Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00016
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00016

Full Text







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JANUARY 1966
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COMPLEMENT TO DESIGN:
Trouble-shooting Problems

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The Prentice-Hall International Series

in the Physical and Chemical

Engineering Sciences

Edited by Neal R. Amundson, Head of the Department of Chemical
Engineering, University of Minnesota. The consulting editors are
Andreas Acrivos, Stanford University; John Dahler, University of
Minnesota; Thomas J. Hanratty, University of Illinois; David E. Lamb,
University of Delaware; John M. Prausnitz, University of California,
Berkeley; and L. E. Scriven, University of Minnesota.

PUBLICATIONS IN THIS SERIES INCLUDE:

COMPUTER CALCULATIONS FOR MULTICOMPONENT VAPOR-
liquid equilibria BY J. M. Prausnitz, C. A. Eckert, R. V. Orye, and J. P.
O'Connell. 1966, Price and publication date to be announced.
UNSTEADY STATE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATIONS IN MUL-
TI-COMPONENT DISTILLATION by Charles D. Holland. 1966,
Price and publication date to be announced.
MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING:
Matrices and Their Application by Neal Amundson. 1966, 270pp.,
$10.50
CHEMICAL REACTION ANALYSIS by Eugene E. Peterson. 1965,
276pp., $10.50
INTRODUCTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL REAC-
TORS by Rutherford Aris. 1965, 286pp., $10.95
LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER HYDRODYNAMICS: With Special
Applications to Particulate Media by John Happel and Howard Brenner.
1965, 553 pp., $15.00
OPTIMUM SEEKING METHODS by Douglass J. Wilde. 1964,
282pp., $8.25
PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF RHEOLOGY by A. G. Fred-
rickson. 1964, 326pp., $12.95
MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION by CharlesD. Holland. 1963,
506pp., $14.95
PHYSICOCHEMICAL HYDRODYNAMICS, 2nd Ed., 1962 by Venia-
min G. Levich. 1962, 700 pp., $15.00
VECTORS, TENSORS, AND THE BASIC EQUATIONS OF FLUID
MECHANICS by Rutherford Aris. 1962, 286pp., $10.50

PRICES SHOWN ARE FOR STUDENT USE:

for further information -
and approval copies,
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Contents for Volume 1, No. 2, Jan. 66


19 A Complement to Design:
Trouble-Shooting Problems
Donald R. Woods


24 A New Chemical Engineering Option
Option in an Engineering Science
Oriented Core Curriculum
D. L. Wise
and L.A. Madonna


36 A Note From the Editors


Departments

iii Editor's Corner
iv CED/AIChE News
27 Speaking Out
30 What They're Using


R. P. Genereaux


W. H. Abraham


EDITORS'


Strong has been the sound and great the fury
generated throughout the land by the Prelimi-
nary Report of the ASEE Goals Committee.
And the end is not yet in sight. Chemical
engineers, academic and industrial,were among
the first to speak up, and they continue to con-
tribute substantially to the din and frenzy. Thus
far the clearest and the most numerous voices
have the accent of con, and this is to be expec-
ted. After all, the Report itself presents directly
and, indeed, in semi-official tones the pro view,
and there is really little incentive for those who
agree to join the voice that rumbles, as it were,
from Sinai.
For the moment CHEM ENG ED takes no
position in the Goals controversy. To do so now
would be premature and improper.* But this
we can assert: the fierce outcry and the Report
that induced it certainly do not signify nothing!
The fact of the Report, the fact of the subject
matter, the fact of the authoring Committee
are tremendously significant. Even more so is
the immediate and spirited if disputatious re-
sponse. Most significant is the thread of conso-
nance in that response, arising as it does
spontaneously from many scattered nuclei.
Clearly engineers care about the goals of
engineering education and care enough to try
to implement their convictions. What could be
healthier? When the dust has settled and the
quiet of resolution is restored, the race will
have inched itself another notch in the direction
of better professional education.


A sub-committee appointed by the Executive Committee of
the Chemical Engineering Division is studying the Report
and will present a statement to the Division at the June
meeting of the Society.



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
official journal of the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education


Editor Shelby A. Miller
Consulting Editor Albert H. Cooper
Assistant Editor John W. Bartlett
Publications Committee of CED
L. Bryce Andersen Chairman
Charles E. Littlejohn
E. P. Bartkus
James H. Weber
Executive Committee of CED
Chairman John B. West
Chairman-elect J. A. Bergantz
Secretary-Treasurer William H. Honstead
Elected Committeemen J. T. Banchero
W. H. Corcoran
Past Chairman George Burnet


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is pub.
lished four times during the academic year
by the Chemical Engineering Division, Ameri-
can Society of Education. Publication months:
October, January, April, June. Publication
and editorial offices: 201 Gavett Hall, Uni-
versity of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 14627.
Title registered U. S. Patent Office.
Subscription rates: To Chemical Engineering
Division members, $3.00 per year; to non-
members in the Western Hemisphere, $4.00
per year; to non-members'outside the West-
ern Hemisphere, $5.00 per year; single issue
price, $1.50. Advertising rates quoted upon
request.


JANUARY 1966


ICRE







CED/AIChE


Divisional activities are a great part of
the strength of the American Society for
Engineering Education. Without its di-
visional sessions, the annual meeting of
the Society would be of less significance.
The Chemical Engineering Division
takes great pride in the programs it has
arranged for past meetings, and equal
pride in presenting the one planned for
the 74th Annual Meeting of ASEE, to be
held at Washington State University,
Pullman, Washington, June 20- 24,
1966. It is outlined below. The Executive
Committee of the Chemical Engineering
Division urges all who are interested in
chemical engineering education to come
to Pullman and attend all of the sessions.

Preliminary Program
Chemical Engineering Division
American Society for Engineering Education

ANNUAL MEETING
Pullman, Washington
June 20-24, 1966

Division Sessions

Tuesday, June 21, 1966
8-9:45 P.M.
Executive Committee Meeting
Presiding: J. B. West, Okahoma State Univ.

10-11:45 A.M. 2-3:45 P.M.
CH. E. WORKSHOP
Improved Approaches to Solution of Ordinary
and Partial Differential Equations by Use of
Numerical Analysis and High-Speed Digital
Computer.
Presiding: J. 0. Wilkes, University of Michigan


1. A Junior Course on Matter, Energy and
Forces.
C. Michael Mohr, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology.
2. Introduction of Chemical Engineering to
Freshman Students.
R. L. Pigford, University of Delaware.

12-1:45 P.M.
Chemical Engineering Division
BUSINESS LUNCHEON
Presiding: J. B. West, Oklahoma State Univ.
6 P.M.
Chemical Engineering Division
ANNUAL BANQUET
Presiding: J. B. West, Oklahoma State Univ.
Technology.
Speaker: W. W. Churchill, Univ. of Michigan

Thursday, June 23, 1966
10-11:45 A.M.
Chemical Engineering Division
ANNUAL LECTURE
Presiding: J. B. West, Oklahoma State Univ.
Speaker: Octave Levenspiel, Illinois Institute of
Technology.
"Changing Attitudes to Reactor Design"
2-3:45 P.M.
PANEL DISCUSSION

on the Relation between Biomedical Engineer-
ing and Teaching Chemical Engineering.
Presiding: E. L. Gaden, Jr., Columbia Univ.
Panelists:
1. R. L. Bell, University of California, Davis,
California
2. Giles Cokelet, California Institute of Tech-
nology.
3. K. E. Keller, University of Minnesota.
4. R. E. Sparks, Case Institute of Technology
5. Robert Weaver, Tulane University


Wednesday, June 22, 1966


10-11:45 A.M.


