Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00025
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text

ceia engineering educaio







Esso Research and Engineering ultimate goal is the same as that cations and Technical Services,
Company, the principal technical of the university; namely the ex- Process Engineering, Project De-
affiliate of Standard Oil Company tension of knowledge and the bet- sign or Process Selection and
(N. J.), provides research and en- terment of the human condition Economics, the Chemical Engi-
gineering services to 250 world- through long-term fundamental neer serves with his professional
wide affiliates with assets of over and applied research, and the peers. He learns from them; he
thirteen billion dollars, accomplishment of immediate ob- teaches them. But he advances
The Chemical Engineer plays a jectives through the economical as far as his own talents take
vital role in helping us meet these design and operation of plants him, wherever his interests lead
vast responsibilities. But most and equipment. him; either in a technical or ad-
important to him, he functions in Whether he possesses a B.S., an ministrative capacity.
an environment as dedicated as M.S., or a PhD., and whether he Total involvement . in a total
that of the university Chemical works in Product/Process Re- chemical engineering environ-
Engineering department. For our search and Development, Appli- ment. That's Esso.
For full details on the opportunities available, contact:
Dr. P. H. Watkins, Employment Coordinator, Dept.
P.O. BOX 175, Linden, New Jersey 07036
An Equal Opportunity Employer (M/F)

Chemical Engineering Education

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601



Editor: Ray Fahien 107 Report to our Readers
Editor: Ray Fabian

Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

CENTRAL: James Weber
Chairman of Publication Board
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
EAST: Robert Matteson
College Relations
Sun Oil Company
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19100
E. P. Bartkus
Secretary's Department
E. I. du Pont de Nemours
Wilmington, Delaware 19898
Peter Lederman
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute
Brooklyn, New York 11201
NORTHEAST: James M. Douglas
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105
J. A. Bergantz
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14200
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

108 Letters

110 The Educator
Dean Max Peters

124 Views and Opinions
The Dilemma of Innovating Societies,
A. G. Frederickson

126 The Classroom
Transport Phenomena Equations of Change
V. J. Lee

118 The Laboratory
A Microcatalytic Tracer Experiment, R. W.
Neumann, S. E. Riffle, S. T. Swenson, and
J. W. Hightower.

128 Book Review

142 Problems for Teachers

150 Departments of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida,
Ray Fahien

160 Division Activities
154 The Curriculum
Flexible Curricula Can Be Strong,
Ray Fahien, Mack Tyner, R. A. Keppel.

Feature Articles
113 Optimization Applications and Limitations,
R. R. Hughes

130 A Self-pacing, Auto-graded Course,
G. D. Shilling.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., 137 E. Wisconsin
Ave., DeLand, Florida 32720. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year to non-members of the ChE division of ASEE and $6 per year to members.
Individual copies of Vol. 2 and 3 are $8 each.







Chlor-Alkali Products
Ammonia Process Development,
Augusta, Ga. Phosphates Design, Maintenance,
Brandenburg, Ky. Urea Planning, Scheduling,
Charleston, Tenn. Nitrogen ChE Production, Sales,
Joliet, III. Acids ME Production, Sales,
CHEMICALS Lake Charles, La. Hydrazine IE Accounting,
-Inorganic Little Rock, Ark. Petrochemicals Chemistry Marketaing,
-Organic & McIntosh, Ala. Insecticides Accounting Financial Analysis,
Specialty New Haven, Conn. Pesticides Business Adm. Distribution,
-Agricultural Niagara Falls, N.Y. Polyurethane Transportation Project Engineering
Pasadena, Texas Carbon Dioxide Marketing (Plant Startup &
Rochester, N.Y. Animal Health Construction),
Saltville, Va. Products Research Engineering,
Automotive Chemicals Technical Service
Other derivatives

Alumina ChE
Burnside, La. Aluminum IE Manufacturing
METALS Chattanooga, Tenn. Aluminum Extrusions ME Production
-Aluminum Gulfport, Miss. Aluminum Sheet, Plate, Metallurgy Sales
-Brass Hannibal, Ohio Coils Met. Engineering Mae -
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New Haven, Conn. Sheet & Strip Brass Business Adm. Finance
Sedalia, Mo. Roll Bond Ind Tech. Metals R&D
Wire & Cable Ind. Mgmt.

Carbonizing Paper Marketing
Fine Printing Papers ChE Process Engineering
FOREST PRODS, West Monroe, La. Specialty Paper Chemistry Plant Engineering
PAPER & FILM Pisgah Forest, N.C. Products Pulp & Paper Research & Dev.
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-Ecusta Filters IE Systems Engineering
-Film Cellophane ME Production
Kraft Bags Mathematics Management
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Corrugated Containers Development
Olinkraft Lumber Accounting

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Smokeless Ball
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Ind. Tech.
Business Adm.
Personnel Mgt.
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Production Control
Plant Engineering
Financial Analysis.



REPORT to our Readers
Chemical Engineering Education has now
published six issues and completed one and a half
years of publication at the University of Florida.
It is both surprising and gratifying to the editors
that the publication continues to be well-received
by the profession. Although we have expected
our luck to run out, each issue seems to bring
forth new commendatory letters and comments
and there seems to be general agreement that the
publication is filling an important need. We very
much appreciate these expressions of support,
but we realize that we are still amateurs in the
publishing business. We cannot compete with
commercial ventures or professional journals that
are published by large societies and supported by
During the past year we have again had an
excellent response from our colleagues who have
submitted manuscripts for publication. We have
not been able to accept all papers submitted to us
(rejected papers have usually been negatively re-
viewed, but a few have been deemed inappropri-
ate for our journal.) Our editorial policy in each
issue has been either to emphasize some particu-
lar theme or to try to achieve a balance among
articles. The latter means not only that we try
to have an article for every recurring department
(e.g. Chemical Engineering Classroom), but also
that we try to have represented in the issue the
various technical areas of the profession. We also
try to achieve balance among articles published
in terms of type of school (public, private, gradu-
ate-oriented, undergraduate-oriented, etc.) and
geographical location. While we have appreciated
the opportunity to publish papers from some well-
known people in the profession, we do not in any
way discriminate against lesser-known but cap-
able people from the undergraduate-oriented
schools. We feel our journal is for the profession
as a whole and not just an elite group or "in-
group" of any kind.
The above policies also apply to the selection
of our featured departments and featured educa-
tors. Here we have generally had an excellent
response from people whom we have asked to
write articles. However, there were two schools
who were unable to submit a department article
for this issue. As a result we have been forced to
get together a last minute article on our own de-
partment-even though we have assiduously
tried to avoid using articles from our own de-

apartment in the journal. (Apparently we have
been reasonably successful in not playing up our
department, since a good number of visitors have
commented on the journal without knowing we
were publishing it!)
In order to survive it is necessary that we
receive the financial support of departments, ad-
vertisers, and industrial donors. We have appre-
ciated the fact that, due to the efforts of Joe
Bergantz, nearly 100 departments are now con-
tributing to CEE! However, last fall, the pros-
pects for advertisements and donations seemed
so gloomy, that we reduced our number of pages
by eight. Since then, I am happy to report, the
yeoman efforts of Professor Weber and the Pub-
lication Board have been paying off. It now looks
like our combined industrial advertising and do-
nation income will be within a few hundred
dollars of last year's figure and could even be
more than last year! Even brighter, however,
are the prospects for the success of George Bur-
net's suggestion that the fall issue go to seniors
interested in graduate work and that we seek
departmental ads on graduate programs for the
fall issue. Professor Bergantz states that now
about 30 departments have indicated that they
intend to buy a total of $3000 of such advertising
of which the increased costs of printing additional
pages and 2000 more copies will be about half
that amount.
Incidentally, since the Fall issue of CEE will
carry paid advertisements from ChE depart-
ments and will go to seniors interested in gradu-
ate work, we felt the editorial content should em-
phasize basic areas of instruction and research in
graduate studies. Accordingly prominent chem-
ical engineering scholars will write on their grad-
uate courses in certain important areas (such as
control and optimization, thermodynamics, kinet-
ics, applied mathematics, particular systems,
etc.). Each article will outline a graduate course
and indicate important areas of research in the
field. In this manner we hope to encourage more
seniors to continue their intellectual growth in
graduate school.
P.S. The Publications Board recently approved,
effective January 1970, a charge to ChE Division
members of $6/yr. each for subscriptions. Bulk
subscriptions to departments will be $4/yr. each
with a minimum charge of $25. We expect to
reach more faculty members this way and also to
generate additional income.



P.S. We have a few words of instruction for fu-
ture authors. Because of the limited amount of
space available, the articles, papers or reports
submitted to CEE should be concise, lucid and
also brief. Follow nomenclature of standard text-
books or write equations or formulas clearly. Use
consistent units of measurement and give dimen-
sions for all terms.

Assume your reader has some expertise in the
field and minimize the amount of historical back-
ground included. Avoid tables and graphs which
involve duplication or unnecessary data. Fre-
quently a graph or a few typical results may be
substituted for a lengthy table.
Two copies of a paper are sufficient for review.
After a paper has been accepted for publication,
the author should send the editor a short biog-
raphy and photo of himself to use with the
article. M.T.


The /mUaowUim campaW"ie^ htcdw Jaiwpao4 d heowa
eafiesUtorf Cdoa-iAw d&WiMw de 'paji ye"' dphaaih

do4Ua&OH4 in &eM 4 ad aude4&Ui.


from the READERS

Correction from Lih
Sir: The beginning of the article on Stu Churchill (CEE
Spring 1969) clearly illustrates what the chemical engi-
neering teacher has to do these days. You have to stand
on your head to catch the attention of students. Perhaps
this is why Professor Churchill has been so successful
and has had to engage in all sorts of athletic activities
to keep it up.
The Japanese (and Chinest as well) character for
HYO (leopard) is upside down.
Marshall M. Lih
Catholic University

Statistical Study
Sir: We have made a study which attempts to relate
mathematically the number of staff members of profes-
sional rank required in a chemical engineering depart-

ment to the numbers of bachelors, masters and doctors
graduated per year. No similar study could be found
in the literature.
One purpose of this study was to analyze the relation-
ship between the number of persons of professorial rank
required in a chemical engineering program and the num-
bar of students to be graduated per year at various degree
levels. In light of the rapid expansion currently taking
place in most universities it is important that this rela-
tionship be understood in order that intelligent admin-
istrative and educational decisions and forecasts may be
attempted. In the present study this relationship is
analyzed only for chemical engineering programs since
this case was of immediate concern to the authors. The
main problem involves estimating how much of the total
variability in the number of professors of chemical en-
gineering from university to university is due to the
different numbers of degrees granted, and how much is
due to "other factors" such as
Different emphasis on research activities
Different policies concerning the amount of admin-
istrative work to be performed by the professors


Different professor-student ratios
Different student attrition or "drop-out" rates
Different amounts of teaching done by non-profes-
sional staff members
Different numbers of students per class
Henceforth, these "other factors" will be referred to as
educational, administrative and research policies.
If it is assumed that the departments of chemical
engineering in our American colleges and universities
have the same educational, administrative and research
policies, the following equation will hold.
P = A0 + A1B + A2M + A3D (1)
where P is the number of full-time teaching schedules
required in the professorial ranks (total of Assistant,
Associate and Full), B, M, and D are, respectively, the
number of bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees
granted per year, and A1, A2 and A0 represent respec-
tively the additional numbers of professors needed for
each additional bachelor's master's or doctoral degree
granted per year.
However, as would be expected, deviations from Eq. 1
are observed, presumably because universities do not
have the same educational, administrative and research
policies and are at considerably different stages of devel-
opment. In order to estimate the proportion of the total
variation due to the different numbers of degrees granted
and how much is due to the difference in educational,
administrative and research policies, the technique of
least squares was used.
Data from accredited chemical engineering depart-
ments of 97 universities for the academic year 1964-1965
were gathered from Chemical Engineering Faculties of
Canada and the United States, which is compiled annu-
ally by the Chemical Engineering Projects Committee of
AIChE. For each of the 97 universities, the number of
professorial schedules in chemical engineering was ob-
tained along with the number of bachelor's, master's
and doctor's degrees granted. By calculations performed
on an IBM 7040 digital computer, the least squares
estimates of A0, A1, A2, and A3 were found to be 3.40,
0.06, 0.15 and 0.43 respectively, yielding the equation
P = 3.40 + 0.06B + 0.15M + 0.43D (2)
Thus we can estimate that for every additional pro-
fessor employed, schools can grant, on the average, an
additional 16-2/3 bachelor's degrees, or 6-2/3 masters
degrees or 2-1/3 doctors degrees per year and conversely.
It should be emphasized that these figures are estimates
of average behavior and that the situation in any one
school may depart markedly from these estimated
The multiple correlation coefficient was found to be
0.79. Accordingly, one may estimate that 0.62 (which is
0.792) of the total variation in the number of professorial
schedules in chemical engineering from university to uni-
versity may be explained by the different numbers of de-
grees granted while the residual 0.38 (which is 1.00-0.62)
of the variation may be attributed to the different edu-
cational, administrative and research policies prevailing.
A second objective of the present study was to deter-
mine changes with time in the coefficients such as those
calculated and presented in Eq. 2 in the light of the very
rapid educational growth rates and rapid changes in
student degree objectives currently occurring on the

American educational scene.
Data for 70 departments of chemical engineering for
the year 1962-63 had been analyzed and reported in a
previous study.*
The least squares equation for these data had been found
to be
P = 2.2 + 0.10B + 0.1M + 0.45D (3)
It is interesting to speculate on the results of the two
studies. A multiple correlation coefficient of 0.83 obtained
from the 1962-63 data against the value of 0.79 in the
current study indicates a reasonable degree of year-to-
year stability despite the relatively rapid changes cur-
rently occurring in Academia. The large change from
2.2 to 3.4 in the constant terms of Eqs. 3 and 2, may
indicate that in the 1964-65 period, considerably more
professorial time was allotted to administrative and
other non-teaching activities than in the 1962-63 period.
We come next to the coefficients of B. If we assume a
Gaussian distribution, the difference between the coeffi-
cients of B in equations 2 and 3 does not (at the 10%
level) turn out to be statistically significant. However,
since there is no a priori basis for assuming a Gaussian
distribution, the observed difference may be significant.
It is interesting to note that if the difference is signifi-
cant in fact, then it is in the expected direction; i.e.,
downward, indicating that fewer professors were required
per bachelor degree granted during the 1964-65 period
than were required during the 1962-63 period. The trend
towards larger lecture sections requiring fewer professors
per student as well as an increase in instruction by
graduate assistants has certainly been observed during
recent years. Finally, with regard to the coefficients of
the M and D terms in Eqs. 2 and 3 one can only say
that the agreement is indeed striking and beyond what
one might expect. To determine to what degree the above
conjectures are correct would of course require direct
corroboration in depth from the institutions involved.
At any rate, the implied stability of the results of these
studies is gratifying. It indicates that similar analyses
in the future may be desirable and useful.
Because of radical differences in the procedures,
policies and manpower requirements of graduate and
undergraduate programs, it was decided, as a third ob-
qective of this study, to try to analyze separately a group
of schools heavily oriented toward graduate work as
distinct from a group that is not. To distinguish between
them the following purely arbitrary criteria were set up.
For each institution the ratio of the combined number'
of master's and doctoral degrees (in ChE) to the number
of undergraduate degrees was determined. If the ratio
was greater than 0.4, or if there were five or more doc-
toral degrees granted in ChE for the year the school was
considered to be graduate-inclined. On this basis the
97 schools subdivided into 40 graduate-inclined and 57
undergraduate-oriented schools.
In both groups, a least squares analysis was per-
formerd as in the case for all 97 schools with the follow-
ing results:

*Schmidt, A. X. and Pfeffer, R., CEE, p. 13 (October
(Continued on page 143.)




University of Colorado
If there is a better way of educating engi-
neers, Max S. Peters, dean of the College of En-
gineering at the University of Colorado, will be
in pursuit of it. "Finding a better way" could be
the most fitting description characterizing his
performance, whether inside or outside the class-
room, the administrative halls of higher educa-
tion, the laboratory, or the smoke-filled commit-
tee rooms in which he is such a driving force.
Something of the vigor and hardihood of the
Ohio-Pennsylvania early American certainly is
evident in Max Peters. He was born in 1920 in
Delaware, Ohio, and received his early education
in State College, Pennsylvania, and at Penn State
University. He earned the PhD degree in chemi-
cal engineering at Penn State in 1951, perform-
ing research on vacuum distillation.
By the time he was awarded his degree he
had already worked as a production supervisor
in a wartime powder plant and had served with
distinction in the 10th Mountain Division of
Italy. For two postwar years he was in charge
of all technical work for Treyz Chemicals in Cook
Falls, New York.
Colleagues and students alike are apt to ad-
dress him as Max. They appreciate his capacity
for hard work and the sense of humor that is
ready to break to the surface in the midst of
serious considerations. His door is always open
to his graduate students. As one of them puts it,
"I'm amazed that a man with so many responsi-
bilities can be so available."
The responsibilities he has are the result of
his diligent research for "a better way." He
heads a college enrolling nearly 2000 under-
graduate and some 300 graduate students, with a
faculty numbering around 125, housed in a new
$8.5 million educational facility which he him-
self worked hard to make a reality. In addition,
he guides engineering programs at two off-
campus CU Centers, at Denver and Colorado
The story of the remarkable growth of the
College of Engineering at the University of Colo-

Max Peters, newly appointed in 1962 as dean of the College
of Engineering at the University of Colorado, enthusiastically
pushed forward plans for the proposed Engineering Center,
dedicated in May, 1966.
rado since Max Peters arrived on campus in July
of 1962 is well known to engineering educators
across the country. He hadn't been in office long
before the building priority for the proposed
Engineering Center moved up from eleventh to
first. Then he went to work with the University
administration to acquire $7.2 million from the
state legislature for construction of the Engi-
neering Center the largest sum ever requested
from the people of Colorado. He further exerted
his persuasive and organizing powers to acquire
a supplementary $1.325 million from the Na-
tional Science Foundation.
The Engineering Center at CU can truthfully
be said to have been inspired in great part by the
enthusiasm and imagination of Max Peters. At
ground-breaking ceremonies for the Center in
1964 he revealed the scope of his expectations
when he described the Center as "a major mile-
stone . in the forward progress of making
the State a major industrial and scientific
He tackles the challenge at its grassroots -
the high school level with the same bold en-
thusiasm. "Is there anything wrong," he asks,
"with being old fashioned and strongly encour-
aging our high school students to start preparing
themselves while in high school"


"To be what you can be, you must first and
foremost decide what you want to be."

