Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text


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A CED Symposium Presente
the 73rd Annual Meeting of
1 Foreword
1 Curriculum Analysis and
Multifurcation of Under-
graduate Curricula D


Chemical engineering education is a living,
sensing, growing thing. It moves, it vocalizes,
it has a distinctive if variable complexion. It
ingests voraciously the thoughts and efforts,
S1, OCT. '65 ideas and exercises, criticisms and inventions
of its feeders its educators, its students, the
ON profession it procreates, the industry it serves;
d at it matabolizes its intake into extending bone,
ASEE enlarging muscle, and developing brain; it
L. E. Burkhart "functions, complicated organism that it is, in
a kind of organized and rational pattern of
thought, action, and word. Like man, it speaks
ean E. Griffith/ in many tones.

3 Science, Technology, / I1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA-
or Both? Glenn Murphy TION is one of the voices of chemical engi-
5 A Two-Option Curriculum neering education, in the United States the
T. D. Wheelock one with the most official accent. With this
7 The Rensselaer Program issue, the listener may be aware of a process
for Engineering Education / that has gone on for some years: the voice is
Stephen Yerazunis1 changing! The editors believe that it IS chang-
and Arthur A. Burr ing not the animal so much as its vocal
10 Teaching Aids for Chemical /chords, which are lengthening and thickening
Engineering Robert M. Hubbard and growing stronger.*
11 The Overhead Projector, / Chemical engineering education has plenty
A Teaching Aid J. Robert Snyder of forceful breath. Chemical engineering educa-
12 Junior Knows Best- tors and the employers of their product have
Or Does He? Lloyd Berg plenty of intelligent and precise word-forming
13 Chemical Engineering Professorial skill by which to express their thoughts and
Staff as a Function of Student Load / beliefs. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU-
A. X Schmidt CATION rededicates itself to the commission
and Robert Pfeffer of converting breath to sound, deep and reson-
14 A Survey of 5-Year and Cooperative ant, for the clearly audible broadcast of ideas
Chemical Engineering Curricula /articulated through it
of 1963-1964 James J. Christensen
Departments To allow a large audience of appropriate listeners
to hear the voice of CHEM ENG ED as it has
iii Editors' Corner become, this issue is being sent with the compliments
iv CED/AIChE News George Burnet of CED to all non-subscriber members of the Divi-
sion and to a number of other chemical engineering
9 Speaking Out Thomas H. Chilton. educators.

The official journal of the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education

Editor Shelby A. Miller
Consulting Editor Albert H. Cooper
Assistant Editor John W. Bartlett
Publications Committee of CED
L. Bryce Andersen Chairman
Charles E. Littlejohn
E. P. Bartkus
James H. Weber
Executive Committee of CED
Chairman John B. West
Chairman-elect J. A. Bergantz
Secretary-Treasurer William H. Honstead
Elected Committeemen J. T. Banchero
W. H. Corcoran
Past Chairman George Burnet

lished four times during the academic year
by the Chemical Engineering Division, Ameri-
can Society of Education. Publication months:
October, January, April, June. Publication
and editorial offices: 201 Gavett Hall, Uni-
versity of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 14627.
Title registered U. S. Patent Office.
Subscription rates: To Chemical Engineering
Division members, $3.00 per year; to non-
members in the Western Hemisphere, $4.00
per year; to non-members'outside the West-
ern Hemisphere, $5.00 per year; single issue
price, $1.50. Advertising rates quoted upon




Chemical Engineering
a Reintroduction

George Burnet
Past Chairman, CED; Professor
and Head of Chemical Engineer-
ing, Iowa State Univ., Ames, Iowa

The Chemical Engineering Division, ASEE,
was formed in 1936, an outgrowth of an
earlier Chemical Engineering Committee di-
rected by the late Frank C. Vilbrandt and
Joseph C. Elgin. Dr. Vilbrandt was the Divi-
sion's first chairman. It has functioned con-
tinuously ever since, and it has numbered some
of the most distinguished chemical engineering
educators among its leaders.
Prior to 1940, the Division sponsored no
periodic publication, but the 1936 meeting at
the University of Wisconsin resulted in the
publication of a book, "Applications of Chem-
ical Engineering" (Van Nostrand, New York,
1940), edited by the late Harry McCormick.
In 1940 there appeared the "Proceedings of
the Chemical Engineering Division," edited
and published by Joseph H. Koffolt, then
CED Chairman. The Proceedings were
interrupted by World War II, and after the
war reappeared under the title "Transactions
of the Chemical Engineering Division" and
under the editorship of Albert H. Cooper.
The Transactions were issued almost every
year between 1946 and 1961, and in 1962 gave
way to a quarterly, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-
ING EDUCATION, also edited by Dr. Cooper
through 1964. For the quarter-century 1940-
1964, CED publications were published,
printed, edited and financed by the editors, Dr.
Koffolt and Dr. Cooper, and the Division owes
these two devoted members a greater debt of
gratitude than it can ever repay.
By late 1964, the burden of publication had
become intolerable for an individual. This fact
and the acceptance of the increased responsi-
bility of a deanship by Dr. Cooper led to his
resignation as editor. The Executive Committee
of CED deliberated the future of Division pub-
lications and, with ASEE approval, arrived at
the following decisions: CHEMICAL ENGI-
NEERING EDUCATION should continue as
the quarterly journal of CED; publication
should be by the Division, under the advisor-



ship of a Publications Committee; financing of
the journal should be achieved by subscription
fees and advertising income, but in any event
will be backed by CED; the editorial and cir-
culation effort should be conducted by a group
of editors. With this issue, then, CHEMICAL
next phase of its life under the editorship of
S. A. Miller, J. W. Bartlett, and Dr. Cooper,
who, under the conditions established by CED,
felt that he could continue to lend his hand to
the journal. For greater convenience, this and
future issues will bear volume and issue num-
bers, and each volume will be paged contin-
uously through the academic year in which it
It is appropriate that we introduce to our
readers the new staff of CHEMICAL ENGI-

Editor, Shelby A. Miller, B.S.
Ch.E., University of Louisville;
Ph.D., University of Minnesota;
P.E.; Professor and Chairman
of Chemical Engineering, Uni-
versity of Rochester, Rochester,

Consulting Editor, Albert H.
Cooper, B.S.Ch.E., M.S., Uni-
versity of Tennessee; i Ph.D.,
Michigan State University;
P.E.; Dean of the Graduate
School, Tennessee Technologi-
cal University, Cookeville, Ten-

Assistant Editor, John W.
Bartlett; B.S.Ch.E., University
of Rochester; M.Ch.E., Ph.D.,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti-
tute; Assistant Professor of
Chemical Engineering, Univer-
sity of Rochester, Rochester,

The Executive Committee of CED joins the
editors in the pledge to provide in CHEMI-
tractive and indispensable part of every chemi-
cal engineering educator's personal library. To
prove our point, we are sending a sample copy
of this issue gratis to every DIVISION member
who has not subscribed and to a number of
other educators. Our intention, frankly, is to
hook non-subscribers. If you have not yet
placed your order, won't you do so now?

