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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
Editorial and Letters from readers
Professor Octave Levenspiel
Expanding frontiers at Clarkson
Photochemical processing: Photodecomposition of pollutants in water
Real-time computing in the university
A facility for education in real-time computing
A real-time computer control facility at the University of Florida
Polymer science and engineering at Tennessee
Impressions of engineering education in the southern tier
Report of Education and accreditation committee
Specialization in fine particle technology
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
Lemical engineering education
On&acui, State Zduxxdo^i LBVENSP/EL
C'ZfuutdUta tflosttiesU at C LARKS ON
COMPUTER CONTROL OF CHE LAB EQUIPMENT
� WESTERBERG-ESCHENBACHER: IBM 1070 with GIPSI at Florida � � FISHER: DACS Center at Alberta � � CHRISTENSEN-VARGO: PDP 9/L with RAT at Oklahoma
Polymer Science and Engineering............WHITE
ChE Education in South America............SCRIVEN
Fine Particle Technology Program ............ORR
Report of Accreditation Committee.........BANKOFF
Alia f970 AumzaA JleoUtAe.
Photodecomposition of Pollutants........J. M. SMITH
Your parents didn't put you through school to work for the wrong company.
We think we're the right company. We're big, but not too big. We've climbed halfway up Fortune's Directory of 500 Largest Corporations. But compare the share of sales that paper companies plow back into research. Suddenly, we're no less than second.
What does this mean when you're considering a career in paper production? It means that production engineering at Westvaco is influenced by continuous research feedback. It means lots of development work. Diversification. Excitement. Research has given us processes and equipment to make better
papers for printing, packaging, and structures. But we need to continually improve our processes. Speed them up. Make them more efficient. That's your job.
Research has given us useful by-products, too. High-grade specialty chemicals for coatings, pharmaceuticals, inks and waxes. And activated carbon adsorbents and systems to alleviate water pollution. But we need good engineers to recover these by-products more efficiently. To improve them. To find new uses for them.
In our company, working with paper and paper by-products can mean good careers in design engineering,
fluid dynamics, specialty chemicals, process control, process R&D and product development. And more. Chances are, whatever you liked and did best in college, we're doing right now. And doing it well.
But find out for yourself. See our campus representative, or contact Andy Anderson, Westvaco, 299 Park Avenue, New York 10017.
Remember, all your parents want for you is the best of everything. The least you could do is join the right company.
An equal opportunity employer
EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32601
Editor: Ray Fahien Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Business Manager: R- B. Bennett
Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives:
CENTRAL: James H. Weber Chairman of Publication Board University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68508
Richard S. Mayer Ohio University Athens, Ohio 45701
WEST: William H. Corcoran California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91109
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Clemson, South Carolina 29631
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump University of Houston Houston, Texas 77004
EAST: Robert Matteson College Relations Sun Oil Company Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19100
G. Michael Howard University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06268
George D. Keeffe
Newark College of Engineering
Newark, New Jersey, 07102
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute
Brooklyn, New York 11201
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14214
NORTH: J. J. Martin University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98105
D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104
Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106 INDUSTRIAL: E. P. Bartkus
E. I. du Pont de Nemours Wilmington, Delaware 19898
Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME 5, NUMBER 1 WINTER T971
18 Chemical QnaiMe&utuj, /Iw&uL jHectuSie. -/970
Photochemical Processing: Photo decomposition of Pollutants in Water, /. M. Smith
37 Polymer Science and Engineering at Tennessee, J- L. White
Departments 3 Editorial
3 Letters from Readers 8 The Educator
Professor Octave Levenspiel
12 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Expanding Frontiers at Clarkson, D. 0. Cooney
24 Real-time Computing in the University,
D. G. Fisher 30 A Facility for Education in Real-time
Computing, /. H. Christensen and P. M.
32 A Real-time Computer Control Facility at the University of Florida, A. W. Wester-berg and R. C. Eschenbacher.
44 International Chemical Engineering
Impressions of Engineering Education in the Southern Tier, L. E. Scriven
51 Book Review
52 The Curriculum
Specialization in Fine Particle Technology, Clyde Orr, Jr.
50 AlChE Annual Reports
Education and Accreditation Committee, S. G. Bankoff
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per are $3 each. Copyright (c) 1971, Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
New Math? No�new Sun!
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You might like to work for a company like Sun. Contact your Placement Director, or write for our new Career Guide. Sun Oil Company, Human Resources Dept. CED, 1608 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F
from the EDITOR
Should CEE be Discontinued?
One of our readers questions "the wisdom of publishing Chemical Engineering Education."
His reason (see Letters section) is that "the magazine is so obviously a quality publication, it will no doubt attract all of the papers pertaining to chemical engineering education, whereas previously many of these papers would have been published in . . . journals such as Chemical Engineering Progress." Consequently, he argues, the practitioneers in industry will be less aware of educational trends, thereby widening the industry-academic gap.
The editor has replied as follows:
"My immediate answer is that practically all the papers we have published so far would not have been published by CEP. . . . And, I believe that most faculty members would state that CEE fills an important professional need that other journals do not. Furthermore, I do not believe that abolishing CEE would enhance your quite desirable objective of getting educational matters before the practicing engineer.
It seems to me that what is needed, instead of abolishing CEE, is to make it easier for practicing engineers to see it. One way to accomplish this would be to ask the AIChE to co-sponsor CEE and have it sent at modest cost to engineers in industry. Another way, which we have considered, would be to send one or more copies to each local section to be read by their officers and to be used in career guidance work.
I certainly do agree with you that we should do all that we can to alleviate the industry-academic gap and keep graduate engineers abreast of new developments in education. In fact, I have often suggested that the articles we have published dealing with newer developments in education would be much more understandable to the practicing engineer than many of those in the technical journals. What do you think of the idea of promoting Chemical Engineering Education among industry as a medium of communication and of continuing education?"
In keeping with the above suggestion, CEE is planning to publish reports of various AIChE committees that deal with educational matters. We begin in this issue with a report from the Educational and Accredition Committee; future issues will contain reports from the AIChE Educational Projects, Continuing Education and Career Guidance Committees. Through the publication of these reports and of our educational articles, we hope that we can encourage engineers in industry to read CEE. While financial support from the AIChE Is very unlikely at this time, we would welcome AIChE assistance in bringing
the possibility of subscription to CEE to the attention of its members.
On the other hand the larger question raised by the reader who wrote us cannot be ignored. With CEE now beginning its fourth year of publication at the University of Florida, we feel that it is time to ask ourselves and our readers whether they feel that CEE should be discontinued. We are encouraged that many of the departments that have responded to Professor Churchill's letter soliciting bulk subscriptions have greatly increased the number of copies ordered�although many others have not replied. We are also pleased that, thanks to the yeomen efforts of Professor Jim Weber and his Publication Board, our advertising income may exceed expectations; we should have the financial resources to publish this year. However we would be pleased to see comments from our readers on whether we should continue publication, and, if so, on how we can better serve both the professor and the engineer in industry. R.W.F.
from our READERS
Sir: I have recently been wondering about the wisdom of publishing CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION and would like to solicit your viewpoints on the subject. You and the others who have been associated with the publication in recent years have done an outstanding job and certainly deserve the highest of compliments.
It is not the quality of the magazine that causes my concern, but rather its impact on the chemical engineering profession. As a matter of fact, it is my impression that the improved quality of the magazine may be its greatest weakness. Now that the magazine is so obviously a quality publication, it will no doubt attract all of the papers pertaining to chemical engineering education, whereas previously many of these papers would have been published in other chemical engineering journals such as Chemical Engineering Progress. I feel that the real strength in any profession lies in its interest in education of new members of that profession. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the practitioners of that profession be constantly aware of educational trends and changes. Recent presentations by Max Peters and committee activities, such as the Wilke Committee, sub-
NOTE TO DEPARTMENT CHAIRMAN AND SUBSCRIBERS
Renewals for 1971 of individual (at $10/yr.) and bulk subscriptions (at $4/yr. with $25 minimum for six) should be sent to R. B. Bennett, Bus. Mgr. CEE, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
stantiate this proposition and also indicate concern throughout the AIChE for this ever-increasing gap.
I am sure that some industrial engineers will read Chemical Engineering Education, but I suspect that it is so small as to be insignificant. The proposition that the publication should be discontinued, after you and others have invested so much work and effort into it, will probably not receive enthusiastic support. An alternative solution might be to select some of the more significant papers from Chemical Engineering Education and have them reprinted in Chemical Engineering Progress. Although I am personally opposed to duplicate publications in this fashion, I feel that it might represent a solution to a problem that now exists.
Roy Foresti, Jr., Chairman The Catholic University
Havens-Starling comment on Lee
Sir: The paper "Transport Phenomena Equations of Change" by V. J. Lee which appeared in Chemical Engineering Education, Summer 1969, pp. 126-128, elicits a reply.
First, because of several typographical errors, the development is rather hard to follow. We call attention to the repeated jumbling of the Greek letter p for density and the letter, p, for pressure in Equations 7, 9, 15, 16, 17, 19 and 20. In the following discussion we have rewritten several of Lee's equations, with appropriate corrections for typographical errors, and have identified them with the same equation number used in his paper. Equations not taken from the paper are labeled consecutively with capital letters.
Of more concern than typographical errors is the misinterpretation of the fundamental, thermodynamic definition of heat. For example, Lee states that multiplication of his Equation 19)
|2 . T- j: Vv - V-qJ - p(V-v)
t: Vv - V-q
by SVaT yields
wherein "the terms in the square bracket are rate of heat generation due to friction and rate of energy transfer to the system mainly as heat . . ." Lee's definition for 80, is not consistent with the thermodynamic definition of heat. The concept of heat has meaning only at the boundary of a system; it is a transfer quantity. Lee's misuse of the term "heat" can be seen more clearly from his total energy balance Equation (16), for a closed system:
pi5V(l/2 v + 4 + U)
(n'T) dS +
A more introspective (for reasons to be discussed later) form of Equation (16) is
+ p4 + pU
where on the left-hand side, pv, $ and U are the local density, mass average velocity, potential energy and internal energy respectively, instead of "mean values" for the volume element, SV, as implied in Lee's Equation (16). Equation (B) is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics for a closed, nonreacting, nondiffusing system in which the nonequilibrium stress tensor _g (sometimes described as a dynamic pressure) has been expressed as
[pI + i]
where p is the hydrostatic pressure, I_ is the unit second order tensor and _r is a second order tensor involving velocity gradients. According to thermodynamic principles, in Equation (16) or (B) must denote the heat flux vector at the boundary of the system. Therefore, Lee's contention that q must "denote the rate of energy dissipation per unit surface area of all forms of energy including heat flux as a major form" is incorrect.
The first law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of a closed system can only be altered by heat and work transfers across the boundaries. Therefore, for Equation (16) or (B) to be valid, each term on the R.H.S. must be identifiable as either a heat or a work transfer; dissipation or production terms are meaningless in the total energy balance for a system in which relativistic effects are absent. It is clear from Equation (16) or (B) that the boundary of the system (taking the system to be the volume, SV) has been arbitrarily taken at an interface where a presumably identifiable force (as calculable from fi) results in a corresponding motion of the boundary. Thus, the sum of the first and second terms on the R. H. S. of Equation (16) or (B) represents a work transfer, so the second term should not be associated with heat (as Lee has suggested). The ultimate consequence of the work transfer involving the tensor t insofar as giving rise to "dissipation effects" in the system is of no concern to the total energy balance of Equation (16) or (B) since any phenomena taking place (even an infinitesimal distance) away from the boundaries of the system are completely irrelevant. Thus, whereas the first two terms on the R. H. S. of Equation (16) or (B) account for all mechanical work transfers, the third term accounts for all heat transfers. Many examples could be cited from the literature where indiscriminate identifications of heat and work transfers have precipitated erroneous conclusions.
Part of the difficulty in interpretation of the individual terms contained in the energy equation can be attributed to insufficient attention to the physical significance of terms involved in mathematical manipulations. During the limiting � or conversely the integrating � process of calculus, the location of the boundary of the system may be changing; consequently the identifi-
chemical engineering education
cation of different types of energy transfers may be undergoing change. For example, let us apply the Reynolds transport theorem to Equation (B). Note that Equation (B) must hold for any arbitrary volume element SV. Consider the limit of the resulting equation as the magnitude of SV approaches zero; thus
8o ( 2 + $ + U) dS
jjv-np dS + Jjv-(n-T)
dS + k*n dS
Quoting Gibbs/1) "The surface integral of (a vector) A for a closed surface bounding a space dV infinitely small in its dimensions is V*A dV." Therefore Equation (D) can be written as
dV + V-py dV
+ V- (v-T)dV + V'3 dV
or, equivalently (dividing by dV),
5t[�+* + D]
pv - V-(T-y) - V'a
Note that throughout the limiting process leading to Equation (17), q is the heat flux vector at the surface of the diminishing system (SV) under consideration. The term V*2. dV in Equation (E) should be interpreted as the integral of the heat flux vector over the surface of this inflnitesmal volume element dV. This interpretation is consistent with the identification of heat in the first law of thermodynamics as a transfer quantity, (energy transfer due to a temperature gradient at the boundary) having meaning only at the boundary of the system under consideration.
By subtracting the equation of change for potential energy and kinetic energy from Equation (17) and utilizing the identity
V-(t-y) - v(V-t) + t: Vy
we arrive at Lee's Equation (19),
To get an internal energy balance equation for a closed system SV, we integrate (19) to get
t: Vv dV
ItJjJ PUdV=" JJ �'� dS
Since the surface integral involving q accounts for all heat transfer, the second term on the R. H. S. of Equation (F) cannot be associated with heat.
In view of the serious inconsistencies in the development of Section IV of the subject paper, the final statement, that "Equation 20 confirms the self-consistency of the derivation," is invalid.
Another point of criticism is directed at the starting point for Lee's development of the equations of change
xGibbs, J. W., Scientific Papers, Vol. 2, Dover Publications, p 32.
*Correction: change dS to dV on L.H.S.
for mass, momentum and internal energy. Lee implicitly defines the system as "the infinitesimal fluid element, SV, in motion." He further specifies that the velocity of the volume element, SV, is v. This specification of velocity is ambiguous. First of all the volume element must be arbitrarily specifiable to pave the way for a valid development of the local equations of change from a balance equation as has been done, for example, in proceeding from Equations (8) to (9) and (16) to (17). Lee's specification requires consideration of the velocity v as a mean value over the volume element SV. Similar difficulties arise with the density, p, the potential energy, $, and internal energy U. For this reason we resorted to rewriting Lee's Equation (16) as Equation (B). The latter equation is obtained by defining velocity, first, as the mass average velocity corresponding to the theory of continua. Then, and only then, the system to be considered can be defined by fixing its location at some time and specifying its boundary velocity for all times thereafter. If the system boundary is defined as moving with the local mass average velocity, the system is a Lagrangian system; in the absence of diffusion it becomes a closed syseem.
The purpose of this critique is to call attention to common misapplications of thermodynamics in analyzing continuous systems. In so doing, we hope that we do not discourage authors, such as Lee, in their efforts to achieve "formalistic simplicity" and "expose the conceptual continuity from the Newtonian equation of body motion to the continum motion of fluids." With respect to these two objectives, Lee's efforts are to be commended.
Jerry A. Havens Kenneth E. Starling University of Oklahoma
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Although different in many respects from _ its predecessor, this text has retained its original orientation: to present a description of the more important physical processes, theories, and methods of analysis utilized in the field of heat transfer. In order to accomplish this purpose, the author has begun with a relatively rigorous examination of the fundamentals and progressed to an up-to-date account of the state-of-the-art in several very important new areas in heat transfer, e.g., radiation transport and natural convection.
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The basic macroscopic principles of thermodynamics are developed in this fundamental text with insight obtained by consideration of the microscopic aspects of matter. Throughout, the author uses the basic conceptual ideas of statistical thermodynamics rather than its details. Disorder, randomness, and uncertainty notations are used in conjunction with the Gibb's definition of
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
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The first seven chapters of this book are identical to those in Thermodynamics, Second Edition. However, the remaining chapters emphasize applications to actual engineering systems. The material on power systems has been expanded, and chapters on compressible flow and heat transfer included. There are no detailed statistical thermodynamic calculations in this version, though the statistical concepts remain in the fundamental development of the first seven chapters and are used later in qualitative ways.
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With the general purpose of acquainting students with the tools necessary to design new chemical reactors and predict the performance of existing ones, this book develops principles of kinetics and reactor design and then applies them to actual chemical reactors. Emphasis is placed on real reactions using experimental rather than hypothetical data. Kinetics, homogeneous reactions, heterogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic reactors, and residence time distribution effects are treated in detail.
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"Science and the application of science are worthwhile activities on which to spend a lifetime."
This feature article was contributed by Professor T. J. Fitzgerald, Oregon State University.
Once there lived in the far-off land of China a wealthy merchant who had thirteen children. The eleventh child who was the eighth son was named Octave (of course). He was schooled in the magic arts of the Orient, boy scout craft, French, German and such other unlikely things as a young Shanghai boy was expected to learn. At least this is the way the story sometimes goes when you ask him.
This investigation gives a much smaller number for the children in the family�probably only one�although the community included his uncles and his cousins and his aunts. Documentation is difficult since the stories grow more elaborate with the passing of time, and because pertinent documents have long age been absorbed into the omnivorous filing cabinets which Professor Leven-spiel maintains. Withdrawal from these files is similar to what computer people call random access : all items are equally difficult to retrieve, and the probability of finding any given document or paper decreases with each new item accumulated. As a result this article is based mainly on the collected stories of relatives, colleagues, and former students.
The real Mr. Levenspiel was not a merchant but was (and still is) a civil and mechanical engineer. There was in those days a rather large European community in Shanghai with its own system of schools, restaurants, and Chinese servants. It was in this community that Octave was brought up, attending a German grammar school, an English high school and a French university.
It is worth retelling two incidents which occurred while Octave attended Araura University in Shanghai�the first because it had a significant effect on Octave's career; the second because it was an early public display of life long passion to excell, sometimes even in bizarre pursuits.
Octave failed his freshman year of studies� you passed or failed the entire year of course work�and thus required either to repeat the entire year or take up chemical engineering. After what was undoubtedly a painful period of soul searching, Octave took up chemical engineering.
Later on in his college career he set a new record in a physics class which probably has not been matched to this day. The preparation for this feat was difficult, almost dizzying at times, requiring almost an hour of concentrated effort and labored breathing, but the results were spectacular: he managed to hold his breath one time for a full five minutes and twenty-five seconds!
In 1946 Octave came to the United States and spent a year completing his undergraduate education at the University of California at Berkeley and then moved to the chemical engineering department at Oregon State University where he worked for Jess Walton to obtain a master's degree in 1949 and Ph.D. in 1952. During this period he helped organize the first soccer team at Oregon State. This led to his promotion of the boycott of a restaurant that would not accommodate all the members of the multiracial team. There is a rumor that Octave majored in square dancing while at Oregon State. Investigation has shown that indeed he did spend a lot of time at
chemical engineering education
it, and became proficient even as a square dance caller�but his academic interests stayed closer to chemical engineering. There was an occasional venture into the world of pure mathematics. His proof of the famous four color problem of topology�which asserts that it is possible to color a map using only four colors so that no adjacent areas have the same color�dates from this period. He has never been able to get a mathematician either to agree that the proof is correct, or to state what's wrong with it.
