Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Letters from readers
 Professor Stuart W. Churchill of...
 New directions for engineering
 The personality of a professio...
 Dartmouth's doctor of engineer...
 An environmental focus for engineering...
 Education for a new environment:...
 Ocean engineering
 Flow and transfer at fluid interfaces,...
 Pollution control technology
 Book review
 Division activities
 Back Cover

Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00024
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Spring 1969
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00024
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00024

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Letters from readers
        Page 55
    Professor Stuart W. Churchill of the University of Pennsylvania
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    New directions for engineering
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    The personality of a profession
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Dartmouth's doctor of engineering
        Page 74
        Page 75
    An environmental focus for engineering education
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Education for a new environment: Biomedical engineering
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Ocean engineering
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Flow and transfer at fluid interfaces, part III
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Pollution control technology
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Book review
        Page 103
    Division activities
        Page 104
    Back Cover
        Page 105
        Page 106
Full Text


would you like

to plan a plant

in Puerto Rico?

- S

Too late, the plant is planned! In fact
construction is already beginning on
Sun Oil's new $125 million refinery
complex and harbor at Yabucoa.
But the project at Yabucoa is sim-
ply one indication of Sun on the move.
We're geared for growth and we need
people. Maybe you ?
Perhaps you'd like to work for the
company that also recently boomed
into the 2 billion dollar class through
the merger of Sun and Sunray DX;
that pioneered the famed Athabasca

oil sands project in Northern Alberta;
that operates a new Computation
Center in Philadelphia; that sponsors
winning teams and cars in major road
racing championships in the United
States and Canada-to mention just
a few exciting projects.
We need men and women to grow
with us and build the future. We have
openings in Exploration, Production,
Manufacturing, Research and De-
velopment, Engineering, Sales, Ac-
counting, Economics and Computer

Operations. Locations-Philadelphia,
Toledo, Tulsa, Dallas and many other
Write us for an appointment, write
for our book "Sunoco Career Oppor-
tunities Guide," or contact your Col-
lege Placement Director to see Sun's
representative when on campus.
SUN OIL COMPANY, Industrial Rela-
tions Department, CED, 1608 Walnut
St., Phila., Pa. 19103.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Chemical Engineering Education


55 Letters from Readers

Editor: Ray Fahien

Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

CENTRAL: James Weber
Chairman of Publication Board
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
EAST: Robert Matteson
College Relations
Sun Oil Company
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19100
E. P. Bartkus
Secretary's Department
E. I. du Pont de Nemours
Wilmington, Delaware 19898
Peter Lederman
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute
Brooklyn, New York 11201
NORTHEAST: James M. Douglas
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105
J. A. Bergantz
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14200
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

56 The Educator
Professor Stuart W. Churchill

64 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Rensselaer, David Hansen, and Stephen

59 Views and Opinions
New Directions for Engineering,
S. W. Churchill

70 The Personality of a Profession,
C. F. Jones

100 The Classroom
Pollution Control Technology,
Gary Poehlein

103 Book Review

104 Division Activities

98 News

Feature Articles

74 Dartmouth's Doctor of Engineering,
G. B. Wallis and S. R. Stearns

76 An Environmental Focus for Engineering
Education, S. Calvert

84 Education for a New Environment: Bio-
medical Engineering, R. C. Seagrave

90 Ocean Engineering, C. H. Gibson

94 Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces,
Part III, L. E. Scriven

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., 137 E. Wisconsin
Ave., DeLand, Florida 32720. Subscription rate is $10 per year in U.S., Canada, and


.* * * *.

* j

*0 0
** , *

: 6 jobs in 6 years is called job hopping?


At DuPont we call it "planned
mobility." And it's strictly intramural
-job hopping within the Company.
It means we don't put a man in
a training program-we put him in
a job-a growth job-in his discipline.
Then we give him another job,
and another, until he and we agree
he's found his open channel.

** 0 00.

We originated this program
for scientists and engineers
for one reason. They told us to.


* *

In thousands of interviews
job attitude studies, they s
they wanted a broad base
growth, a chance to gauge
their own professional strej
before they married a job.


** *** *.
0 0

We agree. A man ought to
look at a job-and a company-
from several angles before he
decides if it's for him.






* *
* *
* *
* *
* *
* *

And because we have a steady
stream of new products to grow on,
there's room for a man to move
around and to grow-at DuPont!

An equal opportunity employer (M/F)



College Relations

from our READERS

Praise from Erb
Sir: The Winter 1969 issue of CEE was exciting and
encouraging with the series of articles on "The Engineer
and Public Affairs." Not only has the chemical engineer-
ing profession been appropriately challenged, but it has
been given some specific guidelines in meeting this chal-
lenge. You and your staff are to be commended and
encouraged in this fine editorial effort. . . .
In the "Editorial" you raise the oft-repeated cry that
we or our "professional goals have not been under-
stood . . .". Are we really misunderstood? Or are we
sometimes understood only too well? The correspondence
from Leigh E. Nelson printed in that issue (p. 44) goes
to the heart of the problem.
I wonder to what extent your statement that "Our
ultimate aim is to serve our fellow man and to insure him
his intrinsic human worth and dignity" is realistic and
representative. Is it not too often dust-covered idealism?
You follow this with "Accordingly, if . . ." -with
three big "If's". The challenges that follow are com-
mendable and I emphatically agree with them. To me
the "If's" are very appropriate, significant and, I suspect,
thoughtfully inserted by you.
This leads me to the proposition that before we pro-
ceed to try and convince others of our idealistic "ultimate
aim," we had better first make sure that we have dem-
onstrably convinced ourselves. I interpret this as your
objective, but maybe it needs to be more frankly stated.
Or am I being too cynical, or too brusque?
In any case, the corporate structure within which most
engineers work makes the realization of these goals so
difficult that at times it's hard for him to keep them
within his perview.
The concerned engineer will seek to exercise this
responsible leadership in his outside activities, and this
is being encouraged. But it is as a working engineer in
his area of employment that he spends most of his pro-
ductive time and most fully practices his profession. And
it is in how well we as working engineers meet this
"ultimate aim" that our professionalism should and will
be judged. It is because of our failures in this area that
our professional goals have been "misunderstood."
Here is where our professional societies need to exer-
cise more moral leadership. I, at least, feel the need for
this kind of support. The societies should not only voice
these aims, but work more determindly for their effective
translation into practice. The practicing engineer should
be lead and encouraged in understanding and applying
true professionalism with its sociological implications.
The societies should make it dramatically clear to the
employers of engineers that these sociological concerns
are embodied in this "ultimate aim"; that these concerns
are to be expected of the engineers in their employ; and
that they go beyond protecting the employer from safety
hazards, lawsuits and the wrath of society or the public
in general.
The plethora of papers, at AIChE meetings, e.g., con-
cerned with pollution control are a reaction resulting
from our having failed society in the past, not an exercise
of leadership. I suspect that most are still directed at

what must be done, not at what should be done. Above the
"hurt" voice of industry crying that they're doing their
best, that it's too costly, that some pollution has to be
expected and accepted, that it can't be done, should be
heard the voice of the engineering profession saying
"tommy-rot - it can and will be done."
If - and there's that "If" again - we are true to our
"ultimate aim," the engineering profession could bring
not only tremendous moral pressure to bear, but also
intellectual and economic pressure in the way we carry
out our day-by-day working responsibilities as practicing
engineers. This means dedication as individuals, but
individually the result would probably be to put our own
jobs and livelihood in jeopardy to no effective end. Col-
lectively as the engineering profession there is much
that can be accomplished.
In the Winter 1969 issue of CEE a beginning has
appropriately been made toward putting the house of
engineering education in order. But the problems and
implications go well beyond the areas of the educational
institution per se. As numerically significant and influ-
ential voices in the professional societies and as those
with a vital stake in the profession of engineering, the
engineering educators are in a critical position. By their
words and actions they can do much to help all of us
toward a more viable and potent professionalism.
Paul W. Erb
Westwood, N. J.
Prof. Shreve retorts
Sir: First, let me compliment you upon CEE. I am re-
ferring particularly to Volume 3, Number 1. Your
editorial is good and timely.
On page 5, the letter to the editor wanting to drop
"chemical" in Chemical Engineering is frightening and
awful. We are Chemical Engineers first. Our Chemical
Engineering has arisen from its root in chemistry and it
should be kept that way. To indicate to you what I have
done in that regard, I am attaching a copy of the letter
I wrote to the President of the AIChE.
One of the things I like about your journal is the
articles for the underprivileged on pages 14 and 20.
If you wish, I will write a strong letter about the
emphasis upon chemistry in chemical engineering that
would answer the letter written by Rex T. Ellington on
page 29. The fundamentals he brings up should be taught
as a basis of chemistry and for other essential subjects.
R. Norris Shreve
Purdue University
Berg replies to Henley
Sir: Professor Henley's thoughtful and well-organized
article on "Recruitment" in the Winter 1969 issue of CEE
spotlights a very serious problem in the chemical engi-
neering profession. I am sure that this article will spark
a variety of response from the profession. It does from
Professor Henley deplores "all competitive advertising
as self-cancelling." At Montana State, we graduated
twelve BS chemical engineers in 1962; we will produce
30 in 1969. In 1962 our total chemical engineering enroll-
ment was 154; today it is 236. The increase was accom-
plished by advertising.
When I was a little boy, I recall two popular soft
drinks, Moxie and Coca-Cola. One of these companies
(Continued on page 68)







University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pa. 19104

HYO is the name Professor
Churchill acquired in Japan. The
translation of HYO is leopard. This
S name is symbolic of the vigor with
which Stu translates the excitement of Chemical
Engineering to students and professionals alike,
and also of his deep interest in the international
development of chemical engineering education.
No other chemical engineer has so vigorously
urgued the future importance of Chemical En-
gineering or so strongly insisted that the ASEE
"Goals" Report did not adequately recognize the
uniqueness of Chemical Engineering. The Chemi-
cal Engineering profession was fortunate to have
such a dynamic spokesman as Dr. Churchill in the
critical position of AIChE President and AIChE
representative on ECPD during the years in
which the Goals Report was formulated and
In recent years, it has been fashionable for
humanists and social scientists to attack the en-
gineering profession for contributing to rather
than solving society's problems. Stu has been
called upon time and again to defend our profes-
sion. Like the leopard, he has taken the offense.
This position is best illustrated by the closing
statement of his AIChE presidential address-
"We need to speak confidently to the public as
engineers, As Chemical Engineers, as the servants
and hope of mankind" - and in his address be-
fore the New York Academy of Science on the
question of engineering survival and obsolescence



"otaw caon any man dc o n.acC."

-" . . . engineering will not only survive, it will
prevail. It will prevail because it holds the only
hope for solution of the major problems con-
fronting mankind. It will prevail despite the
attacks of its friends and enemies because it has
demonstrated the capability of changing and
evolving - not through exhortation or formulas,
but through response to human needs."
Until recently much of Stu's life has been
oriented around the University of Michigan
where he received all of his degrees. Note should
be made of the fact that Stu played clarinet in the
famous Michigan Band. It has been said that at
Michigan the Band required more time than foot-
ball, but he found time for the Band while com-
piling an outstanding undergraduate record.
After receiving a bachelors degree in engineering
mathematics as well as chemical engineering he
worked four years for the Shell Oil Company at
Wood River, Illinois and one year for the Fron-
tier Chemical Company at Denver City, Texas
before returning for graduate work. Stu has
stated that it was exposure to exceptional pro-
fessors at Michigan such as A. H. White, C. E.
Love, G. G. Brown, D. L. Katz, J. C. Brier, R. R.
White, C. M. Sliepcevich, and M. Tribus that
really kindled his enthusiasm for Chemical En-
gineering and teaching. In 1952, following the
receipt of his PhD degree, he was appointed to
the staff as an Assistant Professor. He achieved
the rank of professor only five years later. Be-
tween 1962 and 1967 he was Chairman of the


. . . it has
been fashionable
for humanists
. . . to attack
the engineering
profession . . .

Department of Chemical and Metallurgical En-
gineering. In his 15 years as a faculty member
at Michigan, Stu served on 27 different Univer-
sity committees. These committee duties ranged
from Vice Chairman of the Senate Advisory
Committee on University Affairs to the Presi-
dent's Commission on Year Around Operations to
Vice Chairman of the Board of Control of Inter-
collegiate Athletics. For most university profes-
sors this kind of committee load would have been
the kiss of death to their research program. But
Stu personally supervised 27 PhD theses, served
on the doctoral committees for another 48 PhD
students, and wrote 78 technical publications
during this time. He also found time for a heavy
load of professional society responsibilities cul-
minating in his election as President of the
AIChE. During his tenure as president he man-
aged to visit a majority of the AIChE local sec-
tions. While an officer of the AIChE, F. J. Van
Antwerpen encouraged his interest in interna-
tional chemical engineering and he became in-
volved in the development of meetings and educa-
tional projects in England, France, Germany,
Russia, India, Japan and Mexico.
He has been a strong advocate of faculty in-
terchange both internationally and intranation-
ally, and has himself given seminars at over 30
How can any one man do so much? Only
those who have seen Stu in action can know. Few
people have the ability to understand a situation
or grasp a new concept as quickly. He always
penetrates to the nub of any problem, quickly
discarding the unessentials. He can make deci-

sions with haste without making them seem
hasty decisions.
Stu is an outstanding classroom teacher. Stu-
dents at the University of Pennsylvania rate him
one of the best in Engineering. One of the most
telling comments is that heard recently from a
graduate student taking his course in Advanced
Transport Phenomena who said, "Dr. Churchill
made the course come alive for me. I am now
able to see the meaning and relevance of trans-
port phenomena to Chemical Engineering prac-
tice. Transport theory only seemed like an exer-
cise in applied mathematics when I was an under-
Stu has always argued for a strong interac-
tion between industry and academia. As AIChE
President he appointed a Blue Ribbon Committee
of industrial executives and faculty leaders to
make recommendations for the development of a

Stu has
been called
upon time
and again to
defend our

Like the
he has
taken the


. . . "engineering courses should be . . . an
exciting joint venture by the student and professor
into the unknown of chemical engineering .. .

better liaison. At Michigan he arranged with
duPont and Hercules a special program to pro-
vide industrial experience for his young faculty
members. He tries to live up to this concept in
his teaching and research. His lectures and home
assignments, however theoretical, always have a
flavor of practicality. He says that many of his
research ventures have been stimulated by con-
sulting experiences. His research, while centered
on heat transfer, combustion and mathematical
approximations, has covered a wide range of
subjects, perhaps for this reason. He has con-
sulted for over 19 companies, notably for Conch
Methane Services, Ltd. in the development of the
technology for storing and handling liquefied
natural gas and for the 3M Comany. He has
also served as a consultant or advisor to many
Stu has proclaimed on several occasions that
"engineering courses should continually evolve.
They should be an exciting joint venture by the
student and the professor into the unknown of
Chemical Engineering." It was, in part, a desire
to live this philosophy that brought Stu to the
University of Pennsylvania. As the Carl V. S.
Patterson Professor of Chemical Engineering at
the University of Pennsylvania he has been pre-
sented with an opportunity to do a minimum of
administrative work and to interact with stu-
dents at an intensity not previously available to
him. The relatively small classes of high quality
students at Penn have made it possible for Stu
to conduct his classes in seminar style in the true
classical sense. One can not help but marvel at
the way in which he can get students excited
about Chemical Engineering. I suspect that in
the future the profession will see more and more
of the Churchill enthusiasm for Chemical En-
gineering being espoused by his former students.
He is very proud of his doctoral students, who
are listed below. Fifteen have been inspired to
follow him into teaching, including our own War-
ren D. Seider.
There is another side to Stu, a very human
side, that few have the opportunity to see or ex-
perience. I purposefully say experience because
that is exactly what a personal encounter with
Stu is. I have not met another person with such
a zest for living. He seems to know something


Peter H. Abbrecht
Morton P. Moyle
William R. Martini
Herbert E. Zellnik
Bert K. Larkin
Martin E. Gluckstein
Donald W. Sundstrom
William N. Luckow
Roy C. Gealer
George C. Clark
Irving F. Miller
H. E. Stubbs
Richard A. Ahlbeck

William N. Zartman
James A. Leacock
John C.-C. Chen
J. David Hellums
Thomas D. Bath
Lawrence B. Evans
Robert G. Rigg
James 0. Wilkes
Carl G. Vinson, Jr.
Dudley A. Saville
Michael R. Samuels
Warren D. Seider

about everything. Whether it is a special restau-
rant, an imported wine, a discotheque, a sitar
player, the moves of a basketball player or a new
development in rock music, Stu has been there,
knows of it, or excells at it.
Unlike our colleagues at Wisconsin who spe-
cialize in canoeing, or at Colorado where their
thing is ski-racing or the mile run, or at Houston
where staff and family all play tennis, Stu does
them all - skiing, tennis, running, etc. What-
ever the event Stu is the man to challenge
amongst the Penn faculty. For over a year now
Stu has had five of the Penn Chemical Engineer-
ing faculty running 1 to 4 miles each day. He
has them aiming for a goal of a 6 minute mile.
He has suggested that Penn faculty might chal-
lenge other faculties to a post card four-mile
relay race. Stu has three of the faculty playing
outdoor tennis the year around - even in 20�F
weather. On one or two occasions a few patches
of snow have had to be removed so as not to
encumber play. He says he almost has his col-
leagues in shape to take on other schools. This
spring when Bob Bird visits Penn, Stu, Bob and
some Penn faculty and students are going to
canoe the Delaware River.
We at Penn feel most fortunate to have Stu
within our midst. However, I believe all Chemical
Engineering shares this good fortune. We have
Howard and Faye Churchill to thank for con-
spiring to create on June 13, 1920 at Inlay City,
Michigan, one Stuart Winston Churchill. Not
only past and present Chemical Engineers but a
generation yet to be educated will owe some of
their excitement for the practice of Chemical
Engineering to this man.


views and opinions I


Carl V. S. Patterson Professor of Chemical
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pa. 19104

The engineering profession remains vital
because of the continual re-examination
and criticism of its own goals and prac-
tices. Engineering education is tradition-
ally in a state of flux. The current stimu-
lants to re-examination and change are (1)
public problems and scandals such as air
pollution, population growth and mass
transportation in which the engineer is in-
volved as both culprit and savior; (2) high
speed computation which is revolutioniz-
ing every aspect of engineering practice;
(3) the rapid production of technical in-
formation which is forcing the practicing
engineer to spend a considerable effort on
re-education; (4) the diversion of much of
engineering education and research away
from application and toward science and
(5) the development of new opportunities
such as bioengineering and medical-engi-
The recent ASEE study has not pro-
vided a sufficient set of goals or an accep-
table set of recommendations for the fu-
ture development of engineering educa-
tion. Hence further efforts on the part of
the engineering community are necessary
to establish new goals and directions.
These goals should include better com-
munication with the public, recognition of
the social consequences of engineering pro-
jects, enhancement of engineering as a pro-

* This article was presented to the Engineering Di-
vision of the' New York Academy of Sciences at a Forum
on "Is Engineering Becoming Obsolete?" It is reprinted
with permission of the Academy.

fessional career, development of stronger
support of the engineering profession by
industry and the government, increased
flexibility in the curriculum without the
loss of depth or motivation which is char-
acteristic of specialization, encouragement
of diversity in engineering education, more
effective programs for continuing educa-
tion, and a response to new developments
in technology that goes beyond the assign-
ment of new labels.

