Citation
Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

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Chemical Engineering Education


VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4


EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601


Departments


Editor:
Ray Fahien


Associate Editor:
Mack Tyner


Business Manager:
R. B. Bennett



Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

CENTRAL: James Weber
Chairman of Publication Board
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631
EAST: Robert Matteson
College Relations
Sun Oil Company
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19100
E. P. Bartkus
Secretary's Department
E. I. du Pont de Nemours
Wilmington, Delaware 19898

NORTH: J. J. Martin
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
J. A. Bergantz
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York 14200
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


147 Editorial

148 Letters from Readers

156 The Laboratory
Process Dynamics and Control, William C.
Cohen

162 The Classroom
Innovations in a Process Design and De-
velopment Course, D. R. Woods

170 News

171 The Educator
Professor Frank Groves

173 Division Activities

174 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Caltech, William H. Corcoran

180 Book Reviews

181 Views and Opinions
Students, Faculty and Professionalism, R.
Griskey

184 Problems for Teachers

Feature Articles
150 kehsical *Ca'ineeni 9 we c d .ectu- 968

Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces,
Part 1, L. E. Scriven

167 Chemistry for Chemical Engineers, P. H.
Watkins


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Application
to mail at second-class postage rates is pending at Gainesville, Florida, and at
additional mailing offices. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and
changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601.
Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives.
Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. O.
Painter Printing Co., 137 E. Wisconsin Ave., DeLand, Florida 32720. Subscription
rates on request.


FALL, 1968


FALL 1968


I










MARATHON: DYNAMIC PROGRESS


--S


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economical, to help recover a larger percentage
of oil in present fields, to develop more profitable
refining and chemical processes, and to develop
new products.
Marathon employs more than 8,000 persons
at its offices around the world including its head-
quarters in Findlay. There are over 300 em-
ployees at the Denver Research Center of which
more than half are scientists and engineers.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MARATHON
Using engineering research to determine ways
to recover more of the oil from known deposits
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Center. It includes projects aimed at stimulating
wells so they will produce more oil; in situ com-
bustion; and fluid injection processes, such as
miscible displacement, which are more efficient
than conventional techniques where gas or water
are used to drive oil to a production well.
Reservoir mechanics comprise another signifi-
cant part of the engineering work at the Denver
Research Center. The transient behavior of oil


reservoirs and the flow of fluids through porous
media are important phases of this work. Mathe-
matical models, which simulate reservoir behav-
ior, provide insight into future behavior of oil
bearing reservoirs.
Chemical engineers are also engaged in the
pilot plant study of existing refinery and chemical
processes as well as in the evaluation and devel-
opment of new processes and new chemicals.
Projects are underway, for example, on petro-
chemical processes to make monomers and other
basic components for polymers.
At Marathon's Research Center, qualified en-
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Your further inquiry is invited.

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Dept. CE-1, P. O. Box 269
Littleton, Colorado 80120

AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER




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DENVER RESEARCH CENTER
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CAdtial


THE GOALS of a Chemical Engineering Department


Modern chemical engineering has developed
with one root in chemistry and other roots in the
engineering sciences and physics. Its trunk is a
multichannel communication cable which might be
termed process control and systems engineering.
Its major branches consist of the macroscopic
concepts of unit operations and of process equip-
ment design. Its outer branches are develop-
mental laboratories, pilot plants, and processing
plants. Its leaves and fruits are the products and
goods of our consumer economy. Without its
roots, it will die; without its trunk, the leaves
and fruits will not develop; and without its fruits,
it has no reason for existence.
The language of chemical engineering is com-
puter science, mathematics, and graphics. Its veri-
fication is experiment; its validation is the utility
of its products; its restraints are economics and
human well-being.
The identifying characteristic of chemical en-
gineering is change: it deals with changes in
state, changes in composition, changes in kind
and content of energy, changes in size and aggre-
gation, changes in biological or chemical species,
and changes in appearance and quality. Since
products and processes are themselves ephemeral,
chemical engineering cannot lastingly or proper-
ly be defined in terms of certain products, certain
processes, or certain processing methods.
As a consequence, its goals are bifold: its cur-
rent major industrial goal is the economical de-
sign and operation of plants and equipment; but
its academic goal is the generalization, dissemi-
nation, discovery, utilization, and extension of hu-
man knowledge in the basic sciences and concepts
that comprise its roots and its trunk and branches.
A broadly oriented research and instructional
program in modern chemical engineering must be
cognizant of these duplicate sets of goals. It must
include research in the engineering sciences such
as transport and rate processes, fluid mechanics,


properties of materials, and thermodynamics. It
can include research in chemistry, such as work
in polymers. It must include work in systems en-
gineering, in separations processes, unit opera-
tions, and process control and economics. Finally,
it can be involved in interdisciplinary areas such
as bioengineering, biomedical engineering, en-
vironmental engineering (pollution), electro-
chemistry and energy conversion (fuel cells), and
computer science and applied mathematics.
Just as the ultimate objective of the university
is to serve the community of mankind, so also
the goal of a department of chemical engineering
must have its purpose in the betterment of
human society. For, as a professional man, an
engineer is not merely a technical robot who
responds passively and unquestioningly to con-
formist pressures or to the commands of others.
Instead he must be aware of, and deeply con-
cerned with, the social and political problems
of our time. He must have a high sense of values
and be capable of making decisions with regard to
principles and ideals derived from these, rather
than from narrow self-interest or partisan group-
interest. In keeping with this philosophy, a de-
partment should investigate methods of establish-
ing communication between the "two cultures"
of technology and the humanities. It should also
explore programs of educational assistance to
other nations.
Of great importance to the implementation
of its goals is the need for adequate facilities.
But, while bricks and mortar are important, what
it infinitely more important is the brilliance of
the experienced researcher in his indefatigable
task of adding the bricks of human knowledge to
the whole structure of man's intellectual develop-
ment, and the skill of the dedicated teacher in
the bonding of these stones with the cement of
theory, generalization, and experiment.
R.W.F.


FALL, 1968










from our READERS
This interesting correspondence between Professor
Lloyd Berg and Senator Lee Metcalf is a result of the
publication of Professor Berg's paper, "Why a Scholar-
ship Program in ChE" in CEE 2, 78, 1968.
Senator Metcalf's comments:
Dear Dr. Berg:
I have just read your letter and your article, an ex-
position of a formula A/B = C/D, which you devised to
illustrate your disapproval of the amendments to the
Selective Service Act which curtailed graduate student
deferments.
What immediately struck me is the absence from your
equation of the most basic component, the human factor,
an omission that dismays and saddens me. And there is a
false element, too, in the statement, "The country was
on an equality binge and it was deemed politically ex-
pedient to treat PhD engineers and scientists in exactly
the same manner as high school dropouts."
By no means are all of the men who have been drafted
(or even a very large percentage of them) and who have
served in the armed forces in Viet Nam, high school drop-
outs. And, by no means have graduate engineers and
scientists been treated as high school dropouts. Their
treatment (either because of intellectually superior back-
grounds or because of good fortune or a lucky combina-
tion of several factors, often including diligence) made
them, in the words of a British writer, more equal than
anyone. That cannot be said of high school dropouts.
Current efforts to encourage more of our youngsters to
complete high school are testimony to a great need in our
society-and an educational system that is still striving
to meet that need.
The fact is, however, that 77.3 per cent of men drafted
into the armed forces in the calendar year of 1967 had
graduated from high school; some of them are numbered
among the 25,000 who have been killed in Viet Nam;
many are college graduates who, for one reason or an-
other, did not seek advanced degrees in engineering or
were not deferred for other reasons.
These are human beings we are talking about. All of
them, no matter what their intellectual or academic at-
tainments, face a common denominator of sacrifice which
ought to make brothers of us all-and while I deplore
the undeniable loss to this nation's technology, on which
you have concentrated, I cannot take so parochial a view
as you. I do not think of these young men as engineers,
mathematicians, physicists, poets or painters. If I did,
I might show a predilection to spare only poets from
service in the armed forces. But I don't think that way.
These young men are human beings, with the same love
of life that is common to man.
For a democracy, there is really no answer except uni-
versal national service which touches all men over a
given age or a random system of selection which cannot
discriminate by situation in life, degree of education or
other criteria, except physical or mental unfitness.
I hope that we could have some sort of system where
every boy and girl in America would serve the govern-
ment for at least a year. Some would go into the mili-
tary; others would be chosen for the Peace Corps, Vista,


Head Start or some other service program. Each of
these services would be equal in regard for those who
serve and each person would be able to hold his head
high as one who has served his country in some important
and significant endeavor. There is abundant room, in
such a plan, for engineers and poets.
Finally, I guess I doubt that the human sacrifice
and suffering inherent in a wartime draft of young men
can be reduced to a formula.
I stated my views on the war in Viet Nam in a sym-
posium last May at Montana State University. A copy
of my remarks is enclosed.
Lee Metcalf
U.S. Senator from Montana

Berg Responds:
Dear Senator Metcalf:
Thank you for your letter of August 1 and the accom-
panying reprint of your speech at the MSU Viet Nam
Symposium. I agreed with your speech when I heard it
and am still in accord with your views. I'm sorry that you
don't have an even larger influence than you do on U. S.
foreign policy.
The article that I sent you was not meant to complain
about the past. The U.S. draft policy up to June 30,
1968 worked pretty well with respect to scientists and
engineers. It is thinking about what will happen after
July 1, 1968 that gives me a sinking feeling. Prior
to July 1, Selective Service had a list of critical skills
and essential occupations. Engineers and scientists serv-
ing in these fields were deferred; those that didn't were
subject to the draft. Effective July 1, 1968, the National
Security Council abolished the whole list. Had supply
finally caught up with demand? No, the Brain Drain ar-
ticle I sent you showed that demand was continuing to
outstrip supply. Was the list unnecessary in the first
place? I have no reason to believe this. The public press
never brought out anything to confirm this point of view.
I therefore concluded that the changes came about as a
result of a policy of "fairness and equality" for all.
I agree with your suggestion about national service
for all citizens but I think engineers and scientists should
do it in "critical skills and essential occupations" and for
far more than one year. The difficulty with any other
kind of service-military duty, Peace Corps, Vista, Head
Start, etc.-is that the engineers will never return for ad-
ditional study. In my 25 years of college teaching, I have
only encountered two who returned from military service
to further their chemical engineering education.
As one of the one hundred United States Senators, you
must worry more than ordinary men about the ultimate
safety of the United States. From the beginning of his-
tory, nations have been playing "wipe-out" with each
other. Even during our lifetime we have witnessed several
examples. On September 1, 1939, Hitler launched his in-
famous attack on Poland. In two weeks, Poland's armies
were annihilated and on September 17, Russia moved from
the east. On September 18, Russian and German troops
met at Brest Litovsk and Poland ceased to exist.
Captured Nazi documents submitted at the Nuremberg
trials showed that Germany planned to wipe out com-
pletely all of Russia east of the Urals. As the German
army conquered Russia, the peasants were to be left on
their farms and permitted to keep just enough food to live


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










on. All the rest would go to Germany. Absolutely no
provision was made for the feeding of the rest of the
Russian people in the conquered territory. They would
just starve to death.
At the present time, ask any Nasserite, Jordanian or
Syrian what are his country's plans for Israel. They will
tell you frankly that it is their national policy to push
Israel into the sea.
During our lifetime too, you and I have seen a number
of examples of politicians paying little heed to their
nation's scientific and technical capability until they were
in desperate straits and then calling for the technically
impossible. On May 10, 1940, the battle of France began.
The French people had been assured for twenty years that
their Maginot Line was the finest defensive system in
the world and that the country was in no danger. Actually
French technology had progressed very little since World
War I. Five weeks later with the Nazis storming the
gates of Paris, Premier Paul Reynaud issued his plaintive
call to President Roosevelt for "clouds of airplanes."
Fortunately for civilization, it wasn't only the "good
guys" that have let their technology slide. In 1942, Ger-
man submarines sank 6,250,000 tons of Allied shipping,
a tonnage far beyond the capability of western ship-
yards to replace. Had this rate continued, Britain
would surely have been brought down. But in 1943 the
U-boat losses zoomed and Allied ship sinkings miracu-
lously dropped. Why? Because a few young American
and British engineers applying new knowledge of radiant
heat transfer had developed radar. This enabled Allied
aircraft to locate and destroy the U-boats long before
they got close to the convoys. Admiral Doenitz at first
suspected treason but when he finally learned that it was
radar, he withdrew the U-boat fleet. In late summer how-
ever, Hitler insisted that German bravery could overcome
American technology and ordered the fleet to sea again.
In the last four months of 1943, the Nazis lost sixty-four
submarines while sinking only sixty-seven Allied vessels.
This loss ratio spelled doom for the U-boat warfare and
settled the Battle of the Atlantic.
By the spring of 1945, the Third Reich was in its
death throes. Both the eastern and western borders had
been crossed by the Allies and the German cities were
mere rubble heaps. About 8-million Germans had been
killed, virtually an entire generation. What was the
word from Hitler under those circumstances? His scien-
tists and technologists led by Werner Von Braun, were
going to save Germany yet with their V-1 flying bombs
and V-2 rockets.
Frankly, Senator Metcalf, I am concerned that the
policies established last July 1 will cause the United States
to lose its technological lead. That is a situation that can-
not be quickly remedied. It takes a minimum of eight
years from the time we interest a high school student in
science or engineering until he is awarded the PhD. No
crash program, no large infusion of money can speed up
this process. Can we gamble with our national safety? In
this nation of 200-million people, does the continued train-
ing of a few thousand engineers and scientists in critical
skills and essential occupations really upset greatly the
general policy of fairness to all?
May I have your permission to publish your letter of
August 1 and this reply? LLOYD BERG,
Montana State University


The Senator has the last word:
Dear Dr. Berg:
I have long talked about the need for scientists and
engineers in the National Defense Education Act. I de-
plore the fact that $6 billion reduction of the budget has
cut out essential research and development programs, of
the National Institutes of Health and the National Science
Foundation and pure research and development as far
as the military is concerned.
Experience has shown that a statement that engineers
will never return for additional study is not an accurate
one. The GI bill and now the new bill for Korean and
Viet Nam veterans has attracted thousands of boys back
to advanced studies, including the engineering field.
I don't want to enter into an extended debate with
you on the question; I feel that your statement in the
article about an "equality binge" is unfortunate and hope
that you will agree that essential equality here is not a
sacrifice of life itself and if we are going to demand that
sacrifice of young men we must demand it of them
whether they come from homes where their parents ar
rich and affluent or whether they come from homes where
they have not had either the educational or cultural op-
portunities to attain the status of a graduate student in
science or mathematics. We need more equality, not less.
Yes, you have my permission to publish my letter of
1 August, if it is published in full together with this letter.
LEE METCALF
U.S. Senator from Montana
Summer Issue
Editor:
From cover to cover, I read it! I don't do that for
very many publications, but your Summer 1968 issue of
Chemical Engineering Education was outstanding. Please
accept my congratulations.
Joseph J. Martin
University of Michigan
Editor:
That Summer issue of CEE! A splendid job. Every-
thing in it is interesting and valuable.
Olaf Hougen has countless admirers who will enjoy
reading about him.
Keep up the good work.
M. C. MOLSTAD
University of Pennsylvania
(Letters continued on page 160.)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Educational institutions, not previously acknowledged,
who have recently contributed for one year:
University of British Columbia
University of Detroit
Clarkson College of Technology
Iowa State University
Lamar State College of Technology
University of Maine
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Manhattan College
University of Colorado
University of Iowa
University of Oklahoma.
University of Pittsburg


FALL, 1968









1968 Awciad .fectie


FLOW and TRANSFER at FLUID INTERFACES*

Part I Lessons from Research


L. E. SCRIVEN
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minn.
Chemical engineers cannot escape dealing with
mass and heat transfer across fluid interface that are in
more or less chaotic motion, chaos that goes under the
name of turbulence. There is little need to emphasize in
this magazine why a thorough understanding of flow
and transfer at fluid interfaces is an important research
goal-and ultimately a standard tool in the kit of prac-
ticing engineers.
Put broadly, the problem I wish to discuss is that of
transfer in chaotic or turbulent flow systems, particu-
larly those in which turbulence is generated at some
distance from the interface but comes to bombard it, so
to speak. Underlying this broad problem there is an im-
portant basic question: What are the effects of convec-
tive movements on otherwise diffusive transport, par-
ticularly in the neighborhood of fluid interfaces?
Fluid interfaces are mobile and can move and de-
form in ways that solid boundaries cannot. It is impor-
tant to bear this in mind, because solid boundaries are
so much simpler and better studied that they are the
underpinning for most of one's intuition in this area. I
think it instructive to look at the ways in which the
chemical engineering profession has tried to model
flow and transfer at fluid interfaces in the past. For sim-
plicity, let us disregard such complications as the trans-
fer resistance of the second phase, diffusion-induced
convection, inhomogeneous properties, interfacial-ten-
sion gradients, chemical reaction effects, and so on. We
can then identify four or five stages in the develop-
ment of transfer models.

STAGE ONE: NO FLUID MECHANICS
The earliest working model can be traced back
to Newton's empirical law of cooling, in essence a
one-parameter representation of convective diffu-
sion near a solid surface. The same tactic
emerged between 1895 and 1905 in the idea of a
diffusion layer or stagnant film adjacent to a
soluble solid in contact with stirred solvent. The
principals were all chemists, the Americans Noyes
and Whitney, Russian Shchukarev, and German

*Presented at the Annual meeting of ASEE, June 18,
1968 as the opening part of the ChE Division Distin-
guished Lecture, sponsored by the 3M Company. The
second part will be published in a later issue.


Nernst. In 1912 Irving Langmuir, having com-
pleted his PhD with Nernst and quit Stevens In-
stitute of Technology to join General Electric,
reported on his studies of heat transfer from
lamp filaments. Citing the high viscosity and
high thermal conductivity of gases at filament
temperatures of 22000K and higher, Langmuir
stated that the loss of heat by free convection-
and even forced convection-takes place exactly
as if there were a film of stationary gas around
the filament, through which the heat is carried
entirely by conduction. This idea of a conduction
or diffusion film was picked up by W. K. Lewis
and his chemical engineering colleagues at MIT,
who elaborated it into the familiar "two-film
theory" of transfer across fluid interfaces. But in
doing so they obscured the hot and hypothetical
character of Langmuir's stationary film: Lewis
and Whitman (1924) actually wrote of surface
layers of liquid "practically free of mixing by
convection," which could be interpreted as merely
laminar flow, probably rectilinear flow, possibly
plug flow and effectively stagnant films. Succes-
sive editions of the standard textbook by Walker,
Lewis, and McAdams appear to have spread the
stagnant-film picture along with the series-resis-
tance concept. Chemical engineers focused on
measurement and correlation of "film thicknes-
ses" or "transfer coefficients."
The physical picture from this first stage con-
sists of separate diffusion resistances character-
ized by lumped parameters as in elementary elec-
trical circuits. It requires only simple algebra,
although an ordinary differential equation is in
the background. Rather than fixed potential or
fixed flux at phase boundaries it in effect rests on
the next simplest boundary condition, a linear
relation between flux and potential involving only
a single empirical parameter to describe whatever
combination of convection and diffusion exists.
There is no evidence of familiarity with relevant
concepts from classical inviscid hydrodynamics,
much less from the viscous flow theory that was
available in the first decades of the century.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









What are the effects of convective movement on otherwise
diffusive transport, particularly in the neighborhood of fluid
interfaces?


STAGE TWO: RECTILINEAR FLOW IDEAS
Higbie in his 1934 thesis and well-known 1935
paper recognized that when gas and liquid are
brought together there must first of all be pene-
tration of the liquid by the dissolving gas, and
that this sort of thing happens repeatedly in bub-
bler absorbers and packed towers, any bit of in-
terface between gas and liquid having a limited
life or time of exposure. Much the same idea
had been put forward independently by the Dutch
physiologists Dirken and Mook in 1930, who were
concerned with gas exchange with blood yet
judged it worthwhile to study basic aspects of
absorption. Like Higbie they attempted to demon-
strate their idea experimentally. Higbie knew
and understood the physical chemical literature on
diffusion. On the fluid mechanical side he had
some appreciation of turbulent flow, for example
in Miyagi's experiments; but he adopted the
Lewis-and-Whitman picture of a film of liquid
at the interface and regarded it as being in
streamline flow, by which he evidently meant
rectilinear, plug-like motion. Vyazovov in 1940
and Pigford independently in 1941 applied "pene-
tration theory" to absorption into falling liquid
films in rectilinear flow with semi-parabolic ve-
locity profiles-taking a convective diffusion effect
into explicit account for the first time. Such
endeavors were familiar from the heat transfer
literature, however, for example in Leveque's
1928 analysis which was featured in T. B. Drew's
wonderfully prescient paper a few years later in
the Transactions of the AIChE. Mass transfer
into rectilinear flows is still an active topic, as
evidenced by researches by Kramers and Kreyger
(1956), Beek and Bakker (1967), Byers and King
(1967), and one of my coworkers, Majoch.
Historically in the second stage the model con-
sisted of highly idealized flow parallel to the fluid
interface, flow that somehow is regularly inter-
rupted after an ill-defined exposure time, and can
then be re-established. Analysis of transfer in-
volved a comparatively simple partial differential
equation more familiar in the theory of heat
conduction, where many relevant problems had
already been solved. By the mid-40's the power-
ful Laplace transform technique was an effective
tool in the hands of a few chemical engineers.


Fluid mechanical concepts were not, but Prandtl's
boundary layer notions were being applied else-
where to heat transfer between solids and fluids.

STAGE THREE: TURBULENT DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS
This stage might have opened with chemical
engineering notice of the 1932 Royal Society pa-
per by Fage and Townend reporting microscope
observations of suspended particles in "semi-
turbulent" motion 0.001 inch from a solid wall,
well within a laminarr" or viscous sublayer
thirty times thicker. Or of the summary and dis-
cussion of those observations in Goldstein's "Mod-
ern Developments in Fluid Dynamics," the beacon
work that appeared in 1938. Or of the 1949 paper
by Kishinevskii and Pamfilov, in which hypothe-
ses of laminar sublayers and films near fluid in-
terfaces in well-agitated systems were rejected
in favor of a picture of turbulence continuously
renewing interface and transferring solute by
convection alone. The investigators from Kishi-
nev employed very fuzzy algebra and integral cal-
culus and did not hit upon the convincing argu-
ments for their heretical contention that the mass
transfer coefficient could be independent of mole-
cular diffusivity; worse still at that time, they
wrote in Russian. Two years later and indepen-
dently, Danckwerts too rejected the by then con-
ventional misconception of a "stagnant" film; he
held it likely that "turbulence" can extend to a
fluid interface, erasing all resemblance to laminar
boundary layer flow there; and he set about
showing that working formulas derived from the
stagnant-film hypothesis can be derived equally
well from more palatable hypotheses. In his well-
known surface renewal theory Danckwerts re-
lated the rate of absorption by penetration in
Higbie's model, to an empirical parameter s
characterizing the rate and reflecting the statis-
tics of surface renewal-on grounds that an un-
defined "scale of turbulence" is so much greater
than the "depth of penetration" that "relative
motion of liquid at different levels close beneath
the surface may be disregarded" (as I shall bring
out later, this presumption can be quite inaccu-
rate). The basic contribution was the applica-
tion of statistical ideas to the picture of surface
renewal, or replacement, as a stochastic process


FALL, 1968









powered by an underlying turbulent field. Subse-
quently Danckwerts, Hanratty, Davidson, Perl-
mutter, King, Koppel and others have put for-
ward various distribution functions of surface
age, exposure time, or residence time. Andrew,
Dobbins, Toor and Marchello, and Harriott have
proposed modifications in Higbie's original pene-
tration model, one reason being to bridge the gap
between the old film formulas and the surface-re-
newal formulas for the dependence of mass trans-
fer coefficient on molecular diffusivity. The same
reason has led still others to offer rankly em-
pirical correlating formulas that warrant no fur-
ther comment.
The dominant physical picture in the third
stage is of locally intermittent yet grossly steady
"surface renewal" by distinct "eddies" the ar-
rivals of which follow various statistics that are
supposed to represent the essence of turbulence.
There is evidence here of growing awareness of
fluid mechanics and of considerable mastery of
the mathematics of age and residence-time distri-
butions, the latter a topic that became increas-
ingly fashionable in chemical engineering analy-
sis during the fifties.


STAGE TWO bis : CURVILINEAR FLOW WORK
Simultaneously with the preceding stage there
emerged, from analyses of simple laboratory ab-
sorbers designed for basic studies, a lot of infor-
mation on the effect of curvilinear laminar con-
vection on diffusion. This information can be
used to construct significant generalizations of
Higbie's original penetration model (as I shall
discuss later). First came a rather crude analysis
by Lynn, Straatemeier, and Kramers in 1955 of
absorption into the nonuniform film flow over the
surface of a sphere. Davidson and Cullen then
treated the same problem more satisfyingly with
the convective diffusion equation. In the same
period I tackled end effects in wetted-wall col-
umns and laminar liquid jets, and a year or two
later the papers by Scriven and Pigford appeared,
emphasizing the strong effect of the velocity com-
ponent normal to an accelerating interface and
presenting accurate general formulas for situa-
tions in which the scale of relative tangential
motion is much greater than the "depth of pene-
tration." The same results were independently
rederived by Angelo, Lightfoot, and Howard in
1966 and presented with emphasis on the surface
dilatation, divergence, or "stretch" that accom-


The dominant physical picture in the third stage
is of locally intermittent yet grossly steady "surface
renewal" by distinct "eddies" the arrivals of which
follow various statistics that are supposed to represent
the essence of turbulence.


panies convective motion normal to the interface.
Models of flow and transfer in boundary layers at
fluid interfaces in nearly rectilinear flows have
been treated by Potter (1957), Beek and Bakker
(1961), and notably Goren (1966). Others have
studied the simultaneous diffusion and convection
around a growing bubble. The most significant
curvilinear flow work (in my estimation, and for
reasons to be discussed) is my former co-worker
W. C. Chan's exact solutions of the problem of
transient convective diffusion in irrotational stag-
nation flow, which formed part of his 1964 thesis.
Very recently Majoch, exploiting a 1967 observa-
tion by Romanians Ruckenstein and Berbente, has
added a solution for a case of rotational stag-
nation flow as well.
These developments reflect increasing mastery
of the relevant fluid mechanics, expanding ex-
perience with the convective diffusion equation,
and growing proficiency in the similarity and ap-
proximate methods for solving it.

STAGE FOUR: TURBULENCE CONCEPTS AND
MODEL FLOWS
Levich, as described in the translation of the
second edition of his "Physicochemical Hydro-
dynamics," was the first to apply Prandtl's mixing
length scheme of dimensional analysis-for that
is all it is-to absorption at a fluid interface buf-
feted by eddies generated at depth. His attempt
spawned others by Ruckenstein and by C. J. King,
the latter placing the greatest reliance on the con-
troversial notion of a turbulent eddy diffusivity,
the origins and justifications of which lie in the
rather different process of turbulent transfer
across mean streamlines that are nearly rectilin-
ear, as in duct, boundary-layer, and jet flows.
More fundamental turbulence theory is in short
supply, and what is available has been classified
by the authority Townsend into wall turbulence,
free turbulence, and convective turbulence. Con-
spicuous in its absence is a corpus of what I would
call interfacial turbulence had not that term been
pre-empted; "free boundary turbulence" must do.
Free boundary turbulence is convective chaos only


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AT









partially constrained by the presence of an inter-
face that allows great freedom of tangential
movement, and restricted though appreciable free-
dom of normal movement.-and which is capable
dramatic conversions of larger scale into smaller
scale motions.
Danckwerts remarked in his 1951 surface-
renewal paper that "A complete development of
the subject would require further discussion of
the relation of s [the renewal rate, or reciprocal
of mean exposure time] to the hydrodynamics
and geometry of the system." Only very recently
have the first tentative steps been taken in this
direction, for example by Shulman and Mellish in
observing flow patterns in packed towers (1967),
Fortescue and Pearson using turbulent channel
flows (1967), and Ting and Davies with turbu-
lent liquid jets (1967). Efforts are also afoot to
relate to turbulence parameters not only the con-
stants in distribution functions, but also their
functional forms and the local flow-and-transfer
models-Chan's microflow elements-which are
regarded as being distributed. In still unpub-
lished work my former associates Spriggs and
Grgurich and I have toyed with a fascinating ex-
perimental model of a turbulent "eddy" (of which
more later). Two years ago Boyd, Muenz, and
Marchello reported experiments on the effect of
simple progressive surface wave motion on gas
absorption; unhappily any effect was overridden
by extraneous large-scale convective motion. The
same complication intervened in the more recent
investigation of absorption into standing surface
waves by Mani and Goren (as it had in a cruder
attempt under my supervision in 1964, and as it
probably did in the experiments of Bretsznajder
and Pasiuk in Poland a couple years earlier).
Attempts at analyzing the effects of surface waves
on transfer in seemingly accessible special cases
have been made by Chan (1964), Bentwich
(1966), E. E. O'Brien, (1967), and my Brazilian
associate Vieira.
In this current stage of development turbulence con-
cepts and model flows have not yet been united. At-
tackers on both fronts are, or ought to be, armed with
the same increasing mastery of fluid mechanics that I
pointed out earlier. Unfortunately the basic fluid me-
chanical information that is really needed is simply not
available, and one should ask whether chemical engi-
neers are to continue messing around with what little is
available, or are they to go after some needed "engi-
neering science" themselves?


Dr. L. E. Scriven is professor of chemical engineering
at the University of Minnesota. He was educated at Uni-
versity of California (Berkeley) and University of Dela-
ware (PhD '56). He has received many awards for out-
standing contributions to research and teaching in engi-
neering. His research interests include fluid mechanics,
some associated mathematical methods and the application
of engineering to biology.



