• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial and letters from...
 Drexel
 Dick Wilhelm of Princeton
 The method of matched asymptotic...
 Humanities and social science in...
 Chemical engineering information...
 Final "goals" report - Why a scholorship...
 Industry needs scientific engineers...
 A graduate course in chemical reactor...
 An inexpensive laser grating...
 Book reviews
 Problems for teachers
 Acknowledgement
 Back Cover




























Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00020
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Spring 1968
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00020
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00020

Downloads
Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Editorial and letters from readers
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Drexel
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Dick Wilhelm of Princeton
        Page 60
        Page 61
    The method of matched asymptotic expansions
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Humanities and social science in engineering curricula
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Chemical engineering information and education
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Final "goals" report - Why a scholorship program in chemical engineering?
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Industry needs scientific engineers not engineering scientists
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    A graduate course in chemical reactor engineering
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    An inexpensive laser grating interferometer
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Book reviews
        Page 94
    Problems for teachers
        Page 95
    Acknowledgement
        Page 96
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


















































PETES-o th gal. repor
MEEINASE n ls ngle

--- -- -- --









MARATHON: DYNAMIC PROGRESS
nt -nfl. .. .., z ..,


Marathon Oil Company was founded in Find-
lay, Ohio in 1887; however its ultramodern
Denver Research Center is located at the foot-
hills of the Rockies. The company is a producer,
transporter, refiner and marketer of crude oil and
petroleum products on five continents throughout
the world.
The Denver Research Center was established
to make discovery of new petroleum reserves more
economical, to help recover a larger percentage
of oil in present fields, to develop more profitable
refining and chemical processes, and to develop
new products.
Marathon employs more than 8,000 persons
at its offices around the world including its head-
quarters in Findlay. There are over 300 em-
ployees at the Denver Research Center of which
more than half are scientists and engineers.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MARATHON
Using engineering research to determine ways
to recover more of the oil from known deposits
is an important part of the work at the Research
Center. It includes projects aimed at stimulating
wells so they will produce more oil; in situ com-
bustion; and fluid injection processes, such as
miscible displacement, which are more efficient
than conventional techniques where gas or water
are used to drive oil to a production well.
Reservoir mechanics comprise another signifi-
cant part of the engineering work at the Denver
Research Center. The transient behavior of oil


reservoirs and the flow of fluids through porous
media are important phases of this work. Mathe-
matical models, which simulate reservoir behav-
ior, provide insight into future behavior of oil
bearing reservoirs.
Chemical engineers are also engaged in the
pilot plant study of existing refinery and chemical
processes as well as in the evaluation and devel-
opment of new processes and new chemicals.
Projects are underway, for example, on petro-
chemical processes to make monomers and other
basic components for polymers.
At Marathon's Research Center, qualified en-
gineers are provided with both the challenge and
incentive in supplying answers to these problems.
Your further inquiry is invited.

Mr. L. Miles
Personnel Supervisor
Dept. CE-1, P. O. Box 269
Littleton, Colorado 80120

AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER




\MARATHON

MARATHON OIL COMPANY
DENVER RESEARCH CENTER
LITTLETON, COLORADO










Chemical Engineering Education


VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2


SPRING 1968


EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601


Departments


Editor:
Ray Fahien


Associate Editor:
Mack Tyner

Business Manager:
R. B. Bennett


Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

WEST: William H. Corcoran
Chairman of Publication Board
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109

SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631

EAST: Robert Matteson
College Relations
Sun Oil Company
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19100
E. P. Bartkus
Secretary's Department
E. I. du Pont de Nemours
Wilmington, Delaware 19898

NORTH: J. J. Martin
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
J. A. Bergantz
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Buffalo
Buffalo, N. Y. 14200

CENTRAL: James Weber
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508


51 Editorial

51 Letters from Readers

54 Departments of Chemical Engineering
Drexel, D. R. Coughanowr

60 The Educator
Professor R. H. Wilhelm

78 Views and Opinions
Final "Goals" Report, Max S. Peters

Why a Scholarship Program in Chemical
Engineering? Lloyd Berg

Industry Needs Scientific Engineers Not
Engineering Scientists, R. E. Lenz

84 The Classroom
A Graduate Course in Chemical Reactor
Engineering, J. J. Carberry

88 The Laboratory
An Inexpensive Laser Grating Interfero-
meter, J. F. Griffin and J. L. Throne

94 Book Reviews

95 News

95 Problems for Teachers

Feature Articles
66 Humanities and Social Science in Engi-
neering Curricula, C. A. Sleicher

70 Chemical Engineering Information and
Education, E. P. Bartkus

62 chemical _fi# wa&ta edeou'w f96 7
The Method of Matched Asymptotic Ex-
pansions, Andreas Acrivos


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Application
to mail at second-class postage rates is pending at Gainesville, Florida, and at
additional mailing offices. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and
changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32601.
Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives.
Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. O.
Painter Printing Co., 137 E. Wisconsin Ave., DeLand, Florida 32720. Subscription
rates are $3.00 per year in U.S.


SPRING, 1968








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50 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















from the EDITOR


The response to our first issue of CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING EDUCATION has been most
gratifying and beyond our expectations. We hope
you don't mind our printing some of the first
letters we have received from our readers. We
expect to receive and to print some less generous
ones later and want to get ahead while we can.
In accepting the congratulations of our read-
ers, the Editor once again wishes to acknowledge
the efforts of Professor Mack Tyner as Associate
Editor and Professor Robert Bennett, as Business
Manager. Both of these tasks are extremely ardu-
ous and time-consuming and all congratulatory
messages should most properly be addressed to
them and to Professor Wm. Corcoran and the
Publications Board members. Without the finan-
cial help they obtained from generous donors and
advertisers, this journal could not have been
published.
We are very pleased to be able to publish in
this issue an article by Professor Sleicher who
replies directly to the article by Mr. Wing in the


first issue. Such response and repart6 is en-
couraging and we hope it will continue.
At the same time we would like to appeal to
readers to submit for publication not only arti-
cles, but especially class problems and reviews of
books that have been tested in class. We feel
that one of the most useful purposes our Journal
can serve is to provide for an exchange of prob-
lems that has been used on examinations or as
home assignments. Due credit will of course be
given to the author. Similarly we believe other
faculty members would be interested in their
colleagues opinions of textbooks that have been
used in their courses.
The Editor is also solicitous of Guest Editor-
ials. He does not merely wish to use this journal
as a sounding board for his pet ideas on education.
This page and the journal, belong to all of you-
the teachers of chemical engineering throughout
the country; we hope you not only continue to
like it, but will also continue to respond with your
contributions in the form of articles, problems,
reviews, and opinions.


from the READERS

Congratulations on an excellent issue of CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING EDUCATION. I am certain that every-
one interested in the education of chemical engineers will
find this publication most useful. It is an important ad-
dition to the literature of the American Society for En-
gineering Education ....
M. R. Lohmann, Dean
Oklahoma State University
President of ASEE
This is an excellent presentation . The slick-page
presentation gives a very professional appearance to the
journal, and I certainly hope you will keep up the good
work on both the appearance and the contents of
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION.
Max S. Peters, Dean
University of Colorado
President, A.I.Ch.E.


Congratulations on a magnificent job of publishing
your first issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA-
TION. Not only is the magazine physically attractive,
but the editorial content is first-rate. I found the article
by Bird particularly interesting. The content seems to
be unusually well-balanced with something for everyone.
In general, the journal is exactly what I have been hoping
for in the last six years. ...
L. Bryce Andersen, Dean
Newark College of Engineering
Chairman, Chemical Engineering Div.
ASEE
Just great! Your first issue of CHEMICAL ENGI-
NEERING EDUCATION is outstanding, and I want to
congratulate you and all your associates at the University
of Florida for such a fine job. I know how much is in-
volved to make such a thing go, and I hope you will be
able to put it on a more routine basis so that it will be
a pleasure as well as a great professional contribution. ..
Wm. H. Corcoran, Executive Officer
California Institute of Technology


SPRING, 1968









What a beautiful job! Congratulations! I refer, of
course, to your first issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
EDUCATION....
Thanks for your kind editorial words-unnecessary, but
much appreciated. And accept, please, my continued best
wishes for a long, successful operation as editor. ...
S. A. Miller, Visiting Professor
University of California, Berkeley
S. I enjoyed reading Dr. Bird's article and the rest
of the issue. You are to be congratulated. . With best
regards.
R. W. Moulton, Chairman
University of Washington
I just wanted to drop you a note on the appearance
of the Winter edition of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
EDUCATION which I have just received. You and your
staff have done a remarkable job in making this into
a readable, worthwhile journal ....
Ralph A. Morgen
Dean of Graduate Studies
Stevens Institute of Technology
Congratulations upon the excellent edition of CHEMI-
CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION. Both you and your
staff are to be complimented for having created such an
excellent renaissance ....
J. T. Cumming, Chairman
Cleveland State University

Congratulations on the first issue of CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING EDUCATION. The final product looks
even better than the galley copy you showed me in St.
Louis. . .
George Burnet, Head
Iowa State University
Thank you for the copy of CHEMICAL ENGI-
NEERING EDUCATION which you sent to me recently.
You and your associates are to be congratulated in pro-
ducing a highly readable journal with a good balance of
educational, technical, and philosophical articles. And you
haven't ducked a little controversy to add spice. My very
best wishes to you in your continuing efforts to produce
a useful and worthwhile journal.
Glen A. Richardson
Vice President, Technical Divisions
ASEE

We . find it to be a very pleasing and attractive
publication. You and all other members of the staff are
to be congratulated for this impressive start on a new era
for CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION.
Dr. T. B. Metcalfe, Head
University of Southwestern Louisiana


Congratulations on an outstanding first issue of
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION. I am willing
to bet that this gets more thorough reading by chemical
engineering teachers than any other journal they take ....
J. J. Martin,
University of Michigan
You are to be complimented on this fine publication.
The nature of the articles in the first issue and proposed
departments for future issues are of vital interest in
chemical engineering education. Congratulations.
Michael A. Bobal
University of Dayton
Thank you very much for sending copies of Number 1,
Volume 2 to us. I have read it with considerable interest.
You are to be congratulated in undertaking a necessary
job and doing it in an admirable manner.
J. M. Smith, Chairman
University of California, Davis
Your first issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU-
CATION is fine. Both faculty and students here have been
favorably impressed. Keep up the good work. ...
James H. Weber, Prof. and Chairman
University of Nebraska
.. The first issue of CEE under your editorship was
a much welcomed addition to my collection of profes-
sional journals. It was a beautifully done job. I was
particularly thrilled to see my Alma Mater having the
lead-off article.
Marshall M. Lih,
Catholic University of America


Just a note of congratulations and
your effort with CEE, volume 2, number
a fine tone for the journal. ....
Robert E. C. Weaver
Tulane University


good wishes on
1. You have set


. Thank you very much for your kindness in the
article about myself. I got quite a kick out of it.
Joseph H. Koffolt, Chairman
Ohio State University

Please accept a Well Done from the fellows at Clemson
on your first issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
EDUCATION.
C. E. Littlejohn, Head
Clemson University

It's a nice issue. The format and printing are im-
pressive.
Robert J. Adler, Head
Case Western University


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















SIt is more important


to carryon research


OT than itis to pay


dends" The speaker was
I Lammot du Pont. The year was gloomy 1932, and he was
'i president of Du Pont. A proposal had been made to pare
Sthe research budgets in order to protect the dividend.
As it turned out, the company was strong enough to
pay for both, and it hasn't missed paying for either in the
past sixty years. But there was no doubt which way Lammot
du Pont would have decided back in 1932. And today, we
invest more than $100 million a year in the quest for new
knowledge and better products.
It is precisely this attitude towards research and
development that attracts so many graduates every year.
And that makes Du Pont such an exciting and rewarding
place to work.
There is no formal training period. Our men go into
responsible jobs from the first day.
They work in small groups where individual contribu-
tions are promptly recognized and rewarded. Promotions
come from within the company.
They do significant work of positive benefit to society.
And they work with the best men in their fields in a crackling
technical environment that provides every facility needed.
If our attitude towards research and work agrees with
yours, why not suggest that your students sign up for a talk
with a Du Pont recruiter? Or that they write our College
Relations Manager, Wilmington, Delaware 19898, for
additional information on opportunities in their fields.


SPRING, 1968 53









LO)fl Ndepartment


DREXEL


The Anthony J. Drexel Statue-framed by (left to
right) Matheson Hall College of Business Administration,
Disque Hall Science Tower and the modern Library Center.


D. R. COUGHANOWR, Head
A Bit of History
For most of its 76 years, Drexel has been
known primarily as an undergraduate institution
supplying industry in the East with a steady
stream of engineers. A capsule history of the In-
stitute will set the stage for a discussion of its
Chemical Engineering Department and the
changes which have occurred in it during the past
few years.
Drexel Institute of Technology, founded in
1891 by Anthony J. Drexel, Philadelphia financier
and philanthropist, was originally named the
Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and Industry.
It rapidly progressed to college status and granted
its first Engineering degrees in 1915. Today,
Drexel consists of five coeducational colleges: En-
gineering and Science, Business Administration,
Home Economics, the Graduate School of Library
Science, and the Evening College.
The Institute, which is located about one mile
from the heart of Philadelphia, is a next door
neighbor of the University of Pennsylvania. A
visit to the Main Building at 32nd and Chestnut,
which was completed in 1891, can be a pleasant
surprise to the visitor who will see from the stat-
uary and paintings surrounding the Great Hall
that the founder had a sincere desire to blend art,
science, and industry.


During recent years, an impressive building
program transformed the area into a modern,
well-landscaped campus which complements Phila-
delphia's redevelopment of Center City. The most
recent construction is a nine-story science build-
ing. A modern library building, which has an
excellent collection of scientific books and journ-
als, also is a "laboratory" for the Graduate School
of Library Science. The University City Science
Center, a cooperative venture among universities
and medical schools in the area to foster research,
provides a digital computing facility through a
time-shared system.
Today the enrollment of 11,000 students in-
cludes about 4,000 in the College of Engineering
and Science. Drexel's location in a metropolitan
and industrial area has helped make its coopera-
tive education program, in operation since 1919,
one of the largest in the U.S. The cooperative
program, which is required of all engineering stu-
dents, consists of a five year program in which
six terms are spent in industry and 12 terms in
college. The industrial part consists of 3 periods
of 2 terms each during the sophomore, junior and
pre-junior year. In general, industry is very
pleased with the co-op program and finds that
it adds considerable maturity to the student.
Teaching the upperclassmen who have had co-op
experience can also be maturing for the teachers,
for there is need to demonstrate that the theory
has relevance to real problems.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Ofi W


F:
r''


I NLONUr MaNU..UMT
Professors Coughanowr, Tallmadge, and Thygeson (left to right).


Drexel's Chemical Engineering Department


Last year (1966-67) there were awarded 34
BS degrees and 8 MS degrees. The total under-
graduate enrollment in Chemical Engineering cur-
rently is about 400 students, with a senior class of
50 members. Two years from now, a senior class
of 70 is expected. Chemical Engineering at Drexel
represents about 16% of the engineering enroll-
ment. The Department is one of the older depart-
ments of Chemical Engineering in the United
States, starting as a department of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering in the 1920's, and being
first accredited by ECPD in 1936. Dr. Frank
Fletcher, who was department Head from 1948 to
1963, is well remembered by alumni as a dedi-
cated teacher.
Dr. Charles Huckaba who was Head from
1963-1967 was instrumental in developing a new
undergraduate curriculum and in extending the
part-time MS program to a full-time MS program
in 1963 and a PhD program in 1966. Dr. D. R.


Coughanowr, who became Head in 1967 after
eleven years at Purdue, found a faculty of six
members who were enthusiastic about the new
developments. In spite of recent setbacks arising
from the increasing involvement in the Vietnam
War, such as tight budgets of governmental
granting agencies and the cancellation of graduate
student deferments, Drexel's faculty expect to
keep the research developing through what is
hoped to be a short period of uncertainty.
The commitment of the department to a doc-
toral program is a significant step, and the pro-
gram is now at a crucial stage at which its suc-
cess will depend to a great extent on the quality of
faculty and students. At this time doctoral pro-
grams have also been approved in Chemistry,
Physics, Applied Mechanics, Materials Engineer-
ing, Environmental Engineering and Science, Bio-
medical Engineering and Science, and Electrical
Engineering. As strength develops in other de-
partments and areas, PhD programs will be in-
itiated there too.


SPRING, 1968







Some words of justification seem to be in or-
der for initiating another doctoral program in
Chemical Engineering when there are now about
115 departments offering the doctoral degree.
One reason, which has been accepted rather
widely by many departments, is that a graduate
program is needed to attract the younger faculty
members who can keep the undergraduate pro-
gram up to date in a rapidly changing technology.
Whether or not a PhD program is needed to do
this is certainly open to debate, and industry has
been deeply concerned about the increasing frac-
tion of potential engineers who are siphoned off
for graduate work and eventual teaching.
I believe that a more pertinent reason for
offering the PhD here is that Drexel is in a loca-
tion which abounds in both chemical industry and
people desiring higher education. In the year
1966, colleges within a radius of 50 miles of
Philadelphia produced about six percent of the
national output of degrees in Chemical Engineer-
ing in each category of BS, MS, and PhD. In re-
lation to the number of chemical and petroleum
companies in this area, the educational opportuni-
ties seem to be in short supply. For those who
follow news of educational trends, it is no surprise
that the PhD output from public supported insti-
tutions now exceeds that of private institutions.
There has also been some neglect on the part
of many eastern states in providing support for
higher education. To pick one example, which is
familiar to the writer, the state appropriation per
capital for higher education in Pennsylvania is
about one-half that of Indiana. For this reason,
it is believed that both private and public institu-
tions have a responsibility to provide more edu-
cational facilities in the centers of population.

