Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00027
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text


a growing factor in the
chemicals and fibers industry

chemical engineering is
an integral part of our business

with real growing room and
opportunity for chemical engineers

a Williamsburg, Virginia 23185
An equal opportunity employer

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Editor: Ray Fahien

Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

CENTRAL: James H. Weber
Chairman of Publication Board
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
EAST: Robert Matteson
College Relations
Sun Oil Company
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19100
E. P. Bartkus
Secretary's Department
E. I. du Pont de Nemours
Wilmington, Delaware 19898
Peter Lederman
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute
Brooklyn, New York 11201
NORTHEAST: George D. Keeffe
Newark College of Engineering
Newark, New Jersey, 07102
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105
J. A. Bergamtz
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14200
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Chemical Engineering Education


2 Acknowledgements

3 Notice and Letters

4 The Educator
Vice Chancellor John McKetta

10 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Delaware, Jack A. Gerster

37 The Classroom
Programmed Gas Absorber Calculations,
N. F. Brockmeier, D. M. Himmelblau

41 Programs in Water Pollution Control,
D. W. Sundstrom, H. E. Klei

44 Innovation and Motivation-A Freshman
Design Course, M. H. Lih, Roy Foresti, Jr.

33 The Curriculum
Chemical Engineering Education in Western
Europe, Charles H. Barron

28 The Laboratory
A Systems Approach,
J. R. Thygeson, Jr., E. D. Grossmann,
R. A. Heidemann, L. S. Kershenbaum

8 Book Review

Feature Articles

18 emal pwidee9 4,ar I fa L A.eo f969
Some Current Studies in Liquid State
Physics, Part 1, C. J. Pings

24 Attrition of ChE Undergrads,
Oran L. Culberson

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., 137 E. Wisconsin
Ave., DeLand, Florida 32720. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year to non-members of the ChE division of ASEE, $6 per year mailed to members,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Individual copies of Vol. 2 and 3
are $3 each. Copyright (C 1969, ChE Division of ASEE, Ray Fahien, Editor. The
statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no
responsibility for them.




The J6lawi wsf camospaoies "awe

daomded j s J64 te. dwa dptw# G


d(uusi 1970 ini 4iea of ade Uf.






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With this issue the staff at the University of Florida
begins its third year of publishing CEE. We are certainly
pleased with the overwhelming and enthusiastic response
of our readers; we are equally pleased that we have re-
ceived during the past year the support of eight donors,
21 industrial advertisers, and 39 university advertisers.
In addition we received donations from nearly 100 depart-
ments of chemical engineering.
So far this year however, our commitments for income
from donations and advertising are only 50% that of
last year. Also while 92 departments have placed orders
for bulk subscriptions to CEE, over 50 chemical engineer-
ing departments listed in Chemical Engineering Faculties
have not yet sent in any contributions for 1970. We are
therefore asking your help in the following: 1) If your
department is not listed below, you might want to make
sure that it continues to receive CEE. 2) If you read and
enjoy CEE, you can help us by telling our advertisers and
donors and letting them know that their support is recog-
nized and appreciated. With your help we hope we can
continue to serve you and the profession in the publication
of a journal that all seem to agree is greatly needed.
James H. Weber, Chairman R. B. Bennett,
Publication Board Business Manager

Department chairmen were sent additional
copies of the Special Graduate Education Issue
for distribution to those seniors who are inter-
ested in graduate education. Additional copies
of this issue are still available on request.
For the current issue department chairmen
are being sent the number of copies for which
they ordered bulk subscriptions. (Those depart-
ments whose requests have not been received as
yet will be sent token copies in order to provide
some continuity.) The new subscription policy is
as follows:

1. Chemical Engineering Departments may
request a definite number of copies at $4/year
for each of the four issues in 1970, with a mini-
mum contribution of $25/year. (They may pay
for these through departmental funds or faculty
contributions or both.)

2. ASEE-Chemical Engineering Division mem-
bers may request (on the following form) indi-
vidually addressed copies to any address and pay
$6/year starting in January 1970.

3. Libraries and other subscribers that are not
members of the Chemical Engineering Division
of ASEE may subscribe as before at $10/year.

R. Br. Bennett, Bus. Mgr. CEE
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Please send our department copies of
CEE during 1970 at $4/year each (Minimum $25/
El Payment enclosed E Please send invoice

Please find my check (made out to
for my 1970 subscription to CEE. I (am, am not)
a member of the ChE Division, ASEE.

from our READERS
Roberts Updates Data
The Fall, 1969 issue of "Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion" contains an article by Ralph A. Morgen entitled
"The Chemistry-Chemical Engineering Merry-Go-Round."
Table III of this article states that a "light chemistry"
chemical engineering curriculum should consist of 24
semester credits of chemistry and that a "strong chem-
istry" curriculum should contain 36 semester credits of
chemistry. A few paragraphs later, Dr. Morgen states
that "The twenty-three institutions in Table II with
accredited undergraduate chemical engineering curricula
in 1967 all come within these limits."
As chairman of the Undergraduate Curriculum Com-
mittee at Washington University (St. Louis), I recently
made a brief survey of the chemistry requirements in
chemical-engineering curricula at other universities, using
the 69/70, or in some cases the 68/69 school catalogs as
sources of information. The seventeen schools covered
in the survey were arbitrarily selected, but I believe that
they represent a reasonable cross-section of the chemical
engineering departments in the United States. Ten were
state schools and seven were private. The total number
of semester credits of chemistry required in these seven-
teen curricula rangd from a low of 15.3 to a high of 30.0.
The average requirement for the schools was 23.1 semes-
ter credits and the median was 24.0 semester credits.
Seven of the seventeen schools fell at least 4 semester
credits short of Dr. Morgen's "irreducible minimum" of
24. Not one of the schools required the 36 hours for a
"strong chemistry" rating. Furthermore, the 36 semester-
credit criterion for a "strong chemistry" program is
outside the 99 percent confidence limits of the sample
Interestingly, the mean chemistry requirement for the
seven private schools is 20.8 credits, and that for the
state schools is 24.7.
The difference between these means is statistically
significant at the 95 percent confidence level. Five of the
seven departments requiring less than 24 semester credits
of chemistry were in private institutions.
On the basis of these results, it appears that the
statistics presented by Dr. Morgen do not reflect the
current situation among Chemical Engineering Depart-
ments. Chemistry requirements seem to have been reduced
since the data leading to Table III of Dr. Morgen's
article was compiled. However, since all but one of the
seventeen schools surveyed required coursework in each
of the three major areas of chemistry, it may well be
that the present statistics reect a "numbers game" rather
than a significant drop in requirements.
The problem in reconciling these statistics with Dr.
Morgen's may also result from the use of the term
"semester credits." The present statistics are based on
the use of two semesters per school year rather than
three quarters. For schools on the quarter system, the
number of semester credits was calculated by multiplying
the number of trimester credits by %.
George W. Roberts
Washington University



A New Mold


University of Texas
Publications Editor
University of Texas
Austin, Texas
(Submitted by Dr. Eugene H. Wissler, Chairman,
Department of Chemical Engineering, University
of Texas)
To those who know him, John J. McKetta is a
hard man to place. Just when one thinks he has
this man figured out, some new facet of McKetta's
character literally bursts forth in a rush of action.
Most likely the acquaintance is left bemused, fas-
cinated, and often as not, doubting that he really
does know him.
Those who do not know him, should. John
McKetta possibly holds more positions than any
engineer today which affect both industry and
education. According to the records, he is the
only man who concurrently has been on the
Boards of Directors for the ECPD, the EJC, and
the ECAC and ECRC of the American Society for
Engineering Education (ASEE). These positions
converged during 1967-68-69.
Add to them the chairmanship of the 18-state
Southern Interstate Nuclear Board (1967-68),
the chairmanship of the Texas Atomic Energy
Advisory Committee (since 1964), the advisory
boards of at least a dozen major periodicals, plus
committees in several professional societies, and
the span of his interests begins to unfold.
But John McKetta is not a "joiner." Far from
it. He belongs to these organizations because his
professional concerns lie in their areas; and he
has served them in many working capacities be-
cause there is no such thing in his makeup as
passive involvement.
Nor do these activities constitute a new role.
Back in 1962, when he was president of the
AIChE, he already had been a national director
of AIChE for five years. As president, his career
was just 16 years out of college.
He still serves on four AIChE national com-
mittees. The same kind of working participation

is found in his past and present positions in the
American Chemical Society (ACS), American
Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, and Petroleum
Engineers (AIME), and the American Gas Asso-
ciation. In perspective, McKetta's credentials do
not reveal the true man. Actually, they enable
him to meet important persons-and that is
where the action is.
One may fairly inquire about the real motiva-
tions of this man whose 23-year career continues
its three-dimensional expansion, whose quiet
voice is listened to wherever he is, who still is
almost a generation away from retirement. Put
simply, John McKetta is dedicated to engineering
education. Examining a detailed list of his organ-
izational positions, one finds that most of his
activities have been centered around some aspect
of education.
Going deeper, in face of his many interests (he
travels more than 100,000 miles a year), it has
been said that John McKetta sometimes also is
the Dean of Engineering at The University of
Texas in Austin. That's unfair. A majority of his
trips are to see educators at other colleges, to
exchange ideas, to lay plans for future engineer-
ing education. Along the way he may visit indus-
trial leaders, accept gifts or other support for


i . . . . ... ..

Beginning September '69 Dr. McKetta became Execu-
tive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs for The
University of Texas System. Presently, the academic
affairs of four universities are under his direction with
plans for two new universities in the near future. -

UT's Engineering Foundation, convince someone's
high-schooler or a graduate student to come to
Texas, or recruit new faculty members.
Underlying these travels is Dean McKetta's
firm conviction that industry and engineering
education must have the closest possible ties. It
makes sense, because industry is the chief cus-
tomer and beneficiary of the college's graduates.
In turn, industry provides a lion's share of
scholarships and Foundation funds, those extras
which spell the difference between an ordinary
school and a great one.
The industrial-educational relationship extends
deeply into the affairs of the college. During peak
recruiting periods, McKetta has coffee in his con-
ference room every morning with company repre-
sentatives. Industrialists make up the boards of
visitors to the departments.
McKetta himself has been a catalyst in broad-
ening the scope of the Engineering Foundation
Advisory Council's role from one of raising funds
and monitoring expenditures, to include compre-
hensive studies of curricula, facilities, and guid-
ance on future trends in education. The Council,
incidentally, includes the heads and top execu-
tives of some of the largest firms in the country.
Meeting three times a year, an observer would
think this group of 20 was the board of directors
of a corporation. He wouldn't be able to single out
John McKetta from the others.
That's where McKetta unintentionally fools a
lot of people. A broad-shouldered man of medium
height, his build tells of work as a youth in
Pennsylvania coal mines; his stance suggests a
fighter (he was a regional Golden Gloves welter-
weight champion); his rolling gait could only be
that of a man of intense drive. Dressed stylishly,
brief cases in hand, fellow airline passengers take
him for a successful business man as he studies
papers enroute. They'd never know differently,
even if they struck up a conversation with him
about business.
Although he doesn't "look like a dean" or a
traditional academician, he is equally at home
among educators. He discusses educational prob-

lems with an insight matched by few; only his
incisive way of cutting through red tape and
fuzzy notions to go directly to the crux of a
matter reveals the unique brand of practical logic
for which he is noted.
McKetta's ability to bring industry and educa-
tion to the table in objective harmony perhaps
is best illustrated in his leadership of an unusual
organization of several years' standing but no
official status whatever. The body is made up of
the deans of the 12 public and private engineering
schools in Texas, and 12 industrial leaders. It is
called "The Council of Engineering Deans and
Their Industrial Counterparts."
About three years ago the Coordinating Board
of the Texas College and University System
turned to this group for help in designing a
master plan for education in the state. Meeting
irregularly at such times as the two dozen busy
men could get together, in November, 1968 they
submitted "An Advisory Report on Engineering
Education in Texas" that well may become a
classic guideline for other states.
McKetta can only be viewed as an entrepreneur.
UT's College of Engineering has been noted since
1964 for its pioneering efforts to improve the
teaching effectiveness of its faculty. McKetta cer-
tainly didn't invent the idea of better teaching
(that undoubtedly predates Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle), but he must be numbered among a
tiny handful of contemporary educators who saw
a need and actually did something about it. The
result has been a change in attitudes in the col-
lege, a marked improvement in rapport and
teacher-student relationships, and measurable im-
provements in student motivation as well as
So rewarding have been the outcomes, in fact,
that McKetta felt justified in working for two
years on the powers that be to scrounge, beg,
argue, and twist arms for resources with which
to establish a Bureau of Engineering Teaching,
complete with a full-time PhD engineering
teacher-director. Opening its doors last fall, inso-
far as is known, it is the only office of its kind in
the nation.
It may be a sad commentary, but a textbook on
educating engineering teachers at college level
has yet to be written. Dean McKetta and his staff
are on the way to writing their own textbook.
Being planned right now is a special school in the
college specifically for making professors out of


If it doesn't shrink on their backs,
why should it shrink on yours.

Animals wear leather all their lives. And
they don't worry about rain or dirt or
cracking or hardening.
But as soon as they lose their hides,
that's when the trouble can start. With-
out protection, baseballs can shrivel up,
mini-skirts become micro-skirts, size 9
shoes become size 8.
Union Carbide got together with the
tanners to save a little bit of the world

from shrinking.
Wetooka little known chemical called
Glutaraldehyde and refined it and de-
signed it so it could be added to the
tanning process.
To give you a leather that resists hard-
ening. A leather that resists cracking. A
leather that doesn't shrink at the sight
of water.
We're out to save your hide.
; ; j,

B1 I3

In October, 1966, at the opening meeting of the
year's series of faculty meetings on teaching
effectiveness, McKetta voiced something that
was, and is, both a philosophy and a policy:
~XWHEN ONE ACCEPTS a position as a university
faculty member, he should expect to write proposals
for research, equipment, and special projects; to publish
artic es, reports, papers, and books; to keep up-to-date
in his professional field; to serve on councils, boards, and
committees; to maintain the best possible relations with
alumni, legislators, and the business and industry of the
region-in short, to be a responsible member of the com-
munity and to participate in many of its activities.
"B UT WE ALL KNOW that these many activities must
never overshadow our greatest concern-the stu-
dent. If our responsibilities to, and concern for, the
student ever become secondary, we will be violating the
trust we accepted when we joined the faculty."

This statement was made prior to the breakout
of turmoil on campuses across the nation. As in
so many instances, McKetta again was early, and
dead on target. It is not with foolhardiness, but
with confidence, that he encourages his 3,200
students to have a healthy discontent and to con-
structively inquire into the "why" of things both
social and technical.
John McKetta conforms to his own philosophy.
Everyone in the college must teach; there are no
full-time research positions on the faculty. He
has been a teacher at Texas since 1946. His
teaching load had to change when he was chair-
man of the Chemical Engineering Department in
1950-52, and again in 1955-63. As dean of the
college since 1963, he has managed to continue
work with five or six graduate students, and in
some semesters to teach a course.
Just before the fall term opens, McKetta and
his department chairman annually meet for two
and a half days at some pleasant, secluded lake
inn or ranch in the hill country west of Austin,
to discuss ideas, problems, and plans for the com-
ing year. Once a chairman commented, "This
seems like a retreat." "Heck, no," McKetta re-
torted, "it's an advance!" Chairman's Advance
it became, and continues so.
At last count, McKetta's published papers were
approaching 170, mostly on chemical engineering.
He has been author, co-author, or editor on 16
books, and is on publishers' advisory boards for
several standard reference works. This past Oc-
tober 1969 the AIChE gave McKetta the Warren
K. Lewis Award for Excellence in Chemical En-
Although little time is left for hobbies, McKetta

Dean McKetta greets new EP ErI
faculty member Dr. Wil-
liam G. Lesso. All incoming
faculty members are given
a special orientation pro-
gram, with emphasis on
better teaching.

does have one relaxing passion. When his faculty
is with him on group trips, given a spare evening,
he wants to play poker. Mad poker. Wild poker:
duces wild, one-eyed jacks wild, baseball, hairpin,
spit-in-the-ocean. Just for fun.
This man from Pennsylvania, via Tri-State
College in Indiana (BS, Honorary DE, Distin-
guished Alumnus, Board of Regents), and Uni-
versity of Michigan (BSE, MS, PhD, Distin-
guished Alumnus, Honorary Sesquicentennial
Award 1967), has come a long way. He has a long
way yet to go.
It seems that the mark of Texas is upon him.
He loves its people, its industry, its climate, its
frontiers, its problems, its opportunities. John
McKetta swears he has orange blood (UT's colors
are orange and white).
He'll prove it, too. He often wears an orange
tie, or one with a Longhorn on it. In a platform,
or at a party, he is likely to unbutton his coat and
show its orange lining, to the surprise and delight
of everyone.
A couple of years ago he acquired a deluxe
home pool table for visitors. After it was set up
in the game room of his lakeside home, he had the
green felt covering removed and a Darrel Royal
(football) Burnt Orange cover put on. Pool on an
orange table, anybody ?
He is Johnny to intimates and elder statesmen.
To his faculty, he is John or the Dean.
Early this year, Joe J. King, Houston business
man and engineer, offered a gift to the University
for establishing an engineering professorship in
his name. Joe had one condition, though: . .
provided Johnny McKetta is named the first re-
cipient." The UT System Board of Regents


Deans McKetta and Am-
stead, in a quiet moment,
discuss plans, make deci-
sions, and ponder new

Chemical engineers, those who probably have
known John McKetta longest and best, should
have no fears that he has deserted or grown away
from them. Addressing a South Texas Section,
AIChE meeting late in 1967, his opening remarks
"I have taken pride in being a member of

book reviews

Conservation of Mass Energy
J. C. Whitwell and R. K. Toner
Blaisdell Publishing Co., (1969), 496 pp.
Waltham, Mass.

The authors have produced a challenging
book for students taking their first course in
chemical engineering. The introductory chapter
describing the function of the chemical engineer
in industrial practice is well done and could serve
as a model for informing high school students
about the field of chemical engineering.
Their approach to the problem of unit con-
version is not the traditional unit equation and
conversion factor method but is heuristic. The
intent being to get the student to think.
The section on independent balances and
variables in the material balance chapter is con-
siderably more advanced than usually found in
texts at this level, making use of Amundsen's
matrix method for determining the number of
components in a system. A supplement to the
chapter on material balances treats in detail the
degrees of freedom available in process speci-
The chapter on transients covering both time

AIChE for many years. It is a special honor to be
allowed to speak to you today.
"You know, as a dean of engineering respon-
sible for educating thousands of young men and
women to take their places in the profession, my
interests must be as diverse as all the broad fields
of engineering. But it is always refreshing to
come back home and rub elbows with men in
chemical engineering, my first love and the field
with which I have a permanent romance. ."
John McKetta's multiplicity of activities de-
fines the man, but it still leaves him hard to
categorize. Above all, he is an individualist and
his own man.
He fits no traditional mold. He is a new mold,
a new kind of leader, intent on producing a new
breed of young engineers with a deep sense of
social relevancy, strengthening the initiatives of
both education and industry, and developing the
knowledge and talents of the finest young persons
ever to seek an education...,
These are not impossible goals for a man like
John McKetta.

and position dependent processes may be too ad-
vanced for the average student at this level. It
may be appropriate to skip the position dependent
transient, delaying this material until it occurs
in the treatment of stagwise and continuous con-
tactors in subsequent courses. A later section
deals with transients associated with heat trans-
fer operations.
The section of the book dealing with energy
balances is less satisfactory than the preceding
sections. Many topics are brought up and then
dropped as being beyond the scope of the text.
The explanation of the kinetic energy term in the
overall energy balance is not very satisfactory.
Phase diagrams and enthalpy concentration
diagrams are not mentioned. This seems unfor-
tunate in view of their usefulness in tying to-
gether material and energy balances.
The text is adequately supplied with worked
out example problems. There are a large number
of problems for student use following each chap-
ter. These are graded in difficulty and in addition
a group of problems in each chapter has extrane-
ous data supplied. Hopefully these problems will
encourage the student to think before starting
the problem solution.