A Chemical Engineering Division Symposium
presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of ASEE
in Chicago, Illinois, June 22, 1965. Symposium
arranged by L. E. Burkhart, Professor of Chem-
ical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames,

A New View of Bifurcation

Foreword L. E. Burkhart

The following papers provide a study of one
of the significant problems in chemical engi-
neering education how to prepare graduat-
ing chemical engineers with increasingly
diverse ranges of interests to cope with the
equally broad spectrum of work that they are
likley to encounter during their careers.
Attempts to solve the problem take many
forms, apparent from the curriculum changes
that have taken place in recent years. One
school will take the science vs. practice ap-
proach; a second will abandon traditional engi-
neering fields in favor of a completely interdis-
ciplinary approach. A third school might
choose simply to continue revising and upgrad-
ing its classical engineering curricula.
Much has been written about interdiscipli-
nary programs and much about traditional
chemical engineering curricula. However, little
has. been reported about bifurcation the ap-
proach of providing alternate routes to the
B.S. degree in chemical engineering. This
practice is more widespread than might be
commonly believed, for much of the experi-
mentation with multifurcated curricula in
chemical engineering remains unreported.
In the first paper, Dean E. Griffith, a mem-
ber of the Subcommittee on Undergraduate
Curricula of the Education Projects Committee
of A.I.Ch.E., estimates the degree of penetra-
tion of the bifurcation concept into chemical
engineering education in the United States. In
the second, Glenn Murphy, a former member
of the famous Grinter Committee and a past
president of ASEE, discusses the history of
bifurcation in engineering programs and pre-
sents his opinion of how engineering educa-
tion will change.
The last two papers give accounts of two
specific types of bifurcated curricula in chem-
ical engineering, both current. First, T. D.
Wheelock outlines the bifurcated chemical
engineering curriculum which has been in use
at Iowa State for several years. It is carried out
at the undergraduate level within the Depart-
ment and is not college-wide.

The final paper, by Yerazunis and Burr, de-
scribes a new multifurcation concept which in-
volves the entire College of Engineering at
Rensselaer and extends into the graduate level.

Curriculum Analysis
and Multifurcation
of Chemical Engineering
Undergraduate Curricula
Dean E. Griffith
Consultant, Houston, Texas
The first really detailed survey of chemical
engineering curricula was performed by Profes-
sor A. X. Schmidt of the City College of New
York in 1956-7 (3). To quote from Schmidt's
"The curriculum is often a factor of importance in
discussions of engineering education and accredita-
tation . [To determine what 'the curriculum' is,]
the bulletins of eighty-seven United States colleges
and universities were examined for the survey, ...
the complete roster of institutions accredited in
chemical engineering at the time."
This number of 87 in 1956-7 has increased
steadily to 107 by mid-year of 1964-5. It is
still growing. Schmidt continues:
"It was felt that a knowledge of . the average
accredited American B.S. Ch.E. curriculum of
1956-7 . would (1) permit comparison with past
and future curricula, thus acting as an aid in eval-
uating changes and trends and (2) afford a ready
means for comparing any particular curriculum
with the current norm."
Schmidt immediately encountered problems
in the treatment of his data. The curricula of
six of the 87 institutions were omitted for one
reason or another; e.g., some were presented
in a manner that precluded inference of credits
and student effort per course; others exceeded
in content the upper limit for an alleged four-
year bachelor's curriculum.
These problems have been somewhat allevi-
ated. Universities are printing more readable
catalogs now. The Subcommittee on Under-
graduate Curricula of the Education Projects
Committee of A.I.Ch.E. has split off five-year


curricula for separate consideration, and Dr.
J. J. Christensen of Brigham Young Univer-
sity recently reported to the Subcommittee the
results of a 1964 survey of such curricula (1).
Schmidt also ran into other problems. To
establish a common denominator:
"The contents of all the curricula were reduced, as
nearly as could be determined, to a common unit -
what may be called an ECPD semester credit rep-
resenting a total of approximately fifty hours of
the student's time (recitation, lecture, laboratory, or
outside preparation)."
Additional problems were found in comparing
level of mathematics and in treating military
science, physical education, religious courses,
seminars, orientations, and asemblies. Even
with reduction of data to a common ECPD
credit unit, the curricula, adjusted to remove
the variations just listed, still ranged in net
credits from 118 to 160.
Two primary conclusions can be drawn
from Schmidt's study. First, it was a work of
tremendous labor without the use of today's
large computers, and it made a really signifi-
cant contribution to chemical engineering edu-
cation. Second, one still can prove anything by
statistics if the data are not on a common basis
and if arbitrary inference may (or must) be
introduced by the analyst.
A second survey of undergraduate curricula
was done by a greatly enlarged A.I.Ch.E. Sub-
committee in 1961-2 under the chairmanship
of Dr. C. M. Thatcher of Pratt Institute. The
results, published in 1962 (4), contained an
analysis of 92 accredited undergraduate Ch.E.
curricula. Thatcher wrote:
"If it is to be completely meaningful, an analysis
of chemical engineering curricula should properly
start with a consideration of the objective sought,
and only then examine the means by which the
objective is achieved."
Quoting further from Thatcher in a private re-
port to the A.I.Ch.E. Subcommittee on Under-
graduate Curricula:
"My own present feeling is that perhaps we have
already put the cart before the horse: We have
gathered data on what is being done before looking
into objectives, and it is quite probable that there
is a difference of opinion among departments [of
chemical engineering] after you once get beyond
the broad aim of turning out capable chemical
engineers. For example, some departments may
have curricula specifically tailored to prepare stu-
dents for further study at the graduate level, some
may emphasize practice as opposed to theory, etc."
This brings us to the problem of bifurcation,
or perhaps more properly, multifurcation of
curricula. It seems most important that each
department whose curriculum is being con-
sidered for accreditation should specifically and

clearly state its objectives. At a 1963 planning
session of the Undergraduate Curricula Sub-
committee of A.I.Ch.E., after strongly object-
ing to lumping all curricula into one category
in our surveys, I was (needless to say) selected
as Chairman of a Survey-In-Depth Committee
to attempt to extract the changes taking place
in accredited chemical engineering curricula in
the United States. This study, still in progress,
should be completed by June, 1966.
A complete curricula study, similar to those
made by Schmidt and Thatcher, will not be
conducted until 1966-7. It is my recommenda-
tion that only straight general chemical engi-
neering curricula be included in that study be-
cause of the complications involved in reduc-
ing the data from multifurcated curricula to a
common basis when the objectives are differ-
ent. The conversion of raw curricula data
should also be programmed on an electronic
digital computer by the National Headquarters
of A.I.Ch.E.
What can now be said about multifurcation
of curricula in chemical engineering in the
United States? On the basis of the limited
analysis made thus far, the magnitude of
penetration of multifurcation into accredited
curricula can be seen.
Professor C. L. Mantell of Newark College
recently listed all of the chemical engineering
schools in the United States (including the
non-accredited schools), the number of students
receiving B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in
chemical engineering from each school, and
the total chemical engineering graduates in
each school for 1963 and 1964 (2). Out of a
total of 3028 B.S. Ch.E. degrees awarded by
all schools in 1964, 297, or almost ten per
cent, were awarded by non-accredited schools.
This leaves 2731 awarded by accredited
schools of chemical engineering.
It is now fairly common knowledge that less
than 30% of the schools in chemical engineer-
ing award more than 50% of the B.S. Ch.E.
degrees. In particular, there were 31 schools
which awarded 1473 B.S. Ch.E. degrees in
1964. This represents approximately 54 of
the undergraduate degrees from accredited
schools. Of these 31 larger schools, 11 (more
than one third) had multifurcated curricula.
This high percentage probably would not hold
among schools with smaller graduating classes
for the simple reason that multifurcated pro-
grams mean offering more courses. This be-
comes expensive when the number of students


is small. Of the 31 schools whose curricula
were examined, only two offered five-year cur-
ricula and both of these had multifurcated pro-
The 11 schools having multifurcated pro-
grams in chemical engineering had an aggre-
gate of 53 separate options specifically desig-
nated (including 11 chemical engineering
options). The distribution of these programs
by number of options, or multifurcation index,
is shown in Table I.