The engineering profession is currently in the
throes of a very thorough re-examination of its
practices, status and goals. Continual re-exami-
nation and revision is a characteristic of engi-
neering education but the engineering profession
as a whole re-examines itself in a more periodic
and dramatic fashion. This process involves much
self-recrimination and is carried out in full view of
the public. The primary result is a new set of
directions and goals, or rather many sets of direc-
tions and goals. A secondary result is a very con-
fused public, including our immediate colleagues
in the universities and other professions.

I will first note some of the problem areas
which have been identified by the current self-
(1) Engineering is very much in the public
eye, but our image is not very good. Engineering
is much harder to explain to the public than
science and we make far less effort.
My companions today in the airport limousine
fouled the air with cigarette smoke while they
cursed the engineers (and perhaps legitimately)
for allowing pollutants to pour out of the re-
fineries we were passing.


[ChE I


One of the strengths of engineering education has been its diversity.
. . . A significant factor in the continual improvement of engineering

education has been the accreditation process
of the professional societies, - ECPD.
The public sees us as the generator of air pol-
lution, weapons for mass destruction, traffic
snarls, planned obsolescence of automobiles and
appliances, sonic booms, etc. They do not realize
that we hold the only hope for alleviation of these
problems. Nor do they know how to seek or uti-
lize our services in their behalf.
(2) The humanists and social scientists are
openly pleased at our disgrace and have little ap-
petite for cooperating with us. They are afraid
of us and grandly contemptuous of a subject they
do not understand. Aristotle in his Politics-VIII
said, "Occupations are divided into those which
are fit for free man and those which are unfit for
them; and it follows from this the total amount
of useful knowledge imparted to children should
never be large enough to make them mechanically
"The term mechanical should properly be ap-
plied to any occupation, art, or instruction which
is calculated to make the body, soul, or mind of
a free man unfit for the pursuit and practice of
goodness. We may accordingly apply the word
mechanical to any art or craft which adversely
affects man's physical fitness, and to any product
which is pursued for the sake of gain, and keeps
man's minds too much and too meaningfully
Robert Hutchins is quoted1 as saying recently
that engineering schools should be stamped out.
It is unlikely that we will convince the classicists
of the merits of engineering even in another 2000
(3) Industry frequently acts as if it has no
stake in the health and future of engineering. It
complains about the direction of engineering
education and research and about the influence of
the federal government, but defaults in the sup-
port of engineering education. It contributes
preferentially and publicly to the colleges of
liberal arts. It complains at the shortage of en-
gineers but does not work hard to encourage stu-
dents to take engineering. It emphasizes that
advancement only comes through management
and encourages engineers to divert to business
administration. It offers a strong financial in-
centive to students to continue to the doctorate
and discourages the practice of engineering with
a bachelors degree by treating them as sub-pro-

conducted by an organization

fessionals. I am quite aware of the many positive
contributions of industry, but that is not our
concern tonight.
(4) Engineering education has itself taken
some false directions. Much engineering research
in universities is merely imitative science. The
recent change in name from Metallurgical Engi-
neering to Metallurgy in my University acknowl-
edges this development. The employment of new
Ph.D.'s without industrial experience creates a
closed loop that accelerates this trend. The core
curriculum and the reduction in specialized
courses have reduced the professional motivation
of our students. "Mission-oriented" departments
and curricula have been created which have no
real justification other than temporary com-
patibility with Federal agencies that have funds
to dispense. The addition of more abstract ma-
terial to the curriculum has resulted in decreased
comprehension by the students. Faculty attention
has been increasingly diverted to graduate work
and to those undergraduates who are potential
graduate students. As a result of these several
changes, the bottom half of the class is com-
pletely demoralized by the time they graduate.
Again I have confined my remarks to the un-
favorable changes.
(5) We have discovered that technical
achievements may create or aggravate social
problems. We advocate the addition of courses
in the humanities and social sciences to ease our
guilt. We even assert that engineers should
themselves solve or prevent these social problems.
(6) We are not yet prepared to intervene as
a profession in behalf of the public interest. For
example, we silently design and operate plants
that unnecessarily pollute the air and water in-
stead of offering leadership to the public in this
(7) We have discovered that our technical
education rapidly becomes obsolete primarily be-
cause of the outpouring of new technology and the
revolution engendered by computing machinery.
We have proudly announced to the public that we
are obsolete. I do not recall scientists making
this statement although they are in the same
dilemma. We favor continuing education for our
colleagues but are unwilling to undertake it on
a meaningful level ourselves.





Chlor-Alkali Products
Ammonia Process Development,
Augusta, Ga. Phosphates Design, Maintenance,
Brandenburg, Ky. Urea Planning, Scheduling,
Charleston, Tenn. Nitrogen ChE Production, Sales,
Joliet, III. Acids ME Production, Sales,
CHEMICALS Lake Charles, La. Hydrazine IE Accounting,
-Inorganic Little Rock, Ark. Petrochemicals Chemistry Marketing,
-Organic & McIntosh, Ala. Insecticides Accounting Financial Analysis,
Specialty New Haven, Conn. Pesticides Business Adm. Distribution,
-Agricultural Niagara Falls, N.Y. Polyurethane Transportation Project Engineering
Pasadena, Texas Carbon Dioxide Marketing Plant Startup &
Rochester, N.Y. Animal Health Construction),
Saltville, Va. Products Research Engineering,
Automotive Chemicals Technical Service
Other derivatives

Alumina ChE
Burnside, La. Aluminum IE Manufacturing
METALS Chattanooga, Tenn, Aluminum Extrusions ME Manufacturing
-Aluminum Gulfport, Miss. Aluminum Sheet, Plate, Metallurgy ouSales
-Brass Hannibal, Ohio Coils Met. Engineering Maintenance
-Ormet, Corp. East Alton, III. Brass Fabricated Parts Accounting Maintenance
New Haven, Conn. Sheet & Strip - Brass Business Adm. Finance
Sedalia, Mo. Roll Bond Ind Tech. Metals R&D
Wire & Cable Ind. Mgmt.

Carbonizing Paper Marketing
Fine Printing Papers ChE Process Engineering
FOREST PRODS, West Monroe, La. Specialty Paper Chemistry Plant Engineering
PAPER & FILM, Pisgah Forest, N.C. Products Pulp & Paper Research & Dev.
-Olinkraft, Inc. Covington, Indiana Cigarette Paper & Tech. Statistician
-Ecusta Filters IE Systems Engineering
-Film Cellophane ME Production
Kraft Bags Mathematics Management
Kraft Paper Business Adm. General IE
Kraftboard Cartons Accounting Design and
Corrugated Containers Development
Olinkraft Lumber Accounting

East Alton, III.
New Haven, Conn.
Marion, Ill.
Kingsbury, Ind.

Sporting Arms
Powder Actuated tools
Smokeless Ball
Solid Propellants
Safety Flares
Franchised Clubs

Ind. Tech.
Business Adm.
Personnel Mgt.
Ind. Mgmt.

Production Control
Plant Engineering
Financial Analysis.



(8) The engineering students must withstand
the contempt of their fellow students in the liberal
arts. They are often neglected by the faculty.
They are advised that they are second-class citi-
zens unless they go to graduate school. They are
told by industry that managerial skills are far
more important than technical skills. Now they
hear the self-recriminations of the profession.
They are reacting as might be expected. They are
chickeningg out" of engineering in large numbers
into science, business, medicine, law, etc., or are
phasing out of engineering practice by continuing
to the Ph.D. and seeking a career in teaching
and/or basic research.
These are some of the problems we have iden-
tified. What are we doing about them?

Engineers Council for Professional Develop-
ment requested and the National Science Founda-
tion funded a study of the goals of engineering
education. Unfortunately despite the vast ex-

Industry must recognize its stake in engineering
education and provide support by word and deed.
S. . It must permit and encourage engineers to retain
their identity as professionals.

penditure of funds and effort by the American
Society for Engineering Education, the report2,3
which has resulted from the study does not state
goals with which the profession can identify.4'5'6'7
It concerns itself instead with the labels and me-
chanics of education. Acceptance of the specific
recommendations of this report would aggravate
rather than alleviate the above-mentioned prob-
lems of the engineering profession and engi-
neering education.
The preliminary version deprecates the bac-
calaureate degree outright, the interim version by
implication. The authors would withhold pro-
fessional acceptance from a would-be engineer
until he had been awarded a masters degree.
However they would award the masters degree in
engineering for essentially the same effort as
now required for a baccalaureate degree in engi-
neering-but spread over five years instead
of four. A specious degree will hardly raise the
quality or prestige of engineering education.
Specialization is condemned by the reports.
Somehow knowing less and less about more and
more is supposed to produce a better engineer.
All experience is against this recommendation. A

few engineering administrators have given loud
vocal support to unspecialized engineering educa-
tion for years but it has not gained general ac-
ceptance. Chemical engineers have protested this
trend because they have learned through bitter
experience that the core curriculum and general
engineering result in the minimization of chemis-
try and hence in the elimination of chemical
engineering at both the undergraduate and gradu-
ate level.
Mission-oriented programs are favored over
the technically-oriented programs. This approach
gains much public attention and attracts the op-
portunists. However interdisciplinary problems
are usually solved most effectively by teams of
specialists who have some knowledge in depth
in the fundamentals which are common to all
problems-new or old, of large or small scale.
One of the strengths of engineering education
has been its diversity. Students are offered a dif-
ferent education by different schools and new ap-
proaches are tested in practice. The Goals Report
would make every school conform to a single
pattern-and to one that has already been tried
and found wanting.
A significant factor in the continual improve-
ment of engineering education has been the ac-
creditation process conducted by an organization
of the professional societies-Engineers Council
for Professional Development. The recommen-
dation that accreditation be shifted from a pro-
fessional to an institutional basis on the whim
of the institution would certainly undermine the
strength and value of this activity. It would also
eliminate the role of the professional societies in
The report recommends increased course work
in the humanities and social sciences. We all
agree that the engineer should be cultured and
should be aware of the social consequences of his
work. It is questionable whether these objectives
would be accomplished merely by forcing more ill-
taught courses down the unwilling throat of the
The report identifies the weakness of engineers
in written exposition and then provides an ex-
cellent example of poor logic, poor writing and
poor organization.
Clearly, the Goals Report fails to provide valid
guidance for the improvement of engineering edu-
cation. Unfortunately the prestige of the sponsors
of the report will result in more attention and ac-
ceptance than the report itself merits.


The effort expended on the Goals study has
wearied and discouraged us. Nevertheless, we
must recognize that its failure forces us to assume
the burden of formulating new and more accept-
able goals.

In what direction should we go? What goals
should we set? Once we have stated the problems,
as above, the solutions are evident, even though
We must explain our capabilities, methods and
goals to the public. We must act as professionals,
not merely as employees of the public, the univer-
sities and industry. We must learn to build the
public and the social sciences into the loop of our
activities rather than operating independently.
We should neither ignore the social aspects of our
work nor naively try to solve the social problems
We should spend less time reciting our belief
in continuing education and more time developing
sound programs, not just as a fad, but as an ac-
cepted part of our professional life. Industry
must give greater encouragement and support
to such activities. The universities and profes-
sional societies must cooperate, not compete.
We must make engineering a more attractive
profession to the youth of today. We must en-
courage him to choose engineering education. We
must nuture him as a student. We must treat him
as a professional when he practices engineering.
We must recognize that he listens particularly
to our public statements and watches our public
behavior and that he has virtually no other source
of information on engineering. Industry has a
great opportunity here.
We must motivate and prepare students for
careers in engineering as well as in graduate
We must motivate students to develop an in-
terest in and an understanding of the humanities
and social sciences, particularly as they relate to
We must increase the flexibility of our cur-
ricula without losing the depth which is charac-
teristic of specialization.
We must encourage diversity of objectives and
programs in our universities and we must study
the results of experiments in engineering educa-
We must prepare our students for careers in
the new fields of activity and need such as bio-

engineering, medical-engineering and urban
transportation. We should do this by inclusion
of the appropriate fundamentals in the curricu-
lum rather than by the creation of new curricula
and new labels.
Industry must recognize its stake in engi-
neering education and provide support by word
and deed. It must treat engineers more consis-
tently as professionals and even afford them
some freedom for dissent. It must permit and en-
courage them to retain their identity as pro-

Engineering has an uphill battle for survival
in the face of
* Public misunderstanding
* Congenital suspicion, fear, and dislike by
the humanists
* Half-hearted support by industry
* Second-hand support by the government
* Unconstructive diversions from within as
per the Goals Report
* The continual burden of response to new
problems and technology
Nevertheless, to paraphrase the words of Wil-
liam Faulkner in acceptance of the Nobel Prize
for Literature, engineering will not only survive,
it will prevail. It will prevail because it holds the
only hope for the solution of the major problems
confronting mankind. It will prevail despite the
attacks of its friends and enemies because it has
demonstrated the capability of changing and
evolving-not through exhortation or formulas,
but through response to needs.

1. Engineer, p. 8, (Nov.-Dec. 1967).
2. Walker, E. A., J. M. Pettit and G. A. Hawkins, 1965,
"Goals of Engineering Education-The Preliminary Re-
port," American Society for Engineering Education,
Washington, D. C.
3. Ibid., 1967. "Goals of Engineering Education-The
Interim Report," American Society for Engineering Edu-
cation, Washington, D. C.
4. "Controversial ASEE Report Emerges Under Fire,"
Chem. Eng. Prog., 61, (No. 11), 39-43 (Nov. 1965).
5. "ASEE-The Sound and the Fury," Chem. Eng.
Prog. 62, (No. 2), 17-49 (Feb. 1966).
6. "ASEE Goals Report-Round Two," Chem. Eng.
Prog., 63, (No. 8), 13-36 (Aug. 1967).
7. "Opinion, Comment and Information on the Pre-
liminary ASEE Goals Study," Mech. Eng., 87, 34-35 (Dec.
1965); 88, 40-43 (Jan. 1966); 40-41 (Feb. 1966); 62-64
(Mar. 1966); 30-33, 92-95 (Apr. 1966); 154-158 (May
1966); 78-82 (June 1966); 34-35 (Aug. 1966).



. .L f i-..,
II - il|

~'j// T**

d CEE features a school which incorporates
RENSSELA dER a new Master of Engineering degree into
a dual administrative structure.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, New York

Chemical engineering education at Rensselaer
has in recent years been strongly influenced by
two major decisions of the School of Engineering.
The first, taken in 1963, was to adopt a new
structure for engineering education which de-
parts significantly from the traditional pattern;
while the second, taken in 1967, was to reorgan-
ize the administration of the School of Engineer-
In the educational structure, all engineering
students pursue a pre-engineering program
equivalent to three academic years during which
emphasis is directed to the foundations of en-
gineering by providing broad background in the
natural sciences, mathematics, humanities, social
sciences, engineering science and engineering.
At the end of this phase the student may elect
either to pursue a fourth year of study to a
Bachelor of Science degree or to seek admission
to the Professional School of Engineering and if
qualified to undertake a coherent two year ad-
vanced study program to the Master of Engineer-
ing in a field of engineering. Students achieving
either degree objective can continue their formal
education either in engineering or in some other
discipline or seek direct entry into a career.

The rationale of this educational structure
originates with five principles: 1) the objective
of a baccalaureate program should be basic edu-
cation of a broad character, 2) professional en-
gineering education should be based on a broad
pre-engineering core, 3) the students' ability to
resolve engineering problems must be developed
and creativity should be fostered, 4) specializa-
tion in depth is necessary not only for career
entry but also for developing ability to acquire
new competence, and 5) programs must be flex-
ible and responsive to individual needs.
These principles have not only influenced the
educational programs but also played a funda-
mental role in the reorganization of the School
of Engineering. The most pronounced feature of
the new administrative structure is its dual char-
acter in that responsibility for research, ad-
vanced study and personnel administration is
assigned to seven Divisions of Advanced Study
while responsibility for all phases of programs
up through the master's degrees is given to twelve
Curriculum units, including the pre-engineering
curriculum. Faculty members are associated with
that division whose scope includes their individ-
ual fields and with those curriculum units reflect-
ing their professional interests. From a curricu-
lum point of view, this structure provides for an
emphasis on educational development and makes
available the whole faculty as a teaching resource.



The full implications of the pre-engineering
program, Table 1, cannot be appreciated without
an intimate awareness of the course content and
philosophy. On the surface, it may seem to be a
typical product of the trend towards unification
of phases of engineering programs noted in re-
cent years. However, such unification is fre-
quently achieved as a lowest common denomina-
tor of the needs of all of the engineering special-
ties on which consensus can be obtained. In this
instance, this program, which is under the direct
control of the pre-engineering curriculum unit,
is designed to provide the educational base upon
which to superimpose professional study in depth
without preoccupation with the specifics of the
professional fields involved. In this context, sub-
ject matter represents not only a basis for fur-
ther education of a professional nature but also
a foundation for intellectual growth for a future
whose details are in the main unperceived. The
selection of knowledge must be based on appro-
priate criteria of value such as its longevity,
range of application, contribution to future
growth, relevance to the individual field of study
and relevance to other subject areas. In addition,
a balance must be obtained between prerequisites
for areas of specialization, liberal education from
a technical as well as nontechnical vantage point,
and the opportunity for students to individualize
their plans of study.
Two features of the program are worthy of
note. First, the electives in the third year allow
the student to plan a program suited to his in-
terest subject to the limitation that his intended
field of specialization may identify a maximum of
two prerequisites. Most students oriented to
chemical engineering elect a year of physical
chemistry and courses in heat and mass transfer
and thermodynamics emphasizing chemical and
phase equilibrium. On the other hand, individual
students can have unusual educational interests
which may suggest rather different elective pat-
terns and still meet the needs of the chemical
engineering curricula either in the fourth year
program or the two year Professional School
The second major feature is the engineering
design stem which is a structured sequence of
experiences intended to develop the student's
perspective toward engineering,1 The sequence is
initiated with Engineering I,2, 3 in which the ele-
ments of the engineering process, i.e. problem

Freshman Year

Mathematics I
Chemistry I
Physics I
Engineering Science I
Humanities Elective I

Mathematics II
Chemistry II
Physics II
Engineering Science II
Humanities Elective II

Sophomore Year

Mathematics III
Physics III
Engineering I
Mechanics I
Social Sciences Elective I

Mathematics IV
Physics IV
Thermodynamics I
Mechanics II
Social Sciences Elective II

Junior Year

Fluid Mechanics
Circuit Theory
Engineering Laboratory I
*SES Elective 1
SES Elective 2
Humanities or Social Sci.

Engineering Laboratory II
Mathematics Elective
SES Elective 3
SES Elective 4
Humanities or Social Sci.

*Science or Engineering Science Elective

formulation, conceptualization, analysis and de-
cision making, are developed through loosely
defined engineering problems which will yield to
analytical solutions under proper assumptions.
The Engineering Laboratory courses continue
this theme through engineering problems which
require experimental information. The next stage
occurs at the senior level or in the first year of
the professional school program in an advanced
course in which the students address more sub-
stantial problems oriented to their field of spe-
cialty and is concluded by an engineering project
or thesis in the second year of the master's pro-
gram. It should be observed that this sequence
is aimed at developing the students' ability to
resolve problems and to apply knowledge out of
the context in which it has been learned. While
a broad interdisciplinary flavor is maintained at
the first two levels, a strong orientation in the
specialty discipline can be obtained in the latter

The structure of the programs of specializa-
tion to be superimposed on the pre-engineering
program was dictated by two major factors.
First, of the students electing an engineering
education, an increasing number have career
objectives other than a direct commitment to en-
gineering per se. For these students, an engi-


neering education with its focus on technical and
quantitative subjects can be a liberal education
eminently suited for the diverse needs of our
society so strongly influenced by and dependent
on technology. Second, for those students who
would practice engineering in a modern sense, an
unusual degree of competence and flexibility to
deal with problem areas not yet perceived using
skills, tools and knowledge not yet discovered
must be developed.
In order to meet these goals, the new educa-
tional pattern provides two curricula in each
field or discipline, i.e. a one-year program to the
Bachelor of Science degree and an integrated
two year program to the Master of Engineering
degree. In addition, since accreditation require-
ments as applied to the baccalaureate program
would have severely limited flexibility, accredita-
tion was obtained for the Master of Engineering
as the first professional degree.