Edgar V. Collins, Jr.
Iowa State University




From a trip to the country ... to an expe-
dition into outer space . Texaco is
there. Our petroleum and petrochemical
products play an important part in mov-
ing this country to greater heights. But,
Sit's people like yourself who really make
it go . aggressive and imaginative
Chemical Engineers constantly searching
for a better way. It's through your efforts that our research and development
centers have made such great strides in new processes and product development.
And, this is just the beginning . as a Chemical Engineer at Texaco there's no
telling how far you'll go. Our laboratories in Beacon, N.Y., Richmond, Va., and
Port Arthur and Bellaire, Texas, have openings for U.S. citizens who have B.S.
or M.S. degrees. Send your resume to Mr. R. A. Beck, Texaco, Research &
Technical Department, P.O. Box 509, Beacon, New York 12508.

F. Teac isa equal opotnt m lyr


University of Delaware
Newark, Del. 19711



The Department of Chemical Engineering at
the University of Delaware offers a wide variety
of services consistent with the demands of the
technical community, both local and world-wide.
Local needs are important, because northern
Delaware is a large chemical manufacturing and
research center; beyond the state line to the
north and east lies the even larger chemical and
oil refining industrial complex which borders the
Delaware River from above Philadelphia to be-
low Wilmington for more than 30 miles. The
university, located 12 miles west of Wilmington
and the river in the town of Newark, offers a
small college-town atmosphere for its students,
yet, is only a half-hour's drive from either the
Chambers Works, duPont's largest manufactur-
ing plant, or from Getty Oil's 100,000 barrel a
day oil refinery. It is never a problem explaining
to Delaware high school students what a chemi-
cal engineer is, the kind of work he does, or
where he might be employed.
Delaware is nevertheless, a small state having
only 3 counties and a population of just over one-
half million; University of Delaware, with its
8,000 undergraduate and 2,000 graduate stu-
dents, is the only institution of higher learning
in the state offering training in most of the pro-
fessional areas, including engineering. Originally
a state university, Delaware is now a state-

*After the receipt of this article, CEE learned that Prof. Gerster
died January 20, 1969 in Newark, Delaware. Dr. Gerster received
his BE, MS, and PhD in chemical engineering from Ohio State
University. In 1962 he was named winner of the Professional
Progress Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
"for important contributions to research, especially in distillation
and to chemical engineering education." CEE joins the profession
in mourning the loss of this outstanding Chemical Engineer.

related agency receiving income both from the
State legislature and from its endowment, the
latter being fairly substantial.
Although some chemical engineering training
was available at Delaware prior to World War II,
it was not until 1946 that the number of under-
graduate students became significant and gradu-
ate work was offered in depth. The first PhD
degree was awarded in 1948. The department
chairman at that time was Allan P. Colburn, an
outstanding chemical engineer whose reputation
in heat and mass transfer was first developed
while working under Olaf Hougen at Wisconsin
and later under T. H. Chilton at the duPont Ex-
perimental Station. (Colburn's career was pre-
sented in detail in the previous issue of this jour-
nal.) Colburn's spark-plug personality and driv-
ing enthusiasm attracted a small nucleus of out-
standing faculty. In 1946 this group included
0. P. Bergelin, whose research on shell-side coef-
ficients and shell-and-tube exchangers remains
as the classic basis for design of such equipment.
Colburn also hired J. A. Gerster and R. L.
Pigford for Delaware's teaching staff during this
period. Gerster assisted Colburn in his research
on nonideal solutions, extractive distillation, and
tray efficiencies for a brief period, then took over
this assignment when Colburn was moved up
into higher administrative positions at Delaware
in 1947 when Pigford was brought in as Depart-
ment Chairman.
T HE "COLBURN YEARS" at Delaware pro-
vided an educational philosophy which has
been carefully followed, updated, and amplified
during the next 19 years while Pigford directed
the fortunes of the department; the same philoso-
phy remains in effect today. Colburn, in spite of


his great theoretical knowledge and background,
was nevertheless primarily an engineer, and in-
sisted that chemical engineering research have
practical value; the practical value could be even-
tual rather than immediate, but it had to be there
in order to merit his interest. This requirement
by no means eliminated the need to apply funda-
mental science or basic mathematics to correlate
or explain a result, in Colubrn's opinion. For
example, he successfully used the best available
two-phase flow theory for correlating condensing
film coefficients for the case of turbulent vapor
flowing downward in cooled vertical tubes. On
the other hand, complex problems not amenable
to full theoretical treatment still received Col-
burn's attention, provided they were of practical
interest; he searched for the unique and char-
acterizing experiments necessary to define and
predict the desired result, and was usually able
to develop recommendations for use in design re-
gardless of the complexity of the situation.
Colburn and Pigford set high standards in
their course teaching. At the graduate level, two-
semester sequences were made available in each
of the basic chemical engineering subjects such
as thermodynamics, kinetics, fluid mechanics, and
transport processes. Usually most of the import-
ant topics of the subject were taught during the
first semester, including both basic principles and
applications. This permitted the master's stu-
dents, who usually took only the first semester
courses, to be fully trained in a wide variety of
subjects. In the second semester of these courses,
more specialized topics were covered: an example
would be the teaching of fluidization and two-
phase flow in the second semester of the gradu-
ate fluid mechanics course. Applications of fluid-

ization and two phase theory would be included.
The second semester courses always included
study of current literature so that by the end of
the two-term sequence, the student became fa-
miliar with knowledge of the subject updated to
the present time. Graduate courses remain struc-
tured in this manner today, as the value of the
procedure has been proven many times.
All of the basic graduate courses devote some
time to the solution of short, practical problems
which most often have a design flavor, but may
also be directed toward characterizing a par-
ticular piece of operating equipment or process,
or may illustrate the workings of a strictly re-
search-type apparatus. Although the graduate
course in design synthesis is not taken by a ma-
jority of the graduate students, inclusion of
design-type problems in the regular courses
meets much of the need for preparing masters'
students for industry and PhD students for their
qualifying examinations.
A successful innovation is graduate teaching
developed over the past several years is the use
of "term teaching." In this approach several
professors-usually three-have joint responsi-
bility for a given course. Each contributes lec-
tures on topics related to his own expertise but
in a manner that is related to what the others
are doing and to the basic subject matter as well.
This practice has been particularly successful
in the second semester of the two-term courses
described above.
Maintaining high quality in chemical engin-
eering education over the years has been possible
only because of the insistence in quality in the
selection of faculty members. It is not possible
to list all faculty in the department since 1946,
but changes have been relatively few and sta-
bility has existed through the years. Currently,
the faculty numbers thirteen: J. A. Gerster,
(Ohio State) is Chairman; C. E. Birchenall
(Princeton), A. B. Metzner (MIT), and J. H.
Olson (Yale) are Professors: M. M. Denn (Min-
nesota), T. W. F. Russell (Delaware), and J. H.
Schultz (Carnegie-Mellon), are Associate Profes-
sors; and B. H. Anshus (Berkeley), B. C. Gates
(Washington), J. D. Eliassen (Minnesota), J. E.
Katzer (MIT), M. R. Samuels (Michigan), and
S. I. Sandler (Minnesota) are Assistant Profes-
sors. Further, the Dean of Engineering, E. W.
Comings, is a chemical engineer by training and
directs a graduate thesis from time to time. All
of the faculty just mentioned have PhD degrees


Pigford . strongly required that both courses and
research have engineering relevance.
and all have a strong, traditional chemical en-
gineering background with abilities to teach a
wide variety of courses (except for two of the
professors in the Materials Science area, Birch-
enall and Schultz). Yet each has his own special
interests, but, because of the breadth of back-
ground, each has the technical competence to
change or add to his interests-as each has done
in the past and will continue to do in the future
as new developments occur. The faculty also
maintains contact with industry by consulting
work, by informal contacts with engineers from
industry, by attending technical meetings, and
by various kinds of committee work.
gineering faculty is not complete, however,
without mentioning three long-term faculty mem-
bers who are now teaching elsewhere: Robert L.
Pigford, John R. Ferron, and David E. Lamb.
Pigford influenced the growth and stature of the
department during his period as chairman (1947-
1966) more than anyone else. He implemented
and improved upon Colburn's policies, and added
many important innovations. He strongly re-
quired that both courses and research have en-
gineering relevance. Course problems or thesis
work which were no more than mathematical ex-
ercises were not condoned. Yet, on the other
hand, Pigford was a strong applied mathemati-
cian, and believed that students should both
know and be able to apply mathematics in their
studies; he was one of the first to use computers
in his research and strongly motivated the uni-
versity to obtain its first computer. Pigford also
innovated a short course in electronics for the
department's PhD students, and introduced the
requirement of an oral proposition for this same
group. Development by the student of an oral
proposition-which is a fully-documented re-
search proposal not related to the thesis-pro-
vides training for the PhD student in conceiving
and planning a research problem; such training
is vital for anyone planning a career in research,
yet often this phase of the student's own research
is completed by the thesis advisor before the
student enters the scene. (Today the oral propo-
sition is presented by the student during the oral
part of his PhD qualifying examination. The
oral part is preceded by the written part of this
examination, which is eight hours long and
administered over a two-day period.)

Pigford was also the prime mover in pro-
moting a new building for the department. Al-
though the building was barely under construc-
tion when Pigford moved to the University of
California at Berkeley in 1966, his contributions
to the planning and in developing funding were
very substantial.
John R. Ferron is the second former Delaware
faculty member whose impact on the department
merits attention. After a career at Delaware
spanning the years 1958-1969, Ferron became, in
September, 1969, Chairman of Department of
Chemical Engineering at University of Rochester.
Dr. David E. Lamb joined the Delaware Chem-
ical Engineering Faculty in 1956. He became the
first Chairman of the Department of Statistics
and Computer Science at Delaware in 1965; he
retains his interest in chemical engineering but
no longer teaches in the department.
At this point the individual areas of interest
and research specialties of the current faculty
might be listed:

Dr. Gerster has interests in mass transfer, distillation,
and applied thermodynamics; he has 45 published papers
on vapor-liquid equilibrium, efficiency and performance
of distillation towers, and tower control. He authors the
"Distillation" section of Perry's Handbook, and in 1962
received the Professional Progress Award of AIChE. Dr.
Metzner has over 50 papers to his credit, mainly in the
areas of non-newtonian fluid mechanics and kinetics. His
awards include: The Chemical Engineering Lectureship.
ASEE, 1963; Co'burn Award, AIChE, 1958, Wilmington
Section Award, ACS, 1958; and U. N. Lacey Lectureship,
Cal. Tech., 1968.

Dr. Birchenall is the author of the book, "Physical
Metallurgy," and has published more than 70 paper,
mainly on diffusion in metals and the mechanism of cor-
rosion. Dr. Olson has published in the areas of catalysis
and kinetics, mass transfer (particularly crystallization),
turbulence, and automatic control. Dr. Russell is a well-
known expert on two-phase flow in pipes, and in both
pipeline and stirred tank reactors. Dr. Denn's new book,
"Optimization by Variational Methods" has just appeared,
and he has published 20 papers on optimization, auto-
matic control, and non-newtonian fluid mechanics. Dr.
Schultz uses x-ray diffraction and other techniques to
characterize the crystallinity of polymers such as poly-
ethylene in terms of their structure and treatment. Dr.
Eliassen is interested in the fluid mechanics of liquid
interfaces and in the related problem of emulsion poly-
merization. Dr. Samue-s works in the computer solution
of engineering problems and in the use of laser-Doppler
flowmeter for flow-field determination. Dr. Sandler's field
is statistical mechanics; his most recent paper is titled
"Transport Properties of Partially Ionized Argon."
Both Dr. Gates and Dr. Katzer have interests in basic
and applied catalysis; the former tends to emphasize gas


phase reactions, and the latter, liquid phase reactions.
Dr. Anshus works in the area of fluid mechanics, par-
ticularly in flow stability.
The expanding size of Delaware's faculty -
noted above to increase from 4 in 1946 to 13 in
1969, reflects the growth in numbers of under-
graduate and graduate students over that period.
As of September, 1969, there were 88 freshman
chemical engineers and 43 seniors, nearly all of
whom will probably graduate. The number of
undergraduate students have been increasing at
the rate of 6 7% per year for the past six or
seven years; this growth is unlike the national
trend, which shows a nearly constant number of
students being graduated each year in chemical
engineering. There is no definite explanation for
this growth, but it is probably due to a combina-
tion of circumstances including Delaware's in-
creasing reputation in the field and its rather
favorable fee structure when compared with most
of the competing private schools such as Lehigh,
Carnegie-Mellon, Princeton, and MIT. At the
graduate level, a peak of 65 full-time graduate
students in residence was reached three years
ago, but draft difficulties has reduced the figure
to 49 for September, 1969. The average percent-
age of Asian and Indian students has remained
constant over the past decade at about 6% of the
total; this year, the number of English and Ca-
nadian students has been increased. Of the
graduate students in residence, about half are
PhD candidates. Delaware's PhD "production
rate" (that is, the number which are graduated
each year) has averaged nearly 10 for the past
5 years or so; only eight or nine schools in this
country produce more than that.
lum is cast along traditional lines in many
respects, but there are some features which are
truly unique. For example, freshmen are required
to designate a preference for their major subject,
and all of those choosing chemical engineering
take a 2-credit course in engineering orientation
taught by chemical engineer faculty. The con-
cept of what constitutes chemical engineering is
taught by a simplified process design problem
which involves the concepts of recycle, conversion
and yield, cost factors, and net profit. Fortran
programming is taught and used to solve the de-
tailed calculations required in the design problem,
and a plant trip is made to inspect the actual
process under study. A second course for fresh-
men, taught by chemical engineering faculty,

Weissenberg Rheogoniometer for the Determination of Rheological
Properties of Viscoelastic Materials.

may be elected in place of the 2-credit engineer-
ing graphics course. This second course is de-
signated as a "chemical engineering seminar,"
and the class size is kept under 15. In this course
students are guided into learning about and dis-
cussing a chosen chemical engineering topic such
as, "Low Temperature Processes," "The Clam
as a Chemical Engineering Operation," or "Plas-
tic Flow Problems." In this course the close con-
tatt with a senior faculty member cements the
students' interest in chemical engineering at a
time when he is mainly concerned with learning
the fundamentals of mathematics, physics, and
chemistry; it permits him to see in advance how
these fundamentals are required and used in
engineering practice.
Sophomore students take a two-semester se-
quence of a unified- chemical engineering subject
which includes not only the traditional material
and energy balances of various chemical proc-
esses, but also training in "chemical engineering
analysis." This latter subject includes practice
in setting up differential equations-expressing
mathematically all kinds of physical situations.
In addition to the modelling, procedures for solv-
ing differential equations are covered. The mathe-
matical procedures are taught (by chemical en-
gineering faculty) mainly in the Spring Semes-
ter, after the student has finished three terms of
calculus; a separate course in differential equa-





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tions is no longer a part of the curriculum. The
analysis training provides the proper background
for transport processes and thermodynamics,
both taugh as 2-semester courses in the junior
The chemical engineering senior year includes
six trips to nearby chemical manufacturing
plants. Seniors are required to take a full year
of senior projects and a Spring Semester course
in design. The value to the student of carrying
out an individual research project is so great that
the faculty is willing to spend the time and
money involved on the individual instruction
which is required. The type of the research per-
formed ,is not too sophisticated and the equip-
ment is necessarily simple, but the student's
sense of responsibility and judgment is sharp-
ened, and he learns to appreciate the many fac-
tors involved in solving a problem on his own.
In a weekly projects conference period, students
learn about statistical design of experiments and
report on their research progress.
The senior design course has had many de-
sirable improvements in the past several years.
The duPont Company has assisted in the teaching
of design by making avaliable a senior design
engineer to handle the class for a six-week period
during which one or more "case studies" or real
design problems are solved under his guidance.
For the last two years a Monsanto design prob-
lem-made available through Washington Uni-
versity (St. Louis)-has been used very success-
fully. DuPont has also agreed to prepare a case
study for use by this class, and arrangements
for this have already been completed. A regular
faculty member has responsibility for the design
course, and works jointly with the industrial
representative. The university-industry collabo-
ration has produced a highly successful design
experience for the seniors, requiring them to
integrate most of their previous course experi-
ence to produce the needed process design.
Seniors also choose two technical electives in
their final year. These are commonly chosen
from three senior-level courses offered by the de-
partment or from a listing of courses in the De-
partments of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics,
or Computer Science, or in the other engineering
departments which includes Materials Science. The
departmental courses, which are more popular
than the others with the students, are process
dynamics and automatic control (a one-semester
course) and a two semester sequence in charac-

terization and processing of polymers. Some uni-
versities offer more technical electives in their
curricula, but it is believed that only two tech-
nical electives can be accomodated in a sound
four-year bachelor's program which includes all
the necessary technical fundamentals: a year of
organic and of physical chemistry; single semes-
ter courses in mechanics, electrical engineering,
and materials science beyond the basic mathe-
matics, physics, and chemistry; and the neces-
sary chemical engineering courses described
Students in their third and fourth years are
urged to take junior and senior level cultural
courses, (eight 3-credit courses are elected from
history, philosophy, or literature) even although
they do not have the necessary prerequisites.
The advantage of being associated with more ma-
ture students in upper level course material
more than counterbalances the disadvantages of
not having the required prerequisite. To offset
this disadvantage, engineers may take such cul-
tural courses on a "pass or fail" basis.
In addition to the regular 4-year bachelor's
degree in engineering, Delaware offers a 4-year
degree in "Engineering Administration." The
engineering administration degree is of course
not accredited by ECPD; students entering the
program are made aware that they will not be
eligible for membership in AIChE and will not
be admissable for graduate study in chemical
tion to the regular graduate courses. These
vary greatly in size and in the breadth of cover-
age. The main departmental seminar brings ex-
perts in a wide variety of fields to its weekly
meetings-the speakers are mainly from indus-
try or other universities (often from abroad).
But three or four smaller seminars are also
usually available-these are run by the perman-
ent faculty on topics of limited scope, sometimes
related to the research of the faculty member
and his group of students, sometimes not. The
department's visiting professor and distinguished
scholar programs also bring additional educa-
tional advantages to the graduate program.
Visiting professors are in residence for one or
two semesters, usually in place of a permanent
faculty member on sabbatical leave; distinguished
scholars are brought to the campus for from 2
days to a week for a series of formal lectures
and informal meetings with students.