Many of his colleagues and students have
heard him say, "Engineering is a tremendously
exciting and rewarding career!" and in a di-
versity of situations he proclaims vehemently, "It
is time that some of us decide to speak out."
Max showed signs of "speaking out" in his
first academic position, as assistant professor,
then professor, and then divisional head of chem-
ical engineering at the University of Illinois.
There he began the characteristic pattern: to
examine and re-examine the curriculum to expose
its weaknesses, identify its strength, and take
action to improve it. At Illinois he recognized
the need for more extensive chemical engineering
kinetics study and introduced a course to fill the
His first book, Elementary Chemical Engi-
neering, (McGraw Hill, 1954) was written at
Illinois to fill a gap in engineering education for
students of other disciplines such as mechanical
engineering and chemistry. The text has been
especially valuable in foreign countries where
teachers were not capable of using standard
texts for chemical engineer majors.
In his second book, Plant Design and Econom-
ics for Chemical Engineers, (McGraw Hill, 1957)
Max Peters tackled another need that of grad-
uate students who went into design work in the
chemical industry with relatively little back-
ground in plant design problems and their solu-
tions. Plant Design has been adopted by more
than half of the chemical engineering curricula
across the country. A completely revised edition
(1968), written with Klaus D. Timmerhaus, as-
sociate dean of the CU College of Engineering,
provides greater depth in optimization and eco-
nomic evaluation.
Both books are considered classics in that
they speak to engineers of all disciplines and to
scientists and industrial managers who have no
formal educational background in chemical
It was at Illinois that Dean Peters' drive to
improve educational standards carried him into
the local chapter of the AIChE as faculty repre-
sentative. Years of committee activity brought
him in 1968 to the presidency, where he com-
mitted himself wholeheartedly to the quest for
improved engineering education and true profes-
sionalism by AIChE members, and to the pro-

When Max Peters takes part in Fun & Games at the E-Days picnic
only his plaid shirt distinguishes him from the students.
session's obligation to assist society in the solu-
tion of its problems. His improvements in the
professional society, (among them he originated
the popular Free Forums) are well known to
AIChE members. Through the voice of AIChE
Max has supported the concept of the chemical
engineering degree instead of the general engi-
neering degree as the first professional degree.
As head of the chemical engineering division
at Illinois, Max Peters recognized that chemical
engineering students engage in a wide scope of
activities including economics, technical services,
laboratory research. Accordingly, he introduced
a flexibility into the undergraduate curriculum
that allowed the student to substitute advanced
mathematics, physics, and chemistry for more
conventional courses. His incorporation of
fundamental engineering sciences into the under-
graduate program has been copied by chemical
engineering departments in many institutions
throughout the United States.
It was natural for Max to strive toward rais-
ing the standards of excellence in the College of
Engineering at the University of Colorado. With
Dean W. L. Everitt of Illinois he initiated the
Bi-University Institutional Liaison for Develop-
ment (BUILD) program for experimentation and
development of faculty innovative ideas between
the two universities. Now concluding its fourth
year of support by the Kettering Foundation,
BUILD has implemented exchanges for profes-
sional development that have involved at one
time or another every faculty member of the CU
College of Engineering.
Max is a forceful and articulate committee
member, as many of his colleagues have learned.
As chairman of the CU proposal committee for
the National Science Foundation Scientific De-
velopment program, he helped bring $3.75 million


to the University of Colorado, one million of
which want into electrical, aerospace, and me-
chanical engineering programs in the College of
Engineering. As a result, the College has
strengthened its programs in control theory,
solid state physics, computer logic, fluid mechan-
ics, applied mechanics and mathematics. Growth
in these areas is being watched with interest by
other institutions.
Behind this vigorous activity Max holds a
philosophy that has deeply affected graduate
study and research throughout the College. Grad-
uate students, he holds, should be actively in-
volved in research programs under the direction
of faculty members. Faculty members who are
engaged to fill needs in research areas must be
good teachers. Funding for this program has
increased during the past five years from less
than $200,000 to approximately two million
In 1961, one PhD degree was awarded by the
University of Colorado to a student in engineer-
ing. In 1968, 30 engineering students earned the
degree. PhD degrees have been made available
in aerospace engineering sciences and in mechan-

"Is there anything wrong," he asks, "with being
old fashioned and strongly encouraging our high
school students to start preparing themselves while
in high school?"

ics in addition to all the other departments, with
the exception of a new department, Engineering
Design and Economic Evaluation, which offers
the master's degree.
It's easy for graduate students to discuss
their research problems with Max Peters; in fact,
he is himself making a significant contribution
in the laboratory. His research studies in kinet-
ics, particularly on nitrogen oxides and pentaery-
thritol, have resulted in increased understanding
of reaction mechanisms and in the chemical en-
gineer's ability to design reactors. He personally
directs graduate work in allied studies.
He gives his students as much freedom as
possible in their projects, only outlining the over-
all view and the goal. He believes that students
learn more from doing a thing wrong than from
doing it right the first time. This freedom to
experiment encourages his students to be creative
and analytical.
They recognize his qualities as a teacher. "He
took the complex and broke it down into simple
integral parts," one of his students comments,

As usual, Max Peters won the Dean's Challenge Race at the
E-Days picnic in May, 1968.
or, "He built up the complicated theories of
chemical engineering by starting with easily un-
derstood building blocks of knowledge."
As a teacher, characteristically Max looks
for better ways to explain points and ideas; he
designs quizzes and exams to test a student's com-
prehension rather than his memory of equations
and data. The secret of his ability is simple: he
is truly interested in each of his students as a
person. Because of this, he is able to instill in
his students the desire to be successful in study
and experimental work. Typically, his plant de-
sign students have repeatedly won or placed near
the top in the national AIChE Student Contest
Students have discovered their Dean is a for-
midable contestant on the ski slopes and the En-
gineers' Days races. They hail him as champion
of faculty-student slalom race at the CU Winter
Carnival, and know him as an accomplished
figure-skater. Every year Dean Peters has won
the Dean's Challenge Race at the E-Days picnic.
He wears his more impressive honors with
modesty. This spring he was elected a member
of the National Academy of Engineering the
highest professional distinction that can be con-
ferred upon an American engineer. He is cited
this June by the American Association of Cost
Engineers for his "continuing contributions to
the field of cost engineering education." He was
recently named chairman of the President's Com-
mittee on the National Medal of Science.
In 1957 Max Peters received the George West-
inghouse Award from the American Society for
Engineering Education for outstanding teaching.
He has been active in the ASEE for nearly ten
years. In 1962 he served as chairman of the


The secret of his ability is simple-he is truly
interested in each of his students as a person.

Chemical Engineering Division and was for six
years a member of the long range planning
committee of ASEE.
He is active on the air pollution committee of
the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, which he serves as consultant. He is
consulting editor for the McGraw Hill Chemical
Engineering Series, and is the author of many
technical articles.

Anyone who knows Max knows him as the em-
bodiment of a belief he has expressed to high
school students and to AIChE members: "To be
what you can be you must first and foremost
decide what you want to be." Since he will never
be satisfied with things as they are, but must al-
ways seek new and better answers, it follows that
Max Peters is not only dean, teacher, chemical
engineer, researcher, and innovator. He is per-
haps first of all a student a student of educa-



Shell Development Company
Emeryville, California

To begin with, optimization requires a formal
description of the problem. The elements in-
volved and their relationship are indicated in
Fig. 1. First, the problem must be isolated by
a formal description of the "state-of-nature" and
the problem premises. This is often the most
difficult part of the problem. A sound treatment
requires an assessment of whether the solution
will answer the question posed and whether all
significant variable elements are included within

Figure 1.

* Present Address: Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
** Presented at the Los Angeles ASEE meeting June
19-22, 1968.

Optimization implies logical, even formal, decision
making, i.e., the selection, for a set of decision variables,
of the best attainable (and allowable) values for a
designated objective. To successfully accomplish opti-
mization of practical non-trivial problems, two major
requirements must be met. First, we must have access
to computers (normally large digital computers), and we
must be able to use them. This, of course, implies opti-
mization of a mathematical model describing the prob-
lem; the second requirement is that this model must be
the simplest possible one for the job at hand. The calcu-
lation will be extremely repetitive; and any but the
simplest possible model will require excessive computa-
tion and make it uneconomic to use optimization.
In this paper, I first describe my concept of an opti-
mization model. Then I propose guidelines for formula-
tion and simplification of such models. Finally I offer a
few remarks on limitations and complications of the opti-
mization approach. My comments are based on several
years of study and practical application of optimization,
-by myself and many colleagues, to problems in
chemical engineering, process design, and operations re-
search. Most of the rules given are not hard and fast
limitations but merely express my observations of diffi-
culties we have encountered.

the system. Obtaining an optimum scale of manu-
facture at a fixed sale price is absurd if the scale
affects the sales price. With the state of nature
established we then identify the decisions we are
still free to make. As functions of these decisions,
we describe the payoff value, and formulate the
necessary restrictions which dictate limitations
on the problem, legal, physical, economical,
political, etc. These restrictions limit the freedom
of action of our decisions, but there is usually
some variability left. By optimizing, we take ad-


vantage of this variability to obtain the best pos-
sible payoff value.
When formulated as a mathematical model,
the problem has the form indicated in Fig. 2.
The state of nature and problem premises are

I Parameters, pI
Parameters, p I

Constraints, g I I Objective Function, p


\ Variables, x
4 II
\ --_ ....

Optimizing Algorithm
Figure 2.

described by a vector of parameters, p, which in-
cludes prices, sales figures, coefficients of correla-
tions, estimated technical values, and all the
many other numbers which must be used to
quantify the problem. The payoff value is for-
mulated as an object function, 4, whose value is
determined by the decision variable vector, x,
and the parameter vector, p. The various limita-
tions are described as a vector of constraint func-
tions, g, each element of which must be non-
negative for an allowable or feasible solution.
Once the problem is described in this format, we
can optimize it by using an optimizing algorithm
to adjust the variables, x, to obtain the best value
of 4) within the limitations of the constraints.
Mathematically, this can be written as follows:
Max {(P,x) I g(p,x) > 0}-- *(p) = ((p,x*)

The first part of this equation is read: "find the
maximum over the variable space x of the func-
tion 0 of p and x subject to the non-negativity
of the elements of the vector g, which are func-
tions of p and x." The resulting maximum or
"optimum," 4*, is a function of the parameter
vector p, which describes the particular case
which has been optimized. Corresponding to 4*
there are one or more points, x*, in variable space
x, where 4 = 4*. These values are usually the
most important part of the result; they indicate
the optimum or best choice of variables. Impli-

citly, it is clear that the optimum choice, x*, is
a function of the parameter vector p.

For further information as to the details of the opti-
zation algorithms, ample literature exists. For elemen-
tary introduction, there is a good book by Baumol on
Economic Theory and Operations Analysis3 and a some-
what more mathematical treatment by Carr and Howe5.
In the limited but important field of linear programming,
Dantzig's book6 is the fundamental authority; it is
sound and intelligible, but a little long. The book by
Gass10 on the other hand is quite elementary; for an
intermediate level, that of Hadley13 is probably best.
Hadley's second book14 extends the treatment to non-
linear programming, with emphasis on systems of many
dimensions. For those interested in these more-mathe-
matically oriented problems, the collection edited by
Graves and Wolfell is a good review of the state of the
art in 1963. However, for many chemical engineering
problems, Wilde's recent book on "Optimum Seeking
Methods"31 is more directly applicable. Two recent col-
lections also supply useful hints on this latter type of
problem: the CEP Symposium Series volume on "Opti-
mization Techniques",4 and the book edited by Lavi and
Vogl.19 A last general reference, we cite the recent re-
view by Wilde,32 which includes 74 references of recent
In much of our work, we have used optimum-
seeking methods as described in the later refer-
ences listed above. Our particular versions are
described briefly by Singer29; one of them (the
Maze Method) is described in more detail by
Mugele.22 We have also found the MAP method
of Griffith and Stewart12 to be generally applica-
ble and quite powerful. Finally, for the problems
to which they apply, Rosen's methods, Gradient
Projection25 and Partition Programming26, 27,
have been quite successful. With these and many
more methods available, further extensive work
on mathematical programming or optimization
algorithms does not seem worthwhile for the
engineer. However, the method chosen must be
a suitable one for the problem at hand and the
computing equipment available; with large prob-
lems, the performance of the algorithms depends
strongly on the particular configuration of the

Most optimization problems of interest to a
chemical engineer can be fit into one of four
categories: (1) process design, (2) operations
scheduling, (3) process control, and (4) equip-
ment design.


1. Process Design
In many respects, this is the most important
category. Problems of this type range from de-
tailed process design (to chose the best possible
configuration of many process details) to quick
and rather generally formulated process evalua-
tion (to provide a general pattern of possible
profitabilities of a proposed new process or
product). To illustrate the features of process
design optimization, we use the example shown
in Fig. 3. Although this example was developed
independently, it is quite similar to the one pre-
sented by Williams and Otto33 and studied by
DiBella and Stevens.7


By- Product

Figure 3.
Our example considers the reaction of a pure hydro-
carbon with a solvent to produce a desired volatile prod-
uct. The product reacts with excess solvent to produce
an insoluble and undesirable sludge. For simplicity, we
use a simple, continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor, stirred
well enough to permit assumption of uniform composition
and temperature throughout the liquid volume. The de-
sired temperature is maintained by a steam coil, and
evaporation is suppressed by using nitrogen pressure.
The product is fed through a heat exchanger/cooler sys-
tem to a flash valve, where it is flashed to a low pressure
and fed into a separator drum. In this drum, the desired
product evaporates, while the sludge settles and is drawn
off in the bottom liquid layer. Most of the liquid is re-
cycled back through the heat exchanger to the stirred-
tank reactor.
The figure identifies the decisions of optimization
variables selected for this process-design example. In
the reactor, these are the temperature T, pressure P,
molal concentration of solvent C, and the fractional
conversion of hydrocarbon per pass f. In the heat
exchanger, we select the temperature to which the recycle
is heated TR, and, in the cooler, the temperature rise in
the cooling water AC. Finally, in the separator drum we
choose the temperature Tp and pressure P, for the flash
separation, and the residence time T, in the liquid; the
latter is needed to predict the degree of separation of the
insoluble by-product. Note that these are design-type
variables. We are not selecting as prime decisions the
sizes of the equipment; they are an outgrowth of the
process decisions which are made. Consider the fractional
conversion f, as typical. Fig. 4 shows how our specified
objective, the manufacturing cost of the desired product,
depends on the conversion f, for fixed values of all the

other variables. Note the non-linearity, in fact discon-
tinuity, of the objective function with respect to this
variable. The breaks in the curve correspond to breaks
in the available reactor sizes, the number of parallel
passes through the heat exchanger system, and so forth.
Important discontinuities of this type should be included
and an optimization technique selected which permits
their inclusion. In less-important cases, the breaks can
be smoothed over, by replacing the appropriate cost
curves with smoothed approximations. In our example,
we have done this with the pump cost; no attempt is
made to account for discrete sizes of pumps which must
actually be used.


Manufacturing Cost
50 MM Ib/yr of Product

S5200 -



0 10 20 30
Conversion of Hydrocarbon (% per Pass)
Figure 4.

2. Operations Scheduling
In addition to designing process units, chemi-
cal engineers are often involved in questions of
planning and scheduling their operation. Shifts
in prices, demands, and all the other problem
premises almost always make operation different
than was projected for the design. Moreover, in
the scheduling of operations, no account need be
taken of capital expenses. These have already
been committed, and we are merely concerned
with operating cost or profit. One example of
large-scale use of large optimization models for
scheduling is in the planning of oil refining oper-
ations, both in single refineries and in multi-
refinery complexes. Treatment of this by non-
linear methods is described by Ornea and El-
In our simple example, consider the effect of chang-
ing operations in a fixed system with a specified reactor
volume, heat exchange capacity, etc. Some variables will
remain the same; for example, the temperature and
pressure in the reactor will continue to be control vari-
ables. However, other variables will be replaced by new
ones; instead of specifying conversion, we will specify
the flows of the feed and recycle streams. In Fig 5 con-
tours of the objective are plotted as a function of these
two scheduling variables. Other variables (the tempera-
tures, pressures, and molal concentration of solvent) are
held at constant values. In addition to the objective


Operating Economics

100 z00
Recycle (GPM)

Figure 5.

function contours, we indicate various constraints coming
from the physical specifications of the equipment: the
capacities of reactor, heat exchanger, and pump, the mini-
mum velocity in the heat exchanger to keep the sludge
suspended, and the minimum production rate required.
Note that within the central, feasible region the problem
is very nearly linear. The optimum point occurs at the
upper-right hand corner, where both the reactor, and the
heat exchanger/cooler are operating at capacity. The
near linearity of this example is illustrative of the fact
that, in scheduling, we very often can obtain an accept-
able description of the system in a linear programming
formulation; this tremendously simplifies the optimiza-
tion itself.

3. Process Control
In spite of their differences, these first two
problems both involve only steady-state analysis.
This is not true of the third type of problem, the
control problem. Here we must account for some
dynamic affects, even though it may be possible to
omit consideration of short-term dynamic affects
if we limit our model to the longer-period control
problem. For example, our objectives often con-
cern only temperature and concentration dynam-
ics; then the model can neglect the effect of pres-
sure waves or liquid-level fluctuations, as long as
the specified control instruments maintain aver-
age pressures and levels at the desired point, over
the period of the temperature or concentration
fluctuations. For our simple example, the flow
sheet illustrating the control problem appears in
Fig. 6. The variables are pretty much those that
are used for the scheduling operation, but we
must now incorporate, in the equations describ-
ing the model, time derivatives showing the dy-
namic effects. In general this means that a con-
trol model formulated with the same degree of
technological complexity as a process design

model will be a much more complicated model
involving more complex mathematics and more
y difficult optimization. Fortunately for industry,
the precise optimization of the control model is
usually less important economically than optimi-
zation of the process design. Thus, it is usually not
desirable to do as technologically complete a job
on the control model as one does with the process
design model. One complication of the economics
for a control model is that the objective function
Almost invariably involves an extension in time.
city We are interested in costs or profits expressed

300 400 as an average over a long period, and we will
invariably have means of evening out our uneven
operations, by the use of storage tanks or the
ability to delay delivery. This makes it extremely
difficult to formulate a true economic objective

in terms of an immediate control variable.
(Continued on page 134.)

Figure 6.


4~ -~



There are more than 100 billion
barrels of potential new oil on the
North American continent. But it
will have to be dug-not pumped-
out of the ground. It's in the form of
low-grade hydrocarbon solids. Yet,
the world needs so much more

making things happen with petroleum energy

oil in years to come that Atlantic
Richfield is already working on
ways to extract it and get it moving.
Projects like this take imagination
and fresh viewpoints. The kind that
come from young innovators like
yourself. We need you-and your

kind of ideas-to keep making
great things happen. Talk to our
interviewer when he's on your
campus. Or write to: Mr. G. 0.
Wheeler, Manager Professional
Recruitment, 717 Fifth Avenue,
New York, N.Y. 10022.

! ^

*s sfl

S[1 laboratory


William Marsh Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

Because of the rapid development of new
analytical techniques and the increasing demands
on students' time through expanded curricula,
it has become necessary to streamline laboratory
experiments to include as many of these tech-
niques as possible in the shortest period of time.
This report describes one of the experiments
aimed at pursuing this goal in our senior chemi-
cal engineering laboratory and presents some
results obtained by this year's students.
A large fraction of all industrial reactions
are catalytic, and one of the most active areas in
industrial research concerns the development of
more active and selective catalysts for specific
reactions. Although many of the early techno-
logical advances which revolutionized the petro-
leum industry before World War II were the
result of empirical observations, the significant
advances by such men as Sabatier,' Langmuir,2
Taylor,3 Ipatieff,4 Emmett,5 and others have
helped to change the application of catalysis from
an art into a science.
One of the standard catalytic activity tests
in the petroleum industry involves the dealkyla-
tion of cumene (isopropylbenzene). This reaction
seemed the logical choice for our studies over a
standard silica-alumina cracking catalyst in a
microcatalytic reactor for the following reasons:
It is essentially a "clean" reaction, i.e., the only sig-
nificant products are propylene and benzene. There is
little poisoning, which means the same catalyst can be
used from day to day without reactivation. Reactant
and product compounds are easily separated by GLC
and are amendable to isotopic tracer investigations in a
mass spectrometer. Cumene dealkylation has b2en used

*Present Address: Fluor Corporation, Houston, Texas
**Present Address: Enjay Chemical Co., Baytown,
tResearch technician.

Joe W. Hightower earned the PhD at Johns Hopkins
University working under Prof. P. H. Emmett. He was
a Postdoctoral Fellow at Queen's University, Belfast, Ire-
land and was a Research Fellow at Mellon Institute
until he joined the staff of Rice University in 1967.
Steve Riffle is a research technician and Ralph Neumann
and Stephen Swenson were fifth year ME students at
Rice University.

as a test reaction for diffusion studies6 and for investiga-
tions of active sites on zeolite catalysts.7 Cumene, an
intermediate in the production of phenol and acetone, is
an important commercial compound. Research involving
this compound is currently under way at Rice. The entire
experiment can be carried out in a reasonably short
length of time.

A microcatalytic reactor,'9 involves combina-
tion of a flow reactor with a gas chromatograph,
Fig. 1. A helium carrier gas stream flowed con-
tinuously at 10 psig and about 100 cc/min
through the reference side of a standard Gow-
Mac thermal conductivity detector and then
through a small packed catalyst bed containing
a centered thermocouple well. Pulses of reactant
could be injected by means of a 10 p1 hypodermic
syringe through a rubber septum injection port
A. The reactant was carried over the catalyst
where it reacted, and the reaction products were
swept immediately into the analyzing column, a
six-foot coil of 1/4" copper tubing packed with
silicone oil on firebrick. The separated products
passed through the sample side of the Gow-Mac


HELIUM -- .l Iv L



Fig. 1.-Schematic diagram of microcatalytic reactor and product traps.

detector where they caused an imbalance in a
Wheatstone bridge which was recorded as a peak
on a 10 mV strip chart recorder whose chart
speed was 2 min/in. Calibration was effected for
each compound by injection beyond the catalyst
bed at injection port B. The injection ports,
detector, and column were all enclosed in a tran-
site box whose temperature was maintained near
1150C by means of a Variac which supplied
power to the heating elements.
The separated products could be collected
individually in a trap thermostated at -195C
(liquid nitrogen temperature) for subsequent
analysis at low electron voltage in a CEC 21-104
medium resolution mass spectrometer. Helium
was removed from the sample trap by evacua-
tion at -1950C.
Pellets of commercial Houndry M-46 silica-
alumina (12.5% alumina) were ground and col-
lected between standard 20-60 mesh sieves to
give particles which varied from 250 to 800 mi-
crons in diameter. Half a gram of this material
was loosely packed to a depth of one cm between
glass wool plugs in the 1.5 cm OD Pyrex reactor.
The catalyst surface area was 270 m2/g.
Initial activation was accomplished by heat-
ing the catalyst in flowing 02 at 5300C for one
hour to burn off carbonaceous residues, and the
catalyst was then cooled in flowing helium to the
295-3650C reaction temperature range. Follow-
ing this pretreatment, the catalyst retained a
reproducible activity level for days without fur-
ther reactivation. The temperature of the elec-
trical resistance furnace around the reactor was
controlled simply by a Variac.

The entire experiment was designed to cover
three 3-hour laboratory periods. We have found
it most effective when each group consisted of
from three to six students. Our seniors were
divided into five groups, with each group coming
in on a different afternoon during the week to
perform the same part of the experiment. This
meant the whole experiment lasted three weeks.
Period I, Introduction During the first period, the
objectives, techniques, and mathematical analysis of the
experiment were described. Each student then practiced
making benzene injections through injection port B until
he obtained reproducible peaks on the GLC. Finally,
each measured his peak areas with a planimeter until
his measurements were reproducible.
Period II, Activation Energy A typical microcatalytic
reaction spectrum is shown in Fig. 2 Besides the unde-
Qa rt - ------ - --__________ .

