Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 "Doc" Lewis of MIT
 Book review
 Interfacial phenomena
 Kinetics of chemical processes
 Process control
 Air pollution control systems...
 Problems for teachers
 Fluid mechanics
 Separation processes
 Heat and mass transfer
 Biochemical engineering
 The chemical engineer in manag...
 Division activities
 Graduate education advertiseme...
 Back Cover


Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00030
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Fall 1970
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00030
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00030

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    "Doc" Lewis of MIT
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Book review
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Interfacial phenomena
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Kinetics of chemical processes
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Process control
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Air pollution control systems design
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Problems for teachers
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Fluid mechanics
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Separation processes
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Heat and mass transfer
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Biochemical engineering
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    The chemical engineer in management
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    Division activities
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Graduate education advertisements
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

LEONARD , . ..
OWERi . .
TSAO .. .


FALL 1970
. Interfacial Phenomena
S. . . . Kinetics
. . . . Process Control
. . . . Bioengineering
. . . . . Air Pollution
. . . . Fluid Mechanics
* . Separation Processes
. Heat & Mass Transfer
Biochemical Engineering

SAIChE President



The world of Union Oil

salutes the world

of chemical engineering

We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges
and universities which educate chemical engineers.
Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute
immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The thirtieth largest manufacturing company in
the United States, with operations throughout
the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas
in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's
Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro-
chemicals throughout the free world.
Our research scientists are constantly discovering new
ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted
more than 2,700 U.S. patents.
We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such
diverse projects as developing new refining processes,
developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and
the conservation of air and water.
Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic.
Tomorrow will be even more stimulating.
Thanks largely to people who join us from leading
institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and
challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil?
Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.


Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Editor: Ray Fahien
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

CENTRAL: James H. Weber
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NORTH: J. J. Martin
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Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

FALL 1970

Chemical Engineering Education

Articles on Graduate Courses

162 Interfacial Phenomena John Berg

166 Kinetics of Chemical Processes M. Boudart

168 Process Control L. B. Koppel

172 Bioengineering E. F. Leonard

176 Air Pollution Control Systems Design
Wm. Licht

180 Fluid Mechanics Metzner and Denn

186 Separation Processes John E. Powers

188 Heat and Mass Transfer Toor and Condiff

192 Biochemical Engineering George T. Tsao


155 Editorial

156 A Founder of the Profession
"Doc" Lewis by E. R. Gilliland

160 Book Review

178 Problems for Teachers

186 Errata
C. J. Pings

Feature Articles
198 The Chemical Enginer in Management,
A. L. Conn

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., 137 E. Wisconsin
Ave., DeLand, Florida 32720. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year to non-members of the ChE division of ASEE, $6 per year mailed to members,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Individual copies of Vol. 2 and 3
are $3 each. Copyright (C) 1970, ChE Division of ASEE, Ray Fahien, Editor. The
statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no
responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days.




What's new will probably be
going on all around you.
Including whatever you're
working on. Atlantic Richfield
is a vital, on-the-move place.
Always interested in pushing the
unknown one step further back.

Constantly on the alert to
anything which shows promise of
making our world a better place
to live in. But working this way
requires a never-ending supply
of new ideas, new energy and
new ways of looking at things.
manyy V

That's you. If you'd like to be
where the news is-see our
interviewer on campus.

An Equal Opportunity Employer

0n Cdda4dal

As a senior you may be asking some of the questions below about graduate school.
CEE in this issue as in the fall 1969 issue attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience that greatly enhances your
ability to obtain responsible and challenging
positions in industry and teaching. We also feel
that graduate study can provide you with insur-
ance against the increasing danger of technical
obsolescence. Furthermore, we believe that grad-
uate research work under the guidance of an
inspiring and interested faculty member will
be important in your growth toward confidence,
independence, and maturity. At the same time,
we recognize that while a graduate degree may
lead to either technical work or to management,
some of you may wish to work directly toward
careers in management. To acquaint you with
this option, we invite you to read the article on
this subject by AIChE President, Art Conn.
What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of some
of the areas of graduate chemical engineering, we are
continuing the practice we began last year of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. Last year's issue in-
cluded articles on applied mathematics, momentum and
energy transfer, reactor design, fluid dynamics, particu-
late systems, optimal control, diffusional operations, and
thermodynamics. This year we are eliminating some of
these in order to emphasize certain specialized areas
that were not included in last year's issue such as air
pollution, biomedical and biochemical engineering. We
strongly suggest that you supplement your reading of
this issue by also reading the articles published last
year. If your department chairman or professors can-
not supply you with the latter, we would be pleased to
do so at no charge. But before you read the articles
in these issues we wish to point out that (1) there is
some variation in course content and course organiza-
tion at different schools, (2) there are many areas of
chemical engineering that we have not been able to
cover, and (3) the professors who have written these
articles are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize that
particular area of study.

What is the nature of chemical engineering
graduate research?
One way in which you can obtain an answer
to this question is to read papers in the technical
publications; but another way you may obtain
insight into graduate research is to learn some-
thing about the people who are outstanding
chemical engineering scholars. To assist you in
doing so we are again this year including an
article on one of the "Founders of Chemical En-
gineering," Dr. W. K. Lewis of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. Dr. Lewis has not only
made numerous significant contributions to the
literature, but he has also had an enormous
impact on his students- many of whom have
themselves become leaders in the profession.
Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself by
doing graduate work at an institution other than the
one from which he receives his bachelor's degree.
Fortunately there are many very fine chemical engineer-
ing departments to choose among, each of these
has its own "personality" with special emphases and
distinctive strengths. For example, in choosing a gradu-
ate school you might first consider which school is most
suitable for your own future plans to teach or to go into
industry. Or if you have a specific research project in
mind, you might want to attend a university which
emphasizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if you
are unsure of your field of research, you might consider
a department that has a large faculty with widely
diversified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide
choice of projects. Or you might prefer the atmosphere
of a department with a small enrollment of graduate
students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by
writing the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue. You
will probably also wish to seek advice from members of
the faculty at your own school.
But wherever you decide to go, we hope that you
explore the possibility of continuing your education in
graduate school.
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN: We regret we were unable
to satisfy all requests for free copies. Please see p. 240.

FALL 1970



oc lew of M I IT

Few men have had a greater influence
on his students- and/or the profession,
- than Dr. Warren Kendall Lewis of
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
This article was prepared for CEE by
Professor E. R. Gilliland.

IN THE FALL of 1901 a farm boy from Dela-
ware entered M.I.T. to study mechanical engi-
neering but a year later, at the suggestion of one
of his classmates whose family operated a tan-
nery, he transferred to a new course called
Chemical Engineering. For over sixty years Dr.
Warren K. Lewis has had a leading role in the
creation, development and growth of this new
engineering discipline. He has been a profound
influence on the whole profession and on many
of its leaders.
Dr. Lewis was born on a farm near Laurel,
Delaware, on August 21, 1882. After early school-
ing in Laurel, he transferred to high school in
Newton, Massachusetts, and entered the Massa-
chusetts Institute of Technology in 1901. He
had planned to return to the farm, but following
graduation Dr. William H. Walker offered him
an assistantship which he accepted.
The chemical industry was undergoing a ma-
jor transformation at this time. The first syn-
theses of rayon were struggling to solve their

industrialization difficulties. The advent of the
automobile found the rubber industry with prob-
lems of producing tires with properties far ex-
ceeding those then obtainable in the rubber goods
that had been produced, and petroleum refining
was shifting to gasoline as its major product.
M.I.T. had introduced a new educational program
in the Chemistry Department in 1888 under the
leadership of Professor Lewis M. Norton and
named it Course X, Chemical Engineering. Nor-
ton died a few years later and in 1902 the Insti-
tute brought Dr. Walker from industry to head
Course X.
In 1906, Dr. Lewis was awarded an M.I.T.
fellowship for graduate work in Europe and he
went to the University of Breslau, Germany, and
studied physical chemistry under Abegg, receiv-
ing his Ph.D. in 1908. He returned to M.I.T. as
a research associate in applied chemistry and
then in 1909 joined the N. H. McElwain Com-
pany, a tannery in Merrimack, New Hampshire,
as a chemist. Dr. Walker was successful again
in attracting him to M.I.T. with an appointment
as an Assistant Professor in 1910 and a full
professorship followed in 1914.
In 1920 Course X was separated from the
Chemistry Department and Dr. Lewis became
the first head of the new department, a position
he held until 1929 when he resigned to devote
full time to his teaching.
Doc's career has covered many areas but his
most important professional contributions were
his leading role in the development of the pro-
fession of chemical engineering, his contributions
to individual chemical and petroleum processes,
his advice to students, associates, industry and
government and his development of men.
F ROM THE START of his teaching career,
Dr. Lewis concentrated on utilizing the re-
sources of basic knowledge in physical chemistry
and physics to solve the engineering problems of
chemical industry. He had an extraordinary
understanding of basic science. He knew clearly
the experimental facts that made him believe in
atoms, in molecules, in kinetic theory, in forces
between molecules and in the conservation of
energy. His interest in and understanding of
science and his ability to apply it was always a
joy to behold. In tackling a new problem he


always went back to these fundamental concepts.
Distillation, heat transfer, fluid flow and absorp-
tion were ripe for this treatment, and he soon
developed an integrated complex of research and
teaching which resulted in a concept known as
Unit Operations. Chemical processes are many
and varied, and the Unit Operations made it
possible to have a systematic discipline for the
design and engineering of these complex opera-
tions. This was an exciting era of exploration
and constant change for Lewis and his assistants
- a time of no text-books, when classroom notes
became obsolete shortly after they were distrib-
uted. By 1923 the product of these years was

and the pros and cons of each. Many of the
discussions led to worthwhile innovations for the
industrial operations. Professor Lewis recog-
nized that materials, particularly non-metallic
materials, were an important area for the future
of chemical engineering, and soon after the pub-
lication of PCE he was engaged in formulating
subjects on the basic principles involved in the
understanding of surface chemistry and physics
and of colloidal and amorphous materials such as
gels, clays, textiles, plastics, leather, paper and
rubber. This new material was quickly incorpo-
rated with the Unit Operations in both the un-
dergraduate and graduate programs in chemical

Doc's career has covered many areas but his most important professional contributions were his leading role in
the development of the profession of chemical engineering, his contributions to individual chemical and
petroleum processes, his advice to students, associates, industry, and government, and his development of men.

published by Walker, Lewis and McAdams as
"Principles of Chemical Engineering" a text
which profoundly stimulated the evolution of the
He realized that while the applied physics
and physical chemistry of the Unit Operations
should be a strong component of chemical engi-
neering that it alone was not a sufficiently broad
base for those who were to be the leaders in the
chemical profession. He believed that the special
characteristic of a chemical engineer should be
his understanding of chemistry and his ability
to engineer it into industrial operations.
Leaving largely to others the further develop-
ment of the Unit Operations, Lewis was soon
engaged in introducing subjects in stoichiometry,
industrial chemistry and in materials. In stoi-
chiometry he enjoyed showing the student the
great power of simple material and energy bal-
ances as tools for obtaining insight into a proc-
ess. This work lead to his book with Radasch
on "Industrial Stoichiometry." His subjects in
industrial chemistry were not descriptions of
current practice, although he had a very broad
knowledge of industry from his consulting work,
but were instead detailed analyses of a limited
number of industrial processes. Each step of a
process was analyzed on the basis of the material
and energy balances, the physical chemistry, the
chemical kinetics, the unit operations, the rate
limiting steps involved and the choice of equip-
ment. He would have detailed discussions with
the students on what alternatives were possible

engineering at M.I.T. and lead to his book on
"The Industrial Chemistry of Colloidal and
Amorphous Materials."
H E WAS A superb teacher both as a lecturer
and in the classroom. His lectures were
beautifully organized and he had an unforgettable
and unlimited supply of stories to illustrate all
key points, but his greatest enjoyment was to
challenge the students, or his colleagues, or any-
one who would listen on some problem or princi-
ple. One of his favorite techniques for develop-
ing creativity in his students and the habit of
defending their ideas was his famous "dollar to
doughnut" bets. He admired the man who had
ideas and who would defend them as long as he
was convinced they were correct. A number of
Doc's stories and quotes were collected and pub-
lished some years ago in a volume entitled
"Dollars to Doughnuts."
Dr. Lewis has always been an enthusiastic
and prolific inventor and has received over 80
patents on his inventions, many of which have
been widely applied in the chemical and petro-
leum industries. He attacks all problems with the
viewpoint that there is a better solution, and pro-
ceeds to develop such a solution on the basis of
clear and simple pictures of the fundamental
relationships involved.
Dr. Lewis began consulting with industry
early in his career under the guidance of Dr.
Walker. While Dr. Walker had emphasized the
necessity of basic science as the foundation of
chemical engineering he believed that it was vital

FALL 1970

for an engineer to understand and to be involved
in industrial practice. He himself was an active
industrial consultant to the chemical industry
and for a number of years Walker was a partner
with A. D. Little in the consulting firm of Little
and Walker.
Before World War I, Doc was working with
Goodyear and Standard Oil Company of New
Jersey. At Goodyear he did both consulting work
and gave courses to the research group on ap-
plied physical chemistry, chemical engineering
and materials. At this time the field of macro-
molecules was a maze of empirical knowledge
although some of the bases of the modern inter-
pretations had already been suggested. Working
with the men in the Goodyear chemical depart-
ment, he stimulated the development of a coher-
ent working hypotheses of the structure and
behavior of macromolecules, which was helpful
in guiding the development of rubber technology.
His work correlated the confused theories as to
the nature of rubber and showed the relation-
ships between the macromolecules of rubber and
similar ones encountered in leather, cellulose,
and other materials.
F OR MORE THAN forty-five years he has been
a consultant to Humble Oil and Refining Com-
pany and the Esso Research and Engineering
Company (formerly Standard Oil Development
Co.) both of which are affiliates of Standard Oil
Company (N.J.) One of his first contributions
was an improved method for the vacuum distilla-
tion of lubricating oils in which he showed the
advantage of reducing the resistance to flow of
the vapor from the evaporating liquid to the
condenser. He worked with Professor A. A.
Noyes on an analysis of Sorel's and Hausbrand's
work on the rectification of alcohol and saw the
potentialities for such an operation in many
chemical and petroleum separations. He was
responsible for the first large scale application
of continuous rectification in the petroleum in-
dustry: an installation of columns on a series of
shell stills for the sharp separation of naphthas
and gas oils. He later played a leading role in
the development of the pipe still and in the de-
velopment of super fractionators for the prepa-
ration of components for synthetic rubber and
aviation gasoline.
Dr. Lewis was actively involved in petro-
leum cracking developments. In thermal crack-
ing, coke formation was a troublesome problem
because it would frequently deposit at a rapid

Doc as the prime factor in the professional
development of many men who are now leaders in
the chemical and petroleum industries.

rate in localized regions and stop the operation.
He formulated models for the formation of coke
by the cracking operation indicating that the
reactions involved the production of active spe-
cies which condensed, recracked and by a repeti-
tion of this cycle led to coke. Understanding that
some basic steps of this reaction sequence were
higher than first order, he proposed that the
localized production of coke was due to the con-
centration of active species in these areas and
that by mechanical design and by conditions that
would dilute and rapidly wash out these con-
stituents the coke problem could be licked.
The work on thermal cracking and on reser-
voir engineering and petroleum production led
to his pioneering studies on the high pressure
vapor-liquid equilibria, in both the P-V-T and
interphase equilibrium constant areas. His work
on petroleum production also led to his investiga-
tions of two-phase liquid flow through porous
media which he integrated with his work on
inter-facial surface properties that had developed
in his surface chemistry and physic subjects
Prior to 1938 it was difficult to carry out
heterogeneous reactions between gases and solids
in those cases where large energy effects were
involved or in which the solid rapidly deactivated
and needed frequent regeneration. A number of
important reactions were limited in this way and
required expensive reactor construction and com-
plicated operating procedures. For example, it
had been known for many years that silica-
alumina catalysts were effective for the cracking
of hydrocarbons and that the products had
higher octane numbers than those obtained from
conventional processes However, it was difficult
to make the operation practical because, first, the
catalyst deactivated rapidly due to carbon de-
position, and second, the cracking operation was
highly endothermic, while the catalyst regenera-
tion stage, i.e., burning the carbon off the cata-
lyst, was highly exothermic. Frequent and com-
plicated cycles were involved to maintain ade-
quate catalyst activity and to prevent explosion
by the mixing of oxidizing gas and the hydro-
carbons. In addition complicated reactor designs
were employed in order to supply heat during the
reaction cycle and to remove heat during the re-
generation cycle. Th complications of the cycles


were such that they were made longer than de-
sirable, resulting in lower average catalyst ac-
D R. LEWIS pioneered the fluidized powdered
solid system which was a much more effec-
tive method of handling such reactions. By
fluidizing the solid and producing a system that
could flow like a fluid, it was possible to pass the
catalyst rapidly between a reaction zone and a
regeneration zone thereby maintaining high
average catalyst activity within the reactor.
Likewise, the rapid flow of catalyst from the
regenerator to the reactor made it possible to
carry heat from one vessel to the other by the
sensible heat of the solid, thereby eliminating

allied Conference on Gas Warfare. In 1940 -
eighteen months before Pearl Harbor - Dr.
Lewis joined the National Defense Research
Committee (later OSRD) organized by Vannevar
Bush, J. B. Conant, and Roger Adams for the
attack on technical problems of concern to the
military. He was also a member of the Senior
Advisory Committee for the Manhattan Project.
Doc has been the prime factor in the pro-
fessional development of many men who are
now leaders in the chemical and petroleum in-
dustries. His teaching and his interest and suc-
cess in the development of men trained to think
creatively and practically in the field of applied-
chemistry reveal his full character. Those who

Doc has always been an enthusiastic and prolific inventor . . . He attacks all problems with the viewpoint that
there is a better solution . . . Dr. Lewis pioneered the fluidized powdered solid system.

any heat transfer through the walls. In addition,
rapid mixing within the fluidized bed gave al-
most complete uniformity of temperature in
both the reactor and the regenerator.
The process was so outstanding in its advan-
tages that the type of reactor previously em-
ployed for catalytic cracking was abandoned
within a relatively few years. The fluidized proc-
ess was developed just as World War II was
beginning and accounted for a large fraction of
the aviation gasoline produced by the United
States. The fluidized solid operation has out-
standing advantages for heterogeneous reactions
involving large heat effects or whenever it is
desirable to move solids through the reaction
zone rapidly, and as a result has been applied to
the coking of heavy petroleum residues, hydro-
forming of naptha, burning of limestone, proces-
sing of sulfide ores, production of silicones, oxi-
dation of napthalene, and many other chemical
reaction. It has probably had a more rapid and
extensive adoption than any other chemical en-
gineering process technique in recent years, and,
at the present time, the capital investment repre-
sented by the fluidized processes is several billion
Dr. Lewis was extensively involved with the
government during both World Wars. During
the first war he was active with the Chemical
Warfare Service and the Bureau of Mines and
was in charge of the development program for
gas defense. In October 1918 he represented the
Chemical Warfare Service at the Paris Inter-

have been associated with him in the classroom,
in research projects, and in industrial work con-
sider this experience one of the most important
and exciting parts of their professional career.
Many of these men are now teaching and twelve
of his former students have been elected to the
National Academy of Engineering and six to the
National Academy of Sciences. The success and
contributions of these former students are his
greatest satisfaction.
The characteristics that made Dr. Lewis out-
standing as a teacher and builder of men were a
tireless devotion to his work and to his ideals, a
rare form of modesty in giving credit to others,
sympathy for the man who made an effort (ex-
cellence preferred) but the effort was para-
mount, a wonderful enthusiasm for his profes-
sion and for tackling the tough problems, for
making chemical engineering practice a vivid
and colorful experience, and a knack for teach-
ing and for inspiring the best in his students
and associates.
T HE CONTRIBUTIONS Dr. Lewis has made
have been recognized by many honors and
awards. He has received honorary doctorate de-
grees from the University of Delaware, Prince-
ton University, Harvard University and Bowdoin
College. He has received the President's Medal
of Science and the President's Medal of Merit.
He was honored by AIChE by the establishment
of the Warren K. Lewis Award jointly sponsored
by the Esso Research and Engineering Company
and the Humble Oil and Refining Company which

FALL 1970

recognizes outstanding educators in chemical en-
gineering. He has received the Perkins Medal of
the Society of Chemical Industry, American Sec-
tion (1936) ; the Lamme Medal of ASEE (1947) ;
the Priestley Medal of the ACS (1947) ; the Gold
Medal of the American Institute of Chemists
(1949) ; the New England Award of the Engi-
neering Societies of New England (1950) ; the
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Award of
the ACS (1956) ; the API Gold Medal for Dis-
tinguished Achievement (1957) ; the John Fritz
Medal given jointly by the five national engi-
neering societies (1966) and the Founders
Award of the AIChE (1958). In 1969 the
faculty, friends and alumni of Course X estab-
lished through contributions the Warren K.
Lewis Professorship in Chemical Engineering
at M.I.T.
At 88 years of age, Doc is still vigorous and
active and willing to give anyone a lecture (and
his solution) on technical or social problems.
He continues to be an inspiration for those
who were associated with him and the chemical
engineering profession has been very fortunate
in having one of the outstanding teachers and
engineers of the century in its rank.

r1ll book reviews I

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase
Equilibria. J. M. Prausnitz, Prentice-Hall,
New York (1969).
For those chemical engineers (and chemists)
who wish a succinct evaluation of this book then
I recommend you buy it! It provides an excellent,
up-to-date reference source to allow one to in-
terpret and correlate phase equilibrium data-
and, in many cases to predict phase compositions
a priori from theory.
A more detailed review should, of course, note
the style, degree of clarity, aptness, and content.
The first three of these attributes need little com-
ment. The book is very well written, extremely
easy to follow, and treats a subject which is of
great import to the chemical engineering pro-
Regarding the content, two points seem worth
noting, both of which are covered in the preface.
First, Professor Prausnitz states that in the book,
"no attempt has been made to be exhaustive."
Topics were selected with which he was familiar
and topics such as metal or electrolyte solutions
were not considered. The point to be made here

is, however, that in the material covered, it ap-
pears to the reviewer, that for solutions of
organic materials, a very fair appraisal has been
presented and the material well documented in
the bibliography.
The second point to emphasize is the general
philosophy of the book wherein the author defines
his approach to the study of phase equilibria as
one of "an engineering science, based on classical
thermodynamics but relying on molecular physics
and statistical thermodynamics to supply insight
into the behavior of matter. In application, there-
fore, molecular thermodynamics is rarely exact;
it must necessarily have an empirical flavor."
This latter statement sets the tone of the entire
book. When it is possible to be rigorous, one finds
a clear derivation of the significant relations.
When such an approach is not possible, empiric-
ism is introduced, but in a manner to try and
extract generalizations from specific cases so as
to allow the reader himself to extrapolate and
interpolate and thus lead one to logical reasoning
for different cases.
The first six chapters neatly condense those
elements of thermodynamics necessary through-
out the remainder of the book. In particular,
emphasis has been correctly placed on the require-
ment for an accurate equation of state to. obtain
gas phase fugacities. Perhaps more emphasis
could have been given to those mathematical diffi-
culties encountered in obtaining liquid fugacities
by integrating a fugacity expression across the
two phase envelope, but this viewpoint is implied
since the remainder of the book deals primarily
with liquid phase models to determine activity co-
efficients. The straight-forward review of the
principal concepts of intermolecular forces in
Chapter 5 will be appreciated by most readers.
Chapters 6 and 7 treat excess functions and
solution theories to allow one to handle liquid
fugacities while Chapters 8 through 10 deal with
the specific topics of the solubility of gases in
liquids and solids and high pressure equilibria.
Nine appendices are used to prevent detailed
derivations from blocking the smooth flow of
ideas in the text.
As a reference or as a class text, this book
should be .valuable for many years. Those active
in the field might hope that this book might soon
become obsolete. However, there is little chance
of this occurring!
R. C. Reid
Massachusetts Institute of Technology


To a man with emphysema, a flight

of stairs is Mt.Everest.
0 M N W'^BHHi t UUrWE-^^^^^

it you nave emphysema or otner cnromic
lung problems, you know what ifts like
to climb a flight of stairs. And you prob-
ably don't know what it's like to play a
round of golf or even take a walk.
Union Carbide's Linde Division has
developed a portable liquid oxygen sys-
tem which many doctors prescribe for
their patients.
It weighs less than 9 pounds full. Set
the oxygen at the flow your doctor tells
you to. And you can do many of the
things you did before.
Sure, we've oversimplified the whole
thing. We're not going to go on and on
about all the Union Carbide technology
that makes the Oxygen Walker possible.

ir s just one or me mmgs we re comg
with air.
We separate and purify nitrogen, argon,
neon and krypton for industry. We make
liquid nitrogen systems for everything
from refrigeration to surgery. We make
mixtures for underwater divers.
It makes sense that if we can help a
diver dive to 1000 feet, we can give a man
with emphysema the air to get to the top
of the stairs.

270 Park Ave., New York, N Y 10011

4 Gourse . Oad y4e4aces


University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105

A WIDE VARIETY of topics involving fluid inter-
faces have, in the minds of chemical engi-
neers, begun to coalesce into a single area of
study which might be called interfaciall phe-
nomena". This is occurring primarily for two
reasons: first, the increasing recognition of the
importance of interfacial effects in chemical
engineering practice, and second, the increasing
neglect of interfacial topics in conventional
course sequences in chemistry and physics. These
it seems are reasons not unlike those which gave
birth to a unified study of the transport phe-
nomena in chemical engineering.
The diversity of problems in the realm of in-
terfacial phenomena is staggering. Space would
not permit an attempt at a complete listing, but
a small sample might include: wetting, spread-
ing, foaming, colloid stability, sedimentation,
interfacial turbulence, cellular convection, mi-
celle formation, solubilization, detergent action,
nucleation, flow through porous media, lung me-
chanics, structure of cell membranes, reactions in
monolayers, evaporation suppression, adhesion,
lubrication, mechanics of bubbles and drops,
fluid phase catalysis, meniscus stability, adsorp-
tion kinetics and equilibria, surface rheology, ac-
tive transport, and electrical double layers.
One feature which most interface problems
have in common with each other is that, in addi-
tion to being problems in interfacial phenomena,
they are also problems in one or more presently
recognized fields of study, such as hydrodynamics,
thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, physiol-
ogy, electro-chemistry, etc. The resultant "crazy-
quilt" nature of the subject of interfacial phe-
nomena is evident in such books as Davies and
Rideal (4), Adamson, (2), and Osipow, (9).
With the partial exception of Davies and Rideal,
a feature which most "comprehensive" books on
the subject have in common is that they are writ-
ten from the chemists' point of view. They often
neglect topics of vital interest to the chemical
engineer, particularly those involving the fluid

John Berg was educated at Carnegie Tech (B.S.) and
University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D. '64). His re-
search interests are in interfacial phenomena, in particu-
lar, the investigation of thermodynamic and transport
properties of multicomponent interfaces, surface tension
driven flows, and the surface chemistry of the lung.
He is presently an associate professor at the University
of Washington.

mechanics of interfaces and the consequent ef-
fects on heat and mass transfer. This material
must be gathered from the relatively recent
chemical engineering literature.
The problem facing one who would construct
a course on interfacial phenomena for chemical
engineers is to formulate the essential skeleton
of fundamentals common to all fluid interface
studies and to flesh-out this skeleton with suffi-
cient examples to illustrate the principles. The
pitfall to avoid is the presentation of a parade
of examples with insufficient attention to the
common ground between them.