Following his completion of graduate studies at Oregon, Octave returned to Berkeley where he worked in metallurgy as a junior research engineer at the Engineering Research Institute. No doubt a significant factor in Octave's decision to return to Berkeley was the abundance of Chinese restaurants in the San Francisco area.
Octave claims to look upon food primarily as a fuel, and chooses restaurants according to how much food per dollar they serve. If you like rice dishes, Chinese restaurants always come out near the top. And so they are the center of much of Octave's social life. It was at such a restaurant with an intimate gathering of friends in 1952 that Octave formally announced his marriage to Mary Jo. Smiley. "Wife," he said, as a button popped off his shirt, "sew that back on."
Octave and Mary Jo then set off on a grand camping trip honeymoon. As they came upon universities in their travels, Octave would drop in on the chemical engineering department, say a few words, and wait for them to offer him employment. But no one did. In those days Octave travelled faster than his reputation. Finally Jess Walton invited him to return to the Oregon State chemical engineering department for a while as an assistant professor.
Octave and Mary Jo returned to Corvallis and bought a small house on a hill that overlooks the town, and Octave spent the next two years teaching chemical engineering and a potpourri of game theory, statistics, and thermodynamics.
It is not clear just when his interest in Chinese chess, Japanese chess, and Korean chess and, who knows, Manchurian chess was developed, but it is safe to assume that he always considered these games as an integral part of the teaching profession.
. . . he could toss and catch a boomerang fifty-seven times in succession . . . the Eastern United States Boomerang Throwing Champion.
. . . Octave spent a year at Cambridge steeping himself in the traditions of unhurried research, afternoon tea, and English food.
The "Committee and Boomerang Period" (1954 to 1958) began when Octave moved to Bucknell University where he continued his career of teaching and innovating and became involved in thirteen different committees. It was time to set a new record. Not happy with the limited number of committees available, he took up boomerang throwing. In no time at all he could toss and catch a boomerang fifty-seven times in succession. This is no mean trick and probably is the basis for his reputation as the Eastern United States Boomerang Throwing Champion. It is significant that the title has never been disputed.
During his spare time he published some articles in the field of reactor design that produced a veritable avalanche of papers. In one he introduced the topic of moment analysis. He also published some papers on subjects not so directly
"Wife sew that button back on."
Octave slew the monster of chemical kinetics and produced a book which was appealing to undergraduates.
related to chemical engineering, including one which studied movement in zero gravity fields, and a few on statistics.
The next move occurred in 1958. Octave showed up at ITT in Chicago in late August to find out about his new appointment. The Dean of Engineering claimed to know nothing about it, and the department head, Dr. Ralph Peck, had not yet returned from seclusion in the north woods of Minnesota.
But things did get settled and Octave began the ambitious project of writing a book on chemical reactor design. In the following years much of Octave's time was spent researching the battle of Trafalgar and the effect of Sex and Sin on reaction, topics that were ultimately consolidated into the book Chemical Reaction Engineering. With this fresh approach Octave slew the monster of chemical kinetics and produced a book which was appealing to undergraduates. The book has been adopted as a text by more than one hundred schools in North American and is available in Czech, Rumanian, and is also available in a less expensive soft cover version outside the United States
In 1963 Octave was appointed a senior N.S.F. post-doctoral fellow and travelled to Cambridge where he spent a year steeping himself in the traditions of unhurried research, afternoon tea, and English food. During the same year the substantial article "Patterns of Flow in Vessels" was published in volume 4 of Advances in Chemical Engineering, co-authored with Ken Bischoff, who had done his graduate research with Octave at IIT.
From 1964 until 1968 Octave returned to IIT, wrote another book, this one co-authored with Daizo Kunii, called Fluidization Engineering, and sharpened up his game of Chinese chess.
He should have worked on squash.
In 1968 Octave went back to Cambridge as a Fullbright fellow and was beaten 46 times in a row at squash by J.C.R. Turner. In a final flurry of gamesmanship Octave won the 47th game, and retired from the sport.
In 1969 Octave returned with his family to Oregon State University. He now lives in a large
. . . He should have worked on squash . . .
The Levenspiel Quintette
house on a hill that overlooks most of Corvallis, scarcely a block from the small house he lived in when he first taught at Oregon State. In the intervening years he has become something of a legend in chemical engineering. He has been honored as an outstanding lecturer by the American Society For Engineering Education and Sigma Xi, and has presented talks and lectures to professional and industrial groups too numerous to mention. His book Chemical Reaction Engineering has effectively added a new and most important area to chemical engineering education.
Once asked why he wrote a book on reaction engineer he replied, "I flipped a coin versus ther-mo; chemical reaction engineering lost." In fact it didn't.
Octave is now working on a second edition of this book which hopefully will be even more clear than the first.
Perhaps his best book hasn't been written yet. From the beginning of his career Octave has been strongly interested in the philosophy of science, and has flirted with the idea of writing an introductory text on this subject for all physical science and engineering students.
The goal of the book would be to convince students, as he long ago convinced himself, that "science and the application of science are worthwhile activities on which to spend a lifetime."
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
At Stauffer all systems are grow. You're in on it
If you come with us, you wade right into your work. You get more out of it. So do we. We give our bright young people their heads. Because the faster they grow, the faster we grow. And that's exactly what Stauffer is doing. Growing. In plastics, manufacturing chemicals, specialty chemicals and agricultural proprietaries.
We're a medium-sized company, with vigor. Not so big you get lost, but big enough to offer plenty of room for movement.
If you have a BS, or more, in Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry or Accounting, give Stauffer a good hard look. You can find a springboard for your talents�in production, engineering, research, or technical sales. A career that will mean a lot to you, and many others.
See our representative when he visits your campus. Or write directly to Coordinator of College Recruiting, Stauffer Chemical Company, 299 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.
Grow with Stauffer, a Company with a social conscience as well as a profit motive. An equal opportunity employer
DAVID O. COONEY
with the assistance of the staff
Clarkson is a private, independent, non-sectarian, co-educational institution, located on a 700 acre campus in Potsdam, New York�a small community in the St. Lawrence River Valley lacking the modern touches of air pollution, traffic congestion, and urban blight. We have access to several Metropolitan centers, particularly Montreal and Ottawa�both within approximately a hundred-mile distance from Potsdam. We are also on the boundary of the Adirondack State Park, the largest public park in the nation. Within 10 miles of Clarkson are located three other college institutions. Total enrollment in the four area colleges exceeds 11,000. Thus, our immediate area presents ample academic, cultural, and recreational facilities.
Founded in 1896, Clarkson currently has approximately 2700 students, about 200 of whom are graduate students. The PhD is offered in Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering Science.
Clarkson, and its ChE Department in particular, has always produced a large number of undergraduate engineers. This year we awarded 44 BS degrees, 14 graduate degrees and had research expenditures of about one-half million dollars. The total number of sophomores, juniors, and seniors in our department is presently about 200, an all-time high, and it appears that as many as 100 freshmen may choose chemical engineering
as their future course of study. The fact that the number of recruiters interviewing our students each year has consistently exceeded the sizes of our senior classes attests to the high quality of our graduates. For example, during the last five years the excess of recruiters over seniors has averaged nearly 20%. Currently our graduate and research programs are beginning to feel the impart of a $590,000 NSF Departmental Development Grant.
NSF DEPARTMENTAL DEVELOPMENT GRANT
Through the persistent efforts of Herman Shulman, former chairman of ChE, an active graduate program was developed in the late 1950's. Development of the program was viewed as an important and desirable goal, not solely for its own value, but as an important adjunct to a vigorous and well-taught undergraduate program. In 1965, the first PhD's in ChE were awarded. In the same year, Bill Gill became chairman and promoted further the development initiated by Shulman. In 1967, carefully documented long range plans for departmental expansion were submitted to the National Science Foundation. The resultant Departmental Development Grant, awarded in 1969�the second given by NSF to a ChE department:�has enabled us to grow from 10 faculty members in 1968 to 14 in 1970. We expect to have 22 faculty members and 100 graduate students by 1980. Recent changes in the military draft and cut-backs in national research funding may somewhat affect our time schedule but hopefully will not strongly inhibit the realization of these goals. Generation of new ideas and programs essential to expansion will be aided by
chemical engineering education
the fact that we have a faculty with diverse backgrounds and interests.
In order of arrival the faculty are:
Herman Shulman is currently Dean of the Graduate School, Vice President of the College, and Dean of Engineering.
Bob Cole has been actively engaged in research on nucleate pool boiling and bubble dynamics.
Tom Ward's major interest is process control, but he has worked in the areas of ion exchange, clay mineralogy, the properties of liquid, and stream pollution.
Joe Estrin is continuing his research on nucleation phenomena, particularly secondary nucleation.
Gordon Youngquist has worked on the equilibria and kinetics of adsorption of gasses on ion exchange resins, etc.
Bob Shaw, a nuclear engineer, does research on water purification by reverse osmosis.
Bill Gill has done both theoretical and experimental work on various aspects of transport phenomena, particularly convective diffusion.
Dick Nunge's research emphasis is on convective transport phenomena.
Ken Lu has been involved in studies of phase equilibria at high pressures and stability analysis.
Jim Davis does research in heat transfer and fluid mechanics associated with two-phase flow.
Andrew Burke's primary research interests have been in corrosion and atmospheric pollution.
David Cooney has developed programs in various biomedical and biological transport topics.
John Beamer's interests are optimization and systems modeling, with applications to environmental and societal problems.
Joseph L. Katz has made a major contribution to the field of nucleation phenomena.
Drs. Burke, Cooney, Beamer, and Katz are the faculty members who have been added as a direct result of the expansion called for by the Development grant. The research interests of these people have expanded the breadth of our research and teaching efforts considerably. New courses in air pollution, electrochemical phenomena, high temperature gas dynamics, biomedical (engineering, optimization, systems simulation, and statistical mechanics have been generated. Such courses have added considerably to the evolution of a dynamic undergraduate program.
During the last year, our undergraduate engineering curricula underwent complete revamp-ment. Our heretofore rigid programs, with a plethora of time-consuming laboratory courses and only four electives, were reorganized. Fewer, better, and more relevant laboratory courses, combined with reductions in the number of required
courses, now give us a curriculum with much greater flexibility. This also has allowed us to split some of our larger classes into smaller sections, in which greater interaction, discussion, and personal attention are possible. Our undergraduates now are taking a lesser number of courses (124 credit hours vs. 140 before, for graduation), but they are able to delve much more deeply into them. Rather than specifying exactly their 3rd Physics course, their 5th Math course, etc, we now simply require any suitable additional course in these areas. In the four year program, 17 electives are allowed, of which we limit six to Humanities and Social Sciences, one to Physics, one to Math, two to the Materials Science-Electrical Science-Mechanics elective areas, and three to any science or engineering curriculum, with the remaining four being completely unrestricted. The large freedom of choices now offered will enable students to pursue various programs depending on their own career objectives, e.g., environmental applications, industrial (management oriented), industrial (technically oriented), graduate school, etc. Our chemical engineering program still requires all of those courses normally considered to be indispensible, for example: stoichiometry, stage-wise operations, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, kinetics, chemical engineering laboratory, and process design.
. . . a curriculum with much greater flexibility . . .
The new curriculum is also designed to permit easy transfer of students from two-year colleges into our program at the junior level�an option which is becoming of increasingly greater importance.
An exciting addition to our freshman year program has been a Uvo-course sequence in relevant engineering design. This is part of a new experimental "Creative Engineering Systems Design Program" supported by a $200,000 grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, spearheaded by George Leppert, Chairman of Mechanical Engineering. This program will give all of our engineering students an opportunity to receive design education throughout their undergraduate work. The program is computer-oriented and provides for a variety of experiences such as formal course work, independent study, team design projects, seminars, and close contact with faculty. Experts in various areas where engineering is related to social and environmental prob-
lems are brought in to deliver timely lectures to the freshmen. Some typical topics have been "Computer Simulation of Societal Systems," "The Relationship of Overpopulation to Engineering," "Urban Transportation," and "Conservation and Pollution." A considerable portion of the Sloan Grant has been used to provide partial support for an extensive time-shared computer system for our undergraduates.
The development of this program was motivated, in part, by the feeling among high school and college students that engineering education is failing to relate adequately to society's real problems. A great deal of emphasis in this program is placed on working on society's complex problems by the systems design approach.
Clarkson's location in a rural county makes it an ideal area in which to study societal and urban problems on a "pilot plant" scale. Further, by determining the factors governing migration from rural areas, it may be possible to make them more attractive and reverse the traditional migrational flow, thus alleviating urban problems. We feel that the flexibility of the program and its orientation toward current problems are important steps toward meeting the challenge of educating today's student. Incidentally, a number of professors in our own department are handling discussion sessions of the freshman design course in an effort to interact with and counsel, during their critical first year, those freshmen who have indicated a preference for Chemical Engineering.
Another new prospect in the undergraduate program, being developed by Drs. Burke and Beamer, is a program in "Social Engineering." This four year program would include courses in Social Science, Engineering, Economics, and Management and hopefully would develop technical personnel with the social background and sensitivity to attack effectively many of our country's more pressing socio-technical problems.
The recent cry for relevance and teaching excellence which has been raised on all U.S. campuses has inspired us to search actively for ways in which we might further improve our teaching. A formal procedure for teacher evaluation, using questionnaires developed by groups such as the ASEE, has been instituted and the results will be included in all actions related to salary raises, promotion, tenure, etc. Many of our staff participated last summer in an ASEE-sponsored "Effective Teaching Institute." Additionally, we employ
complete videotape facilities to aid us in seeing our own lectures as the students see them.
Another aspect of our emphasis on excellence in our undergraduate program is a continuing series of Student Orientation sessions, developed in conjunction xoith our honorary ChE fraternity, Omega Chi Epsilon. Aimed primarily at freshmen and undecided sophomores, programs dealing with "what does a chemical engineer do?", "what educational training does a chemical engineer need?", etc. have helped to guide the career decisions of our younger students (these, incidentally, have abated attrition and drop-out problems to a significant degree). This program also seems to have encouraged our upper classmen, for several of our seniors have recently set up their own student counseling system, in which they have offered to talk to any interested persons concerning courses and similar subjects. Many of the particular students involved in this activity are engaged in our Undergraduate Research Participation (URP) program, and have offices and lab space in our building.
The URP program has been active since 1950 and has received NSF support six of the last
. . . being developed ... is a program in "social engineering.". . .
seven summers. Normally, six NSF-supported participants are involved each summer for 12 weeks. Participants are initially selected before their senior year, enabling them to carry over their work into the academic year, for which undergraduate thesis credits are given. Additionally we usually have another six students engaged in academic-year projects which are sponsored by the department�so that at any one time as many as 12 students may be doing independent research. The success of this program has been outstanding, perhaps because the students are carefully selected with respect to ability and motivation and because faculty involvement has been extensive. Specific measures of the quality of our URP program have been evidenced by the success of our undergraduates in Regional AIChE Student Conferences, in which several schools meet, exchange ideas, and present research papers. Last year, in a conference attended by several schools with strong ChE departments, Clarkson students swept the first three places. In the previous year, in a similar competition at the University of Buffalo, a paper won first prize.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
Additional undergraduate success has been achieved in the AIChE Student Contest Problem competition in process design. Clarkson students have won two first prizes, and one second prize, one third prize and nine honorable mentions (the last one in 1969). We feel that these successes reflect on the quality of our whole undergraduate program inasmuch as excellence in both independent research and in comprehensive process design depend directly on skills and knowledge acquired during the whole course of study.
We are encouraged by these indications that our efforts in the undergraduate area are of value. However, we feel that somehow our accomplishments in this sphere have hinged on the recent great strides in our graduate program.
GRADUATE AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
The graduate programs of the School of Engineering are organized along four main lines: Fluid and Thermal Sciences, Systems Analysis, Solid Mechanics, and Socio-Environmental Engineering. A majority of our own staff is aligned with the first group, as might be expected.
Graduate student enrollments of less than 10 during the first three years of the past decade show, by comparison to the present 45 how we have grown in this respect. The factors which gave the greatest impetus to expansion of our graduate program were the institution of the PhD program in our department in 1961 (along with Chemistry and Physics), and the vigorous leadership of Bill Gill.
Our Master's program requires a research thesis, and, like most of our research, is strongly oriented towards engineering science (as opposed to "pure" science). While the program is demanding, the students feel it is well worth the effort. We strive to have every MS thesis result in work of publishable quality, and we feel that the level of excellence of our MS degree is well above average. For those students who do choose to continue on for a PhD (22 of our current 45 graduate students are intent on working to the PhD), the amount of extra effort required beyond the MS is consequently not as large as it would be at many schools. The strength of our Master's program gives a tremendous head start towards the PhD. It should be mentioned, with respect to our research, that all projects are oriented towards educating our students via theses. We undertake no contract work aimed at testing or developing specific products or processes. All of our studies
deal with basic engineering and scientific fundamentals.
One interesting graduate research project which has been funded recently under NSF's new program "Interdisciplinary Research Relevant to Problems of Our Society" is a study entitled "A Quantitative Model of Agropolis." Bill Gill and John Beamer are two of the five faculty members working on this project. The objective of this program is to make a predictive computer simulation model of St. Lawrence County, the county is which Clarkson is located. This will involve developing a selected set of quantitative indices to describe the state of the county (population, economics, quality of life characteristics, etc.) and creating a model to predict future changes in the county and its relationship to the rest of the world. While this research is not traditional for chemical engineers, it involves familiar analysis and modeling techniques and reflects our increasing concern for, and commitment to, societal and environmental problems.
A striking index of the increasing activity of our research programs is the steady growth in funds expended for chemical engineering research over the past feiv years. The monetary levels of research activity in these last few years compare favorably with most of the large established departments throughout the country. Evidence that these funds have attracted and active and scholarly research faculty is at least partially reflected by the number of papers published (or in press) by the faculty in major refereed journals�155 in the last five years (88 published while at Clarkson and 67 published while elsewhere). During this same period, our faculty members presented 57 papers at technical conferences and meetings and delivered 46 invited seminars.
Some specific items which we also feel have added directly to our graduate and research programs include:
� Engineering Science Seminar Program, in which about 10 distinguished lecturers per year are invited to Clark-
son. Some recent visitors have included Sir Geoffrey Taylor, R. Bellman, E. M. Sparrow, H. Brenner, C. Sleicher, D. D. Perlmutter, D. J. Wilde, and S. Corrsin.
� Distinguished Visiting Professorships, partially supported by NSF last year, which allowed us to have two scholars of international repute, Dr. Eli Ruckenstein of the Polytechnical Institute, Bucharest, Rumania and Dr. T. Brooke Benjamin, FRS, of the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge University, England, reside with us last year (for one full and one half year, respectively).
� Writing the "Fluid Dynamics Review," published annually in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. Since 1966, Cole, Davis, Estrin, Gill, and Nunge have been involved.
� The presence at Clarkson of the Institute of Colloid and Surface Science has been of great value also in promoting research interaction in areas of mutual interest. Founded in 1965, the Institute has 27 members, of which 7 are chemical engineering faculty. Members include many distinguished scientists who are authorities in colloid chemistry, surface phenomena, and solid state physics.