70 -

60 -

50 -

40 -

6 5 4 3 2 I 0
Fig. 2. Typical chromatogram obtained from dealkyation of cumene
over a silica-alumina catalyst in a microcatalytic reactor.
alkylated cumene, the only significant peaks observed
were those of the products propylene and benzene. The
small peak just before the cumene peak may represent
a trace of the dehydrogenation product a-methylstyrene.
Conversions were determined from planimeter meas-
urements of areas under the cumene (C) and benzene (B)
peaks from the equation
Fractional conversion = B/(B+C) (1)
The two compounds were assumed to have similar molar
Although the reaction is certainly much more com-
plicated than this, 6,10 for simplicity it was assumed to
follow first order kinetics with no reverse reaction of
products. Under the conditions used, equilibrium conver-


20 -

sion was greater than 99%, i.e., the reaction was essen-
tially irreversible. The first order irreversible rate equa-
tion was transformed into one involving fractional con-
version, x, and integrated to give
In 1 --= Aexp(-E/RT)t (2)
1 x
which can be written
In (ln 1 ) + l n At (3)
1 x RT
Since the pre-exponential factor A and the contact
time t in the microcatalytic experiment are assumed to
be essentially invariant with temperature, the activation
energy E can be determined from the slop of a plot of In
(In 1 ) versus 1/T. Data from five sets of
1 x
experiments on five different days by 13 seniors are shown
collectively in Fig. 3; a least squares fit gives an apparent
activation energy of 14.3 0.9 kcal/mole. The sample
size was 2g/1 cumene at all temperatures in the region
of 295 to 3650C.

In (in ])

U1 0II


gl -

Fig. 3. Compilation of data from 13 seniors showing temperature
dependence of cumene dealkylation over silica-alumina in a micro-
catalytic reactor. The apparent Arrhenius activation energy is 14.3
Period III, Deuterium Isotopic Tracers Measurements"1
by exchange with D2 have shown that freshly activated
silica-alumina contains about 4 x 1020 H atoms/g. These
atoms have acidic properties and may provide Bronsted
active sites on which the dealkylation reaction occurs.
The purpose of this part of the experiment is to demon-
strate participation of these atoms in several different

reactions which may occur.
When 2 /1 pulses of benzene were passed over the
catalyst at 3400C, there was apparently no chemical
reaction, as only the benzene peak was observed in the
GLC spectrum. Similarly, when perdeuterio benzene
(C6D6) was injected, only one peak was observed. How-
ever, mass spectral analysis of that benzene peak showed
that extensive exchange had occurred between the cata-
lyst's H atoms and the hydrocarbon's D atoms.12 Fig. 4

do dI d2 d3 d4 d5 d6
Fig. 4. Deuterium distribution in benzene after exchange of a pulse
of C6D. with H atoms on the catalyst.
shows the relative amounts of product benzene molecules
which contained from 0 to 6 D atoms. All peaks were
corrected for naturally occurring C13; fragmentation
involving loss of one or more H atoms was negligible
under the low voltage mass spectrometer operating con-
ditions used.
Seven more identical 2 /1 pulses of CD6 were then
passed in succession every 10 minutes over the catalyst.
The products were trapped and analyzed mass spectrally;
the results are given in Table I. The last column showing
the atoms exchanged/molecule was calculated from the
Atoms Exchanged/Molecule = Z (6-i) di/100
i = 0 (4)
where di is the percent of molecules containing i deute-
rium atoms. As the pool of available H atoms on the
surface became diluted with D atoms as a result of
exchange with each successive pulse, the amount of
measurable exchange decreased from pulse to pulse
(see Fig. 5).
From the number of benzene molecules injected in
each 2 /1 pulse and the average number of atoms ex-
changed (or titratedd") per molecule, it was possible
to determine the total number of surface H atoms which
were exchanged in all eight pulses. Such a cumulative


4-- 364 C

/" --. 298 C




Z 1.50


4 .90

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15
Fig. 5. Average number of hydrogen atoms exchanged/molecule
during successive passage of several pulses of benzene CoDe and
cumene over a silica-alumina catalyst in a microcatalyst reactor.
plot is shown in Fig. 6. A large fraction (about 75%)
of the total H atoms originally present on the half gram
sample underwent exchange during passage of these
eight pulses of C6D6.
With the catalyst now in a partially deuterated state,
seven pulses of cumene were passed in succession over it
at 340'C, and the conversion was constant at about 50%
dealkylation. All three products were individually trapped
and analyzed for pulse 9, but for the remaining pulses
only the benzene peak was trapped and analyzed; the
results are given in Table I. It is apparent from the
results of pulse 9 that exchange was extensive in the
undealkylated cumene as well as in the reaction products.
In fact, to a rough approximation all the H atoms in all
the hydrocarbons essentially equilibrated with the D
atoms from the catalyst. For this to have been strictly
true, the benzene and propylene (each has 6 hydrogen
atoms) should have had the same number of D atoms/
molecule, and cumene (12 hydrogen atoms) should have
had doube that amount using this assumption, and basing
the calculation on the number of cumene molecules added
and on the benzene mass spectral analysis, the cumulative
number of D atoms recovered from the catalyst could
be determined. The atoms exchanged/molecule were
calculated from the equation
Atoms Exchanged/Molecule = Y idi/100 (5)
i = 0
and the cumulative plot for pulses 9 through 15 is shown
in Fig. 6. Most of the D atoms exchanged into the cata-
lyst from the first eight CD,, pulses were recovered in


(D 10



I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15

Fig. 6. Cumulative of hydrogen atoms exchanged between catalyst
and hydrocarbon during passage of successive pulses of benzene C6D6
and cumene over a silica-alumina catalyst in a microcatalytic reactor.

the hydrocarbon products during cumene dealkylation in
the last seven pulses.

These microcatalytic tracer cumene dealkyla-
tion experiments over a silica-alumina catalyst
are well suited for a senior chemical engineering
laboratory. In a single integrated experiment in-
volving three laboratory periods, the students are
introduced to a wide range of concepts and tech-
niques including catalysis, kinetics, gas chroma-
tography, product trapping, vacuum systems, iso-
topic tracers, and mass spectrometry. None of
the chemicals is very expensive, and the micro-
catalytic reactor (excluding the recorder and
potentiometer) can be built for less than $350.
In our own department the mass spectrometer
from the catalysis research laboratory was made
available for these experiments. A research
assistant was in charge of the mass spectral
analyses, but the students themselves performed
all other parts of the experiment.
The use of stable isotopic tracers has demon-
strated that what appeared to be a relatively
simple heterogeneous catalytic reaction in fact
involves quite a complicated mechanism. This
certainly invalidates the naive assumption of
first order kinetics. Furthermore, since there was
a temperature dependent peak broadening due to
adsorption as each pulse was passed over the


Table I
Isotopic Composition of Products in Microcatalytic Tracer Experiments

Pulse Injected
No. ____

Measured d

d d d4 d5 d
1 2 3 4 5 6

o'I #D atoms
d d d9 molecule
7 8 9 _



C,d 0

B 1.7 7.3 16.7 24.1 24.4 17.6 8.2
B 0.4 2.3 8.4 18.9 27.9 26.6 15.5
B 0 0.9 4.7 14.2 26.9 32.6 20.7
B 0 0.5 2.3 9.4 23.4 36.0 28.4

B 0 0.1 1.5 7.1 21.0 37.2 33.1

0 0 1.2 6.5 20.1

37.6 34.6

B 0 0 0.6 4.0 16.0 37.3 42.1
B 0 0 0.5 2.8 13.0 35.5 48.2
P 1.2 9.6 22.6 29.5 23.4 11.0 2.7
B 6.2 18.1 25.9 23.1 14.4 7,7 4.6
C 3.8 13.8 22.6 21.8 15.3 9.4 6.1 4

B 25.7 36.7 23.9 9.9 2.8 0.6


B 43.8 37.0 15.1 3.6 0.5 0 0
B 53.3 33.7 10.5 2.0 0.4 0.1 0

B 63.3 29.5 6.5 0.7

0 0 0

B 72.0 23.7 3.9 0.4 0 0 0
B 79.1 18.8 2.1 0 0 0 0

catalyst, the assumption of constant contact time
at various temperatures is also invalid. These
two factors were mainly responsible for the ap-
parent activation energy being much lower than
that13 reported in the literature over similar
catalysts in a steady state flow reactor.
Although microcatalytic reactors certainly
are not the best suited systems for kinetic meas-
urements, they are extremely useful for isotopic
tracer studies for several reasons:
Tracer compounds are expensive, and only very small
samples need to be used in this system. It is possible to
study "initial" interactions between reactants and surface
after only a relatively few hydrocarbon molecules have
contacted the catalyst. The method is reasonably fast.
With very few changes, this system can be
modified to study the reaction under steady state
flow conditions. Kinetic comparison between the
microcatalytic and steady state flow systems can
be made to investigate the role of diffusion in the
reaction. Furthermore, the GLC is sufficiently
versatile that it can be used without modification
for other analyses.
The authors acknowledge grants from E. I. du Pont de
Nemours and the Petro-Tex Chemical Corporation which

- 2.522
- 1.866
- 1.523
- 1.227
- 1.070
- 1.021
- 0.837
- 0.719
- 3.081
- 2.629

.2 2.1 0.9 3.235
- 1.308

- 0.800
- 0.628
- 0.446
- 0.327
- 0.230

provided funds for development of these experiments.
They are also grateful for helpful suggestions from other
members of the Chemical Engineering faculty.

1. P. Sabatier, "Catalysis in Organic Chemistry," tr. by
E. Emmet Ried, Van Nostrand Co., New York, N. Y.
2. I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361 (1918).
3. H. S. Taylor, Adv. Catal 1, 1 (1948).
4. V. N. Ipateff, Catalytic Reactions at High Pressures
and Temperatures, MacMillan Co., New York, N. Y.
5. P. H. Emmett, "Catalysis," Vols. I-VII, Reinhold
Publishing Corp., New York, N. Y. (1954).
6. C. D. Prater and R. M. Lago, Adv Catal. 8, 293
7. J. T. Richardson, J. Catal. 9, 182 (1967).
8. R. J. Kokes, H. Tobin, and P. H. Emmett, J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 77, 5860 (1955).
9. J. W. Hightower, H. R. Gerberich, and W. K. Hall,
J. Catal. 7, 57 (1967).
10. Y. Murakami, T. Hattori, and T. Hattori, J. Catal.
10, 123 (1968).
11. W. K. Hall, F. E. Lutinski, and H. R. Gerberich,
J. Catal. 3, 512 (1964).
12. J. W. Hightower and W. K. Hall, unpublished results.
13. W. F. Pansing and J. B. Mallor, Ind. Eng. Chem.,
Process Design and Development 4, 181 (1965).


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views and opinions I


University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minn. 55455

In the opening pages of his book Ancient Europe,
Professor Stuart Piggott* introduces the useful concepts
of innovating and conserving societies. He writes (p.
17): "In the one group, technological developments in
the arts of peace and war must have been socially accept-
able and therefore encouraged; in the other, once a
satisfactory modus vivendi for the community within its
natural surroundings had been achieved, there seems to
have been no urgent need felt to alter the situation. Or
again, the cultural pattern devised might be too delicately
adjusted to the circumstances, and too rigidly conceived,
to be susceptible of modification by technological innova-
tion . ." Professor Piggott's definition suggests two
reasons why a community might choose to become a con-
serving society, and we shall explore his second possibility
- that concerning the delicate adjustment of the society
to its environmental circumstances-in some depth. First,
however, it is necessary to say a few words about inno-
vating societies.

THERE IS NO doubt that American Society,
or at least its white, middle-class sub-society,
is an innovating society. Indeed, few would deny
that the scope, scale, and pace of its technological
innovations- for it was technological innova-
tion that Professor Piggott was thinking of when
he wrote his definition outstrip those of any of
its contemporary societies, including the Soviet
Union, Western Europe, or Japan. Many Amer-
icans take great pride in our position of leader-
ship in technological innovation, and most Amer-
icans would reject with scorn any suggestion
that the United States become a conserving so-
ciety. To find support for these statements we
do not even need to look beyond our own academic
cloisters: the phenomenal growth of scientific
and engineering research and education in the
universities over the past two decades is a clear
indication of the high regard for technological
innovation held by the decision-making and direc-
tion-determining segments of our society. The
only audible voice of dissent to the notion that
the United States must remain the leading inno-
vating society seems to come from a small but
vocal group of young activists who have deci-
* Stuart Piggott, "Ancient Europe," (Chicago: Aldine
Publishing Co., 1965).

Arnold G. Fredrickson has BS and MS degrees from
the University of Minnesota and a PhD from the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin. His principal research interest
involves the study of the dynamics of biological popula-
tions, with special emphasis upon the interactions of such
populations with their environment. In addition he is a
dedicated nature photographer and student of the botany
of Minnesota. His research interests coupled with his
avocation prompted the writing of this essay.

sively rejected the values of contemporary so-
ciety. Unfortunately, this voice is so inexperi-
enced, so often charged with passion, and so con-
centrated on highly specific issues, that it has
not called attention to the basic dilemma that
must bedevil all innovating societies.
This dilemma is suggested by Professor Pig-
gott's second explanation for the origin of con-
serving societies. Let us recall his words: ". .
the cultural pattern devised might be too deli-
cately adjusted to the circumstances (of its
natural surroundings) to be susceptible of
modification by technological innovation ."
That is to say, the environmental resources of
land, water, vegetation, minerals, energy, etc.
may be so limited that technological innovations
within the possibility of the restricted experience
and capability of the community would upset the
balance of the community's ecological situation
irrevocably. For instance, a member of a hunt-
ing society inhabiting a forested region might
conceive the idea that game could be driven from
its cover, by selective burning in the forest, out
into places where it could be easily captured.
Obviously, if the territory available to the tribe



for Engineering Education

is limited, and if the tribe's rulers have a modi-
cum of foresight and survival instinct, they will
squelch this kind of innovation. A member of a
modern innovating society might suggest that
by further innovations (such as devices to con-
trol the area of burning or devices to defeat the
tribe's enemies in war so as to enable expansion
of its territory) the tribe could solve its urgent
and ever-present problem: that of feeding every-
one in it. Such a suggestion is not useful, how-
ever, because it ignores the point that the tribe
often does not welcome such innovations, even
when it is clear that they would be beneficial.
On the other hand, technological change is welcomed
in innovating societies and an enormous capacity for in-
novation is the hallmark of present-day societies of that
variety. Indeed, there may even be some individuals who
hold the innovating capacity of those societies to be in-
finite. Be that as it may, the rate at which innovations
can be made is limited, both by the total of experience
possessed by the society, and by the material resources
available to it. The first limitation on the rate of inno-
vation is perfectly elementary; every student of freshman
physics knows that Newton could not have invented the
radio because he lived before Maxwell was born. The sec-
ond limitation on the rate of innovation is also perfectly
obvious to anyone who chooses to think about it. We live
in a large but nevertheless definitely bounded biosphere.
It has only so much lebensraum, so much sustenance that
we can draw from it, so much space in which we can
dump our waste matter and energy, and so much ca-
pacity for self-regeneration. We are not going to farm
the moon to feed the starving billions of Asia nor can
we export the surplus population there, neither can we
etherally dispose of our pollution problems by packaging
waste materials and firing them off to the great incinera-
tor in the sky.
These considerations suggest that innovating
societies, no matter how ingenious they may be,
must eventually encounter environmental restric-
tions on uncontrolled innovation just as do con-
serving societies. Furthermore, when such re-
strictions become apparent, they do so at an
almost unbelievable level of complexity and scale,
and there is even the chance that irreparable
environmental "mistakes" will have been made.
Finally, though a primitative and conserving so-
ciety may have the bonds imposed by its environ-
ment and its own lack of technological capacity
released by contact with an innovating society,
there is no higher institution to which an ad-
vanced innovating society becoming acutely con-
scious of environmental restrictions can turn for
This, then, is the basic dilemma of all innovat-

ing societies: On the one hand, their institutions
and ways of doing things are founded alike on a
belief in the efficacy of unfettered technological
innovation for social progress and a fear that
without such innovation, they will stagnate and
decay. Thus, they look on conserving socie-
ties with condescension or disdain. On the other
hand, they are confronted with the fact that con-
tinued uncontrolled innovation is incompatible
with the material basis of life on earth; it is
suicidal. Therefore, if innovating societies are
not to destroy themselves, they must adopt some
of the features of conserving societies; they must
attempt to strike a bargain with Nature instead
of simply exploiting or seeking to overpower
Her; the societies must seek a material state of
things that is more nearly steady than that to
which their beliefs and inclinations have accus-
tomed them.
societies become more like conserving socie-
ties if they wish to survive? Not, to be sure, in
the sense that they would forbid technological
innovations out of a satisfaction with the status
quo or out of a dogmatic adherence to traditional
ways of doing things. What is required, rather,
is a sense of proportion and priorities geared to
the real needs of man and to the hard facts of his
existence on this planet. Within such a set of
priorities, innovations for the real benefit of
humanity would be pressed with all possible
speed. But innovations that are simply frivolous
would be looked on with disfavor, and innova-
tions that are destructive of the environment
would be suppressed.
The practical problems of developing the re-
quisite priorities, a mechanism to ensure their
application, and means to review and revise them
as needs change, are severe. This is so in large
part because there exist factors within innovat-
ing societies and within our own innovating
society in particular that militate against any
slackening of the pace of technological innova-
tion or any attempt to control its direction. These
factors may be ill-defined or inarticulated but
they nevertheless seem to cater to or perhaps be
expressions of some deep-seated urges in our
society, and they give tremendous momentum to
the processes that they generate; they determine
the dynamic aspects of our society.
We do not mean to imply, of course, that the
dynamics of our society are determined solely by
(Continued on page 144)


" classroom



University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri 65201

Equations describing fluid motion and energy
transport have been derived either from the Eu-
lerian point of view of a stationary fluid element
of infinitesimal volume or from the Lagrangian
point of view of a macroscopic volume of fluid
in motion. In the former derivations, lengthy
mass, momentum, and energy balances are in-
volved. In the latter derivations, integral trans-
formation theorems and the Reynold's transport
theorem are needed.1,2 The transition from New-
tonian body mechanics to fluids mechanics is less
than direct in both of the two derivations.
This note presents a derivation of equations of
fluid motion and energy transport by considering
an infinitesimal fluid element. 8V, in motion. In
addition to formalistic simplicity, the derivation
exposes the conceptual continuity from the New-
tonian equation of "body" motion to the con-
tinuum motion of fluids.

Let the mass velocity of an infinitesimal vol-
ume element 8V be v. The rate of dilation of 8V
spanned by the vector v is

D (V)= (v n) dS (1)

where dS is a surface element, n is a unit vector
normal to dS. The integration is to be carried
out at time t, over all the surface of 8V, whose
coordinates xj are equal to xj (t) with j = 1, 2, 3.
By the divergent theorem,2 one has

VTv = lim 1 C (v n dS
8V-o0 -8 V- (vn) d
Hence equation (1) can be written as

D (8V) = 8V V v

Dr. Lee is an associate Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Missouri, Columbia. He
was educated at the Ordnance Engineering College, Taipei,
Republic of China (Diploma Engineer), University of
Notre Dame (MS) and the University of Michigan
(PhD '63).
His interests include heterogeneous catalysis, reactions
kinetics, solid state and surface physics, thermodynamics,
transport phenomena and energy conversion.

equation (2) expresses directly that for an in-
compressible fluid
V v = 0 (4)
The equation of continuity expresses the con-
cept that 8V is a closed system as to mass trans-
fer; i.e., a "body." Let p denote the density of
fluid, the law of mass-conservation gives
D- (p8V) = 0 (5)

Remembering 8V = 0, differentiating equation (5)
and combining it with equation (3), we obtain

Dp +p V v = 0 (6)
In view of equation (5), we can regard 8V as
a "body" with mass p8V. Applying Newton's
second law of motion to the "body" we obtain

D (pVv) -ff pndS

Sff (n .) dS

-p8v V V (7)

On the left hand side of equation (7) is the rate
(3) of change of linear momentum. On the right hand
side the first and the second terms are summa-


tion of forces acting on the "body" along the in-
ward normal of its surface due to pressure and
viscous tensors respectively. The last term is a
force acting on the "body" with mass p8V due to
potential field 4 in energy per unit mass. Noting
equation (5), we can rearrange equation (7) in
the form

SD (v) 1 pn dS
p Dt 8V f nJ

1f f (n. 7) dS
-p V (8)
Applying the divergent theorem and noting 8V is
infinitesimal, we obtain
p (v) =-V- (V'r) -pV4 (9)

Application of the integral divergent theorem to
a tensor r is infrequent in textbooks, but its proof
is not difficult2-3.