STAGE FIVE: PENDING DEVELOPMENTS
For reasons some of which should become
clearer as I proceed, I believe the major areas of
research on flow and transfer at fluid interfaces
in the near future will be-or should be!-the
following: 1. Observations of turbulent interfaces
by high-speed, high-magnification photography
and, later on, measurements of correlation and
intermittency factors within the fluids. 2. Theory
of convective diffusion fields, particularly velocity
fields which admit useful exact solutions or typify
periodic and almost periodic motions. 3. Com-
parative studies of the sensitivity of final working
formulas to the details of both model microflow
elements and the distribution functions they
might follow. 4: Theory of free-boundary turbu-
lence, transversely isotropic and unidirectionally
inhomogeneous.
Actually I set out above not to prognosticate,
but to examine the ways in which chemical engi-
neers have thought about transfer between fluid
phases. It is obvious that the successive stages
in their thinking have depended directly on the
current levels of physical and mathematical so-
phistication. The sophistication must be posses-
sed both by the innovator, who has to express
original physical insight in mathematical lan-
guage if it is to support engineering calculations,
and by the user, who must grasp that language
and should understand the underlying physical
insight. We can see failures on both counts in
the histories of the (stagnant!) film, penetration,
and renewal theories, which have frequently been
less than perfectly understood-even among
chemical engineering textbook writers.
Though I haven't emphasized the fact in the
foregoing review, I should point out that there is
a lasting value of simplicity in a concept, a model,
or a theory. The simplicity of something that has
served us well in the past is a strong driving
force for rationalizing it anew after we have
become aware of its considerable limitations and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








perhaps temporarily rejected it in the light of
newly won sophistication. An obvious example
can be seen in the multitude of interpretations
the mass transfer coefficient has earned since its
filmy start. On the other hand, there is real dan-
ger in too easy or too attractive a model. The
formalism of the film theory apparently was so
elementary as to have deceived students and ma-
ture engineers alike into investigating basic
mechanisms no farther during a couple of decades
of Middle Ages. And a different example: Fasci-
nation with distribution functions and the like
seems to have been so great as to obscure the dis-
tinction between the statistics obeyed by model
elements and the working of an individual ele-
ment, and to inhibit inquiry into the latter during
a decade or more of the Modern Age.
POSTSCRIPT

This seems an appropriate juncture, before return-
ing to flow and transfer, to express my opinion that as
engineers learn new science, however esoteric, and ac-
quire mathematical skill, however abstract, their tradi-
tion and habit of practicality will produce engineering
applications. The applications may come directly in in-
vention, design, and operation or less directly-and
often more profoundly-in concepts and patterns of
thought that pass into what we call "physical intuition"
and "engineering judgment."
Yesterday's dimly viewed science and incompre-
hensible mathematics are today's engineering research
areas and tomorrow's engineering practice-and under-
graduate course contents. Of course the undergraduate
student must learn what engineering is about, and he
should see in his professors a broad selection of engi-
neering experience and outlook. But he should also
have the opportunity of acquiring a truly liberal edu-
cation, and this requires continually up-to-date scientific
and technological competence within the engineering
faculty. Maintaining this kind of competence takes re-
search and substantial numbers of professors of the
sort called engineering scientists-or, pejoratively,
pseudoscientists. In my experience it is greatly aided by
the presence of true scientists on the engineering fac-
ulty. True or false, these are persons whose participa-
tion signals the decline and fall of real engineering to
a certain type of mind. Yet, how much might earlier
competence in the areas of fluid mechanics and applied
mathematics I mentioned have benefitted my present
subject and chemical engineering in general! Suppose
the young metallurgical engineer with a PhD in phy-
sical chemistry, Irving Langmuir, had joined the engi-
neers and entrepreneurs at a leading university instead
of the chemistry professors at Stevens! Why weren't
there other young Langmuirs, more Drews and Higbies,
researchers who scouted in the literature of physiology
and Soviet applied science, critics to point out that not
all films are 2300 degrees hot and stagnant? .


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FALL, 1968









) P.1 laboratory


PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL


WILLIAM C. COHEN
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104


Dr. William C. Cohen is Associate Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He has
a BChE degree from Pratt Institute and MSE and PhD
degrees from Princeton University. In 1966 Dr. Cohen re-
ceived the Lindback Foundation award for distinguished
teaching.
Dr. Cohen is interested in making laboratory work
more meaningful and effective in engineering education
and in the inclusion of laboratory studies within lecture
courses. His research interests center on the dynamics,
control and optimization of process systems.

Process dynamics and automatic control
theory uses truly wonderful but abstract mathe-
matical relationships. It is important therefore
that the students get the opportunity to apply this
theory for reinforcement, appreciation, and mo-
tivation as well as to develop some intuitive feel
for system dynamics and control. To this end
a number of "case" and laboratory studies have
been developed and used to aid in the teaching of
process dynamics and automatic control.
The reader will note that the "case" studies
described here are not taken from engineering
practice but have been fabricated to strike a hap-
py compromise between realism and complexity.
In some ways they are like a long homework prob-
lem but to the extent that they involve laboratory
or computer experimentation as well as latitude in
how the student may approach them, they differ
significantly in their effectiveness.
Study 665-11, Control of a Shell and Tube
Heat Exchanger is used in conjunction with ana-
log computer equipment. It is used as a culminat-
ing study of a one term undergraduate engi-
neering science course or as an initial study in
a graduate level chemical engineering course
whose prerequisite is an introductory feedback
control course.
The first part of this study involves process
identification from experimental test data. The
process is simulated on part of an analog com-
puter connected to a graphical panel which de-


picts the process and to which the students may
direct their attention with minimal knowledge of
analog computation. Through the use of the re-
mainder of the analog equipment or other test
equipment as desired, the students may probe the
simulated process. Their goal is to determine the
governing differential equations or transfer func-
tion of the process.
There are two variations to this procedure
worth mentioning and which may better fit the
purposes and facilities of others. The first is to
present the student with the results of a dynamic
test. The second variation is not to use a simu-
lated process at all but to use a real piece of
process equipment such as the double pipe heat
exchanger found in most unit operations labora-
tories.
The next part of the studies present the need
to develop a theoretical dynamic model for a
thermocouple in a protective sheath which is a
part of the process system not included in the
experimental testing done previously.
Now with the differential equations or trans-
fer function of the complete process system de-
termined, the next part of these studies involves
the design of a proportional-integral controller
for it. On a plot that uses the loop gain as ab-
scissa and reset rate as ordinate they locate the
stability locus, their control system designs, and
the controller settings estimated by the Zeigler-
Nichols and Cohen and Coon correlations.
In the next part of the studies the students
observe the operation of the complete controlled


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









system on an analog computer simulation. They
can check out the stability locus and then observe
the performance of their control system designs.
They then search for optimum controller settings
which minimize the integral of absolute error.
They will notice different performance in re-
sponse to set point changes or process disturb-
ances. And they will have to evaluate the stated
specifications on system performance.
Again depending on purposes and facilities,
variations are possible such as digital computer
simulation of the system or observation and op-
timum search on a laboratory process unit di-
rectly.
The final aspect of these studies is to report
these results. I have found it most effective to
use student groups of two with different groups
doing different studies. Each student will spend
12-15 hours on the study which can be compen-
sated for by weighting the studies as a two hour
examination and/or waiving some lecture time.
Study 665-15, Control of a Liquid Level Sys-
tem is a laboratory study whose purpose is to
acquaint the students with transducers, pneu-
matic diaphragm valves, industrial recorders, etc.
They nicely show how the initial steady state
conditions, which are submerged in the theory,
rise to the surface. In this study we again use
our analog computer but this time as the real
time controller in the system. The use of the com-
puter has the advantage that the student has
great flexibility in choosing control modes. Other
advantages are that we do not have to buy ad-
ditional controller equipment and the student is
introduced to a true computer control system.
By confining the study to empirically obtain-
ing the best control of the liquid level in the tank,
we find that the students can complete the study
in a four hour period exclusive of the report. In
this system the dynamics are very nearly first
order due to the slow first order response of the
level in the tank to inlet flow and excellent results
are obtained with an on-off control mode. The
students do not generally recognize this in ad-
vance and usually first try a proportional-integral
controller with low gain. They are surprised at
the poor performance and finally arrive at a high
gain proportional or an on-off control mode.
Either because of the fun of being challenged
by a real (or simulated) process or because of the
generous weighting given to the studies, they
have been received with enthusiasm by students
at both the undergraduate and graduate level. I


PROCESS
SHELL t TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER





I I I I
I I I I
I I '


HOT
FLUID

I


rSa


MEASURED
TEMPERATURE


have also used these studies successfully with
graduate engineers and scientists in a continu-
ing education course. One of these students once
remarked that for him, "doing the study was
worth the price of admission."

Case Study 665-11. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
The P. Tomaine Soup and Food Company has de-
cided to increase production rate for their Backwoods
Bean Soup by preheating the stock before it is placed in
the cooking vessel. They own one of the few continuous
soup cookers in existence. A preheat temperature of
1400F is desired. Too high a temperature results in an
off-flavor while too low a temperature lowers the pro-
duction rate and upsets the cooking process. Quality
control decides that +30F is permissible.
P. Tomaine is active in the business and indeed was
responsible for the process development work on Back-
woods Bean Soup. He recalls the heat exchanger shown
in the accompanying figure and reasons manual control
would be ineffective because of the varying stock inlet
temperature, and the varying stock consistency which
alters the heat transfer characteristics. He decides to con-
sider automatic control of stock temperature by manipu-
lation of stock flow rate through the exchanger, and sets
about to assess the dynamic characteristics by a step
response test. The stock inlet valve is of the pneumatic
diaphragm type with a 3-15 psi range, air pressure to
open. Tomaine installs a bare 30 gage copper-constantan
thermocouple to measure the pre-heat temperature be-
cause of its almost instantaneous response although he
knows Backwood Bean Stock will dissolve it in about 14
hours. At a time when the plant disturbance appears
minimal he records the data in Table 1.
a. What transfer function would Tomaine obtain upon
analysis of his data?
b. If instead of performing a transient response test he
had taken frequency response data, what would the
magnitude ratio and phase angle plots be?
A simulation of the heat exchanger in terms of per-
turbations about an initial steady state has been set up for
you on the analog computer. The steady state corresponds
to 10 psi on the diaphragm valve giving a soup stock
temperature of 1400F at a stock flow rate of 980 gallons
per day. One computer second equals 1 problem minute
and 1 computer volt is equivalent to a change of 1 psi air
pressure on the diaphragm valve in the cold water line.
Although you can obtain the dynamic characteristics of the


FALL, 1968












Temperature Time, sec.
OF (Stopwatch)


4:40 P.M.
0


140.07
140.27

142.0
143.25
144.64
146.11

149.1
151.99
162.43
167.09
168.91
169.60
170.00


Notes

Valve at 10 psi
Valve suddenly changed to
8 psi. Stopwatch started


12 Dropped notebook.


Telephone







P.M. Returned process to 10 psi.


process by interpretation of the computer wiring, the
object of this study is to treat the simulation as the real
world and you will obtain greater benefit by not analyz-
ing the computer wiring for the process.
a, b. Now, make any experimental tests you want and
determine the transfer function of the process.
Report this result before proceeding further.
Tomaine now decides to assess the transfer function
for a rugged thermocouple imbedded in a sheath (well)
which will not dissolve in the soup. They have success-
fully used a 1 inch O.D. capped steel cylinder about 6
inches long and 1/16 inch thick. Tomaine estimates the
overall heat transfer coefficient from stock to thermo-
couple location in the well to be U = 183.4 Btu/hr-ft2 -
OF.
c. If he considers the well to be at a uniform tempera-
ture, what transfer function does he derive for the
thermocouple assembly?
Tomain now feels he is in position to consider applying
a proportional plus integral controller to the process, i.e.

m(t) = K, [e(t) + RJ e(t)dt]

where
K, = 100/(Prop. Band)
R = Reset rate, repeats/min
and

M R
S(s) =K (1 + )

d. With total loop gain (K = KCKpKB) as abscissa and
reset rate as ordinate plot the locus dividing regions
of closed loop stability and instability.
e. On this same plot locate the control systems de-
signed by gain and phase margin considerations and
also by root locus techniques. Also locate Zeigler-
Nichols and Cohen-Coon predictions.
f. Does Tomaine need the integral mode? Is deriva-
tive action needed? Reassess the problem definition.


Table 1.-Response Data for Heat Exchanger.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


g. You are invited to test your calculations by working
with an analog simulation of the Backwood Bean
Soup heat exchanger. First check a few controller
settings on the locus separating stable and unstable
regions. Notice that the simulation has provision
for calculating the integral of absolute error, IAE,
where


IAE = I e(t) dt
o

Apply step changes to the set point of the process
and obtain a gain, reset rate pair which minimizes
IAE/S where S is the size of the step applied. As
you do this determine the values of IAE/S for the
control systems designed in part e. Add all this
information to your K,R plot.
h. It turns out Mrs. Tomaine controls the company's
funds and because of their fight last night he re-
quests you to present the recommendations to the
plant improvement committee of which she is chair-
man. Take no more than 20 minutes and use visual
aids to help you present your conclusions.

Case Study 665-15. Liquid Level Control System
The objective of this experiment is to control, through
appropriate transduction, liquid level in a continuous flow
tank, using analog computer elements to simulate an auto-
matic feedback controller. Specifically, this control will be
achieved by manipulation of the flow rate of incoming
liquid. A second objective is to introduce the student to
some of the hardware used in real control systems.
The process system is located in the Chemical Engi-
neering laboratory, and the essential parts are shown in
Fig. 1 and described as follows.

EMF TAYLOR HONEYWELL CONTINUOUS PACE I
E/P DIAPHRAGM FLOW P/E
RANSDUCER -- VALVE / TANK I TRANSDUCER


Fig. I-Liquid Level Control System.

1. TAYLOR Electropneumatic Transducer, Model 701T,
converts emf to air pressure. See company literature
for specifications (voltage range, calibration, etc.).
2. HONEYWELL, % in. diaphragm valve, 3-15 psi, air
to open. Note that upstream water pressure should
be maintained time invariant during the experiment.
3. The tank used is a cylinder, 6 in. in diameter, and
approximately 24 in. high. The tank outlet to be used
is a 1/2 in. diameter, 24 in. long pipe.
4. PACE pressure to voltage transducer and readout,
model K, provides a voltage signal proportional to
differential pressure on its diaphragm. See company
literature for specifications (voltages produced, etc.).
The control system and peripheral equipment to be
utilized are as follows:
1. PHILBRICK, Model 6009, operational amplifier bank
(10 amplifiers), with power supply, black box feed-
back networks, etc. This can not be used to drive
TAYLOR E/P transducer.
2. PHILBRICK, Model UPA-2, single operational ampli-
fier must be used as the final amplifier in the con-


































Professor, What Do You Think?

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challenging assignments in just about any
area that would interest Chemical Engineers.


If you find yourself in this situation why These initial assignment
not consider an industry that can offer ability and can lead to a
a full range of Chemical Engineering in many areas.
Should you or any of your students wish additional
information on our industry or Company write to:
Mr. Robert E. Rodman
Coordinator, Professional Employment
Standard Oil Company of California
225 Bush Street
San Francisco, California 94120


ts will test their
advancement


Standard Oil Company of California
An Equal Opportunity Employer


FALL, 1968


,r'








troller scheme, in order that it may drive the TAYLOR
E/P transducer with up to 5 ma current. To protect
transducer use a voltage limiter network, 0 to 12 volts.
3. Voltmeter for pot settings, amplifier balancing, etc.
4. One bank of 5 potentiometers.
5. For recording the output of the PACE transducer and
the output of the controller a LEEDS & NORTHRUP
Speedomax H will be used. Literature on this recorder
will be found in "Readout" volume. To protect this
recorder use 0.01 input attenuation external to re-
corder.
At this point you should compare the actual equipment
with the information supplied.
The study involves your operation of the equipment to
obtain the following information.
1. Obtain the dynamic characteristics of the process sys-
tem on-line by any technique you wish to use. Do you
feel that it is necessary to study the static charac-
teristics of each individual component of the process
system? How about the dynamic characteristics?
2. Compare the results above with a theoretical analysis
of the liquid level dynamics of the tank together with
any data or estimates of the dynamic characteristics
of the other apparatus. Discuss.
3. From the dynamic characteristics, estimate the control
needs and controller settings for liquid level control.
Consider also the rapid estimations in the following
references:
a. "Zeigler Nichols Method" in Eckman, Automatic
Process Control, Wiley, 1958, p. 114-121.
b. Van der Grinten, "Determining Plant Controll-
ability" Control Engineering, Oct. 1963, p. 87; and
"Finding Optimum Controller Settings," Dec. 1963,
p. 51.
4. Now place the tank under liquid level control and
compare control performance for a step change of 3.5
inches in liquid level.


LETTERS continued from page 149.
Editor:
I was very interested in the article by Sliepcevich and
Hashemi (Irreversible Thermodynamics, CEE 2, 109-112,
1968) because it resembles a similar derivation which I
evolved while teaching our undergraduate Linear Systems
course here at Dartmouth. Although the methodology of
this course is derived mostly from the fields of Electrical
and Mechanical Engineering, I believe that the funda-
mental concepts are most happily and rigorously de-
veloped from thermodynamics.
My derivation differs from that by Sliepcevich and
Hashemi in several aspects and I suggest that mine is
both more correct conceptually and more useful in practice.
Rather than using the idea of "lost work," I started
from the "rate of entropy generation per unit volume,"
s, which was then related to the mass and energy fluxes,
M and E, and to the gradients of Planck potential a and
inverse temperature 3 (Tribus, "Thermostatics and
Thermodynamics," D. Van Nostrand). In a one-dimension-
al system we have

s=M da d
dx dx


Assuming that s is a fundamental thermodynamic prop-
erty which is a function of M and E we have


s s (M, E)


whence s is an exact differential in M and E.
Following methods akin to those of Sliepcevich and
Hashemi we have


da 1 ( s
dx 2 2

and hence


ada
dx

ME


and dl-
dx


/ad
dx)

-M E


- L12 = L,2


where L,1 and L,2 are the transport coefficients in the
equations

dl -=L E+L, 1M


da = LE +L,,M
dx


The reciprocal relationships are obtained in a similar
way by starting from the assumption


dp
S dx


The results are easily extended to three-dimensions.
The rate of entropy generation per unit volume seems
to me to be a very basic conceptual quantity. If ds is the
entropy generated in a volume (dx dy dz) in time dt, we
have

ds
dx dy dz dt

Therefore s represents the entropy density in a four-
dimensional space-time continuum. From the information
theory viewpoint s is a measure of our knowledge (or
uncertainty) about an element of a space-time universe.
There are few more fundamental concepts than that!
I also prefer the simplicity and symmetry of my for-
mulation which can be extended to any number of exten-
sive (conserved) properties and their conjugate intensive
(potential) variables.

There remains the question of just why s should be
a homogeneous function of the second degree in the fluxes
or potentials. Is there any primitive reason for this?

GRAHAM B. WALLIS
Dartmouth College


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


2 30 -
aE M


s = da
S s dx






The world of Union Oil

salutes the world

of chemical engineering


We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges
and universities which educate chemical engineers.
Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute
immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The twenty-sixth largest manufacturing company in
the United States, with operations throughout
the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas
in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's
Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro-
chemicals throughout the free world.
Our research scientists are constantly discovering new
ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted
more than 2,700 U.S. patents.
We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such
diverse projects as developing new refining processes,
developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and
the conservation of air and water.
Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic.
Tomorrow will be even more stimulating.
Thanks largely to people who join us from leading
institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and
challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil?
Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.


FALL, 1968


unl n









[ N 1 classroom


INNOVATIONS IN A PROCESS DESIGN

AND DEVELOPMENT COURSE
DONALD R. WOODS
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario


To prepare a student to make decisions
based on a financial criterion, a senior
course is given that introduces the student
to the structure of a process or plant and
to cost estimation techniques and meth-
ods of comparing the financial attractive-
ness of proposals. The morphology of de-
sign or of plant operation decisions, the
ability to handle uncertainty and methods
of optimization are introduced. Then the
principles are applied to design problems
and to plant operation.
The innovations in the course are the
development of an approach to help the
students be creative, i.e., generate alterna-
tives, through functional analysis of pro-
cesses combined with in-plant lectures.
Secondly, emphasis is placed on setting-
up economic balance equations, and an ap-
proach is suggested for balancing calcula-
tional time with the accuracy expected.
Computer-aided optimization work is done
on the models made for the simulation of
a sulphuric acid plant. Finally trouble-
shooting problems are uniquely used as
case studies to illustrate the strategy of
tackling problems, and the value of time.
Two media are used to convey senior level de-
sign experience at McMaster: a four-credit se-
mester lecture course to illustrate the funda-
mentals and a four-credit project laboratory that
has no lectures. This paper describes some ex-
perience from teaching the lecture course. First
a sketch of the course content and emphasis is
presented; then some attempted innovations are
described. The project laboratory is described
elsewhere.1
COURSE CONTENT
The course is divided into three sections:
understanding the background of processes and


Dr. D. R. Woods is an associate professor of chemical
engineering at McMaster University. He was educated
at Queen's University (BS) and the University of Wis-
consin (MS and PhD). Professor Woods teaches courses
in information management and in process design and de-
velopment. His research interests are in the field of
mechanical separation of particulate systems and in par-
ticular on methods of separating emulsions.

learning about cost estimation, developing the
general principles of devising economic balances
and of optimization, and applying the principles
to the industrial problems of design and opera-
tional efficiency.
Understanding the Background. Students are
used to thinking about commodity balances; i.e.,
they meet mass balances, then momentum bal-
ances, heat balances and component mass bal-
ances. Happel's4 concept of money balances is a
useful extension of this training. One characteris-
tic of any such balance is that the balance is made
over some region or envelope and it is on the
commodity money. The overall characteristics of
chemical industry are discussed first. A detailed
look at specific processing systems is obtained by
functional and structural analyses. Equipment de-
sign and safety considerations are discussed. This
material is often supplemented by a visit to a local
firm that has this process. Next, methods of cost
estimation and of reporting the financial attrac-
tiveness of proposals are presented.
Developing the General Principles of Devising
Economic Balances and of Optimization. Now that
the students appreciate the two necessary ingre-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








dients for economic balances, they learn to com-
bine them into balance equations. The general
strategy for developing the equations is presented,
and the application of the strategy is outlined.
The problem of handling uncertainties (as de-
scribed by Rudd and Watson5) can be introduced
but because of time limitations that material
usually has to be reserved to the graduate course.
Nevertheless, the uncertainty because of limited
calculational time is a topic the seniors should
master. This includes making good assumptions,
minimizing calculational time and project plan-
ning. A variety of optimization techniques are
briefly outlined. Depth was gained only with Gol-
den section and dynamic programming. This sec-
tion of the course draws heavily from Rudd and
Watson.
Applying the Principles to Industrial Problems
of Expansion and Efficiency. The principles are
then applied to many cases to illustrate the fine
points. First, problems are given to illustrate the
application of the strategy to design. These cases
are carefully selected for their open-endedness and
their ability to illustrate different aspects of the
strategy. Secondly, problems illustrate plant im-
provement through changing operating condi-
tions, replacement studies and through trouble-
shooting problems.

INNOVATIONS ATTEMPTED
Course descriptions convey only part of the
concept about any course. It is the emphasis and
new ideas tried that probably provoke the most
interest. The students had difficulty in defining
open-ended problems, and they had trouble setting
up economic balance equations. They could see
how one might approach an optimization problem
but did not see how the expression for the objec-
tive function was obtained. They had difficulty
being creative-or generating alternatives, and
they could not see what types of assumptions
were needed if the calculation time was limited.
The students could easily memorize the design
morphology but did not put the information to
work when they tackled realistic problems, had
difficulty in asking the right questions when such
an opportunity was afforded them, and did not
appreciate that all aspects of chemical engineering
including plant operation could be challenging and
exciting. Innovations were introduced to attempt
to overcome these problems. Here is what was
tried and the results.


The students did not appreciate that all
aspects of chemical engineering including
plant operation could be challenging and
exciting.

Functional Analysis of Processes and In-plant
Lectures. Although students had some industrial
experience they did not appreciate what goes
together to constitute a process. In addition they
should be introduced to a spectrum of practical
know-how and safety: such simple things as
steam traps, barometric legs and pressure relief
valves. Practice in defining problems should be
introduced early in the program. In addition they
should gain confidence in their ability to generate
alternatives. All these can be satisfied by doing
a functional analysis of a process. Often the pro-
cess selected is that used in the project labora-
tory.1 The functional analysis technique is adopted
from value engineering.10 The analysis steps are:
1. Classify the major sections of a process,
2. define the functions of each piece of equipment,
3. rephrase the functions to eliminate semantic
barriers,
4. generate alternatives that satisfy the functions
using free-wheelings brainstorming sessions, and
5. evaluate the alternatives based on technical feasi-
bility.
To promote discussion it is useful to require
each student to bring to class a flow diagram of a
process to serve a given function. That is, the
students are given the raw material in a given
condition (e.g., soya beans in bags sitting on the
deck of a ship docked in Burlington Bay) and a
required end product (e.g., deodorized soya bean
oil in a large storage tank, lecithin in drums and
bagged soya pulp stored in a warehouse). The ma-
jor steps of reaction, purification and or separa-
tion, and changing the physical form are identi-
fied. Then from the collection of flow diagrams a
typical flow diagram is selected. For the typical
diagram each piece of equipment is identified by
number to avoid later semantic difficulties. The
next step is to critically define the primary and
secondary functions of each piece of equipment.
This is done by the class as a group. If there are
more than three primary functions, then we at-
tempt to reevaluate the functions. Next the func-
tion statements are rephrased in words that are
the least restrictive and yet appropriately describe
the function. For example, one function might be
to "dump the soya beans from the bags." This is
rephrased to "separate the soya beans from the


FALL, 1968








containers." The substitution of "containers" for
"bags" allows us to think of the possibility of
using other types of containers for which the
separation step might be cheaper. Then, the class
period is devoted to brainstorming. No criticism
is allowed; all ideas are accepted. When the gen-
eration of ideas starts to slow down, the introduc-
tion of outlandish or far-out possibilities usually
starts a deluge of new ideas. To preserve the
brainstorming atmosphere, it is useful to consider
about four pieces of equipment at a time so that
the brainstorming session can last a full class per-
iod. The use of overhead transparencies aids in
keeping track of ideas from session to session.
A sample worksheet illustrating a student's at-
tempt to do a functional analysis on his own is
given in Figure 1.
The ideas suggested during the creative brain-
storming sessions are then criticized. This is an
excellent opportunity to describe technology and
know-how that they have not experienced before.
Sometimes we take one of the 'wildest' ideas and
see how we would attempt to make it work. Here,
it is emphasized that unless an idea is presented

FIGURE 1. SAMPLE FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
WORKSHEET
Functional Analysis of Soya Bean Plant
ITEM FUNCTION GENERATE ALTERNATIVES


Soya
Beans
in Bags


Separate
Soya Beans
from container


Machine
Cut open and dump
manually


Grind up bag & beans and
separate via density,
cut top open
Dissolve the bag
Burn away the bag
Roast away the bag

Miller Direct beans to Tank with conical bottom.
Hopper transportation Pile on floor in covered
system: meter building & dozer; Store as
flow; buffer hold- bags on the floor & carry.
up; protect from
weather


Conveyor Transfer beans
from storage to
cleaning units;
meter flow


Conveyor belt; bucket eleva-
tor; gravity; continuous
pneumatic conveyor; discon-
tinuous, high pressure con-
veying system; carry them;
float them; blow them; lift
them, float conveyor with
air/with water/short them,
blast them.


The students see that the separation of the
creative from the critical mental stages
brings about practical ideas that would
probably be lost if attempted together.



or created it cannot be analyzed. The students
also see that the separation of the creative from
the critical mental stages brings out practical
ideas that would probably be lost if the creative
and critical stages were attempted together. That
is, we tend to dismiss as 'unworkable' valuable
creative ideas if we criticize as we create.
This classroom exercise can be greatly en-
hanced if it can be complemented with a visit to
a local company that has a similar process.
At McMaster, the process often selected re-
sembles the operation of the local industry Ca-
nadian Vegetable Oil Processing Ltd., that han-
dles soya beans. The student now can see some
of the equipment discussed during the functional
analysis and understands some of the reasons why
it might have been selected. We discuss what the
student might do if he was working for the com-
pany and if a given piece of equipment was to be
replaced. Later a frank discussion with com-
pany personnel about present operating problems
helps to illustrate the value of functional analysis
as sound background work for any process.
From an instructor's viewpoint, this approach
is easy to do and well worth the time. The ap-
proach is enhanced immensely by the in-plant
visit, and the process chosen for the class func-
tional analysis was determined by the availability
of such an opportunity. The in-plant visit was
unique in that it was not a plant tour. We were
permitted to go about the plant on our own; we
were not given a plant tour by company personnel.
We spent as much time as we wanted discussing
among ourselves any aspect of the operation.
This functional analysis technique introduces
plant know-how, illustrates the importance of
clearly defining problems and lays the foundation
for all creative activity for the rest of the course.
Another in-plant lecture is arranged later in
the course to illustrate trouble shooting problems
and to again introduce practical design techniques.
This lecture concentrates on a three-tower dis-
tillation unit and was arranged through the co-
operation of Mr. E. W. Blackmore, Domtar Chem-
icals Ltd.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The in-plant visit was unique in that it was not a plant tour.
We were permitted to go about the plant on our own.