� Facilities which said our research projects include an IBM 360/44 computer, recently updated by the addition of more input/output capability. This machine is accessible to all of our students and faculty. A whole range of research tools include a Philips electron microscope, a six inch Mach-Zehnder interferometer, high speed photographic facilities, a Pace TR-48 analog computer, a sub-critical nuclear reactor, high pressure reactors, hot-wire anemometer equipment, and various chromatographic and analytical devices. New physical plant facilities, in the form of a $5.5 million Science Center to be completed in the spring of 1971 will permit a great expansion of all departments in terms of office, lab, and classroom space. ChE will take over all space currently occupied by the other departments in our present building.
� Additionally, one new development which may lead to greater interdisciplinary effort and research on problems of general societal and environmental importance is the recent formation of a four college consortium linking Clarkson with the State University College at Potsdam, St. Lawrence University, and the State Agricultural and Technical College at Canton. Hopefully, the various strengths of each member of the consortium can be coordinated and brought to bear on problems of significance. This is one of a great variety of factors which will play an important part in our future plans.
HOPES AND PLANS FOR THE YEARS AHEAD
Clarkson always has been, and always will be, a major source of undergraduate engineers. Our primary responsibility will continue to be the maintenance of a strong and contemporary undergraduate curriculum. Our graduate program, still in its early years, has shown great vigor, and has proven itself a producer of high quality advanced-degree personnel and research results, as well as a valuable direct influence on our undergraduates and their curriculum.
Our experience urges us without reservation toward our 1980's goal of 22 staff members and
Professor Robert D. Cole demonstrates the use of a motion analyzer interphaced with a card punch system. The apparatus will be used in an analysis and computations laboratory soon to be activated by the Department of Chemical Engineering at Clarkson College of Technology.
100 graduate students. With the help of the Development grant we will strengthen our staff by adding two new faculty members in the near future. Specifically, we believe that greater representation in the areas of heterogeneous catalysis, control and systems analysis (especially as related to reaction engineering), and experimental rheology would be valuable. Moreover, as a young department (average age of 37 with a range of 27 to 48), we feel that additions at the associate and full professor level would help.
If the present shortage of graduate students and research funds is reasonably temporary, we anticipate being able to generate sufficient enrollments and support to carry us forward after the initial phase of our expansion is over. We are ready, willing, and�we trust�able to continue to expand our frontiers at Clarkson.
Columbia, Mo. � Dr. James R. Lorah, former chairman of Chemical Engineering at the University of Missouri-Columbia has retired with a status of emeritus professor.
Ames, Iowa � Dr. George Burnet, Head of ChE at Iowa State University, has received this year's Iowa Citizen�Chemical Engineering Award. This annual award is presented by the Iowa Section of AIChE to honor and recognize the Iowan who has achieved excellence in the chemical engineering profession and who has made a significant contribution to society through his work in civic, church, or similar type social institutions. The award consists of an engraved plaque plus a check for $200.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
He's learning that there's more to atomic energy than atomic bombs.
For many people, the atomic age began at Hiroshima.
But for thousands of kids, a new kind of atomic age is beginning.
Because of a Union Carbide discovery called the Minigenerator.
It produces atomic energy in the form of radioisotopes.
Recently, as part of a long research program into the uses of atomic energy, we discovered that we could make radioisotope generators almost as small as we wanted.
Which gave us an idea. Make one small enough and safe enough to be used in schools.
So that kids could learn for themselves how radioisotopes are used in industry, agriculture and medicine.
How they can be used to detect cancer,
For additional information on our activities, write to Union Carbide Corporation, Department of University Relations, 270 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, An equal opportunity employer.'
and how they can be used to measure the thickness of the wall of a space capsule.
We didn't do it for completely unselfish reasons, though.
We're a corporation. The Minigenerator is only a by-product of our nuclear research effort. And we make a small profit on it, as we do on our other educational aids.
But we also hope the human race will profit, too.
By showing some kids a power once used to bring death.
And teaching them how it can bring a better life.
THE DISCOVERY COMPANY 270 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017
PHOTODECOMPOSITION OF POLLUTANTS IN WATER
1970 Auumd Jlectule
Presented at the ASEE Annual meeting, this award is sponsored by the 3M Company.
J. M. SMITH
University of California Davis, California
rpHROUGH THEIR CONCERN for both chemi-cal and physical processes chemical engineers are ideally suited for solving water-pollution problems. Yet they have not been involved wholeheartedly in the design and operation of water treatment plants, particularly those of the municipal type. Fortunately, this situation is changing. On the industrial side, chemical and petroleum refining plants are examining their effluent streams for effects on the environment. Chemical engineers are asked to develop processes for economically separating or chemically removing contaminants from waste streams. For example, water from phase separators employed in petrochemical processes may contain oxidation products (acids, phenols, ketones, aldehydes) in ppm quantities. While heretofore such streams might be discharged into rivers or lakes, pollution restraints now require that these contaminants be removed. This cleanup of industrial wastes is progressing at a fast rate, usually with chemical engineers already employed in the plant assigned to the technical problems involved. This provides a stimulating opportunity to apply well-established chemical engineering principles to a new area. If a chemical reactor is to be used, concentrations of reactants are strangely small and analytical procedures oftentimes lacking or of inadequate accuracy. This contrasts markedly with conventional reactors where producing a product in high concentration is the objective. Nevertheless, economic considerations probably are of critical importance in the removal process for it is a cost that presumably will be added to the prices of the products of the plant.
Chemical engineers have been slower to become involved in municipal water purification, perphaps because they were not already on hand as was the case in industrial pollution problems. However, current developments are making it progressively easier for engineers with chemical training to make contributions in municipal wastewater treatment. First, the federal govern-
ment is providing resources for research and development that were unavailable from municipalities. Second, the advent of tertiary treatment processes has meant that the feed streams (effluent from the secondary process) are better identified and less subject to large transient fluctuations. This means that quantitative concepts familiar to chemical engineers can more likely be applied to design of tertiary treatment processes. Indeed, one of the more promising tertiary treatment processes1'2 is adsorption of pollutants by flowing the water through a bed of activated carbon particles. The design problem is closely related to that for removing propane, butanes and heavier components from lean natural gases by adsorption ; in both cases the key objective is to predict breakthrough curves for the stream leaving the carbon beds.
The remainder of this paper is concerned with a different type of treatment, a photochemical process for removing organic pollutants from water. The first results refer to a fully identified stream, water containing detergent, as a pollutant. Subsequently, the purification of secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant is discussed. For the latter situation, photochemical treatment may be regarded as a tertiary process. As the technical results are presented, some emphasis will also be given to the similarities and differences between the development of a water-treatment process and a more conventional chemical engineering operation.
The specifications of a tertiary treatment, with respect to organic pollutants, is to reduce the total organic carbon content (TOC) to 3 to 4 mg/liter, or its approximate equivalent, 3 to 4 ppm. In the photochemical scheme this is accomplished by oxidation of the pollutants to carbon dioxide. The heart of the process is the reactor through which the water flows and is irradiated. An a priori development procedure involves the same steps as for a conventional reactor for producing a desirable chemical. In ideal form these steps are:
1) measure rates of reaction on laboratory-scale apparatus and correlate the results in the form of a rate ex-
chemical engineering education
pression which accounts for the effects of controllable variables
2) use the rate equation and chemical engineering principles to predict the performance of potentially attractive large-scale reactors�in short, to develop a model for the reactor
3) on a pilot-plant scale measure the performance of one or more reactor types and compare the results with the predictions by the model developed in step 2
4) design an economically optimized reactor using the kinetics of step 1 and the model devised and revised in steps 2 and 3.
By training and traditional experience the chemical engineer is well-suited for this scheme of work. However, application of these concepts to municipal wastewater introduces uncertainties. Knowledge of the composition of the organic pollutants is meager. Some of the most complete analyses of secondary effluent3 show the presence of acids, esters, proteins, and sugars, but up to 74% of the total organic carbon is unidentifiable. Also, the low concentrations of contaminants may hinder measurement of reaction rates by customary chemical engineering methods. For example, TOC values cannot be measured with enough accuracy to establish rates by analyzing for organic carbon in the feed and effluent from a differential reactor.
PHOTODECOMPOSITION OF AQUEOUS
DETERGENT SOLUTIONS TPHE FIRST STEP IN the development scheme
can be illustrated by reference to the photo-oxidation of a linear detergent molecule, dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS). For this special system, spectrographic analysis for DBS is sufficiently precise to permit evaluations of rates of disappearance of DBS from differential reactor data. Hence, such data for various levels of the pertinent variables, which are light intensity and DBS concentration, can be used to evaluate a rate equation. Based upon the following simplified mechanism,
DBS + hv-�DBS* (1)
2DBS* -> 2DBS (2)
DBS* -> products (3)
the rate equation can be shown4 to take the form
1/2 1/2 F.T. 1/2
%S " k(MS> (Itot> I (aA > <�
The chief assumptions in the derivation are that the stationary-state hypothesis is valid and that the kinetic constants are independent of wave length. For polychromatic light sources, the latter
Professor Smith emphasizes the similarities and differences between development of a water treatment process and a conventional chemical reactor.
supposition is a necessity in view of the present development of photochemistry.
While the ^-power dependencies of the rate on pollutant concentration and light intensity, predicted by Equation (4), are verified by the experimental measurements, the level of the rate is very low; i.e., the quantum yield for the disappearance of DBS is much less than unity. In such situations, photochemists search for a photo-sensi-tizer. This substance readily absorbs radiation in appropriate wave length regions and becomes activated. The activated sensitizer molecule then supplies the energy required to initiate the steps in the main reaction. A typical example is the uranyl-ion sensitized photodecomposition of oxalic acid, which is widely used as a chemical acti-nometer.5 To increase the rate of decomposition of DBS, ferric perchlorate was added in ppm amounts to the feed to the reactor. The rate is increased by about two orders of magnitude, but the mechanism of even the initial stage of decomposition of DBS becomes exceedingly complex. Oxygen concentration is a significant variable, and the rate equation must be based upon a generous amount of empiricism. The initial rate may be represented by the expression
k (DBS) (0,)(Fe+H') r F.T.I1,2
MS s [1 + KDBS(DBS)]2 [1 t K^CO^]2 L tDt I *s Ftot J C"
An interesting aspect of Equation (5), one which is verified by the experimental data, is that the rate is a maximum at intermediate DBS and oxygen concentrations. Practically this means that it is not beneficial to use an oxygen concentration much greater than that corresponding to saturation with air. This behavior has been observed to varying degrees in all our work on photo-oxidation of organic substances, whether they be simple molecules like formic acid or the complex mixture in municipal wastewater (secondary effluents).
The initial rate, the value at zero conversion of DBS, is not enough to supply the kinetics information needed to design integral reactors for removal of a significant fraction of DBS. To accomplish this the rate must be known at all conversion levels. When the intermediates produced influence the rate of removal of the remaining re-actant, the rate can be a sensitive function of con-
version, which is in addition to the effect of re-actant concentration. In the case of DBS, the data suggest that intermediate compounds have a retarding effect on the rate.
Since intermediate products of DBS decomposition also may be undesirable pollutants, such as phenols, an overall measure of pollutant removal is the extent of carbon dioxide production. This can be measured accurately by stripping the dissolved gases from the product stream from the reactor and analyzing them chromatographically.
Average Residence Time, sec Figure 1. � Effect of Light Intensity on Product Composition
Figure 1 shows how the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and DBS concentrations change with average residence time in a tubular-flow photoreactor. The carbon dioxide curves are shown for several light intensities. The intensity was reduced by placing a filter solution between the radiation source and the reactor. The important quantity is the intensity of absorbed radiation. This is given by the summations of T (transmission of filter solution)
multiplied by the absorptivity, a, of the DBS
solution and the energy distribution of the source, F /Ftot- Results for the four filter solutions are
Table 1. Light Absorption vs. Filter Solution
Summation term in Eq. 5
Solution liter/g- mole-cm
Figure 1 shows several interesting results. While the carbon dioxide produced decreases with
reduced light intensity, all the data point to the same maximum of 7 molecules of carbon dioxide produced per molecule of DBS. Since the conversion of DBS to some product is nearly complete after 1400 seconds, this result means that a maximum of seven of the total of eighteen carbon atoms are converted to carbon dioxide. Ultraviolet and infra-red analysis of the product streams indicated that the remaining fragments of the DBS molecule were low molecular-weight, oxygenated compounds, including acids and aldehydes. It is significant to note that the photochemical treatment destroys the refractory aromatic ring structure.
The solid lines in Figure 1 are the results of the second step in the a priori development procedure listed earlier. Using rate equations for carbon dioxide formation, and DBS disappearance [the latter is Equation (5)], and a model4 for the tabular reactor, concentrations were predicted as a function of average residence time. The model accounted for intensity distribution and for laminar flow in the reactor. The effect of conversion of DBS in retarding the rate is only significant for the lowest light intensity, filter solution 4. At higher light intensities the rate of disappearance of DBS was complete in less than 100 seconds. This means that essentially all of the carbon dioxide was produced in a reaction environment in which all of the DBS had disappeared into intermediate products. The solid and dotted curves for filter solution 4 indicate the relatively small effect of retardation on carbon production. Only the retarded curve is given for DBS concentration for clarity. The result when rate retardation is not accounted for is a curve much above the clotted one. The agreement between data points and predicted curves is a measure of the success of the reactor model.
With this background on removal of a pure-component pollutant, we proceed to the more complex problem of treating secondary effluent.
PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF SECONDARY EFFLUENT
"C1 FFLUENTS FROM the biological treatment �"-^plants for municipal wastewater are likely to contain organic pollutants in several stages of oxidation. Pollutant composition of secondary effluent from a Sacramento County (California) treatment plant, described in terms of properties commonly used in water treatment technology, is given in Table 2. Chemical compositions are not
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
Table 2. Typical Analysis of Reactor Feed*
Chemical oxygen demand (COD), mg/liter 25 -40 Ammonia, mg/liter 20 -23
Total organic carbon (TOC), mg/liter 9 -14
Turbidity, Jackson Turbidity Units, JTU 0.8- 1.5
pH 7.5- 8.1
Nitrates (as N), mg/liter 0.06 Nitrites (as N), mg/liter 1.20 Organic nitrogen (as N), mg/liter 0.80
Filtrable O-phosphate (as P), mg/liter 10 Total phosphates, dissolved and suspended
(as P), mg/liter 19
* Secondary effluent from Northeast Water Treatment Plant of Sacramento County, California.
well known. Only part of the pollutants have been identified and then only according to general classifications rather than by individual chemical species. One of the more complete, published analyses is given in Table 3. The chemical engineer studying the kinetics of purification of secondary effluent has the problem of measuring and correlating the rate of disappearance of an unknown mixture present in ppm amounts. In our work the quantitative rate studies have been based upon the production of carbon dioxide, while the level of pollutant concentration is characterized by the total organic carbon content. The TOC can be measured rapidly, if not particularly accurately, down to 1-2 ppm by combusting the pollutants with oxygen and measuring the carbon dioxide produced by UV absorption. New instruments now available are sensitive to 0.1 ppm, but reproductibility and accuracy are several times that figure.
In a manner similar to that described for DBS solutions, a rate equation was first developed6 for the initial rate of decomposition of pol-luants. Subsequently, measurements were made when partially converted pollutants were fed to the reactor. In contrast to the results for DBS, the rate was found to be independent of the conversion of pollutants. Perhaps this is due to the partially oxidized state of the pollutants in secondary effluent. Finally, a model for the photore-actor was proposed6 and used, along with the rate equation, to calculate integral reactor performance. These predicted results were compared with experimental data obtained at large conversions of pollutants, as measured by TOC.
The rate equation which best fit the data is
2K FXTX _2pXR
flioc = i- ^ot ~�1n-9 7 ~ ~i T~ 11 u e ] (6)
65 x 10 + (02) ^ tot
Table 3. Composition of Trickling Filter Effluent
Constituent Soluble Settled
Fat, acids 0.00 0.04
esters 0.00 0.02
Proteins 0.25 0.99
Amino acids 0.06 0.06
Carbohydrates 0.24 0.57
Soluble acids 1.65 1.69
Amides not determined
Anionic, surface-active agents 1.40 1.41
Creatinine not determined
Amino sugars 0.00 0.07
Muramic acids 0.00 0.01
Total 3.6 4.9
Total carbon 14.0b 16.5
Fraction identified 0.26 0.29
Fraction unidentified 0.74 0.71
a expressed as mg/liter of carbon. b unidentified soluble organics were assumed to be largely anionic, high molecular weight substances.
In this semi-empirical equation the oxygen concentration must be expressed in g moles/cm3. The quantum yield was again low, corresponding to K � 1.4 x 10~3 g moles/Einstein. Some of the high-conversion results are shown in Table 4. Run 1C met the specifications of a tertiary treatment process in that the TOC was reduced to 4 ppm.
W/ HILE THE DATA in Table 4 show that the � technical requirements for a tertiary treatment can be achieved with a photochemical process, the optimum design from an economic standpoint has not been considered. This fourth step in process development is particularly important in photochemical systems because of the electrical energy requirement. Energy costs are likely to be a dominant factor in a tertiary photochemical process. The key factor is the efficiency, rj, of energy utilization. The data reported here were obtained in a system where the lamp and reactor were of tubular shape and placed at the foci of an elliptical reflector. For this laboratory-scale equipment it is estimated that less than 1% of the energy input to the lamp was absorbed, in the wave length regions effective for reaction, by the pollutants. Since reaction rates are proportional to absorbed radiation [Equation (6)], a ten-fold increase in efficiency would reduce costs of treatment a comparable amount. It is instructive to divide the overall efficiency into components. First, only a fraction of the energy input to the lamp appears as radiation in wave lengths
Table 4. Integral reactor (high conversion) data
TOC* Time Conversions, %
Run # Initial Final (O,) in Feed* A (TOC)* A(02)* A(C02)* V/Q, sec Exp. Predicted
3F.C. 780 584 1280 196 180 220 410 25.2 24.6
1C 850" 333b 1400 517 500 514 1560 60.9 60.8
2C 890 740 1200 150 180 167 376 16.9 18.3
4C 890 533 1380 357 300 370 1085 42.3 40.2
*A11 concentrations in g' moles/cm3 xlO0.; a 10.2 ppm; b 4.0 ppm.
suitable for photochemical reaction (usually 2000-4000 a) . This efficiency r/L is solely dependent upon the characteristics of the lamp. Second, only a part of the radiation emanating from the lamp reaches the reactor wall. This fraction t/i.re. depends upon the geometry of the lamp-reflector-reactor system and is within the control of the designer. For example, with a tubular lamp surrounded by an annular reactor, all of the radiation leaving the reactor would impinge on the reactor wall. Finally, only a fraction of the energy striking the wall is absorbed by the solution flowing through the reactor. This efficiency t)r depends upon the radiation path length (reactor geometry) and the absorptivity a , or attenuation
factor j� , of the solution. The overall efficiency is
17 = 17l (iilrr) (t?r)
For our laboratory reactors tilrr and 7jR have varied from 0.08 to 0.13 and from 0.15 to 0.25, respectively. It appears that studies on maximizing the product of these two efficiencies could lead to a significant increase in 77 and reduce the energy costs proportionally. Since rate is dependent upon the intensity of the radiation as well as its magnitude, a complicating factor is that the geometry of the lamp-reflector-reactor system affects the process costs in other ways than through the efficiency of utilization of energy.