The kinetic energy transport equation can be
directly obtained from equation (9) by noting

v t (v)[ p Dt (1M v[2)


Hence the transport equation of kinetic energy is
p Dt (1/2 Ivl2) = V.Vp V I (V ")

P- (l 2+ ) = V *Vp V (V r) (15)

Now the total energy per unit mass consists of
kinetic energy, potential energy and internal en-
ergy, U, (per unit mass). This transport equation
of total energy can be obtained by an over all
energy balance on the fluid element 8V

Dt [p8V (v/21vl2 + + U)] = ff v (n p) dS

+ ff v. (n-r) dS + ffq-ndS


where the vector q denotes the rate of energy dis-
sipation per unit surface area of all forms of en-
ergy including heat flux as a major form. The
L.H.S. of equation (16) is the rate of decrease of
total energy. The R.H.S. of equation (16) are
respectively rate of work done by 8V against the
pressure, rate of work done by 8V against the vis-
cous friction and the rate of energy dissipation as
heat. Upon differentiation and combining with
equation (5) and then applying the integral di-
vergent theorem with 8V approaching to zero, we
p Q- / (1v2 + 4 + ) = V (pv)
V (rv)

- V7-q


Since r is a symetric tensor, it can be shown that

- p vV 4)


For the transport equation of potential energy,
one notes that 4 is a scalar point function, there-

Dt 4 = + vV 4


For an energy conserving potential field, (e.g.,
the gravitational field), ) does not depend on
time explicitly. Equation (12) becomes
D- v-V (13)
Multiplying equation (13) by p, we obtain the
transport equation of potential energy
p Dt -= p v*V (14)

Combining equations (11) and (14) we obtain

V [Tv]= v- (VrT) + (T'Vv)


Hence upon combining equations (15) and (17),
we obtain the transport equation for internal
P Dt =[-(rVv) Vq] -p(V-v) (19)

The terms in the square bracket are rate of heat
generation due to friction and rate of energy
transfer to the system mainly as heat respec-
tively. Consequently upon multiplication of equa-
tion (19) by (8V-At), it becomes of the form

8U = 8Q pSV


This equation is the familiar first law of thermo-
dynamics for a closed system (i.e., a "body"). In
view of the assumption leading to equation (5),
equation (20) confirms the self-consistency of the



v Mass velocity of fluid
8V Volume of an infinitesimal fluid element
dS An infinitesimal surface element
n A unit vector normal to dS
D Substantial derivative operator

V Del operator= x I

p Density of fluid, a point function of xi, x2,
x, and time t
(A A scalar potential function of x1, x,, x,
T The viscous tensor of a fluid
q Vector heat energy flux
v Magnitude of fluid velocity

1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot,
Transport Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1960, pp. 74-81 and pp. 311-7.
2. Sommerfeld, A. Mechanics of Deformable Bodies, Aca-
demic Press, London, 1964, Aris, R. Vectors, Tensors
and Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics, Prentice Hall,
New Jersey, 1962, Chapters 3-6.
3. Spiegel, N. R., Vector Analysis, Schaum Co. New York,
1959, pp. 122-3, also Reddick H. W., and F. H. Miller,
Adv. Math. for Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, New
York, 1955, 3rd ed., pp. 350-4.

book reviews

An Introduction to the Engineering Research
Hilbert Schenck, Jr.
McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York (1969)
After having directed many theses and over-
seen thesis direction for many years, this writer
has thoroughly enjoyed reviewing this small (178
pg. 5" x 8") book.
Intended to be an introduction to the engi-
neering research project, it moves swiftly from
the selection of a topic through all the major
steps to an expected acceptance of a finished
manuscript for publication. The author is relent-
less as he points out the foibles of faculty and
academic systems and is no less discerning as
he analyzes student "hang-ups" which would hin-
der the choice and early completion of a desirable

research job. The book is written in contempo-
rary style and should be comprehensible to both
the would-be-researcher and his director.
Analyzing the volume in more detail, the re-
viewer believes that "The Selection of a Project"
covers the field well but probably ascribes some-
what more than a normal amount of initiative
to a student. Unfortuately the conception of a
project more frequently falls on a faculty mem-
ber than on a student and therefore Chapter 2,
"Sources for Project Ideas" (25 pages), is far
too long. However the short and meaty "Project
Check Sheet" should be noted by everyone.
The chapter "Searching the Literature" at-
tacks the subject with clarity, vigor, and decision.
It quickly covers the usual but needed generaliza-
tions but follows them up with a well conceived
and highly possible case history.
How many times have projects failed for lack
of apparatus, time, or cost planning? Here is an
author who believes in these efforts as an inte-
gral part of the project. Indeed he stresses these
activities not only as highly desirable but even
mandatory if a real researcher and a satisfactory
project are to be produced. His tips are pertinent,
timely and frequently annoyingly discerning.
Unfortunately the author chooses to elaborate
next on his categories of research an area
which he could better have omitted for al-
though his discussion of "Digital Computer
Studies" is a good short approach to a long
problem, his "Pedagogical Studies" and "Design
and Systems Areas" are far below his overall
In his last two chapters on "Reports" and
"Journal Papers and Meeting Presentations" the
author has been appropriately and pleasantly
brief. He has obviously called upon many experi-
ences, both sad and glad, and has extracted an
essence which combines philosophy with prac-
There is much in this book for new researchers
to learn before sad experiences can dishearten or
even remove them completely from the field, but
the book also may be a gage for a more experi-
enced researcher or research director to recheck
his effectiveness.
Surprisingly despite the "heavy" material
contained in this book, the style is light, friendly
and interesting; it is to be hoped that the experi-
mental project reports will be, too!
Gordon C. Williams
University of Louisville



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it takes an aggressive and imaginative R & D team
to maintain Texaco's leadership role in the petro-
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of this team are Chemical Engineers... men like
yourself . constantly searching for better ways. It
is through their efforts, as well as their professional
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that Texaco stays out front.
You, too, can be part of this winning combination.
For Chemical Engineers with a B.S. or M.S.,
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career in process and product development have

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BEST opportunities for advancement, while enjoying
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Texaco has immediate openings at its laboratories
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resume to: W. R. Hencke, Texaco, Research & Tech-
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12508. Texaco is an equal opportunity employer.



University of Rhode Island
Kingston, R. I. 02881

A two-credit course in reactor engineering,
required for senior students in Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Rhode Island, has
for the past three years been operated in an
auto-graded mode (so called because the student
supposedly decides what grade he will get.) Be-
cause the senior classes are not large, only one
section of the course was scheduled each year,
and all the students participated in this experi-
mental program. Except for three graduate stu-
dents, the students have all been seniors. A wide
range of scholastic achievement levels has been
represented from students headed for gradu-
ate school, down to some on the verge of being
The goal of the experimentation was to find a way
out of a situation where the instructor met two hours a
week with a well-knit little group of tired students willing
to let him do all the talking and most of the work. It was
hoped that by using the auto-graded mode, which was
described in ASEE Publications, first by Norman Bala-
banian' and then by Roland Mischke2, the more ambi-
tious students could be released from the lock-step pace
and the dependence on the instructor; and by requiring
each student to take the initiative for his progress toward
a passing grade, the less ambitious students would be
confronted with some facts of life.

The rules governing the operation of the
course are shown in Table I, the "Course Plan"
which was distributed to the students at the be-
ginning of the course. A student's progress
through the course is marked by his passing a
series of tests, and his course grade is deter-
mined by the number of tests he passes (eight
for an A, seven for a B, etc.). Each test "covers"
one chapter in the textbook by treating in detail
a set of problems illustrating the principles set

1N. Balabanian, "Removing Emphasis on Grades,"
J. of Eng. Ed., 54, No. 7 (March 1964).
2R. A. Mischke, "A Semitutorial Approach to Teach-
ing," J. of Eng. Ed., 56, No. 3 (November 1965).
*Presented at the Annual Meeting of ASEE, June
17-20, 1968.

G. David Shilling is a graduate of the University of
Delaware and the University of Wisconsin (PhD '50).
He taught at Kansas State and is now completing his
seventeenth year on the URI faculty. He developed an
interest in process control at summer institutes at Case
Institute and the University of Colorado and published
Process Dynamics and Control in 1963. Since his parti-
cipation in the ASEE's Programmed Learning Project
(1965-66), he has experimented with programmed in-
struction and self-paced and auto-graded courses.

Chemical Engineering 64 Fall 1967
The text book will be Chemical Reaction Engineering
by Octave Levenspiel.
The instructor will select and announce a set of prob-
lems for each chapter as follows: Chapters 2, 3, 5, 6, 7,
8, 14, 13.
A student will obtain credit for a chapter by scoring
90% or better on a written examination on the chapter.
Only then will he be eligible to take the examination on
the next chapter, in the order shown above.
Examinations will be limited to 55 minutes. They will
be given at 1 P.M. on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday,
between September 21 and January 13, school holidays
The instructor will retain all copies of the examina-
tion papers and questions. A student may see and discuss
his examination paper when convenient.
A student's course grade will depend on the number
of chapters he passes as follows: eight, A; seven, B;
six, C; five, D.

forth there. These problems are much more
involved than a student could be expected to work
"from scratch" in an hour examination. But the
students are given the problems in advance and
have worked them and perhaps discussed the
solutions with the instructor and other students.
It is assumed that each student will choose
what course grade he will get and decide when he
will pass the required tests for that grade. To
help the student pace himself through the semes-
ter, he is given a copy of the "Experience Table"
for last year's class. The table shows that it is


not unusual for a student to take a test two or
three times before achieving the high-quality
performance required for passing (90%). The
tests are so comprehensive that, in order to score
90%, a good mastery of the material covered in
the chapter is needed, even when the student has
taken exactly the same test a few days earlier and
afterwards discussed his errors with the instruc-
In the beginning of the experiment (Class of 1966)
class meetings were held as scheduled. But it soon became
apparent that the students were getting "out of step,"
so that too few students were finding any given topic
sufficiently pertinent to the work they were doing (or
putting off) to make class meetings fruitful. After six
weeks of regular class meetings with steadily decreasing
attendance (since no effort was made to coerce attend-
ance) no more such meetings were held, although some
extemporaneous lectures were given to small groups.
With the Classes of 1967 and 1968, class meetings were
discontinued as soon as the students voted to use the
auto-graded mode. The most efficient plan would prob-
ably be to hold class meetings for the first three or four
weeks, while the students are relatively "in step." But
the students find the no-class feature one of the big
attractions of this mode of operation. Some of the disad-
vantages of not having formal class meetings may not
have showed up in this experiment, because nearly all
the students were also enrolled in a laboratory course
which met six hours a week with the same instructor.
So there were many opportunities for student-instructor
The advantages and disadvantages observed
in the operation of the course are discussed later.

A course-evaluation questionnaire was filled
out by the students at the end of the course. The
returns were anonymous and it appeared that
the students felt quite free to express their feel-
ings and suggestions. In 1966 there were seven
returns from a class of ten, and in 1968, nine
from twelve. In 1967 the students got away be-
fore the questionnaire session could be arranged.
For the two classes covered, the total enrollment
was 22 and the number of questionnaires com-
pleted was 16.
Table 2 summarizes the answers obtained. To
encourage the students to think about each ques-
tion, the answer blanks on the questionnaire were
scrambled as to positive, neutral, and negative
reactions. In Table 2, the answers have been
rearranged for easier analysis.
The two classes are not tabulated separately
because they did not differ greatly in their opin-
ions. The Class of 1968 indicated a somewhat
more positive attitude: surer of mastery of the



Do you feel that the yes
material covered in this 8
course will be of value
to you in your career?
Did you find the course most of it
work interesting? 9
Did you feel that you most of it
have a good understand- 9
ing of the material?
How did the amount of too much
material covered com- 11
pare with other two-
credit courses?
What do you think of
the text book used? interesting

How did you feel about
this course plan at the
beginning of the se-
How would you feel
about it now?
How well do you think
this plan would work on
various class levels?

How well did the prob-
lems assigned cover the
important material in
the book?
How well did the exams
test your mastery of the
problem topics?



some of it little
4 3
some little
7 0

average too little
4 1

easy to understand
well organized
too condensed
too varied
enthusiastic willing
5 8

enthusiastic willing
0 14
well poorly


0 12
1 5
7 3
pretty well

yes no
8 6
11 3
14 2
3 12
1 10



well pretty well poorly
5 8 3

material and of its career value, less critical of
the textbook, and not so impressed with the ex-
cessive amount of work demanded. On the other
hand, they felt more keenly the danger of "put-
ting-off" work, and were more critical of the
tests. This modest improvement in attitude, dis-
played by the third group compared to the first
group, may be in part due to more experienced
handling of the course by the instructor. Also, the
third group had two outstanding students and
a well-developed group spirit.

The amount of material covered in this course
varies from student to student. ("A" students
study more chapters than "B" students; "B"
students more than "C" students, etc.) because


TABLE II (continued)
Check any of the statements below
which represent fairly closely your
experience in this course:

I spent a lot of time studying the text book on
the topics covered by the problems.
I read the whole chapter carefully.
I also read some chapters not covered.
I tended to ignore the book and get problem
solutions from other students.
I did the problems mostly on my own and
really understood them.
I tried to memorize the problem solutions
instead of understanding them.
I felt that having the course organized this
way saved time for me and let me do my
I expected to pass more exams, but found the
latter chapters were too hard or took too
much time
It was easy to put off working on this course.
I would have done better if there had been
some deadlines at (monthly) intervals.
I didn't like having to plan my own work.
I felt that some students had an unfair
The instructor didn't seem to care whether I
worked or not.
The instructor was not very helpful when
What factors hurt exam effectiveness?
too easily memorized
not enough time
asked wrong things
hard to interpret
students cheated
too mickey-mouse
poor surroundings
too much time allowed
Write-ins (one each):
had to be memorized
many topics not covered
had to memorize numbers
rather picayune
too much detail in correction


this seems to be the simplest way to organize an
auto-graded course. This disadvantage would be
harder to accept if the course were not at the end
of the curriculum. On the other hand, compre-
hension level is maintained high for all students
("90%"). In the conventional, lock-step course,
there is a standard "coverage" and the students
are graded according to their comprehension
level. Actually, both plans have arbitrary limita-
tions: 90% is not perfect, and there are always
more topics which could profitably be included
in the standard coverage. For many a student,
the feeling that he has achieved high-level com-

mand of a topic would be a welcome change from
the feeling of failure or mediocrity he gets in
many of his courses. It is certainly more realistic
training for engineering practice to develop a
comfortable facility with a limited subject area
than to get a haphazard acquaintance with a
broader field. The coverage achieved in this
course is considered by the author to be excellent
for the two semester-hours credit given. Of the
34 students who have taken the course, only four
(grade D) have stopped short of consideration of
optimum-temperature progression in homogene-
ous reactors (C-level), while thirteen (A and B),
also got work in heterogeneous reactions.
Retention of skills developed is, of course, as import-
ant as developing and demonstrating these skills. As in
the usual educational situation, no measurement of reten-
tion was here attempted. However, the instructor was
sensitive to indications of retention observable during
a laboratory course the students take in the semester
following the kinetics course. The observations have been
favorable: when these students were assigned lab prob-
lems related to reaction kinetics, they showed quick
recall of relationships, procedures, and even some details.
Their attitude suggested confidence in their ability to
handle this subject matter. It is reasonable that reten-
tion of skills learned in this type of situation would be
relatively high, because the student has to "dig it out"
for himself, and because, before leaving each unit, he is
assured that he has a good grasp of the material.
The problems chosen by the instructor for the
students to work on need to be "comprehensive,"
i.e., requiring a good grasp of the entire subject
area to be "covered." It is not cricket to require
the student to show more on the test than he had
to do to solve the problems. On the other hand,
the problems do not have to be neat and limited;
the students have time to chew them over, seek
out additional data, and resolve ambiguities (as
in engineering practice). Some "old" problems
can be used, since it is not essential that each
student work every problem entirely on his own.
This year, about half the problems in each set
were new, and the rest were taken from previous
years' sets. Some students attempt to memorize
problem solutions borrowed from other students
or found in "files" left by earlier students. How-
ever, students have testified that this approach
is not successful. The problems are so involved
that it is very difficult to write a 90% test with-
out understanding the solution.
The tests need to be comprehensive enough
that the student must either work through the
problems himself or thoroughly study the solu-
tions he borrows. The questions do not have to
be pared-down to what an average student can


reasonably be expected to work out in 55 minutes.
The student works on the problems before the
test and he can take the test a second or third
time if he has trouble assembling and organizing
his answers in 55 minutes. So, even ambiguities
in test questions, though to be avoided, do not
have tragic consequences.
Repeated tests are not composed in the fa-
miliar "sampling" mode. This would result in
students using information about the test ques-
tions as a guide to slighting important parts of
the topic to the "covered." A typical test is shown
in Table 3. Students are asked to show parts of

Exam on Chapter 5- Fall 1967
1. For Problem 11 (see problem statement below),
derive the differential equation relating reactor volume
to fractional conversion, and show the computations of
the values of the constants used (in the integrated form
of the equation) to find k from the experimental data.
2. For problem 18, derive the differential equation
relating volume of reactor to fractional conversion, and
explain how you proceed to compute the volume of the
required reactor.
3. For Problem 19, derive the required equation and
show all computations for the volume of (only) the back-
mix reactor.
(Problem statements followed.)

some problem solutions in detail, while for others,
they are asked to describe how the problem is
solved. Students are often required to show the
source of a model equation. This they refer to as
"memorizing derivations," which they consider
unfair. They also find that they can best get
through a test in the limited time if they memo-
rize a few key numerical values. Although many
complaints result, it is doubtful that there is any
lasting resentment. Students are so used to
cramming for exams, that to memorize, ten min-
utes before a test, a few simple things is not
much strain. The requirement that a test failed
must be repeated in its entirety is the cause of
the most-often expressed student irritation.
The repeated-test feature produces a steady
stream of tests to be graded, and grading often
must be done with unusually high precision, in
order to decide between a 91 and 89 without seem-
ingly arbitrary or inconsistent. Of course, a test
paper which has two really bad flaws can be
checked off quickly, as can a well presented
repeat test by a student who nearly made it last
time and has been shown his error. It is even
more essential than in conventional courses that
tests be graded promptly within 24 hours at

the most. This may require some careful plan-
ning by the instructor, such as limiting the time
when tests are given so that he is free to correct
them immediately. No "final exam" was given in
this course, as there seemed to be no role for it.
The role of the instructor in an auto-graded course is
different from that in a conventional course. It is expected
that the student will think of the instructor as a source
of useful information. The instructor can promote this
attitude by giving out hints and checking students' prob-
lem solutions, as well as by explaining mistakes on tests.
This consultant role contrasts with the need a student
sometimes feels to "snow" his instructors (impress them
with his knowledge while not revealing gaps in his com-
mand of their subjects.) The instructor of an auto-graded
course is in a good position to find out what a student
needs help on, and what he can do on his own. In order
to use this opportunity effectively, the instructor needs
a firm grasp of his subject matter and the ability to listen
to students. When meeting a rapid succession of students
with questions on a wide range of topics, he has to
"shift gears" a lot. If they come in groups, he may find
himself operating in a "time-sharing" mode.
When the instructor finds himself treating
the same, often trivial, question over and over as
each student comes upon it, it occurs to him that
if he were giving a lecture course he would need
to discuss the point only once. He can minimize
his losses here by individualizing these encoun-
ters and using them to build up rapport. For
topics that are sure to cause trouble for a lot of
students, a mimeographed hand-out can be pre-
pared. With the excellent textbook used in this
course, only one such text supplement has been
prepared. (It deals with the question of changing
density of the reaction mass in a flow reactor.)
The instructor of an auto-graded course spends
more time "consulting" with students, but less
time preparing and delivering lectures (and won-
dering if he is "getting through" to the stu-
The auto-graded course rather than promot-
ing competition between students, stimulates the
formation of study groups. Leading students get
considerable opportunity to help other students,
and strengthen their own learning in the process.
A certain amount of working together on prob-
lems is good training for engineering practice,
and in an auto-graded course, is not the threat
of the instructor that it sometimes is in conven-
tional courses.
The effect of this course format on a student's
motivation is of course difficult to generalize.
Ostensibly, the student is working for a grade
and whatever that means to him. Although this
does not sound very commendable, perhaps in the


present-day college context it is not in any real
sense a regression. And, it would seem that it
would help a student focus his energy to know
that the grade he chooses is his when he demon-
strates the required learning. The students indi-
cated on the course-evaluation questionnaire that
they put more effort into the course than they
would expect to put into a two-credit course.
The pressure on the student in this course was rather
even and continuous, compared to conventional courses,
where there are sharp peaks before six-weeks exams and
low periods between them. This low-tension atmosphere,
while it was an advantage for some students, was the
most important factor limiting the general success of
the course. Many students put off working on the course
so much that they came out with C-level achievement
where they could, with wiser investment of their time,
have attained the A level. (Some of these students may
have been waiting for their leaders to move, and when
they did move, couldn't keep up.) To combat procrastina-
tion, the instructor supplied each student with an Ex-
perience Table at the beginning of the course, and offered
additional copies occasionally. He also drew attention to
the deadline established for the end of testing. (This
deadline was extended for one student because of illness
and for one who was working hard on a D.) More
effective ways of reducing student procrastination are
still being sought.
The self-pacing feature, which permits pro-
crastination, is on the other hand a strong mo-
tivating factor for some students. They are very
impressed by the prospect of finishing the course
well before the end of the semester which is
entirely possible and has been done b some stu-
Undoubtedly a lot is gained, in the way of good
feeling about the course, by the freedom from
weekly schedules, class attendance, and the final
exam. Of course, one can not say how much this

pays off in faster, more lasting learning. If most
courses were self-pacing, the advantages of nov-
elty would fall to the lecture-exam courses.
Ideally, the different courses in a curriculum
should be operated in a wide variety of formats,
each in an optimal way for its particular objec-
tives. Cheating is not an important factor in this
course, because the test questions are not secret
and tests failed are repeated without significant
penalty, nor is any advantage gained by not giv-
ing credit for help received. Ethical problems
are raised by a largely undesirable behavior pat-
tern known as "leaching," where an unconfident
student will attach himself to a leader, or one
with a channel to a leader, in order to obtain
more information about the problem solutions
than he is able to contribute. There is little the
instructor can do about such a situation. The
students tend to work out arrangements so that
all involved gain something.