Laser-Doppler flowmeter measures point velocities without dis-
turbing the flow field.
Another important aspect of the graduate pro-
gram is the research effort. The research of
slightly more than one-half of the department's
full-time graduate students is directly sponsored
by contracts with NSF, NASA, the Department
of Defense (through a Project THEMIS grant),
the University of Delaware Research Foundation,
and private industry. The other (smaller) half of
the graduate student group has completely free
choice of thesis topic because they are funded
by NSF traineeships, NASA or NDEA fellow-
ships, teaching assistantships, industrial fellow-
ships, or from a special grant from the DuPont
Company for promotion of research by new
It is probably apparent that a thesis is re-
quired of all graduate students. Terminal mas-
ter's candidates perform a six-credit thesis; doc-
toral candidates may either get a master's degree
first (with its required thesis) and then proceed
with a related or completely different disserta-
tion topic, or they may by-pass the master's de-
gree and work directly on their doctoral require-
ments, including the dissertation. (In the latter
case, permission to by-pass the master's degree
is not given until after at least one semester of
graduate study has been completed, but the stu-
dent nevertheless picks a thesis topic-based
upon his likely program-when he first arrives,
as do all graduate students). The desirability of
performing a master's thesis has been widely
debated particularly in recent years, and many
universities have dropped the master's thesis

requirement. But Delaware's chemical engineer-
ing faculty strongly and uniformly support the
master's thesis as a necessary part of graduate
Because of Delaware's location, there is a
large demand for graduate course work in chemi-
cal engineering in the late afternoon and evening
hours for those employed in the area. On the
average, four or five such courses are offered each
semester with enrollment in each course varying
from 15 to 40. The courses in general are the
same as those offered in the daytime to the
resident graduate students, although the instruc-
tors are mostly industry persons with PhD de-
grees whose teaching abilities are well-known to
the university.
engineering at Delaware is made much more
attractive than in former years because of the
large, handsome new building which now houses
the department. The structure, erected at a cost
of 2.3 million dollars, contains 65,000 ft2 of floor
space. It was first occupied in May, 1968. The
building was designed to serve future needs: it
can accommodate a faculty of 22, a graduate stu-
dent population of 120, and an undergraduate
senior class of 70.
The building is divided into two parts, a class-
room wing, and a laboratory and office wing. The
classroom wing contains three 40-seat class-
rooms; two of these can be made into a single
80-seat room. In addition, there is a senior design
room containing large area desk tops with file
drawers underneath, and two smaller conference
rooms for small seminars or laboratory computa-
tion groups. Beneath these classrooms, which are
on the main floor, is the chemical engineering
shop. The office and laboratory wing has 3 floors
and a fully-utilized basement; the wing is 250 ft
long by 50 ft wide. There are laboratories at each
end of the building running across the entire
width of the building. The laboratories on the
upper three floors are mainly for research, al-
though there is also a process dynamics labora-
tory, a photographic area, and a standards labora-
The basement floor contains the undergradu-
ate teaching laboratories and the metallurgy
laboratories. The basement of the building also
contains a "Computation Laboratory" which con-
tains a Wang electronic desk calculator with four
consoles; an IBM key punch; and several com-
puter terminals.






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Part 1. Structure of Liquids

California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109

AS IN THE STUDY of other phases of matter,
elucidation of structure is important to the
understanding of fluids. Although liquids often
exist at densities comparable to solids, the fluid
state of course lacks the well-defined long-range
order of a crystalline solid. On the other hand, al-
though the dynamic chaos associated with dilute
gases is manifest in dense fluids, the movement of
a molecule in a liquid is correlated with the loca-
tion of its neighbors. This leads to a local or short-
range order. Consider Figure 1 which might rep-
resent a collection of spherical molecules, with an
arbitrary particle picked as reference. At a dis-
tance r from the reference particle, the density of
other particles p (r) will depend on time, but on
the average will be a quantity dependent only on
the distance r. Qualitative features of such a
density function are apparent from elementary
considerations: p (r) must tend to zero as r goes
to zero since additional particles cannot occupy
the location of the reference molecule: at large r,
the influence of the reference particle is nil, and
p (r) approaches p, the macroscopic density; at
intermediate separations p (r) may be less than
or exceed p depending on whether the distance r
corresponds to distances of repulsion or attrac-
tion between the particles. See Figure 2.
Let g(r) = p(r)/p, a quantity which thus
goes to unity in a fluid for large values of r. This
ratio g(r), which is called the radial distribution
function, may be given generalized formal statis-
tical-mechanical definitions. However, under-

*ChE Division Distinguished Lecture, sponsored by
the 3M company and presented at the ASEE Annual
meeting at Penn State, June 24, 1969. The research de-
scribed has been significantly supported by the Chemis-
try Directorate of the Air Force Office of Scientific Re-

f969 ,4wad lectwe

standing of the behavior of fluids is often aided
by the above density interpretation. This radial
distribution function is the concept and quantity
involved when one refers to the "structure" of a
liquid. In addition to the explicit dependence on
the distance r, the structure depends also on
density and temperature: g (r) is a state function.

Most macroscopic properties of a fluid may be
described in terms of g (r), usually in conjunction
with the pair-wise intermolecular potential func-
tion u(r). As an example, the internal energy,
equation of state, and compressibility have the
following representation (for the first two we
give particular versions applicable to a monatomic
fluid, e.g., argon).

U = 3 pkT + .2 : u(r)g(r) 4rTr2dr

P = pkT ru'(r)g(r) 4rrr2dr

KT = (kp)-1 + pEg(r)-1] 4r2dr

Fig. 1. A representation of molecular arrangement in a fluid of
spherical molecules.


Cornelius Pings holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees from
Caltech. He has received awards for his contributions to
research and teaching and finds time for civic activities
for the City of Pasadena. His research interests are in
applied chemical thermodynamics and the physics and
chemistry of liquids.

These types of expressions may be rigor-
ously derived, and the reader is referred to a
standard work in statistical mechanics1. Note
however that the expression for U is almost obvi-
ous upon inspection. U is the sum of two terms,
the first of which is the kinetic energy contribu-
tion normally attributed to a noninteracting mon-
atomic gas. The second term represents a con-
figurational energy; the integrand is simply the
intrinsic intermolecular energy at separation r
multiplied by the density of particles at that
separation. The expression for P, although per-
haps somewhat less transparent, also involves a
sum of kinetic and configurational terms.

p (r) j C-- P

Fig. 2. The local density in a fluid.

The intensity of coherent electromagnetic
radiation, Io, scattered from a monatomic fluid
of N atoms at an angle 20 by an incident beam Io
of wavelength X may also be described in terms
of g(r). For x-radiation the appropriate expres-
sion is

i(s) =. [g(r) 1] 4 rr2dr ( 4 )

Sp = 0.910 gm/cc

0 -- -- -- --(31)-
0.780 gm/cc

0 -- -(32)-
Sp -= 0.280 gm/cc

-0o.5 -- i I [
2 4 6 8 10
Figure 3
Fig. 3. The argon intensity function i(s) at t = -1250C.

i(s) = 10 I 1 f--2(s) 1 ( 5 )
s = 4n-^ sin

f(s) is the atomic scattering factor for x-rays.
Equation 4 may be inverted by Fourier transformation
G(r) = g(r) -1= 2 --- s i(s) sinsr ds ( 7 )
2r rp o
It is through this expression that experimental
x-ray scattering data may be used to determine
g(r) or the "net" radial distribution function
G(r). The author and his co-workers have been
studying the structure of simple fluids, princi-
pally argon, for a number of years, and have now
completed i(s) measurements at 19 different
thermodynamic states. Figures 3 and 4 show i (s)
and the corresponding g(r) information for four
states of density located upon a common isotherm.
Data for other states and extensive details of
the experiments are available2', 3. In Figures 3 and
4, the damping-out of structural features, for
example the number and height of peaks, is ap-
parent in both i(s) and g (r) for states of por-
gressively lower density. If the fluid "had no
structure" (no interactions between particles)
then i(s) would be everywhere zero and g (r)


t- -125C

S\ RUN 40
= 0.982 gm/cc

/RUN 30
p =0.910 gm/cc

\RUN 31
p=0.780 gm/cc

= 0.280 gm/cc

0 5 r(,) 10 15

Fig. 4. The atomic radial distribution function of argon at
t = -1250C.

everywhere unity. The data shown are convincing
evidence of structure or short-range order in the
fluid and also a demonstration of the state de-
pendence of that structure.

The direct correlation function C (r) was in-
troduced by Ornstein and Zernike4 in 1914 in a
discussion of fluctuations and related phenomena
near critical states. In those initial derivations
and in subsequent uses, the direct correlation
function has been assumed to short range in
general and to remain short range and bounded
in the limit as the critical state is approached.
The formal definition of the C(r) is mathema-
tical, and the quantity lacks the obvious imme-
diate physical interpretation assignable to the
conventional radial distribution function.
The direct correlation function may be defined
by the following equation:

c l-2) G(rl2) PS c(13)G(-23) d ( 8 )
Fisher- provides the interpretation that "the

correlation G (r12) between molecules 1 and 2 can
be regarded as caused by (i), a direct influence
of 1 and 2, described by the so-called direct corre-
lation function, C(r12), which should be short
range [essentially having the range of the pair
potential u(r)], and (ii), an indirect influence
propagated directly from 1 to a third molecule at
r., which in turn exerts its total influence on
molecule 2." Such intuitive explanations are help-
ful in understanding the behavior of C(r) which
is somewhat obscure since Equation 8 involves a
convolution integration. However, C (r) still lacks
the association with probability concepts or effec-
tive densities that normally are assigned to g (r)
and related distribution functions. As an example,
no simple statement about the behavior of C (r)
for small radii can be made a priori. This is in
contrast to g(r), for which the impossibility of

Fig. 5. The direct correlation function for argon at t = -1250C.
Run 40, p = 0.982 g/cc; Run 30, p = 0.910 g/cc;
Run 31, p = 0.780 g/cc; Run 32, p = 0.280 g/cc.


multiple occupancy of a point in space leads to
the result that g(r) must be essentially zero for
r diameter.
For monatomic fluids C(r) may also be di-
rectly related to the observable intensity of scat-
tered radiation, as was the case with G (r) :

C(r) = (2n2rp)-1 si(s)[1 + i(s)]- sin(sr)ds

(9 )

Equation 9 relating C(r) to i(s) is not an
independent expression, but is obtained by solv-
ing Equations 4 and 8.
The i(s) data obtained in the author's lab-
oratory have been used in Equation 9 to compute
C(r) at 19 different states of argon. Figure 5
shows a typical set of data, which might be com-
pared state by state with the g(r) computations
shown in Figure 4. It is quite apparent that,
even with the uncertainties in both cases, C (r) is
definitely more short range than is G(r). Par-
ticularly for high-density states there are iden-
tifiable second, and even third, peaks in G(r) ;
no such peaks are apparent in C (r), at least not
at the level of reliability posed by our uncertainty

Of the many existing theories for predicting
molecular distribution functions of fluids, two
that have gained recent prominence are the
Percus-Yevick (PY) approximation7' and the
convoluted-hypernetted-chain (CHNC) approxi-
mation", 10. Both of these approximate theories
have shown moderately good agreement between
predicted thermodynamic properties and experi-
mental values1', 11. Most of the methods used to
test these theories fall into two groups. In the
first group are computations based on relatively
simple potential functions, e.g., the hard-sphere
model, in which predicted virial coefficients are
compared with exact theoretical values12, 3 or for
slightly more complicated potentials, with Monte
Carlo results14. In the second grouping, more
realistic potentials are used, e.g., the Lennard-
Jones 6-12, and the results are tested by compar-
ing predicted distribution functions or thermo-
dynamic properties with available experimental
data'-. As far as a test of the basic PY or CHNC
theory is concerned, the first grouping suffers
because, although the equations may be rigorously
tested, the results do not conform to the behavior

Liquids often exist at densities comparable to solids,
the fluid state lacks the well-defined long-range order
of a crystalline solid.

of any real fluid. In the second group any definite
conclusion regarding the applicability of these
equations is clouded by uncertainties in the po-
tential function used in the computations. We are
suggesting here that it is possible to utilize G (r)
and C (r) functions obtained from interpretations
of experimental diffraction data to test directly
the basic hypotheses underlying these two ap-
proximate theories16.

THE PY AND CHNC equations may be derived
very simply by considering the Ornstein-
Zernike direct correlation function as defined by
Equation 8. The derivation of the integral equa-
tions is then initiated by introduction of funda-
mental assumptions regarding the relationship of
C(r), G(r), and the intermolecular potential
function, u(r). These assumptions are 8, 17

PY: C(r) = [1 + G(r)] (1 exp[u(r)/kT])
CHNC: C(r) G(r) Inl[ + G(r)] ru(r)/kT]

(10 )
(11 )

The usual form of the PY approximation is then
obtained by eliminating C (r) from Equations 8
and 10, and the CHNC approximation from a
similar treatment of Equations 8 and 11.
If the direct correlation function and the net
radial distribution function are known, Equations
10 and 11 provide the most direct test regarding
t=- 110C
0 -- p0.780 gm/cc
50 --- /5 =0.536 gm/cc _
S--- / =0.280 gm/cc
0 L-J 6,12


50 -
-'.5 /c

r&r(A) -
Fig. 6. Potential-energy functions of argon predicted by the PY
hypothesis of Equation 13 for three densities along the -1100C
isotherm. The open circles represent the Lennard-Jones 6-12 poten-
tial with parameters a- = 3.4050 A and E/k = 119.80K.


Although the dynamic chaos associated with dilute
gasses is manifest in dense fluids, the movement of a
molecule in a liquid is correlated with the location
of its neighbors.

the applicability of these two theories. Moreover,
this test is unique in that no further assumptions
are required regarding the detailed nature of the
potential function. This becomes evident by solv-
ing the equations for u (r) :
[u(r)]CHC = kT(G(r;p,T) C(r;p,T) In[1 + G(r;p,T)]j (12 )
Lu(r)] = kT n 1 + G(r;o,T) C(r;o,T) 1 (13 )
Y L 1 + G(r;p,T)
If the fundamental PY and CHNC assumptions
are correct, these predicted potential functions
are required to be independent of temperature
and density even though both G (r) and C (r) are
state-dependent. This test is direct in the sense
that it uses only experimental data and that no
assumptions or approximations need be made
concerning the nature or the shape of the poten-
tial function. The essence of the test is to estab-
lish whether or not the predicted potential func-
tions are state-independent.
Using our values of G(r) and C(r) reported
in the preceding papers2', we have performed
the indicated computations according to Equa-
tions 12 and 13. Figure 6 shows the predictions
along the -110-C isotherm. Contrary to the fun-
damental PY hypothesis, the predicted potential
function is not independent of state. As the argon
density is increased at constant temperature, the
depth of the well does not remain constant, but
decreases significantly. On the other hand, at
constant density there is no conclusive tempera-
ture effect within our experimental uncertainty.
This same behavior is observed for the other
isotherms and isochors of this study. For com-
parison, the Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential func-
tion with parameters o- = 3.405 A and e/k -
1200K is also sh6wn on the figure. Very similar
behavior is revealed for the CHNC approxima-
T HIS SIGNIFICANT DENSITY effect on the pre-
dicted PY potential function, along with the
negligible temperature effect over the range
studied, is shown more convincingly in Figure 7,
where the depth of the well of [u (r) ]py is plotted
against the argon density for all 13 states of our
investigation. The symbols on the graph are
slightly displaced from the five measured isochors
in order to show our estimate of the experimental
uncertainty at each state. This plot clearly shows

o -80so

j -100


o t=-iao'c
D t -125C
*0 t o0c
n t=-ilo~c

_ o


I I i I i I i I i

0 0.2 0.4 0.6
p (gm/cc)

0. 1.0

Fig. 7. Depth of the argon potential well as predicted by the PY
hypothesis of Equation 13 as a function of density and temperature.

the failure of the fundamental PY hypothesis to
produce a potential function which is independent
of state.
In light of these results, we conclude that the
original PY and CHNC approximations are in
contradiction with experimental facts for argon.
In seeking to interpret these facts, we offer the
following suggestions: in order to satisfy the PY
and CHNC approximations, and also to predict
a distribution function that agrees with experi-
ment, apparently a pair-potential function is re-
quired which varies with state, primarily with
density. Accepting for the moment the validity
of these underlying hypotheses, one may con-
clude that there is a significant nonadditive con-
tribution to the true intermolecular potential. As
the atomic packing becomes more congested by
increasing the density, the many-body interac-
tions become increasingly important with a net
result of decreasing the effective two-body poten-
tial energy. This nonadditive contribution has
been estimated to be as high as 15 % to 23%, and
in the same direction as we observe here18', 19
On the other hand, if the nonadditive forces
are strictly negligible, the results of our test show
that the PY and CHNC approximations require
additional terms in order to produce results
which are more nearly in agreement with experi-
ment. This approach has been taken in the de-
velopment of the so-called PY2 and CHNC2
approximations 20o, 21, and most recently by Row-
linson17, who incorporates an empirical state-
dependent factor in the original PY and CHNC


Equipment for X-ray diffraction studies of liquids.

Since the PY approximation is known to be
valid in the low-density limit, the data plotted in
Figure 7 suggest that the experimental results
presented here can be used to obtain a "true"
two-particle intermolecular potential function.
To accomplish this, we make the pragmatic as-
sumption that the effective PY u (r), as shown
in Figure 6, is in reality the product of the true
zero-density potential Uo(r) and a state-depend-
ent function (e(T,p). From the data shown in

100 -T I I




T5 -50

r (A)
Fig. 8. The extrapolation zero-density potential-energy function of
argon as computed from Equation 14.

Figure 7, this state-dependent function has been
estimated by neglecting any temperature effects
and fitting a least-squares straight line to the
data points. The zero density u(r) was then
obtained from the following equation, with p in
grams per cubic centimeter:
uo(r) = [u(r)]py( 0.394p)-' (14 )
The results of these computations are shown
in Figure 8. The band shown in this plot was
constructed so that it encompasses the estimated
uo(r) function for all of the 13 states. The
parameters of this potential function are o- =
3.38 0.06 A, ro = 3.86 0.03A, and e/k =
134 10'K. Considering the nature of the as-
sumptions involved, these results are in reason-
able agreement with current estimates of the
potential-energy function of argon.

The second part of Professor Pings lecture will be pub-
lished in a later issue.