Another possibility for improving the economics of a photochemical tertiary process is through the use of a sensitizer. Since chlorine absorbs radiation in the proper wave length range, and since this substance would probably be added to treated water for its germicidal action anyway, chlorine is a likely candidate. The effect in this case would be on the kinetics of the reactions, increasing the quantum yield K in the rate equation. However, the chemistry of the chlorine-pollutant-water mixture is complex, particularly when ir-
radiated. Hence, the form of the rate equation would probably be different than Equation (6).
TN SUMMARY, the attractiveness of a photochemical process for tertiary treatment will depend to a significant extent on how much the energy costs can be reduced by improved utilization of the energy input through design of the lamp-reflector-reactor system, and increased rate of pollutant removal by photosensitizers. Both of these factors are challenging chemical engineering questions that need additional attention.
The financial aid provided for our work by the Federal Water Quality Administration (Grant 17020 EVQ) is gratefully acknowledged.
(DBS), (02), etc concentrations, g moles/cm3
A (TOC), A (02), etc. difference in concentration between feed and exit streams from photoreactor, g moles/cm3 F ,Ftot energy output of lamp, at wave
k, k0, KD1!S, K0
length \ and total, Einsteins/sec
total light intensity at wall of
reactor without filter solutions,
rate constants defined by Equations (4) and (5) quantum yield, Einsteins/g mole volumetric flow rate in reactor, cm3/sec
reactor radius, cm
fraction of light of wave length
X transmitted through filter solutions
volume of irradiated reactor, cm3 absorptivity of pollutant, cmVg mole
absorptivity of sensitizer, cm2/g mole
(Continued on page 36)
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REAL-TIME COMPUTING IN THE UNIVERSITY
D. G. FISHER
University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta
y%H HAT IS THE ROLE of real-time computing " in engineering education and research? Can it be the basis for effective industry-university cooperation? Are the costs justified?
The area of real-time computing is still so new in the university environment that these questions tend to generate discussion rather than answers based on documented studies. With the objective of contributing at least to the discussion, and hopefully to the answers of these questions, the following sections describe our real-time computing facilities in the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and outline some of the ways they have been utilized in education and research programs.
Probably the most distinguishing feature of the Data Acquisition, Control and Simulation (DACS) Centre, operated by the department, is the broad scope of the Centre's activities. The three digital and two analog computers operated by the Centre are utilized on a time-shared, essentially open-shop basis in undergraduate, graduate and continuing education courses and laboratories; in student assignment and thesis projects; in department research projects; and for service functions such as lab automation and program development.
Planning for the DACS Centre began in 1985-66, motivated primarily by the growing need to supply engineers with familiarity with real-time computer systems and to permit research and development in the various application areas. Program development started immediately, but equipment delivery was delayed until December, 1967, so that it could be installed in the Department's new facilities in Phase I of the new Engineering Centre. The department has fourteen full-time academic staff working in a wide variety of research areas. A typical graduating class would be 40 students and there are normally about 50 graduate students in residence. Therefore the computing facilities had to be designed to serve
The following papers were presented at the 1970 meeting at Ohio State University, as part of a symposium on Computer Control of ChE Lab Equipment.
a large number of users and to handle a wide variety of continuously changing applications.
PRESENT FACILITIES OF the DACS Centre include an IBM 1800 digital computer, a DEC* 680 (PDP8I) communications system,, an EAI* 590 hybrid computing system, an AD* 32 PB analog computer and support equipment such as patchable digital logic units, recorders, etc.
Figure 1 summarizes the DACS Centre's facilities in block diagram form. They include most of the features common to real-time computer installations but with a configuration designed to meet the special needs of a university. Some of the factors leading to this configuration have been presented elsewhere.10'17
The IBM 1800 with 48K of core storage and three 500K disk units operates under a multi-programming,
* DEC�Digital Equipment Corporation
* EAI�Electronics Associates Inc.
* AD�Applied Dynamics
IBM 1800 PROCESS CONTROL COMPUTER 48K CORE 1500K DISK
DEC 680 (PDPBI) DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 4K CORE
EAI640 DIGITAL (HYBRID) COMPUTER 8K CORE MAG. TAPE CASSETTES
EAI 690 INTERFACE
AD- 32 EAI 580
USER'S APPLICATION ANALOG �<--->� ANALOG COMPUTER
Fig. 1. DACS Centre computing h ardware.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
D. G. FISHER received his BE and MSc degrees from the University of Saskatchewan; worked for four years with Union Carbide Canada Limited where he attained the position of Group Leader�Polyolefin Design; and then enrolled at the University of Michigan where he completed his PhD thesis on the Dynamic Response of Heat Exchangers. Since joining the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Alberta, in 1964, he has continued research work in process control and computer applications, taught courses in Applied Mathematics, Engineering Design, Process Control and Computer Applications, and is Director of the DACS Centre.
time-sharing monitor and forms the heart of the system. The conventional data processing peripherals are shown at the top of Figure 1 and include a card reader/punch, a line printer, a digital plotter, typewritter units and provision for linkage to the University's IBM 360/67 computer. These facilities, under the control of the "non-process" operating system, comprise a conventional digital computer such as would be found in any small data processing centre. It has the ability, for example, to compile and execute FORTRAN programs.
The principal features that distinguish a real-time computer from a data processing unnit are:
� process input/output (I/O) equipment;
� real-time clocks; and a
� priority interrupt system.
As an oversimplification, the process I/O equipment shown at the bottom of Figure 1 permits the digital computer to gather, or send, information directly to a process or experimental installation in a manner analogous to use of a card reader or line printer. For example, thermocouples can be connected directly to the computer. Under program control the particular thermocouple of interest is "addressed" (i.e., connected to the computer by closing the appropriate multiplexer switch) and the voltage is amplified, sent to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and the equivalent digital value is stored in core. Once in core the value is fumnctionally indistinguishable from data obtained from more familiar sources, such as punched cards, and can be processed further by other computer programs. Digital values, generated by a user's computer program, can also be converted into an equivalent analog voltage, by using digital-to-analog (DAC) converters, and sent directly to conventional process instruments such as control valves.
Digital input/output hardware can be used for opening or closing electrical switches and for connecting to other digital instruments. In general, through the provision of proper interface equipment, any electrical instrument or device can be read or actuated under control of statements in the user's computer program. Thus the user can use the computer to acquire any desired information from his equipment and/or to "automate" it by sending control instructions from the digital computer. However, the speed, data handling capability and computing power of the computer make it possible to go beyond mere "automation" and untake applications that are impossible by conventional means.
The second distinguishing feature, real-time clocks and timers, permits the user to have his program executed once, at a specific time of day, or repeatedly, at any specified interval. For example, our basic Direct Digital Control (DDC) program is executed every second and can also be used to acquire a series of data points from an experiment.
Hardware "interrupt" capability means that when a process event occurs, to which the user has assigned a higher priority than the program the computer is currently executing, the computer will transfer control to a program associated with the new event. When the high priority program is finished the computer returns to where it left off in the original job. Thus jobs are processed in the order of importance rather than the order received and the computer switches back and forth from one program to another in order to make efficient use (overlap operations) of different parts of the computer system. To the user it often appears that the computer is handling several jobs simultaneously.
In our experience five full time people are required to support the activities of the DACS Centre: three to maintain (and make the inevitable changes and additions to) the basic system and two to maintain the application program library and assist users.
In a real-time application the computer must go to the user and not vice-versa. In our department, potential applications are scattered over all eight floors of the building and it is necessary that users be able to operate from these "remote" locations and not have to come to the main centre. Fortunately connections to the process I/O section of the computer are easily made by use of suitable shielded cable. Communications with the research personnel are handled through a DEC 680 communications system which permits up to 64 standard teletype units to be used at any one time (only six are in service at the moment).
The user has access to these terminals through standard FORTRAN statements and the system programs permit the user to enter information, at any time, through the keyboard of these termi-
nals and have it routed to the appropriate system program (e.g. DDC) or to a file for later use. The ability to "queue" (initiate execution of) a program from any terminal and to change parameters in system programs, such as DDC, gives the user the necessary flexibility and control.
HYBRID COMPUTING SYSTEM
Both the EAI580 and the AD32PB analog computers are connected to the IBM1800 and are used to simulate processes for student labs and studies of direct digital control. This mode of operation is extremely convenient for developing and debugging control programs since all that is required to switch from control of the analog simulation, to control of the real process, is a change of input/output addresses and time scale.
The EAI590 hybrid computing system consists of the 580 analog computer, an EAI640 digital computer plus an interface and complete set of EAI system and hybrid computing support programs. The digital computer has 8K of core memory, high speed paper tape reader and punch, a cassette magnetic tape system, a KSR.35 teletype and a data set for communication with the DEC680 and IBM1800. Although it will not operate in a time-sharing mode the EAI640 provides an independent system for single use applications in addition to its primary purpose of hybrid computation.
DACS CENTRE BUDGET
The IBM 1800 system is rented for approximately $8,000 per month but the DEC 680 communication system and the EAI 590 hybrid computing system were purchased. The equivalent capital costs are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 APPROXIMATE CAPITAL COSTS
IBM 1800 $325,000 DEC 680 30,000 EAI 590 135,000*
*Includes a grant of $37,000 from the National Research Council.
The annual operating costs of the Centre, including salaries of DACS Centre staff, is about $45,000. Thus the total cost of operating these facilities is quite high. It is justified about 50% by research and graduate student projects, 40% by undergraduate education and 10% by service functions.
If any computer system is to be used effectively by relatively large numbers of people
who are not computer specialists then the hardware must be readily accessible and the system software must be extensive enough that the user can concentrate on his application and not be distracted by the "mechanics" of using the computer. In our DACS Centre it was therefore decided that rather than allocating the system among users by "time-slicing" or by giving each user a "virtual computer," and leaving all the application programming to him, the DACS Centre would develop monitor programs to perform the most common data acquisition, control and service functions. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by experience.
Other than the instruction in computers and computing techniques which comes from "hands-on use," the most extensive educational application of the DACS Centre has been in the seven graduate courses in process dynamics and control offered by the department. The use of computing facilities differs from one course to another but can be divided into:
� Assistance with system design and analysis,
� Implementation of control techniques, and
� Demonstration of system structure and interaction.
COMPUTER CONTROL. The pilot-plant scale evaporator shown on the left is operated under control of the IBM 1800 digital computer visible on the right. The process operators console in the foreground is used to display results and/or to enter changes in process operating conditions.
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
In keeping with the policy of providing generalized programs which assist the user in handling common problems the department has developed two digital simulation programs, CSAP11 and CSDAP,15 which in addition to calculating the time domain response can also convert the clas-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
In the future the emphasis will change from automation of existing procedures and processes to the integration of computers into all phases of research-development-production-management systems.
sical block diagram and (Laplace) transfer function definition of a control system into an equivalent state-space (matrix) representation and provide design aids such as Bode, Nyquist, root locus plots, estimates of suitable controller constants, performance criteria such as sum of the absolute errors, etc. Both programs are "conversational" in operation and can display output on typewriters, display scopes, TV monitors and/ or the digital plotter. Thus the user can define his own problem, apply different design and/or analysis techniques and then evaluate his result by analog, digital, hybrid or physical implementation. The opportunity to formulate one's own problem, the immediate feedback of results and the direct comparison of alternative methods are all powerful educational advantages.
We have also noted in a course dealing with optimization methods that a good program library and rapid turn around of computer jobs makes it possible for a class to get first hand experience on the relative advantages and pitfalls of different techniques.
As a generalization one could conclude that proper use of computers can reduce the extent to which students are distracted by the detail, or mechanics, of the method and provide him with the results quickly enough that he can relate them to his original selection or design decision. For example, calculation of "optimal" controller constants or operating conditions can be done while an experiment is in progress and applied immediately. (Improper use of computers can add to the "distracting detail" and/or turn design into a series of black box manipulations.)
Computer control is demonstrated on specially constructed "trainers" or on pilot plant processes. These units can be operated with conventional industrial instruments and/or under computer supervisory, or direct digital control. The principal educational advantage of the computer is that the control configurations, the control modes and the control constants are all implemented by computer programs and are easily changed by the student. Thus instead of "cookbook" procedures to make the lab equipment do what it was designed to do the student has relatively unlimited opportunity to innovate and apply knowledge learned
in the courses. (In some cases it has been observed that students are bewildered by the large choice of alternatives and would rather have a "cookbook" assignment!) The data acquisition and control monitor programs are powerful enough that students do not have to do any programming to implement data acquisition, limit checking, input data processing such as square root calculations or digital filtering, standard proportional-integral-derivative or nonlinear control algorithms, cascade control, etc. Service programs are also available to plot or list the experimental data.
In many cases, analog or hybrid simulation is extremely effective. The student can program the analog computer to solve the mathematical model he has developed based on a theoretical analysis or experimental testing. The same digital computer control programs and techniques as used on the physical experiment can then be used to control the simulated process and the results compared. This permits a very direct evaluation of the suitability of the model, the need for experimental tuning of parameters and the significance of physical assumptions. It also illustrates directly the relationship between terms in the model and components of the physical system. The convenience of hybrid computing can also be used to screen a number of alternatives so that only the most promising need be implemented on the physical system and the student can get more benefit out of his limited lab time.
Another advantage claimed for computer assisted instruction is that it allows the user to "see the forest in spite of the trees." That is, when each step in the design and analysis procedure is computerized the student, even though he might have some doubts about "how" some steps are implemented, he can learn "what" each step does and see its relation to the overall procedure. Thus he can experiment with, and evaluate, "system design techniques"�something which is generally too time consuming to do by hand. With proper design of the course material the various examples and assignments done throughout the term can be combined at the end of the term into an effective demonstration of the total design process and a review of the individual steps.
Many of the points brought out in the section on research applications also apply to student labs. Other practical points with respect to students labs are that the amount of "busy work" (i.e. data processing) can be reduced; it is more difficult for the student to "fake" data; and since the computer will not usually accept "vague" instructions his understanding of the application is well documented by the computer log. (We have noticed, however, that many students are very reluctant to try new options for fear of making errors and careful guidance must be given so they can learn without being embarrassed by their mistakes.)
Finally, it is worthwhile to consider use of real-time computer systems in the areas of continuing education for engineers, demonstration of advanced techniques of interest to industry and as a basis for cooperative industry-university programs. Our Department has co-sponsored, e.g., with the Federal Department of Industry, seminars on computer applications, presented workshops and tours in conjunction with national meetings of technical societies and offered extension courses in the evening for the benefit of local engineers. These activities can be regarded as "public relations' or "professional service" but in many universities they are beginning to be regarded as an important basic function.
It is impossible to deal with individual research projects in detail because most of them would require separate reports to adequately describe the work. However, it is possible to generalize about the types of research applications and some of the principal benefits of using real-time computers. Real-time computer applications within our Department can be categorized as:
1. Research projects in which the computer is an essential part;
2. Research projects which use the computer as an effective tool to assist with applications that could be, or were, run without a computer;
3. Research and development of computer hardware and software systems; and
4. Hybrid computation and digital simulation.
Most of the process dynamics and control studies fall into the first category. The computer has been used to succesfully implement multiloop4, feedforward4'5'0, inferential4'5, multivari-
HYBRID SIMULATION. Fisher and Bob Newell discuss simulation of the evaporator on the EAI580 analog computer. Bob has derived a state variable model of the evaporator and is evaluating optimal, multi-variable control by using his digital computer programs to control the simulated model. The same programs are also used to control the pilot-plant unit.
able-optimal-regulatory7, optimal state-driving8, non-interacting, and adaptive control techniques on the pilot plant equipment. Other studies include computer implemented process identification of pilot plant units with on-line display of results9'10; computer control of a nine inch, eight tray distillation column11; real-time checking and adjustment of process data so it is consistent with material and energy balance constraints12, and the design/analysis of control systems13'14'15. A more complete list of research projects making use of the DACS Centre is found in appendices C and F of reference (1). Most of these applications and parallel studies of parameter and process identification are simply not practical without a realtime computer. It is hoped that the results of these studies will help to bridge the gap between theoretical developments and the practical applications of interest to industry.
Other research projects in chemical and petroleum engineering make use of the computer for data acquisition, process monitoring, logging, data reduction and experimental documentation. Kinetic studies2 make use of a computer controlled PE 621 infrared spectrophotometer and use the computer for acquisition of data from gas chromatograph analysers and other process instruments.19 The computer is also used to monitor operation of an evaporator pilot plant so that it can be run 24 hr/day without any operator supervision.
Projects in category (3) are concerned primarily with application programs rather than
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
developing alternatives to the computer manufacturer's operating systems. Typical examples include the CSAP and CSDAP simulation programs mentioned earlier, and a generalized monitor system to supervise the execution of series of discrete events such as are found in plant startups and shutdowns, batch operations and system checkout. In general, these projects require a considerable degree of familiarity with the computer system as well as the application area and usually take longer than more "typical" thesis projects.
Hybrid computing is an area that has been widely reported in the literature. The interests of our Department are not to work extensively on the development of purely hybrid techniques or to get involved in that class of problems that are only practical if solved by hybrid techniques. Rather, the interests are directed toward student education and assisting research in other areas.
Specific advantages of the use of real-time computers include:
1. Increased quantity of research data due to faster operation or extended periods of operation. Some of our M.Sc. thesis projects now involve several times the amount of experimental data collected in earlier Ph.D. studies.
2. Increased quality, precision and reproductibility of data due to precisely implemented procedures, replicated runs, automatic recalibration, continuous monitoring of data during each experiment and elimination of random human errors and bias between different operators.
3. Broader experimental studies because the incremental effort required to extend the data acquisition and/ or processing is often minimal.
4. Cooperation between different people because the computer acts as a standard "interface" so the experimentalist can implement the work of the theoretician and the data processing specialist can work with "real" data. Projects tend to become more interdisciplinary.
5. More continuity and carryover from one research student to the next because of computerized procedures.
6. Precise documentation (the program itself!) and standardized, tested, and approved methods for data reduction, presentation and interchange between groups.
7. Reduction of "busy work" and more challenge to the researcher to critically examine and improve both his techniques and his results. (Prom a student point of view the use of a computer makes many traditional areas of research more attractive as thesis projects.)
8. Permits design or evolution of projects int oareas that are not possible without a computer due to the speed of operation, the degree of control required or the amount of data that must be processed.
9. Computer facilities represent a much more "flexible" investment for the research dollar than special purpose instruments such as multi-channel recorders, etc. They can be pooled for large applications or reallocated to meet changing needs of smaller projects.
One tends to gloss over a long list of points such as those listed above but I am convinced that in many engineering research and development projects�particularly "mission-oriented" ones involving experimental work�it will become a question of computerize or get out. One clear cut example of this in the science field is an X-ray crystallography (18).