First Year

Separation Process
Organic Chemistry
Chem. Engrg. Calculations
Chemical Engineering Lab
Elective 1
Elective 2

Process Design
Chemistry Elective
Chemical Engrg. Kinetics
Chem. Engineering Lab
Elective 3
Elective 4

Second Year

Advanced Fluid Mechanics
Chemical Process Dynamics
Master Project or Thesis
Elective 5
Elective 6

Heat or Mass Transfer
Masters Project or Thesis
Elective 7
Elective 8
Elective 9

In addition to the requirements shown above, the stu-
dents' plan of study must include a one-year sequence in
Humanities or Social Science and courses in Thermody-
namics and Engineering Economics.

For the Master's program, Table 2, course
sequence and content is designed on the basis of
an integrated two year program and some of the
courses taken in the first year, including electives,
are graduate courses. It may be noted that stu-
dents apply for admission to the program in their
junior year and are judged by the same admission
criteria applied to graduate study. By allowing
these students to take graduate courses during
what would have been their senior year, in-depth
study which can include advanced courses previ-
ously accessible only to doctoral students can be
obtained. Although, the elective freedom is re-
duced by the general requirements of a one-year

sequence in humanities or social science, courses
in thermodynamics and engineering economics,
and one year of physical chemistry if not taken
in pre-engineering, this normally leaves the stu-
dent with five electives which he can sequence in
the first or second year to follow a diverse num-
ber of minors or specialty sequences such as
transport phenomena, systems engineering, poly-
mer science and engineering, management, etc.
The required courses in the program include
the obvious topics for chemical engineers, namely,
Separation Processes, Process Design, Kinetics
and Engineering Economics. The remainder of
the core, Chemical Engineering Calculations,
Thermodynamics, Advanced Fluid Mechanics,
Process Dynamics, and Heat or Mass Transfer,
is a structured sequence of graduate level courses
in which the topics are presented in a framework
of modern mathematical analysis. The stage for
this treatment is set by the Chemical Engineer-
ing Calculations course in which an intensive
study of operational calculus is undertaken per-
mitting this sequence to be focused on truly gen-
eral and fundamental concepts. The overall core
requirements are intended to develop the knowl-
edge, understanding and skills required not only
to initiate a career as a contributing member of
an engineering group but also because of the
depth of study to promote the students' potential
for a creative engineering practice and to mini-
mize the risk of obsolescence.
The Bachelor of Science curriculum for chem-
ical engineering majors, Table 3, assigns approxi-
mately one-half of an academic year to the major
field. In view of the elective opportunity in the
junior and senior years, students wishing to em-
phasize subjects relating closely to chemical en-
goineering can follow plans very similar to strong
traditional four-year programs. However, in the
absence of accreditation requirements, students
may use this elective opportunity to obtain edu-
cational experiences uniquely suited to advanced
study outside of engineering or to a broad spec-
trum of careers for those who do not choose to
practice chemical engineering per se.

Separation Processes
Organic Chemistry
Chemical Engineering
Humanity or Social Sci.
Elective 1
Elective 2

Process Design
Chemical Engrg. Kinetics
Engineering Economics
Chemical Engineering
Humanity or Social Sci.
Elective 3


The world of Union Oil

salutes the world

of chemical engineering

We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges
and universities which educate chemical engineers.
Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute
immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The twenty-ninth largest manufacturing company in
the United States, with operations throughout
the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas
in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's
Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro-
chemicals throughout the free world.
Our research scientists are constantly discovering new
ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted
more than 2,700 U.S. patents.
We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such
diverse projects as developing new refining processes,
developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and
the conservation of air and water.
Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic.
Tomorrow will be even more stimulating.
Thanks largely to people who join us from leading
institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and
challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil?
Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.


Because there is widespread concern that
common core approaches tend to drive chemistry
from engineering curricula, it is worth noting the
following about the Rensselaer program. Every
chemical engineering student takes a minimum
of two years (4 courses) in chemistry beyond
the general chemistry required of all engineering
students. If he so chooses, and most chemical
engineering students do, the student may elect
additional chemistry. Indeed the flexibility of the
curriculum permits a student to arrange a se-
quence in chemistry that would take him through
to the most advanced graduate courses. Chemis-
try has not disappeared and is not disappearing
from the programs of study of chemical engi-
neering students at Rensselaer.


Although these brief descriptions of the pro-
gram and organization can serve only to indicate
some of the highlights, the experience to date
suggests some conclusions.
The pre-engineering concept has focused the
attention of the students, and the faculty involved
with them, on their identity as engineers first and
as specialists second. With subject matter that
is in fact basic to engineering practice, a more
enlightened and perceptive treatment is pro-
moted. Engineering faculty members involved

LETTERS (Continued from page 55)
agreed with Professor Henley about the futility of adver-
tising . . .
At a high school Career Day recently, I sat next to a
faculty man from the Physical Education department.
"Hey kid," he said, "we have the highest paid college
graduate this year - 0. J. Simpson."
Professor Henley states that "we are not attracting
the sons and daughters of college graduates." With only
3% unemployment in the United States, job opportunity
is not much of an incentive to today's college student.
But it has always been hard to attract rich kids to the
more difficult curricula. The adage "shirtsleeves to shirt-
sleeves in three generations" has been around for a long
If Professor Henley encounters only "bread and butter
types" among his students, I suggest that he is not get-
ting across the glamour and importance of chemical engi-
neering. And we can do without the "hippie types." The
philosophy of the hippies, it seems to me, is to live only
for today. The hippie takes whatever pleasures he desires
when he wants it caring not a whit for the consequences
of his actions on himself or on others. If he has any
brainpower, he will addle it with "pot." Chemical engi-
neering philosophy on the other hand, might well be
defined as "leaving the world a little better than you
found it."

with this program have shown an increased
awareness and concern for the rationale of course
structuring, content and philosophy. The eco-
nomics of providing new specialties is eased and
a sound basic education is assured. With the pre-
engineering curriculum recognized as an admin-
istrative entity, more viable and aggressive con-
cern for the character and the quality of this
phase of the program has been obtained.
From a chemical engineering point of view,
the dual opportunity at the specialty level has
increased significantly the ability of the student
to follow a program particularly suited to his
interests. Rather more diverse educational goals
suited to the broad spectrum of career opportuni-
ties can be met. In addition, the integrated two
year Master of Engineering program permits
students to achieve considerably more advanced
study in depth than under the alternative four
plus one arrangement.

1. A. A. Burr and S. Yerazunis, Journal Eng. Ed., 58,
835 (1968)
2. E. J. Smith and S. Yerazunis, "A First Course in En-
gineering," Proceedings, Fourth Conference in Engi-
neering Design and Design Education, Dartmouth
College, Hanover, N. H., (1967)
3. J. H. Noon, Int. J. Elect Engrg. Educ., 5 477, (1967)

Chemical engineers don't like to advertise. . . . The
increase in enrollment is the result of advertising, pure
and simple. Not meaningless platitudes, but getting the
story to the high school students. Do you know what a
high school Career Day is really like? Thirty to fifty
different fields are represented and the most successful
graduates are pictured as typical. The poor high school
student can visit only three or four fields in the time
available. At the last one I attended, Chemical Engineer-
ing got six visitors, Psychiatry got eighty-seven. When
even the university president (ours) suggests that all
BS degrees ought to contain the same number of credits
and require the same number of courses, can you blame
the high school kid for thinking that one BS degree is
about as good as another and thus picking that which is
the easiest ?
Specifically, what do we do at Montana State? We
give the widest possible publicity by means of poster
announcements to all the State high schools to the in-
dustrial interest in chemical engineering as expressed
by their forty-five $250 cash scholarships to freshmen.
We follow this with newspaper publicity for each winner.
We show the students that chemical engineering does
make a major contribution to man's problems. The popu-
lation explosion and its accompanying pollution problems,
if solved, will be done by "applied chemistry on a large
scale." That's a pretty good definition of chemical engi-


neering. We get to the high school girls the message that
chemical engineering offers one of the few ways that a
girl can get into the top 1% of women wage earners in
only four years out of high school. We have sixteen
girls enrolled in Chemical Engineering at Montana State.
Graduate Programs. I doubt that graduate programs
have much to do with recruiting from the high schools.
But recruiting has had a great deal to do with graduate
programs. The decline in undergraduate enrollment in
the last decade was accompanied by a large increase in
the money available for university research. The faculty
member found himself in the situation: no graduate stu-
dent, no project. Some departments have seen graduate
potential in a BS chemical engineer with a 2.3 cumula-
tive grade point average. Any 1969 senior in Chemical
Engineering with 3.5 GPA can get letters like this.
"Pleased to offer you half-time research assistantship at
$335 per month. You must pay resident tuition fees of
$38 per month. We will award you an out-of-state travel
allowance of $50. You would be expected to work from
15 to 20 hours per week on a research project of your
choice, which would form the basis of your MS or PhD
thesis research."
When the several chemical engineering departments
couldn't get enough U. S. citizens for our graduate pro-
grams, we turned to foreign sources. The Goals Commit-
tee seized on the upsurge in the percentage of MS and
PhD being produced and said, "See, it's an undeniable
trend. Face up to it and accept it." The trend extra-
polates to 100% of the chemical engineers having ad-
vanced degrees in 20 years. It also extrapolates to the
last chemical engineer in about 1990, and he will be a
Ph.D. While industry complains that some departments
have lost touch with reality (or practicality), it is not
true that all have. Programs possessing considerable so-
cial significance in my department include - making
Kraft paper plants more socially acceptable, recovering
profitably the sulfur pollutants from metal smelters, con-
verting sea water to fresh, removing the air pollutants
from fossil fuels, contributing to the development of a
cheaper artificial kidney. Why should we emulate the pro-
grams of the schools Professor Henley named? Except
for Lehigh, Chemical Engineering does not bulk large on
their campuses. Their production of chemical engineers
compared to total enrollment was: Michigan State, 30/
45,949; Michigan, 36/37,283; Northwestern, 20/15,766;
Minnesota, 40/59,983; Ohio State, 18/38,300; Pennsylania,
21/18,173; Lehigh, 49/4,843. Perhaps the following have
a better answer: Colorado Mines, 38/1,504; South Dakota
Mines, 25/1,380; Montana State, 30/7,864.
The bulk of the chemical engineering educators are
excellent teachers, researchers, scientists and/or mathe-
maticians but very poor salesmen for their major product
-the graduate. A salesman knows his product. Do you
know by whom each of last year's graduates was hired,
at what salary, for what job? Do you know what your
alums are doing, all of them, not just a few whose ac-
complishments hit the newspaper? Do you know what
companies can use women chemical engineers and in what
kind of work? Do you know that there are three to ten
times as many companies as graduates on your campus
vying for the services of your graduates? Do you know
that your top BS men have offers of up to $900/month;
that your minimum 2.0 graduate has at least $825/month;

that your new PhD grad commands up to $1375/month?
Do you know that you are producing the highest priced
BS grad on your campus (0. J. Simson excepted) or that
your PhD's top any other field in earnings for seven
years out of high school? Oh yes, but you and your
students are not interested in grubby old money, only in
serving humanity. Do you know that the population
explosion is the most serious problem ever to face the
human race and that it is going to be solved by famine,
epidemic or catastrophic war - or the large scale appli-
cation of chemistry. Have you had a drink of Moxie
lately ?
Lloyd Berg
Montana State University
Measurement of D
Sir: Having recently become interested in the measure-
ment of diffusion coefficients utilizing axial dispersion
techniques I read Professor Hudgins' article [CEE, 3, No.
1, 42-44 (1969)] with great interest. The advantage of
using dispersional measurements is that the time required
to determine a diffusion coefficient is much less than that
of previous methods.
Recent developments, however, have shown that the
entire profile need not be measured to determine a diffu-
sion cofficient. Gill [AIChE Journal, 13, 801 (1967)] has
given the following solution to the differential equation

under slug input conditions

�x - (x-�r)
6 = �erf[ s ]+
m 4K

hXs+ (x- �r)
�erf [ ]

where X=Dx/a2Uo, X, is dimensionless slug length,
Npje=aUo/D, r=Dt/2, and K is the Taylor-Aris dispersion
coefficient. Noting that the peak concentration will pass
an analysis point at the mean residence time t=x/Um this
peak concentration is given by

6 = erf [s 1

The diffusion coefficient is then given by the following
equation which is easily solvable

2 2u2
x DU 2 a
D2 s m 1 ) + 0
D 16x erf (6 48

From this it can be seen that the diffusion coefficient
can be solved for directly with knowledge only of the
peak concentration, mean velocity, distance from the
injection point and slug length.
The disparities in the step input results are indeed
produced by natural convection effects induced by large
density differences. This effect has been discussed by
N. S. Reejhsinghani (AIChE Journal, 12, 916 (1966))
and is of great interest.
The article however does point out the great possi-
bilities in the rapid determination of diffusion coefficients.
Charles J. Vadovic
University of Oklahoma


views and opinions I


Humble Oil & Refining Company
Houston, Texas

I am genuinely proud to be an engineer, and
to be part of the engineering profession.
I want to make these attitudes clear at the
very beginning. For it is precisely because I re-
gard our profession so highly that I dwell on
some of its shortcomings rather than on its ac-
complishments. There are flaws in the collective
personality of our profession, and I would like
to suggest some measures that might help to
correct these deficiencies.
In the thirty years since I first entered en-
gineering, I have seen our profession confronted
with wholly unexpected responsibilities because
of our command of a technology which developed
with unexpected speed. In works that Shake-
speare first made famous, engineers have had
"greatness thrust upon them."
We have met the purely technological part of
this challenge superbly. But I contend that the
engineer of today is not providing a standard of
guidance and leadership related to the human
effects and social consequences of his technology,
that is commensurate with the impact of his
work and the importance of his profession.
By virtue of what he knows and his profes-
sional application of that knowledge, the engi-
neer is a social force. By reason of the enduring
effect of his work, the engineer bears a social re-
sponsibility to see that he does not, while solving
a technical problem, create a human one.
Because of the increasing technical complex-
ity of our problems the engineer is rapidly be-
coming someone who works on pieces of a puzzle,
and if this trend is carried to its extreme he will
ultimately find himself operating in a technologi-
cal straightjacket-totally confined to executing
the means, without being able to discern the
ends. Coupled with this trend is the most un-

*Presented to the Texas Society of Professional En-
gineers, San Antonio, Texas, June 21, 1968.

President Jones holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees from
the University of Texas. He joined Humble in 1937 and
advanced through the technical service division to gen-
eral manager of Humble's Central region. He was named
President of Esso Research and Engineering Company
in 1963. Promotion to President of Humble was an-
nounced in 1964. He received the University of Texas
Distinguished Engineering Graduate Award in 1964, an
honorary LLD from Austin College in 1965, and in 1966
President Johnson appointed him to serve on the Na-
tional Science Board.

fortunate flaw in the engineer's professional
personality-his repeatedly demonstrated reluc-
tance to involve himself in the search for solu-
tions to complicated, troublesome, politically
oriented questions of public policy.
In my view the engineer is exhibiting a thor-
oughly disquieting tendency toward withdrawal
from the total spectrum of public affairs. Though
master of technology, the engineer seems to be
willingly isolating himself from a view of the
social consequences of his acts.
One of the engineers who took part in our
survey commented on this disturbing trend quite
"Despite their training in solving problems,"
he said, "despite their ability to combine hard
facts with intuitive judgments, despite their intel-
ligence, engineers are generally ineffective in pub-
lic affairs because they are not interested in
people." Another remarked that many engineers
"are living within a technical shell. They are
afraid to live with people."
These are harsh works. Is it really true that
engineers like numbers more than they like
people? I think not; and I believe that the en-
gineer's reluctance to come to grips with public
problems as a citizen and leader-instead of
serving solely as a technical consultant-is rooted
in his own misconception of his proper function




in society. Somehow the engineer has come to
believe that professionalism and participation
are mutually exclusive, and this attitude has been
grafted onto the personality of our profession.
In his preoccupation with technology, and
with the outward trappings of professionalism,
I am afraid that the engineer is neglecting the
one activity that, in the long run, will do the most
to assure him unquestioned professional respect:
service to his community, his city, his state and
nation. One of our survey respondents put it this
"Neither the public welfare nor the engineer-
ing profession can hope to benefit from a meager
engineering participation in the public forums
where vital government policy is developed, and
where decisions are made that will affect our way
of life for years to come."
Another problem is inherent in this harden-
ing attitude of withdrawal into the narrow com-
forts of technical expertise. This is the distinct
danger that the younger engineers now in the
profession, and the next generation of engineers
now in the colleges, will be led by example to
believe in this idea of isolation from the ferment
of society.
So I believe that we as professionals have a dual
responsibility. First, we should guide the thrust of
our profession's energies toward increased participa-
tion in public questions, so that engineers can be of
increased service to society. Second, we should mar-
shal our experience and our efforts in behalf of the
coming generations of engineers so that they are well
prepared for the demands of the profession, as well
as being qualified in the tools of our trade.
To expose problem areas in our profession is
one thing; to come up with solutions is quite an-
other. Quite obviously I cannot recite the ulti-
mate answers to these problems. But I do want
to suggest some specifics which might point the
way toward improvement.
0 It is in the sphere of public service that
I feel the Texas Society of Professional Engi-
neers performs one of its most valuable func-
tions. For example, there is TSPE's record of
accomplishment in working with state boards
and commissions. The activities of TSPE in
helping formulate progressive state policies to-
ward the use and conservation of water are well
known. And I am most encouraged to hear that
the Society is now putting together a group
called "PERT"-an acronym for Professional
Engineers Recommendations for Texas. As I
understand it, "PERT" will be composed of en-

gineers of the highest competence who will pro-
vide counsel and advice on broad public issues
in the state.
Much has been made of the fact that few
engineers run for public office, and more should
be encouraged to do so. But an engineer does
not have to be in public office to serve the public
interest. Engineers should take positions on pub-
lic issues, both as individuals and on an organized
basis-either through their professional society,
or in some other manner if that is not possible.
And these positions should then be communicated
to public officials and to the public at large. This
will inevitably involve the utilization of publicity
through mass communications media-an activ-
ity which many engineers seem to regard with
horror. But publicity is a legitimate way to in-
sure that the views of engineers are known to
the public.
* It is of particular importance that the en-
gineering profession take a more aggressive
stance on issues which fall into our general area
of expertise, such as mass transit, urban renewal,
and city planning. Our most formidable prob-
lems today are in the cities; yet, perversely, it is
here that the engineer's voice is becoming ever
more faint.
With hardly a struggle the engineer has
abandoned the field of city planning and urban
renewal to a new group of planning consultants
with different training and orientation. In so
doing, he has become less and less a voice in the
decision-making process. His influence is being
consistently overshadowed in the deliberations
where the future of the cities is being decided.
I am convinced that if these difficult urban
problems are to be solved enduringly, and with
the most effective utilization of our financial re-
sources, the engineer must reassert his capabili-
ties in a leading rather than a supporting role.
We must re-establish in our profession the ob-
ligation of leadership on these-and other-pub-
lic problems, and rediscover the concept of self-
less service.
* This concept of service must embrace not
only our own concerns; it must also look to the
next generation of engineers as well. The lines
of contact between the practicing professionals
and the campuses should be even stronger than
they are today.
* Time and again, the replies in our survey
emphasized the need for more interchange be-
tween the practical and the academic. We had


