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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Letters from readers
 Engineering and public affairs:...
 Professor Richard Balzhiser
 In the shadows of power
 Technical careers for the...
 Engineering opportunities for Negro...
 The university in international...
 Book review
 Flow and transfer at fluid interfaces,...
 Hail Purdue
 On the recruitment of chemical...
 Taylor-axial diffusion
 Problems for teachers
 News
 Canon and method in the arts and...
 Back Cover






























Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00023
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Winter 1969
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00023

Downloads
Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Letters from readers
        Page 5
    Engineering and public affairs: Some directions for education and research
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Professor Richard Balzhiser
        Page 10
    In the shadows of power
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Technical careers for the disadvantaged
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Engineering opportunities for Negro and Indian youth
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The university in international affairs
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Book review
        Page 25
    Flow and transfer at fluid interfaces, part II
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Hail Purdue
        Page 32
        Page 33
    On the recruitment of chemical engineers
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Taylor-axial diffusion
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Problems for teachers
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    News
        Page 47
    Canon and method in the arts and sciences
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text





















































































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There are more than 100 billion
barrels of potential new oil on the
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t. ,U


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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601


Editor: Ray Fahien

Associate Editor: Mack Tyner

Business Manager: R. B. Bennett


Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

CENTRAL: James Weber
Chairman of Publication Board
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508
WEST: William H. Corcoran
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Clemson, South Carolina 29631
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump
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EAST: Robert Matteson
College Relations
Sun Oil Company
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NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
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UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
J. A. Bergantz
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14200
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 WINTER 1969



Departments

3 Editorial

5 Letters from Readers

10 The Educator
Professor Richard Balzhiser

32 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Hail Purdue, R. A. Greenkorn

34 Views and Opinions
On the Recruitment of Chemical
Engineers, E. J. Henley

42 The Laboratory
Taylor Axial Diffusion, R. R. Hudgins

25 Book Review

44 Problems for Teachers

25 Division Activities

47 News

Feature Articles
6 Engineering and Public Affairs: Some Di-
rections for Education and Research,
E. H. Blum

II In the Shadows of Power, R. E. Balzhiser

14 Technical Careers for the Disadvantaged,
G. Lessells, H. T. Brown, and R. C.
Ahlert

20 Engineering Opportunities for Negro and
Indian Youth, B. M. Avery

23 The University in International Affairs,
F. M. Tiller

26 Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces,
Part II, L. E. Scriven

48 Canon and Method in the Arts and
Sciences, R. Aris

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLand, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., 137 E. Wisconsin
Ave., DeLand, Florida 32720. Subscription rate is $10 per year in U.S., Canada, and
Mexico.


WINTER, 1969







CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


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12508. Texaco is an equal opportunity employer.









Cddowal


Recruitment and Human Values

It is well known that the percentage of college
students entering engineering has been steadily
decreasing while salaries for engineering gradu-
ates continue to rise. Why, in the face of eco-
nomic incentive and improved career guidance
materials, are students not going into engineer-
ing?
At first it was believed that potential engi-
neering students were moving to the sciences as
a result of its better association in the public
mind with space-age glamor and its lower re-
quirements for a bachelor's degree. The result
was a frenzied pressure to reduce the hours in
an engineering curriculum that is expected to
produce both a broadly educated person and a
professionally competent engineer in four packed
years. The purpose was not to improve the qual-
ity of engineering education, but merely "to com-
pete". Now however, there are indications that the
shift of students has not been into science, but
instead into the humanities and the social
sciences.
An explanation for this shift can be obtained
from an observation that is made by Professor
Henley in this issue of CEE: In the previous
generation, engineering students were obtained
largely from less affluent and "blue collar" fami-
lies. These young men saw, in an engineering
career, the possibility of upward economic and
social mobility. Today however, the sons of these
same engineers are not themselves interested in
engineering. Along with many others from
higher income families, they are less concerned
about material gain and social status than they
are about the social and human problems of our
society. Professor Henley quite rightly argues
that we should improve the flexibility and versa-
tility of our undergraduate programs in order to
attract students from the upper classes. But we
believe that it is also essential that we recruit
more minority group students, who, like those
of the last generation, are seeking improved
status and living conditions.
We further believe that we need to impress
upon the idealistic young men who might be
attracted by the social sciences that they can


indeed serve their fellow man in a tangible way
through an engineering career. For too long we
have let the humanists suggest that they are the
salvation of mankind and that the "technologists"
are the destroyers, the polluters, and the dehu-
manizing materialists. Instead of using things
and loving people, they charge us with loving
things and using people.
It is likely that these negative attitudes have
developed because our professional goals have
not been understood from a sufficiently broad
perspective. While our immediate purpose may
be to produce improved goods, these are only
means to an end, not ends in themselves. Our
ultimate aim is to serve our fellow man and to
insure him his intrinsic human worth and dig-
nity. Accordingly, if our goal is to serve man-
kind, it is our responsibility to work to eliminate
starvation and to see that the benefits of tech-
nology and education diffuse to all peoples every-
where. If our goal is to insure human dignity,
we will see that the psychological and economical
barriers that inhibit full participation of minor-
ity group members in the engineering profession
are eliminated. If service is indeed our goal,
our profession must then be identified with the
prevention of war and social strife through an
attack on its causes, with the enhancement of
man's freedom (and humanization) through the
elimination of drudgery, and with the reduction
of pollution through imaginative research.
When we can convince our idealistic youth
that the goals of our profession can be thereby
implemented and expressed in terms of people
and their needs, we should not need to jeopardize
the quality of our programs in order to attract
more students.

In order to focus attention on these matters,
CEE is devoting much of this issue to the subject
of engineering and public affairs. Our spring issue
will emphasize the related theme "New Directions
for Engineering!" Through these two issues, CEE
hopes to show that the continued growth of
technology need not be feared as a negation of
human values, but can instead be construed as an
essential component to their survival. -RWF


WINTER, 1969


















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from our READERS

Editor:
I read your editorial in the latest issue of Chemical
Engineering Education and found it quite interesting. ...
While I fully agree with everything you said in your
editorial I think it should be broadened by leaving out
the word "chemical" throughout. Engineering has devel-
oped with one root in science, other roots in the engineer-
ing sciences, and its trunk is a multi-channel communica-
tion cable with branches in operation and equipment de-
sign, in laboratories, pilot plants, and processing plants.
Its leaves and fruits are products and goods of our con-
sumer economy. Without its roots, it will die; without
its trunk, the leaves and fruits will not develop; and
without its fruits it has no reason for existence. This is
essentially quoted, in part paraphrased, from your first
paragraph. I could go on and continue this way through-
out.
My point is that we must now begin to recognize the
subservience of the adjective to the noun. I think it is
time - perhaps past time - for us to accept the fact
that we are engineers first and then, oh yes, chemical or
electrical or civil or other kinds of engineers including,
today, many many with strong interdisciplinary interests
and commitments. I think there is need for a strong na-
tional unified engineering profession, an organization
something like the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science, a journal structure to further
breakdown the barrier resistances to communications
among various kinds of engineering - the word "kinds"
here used in its classical sense.
It seems to me that there is little today which truly
characterizes any particular stripe of engineer. I think
it is necessary for us to maintain the departments as
foci around which engineering schools function but I
think it is high time that we recognize and foster, ad-
ministratively and in the practice of our profession, the
idea that we are all members of one profession and that
the interactions of engineers of all kinds with scientists,
political scientists, economists, humanists, and those
from the health professions are NECESSARY if we as
a profession are to contribute to the important problems
of our era.
I wish we could subscript the adjective the way we
use subscripts in our journal articles. We would then
have
ENGINEERINGheminica or EngChem and
ENGINEERINGElectrical or EngEle, etc.
as meaningful designations for our professional identities.

H. E. Hoelscher, Dean
University of Pittsburgh




EDITOR'S NOTE: In reply to a letter from the editor,
Dean Hoelscher stated that he was not trying to limit
chemical engineering, but to express the hope that we
will soon realize that engineering must become a single
unified profession lest we "fragment ourselves out of
the business."


Editor:
I would like to make some comments on Dr. Griskey's
opinion"Students, Faculty and Professionalism," par-
ticularly his derogatory implications about the University
of California at Berkeley.
Berkeley is no paradise for students, particularly for
lower division undergraduates; no large computer dom-
inated state school can be. But to imply that the "Berke-
ley syndrome" is characterized by "staff members that
do not care" is to do a great disservice to the many facul-
ty members who are always open, concerned, and inter-
ested in the students well being.
As a graduate student in the Chemical Engineering
Department, I have had the opportunity to observe the
conscientious efforts of many professors seeking student
opinions and ideas. Many of the busiest professors -
measured in terms of research publications, administra-
tive duties, etc. - are among the most concerned and
most helpful.
A much more important facet of the Berkeley which
I know is that many staff members make an honest at-
tempt to understand the opinions and ideas of their stu-
dents. We have several men in our department who are
quite separated from their students in age, background,
life style, and philosophy but yet make conscientious
attempts to get an honest view of the student mind.
They are aware that their "professionalism" has not
been a final solution to their society's local or global
problems. They are also aware that the codes and paths
which they have followed with integrity and distinction
are not the only ones possible and in fact may not be
the best ones for today's young. They often disagree
strongly with the actions and ideas expressed to them.
But their disagreement is based on their view of the
merits of the ideas and actions not on the length of hair
or the style of dress associated with them. These men
do not view the students as "characters" with "all kinds
of weird customs" as does Dr. Griskey, but rather as
human beings who are reacting to their own boundary
conditions and are trying to solve the problems they see.
Not all nor even most of Berkeley's faculty meet this
description. But there are a sufficient number of these
journeyman to make life at Berkeley an exciting and
stimulating experience.
I would like to cite a recent action by individuals on
the Berkeley faculty as one example of the changing
attitudes here. This fall, during the turmoil precipitated
by the Regents' action against course in which Eldridge
Cleaver was to participate, many concerned faculty mem-
bers and administrators held open meetings in various
places all over campus to discuss the nature and the
background of the situation. The tone of these meetings
was frank and informal; Nobel Prize winners were chal-
lenged by first quarter freshmen. This aggressive at-
tempt at communication on the part of these men and
the students who helped plan the program goes well
beyond Dr. Griskey's "open door" policy.
Finally, I would like to suggest that Chemical Engin-
eering Education publish a column'giving student views
on the issues raised by Dr. Griskey's article, particularly
his view of the campus situation.
Thomas A. Massaro, Student
University of California, Berkeley
Letters (Continued on page 29)


WINTER, 1969









ENGINEERING AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS: SOME


DIRECTIONS FOR EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


EDWARD H. BLUM*
The RAND Corporation,
New York, New York

PREFACE
Sometimes by design, more often by default,
chemical engineers are becoming increasingly in-
volved in forming and executing public policy.
As such areas as public health, resource manage-
ment, environmental control and weather modifi-
cation assume still greater social importance,
chemical engineers' involvement will continue to
increase. Thus, the question about the profes-
sional melding of engineering and public policy
is no longer whether it should take place, but
how.
Few engineers now involved in public policy
-or, more generally, "public affairs"-prepared
formally for their current jobs. Many became
active in public policy areas late in their ca-
reers, to satisfy professional demand or per-
sonal interests. Others, such as the author
became involved early in their careers, usually
after preparing informally (e.g., through extra
courses and reading) or - in some cases -
after taking graduate work outside engineering
in fields such as law. Although these informal
routes have served well thus far, the feeling is
growing among those who have travelled them
that something better and more thorough is
needed.
Two main reasons underly this feeling: pro-
fessional competence and supply. In the last few
years, economics and related social sciences have
begun to emerge as semi-practical disciplines
relevant to (and used in) devising public policies.
Much of the growing managerial "revolution" in
Federal and municipal agencies has, for example,
been spearheaded by economists and guided by

* Any views expressed in this paper are those of the
author. They should not be interpreted as reflecting the
views of The RAND Corporation or the official opinion
or policy of any of its governmental or private research
sponsors.
This paper is adapted from a talk presented to Col-
loquium on Socio-Economic Planning, New York Academy
of Sciences, March 16, 1967, when the author was a
member of the Princeton University faculty.


Ed Blum, received his BS degree in ChE from Carne-
gie Institute and the MA and PhD (64) from Princeton
University. In 1965, after a year's post-doctoral work,
he joined Princeton as an Assistant Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering, where he also served as a member of
the graduate program faculty at the Woodrow Wilson
School of Public and International Affiairs, as coordina-
tor of the graduate program in Engineering and Public
Affairs, and as Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee on
Systems Engineering.
In 1967, Ed joined the RAND Corporation as Assist-
ant to the Vice President for Research. Currently, he is
a group leader and member of the senior professional
staff in RAND's System Scences Department. In addi-
tion, since early 1968, Ed has been in New York as
leader of RAND's New York City Fire Project, which is
engaged in the first comprehensive, systematic study of
urban fire protection.



relatively complex economic principles. Although
many of the forms and procedures will evolve-
and perhaps disappear - the economic precepts
(many unfamiliar to engineers) are likely to
survive. Similarly, although the effects are yet
even less apparent, ideas and principles from
other social sciences are being introduced into
basic levels of the policy process. Engineers pro-
fessionally involved in this milieu need to know
and understand not only the catchwords of these
"new influences", but also their bases and their
implications for technical research and design.
Professional competence now requires much
more than non-technical veneer.
Also, because the current routes are informal
and the opportunities often unclear (in most
cases, the man still shapes the job, rather than
vice versa), too few people choose to follow them.
Those who do and, like the author, have need for
others, find the supply far less than their demand.
Many engineers apparently (from conversations)
would like to pursue joint engineering-public pol-
icy careers, but either do not know how or are
discouraged by the lack of help (or by active
opposition) available in engineering schools.
This kind of career obviously is not for every-
one, nor should it be. Perhaps no more than sev-
eral percent of all engineers need be directly in-
volved in public policy, especially if those who are
involved are sufficiently sensitive and qualified.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









What I propose is a concerted effort to develop a meaningful
systematic professional discipline (or compound discipline)
that will enable us at least partially to understand and control
the interaction between people and technology.


But for those several percent, something more is
needed. It is to them that the following is dedi-
cated.

INTRODUCTION
Man's relation to technology reflects the root
problem of his existence: man has the ability to
give form and coherence to his world, even
though that world always limits his attempts to
do so. Man does not completely control his en-
vironment, but neither do the forces beyond his
control completely determine his life. Where he
can influence his environment, man's actions in-
evitably reshape his world, whether or not he
chooses to direct his efforts toward some con-
scious goal. When he acts, man implicitly chooses
a course and a form for his world; if, as has been
his wont, he chooses not to control the course, he
may not like the form that results.
Modern cities provide the most conspicuous
evidence that technology has too often led life
into unduly stressful modes because man has
abdicated the attempt to control his own work.
The modern city is dramatic proof that people
and technology interact whether or not we study
or attempt to control that interaction. Indeed,
unless we do study an attempt to control it, this
interaction between people and technology (which
I denote by "engineering and public affairs")
may lead to future cities far less liveable and de-
sirable than those we know today. We cannot
simply assume that everything will evolve bene-
ficiently.
To direct the interaction between people and
technology toward the achievement of objectives
man wants, therefore, I propose intensive re-
search and education in engineering and public
affairs.
Neither research nor education in this area
is totally new, of course; fragmentary efforts
exist in many places. Research in engineering
and public affairs, often impelled more by neces-
sity than by design, has been carried out in some
university planning, economics, and engineering
departments, and in some planning and "sys-
tems" firms. Education in engineering and pub-
lic affairs, often called by other names,1 has been


started at several universities, perhaps most no-
ticeably at Stanford (where it is called "Engi-
neering-Economic Systems"), at Dartmouth, and
at Princeton. But these efforts, even where they
have continued, have frequently been ad hoc,
faltering, and difficult to evaluate. Very little
sense of unity or discipline has yet appeared.
What I propose is a concerted effort to de-
velop a meaningful, systematic professional dis-
cipline (or compound discipline) that will enable
us at least partially to understand and control
the interactions between people and technology.
Such a discipline would form an integral part of
both engineering and socio-economic planning.
Since it is now clearly impossible to point to the
best or ultimate forms for engineering and public
affairs, I would like to suggest some preliminary
directions for education and research.

AREAS OF CONCERN

Although many important problems involv-
ing interactions between people and technology
arise in the city, I would extend engineering and
public affairs' domain beyond the urban region to
include topics such as:


Individual and mass
transportation, and the
interfaces
Personal and mass com-
munication
Shelter
Clothing
Recreation
Automation
Defense
Warfare
Resource management


Waste management
Ecology (in general)
Urban problems
Large-scale civil plan-
ning and organization,
including moderiniza-
tion and development
Architecture and con-
struction
Public Health
Weather modification
Environmental control


1A number of universities have programs (usually
outside engineering) titled something like "Science and
Human Affairs" or "Science and Politics." These vary
widely in emphasis and content. Some are devoted to
bridging the gap implied by the term "two cultures";
others deal more with substantive issues of mutual in-
terest to scientists (or engineers) and humanists (or
social scientists). Programs of the latter type that deal
with interactions, rather than just with isolated topics
from one field or the other, would for present purposes
come under the rubric of engineering and public affairs.


WINTER, 1969






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our thermoplastic rubber.
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pioneer in the all-plastic ones.
Shell is a clear, clean country stream
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Shell is food on the table-made more
plentiful by Shell's fertilizers.
Shell is mileage gasoline-developed
through Shell research.
Shell is a good place for Chemical
Engineers to build a career.


Shell is an integrated research, engineering, marketing and product application methods;
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THE SHELL COMPANIES
Shell Oil Company/Shell Chemical Company/Shell Development Company/Shell Pipe Line CorporatTon.








. . . technical and social considerations cannot be divorced . . .
it is vital to consider both engineering and public affairs
and the interactions between them in analyzing problems
and formulating plans and policies


In these areas, technical and social considera-
tions cannot properly be divorced. Conclusions
derived from considering only one or the other,
or both separately, are likely to be misleading,
if not erroneous. First, the assumptions and
values inherent in purely technical and social
analyses are quite different, indeed often conflict-
ing, and rarely explicitly stated. Thus, meshing
the results of separate technical and social con-
siderations without dealing with the interactions
is likely to lead to plans and policies beset by
internal contradictions and inconsistencies.1 Such

. .diverse backgrounds and viewpoints are often
quite fruitful . . . invention and discovery often
arise at the boundaries of special fields . . .

products will satisfy neither the technical nor the
social objectives, and will clearly be undesirable.
Second, and perhaps even more basic, con-
sidering engineering and public affairs separately
is likely to prevent proper definition of the prob-
lem to be solved. Social scientists and engineers
both have attitudinal and methodological bases
that cause them to frame and examine problems
in certain traditional ways. Since social scien-
tists generally have had little to do with engi-
neering (or science, with the important excep-
tion of those who have examined the politics of
"big science"), they are often inclined to accept
the statement of the technical problem, and the
"feasible" solutions, as given. Similarly, engi-
neers are inclined to regard the statement of the
non-technical part of the problem also as given,
and hence exempt from questioning and reformu-
lation.
Since neither social scientists nor engineers
1A technical package consisting of many components
may be (and often is) assembled and "optimized" accord-
ing to criteria quite incompatible with those desired so-
cially or potentially, e.g., minimum short-terms direct
cost (ignoring benefits, long-term costs, and indirect
"social" costs), technical efficiency (related usually to
one scarce input, ignoring all other scarce inputs and the
costs and benefits of outputs), maximum production, etc.
Even if the criteria are explicitly stated, which they often
are not, they are so different from the criteria used ordi-
narily in public affairs (equitability, benefits to special
groups, scope for individual initiative, etc.) and use such


are accustomed to dealing with the other's spe-
cialty, the most important parts of the problem
statement may fall between them, accepted by
both without questioning as the other's concern.
Even if the problem is sufficiently conventional
that its technical and social aspects are well un-
derstood, the social scientists and engineers, by
failing to question each other's part of the prob-
lem statement, may end up solving totally differ-
ent problems. And each may, by concentrating
on the points most interesting to him, ignore the
interactions between engineering and public af-
fairs that may be more important than either
alone.
Thus, in the areas listed above, it is vital to
consider both engineering and public affairs, and
the interactions between them, in analyzing prob-
lems and formulating plans and policies. It would
also appear valuable to consider the compound
field, including the interactions, in research.
Drawing on a compound discipline may enable
one to recognize weaknesses in current argu-
ments and current practices that professionals in
the particular fields have "learned to live with"
or disregarded. Indeed, diverse backgrounds and
viewpoints are often quite fruitful within engi-
neering and the natural or social sciences; inven-
tion and discovery often arise at the boundaries
of special fields, as the growth of astrophysics,
biochemistry, bioengineering, mathematical eco-
nomics, etc., will attest. It would not be hard to
imagine similar or perhaps even greater innova-
tion occurring at the boundaries of engineering
and public affairs.
(Dr. Blum discusses Directions for Education and
Research beginning on page 38)

different scales that reconciling discrepancies is extremely
difficult.
First, it is often hard even to recognize where con-
flicts exist, because the criteria are expressed in different
terms which refer to different value systems. Second,
since the technical and social alternatives are usually of-
fered as complete packages, within which compromises
and trade-offs have been made according to the respective
(different) criteria, it is difficult to extract from the total
packages parts compatible with over-all criteria. Even
if one can dissect the different packages to obtain com-
patible parts, one has no assurance that the parts will
function well together as a system.