NEW APPROACHES
in the Teaching of Undergraduate Courses in
the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

Presiding: W. H. Corcoran, California Institute
of Technology.


CHEM ENG ED


I3NEW







COMPLEMENT TO DESIGN:


Trouble-shooting Problems


Donald R. Woods
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Ideally, every final year engineering
student should be given a course that
coordinates all he has learned and
shows him how to apply his knowledge
in industry. Such a course should illus-
trate economics, require both creative
and analytical thinking, give practice
in asking the right questions, and in-
still some practical know-how.
Traditionally a design project has
been used to satisfy these requirements.
There is, however, another teaching
method that can satisfy them: trouble-
shooting problems. Trouble-shooting
problems have been enthusiastically
received by the chemical engineering
students for the past couple of years
as a completement to design projects
at McMaster University. This paper
discusses the adaptation of trouble-
shooting problems to class use. Several
examples are given.
What are Trouble-Shooting Problems?
Trouble-shooting problems are typi-
cal plant situations in which a section
of the plant is not working right. A
straight-forward solution cannot be
reached on the diagnostics available;
some experimentation is usually re-
quired to isolate and correct the
difficulty. The objective is to get the
plant running properly with the mini-
mum total cost.
The problems are solved much as a
detective solves a murder mystery. A
detective may search for additional
clues or he can make an arrest im-
mediately. By searching for further
clues first, he has more proof that he
is arresting the real culprit. Neverthe-
less, the more time he spends searching
for clues and pursuing red herrings
before making his arrest, the lower
his rating as a detective. Similarly, the
student may try to correct the plant
trouble from insufficient evidence or he
can perform experiments and ask ques-
tions to pinpoint the trouble. The more
money (time, labor and equipment) he
spends before he gets the plant going
again, the lower his rating as an
engineer.


Adaptation to Class Use
At McMaster the trouble-shooting
problems were worked in class, and
the following general philosophy was
adapted. The students worked individu-
ally and each at his own pace. They
obtained information by requesting
it from blueprints and from plant his-
tory, or by performing experiments.
Either way,they purchased information
because they were charged for any
downtime, loss of production, labor, or
equipment needed for each request.
The Procedure Adopted Was:
1. All that the students knew about the
plant was given on the problem
sheet. No background experience
was expected. Other information
(such as flow diagrams, mass bal-
ances, and operating data) were
available, at a price, for the asking.
2. More than one thing could have
been wrong on the plant.
3. Use of any textbooks, especially
cost estimating notes, was en-
couraged.
4. Each student worked on his own.
5. A problem was complete when the
plant was working correctly, and
the student had estimated the total
cost incurred correcting the trouble.
6. The student was told to assume
that there was negligible error above
and beyond the instrument limita-
tions for any laboratory or experi-
mental work done.
7. The purchase of information was
irreversible. Once an experiment had
been run and the results given, the
money spent to obtain the informa-
tion was charged against the stu-
dent's account and could not be
recovered whether he actually used
the information or not.
8. The mechanism for purchasing in-
formation was as follows:
(a) The student specified in detail
in the left hand column of the work-
sheet (shown in Exhibit B ) exactly
what he wanted done. An instruction
like "measure the temperature" was
unacceptable. The student had to


JANUARY 1966







EXHIBIT A -- TROUBLE-SHOOTING PROBLEM 1
Stearine Blender

The quality of blended stearine depends upon the tempera-
ture; stearine discolors if it is kept at too high a tempera-
ture too long. Furthermore, the stearine is kept at 2 to 3C
above its freezing point to minimize the setting or solidifi-
cation time. The next stage after the blender is blocking
and flaking.

To satisfy the above requirements, warm water (65C) is
circulated
1. in the jacket around the blend tank;
2. through Jackets around all stearine lines;
3. through coils in the blend tank.

A simplified sketch of the warm water circuit is shown
below.


BLENDER
S SYSTEM




LIEBIG
HEATER


COLD MAKEUP WATER


DETAIL OF HEATER EXIT

/T WARM
WATER





/^ / STEAM


CONDENSATE


Problem:

For the past 12 hours
the stearine has been off-
color and has required a
longer time to solidify than
usual. The blender handles
20 tons/24 hours. Specifi-
cation-grade stearine is
worth l6p lb. The boss
comes into your office and
exclaims: "Get this plant
going correctly!"


CHEM ENGED






specify the instrument to be used, and
its location. The details had to be
sufficient so that a non-engineer
could perform the task.
(b) The student estimated the cost
of the experiment or request and
reported this in the central column.
This included downtime, loss of pro-
duction, his time, cost of equipment
and labor.
(c) He indicated to the instructor
that he wished to purchase the an-
swer to the proposal described in
(a) for price (b). The instructor
commented on the cost estimate,
adjusted it if necessary, and then
supplied an answer in the right
hand column of the worksheet. The
answer was for the experiment
described. If the instructions were
incomplete, a $50 penalty was im-
posed, and the student rewrote the
instructions.
9. This procedure for purchasing in-
formation was repeated until the
instructor indicated that the trouble
had been corrected. The costs were
totalled, the worksheets handed in
and the next problem tackled.
10. The marking scheme was as fol-
lows: Five marks were given for
completing each problem; to this
was added a mark out of five that
was prorated by relating the stu-
dent's cost to the minimum cost. A
50 / allowance was made to the
minimumrn cost because of the stu-
dent's lack of experience and because
of the impossibility of his visiting
the physical plant. Thus,the student's
mark was evaluated by the following
relationship
Mark = 5 + 5 Minimum Cost x 1.5
Student's Cost j
Examples and Comments
A problem is given in Exhibit A. To
illustrate the procedure, a student's
approach to solving this problem by
the prescribed method is given in Ex-
hibit B. This is a good problem with
which to start the series because it is
simple, and because it helps the students
to realize early in these problems that
instruments cannot always be trusted.
Additional problems are given in Ex-
hibits C, D, and E.
These problems were worked in class.
They are not adaptable as homework
assignments because of the required-
question immediate-answer approach


Problem Number 1
Date March 16


PROPOSAL COST
Find temperature of $65
return water with a
thermometer $50
Study the plant blue- $35
prints to see if there are
valves on line to and
from blender
Is there a manual
control on the controller?
Measure the temperature $65
of water from the Blender
Jacket by immersing a
thermometer in the open
discharge of the water
into the head tank. Use a
200 degree C. thermometer.
Remove the plug in the $65
tee in the line after the $65
heater (as shown in detail). $25
Insert a rubber stopper
through which passes
a thermometer


Reset control temperature $120
to about 45 degrees C.
so that exit water
temperature (as read on
thermometer) is 65C.
When is the next $ 5
shutdown?
Stop pump. Remove $65
stopper and thermometer,
replace plug, put a "Do
Not Touch" sign on the
controller. Check with
instrument department
to have a new recorder-
controller ready for shut-
down. Issue work order
for the replacement of
instrument during next
shutdown. Repair old $50
controller.


Name: J. MacDonald
Time Taken 30 minutes


RESULT
Incomplete In-
struction
Penalty
No valves in line
from heater to
head tank

No manual con-
rol on controller
72 degrees C.