TABLE I. Multifurcation Levels of Eleven
Large Chemical Engineering Schools.
Number of Schools *Multifurcation Index

A multifurcation index is defined as the number
of alternate routes in a chemical engineering cur-
riculum. For example, a bifurcated curriculum would
have a multifurcation index of two.

That multifurcation does exist to an ap-
preciable extent in chemical engineering cur-
ricula today can be concluded from the num-
ber of curricula involved, the percentage of
students graduating annually from such pro-
grams, and the magnitude of the multifurca-
tion index. Lumping all programs leading to
B.S. Ch.E. degrees into one category for statis-
tical analysis should no longer be attempted,
therefore, if the results of a curriculum survey
are to be meaningful.
In conclusion, the remarks of Thatcher at
the ASEE-A.I.Ch.E. Summer School for chem-
ical engineering teachers at Boulder, Colorado,
in 1962 are appropriate:
"There have been significant changes within a rel-
atively stable curricula framework. The lamentable
fact is that such changes are all too frequently not
reported to groups such as this so that they can be
tried elsewhere, perhaps adopted, and, most impor-
tant, perhaps built upon to achieve even more
satisfactory results."
Let us continually analyze our curricula and
their courses, in terms of what we are trying
to accomplish, how we are going about it, and
how effective our efforts are. Let us experiment
to identify new and more effective ways of
achieving our objectives. And finally, let us
report the results of both our analyses and our

1. Christensen, J. J., "A Survey of Five-year and
Cooperative Chemical Engineering Curricula of 1963-
4". Report to subcommittee on Undergraduate Cur-
ricula, Educational Projects Committee, American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, December; Chem.
Eng. Education, 1, 17 (1965).
2. Mantell, C. L., Chem. Eng. 72, [8], 198 (1965).
3. Schmidt, A. X., J. Eng. Education, 50, [1], 65
4. Thatcher, C. M. Chem. Eng. Education, 1962,
[Sept.] 1-2.

Science, Technology, or Both?
Glenn Murphy
Head, Nuclear Engineering Department
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
The term "bifurcation" was introduced into
discussions of engineering curricula a little over
a decade ago through the activities of the
ASEE Committee on Evaluation of Engineer-
ing Education, known as the Grinter Commit-
About 1951 it became evident that a critical
appraisal of engineering education was badly
needed. Relatively few major changes had been
made for many years. The general form of
engineering curricula had become fairly well
standardized some 50 years before; and as
new programs, such as Chemical Engineering,
were formed, they largely followed the tradi-
tional pattern. Modifications in response to
the changing demands of the profession con-
sisted mainly of updating technical information
and introducing new methods of solving prob-
The impact of the war served to de-empha-
size curricular programs and to emphasize re-
search and development. Superimposed on this
was the need for specialized training courses,
and universities became more and more in-
volved in project-oriented research.
As research results and sweeping technologi-
cal advances were applied to peace-time in-
dustry following the war, broad changes were
needed in engineering courses of study. Recog-
nizing the urgent need to examine these prob-
lems, Dean Hollister of Cornell, then President
of ASEE, set up a committee of about 40 un-
der the chairmanship of Dean L. E. Grinter for
the evaluation of engineering education. This
Committee met for a total of about thirty
working days during the three-year period
1952-5 and discussed every aspect of engi-
neering education.


The Committee reasoned that engineering
graduates, although needing preparation for a
broad spectrum of activity from sales to re-
search, shared certain attributes: proficiency in
mathematics and the physical sciences; mas-
tery of those principles that make engineering
more science than art (the engineering
sciences); need for the understanding achieved
through social-humanistic studies; and the key
characteristic distinguishing engineer from
scientist the ability to synthesize, to design,
to create new products for the needs of an ever-
demanding civilization. To provide these at-
tributes in a four-year program was judged to
be no easy task; in fact, all the obvious meth-
ods of simple improvement (five-year curricula,
better preparation of high school graduates,
elevated standards of admission to engineering
schools) appeared to be inadequate. The Com-
mittee made the preliminary recommendation,
therefore, of curricular bifurcation to permit
stressing either the operational or the research-
development aspects of engineering.
There was immediate and widespread oppo-
sition to bifurcation on the basis of assumed
increased instruction cost and administrative
complications. Every department might be re-
quired to offer two separate curricula, it was
feared. Furthermore the graduates of one of
the two curricula might be regarded as second-
rate citizens, and this would reflect badly upon
the entire engineering profession. As a result
of the violent reaction, the concept of bifurca-
tion was not included in the final report.
Although bifurcation was rejected, the need
suggesting it was real. Consequently, to meet
this need engineering curricula have swung
generally to the science side of the spectrum
(with considerable opposition by some profes-
sional societies out of fear that graduates may
have insufficient operating knowhow to enter
jobs without additional training by employers).
The question now is whether there exists
another solution to the problem a solution
that will enable a student to become knowl-
edgeable in the practice of his job and also
in the principles required to keep abreast of
developments until he reaches his career peak
(about 2000 A.D. for current undergraduates).
In considering a program that will be re-
sponsive to the spectrum of engineering activi-
ties, it may help to review the processes of in-
vention development. A new idea nuclear
fission or the laser principle, for example -
emerges from the inventor's shop or the labor-
atory, the result of discovery.
In order to exploit the idea, additional engi-
neering research must often be performed to

provide reliable engineering information. These
activities phase into development and then in-
to design. Design involves the selection of
suitable materials and components, their opti-
mum arrangement, and a thorough economic
analysis. Next comes production, followed by
sales and (inevitably) by ,servicing. The proc-
ess is then repeated to improve the product.
The preceding steps, each requiring clear
decision making and informed thinking, repre-
sent the range of engineering function, but one
man seldom participates in all. Rather the engi-
neering graduate tends to gravitate to one of
three overlapping categories of specialization:
(1) research and development; (2) develop-
ment, design, testing, and possibly production;
and (3) production, sales, and servicing. Should
we train a student for all three categories, for
one of them, or for two?
We observe, indeed, that currently there
is a pattern of preparation for each category.
Production and servicing are increasingly
manned by graduates of Technical Institutes.
The principal design, testing, and production
aspects are usually supplied by BS engineers;
and, traditionally, research and development
are the primary outlet for men with advanced
degrees. Experience teaches us, however, that
what is in the graduate program now may be
in the undergraduate a few years later.
We may approach this from another direc-
tion by considering what the engineer of 30
years from now may be doing. Such extrapola-
tion of current activities is regarded as a prim-
ary sin by many engineers. However, for too
long engineers have ridden facing backward
as civilization has hurtled forward; experts in
what has happened, they have not looked
ahead to avoid such acute problems as atmos-
pheric pollution and transportation.
In my opinion we may expect the following
1. The systems with which engineers deal
will become increasingly complex, as evi-
denced by today's communications sys-
tems and space vehicles.
2. Entirely new dimensions of research will
evolve as more is learned about materials,
energy, and the functioning of the hu-
man mind.
3. The mechanics of design will move rapid-
ly toward automation, in response to the
increased complexity of systems and the
wealth of materials available for con-
struction. Optimization offers additional
possibilities. Design is becoming a pro-
grammed science rather than an art.
4. New methods of information communica-


the preceding one. Eighteen out of 45 in the
class selected the R & D Option. This repre-
sented a smaller proportion of the class than
before and a group composed almost exclu-
sively of higher-ranking students. The D & P
group was composed predominantly of the
lower-ranking students, but many of these were
very good. Grade-point average for the two
groups were 3.2 and 2.6, respectively. Al-
though higher than the corresponding 1963
averages, they were further apart.
The 1965 class was similar in size and
general characteristics to its predecessor and
produced similar results. Only one of the
R & D group missed ranking in the top half of
the class, while the D & P group was quite
heterogeneous it contained both the third
man from the top and the anchor man. Grade-
point-wise, the two groups almost duplicated
those of the previous year.
The future plans of members of the 1963,
1964, and 1965 classes at graduation time
are summarized in Table III.