Real-time computing can make an important contribution to university education and research. Also as industry solves the practical problems and personnel training requirements associated with the installation of its first real time computers there is an increasing interest in areas such as "modern control theory," "information processing" and "systems engineering." In the future the emphasis will change, even more, from "automation" of existing procedures and processes, to developments which integrate computers into all phases of the research-development-production-management system. Thus there is an expanding opportunity for universities to "bridge the gap" and contribute more directly to the needs of industry and society.
1. DACS Centre Booklet, Department of Chemical and
Petroleum Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (1970).
2. Chuang, T., Misko, G., Dalla Lana, I.G., and Fisher,
D. G. "On-Line Operation of a PE 621 Infrared Spectrophotometer�IBM/1800 Computer System," Computers in Analytical Chemistry, Plenum Press (1969).
3. Coxhead, P. "Control of Gas Chromatographs" M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Alberta (1969).
4. Jacobson, B.A. "Multi-loop Control of an Evapora-
tor" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta (1970).
5. Fehr, M. "Computer Control of an Evaporator"
M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta (1969).
6. Wilson, A. H. "A Feedforward Control System for
a Double Effect Evaporator" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta (1967).
7. Newell, R. B., and Fisher, D. G. "Optimal Multi-
variable Computer Control of an Evaporator" accepted for the Meeting of the International Federation of Automatic Control, Helsinki, Finland, June (1971).
8. Nieman, R. E., and Fisher, D. G ."Computer Control
Using Optimal State Driving Techniques," Proceedings Canadian National Conference on Automatic Control, August (1970).
9. Lees, R. S. "Effect of Pulse Shape and Magnitude on
the Determination of Process Transfer Functions" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta (1969. 10. Wood, R. K., and Wildman, T. A. "On-Line Pulse Testing with a Digital Computer" Proceedings
Canadian National Conference on Automatic Control, August (1970).
11. Wood, R. K., and Pacey W. C, "Experimental Evalu- 16
ation of Feedback, Feedforward and Combined Feedforward Feedback Distillation Colum Control," Paper 41. Presented at 20th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference, Sarnia, Ontario, October 17 (1970).
12. Nieman, R. E. and Fisher, D. G. "On-Line Computer
Analysis of Process Data." Department Research 18 Report 700401, University of Alberta (1970).
13. Lofkrantz, E. "Computer Applications to Control
Programs" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta 19 (1967).
14. Agostinis, W. "Control System Analysis Programs,"
M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta (1969).
15. Farwell, R. A. "Control System Design and Analysis
EDUCATION IN REAL-TIME COMPUTING
JAMES H. CHRISTENSEN PAUL M. VARGO
University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma 73069
Program" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta (1970).
. Fisher, D. G. "The Real-Time Computing Facilities at the University of Alberta," Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education," Columbus, Ohio, June (1970).
. Fisher, D. G. "Real-Time Computing in Engineering Education" Preprint from Meeting of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Chicago (1970).
. Cole, H., and Okaya, Y. "Automated Experiment Systems�A Practical Guide" Laboratory Management Journal, November (1965).
. McGregor, D. E., Liu, C. F., and DallaLana, I. G. "On-Line Measurements of Catalytic Reaction Rates," Paper 29 at the 20th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference, Sarnia, Ontaria (1970).
T N THE FALL OF 1968 it was decided to establish a facility for graduate and undergraduate education in real-time computing at the College of Engineering of The University of Oklahoma. This facility was to provide i) on-line data acquisition and processing capabilities for the undergraduate engineering laboratories; ii) "hands-on" experience in operation of real-time computers; hi) experience in hardware and software design for graduate and advanced undergraduate students; and iv) a facility for the rapid synthesis and check-out of complex digital logic circuits.
rpHE ENTIRE SYSTEM had to be purchased with $35,000 available as a one-shot investment from College of Engineering funds, plus whatever funding could be obtained from outside agencies. After the initial purchase, only limited funds�around $500 per year�would be available for system operation and maintenance. Thus, the computer system would have to be reliable and easily maintainable with local faculty and student effort. Also, since only a limited number of peripheral interfaces could be purchased, the
system had to be easy to interface; then the bare-bones peripheral equipment could be purchased and interfaces built as student projects. Finally, the system had to have adequate core memory to support a minimal two-user time-shared monitor for on-line use in undergraduate laboratories.
/CONSIDERING THE ECONOMIC and performance constraints, we decided to purchase a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-9/L computer with a basis cycle time of 1.5,usec, 8K of 18-bit word memory, and ASR-33 teletype input/ output. In addition we bought as factory-installed options a 12-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, capable of multiplexing up to 64 channels of analog data with 4 channels implemented, since we considered our experience to that point inadequate to construct these interfaces locally.
Through an NSF Instructional Scientific Equipment Grant1 we obtained $17,500 to obtain additional peripheral equipment, including:
i) A DEC Multiple Teletype Interface with KSR-33 teletype;
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
A real time computing facility based on a PDP-9/L computer was established at Oklahoma for online laboratory data acquisition and processing and for experience in real-time hardware and software design.
ii) A Remex 300 char/sec paper tape reader;
iii) A Tektronix 611 storage display unit;
iv) A GDI 200 card/sec reader;
v) A NCR 30 char/sec thermal printer;
vi) A removable-media disk storage unit;
vii) A tape cassette drive;
plus sufficient hardware to interface these devices to the PDP-9/L, as well as to construct a logic patchboard system for the rapid synthesis and testing of digital circuits.
In addition, Fisher Governor Co. of Marshall-town, Iowa supplied equipment to convert a level-control experiment in the Chemical Engineering Laboratories to electronic control, in order to facilitate experiments in computer control.
EXPERIENCE WITH THE SYSTEM
HPHE SYSTEM WAS installed in September 1969; it was fully operational in two days despite a blow received in shipping which left a memory stack lying on the floor of the shipping crate with two broken wires. In the first two months of operation, timing difficulties developed which necessitated the replacement of the ASR-33 teletype; since then, however, no problems have arisen which could not be solved with local maintenance effort.
We soon found that software development was severely hindered by the necessity of loading lengthy system programs through the 10 character/sec. Teletype paper tape reader; to load the assembler, for instance, took about 20 minutes. To remedy this, author Vargo designed an ad hoc interface for the Remex 300 cps reader. This interface was somewhat unreliable, and the difficulty was traced to the circuits used to convert from the PDP-9/L's discrete-component logic levels (0 and �3 volts) to the TTL integrated-circuit levels (0 and +3 volts) used in the interface. This was remedied by using more reliable level-conversion circuits (designed by a student.2)
USE IN COURSE WORK
rr�HE SYSTEM HAS BEEN USED in undergrad-uate course work primarily for i) rapid data acquisition and processing, using FOCAL (DEC's Formula Calculator) language, to improve experimental turnaround time; and ii) to provide
"hands-on" experience in hardware and software design.
In the first category, fast statistical analysis of data has been performed for experiments in resistor statistics; first- and second-order thermocouple dynamics; and transient response of a proportional level-control system. On-line data acquisition and analysis has been performed to determine the natural frequency and damping coefficient of a spring-mass-dashpot system. Both the thermocouple and level-control experiments will be adapted to on-line data acquisition as interfacing equipment becomes available.
We had originally planned to run a cable between the computer on the second floor of the Engineering Center, and the Chemical Engineering Laboratories in the sub-basement, to provide both Teletype and analog communication for a number of experiments. However, it soon became apparent that demand for on-line computing would develop at several scattered locations about the campus. We decided to solve the access problem through the design and construction, as a student project, of a Remote Analog Terminal (RAT) which would allow A/D and D/A conversion data to be sent through acoustic couplers over telephone lines simultaneously with Teletype data. The only interface necessary on the computer end will then be the already-existing multiple teletype interface. In the meantime, analog and Teletype cabling is provided to an adjacent second-floor laboratory.
The FOCAL interpreter was found to be too slow to give accurate results on the spring-mass-dashpot system, even with a natural frequency of about 1 sec. This can be traced directly to its use of double-precision floating-poing arithmetic with software multiply and divide, and to its use of symbol-table scanning every time a variable reference is encountered. We plan to avoid these difficulties by implementing single-word floatingpoint arithmetic, which will be within the accuracy of experimental data, in the BASIC interpreter which will be part of our on-line timesharing software.
rpHREE M.S.-LEVEL DESIGN projects have �*� been completed, two involving interface hardware design for the storage display unit3 and card
reader,2 and one involving software design of the time-sharing monitor4. Current work in progress involves hardware design and construction of the RAT, and software design of the BASIC time-shared interpreter. In the Fall work will begin on interfaces for the NCR thermal printer and removable-media disk, and on operating-system software for the disk.
Undergraduate class projects have included software for paper-tape editing, card-to-tape conversion, and relocatable assembly; and hardware for drive and interface circuits for a salvaged Teletype 60 cps paper tape punch, as well as preliminary work on the RAT. In our experience, satisfactory completion of such projects requires more time than students can devote to a single class project. Additional time may be provided for interested students to complete their projects through independent - study or senior - thesis courses.
W/"E BELIEVE THAT this facility is making " a substantial contribution to the education of engineers at the University of Oklahoma: First, through providing a flexible and innovative approach to undergraduate experimentation; and second, by providing graduate and advanced undergraduate students experience in designing hardware and software for on-line computing within both economic and time constraints.
1. NSF Instructional Scientific Equipment Grant GY 6467.
2. J. Egbert, M.S. Thesis, University of Oklahoma, Norman, 1970.
3. J. I. Norris, M.S. Thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1970.
4. A. V. Kalyansundar, M.S. Thesis, University of Oklahoma, Norman, 1970.
A REAL TIME COMPUTER CONTROL FACILITY
A. W. WESTERBERG R. C. ESCHENBACHER
University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32601
TN 1968 THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ���Department at the University of Florida considered various alternatives by which it could introduce computer control into its undergraduate laboratories. The option available ranged over rather large systems at $150,000 or more to a relatively inexpensive remote terminal system in the under $20,000 range.
The choice ultimately made was for the remote terminal (See Figure 1), an IBM 1070 terminal, principally for its low cost. We also determined that, by designing our own interface equipment, we could have equipment which would generally satisfy our laboratory requirements. One of these requirements was that the total equipment cost no more than $30,000 as that amount was available. If the equipment were more expensive, outside financing would be needed with all its inherent delays.
We also desired to have an easily programmable system which would not first require significant software development on our part. The terminal would tie directly to a large scale
scientific computer, an IBM 360/65, and could be operated by FORTRAN calls. With not too extensive a software system design, it was apparent that we could have a very easily programmed system. The power of the scientific computer would also permit complex control and/or analysis algorithms to be tried. We would obviously need the cooperation of the computing center for the quick computer response necessary for control. The programs we would write would use little actual time, but, when the process required attention,
Fig. 1. � Chemical Engineering Remote Computer Control System.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
instantaneous response without interruptions would be needed. We were promised the highest priority in the computer while operating but with the penalty that we could only operate at limited hours (about 3 prime time hours plus the late-late shift) each day.
We also found with the terminal that we could only have low speed input and output, about four random inputs or outputs per second or up to 20 sequentially scanned inputs or outputs per second. These rates are more than adequate for most undergraduate experiments. Such things as direct digital control of flow loops were of course ruled out. The equipment could be purchased with a 13 bit analog to digital converter permitting approximately 1 part in 8000 resolution. We determined that we could measure thermocouple signals with a resolution of about 7 microvolts.
The final general requirement was that the system could run one large experiment or several smaller ones at the same time. Again, by choosing to build our own interface, we could construct a panel that could be easily patched to any process. The computer equipment had to be adequate to handle only one of our largest experiments, currently a distillation column or a double effect evaporator. If it were totally portable, it could also reach any experiment without the usual worries about microvolt signals from thermocouples traveling long distances. THE HARDWARE
Figure 2 is a diagram of the remote terminal plus interface equipment. It is all contained in three 19 inch racks 72 inches tall, which are bolted together and mounted on wheels. The non-process connections to the terminal are via a single 110 volt AC plug for power and a single pair of voice grade telephone lines to the com-
puter. Table 1 lists the input/output facilities provided. Inexpensive 2 and 3 prong plugs and outlets permit one to patch a process simply into the terminal using any selection of the available terminal facilities. For thermocouple inputs special commercially available copper-constantan jacks are provided.
TABLE 1 � INPUT/OUTPUT FACILITIES OF TERMINAL
1. 13 BIT A/D (1 PART IN 8000)
2. 66 CHARACTER/SEC COMMUNICATION LINK
RANDOM INPUT/OUTPUT, 4 PER SECOND
SEQUENTIAL INPUT/OUTPUT 20 ANALOG PER SECOND MAX 60 DIGITAL PER SECOND MAX
3. DIGITAL PULSE CONVERTER, 96 PULSES/
4. 7 PROCESS ALERTS
15 DIGITAL INPUT PAIRS 12 DIGITAL OUTPUT PAIRS
10 PULSE OUTPUT CHANNELS
16 THERMOCOUPLE INPUTS, �10 TO +50 MV 18 ANALOG INPUTS, �1 TO +5 V
8 PRESSURE TO VOLTAGE TRANSDUCERS 4 PRESSURE RECORDERS 1 DECIMAL INPUT, 6 DIGITS 1 DECIMAL DISPLAY, 4 DIGITS
The process alerts provide a form of hardware interrupt capability of the computer by the process. A conditional read of the terminal from the computer is available. When used, no terminal response occurs until a process alert contact is closed. During the wait, the computer is free to service other users of the computer.
On the interface the digital inputs and outputs are paired, although they can be used individually. The intended and admittedly redundant use of each pair is to give a positive signal for the two desired states (open or closed) of a digital input or output.
Tied to each output pair are a red and a green light to indicate the state of the pair. Each output is provided in two forms, either as a simple switch closure or as a 110 volt signal, when closed.
The interface is designed to ease control program development. Every input to the computer can be individually simulated by equipment build into the interface. Also a toggle switch permits one to drive manually each output pair, overriding the computer. Thus control programs can be run with the process, any part of the process, or in fact none of the process tied to the terminal. The process alerts can be manually set with momentary push buttons. A process/manual switch
on each digital input pair permits one to have the pair tied to the process or to a toggle switch on the interface. Associated with each analog input is a toggle switch and a DC voltage signal passing through an inexpensive potentiometer. The signal is supplied by a power supply. The toggle switch permits the analog signal source to come from the process or from the adjustable internal source.
Other equipment in the interface includes a hardware poller, eight pressure to voltage transducers, and four pressure signal recorders. We designed and built the poller using a small reversible motor, two micro switches, and three relays. This device periodically closes the first process alert; the period is adjustable from 2 to 60 seconds. The pressure to voltage transducers permit 3 to 15 psi air signals to be fed into the terminal. Associated with the air inlet is an electrical outlet with the equivalent voltage, and this voltage is then easily patched into any of the high level analog inputs.
The final auxiliary equipment is an operator's panel comprising an IBM 1075 four decimal digit display and a six decimal digit manual input device we built using simple 10 position rotary switches. Typical use of the panel involves setting up a six digit number in the rotary switches and pushing the button associated with process alert seven. Responses to the input can be displayed on the digital display. The display is also used to indicate errors as they occur.
Figure 3 is a diagram of the interrelationships of the major routines developed for process monitoring and control using our terminal. All programs are written in FORTRAN except the IBM provided 1070 input/output routines. The heart of the programs are the executive routines which are given in more detail in Figure 4. The only routines a user needs to supply are the User Routines on Figure 3, part of the Execute program on Figure 4, and a special user data input routine if desired.
The executive routines in Figure 4 are five subroutines which use the indicated three common data tables. The Process Alert Handler issues a conditional read and the control programs stop execution until a process alert on the 1070 is closed. The process alert(s) which is closed is identified and the corresponding response program is put onto the Execution Stack by priority using the program Stacker. Control is then passed to Execute, part of which is user supplied. Any
1070 INPUT/OUTPUT ROUTINES
Fig. 3. � Software System for GIPSI.
programs on the Execute Stack are removed in order and called. If Process Alert 1 started the sequence, its response program, CLOCK, is on the Execute Stack and is thus called. Its job is to remove programs from the Delay Stack if their time is up and put them on the Execute Stack again using the program Stacker. Times are always compared to the computer clock. Control returns to Execute which continues to remove and cause all programs on the Execute Stack to be executed. When the Execute Stack is empty, control returns to Process Alert Handler which starts the cycle over again.
Data on program priorities, standard time delays for execution, and so forth are kept in the Program Descriptive Data. Program Delay Stacker is used rather than the program Stacker by any routine desiring a time delay before execution.
With each request for execution stored on either the Execute Stack or Delay Stack, a single passed parameter is also stored. This parameter provides the essential communication link between the requesting and the requested programs.
We will illustrate the ease of using the terminal with an example.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
Arthur W. Westerberg is currently an assistant professor in ChE at the University of Florida. He obtained his education at the University of Minnesota, Princeton University, and Imperial College, London, finishing in 1964. He then worked two years for Control Data Corporation, in their process control division in La Jolla, California, before coming to Florida in 1967.
His teaching interests include Fortran and numerical analysis, undergraduate and graduate process design, and classical and optimal control. His research is in the area of computer aided design and computer control of processes. (Left photo).
R. C. Eschenbacher is a graduate of the University of Florida (BSChE, MSE, and PhD'70). He is now employed as an engineer with the Humble Oil and Refining Company in Baytown, Texas. His interests are in the area of process modeling, computer control, and optimization.
For this example we would like to use analog input 1 as a 0 to 5 Volt voltmeter. The signal on this input is to be read and displayed every 10 seconds if digital input pair 1 is on. If digital input pair 1 is off, no updating is desired. Also, program execution is to terminate if the button for process alert 2 is pressed.
The steps to implement this example are first to set the poller to a 10 second interval. Then the FORTRAN subroutines given in Figure 5 are written. Subroutine VLTMTR is essentially self explanatory. Subroutines DELAY, READ1, CALIB, and DISPLY are standard routines in the Executive and Standard System packages.
Subroutine GOTO is the user supplied portion of the Execute program indicated on Figure 4. It provides the system calls to each active subroutine. Routines 1 to 7 are always in response to process alerts 1 to 7 respectively. Only process alerts 1 and 2 will be active here. Other preas-signed program ordinals are for demand functions requested via the operator's console, and for changes of state for digital input pairs. Programs
PROGRAM DESCRIPTIVE DATA
Fig. 4. � Executive Routines for GIPSI.
SUBROUTINE VLTMTR (IPROG, NU1, NU2) DIMENSION INPUT (40), INARY (40)
C RESCHEDULE EXECUTION IN 10 SECONDS
CALL DELAY (IPROG, 0) C READ DIGITAL INPUT 1
CALL READ1(10, 1,1, 7, INPUT, INARY) C IF DIGITAL INPUT NOT ON, RETURN
IF (INARY(l).EQ.O) RETURN C READ ANALOG INPUT 1
CALL READ1(0, 1, 1, 7, INPUT, INARY) C CALIBRATE SIGNAL TO HIGH LEVEL REFERENCE VOLTAGES
CALL CALIB (INARY(l), 1,1) C DISPLAY VALUE
CALL DISPLY (INARY(l))
SUBROUTINE GOTO (I, J, K)
IF (I.EQ.l) CALL CLOCK (I,J,K)
IF (I.EQ.2) CALL QUIT (I,J,K)
IF (I.EQ.127) CALL SETCLB (I.J.K)
IF (I.EQ.128) CALL VLTMTR (I,J,K)
SUBROUTINE QUIT (I,J,K) CALL DISPLY (9999) STOP END
Fig. 5. � Programs for Sample Problem.