Undergraduate Program
Although considerable attention was given in
the previous paragraphs to the new graduate pro-
gram, it should be understood that the basic pol-
icy at Drexel is that of achieving a balance be-
tween teaching and research. All faculty mem-
bers are expected to teach both undergraduates
and graduates. An important qualification of the
Drexel faculty is good teaching.
The undergraduate curriculum in Chemical
Engineering is representative of a modern cur-
riculum and includes courses in thermodynamics,
unit operations, transport phenomena, kinetics,
control, and design. Early in the curriculum, all
students take common core courses in engineering


concepts, digital computer programming, and
basic thermodynamics. Analog computing is in-
troduced through courses in kinetics and control.
Two unique features of the Chemical Engi-
neering' curriculum worth mentioning are as-
sociated with the courses in laboratory and de-
sign. A systems engineering approach has been
used in organizing the second of the three labora-
tory courses in Chemical Engineering. The im-
plementation of this required a completely new
construction of equipment and modernization of
the laboratory space. The idea is to provide the
student with a process involving several inte-
grated unit operations. For example, one of these
integrated processes, which will be referred to as
the inorganic line, consists of a solids feeder,
mixer, evaporator, heat exchanger, filter, and
dryer; this train of equipment can be used to
demonstrate the separation of a soluble and in-
soluble salt. In addition to operating and testing
separately the individual pieces of equipment, the
student is able to see the inter-relationships which
exist between processing units. The inorganic
line which is well instrumented with transducers
and automatic controllers, also provides experi-
ments which involve dynamics testing and con-
troller tuning. A paper describing the inorganic
line will be presented at the Los Angeles ASEE
meeting in June. An organic line is also being
constructed which is capable of an esterification
process and includes a reactor-still, a distillation
column, and an extractor. This line provides ex-
amples of mass transfer operations and chemical
reaction not covered by the inorganic line.

. .the basic policy at Drexel is to achieve
a balance between teaching and research
. . An important qualification of the
Drexel faculty is good teaching . .

These integrated processes provide a valuable
extension to the experience acquired in the first
laboratory course which is concerned mainly with
bench-scale studies on transport phenomena. The
third course is much less rigid in that there are
no "canned" experiments to be done. The student
may select some particular part of the equipment
and do a more thorough study of its characteris-
tics. In this way, he gets some of the flavor of re-
search and development.
The design course, which is offered in the
senior year, has a unique factor which is partly
due to Drexel's location in an industrial com-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








munity. Three design engineers from local indus-
try are appointed as adjunct faculty to assist in
this course by giving some basic lectures and
special tutorial sessions to teams of students
working on specific design projects. This ap-
proach to design has worked very well and the
industrial contact gives added meaning and
timeliness to a course which often fades in other
schools.
Graduate Program
With the addition of the PhD program, the
potential for high-level research is at the door
step. The philosophy is to provide a balance be-
tween basic science-oriented research and engi-
neering applications. Major fields of current re-
search include process dynamics and control, fluid
mechanics of entrained films occurring in with-
drawal for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian
liquids, thermodynamics of mixtures, novel drying
systems, reaction kinetics, heat transfer, and
combustion.

Three design engineers from local industry
are appointed as adjunct faculty to assist
in the design course by giving some basic
lectures and special tutorial sessions to
teams of students working on specific
design projects.

The graduate courses are generally mathe-
matically oriented. Six of the courses, which are
considered core courses for all students, include
applied mathematics, thermodynamics, transport
I (viscous flow), transport II (turbulent flow),
systems engineering, and kinetics. These are
offered each year. Most of the other courses,
which generally are related to the research in-
terests of the faculty, are offered about every
other year. Areas of specialization not covered
by the present research interests of the Chemical
Engineering faculty are offered by other depart-
ments. For example, the Chemistry Department
has a very good sequence of courses in polymers,
which some of the graduate students elect. The
course requirements for an MS degree require a
total of 45 quarter-credit hours (30 semester-
credit hours) which includes 15 in Chemical En-
gineering, 6 in mathematics, 15 in electives, and
9 in thesis research. At the present time, all stu-
dents, part-time and full-time, are required to
write a thesis. All candidates for the PhD must
have course work equivalent to the MS require-


ments, but beyond this, specific course require-
ments are established by the candidate's doctoral
committee. A reading knowledge of one foreign
language is required of the PhD candidate.
There are currently about 30 part-time and
full-time graduate students in Chemical Engi-
neering, with three of the full-time students
working toward the PhD. A gradual decrease in
the number of part-time students during the past
several years has been balanced by an increase
in full-time students. About one-half of the grad-
uate courses are offered in the late afternoon and
evening to accommodate those employed by indus-
try. It is anticipated that the part-time program
will increase as those students no longer eligible
for deferment as graduate students select indus-
trial positions rather than full-time graduate
appointments.
Since the graduate program is so new, it is
considered wise to have a continuous evaluation
of its goals and accomplishments during the in-
itial phase of its growth. Suggestions are also
being examined which will provide unique pro-
grams that closely mesh with the research ac-
tivity of industry. For example, the proximity of
industrial plants and laboratories might afford
an ideal situation for the use of industrial scien-
tific facilities for highly specialized research. The
key to this approach is finding programs which
can lead to results which are relevant to indus-
try and which are suitable for publication in the
leading technical journals.

The Faculty
The current faculty of seven members have
all received their doctoral degrees in Chemical
Engineering. The list of faculty, along with the
universities from which they received their doc-
toral degrees, includes Donald R. Coughanowr
(University of Illinois), John A. Tallmadge (Car-
negie-Mellon University), Elihu D. Grossmann
(University of Pennsylvania), John R. Thygeson
(University of Pennsylvania), Robert A. Heide-
mann (Washington University), Lester S. Ker-
shenbaum (University of Michigan), and John
Marek (Illinois Institute of Technology). This
Spring, our first postdoctoral fellow, Dr. R. Bow-
rey, will arrive from Australia. Plans call for a
steady expansion of the faculty to twelve mem-
bers, and it is expected to recruit them from a
wide geographical area and from fields of speciali-
zation which can initiate new areas of research.
There is also an excellent opportunity for faculty


SPRING, 1968








members to engage in research projects sponsored
by the programs in Environmental and Biomedi-
cal Engineering. Since the teaching schedule is
light during the summer term, most of the faculty
spend this time on research at Drexel or in
industry.

The Alumni
As in many private schools, the alumni form
a strong link between the present and the past.
Many major industrial companies in the Phila-
delphia area have a high percentage of Drexel
graduates in their employment. For the readers
of this journal, a list of some of the Drexel
Alumni who have found their way into college
teaching might be of interest. These include Dr.
Herbert Toor, Head at Carnegie-Mellon; Dr.
Ralph Troupe, Head at Northeastern; Dr. Vincent
Uhl, Head at the University of Virginia; Dr.
Coleman Brosilow of Case-Western Reserve; Dr.
Charles Dryden (deceased) of Ohio State; Dr.
Joseph Estrin of Clarkson; Dr. Elihu Grossmann
of Drexel; Dr. Richard Sasin of Drexel (Chemis-
try) ; Dr. John Thygeson of Drexel; and Dr.
Robert Wagner of Worcester Polytechnic Insti-
tute. Many other alumni hold responsible po-
sitions in industry and government.
Some interesting differences between a large
state university and a private school have come to
my attention. For example, the enrollment of a
state school seems almost unlimited. A private
school, on the other hand, can soon be in financial
difficulty by taking more students than the exist-
ing physical plant can absorb. This is especially
true in cities where land is scarce and costs are
high. The policy at Drexel at this time is to main-
tain the undergraduate enrollment at its present
level. The growth of the full-time graduate pro-
gram does not have any ceiling at present since
the question is somewhat premature. However,
it is necessary that this growth be accompanied
by outside financial support. One cannot justify,
nor long maintain, subsidizing graduate work
with undergraduate tuition. However, this does
not preclude the seeding of new areas, which has
been generously done at Drexel. At the under-
graduate level, there is no question of the staff
needs for teaching; however, at the graduate level,
the research activity will depend to a large extent
on outside financial support. Ideally, the faculty
should spend about equal time on teaching and re-
search. Since the normal teaching load here is 12
credits, this means that the teacher with the ideal


The growth of the full-time graduate
program does not have any ceiling at
present . It is necessary that this growth
be accompanied by outside financial
support. One cannot justify, nor long
maintain, subsidizing graduate work with
undergraduate tuition . this does not
preclude the seeding of new areas, which
has been generously done at Drexel.


mixture of teaching and research would teach
about two courses per term.
In closing, I should like to touch upon a prob-
lem which has gained a lot of national attention,
namely student unrest over their place on the
totem pole of academic priorities: teaching and
research. Students and some teachers often look
upon the development of a graduate program, es-
pecially at a school which has been primarily as-
sociated with undergraduate education, as a
threat to their importance. I believe that Chemi-
cal Engineering has escaped some of the accusa-
tions reported in other disciplines, such as gradu-
ate student instructors, large sections, etc. Some
reasons for this include its small size relative to
other branches of engineering and the fact that
there are few service courses to teach to students
of other departments. These are also some of
the reasons one uses to explain the high cost per
student contact hour that shows up on administra-
tors' lists of comparative teaching costs. Part of
my answer to students' doubt about a developing
graduate program is that more attention will be
given to them rather than less. Rather than fewer
faculty teaching them, there will be more. As
more teachers with a wider spectrum of research
interests join the faculty, there is the opportunity
to teach more courses, some of which are electives
in their field of specialization.
In this brief discussion, considerable time has
been spent discussing Drexel as a background of
its Chemical Engineering Department. The basic
reason for this is that many of the progressive
changes, especially those associated with the grad-
uate program, are tied directly to the general pol-
icy of the Institute. It is hoped that this article
has shown that Drexel's development of graduate
work in other disciplines, such as Chemistry and
Physics, and the fostering of good libraries and
computing facilities will enhance the development
of Chemical Engineering.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




That Shell has a reputation
for constant pursuit of excellence
in research and operations,
and for growth in diverse fields,
is indicated by this fact:
In each of the past two years,
about 10 per cent
of all graduating
PhD chemical engineers
available for work in U.S. industry
have elected to join
the Shell Companies.

SPRING, 1968 59









educator
This feature article on Professor R. H.
Wilhelm, of Princeton University was sub-
mitted by anonymous friends of CEE who
treasure a total of 37 man-years of
Wilhelm-watching.
Nearly ten years ago Princeton's School of
Engineering was being visited by an inspection
team from the Ford Foundation prior to that
Foundation's decision to award a sizeable sum
of money for development of the Engineering
School. Part of the inspection included an in-
formal discussion between the visitors and sev-
eral of the younger faculty of the Department.
In response to a rather general question con-
cerning the attributes of the Chairman of the
Department of Chemical Engineering, one of the
faculty offered the statement, "I have never
known a man of his age and with his administra-
tive responsibilities who so consistently launches
truly creative ideas in science and technology."
That description of Professor Richard H. Wil-
helm, Chairman of the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Princeton University, is as valid
today as it was in 1959. Whether he is attempting
to rejuvenate a tired and stalled committee or
the mind of an apathetic graduate student,
Dick's approach is marked by these characteris-
tics: Recall several similar (but not identical)
situations from past experience, carry them into
an entirely different context, mold the ingredients
together with a novel new idea, and produce a
policy, a piece of apparatus, or an explanation
that no one else would have thought of for at least
five years. The results may be as diverse as a
new curriculum combining engineering and public
affairs, or a new technique for separating mix-
tures, dubbed by its inventor "Parametric Pump-
ing." (Those interested in the latest installment
describing this remarkable tool are referred to
page 522 of the February 2, 1968, issue of
Science.) It is characteristic that Dick is now
busy with application of the parametric pumping
principle to problems of active transport in bio-
logical systems.
Over the years Dick Wilhelm has maintained
that a sound education in engineering fundamen-
tals comprised the best foundation for both the
future company executive and the future scholar.
Examination of the positions now held by De-
partmental alumni, both in management and re-
search shows that the results from a curricu-


DICK WILHELM


of PRINCETON




lum based upon this philosophy make it a difficult
one to refute. The population of "Wilhelm
Ph.D.'s" in Chemical Engineering faculties all
over the country is well known, and their pro-
ductivity attests to the contagiousness of Dick's
enthusiasm for new research ideas. Perusal of
1967 issues of A.I.Ch.E. Journal showed an
average of 11/2 papers per issue authored by
former Wilhelm students. No less than eight of
the major awards of the A.I.Ch.E. have been
accumulated by Dick and two of his most dis-
tinguished former students.
From the picture presented above one could
infer that being in the presence of Dick is a bit
similar to standing in close proximity to a tire-
lessly bubbling pot that is constantly active and
frequently overflowing with ideas. This picture is
not entirely wrong. However, the longer one
observes Dick the more firmly one concludes that
any simple description of his personality and
mode of action is bound to be seriously in error.
He has a system of built-in checks and balances
that serve to give him an overall personality of
careful deliberateness. He views each product of
his efforts as a contribution that should have
permanent value. It is a cause of occasional cha-
grin of coworkers with him on committees that
the criterion of permanence is applied as seriously
to committee memoranda as it is to scientific
papers.
Dick's students will describe the labor that
went into every phrase of any paper that they
coauthored with him. They will tell you how,
after the nth draft, their mentor would say, "Now
we'll go over it again and go on a 'the' hunt to
remove each unnecessary article." He constantly
views his writing, and that of his students, from
the standpoint of the reader. No student of re-
cent years will get a thesis approved without
what Dick has coined a "Congressman statement."
Translated, this means a paragraph that will
render the essence of the thesis intelligible to any
nontechnical but interested reader.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

















. the primary function of the university
is to teach and its most important focus
of education should be on the under-
graduate.


The evolution of Princeton's current under-
graduate curriculum is an excellent example of
the way in which Dick's combination of creativity
and deliberation has worked to the advantage of
those under his influence. A fundamental corner-
stone in Dick's educational philosophy has been
that the primary function of the university is
to teach and that its most important focus of
education should be on the undergraduate. There-
fore, when the Department undertook to revise its
undergraduate curriculum, he applied the twin
techniques of analysis and synthesis that he has
used so successfully in his research. Rather than
consider each course individually, making what-
ever changes seemed appropriate, Dick began
with the premise that no courses existed in their
own right. The faculty sat down and deliberated
on what the total content of a four-year program
should be. This was done in a very detailed man-
ner, keeping in mind that while many students
do choose to continue their technical education
through graduate study, others upon graduation
go to schools of business administration or enter
industry directly.
When the complete outline was obtained, the
faculty was divided into teams of two or three,
each having the charge to discuss one phase of
the subject matter, e.g., physics, with the ap-
propriate service department. These teams then
reported to the faculty as a whole which of the
various topics in the basic outline seemed ade-
quately covered elsewhere, and which would have


to be supplemented by departmental instruction.
These topics were then interleaved with the
subjects of a professional nature, some were noted
as essential and others of a suitable elective na-
ture, and then the whole program was restruc-
tured into separate courses which, taken in their
proper order, would provide the student with a
logical and organized program of study.
This process took over two years, but it re-
sulted in a program which experience proved to
be highly satisfactory. However, even as this
job was being finished, a program of continuing
review was established so that the curriculum
would maintain its high calibre.
One would expect that a person with the en-
thusiasm and ability of Dick Wilhelm would be
sought after for many consulting assignments and
would be the recipient of numerous awards and
other honors. Such is indeed the case with Dick,
as a glance at "Who's Who in America" will
verify. But these achievements have had an im-
pact far greater than the sum of individual accom-
plishments because of Dick's desire that his ideas
have an impact upon people. That wish may be
the real key to his success with students, whether
they be at the postdoctoral or undergraduate
level. Because of his concern for the interaction
between ideas and people he could be justly de-
scribed in an accolade from the town of Princeton
as a "humanist in engineering." In these halls
that is an appellation not lightly bestowed.


SPRING, 1968









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AWARD LECTURE 1967



The Method of

Matched Asymptotic Expansions*




ANDREAS ACRIVOS
Department of Chemical Engineering
Stanford University
Stanford, Calif. 94305


T HE METHOD of matched asymptotic expansions
is a mathematical technique which deals with
the solution of differential equations containing
a small parameter e. To begin, let us consider the
nonlinear system
dy
dt + y + y =0 t > 0 (1)
with y = 1 at t = 0. The exact solution is simply

t In y (2)
y(1 e) ))
but, for purposes of this discussion, we shall sup-
pose that this exact answer is not available. Thus,
to develop a solution for small e we need to make
use of an approximate technique.
Clearly, one logical way of proceeding would
be to assume that y is analytic in e and to expand
the unknown solution in the series
o0
y = En y (t) ,yo(0) = 1, y(0) = 0 n 1, (3)
n=0
with the functions y (t) assumed independent of
e. By substituting eq. (3) into eq. (1) and
equating like powers of E, we then easily obtain
the system of linear equations:
dyo dy2
do + yo = 0 d y -+,02 etc.,
dt dt
the first of which yields
yo = e-t (4)
The technique just described is known as a
regular perturbation expansion. Although ap-
*Presented at the Annual Meeting of ASEE, June
19-22, 1967 for the ASEE Distinguished Lectureship
Award, sponsored by the 3M Company.


plicable to a number of problems for which eq.
(3) converges for E sufficiently small, regular
perturbation solutions are rarely very exciting
from a practical point of view because here the
effects of the terms containing e are small every-
where provided that E < < 1. Hence, problems
that are amenable to this technique can generally
be simplified without much loss of accuracy by
merely setting e 0 in the basic equation and
solving what is left. For example, for e = 0.1,
values of y computed from eq. (4), which satis-
fies eq. (1) with E = 0, are within about 10%o
of those calculated from the exact solution, eq.
(2), throughout the interval 0 < t < oo.
On the other hand, let us take a look at the
system


dy
Sdt- y = e-t, t 2 0


with y = 0 at t = 0, the exact solution to which is
1
S{ e-t e-t/} (6)

Here, a regular perturbation expansion will fail
miserably for, if we proceed as before and make
use of eq. (3), we obtain not eq. (6), but rather

y= (1+E + E2+...)e-t= 1 e-t (7)
"" -- --E

which is identical to the first term of the exact
solution. We can clearly see then that, in this
simple example, no matter how small the value
of E there will always exist an interval 0 <
t O(E), within which the true solution and
that derived from a regular perturbation series
will differ by 0(1). In particular, had we been


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








interested in the slope at t = 0, the use of eq. (7)
would have given us a value of -1/(1 E), in
total disagreement with the exact answer 1/E.