Insufficient time
Penalty
Hot water over
everybody (be-
cause you didn't
shut off the pump
first)
The problem has
been solved but
what about the
man holding the
rubber stopper?
4 days

Satisfactory


$610
Mark5 +5 ( 1.5 (370) )

Mark = 9-1/2


JANUARY 1966


Exhibit B
Student's Worksheet for Problem I
Plant Trouble-Shooting






and because the problems are so open-
ended that a computer program would
be too complicated. One instructor and a
graduate assistant handled ten students
with negligible delay.
The first problems to be tackled illus-
trate these points: instrument calibra-
tions should be checked; flow diagrams
are not always up-to-date, and plant
operators can accurately describe
symptoms but their diagnosis of the
trouble may be wrong. It took an
average of 35 minutes to do each
problem. Although the problems cited
have described chemical processes this
approach should be easily adaptable
to other engineering situation.
It is interesting to note that some of
the students who did very well with
this type of problem were those who
had a low mark on other courses and
on other types of problems.

Summary
Trouble-shooting problems are en-
thusiastically received by chemical en-
gineering seniors as a complement to


design problems. These trouble-shoot-
ing problems offer a good method of
illustrating economics, providing crea-
tive and analytical thinking, instilling
practical know-how, co-ordinating pre-
vious course work, and illustrating
another aspect of engineering respon-
sibility. A successful method of class
adaptation has been presented, along
with details of students' operating rules
and a worked example. Although the
two years of experience reported has
been in chemical engineering, this
powerful teaching technique can easily
be adapted to other disciplines.


/IeS


EXHIBIT C -- TROUBLE-SHOOTING PROBLEM 2
Platformer Fires
Background:
Heavy napthas are converted into high-octane gasoline in "Plat-
forming." Byproducts of the reaction include low-pressure gas and
hydrogen-rich gas containing 60 to 80% hydrogen. The products from
the platformer reactor (at 700 psig and 500C) are heat-exchanged
with the feed naptha to preheat the reactor feed.


PLATFORMER


NAPTHA FEED


STAINLESS STEEL
SHELL-AND-TUBE
HEAT EXCHANGER
3 FT. DIAM.
12 FT. LONG


Problem:
"In the three weeks since
startup, we have had four
flash fires along the
flanges of the heat ex-
changer. The plant manager
claims that because of the
differential expansion
within the heat exchanger,
because of the diameter of
the exchanger and because
it's hydrogen, we're bound
to have these flash fires.
The board of directors and
the factory manger, however,
refuse to risk losing the
$9 million plant. Although


the loss in downtime is $5000/hr., they will not let the plant run
under this flash-fire hazard condition! Fix it!" says the technical
manager.

The maintenance men have already broken 6 bolts trying to get the
flange tighter, but they just can't get it tight enough.


CHEM ENGED







EXHIBIT D -- TROUBLE-SHOOTING PROBLEM 3
Fat Splitting in a Twitchell Tub



FEED STEAM Grease or fat can be
Converted to fatty acids and
glycerine by a number of
processes. An out-of-date
process -- yet one that still
handles some material in your
plant -- is the Twitchell
20, process. In this process,
water, grease, Twitchell's
reagent and sulfuric acid are
boiled for about 10 hours in
a 25-ton-capacity wooden vat.
Live steam supplies the heat
\ and the mixing. The steam
line goes to the base of the
VALVE vat, and then makes a loop
EXTENSION around the bottom. This 2-in.
EXIT diameter pipe has 1/4-in.
holes in the side of the pipe
that forms the loop.

An operator runs into your office and says: "I've just filled
number 1 Twitchell tub with charge and turned on the steam. But
nothing happens!"

The company loses $100 every hour this tub is out of operation.



EXHIBIT E -- TROUBLE-SHOOTING PROBLEM 4
Crude Grease Cleansing
Grease must be cleansed before it can be sent to mild steel auto-
claves for conversion into fatty acids. This consists of treating
the grease with a sulfuric-acid water mixture in a cyclic process
involving the following operations:
1. Boil
2. Settle
3. Run off acid-water
4. Add pure water and mix-settle to wash the fat free of
sulfuric acid
5. Drain off wash water and send fat to autoclaves.
Recently, the old cleansing system was replaced by four lead-lined
25-ton-capacity tanks arranged as sketched below.








TO AUTOCLAVES



SEWER
We observed pitting and corrosion in the autoclaves about two weeks
after the new tanks were installed. The product is worth 15//lb.
Remedy the situation. This system handles 30 tons/hr.


JANUARY 1966








A New Chemical Engineering Option in an


Engineering-Science-Oriented Core Curriculum


D. L. Wise


L. A Madonna


Assistant Professor Professor
of Engineering of Engineering
Pennsylvania Military College, Chester, Pennsylvania


This paper describes a new chemical engi-
neering option for students within a radically
different engineering-science-oriented core cur-
riculum. For orientation purposes, before
discussing the chemical engineering option, it
will be necessary first to describe briefly our
new engineering program, now in its third
year of operation. Pennsylvania Military
College, a small college of 1200 day students,
of which 200 are engineering students, had
previously no traditional chemical engineer-
ing discipline. In September, 1962, P.M.C.
started on a completely new approach to
undergraduate engineering education with
eight new faculty including a new Director of
Engineering. The program is founded on the
principles that there is a set of basic subject
matter that is common to all engineering
disciplines, that a B.S. degree in engineering
is really only a pre-engineering degree, and
that graduate work is essential. Thus, the
P. M.C. engineering faculty has initiated a new
curriculum taken by all engineers, with heavy
emphasis on mathematics and the physical
and engineering sciences, for three of the four
year required for the B. S. in Engineering
degree undesignatedd). The senior student
takes recommended courses in a specialty
such as chemical, electrical, mechanical, or
civil engineering with crossing of disciplines
to suit the student's interest, under the guidance
of an engineering faculty advisor. Two courses
in the senior year are common also: Energet-
ics, which includes direct energy conversion,
and Senior Projects, a creative engineering
activity (a complete curriculum is presented
in the Appendix). Almost all engineering
courses within the core program are lectures;
the laboratory sequence, starting n the sopho-
more year, is run as an internship in engineer-
ing through interdisciplinary projects. Within
the three years of core program, traditional
chemical engineering does have a strong
emphasis, as will be described. The fourth
year option in chemical engineering is broader
than traditional as a result of the unique


interdisciplinary emphasis and heavy math
and science preparation.
The emphasis on a mathematical approach
to engineering is pronounced throughout the
program. Immediately in the freshman year,
the students program and use an IBM 1620
digital computer. The purpose of the computer
course this early is to orient the student toward
the modern engineering attitude and to develop
a professional method of problem solving. In
most core engineering courses, several faculty
are involved in teaching, and a definite attempt
is made to have these teachers from various
traditional backgrounds.
The sequence of four courses given by the
Mathematics Department starts with calculus
and vectors the freshman year and uses a
text similar to Agnew's Calculus: Analytical
Geometry and Calculus, with Vectors, Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1962). The fourth semester of
mathematics is probability and differential
equations. A separate course in differential
equations or advanced mathematics is not
included in the curriculum, since all engineer-
ing courses develop the necessary mathematics
for dealing with dynamic situations and ad-
vanced topics. The four physics courses, the
first of which starts at the beginning of the
freshman year, have used the text by Halliday
and Resnick (John Wiley, 1963). The fourth
semester of physics is what is usually termed
modern physics and is an introduction to
quantum mechanics and solid-state physics.
In the second sophomore semester and first
junior semester, a strong new course in en-
gineering, Systems Dynamics, is required.
Developed by our director of engineering while
at MIT, the course relates fluid, thermal,
mechanical translational, mechanical rota-
tional, and electrical systems by recognizing
underlying mathematical analogies of the
through and across variables in the governing
dynamic laws. That is, fluid flow and pressure
drop are related to current and voltage such
that the dynamic equations for fluid capaci-
tance, inertance, and resistance can be related