WINTER, 1969









11 educator

DICK BALZHISER OF MICHIGAN

This feature article was contributed
by Professor Stuart Churchill, University
of Pennsylvania and former chairman at
the University of Michigan.

The students and faculty of the Department
of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering of the
University of Michigan have a proud tradition
of active participation in athletics. Many stu-
dents, and usually superior ones, have won recog-
nition in formal intercollegiate competition. Bob
Bird recently stated in CEE that the faculty of
Chemical Engineering Department at the Univ-
sity of Wisconsin confines its athletic interests
to canoeing and golfing. The faculty at Michigan
choose more vigorous sports, including skiing
(one member even has a row-tow in his back-
yard), tennis (they challenge all other depart-
ments at the annual AIChE meeting), ice-hockey
(several have backyard rinks for practice), touch-
football, basketball, baseball, squash racquets,
and handball.
Dick Balzhiser fitted quite naturally into this
environment both as a student and later as a
faculty member. He completed his baccalaureate
in four years, ranking at the top of the entire
class of 800 in engineering, and still found time
to play varsity football, to take an active part in
an incredible number of other extracurricular
functions, and to support his family (which then
included two children) by working as a research
assistant.
He did not secure the position of first-string
fullback until the middle of the second season
because the coaches were somewhat distracted
by the priority he gave to laboratories over foot-
ball practice. However, once given a chance to
play he demonstrated his superiority in spite of
limited practice.
As an undergraduate he did not receive fi-
nancial support related to his athletic activities.
However, when he began graduate work he se-
cretly accepted a position as Assistant Freshman
Football Coach (primarily as an excuse to be
out on the practice field every fall afternoon).
We became concerned that this responsibility
might impede his doctoral work and awarded him
a Fellowship the next year with the proviso that


he stop such "moonlighting". We presumed he
had resisted temptation until the coach credited
the upset of Iowa's championship team to the
superb job of scouting done by Dick. Dick was
embarrassed but rationalized this misdeed on the
basis that he had refused to accept any payment
and had driven his own (very old) car to Iowa
City.
Despite such diversions Dick completed his
doctoral work in due course. He has since done
an outstanding job of teaching and research, re-
ceiving numerous awards. He has also found time
for scholarly, professional and administrative
work, and to provide leadership in an amazing
list of community, religious, business, social and
political activities, culminating in a term as
Alderman and Mayor Pro-Tem of Ann Arbor and
in a year in Washington, D.C. as a White House
Fellow.
It is hard to predict what Dick Balzhiser will
do next. What ever it is will be well-done.

Biographical Material
Dr. R. E. Balzhiser is professor of chemical engineer-
ing at the University of Michigan. Along with his
athletic letters he also holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees
from Michigan. His teaching career started as instructor
there in 1957 and his outstanding teaching and research
activities resulted in promotion through the ranks to
professor in 1967.
Among the honors and awards received by Dick the
following are mentioned most frequently:
Western Conference Award (Big Ten) for proficiency
in both athletics and scholarship
Outstanding Young Professor in College of Engineer-
ing
Outstanding Young Man of Ann Arbor, Junior Cham-
ber of Commerce Award
Elected Mayor Pro-Tem by fellow councilmen
Outstanding Young Man of Michigan (one of five)
White House Fellow
Dick continued his interest in nuclear engineering
as project director for over $600,000 of research work
for the Atomic Energy Commission and the Aeronautical
System Division in liquid metal technology. He is a
consultant to a large chemical company and editor of a
"Chemical Engineering Series" of textbooks for a well
known publisher.
Some of Dick's activities and experiences as a White
House Fellow are detailed in the next article. While in
the Defense Department he assisted in organization and
incorporation of Alliance for Civic Action, a group con-
cerned with the nondestructive application of military
resources to society's problems.
The White House Fellows Program was established
by President Johnson in 1964 to give rising leaders from
all fields one year of "firsthand, high-level experience
with the workings of the Federal Government.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









IN THE SHADOWS OF POWER


RICHARD E. BALZHISER
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Historians will long reflect on the eventful
period through which this nation recently passed.
It is doubtful that any period in the nation's his-
tory has produced, with such prolfic regularity,
events with the profundity and gravity of those
occurring between August 1987 and November
1968. From the burning of Detroit to Richard
Nixon's election to the Presidency, this country
has experienced the tragedy of assassination, a
confrontation with the Poor, the frustration of a
Pueblo, brinkmanship in Cyprus and the Middle
East, the commitment of troops to streets of our
cities, the near collapse of the world's economy,
a struggle with both friend and foe in Vietnam,
the surprising exits of Lyndon Johnson and
George Romney from the Presidential race, the
hope of arms control, the.brutal display of Soviet
insecurity in their invasion of Czechoslovakia,
and an unprecedented test of our democratic
political processes.
DURING A MAJOR PORTION OF THIS
historic period from September 1967 -
August 1968, it was my privilege along with
fifteen other young men and women to serve as
White House Fellows in our nation's capitol. We
were the third such group to spend a year in the
shadows of power that radiate from the White
House. The program was initiated by President
Johnson in 1965 with the stated purpose of ex-
posing young potential leaders to the decision-
making process at the top level of the federal
government. Each Fellow is assigned to a mem-
ber of the President's Cabinet or to key Presi-
dential advisors in the White House.
Superimposed on this assignment is an exten-
sive educational program consisting of numerous
meetings with the President and his major ad-
visors, senators, congressmen, board, bureau and
agency heads, governors, mayors, corporate, uni-
versity and union presidents and officials, ambas-
sadors, columnists, and civil rights leaders. These
meetings were supplemented in the past year
with two field trips to New York which provided
an opportunity to meet with Mayor John Lind-
say and his staff, residents of ghettos, some of the
young militants of Bedford Stuyvesant, the edi-


tors of the New York Times, David Rockefeller
and his associates in the Chase Manhattan Bank
and the Urban Coalition, McGeorge Bundy and
officials of the Ford Foundation, and Secretary
General of the United Nations, U Thant, and sev-
eral foreign UN ambassadors. Without exception,
our discussions were frank and productive and
provided each of us with an incomparable expos-
ure to the problems and personalities of our
nation and the world.
M Y ASSIGNMENT WAS TO THE Secretary
of Defense where I was fortunate to serve
under two of the nation's most capable men,
Robert McNamara and Clark Clifford. Robert
McNamara's philosophy of involvement was
quickly and clearly spelled out my first day at
the Pentagon. Observers had no place in his
office; understanding required immersion in the
affairs of the department and it was to that end
that he urged me to select specific projects and
commit myself to a year of action not merely
observation. I soon came to find that indeed the
Pentagon under Robert McNamara (particu-
larly his immediate staff offices) was a beehive of
activity from early morning to well into the eve-
ning hours, interrupted only by an occasional
half hour trip to the squash courts to maintain
the physical and mental edge required to operate
under the tremendous pressure that confronts
defense officialdom.


WINTER, 1969








Few Americans fully appreciate his (Mc-
Namara's) deep sensitivity to the social
problems of the world and his long-
standing commitment to their resolution.

The McNamara record is far too long and
the man much too complex to discuss here in
depth, but I feel compelled to share several of my
observations. Most acknowledge (including his
adversaries on Capitol Hill) his brilliant mind,
the computer-like precision with which it func-
tions, and his almost infinite capacity for work.
Few Americans fully appreciate his deep sensi-
tivity to the social problems of the world and his
long-standing personal commitment to their reso-
lution. He consumed valuable "political capital",
both with the military and the Congress, in his
efforts to correct those social injustices which he
felt were properly a concern of the Defense
Department.
His move to the presidency of the World Bank
might have been anticipated by one who studied
his Montreal speech of May 18, 1966, "Security
in the Contemporary World", in which he related
world security to the economic development of
the lesser developed countries in the world. My
personal disappointment in his departure from
Defense was tempered by the realization that his
talents would become focused on this important
problem.
Much speculation surrounded this move, but
it appeared to me one that was clearly advantage-
ous to both himself and the President. He had
served longer than any of his predecessors in
this most grueling position during a most turbu-
lent period of our history. He appeared anxious
for the shift in emphasis afforded by the bank
presidency. The President, while retaining his
highly regarded counsel on an informal basis,
was clearly in a position to begin to ease the ten-
sions that had developed between his highly
principled Secretary of Defense and the House
Armed Services Committee in recent years.
These differences had contributed to the deteri-
oration in relations between Congress and the
White House which jeopardized the needed tax
bill and other high priority legislative needs.
His appointment of Clark Clifford proved to
be another example of the political genius of Lyn-
don Johnson. The new Secretary appealed to the
hawks and doves alike, as well as the military and
the Congress. Taking full advantage of the
greater flexibility that a fresh appointee pos-


sesses, Secretary Clifford proceeded to resolve
skillfully the sharp differences in matters such as
the nuclear frigates, authorized by Mendel Riv-
ers', House Armed Services Committee, but never
built by the Defense Department. He likewise
aided substantially in achieving the spending
cuts within the Defense Department necessitated
by subsequent tax action in Congress.
Monday morning staff meetings under the
latter were a sharp contrast to those under Mc-
Namara. Briefing by junior officers were re-
placed by a frank discussion of timely issues
facing the Department. Interaction among sen-
ior civilian defense officials and the Joint Chiefs
of Staff picked up noticeably as did the enthusi-
asm of all participating. Decisions were seldom
made during these weekly sessions, but the ex-
change of ideas that took place was invaluable
to me in better understanding the attitudes of
key participants on important issues before the
Department.
THE MAJORITY OF MY EFFORT IN THE
Pentagon was devoted to two assignments.
The first consumed seven months and involved
participation in an all-encompassing study of our
Vietnam commitment. My observations and con-
clusions based on this experience alone could
easily comprise a volume. Without undertaking
such a task here, let me simply say that our ef-
forts in that corner of the globe were placed in
much better perspective by this assignment. I
found our motives, if not always our means, to
be completely defensible in virtually every in-
stance. Individual decisions by each of four ad-
ministrations seemed quite reasonable when eval-
uated in the context of the period in which they
were made. However, the decisions of today must
not be prejudiced by those of the past; we cannot,
regardless of the resources we commit, make the
Vietnamese government a viable political entity
by our actions alone. This is clearly their re-
sponsibility, and our commitments must be made
with regard to their ability and willingness to
carry out the reforms necessary to win the broad
based support of the people. At the same time
our pressing needs at home and elsewhere in the
world cannot be ignored in such decisions. With
these factors in mind, I welcomed the eventual
decision by the President to suspend the bombing
and hopefully move closer to a negotiated settle-
ment of the bloody conflict that has wearied sev-
eral generations of Vietnamese people and
sharply divided two generations of Americans.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








For the final five months of my tenure in the
Department, I served as Executive Secretary of
the Civil Disturbance Steering Committee, an
advisory group established by Secretary Clifford
to work with the military in planning and pro-
gramming the use of military resources for civil
disorder control. It provided an excellent ex-
posure to the methodical manner in which the
military responds to the chain of command
emanating from the White House. Activities in
this assignment ranged from formulating the
agenda for Steering Committee meetings to at-
tending daily briefing sessions with officials from
the District of Columbia, the National Park Serv-
ice, the Justice Department and the White House
throughout the tense period during and following
the Poor People's Campaign in the Capitol.
Both assignments provided an excellent op-
portunity to contribute to the decision-making
process. Integration into each of these positions,
while awkward at times, proceeded with remark-
able ease considering my somewhat unique posi-
tion in the Department. I was aided consider-
ably by the involvement of my predecessors, a
respectable civil service rating in the Depart-
ment, and the recognition and respect auto-
matically shown for one housed in the Secretary's
suite of offices with a White House appointment.
In many ways the White House Fellows
served as sort of shadow cabinet. Individually,
we became well informed on many of the major
issues confronting our respective departments.
We communicated frequently with one another,
in some cases, on a more regular basis than the
senior Cabinet officials to whom we were as-
signed We were unencumbered by administra-
tive assistants and the bureaucratic channels,
and thus were freer to interact than officialdom
itself. The very nature of our role provided us
with ready access to many issues, programs, and
concerns that were percolating through the sys-
tem. We had daily contact with people at all
levels within each department so that we often
saw sides of an issue that were blurred or de-
leted by the bureaucratic massaging to which
most matters are subjected. The process fre-
quently enhanced communications within the de-
partments to which we were assigned, in that we
crossed lines of authority and areas of responsi-
bility that full-time employees were unable or
were not expected to bridge. In this way, our
contributions were frequently difficult to define,
only occasionally recognized, and generally best
left unclaimed.
WINTER, 1969


In many ways the White House Fellows
served as sort of a shadow cabinet.



To be certain, we observed the often cited
weaknesses of a gigantic bureaucracy groping to
deal effectively with mounting problems at home
and abroad. At the same time, we observed a
remarkable array of talent, laboring with dedica-
tion and conviction, to meet the constantly emerg-
ing problems of the nation and the world. With-
out exception, we developed a peculiar sense of
loyalty and respect for the man or men under
whom we worked. We came to know govern-
ment as a collection of humans and not an assem-
blage of buildings and institutions located on the
shores of the Potomac. We found it subject to
frailties and prejudices of humans just as the
corporations, institutions and firms from which
we had come. Names became people and pedes-
tals became desks, across which most of us sat
at one time or another. The decision makers
suddenly appeared as men upon whom unbeliev-
able pressures were constantly imposed and who
recognized the limitations and uncertainty which
surrounded each decision that flowed from their
office. It is indeed difficult for us to take for
granted any longer the processes by which the
government interacts with its people, with its
institutions, or with other nations.
I'm sure that my experiences were shared by
my colleagues in their respective departments.
To some we were looked upon as intruders or
opportunists, somewhat idealistic in our ap-
proach to the problems of government. To oth-
ers we represented a breath of fresh air and hope
for the future. To John Gardner we clearly were
the manifestation of an idea which he had con-
ceived before joining the President's Cabinet. To
the President, we represented a link to the gen-
eration with which he has had the most difficulty
in communicating. The program was clearly a
gamble for him, but one that he took with a great
deal of enthusiasm and hope. The 68 of us, who
have been fortunate enough to experience the
enlightenment of involvement and commitment
to the future, believe we have fulfilled his confi-
dence and expectations. As he told Mrs. Johnson,
. . . "when Lyn and Lucinda first vote, I hope
they will be voting for a member of this Associa-
tion." To those of us who served in the shadow of
the President of the United States, that is the
ultimate in compliments.








TECHNICAL CAREERS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED


G. LESSELLS
Mobil Chemical
Edison, N. J. 08817

R. C. AHLERT
Rutgers University
New Brunswick, N. J. 08903


H. T. BROWN
Squibb Institute for Medical Research
New Brunswick, N. J. 08903

The need to provide career guidance of a
special kind for underprivileged and disadvan-
taged youth is heavily documented. The prob-
lems of ghetto dwellers-transmitted at an early
age to their children-is told in such reports as
the one by the President's Commission on Civil
Disorders. Unfortunately, professional career
guidance has almost always been directed to the
middle-class school, whether urban or suburban.
The rural slum and city ghetto provide very lit-
tle motivation to children and lead to an unre-
ceptive audience. Study shows, in general, that
the occasional Negro or Mexican-American
Chemical Engineer did not come from a com-
pletely deprived background. There was gen-
erally a parent or relative who got across the
value of a good education. The comparative ab-
sence of minority chemical engineers is a result
of many things: discrimination, apathy, finan-
cial deprivations and poor communication.
Recognizing the need for a special approach
and program, the National Career Guidance
Committee and AIChE appointed to Task Force
on Career Guidance for Disadvantaged and Un-
derprivileged Youth in early 1968. The initial
mission of the Task Force was to define the role
that a national professional society might play in
guidance of disadvantaged youth toward science
and engineering careers. The Task Force in-
cluded interested white chemical engineers and
several black chemical engineers possessing per-
sonal familiarity with the problems of the dis-
advantaged.
In May 1968, the Task Force presented its
recommendations to the National Council of
AIChE. Major emphasis was placed on a state-
ment of objectives, to be adopted as an expres-
sion of purpose and relevance by Council. This


LArrr~i
yW4W%~lli


at.
G. A. Lessels received his BS in ChE Practice from
MIT in 1950. He is Manager of Process Development for
the Coatings Division of Mobil Chemical Company in
Edison, New Jersey. He is active in AIChE nationally
and at the local section level, currently being chairman
of the national career guidance task force for disadvan-
taged youth which developed the material in this article.
He is a licensed PE in Ohio and Illinois, and has published
papers covering technical areas and subjects relating to
professionalism and management.

recommendation was accepted and resulted in the
following commentary:
"Since AIChE already has a strong career guidance
role, the Institute fully endorses the concept of local
section programs to encourage underprivileged and dis-
advantaged youth toward professional and technical
careers in science and engineering. No longer should ex-
tensive human resources go untapped because of artificial
barriers or poor communications - particularly at a time
when there is an increasing national need for scientific
talents.
'In addition, we as members of AIChE are sorely con-
scious of the deepening racial division within our coun-
try, and of the enormous effort that must be expended
to alleviate the continuing polarization of the American
community. We realize that positive steps must be taken
to solve the problems of the underprivileged, and we
would like to contribute to the long-term solution."

The Task Force recommended, in addition,
that its mission be broadened to include develop-
ment of means for practical progress toward
these objectives. As a result, the Task Force was
invited to under take the job of defining and
establishing methods and techniques that could
be implemented by Local Sections of the Insti-
tute. Further, it was asked to coordinate Local
Section activity and to function for the period
of time necessary to modify the program in re-
sponse to experience and level of acceptance.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


- * 'N
























Henry T. Brown is senior research engineer at Squibb
Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N. J.
He received the ChE from University of Cincinnati and
MS from MIT in 1956. For ten years he was associated
with Esso Research and Engineering and presently is also
an extension course lecturer in School of Pharmacy, Co-
lumbia University. His activities include research and
development of processes with special interests in fermen-
tation, solid support catalysts, and ion exchange.