THE FAILURE OF the regular perturbation ex-
pansion, when applied to the second example,
is of course not surprising since, by substituting
eq. (3) into eq. (5), we have effectively reduced
a first order ordinary differential equation into a
set of algebraic equations the solution to which
is independent of the imposed initial condition.
Hence, the regular perturbation series cannot
represent in general a uniformly valid approxi-
mation to the true solution even as E -4 0, and
must in fact cease to apply when the origin,
t = 0, is approached. Moreover, in contrast to
our first problem, we can see that here the term
containing E is no longer of secondary importance,
in that its presence has an essential bearing on
the form of the solution near the origin.
It is then with problems of the second type,
which are not amenable to the regular pertur-
bation expansion, that the method of matched
asymptotic expansions is concerned. Its basic
features are as follows:
Again, returning to eq. (5), we recognize that,
near the origin, the term edy/dt must be re-
tained in the differential equation if the solution
y is to satisfy the initial condition. This means
that, for E -> 0, the term dy/dt must become
O(1/e) near t = 0, if the product Edy/dt is to
remain finite. In turn, this suggests the substitu-
tion T t/E, in terms of which eq. (5) becomes
dy
dt y = e-" = 1 1/2 (r)2 + . (8)
Thus, provided that er (or, conversely, t) is small,
we can obtain a solution to eq. (8) of the form
oo
y = Y En Yn (7) (9)
n=0
in which the individual terms yn(7) are now
functions of T and do not depend explicitly on E.
Substitution of eq. (9) into eq. (8), together with
the initial condition, results then in
y= 1-e- e(r- +e-) ... (10)
Thus, for the problem at hand, we have de-
veloped two solutions, eqs. (7) and (10), which
hold, respectively, within the two different ranges
of the variable t, t > 0(E), and t< 0(1). Of
these, eq. (7) termed the "outer" solution behaves
properly as t -- oo, whereas the "inner" solution,
eq. (10), satisfies the initial condition at t = 0.


In addition, since eqs. (7) and (10) are, pre-
sumably, different expansions in E of the same
function, i.e. the exact solution, they should match
in some overlap region in which both expansions
are valid, provided of course that such an overlap
region exists. In the present problem, for ex-
ample, we require that the "outer" solution, as
t 0, match with the "inner" solution, as
T -> oo, (note that for any given t < < 1, T can be
made arbitrarily large by taking E sufficiently
small!) up to the order of the approximation. To
demonstrate this, we expand the outer solution in
t and e so that, up to and including terms of
0(E),

= (1+E...) (1-t+ ...)
= 1- E(1-- r) O(e2)
which, to O(e2), is seen to agree exactly with the
limit of eq. (10) as 7 -> oo. In fact, by appro-
priately expanding the two solutions, we can
easily demonstrate that these two will match ex-
actly up to all orders in E.
Before turning to a few examples of physical
interest, let us consider briefly the slightly more
complicated system
d2y dy
E dy dt + y=0 t > 0 (11)

with initial conditions y = 0, dy/dt = 1 at t = 0.
Here, the first term of the outer solution is ob-
viously


y = Ae-t


(12)


where the constant of integration A remains, for
the moment, unspecified. (Note that it would have
been erroneous to determine A from either initial
condition since the origin t = 0 is located outside
the region of validity of the outer solution, eq.
(12) !). The inner solutions on the other hand,
which of course must satisfy both initial con-
ditions, is obtained by noting that near t = 0,
d2y/dt2is O (1/), dy/dt is 0(1) and y is O(e),
so that, with r = t/e,
y = E1- -'c }+ O(e2)
The two solutions will then match, in the sense
described above, if A in eq. (12) is set equal to E.
This last example is meant to illustrate one
very important and useful property of the
matching requirement. That is, in addition to
providing us with some confidence regarding the
validity of the expansions, the matching condi-
tion allows us to determine uniquely the arbi-


SPRING, 1968








trary constants that generally appear in both
solutions. Admittedly, this is not clear from the
previous two examples, but, in general, an outer
solution will contain arbitrary constants because
it cannot satisfy any imposed conditions at t = 0,
whereas an inner solution will also involve ad-
justable constants, since it cannot be applied at
t = oo; thus, the fact that the two solutions are
required to join smoothly within the overlap
region provides us then with the additional re-
strictions from which these constants can be
evaluated unambiguously.


APPLICATIONS


THE METHOD, as outlined above, has found
numerous applications in various areas of
chemical engineering, but, for the purposes of
this discussion, we shall consider briefly only
three physical examples which illustrate different
aspects of the technique.

I. Improving the Quasi-Steady State Approximation
in Chemical Kinetics.
The quasi-steady state approximation (QSSA)
has occupied a prominent role in chemical ki-
netics ever since its inception by Bodenstein in
1924. As is well-known, its use can often result
in a substantial simplification of the overall ki-
netic expression without much loss in accuracy.
Nevertheless, there are a number of problems re-
quiring a refinement to the QSSA. This can be
accomplished in a straightforward manner using
the methods of matched asymptotic expansions
(1).
Consider the simple kinetic scheme
k, k,
A--- I B--
in which A is the reactant, B the product, and I
the intermediate. Let [A] be the concentration
of A with [A]o being its initial value. Then, if

z [A] [I] k ,t
[A] E[A]o' k2
with t being the time, the basic equations become
dz
d -= z; z(0) 1
dO
and

E dy z-y; y(0) =0

Clearly, z = e-" and, therefore,


d +y = e-e ; y(0) = 0

which is seen to be identical with eq. (5). Here,
the QSSA is given by y = e- which, as shown
above, can easily be refined by appropriate ex-
pansion in E.
In fact, as shown in references (1 and 2), this
method of matched asymptotic expansions can be
applied with ease to systems having a large va-
riety of kinetic schemes, thereby extending still
further the usefulness of the QSSA.

II. Low Reynolds Number Flow Past Stationary
Objects.
A classical problem in fluid mechanics is to
determine the drag on a stationary object which
is immersed in a uniform stream. In principle,
this force can be computed from the solution of
the Navier-Stokes equations


1
u vu= -vp-f-+ V2u
R


(13)


u = i at infinity, u = 0 on the surface of the
object, where R is the appropriate Reynolds num-
ber. However, in view of the non-linearity of
eq. (13), an exact solution is generally impossible
to obtain unless R is either very large or very
small.
For R -> 0 it appears logical to neglect the
inertia terms in eq. (13), thus reducing the sys-
tem to the linear equation


A A
Vpv 2u, p = pR


(14)


for which general methods of solution are avail-
able (3). In fact, for objects of finite size, the
solution of eq. (14), u = Uo, results in an expres-
sion for the drag coefficient which is in agree-
ment with experimental measurements as long as
R is sufficiently small; but, any attempt to con-
struct a solution to eq. (13) by means of a regular
perturbation expansion of the form


U = uo + R ul + ...


(15)


is doomed to failure, because, far from the ob-
ject, the "Stokes" solution Uo no longer repre-
sents a uniformly valid approximation to the true
solution u. Therefore, as shown by Proudman and
Pearson (4), the small R solution of eq. (13)
must be constructed within the framework of the
method of matched asymptotic expansions in a
way such that an inner solution, eq. (15), is joined
properly to the solution of an appropriate "outer"
equation in which both the inertia and viscous


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








terms are of comparable magnitude. A feature of
interest here is that the proper inner expansion
contains logarithmic terms in R so that, for flow
past a solid sphere, the expression for the drag
coefficient becomes


CD 67r 1 +
R


3 R 9 RJInR + O0(R2-)
8 40 n


in which the first term corresponds to Stokes'
law.
A qualitatively similar result also applies for
the analogous problem of heat transfer from an
isothermal sphere to a fluid in Stokes flow (5).

III. Laminar Boundary Layer Theory.
The goal of laminar boundary layer theory
is to describe laminar flow at high values of the
Reynolds number R in which the viscous terms
of eq. (13) are generally negligible except in
regions of high shear. To derive the boundary
layer equations for a two-dimensional flow we
proceed as follows:
Let co be the component of vorticity in a di-
rection normal to the plane of flow. The equations
of motion can then be expressed as (6)


1
u v =--
R


This is admittedly a very incomplete presen-
tation of the method of matched asymptotic ex-
pansions which is described in much more com-
prehensive detail in references (1, 2, 4, and 5) as
well as in a recent book (7). It is hoped, though,
that the examples which have been presented
above have served to illustrate some of the salient
features of this technique, which is quickly be-
ginning to emerge as a mathematical tool of
great power, versatility, and usefulness in many
diverse areas of chemical engineering.

REFERENCES
1. Bowen, J. R., A. Acrivos and A. K. Oppenheim,
Chem. Eng. Sci. 18, 177 (1963).
2. Heineken, F. G., H. M. Tsuchiya and R. Aris,
Mathematical Biosciences 1, 95 (1967).
3. Happel, J. and H. Brenner, "Low Reynolds Number
Hydrodynamics," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,
1965.
4. Proudman, Ian and J.R.A. Pearson, J. Fluid Mech.
2, 237 (1957).
5. Acrivos, A. and T. D. Taylor, Phys. Fluids 5, 387
(1962).
6. Schlichting, H., "Boundary Layer Theory," 4th ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.
7. Van Dyke, M., "Perturbation Methods in Fluid
Mechanics," Academic Press, New York, 1964.


V') ,


so that, if the viscous terms are neglected in the
limit R oo,
u v o =o 0, which implies o = .( )
where 4 is the streamfunction. In other words,
in an inviscid region the vorticity o remains con-
stant along a streamline, but, since for a station-
ary solid in a uniform stream, all the stream-
lines originate at infinity where co = 0, we can
immediately conclude that the inviscid or outer
region must be everywhere irrotational. In view
of what has been said in connection with eq. (5),
however, we would expect the irrotational solution
to break down near the solid surface since, owing
to the production of vorticity, ao cannot vanish
identically near the solid walls. Hence, there must
exist an inner region near the surface where
1
R v2o is 0 (1), which in turn leads to the result
that the thickness of the boundary layer must be
0 (R-1/2). From here on, it is an easy matter to
complete the derivation of the boundary layer
equations (6) which, as is well known, are es-
sential for determining rates of momentum, heat
and mass transfer in laminar high Reynolds num-
ber flows.


Dr. Andreas Acrivos was born in Greece in 1928. He
has degrees in chemical engineering from Syracuse Uni-
versity (B.S.) and from University of Minnesota (M.S.
and Ph.D.). Since 1962 he has taught chemical engi-
neering at Stanford University. His research interests
include application of mathematics to chemical engineering
problems and both experimental and theoretical work in
fluid dynamics.


SPRING, 1968












HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE

IN ENGINEERING CURRICULA



CHARLES A. SLEICHER
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105


Prof. Ralph H. Wing's suggestion in a recent
paper4 that the entire humanities requirement be
eliminated from engineering curricula must have
astounded many a reader. In this technological
era the suggestion is unwise at best and dangerous
at worst; an alternative philosophy is offered in
this paper.
The growing influence of engineers in the de-
cisions of industry and government is a result of
society's increasing dependence on science and
technology for its very survival. Engineers are
and will remain links between science and so-
ciety. It is the engineers who, constrained by eco-
nomics, use the findings of science to transform
raw materials into the bewildering variety of
necessities and luxuries that characterize our
modern technological society. In this role the
engineer contacts society at many levels and
makes decisions which, directly or indirectly, af-
fect the nature of the society. Wisdom in making
these decisions cannot be achieved without the
kind of perspective and values that education in
the humanities and social sciences is intended to
provide.
The engineer who fails to appreciate human
values may become a mere technological servant
of those in society who make the important de-
cisions. When devoid of sensitivity to human
needs, the engineer is relegated to the role of hired
hand. But this is not the role most of us want.
As engineers we wish to be involved in society in
a fundamental and intimate way. We must, then,
cultivate values; our judgments and decisions
must be illuminated by the whole record of human
experience and not alone by the record of our
own profession.
To provide principles upon which to build a
course of studies in the humanities and social
sciences for engineers, it is first desirable to in-


quire into the nature of the society 10 to 30 years
from now during which current undergraduates
will be most influential. Although the uncertainty
of such predictions is notorious, several charac-
teristics of this future society seem both likely
and relevant. First, over the next 30 years it ap-
pears certain that our society will be character-
ized by rapid change. It has been estimated that
90 percent of all the scientists who have ever
lived are alive today. What technological revolu-
tions will they precipitate in 20 years? What
changes will these revolutions induce in our po-
litical and social- institutions? And what of the
many other pressures that are straining the fabric
of our society? Surely, any plan of education for
engineers in the humanities and social sciences
must be made with a rapidly changing world in
mind.
A second characteristic of the future society
is that its primary problems will not be techno-
logical. The society will be a highly technological
one in which the cybernetics revolution, now un-
derway, is like to precipitate fundamental
changes, but most of the technology necessary
for these changes is already known. Many of the
remaining technological problems will have been
overcome, and though others will remain, the
paramount problems will be nontechnological in
nature. Many of them will concern the effect of
technology on people and how best to direct tech-
nological advances toward the betterment of so-
ciety, and so engineers will become involved with
them.
Finally, in the near future there will be even
greater population concentrations than exist now.
They will generate problems of enormous magni-
tude, which engineers, in consort with people from
other professions, will be called upon to attack.
A subset of these problems of particular concern


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























Dr. Sleicher did his undergraduate work at Brown
University and in 1944 left to join the U.S. Submarine
Service. He obtained an MS in Chemical Engineering
Practice from M.I.T. and a PhD in 1955 from the Univer-
sity of Michigan. After spending the subsequent four
years with the Shell Development Company, he went to
the University of Cambridge for a year under a NSF
Postdoctoral Fellowship. Since 1960, he has been at the
University of Washington, where his teaching and re-
search have been largely in the areas of heat transfer
and fluid mechanics.



to engineers will be the development of a new
approach to the use of the world's resources.
Natural resources exist in limited quantities, and
former extravagant uses that depleted them and
then moved on to unexploited areas will have to
give way to new forms of action based on opti-
mum conservation of and service from the re-
sources available. The implications of these
trends cannot be ignored in considering the edu-
cation of engineers, whose conception of society
will influence significantly the kind of society we
will have in the next 50 years.


Humanities and Social Sciences in
Engineering Education

Of the many papers and reports that have
dealt in whole or in part with humanities curric-
ula for engineers, one of the best and most time-
less is the "Burdell Report"' In it we are warned
of three dangers in defining the objectives (func-
tions) of education in the humanities and social
sciences:
1. The danger of defining them too narrowly.
2. The danger of defining them too super-
ficially.
3. The danger of defining them too ambi-
tiously.


The greatest danger is probably the last,
about which the report goes on to say:
"Implied in some of the glowing statements the
committee has examined is a faith that a few
courses in the humanities and social sciences can
provide health and emotional adjustment, personal
and social success, clarity of thought, moral in-
tegrity, civic responsibility, aesthetic sensitivity,
professional vision, and in general a kind of seren-
ity and wisdom we had thought was reserved for
Providence alone. The objectives which some
schools profess to accomplish in courses involving
twenty-one to twenty-four semester hours would
appear to rival, or even to outstrip, what might be
expected from a full four-year liberal arts program.
The committee doubts that grandiose statements of
good intention serve any very useful educational
purpose. On the contrary, they are likely to lead
either into self-deception, or into frustration and
disillusionment."
Earlier in the Burdell Report there is given
the much-quoted list of objectives that appeared
in the "Hammond Report."3 That list is an ex-
ample of one whose usefulness is limited by vir-
tue of being so ambitious-even for a four-year
liberal arts college. Here we suggest a set of ob-
jectives that are relevant to many engineering
curricula and realistic enough to be of use.
We begin by giving two objectives which are
not relevant to our purpose because they are
based on misconstrued values. First, the develop-
ment of specific skills with emphasis on the im-
mediately useful should not be confused with the
goals of the humanities and social sciences. Such
subjects as report writing, accounting, finance,
speech, and elementary foreign languages, while
valuable in their own right, should not be per-
mitted to obscure the more vital goals of general
education.
Second, the molding of a "well-rounded" grad-
uate is a false goal. The Burdell Report puts this
pungently:
"Perhaps even less defensible is the view which
regards the humanities and social sciences as a
cultural veneer designed to make the engineer ac-
ceptable in polite society .. From this standpoint,
literature and the arts are primarily conversation
pieces, or aids to smoother family and social re-
lations since they give the engineer something to
talk about besides transistors, strain computations,
and fluid flow."
Turning now to the positive side, we list below
four goals which are consistent with the broad
role of the engineer in tomorrow's world and
which we should strive for in our undergraduate
curricula.