All the students in this auto-graded, self-pacing
course demonstrated high-quality command of a reason-
able amount of chemical-reaction-engineering skills. There
were no failures, and only one early drop out. Forty
percent of the students received A or B grades for work
beyond the level considered satisfactory for the number
of credits given. There is every reason to believe that
their retention of this learning will be superior. The
amount of material covered varied with the student, and
would have been greater for some if the tendency to
procrastinate had been suppressed. Students generally
agreed that they worked harder than in most courses.
A theoretical advantage of the course is that the student
behavior encouraged (if not uniformly obtained) bore a
strong resemblance to that of a practicing engineer.

(Cont'd from p. 116)

4. Equipment Design
The final category is really just good equip-
ment design. To obtain detailed pictures of the
makeup of packed bed reactors, the nature of
internal baffles in stirred tanks or the exact form
of heat exchanger bundles, a good designer must
optimize in terms of some minimal cost or maxi-
mum-performance criteria. Each type of equip-
ment requires its own special treatment for op-
timization, so that a general treatment of equip-
ment optimization is not really desirable. In
many cases, however, it may be possible for the
designer to make use of some of the optimization

How then do we go about formulating a proc-
ess design model? The calculations normally
involve six distinct steps, once the desired deci-
sion variables have been chosen and the neces-
sary objective and constraint functions have been
e Stoichiometry. The heat and material balances for
all major pieces of equipment are normally involved in
any process design. According to the problem, it may be
desirable to make the material balance on a mole, weight,
or volume basis. In some cases, for example in certain
types of refinery problems, it may be possible or neces-
sary to treat the stream in total. But, normally, at least
a nominal set of components should be identified and
separately balanced.


* Chemistry of Conversion. For conversion processes,
some sort of chemical description is needed. In a few
situations, chemical equilibria may be adequate. Gen-
erally, however, at least in some simplified form, there
must be a treatment of the chemical kinetics. Which-
ever treatment is used, the equation should apply through-
out the region of interest. If necessary, new constraints
should be formulated to eliminate areas of ignorance
with respect to the chemistry. If these constraints are
significant at the optimum point, it may be desirable to
do further developmental analysis work in order to am-
plify the kinetics, or the chemical equilibrium.
o Thermodynamics of Separation. For a separation
process or the separation units in a larger process, some
representation is needed of the thermodynamics of the
separation, the phase equilibria and volume and enthalpy
* Equipment Sizing. To relate the stoichiometry, chem-
istry and thermodynamics of the process to the actual
process plant, equipment sizing calculations are needed.
In some cases, these will be nothing more than arbitrary
rules; in others they will be capacity or performance
correlations. This step is often the most uncertain, and
may require formulation and reformulation as the region
of interest is identified.
* Capital Cost Estimates. Once the equipment is sized,
a cost estimate must be developed for it. Usually the
detailed cost estimating methods suitable for a final con-
tract bid are not necessary. Instead we need approximate
methods that show how costs vary with small changes
in equipment size. Happel's book15 contains many useful
tables and equations of the type needed.
* Economics and Accounting. The accounting equations
must be combined with capital cost amortization to prod-
uce an economic balance for the process. Normally the
objective takes the form of some rate-of-return, payoff
time, or the like. Happel's book15 describes some of the
mathematics involved, but the best review of the proper
economic objectives is given by Souders.30

To obtain the desired model equations we can
use several different sources. First (and often
overlooked) are the definitions, e.g., the molal
concentration of a component, the average en-
thalpy of a stream, etc. Then there are first
principles, like the conservation of mass, the laws
of thermodynamics, the formulation of economic
objectives and the like. The mass of chemical
engineering knowledge usually appears in the
form of established correlations, such as the de-
pendence of the Fanning friction factor on Rey-
nolds number and pipe roughness, the capacity
of packed bed contractors, the heat transfer coef-
ficients in contact with a fluid bed, and many,
many more. Finally, if general correlations can-
not be found with sufficient reliability to describe
the desired application, we must have recourse
to experiment. If the optimization study is di-

With (the many methods available), further extensive
work on . optimization algorithms does not
seem worthwhile for the engineer.

rectly involved in the guidance of development
work, we must keep the experiment to the mini-
mum necessary to satisfy the desired goal of de-
sign optimization. At the same time, we must
keep in mind what the outcome of a successful
calculation might be, a detailed design of the
final plant. If this design will be called for imme-
diately upon obtaining a satisfactory result from
the evaluation process, then a short cut in experi-
ments may lead to slowing down design.

The optimizer must keep in mind that his
mathematical model should be as simple as is
consistent with the problem. At times, a very
complex model is needed, when a very precise
answer is desired and justified. But many process
evaluations and most preliminary process designs
can be done with a greatly simplified model. It
must be remembered that the final design ob-
tained from an optimization consists of a set of
design variables, the best possible set. Once
these have been identified, it is possible to pro-
duce a much more refined design which will pro-
vide all the necessary engineering detail as well
as checking the estimated objective function and
the specified constraints.
Here are a few points which can be checked
to see whether a model satisfies this goal of
* Use estimates or "average values" whenever these are
adequate for the purposes of the problem. Just because
an engineering correlation exists for a given piece of
equipment does not justify inclusion of this correlation
in a model. For example, detailed correlation of heat
transfer coefficients versus heat exchanger design para-
meters and throughput is merely wasted, if the heat
exchanger does not play a crucial economic role in the
overall design. Here, it is much better to use merely an
average heat transfer coefficient, estimated from good
practice, and a simple cost estimation as a function of the
square feet of exchange surface required. Another
example is the use of approximate over-all absorption-
factor equations to represent performance of an absorber
peripheral to the main process, in preference to a detailed
tray-to-tray calculation, even if the latter is readily
available, along with the necessary vapor-liquid equilbria
to permit its use.
* Group like components in the material balance. Most
chemical processes contain enough chemicals to make the
identification and separate calculation of all components
difficult. Unless their separation is crucial to the process,


isomers and other like groups of components should be
treated as single components. Nearly all chemical engi-
neering correlations of separation equipment involve
summations over the components, so the number of com-
ponents identified should be minimized. This applies also
to kinetic models. Here, each additional component in-
volves at least one additional kinetic constant, and often
several. The kinetic model for the process study is merely
a representation of the kinetics. It is not a true scientific
explanation of the chemistry. This should be kept in
mind while developing the model. If necessary, additional
constraints can be added to limit the region of applica-
bility of a given equation, and insure that undesirable
extrapolation does not occur.
* Use a good base case and consider marginal changes
from this base case. In many cases this technique will
lead to a much simpler model, since first or, at most,
second-derivatives are all that need be included. At other
times too broad-brush a treatment of marginal affects
around the base case may completely vitiate the study.
Finding the proper balance is part of the business of
being a good engineer.
* Correlate results of detailed study of units or sub-
units of the main problem. This ties in with the base case
method discussed above. Even when the base case ap-
proach is not valid for the problem as a whole, it may
be used for certain parts of the problem. For example, in
the treatment of an oil refinery, it may be possible to
describe the performance of the gas-recovery unit for
the catalytic cracker in terms of a few crucial composi-
tion variables and certain major decisions as to recovery
of key components. Then a series of detailed tray-to-tray
calculations could be used and correlated to predict
expected costs and predicted separation performance, in
terms of the key variables.
* Use the simplest acceptable equations to describe
directly-related experiments. If the optimization is being
used to guide development work, there will be directly-
related experiments which can be used to update the
model. In a sense, these experiments appear, to the model,
just like the results of separate studies described above.
Elaborate analysis of the experimental data is only neces-
sary if extrapolation is essential in order to produce the
desired optimization. In most cases, a simple response-
surface-type equation may serve the purpose. However,
some thought should be given to choosing the right form
of the variables; for example, a logarithmic variable
should be used wherever these are more significant physi-
cally than arithmetic ones. However, the statistical
significance of the experiments is rarely sharp enough
to allow greater than a second-order response surface.

Optimization problems can often be handled
more easily by taking advantage of the structure
of the problem. In the first place, the mathe-
matical form of the resulting equations may play
a significant role in terms of the ease of optimiza-
tion. If these equations are all linear or can be
linearized without excessive distortion, the pow-
erful techniques of linear programming can be

used. If they are non-linear but continuous or
have, at most, a few discontinuities, non-linear
programming or optimum-seeking algorithms
may be used. However, if these discontinuities
are extensive or if the discrete nature of some
decision variables must be considered, then the
problem becomes much more difficult; in princi-
ple, it requires use of integer programming,
where perfectly general methods for large prob-
lems are not yet available.
On top of this mathematical structure is the
logical structure of the problem. Many linear
problems fit into the so-called transportation
model, which corresponds to the problem of find-
ing the minimal-cost policy to supply a number
of demands at varying locations, by a number of
different factories with different capacity limits.
This is one of a number of network problems
considered, among others, by Ford and Fulker-
son.8 Some integer problems can be fit into the
travelling-salesman or knapsack forms, for which
general methods of approach exist. Many process
problems occur in staged or cyclic form, and can
be subdivided by techniques described by Rudd
and Watson28 and by Aris, Nemhauser and
Wilde.2 Finally, problems that are sequential or
repetitive in nature, such as the multi-period
planning problem, can often be formulated, and
sometimes optimized, in a way that takes advan-
tage of this repetitive structure. The Partition
Programming algorithm described by Rosen21
and used by Ornea and Eldredge24 is readily
adapted to this sequential problem, or to the
natural partitioning which occurs in large-scale
scheduling problems.

CHEOPS A CHemical Engineering
OPtimization System

In an earlier paper18 we described a system of
programs termed CHEOPS, which takes advan-
tage of the general structure of process prob-
lems. Fig. 7, taken from this paper, shows how
a modern refinery falls into units with informa-
tion flow between units confined to the process
streams connecting the units. Even if a detailed
design of one of the units is considered, this
same sub-division is possible. Fig. 8 shows what
happens to the vacuum flasher unit if the individ-
ual pieces of the unit are considered as separate
process units. We identify the furnace-cyclone
combination, the secondary-deentrainment sec-
tion, the pitch cooling section, the heavy and light
flashed distillate condensations, and, finally, the


Figure 7. Typical Refinery Process Scheme. Blending of final products not shown.

steam ejector and gas system. Within each of
these units or sub-units the same repetitive cal-
culations exist. These can be separated into five
steps: (1) the setup; (2) material balance; (3)
heat balance; (4) constraint calculations; and
(5) cost estimate and profitability.
Fig. 9 indicates how CHEOPS is structured
to handle these consecutive calculations, using a
set of individual unit sub-routines which describe
the units in the actual process. CHEOPS will
operate with any of a number of optimization
algorithms, as long as they are structured in the
form given in Eq. 1. By following a few simple



Figure 8.

rules, the sub-routines for each unit can be struc-
tured to supply the necessary answers to each
part of CHEOPS. Further details on this appear
in Table 1. This table and Figs. 7 9 are all taken
from our earlier publication.18

Precise formulation of the size of problems
which can be conveniently or economically han-
dled by optimization is very difficult. For one
thing, such limitations depend greatly on the
complexity of the simulation. If extremely de-
tailed, complex solutions are desired, this will
lead to extensive sub-programs just to describe
the engineering. If such programs become too
large, they will exceed the available core in the
computer, which means that one must go to
multi-coreloads, with all the attendant bookkeep-




Figure 9.


Table 1. Program Functions for CHEOPS.

Section Optimization Program CHEOPS Program UNIT Subroutine

Initialization Initializes optimization 1. Ioads data, which may include: 1. Calls INDEX subroutine of CHEOPS
algorithm a) Control for optimization to permit setting indices
b) Control for material balancing 2. Makes preliminary calculations
c) Control for objective function calculation independent of decision variables
d) Control for output (except for a possible dependence
e) General economic and cost data on their starting values)
f) Overhead cost parameters
g) Offsite capital parameters
h) Utility' cost parameters
i) .Tankage parameters
j) Prices for supplies and materials
k) Plant feed amount, prices, and properties
.1) Plant product amounts, prices, and properties
m) Component properties
n) Flow-diagram connections
o) Optimization variable identification, bounds
'and starting values
p) Constraint & equality identification
and tolerancest
q) Parameters for UNIT subroutines

2. Sets indices in'UNIT subroutines
3. 'Prints record of data and derived values
4. Sets controls for remaining calculations

Material and Sets new values of decision 1. Calls UNIT-subroutines for preliminary 1. Makes preliminary calculations
heat balance variables, and calls for calculations which depend on.decision
preliminary calculations at variables, but not on stream
a new point flows, characteristics, or

2. Calls UNIT subroutines, checks flows, 2, Calculates flows, characteristics,
characteristics, and properties of and properties of "asked" streams
recycle streams, makes adjustments, (normally, the streams leaving
and re-calls UNIT subroutines until the unit)
model is material and heat balanced
3. Calls UNIT subroutines for utility 3. Calculates utility demands and
demands and other functions. (returns functions to be used in both
to #2 if utility balance calculation constraint and objective
affects process streams.) calculations

Constraint Sets index identifying Identifies unit number for constraint, Calculates constraint function
functions constraint function and calls appropriate UNIT subroutine
to be calculated, and
calls for constraint

Objective Calls for objective function 1. Calls UNIT subroutines in order Calculates the following
function calculation 2. C41culates and totals unit operating cost contributions:
and capital costs a) Supply And material use
3. Calculates raw-material costs,,and b) Supply and material inventory
product credits, as needed c) Operating labor
4. Totals utility demands and use, d) Repair and maintenance costs
and calculates utility capital e) Capital cost (with useful
and operating costs life, and tax depreciation
5. Calculates indicated objective life, When applicable)
function, including tankage, overhead,
offsites, etc.

Output Calls for output, identified Outputs results, as indicated by printout- 1. If called for equipment print-out,
as non-feasible, intermediate control data, tallies, and objective function calculates details not required for
feasible, optimal, or program value. Types of output variable are: cost calculations but of interest at
error a) Variables and constraint and objective point selected
functions 2. If called for UNIT print-out, outputs
b) Process evaluation summary results as programmed
c) Capital cost breakdown
d) Utility'use, demand, and costs
e) Materials and supplies summary
f) Process stream material balance
g) Process stream flows and properties
h) Equipment details (UNIT subroutines
are called first to calculate
additional results if desired)
1) UNIT printouts .(obtained by calling
UNIT subroutines)

ing problems. Hopefully, this situation will be
much improved by the third generation of com-
puters, once the necessary systems are fully
checked out. In the meantime, for the second
generation computer (IBM 7094 and the like),
we supply the general guidelines given in Table 2.
These indicate the size of usable problems in

term of the number of variables and constraints
which can be conveniently handled by the opti-
mization algorithms indicated. It is assumed that
the equations relating these functions and vari-
ables are of no more than ordinary complexity.
The algorithms considered are as follows:
* LP Several standard linear programming systems


Table 2. Usable Problem Size for Optimization Algorithms.
Tvype of Objective F L NL NL NL NL

Decision Variables

104 500 100 600
100 60

20001 200 120
200 1000o 200 }2000

*No more than two active at any one time.
can handle a practically-unlimited number of decision
variables, and over 2,000 rows; the latter can represent
bounds on the variables, constraints on combinations of
variables, or qualities involving one or more variables.
Note that all functions have to be linear, although it
is possible to do a reasonably good job of representing a
few non-linear relationships by defining new variables
and constraints.
* MAP The technique described by Griffith and
Stewart12 has been used very satisfactorily for problems
with about 500 linear variables and 100 non-linear ones.
The number of rows which can be conveniently handled
is somewhat less than in LP, because the necessary step-
size limitations on the non-linear variables add additional
rows. However, the allowance of non-linearity permits
practically as good a representation of the system with
the smaller MAP formulation as with the large LP
o GP or Gradient Projection.25 The usual form of
this algorithm (available through SHARE) can only
handle linear constraints or qualities, but will handle a
non-linear objective function. Although the limitation
on constraints and bounds is fairly small in the usual
programs, there is nothing inherent in the algorithm
which requires this; it merely represents a balance
between available core on the IBM 7094, and the com-
plexity allowed for the non-linear system.
* PPNL the non-linear version of Partition Pro-
gramming described by Ornea and Eldredge.24 This can
handle much larger systems and can handle up to 60
truly non-linear variables, each of which can have bounds.
The approximate size for the total number of linear
variables is 600 and the total number of rows in the
linear system is about 2000. Normally this system is
used where the linear problem can be partitioned still
further into smaller sub-problems, each of which is
handled individually (but automatically) during the
* DA Deflected Assent29 is typical of many hill-
climbing methods. It is very limited as to number of
variables. However, it can handle extremely non-linear
or discontinuous objective functions, and can satisfac-
torily treat non-linear constraints, as long as no more
than two are active at any one time. A further advantage
of this system and of others similar to it is the exereme
compactness of the program itself. Use of DA may
permit a much larger simulation model without requiring
multi-core use. On the other hand, if the problem be-
comes nearly linear at the optimum, Deflected Assent
may behave very poorly.

Much more significant than the actual computation
time . is the program development time.

Nothing is included in this table about in-
teger or discrete variables, since most algorithms
to handle such variables are still in the experi-
mental stage. The only general method that is
really foolproof as yet is that of combinatorially
going through all possible cases. This is quite
feasible, once it is set up automatically on a
computer, as long as the total number of cases
is not more than a few hundred. However, for
each case, it may be necessary to do at least a
brief optimization of the continuous variables.

Other limitations on the usable size of prob-
lems arise from the various time requirements.
First, of course, is computation time; this is not
really too serious as long as the above size limits
are met. Moreover, if the problem is important
enough, whatever its size, it is possible to run it,
- at least in a stepwise fashion. With a standard
method of computer center organization, how-
ever, it is usually best to stick to runs between
a few minutes and a few hours in length. Much
more significant than the actual computation
time for optimization is the program develop-
ment time. With CHEOPS, it is possible to de-
velop a useful process model, for example, a
model for optimizing the design of a chemical
plant requiring several million dollars of invested
capital, in a matter of 4 to 6 weeks. But a com-
plex of several plants or an oil refinery might
require months and months of effort on the part
of several programmers, even if they are given
easy access to the computer. Still another type
of time limitation concerns the acquisition of
necessary data, i.e., the values of the parameters.
Even if the model is being developed entirely on
the basis of past information, the acquisition,
assembling, and proper checking might take
nearly as much effort as the program develop-
ment. Finally, the processing of these data for
new optimization runs is, in itself, a major task.
For routine use of optimization models in analyz-
ing different cases, and different sets of premises,
or in routing scheduling operations of multi-plant
or multi-refinery systems, it is essential that an
organization be set up with a full recognition of
the data processing aspects.


In the above discussion we have been imply-
ing that the entire problem is deterministic; that
is, that we can make decisions, once and for all,
based on certain premises which are completely
fixed, and come up with a true optimum value
which will always hold. In many engineering
problems, this is a close approximation to the
true situation. However, as we begin to get
more and more involved with the marketing and
business aspects, we often get into situations
where uncertainties dominate the effect. These
uncertainties can be classified into four general
1. The Form of the Model. Under this heading comes
the question of identifying the proper kinetics, choosing
the right equations to represent vapor-liquid equilibria,
selecting the right correlations for sizing equipment, and
so forth. The only real cure for this uncertainly is to get
the best model builders you can. The implication is that
building the model is an engineer's job, not a mathe-
matician's. Model-builders must be people with engi-
neering judgment and, preferably, with some physical
feel for the system.
2. Accuracy of Data. Once the form of the equations
has been settled, we must estimate or select numerical
values for the various parameters in the system. Some
of these may be relatively precise, but for others, there
may be distribution curves of values (probability dis-
tributions) about the average values. Where such in-
accuracies become significant, we must use simulation or
stochastic programming, as described below.
3. Forecasts of Future Conditions. Nearly all useful
problems involve future behavior of the weather, cus-
tomers, competitors, and so forth. Mechanically, we can
handle these forecasts with the same techniques with
which we handle uncertainties in data. However, philo-
sophically, they are different in type; we are assuming
what the future looks like. In reality, factors that do not
enter into our equations may come to bear before we
actually get the desired results.
4. Responsive Actions of Others In some cases even
the forecasts are inadequate. In a highly competitive
situation, where we are dealing with one or two com-
petitors, one or two major marketers for our supplies,
or one or two major customers for our product, it is
very dangerous to forecast future action. If our optimiza-
tion is to be of any value, we would expect to do some-
thing new, i.e., something we have never done before.
Except in very limited situations, it is impossible to
forecast what the response of a major competitor, sup-
plier, or customer is apt to be to this new action. For
this reason, we have studied the use of game-theory in
analyzing such problems,17 but with only limited success
to date.