127 and higher are other user or standard system subroutines. In our example program 127 is SETCLB, a system subroutine which periodically reads in standard voltages and then calculates new calibration constants for the A/D input system. Program 128 is our user written subroutine, VLTMTR. All other ordinals are ignored �for example, if the button for process alert 3 is pressed, the system will ultimately pass ordinal 3 to GOTO which will ignore it.
Subroutine QUIT is again self explanatory.
At Florida a time sharing and remote job entry terminal system (Figure 1) is implemented on the University Computer. Our department has two IBM 2741 selectric typewriter terminals associated with this system. Our normal method of entering the subroutines just discussed would be to type them directly into the computer using a 2741 terminal. A phone call to the center is needed to reserve top priority space for our programs and then via the typewriter terminal, we have the computer compile our user programs and add them to our standard 1070 software. They are then linked and loaded into core and execution commences.
At the 1070 terminal and interface equipment, we then start the hardware poller whenever we are ready to begin and our terminal is now a voltmeter. The poller can be turned off anytime we wish to put the software program into hold.
Several standard programs exist whose execution can be requested via the six decimal digit input device. All input is decoded in a standard form. The first two digits indicate the program ordinal and the last four are data to be passed to the program when it is called. The response routines are called demand functions, and Table 2 lists some of those provided.
TABLE 2�TYPICAL DEMAND FUNCTIONS
1. STOP PROGRAM
2. ERROR RESPONSE
A. STOP B. CONTINUE C. RESTART
3. CHANGE VALUE OF CORE WORD
4. DISPLAY VALUE OF CORE WORD
A. ONCE B. PERODICALLY UPDATE
5. PUT ROUTINE ON DELAY STACK
6. TAKE ROUTINE OFF DELAY STACK
Table 3 gives a brief summary of the system costs and typical core requirements. These costs are quite small. The operating costs will increase when we are charged for core space used, a charge not now implemented. The core required would be equivalent to a 50,000 word minicomputer with 16 bit words, certainly a large minicomputer. It is however only 10% of the University Computer's core. We can reduce the requirements substantially by removing portions of the software not needed for a particular control program.
TABLE 3�SUMMARY OF COST DATA
EQUIPMENT FROM IBM DATA SET
CONTROL UNIT $17,000 13 BIT A/D CONVERTER DIGITAL PULSE CONVERTER 100 MULTIPLEXER POINTS DIGITAL DISPLAY NONSTANDARD EQUIPMENT CABINETS
RELAYS, SWITCHES, LIGHTS $ 4,000
POWER SUPPLIES TRANSDUCERS OPERATING STATISTICS
CONTROLLING A DISTILLATION $3-5/HR COLUMN BY ADJUSTING 3 SETPOINT CONTROLLERS CORE SPACE 100,000 8-BIT BYTES
A detailed description of the system is available from the department in the form of a pair of manuals on the system [1,2].
1. Eschenbacher, R. C, Software Manual for GIPSI, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida (1969).
2. Eschenbacher, R. C, Hardware Manual for GIPSI, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida (1969).
(Continued from page 22)
v frequency of radiation, sec-1
A wave length
w attenuation coefficient of pollu-
tants in water, cm-1 fl rate of reaction, g moles/cm3-sec
t) overall efficiency of utilization of
energy input to lamp
1. Joyce, R. S. and Sukenik, V. A., "Feasibility of Gran-nular, Activated Carbon Adsorption for Wastewater Renovation," A.W.T.R.-10, Public Health Service Pub. No. 999-WP-12 (1964).
2. Masse, Arthur N., "Removal of Organics by Activated Carbon," presented at 156th National Meeting, Amer. Chem. Soc, Atlantic City, N. J., Sept. 1967.
3. Painter, H. H., Viney, M. and Bywaters, A. J., Inst, of Sewage Purification, Part 4, p. 302 (1961).
4. Matsuura, T. and Smith, J. M., A.I.ChE J. 9, 252 (1960).
5. Calvert, J. G. and Pitts, J. N., Jr., "Photochemistry," John Wiley and Sons, New York (1966).
6. Schorr, V., Boval, B., Hancil, V. and Smith, J. M., "Photo-oxidation Kinetics of Organic Pollutants in Municipal Wastewater," submitted to Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
POLYMER SCIENCE And ENGINEERING AT TENNESSEE
JAMES LINDSAY WHITE
The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tenn.
James Lindsay White is Professor of Chemical Engineering at The University of Tennessee. Prof. White received a BChE degree from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and obtained MS and PhD degrees at the University of Delaware, where he did his research under Prof. A. B. Metzner. Prof. White joined The University in 1967, after spending four years with the U. S. Rubber Company (now Uniroyal, Inc.). He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Society of Rheology, the Society of Plastics Engineers, the Society of Polymer Science (Japan), the British Society of Rheology and the AIChE; and is currently a member of the Executive Committee and Assistant Editor of the Transactions of the Society of Rheology. He is also a Director of the Knoxville-Oak Ridge Section of the AIChE. Prof. White, who has published more than 30 papers, recently co-authored the NATO Agardograph "Engineering Analysis of Non-Newtonian Fluids" with Prof. D. C. Bogue.
INTRODUCTION: THE CLASSICAL CHEMICAL ENGINEER AND THE POLYMER INDUSTRY
T T HAS LONG BEEN REALIZED that the standard chemical engineering curricula taught in accredited schools throughout the country frequently ill suits the graduating student (B.S., M.S. or Ph.D.) for industrial employment. The polymer industry, by which we mean the plastics, rubber and fiber synthesis and fabrication industry, is not only one of the most important and innovative of the world's chemical industries, but in America at least, it is a major example of the above situation. The student finding himself entrapped in an unfamiliar environment where only a very few of his courses are of use perhaps remembering only vaguely organic and physical chemistry, heat transfer, and (more recently) computer technology, soon degenerates into using little more than intuition and common sense in solving problems. Industrial managers in parts of the polymer industry often find their so-called professional employes performing at a level inferior to technicians with only high school backgrounds who have been promoted from the ranks of the factory.
The chemical engineering profession's reaction to this problem in the polymer industry has
Figure 1. � UT Polymer Rheologists studying the extrusion of polyethylene. Graduate student Gerald Hagler (foreground) and two consultants (L-R: D. C Bogue and J. L. White).
been defensive and consists largely of an attempt to define chemical engineering as involving only those areas in which an engineer is basically familiar from his college studies. This usually means the detailed design of already existent polymerization and related separation processes. The choice and design of what polymer or composite is to be manufactured, what its molecular structure and morphological macrostructure should be, how it is to be synthesized, and how it is to be fabricated after it is produced are decisions to be considered by individuals with other academic backgrounds, presumably chemists. This solution as to the position of the chemical engineer in the polymer industry is unfortunate but too often true.
TTkESPITE THE FACT that the American chemical engineering profession and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers was founded by a group of men including one of the
boldest early polymer innovators and entrepreneurs, Arthur D. Little, father of the industrial development of cellulose acetate and American usage of viscose, (Leo Baekeland who developed phenol-aldehyde resins was also an early member of the AIChE) ; the profession, its organization and the academic curricula which derived from it were almost completely bypassed by the rapid development of plastics, synthetic fibers and synthetic rubber and the technological culture they engendered. The reasons for this are no doubt complex. The failure by the 1930's and 40's to develop good methods of presentation of industrial chemistry, coupled with the success of the unit operations concept, had a major effect on the thinking of both old engineers and new graduates. While unit operations was a triumph of intellectual synthesis, the fact that it alone of all new ideas in chemical engineering proved successful caused chemical engineers to think in terms of existing processes, their nature and organization, and to never seriously develop a materials or new product oriented viewpoint. Further, the unit operations were always limited to flow, heat transfer and separation processes involving gases and low viscosity liquids such as occur in a typical chemical plant involving low molecular weight components. Screw extrusion, fiber spinning, calendering, milling and molding-operations widely performed at the time on rubber and cellulosics were not included. The new heat transfer correlation or modified gas adsorption column design method became the important thing to the chemical engineer � the new product and the method of manufacturing it, receded. It was apparently this culture that caused the new materials oriented synthetic polymer industry to develop without really being recognized by the chemical engineering profession. No man has had more influence in remaking the American chemical industry and its foremost firm than the late Wallace H. Car others, the first truly successful synthetic rubber plus the entire synthetic fiber industry being the out-growth of his efforts (1). But Carothers' accomplishments were outside the domain of the increasingly ingrained classical unit operations philosophy and he was never accepted by the chemical engineer. To this day, the man who developed polychloroprene, polyesters, polyamides and the melt spinning process is considered as not one of their own but "some sort of chemist." (What is a chemical engineer?) As the chemical engineer did not
recognize the unique contributions of the new polymer industry, it is not surprising that their professional society was largely bypassed. The engineers and scientists of the rubber industry meet in the semi-autonomous Division of Rubber Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The plastics industry meets in the Society of Plastic Engineers.
rpHE PROBLEM of chemical engineering and the polymer industry has now been recognized by many individuals and efforts, if sometimes faltering, have been made to remedy the situation. Polymer science courses are appearing in chemical engineering departments and increasing numbers of the symposia have been organized at meetings. A most hopeful sign has been the formation of the Materials Engineering and Science Division of the AIChE. Academic awakening to the problem of polymer education and research seems to be on hand. One of the first polymer programs was formed a quarter of a century ago by Herman Mark in the Chemistry Department at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. In more recent years, programs have been developed at Princeton, the University of Akron, Case-Western University, the University of Massachusetts and many other schools.
Why the University of Tennessee? The University of Tennessee, one of the nation's most public spirited land grant universities, is located in East Tennessee in the heart of the southern Appalachians, an area with few educational institutions with highly trained specialists. Aside from the Atomic Energy Commission-Union Carbide facilities at Oak Ridge, the major chemical industry of Tennessee is polymer industry. This is true of Tennessee Eastman at Kingsport in the northeast tip of the state, of du Pont at Chattanooga and Old Hickory; of American Enka at Lowland, of Buckeye Cellulose at Memphis, of Aladdin Industries at Nashville, and of Rohm and Haas at Knoxville. It is indeed true of many small companies such as those who primarily extrude and injection mold plastics. Polymer education and research is a duty and indeed, a necessity of the University of Tennessee to serve the needs of the state. Looking further afield to the chemical industry outside the state but bordering East Tennessee are Monsanto at Decatur, Alabama; American Enka at Asheville, North Carolina; and Celanese at Charlotte, North Carolina. We again see a chemical indus-
chemical engineering education
try which is primarily a polymer industry, indeed, one which is strongly synthetic fiber oriented.
HISTORY OF THE POLYMER PROGRAM
rpHE DEPARTMENT of Chemical and Metal-lurgical Engineering research and educational programs in polymers has grown out of two long established research programs, rheology and crystallography with the former being the main root. Rheological research in the Department was established by F. N. Peebles in the early 1950's and has centered around the problem of observing velocity and stress fields in the region connecting a large reservoir and a small conduit. The research started with the use of milling yellow suspensions to determine velocity fields in Newtonian fluids by birefringence methods and the classic work of Prados and Peebles (2) was one of its products. From 1957 to 1960, Peebles worked for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory but in the latter part of 1960 returned to the staff of the Department.
In 1960, Donald C. Bogue, a then recent graduate of the University of Delaware, joined the staff and began work with Peebles in broadening the scope of the early birefringent flow studies to involve polymer solutions where the stress components values may be obtained (3). Not too long afterwards, Peebles became head of the new Department of Engineering Mechanics and Bogue continued in what is now a famous series of stress birefringent studies on flow into the inlet of a capillary (4). About the same time, he began studies on the development of stress-deformation history relationships (constitutive equations) for viscoelastic fluids i.e., polymer solutions and melts deepening the rheological research interests of the Department (5). Meanwhile, Peebles was building strength in rheological research areas in the Department of Engineering Mechanics and his own research was becoming more oriented toward polymer solutions.
The late 1960's saw a conscious move away from research on polymer solutions, considered as arbitrary viscoelastic continua and to bulk polymers themselves considered as materials who detailed structure and phase relationships were important. There were many inputs into this. Critical discussions of the view of the polymer industry on what aspects of rheology they considered to be most important were carried on between Bogue and industrial rheologists, particularly Roger Schulken of nearby Tennessee Eastman. The hiring of James Lindsay White of Uniroyal who had worked in polymer rheology for many years (and knew Bogue in graduate school) and the beginning of a research program in polymer crystallography by Joseph E. Spruiell, a Metallurgical Engineering faculty member known for his X-ray diffraction studies of alloys, helped begin a new polymer era at the University of Tennessee.
Bogue, White and Spruiell saw the need for innovations in Department programs. New undergraduate and graduate level courses in polymers were developed and added to the curriculum. A weekly Rheology Seminar devised by Bogue and Peebles evolved into a Polymer Seminar. A $750,000 University Science Development (Centers of Excellence) grant received by the Department in 1969 was used in part for purchase of additional new equipment. A polymer solution and suspension rheology laboratory of the early 60's proliferated into polymer melt rheology, polymer processing, polymer physical chemistry and characterization, and crystallography laboratories. Some of these laboratories are being used in conjunction with the Metallurgical Engineering program. New, more broadly based research programs on polymer melt flow instability, chromatographic fractionation of polymers, rubber processing, strain induced crystallization and melt spinning of fibers came in to being (6, 7). Rather wide ranging experimental studies were carried out.
In 1969-70 new blood was infused into the Tennessee polymer effort with the addition to Prof. Misazo (333 ( Yamamoto, one of Japan's leading polymer physicists, who came from Tokyo Metropolitan University as a visiting professor; and D. Acierno (University of Naples), N. Nishida (Hokkaido University) and J. M. Rodriguez (University of Missouri-Rolla) who came as postdoctoral fellows. Yamamoto taught advanced graduate level courses in statistical mechanics of polymers and with White initiated a research program in this area (8). Nishida put the recently purchased polymer characterization equipment in working order.
At the close of the decade a new polymer educational program was developed and approved at the University of Tennessee which involves M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering with Specialization in Polymer Science and Engineering. The program is a joint effort with the Chemistry Department which offers a similar specialization.
During the period January-September 1970, D. C. Bogue was with the Department of Polymer Chemistry of Kyoto University in Japan where he was associated with Prof. S. Onogi.
In October 1971, the University of Tennessee will host the fall Society of Rheology meeting.
PHILOSOPHY AND OPERATION OF THE POLYMER PROGRAM
HPHE BASIC PHILOSOPHY of our program is that since all of chemical science and technology is dependent upon three distinct types of academic curricula � chemistry, chemical engineering and metallurgical engineering, essentially the entire framework of the unique problems of the polymer industry falls within the jurisdiction of chemical engineering. This involves industrial polymerization methods including heterogeneous processes such as emulsion and graft polymerization, the synthesis of new
polymers; and development of composite systems to provide new combinations of mechanical, thermal and optical properties; property-structure relationships; new product development and polymer processing operations. Much of the polymer industry is materials oriented and academic polymer programs in chemical engineering should have a materials orientation. We believe that chemical engineering should be where the chemical industries' interests and problems are and the program is thus being increasingly given a materials orientation. As G. C. Frazier of our Department points out in a wider context, chemical engineering education should be more concerned with engineering synthesis and innovation and not just engineering analysis. Yes, we consider Wallace Carothers to have been a chemical engineer, indeed a great one, whose contribution was engineering synthesis. Accepting this, we see that it is the endeavor of our program and indeed as a state institution, a responsibility, to (1) provide education (2) carry out research and (3) cooperate with and encourage local industry in polymer studies and development.
The polymer education programs operate at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. A first look at polymer materials science occurs in a sophomore level materials course offered by our Department. Seniors are given the opportunity of taking one or both of two undergraduate (and beginning graduate) level courses; ChE 4910 � Applied Polymer Science and ChE 4920 � Polymer Processing. The former course emphasizes structure, methods of characterization, physical and thermodynamic properties and property-structure relationships for polymers. ChE 4920 is really a generalized unit operations course. It treats the rheological properties of polymers (and methods of rheological characterization e.g., viscometry) and the various unit operations of a plastics, synthetic fiber or rubber fabrication plant including sere extrusion, mixing, fiber spinning and calendering. Senior projects and Bachelor's theses in polymer research and technology are offered and some undergraduates have been involved in this each year.
The graduate program in polymers is built around a student's electing a M.S. thesis and/or Ph.D. dissertation in polymer science and engineering. Students electing such are fitted with a graduate program involving the fundamentals of physical and organic chemistry, mathematics,
Figure 2. � Prof. J. E. Spruiell and D. E. McCord studying the extent of crystallinity in polyethylene terepthalate.
physics, and classical chemical engineering as well as in polymers. Courses in polymers such as ChE 4910 and 4920; Chemistry 5140 � Polymer Chemistry; ChE 5910-20-30 � Special Topics in Polymer Science are supplemented then by courses in thermodynamics, diffusive mass transport, partial differential equations, fluid mechanics and classical chemical reactor design. We believe the emphasis on fundamentals is very important. A pitfall in polymer programs is the tendency to produce superficially educated individuals who only qualitatively understand applications of physical methods to polymer science without understanding the basis of such methods. Students who elect advanced work in rheological behavior of polymers have available a sequence of courses in modern continuum mechanics from both the Engineering Mechanics and Chemical Engineering Departments (Engr. Mech. 5800 � Introduction to Continuum Mechanics; ChE 5820 � Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics; ChE 6380 � Advanced Continuum Mechanics). Students researching the crystalline or crystallization characteristics of polymers may choose from
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
a sequence of courses on crystallography and experimental methods developed by the Metallurgical Engineering wing of the Department (MetE 4510-20 � X-Ray Diffraction, MetE 5510-20 � Electron Microscopy). In addition students participate in a weekly Polymer Seminar.
The Department is well equipped for polymer research having characterization apparatus such as a Gel Permeation Chromatograph and a membrane osometer. Rheological research equipment includes a Weissenberg Rheogoniometer and an Instron Capillary Rheometer. Processing equipment includes a one-inch screw extruder with optional attachment for melt spinning of fibers and a Farrel laboratory mill with variable roll speeds and friction ratio. For crystallographic studies, we have in addition to a complete X-ray diffraction laboratory, a Philips 300 electron microscope and various optical microscopes.