Devising Economic Balance Equations. Stu-
dents have difficulty in doing cost balances over
pieces of equipment because they do not recog-
nize an overall strategy for tackling large, open-
ended, cost-oriented problems and because of their
inexperience in defining problems. They also have
difficulty establishing a uniform accuracy level de-
manded for the problem. This affects their choice
of fundamental and cost details that they include
in the balance.
To combat this the emphasis on the course is
essentially on how to apply a consistent, organ-
ized strategy and how to define problems. The
background information given to the students de-
scribing a consistent strategy is outlined in ref-
erence 11. This is supplemented by several de-
tailed examples to illustrate the application of the
strategy. Happel's4 examples; p 182ff, and in
Appendix B; are easy to recast into the strategy;
they are simple enough that the students do not
become overwhelmed by details. This material is
the backbone of the course and a lot of time is
spent devising balances and defining problems.

Balancing Calculational Time with Accuracy.
Knowing what assumptions to make so that an
open-ended problem could be solved in the avail-
able time is a challenge that most students had
difficulty in overcoming. The available time for
calculations can be divided into three sections:
1. time to define the problem, make assumptions and
select the equations needed, te minutes.
2. time to collect the input constants, physical prop-
erties, and cost operating and equipment data, tp
minutes
3. time to actually perform the calculations, t, minutes

That strategy suggested is shown in Figure
2. In general information on this problem was
difficult to locate.
To appreciate how an engineer might select as-
sumptions the medium chosen was the imaginary
conversation between a knowledgeable but novice
engineer, E, and a devil's advocate, DA, suggested
by Rudd and Watson. The students found this
conversation approach very interesting; so in-
teresting that it was worthwhile to recast prev-
ious course illustrative material into this format.
A unique way to present this material was to let
the students role-play and attempt to develop the
conversation themselves. The mechanics were:


1. to prepare the conversation ahead of time,
2. divide the class into two to play the two roles
3. the students playing each role would try to state
or answer questions according to their respective
role without the aid of the conversation sheets;
that is, those playing the role of the DA would
try to formulate the best question to ask. While
they were doing this, those playing the role of the
E could look at the prepared conversation sheet to
see the suggested question. Through interplay be-
tween the students playing the E roles and the
instructor with the students playing the DA roles
the DA's eventually pose a question similar to the
prepared question on the conversation sheets. Then,
the play is reversed, the E's must answer the
posed question. The DA's and the instructor can see
the answer on the conversation sheet and through
other questions the DA's care to pose the E's answer
the question.
Sample conversations are given by Rudd and Wat-
son.7
The students had already had experience with
locating information through a sophomore course
on "Information Management and Technical
Writing."12 Hence, they did not have much diffi-
culty in realistically estimating time tp.
The students did not have much experience in
estimating the required calculational time for
large systems involving a lot of recycle. Class ma-
terial, examples and problems were based on the
material of Rudd and Watson.
In general, the overall concepts were difficult
to get across and much development work is
needed for this part of the course.
FIGURE 2. SUGGESTED STRATEGY FOR BALANCING
TIME WITH ACCURACY


DEFINE
and
PLAN


CARRY OUT
and
LOOK BACK


1 Determine things needed for the cal-
culation of the answer. List all and
study contribution of each to the ac-
curacy of calculated answer. (Is the
contribution significant?)
2 List the alternative equations that can
be used to calculate each contribution.
Try to list in the order of decreasing
calculation time.


3 Estimate the three times, te, tp, and
t,, and compare these with the total
time available for each combination of
equations and constants.
4 Select the combination of equations and
constants that can be used in the time
available and that will yield consistent
accuracy in all the contributions.


FALL, 1968









Computer-aided Optimization. The objective
of this part of the course was to introduce some
ideas, concepts and methods available for optimi-
zation. Methods of optimizing the use of optimi-
zation techniques were deferred to the graduate
course. Some depth was given in only two areas.
Emphasis was placed on selecting criteria. Al-
though financial attractiveness is the commonly
accepted criteria, the importance of technical,
time and resource, environmental, originality in
design, social, product acceptance and market-
volume feasibilities were discussed. The use of a
decision matrix of all these criteria was discussed
following the guidelines suggested by Dean et al."
The depth was gained-without having to re-
sort to a time consuming computer programming
exercise-through the use of mathematical mod-
els developed in a simulation project from prev-
ious years.1, 2 6 For example, an optimization pro-
gram for a single decision variable search using
Golden Section and for the single bed reactor to
convert sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide had been
developed by Professor C. M. Crowe. Since four
beds with intercoolers are used on the plant the
class used dynamic programming to optimize the
conversion to sulfur trioxide with bed inlet tem-
perature as the decision variable. The students
enjoyed the exercise and felt it well worth the
time.
Trouble-shooting Problems. The third section
of the course on the application of the principles
to design and process operation depends mainly
on the judicious selection of problems that can
most effectively illustrate problem diversity as
well as the uniformity of strategy used. This
section most aptly is described as a series of case
studies. An innovation tried was to use trouble-
shooting problems for plants that have already
been designed. Their use emphasizes the diverse
applicability of the strategy and shows that plant
operation presents challenging problems. This
technique7'8',10', and some sample problems are
described elsewhere. The instructor has a variety
of ways in which these problems can be used:
individuals solving the problems, 131 14 group solu-
tion to the problem, and group defining a stra-
tegy.8 This past year we experimented with the
group solution to the problem. In this approach
the group discuss the strategy, decide on an action
and pose this action through the instructor (who
acts a Devils Advocate and screen for the ques-
tions) to a teaching assistant who supplies realis-
tic answers to the proposed action. This approach


allows the group to experience more problems in
a given period of time. However, the individual
does not suffer the consequences of his own action.
Now, through the cooperation of Shell Canada
Ltd, we are developing short film loops to present
the problem to the students with visual impact!

SUMMARY
A four-credit senior course presents a back-
ground understanding of 'what is a process,' cost
estimation techniques, introduces a strategy that
can be used to define problems and to devise eco-
nomic balances, and surveys methods of choosing
criteria and choosing the best. Many problems or
short case studies are used to apply these concepts
to real industrial problems of both design and
process operation.
From past experience the major difficulties
encountered by the students were in defining
problems, devising economic balance equations,
being creative, making good assumptions, apply-
ing design morphology, and asking the right ques-
tion. To overcome these and other difficulties,
several innovations have been tried.
Functional analysis of plants or parts of plants
together with in-plant lectures have been useful
and interesting to the student. Here the primary
and secondary functions of pieces of equipment
are defined, alternative means of satisfying the
functions are generated through creative brain-
storming sessions and the resulting alternatives
are later critically analyzed through group dis-
cussion for technical feasibility. In-plant lectures
then were used to illustrate a system, and opened
the discussion of feasible design and operating
conditions.
A second innovation was the emphasis placed
on devising economic balance equations. Simi-
larities in strategy for tackling large, open ended
aspects of handling uncertainty were discussed
following the guidelines of Rudd and Watson.
Teaching the students how to make good as-
sumptions so that the problem can be solved in
the allotted time was not very successful. Perhaps
this is too harsh a judgment because evaluation
is difficult. The media used was a strategy plus
examples and a 'role-playing' session illustrating
the conversation between a novice engineer and
the devil's advocate.
Optimization techniques were briefly sur-
veyed; selection of criteria was emphasized and
some details of one optimization technique were
given. The detailed look at a dynamic program-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









ming solution for a two stage system with a single
decision variable for each stage was possible be-
cause of the availability of the computer pro-
grams.
Trouble-shooting problems were used as short
case studies where the students played the role
of an engineer trying to get a plant functioning
correctly for a minimum cost. This innovation was
enthusiastically received by the students.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to Mr. S. G. Boulter of Canadian
Vegetable Oil Processing Ltd, and to, Mr. E. W.
Blackmore, Domtar Chemicals, both of Hamilton
for allowing me to use their facilities for the in-
plant lectures, and to Professor Dale F. Rudd and
C. C. Watson who have introduced me to some
exciting concepts and approaches in this field.
My students and colleagues at McMaster have
offered suggestions and support to some of the
experiments tried.
REFERENCES
1. Crowe, C. M., A. E. Hamielec, T. W. Hoffman, A. I.
Johnson, D. R. Woods, R. B. Anderson and J. W. Hod-
gins, "Teaching Experience from Experimenting with
Design and Simulation Projects" paper presented at
the ACS meeting. Miami Beach April 10 (1967).
2. Crowe, C. M., A. E. Hamielec, T. W. Hoffman, A. I.
Johnson, P. T. Shannon and D. R. Woods, Chemical
Plant Simulation Text to be published by J. Wiley and
Sons. (1969).
3. Dean, R. C., Jr., P. T. Shannon and S. R. Stearns,
Dartmouth College Workshop on Design Education
in Hanover, N. H. Summer (1965).
4. Happel, J., Chemical Process Economics, J. Wiley and
Sons, New York (1958).
5. Rudd, D. F., and C. C. Watson, Strategy in Process
Engineering, J. Wiley and Sons, New York (1968).
6. Shannon, P. T., A. I. Johnson, C. M. Crowe, T. W.
Hoffman, A. E. Hamielec and D. R. Woods, Chem.
Eng. Prog. 62, 6, 49 (1966).
7. Silveston, P. L. and D. R. Woods, "Use of Trouble
Shooting Problems in Undergraduate Chemical Engi-
neering Design Courses," paper presented at the 16th
Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference, Windsor
Oct. 19 (1966).
8. Silveston, P. L. "Trouble Shooting Problems as Teach-
ing Aids" Chap. 4 Chemical Engineering Case Prob-
lems AIChE publication (1967).
9. Venus, D. K. Product Design and Value Eng. October
(1967) p. 36.
10. Woods, D. R. Chem. Eng. Ed. p. 19-23 Jan. (1966).
11. Woods, D. R., "The Use of Short Trouble-Shooting
Problems" Chap. 3 "Chemical Engineering Case Prob-
lems" AIChE publication (1967) and presentation at
the AIChE New York meeting Nov. 1967.
12. Woods, D. R., "An Engineer and Communication"
McMaster University Bookstore, Hamilton, Ontario.


CHEMISTRY FOR


CHEMICAL ENGINEERS*

P. H. WATKINS
Esso Research and Engineering Company
Linden, New Jersey
















Dr. Watkins is employment coordinator for the Esso
Research and Engineering Company. He holds BS, MS,
and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Virginia
Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Watkins taught at VPI and
in 1956 joined Esso at Baton Rouge in development
engineering. He was a campus recruiter and may visit
your campus-watch for him.

The type and amount of chemistry re-
quired in the Chemical Engineering cur-
riculum has been a controversial topic over
the years. Chemistry is an important part
of the undergraduate curriculum and the
practicing chemical engineer continues to
need a thorough understanding of the fun-
damentals of inorganic, organic and physi-
cal chemistry and the theory and tech-
niques of analytical chemistry. Since he
will use chemistry as one of his tools in
his decision making processes, the courses
should emphasize application and problem
solving. His chemical engineering courses
in turn should offer him the opportunity to
apply his chemical knowledge to the maxi-
mum amount possible.
It is a pleasure to discuss with you the very
critical question of what chemistry should be in-
cluded in the chemical engineering curriculum. I
think the fact that we are willing to discuss this

*Presented at the Annual Meeting of ASEE, June
19,-22, 1967.


FALL, 1968









. Unwanted or deleterious side reactions will rise up and
smite him in both catalytic and recycle processes.


topic is an indication of the dynamic nature of
our profession. I also think it is an area that must
be approached with some caution. It is true that
many chemical engineers are now making note-
worthy contributions in areas where no knowledge
of chemistry is required. On the other hand, I
feel very strongly that a professional cannot be
termed a chemical engineer unless he has a solid
and usable understanding of the major fields of
chemistry. Conversely, to be a chemical engineer
also implies a thorough background in the princi-
ples of engineering. These two requirements pret-
ty well define what the technical content of his
education must be, and the trick is obviously one
of finding an optimum balance between the two.
Before discussing the problem of how much
and what kind of chemistry, it might be well to
remind ourself of what general procedures will
be expected of the chemical engineer on any pro-
ject he may be involved in. I think in almost any
case he would be expected to demonstrate the
abilities to:
1. Find and identify the problem or problems in the
project.
2. Plan a successful approach to solve these problems
using such analytical and synthetic approaches as
are required. Problem will usually be open ended.
3. Prepare a sufficient number of solutions (cases) to
define alternatives available.
4. Make a decision based on the facts as developed.
5. Report this decision in a clear, concise manner.
6. Be sufficiently versatile to modify this decision on
his own initiative when environmental factors
change.
While these requirements will not say what
kind of chemistry our chemical engineer should
study, it does imply how it should be taught. He
will obviously be using his chemistry as one of his
tools in his decision making. Therefore, all his
chemistry courses should emphasize problem solv-
ing, and his chemical engineering courses should
challenge his chemical knowledge to the maxi-
mum. After all, the chemistry department is
only responsible for giving him the tools. The
chemical engineering department bears the re-
sponsibility of showing him how to use them.
Accomplishing this objective will require coopera-
tion and much discussion between the depart-
ments involved as well as separate and collective
discussions between these departments and the
users of the product of their labor. Fortunately,


as this meeting exemplifies, these informative ex-
changes are becoming more and more a part of
the overall educational process. In passing I think
one should give the "Goals" committee and the
"Preliminary Report" a lot of credit for stimu-
lating these discussions.
Turning now to the chemistry content of the
Chemical Engineering curriculum, I think we
would all agree that undergraduate and graduate
education will have to be looked at separately.
The bachelors degree must prepare a man for be-
ginning positions in industry and government as
well as for graduate school. In the former groups
he would most probably start in one of the fol-
lowing areas: development, design, operational
analysis, technical service, operational supervi-
sion and technical sales. To prepare him for this
multiplicity of opportunities it seems to me that
he must be well grounded in inorganic chemistry,
organic chemistry and physical chemistry. He
will also require a foundation in the techniques
of analytical chemistry. I think it goes without
saying that he should obtain these courses as
early as possible so that he may start using them.
Inorganic chemistry will, I imagine, continue
to be the basis of a freshman course. I would
hope that the emphasis here would be on good old-
fashioned equation balancing and lots of good
experience in handling stoichiometric type prob-
lems. Some of the concepts of physical chemistry
should also be introduced at this time, but only
those concepts which he has the mathematical
background to grasp and to apply to problem
solutions. While I agree that there may be a real
need on campus for a broad, descriptive type of
introductory course in chemistry designed to give
a student an overall appreciation of the field, such
a course should not be considered for the young
engineer.
In the field of analytical chemistry one can
generate arguments for complete exclusion or
very heavy inclusion into the curriculum. My
view is a moderate one and I believe the chemical
engineer should have sufficient exposure, both
theory and laboratory, in the techniques so that
he will have a feel for the reliability of these data
in his problem solving. I would also like to see
considerable emphasis placed on instrumental
methods, since these techniques are and will be
useful in his in-line control problems.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







would you like to write "The


Formation of Perhydrophenalenes


and Polyalkyladamantanes


by Isomerization of


Tricyclic Perhydroaromatics?"


How's that again? Well, never mind
-Bob Warren, Ed Janoski, and Abe
Schneider already wrote it. They're
chemists in Sun Oil Company's Re-
search and Development Department.
Their paper is just one of many re-
sulting from imaginative and origi-
nal basic research conducted at Sun
Oil.
Maybe basic research and technical
papers aren't your cup of tea. But
isn't the kind of company that in-
vests in and encourages such projects
the kind of company you'd like to
work for?
Especially when the company does
things like pioneer the $235 million
FALL, 1968


Athabasca oil sands project in North-
ern Alberta to multiply the world's
petroleum resources; plan a new $125
million processing facility in Puerto
Rico; expand the Toledo Refinery to
the tune of $50 million; sponsor the
"Sunoco Special" and the racing team
of Roger Penske and Mark Donohue
in big league sports car racing to
competition-prove and improve Sun-
oco products for the public; pursue a
continuing program for air and water
pollution control; beautify Sunoco
service stations everywhere.
Sunoco is geared for growth. We
need men and women to grow with
us and build a future. We have open-


ings in Exploration, Production,
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ing, Sales, Accounting, Economics,
and Computer Operation. Locations
- Philadelphia, Toledo and Dallas
areas.
You may write us for an appoint-
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tact your College Placement Director
to see Sun's representative when on
campus. SUN OIL COMPANY, Indus-
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P. 0. Box 2880, Dallas, Texas 75221.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F








In organic chemistry there should be a good
balance between synthetic and mechanistic work.
I think it would be good to place emphasis on
some of the problems that will plague him later,
such as unwanted or deleterious side reactions.
As we all know these will rise up and smite him
in both catalytic process and recycle processes. It
would also be a good thing for him to obtain an
understanding of the effect of structure on phy-
sical as well as chemical properties. Many of
these men will spend large portions of their
careers in product rather than process work.
In physical chemistry I think we would agree
that we are looking at the basic science he will
use most. Coverage of thermodynamic, kinetic,
and equilibrium considerations should be inten-
sive. The only plea I would make is that it be
kept general in nature and that we fight the
temptations to make it a specialized course in
atomic physics, or any of the other attractive
fields that have only marginal professional utili-
zation for the average engineer.
In summary, the fields of chemistry and their
manner of presentation discussed above seem to
me to represent the minimum requirement, and
represent somewhere around 30 semester hours
of instruction. Additional courses such as bio-
chemistry, colloid chemistry and so on may be
highly desirable on an individual elective basis,
but do not seem to be general requirements.
The problem of chemistry at the graduate level
is obviously much more on a case to case basis.
The man who plans a career in process or product
research work should certainly broaden his chemi-
cal knowledge. On the other hand, the man who
aims toward the area of applied mathematics in
the separational and diffusional areas may have
little need for additional courses unless his local
chemistry department is very active in these par-
ticular areas. In practice he will probably obtain
his additional training in his own department.
The terminal masters man going for design has
little need for additional chemistry. The same is
true for the man aiming for management rather
than a technical career. I do not believe that it
is really possible to suggest any overall definitive
additional chemistry training beyond the under-
graduate education. In the final analysis we are
engineers, not chemists, and while our problems
are involved with process and product, they are
engineering problems. Our problems frequently
include chemical considerations, but very rarely
to the exclusion of all others. In our graduate


I would like to see considerable emphasis
placed on instrumental methods since
these are useful in in-line control problems.


training it seems to me that we should provide the
chemical training necessary to perform the chemi-
cal engineering research or development area the
student is specializing in. We should not confuse
this with the chemical training requirements of
the research chemist.
In summary, chemistry has been and is an in-
tegral part of the training of the chemical engi-
neer. He needs to be well grounded in the funda-
mentals of the principal branches of chemistry.
Of equal importance he must be trained in the
application of these fundamentals to his problem
solving and decision making activities. As he
specializes in graduate work, he should be exposed
to those branches of chemistry which contribute
to his specialization. Finally, we must constantly
remember that chemistry is only one of the many
tools of his profession, and that his exposure to
this science should be in relation to need and not
precedent.


news

Dr. Paul Murrill, professor and head of LSU's
chemical engineering department, was one of two
college professors in the nation to be presented
the Faculty Service Certificate by the National
University Extension Association's Division of
Conferences and Institutes. Dr. Murrill was re-
cognized for a series of short courses which he de-
veloped in the area of computers and their uses.
A member of the LSU faculty since 1963, Dr.
Murrill has also been awarded the $1,500 Halli-
burton Award for excellence in engineering
teaching.
Dr. Richard H. Wilhelm, chairman of the
chemical engineering department at Princeton
University died August 6. He was the featured
educator in the Spring 1968 issue of CEE. Re-
cently he was appointed to the National Academy
of Engineering and he presently held the pres-
tigious Henry Putnam University Professorship
at Princeton.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









educator


FRANK GROVES

FAVORITE PROFESSOR


Ten years of inspiring teaching in chemical
engineering has won Dr. Frank R. Groves, Jr., of
Louisiana State University the reputation of
"master teacher." But in addition to his class-
room ability, he has been cited as a scholar and
a researcher.
The 39-year-old Louisiana native has been
teaching a wide range of subjects including most
of the University's undergraduate course offer-
ings in chemical engineering. Among these are
material and energy balances, thermodynamics,
fluid flow, transport processes, heat, mass and
momentum, properties of gases and liquids, and
mathematical models. At the graduate level he
has taught thermodynamics, distillation, reactor
design and scale-up theory.
LSU's chemical engineering students in 1966
named him "Favorite Professor." In the following
year he was awarded one of four Halliburton


An outstanding teacher who participates actively
in research, consulting, and in both local and national
AIChE activities is featured in this issue as our "ChE
Educator"

Awards for excellence in teaching in the College
of Engineering. The awards emphasize the impor-
tance of quality instruction and encourage the de-
velopment of excellence in the organization and
presentation of engineering course work. The
Halliburton program at LSU is designed to re-
ward individual professors who have made con-
tributions beyond that expected in the normal per-
formance of their duties.
Dr. Groves served on the faculty committee
which directed revision of the LSU chemical en-
gineering department's curriculum several years
ago, and he has also helped prepare new course
materials for the department. He has been a guest
lecturer in the American Society for Engineering
Education's visiting engineer program and has
written 11 research papers for publication or
symposium presentation. His teaching has ex-
tended to off-campus courses for industrial per-
sonnel throughout Louisiana.
Like his teaching interests Dr. Groves' re-
search interests have been broad. A unifying
thread of interest in problems related to chemical
reactor design holds together his diverse indi-
vidual projects. These have included digital com-
puter studies and experimental work on variable
temperature absorbers, a project in the pure
chemistry of an oxidation reaction catalyzed by
a complex ion, various digital computer studies
on variable temperature reactors, computer an-
alysis of supersonic combustion for ramjet en-
gines, and an investigation of vapor-liquid equi-
libria in non-aqueous solutions. Most of these
studies have been described at technical meetings
and several have been published in the permanent
technical literature.
Dr. Groves has supervised many MS theses
and four PhD dissertations during his service at
LSU. Three of his PhD students are employed in
industry-one in aerospace, another in petro-
chemicals, and the third in organic chemicals.
The latest will begin a career in university teach-
ing this fall. His MS students are scattered over
the United States in various industries.
Aside from his work at LSU Dr. Groves has
been active professionally in a number of other
ways. He has spent two summers at Oak Ridge
National Laboratory working on the fluoride


FALL, 1968

















"It is more important


to carryon research


than itisto pay


Dividends. The speaker was
Lammot du Pont. The year was gloomy 1932, and he was
president of Du Pont. A proposal had been made to pare
the research budgets in order to protect the dividend.
As it turned out, the company was strong enough to
pay for both, and it hasn't missed paying for either in the
past sixty years. But there was no doubt which way Lammot
du Pont would have decided back in 1932. And today, we
invest more than $100 million a year in the quest for new
knowledge and better products.
It is precisely this attitude towards research and
development that attracts so many graduates every year.
And that makes Du Pont such an exciting and rewarding
place to work.
There is no formal training period. Our men go into
responsible jobs from the first day.
They work in small groups where individual contribu-
tions are promptly recognized and rewarded. Promotions
come from within the company.
They do significant work of positive benefit to society.
And they work with the best men in their fields in a crackling
technical environment that provides every facility needed.
If our attitude towards research and work agrees with
yours, why not suggest that your students sign up for a talk
with a Du Pont recruiter? Or that they write our College
Relations Manager, Wilmington, Delaware 19898, for
additional information on opportunities in their fields.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











O a ChE Division Chairman
S F for 1968-69:
W. H. Corcoran

The new chairman of the Chemical Engineer-
ing Division of the American Society of Engi-
neering Education is Professor William H. Cor-
coran, Executive Officer, Department of Chemical
Engineering, California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, California. Professor Corcoran has
recently served as Executive Board Member and
as Chairman of the Publications Board for the
Division and it is largely through his leadership
and personal efforts that Chemical Engineering
Education has received excellent financial support
from industrial corporations and universities.
Professor Corcoran has been a member of the
Cal Tech faculty since 1952 as Associate Profes-
sor and then Professor of Chemical Engineering.
Prior to that he had been Director of Technical
Development for Cutter Laboratories. He has
been active in the AIChE having served on the
National Program Committee as Chairman of
Group 7, Education and Humanities and as a
member of Group 4, Fundamentals. He is also


serving on the Student Chapter Committee and
the Membership Committee.
Professor Corcoran is active in various civic
and religious groups. He is the author of num-
erous papers and several books dealing with ki-
netics, thermodynamics, transport phenomena,
and other areas.
Division Officers and Committee Members for 1968-69
Executive Committee
Chairman-William Corcoran, California Institute of
Technology
Chairman-Elect and Vice-Chairman-William H. Hon-
stead, Kansas State University
Secretary-Treasurer-Donald K. Anderson, Michigan
State University
Past-Chairman-L. Bryce Andersen, Newark College
of Engineering
Members-Cecil H. Chilton, Battelle Memorial Insti-
tute; James Knudsen, Oregon State College.
Summer School Planning Committee
Max Peters, University of Colorado
Lloyd Berg, Montana State University
Erich Baer, Case Western Reserve University
T. E. Daubert, Pennsylvania State University
John O'Connell, University of Florida
L. Bryce Andersen, Newark College of Engineering.
Publications Committee Chairman-James H. Weber,
University of Nebraska.
Program Chairman-Kenneth Bischoff, University of
Maryland.


Continued from page 172.

volatility process for treatment of spent nuclear
fuel elements. Another two summers were spent
at NASA's Langley Research Center working on
computer analysis of supersonic combustion in
ramjet engines. He is a member of the Ameri-
can Chemical Society and has been active in the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers serv-
ing as vice-chairman, chairman, and member of
the executive committee of the Baton Rouge
Section. He served as a member of the Technical
Program Committee for the 1967 Houston Na-
tional Meeting of AIChE and has been active in
consulting work with Columbian Carbon Com-
pany since 1962 first at Lake Charles, La. and
now at Princeton, N. J. where he has consulted on
various aspects of organic process development.
Dr. Groves is currently working under a
NASA contract on improvement of a computer
program describing supersonic combustion. This
project is a small part of a NASA research pro-
gram aimed at developing ramjet aircraft for
flight in the hypersonic range (5 to 12 times the
speed of sound). Next year he will be directing a


project at LSU on drying of porous solids for
Cabot Corporation.
Dr. Groves was born in 1929 in New Orleans,
Louisiana, and received his elementary education
in the public schools of that city. He entered Tu-
lane University in the summer of 1945 and re-
ceived a BS in Chemical Engineering in 1950 and
an MS in Chemistry in 1951. He attributes his
success in teaching a wide range of courses to the
broad basic training in science and engineering
provided at Tulane.
While studying chemistry at Tulane he was
fortunate to have as major professor Dr. Hans B.
Jonassen, who aroused an interest in research on
complex ions, which has persisted up to the pres-
ent time. With the encouragement of Dr. Jonas-
sen he entered the University of Wisconsin in
1951 and continued his fundamental studies in
chemical engineering receiving the PhD in 1955.
Following graduate school, Dr. Groves spent four
years in industry including two years with At-
lantic Refining Company and one year with Texas
Instruments Inc. in Dallas, Texas. He married
the former Margaret Hodge of Dallas in 1959.
They have one son, Frank D. Groves, 8 years old.


FALL, 1968










I department



CALTECH

WILLIAM H. CORCORAN
Executive Officer

BRIEF HISTORY
Chemical Engineering at the California In-
stitute of Technology began with the appointment
of William N. Lacey as Instructor of Chemistry
in 1916. He had been a student of Professor Gil-
bert N. Lewis at the University of California at
Berkeley, obtaining his Ph.D. there is 1915. Dr.
Arthur Amos Noyes, previously acting President
of M.I.T., and then Professor of Chemistry at the
California Institute of Technology, proselyted
Will Lacey and initiated a long and fruitful as-
sociation. The general style in Chemical Engi-
neering at Caltech is based upon thinking that
stems from the attitudes of G. N. Lewis, Arthur
Amos Noyes, and W. N. Lacey.
In 1927, API Project 37 was initiated for
study of volumetric and phase behavior of hydro-
carbons and is just terminating after 41 years of
a very active and contributory life. Will Lacey
was the founder of this effort and was joined by
Bruce H. Sage in 1929. The collaboration between
the two has had a major effect upon the produc-
tion and processing of petroleum and hydrocarbon
compounds throughout the world.
As World War II approached, the California
Institute of Technology became deeply involved
in work on naval ordnance and subsequently on
army ordnance. Professors Sage and Lacey led
the Chemical Engineering group in work on in-
terior ballistics of naval rockets and on processing
of double-base propellant for the manufacture of
solid-propellant grains for those rockets. In ad-
dition to research and development efforts in this
area, a significant semi-works plant for the pro-
duction of naval rockets was operated by the
Chemical Engineering group in the San Gabriel
mountains. These efforts were part of the pro-
gram at Caltech in an integrated effort on the
total development and supply of naval rocket ord-
nance. Toward the end of World War II a sig-
nificant amount of the group's effort was directed
toward ordnance work associated with the Man-


hattan Project. In the main, however, the contri-
bution in naval rocketry was the principal en-
deavor.
After World War II, Chemical Engineering
began development of a PhD program and a
broadening of its research interests. That pro-
gram has continued on successfully. Because the
California Institute of Technology is a small
school, opportunities for close association among
the students and the faculty members in both the
classroom and laboratory are great and are fully
utilized.