asked these experienced engineers to give us the
benefit of their hindsight. Their words differed
widely, but their ideas focused on two major
areas which they deemed worthy of more empha-
sis in the engineering curriculum:
-Fundamentals of business management and
business practices.
-Development of communications skills, both
verbal and written, by the student engineer.
Measures should be taken to correct these de-
ficiencies; steps that place emphasis on action.
Why not, for example, have an interchange be-
tween an engineering professor and a practicing
professional-have them actually switch jobs for
a specified period ?
* There is growing evidence that many
young engineers are already taking additional
time to prepare themselves, by extending their
education to the graduate level. A report by the
ASEE states that only ten years from this date,
two out of three bachelor's graduates will go on
to a master's degree, and one in seven will go on
to a doctorate.
The increasing number who go to the doctoral
level may run afoul of what I feel is an anomaly
in our system of engineering education. I refer
to the preoccupation with research found in
many advanced curricula. In no way do I demean
the idea of research; but I do feel that the present
emphasis on it is to some extent incompatible
with the historical function of the engineer.
Throughout time, the engineer's role has re-
mained essentially unchanged: he takes existing
knowledge and does something useful with it for
the benefit of society. In this process he often
extends knowledge, or exposes blank areas where
new knowledge is needed; but primarily he ap-
plies that which is known.
With this in mind, I am convinced that there
is need to restructure graduate programs so as
to allow those who are not primarily research-
oriented to obtain advanced training more suited
to their field of interest. Many engineers seek-
ing advanced degrees are interested in prepara-
tion for such functions as design, development,
and management; I think they deserve the op-
portunity to obtain such training. I do not sug-
gest that we abandon the engineering laboratory;
only that we redefine it. Where could there be
more challenging laboratories than our great
urban complexes, with their needs for imagina-
tive and original engineering solutions?
0 I suspect that we may also have to be
prepared to redefine the word "engineer." It is

becoming obvious that the traditional dividing
lines of the educational disciplines are proving
inadequate in producing people qualified to prac-
tice certain specialties. Recent developments
combining engineering and medical skills are
illustrative of this point. We may shortly be
producing engineers of a hybrid nature-for
example, a "social engineer" who applies engi-
neering knowledge, systems analysis, and new
tools such as the computer, telecommunications,
and teaching machines to the solving of social
I can envision the day when a student will go
through three to four years of basic engineering
training, and then will supplement this with two
to three years of additional training in non-
engineering fields to qualify him for a particular
specialty. In such a way, for example, we might
produce an urbanologistt" who combines knowl-
edge in the basic sciences, the social sciences, and
the humanities and uses this knowledge to cope
with urban problems. Such an individual would
combine some of the qualities of the engineer,
the city planner, the educator, the sociologist-
and, perhaps, the politician.
Obviously the field of engineering education,
like the field of public service, offers endless chal-
lenges to the engineer. To anyone who takes
these challenges seriously, it must seem at times
as if the professional engineer is expected to be
all things to all men.
We can't be, of course; but we can set our-
selves the highest professional goals and work to-
ward them. Where technology is concerned, we
have remarkable new tools to work with. Our
difficulties are likely to be nontechnical-as they
are now-and within the realm of the intangible.
We must reshape our professional personality so
that we are more sensitive in the areas of human
understanding and social awareness.
Early in these remarks I suggested that en-
gineers have had "greatness thrust upon them."
Those latter words, originally, were Shake-
speare's, and the full quotation from his play
Twelfth Night reads as follows: "Some are born
great, some achieve greatness, and some have
greatness thrust upon them."
I sincerely hope that subsequent events will
prove that my choice of words was mistaken;
that it can be said of the engineer, not that he is
"born great," not that greatness is "thrust upon
him," but that he is among those rare few who
"achieve greatness."


Professor, What Do You Think?

Process Design Oilfield Production
Technical Sales Plant Design
Refinery Engineering Development
Research Technical Service
With all the opportunities available today assignments and advancement opportunities?
you probably often hear this question from Standard Oil Company of California has
your students. You can be a major factor challenging assignments in just about any
in his career. area that would interest Chemical Engineers.
If you find yourself in this situation why These initial assignments will test their
not consider an industry that can offer ability and can lead to advancement
a full range of Chemical Engineering in many areas.
Should you or any of your students wish additional
information on our industry or Company write to:
Mr. Robert E. Rodman
Coordinator, Professional Employment
Standard Oil Company of California
225 Bush Street
San Francisco, California 94120

Standard Oil Company of California
An Equal Opportunity Employer

A -'

. .

:[ .I. " . J .

DARTMOUTH'S Doctor of Engineering

Dartmouth College
Hanover, New Hampshire 03755

The Doctor of Engineering program at Dart-
mouth qualifies as a "New Direction for Engi-
neering" mostly because it stresses the practical
side of engineering at a level which has tradi-
tionally been dominated by specialized, research-
oriented programs. Its goal is the development
of the student's ability to apply his technical
knowledge creatively to satisfy some worthwhile
need of society.
The basic philosophy and objectives of the
program are not new at all. They have remained
appreciably unchanged since the founding of the
Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth Col-
lege in 1871. Throughout the school's history the
emphasis has been on the training of generalists
in the profession of engineering. Students have
been prepared at the Bachelor's level with a broad
base of science and liberal learning from which
they can continue to develop and cope with what-
ever engineering problems they may face in fu-
ture years. We have believed that in practice a
man who is well trained in the fundamentals sel-
dom fails to fit himself (given a little time) to a
special responsibility. The only "new" aspect of
the present program is the extension of these
principles to the doctoral level. In addition to
requiring demonstrated competence in the con-
ventional areas of engineering analysis the pro-
fessional program emphasizes innovative design,
economics, managerial and communication skills,
and the effective use of resources. Students are
taught how to develop knowledge on a need-to-
know basis and, equally important, how to apply
this knowledge.
The program is completely interdisciplinary
and the degrees awarded are not designated as to
any particular branch of engineering. Every at-
tempt is made to involve the student in real-
world, unsolved problems and to force him to
make decisions in a professional manner. We
are concerned not only with the knowledge that

Graham B. Wallis is associate professor at Thayer
School of Engineering. He was educated at Cambridge
University, BS, MA, and PhD ('61) and at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, SM ('59). His research interests
include heat transfer and two-phase flow. His book on
"One-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow" will be published by
McGraw-Hill Co.

the student acquires but also with the develop-
ment of his abilities and attitudes. These abilities
include analysis of a vaguely-defined, practical
problem, generation and evaluation of alterna-
tive solutions, completion of a convincing design,
performing experimentation and testing (with a
view to answering direct and relevant technical
questions), and the managing of an engineering
project. Individual programs are formulated ac-
cording to the student's own aims and interests.
There are no required courses; however, more
than one discipline, or branch of engineering
science, is usually involved in each student's
The doctoral thesis is the major piece of evi-
dence which the student submits to show that
he has developed the required abilities. Prior to
this he is required to perform a 30-day design
project. In addition he may elect (or be firmly
encouraged) to take the special course "Intern-
ship in Engineering." These latter features of the
program are sufficiently unusual to warrant fur-
ther explanation.

The student is required to demonstrate his
ability to take an assignment in an unfamiliar
field and produce a worthwhile contribution to
the state of the art within a time limit of thirty
days. The assistance of industry or government


��M m
S. Russell Stearns is professor of civil engineering at
Thayer School of Engineering. He was educated at Dart-
mouth College and Purdue University, MS ('49). He
teaches courses in transportation systems, soil mechanics
and foundations. His research interests include study of
permafrost and geology and psysiography of the cold

is usually needed because these design problems
are selected from unsolved, real-life situations.
For example, a student was recently asked to
develop a method for making profitable use of
city refuse. His proposal for producing ethyl
alcohol from the 60% cellulose content of refuse
is now under study for development by the U. S.
Public Health Service and by at least one com-
The major purpose of the design project is
to help the faculty and the student determine
early in his graduate program his capability
and motivation for the professional curriculum
leading to the Doctor of Engineering degree. In
other words, it is a qualifying exam. The student
is judged on his ability to organize a project
within a limited time, to apply scientific and
technical fundamentals to the problem, to con-
sider economic constraints and to present the
results logically and coherently, both orally and
in a written report.

The Internship in Engineering course is part
of an attempt to provide the same service to
engineering that the teaching hospital provides
for medicine. The development of professional
talents and their application to actual, present-
day, technical problems are emphasized. The stu-
dent obtains a realistic experience involving
economic, social, political and legal factors as well
as technical requirements. The problems are open-

The major purpose of the design project is to act
as a qualifying exam. . . . The objective of the intern-
ship is to develop those abilities which are required
by a professional engineer. . . . Industry provides a
realistic background to the project.

ended and have no easy answers. They are vol-
unteered by industrial and public organizations
which also provide expertise and on-the-spot
assistance to the students. Access to the client's
proprietary information may be required and
negotiations between him and the student are
conducted on project planning, contracts, patents
and dissemination of results.
The objective of the course is to develop just
those abilities which are required by a profes-
sional engineer and which the student must
demonstrate in order to get his DE degree.
The role of industry is to provide a realistic
background to the project. By the involvement
of industrial representatives in the course the
student is made aware of the criteria by which
his work will eventually be judged in the real
world. Industrial attitudes often come as a sur-
prise to the student who is conditioned to the
usual, academic measures of success applied in
most engineering courses.

Both the internship course and the 30-day
design project depend for their realism and
practical success on the participation and coop-
eration of industry and government. The Thayer
School is actively establishing relationships with
certain industries to foster an attitude and com-
mitment of shared responsibility for the develop-
ment of the professional program. Industries
which become Partners or Associates in this
program undertake to provide expert consulta-
tion, realistic design problems, critiques and dis-
cussions of student work and some financial as-
sistance. Engineers are sent from industry to
lecture, advise, learn and generally participate
in the program. Special short courses and con-
ferences are arranged periodically to provide an
exchange of information and wisdom between
these industries and the academic community.
Typical subjects for these meetings include the
management of research and development, deci-
sion-making, the design process, computer appli-
cations, technological contributions in the city
environment, and the fostering of creativity in an
industrial context.





University of California, Riverside

For a number of reasons, historical and per- -t
ceptual, educators are in a period of awakened i'
concern for the world around us and for our
relationships with it. Like the proverbial over-
size suit that we would "grow into," the world Dr. Seymour Calvert is Dean of Engineering at Uni-
is getting tight in spots and we can foresee its versity of California (Riverside) and Director of the
University of California Statewide Air Pollution Re-
getting tighter. Unlike a suit of clothes, we search Center. He has a BSChE degree from Michigan
cannot buy another world; we will have to live Technology University and MS and PhD degrees from
within what is available. The pressure upon edu- the University of Michigan.
national institutions is indirectly through the Dr. Calvert specializes in research on air and gas
needs implied by our environmental pinch and cleaning equipment (particulate and gas removal), re-
search on air pollution system definition and analysis,
directly through the demands of students, the design of industrial air pollution control equipment, and
faculty, and even the educational process for design of controlled environment systems.
Many have written and spoken on the im-
portance of environmental problems and desir- tors which comprise his environment? Com-
ability of universities giving attention to them. only we think of the physical necessities - air
An important question is whether a university and water - but we should also include food. On
or one of its subdivisions will take up environ- the negative side are hostile agents such as
mental problems in the same manner as it has weather, radiation, disease producing organisms,
approached others or whether a new pattern of pollutants, and predatory animals, including
approach should be used. As will be developed in man. Acting through cognitive processes are the
the following discussion, my view is that a dif- organizational or social influences and the singu-
ferent approach is called for, consistent with a lar or aesthetic factors. One can see that to un-
concern for both our environmental problem and derstand man's environment is equivalent to
the effectiveness of engineering education. understanding man; what he is and what he
A starting point for this discussion might be responds to.
to ask the question: "What would be the purpose There is a secondary group of factors which
and nature of an engineering school oriented to- are the mechanisms of our responses to environ-
ward problems of the environment?" In answer- mental demands and which in themselves become
ing the question we should consider what en- part of our environment. We need shelter to
vironmental orientation means, what engineering protect us from the weather and to provide suit-
education requires, and how the two can be able facilities for preparing and consuming food,
joined, for building devices, for resting, for dealing with
disease, and many other functions. These shel-
Man and Environment ters and work places - homes, offices, factories,
The meaning of environment in its broadest stores - become forces which to some extent
construction is all factors external to an organ- shape our patterns of activity and thought. In
ism which can have an influence upon it. Given deed, they usually are more immediate and con-
that our concern is with man, what are the fac- tinuous elements of the perceivable environment
than the forces of nature.
*Presented at ASEE Meeting in Los Angeles, June 18, Transportation is vital to every phase of life,
1968. enabling the movement of materials and people


and becoming a part of life's quality and scheme.
Equally important and obvious are the roles of
power and communication. At the base of all
these factors are the natural resources whose
magnitude is the ultimate limit of our capacity
for sustaining life.
These factors are provided or controlled
either by natural processes or by man's deliber-
ate effort. Man's response to them in the past
has been largely adaptive. He would seek a hos-
pitable area for optimizing all needs or he would
avoid the inhospitable. A measure of our prog-
ress has been our growing ability to change or
destroy the inhospitable and to create hospitable
factors - the ability to control our environment.

A university which concerned itself with the
environment would be characterized more by an
orientation than by a catalog of its detailed ac-
tivities. There is no such (sensible) thing as
environmental mathematics, or literature, or his-
tory, or chemistry, or transport phenomena.
What can be special are the use to which basic
knowledge and methods can be put, and the mo-
tivation of learning and inquiry.
The general outlook of an environmentally
oriented school would be directed toward our
ability to live within the capabilities and re-
sources of the earth. More specifically, it would
be addressed to answering the broad questions:
1. Who and how many are we? What kind of people
will populate the world, how will they be distributed,
and in what numbers at various times in the future?
2. What are and will be our objectives? How will
we accomplish them?
3. What do and will we need?

Consistent with the ramifying character of
environmental considerations, the people work-
ing in this area must develop a personal sense
of the contributions all disciplines can make.
Management implies a multi-professional ap-
proach because of the necessity for resource allo-
cation. In order to decide how to use the limited
resources one must understand all of the com-
peting claims upon them and all of the possible
routes to their satisfaction. The old dilemma
of "guns or butter" summons up the picture of
this type of decision situation.
To expect that individuals can be educated
to handle all aspects of an environmental prob-
lem is naive. The best engineering design will

What would be the purpose and
nature of an engineering school
oriented toward problems of the
environment ?

be done by an engineer, economics by an econo-
mist, toxicology by a toxicologist, and so forth.
Each of the professionals contributing to the
solution of the problem must be in close touch
with his professional colleagues and literature
so that he may be expected to bring the best state
of its practice to bear upon the problem. Yet he
must be knowledgeable in all its aspects, prob-
ably to the point of being able to handle simple
tasks in other disciplines, in order that he not
overlook the need for assistance and possible
Another important element of the environ-
mental orientation is the development of a sense
of innovation; both of the need for change and
the ability to accomplish it. An instant behind
the question: "How does it work?" should be
"How else can it be done?" It is difficult to state
this as a unique characteristic of an environ-
mental program - we would doubtless like to
see it in any engineering education. Let us say
that there is a greater need in the case where
the present state of affairs is the result of a com-
plex and non-intellectual evolution and where
each man is very likely to be working alone
rather than as a part of a technological hier-
Rather than having his problems chosen and
defined for him each person must possess an
awareness of need. We might define this aware-
ness as the ability to observe and speculate and
to sense the opportunity or necessity for adap-
tion. In that our reasoned approach to environ-
mental management is at a primitive stage, we
have no procedures and organization which rele-
gate a bounded and fractional (small) role to
each participant. It is still a wide-open, wild
game and it calls for a perceptive entrepreneu-
rial outlook and competence.

A method for providing the special character-
istics of an environmentally oriented school is as
follows in outline:
* Address the school to the question of our
ability to live within the capabilities and re-
sources of the earth. This should be reflected in


all functions, education-research-service, by their
becoming specially competent in environmental
planning and management. Simultaneously,
strengths in basic disciplines are to be developed
so as to permit a range of opportunity for their
application. In terms of engineering education
this means that design and applied problems
used in basic core courses as well as systems de-
signs will be related to our environmental needs.
* Provide the structure and functions for
an interdisciplinary approach. Curricula should
stem from a common core which will provide a
real understanding of all disciplines and, further,
will enable a significant mobility of students into
any discipline. This is both economical of course
offerings and essential to the student's prepara-
tion for continuous education in the future in
order to accommodate new knowledge. Applied
interdisciplinary projects can reinforce and mul-
tiply the conceptual links which each student has
with areas outside his major as well as strength-
ening his concept of and capability to apply it.
By drawing these projects from the surrounding
real community we can provide the relevance and
motivation the students (and faculty) need.
0 Use the campus itself for research and
demonstration. Educate and inspire by setting
an imaginative example. This should involve not
only the organized research activities but the
actual campus-community context in the course
work and research of the Engineering School.

Requirements for Engineering Education
Let us now turn our attention to the question
of the ingredients of a good engineering educa-
tion. The main emphasis will be on the under-
graduate program as is consistent with the con-
viction that engineering education does have
unique properties which must be incorporated
into the entire college education of an engineer.
The essence of this uniqueness is a motivational
factor more than a substantive one. Engineers
are distinguished by a desire to create and to
control some component of the real world. This
requires patterns of attitude and thought which
are best developed at an early age.
To do a good job of engineering education
one has to:

1. Present the basic physical, chemical, mathemati-
cal, biological sciences so that the student understands
most of the important phenomena and has enough of a
base so that he can continue to learn by self education
if necessary.