A GRADUATE LEVEL course in Interfacial Phe-
nomena is offered by the author at the Uni-
versity of Washington in alternate years and has
thus far been given in the Spring quarters of
1968 and 1970. The course requires one quarter
each of graduate level thermodynamics and fluid
mechanics as prerequisites. Many of the prob-
lems of interfacial phenomena provide excellent
opportunities to combine these generally non-
intersecting disciplines. Although the specific
content of the course differed significantly in its
first and second offerings, and will change yet
again in its subsequent offerings, a skeletal out-
line is presented in Table I. The course content is
necessarily flexible to permit incorporation of the
most recent research results obtained both in our


I. Surface Tension and Capillary Statics (2, ch. 1;
5, ch. 1)
A. The concept of surface tension; the "membrane
B. The equation of Young and Laplace
C. Meniscus configurations and contact angles. (3,
ch. 5)
D. Measurement of static surface tension (1, ch 9)
E. Measurement of dynamic surface tension
F. Stability of static meniscii (10)
G. The effect of curvature on the thermodynamic
properties of bulk phases. (5, chs. 15-16)
II. The Thermodynamics of Capillary Systems (5, chs.
A. Definition of simple capillary systems
B. The Gibbs dividing surface
C. Relative adsorption and its direct measurement
D. First Law calculations for capillary systems;
surface tension of pure components (5, ch. 11)
E. Fundamental equations for capillary systems
F. The Gibbs adsorption equation
III. Thermodynamic Properties of Some Important
Capillary Systems
A. Surface tension of simple solutions; the mono-
layer model (5, chs. 12-13)
B. Solutions of non-colloidal electrolytes
C. Solutions of surface active agents (1, ch. 3; 9,
chs. 8-9)
D. Monolayers of insoluble surfactants (1, ch. 2;
6; 7)
E. A general phase rule for capillary systems (5,
ch. 6)
IV. Capillary Dynamics (8, chs. 7-8)
A. Boundary conditions at fluid interfaces
B. The Newtonian fluid interface
C. Surface transport properties (4, chs. 4-5)
D. Case study of circulating drops and bubbles
E. Case study of cellular convection and inter-
facial turbulence

group and elsewhere. No textbook is followed,
but copious use of references is made. A few of
the principle ones are inserted by number into
the outline below and listed in Table II.

I. Capillary Statics
THE FIRST MAJOR area examined is "capillary
statistics", i.e. the determination of static
equilibrium configurations of fluid interfaces and
the forces they exert on solids in contact with
them. Following a preliminary discussion of the
molecular nature of transition regions between
bulk phases, the 'membrane model" of the
mobile interface is presented. The position
of the "membrane" (the "surface of ten-

Much of the material . . . lends itself to interesting
and illuminating lecture or laboratory demonstration.

sion") and the value of the surface tension,
a, are chosen to make the model mechanically
equivalent to the complex layer which is actually
the interface. The model leads to the Young-
Laplace equation: Ap = 2oKCm, where Ap is the
pressure difference across the interface and Km
its mean curvature. Following a discussion of
the geometry of surfaces in space, the derivation
is presented from both the force-balance and
variational points of view. The force-balance de-
rivation, in which the surface curvature is writ-
ten as 1/r, + 1/r,, the sum of the two plane
curvatures, has a simple physical appeal and
lends itself well to the consideration of simpler
special cases such as surfaces or axial or bilateral
symmetry. The variational derivation can readily
be extended (by examining the second variation
of the systems' total potential energy) to a con-
sideration of problems of meniscus stability.
The most important application of capillary
statics is to the measurement of equilibrium sur-
face tension. This is accomplished through the
measurement of the position or shape of the fluid
interface or of the force it exerts on a solid object
imbedded in it. The capillary rise, maximum

1. Adam, N. K., "The Physics and Chemistry of Sur-
faces," Dover (1968) (1941 edition).
2. Adamson, A. W., "Physical Chemistry of Surfaces,"
Interscience (1967).
3. Bickerman, J. J., "Surface Chemistry for Indus-
trial Application," Academic Press (1947).
4. Davies, J. T. and E. K. Rideal, "Interfacial Phe-
nomena," Academic Press (1961).
5. Defay, R., I. Prigogine, A. Bellemaus and D. H.
Everett, "Surface Tension and Adsorption," Long-
mans (1966).
6. Gaines, G. L., "Insoluble Monolayers at Liquid-Gas
Interfaces," Interscience (1966).
7. Harkins, W. D., "The Physical Chemistry of Sur-
face Films," Reinhold (1952).
8. Levich, V. G., "Physicochemical Hydrodynamics,"
Prentice-Hall (1962).
9. Osipow, L. I., "Surface Chemistry," Reinhold
10. Satterlee, H. M. and W. C. Reynolds, "The Dy-
namics of the Free Liquid Surface," NSF Tech.
Rep. LG-2 (1964).

FALL 1970

The course requires one quarter each of graduate lev el thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.
Many of the problems of interfacial phenomena provide excellent opportunities to combine these
generally non-intersecting disciplines.

bubble pressure, drop weight and Wilhelmy slide
methods are examined in some detail, and com-
puter solutions of the Young-Laplace equation
are used where applicable. Although not strictly
studies in capillary statics, two methods for
measurement of "dynamic" (i.e., time-depend-
ent) surface tension are also described at this
point: the oscillating elliptical jet and the con-
tracting circular jet.
The unit is concluded with a discussion of the
effect of curvature on the thermodynamic prop-
erties of bulk phases, in particular the altered
vapor pressure of liquids in small capillaries or
as fine droplets and the altered solubility of finely
divided solids or finely dispersed liquids. The
Young-Laplace equation gives the relationship
between the pressure difference and curvature
while the usual Poynting factor gives the effect
of pressure change on the fugacity of the liquid
or solid in question.

II. Thermodynamic Framework
THE SECOND PART of the course deals with the
classical thermodynamics of capillary systems
per se. A "simple capillary system" is defined as
a pair of simple bulk phases together with the
interface between them. Such a system is subject
to p-V work associated with both the bulk phase
parts and o-A work associated with the interface.
A state postulate is formulated for such systems
in "partial equilibrium", as defined by Defay,
et al (5). The system is taken to be in internal
thermal and mechanical equilibrium (as defined
by the Young-Laplace equation) but not neces-
sarily in equilibrium with respect to chemical
reactions or adsorption of components from the
bulk phases to the interface. In order to define
the amounts of adsorption of the various com-
ponents, as well as other extensive properties to
be associated with the interface itself, a model of
the capillary system must be employed, such as
that of the Gibbs dividing surface. The interface
is replaced with a geometrical surface and the
bulk phase portions of the system are assumed
homogeneous up to this surface. Requiring ther-
modynamic equivalence between the actual sys-
tem and the model defines quantities to be asso-
ciated with the dividing surface as "surface ex-

cesses". The formal thermodynamics of capil-
lary systems is developed using the Gibbs model,
but the Guggenheim model (in which the inter-
face is treated as a region of finite thickness,
across which properties vary) and the monolayer
model (in which the interface is treated as a
single monolayer of molecules whose composition
differs from that of both bulk phases) are also
used in subsequent applications. The formulation
based upon the Gibbs model is of course rigorous,
but the surface excesses it defines are highly
sensitive to the dividing surface location, which
for plane surfaces is indeterminate. Therefore,
relative adsorptions, whose values are invariant
with respect to dividing surface location, are
used. The cornerstone of the thermodynamics
of capillary systems is the Gibbs adsorption
equation, which provides a rigorous equilibrium
relationship between relative adsorptions, sur-
face tension, and bulk phase chemical potentials.

II. Thermodynamic Properties
U SING THE FORMAL thermodynamics developed
above, the surface properties of a number of
types of systems are investigated. The study of
solutions of non-surfactant, non-electrolyte so-
lutes is based primarily on the monolayer model.
Equating chemical potentials of all components
between the surface monolayer and the bulk
phase leads to the set of Butler equations:
= +RT I y'Xi'X
o = o-i + In Y1'X1
ai i X1
where u- is thesurface tension of the solution, a-
that of pure component i, a1 the molar area of i
in the surface, and Vi'Xio and y X the activities
of component i in the surface and substrate, re-
spectively. Ideal, regular, athermal, and asso-
ciated solution models are used in both the bulk
solution and surface monolayer to predict surface
tension and surface composition of the solutions.
Solutions of inorganic electrolytes are treated
next, with emphasis on the modifications that
must be made in the Gibbs equation for treat-
ment of electrolyte systems. Solutions of surfac-
tants are treated in detail, with special attention
given to the phenomena of micellization and
solubilization. Insoluble monolayers are treated


The diversity of problems in the realm of interfacial phenomena is staggering . . . the pitfall to avoid is the
presentation of a parade of examples with insufficient attention to the common ground between them.

next, with emphasis on the two-dimensional
phase behavior they exhibit. In the context of
the discussion of insoluble monolayers, wetting
and spreading phenomena are discussed in some
detail, and a general phase rule for capillary sys-
tems is developed.

IV. Capillary Dynamics
T HE UNIT ON "capillary dynamics" concerns
surface tension driven (or surface tension in-
fluenced) fluid flow. Interfacial effects enter the
problem via the boundary conditions, producing
discontinuities in both the normal and tangential
stress balances at the fluid interface. The normal
stress discontinuity is proportional to the surface
curvature, as given by the Young-Laplace equa-
tion: 2f (T,X)Km, while the tangential stress dis-
continuity is equal to the lateral variation of the
surface tension: grads(T,x), where grad, refers
to the surface gradient. Both force components
may be appreciable in magnitude, and their
evaluation requires knowledge of the surface
tension dependence upon temperature and com-
position, i.e. thermodynamic information of the
type studied in the foregoing work. When varia-
tions of surface tension are caused by variation
in temperature and/or composition, the flow
equations must be solved together with the
thermal energy equation and/or diffusion equa-
When highly surface active solutes are pres-
ent, grade, is proportional to the surface gradient
of the surfactant adsorption, i.e. (3/oar) gradT.
The surfactant distribution is given in turn by
a surface material balance:

-- + div, (Fv, - Dgrad,Fr) + j+ in,' = 0

where v, is the surface velocity, D, the surface
diffusivity, and ji' and ji" fluxes of surfactant
from the adjoining bulk phases. The rate of
interchange of material between interface and
bulk may be governed by adsorption-desorption
kinetics, molecular diffusion, or convective diffu-
Finally, concentrated surfactant monolayers
have been shown to possess intrinsic rheological
properties, in particular surface viscosity. Terms
involving the intrinsic surface rheological prop-

erties are incorporated into the tangential force
boundary condition for such systems. Attention
is focused on current studies, such as those in
progress in our laboratory, of thermodynamic
and transport properties of monolayers in multi-
component systems and their application to flow
A case study is made of the circulation within
drops and bubbles moving through viscous media
and the effects of temperature and composition
variations upon such flows. A second case study
of hydrodynamic analysis is made of interfaciall
turbulence", and its effect on mass transfer.
M UCH OF THE MATERIAL covered in this course
lends itself to interesting and illuminating
lecture or laboratory demonstration. C. V. Boys'
monograph: "Soap Bubbles and the Forces which
Mould Them" describes many possibilities. Sus-
pending soap films on wire frames of various
shapes to illustrate Plateau's problem (Deter-
mine the surface of minimum area passing
through a given closed curve or set of curves in
space) is a convincing illustration of a special
case of the Young-Laplace equation. Advantage
was taken of on-going research projects among
the author's graduate students to provide labora-
tory demonstrations of the capillary rise and con-
tracting circular jet methods for measuring static
and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, as
well as the Langmuir film balance technique for
studying insoluble monolayers. Schlieren optics
were used to display surface tension driven flows
during mass transfer, and the excellent film by
L. Trefethen "Surface Tension in Fluid Mechan-
ics," Educ. Services, Inc. (1964) was used to
illustrate numerous capillary phenomena.

The interest in this course shown by the
graduate students in Chemical Engineering at
Washington has been truly gratifying. Almost all
of them either take or audit the class, and many
express interest in taking topical courses which
are extensions of material covered in this course.
What is perhaps most gratifying of all is the
wealth of constructive criticism and helpful
suggestions these students provide.

FALL 1970

4 eaes in4


Stanford University
Stanford, California 94305

T HE RATE OF CHEMICAL processes can be
studied at four different levels. In practice,
the chemistry of the process is most frequently
disguised under transport phenomena. The study
of the interaction between physical and chemical
variables in the chemical reactor is the province
of chemical engineering kinetics or chemical re-
action engineering. This discipline emerged in
the late thirties and blossomed up after the war.
It is normally taught to chemical engineers at
both undergraduate and graduate levels.
The success of this first approach, especially
in the design of reactors, depends largely on
knowledge that is obtained at subsequent levels
dissection of the chemical processes. A second
level of knowledge is that of the process unfet-
tered from gradients of temperature and con-
centrations. Usually the process then consists
of a network of single reactions in parallel and
in series. To understand the network, it is
necessary to understand its component single
reactions and the kinetic study of single reac-
tions constitutes the third level of endeavor.
Indeed, each single reaction takes place nor-
mally through a sequence of elementary steps and
the dissection of the single reaction into its
component steps is a formidable task in the study
of all catalytic and chain reactions.
Finally, kinetic information on the isolated
elementary steps themselves must be obtained
for a complete knowledge of the entire process.
The study of elementary steps is the domain of
pure chemical kinetics dominated by the theory
of the transition state or activated complex. How-
ever, with the rapid development of molecular
beams and computational techniques, the classical
aspects of chemical kinetics are replaced more
and more by a complete description which is the
object of the new molecular dynamics. Both
classical chemical kinetics and molecular dynam-
ics constitute the fourth and ultimate level of
kinetic knowledge and these topics are normally
taught in advanced physical chemistry courses.

CLEARLY THEN, there is a gap between the
first and the fourth levels of kinetic knowl-
edge that must be filled, especially for the educa-
tion of chemical engineers. This gap I have at-
tempted to fill by means of a textbook published
in 1968 by Prentice Hall. This book can be fol-
lowed closely in undergraduate courses. At the
graduate level, it can be supplemented by reading
assignments from the current literature in Jour-
nal of Catalysis, Transactions of the Faraday
Society and Kinetics and Catalysis.
The purpose of the course is to provide the
student with the judgment required to obtain,
evaluate and improve rate equations that must
be used in the design, operation and optimization
of chemical reactors. With a proposed rate equa-
tion, the important question is not so much:
"how well does it fit the data?" but rather: "what
does it mean physically?".
To answer the latter question, it is necessary
to scrutinize the numerical values of the param-
eters of the rate equation. Of even greater im-
portance than activation energies and enthalpies
of individual steps, are standard entropies of
activation and reaction. The advanced student
must become able to pass judgment on pos-
sible rate equations from such a physical stand-
point. He must recognize the frailty of numerical
analysis in deciding between alternative mechan-
isms. He must free himself from routine appli-
cation of a limited number of types of sequences
of elementary steps. A lot can be done in this
field with a bare minimum of chemistry.
The general tools available to the student who
wishes to gain confidence in kinetics rather than
become an expert are few, but they are powerful
if they are well understood. They are: the theory
of the transition state, the steady state approxi-
mation, the concept of rate determining step, the


Michel Boudart graduated from the University of
Louvain with a B.S. degree (Candidature Ingenieur) in
1944, and an M.S. degree (Ingenieur Civil Chemiste) in
1947. In 1950, he received his Ph.D. degree in Chemistry
from Princeton University, and he remained there until
1961. After a three year stay at the Univesrity of
California at Berkeley he became in 1964, Professor of
Chemical Engineering and Chemistry at Stanford Uni-
versity. Michel Boudart is a consultant to Esso Research
and Engineering Company at Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.
Michel Boudart is also on the Advisory Editorial Boards
of the Journal of Catalysis, Catalysis Reviews, Ad-
vances in Catalysis, Annual Review of Materials Sci-
ence, and American Chemical Society Monographs.
Professor Boudatr's textbook, 'Kinetics of Chemical
Processes', was published by Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.
His honors include: Belgian American Educational
Foundation Fellowship, 1948; Proctor Fellowship, 1949;
Humble Oil Lecturer in Science and Engineering, 1958;
American Institute of Chemical Engineers' Institute Lec-
turer, 1961; Curtis-McGraw Research Award, 1962; Chair-
man, Gordon Research Conference on Catalysis, 1962;
Sigma Xi National Lecturer, 1965; and Debye Lec-
turer of the American Chemical Society Section at
Ithaca, New York.

concept of most abundant intermediate and the
idea of interaction between single reactions in
parallel or in series.
Transition state theory remains the work-
horse of pure chemical kinetics in spite of the
exciting but limited forays at the new frontier
of molecular dynamics. The important realiza-
tion here is first that calculations of activation
energies are ruled out for some time to come but
that very simple and reliable estimates of entro-
pies of activation can be made for many
elementary steps. Theory does not provide num-
bers that can be used for design. These numbers
must, alas, always come from the experimental
reactor. But theory provides a useful guide that
permits us to accept or reject possible rate equa-
The steady state approximation is the second
general tool and it is so good as a rule that the
further qualifications of "quasi" as in quasi
steady state approximation seems to be unneces-
sarily cautious. Nevertheless, interesting excep-
tions are known and their discussion in a gradu-
ate course is apt to stimulate the more mathe-
matically gifted student.

OF GREAT VALUE but much more limited
applicability is the concept of rate determin-
ing step. While this concept is not foreign to the
chemical engineering student, it is usually mis-

understood and it is of great importance to stress
its meaning. Thus, it may come as a surprise
to some students that it is still perfectly legiti-
mate to talk about a rate determining step of a
single reaction that has reached chemical equilib-
rium. Possible methods to assign a rate deter-
mining step are among the topics that are of
interest to the more serious graduate students.
Another key idea which I have found par-
ticularly useful in the kinetic treatment of chain
and catalytic reactions, is that of the most abun-
dant intermediate. It is found frequently that
among all the free radicals or adsorbed inter-
mediates that take part in the sequence of steps,
only one is kineticallyy significant" because of
its much larger concentration. Ways to predict
such a situation and to take advantage of it,
deserve proper attention and provide many use-
ful illustrations.

FINALLY, WHENEVER a reaction network
must be treated, it is essential to keep in
mind that the rates of single reactions in the
network may be different from the rates of these
same reactions measured individually. This is
due to the interaction between single reactions
as a result of competition of reactants for the
intermediates appearing in the various sequences.
Many fascinating cases of such interactions are
known among chain and catalytic reactions.
With mixed feeds, as for instance in steam
cracking, these effects can be very striking.
Besides these five key concepts, a graduate
course in chemical kinetics for chemical engi-
neers should also cover the following topics:
branched chain reactions, nucleation and growth
especially in reactions involving solids, wall ef-
fects, proper measurement of catalytic rates,
the principle of microscopic reversibility, ther-
mal ignition, inhibition and the kinetic use of
tracers. All of these are likely to be encountered
by the chemical engineer engaged in process re-
search and development. If the student becomes
imbued with the power and generality of these
kinetic principles, a course in the Kinetics of
Chemical Processes can be very rewarding. In-
deed, I feel rather strongly that a course of this
type is a bread and butter course for all gradu-
ate students of chemical engineering. It has been
my experience over the past nine years, first at
Berkeley where I originated it and then at Stan-
ford, that the material is well received even by
students who have little affinity for chemistry.

FALL 1970

QaaUel. i4-


Purdue University
Lafayette, Indiana

control poses several challenging questions
to chemical engineering educators: What are its
objectives? Which topics are of primary impor-
tance? To what extent is duplication of subject
matter, with that of courses offered in electrical
engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering
science, etc., desirable and/or justifiable? How
much duplication can be afforded with courses in
optimization offered in our own departments?
Should a single course be a "survey" and appeal
to all chemical engineering graduate students, or
should it be primarily directed at those who plan
to do their thesis research in process control?
What can be done to compensate for the enor-
mous differences, in undergraduate preparation
in process control, observed among students
coming from various schools? Should laboratory
work be included? What is a good balance be-
tween theory and applications?
Clearly, these questions occur in designing
curricula for any area. However, the answers
would appear to be less well-established for proc-
ess control than for other areas of chemical
engineering, perhaps because this is a relatively
new subject. My purpose is to discuss graduate
education in process control at Purdue, and how
we have attempted to answer these questions.
SEVERAL FACTORS existing at Purdue may
give us somewhat more than the usual
amount of flexibility for experimentation in
graduate education in general, and in graduate
courses on process control, in particular. Our
department has a relatively large number of
graduate students, thus more nearly ensuring
sufficient registration to offer a specialized course
such as process control course each year. As a
result, the course has been taught six times in the
past seven years. There are three faculty mem-
bers in the chemical engineering department
interested in teaching a graduate process control
course: Henry C. Lim, William A. Weigand, and

Lowell B. Koppel was educated at Northwestern
University (B.S., 1957; Ph.D., 1960) and at the University
of Michigan (M.S.E., 1958). He is currently Professor
of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University with re-
search interests in process operation, process design, and
transport processes.

the author. Therefore, the course can be offered
frequently without unduly restricting the teach-
ing interests of any one faculty member. The
average number of resident graduate students
performing research in process control or re-
lated areas has exceeded ten over the past few
years. This leads to a strong research interest
on the part of students enrolled in the process
control course. Purdue's departments of me-
chanical engineering, electrical engineering, en-
gineering science, and mathematics offer several
courses in control and closely related areas (such
as systems engineering, mathematical program-
ming, optimization, etc.). On the one hand, this
relieves us of the pressure to cover a wide variety
of topics, but on the other hand, increases our
responsibility to avoid duplication by being
aware of course content in other departments.
The Purdue Laboratory for Applied Industrial
Control (PLAIC), directed by Theodore J. Wil-
liams, supports graduate students from several
departments, including chemical engineering, on
industrially-oriented projects. Purdue graduate
students interested in practical aspects of process
control thus have opportunities for training in
addition to those offered by the chemical engi-
neering department.
A GAINST THIS background, our department
has taught a 3-semester hour, graduate-level
course, Advanced Process Control, hereafter re-
ferred to by its number, CHE 656. Over the
several years it has been offered, some 35 -40
graduate students have been enrolled in CHE


S. . familiarity with the current literature
is a primary objective . . .

656. Of course, there has been evolution in the
subject matter, so that not all these students
have studied the same material. However, all
these students have studied material significantly
more advanced than that covered in undergradu-
ate process control courses. Since many other
departments of chemical engineering are actively
involved in graduate education in process control,
it seems conservative to estimate that there are
more than two hundred engineers now in indus-
try who have had graduate training in process
control or closely related areas. Therefore, it is
not unreasonable to expect that these former
graduate students should have had some impact
on current process control technology. I wish
to more closely examine this question later. To
begin the discussion, I now return to the ques-
tions posed at the beginning of the article.

Many worthwhile objectives exist; listed here
are those I believe to have highest priority.
The technology of process operation has be-
come more complex, and is rapidly increasing in
complexity. Use of the digital computer in plant
operation is increasing. Plant optimization
studies are conducted and result in changes in
mode of operation as well as in operating condi-
tions. Thus, I believe we should broaden the
scope of the process control topic by calling it
process operation. This subject has equal eco-
nomic significance with its counterpart in classi-
cal chemical engineering - process design. One
discipline attempts to optimize the plant before
it is built, i.e., while it is on paper, and the other
continues the attempt when the plant is operated.
The typical undergraduate chemical engineering
curriculum has room for only one course each
in process design and process operation (con-
trol). There simply is more of practical value to
learn about these subjects than can be studied
in one undergraduate course.
The language of communication in process
operation tends to be mathematical and therefore
difficult. This fact generates two purposes for
graduate-level courses - education of the stu-
dents in the mathematical foundations, and
simplification of the language (i.e., communica-

tion of the same information in simpler terms).
Since we have inherited much of the foundations
from mathematicians, this simplification aspect
is potentially a valuable contribution of the en-
gineer, both educationally and industrially.
The research and development literature on
the automatic control and optimization aspects of
process operation is widely scattered in a variety
of journals, many of which are virtually un-
known to chemical engineering students. As in
most subjects in the graduate curriculum, famili-
arity with the current literature is a primary ob-
jective; in this subject, it is perhaps even more
To summarize, key objectives of a graduate
course on process operation are mastery of prac-
tically important subject matter which cannot be
included in the undergraduate curriculum, mas-
tery and simplification of the mathematical lan-
guage, and familiarity with the literature.
Granted these objectives are important in any
graduate course; I have tried to show why they
have high priority in process operation.

Since there are three faculty members who
have taught the course, topics fluctuate slightly
from year to year. Presented here is a summary
of the topics included when the course is taught
by me. The central textbook is reference (1).
Supplementary sources in the bibliography are
referenced by number in the discussion. In addi-
tion, numerous other literature articles are dis-
Application of the digital computer to process
operation: Owing to the growing number of
chemical and petroleum plants being operated
wholly or partially through a digital computer,
I believe this subject must receive careful atten-
tion. Key topics are:

(1) Basic theory of sampled-data control
systems, including z-transforms, sam-
pling theorem, closed-loop analysis, etc.2
(2) Selection of sampling rate for typical
processes.2, 3
(3) Design of digital control algorithms.2'3, 4
(4) Smoothing and differentiation of com-
puter-sampled signals?.
(5) Applications of the computer to process
control; direct vs supervisory control,
optimization, data reduction and analy-
sis.6, 5

FALL 1970

. . . key objectives . . . are mastery of practically important subject matter . .. and mastery and simplification
of the mathematical language

Optimal control: This subject has been the
object of some controversy, based on the thesis
that research in the area has advanced well be-
yond proven applications. Arguments for this
thesis have been well-presented. Later in the
article, I will state some of the counter-argu-
ments which have led to the decision to emphasize
optimal control in our graduate course. Topics
(1) State variables for continuous and dis-
crete systems; comparison of state vari-
able approaches with classical input-
out approaches.7- 8
(2) The minimum principle; optimal con-
trollers for various processes designed
by this principle, limitations, discussion
of frequently occurring misconceptions
on theoretical aspects, applications of
results to practical situations, numeri-
cal methods.9, 10, 11, 12, 13
(3) Dynamic programming; same subjects
as discussed for minimum principle,
with comparison of the two ap-
Stability theory: Here again, considerable
disagreement exists regarding the applicability
of existing research results on stability to process
control situations. However, there is no argument
with the assertion that stability has been the
central theme for development of most classical
control techniques whose applicability is now un-
challenged. It is likely that a majority of process
control loops are tuned on the basis of degree of
approach to instability. This is true despite the
fact that instrument engineers do not in general
make daily use of the classical theoretical sta-
bility concepts, such as the Routh-Hurwitz or
Nyquist criteria. However, it is only through
an understanding of these theoretical concepts
that we can assert with confidence that control
loops tuned in this manner will generally be
reasonably close to "optimal" performance. Fur-
thermore, understanding the theory guides us
in the exceptional cases when these loop-tuning
methods fail (e.g., the process does not exhibit
sufficient phase lag) and avoids loss of confidence
in the methods. These considerations are much
more difficult to present concretely for more re-
cent theoretical stability concepts, such as Ly-

apunov methods, but this is because we cannot
yet use hindsight. An important contribution of
our academic courses, in my opinion, is to em-
phasize similarly practical offshoots from mod-
ern stability theory. Thus, just as loop-tuning is
an offshoot from the Nyquist criterion, highly
sophisticated yet very practical on-off controllers
can be designed on the basis of an offshoot of
Lyapunov's methods. Topics are:

(1) Definitions of various types of sta-
bility.6. 7
(2) Stability methods for linear vs non-
linear systems.6, 7
(3) Lyapunov's methods.6' 7, 10
(4) Relations between Lyapunov's methods
and the design and tuning of control
loops.7, 1

These three topics - digital control, optimal
control, and stability-are the central themes of
CHE 656. Clearly, these topics overlap; for
example, optimal control of discrete systems will
most likely be realized by a digital computer.
However, the three topics do give the appearance
of separate theoretical branches to the student,
and we have chosen to treat them in this manner
while mentioning interrelations at the appropri-
ate points.
It is also evident that several important topics
have been omitted from CHE 656, such as statis-
tically designed control systems, and adaptive
control. The time available in a one-semester
course, which meets for a total of 45 lecture
hours, is barely sufficient to give adequate treat-
ment to the three selected topics. This selection
is based purely on my own judgment of relative
importance to the student's education. Undoubt-
edly, strong arguments can be made for alterna-
tive judgments.