AIMS AND GOALS
From 1916 onward, the aim of Chemical En-
gineering at Caltech in its educational program
has been to focus upon fundamentals of physics,
chemistry, and mathematics with overlying con-
cepts of chemical-engineering design as a founda-
tion for the development of professional skills.
That attitude still prevails today, and all the
planning is made with that thought in mind.
Because of the stress on fundamentals, chemi-
cal engineering at Caltech has never gone heavily
into the development of a unit-operations labora-
tory. Laboratory work in chemical engineering,
both for BS and MS programs, has been mainly
directed toward the study of fundamental phe-
nomena with emphasis on the integration of point-
by-point information on temperature, pressure,
and composition to understand the total perform-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Our goal is not to produce specialists who would gravitate to
a given area of activity in the scientific and engineering world.
Our graduates are occupied in activities ranging from invest-
ment banking to medicine ...


ance of a piece of equipment. At the time of
graduation from Caltech, the BS or MS student in
chemical engineering has not had the sophisti-
cation that some other students may have had
relative to operation of process equipment. Be-
cause of the finite time available for education, it
is believed that the limited time in laboratory
work is better directed to the study of basic prin-
ciples and that application of these principles to
real problems is best treated in the classroom by
way of case studies of varying degrees of length
and difficulty.
Inasmuch as the school is small, there has been
unlimited opportunity to try various techniques
in the teaching of chemical engineering at the
undergraduate level as well as at the graduate
level. Of major concern at the moment is how to
maintain association with principle and still pro-
vide some degree of sophistication for the stu-
dent relative to the explosion of technological in-
formation. The approach has been to remove
courses and to add new, upgraded courses still
based on fundamentals but providing new case
studies with origins in the newest technologies.
The incoming freshman student improves from
year to year so that the procedure of removing
courses and bringing in new courses with contin-
ual upgrading has not been too difficult to follow.
The elimination of courses is one of the great
challenges to all curricula. One of the pitfalls in
the planning of educational programs is the ten-
dency to add new courses without removing old
ones. That has not been one of the problems at
Caltech. An examination of today's undergradu-
ate curriculum shows that it is different from the
curriculum of three years ago, quite different
from that of six years ago, and so forth.
With the goal of providing an education as
well as a degree of competency in dealing with
chemical-engineering principles, it has been
necessary to focus more and more upon a course
in the senior year of the undergraduate program
which would integrate the thinking of the student
relative to various courses he has had as an under-
graduate. That integration currently is done in
the framework of a course entitled "Optimal De-
sign of Chemical Systems." In this course there


is application of studies in applied mechanics,
strength of materials, properties of materials,
unit operations, and optimization to the design
of real chemical processes, both of the type en-
countered in the chemical-process industry and of
the type that might be encountered in less tra-
ditional areas such as in biological, medical, and
aerospace fields. The approach has resulted in a
decrease in the traditional number of hours de-
voted to applied mechanics and electrical engi-
neering, but perhaps an increase in sensitivity to
the concepts of engineering if one might define
engineering as the application of fundamental
principles of science to economic and social needs.
Throughout all our teaching, we emphasize that
the knowledge which is being discussed is even-
tually to be applied to provide a profit in an indus-
try or to provide some assistance to the Federal
Government and its manifold problems or to help
society in its problems of economics and progress.
Our goal is not to produce specialists at the
BS level or MS level or even the PhD level who
would all gravitate to a given area of activity in
the scientific and engineering world. We would
be unhappy, indeed, if all our graduates went into
the aerospace industry alone or into the petroleum
industries alone. Our graduates are occupied in
activities ranging from investment banking to
medicine with certainly great emphasis in be-
tween on the chemical-process industry which
represents a major part of our country's strength.
Size of student body is important to us but
not in terms of providing us with larger and
larger numbers of students. We seek a number of
students we believe is an equitable proportion of
the total enrollment. Caltech's total undergradu-
ate student body currently numbers about 700
and the graduate student body about 800. Our
goal is to achieve 15 undergraduate chemical en-
gineers per class for the current level of the total
enrollment of undergraduates. In the past decade
the undergraduate program at Caltech has been
most attractive to physicists and mathematicians.
A change is occurring, and in the 1968-69 year
for the first time there will be an elective course
in the freshman year that will allow the student
to associate with some part of engineering. There-


FALL, 1968








fore he will have an early opportunity to learn
something about engineering which has not been
readily possible in the past. That change in cur-
riculum along with the belief that there is a ren-
aissance among technical students to consider
the economic and social needs of society suggests
that the goal set by us for our undergraduate en-
rollment in chemical engineering could be realized
in a relatively short time.
We currently have 42 students working for
the PhD degree. Of those students, 36 are majors
in chemical engineering, and 6 have majors in
other options. Over the next 5 to 6 years we seek
to increase that enrollment to about 55 graduate
students. Currently we have 9 faculty members,
and that level will change to about 11 members
over the next five years. So, as a rule of thumb,
we hope to maintain about five graduate students
per academic staff member. Our goals are clear,
and we believe we understand how to meet them,
but with all projects this day, the unique and fine
combination of men, money, and time is not a
simple task. We intend to maintain our opera-
tion on the relatively modest basis described and
believe that it is very compatible with Caltech's
goals.

OUR STAFF
The interests of the 9 members of the Chemi-
cal Engineering staff at the California Institute
of Technology are varied. A broad attack of
various problems in the areas of chemical engi-
neering and applied chemistry exists.
Professor Bruce H. Sage has been involved
in the research activities since 1929. His labora-
tory for studies of both equilibrium and non-
equilibrium behavior in hydrocarbon systems con-
tinues to make major contributions to knowledge
in those areas. Out of that laboratory has come
some 300 scientific papers, and 8 books co-
authored by Professor Sage. The petroleum in-
dustry has been significantly aided by the efforts
of Sage, Lacey, and co-workers over the past four
decades.
One of the world's outstanding laboratories
for study of liquid-state physics and chemistry has
been established by Professor Cornelius J. Pings.
Both experimental and theoretical studies are em-
ployed in the development of a more unified means
of predicting physical properties of liquid sys-
tems. Professor Pings' presentation at the meet-
ing of the Faraday Society in April of 1967 on
the determination and analysis of radial-distri-


Stl
Pings


Friedlander


bution functions in liquid argon using X-ray
diffraction is of special note and was excellently
received by liquid-state experts. In addition to the
real progress being made by Professor Pings in
the attack of the liquid state, he has continued
to make interesting and significant contributions
to optimization studies as they relate to situations
near chemical equilibrium.
Professor S. K. Friedlander is on joint ap-
pointment between Environmental Health Engi-
neering and Chemical Engineering. His current
major areas of research are air pollution and bio-
medical engineering. Studies of aerosols in the
atmosphere are of special interest in his efforts.
Significant work is being done in the biomedical
field. He and one of his students just completed
a fundamental study of gas-exchange with flowing
blood, and the information will have application
in the design of extra-corporeal systems for medi-
cal use, especially in heart-lung equipment. In
further work associated with the lungs, Professor
Friedlander and colleagues have proposed a new
and more accurate method for the calculation of
particle transfer rates by diffusion at bifurcations
in the upper respiratory tract.











Tschoegl Gavalas
In 1967 Professor N. W. Tschoegl joined the
staff of the Chemical Engineering Laboratory.
The major activities in his group are directed
toward the study of the molecular basis of the
mechanical behavior and fracture of filled and
unfilled elastomers. Problems of deformation,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









yield, and fracture are continually found in gen-
eral engineering applications of polymers as
well as in the very important area of solid pro-
pellants for rocket motors. Cooperative studies of
crack propagation in filled, viscoelastic materials
are being conducted with Professor W. G. Knauss
of the Aeronautics Laboratory.
Professor G. R. Gavalas, who studied at the
University of Minnesota with Rutherford Aris,
is involved in the application of modern mathe-
matical techniques to a variety of chemical engi-
neering systems. His primary interest is in sys-
tems in which there are chemical reactions in the
presence of heat and mass transport. His signifi-
cant contributions in this area have culminated in
the preparation of a monograph which is to be
published soon. It is entitled "Non-linear Differen-
tial Equations of Chemically Reacting Systems."
Plasma chemistry and physics are of major
import in many laboratories today, and Professor
Frederick H. Shair is deeply involved in studies
of transport and chemical change associated with
plasmas. Recently he developed a theory of cata-
phoretic transport in binary mixtures subjected
to DC glow discharges, and it is in agreement
with essentially all available data. Currently he is
investigating cataphoretic separation in flow sys-
tems with emphasis upon the development of an
economically attractive method for purifying hel-
ium to better than 1 ppm. In his kinetics studies,
he is presently conducting experiments aimed at
relating electron densities, collision frequencies,
and energy distributions to the overall yields and
reaction rates associated with reacting gases in
glow discharges and in coronas. In all of his stud-
ies, he is concerned with energy balances and
scale-up. He and Professor Gavalas are col-
laborating in the study of certain aspects of plas-
ma kinetics.
Additional activity in the area of biomedical
studies exists in the laboratory of Professor Giles
R. Cokelet. He began the study of the rheology of
suspensions in his work at M.I.T. with Professor
E. W. Merrill and has continued his activity at
Caltech. Of particular interest to him is the
rheology of blood and the nature of blood flow in
small-bore tubes. Professor Cokelet will be leaving
Caltech in January of 1969 for appointment as
Associate Professor at Montana State University,
but it is hoped that his general area of interest
will receive continuing consideration at Caltech.
That emphasis is natural in its complementary
and supplementary relationships with the work of
Professor Friedlander within the department.
FALL, 1968


A recent addition to the Chemical Engineering
staff is Professor John H. Seinfeld who did his
PhD studies with Leon Lapidus at Princeton.
Without any loss of momentum, he has continued
his interests at Caltech in the areas of optimiza-
tion and adaptive control of chemical systems.
Currently he is studying the problems of optimal
control of stochastic systems and the control of
systems with time delay.






l-,




Vaughan Seinfeld
In the first half of 1969, Chemical Engineering
will be happy to receive as one of its new col-
leagues Dr. Robert W. Vaughan, who currently
is a lieutenant in the Army on duty at the Jet
Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute
of Technology. Dr. Vaughan completed his work
at the University of Illinois under Professor
Drickamer and has been specifically interested in
the study of the electronic structure of metals,
particularly iron, at pressures up to 3 million
pounds per square inch. Mdssbauer spectroscopy
has been his main attack to the problem, and he
plans to continue his work in Missbauer spectro-
scopy as part of his program at the California In-
stitute of Technology.
My interests continue in the area of applied
chemical kinetics with emphasis on reactions of
nitric oxide. In addition to work at room tem-
perature, work is proceeding on studies of re-
actions of nitric oxide at temperatures between
3000 and 6000 K in an argon plasma. Separate
from the studies on homogeneous reactions, work
is under way with Professor Thad Vreeland, Jr.,
of Materials Science on a continuation of previous
interests in the role of dislocations as they affect
surface reactions catalyzed by single crystals of
silver.

THE FUTURE
Hopefully without chauvinistic overtones, my
belief is that chemical engineering is the most
viable engineering discipline in the world today.









That viability stems from the consideration that
chemical engineering must combine chemical and
physical phenomena in the application of knowl-
edge to real problems of society. As has been re-
peated probably too many times already, we can-
not alone concern ourselves with physical change
but must be deeply concerned and involved in
:.'tt9 pI a _fs 't3l


Prof. Shair (right) and student.
knowledge and application of chemical change.
This involvement and concern is the operating
base for the future of chemical engineering at
Caltech. Each of the research areas described
above has as its ultimate focus the opportunity
to improve our ability to cope with problems in-
volving chemical change. This concept is what we
try to communicate to our students. For that
reason we will continue to have ever-increasing
and strong reliance upon physical chemistry as
the basis of our efforts. We do that not without
diminishing our preoccupation with problems of
economics and engineering analysis. The eco-
nomics and engineering analysis should still be
directed, nevertheless, toward the control of
chemical reactions.
How are we best to achieve that goal at Cal-
tech? That question is answered by considering
the great opportunity for any chemical engi-
neering department, and especially our depart-
ment at Caltech, to involve itself in interdisci-
plinary efforts. No other engineering discipline
is better situated to have the opportunity to move
in various directions in association with depart-
ments on a given university campus. We at Cal-
tech are extremely fortunate in this opportunity
inasmuch as any real or imagined blocks to com-
munication are essentially zero. We have no prob-
lems whatsoever in reaching out and working in
cooperation with Electrical Engineering, Mater-
ials Science, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology,
and other groups on campus. If we do not take


the fullest opportunity to work with these groups
and to enhance our education and research as well
as theirs, we are failing in our goal. We are al-
ready developing stronger ties in the area of re-
search and have embarked upon improved inter-
disciplinary efforts in the teaching of our labora-
tory work in chemical engineering. In the past
year, in fact, there has been extraordinarily
good success and cooperation between Professor
Shair and Professors E. E. Zukoski and R. H.
Sabersky of Mechanical Engineering in the teach-
ing of a senior and first-year graduate course in
engineering laboratory. Professor Shair has led
the way in the development of experiments in-
volving chemical change, and Professors Zukoski
and Sabersky have brought in improved ideas re-
ative to dealing with problems in energy and
momentum transfer. That type of thinking must
continue in various other avenues and in the
coming year will be expanded in the already men-
tioned cooperation between Electrical Engineer-
ing and Professors Seinfeld and Gavalas in the
teaching of a course in control. Again, the prin-
ciples that are being taught and studied will not
change significantly, but the technological back-
ground for the students will be improved greatly
by bringing in new ideas on how to cope with
older principles. An electrical-engineering stu-
dent can gain by having the opportunity to hear
from chemical-engineering professors regarding
the jargon and problems associated with the con-
trol of various chemical processes. In turn, the
chemical-engineering students will gain signifi-
cantly by having the opportunity to have electri-
cal-engineering professors communicate their
points of view on control.
Our next major goal in the effort to improve
our total attack here at Caltech in chemical-engi-
neering education is to examine how we deal with
applied physical chemistry throughout the cam-
pus. My hope is that Chemical Engineering will
be a part of making significant change and'
progress in the improved teaching of applied
physical chemistry by the various disciplines that
incorporate this field of study in their curricula.
The future is exciting here at Caltech, and the
responsibility for us as chemical engineers is
great. We must be especially alert because we
have special problems in being sure that we
understand the full meaning of dealing with both
chemical and physical change in the face of the
opportunity for significant interdisciplinary
contributions.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

































































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when he is on your campus. Or send
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making things happen with petroleum energy
FALL, 1968










o)1 N book reviews

As I Remember, Stephen P. Timoshenko; tr. by
Robert Addis.
D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. Princeton
(1968) pp. xi + 430, 14 ill. $9.75.
Professor Stephen Prok'yevich Timoshenko,
whose widely-used textbooks and other scholarly
works are familiar to every engineer, wrote his
memoirs in Russian and published them in Paris
in 1963 when he was eighty-five years old. These
memoirs were translated into English in 1967.
The Bolshevik Revolution forced many Rus-
sian scholars to emigrate. Timoshenko was one of
the most outstanding of these. He came to the
United States in 1922 when he was forty-four
years old and through his work in industry and
as a professor, first at the University of Michigan
and later at Stanford University, became known
as "the father of engineering mechanics" in the
United States. His memoirs should be of interest
not only to engineers and scholars but to many
other people as well. He had a successful career
as an engineering teacher in Czarist Russia. He
was a contemporary of the fictional Dr. Zhivago
and people who have read the late Boris Paster-
nak's book or who saw the excellent film based
on it will be interested in Timoshenko's com-
ments on his life in imperial Russia. American
engineers may be surprised to learn from this
book that engineering education in Russia before
World War I was far superior to engineering
education in the United States at that time. How-
ever, thanks to efforts of many men like Timo-
shenko this is no longer true.
One of the reasons that these memoirs make
such entertaining reading is that they are so fast-
moving. The author traveled widely, met many
interesting people and was a keen observer of
the engineering scene. The story of Timoshenko's
escape from the chaos that was Russia during
the revolution is particularly absorbing. He did
not return to his homeland until 1958 when he
went there to inspect engineering schools. He
reported the results of this trip in a 1959 book
and in a memorable article in the November 1958
Journal of Engineering Education.
This remarkable book by a remarkable author
is recommended to all readers of CEE.
DAVID H. KENNY,
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, Michigan


COMPRESSIBILITY


FACTORS OF


GASES

This compact unit allows easy determination of the compressibility
factors of gases over a pressure range of 0-60 atmospheres. At any
one temperature only pressures need be measured to obtain values
along an isotherm.
Data for a complete isotherm can be obtained in less than 30
minutes with the experimental results deviating from accepted values
by less than five percent. The accuracy of the results in the low-pres-
sure range is limited only by the quality of the vacuum which is
available in the laboratory.
This unit is completely outfitted with safety- and check-valves to
protect both the pressure and vacuum gauges. A liquid bath pro-
vides for temperature control.


SPECIFICATIONS
1. Compressibility Cells-Two cells (high-pressure reservoir and ex-
pansion cell) each of approximately 15 cubic inches in volume
with interconnecting high-pressure tubing and necessary valving.
Plugs for adjusting the volume of the expansion cell to 1/4, 1/2 or
3/4 of the cell's volume are provided.
2. Pressure Measurement-Precision pressure-gauge with 0-1,000 psi
range and 1 psi accuracy is provided for measuring the pressure
in the system. Shielded vacuum-gauge with 0-10 mm mercury
range indicates the pressure in the evacuated expansion cell.
3. Temperature Control-System is encased in a 24x18x8 inch rust-
proof bath.


ENGINEERING = LABORATORY DESIGN INC.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










views and opinions



STUDENTS, FACULTY

AND PROFESSIONALISM

RICHARD GRISKEY, Former Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Denver

The most important resource of the Univer-
sity is the student. The only task of the Uni-
versity is to nurture-to make the student grow
to be a creative and productive member of so-
ciety. These are rather simple contentions, and
there may be people who disagree with me about
their importance. It is my feeling that, today as
never before, students are being very badly neg-
lected at most of the Universities in this coun-
try. This is true in any field of endeavor: engi-
neering, liberal arts, or business. I can cite
many instances to show that this neglect actually
exists.
If we walk on a campus today we see some
characters who look as if they were turned loose
from some southern California cult. They have
hair running down their backs, beards and togas,
and all kinds of weird customs. We see students
who are protesting everything including protest,
and others who are wearing buttons that say
"acid." These types are everywhere across the
country. We see students who are walking
around saying: "Who am I?" "What am I?"
"What am I doing?" "Where am I going?" We
see people "dropping out" or "turning on." We
see in our own society a very great lack of pro-
fessionalism. We wonder what causes this and
why it takes place.
I agree wholeheartedly with John McKetta
that professional development is certainly a life
long proposition. But I think if we examine the
facts, we will find that the very first contact that
a student has with the professional man (some of
you might question calling professors professional

Dr. Griskey received his BS, MS, and PhD degrees
from Carnegie Tech. He has served in the U. S. Army, in
chemical industry, and in various levels of academe in-
cluding department chairman. At present he is Director
of Research and Foundation Research Professor at New-
ark College of Engineering.


men) comes at the University. And as the old
saying goes 'As the twig is bent, so grows the
tree."
But what is or could be wrong with the atti-
tude in most of our universities? I cannot gen-
eralize as any generalization is incorrect, includ-
ing this one. However, if we look at the attitudes
of our faculty, I think that they do not, in the
main, lead to the kind of attitudes that are
needed for professional growth.
What is wrong with these attitudes? I will
cite actual cases. One professor in one institute
has a little egg timer-it goes for three minutes.
A student comes in, "Professor Jones, I have a
question." He turns the egg timer on, "You have
three minutes." By the time the student stum-
bles and stutters through about a minute and a
half, he never gets into the question. "Your time
is up, leave my office, I am a busy man."
Professor B. keeps his door locked. He is a very
busy man. He has no time for students. He has
to generate his committee work, his papers, his re-
search, all his activities. To spend time advising
students is just a little bit beyond him; he just
can not take the effort to do it. Professor C.
writes letters of recommendation for his students,
and he does a wonderful job of damning them
with faint praise. A typical example of Pro-
fessor C.'s letter is the one he is supposed to have
written for Jesus Christ. It went something like
this: "This man is rumored to have founded a
great religion; however, there is no evidence to
show that he was other than mediocre in his
chosen profession of a carpenter." These are
not isolated examples. I find instances of such
lack of contact with the faculty all the time when
talking to students whether they are transfers,
graduates, or actual employees in industry. They
say, "The faculty does not really care what hap-


FALL, 1968









The purpose is to make students grow
. not to beat them down

pens to me," or "nobody wants to take the time
to advise me."
Somebody may say, "Well, yes, this is fine for
you as Denver is a small private school, but what
about the larger state universities?" I maintain
that even at large schools there must be advising,
there must be contacting, and there must be guid-
ance. The contrast between schools is indicated by
what some interviewers told me. For instance one
of them said, "It's remarkable a couple of your
students have actually improved in college the
last two years. You don't seem to have the atti-
tude they have at some schools." I said, "What
do you mean?" He said, "Well, at some schools
they seem to be trying to drive all of them out of
engineering-to fail them all out." I think this
unfortunately, is the attitude of many professors.
We are all busy, and everybody has things to do:
you must write papers; the Dean is on your
back to get a couple of research contracts; some-
body else wants you for this or that. I think this
means that University professors, instead of
working the sixty hour week that Dean McKetta
talked about, must work almost a one hundred
twenty hour week. It means that if a professor
has nothing more to do in his office all day than
to advise students, he ought to be doing it.
I find that even our younger professors in en-
gineering, the so called "bright lights" or "high
flyers," on the research side have an anti-student
attitude. I recall one of them at another campus,
as students were trouping in for registration,
saying to me with a disgusted look on his face,
"Wouldn't it be wonderful if they just weren't on
the campus?" My own attitude is if they were not
on the campus there would be no reason for the
campus' existence. I think that all of the pro-
fessors must feel toward the students much as one
might feel toward a younger brother or sister, or,
depending upon age, toward a son or daughter.
The purpose is to make them grow. It is not
to beat them down-it is not to demolish them.
It is to instill into them the attitude called in the
army "esprit de corps," which is pretty much un-
definable, but I think most of you can sense the
difference. In baseball they call it hustle, maybe
in engineering we call it "professionalism." The
lack of professionalism, evident in many gradu-
ates, comes, I think, from a lack of concern on the
part of the faculty.


Who is at fault? Is it the faculty only? Well, I
do not personally think it is the faculty alone.
To indict the faculty is to say that it is not doing
the job while everybody else at the University
may be. I think the whole concept of the Uni-
versity really must change in some ways. Schools
have become very impersonal places. The adminis-
tration runs the college or university as a business
proposition. Because it is a business proposition,
the earlier concepts of teaching and living and
working with the student have gone out the
window.
Of course, it requires an interested faculty.
The faculty must want to work with the student,
to build up his "esprit de corps," to increase his
professionalism. Help must come from higher
levels also. It should come from department
heads, it should come from deans, and it should
come from provosts. These people must do more
than pay lip service. If they have faculty mem-
bers who are openly antagonistic to the students,
then such members ought to be called in and told:
"Well, look, I don't care if you have 90,000 papers.
I don't care if you are on all these national com-
mittees. If you don't have time for students
then you're not part of this University. You'll
have to go elsewhere." I do not think that there
is enough, if any guidance by the people that are
in the prominent places in the education pro-
fession. However, one does not get any dollars
for such activities and maybe this is wrong. Con-
cern for students never shows when the time
comes for pay raises, or publication counts, or
comments like, "Well, I hit the Department of
Defense for $200,000 last year in the game of
grantsmanship." I think work with students is the
most important activity one can do. If a professor
can develop one student-just one-it is worth-
while. If he can take one boy or girl that is failing,
set him or her on the right course, and help him
or her become a useful and productive member of
society, then the professor has done something
beneficial.
I am not going to say that every college and
every university has staff members that do not
care. But I do think that the "Berkeley syn-
drome" is unfortunately too often the case at
many of our schools. I remember a remark one
young faculty member made to me: "You know
one of the problems is that too many of the pro-
fessors think they are too good for the students."
And I think this is true. I think until the atti-
tudes change, until you feel that "by golly I want


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION































, xo

from Prentice-Hall, a new introductory text on control theory:

Introduction to Control Theory

With Applications to Process Control

by Lowell B. Koppel
Professor of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University


This new text presents an introduction to topics of
major importance in control theory, including state
variables, stability and optimization for continuous
and discrete, lumped and distributed systems. The
work suggests practical approaches to applications,
in addition to presenting the theoretical foundations
necessary to an understanding of the literature on
automatic control.

Features:
Covers major control topics at a level of mathemat-
ical vigor sufficiently high to prepare the reader
for the research literature.


Includes a chapter on optimal control of distributed
parameter systems.
Reviews are presented to place classical control
theory in perspective with the modern control theory
covered in the text.
Key mathematical proofs are presented in an ap-
pendix to give an idea of the type of arguments
which must be used to place the theory on a firm
basis.
Includes both simple and more complex problems
at the end of most chapters, with many solved il-
lustrative examples.
November 1968 Approx. 512 pp. $13.50


for an approval copy, write: box 903

Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 07632
FALL, 1968









to get in there and work with these students,"
not much can be done. I do not mean mollycodd-
ling of students. Some people may say, "He's
advocating leading them around by the hand."
No, I do not mean this. When a boy comes in and
says: "I've got six job offerings. How about
telling me about these companies ?"-or he says:
"Gee, I'm thinking about going on to grad school,
but I really don't know."-or he says: "My fresh-
man math instructor has failed 95% of the class."
-I believe the professor ought to be doing some-
thing. I think that he ought to be asking ques-
tions. He ought to act as the inspector general, if
nothing else.
In other words, the professor ought to be
concerned and interested in the student, and he
ought not to be concerned as much in pleasing
various administrators. Doing what is right for
the students is much more important than fulfill-
ing a set of paper regulations. Let me also say
that I have written quite a few papers. I have
time to participate in national meetings, and I
get quite a bit done. But, I have never shut my
door to a student. I do not think anybody on my
staff at Denver has either. I think this should be
the tenor at all schools. If this forces one to work
in the evening or on week ends, then one must.
But advising a student who might be standing out
in the hall with his knees shaking-a freshman or
sophomore-is much more important than writing
any paper or doing anything else. I maintain that
if you inspire the student with the right attitudes
he will continue to grow when he goes into indus-
try. He will take off in the right direction, and he
will be primed to walk the second mile that Dr.
McKetta talked about.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
In lieu of advertising, the following have donated funds
for the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU-
CATION:
C. F. Braun and Company
Dow Chemical Company
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works
Monsanto Company
Olin Mathieson Chemical Company
The Procter and Gamble Company
Standard Oil (Indiana) Foundation
The Stauffer Chemical Company
3M Company


problems for teachers


We continue with the thermodynamic problems
and solutions prepared by Professors Irey and J. H.
Pohl at the University of Florida.

1. An incomplete equation of state for a substance
with the work modes -EdZ (associated with
charge) and PdV compressibilityy) is written
as;


V-V,
Vo


3 T +KZP


a. Determine the electric potential, E, as
E =E (V,T,Z).
b. Calculate the difference in internal energy

u (T,V,Z) u (T,Vo,0)
due to changes in volume and charge.


c. If


find C
v,Z


C (T) C
v,z
0


z= o
(T) C


(T)



(T).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Educational institutions contributing for both 1968 and
1969 (two years):
University of Alberta
Arizona State University
Brigham Young University
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Bucknell University
Carnegie-Mellon University
Clemson University
Cleveland State University
Drexel Institute of Technology
Michigan State University
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri
Ohio University, Athens
Pennsylvania State University
University of Washington, Seattle
University of Waterloo
Yale University


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


































COLUMBUS WATERED HERE


In August 1492, the crews of Columbus'
expeditionary ships Santa Maria, Pinta and
Nifia took enough water from this well in Palos,
Spain to last until they reached the New World.
Now, 475 years later, the well is still in use,
but as a tourist attraction.
Several Fluor employees and their families
toured this part of Spain during 1967. Why
not? They were living there as part of the team
building a refinery for Rio Gulf de Petroleos
at La Rabida, the site from which Columbus
actually sailed. The Rio Gulf project is just one
of some thirty foreign jobs currently under way
by Fluor.
Fluor's principal engineering centers are
located in the United States and Europe. Almost


every plant Fluor builds is engineered in one
of four support facilities ... Los Angeles, Hous-
ton, London or Haarlem, Holland. But an en-
gineer who starts at one of these offices may
eventually end up at a foreign jobsite (if he
chooses to do so).
Right now there are openings in Los
Angeles and Houston for Chemical Engineers
with a B.S. degree or higher. Areas of specialty
include process design, process development,
computer and project engineering.
Why not join a company with an
international flavor and with international
opportunities? For more details write our
college recruiters, Frank Leach in Los Angeles
or Ed Hines in Houston.