SPRING, 1968









The engineer who fails to appreciate human values may
become a mere technological servant of those in society who
make the important decisions . . As engineers we wish to
be involved in society in a fundamental and intimate way ....


1. The development of values. The prime
objective of the humanities is to develop sensi-
tivity to and understanding of such enduring
values as justice, freedom, goodness, truth, and
beauty. Only by forming a considered hierarchy
of values does the individual have reference points
which allow him to be discriminating in his
judgments, to make choices among alternatives.
Often decisions seem to be made on a technical
basis alone, but as often as not value judgments
are really involved. Moreover, we hope that en-
gineers will be consulted on many non-techno-
logical problems, especially those of the effect of
technology on people, and here too value judg-
ments must be made. The engineer has a responsi-
bility to make these judgments from as sound a
base as that on which he makes the purely techni-
cal decisions. These judgments may necessitate
moral inquiry, about which engineers tend to be
casual or even contemptuous. It is time we recog-
nize the impact of our profession on the lives of
others and, therefore, the importance of values.
2. The learning of some of the best thought
and the wisdom of the past so that the graduate
will be better able to judge contemporary thought.
3. An awareness of the evolution and impor-
tant characteristics of society so that the gradu-
ate may better understand his role in society and
the influence upon it that he and his fellow scien-
tists and engineers will come to exert.
4. A respect for learning and for creativity in
non-technical fields. This objective would neces-
sitate at least a rudimentary knowledge of the
nature and function of some of the principal dis-
ciplines outside of engineering.
The by-products of the above objectives are
many and would include some listed as objectives
in other studies, i.e., development of qualities of
citizenship and leadership and of interest and
pleasure in learning so that the graduate may lead
a satisfying personal life.

Some Principles to Guide Implementation of Objectives
The "Grinter Report"2 as well as others before
it, recommended that about 20% of engineering


curricula be devoted to the humanities and social
sciences. Since then several successive committees
appointed by the American Society of Engineering
Education have recommended that the figure of
20% be regarded as a minimum. Given the role,
alluded to earlier, that our young engineers will
play in society, this fraction of the curriculum
does not seem unreasonable.
All teachers recognize the value of motivation
in learning, and one way of aiding motivation of
engineering undergraduates is to make available
to them a wide range of electives in the humani-
ties and social sciences. On the other hand, there
should be some degree of interrelationship of non-
technical courses in order to avoid a smorgasbord
approach to intellectual nourishment, for such an
approach would do no more than provide a means
to achieve the cultural veneer so disparaged in the
Burdell Report. The manner and extent of inter-
relationship would have to be developed to fit the
needs and resources of each institution.
The most important objective, the develop-
ment of values, is also most difficult to achieve.
A sense of values cannot be achieved by a direct
educational attack; rather it grows and develops
over a period of time as a result of a mixture of
judiciously selected subject matter, enthusiastic
teachers, extra-curricular experience, and some-
times the happenstance of a particular friend or
book. The subject matter should be chosen with
this in mind. It should be chosen to unsettle the
student upon occasion and to force him or stimu-
late him to examine his values. Introductory
courses for majors are sometimes inadequate to
this end because they have a wholly different
objective-that of preparing the student for fur-
ther study in the field, with the assumption that
the values of the discipline will be implicit in sub-
sequent work in the field. On the other hand, in-
troductory courses for non-majors, if they are
well-designed and well-taught, and in the right
field, can serve this end.
Disciplines which traditionally have been re-
lied upon to develop values are English literature,
philosophy, history, and anthropology. Of course,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










When a teacher of engineering disparages the humanities or
demeans the fanciful and beautiful, he may quench the spark
that leads a student to the examined life.


some courses in other disciplines also serve this
end, and not all courses in the four listed disci-
plines are value oriented-logic and physical an-
thropology, for example. In any case, it is rea-
sonable to suggest that any humanities require-
ment include a substantial fraction, say 50%, of
courses that are value-oriented.
It should be added that because of the strin-
gent restrictions on time in undergraduate curri-
cula, every effort should be made to encourage
wide use of educational cultural activities outside
the curriculum. Speakers, plays, concerts, and
some student groups offer opportunities for the
expansion of intellectual horizons. A continuing
program of stimulation to take advantage of these
opportunities is required, however, and should be
made meaningful by relating it to individual in-
terests as well as formal instruction wherever
possible.

The Program at the University of Washington
Undergraduates in chemical engineering at
the University of Washington are required to
take 36 quarter hours (19+% of the 187 total
required for graduation) of humanities and so-
cial science. Of these, 6 hours of freshman Eng-
lish are required. (These are writing courses
based upon literature readings.) The remaining
30 are electives, but they must include at least
on 9 to 15 hour sequence chosen from a list of
sequences each of which is value oriented.
The remaining elective hours can be chosen
from any of the departments of humanities and
social sciences as well as a few from other de-
partments-biomedical history, for example. On
the other hand, some courses in the humanities
and social sciences are excluded on the grounds
that they contribute little to the objectives given
earlier. Thus Introductory Psychology is per-
mitted, but Statistical Methods in Psychology,
though it can be taken by a student, cannot be
included among the 30 non-technical electives.
Other courses that cannot be included are logic,
accounting, elementary language, and technically-
oriented courses in architecture.


Coda
In closing, it should be stressed that whether
a humanities program in engineering will be
effective or not depends upon the attitude of the
engineering faculty and the atmosphere to which
the student is exposed. In the Burdell Report we
read. "Perhaps it is not too far-fetched to say
that the college environment conditions the young
man in the same way that the home environment
conditioned his emotional development as a child.
In both instances, the basic attitudes of those
around him are communicated indirectly, by sub-
tle signs and clues dropped in the course of con-
ducting quite ordinary affairs. If the engineering
faculty are to hope for a maximum return from
the time invested in a humanistic-social program,
they must help provide a climate for opinion con-
genial to all serious intellectual inquiry." The
point is a good one. When a teacher of engineer-
ing disparages the humanities or demeans the
fanciful and beautiful, he may quench the spark
that leads a student to the examined life. If a
sense of values, evolved from such examination,
can be achieved by our students, perhaps they will
manage the nation's problems better than their
elders have done. Let us give them that chance.

Literature Cited

1. Burdell, E. S., "General Education in Engineering."
A Report of the Humanistic-Social Research Project. The
American Society for Engineering Education, 1956. Also,
J. of Eng. Ed. 46, 619 (1956).
2. Grinter, L. E., Chairman, "Report of the Committee
on Evaluation of Engineering Education." The American
Society for Engineering Education, June 15, 1956.
3. Hammond, H. P., Chairman, "Report of Committee
on Aims and Scope of Engineering Curricula." J. of Eng.
Ed., New Series Vol. XXX, 555 (1940).
4. Wing, R. H., Chem. Eng. Ed., 2, 41 (1967).


SPRING, 1968










Chemical Engineering

INFORMATION

And

EDUCATION*


EDWARD P. BARTKUS
Information Systems Division
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc.
Wilmington, Delaware
Education by university professors is a
knowledge transfer activity. In the same
way, so are reading of literature, technical
meetings, movies, seminars. An engineer
in doing his work is actually part of an in-
formation sequence. He starts with infor-
mation input and finishes with information
output. Someone else translates his output
into a device, system, process, structure, or
product. This paper presents challenges
and programs for the engineer-educator.
Adoption of the suggestions should im-
prove a curriculum and each course. The
result should be engineer graduates
tailored to the employer's needs.

INTRODUCTION
Knowledge = Education = Information
Various dictionaries and synonym finders pro-
vide the basis for the above equation with such
statements as: "Information is knowledge re-
ceived or communicated concerning an event, in-
structions, etc."; and "Information is knowledge
on various subjects"; and "Knowledge is educa-
tion." So, to complete the circle, in the ordinary
uses of the word, all information is knowledge.
In continuing to build the case, therefore, edu-
cation is knowledge production and is information
transfer. The unit processes are those concerned
with the individual, such as training, education,
development, exposure, self-study, and experience.
The unit operations are the mechanisms of trans-
*Presented at the Annual Meeting of ASEE, June
19-22, 1967.


/)w


Dr. Edward Bartkus is Special Assistant to the Division
Manager, Information Systems Division, Secretary's De-
partment, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Cur-
rently he occupies two other positions: (1) Coordinator,
Proprietary Information Protection; (2) Acting Manager,
New Information Services.
After receiving BS, MS, and PhD degrees in chemi-
cal engineering from West Virginia University, he taught
chemical engineering there for five years. He joined the
Du Pont Company in 1951. Dr. Bartkus is a member of
the Chemical Engineering Education Publications Commit-
tee and a member of the ASEE Information Systems
Committee.

fer, all the known means of communication, such
as:


reading
listening
talking
movies


seminars
workshops
lectures
meetings


experimenting
working
thinking


Since the university's prime objective in life is
to educate or impart knowledge, it is obvious that
the educator is transmitting information.
This paper proposes the extension of that ob-
jective in several dimensions in defining curricu-
lum needs. The educator, as a Knowledge-Pro-
ducer, has additional responsibilities to educate
the student in how to improve his information
input functions and, similarly, in how to improve
his information output and information transfer
capabilities.
It is easy enough to say that a triangle of only
three elements affects engineering education and
its direction:
1. The engineer himself.
2. The university which produces the engi-
neer.
3. Industry and government which use the
engineer.
However, the problem is an order of magni-
tude more complicated. There are a number of
curriculum constraints (Fig. 1). From the uni-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CURRICULUM CONSTRAINTS


LIMITATIONS ON FUNDS


LAWS OF LEARNING

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES,

MORES AND
CULTURAL PATTERNS'-

ACADEMIC TRADITION-

CHANGING ROLE OF THE
AMERICAN UNIVERSITY--


STUDENT NEED
EMPLOYAB


STO BE-
LE


STATE OF INDUSTRY
(degree of automation
capital reserves, etc.


STORE OF SCIENTIFIC
KNOWLEDGE

SPEED OF SCIENTIFIC
ADVANCES

FUTURE NEEDS OF AN
S... --- --- EXPLODING WORLD POPULATION

COMPLEXITY OF NEW
ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

RELATIVE NEED FOR TECHNICIANS
AND PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS


STATUS OF THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
PROFESSION -- FOR ENGINEERS
)T

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE
OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC


Figure 12
versity's viewpoint, there are limitations of funds,
which in themselves determine the facilities, the
staff, and the time that students can spend in
college. The curriculum is affected by such ele-
ments as the laws of learning, the individual
differences, the morals and cultural patterns-
even the academic tradition and the changing role
of the American university. The curriculum is
influenced by the vast amount of scientific knowl-
edge or information available, the speed of scien-
tific advances, the future needs of an exploding
world population which is getting closer and
closer together, the complexity of new engineer-
ing systems and the engineering systems approach
to solution of problems, plus the relationship be-
tween what an engineer does and what can be
delegated to someone else.
The curriculum is modified by the demands of
industry, by the changes in professions, by the en-
vironment in which engineers work. Finally, the
curriculum is affected by the fact that the stu-
dent needs to be employable.
In industry, the chemical engineer eventually


(D. Rosenthal, A. B. Rosenstein, M. Tribus)


loses his identity. So does the mechanical engi-
neer and the chemist. It is often startling to
realize that some of those associates most knowl-
edgeable about process technology and equipment
are chemists now functioning essentially as engi-
neers.
Chemical engineers are today working on many
projects and at many tasks that were unknown
when their professors were students. It is often
said that a chemical engineer should be so trained
that he is capable of applying the developments of
science to the solutions of the problems of chemi-
cal industry. It is also said that he must have
enough knowledge in the sciences in sufficient
depth to enable him to refer to the literature and
to follow the developments that are pertinent to
his profession.1
If one follows the premise that engineering
education is a knowledge-producing industry, and
that engineering education affects an engineer's
information transfer capabilities throughout his
career, then there are a number of factors that
must be considered before it is possible to develop


SPRING, 1968










INFO INPUT --


REPORTS
ORAL INFO.
PATENTS
HANDBOOKS
SCI. JOURNALS
TRADE JOURNALS
COMPUTER OUTPUT
DATA


WHAT ENGINEER DOES IN R & D
(ENGINEER IS PART OF INFO. SEQUENCE)
ENGINEERING --
"BEST" ENG'G
ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS,
WITHIN LIMITS OF COST,
TIME, UNCERTAINTY,
FEASIBILITY, SAFETY,
MANPOWER, RELIABILITY,
EFFICIENCY
+ EXPERIMENTATION


INFO OUTPUT


REPORTS
PRODUCT DESIGN
PRODUCT SPECS.
PROPERTIES
ECONOMICS
MARKET OPPOR.
BASIC DESIGN DATA


Figure 2


the breadth and depth of an engineering curricu-
lum. Several of these are:
1. The engineer, his career today and to-
morrow.
2. What an engineer actually does and with
whom he works.
3. Information and information sources.
Of course, all these considerations must live
within the curriculum constraints previously
mentioned.
THE ENGINEER AND HIS CAREER
As input to the knowledge-production process,
the engineer, the prospective graduate, has two
questions he must answer:
1. From college to which kind of job?
Research
Process Development
Product Development
Market Research
Design & Systems Engineering
Construction
Production & Maintenance
Marketing & Purchasing
Technical Assistance
Economic Evaluations
Technical Writing
Teaching
From college, the engineer has a number of
choices of job types, ranging from the most scien-
tific approaches in research, in process and prod-
uct development, through the business aspects of
market research and evaluations, into design
and systems engineering, perhaps even building
of plants, and, finally, into production and main-
tenance. From a business viewpoint, the engi-
neer may go into marketing or purchasing, per-
haps even to technical writing. He may go into
teaching.


2. From college to which employer?
Small Chemical Co.
Large Chemical Co.
Equipment Manufacturer
Gov't. Agency
Research Institute
University & Res. Foundation
Technical Journal
Consulting Firm
Self
With respect to the employer, the new engi-
neer must choose from a spectrum of alternatives,
such as small vs. large company, government vs.
private industry. He has the option to work with
equipment manufacturers, research institutes,
technical journals, consulting firms, universities.
He may elect to go into business for himself.

THE ENGINEER: WHAT HE DOES, WITH WHOM HE
WORKS, HOW HE USES INFORMATION
What does the engineer do? An engineer has
the responsibility to bridge the gap between
theory or basic science and society in the develop-
ment of various kinds of systems, whether they
be chemical plant systems, automobile systems,
aircraft systems, water-treatment systems, or
building systems. He has to translate his disci-
pline-oriented knowledge into mission- or prob-
lem-oriented problem solution. The ultimate ob-
jective of engineering work is some kind of useful
output: a design, device, system, process, struc-
ture, or product.
The important factor is that the output of an
engineering effort must work. Once the objective
has been established, the engineer must then ac-
quire input information and then do engineering
within such constraints of technical certainty,
economic feasibility, producibility, efficiency, re-
liability, safety, cost, timing, manpower limita-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








tions. He must do analysis and synthesis to come
out with some "Best" result which will eventually
become a design, device, system, process, struc-
ture, or product.
To repeat, an engineer is part of an informa-
tion sequence. He starts with input information,
does engineering analysis and synthesis, and pro-
duces output information.
For example, in R & D (Fig. 2), for informa-
tion input, the engineer uses reports, patent in-
formation, scientific journals, some trade journ-
als, probably some computer output, some raw
data, a considerable amount of discussion with


associated engineering fields through the inter-
disciplinary approaches in bioscience and space
sciences, through the sciences such as chemistry
and physics, and, finally, in those areas which
make it possible to get the job done, such as psy-
chology, economics, accounting, etc.
An engineer uses information from many
sources. The greatest proportion of these sources
are his co-workers. Some of these co-workers
are specialists; others are knowledgeable with
general experience; still others know where to go
for additional aid.
But there are many other sources of useful


WHAT ENGINEER DOES IN DESIGN
(ENGINEER IS PART OF INFO. SEQUENCE)


INFO INPUT


REPORTS
STANDARDS
ORAL INFO
HANDBOOKS
CATALOGS
COMPUTER OUTPUT
DATA
PATENTS


ENGINEERING
"BEST" ENG'G
ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS
WITHIN LIMITS OF COST,
TIME, UNCERTAINTY,
FEASIBILITY, SAFETY,
MANPOWER,
RELIABILITY,
EFFICIENCY


INFO OUTPUT


DRAWINGS
SPECIFICATIONS
MATERIALS LISTS
PARTS LISTS
EQUIPMENT LISTS
ESTIMATES
INSTRUCTIONS


Figure 3


his friends, an objective to come out with some-
thing brand new in appreciation of engineering
science. He then applies his best engineering
ability in terms of analysis and synthesis plus
experimentation, and produces information out-
put as reports, product design, product specifica-
tions, properties, economics, market opportuni-
ties, and perhaps even basic design data for a
plant. But he does not form directly the end ef-
fort, the product, or plant.
Similarly, an engineer in design (Fig. 3), in
performing his function as part of the informa-
tion sequence, acquires such information input
as the objective itself, reports, standards, infor-
mation from his associates, handbooks and cata-
logs, computer output data, and patents. He then
does his best engineering analysis and synthesis
within limits of time, cost uncertainly, feasibility,
safety, manpower, reliability, and efficiency, to
produce not a plant, not a product, but designs,
drawings, specifications, materials lists, equip-
ment lists, parts lists, estimates, instructions, pur-
chase requisitions.
An engineer uses information from many dis-
ciplines. These range from those which are in


information. These include the libraries, commer-
cial information services, and the Government
agencies. The technical societies themselves have
responsibility to produce useful information,
and similarly do publishers and universities,
research institutes, trade associations, and manu-
facturers. All of these organizations are knowl-
edge-producing industries which make informa-
tion available for use by the engineer. And, very
importantly, increasing numbers of the informa-
tion sources are computer-based or in microimage
form.
The specialization by individuals has resulted
in specialized information centers, staffed by
competent specialists who review and provide
credibility to the data and information output of
the information center. Many of these organiza-
tions (Fig. 4) are Government supported; such
as the Non-Destructive Testing Information Cen-
ter at Natick, Massachusetts, and the Electronic
Properties Information Center, operated by the
Hughes Aircraft Corp. at Burbank, California, for
the U. S. Air Force. Some information centers
are supported by industry, such as the Institute
of Textile Technology at Charlottesville, Va., and


SPRING, 1968









the Copper Development Association, operated by
the Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio.
Included in the list, of course, are the Govern-
ment-funded university "Centers of excellence"
which will eventually become highly specialized
information centers.