This potential difficulty has been less im-
portant than was anticipated when we first
planned a graduate-level control course. CHE 656
actually has helped us take more advantage of
systems engineering and automatic control
courses offered in other departments. The pre-
liminary study of automatic control in CHE 656,
with a view toward process application, better


We . . . have attempted to teach a course
that can appeal to all graduate students . . .

prepares students to absorb the somewhat more
mathematical and abstract treatment in courses
taught in other departments, which delve more
deeply into the subject matter.
More difficult is the problem of duplication
with chemical engineering graduate courses on
optimization, particularly on the subjects of dy-
namic programming and the minimum principle.
We have not yet taught a graduate course in op-
timization at Purdue, so have not really faced the
problem. However, it is not difficult to anticipate
that where both are taught, close commmunica-
tion between these two courses is important.

We have decided not to direct CHE 656 pri-
marily to those students doing research in proc-
ess control, but rather have attempted to teach
a course that can appeal to all graduate students.
I am convinced that the subject of process opera-
tion is important to all chemical engineers and
further that the mathematical facility gained
from its study is useful to Ph.D. students spe-
cializing in all aspects of chemical engineering.
The undergraduate preparation of students
from different schools, in process control and
related aspects of mathematics, varies drastic-
ally. This problem, which seems to affect gradu-
ate level process control courses at least as much
as any other graduate courses, is one I have only
learned to live with. Some relief can be obtained
by using time-domain approaches over frequency-
domain approaches whenever possible. Frequent
examples of small dimension (i.e., 2 x 2) can
(very gradually) infuse the student, having vir-
tually no background in algebra, with some confi-
dence in interpreting vector-matrix equations.
Other similar measures can be devised.
Some students have little, if any, undergradu-
ate laboratory experience in process control. In
such cases, we urge that the graduate student
audit the laboratory section of our undergraduate
control course.

Several years ago, at a meeting of process
control computer users and vendors, I presented
a paper pointing out that sampling the output of

a process approximately 4 times per time con-
stant is a breakeven point for process control.
In other words, once the sampling rate is this
fast, closed-loop performance cannot be signifi-
cantly improved simply by increasing the sam-
pling rate. This fact has been well-established
in theory and in most automatic control applica-
tions, with the exception of process control. In-
stead of this, process control computer users and
vendors were attempting to establish industry-
wide standards calling for sampling frequencies
at once per second for flow loops, once per 5
seconds for pressure loops, and once per 20 sec-
onds for temperature loops, regardless of process
response time. My remarks elicited considerable
discussion, particularly from vendors who al-
ready had considerable investment in hardware
and software based on the faster sampling rates.
Three years later, a former Purdue graduate stu-
dent telephoned. He was specializing in com-
puter applications for a manufacturing company,
one of whose personnel had attended this earlier
meeting. Together they had conducted a project
to study the use of slower sampling rates. The
problem was this: A digitally controlled loop,
previously sampled at a frequency of once per 20
seconds, showed a closed-loop oscillation with a
period of approximately �1/ hour. This indicates
a process time constant of the order of 10 min-
utes. Therefore, according to theory, it should
be possible to reduce the sampling to once every
150 seconds without significant degradation of
performance. However, when only every eighth
measurement was used to decide on a new con-
trol valve position (i.e., when the sampling fre-
quency was lowered to once every 160 seconds),
the loop performance was much slower and more
oscillatory than before. They very kindly invited
me to visit the installation, which I did. The
difficulty turned out to be this: Exponential
smoothing with a constant value a = 0.3 was
being used to filter noise in the sampled values of
the process output. (In exponential smoothing,
the smoothed measurement is taken as a times
the current raw measurement plus (1 - a) times
the previous smoothed measurement.) This
smoothing procedure is very similar to using an
ordinary continuous filter and the equivalent
R-C time constant can be approximately calcu-
lated from the values of a and the sampling rate.
In the original loop, the filter time constant thus
estimated is 1 minute, very reasonable for the 10
(Continued on page 203)

FALL 1970


Columbia University
New York, New York

F BIOENGINEERING as an area of technical
endeavor were to fulfill its many hopeful defi-
nitions; if the recognized problems of medical
practice and biological research were to have all
the help which it is now apparent that engineer-
ing could give them; if the human organism
were to receive so much analysis relative to its
complexity as it is now customary to assign to
a new chemical process; if the delivery of health
care were to be planned with so much care as is
now used to optimize a distribution network for
petroleum products; if, in short, there were to be
demanded by the sprawling enterprise which
man has built to study, strengthen and maintain
himself only so much engineering effort as has
been shown to be beneficial in more circum-
scribed endeavors, the requisite expansion of the
profession of engineering would consume all its
resources for many years to come. In fact, such
a demand is unlikely.
Casting aside momentary concerns caused by
retrenchments in the domestic budget of the
United States, it is apparent even to the casual
student of the sociology and history of science
that there are more long-lived impediments. An
intellectual divergence, began more than a cen-
tury ago, has led to separate scientific con-
glomerates in the physical sciences (including
engineering) and the biological sciences, the for-
mer based on presumptively determinate, pre-
cise, physical models usually as much formulated
to suit the analytical tools available as to con-
form to the reality of interest, and the latter on
necessarily indeterminate, qualitative, fraction-
ally analyzable, biological systems, studied as
found because they lost their nature when re-
duced in complexity. Admission to these circles
has demanded commitment either to precision
or to reality: in biology one might study a model
but the ultimate test lay not in the consistency
of the model's behavior but in its relevance to the
living system it was made to represent; in physi-

cal science one might speculate about the utility
of a model but peer judgment has largely cen-
tered about how completely it was analyzed and
how internally consistent it was. The stunted
growth of biophysics testified clearly to the dif-
ficulty of rejoining the goals of perfection in the
abstract with relevance to life as lived.

THUS TWO MAJOR obstacles impede the in-
troduction of engineering technology into
medicine and biological science: the persistent
complexity of analyzing living systems and the
largely unreconciled standards of the peer groups
in the biological and physical sciences. It is safe
to predict that one or two generations of dis-
covery and sociological accommodation will pass
before engineering will, explicitly or implicitly,
occupy an optimal role in the development and
application of biological knowledge. Yet it is
also safe to anticipate a happier future for bio-
engineering than for biophysics because the time-
less role of engineering has been the reconcilia-
tion of abstract science with realities, those of
nature and those created by the mind and hands
of man.
Two steady trends create favorable circum-
stances for the development of bioengineering:
pressure to use rapidly accumulating knowledge
about parts of organisms which has not yet been
fully exploited to predict the normal and dis-
turbed performance of intact living systems, and
the shift within all engineering to a stronger
interplay between analysis and synthesis.

NOTWITHSTANDING such favorable omens,
the challenge of passing optimally from the
present flirtation to the future union is large.
The interaction of engineering, including its
many specialties, with the many biological disci-
plines is far too broad to serve as a focus of
activity for the individual or a working group.


Classically, the specialties of engineering have
proliferated by the interaction of an established
discipline with an important, new area of appli-
cation. A new discipline evolved when the inter-
action spawned concepts and techniques primar-
ily useful in the area of application but of broad
value in other areas of concern to engineers,
when the transmission of these concepts to a new
generation required new courses, when special
subjects and the basic sciences on which they
depended became central in the curriculum. How
else was chemical engineering born but by the
prolonged interaction of mechanical engineers
with the chemical industry? Straightforward

Consideration of the nature of these and
many other tasks which have also been actually
undertaken, as well as the scope of activity
which they define, suggests that the interaction
of engineering with the biological establishment
can hardly avoid evolving as specializations
between each of the major engineering disci-
plines now existing and appropriate clinical and
scientific specialties in medicine and biology. No
single discipline is broad enough to support bio-
engineering in the forms which have already de-
veloped and no single new discipline seems cap-
able of encompassing the useful content of exist-
ing disciplines. Rather, at a time when the ex-

. . . If there were to be demanded by the sprawling enterprise which man has built to study, strengthen and
maintain himself . . . the requisite expansion of the profession of engineering would consume all its resources
for many years to come . . .

repetition of this pattern in the present instance
appears impossible. The volume of information
necessary to represent the field of application is
enormous; the sciences and areas of engineering
technology which are demonstrably useful en-
compass several curricula most of which are
themselves near the bursting point. A 'bioengi-
neer' educated to apply all parts of engineering
to all parts of biology might be called upon to:

make a kinematic analysis of the indeterminate
structure represented by the bones and muscles of
the skeleton.
determine optimal positions and time schedules for
administering drugs to specified target organs,
minimizing dosage to other capillary beds.
apply lubrication theory to the analysis of normal and
diseased joints.
design artificial organ systems based on membrane
transport processes and enzyme reactions.
determine if certain reactions occurring in the blood-
stream were kinetically or diffusionally controlled.
study damage to blood passed through artificial
pumps, conduits, and exchange devices.
evolve a systems model of all or part of the body's
neuromuscular structures.
find a quantitative relationship between electrical
potentials on the skin surface and electromechani-
cal events in cardiac muscle.
determine the shape of normal and diseased erythro-
cytes passing through capillaries smaller than
their major diameter.
relate piezoelectric potentials to bone growth.
study and model long-term effects of a weightless
environment on gastrointestinal motility.
devise radiotracer experiments to localize in space
and on the reaction coordinate derangements of
normal metabolic reactions.

tant disciplines are becoming less clearly identi-
fied with a particular area of application and
more clearly with concepts, sciences, and tech-
niques, and in the absence of widely recognized,
performed conceptual innovations in the area of
application, bioengineering seems destined to
develop as a collection of subspecializations, each
potentially a major component of the parent
Bioengineering, as considered here, is pri-
marily concerned with understanding, diagnos-
ing, maintaining and augmenting the human
organism. Chemical engineers have been and
will be concerned with other biological endeav-
ors: chemical processing with organisms and
enzymes and processing of materials of plant and
animal origin (often called 'biochemical engi-
neering') and study of interactions among or-
ganisms and their surroundings (the analytical
endeavor being called 'ecology' and the synthetic
effort 'environmental engineering'). In each of
these areas the biological information necessary
for immediately (but not necessarily ultimately)
effective action is more accessible and the activity
is thus more technological and more closely re-
lated to classical engineering. In these areas con-
trol of the application of the engineering en-
deavor rests with the engineer and industrial
managers. In very large part the special educa-
tional and professional problem of the bioengi-
neering considered here is the need for the engi-
neer to become newly and deeply involved in bio-
logical science, even to the point of helping to
restructure it, and deeply involved in applications

FALL 1970

As this manuscript was being completed, the
author learned of the sudden death of Erwin H.
Amick, professor and chemical engineering de-
partment chairman at Columbia. His encourage-
ment was instrumental in some of the earliest as
well as latest involvements of chemical engineer-
ing with bio-engineering at Columbia. His pre-
mature loss is mute testimony to what remains to
be discovered that more of humanity might enjoy
a full span of useful life. With sorrow and re-
spect this article is dedicated to his memory.

Since 1969, Edward F. Leonard has been Professor of
Chemical Engineering and director of the Artificial Or-
gans Research Laboratory at Columbia University. He
received his B.S. degree from Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the
University of Pennsylvania. He has served as an organ-
izer of the Bioengineering Division of AIChE, as Chair-
man of the AIChE subcommittee on Engineering Funda-
mentals in the Life Sciences, and as Vice-chairman of the
United States National Committee on Engineering in
Medicine and Biology. At Columbia, where he has been
on the faculty since 1952, he has been chairman of the
committee on Bioengineering. He has devoted a large
part of his research to a study of transport processes,
particularly as related to the artificial kidney for which
he has designed test cells for the evaluation of membrane
peremeabilities, studied blood flow, and worked on de-
signs of artificial kidney devices. He is the author of
numerous papers in this field and has presented several
AIChE Today Series on this subject. He has served as
consultant for St. Luke's Hospital and lecturer at the
Mt. Sinai School of Medicine.

of his effort which have classically been reserved
to another profession - medicine.
father such a subdiscipline seems indisputable.
The analogy between inanimate chemical proces-
ses and metabolism is widely recognized. Proto-
type studies by chemical engineers show the roles
of homogeneous and heterogeneous kinetics, the
effects of convection and diffusion on rates and
yields in living systems, and the utility of both
elementary and complex analyses based on
stoichiometry, thermodynamics, and momentum,
energy and mass transport. Chemical engineers
have collaborated with physiologists, anatomists
and biochemists as well as those in such clinical
disciplines as pathology, internal medicine, surg-
ery, pediatrics, orthopedics, and urology. These
collaborations have addressed problems in basic
research where methods well-known to chemical
engineers have defined innovations in clinical

research, permitting new approaches to the
analysis of data and to the design of subsequent
experiments; in therepeutic medicine, where
dosage schedules and programs for the use of
mechanical respirators have been fixed by engi-
neering analysis; in diagnostic medicine, where
more sophisticated processing of data has yielded
a sharper identification of pathological states;
and in artificial organ therapy, where engineered
devices, in part prescribed and controlled by
engineering criteria, have replaced natural or-
gans, first only in acute but now also in chronic
situations. (No tone of triumph should emanate
from such a citation. Few of these accomplish-
ments were the first of their kind. Some attempts
have led to scientific failure or, worse, to clinical
disaster clearly attributable to wrong or incom-
plete engineering analysis. In several cases en-
gineering studies have been more successful in
clarifying or extending concepts of general util-
ity in engineering than in solving the biological
problem, the new insight being contributed as
much by the biological collaborator.)
In essentially all such studies the chemical
engineer has either collaborated with a biological
scientist or has previously had several years of
such collaborative experience. The experience of
these studies is sufficient to indicate the im-
portant ways in which chemical engineers will
practice bioengineering in the years immediately
ahead and the extent and kind of training which
they will need. The balance of this paper details
such an interpretation.
Serious involvement in bioengineering re-
quires a reasonably complete knowledge of the
elements of certain biological sciences: biochem-
istry, anatomy, cell and mammalian physiology.
For most courses in biochemistry and physiology,
organic and physical chemistry are respective
prerequisites and both prerequisites are helpful
for either biological science. Thus the chemical
engineer is uniquely well prepared among engi-
neers for the assimilation of the biological sci-
ences mandatory for bioengineering.

M ANY BIOCHEMISTRY departments offer a
broad but rigorous graduate course for non-
biochemists with content, but not necessarily
emphasis, equivalent to what is offered to medical
students. Such courses are not more poorly or-
ganized for the use of bioengineers than are
typical courses in organic chemistry for chemical
engineers. At Columbia University most chem-


ical engineers with a major interest in bioengi-
neering take the first semester of a two-semester
biochemistry sequence; many continue into the
second semester which concentrates on interme-
diary metabolism.
Anatomy as taught to medical students is
overly long and detailed and fails to emphasize
principles. Nonetheless, bioengineers can profit
greatly from the study of anatomy. Needed, if
at all possible prior to the study of physiology,
are one skill and one area of understanding. The
skill is the ability to recognize and separate bio-
logical structures such as nerves, muscles, bone,
cartilage, arteries and veins, and the principles
(as well as the few principal exceptions) which
determine how these elements are juxtaposed.
To acquire this skill some non-vicarious manipu-
lative experience is necessary. The understand-
ing is of functional anatomy: the why of anatom-
ical structure and the response of living tissue
to mechanical stimulation. At Columbia a good
course offering 3 points of credit in each of two
semesters is available; different parts of the body
are considered in each semester. Normally one
semester is taken, preferably that dealing with
the torso.
Cell physiology is often self-taught as bridg-
ing material between biochemistry and mam-
malian physiology. Both related subjects are
much better appreciated, especially for the chem-
ical engineer, if a course in cell physiology based
on reasonable amounts of physical chemistry is
taken after the study of biochemistry and before
At opposite ends of this recommended chron-
ology of study in biological science are courses
in basic biology and mammalian physiology. In
many universities the former presume no knowl-
edge of quantitative chemical and physical con-
cepts and are thus highly descriptive, compendi-
ous, and low in conceptual content. What is
needed is a course in which fundamental con-
cepts of biology are succinctly introduced with
concise, not exhaustive, illustration. The con-
cepts should include the basic metabolism of
plant and animal cells; the metabolism of the
single-celled organism and its environmental
interactions; the phyla of multicelled organisms,
their metabolism, their evolutionary position, and
their rationale in terms of environmental inter-
actions; and an introduction to the study of
genetics, growth and development. Ideally such
a course should bridge between engineering and

No single discipline is broad enough to support
bioengineering . . . and no single new discipline
seems capable of encompassing the useful
content of existing disciplines.

biological terminology wherever possible (exam-
ple: showing explicitly the increase in import-
ance of convective transport as one considers
larger, more complex organisms). Practically, a
clear, precise, noncompendious course in bio-
logical concepts would alone be a large enough
innovation on most campuses not to be risked
by insisting on a bioengineering flavor. An ap-
propriate introductory course is a recent innova-
tion at Columbia. Previously, decisions about how
to begin a sequence of study in biological science
were made individually. Students who felt suffi-
ciently secure even if only on the basis of a high-
school course in biology or some summer reading
were encouraged to start with biochemistry ac-
companied or followed by cell physiology.
THE CLIMAX of a bioengineer's exposure to
contemporary biological science should be a
full course in human physiology such as that
given to medical students, and including the
laboratory. Physiology integrates all other bio-
logical sciences and as much physical science as
has been made operational in biology into an
integrated view of the normal human organism.
It also deals cursorily with pathological states
and pharmacological interventions. Even with
the preparation indicated above, engineers can
find such a course to be difficult. The usual, de-
tailed treatment of neurophysiology uses the
nomenclature of neuroanatomy. The fact-to-
concept ratio of physiology is large, reflecting the
general state of biological science. 'Logical' ex-
planations of neurohumoral mechanisms consist,
in fact, of one of several possible explanations.
The system under consideration is so complex
that rare indeed is the instructor who can discuss
alternate explanations and the reasons for find-
ing most favor with one. These difficulties not-
withstanding, medical physiology courses are the
major sources of organized facts about human
function and are not far removed from the state
of the art with respect to the consideration of
the human organism as a system. At Columbia
the course is most easily available in the summer
session, five and one-half full days per week for
six weeks, for which nine semester credits are
given. In the laboratory classical experiments
(Continued on page 183)

FALL 1970

A7 Caaie i,


University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio

University of Cincinnati has a program in
Environmental Health Engineering which is ad-
ministered under the Department of Civil Engi-
neering. A curriculum in air pollution control
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, was estab-
lished three years ago with the support of a
training grant from the National Air Pollution
Control Administration of the U. S. Department
of Health, Education and Welfare. This grant
also supports a concurrent program given in
the Kettering Laboratory of the Department of
Environmental Health of the College of Medicine.
The Engineering program is being presented
by a team of three faculty members headed by
Dr. John N. Pattison, Research Professor of
Environmental Health Engineering. I was in-
vited by Dr. Pattison to present the contributions
which the discipline of chemical engineering can
bring to bear on the solution of control problems.
Third member of the team is Professor Charles
W. Gruber who is a mechanical engineer and
served for a number of years as the air pollution
control officer of the City of Cincinnati.
Dr. Pattison's invitation was accepted en-
thusiastically for two principal reasons. First,
because I have had a long-standing interest in
particulate (fluid-solid) systems such as are in-
volved in dust collection. But equally important,
I have a firm conviction that chemical engineers
have the best background of any discipline from
which to tackle pollution control problems. There
is a great challenge and opportunity for them to
use their talents and training in this way. As
an educator I feel a real responsibility to bring
this to their attention and to provide encourage-
ment, as well as the education, for them to con-
sider a career in the environmental control field.
I saw the new Air Pollution Control program as
an excellent opportunity to do this.

AS A FIRST STEP in this direction, a senior
level undergraduate elective course "Intro-

Dr. William Licht, a graduate of the University of
Cincinnati, has been Professor of Chemical Engineering
there since 1952. He also served as Head of the Depart-
ment of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering from
1952 to 1967. His industrial experience includes a period
of employment with the Dow Chemical Company and
various consulting assignments. The latter were espe-
cially related to work on the drying of refrigerants and
gases, and recovery of dust by filtration. His technical
publications and patents also disclose the results of re-
search on the properties of azeotropic mixtures, develop-
ment of dew-point indicators, adsorption in fixed beds,
and transport phenomena involved with moving drops.
In 1967 he became associated with the air pollution
program in the Environmental Health Engineering ac-
tivities of the College of Engineering, in which he is
presently teaching Design of Air Pollution Control Sys-
tems. He is also serving as Vice-chairman of the Air
Pollution Board of the City of Cincinnati.

duction to Air Pollution Control" was developed
at Cincinnati, and also given at Minnesota (as a
Visiting Professor in Chemical Engineering) in
1968. This year over half of the 65 students
enrolled in the course, now given by Professor
Gruber, were chemical engineering seniors.
The students in the graduate program, how-
ever, are welcomed with a rather wide variety of
backgrounds in several branches of engineering,
as well as in chemistry or physics. They also
have a variety of career objectives. Some are
aiming toward positions in government control
agencies, others to industrial engineering work,
and still others to the design and research of con-
trol methods. Consequently, the courses given,
and the program for each student, must involve


. . . chemical engineers have the best background of
problems. There is a great challenge and opportunity

a high degree of flexibility and adaptability.
The principal graduate course which brings
the chemical engineering approach into the pro-
gram is called "Design of Air Pollution Control
Systems". It is offered as a second level gradu-
ate course following prerequisite courses in Small
Particle Technology and in Air Pollution Control
Methods. Chemical engineers however usually
can enter the course without these formal pre-
requisites. They find it relatively easy to pick
up the necessary material because of the nature
of their general background.
Small Particle Technology is essentially a
treatment of particle-fluid mechanics. It deals
with the motion of aerosol particles under the
influence of various forces such as gravitational,
inertial, centrifugal, electro-static, diffusional
thermophoretic, photophoretic, etc. In particu-
lar, motion is studied in the neighborhood of sur-
faces of various shapes: plane, cylindrical, and
spherical. Methods of measuring particle size,
and describing size distribution in particulate
mixtures are also studied. The text has been
Fuchs' "Mechanics of Aerosols" (Macmillan,
1964). Davies' "Aerosol Science" (Academic
Press, 1966) is also an appropriate source of

survey of the various devices available for
the collection of particulate matter (cyclones,
scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, filters, etc.)
and processes for the collection of gases (ab-
sorption, adsorption), or for gas and odor re-
moval by combustion. The principles involved in
the operation and successful application of the
devices are discussed qualitatively, and from a
practical industrial point of view. Field trips
and methods of measuring source emission are
also included. The reference text is "Air Pollu-
tion Engineering Manual" from the U. S. Public
Health Service.
With a background equivalent to these two
courses assumed, the course in Design presents
the mathematical modelling of the collection de-
vices and systems. It is presently given in a
two-quarter sequence of three (quarter) credits
each i.e. a total of about 60 lectures. However,
since it has so far been presented only twice it
is still in a state of development. Future plans

any discipline from which to tackle pollution control
for them to use their talents and training in this way.

contemplate expansion of this course to three
The first quarter begins with a comprehensive
check-list of all the factors which might need to
be taken into account in designing a control sys-
tem to meet a given pollutant emission problem.
This provides an outline and a motivation for the
topics which follow.
We then take up the modelling of particulate
collection devices. The objective of the models
is twofold: to predict the efficiency of collection
as a function of system parameters, and to pre-
dict the pressure drop, hence energy require-
ments for operation. The order of topics is ar-
ranged according to increasing complexity of the
system of collecting forces involved, as follows:
Collection on surfaces
- Gravity settling chambers (gravitational)
-Electrostatic precipitators (electrostatic)
- Cyclones (centrifugal, and gravitational)
Aerodynamic capture
- General principles
- Filters (inertial, diffusional, electrostatic)
- Scrubbers (inertial, gravitational)
The "classical" models for most of these de-
vices are rather unsophisticated and oversimpli-
fied. They tend to assume plug flow, for example,
and to ignore boundary layer effects, as well as
turbulence. They always assume that when the
path of a particle is such as to bring it into col-
lision with a surface it will be collected or cap-
tured on that surface.
It is not surprising to find that the degree to
which the models succeed in representing actual
performance is poor. Attempts are made to
develop more sophisticated models by taking into
account such concepts as turbulent mixing of
dust in gas streams, velocity distributions, resi-
dence time distributions, and boundary layer be-
havior. These are all concepts drawn from vari-
ous standard chemical engineering operations
which seem to be transferable to the particulate
collection problem. Research projects are under
way in this connection.
T HE SECOND QUARTER is largely devoted
to the collection of gases and to the chemical
aspects of emission control. Gaseous collection is
considered first by a continuation of the study of
scrubbers used as gas absorbers, and of gas
absorption design in general. This is followed by

FALL 1970

fixed-bed adsorption. Combustion calculations
are then reviewed and extended to the complex
systems encountered in stack or exhaust gases
containing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitro-
gen. The role of the thermodynamics and ki-
netics of the reactions involved in the formation
of these pollutants is explored. Special effects
relating to the psychrometry of these stack gases
are also presented. Finally, we examine specific
control methods which are now being developed
for certain gases.
At various appropriate points in the course
the basic concepts of system and equipment de-
sign optimization are introduced and applied to
the air pollution control system. Generalizations
relating to costs and economic aspects of control
systems are likewise brought in. It would be
desirable to give a more thorough treatment of
these matters. This is one motivation for length-
ening the course to three quarters. It would also
be desirable to present computer simulation of
control devices.
The method of instruction involves asking the
students to solve a number of problems specially
devised for the course. Some of these are numer-
ical illustrations of the use of the models or
design methods. Others, however, are open-ended
design problems in which judgment and ingenu-
ity may be exercised and alternative solutions
considered. The effect of a particular system
parameter is illustrated by having different

problems for teachers

Submitted by Professor R. M. Felder, North Carolina
State University at Raleigh.
A graduate student in your seminar on existential
reaction engineering bursts into your office, barely giving
you time to cover Playboy with Chemical Engineering
Progress, and announces that he has formulated a proof
of man's nonexistence based on the known effects of
diffusion in tubular reactors. All thoughts of the Playmate
of the Month are forgotten as visions of publications,
promotions, awards and enduring fame dance in your
head. (You would, of course, acknowledge helpful discus-
sions with the student in a footnote somewhere.) You
casually express an interest, and the student promptly
erases the irreplaceable notes on your blackboard and
offers the following demonstration:
Consider a laminar flow tubular reactor in which a
single first-order reaction occurs. Now
1. Radial diffusion brings the reactor closer to plug flow,
and therefore increases conversion. On the other hand
2. Axial diffusion brings the reactor closer to a stirred
tank, and therefore decreases conversion. But

members of the class do the same calculation
with each using a different value of the specified
parameter, and then pooling the results into one
overall picture.
There really is no text which is quite appro-
priate for this course as it is now conceived. The
one used thus far has been "Industrial Gas
Cleaning" by Strauss (Pergamon, 1966). Ma-
terial has also been drawn from Stern's "Air
Pollution", especially Vol. III of the 2nd edition
(Academic Press, 1968). Much use is made also
of original literature references. There is a lot
of interest in these problems today, and new
work is appearing with increasing frequency.
It is hoped that chemical engineering students
will find increasing interest in dealing with air
pollution problems, especially through the ap-
proach taken by such a course as this. Many of
the concepts which are familiar to them in reac-
tor design and in transport phenomena, can be
transferred immediately with very fruitful
results. Every effort is made to show them, and
all students, that the pollution problem is not
only serious enough to demand their attention
as concerned citizens, but also challenging and
sophisticated enough to captivate their intellect-
ual interest at the highest level of professional
competence. This applies not only to the present,
but certainly even more so to the future develop-
ments in research and design.

3. Radial diffusion can be represented as axial diffusion
using the Taylor model. Therefore
4. Radial diffusion both increases conversion [from (1)]
and decreases conversion [from (2) and (3)]. The only
way this can be the case, however, is if
5. Radial diffusion does not affect conversion at all. But
we all know that it does, and consequently
6. Radial diffusion does not exist. Moreover, by applying
a coordinate transformation which maps the radius
onto the axis and vice versa, it can easily be shown
that axial diffusion also does not exist. In short,
7. There is no such thing as diffusion in tubular reactors.
But everyone knows there is, and therefore
8. Tubular reactors do not exist. But I am certain beyond
all possible doubt that tubular reactors exist, which
can only mean that
9. I do not exist. Q.E.D.
Sadly, you realize that you might just as well have
kept your thoughts on Miss October, and that any endur-
ing fame you get will have to come from your process to
manufacture sand from glass (patent applied for). Mean-
while it's almost time for lunch, so you decide to ignore
the student's philosophical fallacies and simply advise
him where his engineering analysis [Steps 1-4] falls
down. What do you tell him ?