1. T. L. Hill, Statistical Mechanics, (McGraw-Hill Book
Co., New York, 1956.
2. P. G. Mikolaj and C. J. Pings, J. Chem. Phys. 46,
1401 (1967).
3. PG. Mikolaj and C. J. Pings, J. Chem Phys. 46,
1412 (1967).
4. L. S. Ornstein and F. Zernike, Proc. Acad. Sci.
(Amsterdam) 17, 793 (1914).
5. M. E. Fisher, J. Math. Phys. 5, 944 (1964).
6. Much of this section has been reported in Refer-
ence 3.
7. J. K. Percus and G. J. Yevick, Phys. Rev. 110, 1
8. J. K. Percus, in The Equilibrium Theory of Classical
Fluids, H. L. Frisch and J. L. Lebowitz, Eds. W. A.
Benjamin, Inc., New York, 1964, p. 11-33.
9. E. Meeron, J. Math. Phys. 1, 192 (1960).
10. J. M. J. Van Leeuwen, J. Groeneveld, and J. de Boer,
Physica 25, 792 (1959).
11. D. Henderson, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 15, 31 (1964).
12. E. Thiele, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 474 (1963).
13. P. Hutchinson and G. S. Rushbrooke, Physica 29,
675 (1963).
14. A. A. Broyles, S. U. Chung, and H. L. Sahlin, J.
Chem. Phys. 37, 2462 (1962).
15. A. A. Khan, Phys. Rev. 134, A367 (1964); A1260
16. P. G. Mikolaj and C. J. Pings, Phys. Rev. Letters 15,
849 (1965).
17. J. S. Rowlinson, Mol. Phys. 9, 217 (1965).
18. L. Jansen, Phil Mag. 8, 1305 (1963).
19. N. R. Kestner and 0. Sinanoglu, J. Chem. Phys. 38,
1730 (1963).
20. J. K. Percus, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 462 (1962).
21. L. Verlet, Physica 30, 95 (1964),



University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tenn. 37916

Attrition of chemical engineering undergrad-
uates is a continuing problem at most institu-
tions. If attrition of students could be reduced,
the number of chemical engineers graduating and
entering industry could be significantly increased.
For this reason, the Council of AIChE asked the
Education Projects Committee to identify the
causes of high attrition and to review techniques
that have been used to increase retention of
undergraduate engineering students.
Any in-depth study would require personal
interviews with dropouts over a period of time
to determine the basis for their decision. Instead
of attacking this formidable task directly, the
Committee chose to seek better information about
current attrition rates and prospects for improve-
ment by surveying all chemical engineering de-
partments in the United States by means of a
questionnaire. There were responses from 85
The first item on the questionnaire asked for current
retention rate as the percentage of entering freshmen
who achieve the Bachlor's degree. It must be recognized
immediately that there is much "noise" in such a number.
At many schools, students do not identify their major to
be chemical engineering until their sophomore or even
junior years. At almost all schools, students transfer from
other universities and junior colleges and, to a small
extent, from other colleges of the same university. Some
students take more than four years to complete the BS.
Despite the inaccuracies inherent in these reported reten-
tion rates, they were presented in Figure 1. Nine schools
reported their rate as "unknown." The mean rate for the
76 other schools is about 53%.
The department heads were also asked to give opinions
as to whether their rate "could be" or "need be" improved.
Their responses to each of these items took three forms":
"Yes," blank, and "No" in the five combinations shown
in Table 1. As one would expect, the schools with the
better retention rates feel less need or possibility for
improvement. It should be noted that some schools with
low retention rates (e.g., 30% and 45%) replied in the
"Not" categories; these were state universities who felt
they were primarily at the mercy of having to accept all
The data from the questionnaire were proc-
essed in an analysis of variance to determine the
dependency of retention rate on:

Oran L. Culberson received the BSChE from Texas
A&M and, after service as an infantry officer in WW II,
received the MS and PhD (1950) from the University
of Texas. He spent three years with Gulf Research and
Development Company in process design and economic
analysis. In 1953, he joined Celanese Corporation in the
same capacity, subsequently moving into managerial
positions in computing and operations research. Dr.
Culberson is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Tennessee.


Number Range of Mean
Respondir g Rates, % Rate, %

Could be
Need be
Could be and Need be
Could not be
Could not be and Need

30 25-80
12 25- 74
19 18- 77
2 45-85
not be 7 30-90

(A) The nature of the school with respect to its being
public or private.
(B) The year in which the student takes his first course
in the chemical engineering department.
(C) Interaction between factors (A) and (B).

The analysis showed a very strong relationship between
retention rate and nature of the school, with private
schools having a significantly higher retention rate. There
is a probability of only about 0.001 that the observed
difference in rates between public and private schools
could have occurred by chance alone. No significant rela-
tionship existed for retention rate and year of first chemi-
cal engineering course, nor for the interaction. This lack
of relationship to first course is some what at odds with
other information to be presented later.
Some additional comment is probably in order regard-
ing the data. First, it should again be noted that accurate
retention rate data are extremely difficult to compile.
Undergraduates come and go almost continuously, and
few departments have adequate means of keeping such
records. Even though this be so, it is reasonable to



* Inadequate college counselling and early contact
with the ChE faculty.
* Inadequate pre-college orientation leading to wrong
choice of major field of study.
* Quality of students.

-The actions cited by the respondents as having
been found effective in improving retention cor-
relate very strongly to removing the causes in
4 order of importance given in Table II. That is,
the most effective means of improving retention
have been found to be improved college counsel-
ling and contact with ChE faculty, improved pre-
college orientation, etc. A majority of the com-
ments confirmed the Berkeley and Bucknell ob-
servations that many or most ChE dropouts
transfer to other disciplines and graduate. (It is
most interesting to note the high degree of corre-
spondence between the comments offered by the
2 -- department heads and the observations of Pro-
-- fessor J. C. R. Turner of Cambridge University
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 on his year of teaching at the University of
Retention Rate Texas.'
As % entering freshmen achieving B.S. in Ch.E.

expect that the figures reported on the questionnaires
have some relative validity. For example, one would
expect a department reporting a 35 percent retention
rate to be experiencing a de facto rate which is less than
that of a department reporting a 75 percent rate. The
data item of most dubious accuracy is the year the first
chemical engineering course. These data were compiled
from school catalogs. The question arises as to whether
the catalog information is in phase with and applicable
to reported retention rate. A school which has just insti-
tuted a freshman ChE course will probably not observe
any possible consequences for some years hence.
Figures reported by University of California
at Berkeley and Bucknell University indicate that
those departments attempt accurate records on
undergraduate flows:
Berkeley Bucknell
Achieved BSChE 58% 45%
Transferred to other majors 12% 32%
Withdrew for academic reasons 18% 14%
Withdrew for other reason 12% 9%

We shall see later that considerable additional
information of this kind is available for engineer-
ing undergraduates as a whole.
The questionnaire also contained a "Comments" sec-
tion, to which there was substantial but not universal
response. The comments dealt primarily with causes for
students' dropping out, and actions which might be or
have been taken to improve the situation. Table II sum-
marizes the responses, where it can be seen that the
dominant causes of dropping out are:


Item Number Citing

Quality of students 12
Lack of funds 1
Family background and problems 1
Inadequate pre-college orientation leading to
wrong choice of major 13
Inadequate reading ability 2
Changed career goals 1
Inadequate college counselling and early
contact with ChE. 17
Nature of chemistry courses 7
Nature of math courses 3
Raiding by core departments in early years 2
Inflexibility of ChE curriculum 1
Inadequate interest and self-discipline 8
Poor image of chemical engineering:
a) Financially 1
b) Social mindedly 3
c) As a profession 2

The department heads were asked whether the
undergraduate attrition problem had been studied
quantitatively at their schools. Six identified
studies for which some kind of report was avail-
able: Carnegie-Mellon, Cornell, Michigan State,
New York University, Purdue, and the Univer-
sity of Washington. These will be summarized


We're not willing

to waste a day of

vour students life.

Are ou?
It's tempting for a company to stockpile good people.
Keep them puttering away at something or other. Often
for months.
But we think that's an awful waste of time. At the crucial
point in a student's career. The beginning.
So, the day he starts working for Celanese is the day your
student starts a productive, meaningful career. No long
training programs. No red tape. He'll learn the job as he
advances in it. And advance just as fast as he will let us move
him along. Frankly, our plans for the future won't let us
waste talented people by keeping them stuck in a slot.
Students with a degree in chemistry, chemical or mechan-
ical engineering, industrial engineering or accounting, will
find that Celanese has a lot to offer them. Like interesting
projects. Rewards based solely on performance. How far
they go, of course, depends a lot on them. On their ability,
imagination, and a little plain hard work.
If this sounds like a company you'd like your students to
work for, tell them about us. And for more about Celanese,
please write to: John Kuhn, Manager of University Relations,
Celanese Corporation, 522 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10036..

An equal opportunity employer


Professor Lebold observes that first semester per-
formance is the best single predictor of an engineering
students' performance.

Michigan State Study
Probably the most exhaustive of the six stud-
ies is the one performed at Michigan State, and
which also included students at Northwestern
and Wisconsin.4 All male students who entered
engineering in 1963 at the three universities
formed the study population. A sample was
created comprised of two groups: persisters and
non-persisters. The non-persisters were students
who changed majors to non-engineering curricula
during the freshman or sophomore year while
earning at least a "C" cumulative grade point
average. The persisters were students from the
population whose academic potential individually
match that of a non-persister but who persevered
in the pursuit of their engineering degree. Ques-
tionnaires and taped interviews were used to
elecit information.
Statistical analysis of the questionnaire data
revealed the following significant relationships
between the two groups:
The non-persisters tended more to have come from
lower middle class homes and to have graduated
from central city or non-metropolitan homes.
Non-persisters attached more importance to social
status and prestige and the opportunity to work
with people rather than with things.
Non-persisters selected engineering as a career
at a later age than did the persisters.
The interviews led to the following most note-
worthy findings:
Students chose engineering majors for a wide
variety of reasons, the most common of which
a. Success and interest in high school science and
mathematics courses.
b. Encouragement towards engineering received
from fathers, brothers, relatives and friends.
c. Interest developed while pursuing mechanical
or scientific hobbies and leisure-time activities.
d. Extrinsic features such as monetary benefits,
prestige and glamor of the field.
e. Belief that an undergraduate engineering pro-
gram would provide a sound background for a
career in some other field.
High school students, teachers, guidance counselors
and parents evidently know little about the work
of the professional engineer or the nature of the
educational programs leading to such careers.
Persisters and non-persisters are frequently dis-
satisfied with the highly structured, inflexible
engineering curricula.
Certain required courses, especially mathematics,

antagonize many students and reinforce miscon-
ceptions of the nature of engineering work.
Sophomore engineering courses are welcomed and
enjoyed by most students.
Friends and acquaintances of respondents play
important roles in their decisions to continue their
engineering studies or change to other curricula.
Large proportions of both persisters and non-
persisters report passive, procedural relationships
with their academic advisers as being typical
throughout their college years.
Non-persisters cite a variety of reasons for chang-
ing out of engineering. Those most frequently
mentioned include:
a Students had mistaken impressions of the en-
gineering field.
b. Students were dissatisfied with the content of
the required courses.
c. The student's scholastic performance did not
meet his expectations.
d. Students adopted new career goals.
e. Students felt they could find more appropriate
routes to the non-engineering goals they had
originally established.
f. Students wanted to explore other career oppor-
Eight recommendations were offered as a
result of this study, concentrating on better com-
munication of the nature of engineering work to
high schools and to university undergraduates,
and on better contact between engineering pro-
fessors and students, particularly freshmen. Pro-
fessor M. H. Chetrick stated on his questionnaire
that Michigan State has invested considerable
time and effort in the study of attrition and in
the establishment of programs for its reduction,
but that while they are pleased with these pro-
grams in general, they continue to be frustrated
in not having been able to influence attrition

New York University Study

A brighter note comes from New York Uni-
versity where it is felt that significant reduction
in the loss of freshman engineers is being
achieved5,6. Four programs seem to be responsi-
ble. First, all prospective engineering freshmen
are interviewed before admission, apparently by
engineering faculty or engineering alumni. Sec-
ond, all freshmen take an examination in mathe-
matics before classes begin and are placed ac-
cordingly in one of four plans. Third, treatment
of freshmen has been personalized and an atmos-
phere created wherein freshmen become confident
that they can easily reach a ready and sympa-
(Continued on page 50)


laboratory I

Drexel Institute of Technology
Philadelphia, Pa. 19104
Chemical Engineering Laboratories have
proved traditionally less "cookbook" than other
engineering laboratories, but they have tended
to suffer none the less from becoming stereotyped
as to their objectives and the types of experi-
ments run. Mostly laboratories have been used to
complement traditional textbook material by at-
tempting to illustrate the application of theory
to experiment. In the course of a major curricu-
lum revision at Drexel we had the unique oppor-
tunity, and the strong support of our administra-
tion, of NSF and of industry, to make a break
with the past and to develop a new approach to
chemical engineering laboratories.
We have changed the objective of the labora-
tory from one of complementing lectures to one
of supplementing them. We believe that the stu-
dents in their junior and senior years are suffi-
ciently mature to apply principles already learned
to the analysis of laboratory data and to forge
beyond what they had received in class to develop
new ideas so as to deepen that analysis. We feel
that if the student understands that he has cer-
tain specific responsibilities in the course to edu-
cate himself, laboratories might be approached
with more curiosity and enthusiasm than in the
past. Our goals were to develop a laboratory
which would require the students to (1) study
and apply principles not taught in class as well
as to use those previously learned; (2) analyze
problems such as might arise in pilot plant stud-
ies, i.e., a realistic engineering situation, (3) be
challenged sufficiently that the experience would
be enjoyed rather than endured.
From our early discussions evolved the idea
of having the student approach chemical engi-
neering from a systems viewpoint. This was con-
sistent with an earlier decision to introduce to the
elementary stoichiometry course use of flow
sheets as teaching tools. We want students to
learn early that material and energy balances

. Grossman

. . Heidemann

. . Kershenbaum

around units are related to other sections of a
process flow sheet. Consequently, it was logical
to design a laboratory in which units could be
run as an integrated system or as small sub-
systems, and thus provide an opportunity for
students to study the interrelationships. With
such a system both dynamic and steady-state
studies are possible. We felt that the student
would be able to progress from running individ-
ual units to running combinations of units to
eventually running the entire line. The line not
only had to meet our educational objectives but
also had to remain within the constraints of our

What evolved for our first processing system
is the flow sheet of Figure 1. This is an inorganic
processing line in which a mixture of soluble
and insoluble salts is separated and the products
refined in units under automatic control.
The mixture is fed from an automatically
controlled, vibrated feed-hopper to a mixing tank
where it is slurried. The mixing tank is provided
with density, level, and temperature controllers.
The tank contents are mixed by means of a side-
entering agitator. This is the one feature of the
subsystem which is not under automatic control.
Agitation rate, however, can be manually varied.
The water for the mixer comes from two heat
exchangers which are automatically controlled.



John R. Thygeson did his graduate work at Drexel.
After a stint in industry, he returned to graduate school
at the University of Pennsylvania where he obtained his
MS in ME and PhD in Chemical Engineering. Thereupon,
he joined the Chemical Engineering Department at Drexel
where he is currently an associate professor. His research
interests are in separation theory and applied optimiza-
Dr. Elihu D. Grossman has his PhD from the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania and his BSChE and MS from Drexel.
Research interests are in thermodynamics and transport
properties of mixtures, drying theory and applications,
and agricultural pollution problems. He is currently
Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Drexel.
Dr. Robert Heidemann is a graduate of Washington
University. He joined the Chemical Engineering faculty
at Drexel in 1963. He is currently Associate Professor of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Calgary. His
research interests are largely in the area of automatic
Lester Kershenbaum did his undergraduate work at
Cooper Union and his graduate work at The University
of Michigan where he received his PhD in 1964. He is
currently Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
at Drexel. His research interests are in the areas of
kinetics and thermodynamics.


The slurry can be pumped to either a rotary
vacuum filter, or to a continuous centrifuge, or
it can be fed to an intermediate holding tank for
future processing. The rotary filter is designed
for washing of the insoluble cake as well as for
removal of filtrate. The solid cake can be manu-
ally transferred to either a tray drier or to a
fluidized bed drier. The cake may be pretreated
before drying if the students decide that such
treatment is necessary. The filtrate or centri-
fugate can be pumped either to intermediate
storage or directly to a double effect evaporator.
The first effect is for concentrating the solution
and the second effect is an evaporator-crystallizer.
Both effects have temperature, level, flow, and
pressure control. As crystals of the salt build



I a
i-.-. %. V%._ s

Figure 2. Graphic Panel View

up within the conical bottom of the crystallizer
they can be manually dropped into a salt catch
for later removal and drying.
We have, for reasons of economy as well as
for educational value, designed the panel board
(Figure 2) for maximum flexibility in the use of
equipment. Sensing elements can be plugged into
any of several controllers, which in turn can be
connected through flexible tubing to stations on
the graphic panel which represent and are
connected to the final control element. Record-
ing equipment for temperatures, flows, levels,
pressures, etc. is at the right of the panel board;
controllers at the left. Our control elements are
mostly pneumatic. In addition there is a magnetic
flow meter in the line, some thermocouple ele-
ments, and some electrical to pneumatic conver-
sion units. We also have available, when dynam-
ics experiments dictate their use, either a two
channel or a six channel oscillograph for more
detailed study of transients.
Figure 3 illustrates how flexibility was at-
tained in the instrument installation for the In-
organic Line. The equipment sketched is the
jacketed mixing tank. In the processing scheme,
it is the unit where the solids are introduced, the
soluble salt is dissolved, and the insoluble one is
slurried. The equipment of Figure 3 is used in
the intermediate laboratory course for heat trans-
fer experiments. It is piped to permit hot water,
steam, or cold water to enter the jacket and to
use either hot or cold water as the processed
fluid. A filled-bulb temperature transmitter is
installed in the pumped recycle line and dia-
phragm motor control valves are installed in the
jacket inlet water and steam lines.


The level control instruments are useful for
steady-state experiments on heat transfer (dur-
ing the second laboratory course) and for study-
ing the dynamics of level control (during the
third course). A bubbling-type level transmitter
is employed as the source of the level signal for
control, and control valves are installed in both
inlet and outlet process fluid lines. The control
valves can be used in flow control studies of liquid
to and from the tank. (Flow transmitters are not
shown in Figure 3.)