2. Teach the basic engineering approaches which
embody useful methods for problem solving and teach a
method of intellectual approach to problems.
3. Confront theoretical predictions with reality to
illustrate the usefulness and limits of both the theoretical
and empirical approaches and to give experience with a
broad range of reality.
4. Provide course sequences in the social sciences
and humanities which will give the student knowledge
of the history and nature of man, a base for future self-
education, and understanding of contemporary social,
political, and economic systems sufficient to illuminate the
relationships between man, technology, and the world
and to enable his conception of useful programs.
5. Teach the student to solve problems, to design,
to think, to make use of acquired knowledge, to general-
ize, to fill blanks with reasonable assumptions.
6. Teach the scientific method and logic.
7. Provide for continuing education.
The methodology used to achieve the above
goals in engineering education will have to satis-
fy several constraints. Some of these constraints
are that the program has to incorporate:
1. Real problems which may involve a variety of
disciplines and may not have a single "best" solution-
to teach problem solving, design, the "engineering ap-
proach," and to provide links between the separate
courses and the total practice of engineering.
2. Satisfaction of the student's desire to be involved
in basic problems of society.
3. A means for more effective teaching of social
sciences and humanities.
4. Better undergraduate teaching.
5. More effective research and professional activities
for staff and students.
6. Better continuing education.
7. Independence from the danger of obsolescence ac-
companying preoccupation with current industrial tech-

Riverside Program
The Engineering school at the University of
California, Riverside, is being established with a
primary orientation toward problems of the en-
vironment. While there is no previous history
of engineering at the UCR campus, there are sev-
eral related activities which can be capitalized
upon. There are capabilities on campus in air
pollution, physical and biological sciences, agri-
culture, social sciences, dry land research, water
resources, geology, and fire laboratory research.
The data base in these related research areas
provide a common body of knowledge for in-
struction in applied environmental engineering
Students will be prepared for careers in in-
dustry, business, government, and education.
They should have the option of taking employ-


The times now call . . . for a display of initiative by engineers.
Increasingly the technological source of our productivity and wealth . . .
of the quality of life have placed a bewildering burden on society's decision makers.

ment at the Bachelor of Science level or continu-
ing with graduate school. They must, therefore,
be employable (identifiable) in the present con-
text where designated degrees are important and
also be grounded in a primary professional disci-
pline which is of enduring validity (and utility).
There will be three teaching divisions which
will provide the basis for future growth and for
present professional identification. While there
will be a great deal of transference possible
among divisions, they will each be distinguished
by a strong orientation. They are:
Physical Division - d e a li n g with mechanisms,
structures, power, physical processes, and physi-
cal properties of materials.
Chemical and Biological Division - involving chem-
ical and biological systems, properties, and proc-
Information and Computation Division -covering in-
formation properties, processing, and systems -
including applied mathematics.
In addition to the three curricular core divi-
sions there will be an Advanced Projects Division
which will coordinate research, professional ac-
tivities, continuing education, and various liaison
relationships. This division will provide the
mechanism for an optimization of the teaching-
research combination by a redistribution in time
of the available effort for each. Faculty assign-
ments will be arranged so that the teaching and
research periods will each be more intensive and
effective. It is envisioned that faculty will devote
nearly full time every third year to research or
professional activities administered through the
Advanced Project Division.
The teaching and research organizational
structures will be separate and not identical.
Research groupings will be consistent with spe-
cific objectives and will form, disperse, and re-
form as needs dictate. Teaching divisions will
be permanent units, subject to future modifica-
tion in the light of experience, and the faculty
during their period of assignment to the division
will be responsible and accountable for teaching.
Division heads will be concerned with either
teaching or research and professional activities
and with coordination among the divisions. Thus
the organization of the school is consistent with
the concept of function wherein the engineer

applies basic tools which have a relatively long
life to special problems which are generally
The major curricular challenge in engineer-
ing education is in the undergraduate level, grad-
uate programs being largely tailor-made for the
individual student. The UCR undergraduate cur-
riculum is based on a very strong common core
and is not organized around the traditional
branches of engineering. This arrangement of-
fers greater flexibility both for the student in
choosing a curriculum to suit his interests and
for the School in making modifications to meet
changing demands. An outline of the curricular
patterns is given below. In this system a student
could elect a divisionally designated BS degree,
a professionally designated degree (from those
offered to meet sufficient demand), or an undes-
ignated degree. A few courses required to aug-
ment a divisional curriculum enough to form a
designated degree (such as Mechanical Engineer-
ing out of the Physical Core) would represent
a small investment and could readily be added or
deleted from the Engineering School offerings.
The undergraduate educational elements are
listed below:

* An environmental orientation is effected largely
through design and applied problems in the following
areas: air, water, food, shelter, transportation, natural
resources, community systems, social interactions, and
long range planning and management. These enter at all
levels of the undergraduate program.
* All students take a General Core which accounts
for 55% of the undergraduate credits. Subject areas are:
Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth Science,
Social Sciences, Humanities, and Economics.
* All students take an Engineering Core which
accounts for 20% of the credits and includes: Mechanics,
Transport Phenomena, Thermodynamics, Dynamic Sys-
tems, Materials, Systems Design and Optimization.
* Students may elect a Divisional Core or an un-
designated program which accounts for the remaining
25% of the undergraduate credits. When there is suffi-
cient demand there may also be designated degree op-
tions within the Divisions of utilizing perhaps one-third
of the Divisional Core credits. Subject matter will be:
1. Chemical and Biological Division Core - Chem-
istry, Biology and Chemical and Biological Systems.
2. Physical Division Core - Mathematics, Physics,
and Mechanical Systems.
3. Information and Computation Division Core -
Mathematics, Computation, and Systems Analysis.



John O'M. Bockris, University of Pennsylvania, and S. Srinivasan,
State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.
Available Spring
Sets forth the theoretical basis of electrochemical energy con-
version. Unlike other books, this work considers the basic
electrode kinetics of the fuel cell.

HEAT TRANSFER, Second Edition
Jack P. Holman, Southern Methodist University. 432 pages,
Revision of a standard text for undergraduate courses. Con-
tains new material on thermal contact conductance, radiation
network analysis, conduction shape factors, an analytical model
for liquid metal heat transfer, and many other topics.

Jack P. Holman, Southern Methodist University. Available Spring
Offers a brief, broad coverage of all aspects of thermodynamics
for undergraduate introductory courses. The emphasis is on
simplicity, clarity, and teachability, and the coverage includes
both macroscopic and microscopic thermodynamics with an
introduction to transport gases. Conventional power cycle ap-
plications and introductory material on direct energy conversion
schemes are also presented.

Robert D. Kersten, Florida Technological University. 224 pages,
The first book of its kind to treat both analytical methods in
engineering - the classical continuous approach and the "dis-
crete" approach usually associated with numerical methods.
It proceeds from the typical cases, which can be mathematically
treated by the classical approach, to the more difficult cases,
which must be handled by some numerical technique.

Robert E. Treybal, New York University. McGraw-Hill Series in
Chemical Engineering. 688 pages, $15.75
Provides a vehicle for teaching the characteristics, principles,
and techniques of design of equipment for mass transfer op-
erations. Theoretical principles are applied to the practical
problems of equipment design.

Warren L. McCabe, North Carolina State University, and Julian
C. Smith, Cornell University. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical
Engineering. 1,007 pages, $15.50
Presenting a unified treatment of standard unit operations at
the junior-senior level, all material in this second edition has been
updated in the light of the many significant improvements
which have occurred since the first edition was published.

Second Edition
Max S. Peters and Klaus D. Timmerhaus, both of the University
of Colorado. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engineering. 805
pages, $16.50
Presents an overall analysis of the major factors involved in
process design with emphasis on economics in the process in-
dustries and in design work. Costs involved in industrial pro-
cesses, capital investments and investment returns, cost esti-
mation, cost accounting, optimum economic design methods,
and other relevant subjects are covered both quantitatively and

Hilbert Schenck, Jr., University of Rhode Island. 178 pages.
Cloth, $5.95; Soft, $3.95.
Provides the student involved in research or thesis activities
with sufficient information to help him find a project, and pre-
sents him with the criteria to judge the suitability of his chosen
subject. Considerable information is given on how to carry out
a library search.

Hilbert Schenck, Jr., University of Rhode Island. 304 pages,
Applicable to almost any engineering laboratory course, this
work deals with the basic principles of engineering experi-
mentation rather than its hardware.

& McGraw-Hill Book Company
330 West 42nd Street
New York, New York 10036

Air Pollution
One of the difficult environmental problems
facing us is air pollution and we can gain insight
into the role any environmental problem may
play in education by reviewing some recent ex-
periences with air pollution as an educational
focus. The following section is drawn from the
author's experience in establishing an interdisci-
plinary air pollution training program at Penn-
sylvania State University. Let us first review the
nature of the air pollution problem and then the
specific pedagogical device - the focal project.
In their beginning and in their significance
air pollution problems are sociological (political)
problems; they involve interrelationships be-
tween individuals and groups in society. While
their phenomenological substance presents ques-
tions in science and engineering, their meaning
to society is in terms of the various planes of
man's life and thought. As individuals we react
to physiological factors ranging from subtle in-
fluence to gross insult and to psychological (or
aesthetic) factors ranging between comparable
limits. In groups of all sizes from neighborhood
association to national and international bodies
we work to recognize, identify, understand, and
control environmental factors. When decisions
are needed the plane of economics serves as one
of our principal bases for evaluation of alterna-
tive courses of action. In general we can see
that as a social-political problem air pollution
has much in common with the multitude of ques-
tions that face the community.
To consider the phenomenon itself, we may
use the simple picture of the air pollution as a
chain of "source-transport-effect." To under-
stand air pollution we need knowledge of all
three links of the chain but we note that trans-
port and effect follow inevitably (offer no oppor-
tunity for control) from the fact of emission by
a source. Control must therefore be upon the
source and is in its specific nature an engineer-
ing problem. The kind and degree of control
required depend on cause-effect relationships
which are established through study of atmos-
pheric dispersion, reactions during the disper-
sion period, and effect on man, animals, vegeta-
tion, and materials.
Changes in manufacturing processes, fuel
availability, technology, population concentra-
tion, transportation, etc., will influence the spe-
cifics of air pollution. We can expect new prob-
lems to develop, some of the old ones to disappear

and others of the old ones to grow. It is clear
that the field of air pollution is not only broad
but is also reflective of the dynamics of society.
Significant progress on the problems of air pol-
lution will require the depth of competence of
professionals of many kinds who can turn their
attention to new problems as they arise.

Focal Project
Teaching interdisciplinary subject matter to
a multi-disciplinary group is one of the large un-
solved problems in university education. We are
in general not set up structurally or philosophic-
ally to handle such problems. They are not neatly
organized, capable of closed definition or final
correct solution; they are design problems. They
require the application of all sorts of knowledge
and it is nearly impossible to set prerequisite re-
quirements which can be met by all of the mixed
group of students who must represent the needed
spectrum of skills. Professors who insist on
highly organized courses requiring several stages
of prerequisite preparation are likely to feel that
interdisciplinary courses are not graduate level
or even upper division undergraduate level.
It is enigmatic that a problem which is one
of the very difficult ones for society is not con-
sidered difficult enough to be worthy of the atten-
tion of regular courses in our universities. We
need a way of dealing with real problems and
still do whatever it is that universities feel is a
compulsive expression of their scholarly char-
acter. One approach is the focal project described
The focal problem was a single problem
which received the attention of the class for a
period of preferably one year. This sequence
related to air pollution in the community and the
individual problems were the study of the total
situation in a city. Seminars, applied problems,
field trips, and some research were to a large
extent referred to the focal problem. Staff mem-
bers and students were assigned to study and
define the various (scientific, political, sociologi-
cal, economic, engineering, public information,
health, plant damage) aspects of the problems.
They prepared and presented the study plan and
source material for the seminar and for student
projects. People representing industry, control
agencies, municipal government, citizens' groups,
news media and others were involved in the
study and were brought in to address the semi-


As a pedogogical device this provides the
student with a familiar ideological framework
to which he can relate new ideas. Likewise it
provides people from different disciplines with a
common reference structure and a secure start-
ing point for the development of mutual under-
standing. This sequence supplements thesis re-
search and will ensure a breadth of coverage of
the field which does not result from work on
specialized research.
Some of the term projects which were as-
signed to small groups of students are as follows:

1. Survey of effects of air pollution on the insect
populations in Greater John Doe town.
2. Meteorology study. Apply standard diffusion
equations to sources in the Greater John Doe town area
and calculate pollution movement. Develop a proposed
sampling grid for Greater John Doe town including
location of samplers with respect to air flow, bridges,
etc.; power supply, public places, etc.

Experience with the focal projects over a
three-year period was encouraging and generally
comparable to what we had encountered at Case
Institute of Technology in chemical plant design

and process development projects which were
done in cooperation with industry.

Engineering education has been evolving through a
series of stages in which it has related to rather specific
activities which were the occupation of engineers. Its
programs have been responsive to the needs of industrial,
civil, or military activities until recent years when dis-
appointments in various national enterprises have moved
us to seek an independently directed method. An attempt
to follow the example of the physical scientists by fixing
the program on a basic research focus has not led to a
useful mechanism for educating the undergraduate and
has not provided any sense of direction for engineering.
The times now call for something different, for a dis-
play of initiative by engineers. Increasingly the tech-
nological source of our productivity and wealth, of power
generation, of communication mechanisms, of the quality
of life have placed a bewildering burden on society's
decision makers. Political leadership has filled this role
in the past but it is sporadic and becomes less accessible
to the politician's competence as the issues become more
technical. The posture of engineers have been responsive,
"Ask me a technical question and '11 give you a technical
answer." Who is going to ask the proper questions, recog-
nize the emerging issues, pose the alternative possibili-
ties, provide the visionary leadership?


Conservation of
Mass and Energy


Optimal Control of
Engineering Processes
Leon Lapidus, Princeton
Rein Luus, University
of Toronto
1967 446 pages





This text emphasizes the application
of the laws of mass and energy to
problems involving the balances of
these quantities. The principles of
material and energy balances are
developed clearly and logically, and
the applications center on problems
frequently encountered by the chem-
ical engineer. 1969 496 pages $12.50


Fluid Dynamics of
Multiphase Systems
S. L. Soo, University
of Illinois
1967 524 pages


A Division of Ginn and Company


John Whitwell and
Richard Toner
both of Princeton


Electronic Analog
Computer Primer
James E. Stice, University
of Arkansas
Bernet S. Swanson,
Illinois Institute of Technology
1965 160 pages paper $3.25

275 Wyman Street,
Waltham, Massachusetts 02154



Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa


During the last third of the twentieth cen-
tury, engineers will become increasingly involved
in two relatively new phenomena of enormous
social, scientific, and economic consequence. The
first of these phenomena, increasingly evident in
recent years, is the emergence of the interdisci-
plinary approach - the exploitation of historic-
ally separated talents to solve new problems.
Whereas the major scientific and engineering
advances of this and the previous century have
been wrought by intradisciplinarians such as
Planck, Einstein, Gibbs, Westinghouse, and von
Karman, the increasing complexity and com-
munication capability inherent in the modern
world is thrusting together scientists, engineers,
and many other practitioners of widely varying
professional and disciplinary training, making in
many cases strange bedfellows by necessity, and
reuniting in some cases disciplines separated
since the 19th century. The emergence of en-
tirely new areas of activity are becoming almost
an annual phenomenon, and while perhaps the
lifetimes and eventual relevance of many of these
new activities may still be in doubt, it is becom-
ing more obvious that the engineer and scientist
of tomorrow will to an increasing degree be an
interdisciplinarian in his professional activities.
While the need for rigorously trained specialists
in very narrow disciplines will undoubtedly con-
tinue, the important scientific discoveries and
engineering developments of social significance
in the next 30 years will most probably be af-
fected by teams of interdisciplinarians rather
than by teams within existing disciplines or by
The second, and probably the more significant
phenomena, is the invasion by the engineer, with
his tools and talents, of hostile and unexplored
environments. During this century, we have for
the most part carried out our activities at a

*Presented at the Los Angeles meeting of ASEE,
June 17-20, 1968.

Richard C. Seagrave received his BS in ChE from
the University of Rhode Island in 1957, and his PhD
from Iowa State University in 1961. After four years
on the faculty of the ChE Laboratory at Cal Tech, he
joined the faculty at Iowa State as an associate profes-
sor with a joint appointment in Chemical Engineering
and Biomedical Engineering. His research interests
have been in the areas of transport phenomena in flow
systems, and in the simulation of chemical reactor sys-
tems. He is currently directing research in these areas,
and participating in the research and teaching activities
of the Biomedical Engineering program at Iowa State.

macroscopic level on the surface of the earth,
concerning ourselves with ideal gases and New-
tonian fluids, dealing with the corrosive effects
of our relatively friendly atmosphere, and to a
large degree extrapolating and interpolating the
efforts of our ingenious professional predeces-
sors. Certainly the engineer has made enormous
contributions to the welfare of his fellow man,
although as we look into the atmospheres near
our large cities, to our stockpiles of incredible
weaponry, and to our highway systems, we oc-
casionally notice some interesting and somewhat
worrisome side effects of our rampant and ful-
minating technology. Here at the two-thirds
point in this century, we now find ourselves, as
a consequence of these advances in science and
technology, stimulated by a myriad of political,
social, and economic factors, on the thresholds
of entirely new environments, for which we
possess the tools and capabilities of entrance.
The foremost examples are those of the reaches
of interplanetary space and the unexplored and
unexploited depths of the oceans. But perhaps
the most interesting of these new environments,
the most hostile, the most complicated, the
most studied and the least understood, and the
one most urgently calling for engineering at-
tention, is the environment found within the
human body. The popular press, as well as the


technical press, bears daily witness to the im-
pact that cooperative efforts between engineers
and physicians will have on our lives in the
The problems faced on entering this new en-
vironment are formidable indeed, and they re-
quire the fervent cooperative efforts of the life
scientist, the physical scientist, and the engineer,
not to mention the lawyer and the theologian.

Biomedical Engineering
It has often been observed that prior to the
middle of the 19th century there was little to
distinguish the methodology of the physical sci-
entist and that of the life scientist. The land-
mark efforts of the French physician Poiseuille
concerning the flow of blood in capillaries, re-
sulting in a basic engineering equation, is a good
example of the quantitative approach employed
by life scientists at that time. When the hyper-
complexity of living systems became increasingly
apparent due to the development of better obser-
vational tools, the life scientist by necessity chose
to resort to a more qualitative or descriptive ap-
proach, while the physical scientists continued
along more quantitative or analytical paths, con-
cerning themselves with simpler systems. In re-
cent years, we have witnessed the slow but
steady re-convergence of the methodologies, and
once again life scientists are employing quantita-
tive techniques based on a growing understand-
ing of the physical and chemical processes which
take place in living systems. The physical sci-
entist, in turn, is extending his quantitative and
analytical methods to the study of more com-
plicated systems.
Meanwhile, the engineer, born of the needs of
society to translate the results of the physical
sciences into practical terms, has also been his-
torically separated from the life scientist and his
counterpart "engineer", the physician. As the
sophistication of both of these professions has
increased, as major developments in techniques
of instrumentation and fabrication of materials
have been made, and as the needs of an educated
and complex society have mushroomed, com-
munication between the disciplines has increased,
and cooperative interdisciplinary programs have
appeared worldwide, to the point where new
educational and research programs bearing
names such as "Biomedical Engineering" are
currently being developed on many campuses
across the country and indeed around the world.

I submit that no discipline or profession is
better equipped to promote this reunion and this
entry into a new environment for engineering,
and to indeed benefit from it, than is chemical
engineering. The chemical engineer was the first
truly interdisciplinary engineer. He combines an
engineering mentality and training with the pure
sciences of chemistry and physics, and out of
necessity has had to be conversant with the other
"lesser species" of engineer as well as with the
physical scientist. Many of us now believe that
the chemical engineer can, and in fact must,
become equally involved in the life sciences and
their engineering application, and in fact is
splendidly prepared to do so. It comes as no
surprise to a chemical engineer, for instance,
that examples of almost every classical unit
operation can be found within the confines of
the human body. The applications of chemical
engineering thermodynamics and transport phe-
nomena in the study of physiology and in the
design and operation of artificial organs are
legion. The concept of the body as a mobile,
reproducible aggregation of isothermal chemical
plants has a validity far beyond that of a tongue-
in-cheek lecture device.
I hasten to point out that while the chemical
engineering principles required for the design
and operation of artificial organs encompasses
almost the entire breadth of our training, the
converse is of course not nearly true. That is,
the breadth of our training naturally falls far
short of the skills and background that are re-
quired for the design of such devices. We must
not only rely heavily on communication with our
colleagues who are experts in the environment,
but we must also be prepared to speak an en-
tirely new language. We must be prepared to
hold our patience when encountering the madden-
ing maze of descriptive jargon which we would
instinctively replace with equations and graphs.
And finally, we must also be prepared to play
"second fiddle" in many respects to those who
must bear the public responsibility for our joint
efforts. But above all, we must be expert chemi-
cal engineers. We must be strong enough in our
parent discipline, interdisciplinary as it is, to
become an expert member of a team possessing
a myriad of skills, and to be able to make unique
and sound engineering contributions. This is
perhaps the most important part of this discus-
sion. It is vitally important for us to realize
that chemical engineering can be broad enough in
its content to accomplish this.