OOLYMER RESEARCH in our Department may be divided as follows: (1) Polymer Processing and Rheology, (2) Crystallography and Crystallization, (3) Characterization and Chromatography and (4) Property Structure Relationships and New Materials. This research not only reflects the interests of the individual professors but also the interests of the polymer industry of the state. An attempt is made to develop integrated programs involving all faculty. These three points are reflected for instance in the study of melt spinning and drawing of fibers, which is currently being carried out by Profs. Bogue, Spruiell and White as a joint venture. This project was also the main endeavor of Drs. Acierno and Rodriguez. Other pragmatic research includes studies of the effects of carbon black on rubber and the development of new composites. Not all research is meant for immediate application and background information is required for our processing oriented studies. Thus, polymers must be characterized Theologically, crystallographically and molecular struc-turewise to fully interpret their response in polymer processing operations. This requires separate research in these areas. Related to this have been endeavors to develop new methods of polymer characterization especially in chromatography. Currently a program in this area emphasizing porous adsorbents is being carried out under the direction of J. L. White and N. Nishida. The need for further knowledge of flow of polymer melts and polymer phase transitions
have led to theoretical hydrodynamic and statistical mechanics research. Other research in the department complements this work, for example, S. H. Jury has worked on the nature of packed bed adsorption and drying operations which closely resemble chromatography, H. W. Hsu has worked on centrifugal methods of separating biological macromolecules and G. C. Fraz-ier on gas absorption into body fluids; J. J. Perona has worked on the interaction of natural and forced convection heat transfer. Metallurgical researchers study mechanical properties, transitions and crystallographic structures of alloys. There has been considerable interplay of ideas.
The interrelation of the polymer program with industry may be divided into four parts: (1) teaching courses in polymers (generally ChE 4910 and 4920) via remote means and visits in locations near or within industrial facilities, (e.g., Kingsport, Decatur and Chattanooga), (2) an open invitation to attend most Polymer Seminars (individuals have come from as far as Memphis and Asheville, North Carolina to attend) , and (3) Tennessee Industries Week, in which a course in an aspect of polymer engineering is generally held during the last week in August. This consists of a four-day workshop and a much larger full-day symposium.
1. Carothers, W. and J. Hill, "Linear Superpolyesters,"
J. Amer. Chem Soe., 54, 1559 (1932). "Artificial Fibers from Synthetic Linear Condensation Superpolymers," J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 54, 1579 (1932)
W. H. Carothers, I. Williams, A. M. Collins, and J. E. Kirby, "A New Synthetic Rubber, Chloroprene and its Polymers," J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 53, 4205 (1931).
2. Prados, J. W. and F. N. Peebles, "Two Dimensional
Laminar Flow Analysis Utilizing a Doubly Re-fratctory Liquid," AIChE Journal, 5, 225 (1959).
3. Bogue, D. C. and F. N. Peebles, "Birefringent Tech-
niques in Two Dimensional Flow," Trans. Soc. Rheol., 6, 317 (1962).
4. Adams, E. B., J. C. Whitehead and D. C. Bogue,
"Stress in a Viscoelastic Fluid in Converging and Diverging Flow," AIChE Journal, 11, 1026 (1965).
T. F. Fields and D. C. Bogue, "Stress-Birefringent Patterns of a Viscoelastic Fluid at a Sharp Edged Entrance," Trans. Soc. Rheol. 12, 39 (1968).
H. L. LaNieve and D. C. Bogue, "Correlation of Entrance Pressure Drops with Normal Stress Data," J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 12, 353 (1968).
(Continued on page 52)
Venture: Seven minutes to save a life.
The problem: lifesaving clinical tests of blood, urine and spinal fluid may take technicians hours to perform using traditional methods.
The possible solution: design a virtually complete chemical laboratory in a desk-sized cabinet that will perform a variety of clinical tests automatically, accurately, quickly.
The result: Du Pont's Automatic Clinical Analyzer, the end-product of years of cooperation and problem solving among engineering physicists, biochemists, electromechanical designers, computer specialists and many, many other disciplines.
The heart of the instrument is a transparent, postcard-sized reagent packet that functions as a reaction chamber and optical cell for a
computer-controlled analysis of specimens.
Separate packs�made of a chemically inert, optically clear plastic-are designed for a variety of tests. And each pack is supplied with a binary code to instruct the analyzer. Packs for certain tests also contain individual disposable chromatographic columns to isolate specific constituents or molecular weight fractions on the sample.
In operation, the analyzer automatically injects the sample and diluent into each pack, mixes the reagents, waits a preset time for the reaction, then forms a precise optical cell within the walls of the transparent pack and measures the reaction photometrically.
A built-in solid-state computer monitors the operation, calculates
the concentration value for each test and prints out a report sheet for each sample.
The instrument is capable of handling thirty different tests, the chemistry procedures for ten of which have already been developed. The first test result is ready in about seven minutes. And in continuous operation, successive test results are obtained every 35 to 70 seconds, depending on the type of test.
Innovation�applying the known to discover the unknown, inventing new materials and putting them to work, using research and engineering to create the ideas and products of the future�this is the venture Du Pont people are engaged in.
Du Pont Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19898.
Ventures for better living.
IMPRESSIONS OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN THE SOUTHERN TIER
L. E. SCRIVEN
University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minn. 55A55
rTUTERE'S A REVOLUTION in chemical engi-neering education in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile�the Southern Tier. It coincides with rising enrollments and expanding expectations. Leading the movement are dedicated engineers whose motives are predominantly idealistic and nationalistic. They and the younger rank-and-file look first of all to North America and Europe for models they can adapt to their own institutions. Increasing numbers of able Latin American engineering instructors are going overseas for postgraduate education, and in preparation for the roles they will play upon returning they need broader experience than they are likely to get today. In the Southern Tier the need is growing for visiting foreign professors who are not only effective teachers but also top-flight engineers and researchers.
These are among the most important impressions from a visit of a month-and-a-half I made in the fall of 1969. They are reinforced by reports reaching me by mail and from more recent travelers. During my visit I spent four weeks at COPPE, which is in essence the postgraduate school of engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, known as the University of Brasil until the mid-1960's). There I taught an intensive short course in fluid mechanics, gave seminars, and interacted with the faculty in a broader sphere. Thanks to F. M. Tiller, in charge of the Agency for International Development contract with the University of Houston which sponsored my stay at COPPE, I was able to proceed on to Argentina and Chile, stopping en route in Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre in Brazil. D. H. Scriven, my wife, was able to join me before I left Rio. Since our return we have been asked how, as norteamericanos, we were received. We were received as individuals, welcomed with open arms and swept off our feet by wonderful hospitality. On no occasion in our peregrination did we en-
Stark contrasts exist among engineering schools in South America. At COPPE a graduate school has emerged, rather loosely connected to its university. At Sao Paulo a once dynamic institution lies crippled in the middle of the most heavily industrialized area in Latin America. At Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil engineering appears to be antediluvian. At Bahia Blanca in South-Central Argentina an industrially-connected undergraduate quasi-department is leading a forward-looking provincial university. At Buenos Aires engineering has been emasculated and a beautiful, modern chemical engineering building stands empty of its planners, with only a skeleton of a modern faculty. Nearby at La Plata two departments that together are the strongest chemical engineering research center in Latin America harbor some of those who should be in the capitol. At Concep-cion in the industrial heartland of Chile a distinguished South American university limps along on lottery proceeds but nevertheless is, or was, evolving into a modern institution. The chemical engineering department, indeed the entire school of engineering, has come to rely on income from contracts for testing and development work for industry. Some of the faculty are refugees from the Universidad Tecnica Frederico Santa Maria in Valparaiso, outstanding until it was severely disrupted not long ago (the first doctorate in engineering in Latin America was awarded there in the mid-1960's).
The norm in Latin-American universities was described in plain terms by Professor H. Moyses Nussenzveig, a Brasilian physicist now working in the United States. Anyone curious about the contrasts, or unimpressed by the achievements at COPPE, La Plata, Bahia Blanca, Concepion, and two or three other places (Salta and Santa Fe in Argentina, Santiago in Chile), should turn to Professor Nussenzveig (Science, 165, 1328- 1332, 26 September 1969). He happens to include accounts of events in Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires among his examples. More recent episodes in Argentina and Brazil are subjects of N. Geschwind's and P. W. Wygodzinsky's letters (Science, 6 March and 3 July 1970; see also Vasquez and Robertis's letter 7 August 1970). A more detached, short but revealing description of most Latin-American universities can be found in a two-year old article by Tiller, a chemical engineer, and R. E. Hattwick, an economist (Engi-
chemical engineering education
Gold Medalist of the University of California at Berkeley in 1952, L. E. Scriven took his graduate degrees at the University of Delaware and was a research engineer with the Shell Development Company from 1956 to 1959. At Minnesota he is Professor of Chemical Engineering and a member of the Graduate Faculties of Fluid Mechanics and of Biology. Chief among his research interests are continuum theory of transport and transformation processes, dynamic instability and pattern interface and contact-line physics, and interphase transfer. In 1968 he was an invited speaker at the NATO Meeting on Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow in London, in 1969 at the National Heat Transfer Conference in Minneapolis. In March and April 1963 he was Guest Investigator in cell biology at The Rockefeller Institute; in Fall 1967, Visiting Professor at the University of Pennsylvania; in September and October 1969, Visiting Professor in the engineering graduate school, COPPE, at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, after which he lectured in Argentina and Chile. With C. V. Sternling he received the 1960 Colburn Award of the AIChE. In 1966 his university bestowed a Distinguished Teaching Award on him, and in 1968 he received the Chemical Engineering Division Lectureship Award of the American Society of Engineering Education. He is a consultant to Mobil Research and Development Corporation and the 3M Company, an advisory editor to the Prentice-Hall Series in the Chemical and Physical Engineering Sciences, and, as of recently, an associate editor of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. With other enthusiasts he engages in a special experimental dynamics of a particle in a box �� handball, which, like the mountain world, is a lifelong avocation and, it might be added, as strong an influence on his family as his vocation and travels.
neering Education, 58, 509-516, February 1968).
Incidentally, my chance conversation with a couple old-style 'professors' bore out all I had read and been told: they are semi-educated, intellectually stunted, professionally downtrodden men eking out a middle class income by marathon lecturing at two or three different universities. There are those with backbone, but they are almost certain to be fractional-time 'professors' whose commitment is to their income-producing activity outside the university. No wonder that Latin students often feel themselves better qualified than their teachers to govern a university! The shame is that engineering students have so long been accustomed to copying down dictated notes in interminable lectures and parrotting them back in examinations, never working a problem, that they are likely to object vociferously if not violently when young reformers get control of a curriculum and expect them to become genuine students. There have been disturbances on just this account, mild ones in Bahia Blanca and destructive ones, I gathered, in Santa Fe, Argentina and Valparaiso, Chile.
Here are reports on three institutions at which I visited longest. The reports are followed by some important conclusions.
PROTECTED BY ITS PSEUDONYM, Coorden-acao dos Programas Pos-graduacao de Engen-haria (= "Office for Coordinating Postgraduate Programs in Engineering"), is now a graduate school of chemical, mechanical, electrical, metallurgical, civil, naval, nuclear, production (industrial), and bio-medical engineering, with a degree program in applied mathematics and computer science the next likely addition. An outstanding feature is its utter informality: faculty, staff and students mix thoroughly, everyone is on a first-name basis�and the graduate students seem quite aware of the goals and workings of the operation. Today COPPE is housed is well-appointed, partially air conditioned buildings on the new campus, Ilha da Cidade Universitaria, not far from the international airport. It was not always so.
Alberto Luiz Coimbra in 1960 was a relatively young professor of chemistry and chemical engineering who had taken an M.S. at Vanderbilt University in 1949 and who heavily supplemented his academic salaries from two universities with consulting and partnership in a small engineering design firm. Inspiration somehow seized him and with O.A.S. sponsorship he managed to tour U.S. chemical engineering departments early in 1961. He often says he was especially impressed with Neal Amundson's magic, which was then transmuting Minnesota. He turned to Frank Tiller of the University of Houston for liaison and secured support from the Organization of American States, the Fulbright Commission and the Rockefeller Foundation. He found a domestic source of funding in the Brasilian National Bank for Economic Development (BNDE), which eventually freed him from the internecine politics within the university and further insulated his organization. Coimbra launched a postgraduate program in chemical engineering in cramped quarters on the old campus in 1963. Donald Katz from Michigan and Louis Brand from Cincinnati visited and taught in the first year. So did Neil Pings from Caltech, for a six-week period. (Later came Ernest Henley, Ray Fahien, John Howell, and others for extended periods.) Two young Brasilian chemical engineers, Affonso Telles and Giulio Massarani, returned with M.S. degrees from University of Houston to teach. Telles later went
back to Houston for his Ph.D., now heads the mathematics group at COPPE, and just spent a year at Imperial College. Massarani later went to Toulouse to begin his doctorate, which he is finishing with nice experimental research at COPPE on flow through porous media. Some who graduated with M.S. degrees that first year are very much in evidence, notably Carlos Perlingeiro, who came back with a Ph.D. from Stevens to head the chemical engineering program.
Each year the best graduate students are singled out for appointments as "monitors" (teaching assistants, roughly) and often are invited to plan on joining the faculty. The pattern is to spend a year or so as an instructor after receiving the M.S. and then, seasoned and well-motivated, to go overseas for the doctorate. From chemical engineering there are men at Imperial College, Leeds, Stanford, and Minnesota right now. I was told that so far everyone who has completed a doctorate has returned to COPPE, which is a remarkable departure from the past record in Latin America. A few instructors have continued graduate study at COPPE, and the first Ph.D., are being awarded this year. The recipients are likely to go abroad for a year of postdoctoral study.
From 20 to 30 students each year enter chemical engineering, 55 % completing two semesters of course work and 45% actually receiving the M.S., which requires a thesis (the total enrollment in all branches at the beginning of last year was 190 full-time students plus 185 part-time, production engineering being most popular by a fair margin). In chemical engineering, at least, all the students received fellowships, the stipends of which start low and rise rapidly with achievement. The best graduate students are very good indeed. A couple years ago COPPE began to send recruiting teams all over Brasil. Pairs of faculty members fly to a region and visit every undergraduate department in their field (more and more departments have COPPE alumni returning to their staffs, by the way.). Almost unconsciously they are making COPPE a communications center for modern engineering in a country where one of the major hindrances to development is poor communications. Goading them on is a new element of competition: PUC, the Pontificia Uni-versidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, has started a graduate program in engineering (though not yet in chemical engineering) and last year began to beat the bushes.
One thing that helps attract students to COPPE is the availability of foreign professors there. I met long-term visiting professors from the U.S., Great Britain, Canada, France, Soviet Union, and Germany, most of them sponsored by their governments. U.S. aid of this sort has diminished of late. I was impressed by the fact that the program heads at COPPE are quite deliberately drawing on visitors for philosophies and practices of foreign educational systems, selecting from them, and synthesizing their own schemes.
A NOTHER IMPORTANT THING is the quiet, -^"-long-term campaign to reform undergraduate engineering education in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A few professors in COPPE have gotten membership in the faculties of chemical engineering, engineering or mathematics, and each year more manage to do so. Already metallurgical engineering has fallen to them: Walter Mannheimer, who has degrees in chemical engineering and industrial chemistry and a Ph.D. in metallurgy from Carnegie-Mellon and is one of the brightest lights in COPPE, heads the undergraduate department as well as the graduate program. Naval engineering has also been captured, and chemical engineering will probably be next.
COPPE has not had close liaison with industry. In chemical engineering there is little industrial support except for partial sponsorship of a research project on permselective membranes by BNDE and Petrobras (the national petroleum production and refining combine) involving three or four people, a project on sulfur from coal pyrites sponsored by the National Coal Commission, and a small project concerned wth maleic anhydride manufacture. Moreover the faculty is deficient in industrial experience and contacts. But Coimbra has been trying to set up an industrial research institute, referred to as "COPPETEC," which could go a long way toward rectifying the situation. Unfortunately the dominant industrial center is Sao Paulo, and there is strong rivalry between that city and Rio.
TN 1969 COPPE WAS providing fairly sound M.S. degree programs for training modern engineers and teachers of engineers, except that more emphasis on laboratory, design, and practical problem solving was needed. The ultimate goal was, and is, to educate creative engineers and professors of engineering who measure up to the world's best and will lead Brazil's future techno-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
logical development. Whether Professor Coimbra's brainchild, now in vigorous adolescence, will develop to its full potential and achieve the high standards he is aiming for is not clear. On the one hand he has built up a competent, enthusiastic, cooperative, fulltime, young staff; those selected for leadership responsibilities are dedicated and conscientious; twenty future staff members are doing postgraduate study overseas; there are some excellent students and, judging from their competence, they have had well-conceived and well-taught courses; the facilities are new and there seem to be no critical shortages of space or funds for equipment; graduates are taking positions throughout Brasil; and now students are being attracted from other countries. Though there is no longer a great need to rely on visiting foreign professors in chemical engineering there are many of them, especially in other fields. On the other hand, the financial basis seems temporary and the relationship with undergraduate education in the university regrettably weak; the programs probably still fall short of true university standards, particularly in the domain of research; the present faculty is overburdened with classroom teaching as well as all the demands of building a new institution and their opportunities for scholarly study and exploring new research directions are few; maintaining contact with mainstreams in the Northern Hemisphere is expensive ; library facilities though considerable are still spotty and pi'esent arrangements are insufficient for high-quality engineering research; staff members returning from overseas in the future may be in danger of disappointment because they may not share as deeply in the pioneering spirit that is still evident; there is no formal laboratory instruction although many of the incoming students are severely lacking in laboratory experience; there seems to be insufficient emphasis on design in some of the programs; connections with public and private industry need to be greatly strengtheened and many younger faculty members need more firsthand experience with practical engineering. They should also have more and better opportunities to estimate the present and future needs of Brasil. All of these things are evident to Professor Coimbra and his staff.
TJAHIA BLANCA, A prosperous commercial, -"-^agricultural (grain and livestock), and transportation center, is the most important city in
southern Argentina. Located on the coast 700 km. south of Buenos Aires, it strikes Southwesterners as Albuquerque-by-the-Sea and reminds Canadians of Saskatchewan. It has two petroleum refineries and plans for a major chemical complex. What was comparatively low level technical college became the base on which, beginning over a decade ago, Universidad Nacional del Sur is being built. There has never been a faculty of law, a faculty of medicine or a faculty of philosophy and so the new university has some enormous advantages over older Latin American institutions. It is fertile ground for educational reforms though the harvest so far seems a mixed bag.
Into this situation about six years ago came Ingeniero Enrique Rotstein, an Argentinian fresh from two years' engineering with Monsanto in Springfield, Massachusetts � a most unusual young man, full of vision and ambition and drive and, as it has turned out, skill in dealing with his elders and an uncanny gift for inspiring his contemporaries and juniors. Within the Departa-mento de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica he has built what is really a department of chemical engineering and an engineering development laboratory, with a full-time professional staff of about 15 enthusiastic and dedicated young men and women (2), almost all of them from Bahia Blanca and surroundings. But of course it cannot be called what it is�Rotstein's "principle of being a nonentity," which explains certain features of COPPE, as well. For obscure historical reasons, it is the Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica, and this name is now borne proudly.
All of the staff salaries are paid by the university, but most of the rest of the support comes from industry. The drawing card has been research on effects of agitation by mechanical vibration on transport phenomena and reactor performance, and development of novel apparatus for producing agitation. Engineer Rotstein and his colleagues have revolutionized the undergraduate curriculum in chemical engineering in both style and content, bringing it into the 1960's and doing so with due regard for Argentina's needs. Yet many of the students did not understand and there were problems with them. The best of the students each year have been recruited into the faculty and now, after much deliberate effort, there is good rapport with the undergraduates.