We realized that students would not be able
to operate and analyze the overall system unless
they first had some understanding of its sub-
systems. Consequently, the first lab in the three
term sequence is devoted to experiments which
develop skill in manipulation of equipment and
analysis of data. Students learn how to use meas-
uring equipment, how to safely operate pumps,
heat exchangers, mixers, etc. There are a few
bench scale transport experiments interspersed
with an introduction to larger scale experimenta-
tion on the equipment in the line, e.g. conduction
in rods, determination of diffusivities.
During the second laboratory, students in-
vestigate both the dynamic and steady-state be-
havior of individual processing units. Use is made
of the instrumentation and control equipment so
that the students learn of the interactions of the
controls and the process.
With the wide variation possible in experi-
ments, no two student groups need be asked to
study the same phenomenon. As a consequence,
the lab has more of the character of small scale
research projects, forcing the students to rely
more on themselves than they would in a con-
ventional setting. They gain confidence in their
ability to analyze and solve new problems. Con-
trol of a double-effect evaporator, and interrela-
tionship of variables such as level control and
throughput have real meaning to them so that
when they advance to the final laboratory in the
last term of their senior year, the students are
ready to meet the more challenging problems
presented there.
Since one purpose of the final laboratory
course is to involve the student in a relatively
large scale project which requires some ingenuity
and originality on his part, we have avoided
establishing a specific set of experiments. Rather
we have some interrelated units of processing



equipment and their associated instruments for
study. The student has the responsibility to
specify the control loop or loops he will study.
He then is expected to analyze the various com-
ponents of the control loop to obtain the appro-
priate differential and algebraic equations, to lin-
earize the equations if necessary, to predict, using
linear control theory, the transient behavior of
the equipment under control, and to prove his
model and mathematics by experimentation on
the equipment. He is expected to have a full
understanding of the control hardware involved
including valves, sensing elements, and con-
As an example a group might be asked to
determine the system control characteristics for
the water preheat exchanger operating under
proportional control. The group would be ex-
pected to prepare an experimental plan, a mathe-
matical model, and to decide what measurements
were needed to test their model. They must ex-
plain any discrepancies between their idealized
description and their experimental results.
Every effort has been made to keep instru-
ment application flexible so the equipment could
be run in a variety of ways. Initially the student
may not wish to operate under closed-loop con-
trol at all. In that case, control loops need not be
closed and sensing instruments, transmitters, and
recorders are still available for steady-state meas-
urements. Certainly the availability of these in-
struments makes steady-state operation easier.
It has proved, for example, especially useful to
have level control instruments available for op-
erating the rotary filter and the evaporator. The
level of drum submergence in the rotary filter is
an important parameter in the equipment opera-


Figure 4. Panel Board View
tion and it is difficult to maintain it fixed without
the controls. In the evaporator level is only a
secondary variable, but matching inlet flow to
evaporation rate is essential for accurate mass
and energy balances to be performed. The equip-
ment responds so slowly that manual rate adjust-
ment cannot be relied upon; effects of changes
can be observed only after long times. To use
the controls in these cases, the students need
have only a minimal understanding of the hard-
ware and no real knowledge of theory.
From the study of single units the student
groups progress to operation of linked units.
They quickly discover, for two or more pieces of
equipment to be operated in sequence, that con-
trol devices are essential. There are too many
interrelated variables to be adjusted for the
students to obtain steady-state in a reasonable
time without the aid of instruments. Suppose
that the filter and evaporator are to be operated
in series so that the filtrate, which contains a
soluble salt, is to be fed to the evaporator-
crystallizer where the salt will be removed. In
steady-state, the filtrate production rate has to
match the evaporation rate and all levels will be
constant. The students have three or more vari-
ables to manipulate; typically, slurry rate to the
filter, filtrate feed rate to the evaporator, and the
evaporator steam valve position. Achieving
steady-state in this situation without controls
would be very difficult and time consuming.
Most groups also do steady-state analyses of
their processing units in order to obtain neces-
sary data and understanding for running the
processing line.

Once the students have reached the point
where they are able to handle the operation and
analysis of two units in sequence, meshing of
their projects begins. One group, for example,
may have been collecting operating information
on the feeding of mixed salts to the slurrying
tank (data such as feed rates, specific gravity,
agitation requirements, pumping, etc), Another
group would have been collecting information on
the rotary filter, its efficiency, cake moisture,
residual solubles, drum immersion, filtrate rate,
drum speed, etc. A third would have been study-
ing the influence of level, flow rate, vacuum
level, temperature difference, steam rate, etc. on
evaporator operation. From the data obtained
from two or three weeks of experimentation and
analysis, the individual groups would have de-
termined feasible operating limits for the unit
which was their responsibility. The student
groups then meet with each other and decide on
the operating details for running the entire line
to manufacture product.
It is worth noting here some special features
of the mixture of salts which are both the raw
material and the products of our processing line.
The insoluble is calcium carbonate, chosen be-
cause it has good filtering characteristics, is rela-
tively non-abrasive, and is cheap. The soluble
salt is sodium sulfate, chosen on the basis of its
relatively low corrosive effects on the equipment
and its low price. It has the added educational
benefit, however, of forming a series of hydrates
which complicate its handling when removing it
from the crystallizer. In our system the crystal-
lizer is operated around 90F which, the student
soon finds out by consulting the phase diagram,
results in anhydrous sodium sulfate as product.
However, if the product is not immediately cen-
trifuged upon removal from the salt catch and
dried, the mother liquor provides enough water
for decahydrate to form as the temperature
lowers. The result is a very hard lump that can
only be broken by a hammer.
It requires about one week of joint operation
before the groups learn how to coordinate the
operation of the individual process units so as to
make product. The line has been run for several
hours at steady-state. Once the salt catch fills
it is very difficult to remove product without
severe upset to the system so that steady opera-
tion is limited by this factor. Perturbations of
feed flow rate, steam flow, level in the evaporator
have all been carried out and the response of the


system determined. The large capacitance of the
equipment relative to the upsets imposed showed
the processing line to be very stable.
Since our senior classes tend to be large (40-
50 students), we allow some groups with the
inclination to do so to study complex control
problems rather than to run the line. This is
possible because of the flexibility built into our
instrumentation scheme. We deliberately pur-
chased some additional control equipment whose
main function was to make available automatic
control loops beyond those needed simply to study
the equipment. The heat exchangers, for example,
have such capacity.
While the groups studying advanced control
problems may not be operating more than a
subsystem of the processing line, they are con-
stantly aware that their experimentation is being
done on operating equipment and in that sense
they are making a contribution to a better under-
standing of how the line operates and how that
operation might be improved.
All of the installed instruments either gen-
erate or are operated by 3-15 psi pneumatic sig-
nals. The leads from transmitters and to control
valves are all brought to a panel board where a
schematic of the equipment is drawn. A photo-
graph of a portion of this panel board is attached
as Figure 4. Connection can be made to any of
the instruments at the front of the panel board
through quick-disconnect pneumatic fittings.
The transmitter outputs are, in addition, con-
nected permanently to strip chart recorders
mounted in the panel board. A continuous record
of the transmitted signals is thus available to
students for their analysis. Some channels on
the recorders are left free for students to trace
intermediate signals in control loop, such as valve
As the equipment confronts the students,
there are no completed control loops (e.g., as
indicated by the schematic of Figure 3,), Con-
trollers are installed so that adjustment of pro-
portional band, reset rate, or derivative time can
be made from the front of the panel. Several
manufacturers are represented. All the control-
lers have indicating control stations and all have
a 3-15 psi signal. Each, therefore, is compatible
with each instrument installed with the equip-
ment. Access to the controller receiver and to its
output signal is available at the front of the panel
board through quick-disconnect fittings.

The student is able to complete the control
loop he wishes to study by connecting, at the front
of the panel board, the appropriate transmitter
output to the specific controller desired and by
connecting the controller output to the control
valve that is to be manipulated. Any controller
may be used in any control loop; any transmitter
may be employed in manipulating any valve.

The response of our students even in the early
stages when the line had to be made operable
has been gratifying. The first classes, whose task
it was to make things work, had the attitude that
they were pioneers in a new approach to chemical
engineering and worked long hours to carry out
their assignments, to find out what the difficulties
were, and to make suggestions on how to correct
them. The next group of students who ran the
line as individual units were enthusiastic about
their laboratory work. They approached it with
an enthusiasm not seen in a more routine course.
They did the job and they are doing the job of
digging out those things they have not been
taught but which they need to know.
In general the students are finding the labora-
tory a real learning experience and not just a
routine chore to be endured and gotten out of the
way with a minimum amount of effort. Those
students who have run the system as a complete
line have had a sense of accomplishment that usu-
ally most students do not get from chemical en-
gineering or any other undergraduate laboratory.
They have had the opportunity, the excitement,
and the satisfaction of running a purposeful op-
erating system and of learning how the parts of it
interact, and how they can make a product. The
students look upon the lab as a challenge to be
met instead of an affliction to be suffered.

Of course, we had some problems which arose
during the design, construction and debugging
phases of the laboratory, as well as some which
have appeared with operations. For example, dur-
ing design many changes were made in the flow
sheet in order to match our ideas with our
Another problem which caused some concern
was to minimize hold-up in pipelines and to have
pipe runs as short as possible consistent with the
scale equipment available to us (50 to 100 gal-


Ions) and still have a realistic system. Another
constraint is having enough space between equip-
ment units for students to move and do their jobs
safely. The spacing is largely controlled by the
floor plan of a building already erected. We were
able to overcome these difficulties without signifi-
cant sacrifice to the educational concepts.
During the initial phase some final control
elements had to be relocated because system re-
sponse was too slow. Some minor piping changes
had to be made in order to accommodate flow rate
and pumping requirements.

A systems approach to laboratory can be
made to work successfully even under the
constraints of curriculum limitations and
available time.
o Student acceptance has been excellent and
the levels of learning high.
The cost in faculty time has been great
but the benefit to the undergraduate stu-
dent has been worth it.
As a consequence of this faculty invest-
ment in time and the student enthusiasm
for the concept, overall student morale
within the department has improved.

ro curriculum

Response from both visiting educators
and industrial people has been universally
The results have encouraged us to complete
and to improve our original concept for an or-
ganic processing line. The students will study
different interacting operations including those
involved with chemical reactors and kinetics.
We believe that the students participating in
Drexel's laboratory will graduate with a firm
appreciation of the problems of running an entire
processing system. We especially feel that those
students who go into design and research will
have benefitted by knowing something about sys-
tems problems and the interactions of subsystems
with each other and with the men who must run

The plan for the laboratory was an outgrowth
of the philosophy of Dr. Charles E. Huckaba who
was at the time department chairman. With his
basic ideas, enthusiasm and assistance the sup-
port of the National Science Foundation and of
the Institute administration was enlisted in the


University of Virginia
Charlottesville, Va. 22901

In thinking of curricular reform, which seems
to be a never-ending chore, it is worth attending
to trends that arise and evolve in circle other
than our own. With this in mind an attempt
will be made to discern directions in which chem-
ical engineering education in western Europe is
moving. Many ideas on this subject were pre-
sented and discussed at a meeting held in Church-
ill College, University of Cambridge, early in
July, 1968, under the sponsorship of The Euro-
pean Federation of Chemical Engineers. Several
of the key points presented at that meeting will
be cited, and implications and conclusions will
be drawn as they are relevant to the educational

Charles Barron received his chemical engineering
education at Clemson University and the University of
Virginia. He taught at Tulane University for five years,
and he spent the academic year, 1967-68, as a Fulbright-
Hays lecturer at the Catholic University of Louvain,
Belgium. The following year he joined the faculty of the
University of Virginia. His research interests are in the
area of homogeneous catalysis and chemical reactor an-


scene in the United States. No attempt will be
made to review all of the discussion from this
meeting. The teaching of chemical engineering
within the educational structure of the western
European university has developed from a differ-
ent tradition than that in the United States. If
this difference can be identified at all, it is in a
stronger affiliation with industrial chemistry.

The tone of the curricular considerations was
set in the meeting to which reference was made
earlier by comments from Professor Sorgato of
the University of Padua, Professor Le Goff of
the University of Nancy, and Professor Danck-
werts of the University of Cambridge.
Professor Sorgato emphasized the importance
of minimizing over-specialization and descriptive
subjects in the curriculum and went on to add,
"One characteristic of our time which will have
more and more importance in the future is the
fact that on the one hand the technician must
often commit himself entirely to the resolution
of very particular problems, understood only by
a restricted circle of specialists, while on the
other hand, he must just as often concern him-
self with complex problems that involve disci-
plines that are far from the field of his specific
interest." His conclusion was that any form of
education that tends to give the student encyclo-
pedic knowledge must be avoided. Following the
same line of reasoning Professor Le Goff pointed
out that from a pedagogical view the point has
long since been passed of arguing about what
subjects will be added to the curriculum and in
fact the serious problems are now in the choice
of which subjects can be omitted. He seemed
to have no doubt that a solid mathematical
foundation was required for all engineers, and
beyond that emphasis should be placed either on
the social-economic side or on the physical-chemi-
cal side of his education. Implementing these
ideas in terms of a particular university pro-
gram Professor Danckwerts made the following
remarks relative to curriculum plans at Cam-
bridge University.
"We shall probably be forced to recognize that in the
general process of specialization the chemical engineer
has ceased to be responsible for the structural or electri-
cal aspects of chemical, or process, plants, and we shall
therefore cut out such topics as the mechanical and struc-
tural aspects of plant design, mechanical drawing and
applied electricity. As for materials science the choice of
materials, is of course fundamentally important in the

American faculties might consider electives in applied
chemistry such as catalysis, polymers, biochemistry,
surface chemistry and electrochemistry.

practice of chemical engineering, but can one learn
enough about the science of the matter in a few lectures
to influence one's choice in this to the slightest degree.
Is not the choice going to be the product of experience
and expert advice"
These ideas from Cambridge are in accord
with those from the University of Minnesota, as
described by Professor Neil Amundson before an
AIChE annual meeting in December, 1966. He
expressed the belief that courses in mechanics,
strength of materials, electrical engineering, and
drafting were on a steady decline and were ex-
pected to vanish or at least be reduced to a very
minor level.
In discussing the place of economics and so-
cial sciences in the chemical engineering curricu-
lum, Professor Danckwerts noted that, "Due to
the limitations of time, such subjects as social
sciences and economics will necessarily be de-
veloped somewhat superficially. The require-
ments of the normal chemical engineering course
simply preclude the development of such subjects
from first principles, as we might do in fluid
mechanics or thermodynamics. Such superficial
development forces these studies to appear some-
what shallow relative to their counterparts in the
physical sciences of engineering. For this and
other less important reasons, such studies will
never contribute as significantly to the educa-
tion of the chemical engineering student as may
be desired by his more mature predecessors."
In this subject area Professor LeGoff offered the
following comments which support the position
given above, "My personal opinion is that eco-
nomics should be practically absent from the
curriculum of engineering and that preference
should be given to the physical chemical sciences,
for these branches of science are only assimilated
with ease before the age of 25. A reconversion to
quantum mechanics cannot take place at the age
of 40 whereas the taste for economics and human
science comes with maturity. The evolution from
science to administration is a well known phe-
nomenon in nearly all professions. Furthermore,
a conscientious student is much more likely to
participate in social and humanizing activities
outside the classroom and so can be expected of
his own accord to educate himself in these areas.
(The student's) prospective mind and his crea-
tive imagination must be developed by banishing


all kinds of descriptive and passive teaching in
favor of an active formation in comprehension.
In other words, we ought to strive more to teach
the mechanism necessary for familiarization
with new subjects and a certain attitude towards
new problems rather than the inculcation of pure
fact. This is the one single condition necessary
in the student's training if it is to remain valid
ten years hence."
As is to be expected, the chemistry content
of the curriculum always gets more than passing
consideration. Although there was some discus-
sion of chemistry content in the curriculum, none
of the authors at the EFChE meeting specifically
addressed this question. Professor Amundson
did offer his ideas on the subject with the fol-
lowing remarks:
"Most curricula contain little in applied chemistry and
this, of course, is the greatest departure from the past,
since once chemical engineering meant applied chemistry.
I believe the future of chemical engineering is intimately
tied to chemistry, and we should find ways to reinforce
these two fields to each other in some other context than
thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and molecular trans-
Of course, the normal European program of study
in chemical engineering includes more support-
ing courses in chemistry. In answer to the chal-
lenge posed by Professor Amundson, some con-
sideration might be given by American faculties
to such courses as polymer chemistry, biochem-
istry, surface chemistry, catalysis, and electro-
chemistry, which are often a part of European
study programs in chemical engineering. These
areas of applied chemistry have certainly devel-
opend to the point that substantial courses of
study could be devised, and they might be offered
on an elective basis to allow students to specialize
their own interests.
There was in Europe an undercurrent of be-
lief, both expressed and silent, that the failure
of engineering to attract the best students was
focing the American universities to turn increas-
ingly to pure science in their engineering courses.
The feeling also seemed to be that this change
was not good for engineering as a profession.
By way of contrast to this position, Professor Le
Goff asked the question, "To what extent must
the training of engineers be different from that
of research scientists ?" In developing his answer
to this question he cited the impact of the "phy-
sical-mathematical revolution" of the 1950's on
the education of chemical engineers. "During this
period," he said, "chemical engineering evolved

There is increasing throughout Europe a closer com-
munication between the university and industrial
rapidly and fundamentally, producing a far
greater scientific rigor in the study of industrial
processing. Ceasing to be the simple addition
of chemistry and mechanics, chemical engineer-
ing became an autonomous science resulting from
the direct application of physics and mathemat-
ics, according to its own method, to what had
previously been a field of process chemistry."
With this introduction, Le Goff then went on to
answer his own question,
"Freed from materialistic tasks by automation, the en-
gineer can now be considered as a researcher: research
into improvements, research into the optimal functioning
of his plant, research into the material and human means
of obtaining results. Thus, his behavior is analogue with
that of his colleague in the laboratory, even though his
objectives may be different."
By such reasoning, he argued that the research
scientist and the engineer should receive similar
education, the same foundation based on physics,
mathematics, and chemistry, with the engineer
receiving an introduction to the synthesis con-
cepts which are so important in his subsequent
In the implementation of curricula to achieve
the many objectives previously alluded to, Pro-
fessor Danckwerts underlined his belief that
there was three basic ingredients in a university
education-the first of which is vocational train-
ing. He included in his example of this type of
training lawyers, doctors, scientists, and engin-
eers. His second ingredient is intellectual disci-
pline or the study of some particular subject in
depth. This ingredient is required in order that
the student develop habits of rigorous thought
and penetrating analysis. Certain parts of every
curriculum are to be included for their value as
intellectual disciplines and not necessarily for
their vocational value. "The final ingredient in
a university education is that it should broaden
the mind. The university graduate should not
only be trained in the practices of his professor
and in rigorous habits of thought, he should also
be aware of the relationship of his subject to
other subjects and its significance in human
affairs as a whole." In discussing the implemen-
tation of curricular objectives Professor Le Goff
strongly advocated the increased use of labora-
tory teaching in order to keep the future engineer
in touch with physico-chemical phenomena and
the natural imprecision of experimentation.


There seems to be little doubt that the European
chemical engineering student has a broader
laboratory experience than does his American
counterpart. We might find that increased labor-
atory teaching would be desirable to supplement
offerings in some areas of applied chemistry.
Finally in order to accomplish these various
requirements, there seems to be increasing inter-
est in several quarters throughout Europe in
closer communication between the university and
industrial practitioners. This process is occur-
ring at the same time that academic emphasis
is shifting more and more in the direction of
science and away from technology.