At Stauffer

all systems are grow.You're in on it


If you come with us, you wade right into your
work. You get more out of it. So do we. We give
our bright young people their heads. Because the
faster they grow, the faster we grow. And that's
exactly what Stauffer is doing. Growing. In plas-
tics, manufacturing chemicals, specialty chemicals
and agricultural proprietaries.
We're a medium-sized company, with vigor.
Not so big you get lost, but big enough to offer
plenty of room for movement.
If you have a BS, or more, in Chemical Engineer-
ing, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry or Ac-
counting, give Stauffer a good hard look. You can
find a springboard for your talents-in production,
engineering, research, or technical sales. A career
that will mean a lot to you, and many others.
See our representative when he visits your
campus. Or write directly to Coordinator of Col-
lege Recruiting, Stauffer Chemical Company, 299
Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

Grow with Stauffer, a Company with a social
conscience as well as a profit motive.
An equal opportunity employer


T1o0 Qantdes in


University of Delaware
Delaware, Maryland

FLUID MECHANICS plays a central role in
many problems of interest to chemical engi-
neers, yet it is only in recent years that courses
have been developed which meet the unique re-
quirements of the chemical engineer, as distin-
guished from the traditional aerodynamical ori-
entation of the subject. For example, chemical
engineers need to devote considerable attention
to moderately slow flows of viscous materials,
frequently in the laminar regime, and in many
cases the problems are associated with the flow
of complex materials with a memory for their
deformation history. It is in recognition of
needs such as these, taken together with the
more traditional fundamentals of the subject,
that we have developed our graduate courses.
The fluid mechanics program at the Univer-
sity of Delaware is typical in structure and
philosophy of the way in which we do most of
our graduate instruction. There are three levels
of activity. The first course is designed partly
to strengthen and supplement the student's
undergraduate understanding of an area, and
partly to develop more general and more power-
ful analytical tools. The course emphasizes ma-
terial which is likely to be of design importance
to the student, Masters or Ph.D., who goes into
industry. We offer the basic fluid mechanics
(and thermodynamics) course during the fall
semester so that a firm foundation in fluid me-
chanics can be assumed and efficiently built upon
in the basic heat and mass transfer and kinetics
and reactor analysis courses offered in the
The second level course, offered in the spring
or summer in this subject, is provided for those
students with a particular interest in fluid me-
chanics and proceeds to the frontiers of the area.
This course is "team-taught" by four or five
faculty, each emphasizing his own particular re-
search specialty. In this course the distinction
between student and instructor is no longer as
great, and postdoctoral fellows may participate

A. B. Metzner received his B.Sc. degree at the Uni-
versity of Alberta and his Sc.D. at M.I.T. He has been
at the University of Delaware since 1953, became chair-
man Feb., 1970. He has Research interests in transport
phenomena, especially the mechanics of viscoelastic
media. He has received Colburn award of A.I.Ch.E.
(1958) and the Wilmington section award of the ACS,
also in 1958. He was the first annual Chemical Engineer-
ing Lecturer of ASEE in 1963 and served as a Guggen-
heim Fellow at Cambridge in 1968-69. (Left)
M. M. Denn received his B.S.E. degree at Princeton
University and his Ph.D. at Minnesota. He has been at
the University of Delaware since 1964 and presently is
Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering. He has
research interests in viscoelastic fluid mechanics and
optimization and control. He isthe author of 'Optimiza-
tion by Variational Methods," McGraw-Hill, 1969, and
co-author of forthcoming "Introduction to Chemical
Engineering Analysis," Wiley, 1971. (Right)

in both roles, as do advanced graduate students.
Finally, we have regular seminars which are pri-
marily for the benefit of faculty and students
with research interests in an area. In these
the student-faculty role is, ideally, completely
blurred. Such seminars are probably common to
all good departments of chemical engineering and
differ only in the specific subject areas of inter-
est. (During each semester of the recent aca-
demic year we had two seminars in areas of
fluid mechanics, one emphasizing two phase
flows, the other viscoelastic fluid mechanics.)
In the discussion which follows we shall empha-
size only the two courses, which we believe have
been quite successful and may be somewhat

ALL OF OUR graduate students are from
other departments and bring to Delaware
a variety of experiences in undergraduate in-


The first course emphasizes material of design
importance and the second level course carries
one to the frontiers of the subject.

struction. Though undergraduate courses in fluid
mechanics have become increasingly rigorous in
recent years, the new graduate students rarely
have a firm fundamental understanding of the
subject. This may be due in part to the continu-
ing aerodynamics bias of many undergraduate
courses in which, because interest is confined to
Newtonian fluids, no clear distinction is made
between basic conservation principles and con-
stitutive approximations. As a result we find it
efficient to start from the beginning and to de-
velop the entire subject in an orderly manner
which carefully distinguishes between rigorous
principles and necessary, but often crude, ap-
proximations, and which emphasizes chemical
engineering interests. Since the students are a
select group it is possible to proceed rapidly
with material which has been covered in part
before and so any partial redundancy does not
result in appreciable loss of time. The following
course outline has been utilized for several years.
Our course begins with a consideration of the
algebra and calculus of teensors. This represents
the "natural" language when dealing with fluids
exhibiting complex physical properties and is
thus the doorway to much of chemical engineer-
ing fluid mechanics, as well as providing for an
increased efficiency in the way in which classical
material may be treated. The initial material is
thus intended to serve as a foundation for all of
non-linear continuum mechanics. The specific
subjects covered include addition, subtraction,
and multiplication of tensors; tests of tensor
character; the metric and conjugate metric ten-
sors; and the significance of tensorial and physi-
cal components of tensors. The Christoffel sym-
bols are developed and differentiation of tensors
is considered in some detail.
The notion of stress and the equations ex-
pressing the basic conservation principles, con-
servation of mass, momentum, and energy, are
developed in a fixed Cartesian coordinate frame-
work. Utilizing the algebra and calculus of ten-
sors developed earlier, these equations are then
efficiently transformed into other coordinate
systems. A significant number of example prob-
lems are provided both at this point and previ-
ously to enable the student to develop competence
and confidence in his ability to understand the

basic conservation principles and to derive them
for any coordinate system of interest in a given
Thirdly, constitutive approximations for
purely viscous fluids are introduced. Since the
thermostatic constitutive equations for fluid
density and internal energy are the simplest to
understand, these are considered first. Following
a quantitative description of deformation rate
and vorticity, the rheological constitutive equa-
tions for description of the stress-deformation
rate relationships for purely viscous fluids are
developed. Some simple constitutive approxima-
tions for the stress-deformation rate relations
of viscoelastic liquids may be introduced as well.
Finally, for purposes of completeness, though in
fact little use is made of this in the first course,
the constitutive equations for relating heat fluxes
to the temperature field are also introduced and
illustrated by means of a few example problems.
The above provides the student with a sound
understanding of the difference between those
equations which represent universally valid de-
scriptions of conserved quantities and the per-
haps crass and empirical nature of the constitu-
tive equations introduced to describe the physical
properties of particular materials. Unidirectional
flow problems are now solved in large quantity.
These enable the student to proceed by first
applying the general relationships, in order to
describe the problem as fully as possible without
introducing empirical approximations, and then,
when he has gone as far as he can on a perfectly
general basis, to introduce the appropriate
linear or nonlinear constitutive description neces-
sary to provide enough information about the
material being processed in order to obtain a
solution to the required problem. These problems
also serve to introduce the student to the meth-
ods of measuring pertinent physical properties of
fluids. Incidentally, the student quickly learns
through these simple flow problems that the
usual way of solving problems in fluid mechan-
ics is to anticipate the form of the answer in
advance and then to construct the details of the
solution by using the conservation principles and
constitutive approximations. This sequence is
implied in all treatises on fluid mechanics but
rarely stated.
Simple flow problems are usually confined to
laminar flows, and we next introduce the stu-
dent to the simplifying approximations of
Prandtl for flows which are nearly unidirectional

FALL 1970

and in which the Reynolds number is large. This
area of boundary layer theory is used to sharpen
the abilities of the student to make simplifying
approximations, rather than to solve a large
number of problems of interest onl yto the aero-
dynamicist. The presentation in this part of the
course is classical, except that the important
pedagogical contributions of Acrivos are used in
order to illustrate clearly the fact that one can
obtain much information from the differential
equations without solving them fully.
Finally, we deal with the nature of turbulent
flow, its description by means of the Reynolds
equations, and the approximate solutions to these
obtained by individuals such as von Karman,
Taylor, Prandtl and Milliken. This does not pro-
vide any insight into the more recent develop-
ments in turbulence theory but it does provide
the student with essentially all of the informa-
tion on turbulence which is of design value at
the present time.
THE FIRST COURSE provides the student
with the basic mathematical skills necessary
for work in all areas of fluid mechanics and
additionally provides him a substantial body of
design information and an ability to develop this
for himself when new problems are encountered.
It has not, however, taken him to the forefront
of current research activities in any of the areas
enumerated. This is achieved in the second course
by subdividing the total course into four or five
sections, each of which is taught by an individual
who is an active researcher in the specialty being
considered. This "team teaching" requires a
great deal of faculty time but it represents an
extremely effective way of taking a substantial
number of students to the frontiers of research
in a variety of areas. The subjects covered vary

This "team teaching" . . . represents an . . . effective
way of taking . . . students to the
frontiers of research . . .

ciency theory following Serrin and the eigenfunction
solutions for nonlinear problems following Stuart and
later workers.)
2. Turbulence, including a careful development of
multipoint correlation functions and the von Karman-
Howarth equation, spectral energy and transfer func-
tions. Closure techniques, both classical and the recent
work of Kraichnan, are considered in substantial detail.
3. Shock phenomena, including the elements of com-
pressible flow and development of shock waves, shock
tubes for high temperature research, shock structure,
and shock formation in relaxing gases and viscoelastic
4. Deformation and flow of viscoelastic materials,
including the proper description of fluids with a memory
for previous deformation states, methods of determining
physical properties, behavior in flow fields with large
Weissenberg or Deborah numbers, consequences of finite
shear wave propagation, the peculiar effects of vorticity
upon stress levels in visco-elastic media and approxima-
tions employing a diagonal deformation rate tensor. __

Topics covered in 1968-69 included the struc-
ture of interfaces and surface waves; bubble
and droplet formation, motion, and coalescence;
low Reynolds number hydrodynamics; turbu-
lence and shock phenomena. Other topics cov-
ered in recent years have included two-phase
flows of gas-liquid mixtures and fluidization,
though the fundamentals of the former area are
now usually treated during the first weeks of the
regular seminar on that subject and the latter
in the second level course on reactor analysis.
During the coming year we expect that new
faculty additions will enable the inclusion of ma-
terial on surface tension driven flows and trans-
port at high Knudsen numbers. A recent grant
for the strengthening of the department will
enable us to bring to the campus distinguished

The courses represents our attempt to provide a background in fluid mechanics which is uniquely of value to
the chemical engineer faced with gunks and goos, multiphase flows and instability phenomena, as distinguished
from the usual aerodynamics bias of the subject.

from year to year depending upon when an area
was last taught and the special interests reflected
in the research activities in the department.
In the 1969-70 academic year the following
topics were covered:
1. Stability theory, including the linear theory and
both exact and approximate solution techniques. (In
other years we have also included the nonlinear sufli-

visitors in greater numbers. Prof. G. Marrucci
participated in this course in 1968-69 and in
1970-71 the expertise of Prof. V. K. Stokes in
the area of liquid crystals and other anisotropic
media will enable the presentation of this sub-
ject, especially significant for its removal of cob-
webs concerning the role of angular momentum
and its conservation. In future years we look for


coverage of numerical methods in fluid mechan-
ics in an intense way, biomedical topics and - if
current research in several locations is successful
-the use of fluid mechanics to control polymeric
crystallization processes.
Thus, a Ph.D. candidate with a strong inter-
est in fluid mechanics can move to the frontiers
of 7-10 areas, in a painless way, during his ten-
ure. Perhaps even more important than the
factual material covered is the clear manner in
which a substantial number of complimentary
approximation techniques can be brought to bear
on various aspects of the subject, and the role
and limitations of each. Too, the greatest weak-
nesses - the simplistic empiricism of almost all
constitutive approximations, both thermody-
namic and rheological - emerge vividly and
focus attention on areas of research in which
the chemical engineer is peculiarly well qualified
to play a role.
TN SUMMARY, we have attempted to describe
the separate roles and goals of our first and
second level courses in fluid mechanics. Similarly
structured is the presentation of heat and mass
transfer, chemical kinetics and reactor design,
and for the first time this year, thermodynamics.
We believe such multi-level instruction to be im-
portant and exciting.

(Continued from page 175)
are done, mostly by the students in small groups,
using modern equipment.
Participating in this much biological course
work takes about one-half of a student's time
for a calendar year. How he spends the balance
of this time may importantly influence his pro-
fessional attitude. So much biological course work
is not intended to convert the engineer into a
biological scientist. Contact with and progress
within the engineering curriculum should be
maintained during this period. However, chal-
lenging courses in engineering which do not re-
late to bioengineering create a disturbing intel-
lectual bifurcation in students at this stage. At
least two semester-courses which integrate engi-
neering with biology should be available. Such
courses are difficult to construct. At Columbia
we have used a bioengineering seminar at which
contemporary research problems are discussed,
about 50% by guest speakers, 25% by students

in research, and 15% by engineering faculty.
The seminar is school-wide, but because of the
particular composition of interests at Columbia,
more than half of the subjects are of direct
interest to those with chemical engineering back-
grounds. So broadly based a seminar might not
be effective in other circumstances. Frequently,
students will be beginning a thesis or research
paper while taking biological courses. This effort
may provoke satisfactory integration of concepts,
but at a high cost in faculty time.
AT WHAT STAGE of education should such
studies be undertaken? At present it seems
best to begin at the master's level. To satisfy
minimum point requirements in engineering at
many schools, the M.S. program may need to be
extended in time and credits. However only
psysiology need be taken at the graduate level,
so that it is possible for the undergraduate to
anticipate much of the biological science desid-
eratum. It is, of course, also possible to com-
mence biological studies at a later stage. In each
of these suboptimal situations, however, it is
substantially more difficult to achieve integra-
tion of engineering and biological concepts.
Artificial organs technology has been, for us,
a valuable educational vehicle. These devices can
be considered with only limited amounts of bio-
logical background although the treatment be-
comes more sophisticated and more satisfactory
as the available background increases. We have
given a one-semester course accessible to senior
chemical engineers but designed to be challenging
at the master's level. All possible emphasis is
put on the integration of engineering concepts
and biological fact. The behavior of blood in
extracorporeal circuits is considered in terms of
rheology, shear-susceptibility, undesired reac-
tions with artificial surfaces, and problems of
intraphase transport. Comparisons are made
with intracorporeal circumstances and the prob-
lems, surgical and mechanical, of acute and
chronic cannulation are considered. Primary and
secondary specifications are established for car-
diac replacement and assistance devices, com-
paring actual prostheses and their rationales
with the heart and the characteristics and de-
mands of the circulatory system. The artificial
kidney and blood-gas exchangers are introduced
as artificial capillary beds; specifications are es-
tablished for transport capability, allowable vol-
ume, and pressure-flow characteristics, with
recognition of how limitations imposed by con-

FALL 1970

temporary technology prevent full reproduction
of the performance of the natural counterpart.
Such a course meets several educational goals.
Foremost, it provides an integrating experience
the importance of which has already been
stressed here. It also gives undergraduates an
elective by which they can learn something of
bioengineering. It demonstrates, as do other
'applications' courses in chemical engineering,
the breadth of the field. It shows that the con-
figuration of natural organs may lead to im-
provements in design of artificial devices even
for industrial purposes. Finally such a course is
often audited, seemingly profitably, by members
of the biological science and medical communi-
ties and thus offers a chance to return an educa-
tional debt incurred through the many engi-
neering students who enroll in courses in the bio-
logical sciences.

NO DISCUSSION of contemporary education
for the chemical engineer interested in bio-
engineering should close without recognition of
the extraordinary educational value of research
in a field so new that much of contemporary
knowledge and practice cannot yet be made avail-
able in course work. All chemical engineering
M.S. students at Columbia must submit a mas-
ter's thesis. For those interested in bioengineer-
ing this requirement always means exposure to
a biological, usually medical, environment and
frequent consultation with one or more biological
scientists or academic physicians. These often
serve as co-sponsors of the research.
What happens to chemical engineers who em-
phasize bioengineering in their graduate train-
ing? There is a small but growing artificial or-
gans industry comprised with but a few excep-
tions of small companies. Perhaps a score of
M.S. graduate could find employment in this in-
dustry each year. The extramural contract pro-
grams of the National Heart and Lung Institute
and the National Institute of Arthritis and Me-
tabolic Diseases put some tens of millions of
dollars per year into private research organiza-
tions and thus provide employment opportuni-
ties for perhaps another twenty graduates at the
master's or doctoral level. Paramedical indus-
tries have developed with little help from bio-
engineers (but not other engineers working on
problems which could be divorced from their
ultimate environment such as packaging, filtra-
tion of parenteral fluids, stress analysis of

surgical instruments, design of disposable injec-
tion equipment and low-noise amplifiers for bio-
logical signals). Increasingly, these industries
are seeing the need for engineers to solve prob-
lems which are much less easily separable from
the biological environment, but it is difficult to
say how rapidly such opportunities will become
available. Perhaps, again, a score or more jobs,
mostly at the M.S. level, is all that can be ex-
pected each year in the early '70's. Other open-
ings are provided by the biological component of
the United States' space effort. Both research
and development are included, but the uncertain
scope and composition of this effort over the
next several years makes quantitative predictions
most uncertain. Most uncertain of all are op-
portunities in the country's enormous biological
research establishment where most holders of the
bioengineering doctorate will seek careers. The
establishment behaves insularly, even among the
biological sciences; but the early successes of
interdisciplinary projects, the favorable bias of
the federal granting agencies toward bioengi-
neering, the tendency of bioengineers to create a
research establishment for themselves, and the
persistent governmental emphasis on reduction
of biological knowledge to deliver health care all
indicate, albeit uncertainly, an increasing job
The compromise which is contemporary bio-
engineering education should not persist. The
biological sciences are lumbering slowly toward
a solid basis in physical science. As biological
science courses become more quantitative and
conceptual they will become more acceptable as
intrinsic parts of an engineering curriculum
Chemical engineering, already a discipline which
is concerned with more than the chemical and
petroleum industries, will offer a wider set of
examples in its course offerings, ultimately in-
cluding, as a matter of course, some from living
systems. Unpredictable factors will determine
whether most engineering schools ultimately of-
fer curricula in bioengineering, but it appears
certain that the stronger programs for the for-
seeable future will be less sweeping and more
concentrated. A wise but enthusiastic espousal
of bioengineering as an option in chemical engi-
neering departments offers the profession an un-
paralleled opportunity to expand its scope mean-
ingfully, to study new material with potential
value for all applications of the profession, and
to broaden its service to humanity.


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was made possible by the same stuff

that once made it undrinkable.

When black ash from our paper mill in Tyrone, Pennsylvania,
began contaminating the Juniata River, we solved the problem
in an obvious way. We stopped putting ash into the river.
Which led to another problem: what to do with the ash?
Our research people entered the picture. They discov-
ered that while ash not only causes pollution problems, with
a little ingenuity it could also be made into a product that
actually solves pollution problems.
From black ash, Westvaco engineers created activated
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odors from water supplies all over the world. Sort of like turn-
ing a bad guy into a good guy.
We also felt that because we could do something about
our own pollution problems, we could do something about
other people's pollution problems. And our new consulting
service is doing just that. In fact, our people are doing a lot of
different things in a lot of different areas, some of which are
pretty far removed from paper and chemicals. And we're still
in the market for ideas. So if you've got the kind of talent and
curiosity to handle a product that might not be created until
the day after tomorrow, let's talk it over. Drop us a line at
Westvaco, 299 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017.

An Equal Opportunity Employer

4 caeiaean


University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan

engineering is the tremendously wide va-
riety of regions of interest which are incorpo-
rated as part of the general field. Two broad
areas of interest serve to distinguish the chemical
engineer from chemists and other engineers: the
ability to design processes involving chemical
reactors and separation processes. Indeed the
cost of most chemical and petroleum plants (ex-
clusive of utilities) are principally attributable
to these two categories. In many cases plant
costs will be 5-20 percent for reactors and 80-95
percent for a variety of separation processes in-
cluding feed preparation and product recovery.
There are a large number of basic separation
processes and a much larger number of generic
names applied in the field. There appears to be
no limit in the variations that can be applied to
develop new processes that are basically different
or to improve existing processes. Indeed, the
field of separation processes has been called an
"inventor's paradise."
DESIGN OF SEPARATION processes involves
a considerable amount of ingenuity and syn-
thesis. Many of the basic principles to be applied
are currently taught under the general headings
of heat, mass and momentum transfer. However,
other aspects of equal importance are not usually
taught in basic courses. For example, one must
consider how a small separation achieved in one
unit can be increased to attain a product of
specified purity. Cascading and compounding of
separation units involve knowledge and experi-
ence beyond that of basic fundamentals. As men-
tioned, design of separation processes involves
both synthesis and ingenuity. Therefore a course
in the subject should properly stress the former
and illustrate the latter. The courses in separa-
tion processes at the University of Michigan are
designed to achieve these objectives.
Rather than teach how to design a number of
different separation processes, an attempt is
made to teach an approach to the design of sepa-

John E. Powers was born in Wilkinsburg, Pennsyl-
vania, October 12, 1927 and graduated from the Univer-
sity of Michigan in 1951. He was awarded his Ph.D.
degree from the University of California in 1954 and
then worked for Shell Development Company in Emery-
ville, California. He joined the faculty of the University
of Oklahoma in 1956. He received a National Science
Foundation Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship 1962-63,
studying crystallization with Dr. H. Schildknecht at
Erlangen University in Germany. Since returning to
Michigan in 1963 he has been responsible for the gradu-
ate and undergraduate courses in separation processes,
primarily crystallization. Dr. Powers is also co-director
with Dr. D. L. Katz of the University of Michigan En-
thalpy Research Laboratory.

ration processes in general. The procedure is
broken down into two aspects: 1) mathematical
modeling of the fundamental process unit taking
into account its mode of operation; 2) methods
of increasing the separation achieved either by
joining together a number of process units (cas-
cading) or incorporating some procedure to en-
hance the separation achieved within a single
unit completingg).
Modeling. Emphasis is placed on an under
standing of the basic principle underlying the
separation and the constraints imposed on the
separation by the mode of operation. Several
broad classifications are developed to stress dif-
ferent types of basic principles. For example, it
is generally important to recognize whether the
basic separation takes place within a single phase
or results from a concentration difference be-
tween two phases in equilibrium. In combination,
one must consider whether or not a barrier is
required to achieve the separation. For example,
thermal diffusion is one example of a separation
that occurs within a single phase without using


Design of separation processes involves both synthesis
properly stress the former and illustrate the latter.

and ingenuity, therefore a course in the subject should

a barrier whereas gaseous diffusion and permea-
tion are single-phase processes that require a
barrier. Similarly distillation does not utilize a
barrier but depends on a difference in concentra-
tion between two phases. Filtration is a two-
phase separation process that makes use of a
barrier. Modeling of a variety of processes in
each category emphasizes a general approach.
Mathematical modeling of individual units is
also influenced a great deal by the mode of op-
eration. The mathematical constraints that are
applied to satisfy the mass, energy, and momen-
tum balances will depend on whether the process
is batch and transient, a flow process at steady
state or a hybrid involving unsteady-state opera-
tion of a flow process. In all cases it is desirable
to develop a mathematical model of the basic
unit that yields a descriptive equation of reason-
able form. This is especially important if the
individual units are to be joined into a cascade.
Therefore a number of simplifying assumptions
that have proven to yield suitable design equa-
tions are summarized in general form and em-
phasized by applying to a number of different
processes with various modes of operation.
In most separation processes, the basic effect
is insufficient to produce the desired separation.
Therefore some processing scheme must be de-
veloped to enhance the separation and mathe-
matical techniques need to be developed to per-
mit estimation of the total separation achieved
and to apply optimization techniques if neces-
sary. In many cases individual basic units are
joined together. The most familiar example is
a series of distillation stages joined to form a
distillation column. The use of reflux and the
concepts of limitations such as minimum stages
and minimum reflux are developed. In some
cases such as gaseous diffusion the separations
achieved in any stage are so small, the time to
achieve operating conditions with the usual cas-
cading arrangements are so long and the costs
so high that advanced cascade theory must be
applied to attain a workable design. Such an
application is illustrated emphasizing general
principles of advanced cascade design.
It is sometimes possible to enhance a separa-
tion within a single unit. This usually involves
countercurrent flow within the unit. Packed
column absorption and extraction provide illus-

tration of such techniques involving contacting of
two phases. Fixed bed operation including
chromatographic separations are considered in
this same category. Application of these general
principles to separations achieved within one
phase usually involves laminar flow brought
about by density differences within the single
phase in combination with a gravitational or
centrifugal field and are therefore subject to
mathematical analysis. Thermogravitational
thermal diffusion and gas centrifugation illus-
trate this approach.
dering variety of approaches both from the
point of view of the basic principles to be applied,
and the mode of operation including the possi-
bilities of cascading and completing. Therefore
it is usually possible to illustrate the principles
of a general approach to the design of separation
processes by providing examples and home prob-
lems based on a wide variety of basic techniques.
During the course, examples are drawn from
filtration, leaching, extraction, distillation, ab-
sorption, adsorption, permeation, gaseous diffu-
sion, crystallization, thermal diffusion, chroma-
tography, etc. Examinations are designed to test
the students' ability to synthesize a solution to a
problem involving a basic approach and/or mode
of operation which has not been treated in the
lectures, home problems or outside reading. The
response has been most gratifying.
Up until the past year the graduate course
on separation processes has been elective with
good attendance. At present the course is re-
quired of all first year graduate students.

California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California
In Table I of the paper, "Some Current Dielectric
Studies in Liquid State Physics, 2. Dielectric and Critical
State Phenomena," by C. J. Pings [CEE, 4, 98 (1970)],
the second row of entries should be labeled "Primitive
Expt.," and the fourth row should be "Refined Expt."
Also the following footnote was omitted:
Work supported by the Chemistry Directorate of the
Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

FALL 1970

4eaiwei w


Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

T HIS COURSE HAS traditionally been taken
by first year graduate students in Chemical
Engineering, whether or not they intend to ter-
minate at the Master's level or continue towards
the doctorate. It is offered in the spring semester
and is preceded in the fall semester by a fluid
mechanics course, although students starting in
the spring semester reverse the order with little
apparent trauma.
The prime object of the course is to make a
step change in the student's perception of and
approach to the subject. Undergraduates are
comfortable at a more or less elementary level of
approach to heat and mass transfer. What is
meant by comfortable is that they can define and
solve transport problems which fit into this
framework with a sense of security and, depend-
ing upon their undergraduate preparation, they
have some kind of a feeling that there are other
ways of approaching the same problems. They
are rarely secure with these other approaches,
There are two dangers which arise in at-
tempting to effect too rapid a change in a stu-
dent's viewpoint. At one extreme he may not
develop enough of a grasp of the more sophisti-
cated viewpoint to feel secure with it. In his
later work this student will fall back on the
approach he is secure with (his undergraduate
approach) and he will attempt to force problems
he faces into this narrower framework. This
student may make a fine engineer under some
circumstances, but he has probably wasted much
of his time in the course. At the other extreme
the student decides all situations must be treated
with the powerful new tools he has mastered.
This student practices overkill at all opportuni-
ties and makes a mediocre engineer. Thus a
student must not just understand the new ap-
proaches introduced in the course, he must also
understand when and when not to use them.
Although the course content is primarily engi-

Herbert L. Toor was born June 22, 1927. He received
his B.S. from Drexel Institute of Technology; his M.S.
and Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He has been
employed as Research Chemist, Monsanto Chemicals,
Limited 1952-1953. He is presently Professor of Chemical
Engineering (1961-) and Head of the Department of
Chemical Engineering (1965-). He is the author of num-
erous papers on diffusion and a recipient of the Alan
Colburn award of the AIChE. (Left)
Duane Condiff received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engi-
neering from the University of Minnesota in 1965. Fol-
lowing this he spent one year doing post doctoral re-
search in Theoretical Chemistry at the University of
Wisconsin, and has been teaching Chemical Engineering
at Carnegie-Mellon University for four years. His major
research is conducted in the field of non-equilibrium
statistical mechanics with emphasis upon applications to
the molecular and particulate theories of transport.

neering science, both words need to be taken
It seems that the best way for a student to
both learn new material and to get it in perspec-
tive is to solve lots of problems, and that is just
what he does in the course. A mixture of various
kinds of problems is used; exercises to help learn
new material, frequently out of BSL, problems
which require skillful application of the advanced
material, problems which can and should be
solved by elementary methods. The course meets
four hours a week and slightly less than half
that time is taken up with discussing problem
We find BSL to be most useful and although
not used as a textbook (there is no real textbook



for the course) students are expected to read
and understand almost all the material in that
A few general rules. The student should not
get bogged down in mathematics, a good physical
feel for a situation is crucial; intuition, quick
approximations and a feel for magnitudes and
dominant effects need encouragement.
For pedagogical purposes it seems to be de-
sirable to cover heat and mass transfer mostly
sequentially, and since a good deal (but not all)
of the heat transfer material can be carried over
to mass transfer, somewhere between one half
and two thirds of the first part of the semester is
devoted to heat transfer. However, straight-
forward mass transfer analogies are noted as
they arise throughout the first part of the course.