EXAMPLES OF SPECIALIZED INFORMATION CENTERS
Non-Destructive Testing Information Center
Electronic Properties Information Center
Copper Development Association Information
Center
Institute of Textile Technology Information
Center
Reliability Information Center
Reaction Kinetics Information Center
Plastics Technology Evaluation Center
Biosciences Information Service
University "Centers of Excellence"
Figure 4

If one were to look at the kinds of informa-
tion that an engineer uses, one would conclude
that it is a broad spectrum (Fig. 5). Every
engineer uses handbooks and slide rules, and
many are learning to use the computer. In any
assignment, regardless of how scientific or so-
phisticated or theoretical it may be, the engi-
neer scientists must use at different stages all
parts of the spectrum.
The same philosophy applies, probably in different
ratios, for those engineers who are in production,
construction, design, marketing.
Suffice it to say, it is necessary for the engi-
neer to know how to use not only complex but
simple information, not only basic scientific facts,
but "guesstimates." And, most important of all,
it is necessary for the engineer to know that all
of the information must be tempered by individ-
ual judgment, must involve the right combination
of engineering science and engineering tech-
nology.
A new engineer must recognize that he will
deal with four primary types of engineering per-
sonnel: engineers in training like himself, ex-
perienced technical engineers, supervisor-or mid-
dle-management engineers, and top-management
engineers. Different companies may call them by
different names, but the four classifications defi-
nitely exist.3
The engineer must also deal with secondary
personnel: technicians, draftsmen, craftsmen, and
clerical help.


ENGINEER'S INFORMATION SOURCE SPECTRA*


Single
Associate


Specialist
Groups


Handbook
Summary






State-of-Art
Review







Creativity


r Hi-Spot

SGuesstimate

- Handbook Data


- Standards

-Slide Rule

-Math. Model

- Computer

Computer Optimization


Tempered by Individual Judgment & Experience
Figure 5
It is important that there be good communi-
cations between the primary types of engineering
personnel, so that there will be a correct flow of
information to the secondary group. It is the
responsibility of the engineer to prepare and
formulate the information used by this latter
group.
All of the above discussions justify the con-
clusion that information is a fifth resource. For
many years, people have said that there are four
resources: men, materials, machines, and money
-the four M's. It is time now to include the fifth,
"Information" (or perhaps one should say,
"Knowledge").
CHALLENGE TO ENGINEERING EDUCATORS
The objective of changing or improving an
engineering curriculum is to achieve more effec-
tive engineering work by the engineer during his
career. As has been described, information trans-
fer, education, and knowledge production are es-
sentially interchangeable terms. It appears rea-
sonable, then, to assume that an effective informa-
tion transfer philosophy can provide a basis for:
(1) The engineering curriculum.
(2) Every course in that curriculum.
One could make many suggestions to profes-
sional educators to improve their knowledge prod-
ucts, the engineer graduates. Of the hundreds,
five practicable approaches that follow the philos-
ophy of effective information transfer present
themselves as challenges to the engineering educa-
tor:


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








1. Extend the use of a flexible curriculum to
match men vs. careers and jobs.
2. Improve the use of information resources
by an order of magnitude.
3. Double or triple the communications com-
petence of students.
4. Train and develop the student in princi-
ples and methodology of getting jobs done.
5. Infuse in the students the motivation to
continue learning, self-education, or con-
tinuing education.

1. Flexible Curricula
Battelle4 used a method of identification of
creative talent through breaking down engi-
neers and scientists by originality and ability
to reason logically (Fig. 6). It appears that
there are four types of individuals:
Type 1-People, relatively rare, who are above
average in both originality and ability to
reason logically. They are intelligent, open to
new ideas, but rigorous in evaluating them,
independent thinkers, curious, and tolerant of
ambiguity.
Type 2-Very original. A man of this bent
can keep six Type 4 men busy, but he's
not very reliable at following through on the
logical consequences of an idea.
Type 3-People below average in both crea-
tivity and logical reasoning.
Type 4-Where engineers tend to cluster-
people who are highly analytical but are not
comfortable with new ideas.

MATCHING MEN VS CAREERS
(BATTELLE METHOD)


High


Originality


Low


Low


------ ----------


III IV
Ill IV


Logical
Reasoning


High


Figure 6
The Battelle study indicated that it is possible
to increase creativity three-fold by proper motiva-
tion. An important facet of improving creative
ability is to encourage people to ask questions.


Our educational system places too much emphasis
on teaching people to answer questions, not teach-
ing them to analyze problems systematically.
The challenge, then, (Fig. 7) is to classify the
prospective engineer when he's a freshman, and
adjust his second-year curriculum against the
target of a Type 1 product as a senior. At the
end of each year, plot the current status and ad-
just the curriculum accordingly; so that by the
time the individual is a senior or a graduate stu-
dent, he is moving in the right direction.

MATCHING MEN WITH


High


Originality


Low


CURRICULUM
I


,Ph D


S/
------------ J--- --------


FIV
III IV


Low


Logical
Reasoning


High


Figure 7

2. Improve Information Resource Use by an Order
of Magnitude
There are a number of practical approaches
that can be followed:
a. Establish a faculty and/or graduate student as
the information contact and as information sup-
port. Such an individual or individuals would
have the responsibility for accumulating a
wealth of knowledge about information sources
and could be a referral center.
b. Practice extemporaneous high-spot estimation.
Require that students not only estimate how far
it is from here to Mars, but the density of a
mixture of ten hydrocarbons at a particular
temperature, the cost of a particular change in
a process, the time for accomplishment of a
particular task.
c. Require, practice, and develop judgment in the
use of standards and handbooks on the one
hand, the use of scientific and the computer
optimization approach on the other hand.
d. Require the extensive use of libraries and litera-
ture, information centers, facilities provided by
the various state technical services act pro-
grams. Require that students go to other de-
partments and ask questions of individuals who
know most about a particular, narrow subject.
e. Require a detailed report of a limited length
on a narrow subject, using multiple information
sources. Such a task would require considered
judgment and review of the wealth of available
information and data.


SPRING, 1968








3. Double or Triple the Communications Compe-
tence of Students

a. Require meticulously prepared problem solu-
tions. Insure that every problem has a data
reference. Require that the procedures be out-
lined in specific steps. As often happens, an
individual is changed from one assignment to
another with no chance for completion. It is
critical that a second individual can start from
the beginning, or even at intermediate steps,
and follow through on the computation sequence
or project completion.
b. Require and accept only good-to-excellent re-
ports. A technical report may be correct from
the engineering or scientific viewpoint, but may
be presented in poor format, with improper
grammar, and without adequate review. Suffice
it to say, that in many instances, the project
is disapproved not because of the technical
error, but because of the peripheral factors, such
as neatness, which may ascribe a lack of quality
to the report as submitted.
c. Increase the opportunity for oral presentations
with audience feedback. This means not only
opportunity for presentation in class or at
student technical societies, but the requirement
that individuals use a tape recorder in order to
review how they have presented a particular
project, report, or summary.
d. Require use of visual aids in presentations and
reports. There is no question that a picture or a
chart clarifies the written word. And especi-
ally is the use of visual aids important in an
oral presentation, since the two senses of
hearing and seeing are both channeled towards
the problem being presented.
e. Require the equivalent to "how to win friends
and influence people" of every prospective engi-
neer. Require him to be a diplomat. In arriving
at a technical solution to a problem, the engi-
neer may have reached a correct and a qualified
solution. However, if he cannot find the means
to communicate adequately to those who must
make the decision or those who must implement
his decisions, then the final result or objective
will be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to
achieve.


4. Train and Develop the Student in Principles and
Methodology of Getting Jobs Done

a. Use formalized network planning programs
such as the Critical Path or PERT Systems.
b. Require that objectives and targets be set in
each problem.
c. Use such devices as flow charts and decision
trees to help present a picture and merits of
various alternatives.
d. Develop a logical sequence of proper use of in-
formation sources as input to any phase of the
engineer's work.
e. Require progress reports.


5. Infuse in Students the Motivation to Continue
Learning

a. Point out the advantages of technical society
participation.
b. Recommend scheduling of reading/study pro-
grams.
c. Suggest the benefits of attending workshops and
formal courses of all kinds.

In summary, as soon as one realizes that edu-
cation equals knowledge transfer, that knowledge
production equals information transfer, one can
draw a number of conclusions:
1. Communication or transfer of information
is an integral part of the education process
and must be considered in establishing a
curriculum and, most importantly, the de-
velopment of engineers via that curriculum.
2. An engineer is part of an information se-
quence. In order to be effective, he must
achieve effective information utility for
effective results.
3. A graduate is a combination of technical
competence and other inseparable capabili-
ties, one of which is his ability to com-
municate.
4. The university and the professor have a
responsibility and an opportunity to pro-
duce the whole man, an individual more
nearly tailored to his ultimate career.
With such considerations in a curriculum, the
following qualitative needs can be partially satis-
fied:
1. Engineers with competence in a wide va-
riety of fields.
2. Engineers with that kind of intellectual ex-
perience and education that enables flexi-
bility in short-term assignments and in car-
eer perspectives.
3. Engineers who can communicate effectively.
4. Engineers who are skillful in their inter-
personal relationships, who are diplomats.5


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Baddour, A. F., Chemical And Eng. News, 42, (No.
4), 77, (1964).
2. Wigotsky, V. W., Design News, 21, 43 (Nov. 9,
1966).
3. "Optimum Use of Engineering Talent." MRS No.
58, 72, American Management Association, New York
(1961).
4. Merris, D. K., Product Eng., 38, (No. 9), 142 (April
24, 1967).
5. Constas, P. A., Personnel J., 45, (No. 3), 153
(March, 1966).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








They're New -- They're Important -- They're From McGraw-Hill


STUDENT'S ENGINEERING MANUAL
By GEORGE A. HAWKINS, Purdue University.
Available Spring, 1968.
This manual can serve as an excellent supple-
mentary reference for the student's total learning
process throughout his collegiate and professional
career in engineering.


DYNAMICS
By EDUARD PESTEL, Technische Hochschule,
Hannover; and WILLIAM T. THOMSON, Uni-
versity of California at Santa Barbara. Avail-
able Spring, 1968.
Presents the science of mechanics in a simple but
rigorous development evolving from a few axioms,
concepts, and definitions. Each development of
the theory is supported by one or more illustrative
examples that bring to life the somewhat abstract
ideas which make up the theory of mechanics.


THERMODYNAMICS, 2/e
By WILLIAM C. REYNOLDS, Stanford Univer-
sity. Available Spring, 1968.
Departing from the classical treatment of
thermodynamics, basic principles and integrating
microscopic considerations are stressed through-
out the book. Significant in this new edition is
the use of the "Gibbs" definition of entropy.


UNIT OPERATIONS OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING, 2/e
By WARREN L. McCABE, Polytechnic Institute
of Brooklyn; R. J. REYNOLDS, North Carolina
State University; and JULIAN C. SMITH, Cor-
nell University. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical
Engineering. 1,007 pages; $15.50
Presenting a unified treatment of standard
unit operations at the junior-senior level, all ma-
terial in this second edition has been updated in
the light of the many significant improvements
which have occurred since the first edition was
published.


THE VARIATIONAL METHOD IN
ENGINEERING
By ROBERT S. SCHECTER, University of
Texas. 320 pages; $13.50
Covering the broadest spectrum of topics of
any book on the subject, this text provides an in-
troduction to the applications of variational cal-
culus to solving engineering problems.


RADIATIVE TRANSFER
By H. C. HOTEL and A. F. SAROFIM, both of
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. McGraw-
Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering. 520
pages; $15.50
This text provides the engineering student and
the practicing engineer with the principles and
data needed to handle thermal radiation problems
of high complexity. In a well-balanced approach
to theory and application, it covers the fields of
surface radiation, gas radiation, and radiative
scatter.



MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS, 2/e
By ROBERT E. TREYBAL, New York Univer-
sity. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engi-
neering. 688 pages; $15.75
Provides a vehicle for teaching the charac-
teristics, principles, and techniques of design of
equipment for mass transfer operations. Theo-
retical principles are applied to the practical prob-
lems of equipment design.



DISTILLATION
By MATTHEW VAN WINKLE, University of
Texas. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engi-
neering. 684 pages; $15.75
Here is a guide to distillation process design.
The material, presented in logical sequence, covers
the principal subjects of vapor-liquid equilibrium,
evaluation of equilibrium stages, azeotropic and
extractive distillation, and plate and column de-
sign methods.



FUEL CELLS
By JOHN BOCKRIS, University of Pennsylvania;
and S. SRINIVASAN, State University of New
York, Brooklyn. Available Spring, 1968
The book provides chemists, engineers and
metallurgists with the theoretical basis of electro-
chemical energy conversion. Its scope embraces
the whole of presently known theory of electro-
chemical energy conversion.



Send today for your examination copies
McGraw-Hill Book Company
330 West 42nd Street, New York, N. Y. 10036 .C-*


SPRING, 1968










views and opinions I


The AIChE President Speaks...

FINAL "GOALS" REPORT
MAX S. PETERS
With only minor changes, the Final "Goals
of Engineering Education" report is identical to
the Interim "Goals" report. The AIChE response
to the Interim report was published in the August,
1967, issue of Chemical Engineering Progress,
page 36. The CEP statement clearly represents
my response to the Final goals report. However,
at the time the CEP statement was prepared, we
had been led to believe that our statement would
be included as a permanent part of the Final
report. This did not occur, and it is very interest-
ing to note that there is no specific reference in
the Final report to any of the many articles pub-
lished which gave dignified and responsible dis-
agreement with the major recommendations of
the Preliminary and Interim reports.
The Goals report contains much useful and in-
teresting data along with analysis and recommen-
dations which, as the Preface clearly states, repre-
sent the views of three individuals. Most of the
recommendations are generalizations with which
no one could reasonably disagree. However, the
recommendations relative to making the master's
degree the first professional degree in engineer-


Dr. Max S. Peters is Dean of Engineering at the Uni-
versity of Colorado and President of AIChE. He is a
graduate of Pennsylvania State University and has taught
chemical engineering at the Universities of Illinois and
Colorado. His teaching and research interests include
plant design, economics, and chemical reaction kinetics.

ing, the desirability of encouraging general engi-
neering degrees, and the accrediting by college
rather than by curricula are all, in my opinion,
undesirable goals.
I think we should view the Goals report as a
collection of data and a representation of the
views of three individuals. Some of it is good and
some of it is bad. In any case, it is interesting
reading-and I now suggest that all of us stop
wasting our time on the subject-As educators,
let's get back to the serious and important busi-
ness of worrying about our teaching and our stu-
dents.


The Drift And The Draft


Why A Scholarship Program

LLOYD BERG

Montana State University
Bozeman, Mt. 59715

Why do we operate an industrial scholarship
program for freshmen in Chemical Engineering
at Montana State University? This question is
asked by citizens and taxpayers who note that
overall college enrollments are bulging. At an
institution that has an avowedly "publish or
perish" policy where this sort of activity is going
to make few faculty Brownie points, this is a
good question. The answer can be found from
the following equation:
A/B C/D


In Chemical Engineering?
A. Shirer, W. L., "The Rise & Fall of the Third
Reich," p. 348, Simon & Schuster, New York, N.
Y., with permission of publisher.
"After six years of Nazification the number of university
students dropped by more than one half-from 127,920 to
58,325. The decline in enrollment at the institutes of
technology, from which Germany got its scientists and
engineers, was even greater-from 20,474 to 9,554. Aca-
demic standards fell dizzily. By 1937 there was not only
a shortage of young men in the sciences and engineering
but a decline in their qualifications. Long before the out-
break of the war the chemical industry, busily helping to
further Nazi rearmament, was complaining through its
organ, Die Chemische Industrie, that Germany was losing
its leadership in chemistry. Not only the national economy
but national defense itself was being jeopardized, it com-
plained, and it blamed the shortage of young scientists
and their mediocre caliber on the poor quality of the
technical colleges."