There are few things more personally dis-
tressing to me than hearing that a graduate
chemical engineer has decided to go to medical
school. Although a chemical engineering back-
ground is excellent preparation for a professional
medical education, it appears to me that the real
contributions in this new arena of interdisciplin-
ary activity will be made by experts who can
communicate, and who can understand the en-
vironment, rather than by people with piecemeal
or hodgepodge training who are likely to be
masters of no trade. The standard medical school
program represents and extraordinarily ineffi-
cient and time consuming way for a graduate
engineer, with six or eight years already invested
in his professional education, to learn to com-
municate and to understand the environment.
However, there is another factor at work here.
There unfortunately exists in many of us a pro-
fessional "second class citizenship" mentality
which makes many feel that somehow an engi-
neer is professionally inferior to a physician.
This is undoubtedly stimulated somewhat by the
enormous difference in mean income, and by
consequences arising from the fact that a physi-
cian's effectiveness is often critically dependent
on his public image. Any fair comparison of a
graduate program in engineering and the pro-
gram of studies leading to an MD degree should
quickly modify this image problem. While the
MD usually interacts directly with his "cus-
tomer" and hence bears a special kind of respons-
ibility the engineer while usually operating be-
hind the scenes, bears a different kind of re-
sponsibility and by no means has to be considered
as a "second class citizen" on the team.

Education for Biomedical Activities
At this juncture we should consider some
facets of the education and training which would
be desirable for a chemical engineer who wants
to participate in biomedical activities during his
professional life. While we cannot anticipate all
of the developments and discoveries of the next
thirty years, there does appear a fair number of
guideposts in the form of current research prob-
lems to indicate the direction in which we need
to move.
If we look at the current research areas at
the interface between engineering and medicine,
the single and most immediate deficiency that we
seem to face is the need for new materials suit-
able for use in this new environment. For exam-

We easily could spice our regular
coursework with selected examples
of a biomedical nature.

ple, about 5000 people per year in the United
States need to have part of their face removed,
either as the result of injury or disease. At the
present time no completely suitable material for
facial prostheses exists which meets the structur-
al, mechanical, biological, and cosmetic require-
ments of this application. The search for bio-
logically suitable materials for many similar ap-
plications has preceded along very empirical lines.
Most probably, this search process has been du-
plicated for many other engineering and proces-
sing problems. One gets the feeling that some-
where a tremendous amount of technological in-
formation about materials must be accumulating.
The person that many feel should be aware of
and familiar with this technological information,
and who should be able to produce or predict
these results, is the chemical engineer. We some-
how need to increase the emphasis in our cur-
ricula on problems of materials - possibly as a
start at the graduate level - and to develop some
understanding and appreciation in our students
of problems in this vitally important area.
We easily could, and certainly should, spice
our regular undergraduate and graduate course-
work with selected examples and problems of a
biomedical nature. For example, let the thermo
student compute how long it takes to freeze to
death, or explain why fever must accompany
chills. Let the unit operations student compute
how much area is needed in the blood oxygenator
or in an artificial kidney. Our sophomores could
perform their material balance calculations on
the lung and the kidney. We need to convince our
students (it won't be difficult) that the applica-
tion of chemical engineering principles in the
body are often quite interesting and easily un-
derstandable. The necessary qualitative and de-
scriptive material, once the physical and chemical
principles are understood, can be picked up quite
easily. I hasten to point out that at this level
only enough understanding of the living system
to remove fear and stimulate interest is required,
and the student should be made to realize the
degree of the oversimplification with which he
is presented. There is certainly good precedent
for this pedagogical trick in chemical engineer-
ing education.
In the study of simulation and process con-




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trol, there are many good examples and applica-
tions in the body which chemical engineering
students would find challenging and interesting.
The student can undoubtedly feel more personally
involved in a problem of respiratory feedback
control than in a constructed problem involving
some hypothetical process.
In the study of typical chemical processes
or of the process industries, we might include
selected topics such as the artificial kidney to
illustrate the application of chemical separation
techniques in a fascinating context. I know of
at least one chemical engineering department
which devoted an entire one term course in the
sophomore year to this topic as a means of
introducing chemical engineering.
What I am saying is that to a large degree
our present curricula, inoculated with a medium
of selected examples, represents an excellent
technical preparation for further interdisciplin-
ary study. One of the fringe benefits of such a
strategy might be an improvement in the public
image of our curricula. Chemical engineers, like
all engineers, suffer somewhat these days from a
public relations problem. This is continually
manifested by the problem of stagnating engi-
neering enrollments, and by the fact that recog-
nition of or acknowledgement for engineering
accomplishment is rare in the public press. If
we could demonstrate that our professional cur-
ricula contains considerations of these appar-
ently more relevant aspects, perhaps our role
would become more fully realized and even ap-
preciated. Of course, we should continually stress
the relevance of the things we study to all aspects
of modern technology, as well as to the area of

Some R and D Problems
Perhaps some examples of current research
and development problems in which chemical en-
gineers are participating could serve to illustrate
this point. These examples have been selected
with no particular criteria except as interesting
examples involving among other things direct
application of principles presented in under-
graduate chemical engineering curricula.
The problem of carefully heating a premature
infant that has underdeveloped thermal auto-
regulation is a complicated heat transfer and
control problem involving all three classical
modes of heat transfer as well as elements of
some rather sophisticated control system. Cur-

Chemical engineers, like all engineers,
suffer somewhat these days from a
public relations problem.

rent research on this problem involves measure-
ment of the newborn's skin temperature in the
period shortly following delivery. A simple en-
ergy balance computation will show that a nude,
wet newborn will lose 2 degrees of body tem-
perature per minute unless preventive measures
are taken to drastically reduce thermal losses.
Another interesting heat transfer problem
involves the apparent use by the body of a coun-
tercurrent heat exchanger using facial venous
blood to control the temperature of arterial blood
leading to the brain, and hence the operating
temperature of the brain. The brain produces
15% of the body's total heat yet while it is en-
cased in a thick skull covered with hair, it ap-
parently operates nearly isothermally under wide
environmental conditions. Current research in-
volves temperature and flow rate measurements
around the heat exchanger in the nose and facial
regions of dogs and horses to determine the
actual operating characteristics of the heat ex-
change system.
Increased mass transfer efficiency of devices
such as the artificial kidney and the membrane
blood oxygenator continues to be a subject of
much attention among biomedical engineers.
More recently, efforts are being extended to the
development of miniature oxygenators suitable
for pediatric use in the treatment of cardiac and
respiratory disorders in newborns. The delicate
physical and chemical nature of the working
fluid and the difficult fluid mechanics problem of
forming stable thin flowing films continues to
impede development in this area.
The transient relationships between pressure,
volume, flow, and compliance in the extracorpo-
real space during heart-lung bypass procedures
is an interesting problem involving elements of
fluid mechanics and process control. The changes
which occur in the vascular system during surg-
ery have a complicated and profound effect on the
distribution of blood inside and outside of the
subject, and on the "holdup" in the bypass sys-
tem. Current research on this problem is directed
to determine the effects of various drugs used
during surgery on the operation of the bypass
system to optimize the blood distribution in the


. . . the field of interaction between
engineering and medicine is presently
crying out for leadership.

The problem of optimally managing subjects
during post-operative recovery can be aided by
knowledge of the material and energy balance
relationships in effect. Work is being done to
develop instrumentation and computational pro-
cedures to aid in gathering this type of data.
A classical problem involving many elements
of chemical engineering is the simulation of the
behavior of the human respiratory system during
obstructive lung disorders or circulatory abnor-
malities. The system of equations required to
describe this situation represents a challenging
problem which when solved can hopefully be
used to provide insight for the clinician as well
as the physiologist. Current research in this
area is directed to developing models which can
account for the variations in the mass transfer
capability at the blood-gas interface as well as
mis-matching of the streams due to flow ano-

Educational Trends
One of the trends that seems to be evident
is that following the experiences of our col-
leagues in electrical engineering, our activities
are going to become increasingly more micro-
scopic. That is, we will spend a higher and
higher percentage of our time dealing with sys-
tems and with problems which are related to
smaller and smaller spaces, and as a consequence,
we must continue to insure that our students
are exposed to the physical and chemical princi-
ples which can be used to describe these systems.
The most important of our educational tasks,
however, in my opinion, is one that we often
overlook. It is especially critical with regard to
this new environment which we have been dis-
cussing. We need to instill and to develop in our
students and in our graduates some feelings
about the social responsibilities of an engineer.
As indicated earlier, we need only look around
us to realize how delinquent we as a group have
been in providing the social leadership necessary
for the balanced good of society. The concept of
an engineer as a technical member of a team who
produces a service for a fee without regard for
its social or moral consequences is outmoded.
Engineers must provide leadership in this area,
and the field of interaction between engineering

and medicine is presently crying out for such
leadership. Few professional people who have
the influence required to control the course of
things are presently concerned with the overall
impact on our society that unbridled advances
in areas such as artificial organ technology will
have. We can see around us - too late in many
cases - the undesirable side effects which could
have been avoided by a combination of engineer-
ing and social concern. The overdevelopment of
the American automobile is perhaps the clearest
(or most obvious to our senses) on a smoggy
day. Somehow we need to educate the chemical
engineers of tomorrow in an atmosphere that
promotes the consideration of responsibility to
society before the fact, instead of after.

In summary, the following points have been offered.
* Advances in science and technology along with an
increased awareness among scientists and engineers of
their mutual needs and similarities have stimulated the
phenomena of the interdisciplinary team.
* Engineers are concerning themselves with new and
unexplored environments, a notable example being living
systems, particularly the human body.
* It is important to realize that a chemical engineer-
ing background is well suited for many current problems
in biomedicine.
* Chemical engineers working in this area must
maintain their identity, and in fact must be unusually
well grounded in chemical engineering principles to make
maximum contribution. It is probably inefficient to un-
dertake a formal educational professional program in
the life sciences.
* The problem of finding suitable materials for bio-
medical applications is presently critical, and represents
a logical stamping ground for chemical engineers.
* Examples of current research problems in medical
areas involving chemical engineering demonstrate inter-
esting applications of principles presented in undergradu-
ate chemical engineering curricula.
* Chemical engineering education can exploit these
new phenomena by making curricula more attractive and
more relevant. By spicing fundamental courses with
problems and examples taken from physiology and medi-
cine the student can become more conscious of the breadth
of chemical engineering.
* It appears that our activities will become increas-
ingly more microscopic, and we need to insure that our
future students can continue to handle these new and
smaller systems.
* We somehow need to give our students more ap-
preciation of the social responsibilities of an engineer,
so that they can provide leadership in many of the com-
plex situations of the future, which will continue to
evolve from these interfacial activities, and expanding
technology, and the exploration and exploitation of new


University of California at San Diego
La Jolla, California

The United States is losing a space race. We
are losing to Russia, to Japan, even to Peru. The
race is to occupy, control, and exploit the vast re-
sources of "inner space" represented by the
oceans. We have hardly begun to develop the
technological base which will be necessary to
meet this challenge although the need is now
generally recognized and activity is vigorous.
One vitally important element in this effort will
be the development of educational programs
which combine not only the best marine science
but the best modern engineering science to edu-
cate men with the capacity to cope with the
strange new world of the sea.
A PhD program in Applied Marine Sciences
has been initiated at the University of California
at San Diego by Scripps Institute of Oceanogra-
phy and the Aerospace and Mechanical Engi-
neering Sciences Department in response to the
growing demand for individuals with such train-
ing and research experience.

Although 70% of the surface of the earth is
covered by oceans containing most of its animal
and plant life, man extracts relatively little
knowledge and material of value from water
areas compared to land areas. Less is known of
the geography of the deep ocean than is known
of the back surface of the moon. Only about 1%
of man's food is extracted from the 400 billion
tons of organic matter produced in the oceans
every year, yet men go hungry. Some 25% of
the earth's oil lies underwater, yet recently the
value of sand and gravel mined near the shore
was greater than the value of the oil pumped
from underwater. Billions of dollars are lost
each year in ruined crops, lost construction time
and damaged property because of our inability to
accurately predict, let alone control weather con-
ditions dominated by oceanic transport phenome-
na. In spite of these facts, our total national
oceanographic program just ten years ago was
less than $10 million annually. This amount has

*Presented at the Los Angeles ASEE Meeting June
17-20, 1968.

1950 1955 1960 1965
Fig. I. Growth of Federal support for marine science and technology.

since risen dramatically: President Johnson pro-
poses $462 million for the next fiscal year.
A significant fraction of the ocean bottom
is not in deep water. An area about the size of
Africa is in water less than 200 meters deep
forming the so-called continental shelves. An
international Convention on the Continental
Shelves in Geneva reached an agreement in 1964
giving sovereign jurisdiction to the natural re-
sources of the sea bed and subsoil of this land
adjacent to coastal nations. In this way, the
United States acquired 850,000 square miles of
adjacent sea bottom or an increase in our terri-
tory of 25%. Clearly it is this land which can be
expected to yield the first economic benefits.

Appreciation of these vast resources has been
awakening. From 1958 to 1965 Federal support
to oceanography increased 11 fold as shown in
Fig. 1 taken from the Panel on Oceanography of
the President's Science Advisory Committee re-
port' "Effective use of the Sea". This Panel
recommended giving further expansion of the
national oceanography program highest priority.
They recommended a general increase of the non-
defense component of the program from the 1966
level of $120 million to $210 million by fiscal
year 1971 and an increase in basic research and
education support from $15 million to at least
$25 million in the same period.


The United States is losing a space race . . . to Russia, to Japan, even to Peru.

An important step forward in assuring a co-
ordinated long-range national program for the
effective use of the sea was the enactment of the
Marine Resources and Engineering Development
Act of 19661. The Act established a Cabinet level
National Council on Marine Resources and En-
gineering Development, headed by the Vice
President, and a Commission on Marine Science.
The Act also established as national policy "the
advancement of education and training in marine
science". Such legislation was motivated by the
widespread impression that the nation's marine
interests were not being adequately pursued be-
cause of organizational fragmentation of Federal
responsibility for oceanography and due to lack
of a sufficiently high level advocate for ocean
science and technology in the administration.1
For whatever reasons, the United States is
slipping behind in important areas of marine
technology. Between 1954 and 1964 our annual
fish catch actually decreased slightly from 6.13
to 5.82 billions pounds, while Peru's catch in-
creased by nearly a factor of 50 to put her in first
place with 20.2 billion pounds. Four other coun-
tries besides Peru lead us in this area. Lagging
technology and obsolete equipment are certainly
contributing factors. Our average medium-sized
trawler in the Atlantic is 24 years old. Many
segments of our maritime industry are struggling
to stay alive. Japan leads the world in the develop-
ment of "aquaculture" while this field is practi-
cally nonexistent in the United States, even
though it has been estimated2 that areas suitable
for oyster production in the United States could
produce more than the total fish catch of the
world using modern methods of aquaculture de-
veloped in Japan. Three years after the loss of the
submarine Thresher we still would probably not
be abe to recover the Scorpion along most of its
route across the Atlantic, even if we could find
it. All of these examples illustrate our past ne-
glect of ocean engineering.
Estimates of future world population growth
indicate that conventional methods of food pro-
duction will be hard pressed to meet either ca-
loric needs or the critical problem of animal pro-
tein deficiency. Chronic protein deficiency is the
leading cause of death for children between
weaning and five years of age in all countries of
the equatorial zone, accounting for as high as
50% of such deaths' as well as blighted health at
all ages. Marine protein concentrate extracted

from various species of hake can provide ade-
quate protein to supplement one child's diet at a
cost of only $2.00 per year using presently avail-
able technology. The "food-from-the-sea" pro-
gram has been given the highest priority by the
Marine Science Council.3

The incredible efficiency developed by our
agriculture is recognized as a key factor which
permitted the economic success of this country.
Many attribute this rapid development of agri-
culture to the stimulus provided by the Land
Grant College system and the associated State
Agricultural Experiment Stations which fol-
lowed. When President Lincoln signed the Land-
Grant Act in 1862 hardly a college in the country
was equipped for laboratory teaching or re-
search. The familiar pattern today of teaching
and graduate research was an idea vigorously
debated during the formative years of the land
grant college system. In fact, a previous version
of the Land Grant Act had been vetoed 4 years
earlier by President Buchanan. The Land Grant
Colleges brought major changes in the philosophy
of higher education. Instead of teaching a nar-
row curriculum of philosophy, theology, dead
languages and mathematics, the function of a
university was expanded to include both the
seeking and dissemination of new knowledge as
well as teaching of the old. Since the inception
of the Land Grant Colleges, the efficiency of the
farmer has increased over 700%. Today, re-
search-based increases in agricultural efficiency
are estimated to save this country over $7 billion
each year.2
In contrast to the seven fold productivity in-
crease of the farmer, the productivity of U. S.
fisherman has increased only 33% in the same
period according to Senator Claiborne Pell,2 au-
thor of the National Sea-Grant Colege and Pro-
gram Act. The Sea-Grant College concept was
inspired by the success of Land Grant Colleges,
and was first suggested by Dean Athelstan Spil-
haus of the University of Minnesota.
Dean Spilhaus envisions more than simply
increased support to research and teaching in
ocean engineering in the Sea Grant Colleges. He
sees the same sort of educational extension work
applied in marine technology as was developed
in American agriculture: "county agents in hip


boots" are even a part of his prescription for the
propagation of new discoveries in ocean tech-
In 1963-64 the total U. S. oceanographic sci-
ence staff was about 3000 including 500-600
PhD's. The growth in the numbers of students
and degrees in oceanography or marine science
is shown in Fig. 2. At present there are some
1000 students enrolled in over 50 marine science
curriculums.3 It has been increasingly apparent,
however, that much less effort and support has
been expended in training ocean engineers. Only
17 curricula in ocean engineering or technology
were listed by the Interagency Committee on
Oceanography in 1967-684 It is this situation
which the Sea Grant College Act is intended to
alleviate by its particular emphasis on ocean
exploitation and applied research.