By September 1968, a program had been com-
pleted and was endorsed by AIChE Council. This
program stresses a maximum of flexibility in
order to best suit the needs of the particular
community and local group. Key aspects of the
Task Force "package" are presented in the fol-
lowing discussion.

WHAT SHOULD BE THE APPROACH ?
The approach that is utilized to institute a
career guidance program will largely determine
its success. To have an effective program, exist-
ing career guidance activities must be modified to
recognize the needs of underprivileged and dis-
advantaged youth. While no one plan may be
applicable for each and every area, certain ap-
proaches should ease the task of implementing
a program suited to the individual needs of the
community. It is highly recommended that local
groups direct their activities to areas with high
concentrations of the disadvantaged and under-
privileged. These are the communities where
traditionally the needs are greater and the career
guidance activities are weak, minimal, or pos-
sibly non-existent.
In most cases the best approach for the local
group is to enlist support of local industry, estab-
lish ties with community, minority and equal op-
portunity groups, and work through the ghetto
schools and school officials. Where possible, Chem-
ical Engineers will find it advantageous to work


with other professional societies who have active
programs in this same area. In all cases minority
members of the Institute and other technical
minority personnel must definitely be involved to
the fullest extent. Cooperative efforts with indus-
try, the school, and community groups should
permit maximum gain for the youth from limited
resources and manpower that are available to
most local groups. Many of these groups, in addi-
tion to offering their experience and talents to
the program will help to bridge any communica-
tion gap with underprivileged youth and guaran-
tee continuing support of the program.

COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
Recognition of minority community organiza-
tions, their leader, and their goals must be a part
of the local group's program, if counselling is to
be successful. The approach should be the same
as used for any other community project that
requires action - people must be made to feel a
part of the program if they are to act coopera-
tively to pursue the program's goals.
In most cases the internal structure of or-
ganizations that aid disadvantaged and under-
privileged groups, provide for programs of edu-
cation and counselling of youth. Many prefer
working through the communities' school. As
examples, with respect to the black community,


Robert C. Ahlert received the BSChE from the Poly-
technic Institute of Brooklyn, MS from UCLA and PhD
from Lehigh University (1964). He gained the greater
part of his industrial experience as a research engineer
and supervisor for the Rocketdyne Division of North
American Rockwell. In 1964, he joined the staff of Rut-
gers University as Executive Director of the Bureau of
Engineering Research and Associate Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering. His interests include combustion, the
thermodynamics of condensation from gas mixtures, and
simulation of stream processes.


WINTER, 1969





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Industry involvement is important to the program's success.
Local groups are encouraged to solicit support for both manpower and
for adoption of programs affecting employment of the underprivileged.


the Urban League has the "Tomorrow's Scien-
tists and Technicians' (TST)" program, CORE
has an education committee, the NAACP has
youth and education committees, and many anti-
poverty agencies and newly formed urban coali-
tions have educational programs for the disad-
vantaged. All committees have programs aimed
at counselling underprivileged youth. The more
militant Afro-American, Black Pride, Black Na-
tionalist and Black Power groups place a strong
emphasis on education of black youth and have
committees that function in this area. Depending
on the local situation, the latter groups may have
broad contacts with youth and must not be
omitted when trying to set up a meaningful ca-
reer guidance program that will enhance confi-
dence. The organizations cited are for illustra-
tive purposes; similar considerations apply in
dealing with any minority group organization.
It is naive to expect only one leader or only
one opinion from a minority community, just as
no one opinion or one leader can speak for all
other Americans. In most cases, the goals may
not differ between groups, and what really mat-
ters is the ego or the personalities involved.

USE OF THE GHETTO SCHOOL
The ghetto school should be a prime target.
To obtain the greatest exposure possible, career
guidance activities are best undertaken at the
school or at a location inside the ghetto area.
Programs that reach elementary disadvantaged
youth are definitely recommended and should be
encouraged. Such contacts would stimulate
awareness and motivate youngsters to obtain the
high school background that is required for ad-
mission to a technical school or college. One such
program is the Cincinnati Saturday Enrichment
Program which combines career guidance with
some remedial assistance. Without such pro-
grams, engineers who visit high schools in under-
privileged areas will find it difficult to communi-
cate or stimulate interest in science or engineer-
ing. The occasional high school student who is
motivated by this late contact will be poorly pre-
pared to pursue a college course. It is important
to develop good working relations with school
officials-particularly science teachers and guid-
ance counsellors. Prior contact with state and


local school officials, and professional guidance
societies may help to establish proper rapport.
The main point to emphasize is that industry and
professional societies provide equal opportunity
in science and engineering careers, to all who are
qualified, and are encouraging youth to take ad-
vantage of these opportunities.

THE ROLE OF INDUSTRY
Industry involvement is important to the pro-
gram's success. Local groups are encouraged to
solicit support for both manpower and for adop-
tion of programs affecting employment of the
underprivileged. Industry must encourage par-
ticipation of professionals in the program. Un-
fortunately, some professionals from minority
groups have disassociated themselves from such
an activity over concern for unfavorable public-
ity for their employers. Once corporate sanction
is given, the stigma is removed, and the man no
longer feels trepidation over activities that deal
with his minority group.
Plant tours for underprivileged youth is an-
other area where industry's help is needed. Dur-
ing the tours emphasis on opportunities that are
available, with examples of technical jobs held
by minority group employees, helps to convince
these youth that there is more than talk involved.
Industry can provide part-time and summer
jobs for the underprivileged to furnish funds for
students in need of assistance to complete their
education. In some instances, jobs that have in-
volvement with science can be made available as
aids to motivation. Of course, state laws on
minimum employment age must be observed in
programs like this.

PRESENTING THE PROGRAM
When presenting materials to these youths, it
is important to recognize that there exists a wide
distribution of attitudes and talents. The two
extremes encountered may be:
Those young people who are bright and adjustable
but who are poorly motivated to seek an improved
status in life,
versus
The frighteningly large group who can barely read
or write and whose attitudes are so atrophied by social
or economic conditions that basic communication is
difficult.


WINTER, 1969








The need is so great for technical people that all groups constitute
an untapped reservoir of talent and technical ability. Industry
can ill-afford to pass over such talent in a period of technical


manpower shortage . . . the development
resources is an appropriate reward . . .
While the differences are more pronounced
among high school students, the problem exists
even at the grade school level. An effective
motivation and career guidance program must
be geared to provide for both groups of students
and, hence, must be tailored for the needs of the
area served.
Minority youth may question the credibility
of programs instituted by predominately white
organizations. This attitude has been created by
the failure of some highly publicized programs
which are nothing more than "show case" ef-
forts in this area. A recent article in the Harvard
Business Review* points out some of the reasons
for skepticism, which make any white-oriented
or middle-class program, regardless of its bene-
fits, subject to failure. Hence, the inclusion of
minority group professionals and technicians in
planning and presentation should be a require-
ment that is not taken lightly. Students will be
able to relate and respond better to successful
minority workers. Local groups must also be
prepared to answer questions that may arise
from students with relatively aggressive atti-
tudes.
The level of the presentation should be the
same as for any youth of similar age. The young-
sters should leave with some idea about what an
engineer or technician does, what are his qualifi-
cations, and what are his rewards. The main
point to communicate is that there are oppor-
tunities in technical fields for everyone who is
qualified. The need is so great for technical peo-
ple that all groups constitute an untapped reser-
voir of talent and technical ability. Industry can
ill-afford to pass over such talent in a period of
technical manpower shortage; there is no eco-
nomic justification to exclude anyone with these
particular skills.
Generally, the series of program steps used
to implement career guidance for the disadvan-
taged and underprivileged are not fundamentally
different from other programs in this area. They
include:

* Haynes, "Equal Job Opportunity: The Credibility
Gap", Harvard Business Review, July (1968).


of these human


* Developing an awareness, an interest, and a knowl-
edge of careers available in science and engineering
through talks, posters, films, and scientific presentations.
A large number of pilot talks, panel discussion outlines,
booklets, film lists, and "A Chemical Magic Show" are
available.
* Sustaining interest - this may be accomplished
by the assignment of an engineer or a scientist to a par-
ticular school to deal with specific problems or projects
in the school. School science clubs centered around young-
sters with strong interest should be organized to act as
a nucleus for expanding interests and motivation. In
addition, groups should encourage programs that allow
individual contact with high school students and tours
of industrial plants.
* Supporting in-school career guidance - Provision
should be made for specific assistance for guidance coun-
sellors and science and math teachers so that they can
speak authoritatively to students about technical careers.
Help for students may be required in a number
of ways. Students who are motivated may be
inadequately trained. In such cases, the local
group should work with school and college offi-
cials to set up required supplemental programs.
College scholarship funds, for most students,
must be identified. Also, summer and/or part-
time employment must be secured for students in
need of resources to complete their education.

PROSPECTS
Many Local Sections of AIChE are well along
with programs of the type proposed. However,
the results of these activities will be uncertain
for many years. In the near future, acceptance
by minority communities and improved com-
munication with the youth of urban ghettos and
rural slums will be positive evidence of progress.
The real goal of more minority group scientists
and engineers will be many years in attainment.
Sustained effort and continuing innovation will
be required for a relatively long period, but the
development of these untapped human resources
is an appropriate reward for Chemical Engineer-
ing and allied professions.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Special acknowledgment is due Messrs. H. A.
Abramson, A. F. Stancell, and T. Tomkowit of
the AIChE Task Force for their contributions
to the preparation of this article.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










MARATHON: DYNAMIC PROGRESS


IVarathon Oil Company was founded in Find-
lay, Ohio in 1887; however its ultramodern
Denver Research Center is located at the foot-
hills of the Rockies. The company is a producer,
transporter, refiner and marketer of crude oil and
petroleum products on five continents throughout
the world.
The Denver Research Center was established
to make discovery of new petroleum reserves more
economical, to help recover a larger percentage
of oil in present fields, to develop more profitable
refining and chemical processes, and to develop
new products.
Marathon employs more than 8,000 persons
at its offices around the world including its head-
quarters in Findlay. There are over 300 em-
ployees at the Denver Research Center of which
more than half are scientists and engineers.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MARATHON
Using engineering research to determine ways
to recover more of the oil from known deposits
is an important part of the work at the Research
Center. It includes projects aimed at stimulating
wells so they will produce more oil; in situ com-
bustion; and fluid injection processes, such as
miscible displacement, which are more efficient
than conventional techniques where gas or water
are used to drive oil to a production well.
Reservoir mechanics comprise another signifi-
cant part of the engineering work at the Denver
Research Center. The transient behavior of oil


reservoirs and the flow of fluids through porous
media are important phases of this work. Mathe-
matical models, which simulate reservoir behav-
ior, provide insight into future behavior of oil
bearing reservoirs.
Chemical engineers are also engaged in the
pilot plant study of existing refinery and chemical
processes as well as in the evaluation and devel-
opment of new processes and new chemicals.
Projects are underway, for example, on petro-
chemical processes to make monomers and other
basic components for polymers.
At Marathon's Research Center, qualified en-
gineers are provided with both the challenge and
incentive in supplying answers to these problems.
Your further inquiry is invited.

Mr. L. Miles
Personnel Supervisor
Dept. CE-2, P. O. Box 269
Littleton, Colorado 80120

AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER




MARATHON

MARATHON OIL COMPANY
DENVER RESEARCH CENTER
LITTLETON, COLORADO








ENGINEERING OPPORTUNITIES


FOR NEGRO AND INDIAN YOUTH

BERT M. AVERY
The University of Oklahoma
Norman, Okla. 73069


Why should we in the College of Engineering
be interested in the scientific development of Ne-
gro and Indian High School students?
The most obvious reason is that the minority
groups represent an untapped source of students
not only for engineering but for all the sciences.
Surveys conducted by the engineering societies
have indicated that the number of Negro and
Indian engineers and scientists is far less than
would be expected from either the size of the
population or the number of college graduates. In
other words, many of these students' capabilities
are not being developed properly.
Secondly, as part of an institution of higher
learning we should represent the more progres-
sive element of our society; therefore, it is our
responsibility to be at the forefront not only
academically and professionally, but also socially.
If one considers the minority groups' role in en-
gineering and science, one should come to the
conclusion that their future participation can do
nothing but expand until they have filled the
present vacuum. My question is "Why should
we eat the dust of others already moving in this
direction of progress?" "Why shouldn't we, and
why can't we, lead the way in this area of human
development?" Before I leave this stream of
thought, I should like to point out that we are
actually depriving our white engineering students
of an opportunity of learning and understanding
minority group people and their problems.
Dr. Hollomon, President of the University of
Oklahoma, has told us several times that we
should plan our programs to react to the needs
of the state; that we should use our knowledge
to help solve the human and social problems of
our time; and that we must work together and
be interested in the University as a whole. There
are few better ways for us to work together as
a college or university than to apply our knowl-


Bert M. Avery is Assistant Director of the School of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the Uni-
versity of Oklahoma. He holds BS and MS degrees in
Chemical Engineering from OU. For several years he
was associated with IBM as a systems engineer on Shell
Oil Account in Houston, Texas, before assuming his
present position at OU in 1968.

edge to upgrade minority group students in sci-
ence and mathematics. In addition, no one can
deny that a definite need of our state is to de-
velop the potential of our minority groups so they
are in a position to help themselves as well as
the state in the forms of tax revenue, leadership,
and racial harmony.
Helping educationally deprived students rea-
lize their educational capabilities is one way we
can do our part to help relieve some of the racial
strife in our nation.
At this point I would like to explain how the
School of Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science got so involved in this problem. In April
of 1968 three things occurred concurrently.
* An AIChE task force report on career guidance
was received that pointed out that the number of Negro
engineers and scientist was very small. Also, there are
two urgent reasons to interest Negro students in engi-
neering: The general need for engineers, and the need
to correct a social situation of national importance.
* Dr. Hollomon, then president designate of OU,
talked to the entire engineering faculty and in that talk
urged us to turn out knowledge and skills to solving
social and human problems in this state and across
America.
* An article by Zelbert Moore and Paul Galloway,
"Those You Never Know", appeared in an edition of
The Sooner magazine that was dedicated to the plight of
the Negro student at the University of Oklahoma.
As a result of these three events I was
prompted to ask during a CEMS faculty discus-
sion of our high school recruiting program,
"Why don't we recruit black students?"


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







. . . We should represent the more progressive element of our society . . .
Dr. Hollomon, President of the University of Oklahoma, has told us that we should
use our knowledge to help solve . . . human and social problems . . .


Utilizing the AIChE task force report, num-
erous discussions with NAACP, Urban League,
Oklahomans for Indian Opportunity, Negro
principals and high school teachers, faculty
members of OU and UCLA, and fellow Black
graduate students, I came up with three basic
problems:
* Lack of knowledge on the part of minority group
high school teachers and students of the opportunities
available in engineering.
* Even if these opportunities were understood, the
great majority of students have inadequate background
in mathematics and science to pursue engineering
studies.
* Improper motivation from the home of the student.
Believing that there is a great source of
capable engineers and scientists within the Negro
and Indian communities, we in Chemical Engi-
neering and Materials Science sponsored an En-
gineering Conference "Engineering Opportunities
for Negro and Indian Youth" for Oklahoma high
school principals, superintendents, science teach-
ers, and counselors on September 27 and 28 at
the University of Oklahoma.

ENGINEERING CONFERENCE
The program that involved 30 high school peo-
ple, Negro and Indian students, Engineering fac-
ulty members, and specialities in the field of Sci-
ence Education was designed around one central
objective. That objective was to determine as
best we could the barriers that exist for Negro
and Indian youth in terms of their progress to-
ward science oriented careers and possibly de-
termine some ways of cracking those barriers.
The first part of the session was a series of speak-
ers presenting information in a variety of areas
from Federal Education Programs to innovative
experiments being conducted at UCLA. The pur-
pose of these presentations was to provide par-
ticipants will as much current information as
possible concerning all areas that involve educa-
tionally disadvantaged.
The second part of the session was the real
heart of the program and would determine the
success or failure of the Conference. The par-
ticipants were divided into discussion groups con-
sisting of three to four high school participants,
one Negro or Indian student, one of the Confer-


ence speakers, and an OU faculty member. These
groups, under the direction of Engineering fac-
ulty members, utilized the knowledge acquired in
the first part of the session and their own experi-
ences to determine possible solutions to the fol-
lowing problems:
1. How to best communicate to students the oppor-
tunities in engineering?
2. How to determine which students are qualified
for a career in engineering?
3. How the University may help to better prepare
the student for engineering study?
4. The need for a relationship between the student
and the University community.
5. The difficulty of freshman curriculum.
These along with many other problems were
discussed and as a result we hope to obtain
enough information to allow us to implement
some constructive practical programs that will
work over a long period of time.

CONFERENCE RESULTS

We are presently analyzing the various ideas
generated by the Conference and therefore are
not in a position to justify the rightness or the
wrongness of the following suggestions.

HOW TO BEST COMMUNICATE TO STUDENTS THE
OPPORTUNITIES IN ENGINEERING ?
* There should be high school visitations by engi-
neering faculty members and whenever possible they
should be accompanied by an engineering student who
belongs to the same ethnic group as the high school
students.
* A film should be made that would show the Negro
and Indian engineering student in various classroom,
laboratory, and social activities. The film should be one
the student could identify with and say to himself, "If
that student can do it, so can I."
* A summer program designed to acquaint the high-
school science teachers with engineering. Also, introduce
introductory courses in engineering at high school level
which might be taught by engineers from industry or the
university.
* Industry and government should implement pro-
grams for high school teachers and students that would
give them a first hand look at engineering.
* All of these programs should start with seventh
and eighth graders, and because of the generally low
economic status of the minority groups, the financial or
materialistic rewards should be emphasized; however,
the professional status and pride of accomplishment
should not be overlooked.


WINTER, 1969








There are few better ways for us to work together . . . than to apply our
knowledge to upgrade minority group students in science and mathematics . . .


* Finally, we need a method of demonstrating or
giving evidence to Negro and Indian students that jobs
and opportunities really do exist within industry.

HOW TO DETERMINE WHICH STUDENTS ARE QUALI-
FIED FOR A CAREER IN ENGINEERING ?
* We must curtail the "creaming" process of apply-
ing a selectivity procedure for admission to the Univer-
sity that eliminates 90% of the Negro and Indian stu-
dents. This involves tests that measure white middle
class values, inadequate counseling, and so on. The ACT
should be reexamined to determine its validity for de-
prived groups. Special counseling and guidance is
needed.

HOW THE UNIVERSITY MAY HELP TO BETTER PRE-
PARE THE STUDENT FOR ENGINEERING STUDIES?
* Coordinate and conduct summer sessions involving
the best mathematics and science educators throughout
the state and bring them together with the students who
have had low quality instruction in these areas. This
should occur every summer from the seventh grade
through college. Because many of these students must
work in the summer to put clothes on their backs we
must not only pay all expenses but also reimburse them
for the money they would have made had they worked
instead of attending the summer session.
* Send university students into high schools as jun-
ior counselors. In many cases, the educationally dis-
advantaged student may communicate better with a
college student nearer his age and with his same cul-
tural background.
* There must be a university commitment on the
part of the president, deans, and faculty members to
support specialized programs.
a) Reserve 10% of admissions for students that can-
not meet the usual requirements.
b) These students should have special counseling and
programs such as a year pre-engineering on a
pass-fail basis.
c) Tuition should be cancelled for any student from
a family that makes less than $5,000 a year.
d) Scholarships that would provide full support for
all undergraduate years. The Negro and Indian
student is often affected by problems and situa-
tions that white students take in stride. The addi-
tional burden of supporting themselves is more
than most students can handle.
e) Support of minority group instructors and gradu-
ate assistants. We can't afford to apply the usual
criteria used for hiring faculty. Instead, we must
ask the question "can they do the job that needs
to be done?"
f) Establish science centers about the state where
students and secondary school teachers could come
for help and additional training. These could be
manned by graduate assistants, part time instruc-
tors, interested faculty.