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ENGINEERS & CONSTRUCTORS
2500 South Atlantic Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90022
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RIk
1
aboutJ




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z Q u ::> 0 w c., z cc: w w z c., z w cc: 0 u.. .... w u Sl z < u ix w < u.. 0 z 0 ti) > 0 c., z cc: w w z .C) z w ..... < u w :I: u FALL 1968 VeMt:di,k Crlucaltu FRANK GROVES of LSU COHEN : Control Lab. WOODS : Design Innovations SCRIVEN surveys interfacial transport CAL TECH BRUCE SAGE BILL CORCORAN ASEE Chf Diuision Chairman

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grow with the growing world of Sohio We need talented people immediately to work on important projects in : Research on Products and Processes Process and Product Development Economic Analysis Process Design Plant Design, Construction and Operation Market Research Sales and Marketing Management. ~, S0t1io is ~ progressive company whose growth is based on continuous research : Bevelopmeri t and marketing of products for transportation industry agriculture and construction; not boom-or-bust military or space projects That means we rely i on your technical talent to help us grow, and we offer rapid advancement to those who are willing to work hard to achieve it. WRITE SOH/0 TODAY I Join the Sohio team ... where you can get ahead fast because we're moving fast. We assist you with direct aid for education, too ... so you can get where you want to go as quickly as your growing interests and abilities will take you. We are the number one marketer of petroleum products in Ohio; our sales equal those of the next four oil companies combined! Our patented single-step acrylonitrile process accounts for more than 75% of the free world;s s upply! Sales have risen over 35% in the last four years! Profits over 135%. Write in strict conficJence, stating education experience and salary requirements to: Elwood G. Glass, Jr Mgr. Technical and Professional Recruitment 10889 Midland Building Cleveland, Ohio 44115 THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY (OHIO) An Equal Opportunity Employer (M&F)

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville Florida 32601 Editor : Ray Fahien Associate Editor : Mack Tyner Business Manager : R. B. Bennett Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives : CENTRAL: James Weber Chairman of Publication Board University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 WEST: William H. Corcoran California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91109 SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29631 EAST: Robert Matt e son College Relations Sun Oil Company Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19100 E P. Bartkus Secretary's Department E. I. du Pont de Nemours Wilmington, Delaware 19898 NORTH: J. J. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE J. A B er gant z State University of New York Buffalo, New York 14200 PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania FALL, 1968 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 FALL 1968 Departments 147 Editorial 148 Letters from Readers 156 The Laboratory Process Dynamics and Control, William C. Cohen 162 The Classroom Innovations in a Process Design and De velopment Course, D. R. Woods 170 News 171 The Educator Professor Frank Groves 173 Division Activities 174 Departments of Chemical Engineering Caltech, William H. Corcoran 180 Book Reviews 181 Views and Opinions Students, Faculty and Professionalism, R. Griskey 184 Problems for Teachers Feature Articles 150 e~ c~ -AUJ
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MARATHON: DYNAMIC PROGRESS 146 Marathon Oil Company was founded in Find lay, Ohio in 1887; however its ultramodern Denver Research Center is located at the foot hills of the Rockies. The company is a producer transporter, refiner and marketer of crude oil and petroleum products on five continents throughout the world. The Denver Research Center was established to make discovery of new petroleum reserves more economical, to help recover a larger percentage of oil in present fields, to develop more profitable refining and chemical processes, and to develop new products. Marathon employs more than 8,000 persons at its offices around the world including its head quarters in Findlay. There are over 300 em ployees at the Denver Research Center of which more than half are scientists and engineers. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MARATHON Using engineering research to determine ways to recover more of the oil from known deposits is an important part of the work at the Research Center. It includes projects aimed at stimulating wells so they will produce more oil; in situ com bustion; and fluid injection processes, such as miscible displacement, which are more efficient than conventional techniques where gas or water are used to drive oil to a production well. Reservoir mechanics comprise another sig nifi cant part of the engineering work at the Denver Research Center. The transient behavior of oil reservoirs and the flow of fluids through porous media are important phases of this work. Mathe matical models which simulate reservoir behav ior, provide insight into future behavior of oil bearing reservoirs. C hemical engineers are also engaged in the pilot plant study of existing refinery and chemical processe s as well as in the evaluation and devel opment of new processes and new chemicals. Projects are underway, for example, on petro chemical processes to make monomers and other basic components for polymers. At Marathon's Research Center, qualifid en gineers are provided with both the challenge and incentive in supplying answers to these problems. Your further inquiry i s invited. Mr. L. Miles Personnel Supervisor Dept. C E 1, P. 0. Box 269 Littleton, Colorado 80120 AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER MARATHON OIL COMPANY DENVER RESEARCH CENTER L I TTLETON, COLORADO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE GOALS of a Chemical Engineering Department Modern chem ic al engineering has developed with one root in chemistry and other roots in the engineering sciences and physics. Its trunk is a multichannel communication cable which might be termed process control and systems engineering. Its major branches consist of the macroscopic concepts of unit operations and of process equip ment design. Its outer branches are develop mental laboratories, pilot plants, and processing plants. Its leaves and fruits are the products and goods of our consumer economy. Without its roots, it will die; without its trunk, the l eaves and fruits w ill not develop; and without its fruits, it has no reason for existence. The l anguage of chemical engineering is com puter science, mathematics, and graphics. Its veri fication is experiment; its validation is the utility of its products; its restrai nt s are economics and human we ll-bein g. The identifyin g characteristic of chemical en g ineerin g is change: it deals with changes in state, changes in composition changes in kind and content of energy, changes in s ize and aggre gation, changes in biologica l or chemical species, and changes in appearance and quality. Since products and processes are themselves ephemeral, chemical engineering cannot lastingly or proper ly be defined in terms of certain products, certain processes, or certain processing methods. As a consequence, its goals are bifold: its cur rent major industrial goal i s the economica l de sign and operation of plants and equ ipm ent; but its academic goal is the generalization, dissemi nation, discovery, utilization, and extension of hu man knowledge in the basic sciences and concepts that comprise its roots and its trunk a nd branches. A broadly oriented research and instructional program in modern chemical engineering must be cognizant of these duplicate sets of goals. It must include research in the engineering sciences such as transport and rate processes, fluid mechanics, FALL,1968 properties of materials, and thermodynamics. It can include research in chemistry, such as work in polymers. It must include work in systems en gineering, in separations processes, unit opera tions, and process control and economics. Finally, it can be involved in interdisciplinary areas such as bioengineering, biomedical engineering, en vironmental engineering (pollution), electro chemistry and energy conversion (fuel cells), and computer science and app lied mathematics. Just as the ultimate objective of the university is to se rve the community of mankind, so also the goal of a department of chemical engineering must have its purpose in the betterment of human society. For, as a professional man, an engineer is not merely a technical robot who responds passively and unquestioningly to con formist pressures or to the commands of others. Instead he must be aware of, and deeply con cerned with, the socia l and political problems of our time. He must have a high sense of values and be capab l e of making decisions w ith regard to principles and ideals derived from these, rather than from narrow self-interest or partisan group interest. In keeping with this philosophy, a de~ partment shou ld investigate methods of estab li sh ing communication between the "two cultures" of technology and the humanities. It should also explore programs of educational assistance to other nations. Of great import ance to the implementation of its goals is the need for adequate facilities. But, while bricks and mortar are important, what it infinitely more important is the brilliance of the experienced researcher in his ind efatigable task of adding the bricks of human knowledge to the who le structure of man's intellectual develop ment, and the skill of the dedicated teacher in the bonding of these stones with the cement of theory, generalization, and experiment R.W.F. 147

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from our READERS This interesting correspondence between Professor Lloyd Berg and Senator Lee Metcalf is a result of the publication of Professor Berg's paper, "Why a Scholar ship Program in ChE" in CEE 2, 78, 1968. Senator Metcalf s comments : Dear Dr. Berg: I have just read your letter and your article, an ex position of a formula A / B = C I D, which you devised to illustrate your disapproval of the amendments to the Selective Service Act which curtailed graduate student deferments. What immediately struck me is the absence from your equation of the most basic component, the human factor, an omission that dismays and saddens me. And there is a false element, too, in the statement, "The country was on an equality binge and it was deemed politically ex pedient to treat PhD engineers and scientists in exactly the same manner as high school dropouts." By no means are all of the men who have been drafted (or even a very l arge percentage of them) and who have served in the armed forces in Viet Nam, high school drop outs. And, by no means have graduate engineers and scientists been treated as high school dropouts. Their treatment (either because of intellectually superior back grounds or because of good fortune or a lucky combina tion of several factors, often including diligence) made them, in the words of a British writer, more equal than anyone. That cannot be said of high school dropouts. Current efforts to encourage more of our youngsters to complete high school are testimony to a great need in our society-and an educationa l system that is still striving to meet that need. The fact is, however, that 77.3 per cent of men drafted into the armed forces in the calendar year of 1967 had graduated from high school; some of them are numbered among the 25,000 who have been killed in Viet Nam; many are college graduates who, for one reason or an other, did not seek advanced degrees in engineering or were not deferred for other reasons. These are human beings we are talking about. All of them, no matter what their intellectual or academic at tainments, face a common denominator of sacrifice which ought to make brothers of us all-and while I deplore the undeniable loss to this nation's technology, on which you have concentrated, I cannot take so parochial a view as you. I do not think of these young men as engineers, mathematicians, physicists, poets or painters. If I did, I might show a predilection to spare only poets from service in the armed forces. But I don't think that way. These young men are human beings, with the same love of life that is common to man. For a democracy, there is really no answer except uni versal national service which touches all men over a given age or a random system of selection which cannot discriminate by situation in life, degree of education or other criteria, except physical or mental unfitness. I hope that we could have some sort of system where every boy and girl in America would serve the govern ment for at least a year. Some would go into the mili tary; others would be chosen for the Peace Corps, Vista, 148 Head Start or some other service program. Each of these services would be equal in regard for those who serve and each person would be able to hold his head high as one who has served his country in some important and significant endeavor. There is abundant room, in such a plan, for engineers and poets. Finally, I guess I doubt that the human sacrifice and suffering inherent in a wartime draft of young men can be reduced to a formula. I stated my views on the war in Viet Nam in a sym posium last May at Montana State University. A copy of my remarks is enclosed. Lee Metcalf U.S. Senator from Montana Berg Re s ponds : Dear Senator Metcalf: Thank you for your letter of August 1 and the accom panying reprint of your speech at the MSU Viet Nam Symposium. I agreed with your speech when I heard it and am still in accord with your views. I'm sorry that you don't have an even larger influence than you do on U. S. foreign policy. The article that I sent you was not meant to complain about the past The U.S. draft policy up to June 30, 1968 worked pretty well with respect to scientists and engineers. It is thinking about what will happen after July 1, 1968 that gives me a sinking feeling. Prior to July 1, Selective Service had a list of critical skills and essential occupations. Engineers and scientists serv ing in these fields were deferred; those that didn't were subject to the draft. Effective July 1, 1968, the National Security Council abolished the whole list. Had supply finally caught up with demand? No, the Brain Drain ar ticle I sent you showed that demand was continuing to outstrip supply. Was the list unnecessary in the first place? I have no reason to believe this. The public press never brought out anything to confirm this point of view. I therefore concluded that the changes came about as a result of a policy of "fairness and equality" for all. I agree with your suggestion about national service for all citizens but I think engineers .and scientists should do it in "critical skills and essential occupations" and for far more than one year. The difficulty with any other kind of service-military duty, Peace Corps, Vista, Head Start, etc.-is that the engineers will never return for ad ditional study. In my 25 years of college teaching, I have only encountered two who returned from military service to further their chemical engineering education. As one of the one hundred United States Senators, you must worry more than ordinary men about the ultimate safety of the United States. From the beginning of his tory, nations have been playing "wipe-out" with each other. Even during our lifetime we have witnessed several examples. On September 1, 1939, Hitler launched his in famous attack on Po l and. In two weeks, Poland's armies were annihilated and on September 17, Russia moved from the east. On September 18, Russian and German troops met at Brest Litovsk and Poland ceased to exist Captured Nazi documents submitted at the Nuremberg trials showed that Germany planned to wipe out com pletely all of Russia east of the Urals. As the German army conquered Russia, the peasants were to be left on their farms and permitted to keep just enough food to live CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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on. All the rest would go to Germany. Absolutely no provision was made for the feeding of the rest of the Russian people in the conquered territory. They would just starve to death. At the present time, ask any Nasserite, Jordanian or Syrian what are his country's plans for Israel. They will tell you frankly that it is their national policy to push Israel into the sea. During our lifetime too, you and I have seen a number of examples of politicians paying little heed to their nation's scientific and technical capability until they were in desperate straits and then calling for the technically impossible On May 10, 1940, the battle of France began. The French people had been assured for twenty years that their Maginot Line was the finest defensive system in the world and that the country was in no danger. Actually French technology had progressed very little since World War I. Five weeks later with the Nazis storming the gates of Paris, Premier Paul Reynaud issued his plaintive call to President Roosevelt for "clouds of airplanes." Fortunately for civilization, it wasn't only the "good guys" that have let their technology slide. In 1942, Ger man submarines sank 6,250,000 tons of Allied shipping, a tonnage far beyond the capability of western ship yards to replace. Had this rate continued, Britain would surely have been brought down. But in 1943 the U-boat losses zoomed and Allied ship sinkings miracu lously dropped. Why? Because a few young American and British engineers applying new knowledge of radiant heat transfer had developed radar. This enabled Allied aircraft to locate and destroy the U-boats long before they got close to the convoys Admiral Doenitz at first suspected treason but when he finally learned that it was radar, he withdrew the U boat fleet. In late summer how ev e r, Hit l er insisted that German bravery could overcome American technology and ordered the fleet to sea again. In the last four months of 1943, the Nazis lost sixty-four submarines while sinking only sixty seven Allied vessels. This loss ratio spelled doom for the U boat warfare and settled the Battle of the Atlantic. By the spring of 1945, the Third Reich was in its death throes. Both the eastern and western borders had been crossed by the Allies and the German cities were mere rubble heaps. About 8-million Germans had been killed, virtually an entire generation. What was the word from Hitler under those circumstances? His scien tists and technologists led by Werner Von Braun, were going to save Germany yet with their V-1 flying bombs and V-2 rockets. Frankly, Senator Metcalf, I am concerned that the policies established last July 1 will cause the United States to lose its technological lead. That is a situation that can not be quickly remedied. It takes a minimum of eight years from the time we interest a high school student in science or engineering until he is awarded the PhD. No crash program no large infusion of money can speed up this process. Can we gamble with our national safety? In this nation of 200-million people, does the continued train ing of a few thousand engineers and scientists in critical skills and essential occupations really upset greatly the general policy of fairness to all ? May I have your permission to publish your letter of August 1 and this reply? LLOYD BERG, Montana State University FALL, 1968 The Senator has the last word : Dear Dr Berg: I have long talked about the need for scientists and engineers in the National Defense Education Act. I de plore the fact that $6 billion reduction of the budget has cut out essential research and development programs, of the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation and pure research and development as far as the military is concerned. Experience has shown that a statement that engineers will never return for additional study is not an accurate one. The GI bill and now the new bill for Korean and Viet Nam veterans has attracted thousands of boys back to advanced studies, including the engineering field. I don't want to enter into an extended debate with you on the question; I feel that your statement in the article about an "equality binge" is unfortunate and hope that you will agree that essential equality here is not a sacrifice of life itself and if we are going to demand that sacrifice of young men we must demand it of them whether they come from homes where their parents ar rich and affluent or whether they come from homes where they have not had either the educational or cultural op portunities to attain the status of a graduate student in science or mathematics. We need more equality, not less Yes, you have my permission to publish my letter of 1 August, if it is published in full together with this letter. LEE METCALF U S Senator from Montana Summer Issue Editor: From cover to cover, I read it! I don't do that for very many publications, but your Summer 1968 issue of Chemical Engineering Education was outstanding. P l ease accept my congratulations. Editor: Joseph J. Martin University of Michigan That Summer issue of CEE! A splendid job. Every thing in it is interesting and valuable. Olaf Hougen has countless admirers who will enjoy reading about him Keep up the good work. M. C. MOLSTAD University of Pennsylvania (Letters continued on page 160 ) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Educational institutions, not previously acknowledged, who have recently contributed for one year: University of British Columbia University of Detroit Clarkson College of Technology Iowa State University Lamar State College of Tech n ology University of Maine Massac hu setts Institute of Tec h nology Manhattan College University of Co l orado University of Iowa U n iversity of Oklahoma. University of Pittsburg 149

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FLOW and TRANSFER at FLUID INTERFACES* Part I Lessons from Research L. E. SCRIVEN University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minn. Chemical engineers cannot escape dealing with mass and heat transfer across fluid interface that are in more or less chaotic motion, chaos that goes under the name of turbulence. There is little need to emphasize in this magazine why a thorough understanding of flow and transfer at fluid interfaces is an important research goal-and ultimately a standard tool in the kit of prac ticing engineers. Put broadly, the problem I wish to discuss is that of transfer in chaotic or turbulent flow systems, particu larly those in which turbulence is generated at some distance from the interface but comes to bombard it, so to speak. Underlying this broad problem there is an im portant basic question: What are the effects of convec tive movements on otherwise diffusive transport, par ticularly in the neighborhood of fluid interfaces? Fluid interfaces are mobile and can move and de form in ways that solid boundaries cannot. It is impor tant to bear this in mind, because solid boundaries are so much simpler and better studied that they are the underpinning for most of one's intuition in this area. I think it instructive to look at the ways in which the chemical engineering profession has tried to model flow and transfer at fluid interfaces in the past For sim plicity, let us disregard such complications as the trans fer resistance of the second phase, diffusion-induced convection, inhomogeneous properties, interfacial-ten sion gradients, chemical reaction effects, and so on. We can then identify four or five stages in the develop ment of transfer models. STAGE ONE: NO FLUID MECHANICS The earliest working model can be traced back to Newton's empir i ca l law of coo lin g, in essence a o ne-par ameter representation of convective diffu sion near a so li d surface. Th e same tactic emerged between 1895 and 1905 in the id ea of a diffusion l ayer or stagnant film adjacent to a so lubl e so lid in contact with st irred so lvent The principals were a ll chemists, the Americans Noyes and Whitney, Russian Shchukarev, and German ,:, Presented at the Annual meeting of ASEE, June 18 1968 as the opening part of the ChE Division Distin guished Lecture, sponsored by the 3M Company. The second part will be pub l ished in a lat e r issue. 150 Nernst In 1912 Irving Langmuir, having com pleted his PhD with Nernst and quit Stevens In stitute of Technology to join General Electric, reported on his st udi es of heat transfer from lamp filaments. C itin g the high viscosity and high thermal cond u ctivity of gases at filament temperatures of 2200 K and higher, Langmuir stated that the lo ss of heat by free convection and even forced convection takes p l ace exactly as if there were a film of stat i onary gas around the filament, through which the heat is carried entirely by conduction This idea of a co ndu ction or diffusion film was picked u p by W. K. Lewis a nd his c hemical engineering co ll eagues at MIT, who elaborated it int o the familiar "two-film theory" of transfer across fluid interfaces. But in doing so they obscured the hot and hypothetical c h aracter of Langmuir's stationary film: Lewis and Whitman (1924) actually wrote of surface layers of li quid "pract i cally free of mixing by convection," which cou ld be interpreted as merely l am in ar flow, probably rectilinear flow, possibly plug flow a nd effectively stag nant films. Succes sive editions of the sta nd ard textbook by Walker, Lewis, and McAdams appear to h ave spread the stagnant-fi l m picture along with the series resis tance concept Chemical eng in eers focussed on measurement and correlat i on of "fi lm thicknes ses" or "transfer coeffic i ents The physical picture from this first stage con sists of separate diffusion resistances character ized by lump ed parameters as in e lement ary e l ec trical circuits It requires only si m p le algebra, a lth ough an ord in ary differential equat i on is in t h e background. Rather than fixed potential or fixed flux at phase boundaries it in effect rests on the next s impl est bou n dary condition, a lin ear re l ation between flux a nd potential involving only a sing l e empirica l parameter to describe whatever comb in at i on of co nv ection and diffusion ex i sts. There is no evidence of familiarity with relevant concepts from classical inviscid hydrodynamics much l ess from the viscous flow theory that was available in the first decades of the century. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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What are the effects of convective movement on otherwise diffusive transport, particularly in the neighborhood of fluid interfaces? STAGE TWO: RECTILINEAR FLOW IDEAS Higbie in his 1934 thesis a nd well-known 1935 paper reco g nized that when gas and liquid are brought together there must first of a ll be pene tration of the liquid by the dis so lving gas, and that this sort of thing happens repeated l y in bub b ler absorbers and packed towers, any bit of in terface between gas and liquid having a limited life or time of exposure. Much the same ide a had been put forward independently by the Dutch physiologists Dirken and Mook in 1930, who were concerned w ith gas exchange with blood yet judged it worthwhile to study basic as pects of absorption. Like Higbie they attempted to demon strate their idea experimentally. Higbie knew and un derstood the physical chemical literature on diffusion. On the fluid mechanical side he had some appreciation of turbulent flow, for example in Miyagi 's experiments; but he adopted the Lewis-and-Whitman picture of a film of liquid at the interface and regarded it as be in g in streamline flow, by which he evident ly meant rectilinear, plug-like motion Vyazovov in 1940 and Pigford independently in 1941 applied "pene tration theory" to absorption into falling liquid films in recti lin ear flow with semi parabolic ve lo c it y profiles-taking a convect i ve diffusion effect into explicit account for the first time. Such endeavors were familiar from the heat transfer literature, however, for example in Leveque' s 1928 ana l ysis which was featured in T. B. Drew' s wo nd erfu ll y prescient paper a few years later in the Transactions of the AIChE. Mass transfer into rectilinear flows is still an active topic, as evidenced by researches by Kramers and Kre yger (1956), Beek and Bakker (1967), Byers and Kirig (1967), and one of my coworkers, Majoch. Historically in the second stage the model con s i sted of highly idealized flow parallel to the fluid interface, flow that somehow is regular l y inter rupted after an ill-d efined exposure t im e, and can then be re established. Analysis of transfer in volved a comparatively simple partial di ff erential equation more familiar in the theory of heat conduction, where many relevant problems had a lre ady been so lved. By the mid-40's the power ful Laplace transform technique was an effective too l in the hands of a few chemica l eng in eers FALL, 1968 Fluid mechanical concepts were not, but Prandtl's boundary l ayer notions were be in g app lied else where to heat transfer between solids and fluids. STAGE THREE : TURBULENT DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS This stage might have opened w ith chem i ca l engineering notice of the 1932 Royal Society pa per by Fage and Townend reporting microscope observations of suspended particles in "semi turbulent" motion 0 001 inch from a solid wall, well with in a "laminar" or viscous s ubl ayer thirty times thicker. Or of the summary a nd dis cussion of those observations in Goldstein's "Mod ern Development s in Fluid D y namics," the beacon work that appeared in 1938 Or of t h e 1949 paper by Kishinevskii and Pa mfil ov, in w hich hypothe ses of l a minar sub l ayers and films near fluid in terfaces in well agitated systems were rejected in favor of a picture of turbu l ence continuously renewing interface and transferring so lut e by convection alone. The in vestigators from Ki s hi nev employed very fuzzy algebra and inte gra l ca c ulu s and did not hit upon the convincing arg ments for their heretical contention that the mass transfer coefficient could be independent of mole cular diffusivity; worse st ill at that time, they wrote in Russian. Two years later and indepen dently, Danckwerts too rejected the by then con ventional m i sconception of a "stagnant" film; he held it likely that "turb ul ence" can extend to a fluid interface, erasing a ll resemb l a nce to l aminar boundary layer flow there; and he set about showing that working formulas derived from the stagnant -film h ypothesis can be derived equally well from more palatab l e hypotheses. In his we ll known surface renewa l theory Dan c kwert s re lated the rate of absorpt i on by penetration in Higbie' s model, to an empirical parameter s characterizing the rate and reflecting the statis tics of surface renewal-on grounds that an un defined "scale of turb ulence i s so much g reate r than the "depth of penetration" that "re lati ve motion of liquid at different levels close beneath the s urface may be disregarded" ( as I s h a ll bring out later, this presumpt i on can be quite inaccu rate) The basic co n tr ibuti on was the app lica tion of statistical ideas to the picture of surface renewa l or rep l acement, as a stoc h ast i c process 151

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powered by an underl ying turbulent field. Subse quently Danckwerts, Hanratty, Davidson, Perl mutter, King, Koppel and others have put for ward various distribution functions of surface age, exposure time, or residence time. Andrew, Dobbins, Toor and Marchello, and Harriott have proposed modifications in Higbie's original pene tration model, one reason being to bridge the gap between the old film formulas and the surface-re newal formulas for the dependence of mass trans fer coefficient on molecular diffusivity. The same reason has led still others to offer rankly em pirical correlating formulas that warrant no fur ther comment. The dominant physical picture in the third stage is of locally intermittent yet grossly steady "surf ace renewal" by distinct "eddies" the ar rivals of which follow various statistics that are supposed to represent the essence of turbulence. There is evidence here of growing awareness of fluid mechanics and of considerab le mastery of the mathematics of age and residence-time distri butions, the latter a topic that became increas ingly fashionable in chemical engineering analy sis during the fifties. STAGE TWO bis : CURVILINEAR FLOW WORK Simultaneously with the preceding stage there emerged, from analyses of simple laboratory ab sorbers designed for basic studies, a lot of infor mation on the effect of curvilinear laminar con vection on diffusion. This information can be used to construct significant generalizations of Higbie's original penetration model (as I shall discuss later) Fir st came a rather crude analysis by Lynn, Straatemeier, and Kramers in 1955 of absorption into the nonuniform film flow over the surface of a sphere Davidson and Cullen then treated the same problem more satisfyingly with the convective diffusion equation. In the same period I tackled end effects in wetted wall col umns and laminar liquid jets, and a year or two later the papers by Scriven and Pigford appeared, emphasizing the strong effect of the velocity com ponent normal to an accelerating interface and presenting accurate general formulas for situa tions in which the scale of relative tangential motion is much greater than the "depth of pene tration." The same results were independentl y rederived by Angelo, Lightfoot, and Howard in 1966 and presented with emphasis on the surface dilatation, divergence, or "stretch" that accom152 The dominant physical picture in the third stage is of locally intermittent yet grossly steady "surface renewal" by distinct "eddies" the arrivals of which follow various statistics that are supposed to represent the essence of turbulence. panies convective motion normal to the interface. Models of flow and transfer in boundary layer s at fluid interfaces in nearly rectilinear flows have been treated by Potter (1957), Beek and Bakker (1961), and notably Goren (1966). Other s hav e studied the simultaneous diffusion and convection around a growing bubble. The most significant curvilinear flow work (in my estimation, and for reasons to be discussed) is my former co-worker W. C. Chan's exact solutions of the problem of transient convective diffusion in irrotational stag nation flow, which formed part of his 1964 thesis. Very recently Majoch, exploiting a 1967 observa tion by Romanians Ruckenstein and Berbente, ha s added a solution for a case of rotational stag nation flow as well. These developments reflect increasing mastery of the relevant fluid mechanics, expanding ex perience with the convective diffusion equation, and growing proficiency in the similarity and ap proximate methods for solving it. STAGE FOUR: TURBULENCE CONCEPTS AND MODEL FLOWS Levich, as described in the translation of the second edition of his "Physicochemical H ydro dynamics," was the first to apply Prandtl's mixing len gth scheme of dimensional ana l ys i s-for that is all it is-to absorption at a fluid interface buf feted by eddies generated at depth. His attempt spawned others by Ruckenstein and by C. J. King, the latter placing the greatest reliance on the con troversial notion of a turbulent eddy diffusivity the origins and justifications of which lie in the rather different process of turbulent transfer across mean streamlines that are nearly rectilin ear, as in duct, boundary-layer, and jet flows. More fundamental turbulence theory is in short supply, and what is available has been classified by the authority Townsend into wall turbulence free turbulence, and convective turbulence. Con spicuous in its absence is a corpus of what I would call interfacial turbulence had not that term been pre-empted; "free boundary turbulence" must do. Free boundary turbulence is convective chaos only CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Sure, we're world-wide; everyone knows we're a leader in the petroleum industry and it's no secret that our people explore for, produce, refine and market a large portion of the world's petroleum and petroleum products. The story behind our success lies in our people ... people like yourself ... aggressive and imaginative CHEMICAL ENGINEERS constantly searching for a better way. It is through their efforts, in our Research & Development Centers, as well as those of their professional colleagues and an aggressive management team that we have been able to achieve and maintain our leadership position. You too, can be part of this winning combination. For Chemical Engineers with a B .S., M.S. or Ph.D the professional and economic rewards of a Texaco career in process and product development have never been greater. Our congenial shirt sleeve atmosphere, along with our practice of basing promotions on performance and ability, can make YOU one of our important additives. We have immediate openings at our laboratories in Beacon, N.Y., Richmond, Va., Port Arthur, and Bellaire, Texas for qualified Chemical Engineers who already are, or are in the process of becoming U.S. Citizens. Interested candidates are invited to send their resume to: Mr. W. R. Hencke, Texaco ; Research & Technical Department, P O. Box 509 Beacon, N Y. 12508 Texaco is an equal opportunity employer FALL, 1968 AT TEXACO THE MOST IMPORTANT ADDITIVE IS PEOPLE! 153