At La Jolla, the development of ocean engi-
neering has been rather opposite to that expected
by the Sea Grant College Act, although the end
result may be similar. Instead of starting oceanic
studies in an existing university, an existing cen-
ter of marine science has started a new univer-
sity. As described by Professor William Nieren-
berg, director of Scripps Institution on Oceanog-
raphy in his testimony at the Sea Grant Colleges
Hearings in 19662:
"For the past 10 years the oceanographers at
Scripps have carried on continuous study and discus-
sion of the best way to contribute further to the ad-
vance of ocean-related sciences. The first result and
the principal one was the establishment of a new
campus of the University of California at San Diego.
It was agreed that a school of oceanography could
not flourish unless it were closely associated with a
university that had first-rate departments in the basic
sciences and engineering. A school of marine science
that is isolated from a first-rate campus is a poor
concept in this day and age . . . the area of formal
education in applied ocean science, sometime called
ocean engineering . . . we hope to establish on a broad
an surer basis in cooperation with our department of
engineering, headed by Professor S. Penner."
The first college of the new San Diego cam-
pus is named for one of these oceanographers:
Roger Revelle, former director of Scripps and a
leader of the successful effort to establish a
branch of the University of California at San
At present the joint Applied Marine Sciences
curriculum between the Aerospace and Mechan-
ical Engineering Science Department and the De-

S Graduate students in /
� "Ocuenography" *s (
idled by ICO-NSF
PhO's granted at
10 oceanographic centers

� P"hD's granted In
z --- - "Oceanography" * s
identified by ICO-NSF

1958 1960 1965 1969
Fig. 2. Growth of students and degrees in oceanography.

apartment of Oceanography is operating on an ad
hoc basis, with perhaps half a dozen PhD can-
didates taking courses in both departments al-
though considerable expansion is expected in the
near future. Ten faculty members in AMES
have expressed interest in the program, with
backgrounds covering engineering physics and
geophysics, mechanical, electrical, chemical, aero-
nautical and bioengineering, applied mathemat-
ics and mechanics, system dynamics and control,
pathology and physiology. Among the thirty
typical thesis topics which were suggested are:
Laboratory studies of wind generated waves
Turbulent transport phenomena at the air-sea inter-
face and in stratified media
Noise models for analyses of undersea communication
and detection, application of Kalman filtering and
Folker-Planck-Kolmogoroff equations
Determination of wave heights by satellite
Structure of waterspouts, maelstroms and tsunamis
Because of the unusual breadth required of
an applied marine scientist, it was agreed that
the course material requirements for participa-
tion in the program should be substantially
higher than the curricular requirements of either
department for its candidates, totalling at least
the material in 20 quarter courses and commonly
more. Although there is clearly a need for indi-
viduals trained at all levels in ocean technology,
it was concluded that only a PhD program would
be consistent with the function of the University
and the high level of competence in both fields
of modern engineering science and oceanography
which will be required of those individuals who
can supply leadership in expanding application
of marine science.


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Recent developments have been the expansion
of the interdepartmental ocean technology pro-
gram to include the Medical School and Applied
Electrophysics Department, the establishment of
a curricular group by Professor Warren S.
Wooster, Chairman of the Scripps Graduate De-
partment, to design the curriculum and initiate
new courses which may be appropriate, and the
selection of the University of California at San
Diego for a Sea Grant College program.

Greater efforts are needed in the development
of applied marine science if the United States is
to take full advantage of the potentially valuable
resources of the oceans. Education will play a
vital role in establishing the technological base,
and the federal government has moved to assist
the development of ocean engineering, especially
through the Sea Grant College Act. The Uni-
versity of California at San Diego is developing
a PhD program in Applied Marine Sciences in
response to the awakening national awareness
of the need to harvest the wealth as well as the
knowledge of the sea.

These studies have been supported in part
under Project THEMIS which is sponsored by
the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office
of Aerospace Research, United States Air Force,
under Contract F44620-68-C-0010 and in part by
the Advanced Research Projects Agency (Proj-
ect DEFENDER) and were monitored by the
U. S. Army Research Office-Durham under Con-
tract No. DA-31-124-ARO-D-257.

1. Effective Use of the Sea - Report of the Panel on
Oceanography of the President's Science Advisory
Committee, June 1966.
2. Sea Grant Colleges - Hearings before the Special
Subcommittee on Sea Grant Colleges of the Commit-
tee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Sen-
ate, Eighty-ninth Congress, second session; on S. 2439,
3. Marine Science Affairs - A Year in Transition, th3
first report of the President to the Congress on Marine
Resources and Engineering Development, February
4. University Curricula in the Marine Sciences, Academ-
ic Year 1967-68, Interagency Committee on Oceanog-
raphy for the NCMRED, ICO Pamphlet No's. 30 and
30A, August 1967.

1968 4wand l.ecde,


Part III - Convective Diffusion

University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minn.

L ET US CONSIDER steady, two-dimensional
cases of the three classes of basic flow
represented in Figures 2 and 6. These are parallel
flow, in which surface dilation is absent; nearly
parallel flow, in which there is mild surface dila-
tion of "rejuvenation"; and irrotational stagna-
tion flow, in which there is strong surface dila-
tion and concomitantly the effect of convection
normal to the interface completely overshadows
that of convection parallel to the interface. The
appropriately specialized versions of the con-
vective diffusion equation are tabluated in Figure

*Based on the main part of the 1968 Annual Lecture
to the Chemical Engineering Division, ASEE at the
University of California at Los Angeles June 18, 1968,
sponsored by the 3M Company.

11. Note that in the first two categories diffusion
parallel to the interface can be neglected in com-
parison with convection in that direction. The
boundary conditions in every case are a uniform
and constant equilibrium concentration at the
fluid interface and an unchanging concentration
at great depths.
The leading convective diffusion solution for
parallel flow is that of Leveque (1928), rederived
by Elser (1949) and Kramers and Kreyger
(1956) ; approximate solutions for some other
instances of parallel flow have been computed by
Beek and Bakker (1967) and Byers and King
(1967). Perhaps the most useful exact solution
will be that obtained recently by my coworker
Majoch and described in Figure 12; although the


0+ v(x) = [S + �c

Vx(xz) + v (z) o = +2c /
2x as2
X ox adz 6 12 ') Z 2
v = - '(ovz/z) dx

Stagnation Flow + v- (x) + V (Z) = = - + 2
)1x2 1

v = ax , v = - az
x C
Fig. 11.-Convection Diffusion Equations.
Leveque solution is the special case n = 1(i.e.,
v. = ax) the range n>1 corresponds to vanishing
shear stress at the interface and is more relevant
to flow and transfer at free surfaces. The solu-
tion conveys the very important lesson that con-
vection and diffusion are not additive processes

axn 0 = - ' C(X , 0) = c(U , z) = c , c(0 , Z) = c

Similarity transformation I = xf(z) :

-(n+2)Tn+ d = d provided fn+ = (n+2).
d , 2 dz a

= exp(- y )dy if f(s) =

Fig. 12.-Steady Transfer-Parallel Flow. (Majoch & Scriven 1968).
(with the trivial, inconsequential exception of
rigid-body motion parallel to a concentration
gradient). Convection affects diffusion by tilting
and sharpening or dulling concentration gradi-
ents, and it can do this even when flow is per-
pendicular to the overall concentration differ-
ence. This fundamental feature of the convec-
tive diffusion process was scarcely known in the
era of Lewis and Whitman and Higbie, nor has
it gotten enough attention from those following
in Danckwerts' steps. Whether relative motion
of liquid at different depths close beneath an in-
terface may safely be neglected depends very
much on the nature of that motion.
The most informative convective diffusion
solution for nearly parallel flow is, in my opinion,
one I published with R. L. Pigford in 1959 as
part of a study of flow and transfer in laminar
liquid jets. It was rediscovered in a somewhat
different context by Angelo, Lightfoot, and How-
ard (1966). It rests on an approximation valid
insofar as the streamwise varying tangential
component of velocity is substantially independ-
ent of depth within the zone penetrated by con-
vective diffusion (Figure 13) ; equivalently, it

Parallel Flow


Nearly Parallel Flow

x dv
By continuity v = - (av /az)dx - x
x 0 x - dz

dv 2c 2
Hence -x(-_) + VsZ) -
dx ax s 6z a 2

Approximate solutions by the "integral method"
led to the similarity transformation 1 =xf(z)
and exact solution.
Fig. 13.-Steady Transfer-Nearly Parallel Flow (1).
holds in the zone where flow is so dominated by
boundary conditions that the normal component
of velocity is proportional to distance from the
interface (as we saw at the outset). The solu-
tion, interestingly derivable in different ways,
again illustrates the merging of convection and

S 2 v dv
-27 d = de provided s df I = -2.5
dT1 d2 f3 dz f2 dz

c - (c)
-- - = erfcll provided f(z) = vs)
C - c
e o z
B + 4+ J vs(C)dC

= xf(z) , B from b.c. @ z = 0
Fig. 14.-Steady Transfer-Nearly Parallel Flow (2). (Scriven & Pigford
1956, 1959).
diffusion into a single process (Figure 14). The
corresponding flux formula (not shown) con-
firms that a velocity component toward the in-
terface, hence dv,/dx>0, enhances interphase
transfer even though the velocity component
vanishes at the interface; conversely a normal
component away from the interface, hence
dv5/dz>0, reduces the rate of interphase transfer
-though not in the same proportion, generally.
These phenomena stand out in the next class
of flow.
Because velocity normal to the interface has
the greatest effect on interphase transfer, it is
logical to seek the class of flows that most fully
typifies normal motion and still leaves the con-
vective diffusion equation tractable. Chan se-
lected two-dimensional and axisymmetric, irro-
tational stagnation flows, which nearly fulfill the
Navier-Stokes equation, do satisfy the kinematic
and tangential traction boundary conditions at
free surfaces, and epitomize the fact that relative
normal velocity near free interfaces increases
linearly with depth (v,=-az; cf. Figure 11).
The history of convective diffusion solutions is
interesting. By separation of variables and series

+ a(t)x - a(t)z - _2] and i.. + b.c.'s

Invariant under x - x' = x - A exp[ /a(t)dt]

Therefore c(x + dA, z, t) = c(x, z, t) and dc/ax = 0


Fig. 15.-Unsteady Transfer-Unsteady Irrotational Stagnation Flow (1).
expansions Chan in 1963 obtained a formal solu-
tion of great generality and little practicality,
except that he very shrewdly identified the par-
ticular series for flux at the interface in the case
of main interest (1984). Simultaneously a co-
worker, B. A. Finlayson, obtained close approxi-
mations by weighted-residual methods. Within a
a month my former colleague, C. V. Sternling,
pointed out privately that a transformation of
variables leads to a closed-form solution in the
case of main interest. Within another month
Chan (1964) justified this solution by a symme-
try argument (Figure 15) and rederived it by
the similarity transformation technique to which
nearly parallel flow had yielded earlier. More
recently we have identified Sternling's variables
as material coordinates and a curiously warped
time (Figure 16). From the Daliesque point of
view these variables provide, the convective dif-
susion process appears as though it were pure
diffusion (unsteady diffusion equation in Figure
16), which is remarkable - and a subject of
current investigation.
t t
Material coordinates: g = xexp( -/ a(t)dt) , C = sexp(f a(t)dt)
0 0

Warped time:

&rs ac2

t t'
T =f exp[2 f a(t")dt"]dt'
0 0

oe(,0) = c(c, T) = 0 ,

o( ,T) = 03

S= - rfe I i eo 1 steady
e-Co /f4 [] 9 [1-exp( -zat) flow
Fig. 16.-Unsteady Transfer-Unsteady Irrotational Stagnation Flow (2).
The convective diffusion solution for steady,
irrotational stagnation flows yields the formula
for flux at the interface shown in Figure 17 and
graphed in Figures 18 and 19. Study reveals that
so long as the exposure time is no longer than it
takes fluid particles to move 20% closer to or
farther from the interface, the simpler formula
for penetration solely by diffusion is a fair ap-
proximation; one also finds that there is no

Stagnation-flow model: j = (c -co) o2at
S- e2at

Penetration model:

j ( = ( Co) nt

k _ - 2at
k. j, 1 - e-2at

Fig. 17.-Instantaneous Mass Flux.

natural length scale with which to compare a
purely diffusive penetration depth VDt. At
longer exposure times, flow toward the interface
(a>0) steepens the concentration gradient at
the interface appreciably and therefore the form-
ula indicates increased transfer rates; con-
versely, transfer rates and concentration gradi-
ents are reduced by flow away from the interface

3 Stagnation - Flow Model , a > o
Film - Penetration Model,with L= /ar/2a
/ / Penetration Model
S////-Film Model,wth film thickness =r/-7 2a
2 // Reverse Stagnation Flow Model, a 4 o

lal t
Fig. 18.-Instantaneous Transfer Coefficients vs. Time (Dimensionless

(a<0, "reverse stagnation flow"). At very long
exposure times, the flux in stagnation flow
asymptotically approaches a constant value,
which is also characteristic of film models of flow
and transfer (Figure 18). On the other hand the
flux in reverse stagnation flow asymptotically
approaches zero, as does the flux in the penetra-
tion model; but the former diminishes so rapidly
with time that the total amount transferred ap-
proaches a finite asymptote, whereas the total
transferred increases without bond in the pene-
tration model (Figure 19). Normal convection
away from the interface eventually brings the
concentration at all finite depths to the interfa-
cial value, effectively saturating the liquid and
leaving its equivalent to a "stagnant pocket" of
the sort suggested by Perlmutter (1961).


0 2w0ll /
S/ Film Model
Reverse Stagnatlon Flow Model

0 05 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
Fig. 19.-Total Transfer vs. Time of Exposure (Dimensionless Forms).

accounts for the greatest effect convection
can have on diffusion in transfer at fluid inter-
faces. In its functional behavior it spans the film
model, the penetration model, and even an un-
developed stagnant-pocket model. Populations
of stagnation flows of different flow strengths
(a>0, a=0, a<0) can match the transfer per-
formance of the various and sundry combina-
tions, elaborations, and populations of less realis-
tic microflow elements that we reviewed earlier.
The stagnation flow model is the first to build
convection right into the basic transfer process
in the microflow element, and the result is a
"master equation" that clarifies why each of the
earlier models yields a functional form of mass
transfer coefficient that may be useful in one or
another range of practical circumstances.
Furthermore, the convective diffusion solu-
tions for unsteady stagnation flows might permit
more accurate modeling of turbulent action, in
that they can account for development periods
of microflow elements, i.e., the interruptive
events need not be taken as instantaneous.
What's more, populations of stagnation flows can
be mixed with populations of other types of mi-
croflow elements to give even more versatile cor-
relating formulas for transfer rates. I do not
believe, though, that these are directions in which
to push research, although comparative studies
of the sensitivity of final working formulas to
microflow elements and distribution functions
probably would be widely instructive. Before
turning to what I think is needed more, I should
comment on one feature by which certain models
can be differentiated.
This distinguishing feature is the way in

k o n

Fictitious film n = 1
Penetration models n = 1/2

Film-penetration 1/2 < n < I
Subsurface sweep 1/2 < n < 2/3
(Beek & Bakker)

Surface rejuvenation n = 2 Subsurface sweep 1/2< n < I
Stagnation flows n = (Majoch)
Fig. 20.-Diffusivity Dependence of Mass Transfer Coefficient.
which mass transfer coefficient depends on the
coefficient of molecular diffusion. The models we
have been considering are contrasted in Figure
20; in all of them the mass transfer coefficient
varies as the diffusivity raised to a power of
from one-half to one, which is the range encom-
passing most experimental results. Yet there
are a few data in the literature which indicate
a weaker dependence on diffusivity, even no de-
pendence at all. To account for such data several
correlating formulas have been put forward:
see Figure 21. Kishinevski's arguments are un-
convincing but I suspect the data and his for-
mula can be rationalized in terms of time-aver-
aged convective flux by chaotic motions back and
forth across the mean position of the fluid inter-
face - a subject of further investigation. King
has explored possibilities inherent in an empiri-
cal "eddy diffusivity" for scalar transport in free
boundary turbulence, and has noted that were
eddy diffusivity to increase linearly with distance
from the interface (measured in a frame of ref-
erence moving with the interface, presumably),
the average transfer coefficient would be propor-
tional to the square-root of molecular diffusivity
in the first instant of exposure and would be-
come progressively less dependent as exposure
time increased. But as Majoch recently pointed
out at Minnesota, such an eddy diffusivity cor-
responds to a mean normal component of rela-
tive velocity everywhere including at the inter-
face (cf. Figure 21), and while this would
amount to a convective mechanism quite inde-
pendent of molecular diffusivity, it does violate
the elementary kinematic boundary condition of

.'. n = 0

.'. o < n < 1/2

Kishinevskii (1949, 1954): j = "vn c" = v ,

Davies (1963): j = "v Ac" + Ac /-Trt ,

King (1966): = (. + "") , e = az 0 < n < 1/2

But e az -a = (. + az) , . ~ n 1/2

N.B. = az2 - 2azs = (f +az2) , .. n= 1/2
Fig. 21.-Correlating Formulas for Weak Diffusivity Dependence.


. . . a "vorton" arriving at glancing incidence at a fluid interface is
"scattered" . . . the toroidal eddy arrives . . . pushes along the surface briefly
as it tips forward and then, parting company from the "ripplons" it has
raised, it descends somewhat less energetically back into the bulk phase.

hydrodynamics. The lesson here is that such
crude concepts as eddy diffusivity are poor sub-
stitutes nowadays for experimental and theo-
retical fluid mechanics together with the instan-
taneous and time-average convective diffusion
equations. Nevertheless it does happen that an
eddy diffusivity that increased as the square of
distance from the interface would come very
close to producing the same concentration field
and mass transfer coefficient as a certain stag-
nation flow (Figure 21). And a negative eddy
diffusivity that decreased in the same way would
nearly match the corresponding reverse stagna-
tion flow in its effect!

sota for understanding flow and transfer at
fluid interfaces the question of greatest current
interest is how periodic motions, such as accom-
pany progressive and standing surface waves,
affect diffusion. While we have some partial
answers the state of the results is still such that
they are more easily sketched in lecture than in
writing. They and the further questions they
raise do not point toward an eventually compre-
hensive theory of convective diffusion fields.
Vortex rings are the simplest experimental
models of the "eddies" that according to surface
renewal, surface replacement, or surface reju-
venation notions are responsible for interrupting
quiescent interludes of diffusion at interfaces.
In a preliminary to observing turbulent inter-
faces carefully, we have watched the encounters
of dye-marked vortex rings with water-air and
water-benzene interfaces. That this is edifying
is plain from the motion-picture record, but it
is difficult to summarize all of the wonderful
things one sees. It will have to suffice here to
report that under certain circumstances a "vor-
ton" arriving at glancing incidence at a fluid
interface is "scattered"; in other words the to-
roidal eddy arrives from the bulk phase, pushes
along the surface briefly as it tips forward and
then, parting company from the "ripplons" it
has raised, it descends somewhat less energetic-
ally back into the bulk phase. Vortons arriving
at rigid surfaces are invariably annihilated, in-

cidentally-another contrast between the bound-
ary conditions at rigid walls and fluid interfaces.
Beyond these sorts of studies, what I think
is needed is research on the mechanics of fluid
interfaces under turbulent bombardment, re-
search designed to shed light on such matters
as when populations of microflow elements are
appropriate and how to relate the parameters
of the elements and of their distribution func-
tions to fundamental parameters of the turbu-
lence - which is to say, to parameters in a turbu-
lence theory that is not yet well in hand.
Not everyone would agree. In closing let me
call your attention to the viewpoint of someone
in closer touch with the practical problem past
and present. P. V. Danckwerts evidently never
returned to the hydrodynamic issues that he ac-
knowledged but left unexplored in his well-known
1951 paper. At the Twentieth Congress on Theo-
retical and Applied Chemistry in Moscow four-
teen years later, according to the twice-translated
version in the first issue of Theoretical Founda-
tions of Chemical Engineering, he said,
"The problem of the absorption of gases, from the
industrial aspect, has an essentially practical char-
acter and our approach to it must be pragmatic. This
does not mean the negation of the role which the
scientific understanding of the phenomenon plays but
it must be understood that the contemporary state
of applied sciences at times makes us overemphasize
the value of analytical methods and that, in the case
of too great expenditures of time in clarifying the
mechanism of processes, the substance of the practical
problem may fall from view."