THE NEED FOR A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE
STUDENT AND THE UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY.

* There is a genuine feeling among the non-white
students that the university system is geared to the
white-student, his background, his social elevation, his
values. The non-white are treated uniformily the same,
but not equally.
* We need more representation of non-whites in
administrative and faculty positions. Faculty needs to be
more tolerant and understanding concerning cultural
differences. We need an environment that supports and
encourages students in their endeavor to establish values
that are best for them.
* A "social awareness" program should be imple-
mented in Engineering colleges. This would be an ef-
fort to involve students and faculty in social programs
in the community.

DIFFICULTY OF FRESHMAN CURRICULUM.

* An effective system of tutorial instruction would
not only aid the new student in course work, but might
create a feeling of belonging. The tutorial sessions must
be taken to the student in his dorm or places of residence.
This might be a very worth while project for the various
engineering clubs.
* Specialized counseling by concerned individuals
is a must.

In general we concluded, for any program that
proposes to work and produce practical results
we must have from those involved an intense
interest and an almost zealous commitment. We
must not be overly skeptical of new and tradi-
tionally unacceptable modes of operation. We
must be willing to accept the challenge of sup-
porting broad comprehensive programs which
may involve and affect all areas of university
life. We must develop the flexibility to accept
the different cultural values possessed by the
non-white students.
Any programs that are proposed should at
least include the following:
1) Emphasis on the dignity of the individual.
2) Produce massive system changes.
3) Have built in incentives and guarantees
for the young people who would partici-
pate.
4) Must include all educationally disadvan-
taged-Red, Black, White, Brown, Yellow
and combinations thereof.
I think we in Chemical Engineering and Ma-
terials Science at the University of Oklahoma
have made the commitment. Will you not join us?


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




- i-F--Q -r - E s


THE UNIVERSITY

IN

INTERNATIONAL

AFFAIRS


In accepting world leadership, the United
States has assumed vast and unfamiliar responsi-
bilities over a remarkably short period of time.
A mere twenty-five years separate U. S. military
involvement in Viet Nam from the Neutrality
Act which in 1939 forbade U. S. shipping from
entering dangerous waters. A truly incredible
change in attitude has emerged as traditional
isolationism has slowly faded from the contem-
porary scene.
Many people nurse a nostalgic hope that the
world will return to a simpler time, that the U. S.
can wash its hands of worrisome problems in re-
mote lands. But these problems will not disap-
pear, and the U. S. cannot cease being concerned
with them. Headlines and taxes will continue
to remind the nation's citizens that foreign af-
fairs are an integral part of their lives.
In a democratic society, foreign policy de-
pends upon decision-makers educated and trained
in the common society with their actions being
passed upon ultimately by the electorate. Thus
the effectiveness of democratic government in
foreign policy is limited by the quality of educa-
tion as well as the traditions and dedication of
both its citizens and its leaders. Without a sound
education and understanding of world affairs,
neither elected officials nor the nation's citizenry
can expect to act intelligently in the critical inter-
national arena.
While the heavy burden of policy-making con-
tinues to be the responsibility of government,
private citizens are becoming involved in inter-
national affairs on an increasing scale. In the
earlier days of technical assistance, the govern-
ment generally took direct responsibility for for-
eigh programs and frequently employed tempo-


FRANK M. TILLER


Frank M. Tiller, M. D. Anderson professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering and Director of International Affairs
obtained his bachelor's degree from the University of
Louisville in 1937 and his PhD from the University of
Cincinnati in 1946. In 1962 he was awarded a Doutor
Honoris Causa by the University of Brazil. He has been
a staff member at Cincinnati, Vanderbilt, Lamar Tech,
and the Instituto de Oleos in Rio de Janeiro. As consult-
ant, adviser and coordinator, his services have been ren-
dered through a variety of organizations including the
Fulbright Commission, Organization of American States,
and Agency for International Development. Tiller has.
received a number of awards for articles appearing in
AIChE publications.

rary consultants for guidance. Although techni-
cal experts mobilized for short-term junkets can
provide valuable service, experience has shown
that a variety of problems of underdeveloped
countries do not yield to such efforts. Fire-fight-
ing methods do not provide the careful planning
and sustained supervision that many technical
assistance programs require. Therefore, there
has been a trend in recent years to enlist non-
governmental organizations to carry out long-
range foreign programs on a contract basis, an
arrangement which represents an attractive al-
ternative to the use of temporary consultants and
diplomatic personnel serving short terms at their
posts. Private citizens in organizations with con-
tractual obligations find themselves intimately
involved in the implementation of United States
foreign policy.


WINTER, 1969

















LOCATIONS HAVING
CURRENT OPENINGS


Olin
MAJOR PRODUCTS
PRODUCED


DISCIPLINE
REQUIREMENTS


TYPE OF WORK
PERFORMED


Chlor-Alkali Products
Ammonia Process Development,
Augusta, Ga. Phosphates Design, Maintenance,
Brandenburg, Ky. Urea Planning, Scheduling,
Charleston, Tenn. Nitrogen ChEroduction, Sales,
Joliet, Ill. Acids ME Production, Sales,
CHEMICALS Lake Charles, La. Hydrazine IE Accounting,
-Inorganic Little Rock, Ark. Petrochemicals Chemistry Marketing,
-Organic & Mclntosh, Ala. Insecticides Accounting Fiancial analysis,
Specialty New Haven, Conn. Pesticides Business Adm. Distribution,
-Agricultural Niagara Falls, N.Y. Polyurethane Transportation Poject Enineering
Pasadena, Texas Carbon Dioxide Marketing (Plant Startup &
Rochester, N.Y. Animal Health Construction),
Saltville, Va. Products Research Engineering,
Automotive Chemicals Technical Service
Other derivatives

Alumina ChE
Burnside, La. Aluminum IE Manufacturing
METALS Chattanooga, Tenn. Aluminum Extrusions ME Production
-Aluminum Gulfport, Miss. Aluminum Sheet, Plate, Metallurgy Sales
-Brass Hannibal, Ohio Coils Met. Engineering Maintenance
-Ormet, Corp. East Alton, Ill. Brass Fabricated Parts Accounting Fn e
New Haven, Conn. Sheet & Strip - Brass Business Adm. Finance
Sedalia, Mo. Roll Bond Ind Tech. Metals R&D
Wire & Cable Ind. Mgmt.

Carbonizing Paper Marketing
Fine Printing Papers ChE Process Engineering
FOREST PRODS, West Monroe, La. Specialty Paper Chemistry Plant Engineering
PAPER & FILM Pisgah Forest, N.C. Products Pulp & Paper Research & Dev.
-Olinkraft, Inc. Covington, Indiana Cigarette Paper & Tech. Statistician
-Ecusta Filters IE Systems Engineering
-Film Cellophane ME Production
Kraft Bags Mathematics Management
Kraft Paper BusinessAdm. General IE
Kraftboard Cartons Accounting Design and
Corrugated Containers Development
Olinkraft Lumber Accounting


East Alton, III.
New Haven, Conn.
Marion, Ill.
Kingsbury, Ind.


Sporting Arms
Ammunition
Powder Actuated tools
Smokeless Ball
Powders
Solid Propellants
Safety Flares
Franchised Clubs


Ind. Tech.
IE
ME
Mathematics
ChE
Accounting
Business Adm.
Marketing
Personnel Mgt.
Physics
Ind. Mgmt.


Production Control
Purchasing
Manufacturing
Plant Engineering
Sales
Financial Analysis.
Personnel
Marketing
R&D


PRODUCT
GROUP


WINCHESTER-
WESTERN







In many parts of the world, a shortage of
well-trained people rather than lack of capital is
the major obstacle to progress. Educational pro-
grams are an essential factor in breaking the
manpower bottleneck which impedes self-sus-
tained economic development. Since educational
programs are necessarily long-range in nature,
continuity and experienced leadership are essen-
tial. U. S. universities like the University of
Houston are uniquely equipped to provide such
leadership.
All this suggests three challenges which con-
front American universities. The first is to train
experts in international affairs. The second is to
instill in the coming generations of citizens and
community leaders a basic understanding of the
importance and complexity of world affairs so
that they not only will be able to review intelli-
gently policies of the government but also will be
better prepared to take a personal part in foreign
activity if called upon. The third is for the uni-
versity itself to take an active part in foreign
programs under both governmental and private
sponsorship.


4A&


CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
DIVISION


Members of the ChE Division are reminded
that the closing date for nominations for the
sixth annual ChE Division 1969 Lectureship
award is February 15, 1969. Nomination forms
may be obtained from Dr. George Burnet, ChE
Department, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa,
50010. The award is sponsored by the Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing Company.


ASEE DIVISION ACTIVITIES
ASEE Annual Meeting, 23-26 June 1969,
Pennsylvania State University. Chemical Engi-
neering Division Program will consider educa-
tional aspects of selected interactions between
chemical engineering and important social prob-
lems: 1. Health Problems, 2. New Energy
Sources, 3. Urban Affairs. For further details,
contact Chemical Engineering Division Program
Chairman, K. B. Bischoff, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, University of Maryland, College
Park, Maryland 20742.


book reviews

Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 2nd
Ed., W. L. McCabe and J. C. Smith.
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. (1967),
pp viii + 1007, $15.50 .
The second edition of this book, like the first,
is an undergraduate treatment of unit operations.
It is divided into five sections: Introduction, Fuid
Mechanics, Heat Transfer and Its Applications,
Mass Transfer and Its Applications, and Opera-
tions Involving Particulate Solids. Section 1 (In-
troduction) contains one chapter which consists
of a brief presentation of the basic laws and
concepts needed for the understanding and mas-
tery of the material to follow. Section 2 (Fluid
Mechanics) contains eight chapters covering
fluid statics, the flow of fluids through conduits
and past immersed objects, pumping and meter-
ing of fluids, and agitation and mixing of liquids.
Both incompressible and compressible fluids are
treated and some material on non-Newtonian
fluids is included. Section 3 (Heat Transfer and
Its Applications) contains seven chapters cover-
ing conduction, convection, radiation, heat ex-
changers, and evaporation. Section 4 (Mass
Transfer and Its Applications) consists of eight
chapters covering phase equilibria, distillation,
diffusion, absorption, humidification, leaching
and extraction, and crystallization. Section 5
(Operations Involving Particulate Solids) con-
tains five chapters covering properties and han-
dling of solids, size reduction, mixing, mechanical
separations, and drying.
Throughout the book, the treatment of equip-
ment and theory is well balanced and many
example problems illustrating the principles and
theory set forth are included. In addition, most
chapters contain a number of excellent problems
for which a solution manual is available from the
publisher.
Those familiar with the first edition will find'
a number of changes incorporated in this edition.
Most of the long chapters in the first edition
have been broken down into a number of shorter
chapters in the present edition and the material
considerably rearranged and updated by the in-
clusion of material from transport phenomena.
The book is well written and relatively free
from errors. It is highly recommended.
HENDERSON C. WARD
Georgia Institute of Technology


WINTER, 1969








1968 Awa-ld .fecd4te


FLOW and TRANSFER at FLUID INTERFACES*

Part II - Models


L. E. SCRIVEN
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minn.

In the opening part of the lecture I reviewed
the evolution of chemical engineering thought
about mechanisms of transfer between fluid
phases. I attempted to identify various stages
of the development and went so far as to try to
draw some lessons from the historical record
as I perceive it. The lessons I offered seem to me
to contradict the viewpoint from which the loud-
est attacks on fundamental chemical engineering
are launched. Now let us turn again to the goal
of understanding flow and transfer at fluid
interfaces.

W E SET THE STAGE by recalling the con-
trast between boundary conditions on in-
compressible flow at rigid walls and at free
surfaces. At a solid surface all relative velocity
vanishes; it follows that the normal and tangen-
tial parts of the nearby velocity field are given


X2 av!i
Vn- O. ( x
)=O


VIr
HI a6 X=0
TT " -1


where X is the perpendicular distance from the
solid . . . At a free interface it is the tangential
part of viscous traction that vanishes; conse-
quently the relative velocity nearby consists of


n - Vn10 - (2H vn10 - VII*I O)


II - IIlO X(HvIII0+ VII vn )


where H is the local mean curvature of the inter-
face . . . The most important point to make here
is that near a free interface the rate of convec-
tion away from or toward it is directly propor-
tional to the distance from it - just as in the
stagnation flow featured below - and the pro-
portionality factor is the rate of interface dila-
tion by both "surface inflation" and "surface
stretch". Now it is clear from the expression

*Based on the main part of the 1968 Annual Lecture
to the Chemical Engineering Division, ASEE at the
University of California at Los Angeles June 18, 1968,
sponsored by the 3M Company.


for total convective and diffusive flux, vc-DVc,
together with the convection diffusion equation,
that flow parallel or antiparallel to the direction
of transfer has the greatest effect on transfer
rate. What implications for interphase transfer
can we draw from this fact?
There must obviously be transfer from ele-
ments of one fluid phase to elements of the second
fluid phase. So regardless of the violence of con-
vective movements executed by fluid elements,
the ultimate mechanism of interphase transfer
(at least as long as the motions remain continu-
ous) must be by molecular diffusion. However,
the molecular diffusion process can be and usu-
ally is strongly affected by convective motions.
This is especially true in the vicinity of fluid
interfaces, an important point that too often
has been overlooked in the literature. The effect
of convection on diffusion, as governed by the
convective diffusion equation, will be one of my
main themes.
That diffusion in some neighborhood of the
interface is the controlling resistance to inter-
phase transfer, is generally presumed and is
indeed so in many laboratory and practical siuta-
tions. We will not discuss exceptions here.
The effect of convection on diffusion is cer-
tainly strong around a turbulently agitated inter-
face. It is logical to ask where in the chaotic
jumble of transitory local flows the effect is
strongest (Figure 1). The question can be
answered by dissecting the jumble into recog-
nizable parts and then examining those parts in
detail. In a paper before the Annual Meeting of
the AIChE in 1964 Raymond W. C. Chan and I
proposed that chaos can be resolved, to a fair
approximation so far as convective diffusion is
concerned, into mixed populations of relatively
simple, practically laminar, small-scale flows
which we call microflow elements (Figure 2).
The lifetimes of these flows are related to time-
scales of the agitating turbulence, especially the
intermittency of larger scale incursions on them;
we will not, however, attempt here to discuss
basic aspects of turbulence and its interactions


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Plug flow
(no surface dilation)
Subsurface sweep
r (no surface dilation)
Nearly parallel


Circulating bubbles
aW ond drops

T3- ----]-IT


Where does convection most influence diffusion?


(mild surface dilation) H -
Curvilinear dilation) "surface roll cells
(strong surface dilation) / \ / (Fortescue & Pearson)


iOOO0


Fig. 1.-Populations of Microflow Elements. Fig. 2.-Some

with fluid interfaces. For our purposes the basic
types of surface flows should be classified ac-
cording to rate of surface dilation and thus conv-
vective influence on interphase transfer (Figure
2). We note that well-ordered flows as well as
chaotic ones can be modeled by combinations of
microflow elements (examples in Figure 3).
More noteworthy, we find that we can rational-
ize existing transfer models (Figures 4 and 5
in which, for simplicity, the situation in the
second phase is disregarded) and systematically
point out alternatives to them (Figure 6).

Fictitious film Steady diffusion,
(Lewis & Whitman) finite zone

Surface renewal F 4 r Penetration,
(Higbie, Danckwerts) p infinite zone


Film-penetration
(Dobbins, Toor &
Marchello)


Fig. 4.-Standard Transfer Models.


Penetration,
finite zone


The film model (Figure 4) corresponds in
effect to a thin layer in steady plug-like flow
along the interface and bathed beneath by fluid
that is somehow kept completely mixed. All of
the other models correspond to one or another
local flow regime that is intermittently, suddenly
and, in most cases, completely interrupted by
turbulent action and then instantaneously re-
established with the participating fluid replaced
to some extent (in Figures 4- 6 the persistent
regime is indicated on the left, the interruptive
event on the right). It becomes clear that not
one of the earlier models corresponds to a flow
regime in which convection influences diffusion
at all: this effect is represented only in the nature
of the intermittent interruptions.
Chan and I argued that in the mixed popula-
tion at a turbulent interface it is the flows dis-
playing strong surface dilation (or contraction,
of course) that most strongly influence diffusion;
we suggested that the convective effect of these
flows swamps all others; and we proposed that
it can be modeled by a single population of


Basic Flows-"Microflow Elements." Fig. 3.-Some Composite Flows.

steady, irrotational stagnation flows - at least
on the liquid side of gas-liquid interfaces. These
flows are the purest embodiment of the above
formulas for relative velocity near an interface.
More about them shortly.


Subsurface renewal
(Harriott)
"Andrew-Danckwerts
rejuvenation"


- - w


Penetration with
intermittently
altered concen-
tration profile;
infinite zone


Subsurface mixing 'C
-zone Likewise;
(Marchello & Toor) ___ _ - finite zone

Fig. 5.-More Transfer Models
REGARDLESS OF THE MICROFLOW ele-
ments one favors in trying to understand
interphase transfer, the first step is to solve the
differential equation describing transport within
the elements, and this requires that boundary
conditions and, frequently, initial conditions be
chosen. In all of the earlier models - film, pene-
tration, and hybrids - these choices are the sole
means of accounting for convective transport
(regarded as convective mixing in some in-
stances). As indicated in Figure 7, the differen-
tial equation has been that for pure diffusion.
The correct equation is that for convective dif-
fusion, in Figure 7 shown in somewhat simplified
form, with a class of velocity fields characterized
by a parameter a. The appropriate boundary and
initial conditions may depend upon relative mag-
nitudes of a penetration depth for convective dif-

Snbsurface sweep Diffusion with
to interface


Mild surface
rejuvenation
(Nobody yet)
"Kintner-Lightfoot
surface-stretch"
Strong surface
rejuvenation
(Chan, Majoch)
"Stagnation-flow
model"


Diffusion with
slight convection
perpendicular to
interface

Unsteady convective
diffusion


Fig. 6.-Transfer Models with Real Convection.