The course starts out with a map of the field,
a sketch of the various levels of analysis avail-
able and a categorization of the levels of analysis
needed to handle various types of problems and
to answer various types of questions. Review
problems of the McAdams type are assigned here
and macroscopic balances are briefly reviewed.
Differential balances are discussed from a
general viewpoint and special and important
examples in heat and mass transfer are obtained
rapidly, leaving close examination of assumptions
and approximations for later. This leads natur-
ally into the constitutive equations of Fourier
and Fick which are examined from various view-
points. The extension to the general linear sys-
tem is apparent at this stage but is not pursued
until the later part of the course.
One dimensional conduction and convection
problems are assigned and discussed during this
period and while the student is gaining experi-
ence and a feel for the subject, a rather rigorous
derivation of the energy equation is presented
both for pure components and mixtures with
concentration gradients.
A nice way to introduce unsteady conduction
is through source solutions and reflection meth-
ods which depend heavily on physical concepts,
but later emphasis is placed on similarity solu-
tions and Sturm-Liouville methods. Ideas of re-
laxation times, penetration times and distances,
the relationship between Nusselt numbers and
temperature profiles are emphasized and then
extended from non-flow to flow situations. Di-
mensional analysis of complex differential equa-

tions is stressed emphasizing the viewpoint that
in most situations an engineer neither needs nor
is able to obtain complete solutions to the energy
equation, but that the equation still remains a
powerful tool. The general definition of a Nus-
selt Number is used to attempt to drive students
away from the use of the "film coefficient" termi-
nology, not always with complete success.
Examples of misbehaved Nusselt Numbers,
multiphase systems, frictional heat generation,
particularly in boundary layers are used to em-
phasize the limitations of the normal ideas of
heat transfer coefficients.
Energy and mass transport in turbulent fluids
present their normal difficulties in a course of
this type. The best we can do with the available
time as far as the modern ideas go, is to sketch
some of the basic concepts of statistical turbu-
lence, the state of the art and the relationship
of the fine scale to the course scale. The main
emphasis is placed on the time averaged equa-
tions and eddy diffusivities. The similar mathe-
matical structure of the time averaged equa-
tions to the equations used earlier in describing
non-turbulent systems is used to show the under-
lying unity in gradient transport systems. The
history of analogies is considered and their rela-
tionships to the boundary value viewpoint is
stressed. Film and penetration ideas are also
discussed briefly at this stage and various engi-
neering applications are treated.
The subjects of radiation and heat transfer
with phase changes are treated primarily with
problem assignments, mainly because of time

The relationship between mass and heat
transfer is somewhat like the relationship be-
tween the English and American languages; if
you know one subject you can get by in the other,
but confusion and embarrassment are a conse-
quence of not recognizing the difference between
the two.
The general reference velocity is treated as
a linear combination of component velocities and
the more common reference velocities are then
shown to be useful special cases.
The constitutive equation in the simple binary
system is first obtained as the linear relation-
ship between the flux and concentration gradient
which must go to zero when the system is at a

FALL 1970

uniform concentration, and the consequences of
using different concentration measures or ther-
modynamic functions are considered.
The choice of the usual binary diffusivity is
shown to be a consequence of its symmetry D12 =
D21 and the inverted form of the diffusion equa-
tion, the Stefan-Maxwell form, is used to bring
out the essential arbitrariness in the usual for-
After considering the relationship between
diffusion and random walk processes, Brownian
motion, the Stokes-Einstein equation, and the
prediction of binary diffusion coefficients, irre-
versible thermodynamics is used as a convenient
way to obtain general forms of the constitutive
equations both for heat and mass transfer, and
various kinds of coupled systems are considered.
At this point a comparison of the dimension-
less energy equation with the dimensionless con-
vective-diffusion equation is carried out to isolate
those passive systems (stagnant, laminar, turbu-
lent) in which the solutions to the two equa-
tions are the same.
The remainder of the course then concen-
trates on those mass transfer problems which
have no heat transfer analogues or in which the
heat transfer analogue has not been considered
earlier. Diffusion induced flows, mass transfer
with chemical reactions and with phase changes,
and multicomponent mass transfer are typically
treated. The utility of hydrodynamic models in
making engineering estimates of the effect on
mass transfer of phenomena such as chemical
reactions or convection at a boundary is stressed
and then interfacial effects and interphase mass
transfer are treated.
The specific material covered in a course of
this type is probably less important than the
attitude the student carries away; one would like
to have him take away the viewpoint that there
are powerful tools available, but that they can-
not be used blindly, that skill, judgment and
common sense are still necessary tools of the
For the last two years the in-class teaching
of graduate heat and mass transfer at C-MU
has been handled by D.C. In this endeavor con-
certed efforts are constantly being made to cap-
ture some of the flavor, to uphold the standards,
and to take advantage of (and hopefully build
upon) the techniques and philosophy of the
course as previously taught by Professor Toor.
In addition to this tradition, the instructor has

had the benefits of material from two excellent
series of courses in heat and mass transfer
taught in the sixties at the University of Minne-
sota by Professor W. Ranz and by Professor
A. G. Fredrickson. In the latter case, the courses
were taken by Dr. Clarence Miller of C-MU, to
whom we are grateful for making available to
us his extremely fine set of notes.
Underlying the structure of our current
course is a continued stress of theoretical funda-
mentals and a liberal dosage of assigned practice
problems. The student has to learn how to apply
the existing methods, but he also has to and
wants to understand why they work; and he
must be able to judge whether an approach to a
particular problem is applicable or inapplicable,
or unnecessarily elaborate, or not sufficiently
exact for the purposes at hand. For the develop-
ment of this type of judgment there is, of course,
no substitute for the experience of problem solv-
ing; but without the added guidance of a thor-
ough understanding of fundamentals, the de-
velopment of such judgment would surely be
severely retarded.
The nucleus of assigned reading for the
course continues to be the material of parts II
and III of BSL, which the student studies con-
currently, or reviews in detail as the case may
be. At present most of the students enrolling
in the course have had a thorough exposure to
dyadics and tensors in the "fluids" course taught
the previous semester by Professor Brenner, and
this background is utilized to advantage in es-
tablishing the compact forms of the general
macroscopic equations of transport.
However, this is worked up to gradually. The
course begins with the qualitative discussion of
physical mechanisms of bulk phase transport
from the macroscopic, microscopic, and what we
have come to call the "micro-macroscopic" points
of view. In the macroscopic view, the distinction
is drawn between convective, radiative, and dif-
fusive types of transport with emphasis upon
the need for constitutive relations in the latter
instance. Here the difference between definition
and a physical law is discussed, and followed up
by a description of the role of thermodynamic
limitations. Then a review of the scaler and in-
variant formulations of the basic transport laws
of Fourier, Fick, and Newton is provided with
some attention given to the physical notion of an
anisotropic medium.
In the microscopic picture, discussion is lim-


. . . Examples of misbehaved Nusselt numbers . . . are used to emphasize the limitations
of the normal ideas of heat transfer coefficients.

ited for this course to a qualitative description of
the origins of kinetic and collisional transfer con-
tributions to the fluxes, their relative importance
in gases, liquids, and solids, the philosophical
inadequacies and "ball park" relevancies of the
mean free path theory of constitutive relations,
and the important role of rigorous non equilib-
rium statistical mechanics in this connection.
When time permits at this stage of the introduc-
tion, the understanding of the microscopic pic-
ture is augmented by a lecture surveying the sev-
eral angles to the theory of Brownian motion.
For the micromacroscopic mechanisms, i.e.,
for random and difficult to detail motions of
small but macroscopic fluid elements, a common
thread is woven through the ideas of turbulent
eddy diffusivities, dispersion in flow through
porous media, etc. The analogy of these physical
mechanisms to gas kinetic fluxes is also brought
out. These points are illustrated by means of
several examples. The first is an estimate on the
level of a mean free path approach, of the radial
dispersion coefficient for mixing in the flow of
fluid through a bed packed randomly with spheri-
cal pellets. A second example discussed is a de-
tailed mean free path type "ball park" estimate
of the effective transverse thermal conducitivity
due to the mixing in the wakes of small gas bub-
bles rising steadily through a liquid.
The student's coverage of shell balance prob-
lems (BSL Chapter 9) affords an occasion to
discuss the basis of flat (temperature) profile
models. This too is done within the context of
examples. One of these is the model of a cylin-
drical infrared heat filter with heat radiation
passing longitudinally while being partially ab-
sorbed according to Lambert's Law. In a first
pass at the problem the sides are taken to be
perfectly insulated, a flat transverse temperature
profile is assumed, and with the use of external
heat transfer coefficients at the ends, the equa-
tion for one dimensional heat conduction with
source is obtained by a shell balance and solved.
In a second pass we allow for heat loss at the
sides with a finite external resistance, but still
employ a flat temperature profile model. In a
third pass, the partial differential equation for
steady state two dimensional conduction with
source is obtained by a shell balance, and the com-
plete boundary value problem is identified. The

problem is rendered dimensionless and three
independent dimensionless parameters are iden-
tified along with the dimensionless variables.
Without solving the boundary value problem,
the solution is shown to be equivalent to the flat
temperature profile models of the first two passes
when appropriately selected dimensionless pa-
rameters approach zero. This is done in the sec-
ond instance by means of a regular perturba-
tion analysis which is employed to derive the flat
profile model directly. In another example, a sim-
ilar perturbation analysis of a more exact prob-
lem is used to derive the flat profile model which
is outlined in �9.7 of BSL for conduction in a
rectangular cooling fin.
In all of such analyses, the mathematical
methods per se are relegated to positions of some-
what lesser significance in favor of the lessons
to be gleaned from the results of the derivations.
Thus, the value of studying the problem in non
dimensional form is emphasized along with the
importance of recognizing apriori the dimension-
less criteria for the approximate validity of flat
temperature profile models. In this same vein,
the assigned problems are oriented towards using
such models with an intuitive recognition of the
criteria for their validity.
For purposes of contrast, the general to
specific approach is employed in part for treating
the problem of forced convection heat transfer
to a fluid engaging in turbulent or laminar flow
through a conduit. Thus, the equation of change
for cup mixing temperature is utilized to explain
physically why the asymptotic problem with con-
stant wall heat flux is unique in its simplicity.
Then for this boundary condition the expression
for the asymptotic internal heat transfer coeffi-
cient for pipe flow in terms of multiple integrals
involving velocity profile and position dependent
diffusivities is derived. Using this, the result for
laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid (BSL, �9.8)
as well as those for plug flow and for flow of an
Ellis-model fluid are recovered as special cases
by straightforward integration. Extensions to
treat the effect of compressibility and/or viscous
dissipation have been used in examinations.
Proceeding to the general macroscopic trans-
port equations, a vector tensor derivation is given
for the general generic form of such equations.
(Continued on page 195)

FALL 1970


Iowa State University of Science and Technology,
Ames, Iowa 50010

I. The Need

B IOCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES are those involving
biochemical and microbiological processes.
The oldest example is fermentation by which a
large number of chemicals and pharmaceuticals
can be produced. Industrial food processing is
another area in which a chemical engineer is
often required to consider biochemical and micro-
biological problems such as preservation of taste,
flavor and nutritional value and prevention of
Besides the normal growth in fermentation
and certain sections of food processing and phar-
maceutical industries, there are three areas which
are currently stimulating additional interest in
learning biochemical engineering. They are
briefly described below.
Enzyme Engineering: Enzymes are proteins
which catalyze biochemical reactions. Enzymes
are, in fact, excellent catalysts judging from
their high specificity and rapid reaction rates.
Recently, enzymes are becoming more important
not only in biochemical laboratories and in medi-
cal applications but as industrial catalysts in
chemical processing. The major factors currently
restraining the broad application of enzymes in
industry are the high cost and the relative un-
stable nature of enzymes. More efficient methods
of enzyme production and purification, better
methods in enzyme recycling and better engineer-
ing in kinetics and reactor design will require
the talents of chemical engineers who have had
training in biochemical engineering.
Single Cell Protein: The cells of microorganisms
contain high levels of protein which are com-
monly known as the single cell protein (SCP).
Production of SCP from carbohydrates and more
recently from hydrocarbons has been considered
most promising in solving the problem of imme-
diate and long range world food supply. Micro-
organisms not only can convert non-food mate-
rials such as hydrocarbons, ammonia, and potas-
sium phosphates into edible proteins but also can

George T. Tsao received a B.S. degree from National
Taiwan University in 1953, a M.S. degree from Univer-
sity of Florida in 1956 and a Ph.D. degree from Univer-
sity of Michigan in 1960, all in Chemical Engineering. He
joined Iowa State University in November, 1966 as an
associate professor and was promoted to the rank of full
professor in July, 1970. Dr. Taso's teaching and research
interests are in the areas of biochemical engineering,
enzyme technology and biological waste treatment. Be-
fore joining Iowa State, he was an assistant director of
research of Union Starch & Refling Co., a Division of
Miles Laboratories, Inc.

make the conversion in extremely high rates and
with good efficiency. Dynamics of cell growth
processes and oxygen absorption in multiple-
phase hydrocarbon fermentations are all chal-
lenging problems of biochemical engineering.
Biological Waste Treatment: In water pollution,
the problem of oxygen supply is of great import-
ance. The oxygen solubility in water is about 10
milligrams per liter. When water is polluted
with, say, one gram of glucose, the microbiolog-
ical activity stimulated by the presence of this
gram of food is sufficient to exhaust dissolved
oxygen in more than 100 liters of water. Unless
re-absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere is
fast enough, fish and other marine organisms
will receive irreversible damage. In (micro-)
biological waste treatment, the contaminated
water is processed through highly efficient gas-
liquid contractors to absorb oxygen to biologically
convert all the biodegradable pollutants into
either escapable gases or filterable solid cell mass.
Thus, a good portion of the water pollution con-
trol technology centers around microbiological
activities and particularly biological oxidation.
This is true in pollution damage to water re-
sources and also true in waste treatment. With
additional training in biochemical engineering, a
chemical engineer is probably the best qualified
engineer in pollution abatement.


A course in biochemical engineering covers the engineering aspects of biochemical and
microbiological processes . . . It provides supplementary training to ChE students . . .

II. The General Philosophy

TN ADDITION TO ALL regular chemical engineering
subjects including stoichiometry, unit opera-
tions, transport phenomena, thermodynamics,
kinetics and process control, chemical engineers
serving biochemical industries can work more
effectively if they also have training in the funda-
mentals of biochemical engineering. Most chemi-
cal engineering students have taken non-major
courses in mathematics, physics, and chemistry.
For those whose work will involve biochemical
and microbiological processes, certain additional
exposure to elementary biochemistry and micro-
biology will be helpful.
Biochemical engineering is not a separate
discipline from chemical engineering. It is
neither "condensed biochemistry and microbio-
logy'" made easy for chemical engineers. A
course in biochemical engineering covers rather
the engineering aspects of biochemical and micro-
biological processes that are not normally covered
in regular chemical engineering courses. It is to
provide supplementary training to chemical en-
gineering students so that they are better pre-
pared as chemical engineers for work that in-
volves biological and microbiological processes.
A biochemical engineering course covers either
(1) topics unique to biochemical and microbio-
logical processes such as microbial cell growth or
(2) those chemical engineering topics that are
of particular importance to biochemical indus-
tries such as gas-liquid interfacial mass transfer
of oxygen.
A course entitled Biochemical Engineering
has been offered to graduate students and quali-
fied seniors at Iowa State University to provide
the supplementary training as described above.
For those graduate students who intend to be-
come specialized in biochemical engineering, addi-
tional training is of course needed.
An additional objective of this course is to
arouse awareness and stimulate interest in bio-
chemical engineering research among chemical
engineering students. There have been very few
universities offering such training for chemical
engineers, although there is a trend toward
greater interest in this area. This is quite in step
with the current trend towards interdisciplinary

Ill. Outline of the Course
Course title: Biochemical Engineering
Textbook: none (There is a lack of a suitable textbook.)
(1) No previous training in biochemistry or micro-
biology is assumed. A sufficient coverage of the
basics of biochemistry and microbiology is in-
cluded in this course so as to allow intelligent
discussion of the related biochemical engineering
(2) Graduate students and qualified seniors (have had
courses dealing with chemical kinetics and mass
transfer) of chemical engineering.
(3) Non-chemical engineering majors by permission.
(note: Qualified students from Departments of
Sanitary Engineering, Biochemistry, Bacteriology
and Food Technology can often follow this course
with some extra help from the instructor on
basic chemical engineering principles.
Chapter 1: Basic Biology
1. major microbial cell structures
2. cells and populations
3. DNA and double helix
4. RNA
5. enzymes
6. protein synthesis
7. genetic information
reference: Part 1 "Biochemistry of Bacterial Growes"
by J. Mandelstam and K. McQuillen (Wiley, 1968).
Chapter 2: Microbial Cell Growth
1. Quantitation of growth
2. batch growth curve
3. lag phase and its shortening
4. exponential phase
5. mathematical description of growth curve
6. Monod equation and its extensions
7. Perret's growth model
8. Hinshelwood's balanced cell expansion model
9. production of single cell production
reference: Chapters 2, 3 and 5 in "Growth, Function
and Regulation in Bacterial Cells" by A. C. R.
Dean and Sir Cyril Hinshelwood (Oxford Press,
Chapter 3: Applied Microbiology and Industrial Fermen-
1. yeast, mold and bacteria
2. basic nutrients
3. pH effect
4. temperature effect
5. classifications: aerobic vs. anaerobic, etc.
6. concept of pure culture and controlled mixed culture
7. design of typical industrial fermentors and acces-

FALL 1970

8. identification of areas for engineering investigation
(as an introduction to the later chapters)
9. examples of typical industrial fermentation proc-
references: Chapters 1 and 2 in "Biochemical and Bio-
logical Engineering Science" vol. 1, by N. Blake-
brough (Academic press, 1967).
Chapters 1 and 2 "Biochemical Engineering" by S.
Aiba, A. E. Humphrey and N. F. Millis (Academic
Press, 1965).
Chapter 4: Continuous Process of Cell Growth, Substrate
Utilization (Waste Disposal) and Product
1. single stage, perfect mixed cell propagator (chemo-
2. mathematical equations for cell growth, nutrient
depletion and product accumulation
3. concept of wash-out
4. cell recycle and effect on cell yield
5. multiple stage cell propagator
6. design of continuous process-method by leudeking
7. plug flow and non-ideal reactor in cell growth
8. new techniques-concentrated cell population, dialy-
sis cell propagator
references: Chapter 5 in "Biochemical Engineering" by
S. Aiba, A. E. Humphrey and N. F. Millis (Aca-
demic Press, 1965)
Supplementary handout.

Chapter 5: Enzyme Kinetics
1. enzymes
2. Michaelis-Menten equation
3. equilibrium approach and steady state approach
4. Lineweaver-Burk and other plots
5. Monod equation and Langmuir equation
6. enzyme inhibitions
7. reversible competitive inhibition and Lineweaver-
Burk plot
8. multiple and simultaneous enzymatic reactions
9. temperature effect
references: Chapter 6 in "Biochemical and Biological
Engineering Science" vol. 1 by N. Blakebrough
Academic Press, 1967).
Chapter 4 in "Enzymes" 2nd ed. by M. Dixon and
E. C. Webb (Academic Press, 1964).

Chapter 6: Industrial Enzymology
1. types of enzymes: intracellular vs. extracellular, etc.
2. methods of isolation and purification (grinding,
ultrasoundics, alcohol precipitation, salting out,
3. new techniques in enzyme applications (ultrafiltra-
tion, enzyme analogs, enzyme insolubilization)
4. available commercial enzymes and applications
5. important industrial enzymatically catalyzed reac-
6. enzymatic starch hydrolysis and glucose isomerase
references: Chapters 2 and 3 in "Enzymes" 2nd ed. by
M. Dixon and E. C. Webb (Academic Press, 1964).
Supplementary handout.

Dynamics of cell growth processes and oxygen
absorption . . . are challenging problems of
biochemical engineering.

Chapter 7: Energetics and Metabolic Pathways

1. high energy bonds (ATP, etc.)
2. coenzymes
3. concept of pathways
4. outlines of EMP, TCA, pentose pathways
5. amino acid synthesis and protein synthesis
6. beta-oxidation
7. biological oxidation
8. energy from glycolysis
9. anaerobic formation of methane, ethanol, lactic
acid and glycerol
10. biological oxidation of Fe, S, and N compounds
references: Part 1 in "Biochemistry of Bacterial
Growth" by J. Mendelstam and K. McQuillen
(Wiley, 1968).
Supplementary handout.

Chapter 8: Interfacial Mass Transfer

1. oxygen solubility in water
2. BOD
3. methods for measuring dissolved oxygen
4. methods for measuring rate of oxygen absorption
5. empirical correlations for interfacial mass transfer
6. application of theory of turbulence
7. interfacial mass transfer theories of Whitman,
Higbie and Danckwerts
8. effect of absorbing small particles
9. hydrocarbon-aqueous-gaseous multiple phase mass
references: Chapter 5 in "Biochemical and Biological
Engineering Science" by N. Blakebrough (Aca-
demic Press, 1967).
Book "Gas-Liquid Reactions" by P. V. Danckwerts,
(McGraw Hill, 1970).

Chapter 9: Gas-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Dispersions

1. interfacial area measured by optical methods
2. measured by chemical method of Danckwerts and
3. Sauter's mean bubble dismeter
4. surface area correlations-Weber number
5. gas-liquid contractors and liquid-dispersion equip-
6. power input
7. foam and emulsion
references: Chapter 5 in "Biochemical and Biological
Engineering Science" vol. 1 by N. Blakebrough
(Academic Press, 1967).
Chapter on "Dispersion" by Resnick and Gal-Or in
Advances in Chemical Engineering (Academic
Press, 1969).


Chapter 10: Sterilization of Air
1. sterilization by heat due to adiabatic compression
2. use of packed bed
3. theory of Gaden and Humphrey
4. Friedlander's analysis
5. mechanisms of particles removal from air
6. Pelect number
7. correlation of experimental data
references: Chapter 3 in "Biochemical and Biological
Engineering Science" vol. 1 by N. Blakebrough
Chapter 11: Sterilization of Liquid
1. chemical methods
2. cationic detergent, ethylene and propylene oxide
3. chlorination in water treatment
4. phenol number
5. sterilization and pasteurization by heat
6. logrithmic death equation
7. Q-10 theory
8. temperature profile and its integration
9. Z-value and F-value
10. continuous sterilization process and equipment
11. inactivation by heat.
reference: Chapter 13 in "Biochemical Engineering"
by F. C. Webb (Van Nostrand 1964)
Chapter 8 in "Biochemical Engineering" by S.
Aiba, A. E. Humphrey, and N. F. Millis

HEAT & MASS TRANSFER: Toor & Condiff
Toor & Condiff (Continued from page 191)
This form is specialized to obtain the general
mass, momentum, and energy balances wherein
conservation of mass, Newton's law of mechan-
ics, and the first law of thermodynamics are each
identified as a condition on the respective source
terms. The assumption of local equilibrium is
then introduced and employed to obtain the en-
tropy balance, with identification of the posi-
tive definiteness of the source term as the second
law of thermodynamics. Then follows a short
survey of the highlights of irreversible thermo-
dynamics using polyadics as a means of provid-
ing (i) a compact description of the linear laws
of transport for an anisotropic medium, and (ii)
a demonstration of Curie's theorem as a mathe-
matical consequence of the assumption of iso-
tropic transport coefficient tensors. It is hope-
fully made "crystal clear" that a violation of
Onsager reciprocal relations is not excluded by
any of the macroscopic principles.
With the closed and simplified versions of
transport equations derived, methods of getting
approximate and exact solutions for special heat
transfer and analogous mass transfer problems
are examined, though somewhat briefly. The

sequence of study starts with the solution of
problems categorized as (i) constant wall tem-
perature penetration (BSL 10.R. 9.P, ex. 11.1-1,
plug flow past a flat plate, etc.) all treated to-
gether by a similarity argument, (ii) constant
wall heat flux penetration (BSL ex. 11.2-2, 9.R,
etc.) also solved simultaneously by a similarity
argument, and (iii) penetration in combination
with external wall resistance. For case (iii) the
similarity arguments are shown to break down
and so the Laplace transform method is intro-
duced, applied here, and pursued a bit further.
Next the separation solutions are developed gen-
erally in conjunction with a concise survey of
the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. This
permits in particular a look at the general solu-
tion forms for forced convection heat transfer
to fluid flowing in a conduit with boundary condi-
tions of constant wall temperature or of transfer
in series with an external resistance (e.g., the
insulated pipe). The relationship of the lead
eigenvalue to the asymptotic internal transfer
coefficient is established at this point.
The separations solutions, and their special
suitability for long time results provides a nat-
ural lead into the concept of relaxation time,
which in turn is expanded into the ideas of
multiple time scale analysis and their use in the
justification of quasi steady state (qss) approxi-
mations. An example is the estimate of the time
required to freeze a can of beer (for simplicity
the beer is taken to be water) which is made
using a one dimensional qss approximation. This
approximation is then shown by a simple com-
parison of time scales to be necessarily invalid
at the initial and final stages of the freezing
process. Another example is the qss estimate of
the time and distance of fall of an evaporating
spherical raindrop with Stokes law drag, heat
transfer correlations, and an analogy assump-
tion for heat and mass transfer.
Problems emphasize the use of qss approxi-
mations with intuitive understanding of when
they would not be accurate. Additional attention
is given to problems with transfer across moving
boundaries, especially boundaries where phase
changes or fast reactions occur. There is a lec-
ture devoted to the convective diffusion towards
a rotating disc, and in this discussion the essen-
tial boundary-layer like character of the exact
solution is brought out. This points the way to
a development of boundary layer equations by
simplified asymptotic arguments, with the Von

FALL 1970

Karman - Pohlhausen integral approximations
considered within the broader framework of the
method of moments. Condensations problems
and the film models are then considered with
their limitations discussed. In particular, the
Nusselt theory is developed as the simplest con-
ceivable approximation from within the frame-
work of the method of moments.
In treating turbulent transport we aim more
for perspective than for completeness. The ap-
proach is to first initiate the student by develop-
ing one of the penetration models, and then to
distribute for reading, copies of the 1968 award
lecture of Professor L. E. Scriven, as published
in Chemical Engineering Education. Discussion
is then focused upon the time averaged equa-
tions, emphasizing that the literature on turbu-
lence is often concerned with a deeper under-
standing of the position dependent turbulent
diffusivities which we use. Introduced is an
idealized concept which we call the "intense
turbulence limit." This physical limit concept
allows us to tie together several loose ends. Con-
sidering the tendencies of relaxation times to-
wards zero at the limit, and the effective quasi
steady state behavior of the boundary transition
regions, it is argued on grounds more physical
than mathematical that at the limit, (i) the
asymptotic internal heat transfer coefficients are
totally independent of boundary conditions, and
(ii) the asymptotic transfer coefficients are
reached instantly, i.e., the entrance region ap-
proaches zero in size. The tie-in to reality is
then made by noting that often in turbulent flow
one is operating near the ideal limit, flow of
liquid metals being an exception, and that con-
sequently in the use of empiracle correlations for
design purposes one is seldom concerned about
sensitivity of transfer coefficients to boundary
conditions. From this we proceed to a review of
design calculations, overall balances, and from
thence to radiation, all by way of solving prob-
lems. Engineering problems of the quick number
or quick conclusion variety are interspersed for
In the time remaining a systematic treatment
of mass transfer is attempted with emphasis
upon problems without heat transfer analogies
("active" as opposed to "passive" transport).
The problems include combined heat and mass
transfer situations and are quite often built
upon assignments prepared by H.L.T. Solutions
are later distributed for all assigned problems.