The Chemical Engineering Department of the
University of California at Berkeley has obtained
funds to support a limited number of minority-
group students in both its undergraduate and
graduate programs. At the graduate level a stu-
dent without formal training in chemical engi-


neering may apply if he has a degree in chemistry
or another related field.
Although several black students have received
degrees in chemical engineering at Berkeley in
recent years the vast majority of them have been
from foreign countries. The desire to see them
take advantage of the excellent opportunities
offered by the chemical engineering profession
has led the faculty at Berkeley to start campaign-
ing actively to recruit students from among the
minority groups in this country. While some
waiver of normal entrance requirements is being
made to get this program started, the degree
requirements will be unchanged.
Students and faculty from other schools who
wish to receive additional information about this
program may write to Scott Lynn, in care of the
Department at Berkeley, California, 94720.

Two films on phase behavior have been pro-
duced by the University of Utah and the Chevron
Oilfield Research Co., with the financial support
of the National Science Foundation. Part 1 shows
the phase changes in a single component system
and Part 2 shows the phase changes in binary
and multicomponent systems. The films were pro-
duced, written, and narrated by Noel de Nevers,
ChE Department, University of Utah. Copies of
the films may be purchased ($250 each) or rented
($5 each) from Educational Media Center, Uni-
versity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84110.

A group of administrators from Iowa State
University including George Burnet, professor
and head of chemical engineering, are continuing
work on a cooperative program between Iowa
State and Prairie View to develop a record-
keeping data processing service and to establish
a program in chemical engineering there. George
Burnet explained that the first goal has been rea-
lized and it is hoped that the proposal for the
chemical engineering program will be approved
by the Texas Board of Regents in time for the
1969-1970 academic year.
Prairie View A and M, a predominantly Ne-
gro college, was established as a land-grant col-
lege in 1876. The college is located 46 miles NW
of Houston and provides its 4,000-plus enrollment
with training in agriculture, arts and sciences,
engineering, home economics, industrial educa-

tion, and nursing. The School of Engineering,
established in 1952, has departments of architec-
ture, mechanical, civil, and electrical engineering.
This continuing cooperative program is one
of five programs begun in 1966 under the auspices
of the ASEE to develop five predominantly Negro
institutions in the South. ASEE and a number of
industrial firms are providing funds to support
the five programs. The other programs are: Vir-
ginia Polytechnic Institute and University of
Wisconsin are aiding A and T of North Carolina;
University of Illinois and Tulane are aiding
Southern University; Vanderbilt is aiding Ten-
nessee A and I; and University of Michigan and
Auburn are aiding Tuskegee.

Dr. John D. Stevens, professor of chemical
engineering, recently received an "Outstanding
Teacher Award" along with three other members
of the Iowa State University faculty. Each
award consists of a plaque and $500 made pos-
sible by a grant from the Standard Oil Founda-
tion to recognize superior teachers. In 1966,
Stevens received the first annual H. A. Webber
Teaching Award in the chemical engineering de-
partment at Iowa State.

In recognition of outstanding contributions to
engineering, Dr. Albert L .Babb, chairman of the
Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Uni-
versity of Washington, has been named "Engi-
neer of the Year" by the Washington Society of
Professional Engineers.
He received a plaque and citation at a recent
meeting of the association from Rolf Lux, presi-
dent of the Seattle chapter. Dr. Babb was cited
for "his untiring efforts on behalf of the engi-
neering profession and for his unselfish services
for the good of humanity."
Dr. Babb has conducted significant research
on the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel ele-
ments. Working with members of the medical
profession, he also has helped to develop a new
technique for the early detection of cystic fibrosis
and was a member of a bioengineering team that
designed improvements for components for the
artificial kidney.
In 1968, he received a citation from the Wash-
ington State Legislative Joint Committee on Nu-
clear Energy for his contributions to the peaceful
use of nuclear energy in medicine.




Lehigh University
Bethlehem, Penn. 18015

All of us are aware that environmental pol-
lution has become a major social - political prob-
lem in many parts of the world. Governmental
regulations and public pressure have had and
will continue to have a significant economic im-
pact on the chemical industry. These facts have
resulted in larger allocations of capital for pol-
lution research by industry and governmental
agencies. This, in turn, has resulted in formal
instruction in pollution control technology with-
in some chemical engineering departments.
A course in pollution control technology can
be a constructive part of nearly any engineering
curriculum. This great flexibility results because
of the large number of potential lecture topics
and because of many possible organization
schemes. Our course is not monolithic but de-
pends strongly upon the teacher. We have tried
instruction based on (a) in-depth studies of a
few problems or processes and (b) brief intro-
ductory study of many processes and related
topics. Both approaches have been readily ac-
cepted by our students; however, I believe that
course organization is more important than the
selection of study topics. The course is organ-
ized to teach the fundamentals of processes for
pollution control while, at the same time, preserv-
ing the tremendous motivation generated among
students by their concern for the problems of
our society.
The major objectives of our elective course
offered at Lehigh University for advanced under-
graduates and graduate students are:
* To illustrate the magnitude of the pollution prob-
lems facing this country.
* To teach the fundamentals of the processes of
importance in the design of facilities for air and
water pollution control.
* To provide an opportunity for the study of real
pollution problems in local industry.
These objectives were achieved through sev-
eral types of study. Formal lectures were given

Gary Poehlein received the BS, MS, and PhD ('66)
degrees in chemical engineering from Purdue University.
His industrial experience was gained with The Procter
and Gamble Co. and with The Humble Oil Co. His inter-
ests include polymer chemistry, applied rheology, heat
transfer, and environmental sciences.

1. Sources and Characteristics of Industrial Waste-
2. Air Pollution Detection and Measurement Problems
3. Sedimentation
4. Ecology
5. Flocculation and Flotation
6. Aeration and Gas Transfer
7. Biological Treatment Processes
a. BOD and COD; Significance and Measurement
b. Natural and Aerated Lagoons
c. Trickling Filters
d. Activated Sludge Processes
e. Sludge Disposal Processes
8. Adsorption in Air and Water Treatment
9. Oil Refinery Problems
10. Liquid Scrubbing of Gas Streams
11. Thermal Pollution and Cooling Tower Design
12. Mathematical Modelling of Rivers
13. Ion Exchange
14. Water Chemistry Topics
15. Pollution Problems in the Steel Industry
16. Foam separation

on a number of topics listed in Table 1. Several
of the lectures were presented by outside speak-
ers who were experts in areas such as; water
ecology, air pollution control regulations, thermal
pollution, etc. Field trips to a local municipal
treatment plant and the research laboratories of
a large company were a very successful part of
the course. More field trips will probably be
included in the future.


The course presents the fundamentals of processes for pollution control while preserving
the tremendous motivation generated among students by their concern for the
problems of our society. . . . It can be a constructive part of nearly any
engineering curriculum.

In addition to formal lectures and homework
assignments, all students were required to sub-
mit a term report covering an in-depth study of
a pollution topic of their choice. Graduate stu-
dents were expected to suggest potential areas
for future research. This activity was especially
important when lectures were restricted to brief
treatments of important topics. The term paper
provided a mechanism for more complete study
of a significant problem and it helped to illustrate
the importance of current literature in a rapidly
developing field.
The third major course objective was
achieved with the assistance of local industry.
During the summer prior to our last course of-
fering I decided to ask a number of local corpora-
tions to assist me in teaching pollution control
technology by allowing a group of 3 or 4 students
to study a specific problem within their plant. At
first I had doubts that such a program could be
arranged because of the sensitive nature of the
subject. Much to my surprise nearly all com-
panies responded favorably to initial correspon-
dence. Suitable projects were outlined for the
complete undergraduate enrollment of 21 seniors.
These industrial problems were, without ques-
tion, the most satisfying and successful part of
the course. They served as an ideal laboratory
experience and, equally as important, generated
motivation among the students for learning the
lecture material.
The industrial problems were chosen because
I felt the students would be able to contribute
to their solution. Brief descriptions of some of
the more successful experiences are outlined
* Meat Packing Plant. A total plant water survey
was conducted on a medium size (3,000 hogs/day)
meat packing plant. The plant technical staff
was minimal and concerned primarily with day-
to-day operation.
The student group measured solids (mostly
fat particles valued at 40/lb) content and BOD of
effluent streams. They determined the value of
lost fat at about $130,000/yr. They then obtained
bids for screening equipment to recover this fat
from vendors who had worked on similar prob-
lems in other packing plants. The total installed

cost of the solids recovery system was estimated
to be $40,000; not a bad investment (certainly
better than continuing to dump this material into
surface waters).
* Small Inorganic Chemical Plant. A plant waste-
water survey was conducted. The plant technical
staff were well trained but pollution control ac-
tivity was minimal.
Sample analysis indicated that the major
problem involved two highly acidic streams which
were currently discharged into an earthen hole
about 75 yards from a river. A plant process-
water well, located between the hole and the river,
was no longer in operation due to acid pollution.
The student group suggested the installation
of a limestone acid neutralization pit. Detailed
construction drawings for this pit were provided.
* Organic-Inorganic Plant. This plant was of me-
dium size with full-time staff assigned to pollu-
tion control activities. The student group worked
on an alkaline wastewater problem under the
supervision of plant professionals. Plant labora-
tory facilities were available to the students for
sample analysis.
This type of arrangement is attractive because
in-plant personnel are well acquainted with eco-
nomic restrictions. In this case an acid neutral-
ization proved to be the best solution. The plant
discussed above was too far away for the ideal
solution of stream combination, but the students
did think of this possibility.

Formal instruction in pollution control tech-
nology will undoubtably increase markedly over
the next several years. Such instruction may take
the form of a course such as I have outlined in
this paper or it may involve the use of pollution
control problems as examples in other courses.
Either approach will be well received by students.
Our course has demonstrated one meaningful way
to involve industry in the academic process. No
one can doubt that a few experiences such as
those cited above will help to "turn on" our stu-
dents. Similar programs, especially if they could
occur earlier, may help to attract more students
to the study of engineering.








Esso Research and Engineering
Company, the principal technical
affiliate of Standard Oil Company
(N. J.), provides research and en-
gineering services to 250 world-
wide affiliates with assets of over
thirteen billion dollars.
The Chemical Engineer plays a
vital role in helping us meet these
vast responsibilities. But most
important to him, he functions in
an environment as dedicated as
that of the university Chemical
Engineering department. For our

ultimate goal is the same as that
of the university; namely the ex-
tension of knowledge and the bet-
terment of the human condition
through long-term fundamental
and applied research, and the
accomplishment of immediate ob-
jectives through the economical
design and operation of plants
and equipment.
Whether he possesses a B.S. an
M.A., or a PhD., and whether he
works in Product/Process Re-
search and Development, Appli-

cations and Technical Services,
Process Engineering, Project De-
sign or Process Selection and
Economics, the Chemical Engi-
neer serves with his professional
peers. He learns from them; he
teaches them. But he advances
as far as his own talents take
him, wherever his interests lead
him; either in a technical or ad-
ministrative capacity.
Total involvement . .. in a total
chemical engineering environ-
ment. That's Esso.

For full details on the opportunities available, contact:
Dr. P. H. Watkins, Employment Coordinator, Dept. PE-8.

P.O. BOX 175, Linden, New Jersey 07036
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F

book reviews

Nonlinear Differential Equations of Chemically
Reacting Systems, G. R. Gavalas.
Springer-Verlag New York Inc., (1968), ix, 107
pp. $8.50.
This is an important monograph in the field
of the mathematical theory of chemically react-
ing systems- a field of increasing activity in
recent years. The study of chemical reactions
and reactors is central to the profession of chem-
ical engineering. This field is of great importance
since some reactions are not exceedingly fast,
and there may be competing reactions leading to
undesired products.
Despite its central importance, the quantita-
tive study of chemical reactions and reactors did
not receive much attention until the end of World
War II. Gradually, we have built up the classical
theoretical models of chemical reactions and reac-
tors that are still the principal ones used today,
such as the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-
Watson kinetics, the cascade of stirred tank reac-
tors, the dispersion model and the stochastic
model of reactors, and the diffusion model of a
pellet. In the last ten years, we have seen in-
creased use of mathematics to study the conse-
quences of these fundamental models. With the
coming of high-speed electronic computers, many
models have been studied and solutions for par-
ticular sets of variable values can be computed
to a great deal of accuracy. Another line of de-
velopment is concerned, for a range of values,
with the properties of these solutions such as:
the existence and multiplicity of solutions, the a
priori bounds of the solutions, the stability and
transient behavior of these solutions. This mono-
graph represents one of the most important con-
tributions in this direction.

Industrial Institutions
In lieu of advertising, the follow- ACKNO
ing have donated funds for the In addition
support of CHEMICAL ENGINEER- following have
C. F. Braun & Co
The Dow Chemical Company University of A
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works University of M:
The Monsanto Company University of M
The Procter and Gamble Company Nova Scotia Tec
Standard Oil (Indiana) Foundation South Dakota Sc
The Stauffer Chemical Company Mines and T

This book is of primary interest to theoretical
engineers in research and in teaching. It repre-
sents the research results of the author on three
specific systems: the batch reactor, the stirred
tank reactor and the catalyst pellet. He used the
concepts of topology and functional analysis with
exceptional skill. His theorems are rigorously
derived, but contain few surprises. The short-
term impact of this monograph on chemical tech-
nology is likely to be small, since it is addressed
to the specialist in academic research rather than
to the engineers facing current problems. The
main pleasure in reading this book is to see many
questions settled with authority and economy.
There is a danger of a growing divergence of
terminology between the chemist and the chemi-
cal engineer. The concept of "mechanism" to a
chemist represents more than the stoichiometry
of an elemental reaction, it includes also a stereo-
chemical description of the molecules as they
unfold and break apart. It is quite conceivable
that many different mechanisms could lead to
the same kinetic expression, which describes the
rate of chemical reaction as a function of concen-
trations, temperatures, pressures, amounts of
catalyst, etc. Two reactions are said to be "inde-
pendent" to a chemist if they proceed by different
mechanisms, for example a hydrocarbon mole-
cule may crack into two smaller molecules by a
thermal mechanism or a catalytic mechanism by
way of a carbonium ion. The overall stoichio-
metry of these two reactions could be identical,
but to a chemist they clearly belong to two differ-
ent mechanisms and are independent of each
other. With a little care, a chemical engineer can
refer to those two reactions as "linearly de-
pendent" but "mechanistically independent." The
chemist and the chemical engineer must remain
on speaking terms for many years to come, and
it would be preferable if they speak the same
Mobil Oil Corporation

VLEDGMENTS: Educational Institutions (New)
to eighty institutions listed in the Winter 1969 Issue, the
donated funds for the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

chnical College
hool of

University of Southwestern Louisiana
University of Texas
Texas A & M University
Villanova University
University of West Virginia
University of Wisconsin


The annual ASEE meeting will be held at
Pennsylvania State University, University Park,
Pa. on June 23-26, 1969. The ChE Program
Chairman for the meeting is Dr. Kenneth B.
Bischoff, University of Maryland, College Park,
Md. 20742. The program follows:

Monday, June 23

12:00 - 1.30 P.M.

Tuesday, June 24
10:00-11:45 A.M.

12:00-1:30 P.M.

1:45-5:30 P.M.

8:00-11:45 A.M.

Business Luncheon, Executive Ses-
Presiding: W. H. Corcoran

Annual Lectureship Award (spon-
sored by the Minnesota Mining
and Manufacturing Co.)
Presiding: W. H. Corcoran
Distinguished Lecturer: C. J. Pings,
Cal. Tech
Topic.: "A Chemical Engineer Looks
at the Physics of Simple Liquids
Annual Business Meeting/Luncheon
Presiding: W. H. Corcoran
Panel Discussion
"Educational Directions for Prob-
lems of Society: Urban Affairs"
Presiding: J. M. Marchello
Co-Moderator: K. B. Bischoff
Panelists: J. B. Coulter,R. A. Gaska,
E. Lindvalt, J. O'Grady, C. D.
Prater, J. R. Sheaffer

Conference and Panel Discussion
(Joint with Biomedical Engi-
neering Committee)
Educational Directions for Prob-
lems of Society: Bioengineering
Presiding: R. L. Dedrick
Speakers: R. L. Dedrick, Introduc-
tion; A. E. Humphrey, Biochemi-
cal Engineering: Applications of
Single Cells - Food and En-
zymes; D. I. C. Wang, Large-
Scale Tissue Culture; E. S. K.
Chian, G. Moore, R. P. de Filippi,
Separation Processes in Bioengi-
neering; K. B. Bischoff, Bio-
medical Engineering.
Panel Discussion: Bischoff, Dedrick,
de Filippi, Humphrey, Wang

10:00-11:45 P.M.

1:45-3:30 P.M.

1:45-3:30 P.M.

1:45-3:30 P.M.

6:30 P.M.

Panel Discussion (Joint with Elec-
trical and Industrial Engineer-
ing Divisions)
Interdisciplinary Foundations for
Systems Engineering
Presiding: R. N. Lehrer
Speakers: Systems Theory: Does It,
or Will It, As it Develops, Pro-
vide a Common Basis for Inter-
disciplinary Developments in
Systems Engineering ?; Indus-
trial Dynamics: What Does it
Offer for Systems Engineering ?;
How Are Social and Human As-
pects Integrated into Interdis-
ciplinary Systems Engineering?;
How Does Systems Analysis In-
tegrate with Systems Engineer-

Business Meeting/Department
Presiding: E. B. Christiansen

Conference (Joint with Energy Con-
version Committee)
New Energy Sources
Presiding: Manfred Altman
Speakers: Howard Wilcox, Under-
Water Power Sources; S. W.
Gouse, Jr., New Externally
Heated Engines; Donald Fried-
man, New Automotive Power
Sources; J. B. Dicks, Large
Scale Power Developments; Ar-
vin Smith, New Developments in
Space Power; Royal Rostenbach,
Energy Conversion and Universi-

Panel Discussion (Joint with Elec-
trical and Industrial Engineering
Interdisciplinary Foundation for
Systems Engineering
Presiding: R. N. Lehrer, Georgia
Institute of Technology, continu-
ation of 10:00-11:45 A.M. event.

Annual Banquet
Presiding: W. H. Corcoran
Speaker: R. E. Balzhiser, University
of Michigan
Topic: "A Technologist in Govern-



Wednesday, June 25



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our people explore for, produce, refine and market
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The story behind our success lies in our people . . .
people like yourself . . . aggressive and imaginative
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS constantly searching for a
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Research & Development Centers, as well as
those of their professional colleagues and an
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to achieve and maintain our leadership position.
You too, can be part of this winning combination.
For Chemical Engineers with a B.S. or M.S.,
the professional and economic rewards of a
Texaco career in process and product development
have never been greater. Our congenial shirt
sleeve atmosphere, along with our practice of
basing promotions on performance and ability,
can make YOU one of our important additives.
We have immediate openings at our laboratories
in Beacon, N.Y., Richmond, Va., Port Arthur,
and Bellaire, Texas for qualified Chemical
Engineers who already are, or are in the process
of becoming U.S. Citizens. Interested candidates
are invited to send their resume to:
Mr. W. R. Hencke, Texaco, Research & Technical
Department, P.O. Box 509, Beacon, N.Y. 12508
Texaco is an equal opportunity employer.











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