CHEM ENG ED








to electrical capacitance, inductance, and resis-
tance. Likewise,current and voltage are related
to force and velocity such that the governing
dynamic laws for electrical capacitance, in-
ductance, and resistance are shown to be
analogous to those governing a mass, spring,
and damper. Then, by use of linear graph
and network theory, complicated systems are
reduced to a mathematical model representa-
tive of the dynamic situation. Extensive use is
made of the analog computer. Before the end of
their sophomore year, students have been able
to write and program the kinetic equations for
a first-order consecutive reaction, A-~ B--. C.
First-semester juniors have simulated a stirred
tank batch reactor varying both the heat and
flow inputs. In addition to exposure to these
typical chemical engineering problems, all
engineering students also have had such ex-
periences as deriving the dynamic equations
for an automobile suspension system and
simulating this on the analog computer.
Under an open-shop policy, over $70,000
worth of new analog computers and read-out
and display equipment is used by students in
this course. It should be noted that students
finishing the course have worked with Fourier
analysis and Laplace transform and have
been introduced to stability considerations. As
a result, the senior year course in Chemical
Process Dynamics and Control starts at a level
commensurable with an initial graduate course
in more traditional departments.
The junior year has two courses weighted
to a traditional chemical engineering pro-
gram. One, Flow and Fields, has been taught
collectively by two professors with chemical
engineering and electrical engineering back-
grounds, respectively. The course includes
principles of potential field theory and intro-
duces the fundamentals of transport. The
vector approach, developed in the freshman
and sophomore math and physics courses, is
used extensively. The other junior coursethat
is somewhat traditional to aspects of chemical
engineering is Science of Engineering Mate-
rials. In addition to a study of the structure
of matter as a physical chemist would ap-
proach the subject, there is also included the
more modern topic of solid-statephysics. This
engineering course, different from our Modern
Physics course, applies topics familiar to a
physical chemist to metallurgical considera-
tions and applies solid-state physics topics to
a study of semiconductors.
A strong energy conversion sequence exists
within the four years and tends to offset what
might be considered a lack of chemistry


courses. This sequence may be considered as
starting with one year of general chemistry,
then includes one semester of physical chemis-
try for all engineers, a semester of classical
thermodynamics, and then in the senior year,
a course titled Energetics. Energetics includes
direct energy conversion and stresses coupled
flow phenomena; its future development will
be increasingly towards non-equilibrium ther-
modynamics. Also in the senior year, every
engineering option suggests some energy con-
version course. Students in the chemical
engineering option take Chemical Thermo-
dynamics and use the textbook by Dodge.
Several other interesting areas that chemical
engineering students usually do not develop
in depth are Dynamics and Electronic Circuits,
both courses given in the junior year at P. M. C.
By reason of early and continual use of vec-
tors the Dynamics course is able to treat in
depth the kinematics of particles and systems
of particles and moments and products of
inertia. The course, Electronic Circuits, em-
phasizes the analytical or system approach
to electrical devices. Since the Laplace trans-
form has been developed and used in the
prerequisite System Dynamics course, all the
time can be spent on engineering analysis of
the electrical devices. This is not true of most
chemical engineering curricula, where a ser-
vice course given by the electrical engineering
department devotes a large portion of the
course developing new mathematics and new
terminology with the result that very little
engineering is accomplished.
In the senior year, where students now take
technical electives for the first time, the chemi-
cal engineering option contains four lecture
courses and a laboratory course. The outline
of technical courses taken by all students in
our chemical engineering option last year,
the first students to graduate in our new
curriculum, is given below:


Senior Year Chemical
Engineering Option

FIRST SEMESTER
Equilibrium Stage Processes
Transport Phenomena
Transient & Frequency Analysis
Energetics (core course)
Senior Projects (core course)
SECOND SEMESTER
Chemical Process Dynamics & Control
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
Senior Projects (continued)


JANUARY 1966





Equilibrium Stage Processing is perhaps the
most traditional chemical engineering course
that we offer. Last year, the instructor used
Buford Smith's text of this same title. The
contents of our Transport Phenomena course
can be visualized best by indicating that the
text used is Transport Phenomena by Bird,
Stewart, and Lightfoot. Moreover, this was
one of two texts used by all engineering stu-
dents in Flow and Fields (the other was an
electrical field theory book). As result, more
depth in transport phenomena is achieved in
the senior year than in a classical chemical
engineering curriculum. In addition, an early
grasp of potential fields has aided the students'
understanding of the problems presented.
Transient and Frequency Analysis is essen-
tially an electrical engineering course and is a
continuation of the sequence of control courses
initiated with Systems Dynamics in the sopho-
more year. The terminal course in this area
is Chemical Process Dynamics and Control,
which, following a thread of courses dealing
with dynamic situations, is quite advanced.
This statement is based on a review of material
available from the few chemical engineering
texts in this area. If the chemical engineering
option graduates from P.M.C. are oriented
specifically in one area, it is that of dynamic
process system analysis and process system
control.
While physical facilities for the chemical
engineering laboratory have not been com-
pleted yet, it will not involve an entirely
standard course. The aim will be to initiate
creative engineering problem solving on
small-scale equipment. Last year our first
chemical engineering option students built a
closed-loop controlled heat exchanger, a con-
trol system for controlling the pressure of two
gas tanks, and a fluid flow experiment in-
volving determination of system response
times. This lab will necessarily be under
continual development. Senior projects activi-
ties oriented towards chemical engineering
also provided laboratory experience for our
students. Perhaps at this time, it would be
best to describe the entire separatelaboratory
sequence of the curriculum.
One of the new faculty's major initial con-
cerns was the introduction of student intern-
ships in engineering through interdisciplinary
creative projects. To this end, the faculty
initiated a series of Engineering Problems
and Projects Laboratories begun in the sopho-
more year and continued through the senior
year. The first in the series is Engineering
Problems Laboratory, a sophomore andjun-
ior course, which is interdisciplinary and


treats lab problems on a short-term project
basis. Students solve engineering oriented
problems which require the knowledge gained
from theory courses. The students, generally
working in small groups, are required to
analyze the problem, determine the means for
solving it, plan the laboratory attack, select
the necessary equipment and instrumentation,
perform tests and draw conclusions. Problems
are drawn from all fields of engineering and
present situationswhich require the student to
develop the ability to think for himself.
The first course given in the first semester of
the sophomore year is intended to draw upon
the student's background in physics, chem-
istry, and mathematics and to show the appli-
cation of these sciences to engineering This
lab occurs before the student has had sub-
stantial courses in engineering and is intended
to motivate and orient him towards engineer-
ing, as well as to accomplish the laboratory
aims. Several typical sophomore engineering
problems are listed in Table I.



Table I. Typical Sophomore
Engineering Lab Problems


Torque and Pull of an Automobile (a 1954
Cadillac was used)
Measurement of Muzzle Velocity of a Rifle
Velocity and Displacement Measurement
of a Vibration Shaker
Measurement and Computation of Mass-
Moment and Area-Moment of Inertia
Function Evalutation and Approximation
on the Digital Computer




The second and third Engineering Problems
Laboratories occur in the junior year and rely
heavily upon the student's background (pre-
vious or concurrent) in the engineering core
courses.
There is no attempt made at fixed subject
matter coverage in these labs nor is any
attempt made to cover completely all areas of
interest in engineering in any one year. Of
greater importance is the engineering attitude,
experimental approach, and realization of the
limitations .of theoretical models. Some of the
problems worked on by students are given in
Table II.