Discussion commences with diffusion kinematics
based upon species velocities and in terms of
these, definitions of arbitrary and the three
principal types of convective (reference) veloci-
ties, fluxes of species or their energies, entropies,
etc., and the arbitrary break up of these fluxes
into diffusive and convective contributions. Dif-
fusion laws for concentration diffusion are
brought out in terms of relative species velocities,
vi- vj, by means of the component momentum
balances. The general Einstein connection be-
tween the binary friction and diffusion coeffi-
cients then permits conversion, in the binary
case, to the doubly invariant forms of Ficks law
for arbitrary reference velocity, from which all
other forms follow. In the multicomponent case,
the reduction of the component momentum bal-
ances to the ideal gas Stefan-Maxwell form is
then described in similar fashion, and followed
by the concentration diffusion laws with respect
to the useful volume average reference velocity.
Pressure diffusion, thermal diffusion, and diffu-
sion due to externally applied fields are brought
in by means of the irreversible thermodynamics
for multicomponent systems. Obtained in par-
ticular are the general isotropic linear laws for
heat and mass transfer in terms of both Onsager
and Curtiss-Hirschfelder multicomponent diffu-
sion coefficients, with the theoretical superiority
of the mass average reference velocity indicated.
(Wherever the going becomes difficult or nota-
tion heavy, notes are written out for distribu-
tion.) The tie-in to Ficks law for binary systems
is then immediately made.
There is emphasis on mass transfer coeffi-
cients; there are problems discussed or assigned
on film theory, flame models, the corrections for
normal mass flow at boundaries, charge trans-
port, a detailed treatment of density gradient
centrifugation, etc. Up to now, time has expired
before overall balances for multicomponent or
active systems could be treated systematically.
Finally, it should be evident that the course is,
of necessity, partly survey in nature, and that
many of the topics treated, or not treated, war-
rant a great deal more time. Those students with
little prior experience are usually left with a
feeling that they have more to learn, but have
acquired some facility with and an overview of
some of the more advanced methods and ideas,
a proper perspective for terminal and continuing
students alike.


Three Wiley Texts for

Chemical Engineering Students

By DAVID M. HIMMELBLAU, University of Texas,
Austin, Texas
Both old and new techniques of process evaluation
and model-building by statistical methods are de-
scribed and contrasted in this text-reference.
The "process analysis" of the title refers to the
analysis-by statistical techniques-of continuous
industrial processes typified by chemical, petro-
leum or food industries, or of continuous natural
processes such as river flows, biological growth
and decay. The introduction of these methods into
process calculations assures more precise state-
ments about uncertainty factors, and hence to bet-
ter decision-making.
Highlights are generous illustrative problems and
suggested alternatives for practical application if
the basic theory should prove inapplicable.
1970 463 pages $19.95

Volume I: Deterministic Systems
University of Texas; and
University of Maryland
First-of-its-kind, timely, this text focuses on how to
build and solve deterministic mathematical models
as they are applied to the process industries. In
addition to its classroom function, for seniors and
graduate-level students in chemical engineering
analysis, this volume is of value for control and
mechanical engineers.
Demonstrating the solution of various models and
submodel systems, the authors present a variety
of categorizations with realistic appraisals of utility,
stressing the importance of a balanced overall per-

The three major sections follow a brief introduction
to the vocabulary and philosophy of process analy-
sis. The first part deals with model classification
and formulation, the second itemizes individual
units or subsystems, and the last section analyzes
the complex system formed by a multiplex of sub-
Supportive figures and tables, copious problems
and a wide range of illustrations from diverse
sources augment the text.
1968 348 pages $17.95

all of Oregon State University
This is an introductory-level textbook which unifies
the traditionally separate fields of momentum trans-
fer (fluid mechanics), heat transfer and mass trans-
fer (diffusion). Comprehension is stressed, so that
an understanding of one type of transfer will be
used to stimulate understanding of other areas and
types of transfer processes.
The transfer process itself is examined as a basic
part of engineering curricula, as much a part of
fundamental engineering education as thermody-
namics or mechanics. Special consideration is
given radiant heat transfer and the role of turbu-
Topics are organized flexibly, so that the material
may be considered in either the series or "parallel"
approach. Furthermore, each major subdivision of
the text is annotated with a chapter supplying spe-
cific applications of the textual matter to industrial
1969 697 pages $16.50

605 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016
In Canada: 22 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario


American Oil Company, Whiting, Indiana
President, American Institute of Chemical

PRECISELY, what do we mean by manage-
ment? A definition that appeals to me is
"Management is the process and agency which
directs and guides the operations of an organiza-
tion in the realizing of established aims." Thus,
when we refer to management, we are not only
talking about a process or operation, but also
about an agency, or group of people.
I hardly need to define a chemical engineer
for you - but it is interesting that one of Web-
ster's definitions for the verb "engineer" is "to
manage," so you can see there may be a certain
amount of redundance in my title; at least in one
sense, engineering implies a certain amount of
management. In fact, some of my friends who
are chemists define the chemical engineer as the
man who is sent in to manage the chemists.
AS YOU ARE no doubt aware, the literature
is full of the need for more management
personnel, for it is claimed that there will soon
be an acute shortage of properly trained men,
due to the low birth rate in the early 30's. At
the same time, the rapid expansion of our tech-
nology, bringing with it greater complexity, will
increase the need for engineers in management.
In our company, there has always been a
large number of technically trained people in
management. And believe me, they sometimes
do get into the gory details of the operation!
The Chairman of the Board and the President of
our parent company, Standard Oil of Indiana, are
chemical engineers. In addition, two of the three
presidents of the other major subsidiaries are
technically trained, including a physical chemist
and a geologist. And the number of technically
trained people in vice presidential and general
manager positions is so large that it would have
taken me quite awhile to assemble the statistics.
You might think that our company has an
unusually large number of technically trained
people in top management; however, according
to one article, "At least 80% of the top manage-
ment in the petroleum and chemical companies

Arthur L. Conn is 1970 President of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers. Since 1967 he has
been Director of Government Contracts for American
Oil Company, Whiting, Indiana. He previously served
the AIChE as Vice President in 1969 and as Director
from 1966 to 1968. He has also served as Program
Committee Chairman and Vice Chairman, as Technical
Program Chairman for the Chicago Meeting, and as
member of the Awards and Nominating Committees. At
American Oil (and at Standard Oil Company of Indiana)
he has held positions as Senior Consulting Engineer,
Research Coordinator, Director of Process Development,
Superintendent of Technical Service and various others.
His major accomplishments in process development in-
clude fluid catalytic cracking and ultraforming processes
and the large scale separation of boron isotopes for the
Manhattan Project. He is the author of a number of
publications and patents on these subjects.

in the USA received a technical or engineering
education as their starting point." And, at the
present time, the greatest demand for profes-
sional people in these industries is for chemical
engineers. The reason for this is that your train-
ing includes an ideal combination of the theo-
retical and practical aspects of chemical proces-
sing, together with proper recognition of the
importance of economics. Thus, it is clear that
people such as yourselves, with technical train-
ing in chemical engineering, have excellent op-
portunities ahead of you. Before discussing these
opportunities and how to make the most of them,
however, I would imagine that you may have
some questions that should be explored first.
At one time or another, each of you must
have asked yourself one or more of the following
questions: "In order to have a satisfying career
and make a contribution to society, should I


Should I point toward management or let others worry about the business and community
aspects? . . . At least 80 per cent of the top management in the petroleum
and petrochemical industries received a technical or engineering education.

point toward management or should I stay in
technical work and let others worry about the
business and community aspects of the enter-
prise?" "How can I decide which area I am
best fitted for?" "If I know that I will ulti-
mately get into management, should I get a
degree in Business Administration?" "If I don't
feel I have enough knowledge to make a choice,
what should I do?"
Perhaps I can be of some assistance to you
in answering these questions by giving some ob-
servations from my own experience. Whether or
not one should point toward management or stay
in technical work obviously depends on his inter-
ests and abilities. If you were a big man on
campus - enjoyed managing the swim team or
leading the group in the test on the distillation
column or found yourself suggesting new goals
for your fraternity and ended up as president,
the chances are that you have management tal-
ent. On the other hand, if you were fascinated
by the amount of knowledge you could acquire at
college in addition to your regular courses, liked
to burn the midnight oil, and enjoyed working
out original problems for their own sake, perhaps
you should point toward technical work. But
these clues should not be taken too seriously.
You may have talents along both lines and have
had time to concentrate only on one. In any
event, it isn't really necessary to make a decision
now, so if you feel you don't have enough knowl-
edge to make a choice, don't worry. Almost every
large company will start an engineer in a techni-
cal position where he will have a chance to learn
the business, and sooner or later you will en-
counter situations that will give you a chance
to decide whether or not you have the interest
and inclination to manage, or in a rapidly grow-
ing company, you may find yourself managing
even before you have decided whether or not you
want to do so. Conversely, in a well-established,
highly technically oriented company, you may
find more demand for technical specialization.
As far as I am concerned, either management
or technical work can provide an interesting
challenge and an opportunity for a real con-
tribution. Many companies have recognized this
and have established a dual ladder of promotion
- one along administrative lines and the other

along scientific and engineering lines; however,
we must recognize that the administrative ladder
can lead to the presidency, whereas the top of
the technical ladder is usually a staff position,
such as senior consulting engineer, scientific ad-
viser or the like. Nevertheless, the differences
between management and technical work are not
so great or clearcut as may seem at first, and a
man may readily change from one to the other.
An engineer in management cannot afford to get
too far behind in his knowledge of the technical
aspects of the work or he will soon find himself
making decisions about things that he does not
fully understand. Sooner or later, this can trip
him up badly. On the other hand, the engineer
in technical work, particularly in a senior capa-
city, may find that his greater technical knowl-
edge puts him in the position of a de facto man-
ager because he knows best what should be done
and his suggestions will be followed. In some
cases, this may actually call for greater skill in
human relations to be able to "call the shots" and
still not undermine the authority of the man who
is really in charge.
F YOU HAVE ALREADY made up your mind
that you would like to point toward manage-
ment, I should caution you that just as there are
wide variations in abilities and interests among
yourselves as students, so there are wide varia-
tions in the character of industrial organizations,
in the complexity of their operation and in the
type of management they require. You may find
it a lot easier to make a contribution and earn
rapid promotions in the tumbled-down XYZ
company than in the prosperous ABC company.
Also, just as your interests and abilities will
change with the years, so do the needs and the
outlook of industrial organizations change. So
when you try to pinpoint what you want to be
doing ten to twenty years from now, your situa-
tion is like that of a man shooting at a moving
target with a rifle having a sight needing con-
stant readjustment.
Perhaps that makes it sound a little tougher
than it really is. But let's consider first the dif-
ferences in character of industrial organizations.
Let's compare a company that makes cosmetics,
toiletries, and related items such as Avon Prod-
ucts, Gillette, or Helene Curtis, with the ABC

FALL 1970

company. I won't say which is the ABC com-
pany, but I am sure you can guess! The
cosmetics company makes a wide variety of
products but few of them require complex tech-
nical operations. What is more important, the
volume of material handled is relatively small
and the markup on each item is so large that
there is relatively little incentive to try to opti-
mize the engineering steps employed in each
operation. Contrast this with an oil company
like American, which obtains crude from about
16,000 different wells, sends various crude mix-
tures to 9 different refineries, and distributes
products from these refineries through pipelines,
water transportation, and trucks to over 31,000
retail outlets. The volume of material handled
is extremely large and the profit per unit volume
relatively small, so that there is a tremendous
incentive to optimize the entire operation as well
as each and every part. Incidentally, ten cents
per gallon is the cost of gasoline leaving the
refinery; the additional 20-25� is almost half
taxes, the rest including transportation and
dealer service costs.
In the case of the cosmetics company, learn-
ing how to manage the business takes relatively
little technical knowledge, whereas for the oil
company it may take a number of years to be-
come sufficiently familiar with the technical op-
erations to be able to handle a management job.
A man working toward management of the first
company might do well to take a Master's Degree
in Business Administration as soon as he has
finished his chemical engineering degree, for he
may soon move out of technical work into other
Should one ever refuse a promotion?
If you don't get adverse criticism, does this mean you
parts of the organization. In the case of the oil
company, he might do better to gain a broader
technical background, say a Master's or Doctor's
degree in chemical engineering, so that he will
be in a better position to understand and handle
the complexities of the operation. In this case,
he might best wait to work for his Master's
degree in Business Administration after he had
been in the industry for a number of years. This
would have several advantages; at that time he
would have worked with the company long
enough to be sure that he prefers a management
job and has the necessary attributes. He would
learn the most up-to-date management theories
and practice and believe me, they do change! -

and he would have an opportunity to put the
theory to direct use. Furthermore, if his su-
periors have noticed his management talents, he
might well be sent by the company to an ad-
vanced management school. So you see, the type
of industry you plan to enter can have an im-
portant effect on how you prepare for it.
Let us now suppose that you have started to
work for a company. How can you develop your
aptitudes to make the most of your opportuni-
ties? Some of you undoubtedly have read some of
the large volume of articles and textbooks that
have appeared on management. Rather than
summarize what you can find there, I would
like to mention a few of the commonly accepted
"truths" or "cliches" that hold in many situa-
tions but can sometimes lead you astray. In
doing so, I will take the position of the devil's
advocate, and give you some of my observations
which show that you can't always go by the
book. These are based on situations I have ob-
served in my own company as well as in a num-
ber of other companies with which I have had
business and professional contacts. I am sure
that they apply equally well in government agen-
cies and colleges, for after all, what I am really
talking about is working with people - and this
is much the same regardless of the specific situa-
tion. And believe me, there are many times that
the reality can be quite different from the ideal
situations that one either hears or reads about.
You have all been advised at one time or
another that "If you make sure that you do your
present job well, the future will take care of
itself." There is a lot of truth in this statement;

are doing your job well?
by far the most important step you can take
toward future advancement is to make sure that
you do the job at hand. But is this enough?
Certainly, your immediate superior, who is most
familiar with your work, is supposed to see that
you are properly rewarded. But you can't always
count on its working out this way. Supposing
for one reason or another he is unable to pro-
mote his promising men. He may be working
on too small a budget, or he may not get along
well with the head of the department, or the
department head may have the same problems
with his superior, or the company itself may not
be doing well. Look at your job as part of a
much broader picture. Try to evaluate your boss's


situation as well as your own; try to evaluate
the future of the department and the entire com-
pany in which you are located. I have sometimes
been flabbergasted by the audacity of some young
men who have very quickly decided that a par-
ticular company was not moving rapidly enough
for them, and make a change to improve their
opportunities. Some of these men have ultimately
landed in top jobs. So, if you are sure you are
in a blind alley, do something about it. You may
find it necessary to change divisions, depart-
ments, or even companies in order to assure
yourself of the best possible future. But don't
arrive at a conclusion too hastily. On more than
one occasion, I have seen a man leave a depart-
ment or a company and take what appeared to be
a much better job, only to find it go sour, while
the situation he left suddenly became much
brighter - for the man who succeeded him.

You may find it a lot easier to make a contribution
to the tumbled-down XYZ company than to the
prosperous ABC company.

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO if offered a promo-
tion? I am sure that many would say
"Never refuse a promotion - it may be your only
chance." Yet I know personally of a number of
situations in which promising young men refused
promotions that would have taken them away
from the work that they liked best, and yet did
not suffer. In one case, the man later received
numerous promotions in his area of interest, and
is now a vice president of a large chemical com-
pany. Another man was also very successful
and is manager of an important department. So
don't feel you have to jump at the first oppor-
tunity if it is not in an area to your liking.
Study the situation and find out the long-range
opportunities in your chosen area, and remember
- you will do the best job in the work you enjoy
How many times have we heard "Don't be a
griper - people will only be annoyed." This may
apply to little things, but in cases where the good
of the company is involved, the opposite is often
true. A man who is sufficiently interested to take
the trouble to call to the management's attention
a situation that is hurting the company will
almost always get a hearing. If the complaint is
well considered and is accompanied by construc-
tive suggestions on how to improve the situation,
the man will most likely be better off for having

aired his views. And you all know how it is in
voluntary organizations - the man who does
the griping often gets added responsibility. This
can just as often be true in a work situation.
How many times have you heard someone say
"As long as they don't give me adverse criticism,
I know what I am doing my job well." This may
often be true - but I have seen situations where
a supervisor sees so many things wrong with
what a man is doing that he doesn't know where
to begin or how to give him constructive com-
ments. So he says nothing. Other supervisors
have become so imbued with the idea of "getting
along" with their men, that they haven't devel-
oped the ability to give adverse criticism or they
may give it to you coated with so much sugar that
you don't understand that anything was really
wrong. I once had a boss like that - and believe
me it was much worse working for him and
finding out my mistakes indirectly than working
for the type who was difficult to satisfy but told
me straight from the shoulder what I had done
wrong. So be sure that from time to time you
take a good, hard look at your own work; don't
assume that lack of criticism necessarily means
that your performance is good.
"If you are doing a good job, it isn't neces-
sary to point out your accomplishments to your
boss - he has been through the mill and under-
stands the problems you have had to handle."
This is something we often tell ourselves - and
it has appeal for several reasons. Most engineers
are modest individuals and would prefer not to
boast about their accomplishments. And - let's
face it - most people who go into engineering
are not born salesmen. So we usually assume
that the boss will know about our accomplish-
ments without our telling him. After all, if we
don't tell him, he will hear it from someone else;
certainly it is the boss' job to know what is going
on in his shop. But, stop for a moment and try
to put yourselves in the boss' position. He is
being pushed by his superiors for results. He
may have been promoted from another area and
may not fully understand enough of the details
of your job to realize what you have accom-
plished. In any event, one of the most common
errors that I have seen is for an engineer to
assume that the boss knows and understands
everything that is going on. Frequently, this is
not the case. So unless you use one means or an-
other to make sure that he knows the problems
you have faced and how you have solved them,

FALL 1970

he may not realize how good a job you have done.
Diligence is not enough. You have to sell your-
"authority should be delegated commensurate
with responsibility." This is often claimed to be
a self-evident truth - after all how can one take
full responsibility for the success of a project if
he isn't given the authority to carry out all as-
pects of the job? Everyone agrees to this as a
matter of principle - yet I have rarely seen it
carried out in practice. Managers are often loath
to delegate authority - for many reasons. They
may be setting a precedent in one area that they
may not want to apply in parallel situations else-
where; or they may not have full confidence that
the man will handle this authority properly. In
any event, you will often find yourself in a posi-
tion where you have to get something done and
can't really tell anyone else that he has to do this
or that for you.
Well, it isn't really as bad as it sounds. If you
plan a logical program, discuss it with knowledg-
able people and enlist their aid, you will be sur-
prised how, in most cases, they will go along
with you and help you get the job done. And so,
more often than not, many of us find ourselves
doing things for which we have no authority
other than the knowledge that this is the best
way it can be done and the persuasiveness to get
it done that way. So, don't be afraid to move on
a project even if you don't have all the authority
you feel you need.
If you are given a promotion to replace a
man who is going to be working somewhere else,
your first reaction will undoubtedly be to discuss
the job with your predecessor and find out just
how he handled it so that you will cause the least
disruption when you take over. This can well be
worthwhile, but it should not be a substitute for
making your own evaluation of the situation.
You may have some knowledge or talent to bring
to the job that the other man did not have. You
may analyze the situation and conclude that the
job can be carried out much better using a dif-
ferent approach. Your boss may not have been
completely satisfied with your predecessor and
for one reason or another, may not have told you.
So don't make the mistake of falling into the
same rut; it may be that you were chosen for the
job because you were expected to change the

Everyone knows that authority should be
commensurate with responsibility . . . but this is
rarely carried out in practice . . . the
griper often gets added responsibility.

LET US ASSUME you have now made the first
step and are now in a supervisory or "man-
agement" position. It won't be long before you
are wondering how to advance yourself further.
Even if you are 100% satisfied, your wife will be
wanting a larger house, the kids will be getting
close to college age, or something will be impel-
ling you to greater achievement, so you will
read books and magazines on management to find
out how to get ahead faster. You will undoubt-
edly find statements such as "concentrate on
understanding, judging and dealing with people
-this is the most important requirement of an
executive." No doubt this is an important re-
quirement. Any person in management soon
realizes that everything he accomplishes has to
be done through people. Furthermore, it is par-
ticularly important for engineers, who are used
to dealing with inanimate objects, to acquire the
ability to work well with people. But is this the
most important requirement of a manager? I
don't think so.
I have seen managers who did not give too
much thought to their people - who did not
really try to understand them, and who were
not too good at judging them, but who through
boldness, initiative and good judgment were able
to reach the top. They got results. And I have
seen men who spent so much of their time con-
cerning themselves about their people - that
they did not give enough attention to the eco-
nomic factors such as promoting a new process,
cutting costs, or changing systems for doing
business. I don't mean to say that learning to
work well with people is not important. It is.
Nevertheless, your primary responsibility is
rarely people oriented. The major function of a
corporation is to make a profit and you are
expected to get a certain job done at minimum
cost or to meet a specific time schedule or the
like. And you will not get the next promotion
if you are the perfect boss, as far as your men
are concerned, but don't help meet the primary
objectives as well as someone else.
Another concept that has been promoted
strongly by "experts" in management is "make
sure that you develop a successor." One man-
agement consultant pointed out at a recent meet-


ing that "you can do your present job so well that
you become indispensable and can't be pro-
moted." Therefore, he concludes "you should
first train a subordinate to do your present job
so that you will have someone to take over when
the right opportunity presents itself to you."
Another expert writing in the Harvard Business
Review says "It should be made very clear to the
bosses that they will be rated on their success
in developing successors." There is no doubt
that learning to delegate is an important asset,
and that training the men under you can greatly
ease your own load and enable the group to get
more done. Nevertheless, in some cases, this puts
the cart before the horse. In order to win a
promotion, you have to demonstrate to your
superiors that you can handle a more responsible
job. Whether or not you get promoted may be
totally unrelated to whether or not you have
trained a successor. Your superior may already
have someone else in mind as your replacement.
In any event, I would suggest that you consider
the advice given me many years ago by the vice
president for research and development of one
of our competitors - "Learn your job well; learn
all the aspects of your boss's job; then and only
then train your successor."
WHAT DOES THIS all add up to? In sum-
mary I would say that you don't have to
decide now whether or not you should work
toward a management position; furthermore,
there is much satisfaction to be gained from a
predominantly technical career. But if you are
sure you are interested in management, and want
to work in a large company, it may still be best
to take an advanced technical degree rather than
one in business administration. Once in industry,
or even in government or education, and you de-
cide to head for management, a chemical engi-
neer should recognize that he will be entering
an entirely new area loaded with intangibles
where his training and background in logical
thinking can sometimes lead him astray. There
are no completely accepted theories of manage-
ment that can be studied and learned like a
course in distillation or heat transfer. But don't
get me wrong. I certainly believe it is wise to
learn all you can about good management prac-
tices and to apply them in your job wherever
possible. At the same time, however, observe
carefully how your organization operates, see
how these practices are being applied, and above
all, make your own evaluations. Remember, that

dealing with people is not always subject to
logical analysis; even in engineering decisions
the "people" or "political" aspects may prove to
be more important than the technical phases.
Nevertheless as I mentioned earlier, getting the
job done is the most important thing. There are
many successful managers who don't follow all
the rules, but have the boldness, initiative, and
drive to get results.

L. B. Koppel (Continued from page 171)
minute process (see reference 1, page 456).
When the slower sampling rate was introduced,
the value of a was left unchanged; apparently
a = 0.3 was a blanket recommendation of the
computer vendor. But, with the new sampling
rate and this value of smoothing constant, the
equivalent filter time constant became 8 minutes,
much too large for the 10 minute process. In
effect, an additional process lag had been unin-
tentionally introduced into the loop, inevitably
degrading the performance, and apparently dis-
crediting the use of slower sampling rates. When
the value of a was changed to 0.9 to maintain
approximately a 1 minute filter time constant,
closed loop performance became practically
equivalent to that in the original loop with faster
sampling, as expected.
Upon reflection, I concluded that I had pre-
viously been far too defensive in my attitudes
toward teaching graduate-level process control.
Very practical technological contributions should
result from such teaching. Care must be taken
to ensure reasonably complete treatment of
theoretical as well as practical ramifications since
one could not always predict the sorts of difficul-
ties to be encountered in application. Thus, at
a minimum, digital filter theory must be included
in a course which discusses sampling frequencies.
More importantly, it became clear that recent
advances in control theory would not be widely
applied to processes until there were more prac-
ticing engineers adequately trained in the theory.
Some of the theoretical misunderstandings and
evasive recommendations which currently exist
are illustrated by the discussion on sampling
rates in a recent industrial textbook.15 Typical is
the following: "For best results with easy proc-
esses, the sampling interval should be as short as
The subject of sampling rates is clearly not
the only potentially practical contribution of con-

FALL 1970

trol theory. Many more examples exist; I will
illustrate two. Optimal control theory suggests
that significant improvement in control of stage-
wise processes such as distillation columns can
result by recognition of the state concept. Con-
ventional control is based on measurement of
the process condition on one plate only i.e., only
on the process output. The theory shows that
the control must be based on the state of the
process, i.e., on consideration of the condition on
each plate. Although measurement of every plate
is impractical, measurements on a few plates com-
bined with a process model and any knowledge
of past inputs can be used to estimate the state.
This estimate based on state will lead to a more
rational control of the column. since knowl-
edge of current output is not sufficient to esti-
mate future process behavior. A second example
is the observation that optimal controllers never
have reset action (unless the performance cri-
terion is artificially altered to force inclusion of
reset action). This is often cited as a defect of
optimal control theory. Rather, I view this as
information from the theory which suggests a
logical course for practice. Optimal theory does
not yield reset action because it assumes perfect
knowledge of the process model and inputs.
Therefore, reset action is useful only to correct
for imperfect knowledge. This means that only
the unexpected portion of the response should be
integrated in the reset action.
AT THE BEGINNING of the article I esti-
mated that more than two hundred practic-
ing engineers have had graduate level training in
process control. Current discussions, both writ-
ten and oral, indicate that a general impression
persists that advanced control concepts are not
worthwhile in industry. Therefore, either two
hundred is an insufficient number to change this,
or advanced control concepts are inherently im-
practical, or the education of the "two hundred"
has not prepared them for this particular "sell-
ing" task. I am inclined to accept the last reason.
I am concerned because (1) I believe there is
as much of potential practical value in grad-
uate courses on process control as in any other
area of chemical engineering, and (2) more than
in any other area, an impression exists that such
courses are primarily useful for generating more
academic research.
To meet this concern, I have limited coverage
to the three broad topics discussed above -
digital control, optimal control, and stability. I

would feel completely successful if each student
(1) understood all the theoretical foundations,
(2) could read the literature, (3) were stimu-
lated to think of applications of the theory, and
(4) were sufficiently confident of the practical
value of the theoretical concepts to persevere in
the face of apparent contradiction between
theory and practice. To the extent that all these
cannot be accomplished in one semester, I give
priority in the order (4),(3),(2),(1). I attempt
to cover in depth only those theoretical aspects
which have the highest probability, in my
estimation, of helping to achieve item (4). Thus,
for example, I cover in some depth sampling
theory, and digital filtering theory, while pre-
senting only a heuristic justification of the mini-
mum principle.
I hope that in the next few years, advanced
topics in automatic control will win acceptance
in industrial applications by virtue of recogniz-
able economic contributions. I am convinced that
graduate level education will contribute to this

1. Koppel, L. B., "Introduction to Control Theory,"
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1968).
2. Tou, J. T., "Digital and Sampled-Data Control Sys-
tems," McGraw-Hill, New York (1959).
3. Ragazzini, J. R., and Franklin, G. F., "Sampled-
Data Control Systems," McGraw-Hill, New York (1958).
4. Mishkin, E., and Braun, L., "Adaptive Control Sys-
tems," McGraw-Hill, New York (1961).
5. Brown, R. G., "Smoothing, Forecasting, and Pre-
diction," Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1963).
6. Savas, E. S., "Computer Control of Industrial Proc-
esses," McGraw-Hill, New York (1965).
7. DeRusso, P. M., Roy, R. J., Close, C. M., "State
Variables for Engineers," Wiley, New York (1965).
8. Timothy, L. K., and Bona, B. E., "State Space
Analysis," McGraw-Hill, New York (1968).
9. Athans, M., and Falb, P. L., "Optimal Control,"
McGraw-Hill, New York (1966).
10. Lapidus, L., and Luus, R., "Optimal Control of
Engineering Processes," Ginn/Blaisdell, Waltham (1967).
11. Denn, M. M., "Optimization by Variational Meth-
ods," McGraw-Hill, New York (1969).
12. Fan, L. T., "The Continuous Maximum Principle,"
Wiley, New York (1966).
13. Fan, L. T., "The Discrete Maximum Principle,"
Wiley, New York (1964).
14. Bellman, R., "Adaptive Control Processes,"
Princeton University Press, Princeton (1961).
15. Shinskey, F. G., "Process-Control Systems," Mc-
Graw-Hill, New York (1967), pp. 114-122.