The undergraduate curriculum has been cut from seven to six years, five of which are spent in course work. Eight months of the sixth year
are spent in research and then there is a three-month training period in some industry. In chemical engineering the number of classroom hours has been reduced drastically, courses have been consolidated and modernized, textbooks have been introduced and problem solving has been emphasized. In comparison with U.S. curricula, the extra year of study represents subjects important to a plant engineer who must design and specify equipment by himself and immediately play business and management roles as well. The overall level approaches that of many U.S. Master's degrees.
In regard to faculty development Rotstein's program calls for staff members to go overseas once for an M.S. degree, as four have done and others are doing, and then again later for two years of additional study or possibly for a doctorate. Those who have already been seem to have done well: they are an impressive lot. Some tell of the trauma in adjusting to overseas university standards�Rotstein says "cultural shock"�and then of readapting when they return�Edgard Vieira in Rio speaks of the "re-entry problem."
Despite comparatively enlightened administration and many reform-minded individuals Univer-sidad National del Sur still suffers from the traditional afflictions of Latin American universities. Because all appointments down to and including department head are at the pleasure of the Minister of Education in Buenos Aires, whose tenure in office is generally much shorter than even that of the President, the administrative structure cannot help but be permeated with politics, diluted only a bit by distance from Buenos Aires. Since my visit there have been at least two changes of rector (university president). To have the continuity to build anything substantial it is necessary to be a nonentity�a pilot plant, for instance. Recent news that Enrique Rotstein may have to become department head is probably not good news!
DEPARTMENTO DE INGENIERIA QUIMICA rpHE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA coastal zone is mirrored by the region around Concepcion. The region is also the industrial heartland of Chile: coal mines, steel mill, textile factories, glass manufacture, paper mills and wood products, fisheries (including a whaling station), hydroelectric power, and now petroleum refining and the Petroquimica Chilena complex. Progress in Escue-la de Ingenieria, Universidad de Concepcion, seems to have been more evolutionary than elsewhere I visited. Established faculty members
have taken the lead and strongly encouraged younger men. The Ford Foundation and other international organizations have assisted. From Department de Ingenieria Quimica, Professor Gustavo Pisarro, one-time dean of engineering, and Professor Alfredo Searle, head of the department, have visited Minnesota and elsewhere in the U.S.
In addition to Searle and Pizarro there are four other full professors. Their fields are thermodynamics and kinetics, corrosion and electrochemistry, textile technology, and wood technology. These activities include testing and development laboratories that bring in funds from industry which are vital to the operation of the department. The production manager of the local oil refinery, which is only five years old and is still expanding rapidly, is a part-time professor. Searle himself does a lot of design work as a consultant specializing in drying processes and fish-meal processing (as he points out, Chile is still somewhat surprisingly deficient in protein). Sometimes he assigns parts of his problems to students in the design course. Thus the chemical engineering department at Concepcion enjoys intimate relations with industry and has for many years.
Searle studied for a year at the University of Michigan in the early 1950's. In his department he built a very good unit operations laboratory along traditional lines, but by the mid-1960's he was installing smaller apparatus to illustrate transport phenomena directly and now his younger colleagues are doing the same. There are five of them, bright, sound, and committed to the enterprise. Two have come back recently from the U.S. with M.S. degrees, and others are to go overseas for graduate study in due course. One of the department's outstanding former students, Fernando Concha, returned with a Minnetosa Ph.D. in mineral dressing and rapidly rose to a professorship in metallurgical engineering.
Almost all of the graduates of the department have been snapped up by Chilean industry, I was given to understand. The curriculum was extensively revised around 1966 after Searle's visits in the U.S. It still requires six years, of which much of the first would be considered preparatory by current U.S. standards, and most of the last is devoted to business and management subjects, besides a "senior thesis" and a free elective. Elsewhere in the curriculum there are courses in strength of materials, industrial construction, electrical engineering, machines, control, basic
chemical engineering education
measurements, instrumental analysis, etc. But the core is mathematics, physics, chemistry, and the same basic chemical engineering courses that are found in Northamerican departments that have managed to avoid faddish extremes in their development.
The traditional afflictions are not absent. A student strike in 1969 interrupted all classes for weeks and the second semester had to be postponed a month. While the engineering professors lay the blame on students and non-students in other parts of the university, the school of engineering is subject to its own brand of student pressures owing to the existence within the same institution of a "technical university" which awards another kind of engineering degree after only four years of study (as against six). In the last few years there has been rapid turnover of deans and rectors, (all of them elected by students, staff and faculty. One able and respected reform rector simply resigned and left when disruptions became acute and additional problems loomed. According to later reports from Concepcion, the debilitating turmoil continues in the university. Engineering in Concepcion, even more than in Bahia Blanca, Rio, and elsewhere, will be able to make greater social contributions when day-to-day functioning of the university is insulated a bit from searing political winds�if that ever happens!
A revolution in engineering education is in progress in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. Though the movement is still fragmented it has sufficient momentum to reform applied science and engineering in those countries, from what I have been able to learn. Common features of the best developments seem to be inspired leadership, youth-fulness, total commitment, concern for students, overseas connections, financial support independent of university and government, and political transparency. (A coincidental feature is many people who speak fluent English, thank goodness.) The motives of the leaders are predominantly idealistic and nationalistic. They are imbuing talented young people with their vision and confidence and they are providing them with the necessary education, first at home and then overseas. Irrespective of political stripe all three governments have powerful arms working seriously for technological development. (General educational development unfortunately lacks such advocates.) Talented and well educated engineers are going to be needed more and more for planning, design, management, development and, eventually, research (beyond research as a concomitant of teaching). One of the aims mentioned in all these countries is to begin offsetting the vast importation of technology, which is quite costly in several regards. The more visionary leaders are
hopeful of leapfrogging into the international market of technology, by bringing sophisticated modern science and engineering to bear on problems that have facets peculiar to the geographical, economic, or cultural state of their own and similar countries. In my understanding Japan is the nation that has been notably successful in this regard and it may be that Latin American engineering educators should examine the Japanese experience more thoroughly.
The new breed of engineering professors looks first of all to the United States and Great Britain for models on which to pattern undergraduate curricular reforms and new postgraduate programs. Those who visit overseas are generally mature enough to remain critical of what they encounter, and now they are returning to groups more than sophisticated enough to select and adapt ideas best suited to their own circumstances.
Young faculty members coming to the United States and other countries for graduate study should get broader experience in preparation for the roles they will play at home. For chemical engineers I have in mind summer jobs and temporary jobs just before returning, in the chemical, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, and food processing industries, in research institutes, in government laboratories, and in planning agencies of international organizations such as the UN and OAS. I also have in mind professional meetings, research conferences, visits to plants and laboratories, etc. I wonder about courses and seminars within the university which might have special relevance to developing nations in general and Latin America in particular. It seems unlikely that ordinary courses in management, finance, economics and planning would be suitable. Perhaps with a nucleus of graduate students in engineering from Latin America a university's Office of International Programs could precipitate a worthwhile seminar course. With addition of interested local faculty and invited authorities from outside the university it might grow to dimensions visible from south of the border.
Engineering departments receiving graduate students from Latin America should give more thought to their needs. At the same time, engineers applying from Latin America need more information about programs, departments and universities not only in the U.S. and Great Britain, but also Canada, The Netherlands, and elsewhere. Returnees are comparing experiences and spreading the word that not all departments are equally solicitous of graduate students, not all professors are equally accessible, not all programs are of equal quality, not all universities provide equally stimulating intellectual atmospheres, not all past reputations match current realities.
There is growing need in Rio, La Plata, Bahia Blanca and undoubtedly elsewhere in Latin America for visiting professors who are not only effective teachers but also first-rate engineers and researchers. They must be friendly, forward-looking, and flexible, and they are likely to be appreciated even more if they are willing to wrestle with a little Portuguese or Spanish, and if they can manage to find in their homeland some of the travel funds and financial support they may require. Such persons can, by spending a month, or a quarter, a semester or more, give a real boost to the educational revolution in the Southern Tier.
Various AIChE Committees concerned with educational matters have furnished CEE with reports of their activities for the year 1970.
REPORT OF EDUCATION AND ACCREDITATION COMMITTEE
S. G. BANKOFF Chairman
A total of 39 accreditation actions were recommended by the Committee to Council. A summary has been furnished separately to Council members. This represents a significant increase in work load from last year's total of 22 accreditation actions. These accreditation recommendations were developed by the committee at the San Juan meeting in early May, despite the fact that a number of accreditation visits are scheduled in April. This imposes strain upon the Chemical Engineering inspector, who writes a considerably more detailed report than his fellow inspectors, and also upon the Committee in its evaluation of these reports by mail ballot. We intend to consider proposals for improving this situation.
R. E. Treybal left the committee this year, after a six-year period of devoted and effective service. He was replaced by D. M. Mason of Stanford University. Shortly afterwards W. H. Corcoran, Vice Chairman of the AIChE E&A Committee, was elected to the post of Vice Chairman �Operations, Engineering Education and Accreditation Committee of ECPD, so that AIChE was permitted to nominate another member of the E.E. & A. Committee. After consultations with officers of AIChE and of the E&A Committee, George Burnet was chosen to represent AIChE on the ECPD E.E. & A. Committee. At the time time he became a Vice-Chairman of the AIChE E&A Committee, J. G. Knudsen continues to serve on the AIChE E&A Committee as Vice-Chairman, and on the ECPD E&A Committee as an AIChE representative. R. B. Beckman, the Past-Chairman of the E&A Committee, was also Past-Chairman of the ECPD E.E. & A. Committee. M. S. Peters and S. W. Churchill, who served actively as members of the AIChE E&A Committee, in addition represented AIChE on the ECPD Board of Directors. AIChE was thus well represented in the deliberations and policy studies of these important bodies. We continue to have a dedicated and able committee membership, most of whom
also served as accreditation inspectors during the past year.
A total of six new inspectors were added to the Ad Hoc Visitors List, while seven were dropped. This represents the largest turnover in recent years. An orientation session was held at the Washington meeting of AIChE last December, in order to brief the accreditation inspectors on current problems and procedures. Nominations for this listing are solicited from the membership at large. All such names are placed on a ballot form, which is then voted upon by the E&A Committee members. Every member of the Ad Hoc Visitors List must annually reaffirm his willingness to serve as an accreditation inspector.
Several experimental accreditation inspections were held during the year by the E.E. & A Committee of ECPD, in order to judge the effectiveness of institutional accreditation versus departmental accreditation. In each case a departmental accreditation was held concurrently or consecutively, and the accreditation recommendation followed that of the departmental inspection, in accordance with established procedures. J. G. Knudsen was chairman of the subcommittee of the E.E. & A. Committee which conducted these experiments.
The instruction booklets for accreditation inspectors are currently being revised by a subcommittee headed by S. W. Churchill. We continue to operate in accordance with the 1937 agreement between AIChE and ECPD, whereby the more severe of the separate recommendations of AIChE and of ECPD takes effect. It is of interest that the American Nuclear Society has requested that the evaluation procedures of AIChE be adopted with respect to its own area, although in their case the recommendations are not binding.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OPTIONS IN NON-SPECIALIZED ENGINEERING CURRICULA
At its meeting in Denver on August 29, 1970, Council approved a resolution forwarded to it by the E&A Committee. This dealt with the subject of chemical engineering options or areas of spec-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
ialization in nonspecific engineering curricula, such as general engineering, engineering science, etc. In essence this resolution stated that if schools wish accreditation only as an engineering curriculum, without specifically implying that its chemical engineering option has been separately accredited, ECPD would accredit on that basis. However, if the school wishes to state in any of its informational literature or transcripts that a chemical engineering option has been accredited, the regular procedures and standards of AIChE would have to be followed. This resolution was forwarded to the ECPD E.E. & A. Committee, who now have it under consideration.
c 22 book reviews
Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis Rutherford Aris
Prentice-Hall, (1969) xii plus 352 pp. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
The book is similar in approach and subject matter to Aris' earlier text "Introduction to the Analysis of Chemical Reactors", Prentice-Hall, 1965. The main differences lie in the addition of several detailed examples analyzing realistic situations of the kinetics or reactor design for actual chemical reactions, and in reducing some of the mathematical complexity. As is to be expected of the author, the book is excellently written and reads well. A brief, but adequate list of the most pertinent references of direct use with the text material is included at the each of each chapter.
The use of the term "analysis" in both book titles is appropriate, for the focus is on the formal mathematical aspects of the subject. Because of this, many instructors may not choose the text for an introductory undergraduate course, as is the stated intent of the author, but rather in a basic graduate course. At the latter level, with some prior knowledge of chemical reactor design and advanced mathematics, the more general and absctract mathematical treatment may be better understood and appreciated. Certainly every graduate student should have some exposure to the sophisticated description of of the kinetics of the general reaction Sa^A, = 0 as often used in modern chemical reaction engineering analysis. Since the text was not really written for graduate students, however, a certain amount of useful material (e.g., catalyst deactivation) might need to be added by the instructor.
The book begins with an over-view of the subject, including a useful flow chart, and gives many of the important sources of information � journals, books, and reviews. Chapter 2 presents the formal logical aspects of stoichiometry. Included are definitions of extent (the use of � moles/volume rather than the classical notation � moles can be confusing) and rates of reaction along with independence of complex reaction systems. Thermochemistry is discussed in Chapter 3, again from a formal point of view, but including some information on heats of reaction, etc.
Next "The Progress of the Reaction in Time" for elementary (isothermal, batch reactor) integration of the rate equations for the standard simple kinetic schemes is presented, including a brief treatment of reaction paths for complex systems of first order reactions. The final chapter (6) discussing kinetics is concerned with heterogeneous reactions. Adsorption mechanisms, external, and internal diffusion processes are covered in some detail; the reviewer feels that Aris' treatment here is one of the best available from the viewpoint of kinetics required for reactor design.
Chapter 7 on the perfectly mixed flow reactor begins the study of actual reactor design. It starts with derivation and discussion of rigorous general transient mass and heat balances, and some aspects such as incompatible feed and initial conditions which are unavailable elsewhere. The notion of, physical reasons for, and some mathematical treatment of autothermal stability is covered. An excellent detailed design example is given as well as optimal sequences of stirred tank reactors. The discussion of imperfect mixing, segregation, etc., which was kept brief and simplified, may not be very understandable without further explanation in class.
Various types of adiabatic reactor design problems are treated in Chapter 8, including stirred tank and tubular cases. For the latter, it might have been preferable to put this chapter after the one on tubular reactor design. Most of the text material is devoted to the algebraic aspects of optimization of single and sequences of adiabatic reactors. Chapter 9 is devoted to the tubular (plug flow) reactor and begins with the standard steady state design methods, proceeding to optimal temperature profiles, and co-and counter current cooled reactors, the latter with an excellent example of ammonia synthesis.
Parametric sensitivity and autothermal stability cerned with optimal operation and control of
are next treated and the chapter concludes with batch reactors.
a discussion of flow profile and axial dispersion K. B. Bischoff
effects. The last chapter (10) is primarily con- Cornell University
Specialization in FINE PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY
CLYDE ORR, JR.
Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia
American universities do not emphasize sub-specialities within a general field as much as do some of our European counterparts, except by way of thesis research. Georgia Tech and Loughborough University of Technology in England are inaugurating an exchange program for first-year master's degree graduate students in chemical engineering that will bring somewhat more specialization into U. S. education and will broaden the program for the English students. The area of specialization of this initial program may be generally termed fine particle technology.
Loughborough University is primarily a technological institution with departments covering a full range of engineering disciplines, applied sciences, management, and the social sciences. It is much like Georgia Tech in orientation, course offering, size, and student background. Within its chemical engineering department are professors having special competence in solid-liquid separation, comminution, emplsification, mixing and blending, and the like, while Georgia Tech competence in the fine particle area tends more toward aerosol technology and air pollution abatement. Exposure of students to both special groups with their different viewpoints along with instruction in the more traditional subjects of thermodynamics, transport phenomena, advanced mathematics, etc., will result, it is beileved, in an augmented educational experience and lead to considerable expertise on the part of the recipients
Approximately the first six months of graduate study will be spent at the foreign institution and the remaining time at the home institution, thus enabling the students to conduct their thesis research at the home institution. The thesis prob-
lem must involve some aspect of particle technology. The degree will be awarded by the home institution upon satisfactory completion of the course of study. Each institution enrolls its own students and is responsible for obtaining or advising on financial support for its students.
A typical Master's program for Georgia Tech students at Loughborough would be as follows:
Mathematics Fluid Mechanics Heat & Mass Transfer Thermodynamics Computing
Laboratory (6 hrs/wk)
Winter Quarter Mathematics
Particle Characterization Particle/Fluid Systems Interfacial Phenomena Particle Lab. 15 hrs/wk)
Upon returning to Georgia Tech, students will be required (1) to complete satisfactorily two of the three graduate courses: Aerosol Technology, Industrial Emission Control, and Atmospheric Reactions; (2) submit an acceptable thesis; and (3) participate, as long as enrolled, in a seminar course.
WHITE: Polymer Program (Con'd from p. 41.)
R. L. Boles, H. L. Davis and D. C. Bogue, "Entrance Flows of Polymers Materials: Pressure Drop and Flow Patterns," Poly. Eng. Sci., 10, 29 (1970).
5. Bogue, D. C, "An Explicit Constitutive Equasion
Based on an Integrated Strain History," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 5, 253 (1966).
6. White, J. L., "Elastomer Rheology and Processing,"
Rubber Chem. Technol., 42, 257 (1969).
7. Ballenger, T. F., I. J. Chen, J. W. Crowder, G. F.
Hagler, D. C. Bogue and J. L. White," Polymer Melt Flow Instabilities in Extrusion: Investigation of the Mechanism and Material and Geometric Variables," Trans. Soc. Rheol. (in press). 8: White, J. L. and M. Yamamoto "Lattice Theory of Melting of a Crystalline Polymer," J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 28, 891 (1970).
"A Theory of Deformation and Strain Induced Crystallization of an Elastomeric Network Polymer," (to be published). 9. White, J. L. and G. Kingry "Theoretical Analysis and Critique of the chromatographic separation of Macromolecules Using Parous Adsorbents" J. Appl. Poly. Sci. (in press)
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
When you get closer, you see some of the problems we're working on at Roche
As more and more billions crowd the surface of Earth... raising health standards and reducing human suffering become tasks demanding new approaches.
That is why Roche carries on a research effort that for scale and scope can scarcely be matched anywhere in the world... with staff and resources equally unique.
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shorten, relieve, or control dozens of diseases. Babies, pregnant mothers, and others will take Roche vitamins (we're the world's largest producer). In hospitals and clinics, hundreds of Roche products will aid treatment and recovery.
But our research focuses on tomorrow. Besides discovering or developing new drugs, we are deep in diagnostics and medical electronics. Our progress in these areas foreshadows revolutionary new equipment and techniques for a massive attack on global health needs.
Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.
Nutley, New Jersey 07110
An Equal Opportunity Employer
The world of Union Oil
salutes the world
of chemical engineering
We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges and universities which educate chemical engineers. Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The thirtieth largest manufacturing company in the United States, with operations throughout the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petrochemicals throughout the free world. Our research scientists are constantly discovering new ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted more than 2,700 U.S. patents. We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such diverse projects as developing new refining processes, developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and the conservation of air and water. Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic. Tomorrow will be even more stimulating. Thanks largely to people who join us from leading institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil? Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.
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