(continued on page 31)


CHEM ENGED








R. P Genereaux
Engineering Department, DuPont Company SPEAKtNG:
Wilmington, Delaware


ABOUT-Engineering Education
and Industry
We engineers are probably the most
impatient people on earth, always want-
ing to change something. We engineers
have the finest of objectives in wanting
to change things because we consider
ourselves creative. After all, there is
evidence all around us of our contri-
butions. Our pulses pulse because we
want improvement, something better,
either in products, or methods, or
environment or in education.
The programs of the national and
regional ASEE meetings are impressive,
particularly in the breadth of the field
of engineering education and the many
viewpoints and objectives. Surely every-
thing good and desirable, and perhaps
some things bad and undesirable, about
engineering education have been dis-
cussed many times over. I suspect that
both good and bad have been prac-
ticed in most schools for years. Yet, I
dare to raise my voice in emphasis
of a few points because I believe so
strongly in their importance.
I am writing as an industrialist. I
suspect that words from such a source
are not going to cause educators to
change drastically, but perhaps they
will be of some influence. I speak from
thirty-five years of professional experi-
ence with a large chemical company. It
is said that one of the compensations
for age is to be able to brag about one's
youth with less likelihood of being
contradicted. My experience has in-
cluded work at the bench in engineering
research and in plant design. It has
included administrative responsibilities
in applying engineering talent to create
plant facilities. And for the past ten
years I have been exposed to a broad
range of management problems con-
cerning engineering for my company.
I value highly my frequent direct
contacts with engineering educators
over the years since I was in college.
Many of these contacts have been in
some way connected with the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers. Ihave
come to some conclusions, and you
may not agree with all of them. What


I will propose will involve work. But
this does not bother me, for I know
from experience that you are not among
the multitude who want to get to the
promised land -without going through
the wilderness.
Whether we are educators or indus-
trialists, we have situations or problems
of real concern. I don't profess to know
all of the problems of chemical engi-
neering education. I am aware of some
because they are basic situations, par
for the course. Engineering colleges
have fluctuating enrollment and fluc-
tuating demand from employers for
graduates. There is a scarcity of good
young teachers. There is pressure on
the faculty to bring in revenue, to write
papers, to win the Nobel Prize, (or
the Walker Award), to help their dol-
lege to be outstandingly attractive to
benefactors and prospective professors
and prospective students.
The prime job of the engineering
teacher, as I see it, is to educate
capable young folks, broadening and
polishing their many talents, so they
can meet the challenges of our economy
with maximum effectiveness and pull
their weight from the start. I'm told
that some students drink deeply at the
fountain of knowledge- others gargle.
Industry's prime job is to earn an
attractive return on the shareholders'
investment by producing and selling
desired products. Surely you are im-
pressed by the genius of American
industry in making things to last twenty
years and then making them obsolete
in two.
Let us face one important fact. Wealth,
the wherewithal to pay for all we want
in material things, comes only from
productive effort, based on the profit
motive. Profit constitutes the necessary
incentive for competition, which in turn
gives birth and nurture to new, better,
more available, or less costly products.
I am sure that educators know the
importance of free enterprise and the
importance of engineers in industry, but
I need to have emphasized it here to
provide a basis for three assertions I
wish to make.


JANUARY 1966






First, everyone in our nation will
gain from a better understanding of
what engineers do, how they fit into the
broad picture of human accomplish-
ment, and how critically important
their efforts are.
Second, engineering educators will
profit from knowing more fully what
industry needs from practicing engi-
neers and what they really do. This
increased knowledge might permit them
to find solutions of their problems.
Third, the prospective engineer needs
to secure an effective education while in
college, and he needs to recognize his
responsibility in achieving a conscious
balance between culture and training.
Let me develop these.
Better Understanding by All
I believe that our nation can profit
from knowing better what engineers do
and how important their efforts are to
our national way of life.
The non-technical population is only
vaguely aware of the requirements for
technical achievement. The non-techni-
cal public will never have and we
should not expect them to have a real
understanding of technology because
real understanding is achieved only by
living in it. Therefore, it is up to the
academic and industrial interests to
supply most of the driving force for
the advancement of the engineering
professions and its engineers. The non-
technical population is heavily depen-
dent on this combination of educators
and industrialists to maintain and
nourish its economy to continue it
and to expand it through the economic
production of needed or desirable
commodities.
But some support of our technology
is needed from the non-technical popu-
lation; at the least it is needed from
those in the various branches of gov-
ernment, from other professions, ana
from the press. These people will natur-
ally endorse what appeals to them or
what enhances their purposes. They
generally ignore the complicated. Glam-
orous words such as science and space
are easily used. Prosaic words such as
plant design and metaphenylene dia-
mine have little appeal. This doesn't
justify our coining new words to add
to the confusion; using such jargon
as matrix when the word table is both
adequate and understandable. We need
to make our field understandable and


interesting through reason, not through
glamour.
Our non-technical public cannot be
expected to discern readily between
the technology involved in the space
program and that of a chemical manu-
facturer. But some appreciation of the
difference seems desirable. The technical
activities supported by the taxpayers
are primarily for the creation of items
not-for-sale, items for use in defense,
agriculture, health, exploration, and in
communication. In this tax-supported
spectrum of scientific and engineering
work, economics plays little apparent
part and the competitive and profit
motives are not obvious. Much of the
work is done under the misleading guise
of research. Achieving the 100% perfect
answer for an item rules the day. In
industry, on the other hand, economics
plays a major role. Scientific and en-
gineering concepts based on the sound-
est possible economics rule the day. And
we must always remember that the
economic base in an industrial venture
depends on the demand in the market
place. Its success or failure depends
entirely on this demand.
If our communications to the general
public are to be effective, we engineers
had better pay real attention to the use
of key words. We should not allow the
word engineer to be degraded. Most
people think an engineer runs a loco-
motive; no wonder the public glamor-
izes the scientist. Even engineers are
guilty of supporting the myth of all-
encompassing science, if it is easier
to put across, or seems to give more
status. And many scientists might profit
by a deeper recognition of the part
that engineers play in applying science
to the nation's productive effort, to the
creation of wealth.
We should reduce the misunderstand-
ing among technical people, both aca-
demic and industrial, as to the true
application of technology. Improvement
would also serve to increase under-
standing by the non-technical public. I
advocate dividing the spectrum of en-
gineering work into appropriate com-
ponent parts, defining them in under-
standable terms, and then analyzing
each part for the type of talent and
experience needed for its proper ac-
complishment.
This recommendation leads me into
my second observation.


CHEM ENGED






Better Understanding by Educators
I believe that engineering educators
will profit from knowing more fully
what industry needs from practicing en-
gineers and what they really do.
In industry, I reiterate, the profit
motive, within certain restraints, is the
pervading influence. In the long run
the profit motive must prevail, for who
can subsidize industry for long? We
must not forget that government sup-
port comes from taxes which must first
be earned. Industry must assure itself
in any product venture that there is
economic justification, or in dustr y
would price itself out of the market.
From the industrial viewpoint, engi-
neering work is carried out in an in-
volved spectrum. This spectrum runs
from a base of scientific research
through an initial development and
economic appraisal stage. Market
studies assess the strength of the new
product in the market place. Design
and operation of a prototype define
the engineering basis for the design of
the production facility. Rapid design
and construction and successful startup
of the commercial production facilities
are essential for economic reasons and
often for competitive reasons. Follow-
ing initial sales of the product, process
and product improvements are essential
if the new industrial venture is to stay
healthy economically.
For simplicity and understanding of
this spectrum, let us divide engineering
work into three major categories. The
words are generic with no capital letters.
These three are research, design, and
production.
Research in this connotation and
here I mean engineering research is
more involved with the seeking of facts
than it is in their use. As von Karman
once said: "The scientists study what
is, and the engineers create what has
never been." It is in use of the word
research that we all speak different
languages. The needed distinction is
not so much in the kinds of research -
basic, pure, fundamental, or applied;
rather it's in the objective of research -
the seeking of facts rather than using
them.
Design is the synthesis activity, the
combination of scientific and economic
facts with practical experience to achieve
a successful process and product. Ideas
have to be hitched as well as hatched.