Quite a lot of discussion at the EFChE meet-
ing centered about the cooperation of practicing
chemical engineers with educators in certain
phases of university programs, and the reciprocal
cooperation of educators was called for in some
aspects of industrial professional development
programs. Mr. H. M. Miller, of duPont de Ne-
mours International S. A., Geneva, keynoted
these ideas by citing the advantages from the
industrial side of the cooperative, or "sandwich",
courses which seem to be flourishing in England.
In his opinion such courses effectively create a
flow of continuing education into the domain of
the practicing engineer. Quoting, "Let me em-
phasize that these engineering education-industry
programs are in no sense charity. Their propon-
ents realize full well that altruism-on either
side-will not carry any program past the initial
stages of success. They must be joint ventures
in fact, validated by perceptive recognition of the
waste of going separate ways, of the mutuality
of objectives, and of the synergistic results of
co-action." He mentioned also that similar ad-
vantages accrue to the participants in the so-
called partnership programs which certain Amer-
ican universities use in their design courses in
association with local practicing engineers.
The need for significant interaction of the
university and industry was also recognized to
exist in the area of career development. In this
activity as well, the advantages were expected
to flow in both directions, contrary to the popular
view in the United States. The career develop-
ment of the young engineering professor de-
mands the stimulating influx of interesting ideas
and problems from the industrial environment,
and similarly the engineering practitioner needs

and wants the stimulation of new developments
in theoretical understanding. In this way both
parties to any cooperative venture can maintain
a healthier perspective.
The American observer of chemical engin-
eering education in western Europe finds several
recognizable benchmarks for comparison, but
also he finds several trends which are not so
obvious in his own situation. A similar optimis-
tic opinion was expressed by Professor H. Blenke
of the Technische Ho Hochschule, Stuttgart:
"The development of chemical engineering
started and proceeded in the USA and Great
Britain on the one hand, and in continental Eu-
rope on the other, under different conditions.
Thus, the development temporarily moved in op-
posing directions but with resultant converging
trends which lead in our opinion to a considerable
agreement between the two concepts. This is not
surprising because under the hard criteria of
free industrial competition objective, realistic
conceptions sooner or later gain the upper hand.
Therefore, concepts of science and engineering
do not differ more between highly industrialized
countries than they do within each country. This
is encouraging for it promotes and facilitates the
exchange of experiences and cooperation not
only across borders of discipline but also across
borders of nations."
On reflection of the many similarities ob-
served, it was surprising to note how little con-
cern there was with the ability of engineers to
communicate either in written or spoken words.
It is difficult to imagine that this is a problem
unique to the United States, but in the EFChE
conference confronting problems in the educa-
tion of chemical engineers not a word was said
about this particular problem.
Finally, if any single conclusion could be
drawn from the experience of observing the
chemical engineering education scene in western
Europe, it is that such an activity is extremely
educational and is one to be strongly recom-
mended to others.
The author wishes to express his appreciation
to Professor W. L. Wilkinson, University of
Bradford, for permission to report on the dis-
cussion of the EFChE Conference. Professor
Wilkinson was the technical program chairman
for that conference.


M n Pclassroom =


The University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712

Sophisticated systems for computer-aided
design can make an important contribution in
the teaching of design.. The bulk of the design
programs in the area of chemical process design
have been prepared by large companies or IBM'.
These programs simulate the steady-state per-
formance of large, integrated plants consisting
of many interconnected processing units with
considerable recycle.
In order to use such comprehensive execu-
tive programs, it is necessary that the component
subroutines which represent individual process
units are adequately formulated. Practically all
of the subsystem models are of the macroscopic
type, i.e., they consist of well mixed systems
whose output is equal to the value of the depend-
ent variables within the system. However, there
is one characteristic type of process in which a
plug flow distributed parameter model of equip-
ment is required, namely, in processes such as
absorption, ion exchange, and chemical reactors.
Treatment of these types of processes form a
substantial part of the unit operations and design
phase of current chemical engineering curricula.
A rather flexible digital computer program
is described here for absorbers which can be
incorporated in any large executive program.
It also can be used independently as a separate
routine to enable students to gain some insight
into the design of processes in which the plug
flow distributed model is applicable.
There are certain basic requisites which must
be met before an instructor can use such an ap-
proach to design.
*The physical process must be realistically desirable
in mathematical terms.
*The students must be receptive to this approach to
design, and they must be slightly familiar with computer
programming. It is not necessary that they actually be
able to program the original problem. Rather, they must
be able to introduce data into the program and perhaps
in some cases make very slight modifications in the
program as it stands.

Norman F. Brockmeier began teaching at The Uni-
versity of Texas in Austin in 1966 after receiving his
PhD at the MIT the same year. He has had industrial
experience with Minnesota Mining, Dow Chemical, and
Chevron Research, and is a registered professional engi-
neer in Texas. Since his coming to Texas, he has taught
the unit operations lecture and laboratory courses and
continued his research work in the area of microwave
plasma chemistry. (left).
David M. Himmelblau is a graduate of MIT, North-
western University, and the University of Washington
(PhD '57). His interests include process cost analysis,
machine computation, and process simulation. (right)

*Suitable computer facilities must be available at
reasonable cost. The introduction of time sharing at
many university facilities makes the use of a digital
routine rather simple.
Our experience has been that student en-
thusiasm is high in using such an approach to
design because the approach is novel, it relieves
drudgery, and it seems to be professionally
oriented. Students are able to work in a more
creative and stimulating climate, which is all to
the good, especially when economics are involved
in an optimal design, for the digital program
substantially reduces the tedium of repetitive

The approach used in preparing the students
to work with the computer program is to first
give a sound description of the mathematical
foundations of the program. The basic equations
are described and their methods of solution pre-
sented. Next, methods of obtaining the param-


The students seek out their own data, cost informa-
tion, and physical parameters and carry out the
assigned design.
eters in the model are discussed in detail, inas-
much as the students are expected to provide
these themselves. Most of the available param-
eters come from literature sources or handbooks,
but in the case of tabulated or graphical ma-
terial, it is necessary to convert the available
information into the form of functions or equa-
A few very simple problems are solved by
hand, using both graphical and analytical tech-
niques. These problems are posed so that all the
information the student needs is provided, and
he merely introduces the available information
and solves for the requested answer.
Design a packed column that will recover all but
0.5% of the carbon disulfide contained in a nitrogen car-
rier. The CS2-N2 mixture has a partial pressure of
CS2 equal to 50 mm Hg at 750F and is blown into the
absorber at atmospheric pressure at the rate of 50,000
cu ft/hr. The absorption oil has an average molecular
weight of 180, viscosity 2 centipoises, and specific gravity
0.81 at 750F The oil enters the absorber stripped of
essentially all CS2 and solutions of oil and CS2 are ideal.
The vapor pressure of CS, at 75OF is 346 mm Hg. The
column is packed with 2-inch Raschig rings and operates
isothermally. For a liquid/gas ratio of twice the mini-
mum, determine the required oil feed rate, the diameter of
the column, and the packed height2
Note that the problem statement provides all
the details required to obtain a unique solution.
The last phase of the instruction prior to the
actual use of the program is to describe the logic
of the program and the sequence in which the
calculations are actually made. Then, the stu-
dents are given the prepunched program deck
and instructions for its use. They are assigned
one of the simple problems previously solved by
hand to execute using the program deck. This
stage of the instruction ensures that the student's
program deck will work and that he understands
how to introduce the data required to solve a
Finally, the student is assigned a rather gen-
eral problem in which he is asked to design some
particular piece of equipment either using the
program deck or not using it as he sees fit. In
most cases the problem involves a simple eco-
nomic balance of operating, fixed, and overhead
costs, and thus requires a case study analysis to
achieve some type of economic design. It would
be possible to use the program in conjunction
with a general nonlinear programming optimiza-

tion routine. However, the case study method is
more intuitively appreciated by the student than
a more formal optimization routine.
The students seek out their own data and
carry out the assigned design. They are required
to obtain their own cost information as well as
the physical parameters involved in the problem.
Such a problem assignment overwhelms many
of the students at the start, inasmuch as practi-
cally all of their prior experience has been with
canned problems in which all the information
was available and the known solution variable
specifically assigned. However, as they enmesh
themselves in the problem, many of them find
for the first time that they become interested in
solving a problem, primarily for one of two rea-
sons. Either the problem appears very realistic
to them, whereas most previous problems were
rather insipid, or else they are challenged by the
computer programming aspects of the problem
and feel that they are now working with one of
man's most modern tools.
From the instructional viewpoint, the digital
computer program makes it possible to assign
much more comprehensive and realistic design
problems. Many more variables can be allowed
to change, the various parameters in the process
model can be varied, and, as mentioned above, the
factor of economic analysis can be introduced on
a modest scale.

Packed column gas absorber calculations are
based on a continuous contact model in which
the interphase transfer is given by the product
of an overall mass transfer coefficient, Ka, and
a difference in gas phase compositions
d(y GY')/dZ = K a(y ye) ( )

where y = mole fraction of solute in gas phase
Ye = solute mole fraction in equilibrium
with liquid
GY' = total gas rate in moles/hr-ft2
Let us consider the mass transfer in a packed
zone of a differential height, dZ. In order to
integrate eq. 1 over the packed height, Z, the
total gas rate is replaced by the solute-free gas
rate, GY, which is a constant. For the designer's
convenience in making graphical calculations,
the mole fraction, y, is replaced by the mole ratio,
Y = y/ (1-y). The intergation of eq. 1 over the
whole column3 leads to the following approximate


Computer-aided design enables students to work in a
more creative and stimulating climate especially when
economics is involved in an optimal design.

(b -Y) dY Ka(1 Y)M dZ (2a)
b (1 Y) ( Y Ye) GY
a 0
NTU -j-j (Z) (2b)
The left hand side of equ. 2a is commonly
called the number of transfer units, NTU, and
the reciprocal of the group in front of the inte-
gral sign on the right hand side is called the
height of a transfer unit, HTU. The relative
velocity factor, 4, is the transfer velocity in the
gas phase relative to the interface. The quantity
(1 Y) ,M is the log mean of the concentration
difference of the non-diffusing species.
The value of NTU may be calculated analyti-
cally using the left hand side of equ. 2, or it may
be calculated by numerical integration as in the
computer program. The value of the HTU must
be obtained from empirical correlations, many of
which are available in the literature. Because the
basis for the values of the NTU and the HTU is
the overall gas phase resistance, the following
equation gives the HTU, hereafter called HOY:
HOY = HY + HX(mGY/GX0) ( 3 )
where m = slope o fthe equilibrium solubility
HY = individual gas-phase resistance in
HX = individual liquid-phase resistance in
GX = solute-free liquid rate in moles/hr-
The individual resistances can be calculated from
the following empirical relations :

HX = -(GXAV/L)nSc0*5 ( 4 )

HY = (1.01)GYAV 031/GXAV033 ( 5 )
where a,n = constants characteristic of the type
of packing
S= liquid viscosity in lb/ft-hr.
Sc = Schmidt group, I/pxDVX, dimen-
GXAV, GYAV = average rates for liquid and
gas, resp., in lb/hr-ft2 Equ. 4 and 5 are valid for
systems in which the liquid is either water or
light hydrocarbons.4 Furthermore, equ. 5 is ac-
curate only for estimating the HY of 1-inch and

2-inch Raschig rings5. The Wilke" equation is
used to calculate the liquid diffusivity, DVX, that
is needed in the Schmidt group in equ. 4.
Because the values of m, 4, and (Y Ye) in
equs. 2a and 3 generally change with distance in
a packed column, the computer program employs
the following technique to calculate the NTU
and HOY. The packed section is divided into
small increments of variable height in which the
change in gas composition, (Yn+1 Yn), is arbi-
trarily set at -0.005. A loop in the program
makes a mass balance around each incremental
section, solves for the liquid composition change,
and then uses eq. 2a to calculate the NTU. This
technique has been described elsewhere.7
An equilibrium equation of the following
form has been used to relate the gas and liquid

y = (PVP/P)x

( 6 )

where P is the total pressure, PVP is the Henry's
Law solubility constant for the system, and x is
mole fraction in the liquid. The slope, m, is the
coefficient of x in equ. 6. For those systems that
approach ideal solubility, PVP becomes the vapor
pressure of the solute at the design temperature.
The gas rate, GY, which appears in equ. 3, is
the product of the gas flooding rate, GYF, and
the fraction of flooding, FF, at which the column
is operated. The value of GYF is calculated from
the following equation:

r1890/0033 1-5
c 4.85- 04(/xPy 0.33 + 4.1 "(GY/GXx) 0.67 ( 7

where Cf = packing factor in ft-1
P = liquid viscosity in cp.
Py, px = gas and liquid density, respectively,
in lb/ft3
Equ. 7 has been redived from an appropriate re-
arrangement of Bertetti's equation8, which is an
analytical form of the well-known graphical
flooding relationship9. The numerical constant
in the numerator of equ. 7 has been increased by
a factor of 1.258 and th packing factor, Cf, re-
places the ratio av/e3 where
av = packing surface area per unit volume
in ft-'
e = void fraction.
These two changes bring the GYF predicted by
equ. 7 into closer agreement with the GYF ob-
tained from the latest graphical correlationlo.


A set of oscilloscope subroutines is added to the pro-
gram to give a visual display of the results.

from the latest graphical correlation10.
The input data that the student must intro-
duce into the computer are those data that are
typically known to the designer: the column oper-
ating temperature, the gas pressure, the volu-
metric gas feed rate, and the compositions (mole
fraction) of the entering gas and liquid and the
effluent gas. A number of other required para-
meters related to the physical and chemical prop-
erties of the gas and liquid must also be intro-
duced, such as the molecular weights of the
solute, liquid, and gas; the viscosity and density
of the liquid; and the molar volume and equili-
brium relationship for the solute. Several para-
meters related to the packing are also required
inputs: the packing factor, the packing cost per
cubic foot, and the constants a and n in eqn. (4).
The user specifies a certain multiple (called
FACTR) of the minimum liquid-to-gas ratio at
which to operate. Also, the operating gas rate
is set at a certain fraction (called FF) of the
flooding rate.
The computer obtains the following results:
column diameter, liquid feed rate, packed height,
and effluent liquid composition. These results may
be used directly to compute and minimize those
costs that are significant. Often these will be the
yearly depreciation (TC) on the installation and
two or more operating costs, such as the cost of
operating the gas blower (BC) and the cost of
recovering the solute (DC) from the more or less
dilute solvent liquid" 12. The student is expected
to calculate these costs or to insert into the pro-
gram appropriate equations to calculate them.
Note that the user must specify the cost in dollars
per pound to recover the solute from the liquid
All of the design variables can easily be
changed by the user, either separately or in com-
bination, to simulate the column operation and
allow him to observe the changes in column,
diameter, packed height, and liquid rate and com-
position. There are four groups of variables, cor-
responding to four separate loops in the program.
The first group (NDES) contains the parameters
that are held constant for a single design, such
as the molecular weights of the solute, liquid, and
gas, the density of the liquid, the molar volume
of the solute, the feed compositions, and the gas

feed rate. The other parameters are placed in
three groups to allow for variations on a single
design. The second group of variables (NTEMP)
permits the user to vary the operating tempera-
ture (PVP in the equilibrium eqn. 6 and viscosity
must be changed together with temperature) and
the pressure. The third group (NPACK) con-
tains the parameters for each kind or size of
packing to be tested. The fourth group (NFACT)
contains each set of FACTR and FF at which the
column is to be operated. The four loops in the
program thus will compute a design variation
for each set of data in each group, or a product
of the numbers (NFACT) (NPACK) (NTEMP)
There are some limitations in this program as
it stands. One limitation is that the designer must
check the computed column diameter to be sure
that it is at least eight times the characteristic
length of the packing selected. The choice of eqns.
4 and 5 restricts this program to systems in which
the liquid is water or light hydrocarbons and the
packing is Raschig rings, but other correlations
can be substituted for these. Finally, the form of
eqn. 3 provides an accurate estimate of the HOY
only for those systems which do not have a large
liquid composition difference between the bulk and
the interfacial values.

This absorber design program has been used
for three semesters as an instruction aid in teach-
ing junior chemical engineering students. Toward
the end of the first semester, an informal survey
was made to determine the program's effective-
ness. The results of the survey and the unsolicited
remarks to the instructor indicate that the stu-
dents derived a lot of benefit from using the pro-
gram. Some of the students generated a notice-
able enthusiasm for the design problem and pro-
gram. Several students eagerly modified the pro-
gram to make it compatible with the IBM 1620
(it was written for the CDC 6600) and others
executed it on the teletype time sharing system.
The students found the original program,
which had only two "do loops," inconvenient, so
they added two more loops and thus contributed
much to the final form of the program. In answer
to the question, "What aspect of the design
method seems most difficult to understand?" a
large majority indicated that the concept of the
height of a transfer unit (HTU) was the greatest
problem. The students estimated that they needed


about 30 minutes to look up the required para-
meters, punch the data cards, submit their deck,
and then pick up the output. This was in contrast
to about four hours to do a single design by hand.
It was interesting to discover that only eight
out of thirty-four students had taken a computer
science course. Nearly all of the class had a work-
ing knowledge of how to submit a deck with data
and get the results from the computer. Some had
learned this from using the computer in physical
chemistry laboratory and from a fluid flow and
heat transfer course.
A set of oscilloscope subroutines has been
added to the original program so that the results
can be displayed visually as the student operates
the computer (an SDS 930) from a keyboard.
The display on the cathode ray tube includes the
Y-X coordinates, the equilibrium line, and the
operating line. The transfer units are constructed
between the operating and equilibrium lines using
the approximate method of White and Baker2.
The numerical answers are also displayed on the
oscilloscope. In this way, the operator can explore
the effects of numerous variations in just a few
minutes time. The student response to this modi-
fied program has been even more enthusiastic
than it was with the printed output only.
The authors wish to emphasize that the pro-
gram should not be made available to the students

until they first have learned to complete a full
design by hand calculation. The program is such
a timesaver that one is tempted to use it before
it is understood. Readers may obtain copies of the
program notation, flowchart, and Fortran listing
from the authors.

1. Steward, D. G., "A Survey of Computer-aided Chem-
ical Process Design," Electronic Systems Laboratory
Report ESL-R-304, M.I.T., April, 1967.
2. Treybal, R. E., "Mass-Transfer Operations," 1st
Ed., p. 230, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955.
3. McCabe, W. L., and J. C. Smith, "Unit Operations
of Chemical Engineering," 2nd ed., p. 653, McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1967.
4. Sherwood, T. K., and F. A. L. Holloway, Trans.
AIChE, 36, 39, 1940.
5. Sherwood, T. K., and R. L. Pigford, "Absorption and
Extraction," p. 228, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952.
6. Wilke, C. R., Chem. Eng. Prog., 45, 218, 1949.
7. Koelsch, B. N., AIChE Student Members Bulletin, 7,
39, Fall, 1966.
8. Bertetti, J. W., Trans. AIChE, 38, 1023, 1942.
9. Leva, M., "Tower Packings and Packed Tower De-
sign," 2nd ed., p. 40, U. S. Stoneware Co., Akron,
Ohio, 1953.
10. Treybal, R. E., "Mass Transfer Operations," 2nd
Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.
11. Wroth, W. F., Chem. Eng., 68, 166, July 10, 1961.
12. Van Winkle, M., Personal Communication, Dec.,


The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Conn. 06268

During the last three years, the University of
Connecticut ChE Department has offered a pro-
gram of study in water pollution control. The
treatment of industrial and municipal wastes re-
quires a variety of techniques and processes in-
volving unit operations, transfer processes, reac-
tion kinetics, and process control. Thus, the chem-
ical engineer has substantial background that is
applicable to pollution problems. To contribute
effectively to a broad range of pollution problems,
the chemical engineer needs additional training
in biological processes and sanitary engineering.

Training programs are offered on both the
undergraduate and graduate level. Students in
these programs are educated as chemical engi-
neers with specialized background in environ-
mental engineering. Graduates from these pro-
grams meet all requirements for a degree in
chemical engineering. In addition, they take a
sequence of courses and conduct research in water
pollution control.