WINTER, 1969


0
0


7T~1FT
l Z Z 0 1








Mathematics of Model Elements

2 c(z, o)]
Film and oc. a d c (, t) chosen to repre-
penetration: t 2 ' c(, t) sent flow somehow
aS c(L, t)

Convective c _ 2e t 2 2) representing
diffusion: St v *x , t; a) flow


Solution: Lt ; c(z , 0) , L, a] = - dc/ instantaneous
Fig. 7.-Mathematics of Model Elements.
fusion, not pure diffusion, and a hydrodynamic
depth scale, all usually related to turbulence
properties beyond our present scope. In any case,
the differential equation system is solved for the
instantaneous flux across the interface, which
remains a function of the age of the microflow
element, of the parameter (s) characterizing
flow within it, and of any parameters in the
initial and boundary conditions (for example,
the depth at which concentration is supposed to
remain constant in film-type models: L in Fig-
ure 7).
The second step, in cases of chaotically agi-
tated interfaces, is to calculate the surface-area-
average flux over the population (or populations)
of currently existing microflow elements, each of
which occupies some small patch in the surface
mosaic. As indicated in Figure 8, the procedure
Instantaneous average 3 = 1 jiLt(dA) ;... L(dA), a(dA)]dA
flux over area A

Distribution function, (t ) 6A(t) , dt =
e.g. surface-element ages - A6t(CA) *'

Average flux (assumed (T) = (t) (t ; 7)dt
stationary in time) 0
Fig. 8.-Mathematics of Populations of Elements
is to introduce (for each population) a distribu-
tion of fractional surface area over age of the
microflow elements and over the quantities that
characterize flow and transfer in them. Integra-
tion over age and these quantities completes the
calculation if the gross regime is stationary in
time, the result being a formula for time-and-
surface-area-average flux in terms of the para-
meters that appear in the distribution function
- for example, the mean lifetime of a microflow
element, or the rate of "renewal" of microflow
elements. Ideally the distribution function would
be chosen for its fidelity to real populations of
microflow elements. Unfortunately little is
known about the latter. On the other hand,
Hanratty (1956) and others since have noticed
that a final formula for average flux is insensi-
tive to some changes in the distribution function


on which it is based. Writers on interphase
transfer have identified distribution functions
in tables of integral transforms, papers on resi-
dence time distributions, and elsewhere and have
selected functions to work with chiefly for their
mathematical tractability. With one exception
they have been one-variable distribution func-
tions, the variable being surface lifetime, which
stands unambigously for lifetime of an element
provided there is no surface dilation. The con-
venient qI = s exp(-st) of Danckwert's pioneer-
ing 1951 paper is a familiar example (recall that
s is both the fractional rate of replacement of
elements and the reciprocal of the mean life-
time).
The one published exception is the two-
variable distribution function in Harriott's note-
worthy 1962 paper. The two variables are dic-
tated by the microflow model and are element
lifetime and thickness of the plugflow zone (see
upper diagram in Figure 5). Harriott took the
joint function to be a product of two single-
variable functions, namely the familiar exponen-
tial distribution of lifetimes and the slightly
more general gamma distribution of thicknesses
(cf. Figure 9). Actually Harriott's microflow
element is more complicated than anything we
have discussed because it is only partially re-
placed in each interruptive event and conse-
quently remembers something of its past. This
non-Markovian feature together with the two-
variable distribution function evidently forced a
monumental Monte Carlo style calculation of
transient approach to the statistically stationary
transfer regime.
Another exception is the two-variable distri-
bution function demanded by steady, irrotational
stagnation flow elements that Chan analyzed and
my current collaborator L. V. Majoch has con-
sidered further. The variables are element age t
and stagnation flow strength a. In the absence
of contraindications the simplest hypothesis is
once again that the joint function is the product
of two independent single-variable functions (cf.
Figure 9).
Populations Distributed Over Two Parameters


J(TA) = f j(t;L)t (t)O(L)dLdt,
0 0


(Harriott, in effect)


3Cr,a) = ff j(t ;a)(t)4(a)dadt, Chan, Majoch
0 -c
Fig. 9.-Populations Distributed Over Two Parameters.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








If and when a single type of microflow ele-
ment does not dominate the transfer situation -
or does not lead to a desired functional form of
average flux - one can turn to mixed popula-
tions of different types of elements. Danckwerts
noted the possibility in his 1951 paper. The
example in Figure 10 corresponds to two popu-
lations of the sort made especially convenient by
tables of Laplace transforms; the two are dis-
tinguished by different mean element lifetimes
(T = 1/s1, 72 = 1/s2).

r(Ti ,p) = P1f Ji(t)ti(t;Ti)dt , Zp = 1

CD -t/T
Example: j(C , r 2, p) = p / jl(t)e 1 d(t/Tl)
0
O -t/T2
+ (l-p) j2(t)e d(t/T2)
0
Fig. 10.-Mixed Populations.
At this point I have sketched a crude but
serviceable conception of turbulent fluid inter-
faces, which I believe is more detailed and rea-
listic - and pedagogically attractive - than any
available heretofore, and I have delineated for
the first time the general strategy for modeling
turbulent action by means of populations of
microflow elements. This strategy should work
equally well, incidentally, in treating some turbu-
lent reaction systems, for instance. So far as
flow and transfer are concerned, the strategy suf-
fers from the lack of experimental data on the
population dynamics of local flows at chaotically
agitated fluid interfaces. Just as importantly, it
suffers from the lack of development of mathe-
matical models of microflow elements with "real
convection." The remainder of the lecture is
devoted to the latter, that is, to some relevant
solutions of the convective diffusion equation.
EDITOR'S NOTE: The remainder of the lecture will be
published in the Spring Issue of CEE.
SELECTED REFERENCES
Angelo, J. B., Lightfoot, E. N., and Howard, D. W.,
AIChE J. 12, 751-760 (1966).
Byers, C. H., and King, C. J., AIChE J. 13, 628-644
(1967).
Chan, W. C., "Transfer across flowing interfaces: stag-
nation-flow models," Parts B, C, F of Ph.D Disserta-
tion, Univ. of Minn., 1964.
Chan, W. C., and Scriven, L. E., "Absorption into irrita-
tional stagnation flow: a case study of convective dif-
fusion theory," MS. submitted to I&EC Funda.
Danckwerts, P. V., I&EC 43, 1460-1467 (1951).
Danckwerts, P. V., Kennedy, A. M., and Roberts, D.,
Chem. Eng. Sci. 18, 63-72 (1963).


Drew, T. B., Trans. AIChE 26, 26-80 (1931).
Harriott, P., Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 149-154 (1962).
Higbie, R. W., Trans. AIChE 31, 365-389 (1935).
King, C. J., I&EC Funda. 5, 1-8 (1966).
Kishinevskii, M. Kh., Zh. Priklad. Khim. 27, 382-390
(1954). AERE translation available from Special
Libraries Association.
Kishinevskii, M. Kh., and Pamfilov, A. V., Zh. Priklad.
Khim. 22, 1173-1182 (1949).
Koppel, L. B., Patel, R. D., and Holmes, J. T., AIChE J.
12, 941-955 (1966).
Langmuir, I., Collected Works of Irving Langmuir, Vol.
2, Part 1, Pergamon Press, London 1960.
Levich, V. G., Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-
Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs 1962.
Perlmutter, D. D., Chem. Eng. Sci. 16, 287-296 (1981).
Ruckenstein, E. and Berbente, C. P., AIChE J. 13, 1205-
1207 (1967).
Scriven, L. E., and Pigford, R. L., AIChE J. 4, 382-10S
(1958).
Scriven, L. E., and Pigford, R. L., AIChE J. 5, 397-402
(1959).
Spriggs, T. W., Grgurich, D. A., and Scriven, L. E., "In-
teraction of circular vortices with mobile interfaces:
a physical model of surface renewal," MS. to be sub-
mitted to AIChE J.
Walker, W. H., Lewis, W. K., and McAdams, W. H.,
Principles of Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill,
New York (1st ed. 1923, 2nd ed. 1927, 3rd ed. 1937).


LETTERS


(Continued from page 5)


Editor:
The Spring 1968 issue of CEE was very interesting. I
am particularly glad to see evidence of a forum for
opinions like those of Lenz (Industry Needs Scientific
Engineers Not Engineering Scientists).
During my several years as teacher and department
chairman, I felt chemical engineering educators in ASEE
were talking only to themselves in a positive feedback
situation leading to a runaway reaction on teaching en-
gineering science. Lenz's points are very valid from my
experience in industry in research and now in operations,
and from the statements of colleagues and competitors.
The quotes from Fulton and Souders present points that
all teachers should ponder.
Perhaps recitation of a coalescence of some recent
experiences in recruiting will help teachers comprehend
what a number of industrialists are trying to say. Funda-
mentals seem to be taught as an end unto themselves, not
as tools to be used in the true engineering sense, because
most of the teachers' time, research and study are focused
on fundamental phenomena. Unfortunately the student
lacks the experience to differentiate between the teacher's
environment and the things that really need to be done in
industry. Consquently, the new graduate is unprepared
to face the situation when he learns that the very import-
ant problems of industry and society are usually inter-
disciplinary. Too frequently he retreats from situations
offering real opportunity for growth and prosperity to
the security of organizations with large sections of people
working in the same discipline. It is truly a shame that
Letters (Continued on page 44)


WINTER, 1969







THE ANSWERS TO YOUR
FUEL CELLS
John O'M. Bockris, University of Pennsylvania, and S. Srinivasan,
State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.
Available Spring
Sets forth the theoretical basis of electrochemical energy con-
version. Unlike other books, this work considers the basic
electrode kinetics of the fuel cell.

HEAT TRANSFER, Second Edition
Jack P. Holman, Southern Methodist University. 432 pages,
$10.50
Revision of a standard text for undergraduate courses. Con-
tains new material on thermal contact conductance, radiation
network analysis, conduction shape factors, an analytical model
for liquid metal heat transfer, and many other topics.

THERMODYNAMICS
Jack P. Holman, Southern Methodist University. Available Spring
Offers a brief, broad coverage of all aspects of thermodynamics
for undergraduate introductory courses. The emphasis is on
simplicity, clarity, and teachability, and the coverage includes
both macroscopic and microscopic thermodynamics with an
introduction to transport gases. Conventional power cycle ap-
plications and introductory material on direct energy conversion
schemes are also presented.

ENGINEERING DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS
Robert D. Kersten, Florida Technological University. Available
Spring
The first book of its kind to treat both analytical methods in
engineering - the classical continuous approach and the "dis-
crete" approach usually associated with numerical methods.
It proceeds from the typical cases, which can be mathematically
treated by the classical approach, to the more difficult cases,
which must be handled by some numerical technique.

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS, Second Edition
Robert E. Treybal, New York University. McGraw-Hill Series in
Chemical Engineering. 688 pages, $15.75
Provides a vehicle for teaching the characteristics, principles,
and techniques of design of equipment for mass transfer op-
erations. Theoretical principles are applied to the practical
problems of equipment design.
30 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TEXT BOOK NEEDS
UNIT OPERATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Second Edition
Warren L. McCabe, North Carolina State University, and Julian
C. Smith, Cornell University. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical
Engineering. 1,007 pages, $15.50
Presenting a unified treatment of standard unit operations at
the junior-senior level, all material in this second edition has been
updated in the light of the many significant improvements
which have occurred since the first edition was published.

PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS,
Second Edition
Max S. Peters and Klaus D. Timmerhaus, both of the University
of Colorado. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engineering. 805
pages, $16.50
Presents an overall analysis of the major factors involved in
process design with emphasis on economics in the process in-
dustries and in design work. Costs involved in industrial pro-
cesses, capital investments and investment returns, cost esti-
mation, cost accounting, optimum economic design methods,
and other relevant subjects are covered both quantitatively and
qualitatively.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ENGINEERING RESEARCH REPORT
Hilbert Schenck, Jr., University of Rhode Island. Available Janu-
ary, 1969. Soft and Hard Cover
Provides the student involved in research or thesis activities
with sufficient information to help him find a project, and pre-
sents him with the criteria to judge the suitability of his chosen
subject. Considerable information is given on how to carry out
a library search.

THEORIES OF ENGINEERING EXPERIMENTATION, Second Edition
Hilbert Schenck, Jr., University of Rhode Island. 304 pages,
$9.95
Applicable to almost any engineering laboratory course, this
work deals with the basic principles of engineering experi-
mentation rather than its hardware.

A McGraw-Hill Book Company
330 West 42nd Street
.G. HNew York, New York 10036
WINTER, 1969









Department
r~-i~i


HA IL PURDCEE features a large state
university that emphasizes
HAIL* PD ^both undergraduate and
graduate education.


ROBERT A. GREENKORN, Chairman
"All that professors worry about is research
and publication."
"PROFESSORS SPEND TOO MUCH TIME IN
CLASS."
"Students don't even know what a reboiler
looks like!"
"Chemical engineers do not have enough
mathematics to keep up with other engineers."
"I NEVER HAD DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS -
WHY DO STUDENTS NEED THEM NOW?"
"Economics is important; engineering is us-
ing money."
"Engineering is science."
"WE MUST HAVE DISTINCT DISCIPLINES!"
"Core programs are best."
And so it goes. When one collects a week's
worth of comments from colleagues, students, in-
dustrial visitors, professors from other depart-
ments and other universities, and the man on the
street, the sum equals quandary.

HOW DO YOU EDUCATE A CHEMICAL ENGINEER?
What is the best way for a professional school
to educate a young man or woman to become a
chemical engineer? Obviously, there is disagree-
ment among the people involved and opinions
continually change. To use current jargon, we


must try to optimize the situation. What follows
outlines briefly our approach at Purdue and,
though we are sure it is not a stationary point,
we believe it is a sound intermediate one.
We believe the major educational problem
facing us is to prepare students not only for
immediate entry into professional activity but
for remaining effective in a rapidly advancing
technological community. We believe students
must be given an education solidly rooted in the
fundamentals of science and engineering rather
than a mere capability for manipulating current
methods. To make certain they are capable of
extending their scientific and engineering knowl-
edge throughout their careers, they must be
taught how to appy fundamentals to new prob-
lems.
Students must associate with teachers who
are themselves students, engaged in day-to-day
learning through scholarly activity. This requires
a strong commitment of the faculty to individual
and cooperative research, so the excitement of
discovery and learning can cascade from indi-
vidual professors into the graduate and under-
graduate programs. We agree with those who
believe it is not desirable, nor probably even pos-
sible, to separate research and teaching and still
maintain the scholarly atmosphere necessary to
prepare students for today's technology.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Students must associate with teachers who
are themselves students, engaged in day-
to-day learning through scholarly activity.

RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE VARIED
Our faculty's research interests cover the
areas of adaptive control, equilibrium properties
of mixtures (both gas and liquid), surface reac-
tion mechanisms of catalysis, transport in dis-
persed systems, rheologic and fluid flow studies
with special emphasis on pulsatile flow and un-
steady state systems, mathematical modeling and
experimental analysis of process kinetics, and the
physical and chemical characteristics of multi-
component systems.
Currently, for example, one of our staff mem-
bers is forming a series of algorithms for the
control of distributed systems; another is meas-
uring partial volume at infinite dilution to de-
termine the component properties of mixtures;
a group is studying the meaning of the dispersion
tensor in non-uniform, anisotropic porous media.
A special laboratory is being built by one of our
faculty for measuring the surface properties of
catalysts. A few other examples of current re-
search are: the effect of reactor surface on proc-
ess kinetics; application of hybrid computer for
chemical process simulation; the study of heat
transfer to bubbles rising in fluidized beds.
In our research efforts we are loosely organ-
ized on a group basis so that professors who have
a common interest may share projects, and, in
addition, carry out their own individual research.
For example, we have a group collectively
studying transport in dispersed systems. It hap-
pens that much of the mathematics and statisti-
cal modeling for individual studies in this area-
those for porous media, dispersion of drops, and
fluidization of solid particles-have a common
base; here we work together. We go on from
there to work individually. The result is a saving
of time, sharing of experience, more efficient use
of equipment-and, we think, a broadening of
the experience open to students. The value of the
system-for both students and faculty-is also
amplified by the ability to have group seminars
which become more workable because of the
sharing experience.
Graduate studies are not simply a continua-
tion of the scheme of undergraduate education at
a more advanced level, such as might be achieved
by a prescribed curriculum of advanced courses.


Rather, each student works out his own program
of self-education to meet his own special inter-
ests and needs. Apart from the student's efforts
to become professionally competent, he seeks to
develop and utilize his own intellectual and crea-
tive power and thus make his maximum contribu-
tion to society.
We are fortunate that the nine schools and
departments in the Schools of Engineering at
Purdue have the opportunity to engage in inter-
disciplinary research with each other and with
several special organizations such as the thermo-
physical properties research center, the labora-
tory for applied industrial control, the jet pro-
pulsion center and the bioengineering group.
Thus, our faculty and students are exposed to a
broad category of facilities and problems.

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM IS IN SEQUENCES
We have organized the chemical engineering
part of the undergraduate program into five se-
quences: transport; thermodynamics and kine-
tics; control; design, computer applications, and
optimization; and electives. We are fortunate
that our senior class usually numbers about 100,
enabling us to offer a series of elective courses
designed either to prepare students for graduate
school or for more intensive study of topics not
fully covered in the normal sequences.
While we have adopted the transport ap-
proach to teaching physical operations, we have
turned it around. We teach stage operations
first, the transfer operations, then the physics of
transport phenomena-the integral balances be-
fore the differential balances. We believe the stu-
dent will get a better hold on the whole subject
this way.
For our control sequence, we have a some-
what unusual laboratory which features several
micro experiments, an all-purpose experiment,
and analog computing equipment which may be
used for adaptive control of these experiments.
We have broken our senior design sequence
into two courses-the first of which emphasizes
the modern mathematical tools of economics and
optimization while the second course includes the
strategy of design and three different types of
computational sections from which the student
may choose: one emphasizing computer simula-
tion; another, the more classical approach to the
design of several small processes; the third, a
large case study brought in by an industrial
practitioner.


WINTER, 1969








We offer six elective courses-the students
must take two. Three are aimed at graduate
work; chemical equilibrium, applied chemical en-
gineering mathematics, computer simulation.
Three are more general; polymer science and en-
gineering, statistical design and analysis, petro-
leum refinery engineering.
Our junior and senior laboratories are parts
of definite course sequences. In this way, the
theory and techniques the student learns in class
are also studied physically in the laboratory. The
students measure transport properties in the
junior laboratory; the emphasis in the senior
laboratory is on synthesis and application of stu-
dents' knowledge to open-ended problems in
chemical engineering.
Our students are taught how to use the com-
puter as sophomores, and we are presently en-
gaged in including computer applications in every
undergraduate course. We have direct teletype
input to the CDC 6500 and IBM 7094 so students
can call programs at any time to calculate course
problems.
Approximately one-fourth of our students
participate in the Purdue Cooperative Engineer-
ing Education Program, spending alternate se-
mesters in formal class work and in one of 44
industrial companies. The association with in-
dustry and actual problems is a very valuable
addition to education. We find our co-op students
appreciate the fundamental flavor of their aca-


demic work.


CHEMISTRY IS IMPORTANT
Chemistry, of course, is the distinguishing
feature of a chemical engineering program, and
competence in chemistry as well as physics and
mathematics is the mark of a chemical engineer.
Although we are often in the noisy minority con-
cerning the role of chemistry in engineering, we
firmly believe the difference is a necessary one.
This tends to give us flexibility and identity as
well as a spirit of independence from the re-
mainder of engineering disciplines on campus.
This attribute is of value in the performance of
our job as liason between engineering and chem-
istry.
Looking back over these paragraphs and
comparing them to the comments we have all
heard, it is plain we are not "all things to all
people." We have problems, certainly-of time,
facilities, financing. These we live with and strive
to change, as did our predecessors and as will
those who follow us.
But we do believe scholarly activity and teach-
ing at a university must go hand-in-hand. We do
believe the best education is one based on science
and engineering fundamentals. We are convinced
we must show the student the best way to use
these fundamentals and implant in him the desire
to continue to learn throughout his professional
career.


views and opinions I


ERNEST J. HENLEY
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004

Professor Metcalfe in his excellent article
"Where Are The Engineers" proposes that we
reverse the trend of "declining acceptance of en-
gineering as a course of study" by "stronger re-
cruitment and greater retention of entering stu-
dents."* This is a very popular viewpoint. The
"grass roots" approach is strongly endorsed by
the AIChE, as has been pointed out by Kuebe
and Kovacs "More Chemical Engineers Neces-
sary: A Problem in Career Guidance."**
* T. B. Metcalfe, CEE, 2, 142, (1968).
**W. R. Kube and W. L. Kovacs, CEP, 64, No. 68, 95
(1968).