TABLE III. Future Plans of Graduates

Graduate School
Military Service

1963 1964 1965
1 9 4 10 3 8
16 5 18 7 26 6
2 1 5 1 1 0

Similar trends were observed in each class.
A majority of those in the R & D group
planned to work on advanced degrees in chem-
ical engineering, but a few planned to take
graduate work in business administration. On
the other hand, practically all of those in the
D & P group planned to enter industry and
the few exceptions who planned to enter grad-
uate school were not continuing in chemical
engineering. Two were contemplating post-
graduate study in law, two in industrial engi-
neering, two in business administration, and
one in general science. Only one member of
the 1965 D & P group actively sought admis-
sion into chemical engineering graduate school.
In general, the chemical engineering faculty
at Iowa State is pleased with the way the two-
option program has worked. Although the sys-
tem provides two paths which are significantly
different in content and objective, the teach-
ing load has not increased appreciably and
instruction efficiency has not suffered by hav-
ing some classes too small and others too large.
Most important of all, the needs and interests

of individual students have been more nearly

The Rensselaer Program for
Engineering Education

The Rensselaer Program for
Engineering Education

Stephen Yerazunis
Professor of Chemical
Arthur A. Burr
Dean of Engineering
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.

Engineering programs have undergone con-
siderable modification in recent years in re-
sponse to professional needs. However, the
changes primarily involving the replacement of
skill courses by basic and applied science
studies appear to meet immediate rather than
future requirements. At Rensselaer a planning
committee has analyzed the long-range prob-
lem and has reached five conclusions (2):
1. The primary objective of the baccalau-
reate for the engineering student should
be basic education of a broad character.
2. Pre-engineering education and profes-
sional engineering education should be
recognized as separate phases. Admis-
sion to professional programs should be
based on pre-engineering student perform-
ance which shows potential for the prac-
tice of modern engineering.
3. More emphasis should be directed to the
development of the engineering approach
in decision making, perspective, and atti-
tude, and to the fostering of creativity.
4. The student's capacity to acquire special-
ized competence in his professional prac-
tice can be developed only through an
experience of specialization in depth.
However, such specialization must not be
achieved to the detriment of breadth of
5. Programs of study in which specialization
is to be acquired must be designed to meet
the challenges of the future and must be
sufficiently flexible to satisfy the demands
of the evolving technology.
These conclusions, now in the form of five
statements of principle, form the basis for the
engineering program now being implemented


and developed at Rensselaer. The new pro-
gram is believed to be a significant departure
from current engineering educational practices
both in content and philosophy. All engineer-
ing students pursue a pre-engineering program
for three academic years. At the conclusion of
this phase the student must choose one of two
paths to continue his education: (a) seek ad-
mission to the professional school in which
the first-stage program of two academic years
leads to the Master of Engineering as the first
professional degree; or (b) complete a fourth-
year program subjected to minimal curricular
requirements, leading to the Bachelor of Sci-
ence degree. At the conclusion of the first-
stage professional program, students may pur-
sue advanced studies leading to the doctorate
with emphasis either in research or profes-
sional practice.
Prior to either of the bifurcation points (the
end of the pre-engineering phase and of the
Master of Engineering program), electives are
permitted whereby the student may individual-
ize his program in the light of his interests and
long-range objectives. This opportunity must
not be interpreted as an excuse for specializa-
tion at the pre-engineering level; this would be
premature and out of keeping with the basic
philosophy. The advantage of the elective op-
portunity is to remove from engineering educa-
tion the curricular straightjacket all too often
imposed on the student.
Although the educational concept has been
determined and a prototype plan is now being
implemented, additional development work is
required. There are three phases of develop-
ment: (a) the pre-engineering curriculum, (b)
professional school programs, and (c) engineer-
ing perspective. Development of the pre-engi-
neering phase requires identification of those
science, mathematics, engineering science, and
humanities and social science experiences
which are basic to engineering endeavor and
which will form the foundation for the profes-
sional practice of the future, say 10 to 20 years
hence. In addition, it is necessary to determine
the order and the manner in which these ex-
periences are to be obtained. It will not suffice
to seek the lowest common denominator of
courses acceptable to the several professional
specialties, nor would a compromise consisting
of the most prized components of the special-
ties be adequate. What is necessary is a posi-
tive identification of the ingredients funda-
mental to meaningful engineering practice,
not in today's framework but in that foreseen
for the future.
For the professional phase the task is to

define a rationale for identifying sectors of
professional practice worthy of advanced
study, and criteria for judging the suitability of
proposed study plans. Programs must not only
be relevant to future professional needs but
must also develop the student's capacity to
specialize rather than to narrowly compart-
mentalize his thinking. Professional school
specialization must be directed primarily at
developing a particular competence for further
growth. Detailed knowledge of current tech-
nology, while useful in initiating a career, is of
lesser importance.
Development of sound engineering perspec-
tive by the student with regard to the profes-
sional objective of "seeking optimal means of
exploiting nature for human purposes within
the framework of relevant restraints" is the
third goal. The engineering process can be
divided into four major steps:
1. Problem recognition, formulation, and
delineation into manageable components.
Relevant restraints such as economics,
reliability, safety, space, etc., must be
identified. Information applicable to the
particular problem situation must be rec-
2. Conception of all reasonable alternative
solutions to the recognized problem.
3. Analysis of alternative solutions with re-
gard to feasibility, performance, etc.
4. Selection and implementation of the best
possible solution.
The overall process is basically iterative. The
conceptual phase may feed back to problem
formulation or constraint definition. The anal-
ysis step may in turn suggest new alternatives
or even a complete revision of the original
problem statement. Even the final decision step
may result in repetition of parts or all of the
sequence. It is this engineering process, or its
equivalent as put forth by others (1, 3, 4), that
is the very essence of engineering practice. The
whole purpose of education in mathematics,
physical sciences, humanities, and social sci-
ences is to provide the means by which this
process can be executed with distinction.
It is proposed that the overall engineering
process can be delineated into identifiable and
manageable components and that the student
can acquire competence in these components
through planned experiences. A thread of gen-
eral engineering will be provided throughout
the program, starting with a sophomore level
course followed in the third year by a year-
long engineering laboratory. The thread will
be continued in the first year of the profes-
continued on page 15


Thomas H. Chillon
Visiting Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.


