis
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Transport Phenomena

Contact: Dr. C. M. Crowe, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical Engineering











UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK
Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering
PROGRAM OF STUDY: The central research effort involves
the experimental analysis of natural phenomena with a view
to improving the design and control of industrially impor-
tant processes. Studies are done in catalysis, transport pheno-
mena and transfer operations, fire science and materials
science. M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees are given in a program
requiring both course work and research work. Residence
requirements are one year for the M.Sc. and three years
for the Ph.D. The Fire Science Centre carries out research
of an inter-disciplinary nature on naturally occurring fires.
The Department offers a number of Post-doctoral Fellowships
each year.
FINANCIAL AID: The range of assistantship available is
presently from $3800 p.a. to $5500 p.a. The Department
has an Atlantic Sugar Fellowship (Altantic Provinces stu-
dents) and an Alcan Fellowship (open to foreign students).
Several research contracts are held (assistantships open to
foreign students) as well as NRC grants for research (as-
sistantships restricted to Canadian citizens or landed im-
migrants.)
INFORMATION: Please direct all enquiries to:
Dr. David R. Morris
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
Sir Edmund Head Hall
University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


If you are seeking a Graduate Program to
*provide you with the background and educa-
tion for an effective role in all phases of chemi-
cal engineering develop and expand your
scientific and engineering background prepare
you to undertake major responsibilities in Chem-
ical Engineering, design, R&D, or production,
then . .







Graduate Study at the

SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING, Oklahoma

State University, Stillwater,

HAS SOMETHING TO

OFFER YOU....






A faculty with wide-ranging industrial experi-
ence and diversified research interests Labo-
ratory facilities designed and equipped for
graduate research a first-rate university library
open until midnight every day of the year
* modern computing center, plus a "hands-on"
facility exclusively for engineering students and
available 24 hours daily *financial support
* Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering
* Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering.



Your inquiries are invited. Please address:
Dr. Robert N. Maddox, P.E.
Professor and Head
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074


NEW MEXICO STATE

UNIVERSITY


DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Master of Science


DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Doctor of Science



Address Inquiries to:
Graduate Committee
P. 0. Box 3805
Las Cruces, New Mexico 88001




































































FALL 1971


THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO
ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO


Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D.
Degrees in Chemical Engineering
Graduate Assistantships and Research Assistant-
ships Available.
Current research areas include: Transport phe-
nomena, process dynamics and control, materials
science, air pollution abatement, and waste
management and disposal.
For further information and applications for
graduate study in the Land of Enchantment,
contact:

Dr. Glenn A. Whan, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106


Do any of these names ring a bell?
Elzy
Fitzgerald
Knudsen
Levenspiel
Meredith
Mrazek
Wicks
They're our Department.
We offer advanced study in straight
chemical engineering and joint programs with
biochemistry, environmental and ocean
engineering, etc.

It's exciting here at

OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Curious? Questions? Write
Dr. Tom Fitzgerald
Chemical Engineering Department
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331


THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS
AT AUSTIN

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in Chemical Engineering

Faculty research interests include materials,
separation processes, polymers, fluid properties,
surface and aerosol physics, catalysis and kine-
tics, automatic control, process simulation and
optimization.

For additional information write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712


The University of Toledo

Graduate Study Toward the

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


Assistantships and Fellowships Available.
EPA Traineeships in Water Supply and
Pollution Control.


For more details write:
Dr. Charles E. Stoops
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio 43606










WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY
Pullman, Washington 99163
The Chemical Engineering Department at
Washington State offers quality graduate study
leading to the M.S. in Chemical Engineering,
M.S. in Nuclear Engineering and the Ph.D. in
Engineering Science.
Current research areas include: biochemical
engineering, analog, hybrid and digital compu-
ter aided analysis, polyphase flow, air pollu-
tion, coal desulfurization, polymers, chemical
manufacturing processes, electrochemical elec-
trode phenomena and nuclear work.
Present faculty members are: G. T. Austin,
R. Chatters, G. A. Jensen, R. Luedeking, R. Ma-
halingam, R. A. Raff, R. J. Robertus, and H.
Stern.
Send applications for admission to: The Graduate
School
Inquiries concerning departmental information
should be sent to:
G. T. Austin, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington 99163




THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN
ONTARIO
GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN
CHEMICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD
ENGINEERING
Applicants are invited for admission to programs
leading to the degree of M.E. Sc. and Ph.D. in
the field of chemical and bioengineering. Current
programs are related to air and water pollution,
applied catalysis, fluidization and fluid particle
mechanics, electrical phenomena in industrial
processes, development of biochemical processes
and continuous fermentation systems, single cell
proteins, development of processes for conven-
tional and unconventional food production, food
preservation, flavours, additives and pollutants.

For further information and application, contact:
Dr. J. E. Zajic, Chairman
Chemical and Bioengineering
Faculty of Engineering Science
The University of Western Ontario
London 72, Ontario, Canada


TO DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN:

The staff of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION wishes to
thank the 55 departments whose advertisements appear in this third
graduate issue. We also appreciate the excellent response you gave
to our request for names of prospective authors. We regret that,
because of space limitations, we were not able to include some
outstanding papers and that certain areas are not represented. In
part our selection of papers was based on a desire to complement
this issue with those of 1969 and 1970. As indicated in our letter we
are sending automatically to each department for distribution to
seniors interested in graduate school at least sufficient free copies
of this issue for 20% of the number of bachelor's degrees reported
in "ChE Faculties." Because there was a large response to our offer
in that letter to supply copies above this basic allocation, we were
not able to fully honor all such requests. However, if you have
definite need for more copies than you received, we may be able to
furnish these if you write us. We also still have some copies of the
1969 and 1970 Fall issues available.
We would like to thank the departments not only for their
support of CEE through advertising, but also through bulk sub-
scriptions. Each year since we began publication at the University of
Florida the number of departments supporting us has increased-
largely through the efforts of Professor Stuart Churchill who has
served as our university representative.
Ray Fahien
Editor


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

St. Louis, Missouri


* A distinguished faculty and well equipped
laboratories
* Beautiful park-like campus
* Cosmopolitan environment of a major metro-
politan area
* Close interaction with the research and engi-
neering staffs of local major chemical com-
panies
* Cooperation in biomedical research with one
of the world's great medical centers

For further information on graduate study op-
portunities write to:

Dr. Eric Weger, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri 63130







Come closer. It's only a modacrylic.


The leopard was made by a taxidermist.
Its coat is amodacrylic textile fiber made
by Union Carbide from several basic
chemicals. It's called Dynel.
Of course,man-made fibers aren't new.
But for versatility, Dynel probably has
no equal. We can make it as soft and
warm as fur for your coat. Or so tough
it approaches the strength of steel.
You' 11 find it in blankets, work clothes,
automobile upholstery, toys, jewelry. In
carpets, towels, drapes, paint rollers.
And since Dynel is chemical-resis-
tant, durable and virtually nonflamma-
ble, it's used in many more ways. On
laminated decks of boats. For tents. As


overlays for storage tanks and air ducts.
But regardless of all its practical uses,
Dynel is most famous for something
else. It's great for making wigs. For
blondes and brunettes and redheads.
Remarkable fiber? We think so. But
haven't you found that a lot of remark-
able things come from Union Carbide?


THE DISCOVERY COMPANY
270 Park Ave.. New York, N.Y 10017


An equal opportunity employer.


-"MGMl
UNION'






New Math?
No-new Sun!
The 48-year-old Sunray DX and
the 82-year-old Sun Oil companies
are now joined to form a moving,
swinging company 1 year young
and 2 billion dollars big.
It's a whole new ball game-oil


game, if you will. Sun's re-struc-
tured management is young, bold,
concerned. We're deeply involved
in planning explorations; product
research, development and im-
provement; advanced manufac-
turing; and new concepts of mar-
keting and management.


You might like to work for a
company like Sun. Contact your
Placement Director, or write for
our new Career Guide. SUN OIL
COMPANY, Human Resources Dept.
CED, 1608 Walnut Street, Phila-
delphia, Pa. 19103.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M1/F




Full Text