ON THE RECRUITMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Since past recruiting efforts have met with
only very limited or, at best, local success, it
seems appropriate to question the efficacy of this
approach. (There may also be a question of
ethics, but this is admittedly a highly debatable
point.) Personally, I am unenthusiastic about re-
cruiting activities because 1) in the long run,
all competitive advertisement must be self-
cancelling and 2) it has diverted our attention
from the real problem; one does not find a cure
for a disease by looking at the symptoms.
The average American engineering students
of the forties and fifties were first-generation
college students from 'blue collar' homes. The
status of being an engineer and the attending
salary were very meaningful to this "upward


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


ChESM










Professor Henley urges:
* Full implementation of ASEE Goals report,
followed by the establishment of engineering
graduate schools on a professional basis.
* More versatile undergraduate programs, de-
signed to attract the sons and daughters of col-
lege graduates and to encourage newer graduate
research areas.
* Stronger chemical engineering graduate pro-
grams in environmental, microelectronic, bio-
medical, or ocean engineering.
* AIChE disapproval of graduate work in de-
parftments that have less than thirty graduate
students and ten faculty members.
* The requirement of one year of introductory
undergraduate work in the U. S. before admis-
sion of foreign students to graduate school.



mobile" segment of the population. It is my con-
tention that one of the primary defects of our
present engineering programs is that we are still
attracting primarily this shrinking segment of
the college population. We are failing to 'trade
up.' We are not attracting the sons and daugh-
ters of college graduates. The engineering col-
lege at too many of our 'prestige' universities has
become the campus stepchild.
As a group, we appear to be caught in a quag-
mire of reactionary thinking, and I fear that
unless we take a few risks and make fundamental
changes, our programs will not attract the type
of students we want and industry needs. Un-
fortunately, too many of the students we have
now in engineering have a clearly defined, bread-
and-butter attitude toward their studies. We
need a few hippie types !
As Professor Metcalfe clearly points out, the
growth has moved away from the traditional
engineering fields. Chemical engineering is losing
its viability, and the situation is deteriorating, not
improving. It is sad to note that the number of
chemical engineering departments that have been
able to make contributions to, or to mount sig-
nificant programs in the newer fields such as
environmental, microelectronic, biomedical, or
oceanographic engineering is close to zero. What
is even more deplorable is the large number of
departments which have started programs in
these areas and failed, or even worse, have in-
adequately staffed and funded programs. By and
large, we have not succeeded in creating an en-
vironment in which new programs can become
self-sustaining.


Having stated, in a general way, the malaise
from which we suffer, I would like to briefly pin-
point some of the more serious illnesses in our
current graduate and undergraduate programs
and some of the things we can do to correct them.
Most of these problems are cited and documented
in the ASEE Goals Study whose critics have
chosen to adopt an "I'm all right Jack" attitude
even though it is abundantly clear that we are
not attracting the type and numbers of students
the industry needs.
* Graduate Programs - The ma j o r i t y of
graduate programs are too small, too fragmented,
and too undernourished to offer its too-few stu-
rents an exciting educational experience, or the
opportunity to do meaningful research. Too
many of the student research projects produce
information which is new to the student, but of
questionable value to the skilled practitioner.
The student knows this, and is discouraged by it.
As a symptom of this situation, consider the
desultory chemical engineering seminar as it
exists at too many institutions; student partici-
pation is practically nil; the majority of the staff
does not attend.
The bread-and-butter aspects that character-
ize undergraduate education at many schools has
infiltrated a large number of the graduate
schools. The situation is appreciably aggravated
by the high percentage of foreign students at
many schools. It is my contention that the ma-
jority of the Asian foreign students should be
admitted to graduate school only after first com-
pleting one year of indoctrinary undergraduate
work in the United States. The very large per-
centage of foreign students (greater than 20
percent) at some schools is unhealthy; they can-
not be assimilated. A young professor from a
university in Missouri told me that when he tried
to recruit one of his own seniors for graduate
school the boy turned to him and said, "Gee,
Professor, I thought graduate school was only for
foreign students!"
Many of the difficulties stemming from the
lack of excitement and intellectual stimulation
at many engineering schools could be surmounted
by increased institutional specialization and a
more general pooling of resources. A five man
department with research specialties in fluid dy-
namics, control theory, air pollution, kinetics,
and mass transfer probably has no viable pro-
gram in any of these fields; a department with
five men working on related catalysis problems


WINTER, 1969








Our average graduate has had the
benefit of neither a sound cultural nor a
good scientific education. He is as
ignorant of lasers and holography as he
is of music and poetry.

should achieve a leading position in its field. (As
a point of fact, I do not believe that the AIChE
should permit graduate work in departments that
have less than thirty graduate students and ten
faculty members.)
We should also recognize that students who
are taking three or four stiff courses cannot si-
multaneously do good research. We are making
a rat race out of our graduate programs by over-
loading the students to the point where they have
no time for outside reading or the pursuit of
intellectual interests.
* Undergraduate Programs - Too often these
represent academic straight jackets and, as such,
are outmoded and rejected by the type of stu-
dents we would like to have. Our average gradu-
ate has had the benefit of neither a sound cultural
nor a good scientific education. He is as ignorant
of lasers and holography as he is of music and
poetry. His education lacks versatility.
The undergraduate students' lack of versatil-
ity is a major contributing factor to the inability
of graduate engineering departments to move
into new academic and research areas. Whether
we like it or not, we are trapped in a cycle which
has proven veritably impossible to break. It is
very difficult to convince a chemical engineer
graduate student to do research on anything
except heat, mass, and momentum transfer, con-
trol, or kinetics.
I believe that many of the major problems
discussed here can be alleviated by the full im-
plementation of the Goals Report, followed by the
establishment of engineering graduate schools on
a professional basis. Michigan State's success
in attracting an increased number of students
following a major curriculum reform holds a les-
son for all of us.* The recent liberalization of
course requirements at Michigan, Northwestern,
Minnesota, Ohio State, Pennsylvania, and Lehigh
are salutory. Failure to make major changes in
our programs and our approach to engineering
education must result in a continuing erosion in
the quality and quantity of students attracted
into engineering in general and chemical engin-
eering in particular.
*C & E News, Aug. 28, 59, (1968).


Join THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR
ENGINEERING EDUCATION

My- I M IPRSN 8SFlaws


W. Leighton Collins, Executive Secretary
The American Society for Engineering Education
2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, North West
Washington, D. C. 20037
Dear Mr. Collins,
Please send me an ASEE application blank
I would like to join the Chemical Engineering
Division.


Name
Address


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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


-- - - - - - - -


i





The world of Union Oil

salutes the world

of chemical engineering


We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges
and universities which educate chemical engineers.
Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute
immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The twenty-ninth largest manufacturing company in
the United States, with operations throughout
the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas
in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's
Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro-
chemicals throughout the free world.
Our research scientists are constantly discovering new
ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted
more than 2,700 U.S. patents.
We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such
diverse projects as developing new refining processes,
developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and
the conservation of air and water.
Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic.
Tomorrow will be even more stimulating.
Thanks largely to people who join us from leading
institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and
challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil?
Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.



unlmn









ENGINEERING AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS

Directions for Education and Research

E. H. BLUM
(Continued from page 9)


DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH
Even if engineers (and social scientists) were
to agree in principle that they should consider
social (and technical) objectives and conse-
quences, most would not be likely actually to do
so if they did not know how. Concomitantly,
lacking a tradition that demands the larger per-
spective, most would not feel impelled to develop
new methods and expand their field of view once
they found that their current methods were in-
adequate. One of the main reasons, or excuses,
advanced by practitioners in the separate disci-
plines for not working in the joint area of en-
gineering and public affairs is the lack of ade-
quate methodology, and one of the main reasons
advanced for not working on methodology is the,
lack of overt demand.
We can break this circular deadlock either by
developing methodology or by creating effective
demand, e.g., by requiring better research on
important questions. Because we now know lit-
tle about multi-disciplinary research, methodol-
ogy developed in a vacuum is likely to be sterile.
The best methodology, we might surmise, will
ensure from concerted, high-quality efforts to
solve important problems. Methods will arise
from such efforts because the problems will de-
mand them, much the way "systems analysis"
arose at The RAND Corporation and aerospace
companies because large-scale defense and space
problems required something new.
Virtually every topic listed in the previous
section abounds with problems that require re-
search. I would like here to call particular at-
tention to some that may not be well known.
Housing and Construction: Since the industry
is now highly fragmented and oriented toward
short-term profits, research and innovation have
had little impact. Builders thus far have made
little use of "systems analysis", new materials,
1Building codes have traditionally been singled out as
major villains. A new building code that permits the use
of new materials, a so-called performance code, has re-
cently been adopted in New York City.


or new methods of construction. Much of this
slow adaptation seems to have been due to politi-
cal and institutional obstacles, lack of venture
capital, and social inertia.1 New ideas and ap-
proaches, accounting for the strong interaction
between engineering and public affairs, could
initiate a true revolution in our ways of costs of
living. (Our current houses and communities are
surely not the penultimate). Indeed, since the
field seems ripe for substantial innovations, pri-
vate industry should find it most attractive, once
the ideas are developed. There seem to be excel-
lent chances for the ventursome to make large
(legitimate) profits, so that government need not
shoulder the entire housing load.
Clothing: Several thousand years ago, when
our current concepts of clothing were formed,
only natural materials slightly refined from
their natural state -were available to be used.
Understandably, then, clothing's functions and
forms were tailerod to accentuate these materials'
strengths and minimize their weaknesses. Today,
even though we have hundreds of radically new
materials available, we retain, without much
modification, patterns shaped to meet entirely
different needs. We still regard polymeric ma-
terials as "synthetic fibers," to be spun, cut, and
formed in traditional ways as direct substitutes
for wool, silk, flax, cotton, and leather. Perhaps
we should re-examine clothing's basic objectives
-functional (control temperature and ventila-
tion "comfortably," provide physical support,
etc.) and aesthetic-to see how we might revise
our concepts of clothing to take special advantage
of the new materials' properties. (That is, we
should overcome the "hidden persuaders" of tra-
dition and design inertia.) These new concepts
not only might free us from current technical
limitations (e.g., permanently bulky materials for
Arctic wear, or extensive wardrobes for variable
climates) but also might liberate artistic imagina-
tions to create entirely new styles. The rapid
adoption of inexpensive nonwoven fabrics (used
in so-called paper garments) would indicate that


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








A person educated in engineering and public affairs has the skills to understand technical and social
phenomena and their interaction . . . to formulate and test predictive models for the phenomena and their
interaction . . . to understand and be able to work with the environment... to apply systematic methods for
analyzing and synthesizing complex, interacting, large scale systems, in which many things may be uncertain.


popular acceptance under the right conditions
should pose few serious problems.
Institutional adaptation: Limiting rates of in-
formation flow that govern the diffusion of new
ideas, new patterns, and new technologies in or-
ganizations are dimly understood. We need re-
search to discover what would be ideal or near-
ideal conditions, and to find management princi..
ples to speed the diffusion process, to make
change simpler and more effective.
Radical Change: While we seem to under-
stand fairly well how to deal with marginal
change (i.e., with small improvements in our cur-
rent ways of doing things), we still seem quite
ill-equipped to understand and deal with radical
change, with totally new developments, such as
the automobile, the jet airplane, and the com-
puter, that permit us to do what could not be
done before. We have not done well at predicting
even their effects on technology, and we have
done far less well at anticipating their interac-
tion with public affairs (what we could term the
public adjustment and control problem). While
American society seems to have survived this
poor anticipation (although it shows a few
bruises), some less-developed societies (for whom
the changes have been even more radical) have
not proved so resilient. Research into the nature
of radical change could be most fruitful.
Medicine: In the area of engineering and
public affairs, medicine offers considerable chal-
lenge in public health, waste management, diag-
nostics, hospital and clinic location, financing, and
organization, child-care and geriatric-care sys-
tems, etc. In the area of child-care, for example,
one might examine the means, costs, benefits,
social ramifications, policy implications, etc., of
providing thorough medical-psychiatric attention
to young children, especially to those children
who now receive no attention at all, (Part of the
current difficulty stems from a "profession prob-
lem" not unlike that faced among bureaucracies
and in parts of engineering.)
Science, Technology, and National Power: It
seems ironic that, in the midst of clamor about a
"technology gap" and concern over nuclear pro-
liferation, few people are seriously examining the
relations between science, technology and na-
tional power. Indeed, economists have acknowl-
WINTER, 1969


edged only recently the major role technology has
played in American economic growth, and most
of their models to date have been correlative
rather than explanatory, so that extrapolation to
other countries or to the future will be difficult.
At the national-international level, it is hard to
imagine a much more important area for re-
search. And since it involves detailed interaction
between technology and public policy, it demands
an approach that transcends either engineering
or public affairs alone.

DIRECTIONS FOR EDUCATION:
Although no doubt much engineering-public
affairs work will be carried out by multi-disciplin-
ary teams composed largely of specialists, we also
appear to need individuals professionally trained
in both engineering and public affairs. Within
this genre, we might aim for either of two initial
"products," depending on the student's inclina-
tions and abilities:
(1) A "sophisticated engineer" aware of the
total design context and of legal, politi-
cal, economic, and social considerations.
(2) A public affairs-oriented person well
versed in the procedures and uses of sci-
ence and technology and in scientific
methods of decision-making.
Both types of training would seem to be valu-
able for research and analysis on problems involv-
ing strong engineering-public affairs interaction.
And both might also be valuable for policy for-
mulation and administration in the area of en-
gineering and public affairs. The "sophisticated
engineer," for example, might have a particular
advantage as a project manager on technical
projects of social concern.
Worthwhile projects require the cooperation
of people with a wide variety of backgrounds-
engineers, economists, political scientists, socio-
logists, architects, lawyers, etc.-and must have
a project leader who can coordinate their efforts.
To coordinate effectively, the project leader must
be able to see the problem as a whole and be able
to place the most important specialized sub-prob-
lems in the relevant total context. He should
have professional competence (although not
necessarily expertise) in economics and politics,
and be able to organize and hold the respect of a
39








Limiting rates of information flow that govern
the diffusion of new ideas, new patterns, and new
technologies in organizations are dimly understood.

team of diverse specialists, to make certain that
their contributions work together as efficiently
as possible toward the overall objectives.
The scientifically versed public affairs person
might be most valuable if he worked in areas
where there are important scientific and techni-
cal problems, but where technically trained peo-
ple designated as such have not been given im-
portant policy-making responsibility (as, for ex-
ample, in foreign policy). The man's public af-
fairs training would give him proper credentials.
With these credentials he would be able to draw
on his technical background to bring scientific
and technical considerations into larger policy-
making roles. To be effective, however, and to be
able to sell his ideas in the face of opposition, he
could need more than cursory technical exposure
appended to a social science education. His tech-
nical abilities and credentials also must be of high
quality.
To deal with these problems, the students of
both types should be skilled in analysis and ex-
perienced, through research and summer work,
in using analysis to achieve realistic or "practi-
cal" goals. At the minimum, they should be profi-
cient in engineering and economic analysis. If
possible, they should be proficient in a number
of other social sciences as well. To be most effec-
tive, their analytical skills should be long-lived.
Thus, we should stress fundamental principles
and relevant mathematics, so that the students
will be prepared to cope effectively with tomor-
row's technology and the problems it will bring.
In general, we might say that engineering
and public affairs education should prepare a
student to
(a) Possess the tools needed to obtain a quan-
tative understanding of technical and so-
cial phenomena and their interaction.
(b) Be able to formulate and test predictive
"models" for the phenomena and their
interactions.
(c) Understand and be able to work with the
environment.
(d) Understand and be able to apply syste-
matic methods for analyzing and synthe-
sizing complex, interacting, large-scale
systems, in which many things may be
uncertain.


PRINCETON UNIVERSITY'S PROGRAM:
Princeton University's program in the area
of engineering and public affairs is still under de-
velopment. At this point it consists of several
alternative routes:
* First, Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of
Public and International Affairs gives careful
consideration to applicants who have completed
their undergraduate work in engineering, science,
or mathematics but who look forward to careers
in public affairs requiring preparation in social
science.
* Second, the University encourages a person
who has earned his Master's degree in a technical
or scientific discipline but who does not wish to
work professionally in this discipline to develop
his skills by supplementing his technical educa-
tion with academic work in public affairs.
� Third, the University encourages scientists
and engineers with some years of professional
experience to enroll in the public affairs program.
These people may then develop important careers
in public programs that require not only technical
competence but applied social science knowledge
as well.
0 Fourth, the Woodrow Wilson School encour-
ages technically educated persons with a strong
interest in systematic analysis applied to govern-
mental programs to enroll in the public affairs
graduate program, where they may, in coopera-
tion with the School of Engineering and Applied
Science, strengthen their technical and analytical
skills and learn to apply them creatively to vari-
ous governmental programs.
� Fifth, a student who wants to undertake
graduate study simultaneously in engineering,
and public affairs may follow a combined pro-
gram of study approved by the School of Engi-
neering and Applied Science and the Woodrow
Wilson School. He may qualify for both a Mas-
ter's degree in Engineering and a Master's degree
in Public Affairs.
In addition, engineering graduate students
interested in public affairs are encouraged to en-
roll in those graduate courses at the Woodrow
Wilson School for which they are qualified.
Thus far, Princeton has had about a dozen
students who have completed the formal two-
degree joint program and many others who have
followed their options. Although it is too early
to tell whether their joint training has indeed
helped them, the few indications available appear
encouraging.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






would you like to write "The


Formation of Perhydrophenalenes


and Polyalkyladamantanes


by Isomerization of


Tricyclic Perhydroaromatics?"


How's that again? Well, never mind
-Bob Warren, Ed Janoski, and Abe
Schneider already wrote it. They're
chemists in Sun Oil Company's Re-
search and Development Department.
Their paper is just one of many re-
sulting from imaginative and origi-
nal basic research conducted at Sun
Oil.
Maybe basic research and technical
papers aren't your cup of tea. But
isn't the kind of company that in-
vests in and encourages such projects
the kind of company you'd like to
work for?
Especially when the company does
things like pioneer the $235 million


Athabasca oil sands project in North-
ern Alberta to multiply the world's
petroleum resources; plan a new $125
million processing facility in Puerto
Rico; expand the Toledo Refinery to
the tune of $50 million; sponsor the
"Sunoco Special" and the racing team
of Roger Penske and Mark Donohue
in big league sports car racing to
competition-prove and improve Sun-
oco products for the public; pursue a
continuing program for air and water
pollution control; beautify Sunoco
service stations everywhere.
Sunoco is geared for growth. We
need men and women to grow with
us and build a future. We have open-


ings in Exploration, Production,
Manufacturing, Research, Engineer-
ing, Sales, Accounting, Economics,
and Computer Operation. Locations
- Philadelphia, Toledo and Dallas
areas.
You may write us for an appoint-
ment, write for our book "Sunoco
Career Opportunities Guide," or con-
tact your College Placement Director
to see Sun's representative when on
campus. SUN OIL COMPANY, Indus-
trial Relations Dept. CED, 1608 Wal-
nut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 or
P. O. Box 2880, Dallas, Texas 75221.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F .









laboratory



TAYLOR-AXIAL DIFFUSION

ROBERT R. HUDGINS
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
The phenomenon of axial diffusion is very
important to the understanding of chemical re-
actors and pipeline flow. Yet, the opportunities
for visualizing this phenomenon are few. All too
often the student must accept a textbook descrip-
tion of axial diffusion without ever being able to
observe it. An experiment is described which
permits such observation using inexpensive ap-
paratus to give results of reasonable accuracy.