4- -

. . about Chem Engineers in Industry

What is it a chemical engineer does? A
fascinating variety of things, of course. A com-
mittee of the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers has stated: The practice of chemical
engineering may be in such fields as education,
research, development, design, patent prosecu-
tion, economic appraisals, sales, contracting,
construction, operation, maintenance, and man-
agement. But there is one of these activities for
which I consider that the chemical engineer is
uniquely qualified . process development.
It is there that the chemical engineer comes
into his own: in taking a process as conceived
in the chemical laboratory and carrying it
through the successive stages of semiworks
evaluation, pilot-plant design and try-out, and
full-scale plant design and construction, to a
going manufacturing operation.
It is in process development that the skills of
the chemical engineer have their full exercise.
A knowledge of basic chemical principles, of
the laws of thermodynamics, of the principles
of the unit operations, will guide the way in
setting up and conducting critical experiments
which will serve to define the outline of a safe
and economical operating process and the
specifications of the most appropriate equip-
There is another function uniquely per-
formed by chemical engineers economic
evaluation. From its inception as an industrial
possibility as against a scientific curiosity -
a process must be evaluated by the economic
yardstick: "Will the probable value of the pro-
duct leave sufficient margin over the cost of in-
gredients, of manufacture, and of selling, to
yield a reasonable return on the probable in-
vestment in facilities and working capital?"
. It is concern with economic feasibility
that distinguishes the engineer from the scien-
tist, and a feeling for economic realities and an
understanding of the interrelationships of cost
factors and profitability is something an em-
ployer might reasonably expect in a chemical

[Were I to] list the attributes that industry
wants in its chemical engineers, such a list
would include a knowledge of chemistry and


' ; .. ;' .-
." -i.-


We introduce with this issue the department
SPEAKING OUT, a page to be devoted to the
personal views of spokesmen selected because
they are eminent, or controversial, or articulate,
or outrageous, or just plain interesting. You
may not always agree with those who speak up
in these columns CHEMICAL ENGINEER-
ING EDUCATION may not, either -but we
think you'll not be bored by them.
It is a privilege to present Dr. T. H. Chilton
as our first "speaker." Dr. Chilton needs intro-
duction neither to academics nor to industrial-
ists in chemical engineering, for after a long
and distinguished industrial career (principally
with DuPont) he has spent the past five years
in education. His honors are many. He is a
past president of A.I.Ch.E. He has been a
member of ASEE (and SPEE) for over 25
years, and long before he officially became a
professor he was involved deeply in the edu-
cation of chemical engineers. He has made
significant contributions to the technical devel-
opment of our field--for example, as co-
originator with the late Allan Colburn of the
transfer-unit concept.
Dr. Chilton's opinions are excerpts from an
address he delivered before the Conference on
Chemical Engineering Education of the joint
A.I.Ch.E.-I.Chem.Eng. meeting in London,
June 17, 1965.

related physical sciences, understood quantita-
tively with the aid of mathematics; a familiarity
with the principles of engineering design; an
appreciation of economic factors and of human
One summarizing attribute that would en-
able the chemical engineer to make his greatest
contribution: versatility. Axiomatically, a
chemical engineer's problems are always new
ones each different from the one before, and
the ability to handle such a succession is what
I designate as versatility. For what implication
this has for chemical engineering education I
will only say that it would not likely result from
too high a degree of specialization; neither
would it be effective if too great a range of
studies were covered superficially.


The Teaching Aids Subcommittee of the Chemical Engineering Projects Committee,
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, was authorized in 1959 to collect informa-
tion on teaching aids (other than motion pictures and slide films) useful in chemical
engineering instruction. The Subcommittee, consisting of R. M. Hubbard (Chairman),
J. J. Salamone, J. R. Snyder, and D. L. Vives, prosecuted its charge by questionnaire
solicitation of U. S. Chemical Engineering Departments and by subsequent specific
investigation of certain aids that are in use. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA-
TION is pleased to present papers by Professors Hubbard and Snyder that constitute
the final report of the Subcommittee on a subject of living interest to educators.

Teaching Aids for Chemical Engineering

Robert M. Hubbard
Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Many teaching aids have been devised by
teachers of technical subjects such as chemistry
and engineering. Some have been described in
the literature; a few are more obvious and war-
rant only mention so that any instructor may
prepare his own. The teaching aids covered in
this report are grouped into several classes,
and many have been tried and proved useful
in instruction.
Industrial Products
Most companies supplying the chemical in-
dustry are willing to donate samples to educa-
tional institutions. Some mechanical items are
available already sectioned and highly polished,
plated or otherwise enhanced for display pur-
poses. Examples of available products used by
the chemical industry are valves of all types,
pipe fittings in all materials, pine and tubing
of all kinds and from all materials, steam and
air traps, gaskets, orifice flanges with orifices,
tower packing, distillation bubble caps, and
mechanical components such as bearings,
gears, couplings, and mechanical seals.
At various times manufacturers have pre-
pared display charts describing operation of
equipment. This has been true particularly in
the field of instruments. The Foxboro Com-
pany prepared a series of large charts in 1957.
The Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory has pre-
pared a chart listing all of the Nuclides. With
the advent of the overhead projector and proc-
esses for making transparencies from catalog
pages, charts or illustrations from manufact-
urers' literature can be shown to any class.
Laboratory Apparatus and Models
of Equipment
An enterprising instructor having access to
a good machine shop and a good mechanic can
section some actual equipment used by the
chemical industry when this is small in size.

Examples of such equipment are centrifugal
pumps, heat exchangers, valves, traps, etc.
Laboratory Demonstrations
This category can offer the most useful and
interesting of all teaching aids. Much effort has
been spent in some schools on devising simple
but useful and interesting demonstrations.
Some can even be carried out in the classroom.
Examples of these have been described in the
literature, sometimes in less well-known publi-
An early committee effort to assemble de-
scriptions of short demonstrations resulted in
the publication "Educational Aids in Engi-
neering" by the American Society for Engi-
neering Educaiton in 1955. Subjects of interest
to chemical engineers are thermodynamics and
heat transfer described in the section on Me-
chanical Engineering and fluid flow described
under Engineering Mechanics.
One of the earliest descriptions of demon-
strations to illustrate chemical engineering
principles was by Johnson (9). Pressburg and
Coates (18) described apparatus for demon-
strating the Reynolds number, fluid metering,
and film and drop-wise steam consendation.
Robert Lemlich has described his "Two
Penny" experiments in several publications
(12), R. L. Huntington (7) (8) some laboratory
experiments that may be classed as demonstra-
tions, and Sami Atallah (2) a boiling heat
transfer experiment. Potter (17) covered equip-
ment for obtaining the Joule-Thompson co-
The Journal of Chemical Education has been
an important source of material. Descriptions
have been published for demonstrations on
fluidization by Fan (5), P-V work by O'Dris-
coll (14), thermal diffusion by Whalley (20),
kinetics by Lemlich (11) and by Baginzki and
continued on payc 15


tion will be evolved so that tools, techni-
ques, and data available in one location
can be transmitted instantly to the designer
or analyst who needs them.
5. Advances in production techniques will
permit factories to become completely
6. Boundaries between the various engineer-
ing disciplines will erode. Interdisciplin-
ary thinking will prevail over the narrow
viewpoint of professional specialization.
Boundaries between the physical sciences
will break down. The trends of interdis-
ciplinary cooperation between the engi-
neering sciences and the biological sci-
ences will extend to the other sciences as
7. Engineers will emerge as the planners and
coordinators of the efforts of technological
specialists in much the same way that
project engineers today coordinate the ef-
forts of engineering specialists.
8. We shall graduate engineers for two types
of careers:
(a) That of high-level planning and co-
ordination, bringing to products and
systems not only the basic physical
and economic considerations but also
far reaching environment and socio-
logical implications.
(b) That of special understanding of the
nature of things and the provision of
detailed information necessary for
complete planning.
This leads us to the conclusion that we
must not force all engineering students
into the same mold, but must have educa-
tional flexibility. Some students will have
the aptitude for broad training, whereas
others will be more qualified to delve into
individual areas of technical specializa-
tion. However, such specialization will be
of a different character from that now
envisioned as the ideal for the engineer-
ing Ph.D. For example, with the ready
availability of information on a scale only
dimly envisioned today, generalization of
knowledge may in itself become an area
of specialization.
9. Much of what engineers today are doing
will be done by graduates of technical in-
stitutes; much will be performed by ma-
10. A final item can be predicted with cer-
tainty 30 years from now engineering
educators will still be discussing how to
improve their programs to prepare engi-
neering graduates for the years ahead.