Because these uncertainties dominate many
problems, an alternative technique has developed,

called Monte-Carlo Modelling or Simulation. In
reality, this merely handles uncertainties of types
2 and 3, which can be represented by replacing
each uncertain parameter by a probability dis-
tribution for the parameter values. With these
distributions as guides, we select enough random
cases to produce a truly average value, or pref-
erably, a distribution of values for the desired
objective. Many references describe this proce-
dure. The text of Naylor,,23 is one of the
newest general references, while that of Franks9
concentrates on chemical engineering problems.
Unfortunately, use of these techniques gen-
erally makes optimization unwieldly or even im-
possible. The usual procedure is to use case-
studies, where a few important variables are set
at two or three values. Fortunately, in many
problems where this approach is essential, opti-
mization is relatively unimportant, precise selec-
tion of optimum variable values is prevented by
the uncertainties. This is certainly true of the
"venture analysis" of Andersen' or the "risk
analysis" of Hertz.16 However, other problems
could profit by a combined approach, which has
been termed stochastic programming.20, 21
One pattern for this stochastic programming is
sketched in Fig. 10. The basic simulation of Figs. 1 and 2
appears at the left in Fig. 10. However, the parameters

Figure 10.
are no longer fixed, but selected by some Monte-Carlo
technique, from the given probability distributions. And
the optimizing algorithm responds, not to individual
values of the objective function, but to the expected value,
or some other property of the calculated probability dis-
tribution for the objective function. Although many re-
searchers are studying this and other formulations of
stochastic programming, useful, general, computation
systems are not available. Until they are, the engineer
must select his tool according to the problem, optimiza-
tion for deterministic, well-defined, many-decision prob-
lems, and stochastic simulation for highly-uncertain,
few decision problems. (Continued on page 158.)


You won't just get your feet wet.

Standard Oil Company of California offers all
the experience you can soak up.
You'll start out facing practical situations and
using your academic knowl-
edge and skills to solve real
problems. You may even have
to improvise and develop
new approaches to specific
We rotate the assign-
ments of young professionals.
You will be able to work
with different groups of

experienced colleagues and sharpen your skills on
a variety of projects.
Talk with our representative when he comes
to your campus about the
opportunities we have for
you. Check your placement
office for more information or
write to: D. C. Reid, Coordi-
nator, Professional Employ-
ment, Standard Oil Company
of California, 225 Bush Street
I -Room 105, San Francisco,
California 94120.

Standard Oil Company of California
An Equal Opportunity Employer

r07.Mproblems for teachers

1. Submitted by Professor R. B. Bird, University
of Wisconsin.

Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution in In-
compressible Fluids. Consider a beaker of liquid
which, for all practical purposes, can be consid-
ered to be incompressible; let its density be po.
It is desired to obtain an expression for the pres-
sure in the liquid as a function of position. Take
the origin of coordinates to be at the liquid-air
interface, with the positive z-axis pointing away
from the liquid; let the pressure at the liquid-air
interface be p(0). A friend comes to you with
the following comments:
I. "By simplifying the equation of motion for an
incompressible fluid at rest, I get 0 = -dp/dz
pog; I can solve this and get p = p(0) pogz.
That seems reasonable the pressure increases
as one goes deeper and deeper into the liquid."
II. "But, on the other hand, the equation of state of
any fluid is p = p(p,T). If the system is isother-
mal,, then p = p(p). If, furthermore, the fluid is
incompressible p = p(po) = constant. This tells
me that the pressure is constant throughout the
field which I don't believe!"
Clearly your friends needs help. Explain.

2. Submitted by Professor Dave Chittenden, Uni-
versity of New Hampshire.

Computer Solution for the Adiabatic Flame
Temperature. Find the adiabatic flame tempera-
ture for combustion of the following natural gas
mixture: CH4, 86.6%; C2He, 7.9%; CH5, 2.7%;
C4H2o, 1.3%; N2, 1.5%. This dry gas is mixed
with 130% theoretical air which contains 0.043 lb
HO/lb dry air. The gas-air mixture enters the

burner at 5000K and 4 atmospheres pressure. Dis-
sociation of water and carbon dioxide in the flue
gases must be considered.

To do this type of computation, a general computer
program in Fortran IV-G has been developed and tested
on an IBM 360 Model 40 computer. To use the program,
one keypunches a few IBM cards containing a description
of the problem, and then the data cards are submitted
along with a machine language program deck for proces-
The data needed for the calculation of the adiabatic
flame temperature are as follows:
1. Number of hydrocarbon species in the gas mixture
being burned.
2. Pressure in the burner.
3. Percent theoretical air (Must be equal to or greater
than 100%.)
4. Absolute humidity of the incoming air.
5. Number of moles of each hydrocarbon and of nitro-
gen in the fuel stream.
6. Heats of combustion at 2910K for all of hydrocar-
bon gases burned. (The heats to be used assume
that gaseous water is formed in standard state
7. Specific heats of all components in the range be-
tween 2910K and the flame temperature as a func-
tion of temperature.
8. Inlet reactant temperatures, which may be differ-
ent for each reactant.
When the adiabatic flame temperature is calculated, a
number of assumptions are made:
1. The process of combustion is adiabatic.
2. There is no secondary air. The hydrocarbons are
completely converted using only the primary air.
3. The only combustion products are carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, water, hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen. These products are at ths equilibrium
conversions controlled by the equilibrium constants
for the reactions
2H2 + 02 = 2H20
H2 + CO, = H,0 + CO



-0.189700E 06 0.866
-0.336732E 06 0.079
-0.484100E 06 0.027
-0.630620E 06 0.013

0.04300LB H20 PER LB DRY AIR

1.000 2.000 500.000
2.000 3.000 500.000
3.000 4.000 500.000
4.000 5.000 500.000


C 1.157 H 4.284





Input Data

Input VData

CP = A + B*T + C*(T)**2 + D*(T)**3
CH4 0.47500E 01 0.30000E-02 0.33630E-06 -0.16450E-09
C2H6 0.94400E 00 0.37350E-01 -0.19930E-04 0.42200E-08
C3H8 -0.96600E 00 0.72790E-01 -0.37750E-04 0.75800E-08
C4H10 0.94500E 00 0.88730E-01 -0.43800E-04 0.83600E-08

0 0.57830E 05 500.00 0.832000E 01
* 0.67960E 05 500.00 0.770000E 01
0.0 500.00 0.664000E 01
0.0 500.00 0.673000E 01
0.0 500.00 0.673000E 01
0.0 500.00 0.673000E 01



-0.8 30000E-06




C02 H20 CO H2 02 N2
7.22799 19.89369 0.04454 0.01823 4.23272 68.58292


ACTUAL K = 0.264E 04 COMPOSITION K = 0.265E 04


4. The fuel contains only hydrocarbons and nitrogen.
The air contains exactly 79 mole % N2 and 21 mole
% 02.
5. The properties of the reactant and of the product
gases are calculated as mixtures of ideal gases.
6. The flame temperature must be between 25000K
and 19000K. This range includes the flame tem-
peratures of all major hydrocarbons likely to be
in a fuel gas.
The accuracy of the results obtained with this pro-
gram is limited only by the validity of the above assump-
tions and the accuracy of the input data. The program
user should try to insure that his specific heat data is


valid for the temperature range of the problem he is
The results of computation for the above problem are
shown in the figure. The input data read from cards is
printed on the output as indicated. The other results
are calculated by the program except for the specific
heats of the output gases which are stored in the
Further information about the program can be ob-
tained from Dr. David H. Chittenden, ChE Department,
University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire

LETTERS (Continued from p. 109)
For the 40 graduate-inclined schools
P = 4.07 + 0.00B + 0.17M + 0.51D (4)
and for the 57 undergraduate schools
P = 2.56 + 0.11B + 0.08M + 0.27D (5)
One immediately notices that in Eq. 4 the coefficient
of B is zero. This result may not be as outlandish as it
appears at first blush. It indicates that in graduate-
oriented programs the number of undergraduates may
not appreciably affect the number of full-time profes-
sorial schedules. One may speculate that this is the
result of a growing and perhaps regrettable practice of
relegating undergraduate instruction to persons without
professorial rank; i.e., instructors and graduate assist-
ants. This practice may be dictated by necessity in
rapid-growth situations.
If one compares the coefficients of D in Eqs. 4 and 5,
one notices that graduate-inclined schools require more

professional time per doctoral degree granted than do
undergraduate-inclined schools. The situation is reversed
in the case of bachelor's degrees.
In conclusion, we wish to remind the reader that no
great accuracy is claimed for this study. It represents
a first attempt to analyze the relationship between the
number of full-time professorial schedules and the num-
ber and kinds of degrees granted. Considering the nature
of the variables, it is indeed surprising that the indicated
degrees of correlation and stability exist. It would be
interesting to follow the study with future ones, not
only in chemical engineering but in other disciplines as
A. X. Schmidt
Robert Pfeffer
Leonard Cohen
The City College of the City
University of New York


Input Vata

(Continued from page 125.)

internal factors. Clearly, as a society we are sen-
sitive to and react to factors that arise outside
of our geographical boundaries. The cold war,
Vietnam, and the ABM are not strictly of our
own doing. However, here we want to consider
only those dynamics-determining factors that can
be considered to be internal, since it seems that
these are of greater significance than factors
that can be definitely identified as external.
The first of these internal factors is the
existence and propagation of what might be
called the Creed of Technology. This is the widely
held belief mentioned previously that innovation
per se is good and that technology is always pro-
gressive. It might be argued that no intelligent,
well-educated person really believes the Creed
of Technology. If that is so, why do so many
intelligent, well-educated persons act as if they
did believe it? And if such is true of intelligent,
well-educated persons, what beliefs are held by
simple or uneducated persons in this regard?
By questioning the belief that innovation is
always good, we are not thereby saying that it
is always bad. The point is simply that if a
technological innovation has a good side (as it
almost always does), it will more than likely
have a bad side as well. A case in point are those
technological innovations that have led to large-
scale agricultural use of fertilizers, herbicides,
and insecticides. Surely these have greatly in-
creased yields of crops and made possible a
minimal standard of living for the world's ex-
panding population. There is also no question
that such use has led to progressive and cumula-
tive deterioration and pollution of important sec-
tors of our environment. Again, it is certain that
these innovations have relieved the farmer of a
number of burdensome chores, while on the other
hand, it is possible to wonder if the farmer is
any happier for being so relieved.
Associated with the Creed of Technology is
the Cult of the Product. If the former teaches
that innovation of itself is a positive good, the
latter is the logical consequence of belief in that
teaching. If innovation of itself is good, then the
products of innovation be they good or serv-
ices must themselves be good and those who
deny this are either foolish or wholly mistaken.
"For," claim the votaries of this cult, "our pro-
duction of this thing or this service puts people

to work; it gives them useful labor in recompense
for which they can obtain the good things of
life. And our product itself satisfies a demand,
otherwise we would hardly be making it. There-
fore, it is patent on all counts that our product
is a good thing, and deserves the importance
that we attach to it."
Yes, but if your production pollutes the air
that society must breathe or the water that it
must drink, shall humanity at large share your
enthusiasm for your cult idol? If this production
necessitates tearing down and destroying the
things of natural or man-made beauty that enrich
life so much, shall the next generation of men
hold you blameless? Where in the Cult of the
Product is there any sense of balance?
A third factor, with roots perhaps deeper in
human nature than any other, is the Gospel of
Growth. This Good News is this: That the ex-
pansion of human activities (that is, the produc-
tion and consumption of goods and services),
institutions, and population is a wonderful thing,
a panacea for economic and even social ills;
without growth, society stagnates. With it, so-
ciety's possibilities are unlimited. Hence, indus-
trial or commercial enterprises are quick to
brand themselves as "growth companies," cham-
bers of commerce describe the community that
they represent as a "vigorous, growing area,"
and radio and television advertising puts out an
incessant barrage of propaganda designed to
convince the public of the sovereign merits of
industrial and economic growth. Placed before
us are bright visions of a high-energy society,
where man will control the weather or live under
a weather-excluding dome, the grass will not
have to be cut because it is artificial, the women
will always be slender, young, and beautiful, and
each of the kids can have a snowmobile for the
winter, a sports car for fall and spring, and a
speedboat for the summer. Or sometimes a dif-
ferent approach is taken; "If you don't grow
you're dead!" is the hellfire-and-brimstone way
to put it. And it is preached that way, appar-
ently with complete conviction that it applied to
human institutions and societies as it does to the
biological cycle of growth, development, senes-
cense, and death exhibited by individual living
organisms. This sort of preaching has won con-
verts, and it is difficult to escape the conclusion


. . death and decay are necessary for birth
and growth, and great Caesar's dust may
appear in an ear of wheat as in a
bunghole stopper.

that for a substantial portion of the most influen-
tial elements of our society, growth has become
an end in itself.
The biological aspect of the Gospel of Growth, viz.,
that population growth is an inherently good thing, is no
longer a very explicit part of the Gospel's teaching. The
social stresses and political and other problems brought
about by overpopulation are so evident in so many parts
of the world that it is no longer fashionable or expedient
to come right out and urge population growth. However,
the teaching that population growth is inherently good
is implicit in the Gospel of Growth. For if expansion of
the production of goods and services is a good thing,
then population growth must also be welcome, for besides
increasing per capital consumption, what other way is
there of increasing total consumption, the sine qua non
for increasing production?
fire-and-brimstone aspect of the Gospel of
Growth is based on the invalid analogy that the
development of a society follows the same rules
as the development of individual living organ-
isms, it is nevertheless permissible and even
necessary to view the development of societies
in biological terms; not in the sense of trying to
draw analogies, since these are always of doubt-
ful validity, but in the sense of trying to see what
restrictions biology places on such development.
For instance, American society is composed of a
biological population inhabiting a large but
strictly bounded living space. Very many other
biological populations, ranging from bacteria to
beef cattle, share this living space with us. All
of these populations man's included are
subject to biological, chemical, and physical laws
that cannot be suspended or amended by majority
votes of our legislatures. In that sense, man can
never "master" nature. In many cases, these
laws are not all known with precision or else
their application is too complicated for quantita-
tive prediction; in such cases, it is not possible
to predict what consequences human actions will
have on our environment. It is necessary to
mention this here, since the contrary belief -
that we can predict everything is quite com-
mon in our society, and is the essence of what we
shall call Technological Megalomania ( see be-
Moreover, even if population growth is not an explicit
teaching of the Gospel of Growth, the current policies

of our society guarantee that the population will continue
to grow anyway. The demographer Judith Blake has
recently pointed out* that Americans of all classes con-
sider it desirable to have large (greater than two
children) families: the mean number of children con-
sidered desirable varies from 3.2 for high-income and
college-educated women to 3.6 or 3.7 for low-income or
grade-school-educated women. If that is what is considered
desirable, then that is what couples will strive to attain,
and so in fact the natility rate is much greater than that
required to achieve a stable population.
Professor Blake attributes the desire for large fami-
lies to "pronatalist policies" of our society, policies which
evolved primarily in response to the past need for a high
natality rate to counteract the then-prevailing high mor-
tality rate. She says (pp. 528 and 529) that these policies
"insure that just about everyone will be propelled into
reproductive unions, and [the female] half of the popula-
tion will enter such unions as a 'career' a life's work.
This rigid structuring of the wife-mother position builds
into the entire motivational pattern of women's lives a
tendency to want at least a moderate-size family. . .
the wish for a family of a particular size . relates
... to a need for more than one or two children if one is
going to enjoy 'family life' over a significant portion of
one's lifetime."
However, the predictions based on these laws
are quite clear even if not specific when they are
applied to a population that is growing unchecked
by any competing population, by disease, by in-
traspecific rivalries, or by lack of food: eventu-
ally one or more of these factors will exert them-
selves and bring about a check to population
growth. It is true that by very great expenditure
of effort an expenditure that we do not now
seem willing to make the density of popula-
tion at which such limiting factors come into
play can be raised. But how high can it be
raised? That is one of the things that cannot
be answered with precision. Concerning this,
the ecologist Lawrence Slobodkin writes* (pp.
3-4) : "How many men can the earth hold? We
must abandon all pretense of saving intact any
wilderness areas and consider that we will treat
the earth as a combined garden and factory; all
other species will either prove useful to man or
will be eliminated; they will either adjust to the
omnipresence of man or die. Answers to the
question are now merely guesses, ranging from
7 billion to 200 billion, the difference in the
estimates depending on how several subsidiary
questions are answered." And what would it be

* Judith Blake, "Population policy for Americans: Is the
government being misled?" Science, 164, 522-529 (1969).
* Lawrence B. Slobodkin, "Growth and Regulation of
Animal Populations," (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and
Winston, 1961).


like to live in such a world? Again we quote
Slobodkin (p. 4) : "Implicit in this picture of the
future is a mental health problem: a world com-
pletely full of man and his activities could well
be a maddening place. There is an esthetic prob-
lem: the beauty of the winderness is a very real
thing. There is a political problem: a world full
of men would be highly regimented, a world of
an Aldous Huxley or Orwell phantasy." When
measured against this sober (and understated)
appraisal, the Gospel of Growth begins to lose
some of its appeal. And what about that aspect
of the Gospel calling for continual expansion
of man's activities and man's consumption, and
not just total expansion, either, but expansion
per person? This compounds the problems raised
by the population explosion and hastens the time
when some limiting factor beyond man's control
will appear.
If our (U.S.) population were stationary, and if our
per capital rate of consumption of goods and services
were stationary, both at their present levels, then we
could probably afford to indulge ourselves in the other
follies enumerated here. It seems perfectly reasonable
to assume that with existing technology, or with technol-
ogy within the reach of present knowledge, we could
provide the necessities of life and many luxuries in
addition, as well as a clean, esthetically-pleasing environ-
ment, for all of the 200,000,000 people who now live in
the United States. But of course, our population and our
per capital consumption are not stationary, and these are
facts of cardinal importance.
The Gospel of Growth is at once the most insidious
and the most dangerous of all the internal factors that
will be considered here. It is the most insidious because
its biological aspect is based on an eminently reasonable
postulate: that we must reproduce ourselves if human
life is to continue on the earth. It is the most dangerous
because it interacts with and is reinforced by all the
other factors that we are enumerating, and because by
itself, it is a sufficient condition for producing ecological
catastrophe. We need to take a long look at the Gospel
of Growth.
that determines the dynamics of our society
is that which gives rise to what my biomedical
librarian friend calls the Sandbox Syndrome.
She coined this term one day when we were try-
ing to get to downtown Minneapolis. That day
it seemed that our path was diverted at every
intersection by a huge hole dug in the earth for a
freeway, by some enormous piece of earth-
moving machinery blocking the street, or for
preparations to throw up a new skyscraper.
After the tenth detour, she exclaimed "Why,
this is the Sandbox Syndrome; dig, dig, dig all
the time!"

. . the sandbox syndrome; dig, dig, dig . .

In case there be any uncertainty about it, let
us place in more explicit if less expressive terms
that which Miss Bohn so aptly characterized:
We shall say that an individual, an organization,
or a society exhibits the Sandbox Syndrome if
his or its thinking tends to be determined by
technological considerations, if it is fixed upon
the size or the speed of machines or projects, or
if it habitually turns to digging in the dirt, rear-
ranging the landscape, and generally "improving
upon nature."
A case that was a classic example of the Sandbox
Syndrome appeared on TV a few weeks ago. An official
of one of the large airline companies was describing the
SST. Facts and figures concerning the weight, size,
thrust, speed, carrying capacity, length of runway neces-
sary for takeoff, etc., came spewing out of him as paper
comes spewing out of the University's CDC 6600 com-
puter. But never a word about sonic boom, release of
pollution high in the atmosphere where dispersal is very
slow, or the consideration that it may not be necessary
or even desirable to be able to fly from Minneapolis-St.
Paul to London in four hours. The whole thing was
reminiscent of a joke once told by a colleague: The pas-
sengers on the first commercial flight of the SST had
fastened their seat belts in preparation for blast-off and
the doors had been sealed. A voice came over the PA
system and announced that "This is a recording. The
doors of the craft have been sealed and the program for
takeoff initiated. In two hours we shall touch down in
London. This operation is completely computerized and
is not subject to human error. So relax, enjoy the flight,
and be assured that nothing can go wrong nothing can
go wrong nothing can go wrong. . ."
The forms of the Sandbox Syndrome de-
scribed above are of a relatively primitive nature.
More advanced forms are sometimes manifested
and these should perhaps be differentiated from
the Sandbox Syndrome; we might call these
Technological Megalomania. Particularly strik-
ing here is a tendency to view the earth as some
sort of spacecraft, with the earth's human popu-
lation as its crew and all the rest of the earth's
populations as its life support system. The mis-
sion in which this super space vehicle is engaged
is tremendously exciting, if rather ill-defined.
Hence, we must manage the life support system
and harness it every organism of it to the
one task of supporting the crew. And of course
all of the crew must dedicate themselves to the
great task of completing the mission. Possibly
the crew might become somewhat restive in their
cramped quarters (even though these be scien-
tifically designed), but no doubt application of
psychology, genetic strain selection, and new in-


It is absolutely necessary . that innovating
societies think about why they innovate and
what the consequences of innovation are.

novations in crowd control will minimize any
Another striking manifestation of Techno-
logical Megalomania is a willingness to play the
Game of Environmental Russian Roulette. The
elements of this Game are first a technological
innovation magnificent in conception and gran-
diose in scope, second a considerable uncertainty
about the long-term environmental consequences
of implementing this conception but a possibility
that these consequences could be serious indeed,
and third a willingness to proceed with imple-
mentation anyway.

we can call Utilitarian Vision is still another
factor that directs technological innovation into
dangerous channels. Characteristic symptoms of
this defect are: Looking at a forest and seeing
piles of boards instead of trees, looking at an old
but well-kept neighborhood and seeing high-rise
apartment buildings instead of homes, and look-
ing at an unspoiled river valley and seeking a
power plant with a six hundred foot smokestack
instead of a place where future generations of
men can breathe and renew their spirit. Some-
times, the defect becomes so severe that the
boards, apartment buildings, and power plant of
the foregoing examples are distorted further into
dollars. When that symptom shows up, there is
little that anyone can do to correct the defect.
And please do not assume that because Utilita-
rian Vision has been illustrated by homely exam-
ples that strike most closely at the author's
heart that it does not operate on a much larger
Another internal factor of importance is the
Concept of the Convenient Society. If some of
the other factors that have been enumerated
arose far back in the past or are inherent aspects
of human behavior, the Concept of the Conveni-
ent Society is of recent origin. Indeed, to gauge
by the drumfire of advertising in its behalf, we
can probably infer that the principal financial
beneficiaries of the Concept are not perfectly
sure that it has taken complete root in the
thought patterns of the American people.