THE EXPERIMENT
The apparatus, shown schematically in Fig. 1,
is a modification of that used by G. I. Taylor* in
his original experiments with axial dispersion in
laminar flow. A capillary tube 200 cm in length
and about 0.05 cm inside diameter is used. Tracer
material is injected into the tube through an
axially mounted hypodermic needle of diameter
smaller than the capillary bore. The tracer ma-
terial is a solution of from 1 to 4 per cent potas-
sium permanganate. The flow may be set ap-
proximately at any desired value by trial and er-
ror. A small bubble of air is injected into the
capillary through the syringe, and its progress
is timed through a measured length. The eleva-
tion of the pressurizing bulb and the opening of
the needle valve are adjusted for the desired flow.
The average velocity Um is accurately determined,
however, from the progress downstream of the
centroid x, of the tracer patch.
At this point, the student should calculate the
Reynolds number (Re = dump/I, where d= inside
diameter of the capillary, p = density of the li-
quid, and t = viscosity of the liquid) to verify
that the flow is laminar (Re < 2300).
With water flowing at this known velocity,
the syringe is filled with KMnO solution and a
small sample injected into the moving stream.
One or two tries are generally required for the
student to learn to inject a dark slug of KMnO0
solution into the stream without causing back-
*Taylor, G. I., Proc. Roy Soc., A219, 186 (1953).


Robert R. Hudgins is assistant professor and associate
chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. He
received his BASc (1959) and MASc (1960) degrees
from University of Toronto, and his PhD from Princeton
University (1964). His research interests are kinetics,
catalysis, and reactor design.


3 .�2

5
9
Fig. 1. - APPARATUS - 1, capillary tube; 2, fluorescent bulb; 3,
hypodermic syringe; 4, hypodermic needle; 5, serum cap; 6 tracer
solution; 7, rubber tube; 8, pressurizing bulb; 9, comparison tube;
10, stopcock "S"; 11, needle-valve; 12, water reservoir.
flow towards the water reservoir. In our experi-
ence, however, this method of preparing tracer
pulses is more convenient and accurate than the
original technique of Taylor. After several min-
utes, during which the axial concentration gra-
dient is established, a stopcock "S" is closed, flow
is stopped and the axial concentration profile is
measured using comparison tubes of different
strengths of KMnO4 solution. Comparison tubes
are cut from the capillary stock material in about
10 cm lengths, and filled with various strengths
of KMnO4 solution prepared by diluting the
tracer solution with water to form solutions of
the following strengths: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15,
20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 per cent
of the tracer solution. An adequate measurement
can be made using only the solutions above the
10 per cent level; however, the tails of the Gaus-
sian distribution will be sacrificed from the ob-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









servations. In making a comparison, some stu-
dents find it convenient to construct a piece of
paper with a vertical slit about 2 mm wide, and
long enough to fit across both the main capillary
and the comparison tube. The slit is moved back
and forth to where the colors in the two tubes
are identical and the x-coordinate of that com-
position is recorded. The tubes are illuminated
from behind by means of a 4-ft 40 watt fluores-
cent bulb, which provides very uniform lighting.
After the measurements have been made at
the first station, stopcock "S" is reopened and
flow is resumed until the tracer has moved sub-
stantially further downstream. The flow is again
stopped, and the axial concentration profile re-
corded. Typical results are shown in Fig. 2.
From these data, estimates are made of the axial
dispersion coefficient k, and the molecular dif-
fusivity D of KMnO4 in water.

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
Before a simple analytical solution may be
obtained for the axial concentration profile, the
radial concentration gradient must decay to a
fraction of their initial values. At that time the
average axial concentration gradient relative to
a coordinate xl travelling with the mean velocity
of the fluid is given by the Gaussian expression:*
M 1
C (4kt)12 exp [--(x-x) /4kt] (1)

where M = mass of solute in the tracer pulse,
A = cross sectional area of the tube (7a2), k =
the effective axial dispersion coefficient, x = axial
coordinate, x,= the x-coordinate of the centroid
of the tracer patch at time t. t is the accumulated
time of flow from the moment the tracer is in-
jected. From any concentration profile, the value
of x, is conveniently determined by averaging the
distances between points having the same con-
centration. From Equation (1),


M 1 _ (x - x)2
In C = n A (4,kt) 1/2 4kt


Concentration profiles are recorded at two differ-
ent points in the tube, and the resulting slopes
are combined to give:

k 1 1 - (t t 1 1 (3)
4 S1 S2 t 2

According to Taylor's theory,

k = a u2 (4)
192 D
where a is the radius of the capillary, u, is the
maximum velocity, which in laminar flow equals
2 Um. From Equation (4) the molecular diffusion
coefficient D for KMnO1 in water may be calcu-
lated.
This experiment is very helpful in demon-
strating the role of radial concentration gradi-
ents. It can be easily seen from its radial con-
centration profile that the tracer patch moves
down the capillary with a pointed front and a


z

z
0


U







1 t
t =


0

0

Z
0

I-.
rr



U

0f


-J
w;


(2)


Thus, a plot may be made of In C versus (x-x) 2


as in Fig. 3 from which the slope s =


*This solution is analogous to that for molecular dif-
fusion from an instantaneous planar source of tracer
into a stationary medium, as given by J. Crank, The
Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford University Press, 1956.
In the stationary case, the general dispersion constant k
is replaced by the molecular diffusivity D.


100

80

60-

40

20 -


40 50 60 70 110 120 130 140 150
X-COORDINATE cm
2. - STUDENT DATA FOR CONCENTRATION PROFILES - Curve
= 840 sec; x, = 53.0 cm; Curve II:
2340 sec; x, = 129.3 cm.


100 2C
(X-XI)2 cm2


Fig. 3. - LINEARIZATION OF THE GAUSSIAN PROFILE, (Curve II).


WINTER, 1969


t








hollow rear. When flow is stopped, the radial
profile quickly disappears. Estimated from the
Einstein relation,* this time of disappearance
should be in the order of 20 sec in the present
system. After flow is restarted, the radial con-
centration profile reappears. The student can
witness the formation of the axial concentration
gradient by noting the presence of a non-uniform
laminarr) velocity profile and a small radial
variation in concentration both in front of and
behind the tracer patch. The fact that the radial
concentration gradient has decayed to a fraction
of its initial value, while remaining the cause of
the axial spreading frequently seems paradoxical
to a student who has not seen the dispersion
phenomenon. However, actual observation of the
dispersing tracer during its journey helps resolve
this paradox.
It is a straightforward matter to derive an
alternative to Equation (1) to describe a step-
input tracer rather than a puse tracer. In prac-
tice, however, our experience indicates that step
inputs of about 4% KMnO, solution do not fit
the predicted results as well as pulse inputs in a
horizontal tube. The discrepancy would appear
to result from small density differences between
water and KMnO, solution. The use of pulse
tracers obviates this difficulty to a large extent.
Finally, Taylor showed that the characteristic
Gaussian pattern did not appear until the follow-
ing inequality was satisfied:

a2
L/uo << 3.82
3.82D
An order of magnitude estimate is required for D
initially, to estimate how long flow must proceed
before the axial concentration profile will become
Gaussian. Using the calculated value of the mo-
lecular diffusivity, it must finally be verified that
the above inequality was, in fact, obeyed.
For the results shown in Fig. 1, the molecular
diffusion coefficient was calculated to be 0.7 x
10-5 cm2/sec which compares favourably with
Taylor's value of 0.80 x 10-5 cmisec.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author wishes to acknowledge the assist-
ance of Messrs. J. Buchanan and V. Arunachalam
in setting up and developing the apparatus.

*D=x2/27, where x2 is mean square displacement and
T the time over which the displacement occurs. We may
set x2 _ a2 for present purposes.


problems for teachers

The following problem on transport phenomena
were contributed by Professor Ray Fahien, University
of Florida.
A nuclear engineer is interested in predicting
the temperature buildup in a nuclear reactor in
which an annular fuel element is cooled by main-
taining the inner and outer walls at a tempera-
ture To. The fuel element is initially at To also.
At time t = 0, the nuclear reaction is permitted
to take place and heat is liberated in the annulus
at a rate (assume constant) of S,(Btu/ft3-hr).
a. Show how his problem is analogous to the
momentum transport problem of unsteady state
flow in an annulus of radii R, and R2, of an in-
compressible fluid of density p and viscosity [,
with a velocity in the z direction of v. and under
a pressure drop (including gravity) of (po--PL-
pgL)/L.
b. Write expressions for the total heat trans-
port Q Btu/hr from the reactor walls and for the
analogous momentum quantity. Repeat for the
average velocity V and the analogous energy
quantity.
c. Show how a knowledge of V (t) can be
used to obtain Q(t).
d. Show that this analogy can also be used
in more complicated systems such as those in
which several cooling tubes penetrate a cylin-
drical fuel element even though an analytical
solution is not possible. Derive the general re-
lation between V and Q and outline a procedure
whereby experimental data on V can be used to
obtain Q. State which dimensionless variables
should or should not be made the same in each
system.


LETTERS


(Continued from page 29)


the near-endless font of tax dollars diverting engineering
teachers into science research and gradautes into massive
science-oriented programs is costing industry so much of
the basic engineering talent needed for the expansion
and profits to pay the taxes and clean up our environ-
ment. If more "scientific engineers" were trained, the
outlook for our companies, plants and cities would be
healthier.
Rex T. Ellington, Mgr.
Sinclair Oil Corp.
Editor: The article by Dr. Sleicher entitled "Humanities
and Social Science In Engineering Curricula" in the
Spring, 1968 edition of Chemical Engineering Education
was read with interest. Having been exposed to some 18
years of industrial experience with two major United
States corporations, the need for development of "values"


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









is readily apparent to me.
How many companies will deliberately avoid develop-
ment of products primarily geared towards destruction of
fellow human beings?
How many industries will take the lead in controlling
pollution, even when the cost will reduce profits and divi-
dends, at least for several years?
How many individual engineers will consciously turn
the attention of management toward their worthy peers,
even at the risk of being passed by themselves?
How many graduate students and their advisors would
refrain from early publication of a research effort, to
avoid destroying the efforts of another group or institu-
tion working in a similar field?
In other words, how many of us at any level of our
society are more interested in others than in ourselves?
Can courses in humanities change these basic patterns of
human behavior? Or is a far more drastic, more un-
popular and more "unsettling" change needed? And
could it be that even 2000 years later, the needed change
still begins and ends with the Person who said, "So what-
ever you wish that men would do to you, do so to them,
for this is the law and the prophets."
Leigh E. Nelson
Hastings, Minn.

Editor:
It is gratifying to find that there are others who
assert the validity of a macroscopic derivation of the
basic equations of irreversible thermodynamics. How-
ever, it is not immediately obvious why Professor Wallis
considers his derivation more correct conceptually and
more useful in practice than ours[CEE, 2, No. 3, 109-112
(1968)]. The question of using the idea of "lost work"
as opposed to the "rate of entropy generation per unit
volume" involves something more than a matter of taste
despite the fact that Iw-TS,. (It is not clear how Pro-
fessor Wallis distinguishes between the system property,
S, and entropy production, Sp.)
The assumptions inherent in Professor Wallis' Equa-
tions (1) and (2) are certainly not less tenable than the
assumptions of the bilinear form of the entropy produc-
tion and the restricted definitions of the fluxes and forces
in the microscopic derivation according to Onsager. How-
ever, such assumptions must be examined for generality.
Although at this point in the derivation there are no
limitations imposed on the magnitude of the fluxes or
forces, our derivation shows that lost work (or entropy
production) can be treated as an exact differential only
for the case of discontinuous or steady state systems in
which no work is transferred at any stage of the process.
Further extension to other processes can be made only
as approximations to special cases.
Aside from these details, the critical point in Profes-
sor Wallis' derivation, as well as ours, is the utilization
of the concept of an exact differential, the significance
of which has been apparently overlooked in previous
derivations based on the microscopic approach.
As a final point, Professor Wallis raises the question
"of just why 's' should be a homogeneous function of the
second degree in the fluxes or potentials." In an earlier
paper [Sliepcevich and Finn, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund.
Quart. 2, 249 (1963)], we attempted to show that the
assumption of small fluxes or forces leads to an arbitrary


analytic function for which all terms of higher order than
two can be neglected as a first approximation. However,
such a series expansion raises some questions as to the
method of combining the terms without making some a
priori assumptions regarding symmetry. On the other
hand, to the extent that lost work can be represented as
a quadratic in either the fluxes and forces, it seems
reasonable to conclude from our Equation (3), and the
basic postulates following it, that lost work is a homo-
geneous function of the second degree in the fluxes or
forces.
In summary, the principal difference between our
derivation and the one proposed by Professor Wallis is
that we have attempted to show how, and under what
conditions, the functional form of lost work arises as a
direct consequence of the mass, energy and entropy bal-
ances and the Gibbs' equation. We prefer this approach
rather than simply asserting the form of the function.
C. M. Sliepcevich
University of Oklahoma

Editor:
I have noted with some dismay the continued claims
by C. M. Sliepcevich and co-workers to having achieved
a derivation of the Onsager reciprocal relations of irre-
versible thermodynamics from macroscopic principles
alone. In-as-much as it is well known that this cannot
be done without the benefit of additional microscopic
information such as time reversibility in the dynamics of
molecular encounters, it is tempting to pass these claims
off as being preposterous were it not for their reputation
and their potential for misleading the uninitiated. As
noted by the authors of the most recent publication, a
negation of their macroscopic "derivation" was offered
previously by F. C. Andrews, but this criticism has been
inconclusive. The matter of whether lost work could be
regarded under certain prescribed conditions as being
path independent is treated correctly by Sliepcevich et. al.
The actual error in the recent publication occurs as
follows: having concluded that the lost work has the
generic form


dg = X dx + Y dy


(1.1)


with dg an exact differential and X. Y the affinities or
&driving forces for transfer conjugate to x and y, the
authors use the special case or "rate form" of (1.1)
namely


dg g Xx + Yy = X dx+ dy
do do do


(1.2)


together with the postulate that g assumes the quadratic
form


g = ax + fxy + yy


(2.1)


with dependence of a, 8, y upon state variables per-
mitted. The argument proceeds by using Eulers theorem
to reexpress (2.1) as


g = [ax + - 3y] x + [ 23 + yy] y


(2.2)


WINTER, 1969










dg = gd - = [ax + 2 P y] xdo


+ [1 x + yy] yd (2.3)

Then by assuming that dx = xd0 and dy - yd0 may be
regarded as independent differentials in (2.3), the square
bracket coefficients of (2.3) are compared with (1.1) to
conclude that


X = ax+ 2-

from which

1
yX - 2 fY

(ay --- 2)
(y 4 p)


2 Y- x+yy



1
-2 PY + aX

(ay - 4- 2)


obey the reciprocity relation. This procedure is, of course,
equivalent to identifying the square bracket coefficients

of x and y in (2.2) individually with X and Y in (1.2),
and is clearly invalid for one could just as well have
written (2.2) as

g = [ax - py] x + [yy] y (2.4)


and concluded by the same argument
form


the asymmetrical


X = ax + py


Y = yy


The difficulty with the procedure is that in (2.1)
there is but one independent variation, that of the time
parameter 0. The source of the difficulty may be traced

to the fact that (2.1) with g positive definite is not a
proper statement of the postulate of irreversible thermo-
dynamics. Rather, it is necessary to proceed from (1.2)

with the postulate that the fluxes, x and y are linear in
the affinities, X and Y. to deduce (2.1). Ovbiously the
values of a, p, y are determined by the symmetrical por-
tion of the phenomenological matrix alone, and no amount

of manipulating the g forms can yield conclusions about
the remainder of the phenomenological matrix. Although

we have the restriction that g is positive definite, there

is nothing to say that g be an "even function" of x and y.
Finally, your authors seem not to have recognized that
if molecular models are even conceivable which violate
microscopic reversibility and yet are compatible with the
phenomenological approach, one need go no further to
conclude that the macroscopic theory per se has no more
inherent capability of predicting reciprocal relations than
it has of predicting numerical values of transport coeffi-
cients, short of direct measurement.
Duane W. Condiff
Carnegie-Mellon University


Acknowledgments
In lieu of advertising, the follow-
ing have donated funds for the sup-
port of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
EDUCATION:
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Mallinckrodt Chemical Works
The Procter and Gamble Company
Standard Oil (Indiana) Foundation
The Stauffer Chemical Company
Educational institutions:
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University of Alberta
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University of Arkansas
Brigham Young University
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Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Bucknell University
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Yale University

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









news

A symposim entitled "A Critical Review of
the Foundations of Relativistic and Classical
Thermodynamics" will be held April 7-8, 1969 at
the University of Pittsburgh. Professor I. Prigo-
gine will be the keynote speaker and Professors
A. C. Eringen, E. A. Guggenheim and P. T.
Landsberg will deliver papers of paramount im-
portance. The symposium will probe the funda-
mental concepts, ideas, postulates, and laws of
thermodynamics in depth. International partici-
pation is expected. For additional information
contact: Dr. Alan J. Brainard, Dept. of Chemical
and Petroleum Engineering, 103 State Hall, Uni-
versity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Penn. 15213.


ACS Aids the Disadvantaged
The Council of the American Chemical So-
ciety at its San Francisco meeting in April 1968
recognized the needs of the disadvantaged seg-
ment of our population in relation to unemploy-
ment and lack of education. In mid-summer a
special Subcommittee on Education and Employ-
ment of Disadvantaged Persons (Project SEED)
assembled a biracial panel of ACS leaders to seek
out specific ideas, programs, and courses of action
by which colleges and universities, the chemical
industry, and the ACS could assist disadvantaged
persons.
Specific proposals for ACS action now being
considered in depth by Project SEED task force
groups are as follows:
* Education in Writing Research Proposals
and Grants - This task force will con-
sider ways to assist small colleges, par-
ticularly Negro colleges, in writing pro-
posals for research and teaching grants;
* Industrial Summer Trainees - This group
will consider ways to encourage the lower-
ing of requirements for industrial summer
trainees and suggest a mechanism to en-
courage industry to expand its summer
hiring program overall.
* Education of High School Guidance Coun-
selors - This task force will consider a
program to describe to guidance counse-
lors, particularly in disadvantaged areas,
the career opportunities in science.
* Project Catalyst - Last summer, the ACS
sponsored a pilot program in which 10


disadvantaged students were employed for
the summer at college or university labo-
ratories. This task force will evaluate last
summer's program and make plans for a
similar program for next summer to in-
volve perhaps as many as 500 underprivi-
leged students. The task force is also ex-
pected to consider the possibility of a
winter Project Catalyst program in which
jobs will be provided for high school stu-
dents in university laboratories in the
afternoons or evenings.
* Technicians Employment Service-The task
force will try to determine if the ACS
could develop a technicians employment
service to provide hiring and training
assistance to disadvantaged people.
* Veterans Training and Employment Pro-
grams - Returning veterans from disad-
vantaged areas are constantly faced with
the problem of lack of job opportunities.
The task force will attempt to develop
plans which can be implemented in coop-
eration with the ACS local sections and
with local industries to provide meaning-
ful training and hiring programs to bene-
fit returning veterans.
* Refresher Training for Graduates from
Small, Less Efficient Colleges - This task
force will attempt to develop a plan or
program for providing refresher training
for graduates of these schools to enable
them to meet the requirements and stand-
ards of graduate schools.
* Upgrading Small Colleges-This task force
will investigate ways in which the ACS
might act to upgrade the smaller institu-
tions and provide the necessary resources
and advice to assist these small schools.
* Tutorial Assistance - This task force is
endeavoring to establish a national pro-
gram to provide tutorial assistance to
disadvantaged students at all levels.
Each of the task force groups will also con-
sider the relationship of the proposal under study
to other programs which may be presently under
way in other organizations.
This information was furnished by Dr. Steph-
en T. Quigley Director of Office of Chemistry and
Public Affairs, ACS 1155 Sixteenth Street N. W.,
Washington, D. C. 20036 who may be contacted
by interested readers for details on current needs
and accomplishments of Project SEED.