A Two-Option Curriculum
In Chemical Engineering

T. D. Wheelock
Chemical Engineering Department
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

The field of chemical engineering has become
so broad and diversified that a two-option plan
for undergraduates was introduced at Iowa
State University in the fall of 1961. The first
class given full advantage of the bifurcated cur-
riculum graduated in 1963. A description of
the program and a discussion of some of the
early results follow.

General Character of the Options
The two options are those of Design and
Production (D & P) and of Research and De-
velopment (R & D). The first is for students
who are interested in the design, construction,
operation, and management of manufacturing
plants in the chemical process industries. The
second is for students who are interested in
basic or applied research and development
and/or graduate training. While the D & P'
Option is the more traditional in nature, the
R & D Option involves more mathematics,
science, and engineering fundamentals. Both
lead to a B.S. degree in four years for qualified
This system makes the curriculum flexible
and yet insures every student certain basic sub-
jects essential for all chemical engineers. Lim-
ited substitutions are allowed for even greater
flexibility in some cases. The abler student can
take advantage of special Honors and Under-
graduate Research Participation Programs to
secure a more tailor-made curriculum.
Students are allowed a free choice of op-
tions. Both options are considered equally im-
portant and challenging. It is felt that a student
should have the opportunity to base his elec-
tion entirely on his personal interests and goals.
Of course, the R & D Option would not be
recommended to anyone displaying weakness
in mathematics.

Time for Decision
Most undergraduate engineering curricula
at Iowa State University are designed for com-
pletion in four academic years of three quar-
ters each. The first year is a preprofessional
program which must be completed with at least
an average grade point of 2.0 (4.0 maximum)


for admission into one of the three-year pro-
fesional curricula.
An option should be selected before winter
quarter of the sophomore year since the fol-
lowing quarter is the first one differing between
the options. However, a decision at this point
is not irrevocable, because the fifth and sixth
quarters differ between the options by only
one course each. Should a student change his
mind at the end of his sophomore year, he
could substitute for electives in the second
option the required course from the first option.
Alternately, he could attend a summer session.
The Common Core
Of the total credits required for a B.S. de-
gree in chemical engineering, about 15 per
cent are electives. Of the required credits, a
large core (80 per cent) are common to both
Mathematics courses through ordinary dif-
ferential equations are part of the common
core. Freshmen entering the University are
expected to be sufficiently well prepared to
start a one-year integrated sequence of calculus
and analytical geometry followed by a one-
quarter course in ordinary differential equa-
tions. Both options include general chemistry,
quantitative analysis, general physics, organic
chemistry, physical chemistry, English, speech,
economics, and engineering graphics.
Both options require a set of basic chem-
ical engineering courses which starts with
material and energy balances in the sophomore
year, continues with unit operations and com-
puter applications during the junior year, and
ends with thermodynamics, kinetics, and
process control theory and laboratory in the
senior year. Each student must also take some
work in chemical plant design and transport
Differences in Options
Major differences in the required content of
the two options are summarized in Table I.
The R & D Option is built on a full year
of advanced mathematics including Laplace
transforms, Fourier series, partial differential
equations, Bessel and Legendre functions, vec-
tor analysis, and numerical methods. This
mathematics is subsequently applied in an
intermediate mechanics course in physics, an
electrical circuit analysis course, and a chem-
ical engineering course in energy, mass, and
momentum transport phenomena. The option
also includes some work in the new rate
processes laboratory and in chemical engi-
neering design.
Whereas the last subject is a minor part of
one option, it constitutes a major part of the

D & P Option. The latter also includes courses
in mechanics and electrical engineering, but
these are of a different nature than the ones
mentioned above and require less mathematical
sophistication. In addition, the D & P Option
provides a unit operations laboratory and an
introduction to transport phenomena and sta-

TABLE I. Difference in Course Content
of Two Options.

Soph. Principles of
Statistics 3
Statics of Engi-
neering 4
Jr. Mechanics of
Materials 5
Elec. Circuit
& Mach. 8
Sr. Unit Operations
Lab 2
Chem. Eng.
Design 9
Transport Phe-
nomena 3

Advanced Math.

Advanced Math.

Rate Processes
Chem. Eng.
Transport Phe-
Elec. Circuit

An analysis of the credit distribution for the
two options is reported in Table II.

TABLE I. Per Cent Credit Distribution
for Two Options

Math., Chem., and 'Physics
Engineering Sciences
Engineering Analysis and Design
Humanistic and'Social Studies
Free Electives



100% 100%

Both options place great importance on math-
ematics and basic science and give equal
weight to the engineering sciences. The R & D
Option puts extra emphasis on mathematics
and physics at the expense of engineering
analysis and design.
Preliminary Results
The 1963 class, the first to fully utilize the
option system, was smaller and had fewer stu-
dents in the 3.0 to 4.0 grade-point range than
the average for recent years. Nevertheless, 15
out of 34 chose the R & D Option; among
them the top four students in the class and
several who ranked near the bottom. On the
other hand, several high-ranking students se-
lected the D & P Option. The grade-point
averages for the two groups were 2.8 and 2.4,
the R & D group being the higher.
The 1964 class was larger and the propor-
tion of outstanding students greater than for


The Overhead Projector

.. a Teaching Aid

J. Robert Snyder
Associate Professor of Chemical
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa.

The overhead projector has a 10" x. 10" hor-
izontal glass stage upon which the material
fo be projected, the transparency, is placed.
The transparency can be any tranparent plastic
sheet upon which are printed, pasted or devel-
oped figures and images. Each figure or image
must either absorb or dispense light. A verti-
cal light beam (500 to 1000 watts) originating
from beneath the stage casts the image into a
lens mounted about 18" above the stage. This
overhead lens permits focusing and also pro-
jects the beam upward and to the rear of the
projector. Th resulting beam produces a uni-
formly bright-screen image, so bright that nor-
mal room lighting does not reduce clarity.
From the above description, it is obvious
that the overhead projector was designed to be
operated from the front of a lecture room. Thus,
the operator reads the transparency on the
stage exactly as the student views it on the
screen. Of course, the projector must be kept
low enough to prevent blocking of the student's
view. The screen should be matte and white
*in order to obtain up to sixty degrees of effec-
tive viewing angle. Generally, it is most con-
venient to place the screen to the left of the
students (for a right-handed instructor) or
above the chalkboard. The screen should be
tilted forward slightly at the top to prevent
"keystoning" of the projected image.
Preparation of Transparencies
There are a host of commercial materials
suitable for the preparation of transparencies.
The following four examples are taken from
my own experiences and are not meant to be
1. Grease pencil drawings are made on clear
8-1/2" x 11" acetate sheets. If desired,
color can be added by use of "magic
markers." If reprocessed untinted x-ray
films are obtained, no cardboard mounting
frames are necessary. Smudging is not a
problem so long as the finished films are
stored with a tissue-paper protective cov-
2. Prepare drawings with Acetograph pens and

inks on reprocessed untinted x-ray film.
Use pressure-sensitive tapes of varying
colors, widths and designs to highlight
curves on graphs, to represent process lines
on flow charts, etc. Whole areas can be
highlighted by use of overlays cut from
colored film.
3. Copy (reproduce) printed material from
books, periodicals, advertising literature,
etc. While many different copying proc-
esses are commercially available, the best
procedure at any given school will depend
upon available equipment. For example,
if a page in a book is to be reproduced, the
page might first be "lifted" by preparation
of a Xerox copy. The Xerox copy can then
serve as an "original" and from it a posi-
tive transparency can be made directly, e.g.
on Thermo-Fax standard positive type 123.
It might also be noted that Xerox copies
of transparencies are generally excellent.
By this means, borrowed transparencies can
be copied easily.
4. Colored transparencies can be "lifted" from
clay-coated color prints in magazine illus-
trations (e.g. those in Fortune magazine)
onto transparency positives (e.g. Thermo-
Fax type 123).
Procedures and Techniques.
In the teaching of any course in which
equations, tables, diagrams, charts,.etc. are de-
veloped, presented or discussed, the use of
overhead projection will prove effective. All
pre-planned chalkboard presentations can be
delivered more efficiently and effectively by
predeveloped transparencies. Some of the ad-
vantages offered by overhead projection follow.
1. There is no lost time writing on the chalk-
board. The instructor faces the class and
so can discuss directly the subject matter
presented on the transparency. Eye contact
with the students need never be lost.
Teacher-student communication is en-
2. More subject matter can be presented and
continued on page 17


Jr. Knows Best... or Does He?