Undergraduate Program
Although the major emphasis is on graduate
activities, we feel industry needs BS degree chem-
ical engineers with a background in pollution con-
trol. These engineers would be of special value
to smaller chemical firms that could not justify
a full-time pollution engineer.


mIs mis
Donald W. Sundstrom is Associate Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at The University of Connecticut. He
received BS and MS degrees from Worcester Polytechnic
Institute and a PhD degree from The University of Michi-
gan. Before starting his teaching career, he had several
years of industrial experience with Union Carbide and
Allied Chemical Corporation. (left)
Herbert E. Klei is an Assistant Professor in Chemical
Engineering at The University of Connecticut. He re-
ceived a BS degree from MIT in 1957 and an MS from the
University of Michigan in 1958. After four years with
Chas Pfizer & Co., he received his PhD from The Uni-
versity of Connecticut in 1965. Presently he is studying
the application of automatic control to activated sludge
reactors under an FWPCA grant. (right)

The undergraduate program is incorporated
into the present chemical engineering curriculum
by simply choosing the recommended courses as
electives. These courses give the student back-
ground in microbiology, sanitary engineering,
and the separation methods developed primarily
by chemical engineers. All students, both under-
graduate and graduate, are expected to conduct
research in the waste management field. We feel
that research experience is important to the stu-
dent in developing his ability to analyze and solve
problems in the pollution field.

Table 1. Recommended Electives for Undergraduate

Second, Junior Year Introduction to Microbiology
First, Senior Year Water and Sewage Treatment
(Sanitary Engineering Course)
Introduction to Research
Second, Senior Year Rate Processes in Water Treat-
ment Systems, ChE 281
Introduction to Research

Graduate Program
The MS program consists of 27 to 33 credit hours of
work, including 6 to 9 hours of thesis research. Students
in this program are required to take chemical engineering
graduate courses in thermodynamics, reaction kinetics,
and transfer processes. For electives, they are expected
to take courses in microbiology, sanitary engineering,
and environmental chemical engineering. The electives
outside of chemical engineering provide the students with
needed scientific material in the biological field and ac-
quaint them with the current procedures of sanitary en-
gineering. For an entering graduate student with no
previous background in the area of pollution control,
ChE 281 is also required.
The program at the doctorate level is flexible and is
designed to meet the needs and interests of the individual
student. Although there are no specific course require-
ments for the PhD degree, courses are usually selected
in biochemistry, microbiology, process control, optimiza-
tion, and systems analysis.

Table 2. Recommended MS Curriculum

First Semester
Advanced Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Advanced Transfer Operations I
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Second Semester
Reaction Kinetics
Environmental Elective
Sanitary Engineering Elective
Environmental Systems Analysis, ChE 381

Chemical Engineering Courses

The major contribution of chemical engineers
to water pollution control has been in the areas
of rate processes and systems analysis. Classi-
cally, the water pollution field has been domin-
ated by civil and sanitary engineers, who are
more concerned with flow and structural aspects.
The basic course in our program, "Rate Processes
in Water Treatment Systems" (ChE 281), ap-
plies chemical engineering principles to sanitary
engineering problems. As mentioned previously,
this course is normally taken by seniors or first
year graduate students. Material for this course
is drawn from the fields of microbiology, chem-
istry, sanitary engineering. Since no completely
satisfactory textbook exists and since the litera-
ture is expanding rapidly, the course is based
mainly on recent published articles. An outline


The chemical engineer has a background that is
applicable to pollution problems.

of the course and some selected references are
listed in Table 3.
Systems analysis is introduced into the pro-
gram in a project type graduate level course. In
this course, we emphasize dynamics, control, and
optimization of environmental systems. Typical
project topics have included "Response and Sta-
bility of an Activated Sludge Reactor" and "De-
sign and Control of an Activated Carbon Recov-
ery Process."
Unfortunately, our water resources have only
recently received the attention which they de-
serve. Since the quantity of fresh water in many
areas is severely limited, we will have to do a
better job in managing the available supply. The
quality of our water in the future will be deter-
mined by the extent to which chemical engineers
and others succeed in their effort to improve our
water purification technology.

Table 3. Course Outline for Rate Processes in Water
Treatment Systems

I. Fundamental Principles
A. Nature of aqueous solutions
1. Eisenberg, D., Kauzmann, W., The Structure and
Properties of Water, Oxford Univ. Press, 1969.
2. Gould, R. F., ed., Equilibrium Concepts in Nat-
ural Water Systems, American Chemical So-
ciety, 1967.
B. Mass transfer and chemical reaction in heterogene-
ous systems
1. Astarita, G., Mass Transfer with Chemical Re-
action, American Elsevier, 1967.
2. Den Hartog, H. J., and Beek, W. J., Local Mass
Transfer with Chemical Reaction, Appl. Sci.
Res., 19, 338 (1968).
3. Wen, C. Y., Noncatalytic Heterogeneous Solid-
Fluid Reaction Models, Ind. Eng. Chem., 60 (9),
34 (1968).
II. Biological Phenomena
A. Mass transport to the biological floc
1. Calderbank, P. H., Mass Transfer in Fermenta-
tion Equipment, Ch. 5 in Blakebrough, N., ed.,
Biochemical and Biological Engineering Science,
Vol. 1, Academic Press, 1967.
2. Gulevich, W., Renn, C. E., and Liebman, J. C.,
Role of Diffusion in Biological Waste Treat-
ment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2, 113 (1968).
3. Swilley, E. L., et al., Significance of Transport
Phenomena in Biological Oxidation Processes,
Purdue Univ. Eng. Bull., Ext. Ser. 117, 821
B. Reaction kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic systems
1. Aiba, S., et al., Biochemical Engineering, Aca-
demic Press, 1965.

2. Gates, W. E., et al., A Rational Model for the
Anaerobic Contact Precess, J. Water Pollut.
Cont. Fed., 39, 1951 (1967).
3. Luedeking, R., Fermentation Process Kinetics,
Ch. 6 in Blakebrough, N., ed., Biochemical and
Biological Engineering Science, Vol. 1, Aca-
demic Press, 1967.
C. Design of biological reactors
1. Bischoff, K. B., Optimal Continuous Fermenta-
tion Reactor Design, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 44,
281 (1966).
2. Eckenfelder, W. W., Ford, D. L., Economics of
Wastewater Treatment, Chem. Eng. 76 (19),
109, (1969).
3. Erickson, L. E., et al., Modeling and Optimiza-
tion of Biological Waste Treatment Systems,
Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Ser., 64 (90), 97

III. Physical Methods of Separation
A. Adsorption
1. Weber, W. J., Morris, J. C., Kinetics of Adsorp-
tion on Carbon from Solution, Am. Soc. Civil
Eng. Proc., San. Eng. Div., 89, 31, Apr. 1963.
2. Weber, W. J., Morris, J. C., Equilibria and
Capacities for Adsorption on Carbon, Am. Soc.
Civil Eng. Proc., San. Eng. Div., 90, 79, June
B. Foam fractionation
1. Lemlich, R., Principles of Foam Fractionation,
in E. S. Perry, ed., Process in Separation and
Purification, Vol. 1, Interseience, 1968.
2. Rubin, E., Gaden, E. L., Foam Separation, Ch.
5 in H. M. Schoen, ed., New Chemical Engi-
neering Separation Techniques, Interscience,
C. Membranes
1. Merten, U., Desalination by Reverse Osmosis,
MIT Press, 1968.
2. Michaels, A. S., and Bixler, J. J., Membrane
Permeation: Theory and Practice, in E. S.
Perry, ed., Progress in Separation and Purifica-
tion, Vol. 1, Interscience, 1968.

IV. Chemical Methods of Separation
A. Coagulation
1. Packham, R. F., Polyelectrolytes in Water Clar-
ification, Proc. Soc. Water Treat, Exam., 16
(2), 88 (1967).
2. Stumm, W., and O'Melia, C. R., Stoichiometry
of Coagulation, J. Amer. Water Works Assn.,
60, 514 (1968).
B. Combustion
1. Corey, R. C., Principles and Practices of Incin-
eration, Wiley, 1969.
2. Spalding, D. B., Some Fundamentals of Com-
bustion, Butterworths, 1955.
C. Ion Exchange
1. Applebaum, S. B. Demineralization by Ion Ex-
change, Academic Press, 1968.
2. Arden, T. V., Water Purification by Ion Ex-
change, Plenum Press, 1968.




The Catholic University of America
Washington, D.C. 20017

Suppose we were to organize a football team
and we had a unique training program aimed at
giving the players good fundamentals: the first
year we do nothing but calisthenics; the second
year we add dummy drills to our program; the
third year we let them run patterns; then, finally,
in the fourth year we let them scrimmage and
play. Do yo think that we would be successful?
The answer, as everybody can imagine, is an
emphatic NO because no one would join our team
in the first place since there would simply be no
fun to play on such a team. All training and no
play makes the team dull.
And yet this is precisely an exact image of
the conventional engineering program, chemical
engineering included. During the first three years
the student learns nothing but humanities, pure
and applied sciences which are no doubt of prime
importance in his future career. But he has no
opportunity to see how knowledge learned in these
subjects can be put together in a meaningful way
in solving engineering problems until perhaps the
fourth year when a semi-realistic and fairly well-
defined problem is presented to him in the tradi-
tional design course. By this time the knowledge
he is supposed to use will have become vague
because of the lack of immediate opportunity to
utilize it before. The present engineering pro-
gram, especially the freshman portion, is not one
which will greatly enthuse the student because
he simply cannot see why he should be an engineer
rather than a scientist. Even many of those who
started out in engineering have lost their interest,
thus constituting the major cause of the engineer-
ing mortality rate (50%1 and manpower short-
age2 .
Secondly, solving an engineering problem is
quite different from solving a scientific one both
in their natures and the methods of attack. If
during the fourth year an engineering student
finds that he does not like to solve the open-
ended type of problems usually found in engineer-
ing work, then it will be too late for him to change
to a different field.

Roy Foresti, Jr. is currently head of Chemical Engi-
neering at Catholic University. He received BS degree
from Johns Hopkins University, MS from Carnegie In-
stitute of Technology and PhD ('51) from Pennsylvania
State University. He has held a variety of industrial, re-
search and teaching posts. His research interests and
publications include combustion and flame technology,
thermodynamics, kinetics and rheology. (right)
Marshall M. Lih received BSE degree from the Na-
tional Taiwan University MS and PhD ('62) degrees
from the University of Wisconsin. After spending two
and one-half years with DuPont he joined the Chemical
Engineering Faculty at Catholic University. He is also
a Senior Research Scientist with the National Biomedical
Research Foundation (summers and consulting). His
research interests include biomedical engineering, trans-
port phenomena, kinetics, and catalysis and color tech-
nology. (left)

Therefore, early in the engineering curriculum
we need to show the student the difference be-
tween science and engineering.* We want to
demonstrate to him how an engineer actually
looks at things, how he approaches a problem,
and what economical, sociological and human fac-
tors he has to consider in addition to his technical
problems. That is exactly why at the Catholic
University we offer an introductory engineering
course, ChE 198 Fundamentals of Creative De-
sign, to give the student a chance to be personally
involved in engineering and to create new tools
for mankind.

*Our favorite quote for the students is: "Scientists dis-
cover what is; engineers create what has never been."-
by Theodore von Karman.


Furthermore, our course is vastly different
from the conventional introductory course which
usually deals with the slide rule, computer, meas-
urement, etc. because we want to give the stu-
dents a chance to accomplish something on their
own. Despite all the advancement in science and
the upgrading of requirements in the curriculum,
we are probably not producing graduates with
creativity commensurate with their scientific
knowledge. In fact, with the courses becoming
increasingly highly specialized and structured,
we suspect that their inductive problem-solving
skills have yielded places to deductive skills. We
are not claiming that creativity has actually "de-
generated"; we merely suspect that the develop-
ment of creativity has not kept pace with the
advancement of scientific knowledge. The student
should know that there is a design process by
which he can most effectively use his imagination.

Based on the foregoing premises, our ChE 198
is designed to (1) Give the beginning student a
preview of engineering-its mission, objective,
viewpoint and methodology. (2) Motivate the be-
ginning student by giving him an opportunity to
innovate, to unlimber his imagination before he
enters a highly structured, analysis-oriented edu-
cational program.
Freshman design courses have in recent years
been rapidly increasing in number due to realiza-
tion of such considerations as those set forth
In the summer of 1965, six institutions: The
University of California at Berkeley and Los
Angeles, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Case
Institute of Technology, Dartmouth College, and
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, under the
auspices of the Commission on Engineering Edu-
cation and with NSF funding hosted six Design
Education Workshops across the country, aimed
at sharing their experience with selected design
teachers from other institutions. These Work-
shops advocated different approaches which were
designed for students of different levels, accord-
ing to the interests and experience of the host
institutions. One of the authors (MML) was for-
tunate enough to participate in the one at Dart-
mouth whose ES-21 Introduction to Engineering3
was a sophomore course. The experience of the
summer was extremely enlightening. Based on
his report and recommendations made upon his
return, a new experimental course, ChE 198

Fundamentals of Creative Design, was put into
effect in the Spring of 1966. It was a resounding
success. The second year our enrollment included
students from Mechanical Engineering and Space
Science and Applied Physics Departments. Stu-
dents and staff members from different disciplines
worked well together. Now in its third year, the
course is also taken by non-engineering majors,
including girls* from such departments as Socio-
logy, Economics, and Psychology. Perhaps with
the exception of the computer course, this is the
first time that the Engineering School offers a
service course to arts and sciences students!
Activities of the course can be divided into
two main components, lectures and project, which
are intimately related. The lectures supply know-
ledge needed in the project while the project
complements and illustrates the lectures. To put
it differently, the lectures are given on need-to-
know basis while the project creates the need to
Designed to acquaint the student will all
aspects of engineering, the lecture program in-
cludes such topics as the following:
Patents and Noteboook Keeping Project Plan-
ning and Control Computers-Analog and Digi-
tal Professional Ethics Creativity and Methods
of Innovation Information Storage and Re-
trieval Decision-making Marketing 0 Engineer-
ing Economics Contracts and Legal Aspects of
Engineering Technical Communication (oral and
written) Art of Leadership and Group Psycho-
logy Sociological Impact of Engineering Safety
in Industry Optimization Engineering Mate-
rials Case History Instrumentation Man-
agement of Engineering 0 Human Factors in En-
gineering Conference Leadership Mathematical
This list does not include technical subjects which
are directly related to the project itself. For ex-
ample, in the dental project two years ago, special
seminars were given by and field trips arranged
through the courtesy of responsible professional
people in government and industry.
These general and seemingly "trivial" topics
become a living experience to the students as they
proceed through their projects. Highly idealistic,
many of them are extremely interested in profes-
sional ethics ("shall I tell my roommate what
we're doing?") and sociological impace (such as
*The problem with girls is that we have to keep an eye
on them so that the boys will not employ them exclusively
for secretarial duties.


The world of Union Oil

salutes the world

of chemical engineering

We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges
and universities which educate chemical engineers.
Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute
immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The thirtieth largest manufacturing company in
the United States, with operations throughout
the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas
in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's
Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro-
chemicals throughout the free world.
Our research scientists are constantly discovering new
ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted
more than 2,700 U.S. patents.
We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such
diverse projects as developing new refining processes,
developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and
the conservation of air and water.
Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic.
Tomorrow will be even more stimulating. j
Thanks largely to people who join us from leading
institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and
challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil?
Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.


machines replacing men). The importance of
technical communication is never so real as when
one has to stand up to convince a group of experts
and to defend his design. Cost accounting, market
and financial analysis, patent regulations, project
planning and control, creative methods, informa-
tion retrieval, human engineering and conference
leadership have been found no less useful.

The other main ingredient of the course is an
open-ended, comprehensive project which the stu-
dents, working in teams of approximately six
each, are required to complete in one semester.
Each "company," as we prefer to call it to create
a more realistic atmosphere, is assigned an in-
structor who is referred to as the "company con-
sultant." In the "game" we play, he acts as the
"coach"; but when the emphasis is on the project
as a course, he assumes the teacher's role which
includes amplifying the lecturer's point and
applying it to the specific project on hand, critiqu-
ing student's work and reports and the pleasant
(or unpleasant?) job of grading them. In our
experience, the rank and age of the instructor are
immaterial as long as he takes an active interest
in the students and has reasonable industrial and
design experience of which, of course, the more
the better.
Each company has its own student officers (President
or Chief Engineer, and others) who take active leadership
roles. Currently we are experimenting with a system
whereby each student is responsible for one of the approx-
imately six phases of the project.
The companies are contracted by a manufacture com-
pany* which feels a certain need, or has a general idea,
for a new product or process. It asks for a more specific
design, complete with technical and economic analysis,
market survey, drawings and/or prototype to show that
it will be a product that will benefit the society as well
as earn the client company monetary return should it go
into the fanufacture of this product or adopt this process.
The problem statement is contained in a business-like
communication to the student companies, who then submit
a written proposal and orally present it to a panel of
expert judges retained by the client company. After the
project is accepted for "funding," each company is re-
quired to submit a progress report to the client at the end
of each phase. A final design report is submitted and
public presentation made at the end of the term to a
panel of experts who, instead of electing a winner or giv-

*This company used to be a fictitious one consisting of
faculty members. But this year, with "Project I-Cube"
(International Innovations and Inventions), a real organ-
ization, VITA (Volunteers for International Technical
Assistance), is the client.

The other main ingredient of the course is an
open-ended, comprehensive project

ing out prizes, critique the student's work-product and
procedure. (That is why internally we like to call them
"evaluators" instead of "judges.") Intro-company indi-
vidual reports are required by the company leadership
according to the general guidelines for the entire course.
Among the project themes we have chosen, "Project
I-Cube" two years ago, was to design something to help
people in developing countries. This "something" must
be affordable by the local populace and utilize local
resources. The four Companies work in four different
areas, namely: solar-powered water lifting device, a pub-
lic water supply system for the Barriadas in Peru, sanita-
tion and public health system in Nicaragua and profitable
utilization of lumber resources in Chile. The projects are
full of international flavor. For example, in addition to
having instructors from four different countries, the Vice
President of Nicaragua, on his visit to Washington,
assigned one of his Embassy staff to regularly help out
a particular student group. We have also corresponded
with agencies of foreign countries to obtain their experi-
Last year we asked the students to design
something to facilitate the conversion to the
metric system. (Have you heard of a dual-thread
British-Metric screw? It really works!) This
coming spring we are going to work on our en-
The students are required to budget their time
and money which consists of the real and "paper"
categories. Via this they are led to the concept
of planned invention and are made aware of the
cost of time, man-power and such things as over-
head cost contingency allowance, profit allow-
ance, etc.
Three textbooks4 5 8 have been tried in the
course so far. They are used more or less as
source books or guides with suggested reading
assigned for each week as the project progresses.
Other books6-17 have been considered and recom-
mended as references.


One great feature of our program is the ex-
tensive contribution made by outside experts
holding responsible positions in industry and gov-
ernment. For this we are extremely fortunate and
thankful. Most of them are guest lecturers. They
have come very willingly, offering more help than
we ever expected to trouble them with. The stu-
dents gain tremendously from listening to and
discussing problems with these real-life experts.


... Whylshouldlnot, liberal arts majors not take at least one engineering course?....