Eighth Annual Lectureship
Award to J. M. Smith

The 1970 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer was Dr. Joe Mauk Smith of the
California Institute of Technology. The purpose
of this award lecture is to recognize and encour-
age outstanding achievement in an important
field of fundamental chemical engineering theory
or practice. The 3M Company provides the finan-
cial support for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lec-
ture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the
award consists of $1,000 and an engraved cer-
tificate. These were presented to this year's
Lecturer, Dr. J. M. Smith at the Annual Chemi-
cal Engineering Division Meeting held June 24,
1969 at the Ohio State University. Dr. Smith
spoke on "Photochemical Processing - Photo
decomposition of Pollutants in Water." A paper
based upon his lecture will be published in an
early issue of Chemical Engineering Education.

1963, A B. Metzner, University of Delaware,
"Non-Newtonian fluids"
1964, C R. Wilke, University of California, "Mass
transfer in turbulent flow"
1965, Leon Lapidus, Princeton University, "As-
pects of modern control theory and applica-
1966, Octave Levenspiel, Illinois Institute of
Technology, "Changing Attitudes to Reactor
1967, Andreas Acrivos, Stanford University,
"Matched Asympototic Expansions"
1968, L. E Scriven, University of Minnesota,
"Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces"
1969, C. J. Pings, California Institute of Tech-
nology, "Some Current Studies in Liquid
State Physics."


Joe Mauk Smith, from Sterling, Colorado, was edu-
cated in Applied Chemistry at the California Institute
of Technology and in Chemical Engineering at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
He has taught in chemical engineering as an Instruc-
tor at M.I.T., as an assistant professor at Maryland,
as professor at Purdue, as Dean at the University of New
Hampshire, as professor and Chairman of Chemical En-
gineering at Northwestern University, and, currently,
as professor and Chairman of the Chemical Engineering
Department at the Davis campus of the University of
Professor Smith has written two text books, both of
which are ranked as standard works:: "Introduction to
Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics," with H. C.
Van Ness, and "Chemical Engineering Kinetics."
Professor Smith's research publications cover a wide
range of areas in both basic and applied engineering
sciences including heat and mass transfer, reaction
kinetics, reactor design, and thermodynamic properties.
Recently his research has centered to a significant de-
gree on the engineering aspects of photochemical proc-
esses, with emphasis on reactor design and kinetics.
Professor Smith has held distinguished lectureships
in the U. S. and in Argentina, Spain, Netherlands, and
India. He won William H. Walker Award of the Ameri-
can Institute of Chemical Engineers in 1960.

FALL 1970



T4e jo1aiu4 c4ompwieS /MoMe dawdd










The jomiowef 1.23 dapa4wea4 h"ne

4co,4.de to& te ~appO4l of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1970

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Electrochemical mass transfer in porous

Dispersion of bacteria in suspen-




Damage to red blood cells caused by
shear flow in artificial organs.

Filtration of emulsified oil by fibrous

For More Information
Write to
Prof. C. Judson King
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Berkeley, California 94720

Growth of single bubbles in a fluid-
ized bed.


The Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering offers a full program of graduate courses and research
projects leading to hte M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering. Nine full-time faculty members direct
research over a wide variety of chemical engineering and related nuclear engineering problems. Modern, well-
equipped research laboratories and computer facilities (IBM 360/75) back up all research programs.

FACULTY . . . John E. Myers, Ph.D., Univ. of Michigan
1952. Professor of chemical engineering and chair-
man of Department. Research program: Two phase
flow in porous media, mechanisms of boiling heat
Henri J. Fenech, Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of
Technology 1959. Professor of nuclear engineering.
Research program: Reactor engineering and reactor
analysis, heat transfer.
Owen T. Hanna, Ph.D., Purdue Univ. 1961. Asso-
ciate professor of chemical engineering. Research pro-
gram: Applications of mathematics in chemical engi-
A. Edward Profio, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of
Technology 1963. Associate Professor of Nuclear
Engineering. Research program: Reactor experimental
physics, neutron shielding, nuclear interaction with
Robert G. Rinker, Ph.D., California Institute of
Technology 1959. Associate professor of chemical
engineering. Research program: Kinetics and reactor
design, energy conversion, air pollution control.
Duncan A. Mellichamp, Ph.D., Purdue Univ. 1964.
Assistant professor of chemical engineering. Research
program: Dynamics of chemical processes, hybrid
computer applications to adaptive and predictive
control problems.
Paul G. Mikolaj, Ph.D., California Institute of Tech-
nology 1965. Assistant professor of chemical engi-
neering. Research program: Thermodynamics and
phase equilibria, structure of liquids and dense gases,
oil pollution control.

G. Robert Odette, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute
of Technology 1970. Assistant professor of nuclear
engineering. Research program: Radiation effects on
properties of materials.
Orville C. Sandall, Ph.D., Univ. of California,
Berkeley 1966. Assistant professor of chemical engi-
neering. Research program: Non-Newtonian heat trans-
fer, interphase mass transfer, fluid mechanics of film
CAMPUS . . . Santa Barbara is located on the Pacific
coast one hundred miles north of Los Angeles. The
campus occupies a 630-acre scenic promontory with
the Santa Ynez mountains immediately behind. Fifteen
thousand students are enrolled in programs in diverse
fields of engineering, science, humanities and the arts.
Attractive housing of all kinds is available within
walking distance of the campus.
URES . . . Teaching assistantships are available to
qualified students; the stipend begins at $3,402 for
the academic year with merit increases as progress is
made towards a degree. A number of University
Fellowships, Research Assistantships and various Train-
eeships are also available for qualified students. In-
formation concerning departmental procedures can be
obtained by writing Professor J. E. Myers, Department
of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of
California, Santa Barbara 93106. Application forms
for admission and financial assistance should be re-
quested from the Dean of the Graduate Division, Uni-
versity of California, Santa Barbara 93106.





The Division of Chemisby and Chernical Engineering Offers Programs
of Advanced Study and Research Leading to the Degrees of Master of Science
and Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering

PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum of three years
subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis re-
search and further advanced study.

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties.

APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Prof. C. J. Pings
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1971.


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice
president for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; gas chromatography;
plasma chemistry.
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol physics; particle-surface interactions;
interfacial transfer; diffusion and membrane
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Mathematical methods applied to problems of
chemical reactions and transport, process dy-
namics and control.
L. GARY LEAL, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics; rheology.
CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor and Executive
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical

BRUCE H. SAGE, Research Associate
Ph.D. (1934), California Institute of Technology
Eng.D. (1953), New Mexico State College.
JOHN H. SEINFELD, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Optimization and systems studies in chemical
process control.
FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Phenomena associated with magnetohydrody-
namic power generation; chemical reactions and
diffusion in electrical discharges.
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials
and dilute polymer solutions.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state chemistry and physics, particularly
effects of high pressure.


CASE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, a privately endowed insti-
tution with a tradition of excellence in Engineering and Applied
Science has long offered a variety of courses and research areas
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering.
In 1967 Case Institute and Western Reserve University joined to-
gether. The enrollment and endowment make Case Western Reserve
TUniversity one of the largest private schools in the country.

SIStudents interested in graduate work
in Chemical Engineering or Applied
Chemistry should consider the varied
. opportunities available in the Chemi-
cal Engineering Science Division. Of
Special interest are strong programs
in systems optimization and control,
pollution, catalysis and surface chem-
" istry, polymer science and engineer-
ing, biomedical engineering, mass
transfer, reactor design, and others.
S. l Within these broad categories are
many individual research projects
and course offerings.


Graduate Assistantships are offered
with stipends ranging from $400 to
$500 per month (depending on back-
ground and marital status) from
which $170 per month tuition charge
Sis deducted. Appointments are made
by either the academic or the calen-
! dar year.
Fellowships and Traineeships are
available providing stipends from
$200 to $350 per month plus full
tuition. Additional allowances for
teaching and for dependents are in-
cluded with some.
.Predoctoral loans of substantial
amounts are available.

FOR FURTHER Chemical Engineering Science Division
INFORMATION YOU ARE School of Engineering
INFORMATION YOU ARE Case Western Reserve University
INVITED TO WRITE: University Circle
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


do your graduate study in colorado-i I7-`
ur uae tu--'* , - B

setting in the Rockies provides an
the Colorado School of Mines (CSM)

While earning a Ph.D., M.S. (thesis) or M.E.
degree, you can take advantage of skiing,
fishing, hunting, camping and climbing.
The Front Range is on one side and
Denver is only 10 miles distant on the
other. AI


Financial aid is available: industrial , I/4
fellowships, NSF traineeships, teaching OLORAQS
and research assistantships, and sum-
mer support. Graduate student support ranges from $250-$400
per month.

For information, contact Dr. J. H. Gary, Department of Chemi-
cal and Petroleum-Refining Engineering, Colorado School of
Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401.

Colorado School of Mines

Teaching & research faculty:
* Dr. J. H. Gary, Head
Petroleum refining
Coal technology
Oil shale research
* Dr. P. F. Dickson
Reactor design
Heat transfer
Asphalt technology
* Dr. F. J. Stermole
Applied mathematics
Engineering economics
Phase change technology
* Dr. J. 0. Golden
Fluid mechanics
Heat transfer
* Dr. A. J. Kidnay
Mass transfer
* Prof. E. Shimoda
Fluid mechanics
Process control
Computer technology
* Mr. J. Thomas
Electron microscopy
Process control

--and relax

A year-round recreation
interesting backyard for
in Golden.

Golden, Colorado 80401

Graduate research programs at The University
of Connecticut are focused in areas which we f
believe will be the center of Chemical Engineer-
ing activity in the future. As examples: Studies
of chemical processes for treatment and purifi- l4 * .
cation of polluted water are underway. This
program started four years ago, and is presently
supported by a $161,000 grant from the
Federal Water Quality Administration. Studies
of the bonding of space-age adhesives to metals
are also in progress. Concurrent studies of the .
flow behavior and morphology of polymers are .
directed toward technological needs of the - .
chemical industry. Catalytic oxidation of auto- -
motive air pollutants and the mechanism of
catalytic activity are under study. Research is -
also underway on applications of computers to
process simulation and control. These are only a few examples taken from a wide spectrum of programs which are
intended to train engineers for the jobs and needs of the future. A favorable faculty-to-student ratio ensures that
students receive considerable individual attention, both in courses and research. Courses in environmental engineering,
polymer science, etc., are offered in addition to the more conventional courses.
The University is located in a picturesque part of New England, free from the pressures of large urban areas, yet just
thirty minutes by car from Hartford, one and a half hours from Boston, and three hours from New York City.
James P. Bell, Sc.D.. Financial Aid
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Financial aid is provided to qualified graduate students.
C. 0. Bennett, D.Eng., Yale University Stipends range to $3975 for the academic year. Summer
Michael B. Cutlip, Ph.D. fellowships and assistantships are available.
University of Colorado
G. Michael Howard, Ph.D.
The University of Connecticut For further information and applications, write to:
Herbert E. Klei, Ph.D. Graduate Admissions Committee
The University of Connecticut Chemical Engineering Department
Richard M. Stephenson, Ph.D. The University of Connecticut
Cornell University Storrs, Connecticut 06268
L. F. Stutzman, Ph.D., U. of Pittsburgh
Donald W. Sundstrom, Ph.D.
University of Michigan



* Remote IBM 360 Terminals
* Computer Controlled Laboratory
* Individual Student Attention
* A Dynamically Developing Department
* Modern Air-conditioned $1,500,000 Building
* Balanced Department
Faculty of 19: diversified interests
Wide course selection
Four degree programs
* Participation in NSF "Center of Excellence" Grant

Since many of you are interested in industrial
careers in development and design, while others
intend to teach and do basic research our gradu-
ate program is divided into two main areas and
several interdisciplinary activities.
Transport phenomena Fluid dynamics
Thermodynamics Kinetics
Materials science Applied Math
Chemical reaction engineering Process dynamics
Separations processes Process control
Computer aided design Optimization
Energy conversion Polymer science
Biomedical Process economics
Interfacial Phenomena Bioengineering

* Master of Engineering with project on de-
sign, cost analysis, experimental investiga-
tion, or computer study.
* Master of Science with thesis.
* Master of Engineering Pre-Ph.D.
* Doctor of Philosophy.

Models and Methods * Multidimensional and
Discrete Systems * Thermodynamics of Reac-
tion and Phase Equilibria * Transport Phe-
nomena * Process Dynamics * Reactor Design
and Optimization (Systems Program) or
Chemical Kinetics (Science Program)

Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineer-
ing * Applied Field Theory * Computer Control
of Processes * Optimization Techniques *
Transport Properties and Irreversible Thermo-
dynamics * Applied Statistical Mechanics *
Statistical Thermodynamics * Interfacial
Transport Phenomena * Turbulent Transport
Phenomena * Advanced Transport Phenomena
* Rheology * Non-Newtonian Fluids Dynamics
* Chemical Energy Conversion * Particulate
Systems * Applied Fluid Dynamics * Process
System Laboratory * Applied Statistics * Proc-
ess and Plant Design * Process Economy
Analysis * Tensor Fields and Fluid Dynamics
* Biochemical Engineering * Interfacial

Chairman, Chemical Engineering Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Please send information on your graduate program to:

FALL 1970




The program is designed to meet the individual needs of the student.
Flexibility is maintained by minimizing required courses and by offering a
wide variety of degree options; M.S. undesignatedd), M.E. (professional,
non-thesis degree), M.S. (chemical engineering), Ph.D.

The research interests of the faculty encompass the entire spectrum of
chemical engineering endeavors as well as the newer interdisciplinary areas
such as environmental, biomedical oceanographic, systems and urban
engineering. The student is free to choose research advisors from other
departments of the University.
Though relatively young, the Department enjoys an outstanding
reputation. In 1968 it was awarded an NSF Center of Excellence Grant,
and it has achieved high ratings in the 1970 Carter survey of graduate

The Department occupies approximately 52,000 sq. ft. in the modern new
Cullen College of Engineering Building. Graduate students are allotted
individual offices and laboratories and have free access to the University's
1108 Univac and the College's IBM 360 Model 44 computers.

Fellowship stipends are available to qualified applicants. These range from
$3,000 to $5,400 for 12 months, plus tuition and fees.


The Deparlment of Energy Engineering


Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of



Faculty and Research Activities
in the field of

Lyndon R. Babcock,
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1970.
Associate Professor

David S. Hacker,
Ph.D., Northwestern University. 1954,
Associate Professor

James P. Hartnett.
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. 1954,
Professor and Head of the Department

John H. Kiefer,
Ph.D., Cornell. 1961.
Associate Professor

G. Ali Mansoori,
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969,
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena,
Ph.D.. Calcutta University, India. 1956,

Stephen Szepe,
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966,
Associate Professor

The Department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified candidates.
To obtain application forms or to request
further information, please write to:

Air pollution modeling: environmental problems:

High temperature chemical kinetics: combustion and
plasma processes: simultaneous transport phenomena.

Forced convection; mass transfer cooling; combined
radiation-convection problems.

Kinetics of gas reactions; energy transport processes.

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids.
solids and solutions: kinetics of liquid reactions.

Transport properties of fluids and solids: thermody-
namics and statistical mechanics: isotope separation.

Catalysis: chemical reaction engineering, optimization.
environmental and pollution problems.

Professor Paul M. Chung. Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago. Illinois 60680

Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, the
first school to be established under the 1862
Land Grant Act, has a long tradition of lead-
ership in Engineering and Applied Science.
Today it ranks seventh in the nation in Ph.D.
degrees granted in Engineering and ninth in
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Its College
of Engineering is the largest west of the
Mississippi River.

To those interested in Chemical Engineer-
ing, Iowa State offers a variety of courses and
research areas leading to the M.E., M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees. The Department of Chemical
Engineering is one of the oldest in the United
States and enjoys a rich heritage of excellence
in teaching and research. The staff numbers
22 and the enrollment consists of 300 under-
graduate and 70 graduate students.

In addition to facilities available in a new
Chemical Engineering building, research is

conducted in the Ames Laboratory, a Nation-
al Laboratory of the US Atomic Energy Com-
mission, located on the Iowa State campus. A
staff of nearly 1,000 at the Laboratory con-
ducts basic research of long-range interest to
the nuclear industry.
Ames lies amid the gently rolling hills of
central Iowa. Typical of the picturesque yet
modern campus is the new cultural center
shown above, now half complete. This fall the
Festival of Concerts at the center auditorium
was opened by the New York Philharmonic.
The 14,000-seat coliseum will host many Big
Eight Conference athletic events.
A large variety of assistantships and fellow-
ships are filled each year by new graduate stu-
dents in Chemical Engineering. Living accom-
odations are available for single students in a
new eight-story graduate dormitory, and for
married students in more than 1300 apart-
ments operated by the University.

George Burnet, Head
Chemical Engineering Department
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50010

Please send application forms and further information on your graduate program.

Name Undergraduate School

Number and Street

City State Zip Code______


M.S. and Ph.D. Study in Chemical Engineering



Kinetics and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Diffusion in the atmosphere: modelling of urban areas
Air sampling and analysis
Process and system control; air cleaning
Effects of pollutants on man, materials, and environs

Excellent, U.S.P.H.S. Traineeships available

At U.K.-a nine-man faculty, new laboratory and class-
room facilities, a complete graduate curriculum, a variety
of research topics . . .

Contact: Robert B. Grieves
Dep't of Chemical Engineering
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506

FALL 1970




The Department offers graduate work in chemical, materials, and nuclear engineering leading to the M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees. Some of the fields of specialization of the faculty are:

Chemical Engineering

Process Control Systems
Heat and Mass Transfer
Turbulent Transport
Solvent Extraction
Design and Cost Studies
Reaction Kinetics
Multiphase Flow
Process Dynamics
Computer Simulation

Biological and
Environmental Engineering

Aerosol Mechanics
Membrane Separations
Artificial Organs
Environmental Health
Air Pollution Control

Nuclear Engineering
Nuclear Reactor Physics
Nuclear Reactor Design
Nuclear Reactor Operation
Radiation Induced Reactions
System Dynamics
Radiation Shielding
Radiation Engineering
Engineering Materials
Reaction of Solid Surfaces
Solid State Behavior
Composite Materials
Statistical Thermodynamics
Structure of Metallic Solutions
Applied Polymer Science
Polymer Physics
Graft Polymerization
Polymerization Kinetics
Non-Newtonian Flow

The general requirements are set forth in the Graduate Catalog. The chemical engineering program
is designed for qualified bachelors chemical engineering students. The materials and nuclear en-
gineering programs are open to qualified students holding bachelors degrees in engineering, the
physical sciences, and mathematics.

Address inquiries to

Dean, Graduate School or Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering





What are

The University of Michigan, Department of Chemical
and Metallurgical Engineering, has operated gradu-
ate degree programs for over 50 years. We have
awarded over 300 doctorates and 1000 master's



looking for

in a



10 V
4 t '
- ^ =

The 35 faculty members work in all the traditional
areas of research and also such fields as plasma
reactions, process dynamics, catalyst structure, bio-
chemical processes, electrochemistry, multi-phase
systems, computer-assisted design, non-Newtonian
fluids, and reservoir engineering.

Besides the usual campus activities the University
and the Ann Arbor community offers the students
scores of concerts by famous artists, lectures held
throughout the year, plus the three drama series-
all handy to campus. Ann Arbor is located in a river
valley and is ideal for both winter and summer sports.

Most of our American and Canadian students receive
financial assistance. Also, the University has excellent
employment opportunities for student wives.

Write for information and a special book to:
Prof. Rane L. Curl, Chairman of the Graduate Committee
Chemical Engineering Division
Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104

Department of Chemical Engineering



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman

Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

Established fields of specialization in which re- In addition, research projects are being carried
search programs are in progress are: out in the following areas:

(1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies (a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Dr. J. L.
-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson Gaddy

(2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W. (b) Evaporation through non-Wettable Porous
Johnson Membranes-Dr. M. E. Findley

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr. (c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr.
R. C. Waggoner
(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek
(d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim-
(5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K. rose
G. Mayhan
(e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice

(f) Process Dynamics and Control-Drs. M. E.
Findley, and R. C. Waggoner

(g) Transport Properties and Kinetics-Dr. 0. K.

(h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley

SFinancial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
. Research Assistantships, Industrial Fellowships and Fed-
eral Sponsored Programs. Aid is also obtainable through
the Materials Research Center.








Biochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Food Processing
Heat Transfer

Laser Applications
Mass Transfer
and other areas


Prof. J. H. Weber, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508

graduate study in


THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA offers a full program of studies and research leading the the masters and Ph.D.
degrees in chemical engineering. Well equipped laboratories and modern facilities reside in a recently completed
engineering complex. Extensive computing facilities, including an IBM 360/65, are used for course work and
research. The staff includes seven full-time professors offering graduate courses and directing research. The
graduate program has operated for fifteen years.

- Drag reduction phenomena in turbulent flow
- Viscoelastic effects in flow through porous media
- Membrane separations
- Phase equilibria at cryogenic temperature
- Foam separation of metallic ion pollutants
- Development of selective heterogeneous catalysts
- Mass transfer with reaction
- Polymerization kinetics
- Computer control of chemical processes
- Bio-oxidation in water recovery

The University of Ottawa offers instruction in engineering, science,
social sciences, and the humanities to a coeducational student body
numbering about 7,000. It is situated in Canada's capital, Ottawa,
whose population is 400,000.

Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships, and Research Assistantships
are available. Minimum graduate student support is $3,000, and
increments are made annually.

The bilingualism of Canada is reflected in the cultural offerings of
Ottawa, featuring renowned performers in the English and French
languages. World famous orchestras, ballet companies, and art
exhibitions appear regularly in the National Arts Center.
Ample opportunities for outdoor recreation exist in the Ottawa
environs. Several skiing facilities are within 20 miles of the campus.

FURTHER INFORMATION: Address inquiries to: Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of
Ottawa, OTTAWA 2, Canada.

graduate education

Chemical Engineering ?



M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In

Separation Processes
Kinetics and Mass Transfer
Petroleum Research
Unit Processes
Thermodynamic Properties
Catalysis and Applied Chemistry
Air Environment
Nuclear Technology
Transport Properties
Lubrication and Rheology
And Other Areas

Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Chemical Engineering Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802

FALL 1970



" University of Pittsburgh
M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

S' ' - PROGRAM ,
S --- ' , - '-Chemical and-Petroleum Engi-
S-neering is one of six School
of EngineeTqrinqdepartments
S- " . -- hich�; offer graduate degrees.
S. ' / Interdisciplinary~ programs
with other engineering depart-
Smnts and with-other PITT
-' , . '-- .- schopis arrd divisions such as
--. Public H14alth, Natural Sci-
' / /ences and Medicine are en-
. / . ' Courses begin in Septem-
. -.. - ber, January and April; gradu-
ate students may onter in any
S' lerm'
Dr. Charles S. Beroes :- )Gas Dynamics, Process Desigr( & Oplimiza G.raduate assistanthips, re-
- Unsteady State Heaf Transmissiorn search assistantships, fellow-
shps and tuition--srholarships
< Dr. Alan J. Brainard . . .. . . Thermodynamics. Mass Translert - sipa tuto ua . s. t
' r D. Byrne ti I $.. . . ..,- available to qualified stu-
Dr.,,George D. Byrne . .. .. ... Applied Maln emtir
Dr., Shiao-Hung Chiang ....... Mass Transfer, Interlacial ri .,
Dr.' Morton Corn ......... ..... . .. A. . financial support is pro-
Dr. -ames Coull ..... ......... Chemical Kinetics. Catalysis, ~ Lr'.- 'deo by the University, indus-
Thermogravitational Separa toff'.- try, and various government
Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or ......... . ... Transport. Phenomena, agencies. Among sponsors of
RelativisticTherritodynamics current research programs are
- Dr. Harold E. Hoelscher ......... . .......... Reaction Kinetics, Petroleum Research Fund, Na-
Interfacial Phenomena tional Science Foundation,
Dr. George E. Klinzing ........... Fluid Dynamics, Transport Phenomena U.S. Department of Agricul-
Dr. Chung-Chiun Liu. . .. ............ Electrochemical Engineering ture, National Aeronautics and
Dr. Yatish T. Shah. ... .. .....Transport Phenomena Space Administration, and
Dr. Edward B. Stuart ......... Thermodynamics, Adsorption United States Steel Corpora-
Dr. John W. Tierney . . . . . . .. ..... . Process Dynamics, tion.
Equilibrium Stage Calculations For application forms and
Dr. Lemuel B. Wingard -: . ................... Biomedical Engineering, detailed information on FEL-
Dr. Paul F. Fulton .. . ........ . ...... .... . Multiphase Flow in Porous to:
Media, Wettability Graduate Coordinator
Prof. James H. Hartsock ..... ..... . . Computer Applications Chemical and Petroleum
to Unsteady State Flow Engineering Department
601 Engineering Hall
Dr. Joseph J. Taber ................. . . Interfacial and Surface Phenomena, University of Pittsburgh
Miscible Displacement Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213





The Department
Rated by the American Council of Education
among the top 15 Chemical Engineering Depart-
ments in the U. S. It has:
35 graduate students
10 postdoctoral fellows and research associates
12 full-time faculty
excellent laboratory and computer facilities.

The University
Full University with programs in health and
social sciences and humanities, as well as
Excellent library with extensive holdings.
Attractive 300-acre campus with fine recreational

Major Research Areas
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science
Biomedical Engineering and Biomaterials

Degree Programs
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees offered in Chemical
Interdisciplinary programs in Biomedical Engi-
neering and Polymer Science.
FALL 1970

W W. Akers, Ph.D., U. of Texas, Professor
C. D. Armeniades, Ph.D., C.W.R.U., Asst. Prof.
S. H. Davis, Jr., Sc.D., M.I.T., Professor
H. A. Deans, Ph.D., Rice U., Professor
D. C. Dyson, Ph.D., U. of London, Asso. Professor
G. D. Fisher, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins U., Asst. Prof.
J. D. Hellums, Ph.D., U. of Texas, Professor
J. W. Hightower, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins U., Prof.
R. Jackson, D.Sc., U. of Edinburgh, Professor
R. Kobayashi, Ph.D., U. of Michigan, Professor
T. W. Leland, Jr., Ph.D., U. of Michigan, Prof.
L. V. McIntire, Ph.D., Princeton U., Asst. Prof.