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


__


I_ _


J~ghE'










B. Johnson, T. M., "Secrets & Spies-The Silence
of 600,000," p. 527-8, Reader's Digest Books,
Pleasantville, N. Y., with permission of pub-
lisher.
"In the spring of 1945 the Allies were sweeping over Ger-
many. Among their orders were, 'Get to the Hohenzollern
area first and fast. Snatch the scientists and their secrets
before they can escape'. . Suddenly came the biggest
scare since D-day: new aerial photographs showing slave-
labor camps, power lines and a huge industrial site rising
with incredible speed near the village of Bisingen. Then
the Berlin radio announced that the Germans already had
the atom bomb! In a supreme effort to pierce the veil,
scientists, sleuths and soldiers dashed toward Bisingen.
There they encountered disappointment, but also immense
relief; the big new plant was not designed to make atom
bombs but to extract oil from shale. They pressed on to
other installations. At Thalfingen, sitting at his desk in
a large laboratory, was Otto Hahn, who had first smashed
the uranium atom, and with him were a score of other
scientists. The Nazis denied that they had ever tried to
make an atom bomb. They said, too, that their papers had
been destroyed. But one famous scientist greeted the
Americans with "I've been expecting you," and handed
them summaries of his work. Other valuable papers were
fished from a cesspoll where they had been concealed in
an oil drum. Finally a few German scientists persuaded
others to come clean. Then they revealed their laboratory
supplies-small amounts of heavy water, hidden in an old
mill; and of uranium oxide, buried in a field; and at last,
in a big tunnel deep in the mountainside, their "pile". It
was a climax of irony. Their "uranium machine" or
"pile" was a dud. It could not set up or maintain a
chain reaction. The Germans could not produce plutonium
and did not believe it feasible to separate U-235 from
U-238. (We had found three ways to do it.) They had
one cyclotron; we had more than thirty. Germany's best
atomic scientists had not emerged from the experiment-
al stage. Even after they were captured, they believed
we were so far behind them that we would want to imi-
tate their priceless work."
C. Burtis, T. A., The Brain Drain-Home Grown,
Chem. Engr. Prog., 64, 35 (1968), with permis-
sion of publisher.
"Between 1961 and 1965 the total number of bachelor's
degrees granted to male graduates in the United States
increased from 256,000 to 320,000, a compounded growth
rate of 4.4%. Within the same period the number of
bachelor's degrees in engineering increased only from
35,700 to 36,600-a growth rate to all intents and pur-
poses of zero. . If the technological and scientific
strength of the United States is so great as to cause con-
cern abroad, if it is so important that our own government
relies on this capability for the solution of problems in
space, defense, transportation, environmental control, and
other public problems, if industry is relying on science
and engineering for future growth, some steps must be
taken to see that the talent necessary to meet these ob-
jectives becomes available. That it is not is clearly evi-
dent. One need only look at the job opportunity ads in
any of the journals, including our own. The accepted
estimate is that as against the 75,000 job openings for


Dr. Lloyd Berg is professor and head of Chemical Engi-
neering at Montana State University. He is a graduate of
Lehigh University (BSChE) and of Purdue University
(PhD). Dr. Berg is active in ASEE activities and directed
the ASEE Summer School for ChE teachers in 1962 and
1967.
engineers which appear every year, there is available in
this country only a total addition of 45,000 trained men."
D. Solve for D.

EPILOGUE
On July 1, 1968 the Selective Service laws
were modified to do away with deferments for
all graduate students. The special category of
essential activities and critical occupations was
also abolished and all this had the blessing of the
National Security Council. The country was on
an equality binge and it was deemed politically
expedient to treat Ph.D. engineers and scientists
in exactly the same manner as high school drop-
outs. Graduate school enrollment dropped pre-
cipitously. For example, the number of Ph.D.
chemical engineers produced dropped from 400 in
1967 to 150 in 1971. In the spring of 1972 the
Russians launched and assembled a large orbiting
space platform. The Kremlin advised President
Johnson that it contained a thermo-nuclear device
capable of irradiating and destroying the eastern
third of the United States. Several of our Posei-
don submarines were blown up while on patrol.
The Russians claimed they had been violating
their coastal waters and that the feat was accom-
plished with a new underwater missile. President
Johnson flew to Moscow and conferred at the
Kremlin for a week. On his return, he announced
that he had obtained "peace for our time." He im-
mediately ordered the closing down of all U. S.
military establishments in the Eastern Hemis-
phere and the recall of all Poseidon submarines
to their U.S. bases. He assured the country in a
nationwide TV broadcast that an era of true
world peace now lay ahead.


SPRING, 1968








Industry Needs

SCIENTIFIC ENGINEERS

NOT

ENGINEERING SCIENTISTS*

ROBERT E. LENZ
Director, Engineering Technology and Services
Monsanto Company
St. Louis, Missouri 63166
This talk presents a viewpoint of widen-
ing industry concern toward trends in
chemical engineering education over the
past five to seven years. The increasing
emphasis on scientific fundamentals is pro-
ducing broader students than the old
"cookbook" courses did, and such students
are better able to cope with the need to
keep up to date. However, in those engi-
neering schools where the science improve-
ment is at the expense of teaching an engi-
neering approach to engineering-type prob-
lems, the resulting graduate is some kind
of pseudo-scientist with a degree labeled
"Engineering." It will be increasingly diffi-
cult for industry to retrain him to make
him an engineer. If he goes on to graduate
school with the idea of teaching, he must
find some exposure to engineering some-
how, or he will become a teacher who turns
out more "non engineers."

THE DEBATE between the academic commun-
ity and industry on science versus engineering
really heated up about the time of the Grinter Re-
port. I have re-read the Grinter Report carefully
and find myself in complete agreement with it.
We had been teaching pragmatic engineering long
after new tools had made it possible to use much
more science. As industry sees the problem, some
portions of the academic community over-reacted
to the Grinter Report.
I hasten to comment that the overall result
of the Grinter Report was good. Many schools up-
graded and modernized their curricula and spe-
cific course content, so that their graduates had a
more useful and more lasting education. However,
a number of schools which were already science
*Presented at the Annual Meeting of ASEE, June
19-22, 1967.


Robert E. Lenz is presently Director of Engineering
Technology in the Central Engineering Department of
Monsanto Company.
He is a graduate in Chemical Engineering from Wash-
ington University in St. Louis, and has served in various
capacities in Research, Development, and Engineering for
Monsanto over the last twenty-eight years.

oriented took an equal or larger step in deleting
most courses with engineering content and re-
placing them with still more science; some of
them even labeled the degree "Engineering
Science."
Industry is not responsible for educating
chemical engineers. However, we must use your
"people" product to get our engineering job done.
We cannot provide extensive formal training pro-
grams to remake science graduates into useful
engineers capable of coping with the real world.

WE NOW HAVE THE CURRENT REPORT
of the ASEE Goals Committee in which they
propose using the MS as the first professional de-
gree and trying to have 50% of those getting a
BS go on to the MS. It would be irresponsible to
suggest that more education is not desirable in a
field of growing complexity such as engineering.
It would also be irresponsible to suggest that stu-
dents not be given an education with a more last-
ing character. We only need to be sure that, in
educating the student for 1980, we turn him out
capable of doing something useful in 1967 or
1968. And we need to be sure that the MS engi-
need is really getting more "engineering educa-
tion."

I would like to make it clear that I am strongly
in favor of graduate education in engineering. In
this I am joined by other members of industry.
However, our need for people with advanced de-
grees is not without limit. In Monsanto, for ex-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Many PhD candidates in chemical
engineering are, in reality, training to
become research scientists . We have
lots of use for research scientists, but
they do research; and somebody has to
do the engineering.



ample, we have approximately 1000 chemical engi-
neers. This includes 250 with MS degrees and
80 with PhD degrees. Of the 80 with the PhD, 45
are in research, 25 are in engineering and 10 are
in all other fields. Of the 25 in engineering, 12
work in areas under my direction. These are men
who are doing excellent work in developing new
engineering tools and methods. However, these 12
were not easy to come by; they are the "net" of
nearly 25 PhD chemical engineers who started
work in this area; the other 13 have transferred
to research or gone back to the universities.
It want to emphasize that this engineering
work is in the area of advanced technology. It
does require the best people we can get. It is not
connected with cranking out repetitive designs of
heat exchangers. Even so, when we interview
PhD candidates, we find that many of them are
not attracted to this type of work because it is
not science oriented, and our records show that
only about half of those who are attracted orig-
inally will stick with the engineering assignment.
The exposure to real engineering problems comes
as a severe shock to many of them.

QUITE A FEW OF THE PEOPLE who start
with us and don't stick return to the academic
world to take up their research where they left
off and to start training students. If they are un-
willing to do engineering work in the real world,
I wonder if we should encourage them to teach
and influence students who are apt to come out
with the same "non-engineering" attitude. James
Fulton recently published an article entitled
"Where Have the Engineering Colleges Gone?"
I would like to share one paragraph of his paper
with you:

"This science-emphasis trend of engineering col-
leges is not only detrimental to the engineering
state-of-the-art, but it also misdirects the students.
The students in engineering courses are generally
faced by a teacher who is conducting science re-
search and whose patterns of thought are more
strongly directed toward analysis than synthesis,


whose mental habits are inductive rather than de-
ductive. Their teacher's allegiance leans toward
science and away from engineering, and his ap-
proach to the course material is shifted accordingly.
As a result, engineering students leave college well
prepared in theory and scientific principles but
lacking the ability to put this knowledge to use."

In all of this I have assumed that we might
have a common understanding of the word "en-
gineering." There have been many attempts to
define it; I am willing to walk a short distance
on this shaky ground. I consider engineering to
be the application of science to the optimum solu-
tion of multi-valued problems. In most cases, this
means the economic optimum. A less formal defi-
nition says that an engineer can make for 25
what anyone can make for $1. Science, on the
other hand, concerns itself principally with facts,
most of which are the correct answers to single-
valued problems, and with systems to organize
these facts. I disagree strongly with the Goals
Committee in defining engineering as "liberal
science." Liberal arts graduates approach prob-
lems by extensive verbal analysis; engineers get
things done.
Many PhD candidates in chemical engineering
are, in reality, training to become research scien-
tists. Now, we have lots of use for research
scientists-including those in the field of engi-
neering-but they will be used to do research; and
somebody has to do the engineering. And if we
are going to have our engineering done well, some
of these engineers should be the top talent obtain-
able from our engineering schools. Five years
ago, when this group met at Boulder, Mott Sou-
ders gave a talk entitled "What Industry Expects
of the Chemical Engineer." One paragraph of
that talk is particularly appropriate here:
"We need both scientists and engineers, but we
don't expect a scientist when we hire an engineer.
The engineer differs from the scientist in interests,
motivation, goals and accomplishments. The scien-
tist strives to know, the engineer to produce.
Understanding is the goal of the scientist, utiliza-
tion the goal of the engineer. The accomplishments
of the scientist are based on analysis, those of the
engineer on synthesis. If the education of the chem-
ical engineer shifts to science, even engineering
science, at the sacrifice of the arts of design, indus-
try will use the future "chemical engineer" as a
scientist, but will have to look elsewhere for process
engineers."

It would be relatively easy to destroy the meaning
of the word "engineer" by perverting it to mean
some kind of scientist-just by repeating it often


SPRING, 1968









.. there is still a real opportunity in industry for the top quality
BS man, if we could convince him that his work experience
might be just as valuable as additional academic training . .


enough. Look what the communist world has
done to the word "democracy" by using it so con-
sistently in the sense of their "people's de-
mocracy."

THE CURRENT SITUATION is not solely the
result of over-reaction to the Grinter Report.
The federal government has made vast sums
available to graduate students, mostly on a "no
hardship" basis. In doing so, they have estab-
lished the policies for funding research and for
the type of research which will get these funds.
For many years we have heard people express the
fear that "federal support of education will even-
tually mean federal control of education." Some
of this is now evident in the enforcement of fed-
eral policies below the college level in the southern
states. Much of it is evident in the graduate re-
search programs in our chemical engineering
schools. The schools look for professors who can
bring in these funds. These men then pass their
same interests on to their graduate students.
This is close to the main message which I want
to bring to you. We do not have a bad-versus-good,
black-versus-white situation of what is science
and what is engineering. We have a set of atti-
tudes which are developed by students in their
four years of close association with their pro-
fessors, and which are much reinforced by their
closer association for those who go to graduate
school. It is what you do and what you say that
counts in developing the students attitude toward
engineering work. Fortunately, a large number of
chemical engineering departments turn out excel-
lent engineers at all levels. These are the people
we try to hire-at all levels-to do our engineer-
ing work at all levels. Unfortunately, there are a
number of schools who take the scarce promising
raw material and turn out class after class of
"non-engineers."
We have learned from bitter experience to be
quite selective in the schools from which we will
interview PhD candidates for engineering work.
We are even learning to be selective about which
professors have guided the students. I hope this
will not be required at the MS level very soon.
Of course, there is no doubt that a proper MS ex-
perience will produce a much better engineer,


since he may have as much as 100% additional
professional course work than he had for the BS.
However, we should consider the real possibility
that some MS graduates may be poorer engineers
than they were at the BS level, because of the
reinforcement of their training in science.

I WOULD LIKE TO EMPHASIZE that there is
still a real opportunity in industry for the top
quality BS man, if we could convince him that
his work experience might be just as valuable as
additional academic training. In the past such
men rose rapidly to positions of real responsibility
in engineering management and broad company
management; they were the prime source of vice
presidents. Their real interest in economic optima
was easily transferable to the business world.
This potential is much less available to the man
at any level whose real interest is strictly science.
The engineer with the best education in
science, channeled toward the solution of engi-
neering problems, will make the maximum imme-
diate contribution and will have the education that
is easiest to update. For an engineer, the key
words are "channeled toward the solution of engi-
neering problems."
The AIChE has been concerned about this
problem for at least five years. Here are some
examples of that concern as expressed by recent
Presidents of the Institute:
Bob Marshall's Presidential Address:
Science Ain't Everything
Ben Franklin's editorial in CEP:
The Challenge of Design
Stu Churchill's article in CEP on
The Preliminary Goals Report
Ted Burtis's talk entitled:
Industry and Education
Max Peters's talk at the ASEE Summer School
on the same subject.
Through various types of activities, I come
into continued contact with the top engineering
people in most of the major chemical and pe-
troleum companies. I can assure you that most of
them share the concern I have expressed here
today.
For engineering work, we need scientific engi-
neers, not engineering scientists.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






would you like to write "The


Formation of Perhydrophenalenes


and Polyalkyladamantanes


by Isomerization of


Tricyclic Perhydroaromatics?"


How's that again? Well, never mind
-Bob Warren, Ed Janoski, and Abe
Schneider already wrote it. They're
chemists in Sun Oil Company's Re-
search and Development Department.
Their paper is just one of many re-
sulting from imaginative and origi-
nal basic research conducted at Sun
Oil.
Maybe basic research and technical
papers aren't your cup of tea. But
isn't the kind of company that in-
vests in and encourages such projects
the kind of company you'd like to
work for?
Especially when the company does
things like pioneer the $235 million
SPRING, 1968


Athabasca oil sands project in North-
ern Alberta to multiply the world's
petroleum resources; plan a new $125
million processing facility in Puerto
Rico; expand the Toledo Refinery to
the tune of $50 million; sponsor the
"Sunoco Special" and the racing team
of Roger Penske and Mark Donohue
in big league sports car racing to
competition-prove and improve Sun-
oco products for the public; pursue a
continuing program for air and water
pollution control; beautify Sunoco
service stations everywhere.
Sunoco is geared for growth. We
need men and women to grow with
us and build a future. We have open-


ings in Exploration, Production,
Manufacturing, Research, Engineer-
ing, Sales, Accounting, Economics,
and Computer Operation. Locations
- Philadelphia, Toledo and Dallas
areas.
You may write us for an appoint-
ment, write for our book "Sunoco
Career Opportunities Guide," or con-
tact your College Placement Director
to see Sun's representative when on
campus. SUN OIL COMPANY, Indus-
trial Relations Dept. CED, 1608 Wal-
nut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 or
P. O. Box 2880, Dallas, Texas 75221.
An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F











classroom


A Graduate Course In


Chemical Reactor Engineering*


J. J. CARBERRY

Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556


We need hardly consider the necessity for
graduate instruction in Chemical Reactor Engi-
neering; various surveys and intuition itself sug-
gests that training in this area is vitally necessary
to the practicing chemical engineer. Further,
given certain ecumenical trends in other disci-
plines, e.g., thermodynamics, heat transfer, etc.,
the uniqueness of chemical engineering may well
be preserved only to the extent that chemical re-
actor engineering becomes the central focal point
of academic concern.
Table I lists the recommended texts and Table
II gives the topics embraced by the course I teach
to first year graduate students at Notre Dame.
Two things are evident, (1) little emphasis is

TABLE I.
Texts Recommended for Course in Chemical
Reactor Engineering
1. Kramers, H., and K. P. Westerterp, "Elements of
Chemical Reactor Design and Operation," Academic
Press, New York (1963). It has broad coverage, but
lacks problems and the illustrative examples lack detail.
2. Denbigh, K., "Chemical Reactor Theory," Cambridge
University Press, New York (1965). An excellent book,
but it is best used after students gain some familiarity
with more detailed texts.
3. Levenspiel, 0., "Chemical Reaction Engineering," Wiley,
New York, (1962). This text is very good for those
who come to us with a weak background in chemical
engineering kinetics.
4. Smith, J. M., "Chemical Engineering Kinetics," Mc-
Graw-Hill, New York, (1956). This text has excellent
problems and well detailed examples.
5. Petersen, E. E., "Chemical Reaction Analysis," Prentice-
Hall, New York (1965). This text is very good on
heterogeneous reactor problems.
*Presented at the Annual Meeting of ASEE, June
19-22, 1967.


TABLE II.