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partially constrained by the presence of an inter face that a ll ows great freedom of tangential movement, and restricted though appreciab l e free dom of norma l movement -and which is capable dramatic co n versions of l arger sca l e into smaller sca l e motions Danckwerts remarked in his 1951 surface renewal paper that "A complete development of the subject wou l d require further discussion of the relation of s [the renewal rate, or reciprocal of mean exposure time] to the hydrodynamics and geometry of the system Only very recently have the first tentative steps been taken in this direct i on, for examp l e by Shulman and Mellish in observ i ng flow patterns in packed towers (1967), Fortescue and Pearson using turbulent channel flows (1967), and Ting and Davies with turbu lent liquid jets (1967). Efforts are a l so afoot to relate to turbulence parameters not only the con stants in distribution functions, but also their functional forms and the local flow-and-transfer models-Chan's microflow elements-which are regarded as being distr i buted In still unpub li shed work my former associates Spriggs and Grgurich and I have toyed with a fascinating ex perimental mode l of a turbu l ent "eddy" ( of which more later) Two years ago Boyd, Muenz, and Marchello reported experiments on the effect of simple progressive surface wave motion on ga s absorption; unhappily any effect was overridden by extraneous large-scale convective motion. The same complication intervened in the more recent investigation of absorption into stand i ng surface waves by Mani and Goren (as it had in a cruder attempt under my supervision in 1964, and as it probab l y did i n the experiments of Bretsznajder and Pasiuk in Poland a couple years earlier). Attempts at analyzing the effects of surface waves on transfer in seemingly accessible special cases have been made by Chan (1964), Bentwich (1966), E. E O'Brien, (1967), and my Brazilian associate Vieira In this current stage o f development turbulence c on cepts and model flow s have not yet been unit e d At tackers o n both fronts ar e or ought to be, arm e d w it h the same increasing mastery o f fluid mechanics t ha t I pointed out earlier. Unfortunately the basic fluid m chanica l info r mation that is really n e eded is simply no t available, and one should ask whether chemical en gi nee r s are to continue messing around with what little is availabl e, or are they to go a f ter some needed en gi neering science" themselves? 154 Dr. L. E. Scriven is professor o f chemical engineering at the University of Minn e sota. H e was educated at Uni v e r s ity of California (Berkeley) and University of Dela ware (PhD '56). He has received many awards for out standing contributions to research and teaching in engi neering. His research interests include fluid mechanics some associated mathematical methods and the applicatio~ of engin e ering to biology. S TAGE F IVE : PENDING D E VELOPMENTS For reasons some of which should become clearer as I proceed, I believe the major areas of research on flow and transfer at fluid i nterfaces in the near future will be-or should be !-the following: 1. Observations of turbulent interfaces by high-speed, high-magnification photography and, later on, measurements of correlation and intermittency factors within the fluids. 2 Theory of convective diffusion fields, particularly velocity fields which admit useful exact solutions or typify periodic and almost periodic motions 3 Com parative studies of the sensitivity of final working formulas to the details of both mode l microflow elements and the distribution functions they might follow 4: Theory of free boundary turbu lence, transversely isotropic and un i directionally inhomogeneous. Actually I set out above not to prognosticate, but to examine the ways in which chemical engi neers have thought about transfer between fluid phases. It is obvious that the successive stages in their thinking have depended directly on the current levels of physical and mathematical so phistication The sophistication must be posses sed both by the innovator, who has to express original physical insight in mathematical lan guage if it is to support engineering calculations, a n d by the user, who must grasp that language and should understand the underlying physical insight. We can see failures on both counts in the histories of the (stagnant!) film, penetration, and renewal theories, which have frequently been less than perfectly understood-even among chemical engineering textbook writers. Though I haven't emphasized the fact in the foregoing review, I should point out that there is a lasting value of simvlicity in a concept, a model, or a theory. The simplicity of something that has served us well in the past is a strong driving force for rationalizing it anew after we have become aware of its considerable limitations and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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perhaps temporarily rejected it in the li ght of newly won s ophistication. An obvious examp l e can be seen in the multitude of int erpretat i ons the mass transfer coefficient h as earned s in ce its filmy start. On the other hand, there is real dan ger in too easy or too attract i ve a model. The forma li sm of the film theory apparent l y was so e l ementary as to have dece i ved students and ma ture eng in eers al ik e into investigating basic mechanisms no farther during a coup l e of decades of Middle Ages And a d iff erent exa m p l e: Fasci nation with distribution functions and the like seems to h ave been so great as to obscure the dis tinction between t h e statistics obeyed by model e l ements and the working of an individual e l ment, and to inhibit inquiry into the l atte r during a decade or more of the Modern Age. POSTSCRIPT This seems an appropriate juncture, before return ing to flow and transfer, to express my opinion that as engineers learn new science, however esoteric, and ac quire mathematical skill, however abstract, their tradi tion and habit of practicality will produce engineering applications. The applicat i ons may come directly in in vention, design, and operation or less directly-and often more profoundly-in concepts and patterns of thought that pass into what we call "physical intuition" and "engineering judgment." Yesterday's dimly viewed science and incompre hensible mathematics are today's engineering research areas and tomorrow's engineering practice-and under graduate course contents. Of course the undergraduate student must learn what engineering is about, and he should see in his professors a broad selection of engi neering experience and outlook. But he should also have the opportunity of acquiring a truly liberal edu cation, and this requires continually up-to-date scientific and technological competence within the engineering faculty Maintaining this kind of competence takes re search and substantial numbers of professors of the sort called engineering scientists-or, pejoratively, pseudoscientists. In my experience it is greatly aided by the presence of true scientists on the engineering fac ulty. True or false, these are persons whose participa tion signals the decline and fall of real engineering to a certain type of mind Yet, how much might earlier competence in the areas of fluid mechanics and applied mathematics I mentioned have benefitted my present subject and chemical engineering in general! Suppose the young metallurgical engineer with a PhD in phy sical chemistry, Irving Langmuir, had joined the engi neers and entrepreneurs at a leading university instead of the chemistry professors at Stevens! Why weren't there other young Langmuirs, more Drews and Higbies, researchers who scouted in the literature of physiology and Soviet applied science, critics to point out that not all films are 2300 degrees hot and stagnant? ... FALL 1968 FOR TOMORROW'S CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TODAY AUTOMATIC CONTROL ENGINEERING, Second Edition Francis H. Raven University of Notre D a me. M cGra, w -H ill S e ri e s in M e cha,nical Engineering. 648 pages, $14.50 Introduces adva n ced topi cs simply and correlates bas i c theory w ith the more pract i ca l aspects inv olved in the design of control systems The state space method, a timely new topic, is a l so covered. MULTIPLE-INPUT DESCRIBING FUNCTIONS AND NONLINEAR SYSTEM DESIGN A rthur Gelb, The Analytic Sc ienc es Corpo r at ion and Wallace E. Vander Velde, Massachusetts In stitute of Technology. Electronic Sci e nces Series. 560 pages, $15.50 A co mplete and unified treatment describing fun c tion theory and application in a s in g le volume. Some of the material i s appearing in book form for the first time. NONLINEAR CONTINUUM MECHANICS D. C. Leigh, University of Kentucky. McGra,w Hill S e ries in Adva,nc e d Engineering. 240 pages $13.50. A concise introduction to the conti nuum physics and mathematical theory of the nonlinear mechan i ca l behavior of materials. Thi s book co ntain s a succinct account of the mo dern constitutive the ory of materials and offers t h e so luti o n s to boun dary-value prob l ems. FUEL CELLS John O'M. Bockris, University of Penn sy lv a ni a, and S Srinivasan, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center Available this winter. Sets forth the theoretical basis of electrochemical energy conversion Un lik e ot h er books, t hi s wor k considers the basic e l ectrode kinetics of the fuel ce ll. McGraw-Hill Book Company 330 West 42nd Street New York, N.Y. 10036 M CG AAW M llt 155

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ti Na laboratory PROCESS DYNAM ICS AND CONTROL WILLIAM C. COHEN University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 Dr. William C Cohen is Associate Professor of Chemi cal Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He has a BChE degree from Pratt Institute and MSE and PhD degrees from Princeton University. In 1966 Dr. Cohen re ceived the Lindback Foundation award for distinguished teaching. Dr. Cohen is interested in making laboratory work more meaningful .and effective in engineering education and in the inclusion of laboratory studies within lecture courses His research interests center on the dynamics, control and optimization of process systems. Process dynamics and automatic control theory uses truly wonderful but abstract mathe matical relationships. It is important therefore that the students get the opportunity to apply this theory for reinforcement, appreciation, and mo tivation as well as to develop some intuitive feel for system dynamics and control. To this end a number of "case" and laboratory studies have been developed and used to aid in the teaching of process dynamics and automatic control. The reader will note that the "case" studies described here are not taken from engineering practice but have been fabricated to strike a hap py compromise between realism and complexity. In some ways they are like a long homework prob lem but to the extent that they involve laboratory or computer experimentation as well as latitude in how the student may approach them, they differ significantly in their effectiveness. Study 665-11, Control of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger is used in conjunction with ana log computer equipment It is used as a culminat ing study of a one term undergraduate engi neering science course or as an initial study in a graduate level chemical engineering course whose prerequisite is an introductory feedback control course The first part of this study involves process identification from experimental test data. The process is simulated on part of an analog com puter connected to a graphical panel which de156 picts the process and to which the students may direct their attention with minimal knowledge of analog computation Through the use of the re mainder of the analog equipment or other test equipment as desired, the students may probe the simulated process. Their goal is to determine the governing differential equations or transfer func tion of the process. There are two variations to this procedure worth mentioning and which may better fit the purposes and facilities of others. The first is to present the student with the results of a dynamic test. The second variation is not to use a simu lated process at all but to use a real piece of process equipment such as the double pipe heat exchanger found in most unit operations labora tories. The next part of the studies present the need to develop a theoretical dynamic model for a thermocouple in a protective sheath which is a part of the process system not included in the experimental testing done previously. Now with the differential equations or trans fer function of the complete process system de termined, the next part of these studies involves the design of a proportional-integral controller for it. On a plot that uses the loop gain as ab scissa and reset rate as ordinate they locate the stability locus, their control system designs, and the controller settings estimated by the Zeigler Nichols and Cohen and Coon correlations. In the next part of the studies the students observe the operation of the complete controlled CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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system on an analog computer simulation. They can check out the stability locus and then observe the performance of their control system designs. They then search for optimum controller settings which minimize the integral of absolute error. They will notice different performance in re sponse to set point changes or process disturb ances. And they will have to evaluate the stated specifications on system performance. Again depending on purposes and facilities, variations are possible such as digital computer simulation of the system or observation and op timum search on a laboratory process unit di rectly. The final aspect of these studies is to report these results. I have found it most effective to use student groups of two with different groups doing different studies. Each student will spend 12-15 hours on the study which can be compen sated for by weighting the studies as a two hour examination and / or waiving some lecture time. Study 665-15, Control of a L i quid Level Sys tem is a laboratory study whose purpose is to acquaint the s tudents with transducers, pneu matic diaphragm valves, industrial recorders, etc. They nicely show how the initial steady state conditions which are submerged in the theory, rise to the surface. In this study we again use our analog computer but this time as the real time controller in the system. The use of the com puter has the advantage that the student has great flexibility in choosing control modes. Other advantages are that we do not have to buy ad ditional controller equipment and the student is introduced to a true computer control system By confining the study to empirica ll y obtain in g the best control of the liquid level in the tank, we find that the students can complete the study in a four hour period exclusive of the report. In this system the dynamics are very nearly first order due to the slow first order response of the level in the tank to inlet flow and excellent results are obtained with an on off control mode. The students do not generally recognize this in ad vance and usually first try a proportional integral controller with low gain. They are surpr i sed at the poor performance and finally arrive at a high gain proportional or an on-off control mode Either because of the fun of being cha ll enged by a real (or simulated) process or because of the generous weighting given to the studies, they have been received with enthusiasm by students at both the undergraduate and graduate l evel. I FALL 1968 CO LD FLUID P ROC E SS SH E L L 6 T U BE HEA T E XC HAN G E R MEA S URED T E MPERAT U R E c:> ACTUAL TEMPER A TURE have also used these stud i es s u ccessfully w i t h graduate engineers and sc i entists in a cont in ing education course. One of these students o n ce remarked that for him, "doing the study was worth the price of adm i ssion." Case Study 665-11. S h e l l a nd Tub e Heat E x c h a n ge r The P. Tomaine Soup and Food Company has de cided to increase production rate for their Backwoods Bean Soup by preheating the stock before it is placed in the cooking vessel. They own one of the few continuous soup cookers in existence. A preheat temperature of 140 F is desired Too high a temperature results in an off-flavor while too low a temperature lowers the pro duction rate and upsets the cooking process Quality control decides that 3 F is permissible. P Tomaine is active in the business and indeed was responsible for the process development work on Back woods Bean Soup. He recalls the heat exchanger shown in the accompanying figure and reasons manual control would be ineffective because of the varying stock i n let t e mperature, and the varying stock cons i stency which alters th e heat transfer characteristics. He decides to con sider automatic control of stock temperature by manipu lation of stock flow rate through the exchanger, and sets about to assess the dynamic characterist i cs by a step response test The stock in l et valve is of the pneumatic diaphragm type with a 3-15 psi range, air pressure to open Tomaine installs a bare 30 gage copper constantan thermocouple to measure the pre heat temperature be cause of its almost instantaneous response although he knows Backwood Bean Stock will dissolve it in about 1 4 hours At a time when the plant disturbance appears minimal he records the data in Table 1. a What transfer function would Tomaine obtain upon analysis of his data? b. If instead of performing a transient response test he had taken frequency response data, what would the magnitude ratio and phase angle plots be? A simulation of the heat exchanger in terms of per turbations about an init i al steady state has been set up for you on the analog comput e r. The steady state corresponds to 10 psi on the diaphragm valve giv i ng a soup stock temperature of 140 F at a stock flow rate of 980 ga ll ons per day. One computer second equals 1 problem minute and 1 computer volt is equivalent to a change of 1 psi air pressure on the diaphragm valve in the cold water line Although you can obtain the dynamic characteristics of the 157

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Table 1 -Response Data for Heat Exchanger Temperature O F 140 140 140 07 140.27 142.0 143.25 144.64 146 11 149.1 151.99 162.43 167.09 168.91 169.60 170 00 Time, sec (Stopwatch) 4:40 P.M. 0 3 6 Notes Valve at 10 psi Valve sudden l y changed to 8 psi. Stopwatch started 12 Dropped notebook. 18 24 30 36 42 Telephone 48 60 120 180 240 300 4:50 P.M. Returned process to 10 psi. process by interpretation of the computer wiring, the object of this study is to treat the simulation as the real world and you will obtain greater benefit by not analyz ing the computer wiring for the process. a, b Now, make any exper imental tests you want and determine th e transfer function of the process. Report this result before proceeding further. Tomaine now decides to assess the transfer function for a rugged thermocouple imbedded in a sheath (well) which will not disso l ve in the soup. Th ey have success fully used a 1 in ch O.D. capped stee l cylinder about 6 inches long and 1 / 16 inch thick. Tomaine estimates the overall heat transfer coefficie nt from stock to thermo couple location in the well to be U = 183.4 Btu / hr-ft 2 O F. c If he considers the well to be at a uniform tempera ture, what transfer function does he derive for the thermocouple assemb l y? Tomain now fee l s h e is in position to consider applying a proportional p l us integral contro ll er to the process, i.e. m(t) = Kc [e(t) +R f e(t)dt] where K c = 100 / (Prop. Band) R = Reset rate, repeats / min and M E (s) = K c (1 + R s d. With total loop gain (K = K c KPKn) as abscissa and reset rate as ordinate plot the lo cus dividing regions of c l osed loop stab il ity and instability. e. On this same plot locate the co nt rol systems de signed by gain and phase margin considerations and also by root locu s techniques Also locate Z eigler Nicho l s and Cohen-Coon predictions. f. Does Tomaine need the integral mode? Is deriva tive act i on need ed? Reassess the problem definition. 158 g. You are invited to test your calcu lat ions by working with an analog simulation of the Backwood Bean Soup heat exchanger. First check a few controller settings on the lo cus separating stable and unstable regions. Notice that the simulation has provision for calculating the integral of absolute error, JAE, where IAE = f O l e(t) dt Apply step changes to the set point of the process and obtain a gain, reset rate pair which minimizes IAE / S where S is the size of the step applied. As you do this determine the values of IAE / S for the control systems d e signed in part e. Add all this information to your K,R plot. h. It turns out Mrs. Tomaine contro l s the company's funds and because of their fight la st night he re quests you to present the recommendations to the plant improvement committee of which she is chair man. Take no more than 20 minutes and use visual aids to help you present your conclusions. Case Study 665-15. Liquid Level Control System The objective of this experiment is to control, through appropriate transduction, liquid level in a continuous flow tank, using analog computer elements to simulate an auto matic feedback controller. Specifically, this co ntrol will be achieved by manipulation of the flow rate of incoming liquid. A second objective is to introduce the student to some of the hardware used in real control systems The process system is located in the Chemical Engi neering laboratory, and the essentia l parts are shown in Fig. 1 and described as follows TAYLOR E/P T RA N SDUC ER PS! HONEY W ELL qJfMi~ CONTINUOUS DIAPHRAG M FLO W VALV E TANK PACE PIE TRANSDUCER [~ :~~[ GR 1..... __ ..., .. ,~0 1 ~0:i',.:'r"c ,: 2 0'!.. .._ __ .... :t~o .._ __ _. :~;L~:c~~~~T U Fig. 1-Liquid Level Control System 1. TAYLOR Electropneumatic Transducer, Model 701T, converts emf to air pressure See company literature for specifications (vo lt age range, calibration, etc.). 2 HONEYWELL, in. diaphragm valve, 3-15 psi, air to open. Note that upstream water pressure should be maintained time invariant during the experiment. 3. The tank used is a cylinder, 6 in. in diameter, and approximately 24 in. high. The tank outlet to be used is a in. diameter, 24 in. long pipe. 4. PACE pressure to voltage transducer and readout, model K, provides a voltage signa l proportional to differential pressure on its diaphragm. See company lit erature for specifications (voltages produced, etc ). The control system and peripheral equipment to be utilized are as follows: 1. PHILBRICK, Mod e l 6009, op e rational amplifier bank (10 amplifiers), with power supply, black box feed back networks, etc. This can not be used to drive TAYLOR E P transducer. 2. PHILBRICK, Model UP A-2, single operational ampli fier must be used as the final amplifier in the conCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Professor, What Do You Think? Process Design Technical Sales Refinery Engineering Research With a ll the opport uni ties ava il able today you probably often hear this question from yo ur st udents You can be a m ajor factor in his career I f yo u find yourself in this situation why not consider an industry that can offer a f ull range of Chemical Engineering Oilfield Production Plant Design Development Technical Service ass i g nments and advancement opport unitie s? Standard Oi l Company of California has challenging assignments in just about any area that wo uld interest Chemical Engineers. These initial assignments will test their ability and ca n lead to advancement in many areas. Should you or a n y of your st udents wish additional information on our industr y or Company write to : Mr. Robe r t E Rodman Coordinator, Professional Emplo y ment Standard Oil Company of California 22S Bush Street San Fran c i sco, Ca l ifornia 94120 Standard Oil Company of California An Equal Opportunity Employer FALL, 1968 159

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troller sc heme, in order that it may drive the TAYLOR E / P transducer with up to 5 ma current. To protect trans du cer u se a voltage l imiter network, 0 to 12 volts. 3 Voltmeter for pot settings, amplifier balancing, etc. 4 One bank of 5 potentiometers. 5. For recording the output of the PACE transducer and the output of the contro ll er a LEEDS & NORTHRUP Speedomax H will be us e d. Lit era ture on this recorder will be found in "Readout" volume. To protect this recorder use 0.01 input attenuation external to re corder. At this point you should compare th e actual equipment with the information supplied. The study involves your operation of the equipment to obtain the following information. 1. Obtain the dynamic characteristics of the process sys tem on-line by any technique you wish to use Do you feel that it is nec essa ry to study the static charac teristics of each individual component of the process system? How about the dynamic characteristics? 2 Compare the resu l ts above with a theoretica l ana l ysis of the liquid level dynamics of the tank together with any data or estimates of the dynamic characteristics of the other appa1 tus Discuss. 3. From the dynamic characteristics, estimate the control n ee ds and contro ll er settings for liquid level control. Consider also the rapid estimations in the following references: a "Zeigler Nichols Method" in Eckman, Automatic Process Control, Wiley, 1958, p. 114 121. b. Van der Grint e n, "Determining Plant Controll ability" Co n tro l E n gi n eering, Oct 1963, p. 87; and "Finding Optimum Controller S e ttings, D ec. 1963 p. 51. 4 Now place the tank und e r liquid level control and compare control performance for a step change of 3.5 inches in liquid level. LETTERS continued from page 149 Editor: I was very interested in the article by Sliepcevi c h and Hashemi (Irreversible Thermodynamics, CEE 2, 109-112, 1968) because it resembles a similar derivation which I evolved while teaching our und ergr aduate Linear Systems course here at Dartmouth. Although the methodology of this course is derived mostly from the fie l ds of E l ectrical and Mechanical Engineering, I believe that the funda mental concepts are most happily and rigorously de veloped from thermodynamics My derivation differs from that by Sliepcevich and Hashemi in several aspects and I suggest that min e i s both more correct conceptually and more useful in practice. Rather than using the idea of "lost work," I started from the "rate of entropy generation per unit volume," s, which was then re l ated to the mass and energy fluxes, M and E, and to the gradients of Planck potential a and inverse temperature f3 (Tribus, "Thermostatics and Thermodynamics," D Van Nostrand). In a one-dimension a l system we have da d/3 s=Max + E dx (1) 160 Assuming that s is a fundamental th e rmo dynamic prop erty which i s a function of M and E we have . s = s (M, E) (2) . whence s is an exact differential in M and E. Followin g methods akin to those of Sliepcevich and Hashemi we hav e and hence oda ( :: ) M and d/3 dx 1 ( _ci_ ) 2 . aE M where L 12 and L 21 are the transport coefficients in the equations d/3 . dx L 11 E + L 12 M da dx = L 21 E + L 22 M The reciprocal relationships .are obtained in a similar way by starting from th e assumption ( da d/3) s=s dx' ax Th e results are easily ex tend ed to three-dimension s. The rate of entropy generation per unit volume seems to me to be a very basic co nceptual quantity. If ds is the entropy generated in a volume (dx dy dz) in tim e dt, we have ds S= dx dy dz dt Therefore s represents the entropy density in a four dimensional space -time continuum From the information theory viewpoint s is a measur e of our knowledge (or uncertainty) about an element of a space -tim e universe. There are few more fundamental co n cepts than that! I also pr efer the simp licity and symmetry of my for mulation which can b e extended to any numb er o f exten sive (conserved) properties .and th e ir co nju gate intensiv e (pote ntial) variables There remains the question of just why s sho uld be a homogeneous function of the seco nd degree in the fl u xes or potentials Is there any primitive reason for this ? GRAHAM B. WALLIS Dartmouth College CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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uni FALL, 1968 The world of Union Oil salutes the world of chemical engineering We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges and universities which educate chemical engineers. Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today : The twenty-sixth largest manufacturing company in the United States with operations throughout the world Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska s Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro chemicals throughout the free world. Our research scientists are constantly discovering new ways to do things better In fact we have been granted more than 2,700 U.S. patents. We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such diverse projects as developing new refining processes, developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield and the conservation of air and water. Today Union Oil s growth is dynamic. Tomorrow will be even more stimulating Thanks largely to people who join us from leading institutions of learning. If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and challenge why not look into the world of Union Oil? Growth ... with innovation Union Oil Company of California n 161

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(eJ n a classroom INNOVATIONS IN A PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT COURSE DONALD R. WOODS McMa ster University H amilton, Ont ario To prepare a student to make decisions bas ed on a fi nancia l criterion, a s enior course is given that introduc es the student to the structure of a proc e ss or plant and to cost e sti mation techniques and meth ods of cornparing the fi nancia l attractiv e ness of proposals Th e morpho log y of d e sign or of p la nt operation decisions, th e ability to handl e uncertainty and methods of optimization are introduced Th en th e princip l es are applied to design prob l ems and to plant operation Th e innovations in the course are th e d eve lo pment of an approach to h e lp th e students b e creative, i. e g enera t e alterna t ives, through functional analysis of pro cesses combine d wi th in-plant l ec t ures Secondly, emphasis is placed on settingup economic bala nce equations, and an ap proach is suggested fo r balan cin g calcula tional time with the accuracy expected Computer aided optimization work is don e on the models made for the simulation of a sulphuric acid plant. Finally trouble shooting problems are unique ly used as case studies to illustrate the strategy of tackling pro bl ems, and th e va l ue of tim e Two media are u se d to co nve y senior lev e l design exper ience at McMaster: a four-credit se mester lectur e course to illu strate the funda mental s and a four-credit project laborator y that has no le ct ure s. This paper descr ibe s some ex perience from teaching the lecture course. Fir st a sketch of the course content and emphasis is presented; then some attempted innovations are described. The project l abora tor y i s describe d elsewhere. 1 COURSE CONTENT The course i s diyided into three sect ions: understanding the background of proce sses and 162 Dr. D R. Woods is an associate professor of chemical engineering at M c M as ter University. He was ed u cated at Queen's University (BS) and the University of Wis consin (MS and PhD) P rofessor Woods teaches courses in information manag e ment and in process design and de v e l opment Hi s research interests are in the field of mechanical separation of part i culate systems and in par ticular on methods of separating emu l sions. learning abo ut cost estimation, developing the genera l prin c ipl es of devising eco n om i c balances and of optimization, and app l y in g the principles to the indu str i a l problems of design and opera tional efficiency. Understanding the Back g round. Students are us ed to thinking abo ut commodity balances; i.e the y meet mass balances, then momentum ba ances, heat balances and component mass bal ances. Happel' s concept of money balances i s a u se ful extension of this training. One characteris tic of any s uch balance i s that t he balance is made over so me region or envelope a nd it is on the co mmodit y mon ey. The overa ll craracteristics of chemical indu stry are discussed first. A detailed lo ok at spec ifi c processing systems is obta ine d by fun ct ional a nd struc tur a l ana l yses Equipment de s i g n and safety considerations are discussed. This material is often s upplemented by a visit to a lo ca l firm that has thi s process Next, methods of cost estimation a nd of report in g the financial attrac tiveness of proposals are presented. Developing the General Principle s of De v i s ing Economic Balances and of Optimization. Now that the st u d ent s appreciate the two necessary ingreCHEM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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dients for economic balances, they learn to com bine them into balance equations. The general strategy for developing the equations is presented, and the application of the strategy is outlined. The problem of handling uncertainties (as de scr ibed by Rudd and Watson 5 ) can be introduced but because of time limitations that material usually has to be reserved to the graduate course. Nevertheless, the uncertainty because of limited calculational time is a topic the se niors should master. This includes making good assumpt ion s, minimizing calculational time and project plan ning. A variety of optimization techniques are briefly outlined. Depth was gained only with Gol den section and dynamic programming. This sec tion of the course draws heavily from Rudd and Watson. Applying the Principles to Industrial Problems of Expansion and Efficiency. The principles are then applied to many cases to illustrate the fine points. First, problems are given to illustrate the application of the strategy to design. These cases are carefully se lected for their open-endedness a nd their ability to illustrate different aspects of the strategy. Secondly, problems illustrate plant im provement through changing operating condi tions, replacement studies a nd through trouble shoot in g problems. INNOVATIONS ATTEMPTED Course descriptions convey only part of the concept about any course. It i s the emphasis and new ideas tried that probably provoke the most interest. The students had difficulty in defining open-ended problems, and they had trouble setting up economic balance equations. They could see how one might approach an optimization problem but did not see how the expression for the objec tive function was obtained. They had difficulty being creative-or generating alternatives, and they could not see what types of assumptions were needed if the calculation time was limited. The students could easily memorize the design morphology but did not put the information to work when they tackled realistic problems, had difficulty in asking the right questions when such an opportunity was afforded them, and did not appreciate that all aspects of chemical engineering including plant operation could be cha llenging and exciting. Innovations were introduced to attempt to overcome these problems. Here is what was tried and the results. FALL, 1968 The students did not appreciate that all aspects of chemical engineering including plant operation could be challenging and exciting. Functional Analysis of Processes and In-plant Lectures. Although students had some industrial experience they did not appreciate what goes together to constitute a process. In addition they s hould be introduced to a spectrum of practical know-how and safety: such simple things as steam traps, barometric leg s and pressure relief valves. Practice in defining problems should be introduced early in the program. In addition they should gain confidence in their ability to generate alternatives. All these can be satisfied by doing a functional analysis of a process. Often the pro cess selected is that used in the project labora tory.1 The functional analysis technique is adopted from value engineering. 1 0 The analysis steps are: 1. Classify the major sections of a process, 2. define the functions of each piece of equipment, 3 rephrase the functions to eliminate semantic barriers, 4 generate alternatives that satisfy the functions using free-wheelings brainstorming sessions, and 5. evaluate the alternatives based on technical feasi bility. To promote discussion it is useful to require each stude nt to bring to class a flow diagram of a process to serve a given function. That is, the students are g iven the raw material in a given condition (e.g., soya beans in bags sitting on the deck of a ship docked in Burlington Bay) and a required end product ( e.g., deodorized soya bean oil in a large storage tank, lecithin in drums and bagged soya pulp stored in a warehouse). The ma jor steps of reaction, purification and or separa tion, and changing the physical form are identi fied. Then from the collection of flow diagrams a typical flow diagram is selected. For the typical diagram each piece of equipment is identified by number to avoid later semantic difficulties. The next step i s to critically define the primary and secondary functions of each piece of equipment. This is done by the class as a group. If there are more than three primary functions, then we at tempt to reevaluate the functions. Next the func tion statements are rephrased in words that are the least restrictive and yet appropriately describe the function. For example, one function might be to "dump the soya beans from the bags." This is rephrased to "separate the soya beans from the 163