Financial Support
Fellowships and assistantships are available with
tuition remission and stipends competitive with
other major universities.
Graduate assistants' duties require less than 6
hours per week and allow full-time study load.

Address letters of inquiry to:
Dr. C. D. Armeniades, Assistant Professor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001


PROGRAMS for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy
are offered in both chemical and metallurgical engineering. The Master's program
may be tailored as a terminal one with emphasis on systems and design, or it may
serve as preparation for more advanced work leading to the Doctorate.
FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS-William T. Becker, Ph.D., Illinois, Mechanical Properties
and Deformation; Donald C. Bogue, Ph.D., Delaware, Rheology, Polymer Science and Engineering;
Charlie R. Brooks, Ph.D., Tennessee, Electron Microscopy, Thermodynamics; Oran L. Culberson, Ph.D.,
Texas, Operations Research, Process Design; George C. Frazier, Jr., D. Eng., Johns Hopkins, Kinetics and
Combustion, Transfer with Reaction; Hsien-Wen Hsu, Ph.D., Wisconsin, Thermodynamics, Transport
Phenomena, Optimization; Homer F. Johnson, D. Eng., Yale, (Department Head), Mass Transfer, Inter-
face Phenomena; Stanley H. Jury, Ph.D., Cincinnati, Sorption Kinetics, Hygrometry, Information Opera-
tions; William J. Kooyman, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, Reaction Kinetics in Flow Systems; Carl D. Lundin,
Ph.D., Rensselaer, Physical Metallurgy, Welding; Charles F. Moore, Ph.D., L.S.U., Process Control and
Dynamics; Ben F. Oliver, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, (Professor-in-charge of Metallurgical
Engineering), Solidification, High Purity Metals; Joseph J. Perona, Ph.D., Northwestern, Mass Transfer
and Kinetics, Heat Transfer; Joseph E. Spruiell, Ph.D., Tennessee, X-ray Diffraction, Electron Microscopy,
Polymer Science and Engineering; E. Eugene Stansbury, Ph. D., Cincinnati, Thermodynamics Kinetics of
Phase Deformation, Corrosion; James L. White, Ph.D., Delaware, Polymer Science and Engineering,
Rheology, Separation Processes.
REGULAR PART-TIME-Lloyd G. Alexander, Ph.D., Purdue, Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer; Bernard
S. Borie, Ph.D., M.I.T., X-ray Diffraction; Albert H. Cooper, Ph.D., Michigan State, Process Design, Eco-
nomics; Kenneth H. McCorkle, Ph.D., Tennessee, Colloidal Systems; Carl J. McHargue, Ph.D., Kentucky,
Physical Metallurgy; Roy A. Vandermeer, Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, Physical Metallurgy,
Jack S. Watson, Ph.D., Tennessee, Fluid Mechanics.
LABORATORIES AND SHOPS-Analog computer (Expanded EAI, PACE 221R) and digital com-
puter (DEC, PDP 15/20 with analog interface), High-speed automatic frost point hygrometer, Mass and
heat transfer in porous media, Polymer rheology (Weissenberg rheogoniometer, Instron rheological
tester, roll mill, extruder). Polymer characterization (gel permeation chromatograph, osmometer), Mass
spectograph, Continuous zone centrifuge, Process dynamics, X-ray diffraction (including single crystal
diffuse scattering analysis), Electron microscopes (Philips EM75 EM300), Calorimetry (25-10000C), Elec-
trical resistivity measurements for studies of structural and phase changes, Single crystal preparation
facilities, Mechanical fabrication and testing, (metallograph, optical microscopes and melting, etc.),
High purity materials preparation, Electronic and mechanical shops staffed by thirteen full-time techni-
cians and craftsmen.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Sources available include graduate assistantships, graduate teaching
assistantships, research assistantships, industrial fellowships, industrial grants-in-aid, NSF Traineeships,
NDEA (Title IV) Fellowships, and University Non-Service Fellowships.
COSTS TO STUDENTS-Full-time Tennessee residents pay $105 per quarter maintenance fee;
out-of-state students pay an additional tuition of $205 per quarter; combined room-and-board arrange-
ments are available at $305 per quarter. One- and two-bedroom married student apartments rent
from $60 to $110 per month unfurnished, approximately $15 higher furnished. Privately operated
apartments are available to single or married graduate students at equivalent and higher rates.
STUDENT BODY-About 20,000 students are enrolled at the Knoxville campus. In the College
of Engineering there are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 300 resident graduate students.
KNOXVILLE AND SURROUNDINGS-Knoxville, with a population near 200,000, is the trade
and industrial center of East Tennessee. The University is located about five blocks from the downtown
business area. In the nearby Auditorium-Coliseum, Broadway plays, musical and dramatic artists, and
other entertainment events are regularly scheduled. Knoxville has a number of points of historical
interest, a theater-in-the-round, a symphony orchestra, two art galleries, and a number of museums.
Within an hour's drive are many TVA lakes and mountain streams for water sports; the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park with the Gatlinburg tourist area; two state parks; and the atomic energy
installations at Oak Ridge including the Museum of Atomic Energy.
ABOUT UT-Founded in 1794 as Blount College, the University has grown to a large multi-
campus, multi-purpose system of higher education covering the entire state. Graduate programs in
science and engineering centered at the Knoxville campus have developed to major size and strength
over the past 25 years stimulated by cooperation developed between the atomic energy facilities and
the University.
WRITE: Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

�rabuate Stubp in Cbemiral Qngineering

The Department of Chemical Engineering offers a full program of graduate courses and research and design projects,
leading to the Master of Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. Eight faculty members,
all of whom have had extensive industrial experience and have earned national and international reputations in
their fields, direct research in a wide variety of chemical-engineering and related areas. Strong supporting
departments in mathematics and the physical sciences; the Rate Processes Institute, directed by Dr. Henry Eyring;
and the divisions and institutes in which chemical-engineering staff participate--the Biomedical Engineering
Institute, together with the Artificial Organs Division, headed by Dr. Willem J. Kolff, and the research-oriented,
on-campus University Hospital; the Environmental Engineering Division and the Center for Environmental Biology;
the Fluid Mechanics Division; and the Engineering Systems Division--all strengthen and add variety and relevance
to graduate study and research programs. Modern, well-equipped laboratories and adjacent computer facilities
(Univac 1108) support research programs in all areas. Teaching emphasis is upon fundamental engineering princi-
ples and the development of ability in analysis, synthesis, insight, judgment, and the creative solution of
pressing human problems. The University maintains housing accommodations for both single and married students,
and there are many reasonably priced apartments within walking distance of the campus. Located at the foot of
the Wasatch Mountains in the geographic, economic, and cultural center of the Intermountain West, Salt Lake has
long been noted for its superb scenery, outdoor recreational facilities, natural resources, and hospitality.

elf flw 7r

f K * ..

E.B. CHRISTIANSEN, Prof. and Chm.; PhD, U of Michigan.
Newtonian and non-Newtonian momentum and energy trans-
port, particle dynamics, biological transport processes.
A.D. BAER, Prof.; PhD, U of Utah. Heat transfer, fluid
dynamics, process control, combustion.
R.H. BOYD, Prof.; PhD, MIT. Polymer and materials sci-
ence, chemical thermodynamics.
N.W. RYAN, Prof.; ScD, MIT. Combustion, high-tempera-
ture reactions, gas dynamics, propulsion.
D.L. SALT, Prof.; PhD, U of Delaware. Diffusional op-
erations, fluid and particle dynamics, separation pro-
J.D. SEADER, Prof.; PhD, U of Wisconsin. Coupled chemi-
cal-reaction kinetics, momentum, energy, and mass trans-
port; ablation; polymer flammability; systems; design.
N.H. de NEVERS, Assoc. Prof. and Assoc. Dean; PhD, U of
Michigan. Thermodynamics, multi-phase flow, chromato-
graphic transport.
A.L. TYLER, Assist. Prof.; PhD, U of Utah. Chemical-
reaction kinetics, particle dynamics, vapor-phase reac-
tions, solid-state diffusion.

SRsi tance & application
The Department offers NDEA Fellowships, NSF and Envi-
ronmental-Pollution Traineeships, and a variety of re-
search, design, and teaching assistantships to qualified
applicants. Application materials and further informa-
tion may be obtained oy sending the coupon below to:
Dr. E. B. Christiansen, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

Dear Dr. Christiansen:

I would appreciate receiving application forms for
admission to the University of Utah Graduate School
and for financial assistance in chemical engineering.




1971-72 Graduate Studies, University of Waterloo, Canada

Our research reputation is well-
known. Prospective Ph.D. and
M.A.Sc. candidates may also want
to know the following:
The Department
Largest in Canada
30 Professors
11 Postdoctoral fellows
102 Graduate students
The Fields
Most comprehensive in Canada
Biochemical Engineering
Extractive Metallurgy
Polymer Science
Kinetics & Catalysis
Simulation & Optimization
Transport Phenomena

Financial Aid
Competitive with any other
Canadian University
The University
Largest engineering school and
most comprehensive computer
facilities in Canada;
Co-educational; multi-faculty;
12,000 students, 1,000-acre campus
The Location
Kitchener-Waterloo twin city
(population: 150,000);
60 miles southwest of Toronto

The Faculty
L. E. Bodnar, Ph.D. (McMaster)
C. M. Burns, Ph.D. (Brooklyn)
J. J. Byerley, Ph.D. (U.B.C.)
K. S. Chang, Ph.D. (Northwestern)
F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (U.B.C.)
K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton)
K. Enns, LL.B., Ph.D. (Toronto)
T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (Illinois)
J. D. Ford, Ph.D. (Toronto)
C. E. Gall, Ph.D. (Minnesota)
R. Y. M. Huang, Ph.D. (Toronto)
R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D. (Princeton)
I. F. Macdonald, Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
D. C. T. Pei, Ph.D. (McGill)
G. L. Rempel, Ph.D. (U.B.C.)
P M. Reilly, Ph.D. (London)
E. Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester)
C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (California)
J. M. Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania)
D. S. Scott, Ph.D. (Illinois)
P. L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich)
D. R. Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State)
G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Manchester)
B. M. E. van der Hoff, Ir. (Delft)
J. R. Wynnyckyj, Ph.D. (Toronto)
M. Moo-Young. Ph.D. (London)
A. H. Heatley, Ph.D.
(Professor Emeritus)
R. L. Earle, Ph.D. (Visiting Professor,
Massey, N.Z.)
B. R. James, Ph.D.
(Visiting Professor, U.B.C.)
N. Wakao, Ph.D.
(Visiting Professor, Yokohama)
Apply to:
Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies)
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Chemical Engineering Department


Areas of Interest Faculty
Transport/kinetic processes Dee H. Barker
Solution thermodynamics Dwight P. Clark
(Center for thermochemical James J. Christensen
studies) Ralph H. Coates
High pressure technology Joseph M. Glassett
Environmental Control H. Tracy Hall
Nuclear engineering Richard W. Hanks
M. Duane Horton
Bill J. Pope
L. Douglas Smoot
Vern C. Rogers

Dr. Richard W. Hanks
234 ELB, Chemical Engineering
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84601



For admission, address
-Dr. David S. Ray,
Coordinator of Graduate Studies

* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
* Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly
distillation and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; mathematical applications in
chemical systems; reaction kinetics; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the
science of materials; nuclear engineering.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty
semester-hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.

FALL 1970


A new and growing University in Canada
offering excellent opportunities for graduate
study and research.
Programs Leading to M.Sc. and Ph.D. Degrees
Active research in Systems Engineering,
Transport Phenomena, Fluid Mechanics and En-
vironmental Engineering.
Financial Aid
Fellowships, Graduate Teaching Assistant-
ships and Graduate Research Assistantships are
offered with remuneration of up to $4,400 per
year and remission of fees. A travel allowance
of up to $250 for new graduate students is also

The University of Calgary is located in Cal-
gary, Alberta, Canada, home of the famous
Calgary Stampede. Nestled at the foot of the
scenic Rocky Mountains, the University is only a
short drive from beautiful Banff National Park.
Living Accommodations
New Married Student Town-houses have
recently been completed to accommodate 250
families. Dormitory space is available for single

More Information
Write directly to:
Professor M. F. Mohtadi, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Calgary
Calgary 44, Alberta, Canada.



R. L. Bell:
N. A. Dougharty:
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:

Mass Transfer, Bio-Medicine
Catalysis, Chemical Kinetics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reaction Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena

Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616



Carnegie-Mellon University

Howard Brenner
Duane Condiff
Edward Cussler
Anthony Dent
Kun Li
Clarence Miller
Carl Monrad
Matthew Reilly
Stephen Rosen
Robert Rothfus
Herbert Toor
Raymond Zahradnik


^ : J. Chemical Engineering Department

* 0''**..... .�* ' M.S. and Doctoral Programs

Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Air Pollution, Unit Operations
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena
Bruley, D. F., Ph.D., U. Tennessee-Process Dynamics, Bio-medical Engineering
Hall, J. W., Ph.D., U. Texas-Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Design
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Chemical and Biological Kinetics, Design
Littlejohn, C. E., Ph.D., V.P.l.-Mass Transfer
Melsheimer, S S., Ph.D. Tulane-Process Dynamics, Applied Mathematics
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
C. E. Littlejohn, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631

FALL 1970





Master of Engineering
Master of Science

Doctor of Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy

Government, industrial and privately sponsored fellowships and research assistantships available.
Programs are formulated by the student and his faculty advisor without arbitrary constraint of
departmental traditions. The above 'design' degrees require a thesis demonstrating creative design,
and the 'research' degrees, a discovery. Joint study with the Dartmouth Medical School and Science
Department available.
Projects Underway
General studies in two-phase flow. Computer-aided design. Refuse processing. Reverse Osmosis.
Sewage treatment. Power plant cooling. Thermodynamics. Industrial waste treatment. Technology
and public policy.
Direct inquiries to the Chairman of Graduate Admissions at the above address.


Newark, Delaware 19711


B. E. Anshus
C. E. Birchenall
M. M. Denn
J. D. Eliassen
B. C. Gates
J. R. Katzer
A. B. Metzner
J. H. Olson

C. A. Petty
T. W. F. Russell
S. I. Sander
M. R. Samuels
J. M. Schultz
V. K. Stokes
J. Wei

Graduate study inquiries and requests for financial aid invited.

Write: A. B. Metzner, Chairman


Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-

Financial Aid Available

Professor B. G. Kyle
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502


FALL 1970




Students seeking a commitment to excellence
in careers in Chemical Engineering will find a
wealth of opportunity at Newark College of En-
The ChE Department at NCE has a well de-
veloped graduate program leading to the degrees
of Master of Science in Chemical Engineering or
Master of Science with major in such interdisci-
plinary areas as Polymer Engineering or Polymer
Science. Beyond the Master's degree, NCE offers
the degrees of Engineer and of Doctor of Engi-
neering Science.
Over sixty on-going projects in Chemical En-
gineering and Chemistry provide exceptional re-
search opportunities for Master's and Doctoral
candidates. Research topics include the follow-
ing areas:

* Fluid Mechanics * Heat Transfer
* Thermodynamics * Process Dynamics
* Kinetics and Catalysis * Transport Phenomena
0 Mathematical Methods
NCE is located on a modern, twenty-acre
campus in Newark, within 30 minutes of Man-
hattan. Tuition for New Jersey residents is $27
per credit; for non-residents, the cost is $40 per
credit. Fellowships and financial assistance are
available to qualified applicants.
Mr. Alex Bedrosian, Assistant Dean
Graduate Division
Newark College of Engineering
323 High Street, Newark, N. J. 07102




* Environmental Engineering
* Reaction Kinetics
* Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer


* Process Analysis, Design and Control
* Polymer Engineering
* Petroleum Reservoir Engineering

Nuclear Chemical Engineering * Thermodynamics
* Rheology * Unit Operations
* Solid and Liquid Fuels * Process Dynamics and Simulation
* Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods

Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request

WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210


The Department of Chemical Engineering at Texas
A&M University offers programs of study for the Master of
Science, Master of Engineering, and Doctor of Philosophy
Thirty-two credit hours consisting of twenty-four credit
hours of course work and an eight-credit hour research thesis
are required for the Master of Science degree. As an alter-

Texas A & M University



nate program of study, the Master of Engineering degree
consists of thirty-two credit hours of course work and a four-
credit-hour research paper, which is often a literature review
and need not be an original contribution to the chemical
engineering literature.
R. G. Anthony, Polymer Kinetics, Phase Equilibria
Ronald Darby, Rheology, Biomedical Engineering, Electro-
R. R. Davison, Desalination, Liquid Solution Thermo-
L. D. Durbin, Process Dynamics and Control
P. T. Eubank, Gas Phase Thermodynamics
D. T. Hanson, Bio-Engineering
C. D. Holland, Separation Processes-Distillation, Adsorption
W. B. Harris, Flow Through Porous Media
W. D. Harris, Heat Transfer
A. Kreglewski, Thermodynamic Properties of Mixtures
W. W. Meinke, Bio-Engineering
E. A. Schweikert, Activation Analysis
R. E. Wainerdi, Activation Analysis

For information concerning the graduate program contact
Dr. P. T. Eubank, Graduate Advisor, Texas A&M University, Department of Chemical Engineering, College Station, Texas 77843

FALL 1970



Metropolitan Boston



UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chemical Engineering Seattle, Washington 98105






Hybrid Simulation - Control



Transport Processes

Environment Control


Plasma Technology




The Department of Chemical Engineering at
the University of Colorado offers excellent op-
portunities for graduate study and research
leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of
Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering.

Research interests of the faculty include cryo-
genics, process control, polymer science, cataly-
sis, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer,
computer aided design, air and water pollution,
biomedical engineering, and ecological engi-

For application and information, write to:
Chairman, Graduate Committee
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Colorado, Boulder


Institute of Science and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Department has a large research school
with specialties in mass transfer, kinetics, fluid
mechanics, control, surface phenomena, bio-
chemical engineering and a long tradition in
corrosion and electrochemical engineering. In
addition to research work in any of the above
topics to M.Sc or Ph.D level, advanced courses
on Physical Processes in Chemical Engineering
and Corrosion Science are offered. These are one
year courses and include lectures, seminars and
project work leading to the degree of M.Sc.
At present the post graduate School numbers
120. Excellent facilities exist within the Depart-
ment where there is active co-operation with
other research institutes and industry.
Further details and application forms can be
obtained from
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Manchester Institute of Science
& Technology
P. 0. Box 88
Sackville Street
Manchester M60 1QD

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada




Simulation, Optimization and
Computer-Aided Analysis
Water & Waste Water Treatment
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Transport Phenomena

Contact: Dr. T. W. Hoffman, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical Engineering


Leading to the
Degrees of
M.Eng. and Ph.D.


Transport Phenomena
Polymer Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Air and Water Pollution
Particulate Dynamics
Solid-Liquid Separation
Chemical Reactors
Plasma Research
and others

Montreal, Quebec, Canada



Graduate Assistantships, Teaching Assistantships
and Fellowships Available

For Further information and applications for
graduate study in the Land of Enchantment,

Dr. T. T. Castonguay, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106

FALL 1970


We're still small enough to care.

We have seven Chemical Engineering faculty members;
they all have PhD degrees, representing such universities
as Case, Cincinnati, Cornel, Lehigh, Michigan and Purdue.
AND-We offer all degrees, in full-time and evening
programs, with thesis and non-thesis options for the M.S.
Research in chemical engineering includes transport
phenomena, thermodynamics, computerized control and
bioengineering. Research in materials engineering includes
polymer properties and processing, corrosion and composites.
From the establishment of our department in 1957
and the awarding of our first BSChE degree in 1958,
we have progressed to awarding our first MSChE in 1964,
and we received AIChE & ECPD accreditation in 1963,
with our PhD program started Fall 1968.
Because we are GROWING, we offer you OPPORTUNITY.

Department of Chemical Engineering
Athens, Ohio 45701


Excellent graduate programs are available
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical En-
gineering at Oregon State University.
Research interests of the faculty include:
transport phenomena, thermodynamics, kinetics,
process dynamics, fluid mechanics, electrochem-
istry, and ocean engineering.
Present faculty members are: T. Fitzgerald,
J. G. Knudsen, 0. Levenspiel, R. V. Mrazek,
R. E. Meredith and C. E. Wicks.

For more details write to:
Dr. R. E. Meredith
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331

If you are seeking a Graduate Program to
* provide you with the background and educa-
tion for an effective role in all phases of chemi-
cal engineering * develop and expand your
scientific and engineering background * prepare
you to undertake major responsibilities in Chem-
ical Engineering, design, R&D, or production,
then . . .

Graduate Study at the



State University, Stillwater,



A faculty with wide-ranging industrial experi-
ence and diversified research interests * Labo-
ratory facilities designed and equipped for
graduate research * a first-rate university library
open until midnight every day of the year
* modern computing center, plus a "hands-on"
facility exclusively for engineering students and
available 24 hours daily * financial support
* Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering
* Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering.

Your inquiries are invited. Please address:
Dr. Robert N. Maddox, P.E.
Professor and Head
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074



The University of Toledo

Graduate Study Toward the

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

Assistantships and Fellowships Available.
FWPCA Traineeships in Water Supply and
Pollution Control.

For more details write:
Dr. Charles E. Stoops
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio 43606


St. Louis, Missouri

* A distinguished faculty and well equipped
* Beautiful park-like campus
* Cosmopolitan environment of a major metro-
politan area
* Close interaction with the research and engi-
neering staffs of local major chemical com-
* Cooperation in biomedical research with one
of the world's great medical centers

For further information on graduate study op-
portunities write to:

Dr. Eric Weger, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri 63130

FALL 1970




M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


Wayne State University is a state-supported
school situated in the cultural center of Detroit,
Michigan, the auto capital of the world. The
Department of Chemical Engineering and Ma-
terial Sciences offers an outstanding program
in graduate study and research at both the
Master's and Ph.D. level.
Areas of interest include continuum and
molecular transport phenomena, classical and
statistical thermodynamics, heterogeneous equi-
libria, chemical kinetics, polymer engineering,
air pollution and environmental engineering,
vacuum science and process simulation. A wide
variety of interdisciplinary programs are given
in conjunction with other colleges and depart-
ments within the university.

For additional information, write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering and
Material Sciences
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan 48202

Applicants are invited for admission to pro-
grams leading to the degree of M.E.Sc. and Ph.D.
in the field of chemical and bioengineering.
Current programs are related to air and water
pollution, applied catalysis, fluidization and fluid
particle mechanics, electrical phenomena in in-
dustrial processes, development of biochemical
processes and continuous fermentation systems,
single cell proteins, development of processes
for conventional and unconventional food pro-
duction, food preservation, flavours, additives
and pollutants.
Financial assistance up to $4,000 per annum
is available.
For further information and application,
Dr. J. E. Zajic, Chairman
Chemical and Bioengineering
Faculty of Engineering Science
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario, Canada

The staff of CEE wishes to thank the 51 departments
whose advertisements appear in this second graduate is-
sue. We also appreciate the excellent response you gave
to our request for names of prospective authors. We re-
gret that, because of space limitations, we were not able
to include some outstanding papers and that certain areas
are not represented. In part our selection of papers was

based on a desire to complement this issue with that of
1969, for we hope that seniors interested in graduate
school will read both issues. As indicated in our letter of
September 1, we are sending automatically to each depart-
ment at least sufficient free copies of this issue for 1/5
the number of bachelor's degrees reported in "ChE Facul-
ties". Because of the large number of requests you made
for extra copies for seniors and graduate students, we
were forced to limit the number of these to the total
number of bachelor's degrees your department reported.
However if you have definite need for more copies than
you received, we may be able to furnish these upon
During the three years CEE has been published at the
University of Florida its support has been derived pri-
marily from industrial advertisers and donors. Unfortu-
nately that source of support is now decreasing rapidly-
due to economic reasons. For example, while CEE's in-
come from industrial sources was $9,240 in 1969, it is
expected to be only $7,300 in 1970 and recent trends indi-
cate that our industrial support in 1971 may be as low
as $2,000--or a drop of $7,240. Since the bulk of our sup-
port has come from industrial sources, it will be more
important than ever for departments and faculty mem-
bers to assist us through bulk and individual subscrip-
tions. We are very appreciative that we have had the
support of 123 departments in 1970, and we like to urge
you not only to continue your support in 1971, but also
to see if it can be increased by ordering additional copies,
these may be used as follows:
1) One copy to each faculty member
2) One copy each to your engineering deans, depart-
ment chairmen, and other university faculty.
3) One copy each to student chapter officers.
4) Extra copies for graduate students interested in
teaching, for local high school counselors and
chemistry teachers, and for AIChE local section
Please keep in mind that payment for these bulk sub-
scriptions (at $4.00 each with $25 minimum for 6 copies
or fewer) may be made by any of the following means
(or combination thereof): (1) Direct payment by check
from departmental funds. (2) Payment by check after
solicitation from the faculty of individual contributions
and (3) Payment from university funds after being billed.
You may order your copies from Dr. R. B. Bennett,
CEE Business Manager, Department of Chemical Engi-
neering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 32601.
Ray Fahen, Editor


University of Arizona
Brigham Young
Bucknell University
University of Calgary
University of California (Berkeley)
University of California (Davis)
University of California (Santa Barbara)
California Institute of Technology
Carnegie-Mellon University
Case Western Reserve University
Clemson University
University of Colorado
Colorado School of Mines
University of Connecticut
Dartmouth College
University of Delaware
University of Florida

University of Houston
University of Illinois, Chicago Circle
Iowa State University
Kansas State University
University of Kentucky
Lehigh University
University of Manchester
University of Maryland
McGill University
McMaster University
University of Michigan
University of Missouri (Rolla)
University of Nebraska
University of New Mexico
Newark College of Engineering
Ohio State University
Ohio University

Oklahoma State University
Oregon State University
University of Ottawa
Pennsylvania State University
University of Pittsburgh
Rice University
University of Tennessee
Texas A & M
University of Toledo
Tufts University
University of Utah
Washington University
University of Washington
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
University of Western Ontario
Worcester Polytechnic



It's a strange kind of paradox.
We work hard for forty-one years.
We build ourselves up into a billion
and a half dollar corporation -one of
the nation's top 70.
And what happens.
A lot of people walking around to-
day think that FMC means Ford Motor
We're not even kissing cousins.
We build less romantic but bigger
horsepower things like power shovels
and harvesting machines.
We are one of the nation's leading
suppliers of organic and inorganic

We make automated egg handling
systems, citrus processing machinery,
marine vessels, freeze-drying equip-
And it doesn't end there.
We manufacture rayon fiber that goes
into tire cord as well as throwaway
bikinis. And then we turn right around
and manufacture turbo pumps.
We even make fire engines. That's a
far cry from a snappy Mustang.
We're not a conglomerate, but a
diversified company. Which means that
everything we do relates to everything
else we do.

Even so, people find it hard to pin a
label on us.
Anyway, now that you know we're
not Ford Motor Company, nor the
Fancy Marble Company, nor the Flying
Machine Corporation, nor any other
EM.C., we hope you'll take a second
look at who we really are.
We need talented people in many dif-
ferent disciplines: engineers, scientists,
lawyers, accountants, MBA's.
If the challenge intrigues you, write
for our descriptive brochure, "Careers
with FMC!' FMC Corporation, Box
760, San Jose, California 95106. We
are an equal opportunity employer.


Putting ideas to work in Machinery, Chemicals, Defense,Fibers & Films

New Math?
No-new Sun!
The 48-year-old Sunray DX and
the 82-year-old Sun Oil companies
are now joined to form a moving,
swinging company 1 year young
and 2 billion dollars big.
It's a whole new ball game-oil

game, if you will. Sun's re-struc-
tured management is young, bold,
concerned. We're deeply involved
in planning explorations; product
research, development and im-
provement; advanced manufac-
turing; and new concepts of mar-
keting and management.

You might like to work for a
company like Sun. Contact your
Placement Director, or write for
our new Career Guide. SUN OIL
COMPANY, Human Resources Dept.
CED, 1608 Walnut Street, Phila-
delphia, Pa. 19103.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F