WINTER, 1969









CANON AND METHOD


IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES*



RUTHERFORD ARIS
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455


In a famous passage of his Gifford lectures,
"The Nature of the Physical World", Sir Arthur
Eddington compared the mathematician's and
the poet's view of waves generated on water by
the wind. In the first, two expressions relate the
surface forces to the constants of the waveform
leading to the conclusion that a wind of less than
half a mile per hour will leave the surface un-
ruffled, capillary waves appear at one mile per
hour and gravity waves at two. For contrast
Eddington quotes the beautiful sestet of the
fourth sonnet in Rupert Brooke's cycle '1914'.
There are waters blown by changing winds to laughter
And lit by the rich skies, all day. And after,
Frost, with a gesture, stays the waves that dance
And wandering loveliness. He leaves a white
Unbroken glory, a gathered radiance,
A width, a shining peace, under the night.
The comparison is most sensitively drawn and
its rapier ring makes some of the more recent
exchanges in the conflict of the cultures sound
like the clang of clashing cutlasses. Eddington
had previously shown how farfetched is the phy-
sicist's picture of the real world -"it is not
reality but the skeleton of reality"1-and he goes
on to contrast 'symbolic knowledge' with its ana-
lytical techniques with the 'intimate knowledge'
that defies codification. This is not the place to
pursue or defend Eddington's epistemology, but
the example provides a delicate statement of the
problem of the relation of the sciences to the
humanities.
It is hard to resist the feeling that here is a
matter of deep significance to which the scientist
and engineer should be increasingly sensitive.
We are fortunate at Minnesota to have an excep-
tionally fine course in our Humanities depart-
ment that makes this issue a matter of lively
*The substance of this paper was given as one of the
Olin Lectures in the Department of Engineering and
Applied Science at Yale in February 1968.


concern. This course, initiated and taught with
more than ordinary verve and perception by my
colleague Mischa Penn, opened my eyes to the
depth and subtlety of the problem and I confess
that I find it difficult and elusive to a degree -
far more difficult to get to grips with than the
more mundane research that I pursue in the con-
text of chemical engineering science. It is not
that the latter is a banaustic enterprise, uncon-
genial to the atmosphere of a university, for in
fact - at any rate in the department in which
I have the good fortune to be a member - it has
much of the spirit of natural philosophy in the
sense which that term acquired in the 17th cen-
turn and in which it is understood - when it is
understood - today. One aspect of the difficulty
can perhaps be illustrated in one of the words
of my title.
Used in a mathematical context, the word
'canon', or more usually 'canonical form', must be
defined precisely and all deviations rigidly ex-
cluded. Thus the Jordan canonical form of a
matrix is a unique presentation of it and can be
determined by a finite sequence of operations.
But used in a literary context - even in one so
humble as a title - the word 'canon' immediately
recalls rich overtones. The original word in
Greek was for a reed when used as a tool and
later a tool whether made of reed or not. Most
often it is the tool of the builder or carpenter,
used to measure length or check level and direc-
tion. Besides being straight it had to be inflex-
ible and was often provided with a scale. From
this come the metaphorical meanings: (i) writ-
ten laws or standards of ethics or behaviour;
(ii) the exemplary man; (iii) the rules of phi-
losophers and grammarians; (iv) an ordinance
fixing tribute; (v) a list or index (derived from
the marks on a scale) ; (vi) the canon of the
mass (derived from the associated lists of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








The motivation of the natural philosopher is surely the compelling desire to see the
structure of his subject and the longing to carve out an understanding of some
part of it that will be significant in content and beautiful in form.


saints). There are a number of quite special
meanings such as the ear of a bell, a size of type
and mode of musical composition and there is the
normal christian usage, current since the second
century,

O K a uw u T1 S TT I T C W s,
or the regulara fidei'. Of course in the title the
word means a standard of judgment, but the
point is that the literary use immediately evokes
a whole spectrum of meaning in a way that the
scientific does not.
This difference between the arts and sciences
is however a superficial one and the bonds that
unite scholars from all disciplines are far
stronger and more significant than the divisive
influences. Moreover it seems of vital importance
that engineers should retain a lively appreciation
of this, both in industry and the university.
Without it, there will be no vision among the
captains of industry and the people will surely
perish: without it, the university will certainly
degenerate into that atrocious artifact of the
administrative mind, the multiversityy". I would
like to suggest that a sense of craftsmanship and
a feeling for form and structure are foremost
among the sympathies that will keep the sciences
and humanities together, however diverse their
expressions of these may be. The historian and
philosopher, just as often as the physicist or
mathematician, must have wished, whilst listen-
ing to a symphony of Mozart's or a quartet of
Beethoven's, that he could write just one paper
of comparable quality, that he could present the
key thesis of each section with that kind of clar-
ity, develop it with like finesse, interweave it
with the other threads of his argument as subtly
and recapitulate with such power.
The motivation of the natural philosopher (be
he mathematician, pure or applied, chemist, phy-
sicist, engineer or what have you) is surely the
compelling desire to see the structure of his
subject and the longing to carve out an under-
standing of some part of it that will be signifi-
cant in content and beautiful in form. To this
end he will use the canons of his craft - rigour,
elegance, seriousness and universality - as may
be illustrated by considering one of the elemen-
tary theorems of the theory of numbers.


The Greeks were well acquainted with the
integers and with rational numbers, but they also
had equations like x2 = 2 for the ratio of the
length of the diagonal to the side of a square.
What is more they had the penetration to ask
the question, "Is the square root of 2 a rational
number?" The proof that it is not is commonly
attributed to Pythagoras and, as a simple exem-
plar of the canons I have mentioned, it can
scarcely be improved upon. For suppose there
are mutually prime integers such that p/q V2,
then p2 = 2q2. But since the factors of p2 are
just those of p duplicated and 2 is a factor of p2,
it must also be a factor of p. Let p = 2r, then
p2 = 4r2 = 2q2 and q2 = 2r2. But now the argu-
ment can be repeated to show that 2 is a factor
of q and this is contrary to the hypothesis that
p and q had no common factor. It therefore
follows that there are no integers such that
p2 -- 2q2. There are pairs of integers such as
1,414,213,562 and 1,000,000,000 that will suffice
for any practical purpose, but none that will
satisfy the equation perfectly.
The canons of rigour, elegance, seriousness
and universality are fully exemplified here. Rig-
our is maintained by the precise logic of the
demonstration. There has been neither looseness
of thought nor approximation in number. Ele-
gance is seen in the spare economy of the proof
and in the classic beauty of the 'modus tollendo
tollens'. The notion of seriousness, as Hardy calls
it in his "Mathematician's Apology",2 is more
difficult to define, but it is clearly present here
in the way in which the class of object we have
called numbers is enlarged. The theorem tells
us that close packed though the rational num-
bers are, they are not the scales of leviathan and
an irrational can come between them. Finally,
its universality is seen in the fundamental im-
portance of the number system, pervading much
of mathematics and most of science.
Now the same canons surely apply in litterae
humaniores. The rigour of the mathematician
is mirrored in the formal constructions of the
arts, in the logic of a philosophical argument or
the build up of evidence in an exposition of his-
tory. Admittedly it is the fashion in some of the
arts today to break down the form. At one time
we used to be told that an artist could only


WINTER, 1969








safely take to the abstract mode after he had first
mastered the traditional disciplines of his craft.
His breaking down of the form was then held
to be an extension of it to new modality and
meaning. Nowadays we are not often encour-
aged to seek meaning in art and the cramping
effect of discipline on creativity is held to be so
serious that it can be safely dispensed with. Yet
a large body of art remains to show us that form
does not destroy creativity - the peotry of the
Divine Comedy is not diminished by Dante's
acceptance of the restrictions of terza rima,
rather it is enhanced by his mastery of it.
Stephen Spender in a most interesting essay on
"The Making of a Poem"3 speaks of the terrify-
ing challenge of poetry. "Can I think out the logic
images?" he asks. "How easy it is to explain


Christ our Lord" shows, but it banishes all no-
tion of solemnity in a burst of holy hilarity.
There is plenty of verse and art that is solemn
enough, but which it is more than a little diffi-
cult to take seriously.
Finally we look for some note of universality
in humanistic work of real significance. We
value the Aeneid, pace the quondam Professor
of Poetry at Oxford, not because the adventures
of Aeneas were superior to those of other wan-
derers, but because in recounting them Virgil
has touched on so many themes of human experi-
ence with that terseness and penetration which
is one of the chief glories of the Latin tongue.
It is this quality of universality that made it
possible for Ronald Knox to use couplets from
the Aeneid to illumine an altogether different


The canon of seriousness in science has nothing to do with possible application to the useful arts
any more than seriousness in the humanities has to do with solemnity . . .
if the canons of their several arts should tend to bring together the humanist and scientist,
must they not be forced apart by the diversity of their methods? . . .


here the poem that I would have liked to write!
How difficult it would be to write it. For writing
it would imply living my way through the imaged
experience of all these ideas, which here are
mere abstractions, and such an effort of imagina-
tive experience requires a lifetime of patience
and watching."
Again, is it not the principle of economy,
which is the hall mark of scientific elegance,
also a keynote of humanistic thought? Ockham's
razor was propounded in a philosophy dominated
by metaphysics: it was adopted and adapted by
the natural philosophers - "we are to admit,"
says Newton, "of no more causes of natural
things then are both true and sufficient to explain
their appearances; for nature is simple and af-
fects not the pomp and superfluous causes."4 In
letters or in verse we commonly deplore excess
verbiage and for a writer to be told some of his
words are not bearing any weight is damaging
criticism indeed.
The canon of seriousness in science has noth-
ing to do with possible application to the useful
arts any more than seriousness in the humanities
has to do with solemnity. Hopkins' sonnet5
"I caught this morning morning's minion,
kingdom of daylight's dauphin, dapple-dawn-
drawn Falcon . . ."
is serious enough, as its superscription "To


wandering and adventure.6
But if the canons of their several arts should
tend to bring together the humanist and scientist,
must they not be forced apart by the diversity of
their methods? Here again I would plead that
there is as much, if not more, in common than
there is to divide, and that a lively appreciation
of each others methods would promote a valuable
sympathy between scientist and humanist. The
genesis of a poem or work of art, a critical essay
or philosophical discourse, a mathematical dis-
covery or an engineering invention lies in an
idea or problem and the act of creation can only
begin with the recognition of it. The literary
critic is the engineer of the world of letters for
he is concerned to bring out into the light and
into action the work of the author just as the
engineer seeks to apply the discovery of the sci-
entist. This does not mean that there is not a
creative, or recreative, element in good engineer-
ing or in good criticism, but criticism is, in a
sense, a derivative activity. The "Diary of Anne
Franck" lies in paperback alongside a dozen
gripping and even perceptive books of the second
world war and many have been moved by the
reading of it. Yet if John Berryman is correct,
no one has really perceived the masterpiece that
it is, nor got down to the critical problems that
a worthy analysis of it would present. Here is


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








the recognition of a problem at the root of the
work of a humanist. It is comparable to the
recognition of an idea at the root of a work of
art. Among humanists, the poet is par excellence
the opener of eyes, showing us the significance of
some matter. In the realm of the sciences the
mathematician is par excellence the refiner of
concepts, turning and shaping them until they
are precisely true to experience. Each, in his
way, sits like a diamond cutter over a stone,
seeking the cleavage plane of truth along which
the slightest blow will open up the rough gem
and reveal the perfection of its intrinsic beauty.
Each however has the problem of recognizing
the true worth of the matter beneath its rough,
amorphous exterior. This first phase of recog-
nition may include the inspiration of the moment
in which the artist conceives the idea that he
wishes to bring to birth according to his metier,
but may be distinguished from the moment of
illumination, in which the resolution of a diffi-
culty may appear, or the moment of vision in
which the toilsome ascent of a Pisgah is suddenly
rewarded.
But, granted the recognition of the problem
or idea, there follows for both scientist and
humanist the gestative period of cogitation. Ideas
and images, many of them unfruitful and inap-
propriate, are mulled over and mixed together,
taken to pieces and reassembled. Stephen Spen-
der speaks of concentration as the sine qua non
of creative writing. He distinguishes it from
"the kind of concentration required for working
out a sum. It is the focusing of the attention in
a special way, so that the poet is aware of all
the implications and possible developments of
his idea, just as one might say that a plant was
not concentrating on developing mechanically in
one direction, but in many, towards the warmth
and light with its leaves, and towards the water
with its roots, all at the same time".3 Perhaps
this is different in kind from the concentration
required for "working out a sum" by a routine
method, but it is precisely the sort of concentra-
tion that is required for fruitful original work
in the sciences.
Some, it would seem, are gifted with the
ability to work out a complete structure in their
heads, as Mozart is said to have composed much
of his music. Others like Beethoven have to feel
their way through draft after draft towards a
final statement. From the mine of his memory
or the recesses of the subconscious where the


. . . in this craft of our common language should
lie the first and final bond between scholars
of all disciplines, for all have the same interest
in maintaining a sound currency of words.

composition had been going on, Mozart was able
to set down the overture to Don Giovanni in a
single night but the main theme of the first
movement of the Beethoven's 7th Symphony
emerged only after six pages of "changing, re-
flecting, and testing", as he himself described it.
Into the art of heuristic in a mathematical
context George Polya has given most valuable
insights by his work on mathematical discovery.7
He shows very vividly how the problem may be
tackled, how one works from both ends in search-
ing out the pattern of the solution and how in-
duction and analogy play their role in plausible
reasoning. In plausible reasoning the formal
modes of demonstrative logic become tentative.
For example, the modus tollendo tollens must be
replaced by "A implies B, but B is unlikely,
therefore A is less credible." This is the kind of
reasoning which is used, not only in feeling out
the way to the solution of a problem, but also
in understanding a demonstrative argument and
in gaining confidence in it. Indeed Polya con-
cludes the second of the Princeton volumes with
the remark that "we are led to suspect that a
good part of our reliance on demonstrative rea-
soning may come from plausible reasoning."
This emphasis on the process of creation is
not to deny the importance of inspiration and
the flash of illumination. The classic examples
the Poincar6 gives in his "Science et M6thode"
are so well known that they need not be repeated
here. They show, as he himself said, that sudden
illumination is a manifest sign of previous sub-
consicous work perhaps over a long period.8
There must surely be an analogy here with the
resolution of "Problems" as they may arise in
humanistic scholarship and creative art. At
times the several stages of the creative process
seem to have been fused into one incandescent
period of intense activity. One thinks of Handel
completing the "Messiah" in little over three
weeks between August 22 and September 12 of
1741, of Schubert writing no less than eight
songs on October 15, 1815 or of his sending his
song "The Trout" to Josef Huettenbrenner, call-
ing it "another one which I have just written
here at Anselm Huettenbrenner's at twelve
o'clock midnight". These are the exceptions that


WINTER, 1969








Among humanists, the poet is . . . the
opener of eyes; (among scientists) the
mathematician is . . . the refiner
of concepts . . .

prove the rule that the beauty of creative work
in the sciences or the arts is more the shine of
"plough down million" than "the hurl and glid-
ing" that rebuffs "the big wind".5 Often too
the moment of luminence in literature or philoso-
phy cannot come without the laboured argument
or prior discipline. "He who has been instructed
thus far in the science of Love, and has been led
to see beautiful things in their due order and
rank", says Diotima, "When he comes toward
the end of his discipline, will suddenly catch
sight of a wondrous thing, beautiful with the
absolute Beauty".9 The main body of the 15th
chapter of St. Paul's first letter to the Corin-
thians is a lengthy discussion of the reality of
the resurrection. But then comes a pause - a
reticence of holy writ, as St. Peter Damian has
it, "wherein silence itself cries out that some
greatness is at hand" - before the incomparable
majesty of "Behold I show you a mystery; we
shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed;
. . " I am not for a moment suggesting that
this is mere rhetoric - it is vastly more - but,
if it has the divine qualities of revelation, it has
also the human beauties of a great work of art.
The final stage of polishing or verification is
of equal importance though perhaps calmer than
the others. The imaginative leap having been
made, logic takes over to tighten up each part
and to ensure that the connections are sound.
The kind of imagination needed here is that
which is capable of keeping the whole structure
- poem, paper or prelude - in its proper por-
tion and scale. As any editor of a scientific or
technical journal will testify this is an aspect
of the presentation of research that receives all
too little attention, and perhaps scholarly jour-
nals in other fields suffer in the same way.
But surely in this craft of our common lan-
guage should lie the first and final bond between
scholars of all disciplines, for all have the same
interest in maintaining a sound currency of
words. Perhaps the breakdown of commerce be-
tween the arts and sciences, whenever it obtains,
is a reflection of the inflation of the domestic
currency within each camp. The great words of
the tradition of western civilization - liberal,
intellectual, rational, humane - are in danger of


becoming a paper currency with no backing,
deprived of their buying power as effectively by
academic verbicides as some of the words of our
common life - trust, friends, gracious - have
been abused by the writers of newspaper head-
lines and advertising copy. There was a time
when Latin was the lingua franca of the edu-
cated world but, serviceable enough though it
still would be, there is little hope of reinstating
it. We may have to learn to read two or three
other languages in order to keep up with the
literature of our professions, but we rarely at-
tempt to write in anything but our native tongue.
All the more reason therefore that we should
cultivate this to the best of our ability, perhaps
to find through this medium, not a massage, but
the common empathy that is needed if our uni-
versities are to remain centres of liberal learning.


REFERENCES
1. A. S. Eddington. The Nature of the Physical
World. London. Dent. Everyman's Edn. p. 307.
2. G. H. Hardy. A Mathematician's Apology. Cam-
bridge University Press, Cambridge. 1940.
3. S. Spender. The Making of a Poem. Norton. New
York. 1962. p. 54.
4. I. Newton. "De Mundi Systemate". Hyp. I.
5. G. M. Hopkins. Collected Poems. "The Windhover".
6. R. Knox. Spiritual Aeneid. Longmans, Green and
Co. London. 1919.
7. G. Polya. Mathematical Discovery. Vols. I and II.
John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1962, '65. Mathematics
and Plausible Reasoning. Princeton University Press.
1954. "How to Solve It". Doubleday-Anchor, New York.
1957. I have endeavored to illustrate his ideas in a
chemical engineering context in the Teacher's Manual to
my forthcoming "Elementary Chemical Reactor Analy-
sis". Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs. 1969.
8. See J. Hadamard's "Psychology of invention in
the mathematical field" for a considerable discussion of
this. Graham Wallas in "The Art of Thought" (1926)
comments on the experience of Poincare and the psysi-
cist Helmholtz.
9. Plato. Symposium 211. Translation is Bridges' in
his anthology "The Spirit of Man." (1915).



Dr. Rutherford Aris was born in England in 1929,
studied mathematics in the University of Edinburghand
taught it to engineers there. He has degrees from the
University of London (B.Sc. (Math); PhD. (Math. and
Chem. E.); D.Sc.). He worked a total of seven years in
industry, but since 1958 he has been in the Chemical
Engineering Department at the University of Minnesota
enjoying the liveliness of its interests, both technical and
cultural, and endeavouring to contribute to this vitality
and communicate it to his students.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








i .




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