A successful process and product means
a workable and economical process
and a salable product. I can assure
you that design or synthesis is involved
in practically all development work and
that it goes far back into what is com-
monly called the research stage. Design
is the middle of these three categories,
and being in the middle between re-
search and production, it is subject to
serious interfacial confusion. But in-
telligent and informed people can re-
duce the confusion and narrow the
band of overlap.
Production is the assembly of manu-
facturing plant and material, the opera-
tion and maintenance of the facility, and
the sale of the product. Much of the
continuing work on improving process
and product, however, remains as a
design or synthesis effort.
You and I know that the activities
within these three major categories re-
quire dissimilar people. They require
adverse attributes and talents. We must
deal with individual interest, experience,
and skill; with intellect, reasoning pow-
er, and awareness; with approach to
work and the solving of problems. Un-
less there is a reasonable degree of
fit between man and work,both engineer
and employer will suffer.
Engineers differ from scientists; eco-
nomics is the base of all of their techni-
cal activities. In the AIChE definition
of chemical engineering there is this
sentence: "Engineering is that field of
activity where knowledge oftheplysical
and natural sciences and of economics
is applied to useful ends."
In the design category, technical cal-
culations take only a small percentage
of the time spent. Design engineering
involves more than calculation and
specifications and drawings. Technical
quality, coupled with experience and
constant analysis of costs, is required
from inception through fabrication of
al I vital equipment, including its startup
and operation.
In some engineering colleges there is
inadequate emphasis on dynamics.
Some faculty publications in current use
still subscribe exclusively to steady-
state operation. This attitude is a worn-
out convenience. The key parts of design
are to provide appropriately for startup
and shut-down, and for flexibility to
satisfy the future demands of changes
(continued on page 34)


JANUARY 1966







WHAT THEY'RE


PROCESS SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND
CONTROL, by Donald R. Coughanowr and
Lowell B. Koppel, both associate professors
of chemical engineering at Purdue University:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1965.
xii and 491 pages. $15.50.

This book was used at Iowa State
University in the fall of 1965 for a
process control course for all seniors
in chemical engineering. It is the most
satisfactory text we know of for such
a course. The book is well written, in
language suitable to its intended audi-
ence. In addition, it provides rather
more complete coverage of linear sys-
tems analysis than preceding books
intended for a similar audience. The
only major weakness of the book is in
the area of application of the theory to
actual problems in the control of chemi-
cal plant.

The authors have done a good job of
explaining the standard mathematical
tools of linear systems analysis in
simple language. An introduction to
ordinary differential equations an d
some acquaintance with complex
numbers are sufficient mathematical
background for most of the text. Un-
fortunately, the necessity to limit the
methematical level occasionally makes
the book a bit clumsy. For example, the
Bode stability criterion is introduced
by heuristic arguments rather than as
a special case of the Nyquist stability
criterion. Also, the Routh test for posi-
tive roots is used rather often, but
never proven.

The book is well organized for use
as a text. There is considerable freedom
available to an instructor in the selec-
tion of material and the order of presen-
tation. For instance,it would be possible
to emphasize either frequency-response
or root-locus methods, which are cov-
ered independently in some detail. Also,


UING


CHEM ENG ED


the book is surprisingly free from errors
and misprints.
The weakest feature of the book is the
lack of information on actual applica-
tions of linear systems analysis to real
problems in industrial chemical systems
process control. This is not caused by
lack of effort on the part of the authors.
In general, such information is just not
available in the open literature. But the
lack of adequate information on real
control systems makes much of the
theory unconvincing to the typical un-
dergraduate student in chemical engi-
neering. The applications that are
discussed in the text nearly all show
how the theory mightbe applied, rather
than showing how the theory does
apply in industrial practice to the con-
trol of chemical plant.
We would not suggest the use of this
book at the graduate level, because
some important topics are omitted and
because the mathematical treatment is
limited. For example, computer control
is not discussed and such techniques
as the maximum principle of Pontrya-
gin or the method of Liapunov are
not included.
In summary, this is a good book for
an undergraduate course in process
systems analysis for chemical engineers
The authors have made a significant
contribution by explaining the standard
tools of linear systems analysis and
some potential applications in language
that an undergraduate chemical engi-
neering student will understand. Better
book is still needed that will, in addition
show how the theory actually is applied
to the solution of real problems in the
control of industrial chemical plant.


femr


REVIEW BY W. H. Abraham
Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University






(continued from page 26)

Table II. Typical Junior
Engineering Lab Problems



Compaction of Soils
Tolerances in Electrical Components
Thermoel ectricity
AC Circuit Analysis
Non-Linearity Determination of Contact
Deflections
Transport Dynamics of the Spouted Bed
Performance of a DC Motor
Liquid-to-Solid Transitions
Assumptions of the Theory of Beam Bending
Temperature Measurements in an
Expanded Gas System
Moisture Content and its Relation to Density
of Soils
Equivalent Networks
Design and Equivalent Circuit of a
Transformer
Beating in Vibrating Systems
Equilibrium Phase Diagram for a
Cadmium-Bismuth Eutectic Alloy
Flow and Field Plotting on Conducting
Paper
Photoelastic Determination of Stress
Concentration at a Circular Hole
Thermodynamic Study of an Air Blower Unit




In all labs, the problems are developed and
assigned by the professor who advises the
students during the three or four weeks of
activity devoted to that problem; thus the
student will complete four problems each
semester. There are no regularly scheduled
lab hours for the Junior Problems Laboratory.
The students consult with the professor as
needed in addition to regular meetings. The
laboratories are open day and night, and
the student team schedules its own work with-
out detailed supervision. The problems are
chosen so that an average of six hours'
effort per student per week is required. The
sophomores are given more guidance during
a regularly scheduled three-hour session.
The interdisciplinary creative projects cul-
minate in the senior year in a true internship
in engineering with Engineering Projects. In
this activity, teams of three to six students
work closely with a "consulting engineer"
professor for a year on a complete design
and development project which includes actual
construction and testing in the laboratory.
These design-oriented projects are in a wide
spectrum of areas and are generally unsolved
problems from current technology. Students