Lloyd Berg
Professor and Head of Chemical Engineering
Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana

Six years ago, Carl Milanovich and Jack
Sherick stood on a street corner of Butte,
Montana, talking about next year's prospects.
High school seniors at Butte Public, both
ranked in the upper quarter of their class. Sons
of Serbian workingmen in the Butte copper
mines, they had heard all their lives that a
college degree was the passport to enter the
good life. High school career days had given
them a rosy view of every field from agricul-
ture to zoology. Any and all fields seemed to
lead to Mickey Mantle's salary with the
Yankees or Clyde Weed's with the Anaconda
The scuttlebutt around the high school was
that either Business Administration at the Uni-
versity in Missoula or the Commerce course
at Montana State in Bozeman was the easiest
and the surest, safest way to that essential col-
lege degree. Carl assured Jack that this was the
smart thing to do; get that degree and have
a good time while doing it. Jack was tempted
to agree but had been offered a $250 scholar-
ship by Montana State if he would take Chem-
ical Engineering. The scholarship money had
come from the Continental Oil Company, the
State people told him, and it made him feel
good that a big outfit like Conoco considered
him that important. The scholarship was not
large but it did cover the tuition fees for the
freshman year. He felt he would immediately
be earning part of his college expenses.
So Carl went to the University to major in
Business Administration. A full 25% of the
4500 students there were doing the same. Jack
enrolled in Chemical Engineering at Bozeman;
about 3% of the students there were in that
field. Today Jack, a capable engineer, is at
the Reactor Test Station in Idaho developing
an atomic-powered engine designed to push a
space craft to the moon, Mars, and beyond.
Carl too has his degree. He is clerking in the
Butte J. C. Penney store and considers himself
very lucky to have a job.
Bob Young climbed aboard the Northern
Pacific's crack North Coast Limited at Boze-
man, Montana, and settled down in his seat
for the long ride back to Chicago. Bob was
discouraged and failed to share his fellow

passengers' enthusiasm for the magnificent
mountain scenery that slipped by as the train
climbed to the summit of 6000-foot Bozeman
pass. Bob Young is Universal Oil Products
Company's chief recruiter and his recent tour
of colleges in the Northwest looking for engi-
neers had been very disheartening. The trip
started badly. Winter storms over the Rockies
and the Great Plains had caused the cancella-
tion of Bob's flights and forced him to cover
this immense territory by train. That wouldn't
have bothered Bob, a seasoned traveller, if the
trip had been more fruitful.
Bob's problem: to find scores of engineers,
mostly chemicals, for UOP's burgeoning proj-
ects. UOP had just negotiated a contract to
build several units of a refinery for the Ruman-
ian government. A project of great national
importance-President Johnson's plans for im-
proved East-West relations and the weaning of
Rumania away from dominance by Russia
hinged upon projects like this -, it would re-
quire the full-time service of many UOP em-
ployees for the next three years. And UOP has
more than a hundred other projects under con-
Bob's experiences at Bozeman were typical
of what he encounters everywhere now-a-days.
When he arrived at the campus, he was greeted
cordially by Placement Director Brick Breeden.
Breeden had prepared a schedule of interviews,
one every 30 minutes for a day and a half.
Breeden asked Bob if he would talk to Com-
merce, General Studies and Industrial Arts
majors there were hundreds of them avail-
able but Bob declined saying he was look-
ing only for chemical, mechanical and electri-
cal engineers and a few chemists. Bob lunched
with faculty members from the Departments
whose students he interviewed. The students
Bob talked to were all well-dressed and con-
versed freely and easily with him too easily
perhaps, thought Bob. These boys know all
the answers. "What salary do you want?",
asked Bob. "The going salary for a man of
my qualifications", they answered to a man.
"What kind of a place are you looking for?",
he asked. "A company in which my capabilities
will be developed to the fullest and where I
continued on page 18


Chemical Engineering
Professorial Staff
As a Function
of Student Load

A. X. Schmidt Robert Pfeffer
Professor and Chairman Assistant Professor of
of Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering
The City University of NewYork,
New York, N. Y.
Data from 70 United States universities were
analyzed to determine the possibility of a rea-
sonably reliable correlation between student
load and the size of professorial staff required.
Specifically, P, the total number of chemical
engineering (full-time) personnel in the three
professorial ranks was correlated with B, M,
and D, where these represent respectively the
number of bachelors, masters and doctors grad-
uated per year in chemical engineering. It was
felt that such a relationship might prove of
particular interest when expansion into a grad-
uate program was being contemplated. The 70
institutions included in the study were all ac-
credited and were schools for which B+M+D
exceeded 19.
The working relationship among these varia-
bles was taken in the form
P = ao + aaB + a2M + aD (1)
and the coefficients ao, a,, a2, and as were
found to be
ao 1.7 to 2.7 2.2
a, 0.07 to 0.13 0.10
a2 0.07 to 0.21 0.14
a3 0.29 to 0.61 0.45
These values and the correlation yielding them
are discussed in the Appendix.
Thus, in order to grant
8 to 14 additional bachelor's degrees per year
or 5 to 14 additional master's degrees per year
or 2 to 3 additional doctor's degrees per year
calls, on the average, for one additional (full-
time) staff member of professorial rank.
Master's degrees, it is seen, require only
slightly more professorial time than bachelor's
degrees, while, as expected, doctor's degrees
demand much more. The coefficient ao indi-
cates that professorial time equivalent to about
two to three full-time persons is given over to
administration or general research.
Heavy Commitment To Graduate Program
For comparison with these overall results,
ten universities very heavily committed to
graduate instruction and to research were anal-
yzed along the same lines. The corresponding
coefficients ao, a1, a2, as, listed in the Ap-

pendix, have excessively broad ranges of un-
certainty. They are, however, quite consistent
with the overall values as regards the allocation
of professorial time to bachelor's degree work,
and to total work towards graduate degrees.
The research-minded institutions do seem to
assign more professorial time than the average
to doctor's degree work (at the expense of the
master's degree), and more professorial time
than the average to administration and general
The data for this study were collected from
'Chemical Engineering Faculties of Canada and
the United States For 1962-63" (A.I.Ch.E.,
New York).
For the linear regression model
P = ao + a1B + a2M + a3D
the regression coefficients ao, al, a2, and a3
were estimated by at least squares calcula-
tion, each university being given equal weight.
The central values were as shown in the table
following Equation 1.
The multiple correlation coefficient for this
regression was calculated at 0.83, which is
rather good. One may accordingly say that the
linear relationship accounts for 69 percent
(0.832-0.69) of the variation actually found
in the data from university to university. Tak-
ing the residuals in the regression Equation 1
to be independent Gaussian (normal) deviates,
permits the calculation of tight confidence
regions for the regression coefficients. On the
Gaussian assumption, the 90% confidence in-
tervals are

a0 = 2.2 0.5
a1 = 0.10 0.03
a2 = 0.14 0.07 for 70 departments (2)
a3 = 0.45 +- 0.16
the true underlying value of ao falling in the
range 2.2+0.5 with probability 0.9, etc. The
data are not in fact just Gaussian, but even
with the (overly conservative) Chebychev
bounds, the ranges of Equations 2 for the re-
gression coefficients are at least 63% con-
fidence intervals. They are in any case the
working ranges of the coefficients quoted in
the body of this paper.
For the 10 highly research-oriented chemi-
cal engineering departments, the least square
estimates of the regression coefficients are
ao = 5.5
a, 0.1
a2 = 0.0 (3)
a3 = 0.6
These seem to have too high a sampling vari-
ability to warrant much confidence, but the
continued on page 18