What is the Concept of the Convenient So-
ciety ? Simply this: That everyone ought to have
all of the conveniences that our technological
capacity can produce, and that that capacity
ought to apply its ingenuity to the fullest to
make things ever more convenient. And part of
convenience of course is easy of disposal when
an object is empty or worn out; we cannot worry
about what becomes of our conveniences when
we are through with them.
The basic trouble with the Concept of the
Convenient Society is not that convenience is
immoral or that we should go back to the "good
old days." Rather, it is the fact that the Concept
is totally at variance with the ecological concept
that in a limited, living world, all material things
must cycle if life is to continue indefinitely. To
put it in a different form, death and decay are
necessary for birth and growth, and great Cae-
sar's dust may appear in an ear of wheat as in
a bunghole stopper. The Concept of the Conveni-
ent Society either does not recognize the neces-
sity for the recycling of materials or if it does, it
ignores the necessity. Thus, a shiny new car
eventually ends up a rusty wreck and so our end-
less production of automobiles and concomitant
failure to reuse the worn-out ones leads to the
proliferation of auto junkyards. Again, a new
house in the suburbs becomes an old house in a
slum you can see this happening already and
few of our suburbs are more than twenty-five
years old so the better-educated, more affluent
people move on to a new suburb and start a new
cycle of development and decay; thus, the urban
blight spreads over the land. Perhaps the whole
thing can be epitomized by the Story of the
Aluminum Beer Can. It started out in the mind
of some ingenious innovator. Industry fashioned
it into a shiny vision of promise. Its production,
filling, and distribution provided useful work for
more than one deserving man. It gave pleasure
with convenience to someone else. And then it
ended up with glass bottles, plastic-coated milk
cartons, throw-away aerosol cans, aluminum
trays from TV dinners, and an endless variety
of other junk in an ever-growing and unholy
mountain that does not rust or rot, and whose
eventual disposition is or ought to be giving gray
hairs to the city fathers.

we conclude the catalog of the foibles of our inno-
vating society with mention of the general ignorance of,
or indifference to, the full costs of technological innova-


tion. Everyone wants the necessities of life, and everyone
also wants a greater or lesser share of the amenities of
life. Unfortunately, production of both necessities and
luxuries entails charges against the environment. It is
even more unfortuate that society at large has only a
dim awareness of the nature of these charges (or even
that they exist;) and blithely dismisses the thought of
charges with the assumption that they are not serious
or will somehow be paid by some unit of government or
industry. Of course, the charges sometimes become
blatantly obvious, as in the recent oil-drilling catastrophe
on the coast of California, and the public ire is then
aroused. This wrath tends to center on the offending
company or on the government official who permitted
the risk to be taken, and that is indeed proper. However,
fairness demands the remark that the public's own hands
are not entirely clean in this matter; after all, if no one
drove a car, would it be profitable to drill for oil off
the shore of California?
The trouble here is that no one has told so-
ciety at large what the environmental costs of the
innovating society are. The dissemination of such
information is desperately needed, for unless it
is available, one cannot see how a rational set of
priorities designed to balance man's needs against
environmental costs can be enforced. Hence, five
minutes of gibes at air pollution by Arthur God-
frey are no doubt worth one thousand essays like
this, but the author is compelled to write it none-
The set of factors that have been described
give to the dynamics of American Society some-
thing of the character of a branching chain reac-
tion. The creed of Technology and the Gospel of
Growth serve as the initiating reaction. Once
technology is initiated, it is propagated by the
Cult of the Product and the Concept of the Con-
venient Society. The Gospel of Growth gives
rise to branching reactions at all stages of the
process. And those defects in our thinking that
manifest themselves as the Sandbox Syndrome,
Technological Megalomania, Utilitarian Vision
and ignorance of the costs of the innovating so-
ciety, make it virtually impossible to introduce
any terminating reactions into the whole scheme.
We have now reached the point where we can
see that some terminating reactions are needed
if we are not to strangle ourselves. The air and
the water have become so badly polluted that the
situation is apparent to everyone. Hence, indi-
viduals, organizations, and industries of vision
and conscience have become concerned about
pollution control and the effects of pollution on
our environment and what is even more import-
ant, are acting on their concern. Thank God for
such; we are indebted to them. Nevertheless,

the efforts we have today are not nearly enough,
nor in the long run, do they strike at the heart
of the matter. Unless America changes some of
its basic attitudes the internal factors men-
tioned above it is hard to see how even very
great efforts to control pollution can be much
different from a rear-guard action. Hopefully,
they can keep us one jump ahead of the wolf
for some time, but what is really needed is some
way to chain the wolf and put him to work for us.
It is absolutely necessary for the continued existence
of a descent sort of human life on this earth, that inno-
vating societies think about why they innovate and what
the consequences of innovation are. We must recognize
that innovations are a means to an end and not the end
itself. We must try to set up some definite goals that
have the benefit of all mankind as their objective. We
can no longer rely on a vague faith in progress to take
care of our tomorrows. Only by setting up defined goals
will it be possible to develop priorities and institutions
that can guide the innovative genius of men onto paths
that will be truly, as opposed to superficially, beneficial.

educators have done very much that is useful
with regard to the considerations raised above.
True, we need and shall continue to need engi-
neers and scientists, and it is our business to
produce them. But what kind of engineers are
we turning out? It seems to me that much of
current engineering education serves to reinforce
belief in the Creed of Technology and the Gospel
of Growth, and all the rest of those factors,
factors with which the freshman engineering stu-
dent has already been partially equipped by his
parents, his schoolmates, and society in general.
Readers who have persevered this far and
who agree that I have described some real prob-
lems will probably wonder if I have any concrete
suggestions to offer for their solution or is it to
be simply "ecrasez 1' inflame an attitude all too
common these days. It seems to me that there are
some things we can do, and even if they are not
very original, I give them for what they are
The most immediate thing that we can do is
to consider the contents of our undergraduate
textbooks and courses. It is true that these do
not exhort budding engineers to go out and rape
the environment. But it is also true that they
do not suggest that they have any responsibility
to conserve it nor do they often state that tech-
nology imposes any stress on the environment. To
be aware that a problem exists is the prerequisite
for any attempt to solve the problem, and by judi-


. . the mystic destiny towards which innovating societies strive has lost some of the rosy tints of
paradise and taken on the more lurid aspects of purgatory.

cious choice of examples in engineering texts and
courses we could certainly point out to our stu-
dents what some of our real environmental prob-
lems are. Such examples serve another purpose
also: they can be genuine and challenging illus-
trations of basic engineering principles, ranging
from applications of the laws of thermodynamics
to problems of diffusion and convection that are
as advanced as anything in Birdfoot. Why don't
we try to put this sort of example into our texts
and courses? We don't have to expurgate as
Mother Goose must be expurgated; we merely
need to add things.
Another useful thing that we can do is to
make an attempt to recruit women students for
engineering. This would help to open up careers
for women other than or in addition to that of
wife and mother; it would be a removal of one of
the factors repressing antinatalist tendencies
existing but not active in our society. Removal
of factors repressing antinatalist tendencies is
Judith Blake's principal suggestion for inhibiting
population growth in the United States. By act-
ing on her suggestion, we would also tap a source
of talent and brainpower that has hardly been
touched by engineering.
The next thing that we can do is to see that
our students are at least exposed to courses in
environmental engineering. Does our school have
courses in air and water pollution control? Do
we encourage our students to take these courses ?
If we do not have such courses, what are we doing
to get them?
Finally, it is clear that an innovating society
will be able to resolve its basic dilemma only if it
can replace those attitudes and values that we
have named as the Creed of Technology, the
Gospel of Growth, etc., by attitudes and values
more in keeping with the long-term needs of man.
It is equally clear, at least to the author, that if
this is to be done at all, it must be done through
education. Hence, what about our own attitudes?
In our teaching of the details of technology, do
we ever stop to point out that technology is a
two-edged sword? Indeed, do all of us even be-
lieve that? Do we think it worthwhile for our
students to learn something besides science and
engineering or do we regard the "liberal educa-
tion" part of our curriculum as a necessary evil
forced upon us by the rest of the university? Do

we have any concern that our students should
realize that we live in a limited world, a micro-
cosm, whose living and non-living components
interact in an endless spectrum of ways, some
of them of extraordinary subtlety? Do we think
students should be aware that man is part of this
microcosm or are we so far gone into the last
stages of Technological Megalomania that we
teach or at least imply that he is above and be-
yond it? Have we swalloded the Concept of the
Convenient Society which is in essence that we
can do just as we damn well please with our
surroundings so that we pass this monstrosity
on to the next generation of engineers?
We are concerned these days with a decline
in the number, or at least of the relative number,
of students entering college who want to become
engineers or scientists. Surely there is no single
or simple explanation for this, but I do think
that we can gain partial insight into the phe-
nomenon by applying the analysis given above.
Eighteen year olds can observe and draw conclu-
sions as we can. Their observations may not be
as thorough, and their conclusions may not be
based on a very disciplined or experienced
thought process; nevertheless, the Creed of
Technology, the Cult of the Product, and all the
rest are fairly obvious aspects of our society,
and it is easy to see how they could become inex-
tricably entangled in the minds of youth with
science and engineering. The fact that these fac-
tors are faults of society as a whole rather than
of technology alone is irrelevant; society's de-
fects are manifested in a most striking way by
our runaway technology.
To close this essay, let us return to Professor Pig-
gott's opening chapter. He speaks (p. 18) of a "mystic
destiny" towards which innovating societies believe they
should strive by continual technological innovation, and
his quote from Herbert Spencer may be taken as the
canonical form of the Creed of Technology: "Progress is
not an accident but a necessity. It is a part of nature.
Evil tends perpetually to disappear." Unfortunately, the
stock of evil seems these days to increase even faster
than the population. Change is a part of nature but
that which is called Progress is often a retrogression, or
if it is of benefit to us, it would be a curse to the next
generation. Thus, the mystic destiny towards which
innovating societies strive has lost some of the rosy tints
of paradise and taken on the more lurid aspects of
I am indebted to Carol Urness for her con-
structive criticism of my original manuscript.


J department



What should be the goals of a department of
chemical engineering? National prominence
through a strong graduate program or a quality
undergraduate program? An orientation toward
"engineering science" or an orientation toward
engineering practice? A large graduate program
or a large undergraduate degree production? A
PhD-oriented graduate program or a master's-
oriented graduate program? Should it espouse a
philosophy of service to the state, a philosophy
of service to the engineering profession, or to
a "community of scholars"?
When a department has a single objective,
the fulfillment of its goal demands a concentrated
effort in one direction. For example, a depart-
ment that is interested in undergraduate degree
production can hire faculty who are inspiring
teachers and who would also enjoy visiting high
schools to aid in recruitment; a department that
aspires to national prominence for the quality
of its research can hire faculty who have bril-
liant, creative minds and a personal desire to do
research and to publish their results. When the
goal of the department is singular, and when the
faculty and administration accepts the singu-
larity, the implementation of its goal can be
carried out smoothly and without conflict. De-
partments of great prominence can be developed
in this manner.

. . a balanced department with multiple
objectives is desirable at the University of Florida . .

In many cases, external factors, such as
whether it is a private or public institution, may
influence or even fix the goal of the department.
In some cases, it is more desirable (and even
necessary) for a department to have multiple
goals. For example, the composition of a tenured
faculty can, by its very nature, demand a divers-
ity of objectives; or the faculty may express an
objective opposed to that of the institution or
college as a whole (such as in the case of an
undergraduate-oriented faculty in a graduate-
oriented institution).
While many departments seek more than one
of the many objectives listed above, few of them
strive for excellence in all of them. But one de-
partment that, for the last four or five years, has
been attempting to do all of these is the Chemical
Engineering Department at the University of
Florida. We might therefore properly ask the
following questions:
What are the reasons for such a multiplicity
of objectives?
What kind of results have been achieved ?

A balanced department with multiple objec-
tives is desirable at the University of Florida
because of the following:
It is the only department of chemical engineering
in a state serving over six million people; it therefore
feels a broad responsibility to provide a diversified and
balanced program.


a department must recognize both academic and industrial professional goals . its achievements will never
be easily measured by quantitative indices . an engineer is not merely a technical robot . the goal
of the department, and that of the student it educates, must be the betterment of human society.

Its tenured faculty in 1964 was already of above-
average size; it was a diversified, heterogeneous and
capable group that was brought together to do sponsored
research under the Engineering and Industrial Experi-
ment Station and partly to teach. It consisted of several
people with degrees in chemistry (organic, biochemistry,
pharmaceutical, inorganic and physical), a pulp and paper
technologist, an authority on imbedding flowers in plas-
tics, an expert on asphalt technology and economics, a
world-famous fluorine chemist (and philosopher of science
and education), and an electrochemist doing over $100,000
a year of research (much of it classified) on thermal
batteries and fuel cells. Some of the faculty were inter-
ested only in undergraduate teaching, others only in
sponsored research, still others in both activities. Its
average age was 55 and there was only one assistant
professor in the group.
The new energetic and dynamic dean of the College
of Engineering from 1964-68 strongly encouraged the
development of the graduate program both from
the standpoint of increased enrollment, and also in terms
of quality of research and instruction.
It began participation in 1965 in an NSF Science
Development (or "Center-of-Excellence") Grant that
provided funds for bringing in new faculty and graduate
students to do fundamental research in chemical engi-
The diversity of faculty interests and back-
grounds plus the strong leadership of the dean
made it obligatory for the department to pursue
multiple objectives lest it suffer from internal
conflict among its faculty or from an external
gap between the objectives of the administration
and those of the faculty. Hence the objectives of
the department became balanced ones and diversi-
fied ones; both quality and quantity were needed
in the graduate and undergraduate program;
both theory and practice had to be emphasized;
both teaching and research had to be acknowl-
edged; both masters and PhD degrees had to be
offered; and both service to the State and Nation
as well as service to the engineering profession
and to the academic community had to be a part
of departmental philosophy.
To express these multiple goals in a cohesive
philosophy became a first task of the new chair-
man when he arrived in June 1964. A statement
of goals recognized the diversity of the chemical
engineering profession through its strong roots
in both chemistry and physics. This diversity
meant that a chemical engineering department
must recognize bifold professional goals: aca-
demic goals that strive for the advancement of
fundamental knowledge and industrial (or pro-

fessional) goals that have to do with the econom-
ical design and operation of plants that produce
consumer goods (or of substances that go into
making consumer products). "Just as the overall
aim of the University is to serve mankind," it
further stated, "so also the goal of the depart-
ment, and that of the student it educates, must be
the betterment of human society. For as a pro-
fessional man, an engineer is not merely a techni-
cal robot who responds passively and unquestion-
ingly to conformist pressures or to the commands
of others. Instead he must be aware of, and
deeply concerned with the social and political
problems of our times. He must have a high
sense of values and be capable of making deci-
sions with regard to principles and ideals derived
from these, rather than from narrow self-interest
or partisan group interest. In keeping with this
philosophy, the department should investigate
methods of establishing communications between
the 'two cultures' of technology and the humani-
Somewhat later the first annual report for
the "Center of Excellence" Grant stated that "the
goal of the chemical engineering department in
the Science Development Program is to strive
towards an excellence that is better expressed in
terms of the significance of its contributions to
scientific progress than by the volume of its
activity. Its achievements therefore will never
be easily measured by quantitative indices-by
numbers of students or faculty added, by the
dollars worth of equipment purchased, by
the number of papers in various journals, or
by the number of degrees granted. We believe
that the kind of excellence for which we strive
cannot readily be programmed, budgeted or al-
located on a yearly or semiannual basis. Nor can
it be fully accomplished in a time space of one
year or three years or even five years.
"But seeds can be planted. Morale can be
improved. Research ideas can be generated. New
approaches to engineering education can be tried.
A creative intellectual atmosphere can be devel-
oped. Bright, highly motivated people, both
young and old, can be added to a faculty. A new
life, energy, and enthusiasm can be breathed into
a faculty with unfulfilled goals and unrealized


. seeds can be planted . .

With the addition of a new chairman and
three other faculty members, the chemical en-
gineering department began its period of devel-
opment in 1964-65 one year prior to the award
of the "Center of Excellence" grant. Although
this development was greatly accelerated by the
award of the grant, it was partially retarded by
inadequate space and facilities. Until November,
1967, the department had been housed entirely
in a crowded World War II airplane hangar
which was shared with the Aerospace Engineer-
ing Department. Essentially no additional space
was available for graduate students and research
equipment, and faculty offices were not condu-
cive to the recruitment of prominent senior
faculty members. But in less than three years the
department could point to the following accom-
plishments :
Revision of graduate and undergraduate curricula.
Graduate enrollment nearly tripled increasing to 66.
Undergraduate degree production increased 50%.
Seven outstanding young faculty members with
excellent backgrounds were added, decreasing the
average age of the faculty from 55 to 44.
Sponsored research support increased over 50%.
Faculty research productivity in terms of papers
submitted and published increased several fold. Two
books were published and two others were started.
Although the above quantitative increases
may be startling, even more impressive were the
indications of improvements in the quality of its
graduate student body, its faculty, and its gradu-
ate program. In 1964, over half the 23 graduate
students were foreign students, and roughly half
were University of Florida graduates. The aver-
age Graduate Record Examination scores of that
group was 550 or slightly above average. How-
ever of the group of 28 students admitted in
Fall, 1967, all but two were graduates of Ameri-
can institutions other than the University of
Florida. The first group of 22 who accepted ap-
pointments had an average Graduate Record
Examination (Verbal-Quantitative Average)
score of 654 at least one standard deviation
higher than in 1964. (Such a score meant that
the average student was in the top 6-7% of the
senior students throughout the nation who took
the examination.)
Initially, the award of the "Center of Excel-
lence" grant made possible a shift in the research
emphasis of many of the older faculty members

to more fundamental areas of research and away
from the highly applied sponsored research proj-
ects previously emphasized under the Engineer-
ing and Industrial Experiment Station. As a
result of this heightened interest, new proposals
for fundamental research were written and nine
new projects were accepted for support by vari-
ous agencies such as the NSF, NIH, AEC, NASA
and DOD. Thus stimulated, the face value of
sponsored research nearly doubled and the an-
nual rate increased by over 50%.
The increase in outside research support
made available state funds for the addition of
new faculty beyond the two positions allocated in
the grant. (In addition to positions generated
through research, one state supported position
was obtained from the University.) The new
faculty added were not only graduates of leading
institutions; they were also generally among the
top students to complete PhD work at their in-
stitution over a period of years. (Four of them
had won NSF Fellowships in national competi-
tion.) Table 1 gives their backgrounds.


Name and
Ph.D. School


A. W. Westerberg Computer-Aided


L. E. Johns, Jr.
Carnegie Tech
J. P. O'Connell
Cal. Berkeley

X. B. Reed, Jr.
A. D. Randolph
Iowa State
(Now at U.
D. W. Kirmse
Iowa State
K. E. Gubbins
R. W. Fahien


Control Data Cp.
Princeton U.
U. of Minnesota

Polymer Dynamics Dow Chemical
Cont. Mech.

Appl. Math


Processes in

Mass. Inst. Tech.
Pomona Coll.
Union Oil Co.
Texas A & M
Amer. Potash
Spencer Chem. Co.
Colorado U.

Union Carbide
Oklahoma State
Florida U.
(Post Doc)
Ethyl Corp.
Iowa State U.
Missouri (Rolla)
Washington Univ.

*Ronald Gordon (Ph.D. expected from Princeton Univer-
sity) will join faculty in September 1969.
(Continued on page 157)


would you like

to plan a plant

in Puerto Rico?