JANUARY 1966


must select and purchase their own equipment
which includes giving details for specially-
machined equipment or writing specifications
for purchase orders for a somewhat unique
apparatus where in-house fabrication is im-
possible. A significant part of the student's
effort is planning work schedules: for example,
planning what literature searches, analysis,
and construction can be carried on while
equipment is being procured. The professor, as
a consulting engineer, recommends certain
references, suggests the investigation of certain
tests, and the like. Scheduled weekly meetings,
as well as impromptu ones, facilitate the
professor-student contact.
By completing selection of their senior proj-
ects before June, the students may-and are
encouraged to- spend the summer in investi-
gatory work. From September until April the
students work on their projects inthelab, visit
companies for assistance, and perform what-
ever is necessary to complete the design and
construction oriented projects. Project reports
are due in April followed by an oral presenta-
tion to the Engineering Division, with repre-
sentatives of local industry invited. The oral
presentation has been run as an engineering
seminar with an unbiased panel of qualified
industrial judges. A significant benefit to the
students has been the oral presentation alone.
The written final reports, also judged by out-
siders, offers another unique opportunity for
presenting the students with a realistic engi-
neering situation-that of writing clearly and
concisely an overall project report thatwillbe
critically judged by their peers.
Short descriptions of senior projects in the
chemical engineering area recently completed
are:
Sulfur Trioxide Fume Removal
In the manufacture of cooking liquor for pulp
making, an undesirable mist of sulfur trioxide is
carried through the system and exhausted with tail
gases. Several physical demisters for completely
removing the sulfur trioxide fume were tested after
designing a simulated bench-scale model and devel-
oping methods for testing and analysis. Physical
demisters proved unsatisfactory for completely re-
moving the fume owing to low partial concentra-
tions and low gas velocities. Of several chemical
methods investigated for fume removal, one was
found that was effective and economical. The paper
mill is making plans, based on the students recom-
mendations, to modify the process. (This project
was financially supported by Hammermill Paper
Company of Erie, Pennsylvania )

A Process for Producing High-surface area Particles
A single processing step was developed and inves-
tigated for increasing surface area of raw material
particles by forcing the particle slurry through a
nozzle under high pressure into the atmosphere. The










important
chemical engineering
publications...

THERMODYNAMICS

By William C. Reynolds, Stanford University. 458
pages, $9.50.

Designed for a fundamentally oriented first course
in thermodynamics, this unique text provides an
understanding of macroscopic thermodynamics not
possible in classical treatments. The subject is
developed retaining the generality and simplicity
of purely macroscopic thermodynamics but utilizing
microscopic insights. This approach integrates micro-
scopic and macroscopic concepts to provide a com-
mon conceptual foundation for thermodynamics and
quantum statistical mechanics.



PROCESS SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
AND CONTROL

By DONALD R. COUGHANOWR and LOWELL B.
KOPPEL, both of Purdue University. McGraw-Hill
Series in Chemical Engineering. 491 pages, $15.50.

Presents a well-organized, lucid, and self-motivating
discussion of the principles and application of auto-
matic control theory. Distinctive in its broad coverage
which includes newer approaches to control theory:
stability, root locus, non-linear techniques, and
analog computers. The basic approach is to follow
each new principle or computational technique with
an interesting example.



PROCESS CONTROL

By PETER HARRIOTT, Cornell University. McGraw-Hill
Series in Chemical Engineering. 448 pages, $13.50.

A senior-graduate level text which provides an
introduction to the theory of automatic control and
its application to chemical process industries. Em-
phasis is on the dynamic behavior of processes and
processing equipment rather than on the mechanical
features of instruments and controllers.


McGRAW-HILL
BOOK COMPANY
330 West 42nd Street
New York, N. Y. 10036


difference in pressure from nozzle to atmosphere is
large enough that volatiles within the particle (ab-
sorbed water) flashes off, thus rupturing and ex-
panding particles in a manner similar to puffed
wheat and rice "shot from guns."

Fuel-Cell Powered Lawn Mower
Various hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells were con-
structed and tested. It was concluded that the cost of
a fuel-cell-powered mower would prohibit its com-
petitiveness at present. This high cost is due to the
catalyst-plated electrodes presently required. An
investigation of optimum design and reliability was
also undertaken. (This project later resulted in an
NSF undergraduate Research Participation grant
of $6,250.)

Flame Tube Studies
A combustion tube was constructed to investigate
transient and non-transient uniform flame fields. The
tube was designed with all attending measurement
equipment; the stainless steel tube was built upon a
metal frame, then placed upon a concrete pad and
enclosed by three concrete block walls. This tube
was fired four times with acetylene gas as the fuel
and the resultant combustions were observed.

Shock Tube
An electric shock tube was designed and built
to produce shock front velocities up to ten Mach. The
shocks are generated by the fast discharge of capaci-
tors into the driver section of the tube.

The interest of senior students in their proj-
ects has been tremendous and some real
progress in certain areas of engineering has
been made. Several patents are being applied
for, several industrial companies have paid
to sponsor projects of immediate interest to
them as a result of knowing the type of work
done, and additional companies have indi-
cated interest in next year's projects.
The students have truly had a unique in-
volvement in engineering through interdisci-
plinary creative projects and the entire aspects
of our curriculum. With three years of opera-
tion of the new program it is still too early
to have accurate feedback from job perform-
ance of our students. However, the faculty
believes that the program just described will
contribute heavily to the future development
of these engineering graduates. The authors
believe the students have been given a lasting
education and have developed a professional
attitude.


Editor's Note:
The Appendix on the following page
completes this article.





(fr


CHEM ENGED






Appendix

ENGINEERING CORE PROGRAM***
PENNSYLVANIA MILITARY COLLEGE


FRESHMAN YEAR


First Semester


Second Semester


Mathematical Analysis I
Physics I
General Chemistry
Computers and
Engineering Analysis
English Composition I
Physical Education I


SOPHOMORE YEAR

First Semester


Mathematical Analysis II
Physics II
General Chemistry
*Technical Elective
English Composition II
Physical Education II


Second Semester


Mathematical
Analysis III
Physics III
Physical Chemistry
Engineering Problems
Laboratory I
Humanities or Social
Sciences Elective


6 2

3 3
17


JUNIOR YEAR

First Semester


Mathematical
Analysis IV
Physics IV
System Dynamics I
Mechanics of Deformable
Bodies
Humanities or Social
Sciences Elective


Second Semester


Engineering
Thermodynamics
System Dynamics II
Dynamics
Flow and Fields I
Engineering Problems
Laboratory II


3
4
3
3
6 2


Science of Engineering
Materials
Electronic Circuits
Flow and Fields II
Engineering Problems
Laboratory III
Humanities or Social
Sciences Elective


18


SENIOR YEAR


First Semester


Energetics
Engineering Projects
**Technical Electives
(In Recommended
Specialities)
Humanities or Social
Sciences


Second Semester


4 4 Engineering Projects
9 **Technical Electives
(In Recommended
Specialities)
Humanities or Social
Sciences
3 3
16


* Freshman Technical Elective chosen from Engineering Graphics, Engineering
Surveys, Computers and Engineering Analysis II, Engineering Instrumentation,
History and Philosophy of Science, Biology, and Geology.
** Senior Chemical Engineering Option Courses include: Transport Phenomena,
Equilibrium Stage Processes, Chemical Thermodynamics, Chemical Process Dynamics,
Chemical Engineering Laboratory, and approved additional courses.
Military cadets carryMilitary Science as an overload (1 credit in each of the
first four semesters, 2 credits in each of the last four).