To many the mere experience of sitting in a rela-
tively small group with a prominent person is the
greatest thing that has happened in their lives.
After the lecture they can "hire" the lecturer as
a special consultant to help them with their own
specific problems. The client company also hires
them occasionally to act as judges for the presen-
The second outstanding feature is the realistic
environment we provide. Ninety percent of the
time we treat them as business associates or
counterparts rather than students. We address
them as such in our "contracts," in intercompany
communications and in presentations which range
from the formal auditorium-type to informal con-
ference-room get-togethers. The judges are urged
to give them as realistic a going-over as possible,
from such things as wrong definitions of the prob-
lem, design contradicting physical laws to such
things as unsatisfactory items in the budget.
The students answer this challenge with an
equally, if not more so, impressive and realistic
effort. Their footprints cover such places as the
patent office, government and industrial labora-
tories and libraries, the dentist's office, barber
shops and union. They make both telephone and
mail surveys. They phone and write real manu-
facturers for technical and market information.
And, to the judges scrutinization, they offer ma-
ture answers, even occasional rebuttals. After
serving as one of the judges, one of our colleagues
volunteered: "This is the greatest thing that has
happened around here." This is typical of the
comments we have received from both "insiders"
and "outsiders."
Being chemical engineers offering this course,
we have deliberately chosen projects which have
potential chemical solutions. Admittedly the stu-
dents' background in chemistry is not very strong
at this point and the development of a suitable
chemical requires time and the tenacity to endure
government food and regulations, they are never-
theless made to study some of the existing and
related chemical products.
An innovative feature of this program is that,
with gratifying cooperation from our liberal arts
colleagues, we have begun to enroll non-engineer-
ing students in our course. We feel that our
present-day technology is so encompassing that
mutual understanding, cooperation and cross-
fertilization among various technical and non-

technical disciplines are indispensable. After all,
engineering students do take a number of liberal
arts courses. Why should liberal arts majors not
take at least one engineering course? Among
some of our enthusiastic course alumni are econo-
mists, psychologists and sociologists who have
perceived the need to know some engineering-
not necessarily the technical aspect, but at least
the engineering process-in order to work with
engineers in the future.
Our success with this course and our experi-
ence in doing international technical assistance
projects have attracted the personal attention of
Dr. John A. Hannah, AID Administrator, and
won us the unusual opportunities of conducting
similar workshops for chosen foreign students
these past two summers, under the sponsorship
of AID and the African-American Institute. This
is a particularly relevant part of their training
since a little creativity could go a long way in
utilizing local resources to develop the economy
of their respective home countries.

Our experience in offering our own program
and in participating elsewhere has shown that
the student can be led to better utilize his crea-
tivity. By providing him with an atmosphere
where free expression of ideas is encouraged and
properly guided, his imagination can be made
more productive. This is the innovation aspect of
this program.
Secondly, the motivation aspect has also been
achieved. We do not necessarily mean that stu-
dents come out with better grades in subsequent
courses. But to the best of our observation, they
have in general become more enthusiastic and
responsive. They now take a more active interest
in their chosen profession.
Moreover, this course also serves as a bridge
to bring students and faculty closer together early
in their education. Because of this early contact
with engineering, the student feels more at home
with the engineering school, his department and
faculty. He feels that he belongs. Now his advisor
is literally an advisor, not just the Professor
What's-His-Name who only signs the registration
card. He is the person whom the student can bring
his problems to, whether academic or social.
At the end of each year's course, we ask each
student to fill out an extensive, anonymous ques-


Excellent Text
that can be warmly recommended as an introduction to balances, for it
takes proper account of the nature of the subject and at the same time
leads to the use of the proper tools."
-Professor Rutherford Aris
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Minnesota
By ERNEST J. HENLEY, University of Houston; and
EDWARD M. ROSEN, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri.
This is the first book to bring material and energy balance into modern
focus. An excellent introduction for one- or two-semester engineering
courses, the book stresses the problem of seeking and applying the physical
and mathematical principles of material and energy techniques. The subject
is approached from two viewpoints-covering the material for the engineer
who will do his work with a slide rule, and for the engineer who will work
with a computer-and the differences between the two approaches are
emphasized. A Volume in the Chemical Engineering Outline Series.
1969 577 pages $14.95

Another important text for electrical engineering students-
all of Oregon State University.
On an introductory level, this textbook presents the traditionally separate fields of
momentum transfer (fluid mechanics), heat transfer, and mass transfer (diffusion)-
all from a unified viewpoint. The similar means of describing the various processes
are stressed; and it is shown how information on one area may be extrapolated to
provide an understanding of the other types of transfer.
1969 Approx. 672 pages $16.50
The only text focusing on the sociology of engineering-
Edited by ROBERT PERRUCCI, Purdue University; and
JOEL GERSTL, Temple University.
The only book of its kind, this text provides a detailed examination of the engineer-
ing profession within the social and historical context of American society. The
authors study the social origins, values, and career patterns of members of the
profession, occasionally contrasting the facts with data from other countries.
1969 344 pages $9.95

605 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016
In Canada: John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd.
22 Worcester Roard, Rexdale, Ontario

* . This course also serves as a bridge to bring
students and faculty closer together early . .

tionnaire rating every aspect of this course. An
outstanding conclusion from these cumulative
data is the supreme importance of the company
consultant (instructor). Not only his personal
reputation is on the line, but the student's impres-
sion of the entire course (even the guest lectures
his company consultant has nothing to do with)
depends on the latter's ability to interest and
inspire. The company consultant is the one who
could make this course demanding and reward-
ing, or simply a drag.
Other significant reactions of students are
that they rate very highly the major reports and
presentations, opportunity to create, stimulating
their interest in engineering, quality of effort re-
quired, sense of accomplishment and the value of
this course in their overall education. They said
that they could do without tougher judges.
Problem selection is extremely important. It
should be one that all instructors are reasonably
enthused about, though not necessarily in the
special areas of competence of everyone. It should
be one with great local interest or appeal so that
guest speakers and consultants can be obtained
easily. Other local cooperation are also essential.
We hope to involve more and more liberal arts
students in this course, even if this only serves
"cultural" purposes, just as liberal arts courses
do for engineering students. For engineering is
at the heart of 20th Century culture. It is in
everyone's daily life. If a housewife understands
some basic engineering principles, she may be-
come a better cook by more properly utilizing her
stove and oven, and the life expectancy of the
family car may be prolonged. Unfortunately, in-
stead, we see, week after week, students (mostly
liberal arts majors) fumbling on the simplest
technical questions on the "College Bowl" TV
program while recalling down to the last detail
titles of literary works and names of authors,
artists and composers. It is common to find the
engineer a better conversationalist among arts
and humanities majors than one of them in a
group of engineers. The engineer is, therefore,
perhaps the most cultural of all people, if culture
is properly defined to include all of the main in-
gredients of our civilization.
We also feel that a modified version of this
course to service high-school students can be of
great value as a career guidance device

1. Beakley, G. C., Address to the University of Texas,
College of Engineering, Teaching Effectiveness Col-
loquium, November 17, 1966.
2. Beller, W. S., "Long Term Engineering Shortage
Seen," Technology Week, p. 28, March 20, 1967.
3. "Teaching the Realities of Engineering," Chem Eng.
71 (3) 106 (February 3, 1964).
4. Buhl, H. R., "Creative Engineering Design," Iowa
State U. Press, Ames (1960).
5. Krick, E. V., "An Introduction to Engineering and
Engineering and Engineering Design" Wiley and
Sons, New York (1965).
6. Alger, J. R. M. and Hays, C. V., "Creative Synthesis
in Design," Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
7. Asimov, M., "Introduction to Design," Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, N. J. (1962).
8. Liston, J. and Stanley, P. E., "Creative Product
Evolvement," Balt, W. Lafayette, Ind. (1964).
9. Osborn, A. F., "Applied Imagination," Scribner's
Sons, New York.
10. Starr, M. K., "Product Design and Decision Theory,"
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. (1963).
11. Arnold, J. E. "The Creative Engineer," ASME,
New York.
12. Easton, W. H., "Creative Thinking and How to De-
velop It," ASME, N. Y.
13. Randsepp, E., "30 Attributes of the Creative Engi-
neer," Machine Design, May 28, June 11 and 25, 1959.
14. Woodson, W. S., "Creative Techniques-A Compara-
tive Analysis," J. of Ind. Eng. X V (2) 60 (Mar.-
Apr. 1964).
15. Taylor and Barron, "Scientific Creativity: Its Recog-
nition and Development," Wiley and Sons, New York
16. Smith, Ralph J., "Engineering as a Career',, 2nd
ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1962).
17. Wilson, W. E., "Concepts of Engineering System De-
sign," McGraw-Hill New York (1965).
18. Edel, D. H. et al. "Introduction to Creative Design,"
Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1967).

(Continued from page 27)
thetic "Establishment" ear for their problems.
Fourth, a specially-tailored course for the second
semester of the freshman year was developed as
a result of interviews of freshmen by an ad hoc
faculty committee. The freshmen lamented
"Where is the engineering?" in a curriculum then
consisting of mathematics, physics, chemistry,
English and physical education or ROTC. There
also seemed a definite need to answer the ques-
tion "What is engineering?" The course meets
once a week for two hours under supervision of
senior faculty, and is devoted to the conduct and
data analysis of experiments from all fields of


Purdue University Study
It appears that Purdue University, and par-
ticularly its Department of Freshman Engi-
neering, has made more studies of the attrition
problem than any other school or organization.
Some 50 studies are said to have been made.
Two reports of this work will be reviewed here.
The first is a study of the relationship between
social class background and success in the fresh-
man engineering program.7 Social class was
dichotomized into a higher level and a lower level
based on fathers' source of income and educa-
tional level. Students' performance was found
to be quite dependent on social class, with the
likelihood of success in the engineering program
increasing in the higher social class. A number
of non-intellectual factors were evaluated:
The greater the amount of his educational expenses
provided by a student (rather than coming from
his parents), the more likely he is to succeed in
the engineering program. This effect appears
independently of social class.
Students who live in fraternity houses are more
likely to withdraw from engineering than are
students who lived in dormitories or off campus.
Factors found to be not significant to performance
when controlled to social class where: mothers'
brothers' and sisters' education, geographical
origin and type of community (urban-rural).
Several other evaluations resulted from the study.
Both the successful and unsuccessful students
felt that the amount of work required in the
courses was reasonable. The unsuccessful stu-
dents were more likely to rate the freshman
counselling services as being helpful. The unsuc-
cessful students also were more likely to have
taken an aptitude test.
Professor William LeBold of Purdue has been
conducting research for 10 years in the char-
acteristics of engineering and science students
and graduates.8 He states that practically no
correlation has been found between non-cognitive
factors and achievement in engineering studies.
However, he finds that the first semester, and
even more so the second semester, performance
of an engineering freshman is a very good predic-
tor of the student's cumulative undergraduate
performance. In fact, first semester performance
is three times as effective in predicting under-
graduates' final grade point average as is high
school class standing, and twice as effective as
class standing and' entrance examination score
taken together. This strong correlation has been
demonstrated to hold for students who transfer

to major universities from junior college or their

Carnegie-Mellon, Cornell and Washington Studies
Carnegie-Mellon has studied the performance
of the class which entered in 1962, and the fol-
lowing judgments were made upon the members
of that class who entered the College of Engineer-
ing and Science.2 The best single predictor of
academic performance is college board score, but
there is no obvious college board score to select
as the minimum for admission. They suggest
that a prospective student having a marginal
college board score be further evaluated by
"plusses" and "minuses" awarded from a derived
matrix of values for number of high school
activities, parents' educational level, and other
factors. Student performance was also recog-
nized as being dependent on other and unmeas-
ured variables such as dorm living conditions,
teacher-student relationships, etc.
The Registrar at Cornell produces an "Under-
graduate Attrition Report" biennially in which
the status of matriculants is reported for each
college as numbers: graduated on schedule in (a)
college of matriculation or (b) another college,
still pursuing degree past scheduled graduation,
and non-graduates no longer at Cornell. These
reports in general do not seek out criteria for
successful performance. However, the 1966 re-
port notes a large increase in the percentage of
engineers graduating on schedule.3 This increase
is attributed to two factors: a change from a five-
year to a four-year Bachelor's program, and the
establishment of a basic engineering program
providing excellent counselling to beginning
In 1962, the University of Washington (Seat-
tle) began keeping close records of students en-
tering engineering there directly from high
school. The accumulated data for the classes en-
tering in 1962, 1963, 1964 and 1965 were
recently reported.9 Further correlation and study
of the data are to be pursued, but some very
interesting information already has been identi-
field. First, the high school grade point average
(GPA) of entering engineering students has
held fairly constant from year to year, and does
not differ significantly from the GPA of all fresh-
men entering the University. Mathematical pro-
ficiency of the entering engineering students has
increased markedly during the period. The year-
by-year performance of each class is broken down


in the report by those continuing in engineering,
voluntarily withdrawing, transferring to other
studies, or dropped for low scholarship. Follow-
ing are the average retention figures as percent-
ages of entering freshmen:
At the End of Year Still in Engineering
Freshman 70%
Sophomore 48%
Junior 43%
Senior 40%
Graduated on Schedule 15%
Graduated during Fifth Year 20%
There was very little variation in the year-by-
year performance of the four classes. For 86%
of the students, their University of Washington
cumulative GPA changed by less than 0.5 of a
grade point. This seems to support Professor
LeBold's observation that first semester perform-
ance is the best single predictor of success. Ten
percent of the students who persisted through
four years of engineering studies earned a better
cumulative GPA than they had in high school.
Many statistics are contained in this report deal-
ing with the destinations of students who left
engineering, high school and university grade
point comparisons, etc.

Other Studies
An ASEE study of engineering enrollment
and attrition,10 and an EJC Manpower Commis-
sion report" have also come to the attention of
the writer. The EJC report shows that retention
rates of freshmen engineering classes have de-
clined fairly uniformly from a figure of about
65 percent in 1952 to 50 percent in 1962. The
report also recommends remedial measures quite
similar to those given in the Michigan State
There is some evidence that this long-term
decline in engineering undergraduate retention
rate may to some extent be caused by continually
increasing expectations of students by educators,
who in turn may be reflecting industry expecta-
tions. The Learning Resources Center of the
University of Tennessee recently published ma-
terial suggesting such a cause.12 Following are
some items from that publication:
In a four-year study at the University of Georgia,
college GPA's declined eight percent for successive
classes of entering freshmen while their class SAT
verbal scores had been increasing ten percent.
At Berkeley, 30 percent of a freshman class had
GPA's below C even though all members of the
class graduated in the top one-eighth of their high
school class.

A professor of calculus, not knowing he had been
assigned a class of superior students who had
received only A's in all previous mathematics
courses, gave the usual distribution of A through
F grades on the first examination. The students
made the situation known to him, he relented at
the end of the term to a distribution of 40 per-
cent A's, 50 percent B's and 10 percent C's.
A survey of 300 institutions showed overall grade-
point-average distributions to be quite similar in
those institutions which admitted only superior
students and those that had no selective admissions
In a five-year period at the University of Tennes-
see, college GPA's declined ten percent for suc-
cessive classes of entering freshmen while their
mean composite ACT scores were increasing ten

These seem to constitute evidence that our stand-
ards for the Bachelor's degree are being raised
at a pace which can be matched by an ever
smaller proportion of our students.
Hopefully, the foregoing material on attrition will pro-
vide an ample base from which the Education Projects
Committee and interested members of Council can map
a suitable next action. Sincere appreciation is extended
to the questionnaire-plagued department heads who com-
pleted the one sent out in this study, and particularly to
Professors H. L. Toor, Robert York, M. H. Chetrick, John
Happel, R. A. Greenkorn and R. W. Moulton who provided
the reports on pertinent work at their schools.

1. Turner, J. C. R., British Chemical Engineering, 12,
630-632 (1967).
2. Abel, W. H., Part II, Research Note No. 6, Office of
Institutional Studies, Carnegie-Mellon U., March
3. Registrar's Office Undergraduate Attrition Report,
Cornell U., Nov. 1, 1966.
4. Augustine, R. D., "Persistence and Attrition of En-
gineering Students," Office of Dean of Engineering,
Michigan State U., Aug. 1966.
5. Klein, W. J., New York University Alumni News,
March 1965.
6. Rabins, M. J., Engineering Education, 345-6, May
7. Kallas, G. J., M. S. Thesis in Sociology, Purdue U.,
June 1961.
8. Backgrounder, Schools of Engineering, Purdue U.,
April 1966.
9. McNeese, D. C., "Engineering Students' Performance,
1962-67," College of Engineering, U. of Washington
(Seattle), January 1968.
10. "Factors Influencing Engineering Enrollment,"
American Society of Engineering Education, 1965.
11. "Engineering Student Attrition," Engineering Man-
power Commission, Engineers Joint Council, April
12. "Grades and Grading,"," Learning Resources Center,
U. of Tennessee, Fall 1966.


We have a growing need
for chemical engineers.

Union Camp today is 14,000 people
working together for the preservation
and effective utilization of 1.7 million
acres of land. And we're committed to
growth. Our net sales in 1968 were up
about 20% over those of 1967-and we
anticipate a growth of 28% in 1969, com-
pared to 1968. And that's a lot better
than the increase in gross national
product, population, or practically any
of the usual yardsticks for measuring
corporate growth.

We're looking for talented imagina-
tive chemical engineers to grow with
us. Men who thrive on challenge. Men
who will be the key to Union Camp's
future success.
Opportunities for chemical engineers
exist in design and development of new
processes, process improvement and
control and product development. Spe-
cific project areas include wood pulp-
ing, chemicals recovery, pulp treatment,
paper manufacturing, environmental

control, and organic chemical produc-
tion from wood by-products (the largest
such operation in the forest products
industry). Positions are presently avail-
able in production, technical service,
sales and research and development.
For more information on career op-
portunities write to Corporate College
Relations, Union Camp Corporation,
1600 Valley Road, Wayne, New Jersey

An equal opportunity employer







Esso Research and Engineering
Company, the principal technical
affiliate of Standard Oil Company
(N. J.), provides research and en-
gineering services to 250 world-
wide affiliates with assets of over
thirteen billion dollars.
The Chemical Engineer plays a
vital role in helping us meet these
vast responsibilities. But most
important to him, he functions in
an environment as dedicated as
that of the university Chemical
Engineering department. For our

ultimate goal is the same as that
of the university; namely the ex-
tension of knowledge and the bet-
terment of the human condition
through long-term fundamental
and applied research, and the
accomplishment of immediate ob-
jectives through the economical
design and operation of plants
and equipment.
Whether he possesses a B.S., an
M.S., or a PhD., and whether he
works in Product/Process Re-
search and Development, Appli-

cations and Technical Services,
Process Engineering, Project De-
sign or Process Selection and
Economics, the Chemical Engi-
neer serves with his professional
peers. He learns from them; he
teaches them. But he advances
as far as his own talents take
him, wherever his interests lead
him; either in a technical or ad-
ministrative capacity.
Total involvement . in a total
chemical engineering environ-
ment. That's Esso.

For full details on the opportunities available, contact:
Dr. P. H. Watkins, Employment Coordinator, Dept. CS27

P.O. BOX 175, Linden, New Jersey 07036
An Equal Opportunity Employer (M/F)

Full Text