Course Outline for Chemical Reactor Engineering

1. Chemical kinetics review and data treatment
Conversion and yield in simple, complex, and auto-
catalytic reactions. 3 periods
2. Reactor types-CSTR, PFR, and recycle RXR
Isothermal and adiabatic behavior in relation to
conversion and yield. Reference: Chem. Eng. Sci.
21, 472 (1966); I&EC (Fund) 5, 164 (1966.
4 periods
3. Continuity equations and parameter correlations
Reduction of continuity equations to specific reactor
types. Theory and data for key physical param-
eters. Boundary conditions, simplifications, and
scale up. Reference: I&EC (Nov.) (1964); Can.
J. Chem. Eng. 36, 207 (1958). 5 periods
4. Homogeneous reactor design
Iso- and non-isothermal cases. Thermal stability
and transient analysis (n-CSTR in series). 5 periods
5. Heterogeneous systems (gas-liquid reactions)
Film vs. penetration model. The van Krevelen
plot and its use by Andrew. Reference: Brit.
Chem. Eng. (Jan./Feb.) (1967); Chem. Eng. Sci.
21, 1951 (1966). 3 periods
6. Gas-solid non-catalytic reaction
Shell progressive mechanism. Reference: Can. J.
Chem. Eng. 43, 334 (1965). 2 periods
7. Heterogeneous catalysis
Physical and chemisorption; rate and equilibrium
hetero/homogeneous surfaces and catalytic rate
models derived therefrom. Data analysis and am-
biguity of models. Laboratory reactors. 10 periods
8. Catalytic reactor design and analysis of fixed
and fluidized beds. Inter/intraphase diffusion of
heat and mass. Influence of this diffusion on con-
version and yield. Reactor simulation of non-iso-
thermal and adiabatic fixed beds-SO, oxidation
on Pt and V,0 ; styrene production, organic
oxidation. Two phase model of fluidization. Ref-
erence: I&EC (Oct.) (1966); AIChE J. 6, 460
(1960) and 9, 129 (1963); Chem. Eng. Sci. 17,
675 (1962). 13 periods


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









placed on chemical kinetics per se and, (2) major
emphasis is given to heterogeneous systems. Con-
cerning point (1), our belief is that chemical ki-
netics is best taught in our Chemistry Depart-
ment. On point (2), I endorse the wise observa-
tion of Olaf Hougen, to wit: the most commonly
encountered and challenging reactor problems
are those of a heterogeneous nature. Thus, per-
haps 75% of our course is devoted to heterogen-
eous reaction-reactor problems.
Following a brief review of chemical kinetics
and data treatment wherein emphasis is placed
on yield/selectivity, we consider the reactor prob-
lem. This, I feel, is best treated by developing the
continuity equations for a non-isothermal/non-
adiabatic reactor as shown in Table 3. These
equations must be reducible to various reactor
types and environments, e.g., CSTR, PFR semi-
batch, etc. Logically, at this point, the phenome-
nological coefficients of axial and radial disper-
sion (heat and mass) are discussed and the vari-
ous correlations set forth with supporting a priori
theory for both packed and unpacked tubes.
Thus, the mixing and residence time issue is
introduced in terms of the axial Peclet number. I
devote little time to residence time distribution
problems as I contend that non-isothermality in
both axial and radial directions proves far more
telling upon conversion and yield than does back-
mixing and/or by-passing.




Table III.

S eacdy Sfafo Confnity 4p7 afi/cns

Adass '


an cd/D mM amJ 1/D dcj
C(a) Cb) (C)


con
(o)


Tenp earure :
i-a --a-f ._ __f _ -,
an dru/ALar/n m w J duu/,La4t J-f 7 TZ~

,6ere /= C/C. t= T/ = /L ; m= -/R.
PFR : a=d ; CsR: a(A)=c;
PFR i, d,~4 person: a+c=d; A/on-/ro PFR : ao = of.
In general
/tlass :
V a S '-L ar ar,'J

reodc/, ,lduces to PFRl /ao/cy ands s'/'-oahk, (varla'/e vo/ume)


HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS
We next consider homogeneous design prob-
lems (see Table 4). I rather like this consecutive
simultaneous network. Each student is assigned
such a problem so that by numerical computation,
the class witnesses precisely how yield is affected,
under non-isothermal/non-adiabatic conditions,
by physical parameters (flow rate of process and
coolant streams, feed composition, etc.) as well
as chemical parameters (activation energies and
their relative magnitudes).
Semi-batch design problems are also assigned.
Save for illustrating mixing models, I devote little
time to CSTR networks. Dynamic behaviour is
readily explored at this point by reviewing the
n-CSTR series treatment under unsteady state
conditions.



Table IV.

Typo/a/ /Homnoeneocs Reactor Des~yn Pro-6/ns

C/, 0-^f J
1 E -mJ
homogeneous gas phase reaco/'b'ns





ri on r te of aod,/ion


Dhomogeoous /ls-d-/ tatpe

P/hosg3e7 c/e>o7po5//on Aomoger/eous
,d,/abat/c use Zioug/as A^ag/eAon Ajp. Irnegra/


HETROGENEOUS SYSTEMS
I treat the gas-liquid reaction problem first.
This has the advantage of avoiding detailed me-
chanistic inquiry (required of heterogeneous
catalysis). Table 5 indicates two types of gas-
liquid reaction problems. The first, CO, absorp-
tion in NH, solution, illustrates the power of the
van Krevelan plot and Andrew's analysis of it.
A priori design is possible here. In the second
case, design is based on use of a semi-empirical


SPRING, 1968









Table V.


Gas Liqu/c'd Reactions
Z CO, (o./ atm) f /0s 9 NHs so/th//on on a
Sleve tray. .eter/nne p/ate e%/1Cley
k determnecl ,/ /aborotafrjy /where a'" nown 4~
0a' de/erm7ned for Slepe ftray (CO abLsored/ nto AlaOH)
von Xreeve/eao p/of y/e/ds k/ for s-eve
Refence Andrew, CS, _3 279 C/92?)


6>r/o'ol~atver


& Chem. -,g JTo & /A, /467


E ROHC,(id) 7 /1/C/ CGa() Laary! C//or/de
Pr^/e Fd convers,? and I/C/ o/,/aCo, /2o



H, 0

HC/ HC/ // L
(a) (b) (c)
KIys/ey & //,ss C(&EC, 44 2479 (/912)9); r=2 */



laboratory secured rate law. Details of each are
presented in the January and February issues of
British Chemical Engineering (1967). Gas-solid
non-catalytic reaction is next treated. The shell-
progressive mechanism is involved after its va-
lidity is justified. The isothermal case for chang-
ing particle size is handled as described by White
in Can. J. of Chem. Eng. 43, 334, (1965). Non-
,isothermal analysis follows the treatment of
Smith and Aris's generalization.

The final phase of the course is concerned
with catalysis per se and catalytic reactor design.
I devote several lectures to physical-chemical ad-
sorption rates and equilibria, emphasizing the
ideal-non-ideal surface implications with particu-
lar reference to rate models derived therefrom.
We conclude that the word "mechanism" never be
used: "model" is to be preferred. Exercises in
data treatment are assigned. I refer the students
to the literature on non-linear least square analy-
ses.

Finally both fixed and fluid bed design prob-
lems are faced. Diffusional aspects (heat and
mass) both about and within the catalyst are
treated and we then discuss computer simulation.
Figure 1 reveals very nicely how both inter-intra-
phase diffusion phenomena affect intrinsic chemi-
cal dispositions in the adiabatic catalytic oxida-
tion of SO2.


R, = 308













Reactor Lento y/, cm

Fig. 1.-Diffusion phenomena affect intrinsic chemical




Unfortunately I find no time to cover such

topics as ion exchange, GLC and GSC. The im-
portant area of optimization is treated more
effectively in a companion course taught by my
colleague Dr. Crandall.
"I go to seek a great perhaps . .," Rabelais
remarked. In the design of heterogeneous reac-
tors, we'd do well to keep this comment in mind-




particularly in the minds of our students.
tors, we'd do nmn a to icnt ini cmic
tois sio xcag, L adGS.Th m
potn ra fotmzaini retdmr


Dr. James J. Carberry is a professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Notre Dame. He received
B.S. and M.S. degrees from University of Notre Dame
and a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1957. Dr. Carberry's
research interests include kinetics, catalysis, reactor
analysis, and he is writing a book on "Chemical Reactor
Engineering."


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










'A, ,f




















Professor, What Do You Think?

Process Design Oilfield Production
Technical Sales Plant Design
Refinery Engineering Development
Research Technical Service
With all the opportunities available today assignments and advancement opportunities?
you probably often hear this question from Standard Oil Company of California has
your students. You can be a major factor challenging assignments in just about any
in his career. area that would interest Chemical Engineers.
If you find yourself in this situation why These initial assignments will test their
not consider an industry that can offer ability and can lead to advancement
a full range of Chemical Engineering in many areas.
Should you or any of your students wish additional
information on our industry or Company write to:
Mr. Robert E. Rodman
Coordinator, Professional Employment
Standard Oil Company of California
225 Bush Street
San Francisco, California 94120

Standard Oil Company of California
An Equal Opportunity Employer

SPRING. 1968 8









r'olaboratory


An Inexpensive

LASER GRATING INTERFEROMETER


JAMES F. GRIFFIN*
JAMES L. THRONEt
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ohio University,
Athens, Ohio 45701

INTRODUCTION
In order to visually demonstrate chemical en-
gineering phenomena to undergraduates, many
inexpensive experiments have been developed. It
is the purpose of this article to describe the de-
sign of a rugged interferometer-Schmidt Schlieren
apparatus that can be used for serious research
as well as undergraduate demonstration and ex-
perimentation. The Laser Grating Interferometer
described herein costs about $600, quite inexpen-
sive when compared with the price of a com-
mercial instrument.

INTERFEROMETERS, SHADOWGRAPHS, AND
SCHLIEREN
There are three basic types of devices nor-
mally used for observing changes in the refractive
indices of transparent materials:
la) The shadowgraph, shown schematically in
Figure la, consists simply of a point source of in-
coherent monochromatic light, a screen for pro-
jection of the shadows, and some type of photo-
graphic arrangement, which shall be shown here
as a photographic plate. With this very simple
set-up one can only measure the gradient of the
density gradient, information that is useful pri-
marily in exterior ballistics and not in chemical
engineering.
Ib) The Schmidt Schlieren (or "streak")
equipment of Figure Ib, consists of a point source
of light located at the focal point of a parabolic
mirror, and a photographic system located several
feet from the object (Schmidt used a distance of
50 meters). Since one can measure the density
gradient directly (and hence the thermal gradient
in incompressible flow) this equipment has been
*Research Engineer, Monsanto Research Corp., Miamis-
burg, Ohio.
tAssociate Professor, Member ASEE.


OJL.CT


POINT SouCLE
MomOLHOtAv L,.1T


PHoTroA 'HICL PLrTE.


*q VI.ac of S owIgraph.
Figure la. -Schematic of Shadowgraph.


0 .Le -r


PaRasoLic
M tqqoi P.o.,A SOUrCL M
MoMeCt0f\aTIC Lit.kT
Figure lb.-Schematic of Schmidt Schlieren Equipment.
used extensively for the determination of the
local heat transfer coefficients.' The Schmidt
Schlieren apparatus should be considered a spec-
ialized form of the shadowgraph. It should be
pointed out that the best description of this equip-
ment can be found in Schmidt's original article.2
2). The Schlieren equipment shown in Figure
Ic consists of a point source of light at the focal
point of one parabolic mirror, a sharp edge or
slit located at the focal point of a second para-
bolic mirror, and a photographic plate placed at
some convenient distance. This equipment is fre-
quently used for investigation of compressible
fluid phenomena, but has been found suitable for
incompressible fluid measurements only where
the density gradients depend on temperature
gradients.
3) The Mach-Zehnder interferometer, shown
in Figure Id, is the most accurate device for the
measurement of density (or index of refraction
variation) known. It consists of a point source
of light that is divided by a beam splitter into a
reference beam and a beam that passes through
the effected field. When the beams are brought
together again, the increase or decrease in the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








PolIT SoueCL


PoTo ,(aPIAC
PL TE.
Figure lc.-Schematic of Schlieren Equipment.


-PLQTC.

Figure Id.-Schematic of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Equipment.

path taken by the effected beam owing to the
changes in the index of refraction causes inter-
ference patterns to appear on the photographic
plate. Hence the interferometer enables one to
measure density (or in incompressible fluids,
temperature or concentration) directly. These
interferograms are familiar to everyone.3
The relative ease of alignment of the equip-


ment, a representative price and relative amount
and accuracy of the information obtained for the
three pieces of equipment described above are
listed in Table I. As is apparent, the more in-
formation one requires from the test specimen,
the more expensive the equipment becomes and
the more sensitive and difficult the alignment be-
comes.

LASER EQUIPMENT
The recent development of continuous gas
lasers producing coherent light has revealed a new
dimension of optical research that can be exploited
by chemical engineers. In a recent article, J. R.
Sterrett, et al.4 describe the development of a
laser grating interferometer. This unit, shown
schematically in Figure 2a, utilizes a Helium-
Neon 6328 A laser in place of the incoherent
point light source, a small lens for spreading the
beam, the Schlieren set-up of Figure Ic, and a
diffraction grating in place of the knife-edge.
Since the laser produces coherent light, the inter-
ference patterns are produced without the use of
a reference beam and all the microscopic adjusting
equipment that goes along with beam splitting
devices.*

DEVELOPMENT OF INEXPENSIVE LASER GRATING
INTERFEROMETER
Development of an inexpensive interferometer
using the ideas of Sterrett, et al., was undertaken.
*When the laser reference beam is used, one obtains
holograms, which when viewed with coherent light, re-
construct three-dimensional objects complete with paral-
lax6. The utilization of this technique in chemical engi-
neering will be discussed in a subsequent article.


u .c tc of LA r Grg Irr r

Figure 2a.-Schematic of Laser Grating Interferometer.


SPRING, 1968


GAs LASV-k








TABLE I
Comparison of Devices for Optical Observation of Changes in Refractive Indices


Representative
Manufactured
Price


Data Obtained


Ease of
Alignment


Accuracy and Use
of Information


Shadowgraph

Schmidt Schlieren

Schlieren


Mach-Zehnder
Intereferometer


$1,200.1

4,950.2

7,777.3


65,225.4


Second derivative
of density
First derivative
of density
First derivative
of density

Density


Simple


Relatively
Easy
More difficult
than Schmidt
Schlieren
Very difficult


In compressible flow, position of shock
waves
In heat transfer, local heat transfer co-
efficient to 10%
In compressible flow, rarefaction and secon-
dary shock waves

Once aligned, accuracy is very high for all
work


1E.G. & G. Model 549 Microflash Point Source.
2Carl Zeiss, Inc. Catalog No. 64 22 34, 200 mm diameter by 1.6 m radius of
curvature.
3Carl Zeiss, Inc. Catalog No. 64 23 34, 2 mirrors as above, complete with mounts
and illuminator.
4Carl Zeiss, Inc. Model No. D 2, Catalog No. 64 21 03 with 12 x 18 cm test field.


The mirrors selected were 8-in. diameter front-
face 1/4-wavelength parabolic telescope mirrors
with 64-in. focal lengths. The mirror mounts
were purchased and mounted in mirror support
brackets that were made in the departmental
shop. The support brackets are shown schematic-
ally in Figure 3. The laser was a 0.3mw. Optic
Technology Model 170. The diffraction grating
used was 500 lines/in..* These items, along with
their supplier and the cost, are listed in Table II.


I Ir__ s-


The total cost of all purchased equipment exclud-
ing photographic equipment was $617.25. To re-
duce distortion, the laser was placed as close to
the parallel light path as possible, and for inter-
ferometric work, the diffraction grating and pho-

*Gratings of 100 lines per in. or fewer produce a fuzzy
image, and those with 2000 lines per in. produce multiple,
overlapping orders of interference.4 Gratings of 15000
lines per in. produce a hierarchy of orders of interference
that appear as a mosaic pattern.


M e M.


Osstwr
Bttue


"PAaeOLC, Mlqr(.o
BENC14


M VA(Ito AC
MIrkp Al.t boc1


OPriclt. to; worT V')it.AbRko %AC
Figure 2b.-Schematic of Equipment incorporating both
Schmidt Schlieren and Interferometer.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Description








tographic plate were also placed as close to the
parallel light path as possible. To obtain a large
working field the mirrors were placed on sepa-
rate tables. This is not to be recommended, how-
ever, since it necessitates leveling and alignment
of two tables rather than one. For research work,
and permanent demonstrations, a U-shaped mir-
ror support table would be desirable.


8- Ac PAt.Lus rl M.rqo
u nraUlont SUPPo.r


'7-NMCH 100 T(EAUm
coD-WL I~LL


MAsSSt. STCAL
(oIL MrM17V6.6)_&cfL
LATL r o F.ol. -
MoQMrtlb


Figure 3.-Parabolic Mirror Support Brackets and Frames.


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The initial alignment of the mirrors was car-
ried out using a continuous point source of inco-
herent light from a Black Light Eastern Spectro-
line Zirconium Arc Model 1702 PS* However, it
was found that the mirrors were more easily and
rapidly aligned with the laser. In addition, it was
much easier to place long specimens in the field
parallel to the light field with the laser. With the
mirrors placed 15 ft. apart, the field is approxi-
mately 4 ft. long by 7 in. in diameter. During
initial development stages of this equipment, the
test specimen was a 1/4 in. diameter aluminum
rod, 4 to 20 in. in length. The specimen was
heated to about 1000C with a Bernz-o-matic
torch and suspended in the field between the mir-
rors on a ring stand. It is suggested that for
interferometry work, a minimum of 15 ft. be
allowed between the mirrors. This will minimize
distortion and provide elbow room while the
equipment is being adjusted. It is also advisable
to have 15 ft. between the specimen and the photo-
graphic plate for Schlieren Shadowgraph work.
*Black Light Eastern, 24 Kinkel Street, Westbury, L.I.,
N.Y., $67.50, 2 w., zirconium lamp.