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containers." The subst ituti on of "containers" for "bags" allows us to think of the possibility of using other types of containers for which the separation step might be cheaper Then, the class period is devoted to brainstorming. No criticism is allowed; all ideas are accepted. When the gen eration of ideas starts to s low down, the introduc tion of outlandish or far-out possibilities usually starts a deluge of new ideas. To preserve the brainstorming atmosphere, it is useful to consider about four pieces of equipment at a time so that the brainstorming session can last a full class per iod. The use of overhead transparencies aids in keeping track of ideas from session to session. A sample worksheet illustrating a student's at tempt to do a functional analysis on his own is given in Figure 1. The ideas suggested during the creative brain storming sessions are then criticized. This is an excellent opportunity to describe technology and know-how that they have not experienced before. Sometimes we take one of the 'wildest' ideas and see how we would attempt to make it work. Here, it is emphasized that unless an idea is presented FIGURE 1. SAMPLE FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS WORKSHEET Functional Analysis of Soya Bean Plant ITEM FUNCTION GENERATE ALTERNATIVES Soya Beans in Bags Miller Hopper Separate Soya Beans from container Direct beans to transportation system: meter flow; buffer hold up; protect from weather Conveyor Transfer beans from storage to cleaning units; meter flow 164 Cut open and dump { machine manually Grind up bag & beans and separate via density, cut top open Dissolve the bag Burn away the bag Roast away the bag Tank with conical bottom. Pile on floor in covered building & dozer; Store as bags on the floor & carry Conveyor belt; bucket eleva tor; gravity; continuous pneumatic conveyor; discon tinuous, high pressure con veying system; carry them; float them; blow them; lift them, float conveyor with air / with water / short them, blast them. The students see that the separation of the creative from the critical mental stages brings about practical ideas that would probably be lost if attempted together. or created it cannot be analyzed. The students also see that the separation of the creative from the critical mental stages brings out practical ideas that would probably be lost if the creative and critical stages were attempted together. That is we tend to dismiss as 'unworkable' valuable creative ideas if we criticize as we create. This classroom exercise can be greatly en hanced if it can be complemented with a visit to a local company that has a similar process. At McMaster, the process often selected re sembles the operation of the local industry Ca nadian Vegetable Oil Processing Ltd., that han dles soya beans. The student now can see some of the equipment discussed during the functional analysis and understands some of the reasons why it might have been selected. We discuss what the student might do if he was working for the com pany and if a given piece of equipment was to be replaced. Later a frank discussion with com pany personnel about present operating problems helps to illustrate the value of functional analysis as sound background work for any process. From an instructor's viewpoint, this approach is easy to do and well worth the time. The ap proach is enhanced immensely by the in-plant visit, and the process chosen for the class f unc tional analysis was determined by the availability of such an opportunity. The in-plant visit was unique in that it was not a plant tour. We were permitted to go about the plant on our own; we were not given a plant tour by company personnel. We spent as much time as we wanted discussing among ourselves any aspect of the operation. This functional analysis technique introduces plant know-how, illustrates the importance of clearly defining problems and lays the foundation for all creative activity for the rest of the course. Another in-plant lecture is arranged later in the course to illustrate trouble shooting problems and to again introduce practical design techniques. This lecture concentrates on a three-tower dis tillation unit and was arranged through the co operation of Mr. E.W. Blackmore, Domtar Chem icals Ltd. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The in-plant visit was unique in that it was n o t a plant tour. We were permitted to go about the plant on our own Devising Economic Balance Equations. Stu dents have difficulty in doing cost balances over pieces of equipment because they do not recog nize an overall stra teg y for tackling large, open ended, cost-oriented problems and because of their inexperience in defining problems. They also have difficulty estab li shing a uniform accuracy level de manded for the problem. This affects their choice of fundamental and cost details that they include in the balance. To combat this the emphasis on the course is essentially on how to app l y a consistent, organ ized strategy and how to define problems. The background information g i ven to the students de scribing a consistent strategy is outlined in ref erence 11. This is supp lemented by several de tailed examples to illustrate the application of the strategy. Happel's 4 examples; p 182ff, and in Appendix B; are easy to recast into the strategy; they are s imple enough that the st udents do not become overwhelmed by details. This material is the backbone of the course and a lot of time is spent devising balances and defining problems. Balancing Calculational Time with Accuracy. Knowing what assumptions to make so that an open-ended problem could be so lved in the avail able time is a challenge that most s tudents had difficulty in overcoming. The available time for calculations can be divided into three sect i ons: 1. time to define the problem, make assumptions and se l ect the equat ion s needed, t minutes 2 time to co lle ct the input constants, physical prop erties, and cost operating and equipment data, tP minutes 3. time to actually perform the calc ulation s, t c minutes That strategy suggested is shown in Figure 2. In general information on this problem was difficult to locate. To appreciate how an e n g ineer mi g ht se lect as s umption s the medium chosen was the imaginary conversation between a knowled geab le but novic e engineer, E, and a devil's advocate, DA, suggested by Rudd and Watson. The st udent s found this conversation approach very interesting; so in teresting that it was worthwhile to recast prev ious course illustrative material into thi s format. A unique way to present thi s material was to let the students role-play and attempt to develop the conversation themselves. The mechanics were: FALL,1968 1. to prepare the conversa tion ahead of time, 2. divide the c las s into two to play the two ro le s 3. the stude nt s playing each role would try to s tate or answer questions according to their respective ro l e without the aid of the conversation s h ee t s; that is those p la ying the role of the DA would try to 'formulate the best question to ask. While they were doing this, those playing the role of the E could look at the prepared conversation sheet to see the suggested q u estio n. Through interplay be tween the stude nt s playing the E roles and the instructor with the stude nts playing the DA roles the DA's eve ntually pose a questio n sim ilar to the prepared question on the conversa tion sheets Then, the play is reversed, the E's must answer the posed question. Th e DA's and the instructor c an see the answer on the co n versation sheet and through other questions the DA's care to pose the E's answer the question. Sample conversations are g iven by Rudd and Wat son.7 The st udent s had already had experience with locating information through a sophomore course on "Information Management and Technical Writing." 12 Hence, they did not have much diffi c ult y in realistically estimating time t p The stude nt s did not have much experience in esti mating the required calculational time for large systems involving a lot of recycle Class ma terial, examples and problems were based on the material of Rudd and Watson. In general, the overall concepts were difficult to get across and much development work is needed for this part of the course. FIGURE 2. SUGGESTED STRATEGY FOR BALANCING TIME WITH ACCURACY DEFINE and PLAN CARRY OUT and LOOK BACK 1 Determine things n eeded for the calcu lation of the answer. List all and study co ntribution of each to the ac curacy of ca l cu lat ed answer. (Is the contribution sign ificant? ) 2 List the alternative eq uation s that can be used to calcu lat e each co ntribution. Try to list in the order of decreasing calc ulation tim e 3 Estimate th e three times, t tp, and tc, and compare the se with the total time available for each combination of eq uations and cons tants. 4 Select the comb ination of eq uations and co n sta nts that can be us ed in the ti~ e available and that will yield co n s istent accuracy in all the contributions 165

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Computer-aided Optimization. The objective of this part of the course was to introduce some ideas, concepts and methods available for optimi zation. Methods of optimizing the use of optimi zation techniques were deferred to the graduate course. Some depth was given in only two areas. Emphasis was placed on selecting criteria. Al though financial attractiveness i s the commonly accepted criteria, the importance of technical, time and resource, environmental, originality in design social, product acceptance and market volume feasibilities were discussed. The use of a decision matrix of all these criteria was discussed following the guidelines suggested by De an et al. 8 The depth was gained-without having to re sort to a time consuming computer programming exercise-through the use of mathemati ca l mod els developed in a simulation project from prev ious years.' 2 6 For example, an optimization pro gram for a single decision variable search using Golden Section and for the single bed reactor to convert sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide had been developed by Professor C. M. Crowe. Since four beds with intercoolers are used on the plant the class used dynamic programming to optimize the conversion to sulfur trioxide with bed inlet tem perature as the decision variable. The st udent s enjoyed the exercise and felt it well worth the time. Trouble shoot i ng Problems. The third section of the course on the application of the principles to design and process operation depend s mainly on the judicious selection of problems that can most effectively illustrate problem diversity as well as the uniformity of s trategy used. This section most aptly is described as a series of case studies. An innovation tried was to use trouble shooting problems for plants that have already been designed. Their use emphasizes the diver se applicability of the strategy and shows that plant operation presents challenging problems. Thi s technique 7 8 1 0 11 and some sample problems are described elsewhere The instructor has a variety of ways in which these problems can be used : individuals solving the problems, 13 11 '! group solu tion to the problem, and group defining a stra teg y. 8 This past year we experimented with the group solution to the problem. In this approach the group discuss the strategy, decide on an action and pose this action through the instructor (who acts a Devils Advocate and screen for the ques tions) to a teaching assistant who supplies realis tic answers to the proposed action. This approach 166 allows the group to experience more problems in a given period of time. However, the individual does not suffer the consequences of his own action. Now, through the cooperation of Shell Ca nada Ltd, we are developing short film loops to present the problem to the st udent s with visual impa ct! SUMMARY A four-credit sen ior course presents a back gro und understanding of 'what is a process,' cost estimation techniques, introduce s a strategy that can be used to define problems and to devise eco nomic balances, and surveys methods of choosing criteria and choosing the best. Many problems or short case studies are used to apply these concepts to real indu str i al problems of both design and process operation. From past experience the major difficulties encountered by the students were in defining problems, devising economic balance equations, being creative, making good assumptions, apply ing design morphology, and asking the right ques tion. To overcome the se and other difficulties, several innovations have been tried. Functional analysis of plants or parts of plants together with in-plant lectures have been useful and interesting to the stude nt. Here the primary and seco ndar y functions of pieces of equ ipment are defined, alternative mean s of sat i sfy in g the functions are generated through creative brain stor ming sessions and the resulting alternatives are later critically analyzed through gro up dis cussion for technical feasibility. In-plant lecture s then were used to illustrate a system, and opened the discussion of feasible design and operating conditions. A second innov at ion was the emphasis placed on devising economic balance equations. Simi larities in strategy for tackling large, open ended aspects of handling uncertaint y were di sc u ssed following the guidelines of Rudd and Watson. Teaching the s tudents how to make good as s umption s so that the problem can be solved in the allotted time was not very s ucc essful. Perhaps this is too harsh a judgment because evaluation i s difficult. The media used was a strategy plus examples and a 'role-playing' session illustrating the conversation between a novice engineer and the devil's advoca te. Optimization te c hnique s were briefly sur veyed; se lection of criteria was emphasized and so me details of one optimization technique were g iven. The detailed look at a dynamic programCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ming solution for a two stage system with a single decision variab l e for each stage was possible be cause of the availability of the computer pro grams. Trouble shooting prob l ems were used as short case studies where the students played the role of an engineer trying to get a plant functioning correctly for a min i mum cost. This innovation was enthusiastically received by the students ACKNOWLEDGMENT S I am g rateful to Mr S. G. Boulter of Canadian Vegetable Oil Processing Ltd, and to, Mr E W. Blackmore, Domtar Chemicals, both of Hamilton for allowing me to use their facilities for the in plant lectures, and to Professor Da l e F. Rudd and C. C. Watson who have introduced me to some exciting concepts and approaches in this field My students and colleagues at McMaster have offered suggestions and support to some of the experiments tried RE F EREN C E S 1. Crowe, C M., A. E Hamiel ec, T W. Hoffman, A. I. Johnson, D. R. Woods, R. B. Anderson and J. W. Hod gins, "Teaching Experience from Exper i menting with D es ign and Simulation Project s" paper presented at the ACS m ee ting. Miami Bea c h April 10 (1967). 2. Crowe, C. M., A E. Hamiel ec, T. W. Hoffman, A. I. Johnson, P T. Shannon and D. R. Woods, Chemical Plant Simulation Te xt to be published by J. Wiley and Son s (1969). 3. D ea n, R. C., Jr., P. T. Shannon and S. R. Stearn s, Da r tmouth College Workshop on D es ign Edu ca tion in Hanover, N. H. Summer (1965). 4. Happel, J., Chemical Proce ss Economics, J Wil ey and Sons, New York (1958) 5. Rudd, D F., and C. C. Watson, Strategy in Proc ess Engineering, J. Wiley and Sons, New York (1968). 6. Shannon, P. T., A. I. John so n, C. M. Crowe, T. W. Hoffman, A. E Hamielec and D. R. Woods, Chern. Eng. Prog. 62, 6 49 (1966). 7. Silveston, P. L. and D R. Woods, "Use of Trouble Shooting Problems in Undergraduate Chemical Engi neering De sign Courses," paper presented at the 16th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference, Wind s or Oct. 19 (1966). 8. Silveston, P. L Troub l e Shooting Problems as Teach ing Aids" Chap. 4 Chemical Engineering Case Prob lems AIChE publication (1967). 9 Venu s, D. K. Product Design and Value Eng. October (1967) p. 36. 10. Woods, D. R. Chern Eng. Ed. p. 19-23 Jan. (1966). 11. Woods, D. R., "The U se of Sho r t Troubl e -Shooting Problems" Chap. 3 "Chemical Engineering Case Prob lem s" AIChE publication (1967) and presentation at th e AIChE New York meeting Nov. 1967. 12 Woods, D. R., An Engine er and Communication" McMast er University Bookstore, Hamilton, Ontario. FALL 1968 CHEMISTRY FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS* P H. WATKINS Essa R esearc h and Enginee rin g Company Lind en, New J ersey D r. Watkins i s employment coordinator for the Esso Resear c h and Engineering Company. He ho l ds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Virginia Polyt ec hnic Institute. Dr. Watkins taught at VP I and in 1956 joined Esso at Baton Rouge in development engineering. He was a campus recruiter and may visit yo ur campus-watch for him. Th e type and amount of chemistry re quired in the Chemical E ngineerin g cur ricu lum has b een a controversial topic over the years. Chemistry is an important part of th e undergraduate cur ricu lum and th e practicing chemical engineer continues to nee d a tho roug h understanding of the fun damentals of inorganic, organic and physi cal chemistry and the th eory and tech niques of analytical chemistry. Since he wi ll use chemistry as one of his tools in his decision making processes, the courses should emp hasi ze application and problem solving. His chemical en gineering courses in tu rn should off er him th e opportunity to apply his chemical knowledg e to th e maxi mum amount possible. It is a pleasure to discuss with you the very critical question of what chemistry shou l d be in cluded in the chemical engineering c u rriculum. I think the fact that we are willing to d i sc u ss t h is ,:, Presented at the Annual Meeting of ASEE, June 19,-22, 1967. 167

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... Unwanted or deleterious side reactions ... will rise up and smite him in b o th catalytic and recycle processes topic is an indication of the dynamic nature of our profession. I also think it is an area that must be approached with some caution. It is true that many chemical engineers are now making note worthy contributions in areas where no knowledge of chemistry is required. On the other hand, I feel very strongly that a professional cannot be termed a chemical engineer unless he has a solid and usable understanding of the major fields of chemistry. Conversely, to be a chemical engineer also implies a thorough background in the princi ples of engineering. These two requirements pret ty well define what the technical content of his education must be, and the trick is obviously one of finding an optimum balance between the two. Before discussing the problem of how much and what kind of chemistry, it might be well to remind ourself of what general procedures will be expected of the chemical engineer on any pro ject he may be involved in. I think in almost any case he would be expected to demonstrate the abilities to : 1. Find and identify the problem or problems in the project. 2. Plan a successf ul approach to so lve these problems using such analytical and sy nthetic approaches as are required Problem will usually be open e nd ed 3. Prepare a sufficient numb er of so lutions (cases) to define alternatives available. 4. Make a decision ba sed on the facts as developed. 5. Report this decision in a clear, concise manner 6. Be sufficiently versatile to modify this decision on his own initiative when environmental factors change. While these requirements will not say what kind of chemistry our chemical engineer should study, it does imply how it should be taught. He will obviously be using his chemistry as one of hi s tools in his decision making. Therefore, all his chemistry courses should emphasize problem solv ing, and his chemical engineering courses should challenge his chemical knowledge to the maxi mum. After all, the chemistry department is only responsible for giving him the tools. The chemical engineering department bears the re sponsibility of showing him how to use them. Accomplishing this objective will require coopera tion and much discussion between the depart ments involved as well as separate and collective discussions between these departments and the users of the product of their labor Fortunately, 168 as this meeting exemplifies, these informative ex changes are becoming more and more a part of the overall educational process. In passing I think one should give the "Goals" committee and the "Preliminary Report" a lot of credit for stimu lating these discussions Turning now to the chemistry content of the C hemical En g ineerin g curriculum, I think we would all agree that und ergrad uate a nd g raduate education will have to be looked at separate ly. The bachelors degree must prepare a man for be ginning positions in industry and government as well as for graduate school. In the former groups he would most probably start in one of the fol lowing areas: development, design, operational analysis, technical service, operational supervi sion and technical sales. To prepare him for this multiplicity of opportunities it seems to me that he must be well grounded in inor ga nic chemistry, organic chemistry and phy sica l chemistry. He will also require a foundation in the techniques of analytical chemistry. I think it goes without saying that he should obtain these courses as early as possible so that he ma y start using them. Inorganic chemistry will, I ima g ine, continue to be the ba s is of a freshman course I would hope that the emphasis here would be on good old fashioned equation balancing and lots of good experience in handling stoichiometric type prob lems. Some of the concepts of physical chemistry should also be introduced at this time, but only those concepts which he has the mathematical background to grasp and to apply to problem so lution s. While I agree that there ma y be a real need on campus for a broad, descriptive type of introductor y course in chemistry designed to g ive a student an overall appreciation of the field, such a course should not be considered for the yo ung engineer. In the field of analytical chemistry one can generate arguments for complete exclusion or very heavy inclusion into the curriculum. M y view is a moderate one and I believe the chemical engineer should have sufficient exposure, both theory and laboratory, in the techniques so that he will have a feel for the reliability of these da ta in his problem solving. I would also like to see considerable emphasis placed on instrumental methods, since these techniques are and will be useful in his in-line control problems. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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would you like to write ''The Formation of Perhydrophenalenes and Polyalkyladamantanes by lsomeriza tion of Tricyclic Perhydroaromatics ?'' How's that again? Well, never mind -Bob Warren, Ed Janoski, and Abe Schneider already wrote it. They're chemists in Sun Oil Company's Re search and Development Department. Their paper is just one of many re sulting from imaginative and origi nal basic research conducted at Sun Oil. Maybe basic research and technical papers aren't your cup of tea. But isn 't the kind of company that in vests in and encourages such projects the kind of company you'd like to work for? Especially when the company does things like pioneer the $235 million FALL, 1968 ,/',? ;~",,, i '" ll (; Athabasca oil sands project in North ern Alberta to multiply the wor ld's petroleum resources; plan a new $125 million processing facility in Puerto Rico; expand the T o ledo Refinery to the tune of $50 million; spo nsor the "Sunoco Special" and the racing team of Roger Penske and Mark Donohue in big league sports car racing to competition -pr ove and improve Sun oc o products for the public; pursue a continuing program for air and water pollution contro l; beautify Sunoco service stations everywhere. Sunoco is geared for growth We need men and women to grow with us and build a future We have openings in Exploration, Production, Manufacturing, Research, Engineer ing, Sales, Accounting, Economics, and Computer Operation. Locations Philadelphia, Toledo and D a llas areas You may write us for an appoint ment, write for our book "Su no co Career Opportunities Guide," or con tact your College Placement Director to see Sun's representative w h en on campus SUN OIL COMPANY, Indus trial Relations Dept. CED, 1608 Wal nut Street, Philadelphia Pa.19103 or P. O. Box 2880, Dallas, Texas 75221. An Equal Opportunity Employ er M/F 169

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In organic chemistry there should be a good balance between synthetic and mechanistic work. I think it would be good to place emphasis on some of the problems that will plague him later, such as unwanted or deleterious side reactions. As we all know these will rise up and smite him in both catalytic process and recycle processes. It would also be a good thing for him to obtain an understanding of the effect of structure on phy sical as well as chemical properties. Many of these men will spend large portions of their careers in product rather than process work. In physical chemistry I think we would agree that we are looking at the basic science he will use most. Coverage of thermodynamic, kinetic and equilibrium considerations should be inten sive. The only plea I would make is that it be kept general in nature and that we fight the temptations to make it a specialized course in atomic physics, or any of the other attractive fields that have only marginal professional utili zation for the average engineer. In summary, the fields of chemistry and their manner of presentation discussed above seem to me to represent the minimum requirement, and represent somewhere around 30 semester hours of instruction. Additional courses such as bio chemistry, colloid chemistry and so on may be highly desirable on an individual elective basis, but do not seem to be general requirements. The problem of chemistry at the graduate level is obviously much more on a case to case basis. The man who plans a career in process or product research work should certainly broaden his chemi cal knowledge. On the other hand, the man who aims toward the area of applied mathematics in the separational and diffusional areas may have little need for additional courses unless his local chemistry department is very active in these par ticular areas. In practice he will probably obtain his additional training in his own department The terminal masters man going for design has little need for additional chemistry. The same is true for the man aiming for management rather than a technical career. I do not believe that it is really possible to suggest any overall definitive additional chemistry training beyond the under graduate education. In the final analysis we are engineers, not chemists, and while our problems are involved with process and product, they are engineering problems. Our problems frequently include chemical considerations, but very rarely to the exclusion of all others. In our graduate 170 I would like to see considerable emphasis placed on instrumental methods since these are useful in in-line control problems. trainin g it seems to me that we should provide the chemical training necessary to perform the chemi cal engineering research or development area the student is specializing in. We should not confuse this with the chemical training requirements of the research chemist. In summary, chemistry has been and is an in tegral part of the training of the chemical engi neer. He needs to be well grounded in the funda mentals of the principal branches of chemistry Of equal importance he must be trained in the application of these fundamentals to his problem solving and decision making activities. As he specializes in graduate work, he should be exposed to those branches of chemistry which contribute to his specialization. Finally, we must constantly remember that chemistry is only one of the many tools of his profession and that his exposure to this science should be in relation to need and not precedent. [i);jI news Dr. Paul Murrill, professor and head of LSU' s chemical engineering department, was one of two college professors in the nation to be presented the Faculty Service Certificate by the National University Extension Association's Division of Conferences and Institutes Dr Murrill was re cognized for a s eries of short courses which he de veloped in the area of computers and their uses A member of the LSU facult y since 1963, Dr. Murrill ha s al s o been awarded the $1,500 Halli burton Award for excellence in engineering teaching. Dr. Richard H. Wilhelm, chairman of the chemical engineering department at Princeton University died August 6. He was the featured educator in the Spring 1968 issue of CEE Re cently he was appointed to the National A c adem y of Engineering and he presently held the pres tigious Henry Putnam University Professorship at Princeton. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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[! ij a educator FRANK GROVES FAVORITE PROFESSOR Ten years of inspiring teaching in chemical engineering has won Dr. Frank R. Groves, Jr., of Louisiana State University the reputat i on of "master teacher." But in addit ion to his class room ability, he has been cited as a scholar and a researcher. The 39-year-old Louisiana native has been teaching a wide range of subjects including most of the University's undergraduate course offer ings in chemical engineering. Among these are material and energy balances, thermodynamics, fluid flow, transport processes, heat, mass and momentum, properties of gases and liquids, and mathematical models At the grad uate level he has taught thermodynamics, distillation, reactor design and sca le-up theory. LSU's chemical engineering students in 1966 named him "Favorite Professor." In the following year he was awarded one of four Halliburton FALL, 1968 An outstanding teacher who participates actively in research, consulting, and in both local and national AIChE activities is featured in this issue as our ChE Educator" A wards for excellence in teaching in the Co ll ege of Engineering. The awards emphasize the impor tance of quality instruction and encourage the de velopment of excellence in the organization and presentation of engineering course work. The Halliburton program at LSU is designed to re ward individual professors who have made con tributions beyond that expected in the normal per formance of their duties Dr. Groves served on the facu l ty committee which directed revision of the LSU chemica l en gineering department's curricu lum several years ago, and he has also helped prepare new course materia l s for the department. He has been a guest lecturer in the American Society for Engineerin g Education's visiting eng ineer program and ha s wr i tten 11 research papers for publication or sympos ium presentation. Hi s teaching ha s ex tended to off campus courses for industrial per sonnel throughout Louisiana. Like his teaching interests Dr. Groves' re searc h in terests have been broad. A unifyin g thread of interest in prob l ems re l ated to chemical reactor design holds together his diverse indi vidual projects. These have included digital com puter stud ie s and experimental work on variable temperature absorbers, a project in the pure chemistry of an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a complex ion, various digital computer studies on variab l e temperature reactors, computer an alysis of supersonic combustion for ramjet en g ine s, and an investigation of vapor -li quid equi libria in non aqueous so lutions. Most of these stud ies have been described at technical meetings and severa l have been published in the permanent technical literature. Dr. Groves ha s supervised many MS theses and four PhD dissertations during his serv ice at LSU. Three of his PhD students are employed in industry one in aerospace, another in petro chemica l s, and the third in organ i c chemicals The latest will begin a career in universit y teach ing this fa ll. His MS stude nt s are scattered over the United States in various industries. Aside from his work at LSU Dr. Groves ha s been active professionally in a number of other ways. He has spent two summers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory working on the fluoride 171

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< ... ..,. l 172 i \ \ .. ;' :, (> "It is more important to carry on research than it is to pay dividends." The speaker was Lammot du Pont The year was gloomy 1932, and he was president of Du Pont A propos a l had been made to pare the rese arc h budgets in order to protect the dividend. As it turned out, the company was strong enough to pay for both, and it hasn't missed paying for either in the past sixty years But there was no doubt which way Lammot du Pont would have decided back in 1932. And today, we invest more than $100 million a year in the quest for new knowledge and better products. It is precisely this attitude towards research and development that attracts so many gnduates every year. And that makes Du Pont such an e x citing and rewarding place to work. There is no formal training period. Our men go into responsible jobs from the first d a y They work in small groups where individual contribu tions are promptly recognized a nd rewarded. Promotions come from within the comp a ny They do significant work of positive benefit to society. And they work with the best men in their fields in a crackling technical environment that provides every facility needed. If our attitude towards research and work agrees with yours, why not suggest that your students sign up for a talk with a Du Pont recruit er? Or that they write our College Relations Manager, Wilmington, Delaware 19898, for additional information on opportunities in their fields. ll(G U S P A T 0,r. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ChE Division Chairman for 1968-69: W. H. Corcoran The new chairman of the Chem ical Engineer ing Division of the American Society of Engi neering Education is Professor William H. Cor coran, Executive Officer, Department of Chemical Engineering, California In stitute of Technology, Pasadena, California. Professor Corcoran has recently served as Executive Board Member and as Chairman of the Publications Board for the Division and it is largely through his leadership and personal efforts that Chemical Engineering Education has received excellent financial support from industrial corporations and universities. Professor Corcoran has been a member of the Cal Tech faculty since 1952 as Associate Profe sor and then Professor of Chem i cal Engineering. Prior to that he had been Director of Technical Development for Cutter Laboratories. He has been active in the AIChE having served on the National Program Committee as C hairman of Group 7, Education and Humanities and as a member of Group 4, Fundamentals. He is also Continued from page 172. volatility process for treatment of spent nuclear fuel elements. Another two summers were spent at NASA's Langley Research Center work in g on computer analysis of supersonic combustion in ramjet engines. He is a member of the Ameri can Chemica l Society and has been active in the American Institute of Chemical Engineers serv in g as vice-chairman, chairman, and member of the executive committee of the Baton Rou ge Section. He served as a member of the Technical Program Committee for the 1967 Houston Na tional Meeting of AIChE and has been active in consulting work with Columbian Carbon Com pany s ince 1962 first at Lake Charles, La. and now at Princeton, N. J. where he has consulted on various aspects of organic process development. Dr. Groves is currently working under a NASA contract on improvement of a computer program describing supersonic combustion. This project is a sma ll part of a NASA research pro gram aimed at developing ramjet aircraft for flight in the hypersonic range ( 5 to 12 times the speed of sound). Next year he will be directing a FALL, 1968 serving on the Student Chapter Comm ittee and the Membership Committee. Professor Corcoran is active in various c1v1c and religious groups. He is the author of num erous papers and several books dealing with ki netics, thermodynamics, transport phenomena, a nd other areas. Division Officers and Committee Members for 1968-69 Executive Committee Cha irman-William Corcoran, California In stitute of Technology C hairman-Elect and Vice-Chairman-William H. Hon s tead, Kansas State Univer s ity Secretary-Treasurer-Donald K. Anderson, Michigan State University Past-Chairman L. Bryce Andersen, Newark Co ll ege of Engineering Members-Cecil H Chilton, Battelle Memorial Insti tut e; James Knudsen, Oregon State Co ll ege. Summer School Plannin g Committee Max Peters, University of Colorado Lloyd Berg, Montana State University Erich Baer, Case Western Reserve University T. E. Daubert, P e nnsylvania State University John O'Connell, University of Florida L. Bryc e Andersen, Newark Co ll ege of Engineering. Publications Committee Chairman-James H. Weber, University of Nebraska. Program Chairman-Kenneth Bischoff, University of Maryland. project at LSU on drying of porous solids for Cabot Corporation. Dr. Groves was born in 1929 in New Orleans Louisiana, and received his elementary education in the public schools of that city. He entered Tu lane University in the s ummer of 1945 and re ceived a BS in C hemic a l Engineering in 1950 and an MS in Chem i stry in 1951. He attributes hi s success in teaching a wide range of courses to the broad basic training in science and engineering provided at Tulane. While st ud ying chemistry at Tulane he was fortunate to have as major professor Dr. Hans B. Jonassen, who aroused an interest in research on comp lex ions, which has persisted up to the pres ent time. With the encouragement of Dr. Jonas sen he entered the University of Wisconsin in 1951 and continued his fundamental studies in chemical engineering receiving the PhD in 1955. Following grad uate schoo l, Dr Groves spent four years in industry includin g two years with At lantic Refining Company and one year with Texas Instruments Inc. in Dallas, Texas. He married the former Margaret Hodge of Dallas in 1959. They have one son, Frank D. Groves, 8 years old. 173