Too late, the plant is planned! In fact
construction is already beginning on
Sun Oil's new $125 million refinery
complex and harbor at Yabucoa.
But the project at Yabucoa is sim-
ply one indication of Sun on the move.
We're geared for growth and we need
people. Maybe you ?
Perhaps you'd like to work for the
company that also recently boomed
into the 2 billion dollar class through
the merger of Sun and Sunray DX;
that's pioneering a new fertilizer

plant on the island of Martinique;
that operates a new Computation
Center in Philadelphia; that spon-
sors winning teams and cars in major
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Write us for an appointment, write
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SUN OIL COMPANY, Industrial Rela-
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St., Phila., Pa. 19103.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F



curriculum 4, eat CEE ffepadmemd


University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


There is much truth in the old story about the
late G. G. Brown telling a questioner that "chemi-
cal engineering is what chemical engineers do."
When asked what chemical engineers do, his
reply was, naturally, that they do chemical en-
gineering! But, contrary to the belief of certain
narrow-minded persons, there is no single well-
defined job that each and every chemical engineer
does and which can be described as THE work
of "THE chemical engineer." For in practice
individual chemical engineers do numerous kinds
of jobs each requiring different talents, abilities,
and interests.
In spite of this great diversity of the profes-
sion, chemical engineering curricula have for
years consisted of a rigid set of courses that
every student was required to take. No consid-
eration was made of his future career objectives,
his personal interests, or his individual abilities.
Although the typical curriculum might include
perhaps two elective courses, these were often
gleefully squandered in subjects such as bait
casting, photography, or basket weaving. In view
of our special nature as the only chemical engi-
neering department in the State of Florida, we
felt that we have special obligations to provide
as broad a program as possible. Accordingly,
in 1965 we developed a curriculum that treated
each student as an individual-one whose indi-
vidual interests, talents, and career objectives
could be expressed through a selection of option
The considerations that were involved in de-
veloping this curriculum are as follows:
First, we reaffirmed the belief that an engineering cur-
riculum must be designed to prepare not only a broadly
educated person but also train a professional man who
could, upon graduation, do the kind of engineering work

that employers have associated with chemical engineer-
ing. Both of these educational objectives had to be ful-
filled in four years since a five-year program has never
been accepted by students, educators, or industry. How-
ever, it seemed neither possible nor desirable to devise a
single four-year program that would prepare the student
for all the various kinds of work that chemical engineers
do. For it seemed wrong to subject the practice-oriented
student to intensive theory and mathematics that he would
not use; and it seemed equally unproductive of human
talent to deprive the science-oriented student of that kind
of experience that would best prepare him for graduate
school and a career in research.
Second, we felt that it is essential that all programs
in a chemical engineering department include those
fundamental and core courses required for the practice
of chemical engineering and that no program should be
"watered down" so as to become an easy path to a cheap
Third, we considered it important that a student not
be unduly harmed by a wrong decision as to the program
he chooses to enter. Therefore we made the differences
between programs only about 10%. Actually since we
require 213 quarter hours (142 semester hours) for a
bachelor's degree, more leeway was possible than in
schools requiring much fewer hours.
Fourth, we felt that a student should not be forced
to make a decision until his senior year so that he is
experienced and mature enough to make a wise choice.
Fifth, we believed that the option programs should not
be so rigid that a student is prevented from substituting,
when his reasons are sound, certain courses in the options
for other courses.
The above general considerations were em-
ployed in the development of specific programs as
Chemical engineering science option. Throughout the
country a strong trend has developed toward a chemical

Eng Science
Chem Eng

ChE Science .
ChE Systems a.
Process Eng
Interdisciplinary "
Practice Options C ,
aduate a Industry

Figure 1. Flow Sheet for Undergraduate Options.


. . we developed a curriculum that treated each student as an individual whose interests,
talents, and career objectives could be expressed through a selection of option programs.

engineering science program that primarily prepares a
student for graduate work and for a career in funda-
mental research and teaching. Although a large majority
of our students go into industry we felt that our depart-
ment should have such a science-oriented program avail-
able in order to provide (nevertheless) an alternative
for the student who might otherwise go into the engineer-
ing science program available in the College of Engineer-
ing. We call this program our chemical engineering
science option.
Operations, business, and technical sales options.
Many of our students obtain jobs in operations and
eventually in middle management where theoretical and
mathematical tools are not as much needed as by the
researcher. Programs for such students were designed
for industrial employment or further study in business,
marketing, or law. These were called the operations
options and business options. A modification is available
for students interested in careers in technical sales.



$ BE .cw
k a
B m*
h ^ C o

Reactor Dynamics and Design
Math Models in ChE
Technical Electives
Process Optimization
Applied Molecular Theory
Advanced Process Design
Ind. and Systems Eng.
Applied Math Electives
Polymeric Materials
Process Economics

* *
* *
* *

* *

Tensor Fields and Fluid Dynamics

Quarter Credits in Option

22 22 22

Computer Model
Intro. to Elec.

Strength of
Materials of

Organic Chem.

*Taught in ChE department.

Engineering Core


Transport Phenomena*

Chemical Kinetics*

Systems Analysis*

Solid-Fluid Systems*

Control Theory*
Stagewise Separations*
Cost Estimation*
Process Design*

Process engineering option. Many students actually
do not know what they want to do after graduation. As
a result, chemical engineering curricula have traditionally
attempted to produce a highly versatile chemical engi-
neer one that can easily start his career in any of
many work assignments. We felt a program of this type
should be retained. We called this option process engi-
neering but upgraded it by the addition of transport
phenomena, computer modeling and applied math courses.
Systems engineering option. The systems engineering
approach is as much a part of chemical engineering as
any other field of engineering, including that taught in
systems engineering departments. Chemical engineers
are bringing the fruits of automation to the process
industries through the effective use of computers, mathe-
matical models and processes, and advanced hardware to
the design and operation of chemical complexes. Conse-
quently we developed a computer-oriented systems engi-
neering option in order to fill this need and also as an

alternative to the student who might otherwise enroll
in the systems engineering program taught in the College
of Engineering.
Interdisciplinary options. Some students have a dif-
ficult time choosing between chemical engineering and a
"glamorous" field such as aerospace or nuclear engineer-
ing. At the same time the challenging problems of today
tend to be coupled interations between the application of
engineering principles and the socio-economic needs of our
society; e.g., pollution abatement, food production and/or
population control. The inter-disciplinary options permit
the chemical engineer with paralleled interests in other
fields to take his degree in chemical engineering while at
the same time studying 22 hours of approved courses
in related disciplines such as aerospace engineering,
environmental engineering, nuclear engineering, food
science, or biomedical engineering. The latter program
is approved for direct entrance into medical school.
Humanities or Liberal Studies. Many students today
are concerned about the social problems of our society,
about man's obligation to his fellow man and himself,


Control Systems

Chem-Food Science
Chem. Principles
Eng. Principles

Turbines and Jets

Waste Treatment
Special Topics

Elect. Properties

Nuclear Tech.
Nuclear Chemistry



Corrosion or
ChE Electives

Business & Sales
Report Writing
Speech Courses
ChE Electives

Humanities, or
Liberal Studies
Political Science
ChE Electives

about values and ethics, and about the meaning of life
itself. Therefore we developed a group of courses in the
humanities and social sciences that would permit an
engineering student to obtain a degree that was perhaps,
because of its science content, more of a "liberal studies"
program than that offered in the College of Art and

While some graduate students intend to teach
and do basic research, many others are interested
in industrial careers in development and design.
Consequently the graduate program in the de-
partment was divided into three main areas:
(1) Chemical Engineering Science: transport phe-
nomena, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, kinetics, micro-
structure of matter, and materials science; (2) Chemical
Engingeering Systems: chemical reaction engineering,
process control, process dynamics, optimization, separa-
tions processes; and (3) Interdisciplinary Chemical Engi-
neering: energy conversion and fuel cells, polymer sci-
ence, microelectronics, process economics, and bioengi-

Master of Engineering with Project
There are four graduate programs in the
department. These are: 1) the 45 quarter-hour
Master of Science in Engineering program with
thesis;2) the 50 quarter-hour Master of Engi-
neering pre-PhD program; 3) the 50 quarter-
hour Master of Engineering terminal program
with a project (which can involve a design, a cost
analysis, an experimental investigation, a com-
puter study, or a technical report) ; 4) the PhD
program. Transfer between programs is possible
within limits.

PhD Program Requires Research Proposal

This program includes a written examination
(which may be waived), see below, a research

proposal defended orally, an oral examination,
and a final examination. The research proposal
sets forth and describes an original research
problem and/or solution, which if carried
through, would represent a significant contribu-
tion to chemical engineering knowledge. The area
of the proposal may be the student's dissertation
subject only if he has taken the written exam-

Graduate Courses
An orientation examination is used to deter-
mine whether entering students require any pre-
liminary course work, before taking the six
required core courses. After three to five quarters
in residence, all Master of Engineering students
and nearly all PhD students are required to take a
written examination based on these core courses:

Models and Methods
Multidimensional and Discrete Systems
Thermodynamics of Reaction and Phase Equilibria
Fundamental Transport Phenomena
Process Dynamics 1 or Process Dynamics 2
Reactor Design and Optimization (Systems Program) or
Chemical Kinetics (Science Program)

During 1968 the following additional courses
were taught by department faculty:

Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineering
Applied Field Theory
Computer Control of Processes
Optimization Techniques
Transport Properties and Irreversible Thermodynamics
Applied Statistical Mechanics
Statistical Thermodynamics
Interfacial Transport Phenomena
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Chemical Energy Conversion
Particulate Systems
Applied Fluid Dynamics
Process Engineering
Process Equipment Design
Process and Plant Design
Process Economy Analysis
Tensor Fields and Fluid Dynamics
Analytical Techniques for Eng and Scientists 1
Analytical Techniques for Eng and Scientists 2
Analytical Techniques for Eng and Scientists 3

Student reaction to these diversified programs
has been very good at both the undergraduate
and graduate levels.


(Continued from page 152)

In August 1965, the University of Florida
was awarded a 4.2 million dollar Science Develop-
ment Grant by the National Science Foundation.
The Chemical Engineering Department was
among the seven participating departments in the
University. The proposal submitted by the Uni-
versity was entitled "Radiation, Kinetics, and the
Microstructure of Matter." The proposal stated
that the first objective of the College of Engi-
neering was "to improve the scientific base of ed-
ucation and research through increased emphasis
on the engineering implications of the microstruc-
ture of matter." It pointed especially to the de-
veloping technology of microelectronics as "only
one aspect of the very general field of microengi-
neering which aims to place a strong emphasis
upon the microscopic statistical view of nature
and to relate this to human needs."
In keeping with this philosophy, the department de-
fined and delineated the meaning of the phrase "micro-
structure of matter" from the standpoint of modern fun-
damental research in chemical engineering in terms of
the following connotations:

1. MOLECULAR. This approach involves the use of
a knowledge of statistical mechanics, molecular structure,
and molecular and kinetic theory (a) to predict rates of
chemical reaction either on catalyst surfaces or in homo-
geneous systems, (b) to predict adsorption rates, (c) to
predict thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria,
or (d) to predict transport properties such as diffusivity,
thermal conductivity, or viscosity.
2. PARTICULATE. This approach analyzes par-
ticulate systems in terms of their statistical properties
and the particle-continuum interaction. Such systems are
found in industrial crystallizers and also include aerosols,
mists, dispersions, and suspensions.
3. STATISTICAL. This approach is used to describe
turbulent transport processes for energy, mass, and
momentum in terms of elements in which fluctuations of
velocity and other properties occur.
4. CONTINUUM. The microscopic view of matter
can be thought of in terms of processes that occur at a
point in a continuum. The conservation laws for energy,
mass, and momentum can be expressed in terms of the
differential equations of change.

Knowledge of matter from these microscopic
points of view of course can be used in a given
engineering system to predict macroscopic quan-
tities such as the total energy or mass transport
or the total friction or drag in a system. This

information can be incorporated with modern
design and optimization techniques in the design
of an engineering system or a complete plant.

In the fall of 1967 the department was able
to move into a modern air-conditioned educa-
tional building containing 51,000 sq. ft. of re-
search and teaching facilities made possible by
a State bond issue and funds from the NSF grant.
We now have undergraduate teaching space for
modern laboratories in process measurements,
transport properties, instrumental process analy-
sis, unit operations, process transients and con-
trol theory, chemical reaction kinetics, and indi-
vidual special projects. Graduate research space
is available in process dynamics and computer
control, transport phenomena and properties, in
vivo transport studies, fluid dynamics and

Modern computer facilities will permit one to
control any of several pieces of process equipment
in the unit operations laboratory. At present, a
distillation column is being tied to a remote IBM
1070 process control terminal which connects to
the IBM 360/65 campus computer via telephone
lines. We have designed and are building a special
interface between the process equipment and the
terminal which serves two major functions. First
of all it is a patch panel permitting any one of
several processes to be "patched" into the ter-
minal using special jacks and plugs. Its second
function results from the fact that one can
simulate most of the computer actions to the
process and all of the process responses to the
computer at the interface itself. One can thus
almost completely "debug" the computer soft-
ware without the process and to some extent
"debug" the process hookup without the com-
The remote computer terminal with interface
can tie to 40 analog inputs (low and high level),
30 digital inputs, 24 digital outputs, 10 pulse
motor outputs (which can operate in parallel),
a digital display, and a rotary switch input sta-
tion. The terminal's transmission rate is 66 char-
acters per second to and from the computer which
will permit about 4 random accesses per second or
about 20 analog to 60 digital sequential accesses
per second.
The software is written in Fortran and is


quite modular permitting most of the essential
portions to be used in all processes. The depart-
ment also has two remote consoles for the IBM
360, a 60-amplifier Ease computer, and a WANG

During the past three years, three different
members of the faculty have won undergraduate
teaching awards; Professor Tyner, Professor
Gubbins, and Professor O'Connell. This year the
Sigma Xi research award went to a chemical
engineering graduate student and the Phi Kappa
Phi award for the outstanding student in the
University went to a chemical engineering junior.
Last year the faculty published 20 papers, had
14 others accepted, and submitted 14. Two books
were published, two accepted and two submitted.

If the goal of the department is an excellence
that is not measured by quantitative indices, the
above achievements are not in themselves suffi-
cient indication that excellence has been attained.
But they may indicate that the seeds of excellence
have indeed been planted and have germinated. If
these are now nurtured by additional support,
the progress of the department toward excellence
can continue not only in its research program,
not only in its instructional program, not only in
the achievement of each of its multiple objectives,
but also in the fulfillment of its ultimate aim:
the betterment of human society.

(Cont'd from p. 140)
1. Andersen, S. L., Chem. Eng. Prog., 57, No. 3, 80-83
(March, 1961).
2. Aris, R., G. L. Nemhauser, and D. J. Wilde, AIChE
J., 10 913-919 (Nov., 1964).
3. Baumol, W. J., "Economic Theory and Operations
Analysis," 438 pp., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
N. J. (1961).
4. Blakemore, J. W. and S. H. Davis, Jr., edit. "Op-
timization Techniques" Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp.
Series No 50, 60, (1964).
5. Carr, C. R., and C. W. Howe, "Quantitative Decision
Procedures in Management and Economics Deter-
ministic Theory and Applications" 383 pp., McGraw-
Hill, N. Y. (1964).
6. Dantzig, G. B., "Linear Programming and Exten-
sions" 625 pp., Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton,
N.J. (1963).
7. DiBella, C. W., and W. F. Stevens, I & EC Process
Des. and Dev., 4, 16-20 (Jan, 1965).

8. Ford, L. R., Jr., and Fulkerson, D. R., "Flows in
Networks" 194 pp., Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton,
N. J. (1962).
9. Franks, R. G. E., "Mathematical Modeling in Chemi-
cal Engineering" 285 pp., J. Wiley, N. Y., (1966).
10. Gass, S. I., "Linear Programming Methods and
Applications," 2nd edit., 250 pp., McGraw-Hill, N. Y.
11. Graves, R. L., and P. Wolfe, edit., "Recent Advances
in Mathematical Programming," 347 pp., McGraw-
Hill, N. Y., (1963).
12. Griffith, R. E., and R. A. Stewart, Mgt. Science, 7,
379-382 (July, 1961).
13. Hadley, G., "Linear Programming," 520 pp, Addison-
Wesley, Reading, Mass. (1962).
14. Hadley, G., "Nonlinear and Dynamic Program-
ming" 484 pp., Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.
15. Happel, John, "Chemical Process Economics," 291
pp., J. Wiley, N. Y. (1958).
16. Hertz, D. B., Harvard Bus. Rev., 42, No. 1, 95-106
(Jan.-Feb., 1964).
17. Hughes, R. R. and J. C. Ornea, "Decision-Making in
Competitive Situations," Paper, Panel Disc. 34, 7th
World Petr. Congr., Mexico City, (April, 1967).
18. Hughes, R. R., E. Singer, and M. Souders, "Machine
Design of Refineries," Proc. 6th World Petr. Con-
gress, Frankfurt/Main, Section VII, pp. 93-102,
(June, 1963).
19. Lavi, A. and T. P. Vogl, edit., "Recent Advances in
Optimization Techniques," 656 pp., Wiley, N. Y.,
20. Mangasarian, 0. L., Mgt. Sci., 10, 353-359 (Jan.,
21. Mangasarian, 0. L., and Rosen, J. B. J. Opns. Res.
Soc. Am., 12, 143-154, (Jan.-Feb., 1964).
22. Mugele, R. A., "The Probe and Edge Theorems for
Non-Linear Optimization," in Lavi, A. and T. P.
Vogl, Ref. 19 above, pp. 131-144.
23. Naylor, T. H., J. L. Belintfy, D. S. Burdick and Kong
Chu, "Computer Simulation Techniques," xiii + 352
pp., J. Wiley, N. Y. (1966).
24. Ornea, J. C. and G. G. Eldredge, "Nonlinear Parti-
tioned Models for Plant Scheduling and Economic
Evaluation," Paper 4.15, AIChE/I ChemE Joint
Mtg, London, June, 1965.
25. Rosen, J. B., J. Soc. Ind. App. Math, 8, 181-217
(1960) 9, 514-532 (1961).
26. Rosen, J. B., Num. Math., 6, 250-260 (1964).
27. Rosen, J. B. and J. C. Ornea, Mgt. Sci., 10, 160-173
(Oct. 1963).
28. Rudd, D. and C. C. Watson, "Strategy in Process
Engineering," Preliminary Edit., J. Wiley, (1966).
29. Singer, E., Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series No. 37,
58, 62-74 (1962).
30. Souders, Mott, Chem. Eng. Prog. 62, No. 3, 79-81
(March 1966).
31. Wilde, D. J., "Optimum Seeking Methods," 202 pp.,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. (1964).
32. Wilde, D. J., Ind. Eng. Chem., 57, No. 8, 18-31 (Aug.
33. Williams, T. J., and R. E. Otto, AIEE Trans 79,
(Comm and Elect.), 458-473 (Nov. 1960).


The world of Union Oil

salutes the world

of chemical engineering

We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges
and universities which educate chemical engineers.
Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute
immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The thirtieth largest manufacturing company in
the United States, with operations throughout
the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas
in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's
Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro-
chemicals throughout the free world.
Our research scientists are constantly discovering new
ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted
more than 2,700 U.S. patents.
We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such
diverse projects as developing new refining processes,
developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and
the conservation of air and water.
Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic.
Tomorrow will be even more stimulating.
Thanks largely to people who join us from leading
institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and
challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil?
Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.



Seventh Annual Lectureship
Award to C. J. Pings

The 1969 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer is Dr. C. J. Pings of the California
Institute of Technology. The purpose of this
award lecture is to recognize and encourage out-
standing achievement in an important field of
fundamental chemical engineering theory or
practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate.
These were presented to this year's Lecturer, Dr.
C. J. Pings, at the Annual Chemical Engineering
Division Banquet held June 24, 1969 at the Penn-
sylvania State University. Dr. Pings spoke on
"A Chemical Engineer Looks at the Physics of
Simple Liquids." A paper based upon his lecture
will be published in an early issue of Chemical
Engineering Education.


1963, A. B. Metzner, University of Delaware,
"Non-Newtonian fluids."
1964, C. R. Wilke, University of California,
"Mass transfer in turbulent flow." -
1965, Leon Lapidus, Princeton University, "As-
pects of modern control theory and applica-
1966, Octave Levenspiel, Illinois Institute of
Technology, "Changing Attitudes to Reactor
1967. Andreas Acrivos, Stanford University,
"Matched Asympototic Expansions."
1968, L. E. Scriven, University of Minnesota,
"Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces."


Cornelius J. Pings was
born in Montana in 1929 and
entered the California In-
stitute of Technology in
1947 from which he received
a BS degree in Applied
Chemistry in 1951, an MS
degree in Chemical Engi-
neering in 1952, and a PhD
degree in Chemical Engi-
neering in 1955. He served
on the faculty at Stanford
University from 1955 to
1959 before returning to
Caltech where he is now
Professor of Chemical Engineering.
In research and scholarly activities his interests have
centered about the areas of applied chemical thermody-
namics and the physics and chemistry of liquids. In the
area of thermodynamics his work has led to important
improvements in the methods for quantitatively describ-
ing the displacement of chemical equilibria. His research
in liquid state physics and chemistry, which has been both
theoretical and experimental, has the long-range objec-
tive of fundamental elucidation of the liquid state. He
has developed one of the most extensive and best equipped
laboratories in the United States for the fundamental
study of fluids. Recent advances, deal with sound absorp-
tion at critical states, the structure of liquid argon, and
studies of intermolecular forces.
In addition to his research and teaching activities, he
has been active in faculty government and in student
affairs. He has served for the past year as chairman of a
special faculty committee on the aims and goals of Cal-
tech. Also active in civic affairs, Dr. Pings was named in
1968 to the Community Redevelopment Agency of the
City of Pasadena. He has served as a consultant to a
number of industrial firms and to the Department of
Professor Pings served as Visiting Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Brazil in 1963. He
has received two Presentation Awards from the AIChE-
one from the 56th National Meeting in Houston (1963)
and the other from the 56th Annual Meeting in San Fran-
cisco (1965). He is editor of the Journal of Physics and
Chemistry of Liquids, and will serve in August 1969, as
Chairman of the Gordon Research Conference on the
Chemistry and Physics of Liquids.



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Full Text