TABLE II.
Equipment List for Inexpensive Laser Grating
Interferometer


Description


8-in. diameter tele-
scope parabolic front
face mirror with
64-inch focal length
and 14-wavelength
surface (2 required),
No. 85,069
Mirror Mounts (2
required) No. 70,536
Mirror Supports

Mirror Support
Center Posts (2
required), No. 40,392
Continuous Gas Laser
0.3 mw. at 6328 A.
Model 170
Diffraction Grating,*
Transmission Type,
2000 lines/inch
No. 86265
Neutral Density Filter
1% Transmission
HS 1402


Manufacturer


Price


Edmund Scientific Co.
Barrington, N. J.






Edmund Scientific Co.

Ohio University Engr.
Development Lab.
Edmund Scientific Co.



Optics Technology, Inc.
901 California Ave.
Palo Alto, Cal. 94304
Central Scientific Co.
1700 Irving Park Rd.
Chicago, 13, Ill.

Fairchild Industrial
Products
221 Fairchild Avenue
Plainview, N.Y. 11803


TOTAL


$178.00







55.50


2.00


295.00


7.25




9.50




$617.25


*Ronchi Rulings can be used here also. See Edmund
Scientific for various lines per in.



Polaroid 3000 in 4 x 5 film packs was used
with a camera shutter with a speed of 1/100 sec.
placed ahead of the laser. Even with the rela-
tively weak light source, quite good photographs
were obtained at this speed owing to the mono-
chromaticity of the laser.t
A Schmidt Schlieren laser photograph of natu-
ral convection from the hot rod looks exactly like
the original2 (see also Reference 3, Fig. 11-7).
The laser interferogram of the same rod shows
very clearly the isotherms, exactly like that of

tQuite spectacular photographs can be made using
Polaroid 58, color, owing to the red laser light. For
serious work, however, the color film was found to be too
slow. For very accurate work involving measurements
from photographs, a fine-grain film such as Pola Pan 52
can be used.


SPRING, 1968









Figure 11-9 of Reference 3*. To obtain the
Schmidt Schlieren photograph, the laser inter-
ferometer was first set up, and then an 8-in by
10-in flat front-face mirror was placed in front
of the second mirror. (See Fig. 2b). Some minor
refocussing of the photographic plate was neces-
sary; however, both pictures were obtained with-
in 20 minutes.


DISCUSSION


With a minimum of preparation and align-
ment, this equipment can be assembled in a dark-
ened room for demonstration of heat transfer,
mass transfer, or interfacial turbulence.5 In ad-
dition, since the sharpness of the images allow
for critical experimental determination of bound-
ary layer thickness, thermal gradients, etc., sev-
eral undergraduate transport phenomena experi-
ment could be conceived using this equipment.
This unit, as shown in Figure 2b, was used to
measure local heat transfer coefficients from con-
tinuous moving belts into ambient stagnant air.
Results of this research indicated that good agree-
ment exists between experimental values and
theoretical values, determined from similarity
principles applied to the boundary layer equa-
*It is recommended that the rod not be heated to
redness. At very high temperature differences, the light is
refracted from the heated surface to such a great extent
that the isotherms are obscured.


tion.7,' Chemical engineering research at Ohio
University in the areas of heat and mass transfer
from extruded filaments, diffusion into polymer-
solvent systems, and the like, will continue to
utilize laser interferometers, coupled with high
speed photographic systems, microscope systems,
and the new techniques of 3-dimensional holo-
graphy.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT


The authors acquowledge the support of TAP-
PI, Paper Coating Committee for partial support
on this project.

REFERENCES
1. Eckert, E., and Soehngen, E., USAF Tech. Rept.
5747, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio
1948.
2. Schmidt, E., Forsch, Gebiete Ingenieurw., 3, 81-89
(1932).
3. Eckert E., and Drake, R. M., "Heat and Mass
Transfer," McGraw-Hill, 1959, 2nd Ed., pp. 321-323.
4. Sterrett, J. R., Emery, J. C., and Barber, J. B.
AIAA Journ., 3, 963-4 (1965).
5. Berg, J. C. and Baldwin, D. C., Trend, Univ. of
Washington, Seattle, 13-17 (Oct. 1965).
6. Leith, E. M. and Upatnieks, J., J. Opt. Soc. Amer-
ica, 54, 1295-1301, (1964).
7. Griffin, James F., M. S. Thesis, Ohio University,
1966.
8. Griffin, James F. and Throne, J. L., AIChE J. 13,
1210 (1967).


James F. Griffin is a research chemist in isotopes sepa-
ration at Monsanto Research Corporation. His work in-
cludes design and optimization of thermal diffusion cas-
cades for separation of rare gas isotopes. He received
his B. A. in chemistry from Oberlin College in 1961 and,
his M.S. in chemical engineering from Ohio University
in 1967. (Photo at left)
Dr. James L. Throne is currently an Associate Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering at Ohio University,
Athens, Ohio. He received his B.S. in Chemical Engi-
neering in 1959 from Case Institute of Technology, his
M.Ch.E. in 1961 and his Ph.D. in 1964 from the University
of Delaware. His primary research interests are in applied
mechanics, mathematics, and transport phenomena in
polymeric systems. (Photo at right)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












new this spring from Prentice-Hall...
The Kinetics of Chemical Processes
by Michel Boudart
Professor of Chemical Engineering
and Chemistry, Stanford University
This text presents the kinetic analysis of elementary steps,
single reactions, and reactions as an elementary level to
suit the needs of the chemist interested in reactivity and
the chemical engineer involved with reactors. Applications to
chain and catalytic reactions and special attention to the
rate equation help give the text the scope desirable for
an introduction to the subject. The problems in the text
are thoroughly tested, and a solutions manual is
available to teachers. May 1968, 258 pp., $7.50


published in February by Prentice-Hall...
Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
Stephan Whitaker
University of California, Davis
For use in introductory courses in fluid mechanics, this
new text offers an exceptionally thorough treatment of the
macroscopic (or integral) momentum and mechanical
energy equations. The first half of the book is devoted
primarily to theoretical analysis, leading to the differential
equations of motion. Integral equations (and Bernoulli's
equation) are derived and applied to a variety of practical
problems, including closed and open conduit flow,
compressible flow, and flow around immersed bodies.
Physical and Chemical Engineering Sciences, edited by Neal
Amundson. Solutions Manual to problems in the text is
available upon adoption of the text. February 1968,
480 pp., $12.00
for approval copies, write: Box 903, Prentice-Hall
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632


SPRING, 1968









Book reviews


Optimal Control of Engineering Processes
Leon Lapidus and Rein Luus
Blaisdell Publishing Company
Waltham, Mass. (1967)
The field of optimal control of chemical engi-
neering processes is not yet as firmly ensconced
in chemical engineering curricula as the optimi-
zation of these processes, but promises to de-
velop rapidly. The two areas are, in fact, inter-
twined, but optimization generally implies stead-
state optimal design by best choice of a finite num-
ber of parameters, using the methods of linear
or non-linear programming, while optimal con-
trol involves the choice of a best control function
in a continuous (frequently time-dependent) sys-
tem, or in a discrete staged process. The tech-
niques derive principally from modern extensions
of the classical calculus of variations, such as dy-
namic programming and the Pontryagin maxi-
mum principle. The activity in this field has been
quite intense in recent years, and the authors have
put together an introductory text, primarily for
the graduate level, which advisably summarizes
this work, including their own. The preface states
that the book is suitable for the advanced under-
graduate, and indeed nearly all the pertinent
mathematics is briefly set forth within the book.
Nevertheless, the treatment is quite compact, at
times to the point of being difficult to read, and
it is likely that the principal use of the text will
be on the first or second-year graduate level. In
general, however, the style is lucid and forth-
right, and is welcome for its lack of pretension.
Both the beginning and the advanced student of
the field will find much of interest in it.
The book begins with a chapter on fundament-
al definitions and system structures, including a
definition of the optimal control problem, the twin
concepts of controllability and observability, and
stability. The next chapter deals with general
mathematical procedures, giving in quick order
treatments of dynamic programming, the con-
tinuous and the discrete maximum principle, the
solution of linearized systems via the adjoint
equations, stability analysis by Liapunov's second
method, gradient methods and constrained opti-
ma, and a cursory treatment of linear and non-
linear programming. Some fairly realistic nu-


medical examples are worked out, and these are
used throughout the text to illustrate various
aspects of the optimal control problem. An ex-
tensive treatment of the optimal control of linear
systems with quadratic performance index is
given in the next chapter, which is justified, even
in chemical engineering, for the illumination it
sheds on the non-linear problems which are us-
ually encountered. The next chapter deals with
computational methods, to which the senior au-
thor has contributed extensively, and deals with
a variety of modern techniques, including direct
search, gradient methods, and second-variation
methods. The last two chapters reflect the spe-
cial interest of the authors in stability and con-
trol of linear and non-linear systems. The use
of Liapunov functions for sub-optimal minimum-
time control is illustrated.
The most important weakness of the text is
the absence of problems or exercises for the stu-
dent. Granted that the formulation of meaning-
ful problems which can be solved without exten-
sive computer work is difficult in this field, it
would nevertheless have been helpful for the stu-
dent to have had at least a few simple illustrative
exercises at the end of each chapter. There are
a few other minor flaws, such as the use of a
linear formula on p. 166 for a quadratic objec-
tive function, and rather poor notation on p. 263
in the explanation of the second variation meth-
od, which does not distinguish between total and
partial derivatives with respect to the state vari-
ables. Nevertheless, the book is remarkably error-
free, and contains a great deal of information.
It is without question the best book in its field
presently available, and will serve as a useful ref-
erence for years to come. It should find wide use
in optimal control courses on the graduate level
both within and without chemical engineering.

S. George Bankoff
Northwestern University







Invitation to Readers
Readers are encouraged to submit reviews of
new text books and also reviews of texts that
have been used in courses to be considered for
publication.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









E E news


The annual ASEE Meeting will be held at Los
Angeles, Calif. on June 17-20, 1968. The ChE
Program Chairman for the meeting is Dr. D. K.
Anderson, Chemical Engineering Department,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michi-
gan 48823. The program follows:


Monday, June 17
12:00- 1:30 P.M.
Committee


Executive Committee Meeting
Dr. L. Bryce Andersen, Presiding


Tuesday, June 18
10:00-11:30 A.M. Annual Distinguished Lecturer
Lecture Dr. George Burnet, Presiding
12:00- 1:30 P.M. Annual Division Business Meeting
Luncheon Dr. L. Bryce Andersen, Presiding
1:45- 5:30 P.M. Frontier Areas in Chemical
Conference Engineering
Dr. L. Bryce Andersen, Presiding
Wednesday, June 19
10:00-11:30 A.M. New Approach to Teaching Chemical
Conference Engineering
Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Presiding
1:45- 3:30 P.M. Meeting of Chemical Engineering
Conference Department Heads
Dr. Wm. H. Honstead, Presiding
6:00- 7:45 P.M. Annual Chemical Engineering
Banquet Division Banquet
Dr. L. Bryce Andersen, Presiding
Speaker: Silas A. Bradley
Dow Corning Center for Aid to
Medical Research
"Artificial Internal Organs"
The program papers feature two areas of in-
terest to ChE Educators.

I. New Approaches to Teaching Chemical Engineering
The New Stoichiometry, E. J. Henley and E. M. Rosen
A Self-pacing, Auto-graded Course, G. David Schilling
Chemical Engineering Laboratory-An Integrated Ap-
Approach, John R. Thygeson
University-Industry Parnerships in Design Education
Buford D. Smith
Teaching Optimization Methods, Louis L. Edwards

II. Frontier Areas in Chemical Engineering
An Environmental Focus for Engineering Education
Seymour Calvert
Education for a New Environment-b'omnedical
Engineering, Richard C. Seagrave
Ocean Engineering, Carl H. Gibson
Space Engineering, John L. Mason


problems for teachers



Readers are again urged to send pub-
lishable solutions to the problems for teach-
ers in volume 2, no. 1 of CEE either to Dr.
Levenspiel or to the Editor.
The following problems were written
by Professors R. K. Irey and J. H. Pohl at
the University of Florida. Readers may
send solutions to the Editor. The solution
will be published in a future issue dealing
with thermodynamics.
1. For a single component closed system, the
Gibbs equation is written as
tj
cu. = TcLs Z F-

The Fj's and xj's are the generalized forces
and displacements of the N reversible work
modes.
a. Develop a set of N + 1 equations relating
the partial derivatives of u to thermody-
namic functions.
b. Develop N + 1 Maxwell relations for the
system.
The following analogs are defined:

For the Gibbs i
Function: a 2 U+ F.-x 7-
For the Helmholtz -
Function:
and for enthalpy Y, = F + / R"
j., / I
c. How many equations similar to those of
part a) can we develop from the analogs?
(Example:

Fi
d. How many independent Maxwell relations
are available?
e. Derive the Maxwell relation for



2. For a single component closed system, the
Gibbs equation is written as

cd = Tds Z ex .

Continued on Next Page.


SPRING, 1968








Problems for Teachers (Cont'd)
We define an analog of enthalpy as


J J
The Fj's and xj's are the generalized forces
and displacements of the N reversible work
modes. Let the generalized specific heat at
constant generalized force and the generalized
specific heat at constant generalized displace-
ment be defined respectively as

C;
(a 74 (7
rh.r


a. Show that


Cr-C -
p. XL


-f/


I I


. (~X~)


b. If C represents available data on the
x
specific heat at given values of the N gen-
eral displacements xj show that


C. -. =
^t x x


3. For a multicomponent, open system, the Gibbs
equation can be written as


dUT = dS + t+n +A cm
where N is the number of reversible work
modes and v is the number of components of
the system,
*k' is the partial molar total Legendre trans-
form of species k,
q is the total Legendre transform per unit
mass.
a. How many equations relating partial deriva-
tives of U to thermodynamic functions are
available?
b. How many Maxwell relations are available?
c. With the following analogs:


For the Gibbs
Function:
For the Helmholtz
Function:

and enthalpy


= +Jf- TS
J.1



_+ @
j=f


ACKNO WLEDGMENTS
The CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA-
TION staff and readers express their gratitude to
the additional industrial and educational institu-
tions who have contributed to the financial support
of this journal.
Industrial organizations: Donors and new adver-
tisers
Atlantic Richfield Company
C. F. Braun and Company
Dow Chemical Company
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works
McGraw-Hill Book Company
Monsanto Company
Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
The Procter and Gamble Company
3M Company
Shell Oil Company
Standard Oil (Indiana) Foundation
The Stauffer Chemical Company
Educational institutions:
University of Arizona
University of California, Davis
University of California, Berkeley
University of Delaware
Illinois Institute of Technology
Kansas State University
University of Louisville
University of Missouri at Rolla
Montana State University
Pennsylvania State University
Purdue University
South Dakota School of Mines & Technology
State University of New York at Buffalo
University of Southwestern Louisiana
University of Tennessee
University of Toronto
Villanova University


Problems for Teachers (Cont'd)
How many equations similar to part (a) and
(b) can we develop?
d. Show that

=i --


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


X


I .
7x \ 4%) 0 _X
Xi 42X

































COLUMBUS WATERED HERE


In August 1492, the crews of Columbus'
expeditionary ships Santa Maria, Pinta and
Nifia took enough water from this well in Palos,
Spain to last until they reached the New World.
Now, 475 years later, the well is still in use,
but as a tourist attraction.
Several Fluor employees and their families
toured this part of Spain during 1967. Why
not? They were living there as part of the team
building a refinery for Rio Gulf de Petroleos
at La Rabida, the site from which Columbus
actually sailed. The Rio Gulf project is just one
of some thirty foreign jobs currently under way
by Fluor.
Fluor's principal engineering centers are
located in the United States and Europe. Almost


every plant Fluor builds is engineered in one
of four support facilities... Los Angeles, Hous-
ton, London or Haarlem, Holland. But an en-
gineer who starts at one of these offices may
eventually end up at a foreign jobsite (if he
chooses to do so).
Right now there are openings in Los
Angeles and Houston for Chemical Engineers
with a B.S. degree or higher. Areas of specialty
include process design, process development,
computer and project engineering.
Why not join a company with an
international flavor and with international
opportunities? For more details write our
college recruiters, Frank Leach in Los Angeles
or Ed Hines in Houston.


THE FLUOR CORPORATION, LTD.
ENGINEERS & CONSTRUCTORS
2500 South Atlantic Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90022
3137 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, Texas 77021

AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER






The world of Union Oil

salutes the world

of chemical engineering


We at Union Oil are particularly indebted to the colleges
and universities which educate chemical engineers.
Because their graduates are the scientists who contribute
immeasurably to the position Union enjoys today:
The twenty-sixth largest manufacturing company in
the United States, with operations throughout
the world.
Union today explores for and produces oil and natural gas
in such distant places as the Persian Gulf and Alaska's
Cook Inlet. We market petroleum products and petro-
chemicals throughout the free world.
Our research scientists are constantly discovering new
ways to do things better. In fact, we have been granted
more than 2,700 U.S. patents.
We and our many subsidiaries are engaged in such
diverse projects as developing new refining processes,
developing new fertilizers to increase the food yield, and
the conservation of air and water.
Today, Union Oil's growth is dynamic.
Tomorrow will be even more stimulating.
Thanks largely to people who join us from leading
institutions of learning.
If you enjoy working in an atmosphere of imagination and
challenge, why not look into the world of Union Oil?
Growth...with innovation. Union Oil Company of California.



unl n




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