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[eJ ;j DIii department CALTECH WILLIAM H CORCORAN E xecu tive Offic er BRIEF HISTORY Chemical Engineering at the California In stitute of Technology began with the appointment of William N Lacey as Instructor of Chemistry in 1916. He had been a student of Professor Gil bert N. Lewis at the University of California at Berkeley, obtaining his Ph.D. there is 1915 Dr. Arthur Amos Noyes, previously acting President of M.I.T., and then Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology, proselyted Will Lacey and initiated a long and fruitful as sociation. The general style in Chemical Engi neering at Caltech is based upon thinking that stems from the attitudes of G. N. Lewis, Arthur Amos Noyes, and W. N. Lacey. In 1927, API Project 37 was initiated for study of volumetric and phase behavior of hydro carbons and is just terminating after 41 years of a very active and contributory life. Will Lacey was the founder of this effort and was joined by Bruce H. Sage in 1929. The collaboration between the two has had a major effect upon the produc tion and processing of petroleum and hydrocarbon compounds throughout the world. As World War II approached, the California Institute of Technology became deeply involved in work on naval ordnance and subsequently on army ordnance. Professors Sage and Lacey led the Chemical Engineering group in work on in terior ballistics of naval rockets and on processing of double-base propellant for the manufacture of solid propellant grains for those rockets. In ad dition to research and development efforts in this area, a significant semi-works plant for the pro duction of naval rockets was operated by the Chemical Engineering group in the San Gabriel mountains. These efforts were part of the pro gram at Caltech in an integrated effort on the total development and supply of naval rocket ord nance. Toward the end of World War II a sig nificant amount of the group's effort was directed toward ordnance work associated with the Man174 hattan Project. In the main, however, the contri bution in naval rocketry was the principal en deavor. After World War II, Chemical Engineering began development of a PhD program and a broadening of its research interests. That pro gram has continued on successfully. Because the California Institute of Technology is a small school, opportunities for close association among the students and the faculty members in both the classroom and laborator y are great and are fully utilized. AIMS AND GOAL S From 1916 onward, the aim of Chemical En gineering at Caltech in its educational program has been to focus upon fundamentals of physics, chemistry, and mathematics with overlying con cepts of chemical-engineering design as a founda tion for the development of professional sk ill s That attitude still prevails today, and all the planning is made with that thought in mind. Because of the stress on fundamentals, chemi cal engineering at Caltech has never gone heavily into the development of a unit-operations labora tory. Laboratory work in chemical engineering, both for BS and MS programs, has been mainly directed toward the study of fundamental phe nomena with emphasis on the integration of point by-point information on temperature, pressure, and composition to understand the total performCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Our goal is not to produce specialists ... who would gravitate to a given area of activity in the scientific and engineering world. Our graduates are occupied in activities ranging from invest ment banking to medicine ... ance of a piece of equipment. At the time of graduation from Caltech, the BS or MS student in chemical engineering has not had the sophisti cation that some other students may have had relative to operation of process equipment. Be cause of the finite time available for education, it is believed that the limited time in laboratory work is better directed to the study of basic prin ciples and that application of these principles to real problems is best treated in the classroom by way of case studies of varying degrees of length and difficulty. Inasmuch as the school is small, there has been unlimited opportunity to try various techniques in the teaching of chemical engineering at the undergraduate level as well as at the graduate level. Of major concern at the moment is how to maintain association with principle and still pro vide some degree of sophistication for the stu dent relative to the explosion of technological in formation. The approach has been to remove courses and to add new, upgraded courses still based on fundamentals but providing new case studies with origins in the newest technologies. The incoming freshman student improves from year to year so that the procedure of removing courses and bringing in new courses with contin ual upgrading has not been too difficult to follow. The elimination of courses is one of the great challenges to all curricula. One of the pitfalls in the planning of educational programs is the ten dency to add new courses without removing old ones. That has not been one of the problems at Caltech. An examination of today's undergradu ate curriculum shows that it is different from the curriculum of three years ago, quite different from that of six years ago, and so forth. With the goal of providing an education as well as a degree of competency in dealing with chemical-engineering principles, it has been necessary to focus more and more upon a course in the senior year of the undergraduate program which would integrate the thinking of the student relative to various courses he has had as an under graduate. That integration currently is done in the framework of a course entitled "Optimal De sign of Chemical Systems." In this course there FALL, 1968 is application of studies in applied mechanics, strength of materials, properties of materials, unit operations, and optimization to the design of real chemical processes, both of the type en countered in the chemical-process industry and of the type that might be encountered in less tra ditional areas such as in biological, medical, and aerospace fields. The approach has resulted in a decrease in the traditional number of hours de voted to applied mechanics and electrical engi neering, but perhaps an increase in sensitivity to the concepts of engineering if one might define engineering as the application of fundamental principles of science to economic and social needs. Throughout all our teaching, we emphasize that the knowledge which is being discussed is even tually to be applied to provide a profit in an indus try or to provide some assistance to the Federal Government and its manifold problems or to help society in its problems of economics and progress Our goal is not to produce specialists at the BS level or MS level or even the PhD level who would all gravitate to a given area of activity in the scientific and engineering world. We would be unhappy, indeed, if all our graduates went into the aerospace industry alone or into the petroleum industries alone. Our graduates are occupied in activities ranging from investment banking to medicine with certainly great emphasis in be tween on the chemical process industry wh i ch represents a major part of our country's strength Size of student body is important to us but not in terms of providing us with larger and larger numbers of students. We seek a number of students we believe is an equitable proportion of the total enrollment. Caltech's total undergradu ate student body currently numbers about 700 and the graduate student body about 800 Our goal is to achieve 15 undergraduate chemical en gineers per class for the current level of the total enrollment of undergraduates In the past decade the undergraduate program at Caltech has been most attractive to physicists and mathematicians. A change is occurring, and in the 1968-69 year for the first time there will be an e l ective course in the freshman year that will allow the student to associate with some part of engineering. There175

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fore he will have an early opportunity to learn something about engineering which has not been readily possible in the past. That change in cur riculum along with the belief that there is a ren aissance among technical students to consider the economic and social needs of society suggests that the goa l set by us for our undergraduate en rollment in chemical engineering could be realized in a relatively short time. We currently have 42 students working for the PhD degree. Of those students, 36 are majors in chemical engineering, and 6 have majors in other options. Over the next 5 to 6 years we seek to increase that enrollment to about 55 graduate st udents. Currently we have 9 faculty members, and that level will change to about 11 members over the next five years. So, as a rule of thumb, we hope to maintain about five graduate students per academic staff member. Our goals are clear, and we believe we understand how to meet them, but with all projects this day, the unique and fine combination of men, money, and time is not a simple task. We intend to maintain our opera tion on the relatively modest basis described and believe that it is very compat ibl e with Caltech's goals. OUR STAFF The interests of the 9 members of the Chemi cal Engineering staff at the California Institute of Technology are varied. A broad attack of various problems in the areas of chemical engi neering and applied chemistry exists. Professor Bruce H. Sage has been involved in the research activities since 1929. His labora tory for studies of both equilibrium and non equilibrium behavior in hydrocarbon systems con tinues to make major contributions to knowledge in those areas. Out of that laboratory has come some 300 scientific papers, and 8 books co authored by Professor Sage. The petroleum in dustry has been significantly aided by the efforts of Sage, Lacey, and co-workers over the past four decades. One of the world's outstanding laboratories for st ud y of liquid-st ate physics and chemistry has been established by Professor Cornelius J. Pings Both experimental and theoretical studies are em ployed in the development of a more unified means of predicting physical properties of liquid sys tems. Professor Pings' presentation at the meet ing of the Faraday Society in April of 1967 on the determination and analysis of radial distri176 Pings Friedlander bution functions in liquid argon using X-ra y diffraction is of special note and was excellently received by liquid-state experts. In addition to the real progress being made by Professor Pings in the attack of the liquid state, he has continued to make interesting and significant contributions to optimization studies as they relate to situations near chemical equilibrium. Professor S. K. Friedlander is on joint ap pointment between Environmental Health Engi neering and Chemical Engineering. His current major areas of research are air pollution and bio medical engineering. Studies of aerosols in the atmosphere are of special interest in his efforts. Significant work is being done in the biomedical field. He and one of his students just completed a fundamental study of gas-exchange with flowing blood, and the information will have application in the design of extra-corporeal systems for medi cal use, especially in heart-lung equipment. In further work associated with the lungs, Professor Friedlander and colleagues have proposed a new and more accurate method for the calculation of particle transfer rates by diffusion at bifurcations in the upper respiratory tract. Tschoegl Gavalas In 1967 Professor N. W. Tschoegl joined the staff of the Chemical Engineering Laboratory. The major activities in his group are directed toward the study of the molecular basis of th e mechanical behavior and fracture of filled and unfilled elastomers. Problems of deformation, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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yield, and fracture are continually found in gen eral engineering applications of polymers as well as in the very important area of solid pro pellants for rocket motors. Cooperative studies of crack propagation in filled, viscoelastic materials are being conducted with Professor W. G. Knauss of the Aeronautics Laboratory. Professor G. R. Gavalas, who studied at the University of Minnesota with Rutherford Aris, is involved in the application of modern mathe matical techniques to a variety of chemical engi neering systems His primary interest is in sys tems in which there are chemical reactions in the presence of heat and mass transport. His signifi cant contributions in this area have culminated in the preparation of a monograph which is to be published soon. It is entitled "Non-linear Differen tial Equations of Chemically Reacting Systems." Plasma chemistry and physics are of major import in many laboratories today, and Professor Frederick H. Shair is deeply involved in studies of transport and chemical change associated with plasmas. Recently he developed a theory of cata phoretic transport in binary mixtures subjected to DC g lo w discharges, and it is in agreement with essentially all available data. Currently he is investigating cataphoretic separation in flow sys tems with emphasis upon the development of an economically attractive method for purifying hel ium to better than 1 ppm In his kinetics studies, he is presently conducting experiments aimed at relating electron densities, collision frequencies, and energy distributions to the overall yields and reaction rates associated with reacting gases in glow discharges and in coronas. In all of his stud ies, he is concerned with energy balances and scale-up He and Professor Gavalas are col laborating in the study of certain aspects of plas ma kinetics. Additional activity in the area of biomedical studies exists in the laboratory of Professor Giles R. Cokelet. He began the study of the rheology of suspensions in his work at M.I.T. with Professor E. W. Merrill and has continued his activity at Caltech. Of particular interest to him is the rheology of blood and the nature of blood flow in small-bore tubes. Professor Cokelet will be leaving Caltech in January of 1969 for appointment as Associate Professor at Montana State University, but it is hoped that his general area of interest will receive continuing consideration at Caltech. That emphasis is natural in its complementary and supplementary relationships with the work of Professor Friedlander within the department FALL, 1968 A recent addition to the Chemical Engineering staff is Professor John H. Seinfeld who did his PhD studies with Leon Lapidus at Princeton. Without any loss of momentum, he has cont inu ed his interests at Caltech in the areas of optimiza tion and adaptive control of chemical systems. Currently he is studying the problems of optimal control of stochastic systems and the control of systems with time delay. Vaughan Seinfeld In the first half of 1969, Chemical Engineering will be happy to receive as one of its new col leagues Dr. Robert W. Vaughan, who currently is a lieutenant in the Army on duty at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Vaughan completed his work at the University of Illinois under Professor Drickamer and has been specifically interested in the study of the electronic structure of metals, particularly iron, at pressures up to 3 million pounds per square inch. Mossbauer spectroscopy has been his main attack to the problem, and he plans to continue his work in Mossbauer spectro scopy as part of his program at the California In stitute of Technology. My interests continue in the area of applied chemical kinetics with emphasis on reactions of nitric oxide In addition to work at room tem perature, work is proceeding on studies of re actions of nitric oxide at temperatures between 3000 and 6000 K in an argon plasma Separate from the studies on homogeneous reactions, work is under way with Professor Thad Vreeland, Jr., of Materials Science on a continuation of previous interests in the role of dislocations as they affect surface reactions catalyzed by single crystals of silver. THE FUTURE Hopefully without chauvinistic overtones, my belief is that chemical engineering is the most viable engineering discipline in the world today. 177

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That viability stems from the consideration that chemical engineering must combine chemical and physical phenomena in the application of knowl edge to real problems of society. As has been re peated probably too many times already, we can not alone concern ourselves with physical change but must be deeply concerned and involved in Prof. Shair (right) and student. knowledge and application of chemical change. This involvement and concern is the operating base for the future of chemical engineering at Ca lte ch. Each of the research areas described above has as it s ultimate focus the opportunity to improve our ability to cope with problems in volving chemica l change. This concept is what we try to communicate to our students For that reason we will continue to have ever-increasing and strong reliance upon physical chemistry as the basis of o ur efforts. We do that not without diminishing our preoccupation with problems of economics and engineering analysis. The eco nomics and engineering analysis should still be directed, nevertheless, toward the control of chemical reactions. How are we best to achieve that goal at Cal tech? That question is answered by considering the great opportunity for any chemical engi neering department, and especially our depart ment at Caltech, to involve itself in interdisci plinary efforts. No other engineering disciplin e is better situated to have the opportunity to move in various directions in association with depart ments on a given university campus. We at Cal tech are extremely fortunate in this opportunity inasmuch as any real or imagined blocks to com munication are essentially zero. We have no prob lems whatsoever in reaching out and working in cooperation with Electrical Engineering, Mater ials Science, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and other groups on campus. If we do not take 178 the fullest opportunity to work with these groups and to enhance our education and research as well as theirs, we are failing in our goal. We are al ready developing stronger ties in the area of re search and have embarked upon improved inter disciplinary efforts in the teaching of our labora tory work in chemical engineering. In the past year, in fact, there has been extraordinarily good success and cooperation between Professor Shair and Professors E. E. Zukoski and R. H. Sabersky of Mechanical Engineering in the teach ing of a senior and first-year graduate course in engineering laboratory. Professor Shair has led the way in the development of experiments in volving chemical change, and Professors Zukoski and Sabersky have brought in impro ved ideas re ative to dealing with problems in energy and momentum transfer. That type of thinking must continue in various other avenues and in the coming year will be expanded in the a lread y men tioned cooperation between Electrical Engineer ing and Professors Seinfeld and Gavalas in the teaching of a course in control. Again, the prin ciples that are being taught and studied will not change significantly, but the technological back ground for the students will be improved greatly by bringing in new ideas on how to cope with older principles. An electrical-engineering stu dent can gain by having the opportunity to hear from chemical -en gineer ing professors regarding the jargon and problems associated with the con trol of various chemical processes. In turn, the chemical -en gineering students will gain signifi cantly by having the opportunity to have electri cal-engineering professors communicate their points of view on control. Our next major goal in the effort to improve our total attack her e at Caltech in chemical-engi neering education is to examine how we deal with applied physical chemistry throughout the cam pus. My hope is that Chemical Engineering will be a part of making significant change and' progress in the improved teaching of applied physical chemistry by the various disciplines that incorporate this field of study in their curricula The future is exciting here at Caltech, and the responsibility for us as chemical engineers is great. We must be especially alert because we have special problems in being sure that we understand the full meaning of dealing with both chemical and physical change in the face of the opportunity for significant interdisciplinary contributions. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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They're already looking for the fuels we'll use in 1978. Isn't that the kind of company you'd like to work for? In just ten years, our world will need 40% more petroleum And there may not be 40% more available So the people at Atlantic Richfield s new Production Research Center the largest and most modern in the world-are working on the problem now. Searching for new materials new ways to meet those growing energy needs It's the kind of project that takes people with ideals and energy People like you We AtlanticRichfiel ompany making things happen with petroleum energy F A LL 19 68 need your ideas-and your motivation-to help make things happen Talk to our interviewer when he is on your campus Or send a resume to Mr. G 0 Wheeler 717 Fifth Ave ., New York N Y 10022 1 79

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mn :>II book reviews As I Remember, Stephen P. Timoshenko; tr. by Robert Addis. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. Princeton (1968) pp. xi + 430, 14 ill. $9.75. Professor Stephen Prok'yevich Timoshenko, whose widely-used textbooks and other scholarly works are familiar to every engineer, wrote his memoirs in Russian and published them in Paris in 1963 when he was eighty-five years old. These memoirs were translated into English in 1967. The Bolshevik Revolution forced man y Ru s s ian scholars to emigrate. Timoshenko was one of the most outstanding of these. He came to the United States in 1922 when he was forty-four years old and through hi s work in industry and as a profes sor, first at the University of Michi ga n and later at Stanford University, became kno wn as "the father of engineering mechanic s" in the United States. His memoirs s hould be of interest not only to engineers and scholars but to man y other people as well. He had a successful career as an engineering teacher in Czarist Russia. He was a contemporary of the fictional Dr. Zhivago and people who have read the late Boris Paster nak' s book or who saw the excellent film based on it will be intere sted in Timoshenko' s com ments on his life in imperial Russia American engineers may be s urprised to learn from this book that engineering education in Russia before World War I was far superior to engineering education in the United States at that time. How ever, thanks to efforts of many men like Timo shenko this is no lon ge r true One of the reasons that the se memoirs make s uch entertaining reading i s that they are so fast moving The a uthor traveled widely, met many interestin g people and was a keen observer of the engineering scene. The story of Timoshenko' s escape from the chaos that was Russia during the revolution is particularly absorbing. He did not return to his homeland until 1958 when h e went there to in s pect engineering schools. He reported the results of this trip in a 1959 book and in a memorable article in the November 1958 Jo urna l of Engineering Education. This remarkable book by a remarkable author is recommended to all r ea ders of GEE. 180 DAVID H. KENNY, Michigan Technological University Houghton Michigan COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASES Thi s compact unit allows easy determination of the compressibility factors of gases ove r a pressure range of 0-60 atmospheres At any one temperature only pressures need be measured to obtain values along an isotherm. Data for a complete isotherm ca n be ob tain ed in l ess than 30 minut es with the experimenta l resu lt s deviating from accepted va lu es by l ess than fi ve percent Th e accu rac y of the r esul t s in the low -p res su re rang e is limited onl y by th e quality of the vacuum which is ava ilable in the laborator y This unit is completely outfitted with safetyand check-valves to protect both th e p ressur e and vacuum gauges. A liquid bath pro vides for temperature control. SPECIFICATIONS l Compressibility Cells T wo cells (high-pressure r eservoir and ex pansion cell) eac h of approximately 1 5 cubic inches in vo l ume wi th int e rconn ecting high-pressure tubing and n ecessary va l ving Plug s for adjusting the volume o f the expansion cell to or of t h e cell's vo lum e are provided. 2. Pressure Measurement Pr ec ision pressure-gauge with 0-1,000 psi rang e and l psi accuracy is provided for mea su ring th e pr essu r e in th e system. Shi e ld ed vacuum-gauge with 0-10 mm mercur y rang e indicates the pressure in t h e evac uated expans ion cell. 3. Temperature Control -System is encased i n a 24x l B xB inc h rust proof bath ENGINEERING 2714 OAKLAND ROAD MINNETONKA MINN 55l4l 545 5077 545-5021 CHEM I CA L ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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[eJijl views and opinions STUDENTS, FACULTY AND PROFESSIONALISM RICHARD GRISKEY, Fo rmer Chairman D e partment of Chemical Engin eer ing Un iver sity of D enver The most important resource of the Univer sity is the student The only task of the Uni versity is to nurture-to make the student grow to be a creative and productive member of so ciety. These are rather simple contentions, and there may be people who disagree with me about their importance. It i s my feeling that, today as never before, students are being very badly neg. lected at most of the Universities in t hi s coun try. This is true in any field of endeavor: engi neering, liberal arts, or business I can cite many instances to show that this neglect actually exists. If we walk on a campus today we see some characters who look as if they were turned loose from some southern California cult They have hair running down their backs, beards and togas, and all kinds of weird customs We see students who are protesting everything including protest, and others who are wearing buttons that say "acid." These types are everywhere across the country. We see students who are walking around saying: "Who am I?" "What am I?" "What am I doing?" "Where am I going?" We see people "dropping out" or "turning on." We see in our own society a very great lack of pro fessionalism. We wonder what causes this and why it takes place. I agree wholeheartedly with John McKetta that professional development is certa inl y a life long proposition. But I think if we examine the facts, we will find that the very first contact that a student has with the professional man (some of you might question calling professors professional Dr. Griskey received his BS, MS, and PhD degrees from Carnegie Tech. He has served in the U. S. Army, in chemical industry, and in various levels of academe in cludin g departm e nt chairman. At present he i s Director of Research and Foundation Research Professor at New ark Co ll ege of Engine e ring. FALL, 1968 men) comes at the University. And as the old saying goes 'As the twig is bent, so grows the tree." But what is or could be wrong with the atti tude in most of our universities? I cannot gen eralize as any generalization is incorrect, includ ing this one However, if we look at the attitudes of our faculty, I think that they do not, in the main, lead to the kind of attitudes that are needed for professional growth. What is wrong with these att itud es? I will cite actual cases. One professor in one institute has a little egg timer-it goes for three minutes. A student comes in, "Professor Jones, I have a question." He turns the egg timer on, "You have three minutes." By the time the student stum bles and stutters through about a minute and a half, he never gets into the question "Your time is up, leave my office, I am a busy man." Professor B. keeps his door locked. He is a very busy man. He has no time for st udent s He has to generate his committee work, his papers, his re search, all his activities. To spend time advising students is just a little bit beyond him; he just can not take the effort to do it. Professor C. writes letters of recommendation for his students, and he does a wonderful job of damning them with fa int praise. A typical example of Pro~ fessor C.'s letter is the one he is supposed to have written for Jesus Christ. It went someth in g like this: "This man is rumored to have founded a great religion; however, there is no evidence to show that he was other than mediocre in his chosen profession of a carpenter." These are not isolated examples. I find instances of such lack of contact with the faculty all the time when talking to students whether they are transfers, grad uates, or actual employees in industry. They say, "The faculty does not really care what hap181

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The purpose is to make students grow . not to beat them down pens to me," or "nobody wants to take the time to advise me." Somebody may say, "Well, yes, this is fine for you as Denver is a small private school, but what about the larger state universities?" I maintain that even at large schools there must be advising, there must be contacting, and there must be guid ance. The contrast between schools is indicated by what some interviewers told me. For instance one of them said, "It's remarkable a couple of your students have actually improved in college the last two years. You don't seem to have the atti tude they have at some sc hools." I said, "What do you mean?" He said, "Well, at some schools they seem to be trying to drive all of them out of engineering-to fail them all out." I think this unfortunately, is the attitude of many professors. We are all busy, and everybody has things to do: you must write papers; the Dean is on your back to get a couple of research contracts; some body else wants you for this or that. I think this means that University professors, instead of working the sixty hour week that Dean McKetta talked about, must work almost a one hundred twenty hour week. It means that if a professor has nothing more to do in his office all day than to advise students, he ought to be doing it I find that even our younger professors in en gineering, the so called "bright lights" or "high flyers," on the research side have an anti-student attitude. I recall one of them at another campus, as students were trouping in for registration, saying to me with a disgusted look on his face, "Wouldn't it be wonderful if they just weren't on the campus?" My own attitude is if they were not on the campus there would be no reason for the campus' existence. I think that all of the pro fessors must feel toward the students much as one might feel toward a younger brother or sister, or, depending upon age, toward a son or daughter. The purpose is to make them grow. It is not to beat them down-it is not to demolish them. It is to instill into them the attitude called in the army "esprit de corps," which is pretty much un definable, but I think most of you can sense the difference. In baseball they call it hustle, maybe in engineering we call it "professionalism." The lack of professionalism, evident in many gradu ates, comes, I think, from a lack of concern on the part of the faculty. 182 Who is at fault? Is it the faculty only? Well, I do not personally think it is the faculty alone. To indict the faculty is to say that it is not doing the job while everybody else at the University may be. I think the whole concept of the Uni versity really must change in some ways Schools have become very impersonal places. The adminis tration runs the college or university as a business proposition. Because it is a business proposition, the earlier concepts of teaching and living and working with the student have gone out the window. Of course, it requires an interested faculty The faculty must want to work with the student, to build up his "esprit de corps," to increase his professionalism. Help must come from higher levels also. It should come from department heads, it should come from deans, and it should come from provosts. These people must do more than pay lip service. If they have faculty mem bers who are openly antagonistic to the students, then such members ought to be called in and told: "Well, look, I don't care if you have 90,000 papers. I don't care if you are on all these national com mittees. If you don't have time for students then you're not part of this University You'll have to go elsewhere." I do not think that there is enough, if any guidance by the people that are in the prominent places in the education pro fession. However, one does not get any dollars for such activities and maybe this is wrong Con cern for students never shows when the time comes for pay raises, or publication counts, or comments like, "Well, I hit the Department of Defense for $200,000 last year in the game of grantsmanship." I think work with students is the most important activity one can do. If a professor can develop one student-just one-it is worth while. If he can take one boy or girl that is failing, set him or her on the right course, and help him or her become a useful and productive member of society, then the professor has done something beneficial. I am not going to say that every college and every university has staff members that do not care. But I do think that the "Berkeley syn drome" is unfortunately too often the case at many of our schools. I remember a remark one young faculty member made to me : "You know one of the problems is that too many of the pro fessors think they are too good for the students." And I think this is true. I think until the atti tudes change, until you feel that "by golly I want CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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L 3 Control Y2 computer X3 L = L(x 1 x 2 x 3 ) 2 1 -(p+q) from Prentice-Hall, a new introductory text on control theory: Introduction to Control Theory With Applications to Process Control by Lowell B. Koppel Professor of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University This new text presents an introduction to topics of major importance in control theory includ i ng state variables, stability and optimization for continuous and discrete, lumped and distributed systems The work suggests practical approaches to applications in addition to presenting the theoretical foundations necessary to an understanding of the literature on automatic control. Features: Covers major control topics at a level of mathemat ical vigor sufficiently high to prepare the reader for the research literature. Includes a chapter on optimal control of distributed parameter systems. Reviews are presented to place classical control theory in perspective with the modern control theory covered in the text. Key mathematical proofs are presented in an ap pendix to give an idea of the type of arguments which must be used to place the theory on a firm basis Includes both simple and more complex problems at the end of most chapters with many solved il lustrative examples. November 1968 Approx 512 pp $13.50 for an approval copy, write: box 903 Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 07632 FALL 1968 183

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to get in there and work with these students," not much can be done. I do not mean mollycodd ling of students Some people may say, "He's advocating leading them around by the hand." No, I do not mean this When a boy comes in and says: "I've got six job offerings. How about telling me about these companies ?"-or he says: "Gee, I'm thinking about going on to grad school, but I really don't know."-or he says: "My fresh man math instructor has fai l ed 95 % of the class." -I believe the professor ought to be doing some thing. I think that he ought to be asking ques tions. He ought to act as the inspector general, if nothing else In other words, the professor ought to be concerned and interested in the student, and he ought not to be concerned as much in pleasing various admin i strators. Doing what is right for the students is much more important than fulfill ing a set of paper regulations. Let me also say that I have written quite a few papers. I hav e time to participate in national meetings and I get quite a b i t done But, I have never shut my door to a student I do not think anybody on my staff at Denver has either I think this should be the tenor at all schools If this forces one to work in the evening or on week ends, then one must. But advis i ng a student who might be standing out in the hall with his knees shaking-a freshman or sophomore-is much more important than writing any paper or doing anything else. I maintain that if you inspire the student with the right attitudes he will continue to grow when he goes into indus try. He will take off in the right direction, and he will be primed to walk the second mile that Dr McKetta talked about ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In li eu of advertising, the following have donated funds for th e s upport of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU CATION: C. F Braun and Compa n y Dow C h emical Compa n y Mallinckrodt C h emical Works Monsanto Company Oli n Mat h ieso n Chemical Company The Procter and Gamble Company Standard Oil (In d ia n a) Foundation T h e Stauffer Chemical Company 3M Company 184 ti b a problems for teachers I We con t inue with the thermodynam i c prob l ems and solut i o ns prepared by Professors Irey and J. H. Pohl at t he Un i versity of Florid a 1. An incomplete equation of state for a substance with the work modes EdZ (associated with charge) and PdV (compressibility) is written as; VV~ 0 = f3T + KZP a. Determine the electric potential, E, as E = E(V,T,Z). b. Calculate the difference in internal energy u (T,V,Z) u (T,V 0 ,0) due to changes in volume and charge C (T) = C (T) C If v z v o,o V = V 0 Z = 0 find C (T) C (T). v, z vo,o A C KN OWLEDGMENTS Educational institutions contributing for both 1968 and 1969 (two years): University of Alberta Arizona State University Brigham Young University Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Bucknell University Carnegie-Mellon University Clemson University Cleveland State University Drexel Institute of Tec hn ology Michigan State University University of Mis s issippi University of Missouri Ohio University, Athens Pennsylvania State University University of Washington, Seattle University of Waterloo Yale University CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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COLUMBUS WATERED HERE In August 1492, the crews of Columbus' expeditionary ships Santa Maria, Pinta and Nina took enough water from this well in Palos, Spain to last until they reached the New World. Now, 475 years later, the well is still in use, but as a tourist attraction. Several Fluor employees and their families toured this part of Spain during 1967. Why not? They were living there as part of the team building a refinery for Rio Gulf de Petroleos at La Rabida, the site from which Columbus actually sailed. The Rio Gulf project is just one of some thirty foreign jobs currently under way by Fluor. Fluor's principal engineering centers are located in the United States and Europe. Almost every plant Fluor builds is engineered in one of four support facilities ... Los Angeles, Hous ton, London or Haarlem, Holland. But an en gineer who starts at one of these offices may eventually end up at a foreign jobsite ( if he chooses to do so) Right now there are openings in Los Angeles and Houston for Chemical Engineers with a B.S. degree or higher. Areas of specialty include process design process development, computer and project engineering Why not join a company with an international flavor and with international opportunities? For more details write our college recruiters, Frank Leach in Los Angeles or Ed Hines in Houston THE FLUOR CORPORATION, LTD. ENGINEERS & CONSTRUCTORS 2 500 S o uth Atlantic Boulevard, Los Angeles California 900 22 3 1 37 Old Spanish Trail Houston Texas 77 0 2 1 AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER

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R. J. Reynolds Tobacco has one of the country's best Development Centers ... and we want CHEMICAL ENGINEERS! We have immediate openings for CHEMICAL ENGINEERS in the Chemical Research, Food Prod ucts and Tobacco Products Divisions of the Product Development Department. Our Product Development Department is relatively new, being established in 1965 primarily due to the Company's expanding diversification program. The Product Development Department has the responsibility for formulating, developing and eval uating products for existing, as well as potential markets in the areas of foods, allied packaging products and tobacco. CHEMICAL ENGINEERS at RJR develop existing lines in the Company's food and tobacco products and work on new product lines in a variety of fields These include such leaders as ; HAWAIIAN PUNCH. CHUN KING, PATIO, COLLEGE INN and FILLER SNACKS in the food line and WINSTON, SALEM. CAMEL, PRINCE ALBERT and MADEIRA MIXTURE in the tobacco line The challenge, the growth and the future are un limited for CHEMICAL ENGINEERS at R J Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston Salem. N C