JANUARY 1966 33


4
2 4
2 4
2
3
2 1


18


4
2 4
3
4

3
is


4 4
3 3 4
4 4

6 2

3 3
17


3
12



3 3






(continued from page 29)
in capacity and product specification. *
Within Du Pont 28% of all technical
people are chemical engineers. The
approximate distribution of chemical
engineers in the three categories is:
research 15%, design 35%, production
50%. This excludes chemical engineers
in top administrative and control posi-
tions, about 3% of the total. The distri-
bution of all engineers in Du Pont is
roughly: research 10%, design 40%/,
production 50%. The figures on chemi-
cal engineers indicate that we need at
least twice as many designers as
researchers.
Design engineers engaged in work
near the research interface use design
principles in evaluating a potential
process. The design engineer who is
specifying full-scale plant equipment
and controls does so by use of a great
variety of design principles daily. The
design engineer in the process or plant
improvement phase uses his design
skills in refined optimizing for economy.
The engineer needs to be able to
handle multi-discipline problems as
well as multi-aspect problems prob-
lems involving people, scientific prin-
ciples, experience, economics, and
urgency. I cite one example from my
experience. The design of the chemical
separation facilities for the plutonium
plant at Hanford required much more
than the chemical research. Under the
circumstances of extreme urgency and
the lack of either precedence or process,
we designed the plant to accommodate
almost any process the microchemists
might come up with.
I believe that engineering educators
have a somewhat different task in the
preparation of graduates for the tax-
supported type of engineering work
than for industrial work. The job of
educating the research man is some-
what different from the job of educating
the design man. There are now being
turned out by the dozens, Ph. D.chemical
engineers who have special training in
advanced mathematics and whose pri-
mary desire is to apply mathematics
and computers to chemical engineering
problems. The chemical industry can-
not today, or in the foreseeable future,
utilize all this training effectively.
I believe there is a need to assist the
* Editor's Note: Furthermore, modern design may
choose the transient as the normal modus operandi
for units long viewed as properly steady-state stages.
34


younger chemical engineering faculty,
to guide them into making good use of
their fresh enthusiasm. There is a need
to make more certain that they speak
with authority to their students as to
what actually is happening in industry,
and as to what are the needs for a
successful and influential career. How
can a teacher teach what industry needs
if that teacher has little direct knowledge
of industrial practices? While being a
consultant will give him some insight,
consultant work is not always sub-
jected to the some profit and organiza-
tional constraints.
We in industry believe educators will
profit by knowing more fully what we
do in engineering and what we need in
the way of engineering capabilities and
thus be able to place your emphasis
where it will count. This leads me to
my third observation.
Better Balance between Culture
and Training
I believe the prospective engineer
needs to secure an effective education
while in college, a conscious battle be-
tween culture and training. An educated
man, I'm told, is one who has finally
discovered that there are some ques-
tions to which nobody has the answer.
There is nothing grossly wrong with
engineering education. Most of the en-
gineering graduates turned out to work
are in the main technically well pre-
pared, and can be trained and developed
to become engineers. A college educa-
tion seldom hurts a man if he's willing
to learn a little something after he
graduates. I am sure we agree that a
college education should aim at devel-
oping the whole man, not merely some
function of him.
Teaching a trade is not the function
of a university; it can be done much
more cheaply and quickly in a trade
school. A university is designed to
turn out men who know how to reflect
and to relate, who understand the past
and can in some measure anticipate
the future, who view the present as
something problematic and not as
something given, and who also under-
stand duty and responsibility. What a
wonderful influence is responsibility!
Some people grow under it others
merely swell. A university is designed
to turn out men who have a standard
of ethics, who will respond to challenge,


CHEM ENG ED






who will plan and persevere towards
a goal. Such a man needs to recognize
what he does not know and to know
how to deal with this lack of knowledge.
The cultured man is broad, takes an
objective view, displays many talents.
The purely trained man is narrow,
looks to the more specific, is less
obviously talented. The largest single
defect in character traits is rigidity of
mind. Only the broad and flexible
personality can cope with new demands
and conditions. The qualities of flexi-
bility, imagination, and the interrelation
of disciplines are most desperately
needed in modern industry. Engineers
need to develop capabilities in related
engineering fields, especially chemical
engineers in the chemical industry be-
cause they are generally the lead men.
Only one engineer in five has an
easy time in English, in oral and written
presentation. The remaining four are
really handicapped. What good is ex-
pert knowledge if it cannot be communi-
cated? Few new graduates have a deep
feeling about economics as a fact of
life. In my college experience I learned
much from my engineering professors
that went far beyond the strictly tech-
nical. They wove economics and Eng-
lish composition and reasoning and
analysis into their regular courses.
I am advised that college policy-
makers have not been outstandingly
successful in rewarding good teaching
in contrast with rewarding ability to
secure research dollars or to write
papers for publication. With publica-
tion having gone beyond what a man
can absorb, perhaps one means for
reward could come from the prepara-
tion of treatises defining the state-of-
the-art on selected topics of engineering.
Such treatises could define significant
gaps in our technology.
Engineering education should prop-
erly be ahead of actual engineering
practice. This advanced education
should be taught carefully so that
engineering students do not stray too
far from reality, resulting in graduates
that can't be effective in practical work
upon graduation.
We must be flexible in chemical en-
gineering to keep ahead of advancing
capabilities of computing machines. We
must be able to discern between problem
analysis and computer programming.
The emphasis on graduate work should


not be at the expense of undergraduate
teaching.
In deciding what to teach a prospec-
tive engineer, it is well to know what
tasks he may be expected to perform,
and under what circumstances. It is
well to know what the key traits are
for satisfactory achievement of the as-
signment. It is important to know what
the man is expected to do, not what his
work may be called or where his assign-
ment will be in the organization.
In the main, for chemical engineering
work in industry, the prospective engi-
neer will need a real capability in
problem analysis. He needs exposure
while in college to practical problems
concerning the synthesis of process
facilities. He needs to be able to design
instinctively a process or product that
has never been designed before. He
needs to look at a problem as a dynam-
ic one. Processes rarely operate forever
at one set of conditions. Startup and
turn down may establish the design
parameters, not the full-capacity
operation. Now let me summarize.
Conclusion
Our nation can profit if others under-
stand what we engineers really do. We
need the support of our entire populace
even though we should not expect com-
plete technical understanding. To obtain
such support we must take the first
step by dividing engineering into its
broadest components parts, defining
them in understandable terms, and
analyzing them for the type of talent
and experience needed.
Industry differs from academic and
government supported environments.
The profit motive and market competi-
tion which bring new products, better
ones, less costly ones to the consumer,
are the source of wealth which supports
all other activities. Appreciation by
educators ofthe spectrum of engineering
vital to industrial success can be a-
chieved through down-to-earth analysis
of what engineers really do in the basic
categories of research, design, and pro-
duction, as I have defined them. Edu-
cators thus would be in a better position
to guide the student, and the student
would enter his industrial life with
better prospects for an interesting and
rewarding career.
To you who are engineering faculty
members I say: yours is the prime


JANUARY 1966






responsibility to supervise education.
I know that many of you are doing,
and doing well, the things I have
touched on. My plea is that more of
you do so, and my hope that all of
you will experience increasing support
and success in your vital and difficult


task. I can assure you that industry
is keenly interested in your product.
Let us know how we can help you.


/LWI


A NOTE FROM THE EDITORS
We would like to take this opportunity to
offer you, our readers, an apology and beg
your indulgence.
Our masthead proclaims publication of
Chemical Engineering Education in October,
January, April, and June of each year. How-
ever, as you are aware, we have thus far sent
you only the October issue andthis, the January
issue, is appearing in June.
For this lack of adherence to schedule we
ask your forgiveness. Many circumstances have
contributed to the delay, but we hope and believe
we have now seen the end oftheseproblems. We
expect to have the remaining issues for the
1965-66 year in your hands by the end of the
summer. We also expect to be on schedule
next year.
Your editors believe that publication of
CHEM ENG ED is a vital contribution to
chemical engineering education everywhere. We
appreciate and need your support; we shall do
our best to earn it.


CHEM ENGED







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Fundamentals of Classical
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Fundamentals of Statistical
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Diffusional Separation Processes:
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Industrial Chemicals
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By W. L. FAITH, Consulting Chemi-
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Principles of General
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