A Survey of 5-Year and Cooperative

Chemical Engineering Curricula of 1963-1964

James J. Christensen*
Professor of Chemical Engineering
Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah

A survey was made of the undergraduate
chemical engineering curricula of schools hav-
ing programs that require either five years of
academic course work or cooperative work
programs. The results were compared with
those from similar surveys of four-year cur-
ricula by Schmidt (2) and Thatcher (3).
A list of schools falling into the two cate-
gories was compiled from catalogs, bulletins,
and the 31st Annual Report of the Engineers'
Council for Professional Development. Ten
were included in the five-year category: Brig-
ham Young, Columbia, Cornell, Florida,
Louisiana Polytech, Louisville, Minnesota,
Ohio State, Rice, and Virginia. Seventeen were
in the co-op category: Auburn, Cincinnati,
Denver, Detroit, Drexel, Fenn (now Cleveland
State), Florida, Georgia Tech, I.I.T., Louis-
ville, Missouri Mines, New Mexico State,
Northeastern, Northwestern, R.P.I., Tennessee,
and V.P.I.
An initial breakdown of subject matter was
made with the same subject classifications used
by Schmidt and by Thatcher so that direct
comparisons were easy. All credits were re-
ported in semester hours. This initial informa-
tion was sent to each of the respective schools
with a request that it be checked and appro-
priately corrected. The corrected forms were
then used for the final tabulations.
Separate summaries were made for schools
having curricula that require five years of
course work and one for those having a cooper-
ative work program. The results for the major
subject classes are shown in Table I, along
with those from the Schmidt and Thatcher
surveys. A complete summary with detailed
breakdown may be obtained from the author.
The following observations are offered:
1. The five-year curriculathave a higher num-
ber of credit hours than "four-year" cur-

The author is a member of the A.I.Ch.E. Com-
mittee on Undergraduate Curricula, and this survey
was made under the Committee's auspices.
t The term "four-year" as used throughout the
text applies to the data compiled by both Schmidt
and Thatcher. It includes schools at which the stu-
dents need an extra term and/or summer work to
complete the baccalaureate requirements in four
calendar years.

ricula, but not in the proportion of 5 to 4.
The five-year schools appear to be using
part of the "extra year" to reduce the num-
ber of semester hours taken per semester.
2. There is a higher emphasis on cultural
courses by approximately eleven credits in
the five-year curricula. The percentage of
the curriculum devoted to cultural courses
is 16% for the five-year schools of 1963-4
compared to 12% for the "four-year"
schools of 1961-2. Twenty percent was sug-
gested by the 1955 ASEE Committee on
Evaluation of Engineering Education (1).
3. The total of mathematics, chemistry and
physics is five credits higher for the five-
year schools of 1963-4 than the four-year
schools of 1961-2.
4. In chemical engineering subjects, the five-
year curricula carry eight more credit hours
than the four-year curricula. The increase
is general and distributed, and it does not
represent an increase in one particular sub-
ject area.
5. Cooperative curricula of 1963-4 show no
statistically significant departures from the
four-year curricula of 1961-2.

TABLEI. Average Semester-Hour Distribution
in Four and Five-Year Curricula

Ref.2 Ref.3

Total Gross
Credits 147.0
Mathematics 17.3
Chemistry 30.8
Physics 11.1
Graphics 4.7
Chem. Eng. 32.9
Mechanics 9.1
Elec. Eng. 5.0
Tech. Elect. 3.6
Other Technical 1.8
Cultural 14.7
Other non- Tech. 9.9



5-yr. Co-op





1. American Society for Engineering Education,
Committee on Evaluation of Engineering Education,
J. Eng. Education, 46, [1126-60 (1955).
2. Schmidt, A. X., J. Eng. Education, 50, [11, 65
3. Thatcher, C. M. Chem. Eng. Education, 1962,
[Sept.] 1-2.


continued from page 8

sional school with an advanced course in engi-
neering in which the student will be guided
through challenging assignments, and will cul-
.minate with a project experience on a worthy
engineering problem as a requirement for the
Master's degree. The project will serve as a
capstone, for here the student's ability to dis-
charge his professional obligation will be
judged by an examining committee of faculty
and practicing engineers of acknowledged
Sound and implementable programs for
engineering education cannot be developed by
a simple rearrangement of the blocks of knowl-
edge and of analysis currently available. The
knowledge must be organized into more basic
elements and the subtle interrelationships that
bring about new arrangements more suited to
future needs must be identified. One must in-
quire as to the longevity of each particular ele-
ment, its relationship to other elements, its
role as a foundation for still other elements,
its breadth of applicability, and its contribution
as a base for future learning beyond a man's
formal education.
The program for engineering education de-
scribed possesses several features which may
be viewed as advantages over current practice.
The pre-engineering concept will insure that
all students have had the opportunity to ac-
quire the essential background in those funda-
mentals underlying engineering as a single field.
The student's intellectual awareness of the
unifying themes of nature will not be confined
by the expediencies of current specializations.
The graduate should be better prepared to
meet the shifting challenges of the future.
Selection of those students wishing to pur-
sue the serious practice of engineering will
allow the fourth-year programs of professional
school students to proceed at advanced levels
and to probe more deeply into the subject area
than is feasible now in a typical terminal year.
Coherent programs leading to the Master's
degree will eliminate the almost inevitable
duplication of effort in much course work now
encountered in the one-year graduate program
following the baccalaureate. This feature sug-
gests that a more effective utilization of the
student's effort may be obtained even with a
liberalization of the pre-engineering require-
Finally, the proposed baccalaureate program
will produce men whose intimate awareness of
modern science and technology in combination

with a broader and more liberal perspective
will permit meaningful and significant careers
outside of engineering, per se, in a society
markedly affected by technological considera-

1. Buhl, H. R., "Creative Engineering. Design,"
Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1960.
2. Burr, A. A., L. S. Coonley, J. V. Foa, E. C.
W. A. Gueze, W. R. Hibbard, and A. H. Nissan,
"Long Range Planning for Engineering Education,"
a Report of the School of Engineering, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y., December, 1962.
3. Krick, E. V., "An Introduction to Engineering
and Engineering Design," John Wiley and Sons, New
York, 1965.
4. Rosenstein, A. B., "Design of a Unified Engi-
neering Curriculum," paper presented at 72nd annual
meeting, ASEE, Orono, Maine, June 22, 1964.

continued from page 10

Zak (3) and dynamic equilibrium by Wergang
(19). Osburn has described a visual demon-
stration of fractional distillation (15) and a
plug-board teaching aid for analog computer
instruction (16).
Professor Hubert N. Alyea has reviewed all
the demonstrations appearing in the Journal
of Chemical Education, abstracted them, and
grouped them by subject. Two series of ab-
stracts appeared, the first covering the period
1924-56 was printed in J. Chem. Ed. from
Vol. 34, No. 1, January 1957 through Vol.
37, No. 8, August 1960. The second series
covered the years 1957-59 and was printed in
Vol. 37, Nos. 2-8 (1960). Subjects of interest
to chemical engineers, although largely physi-
cal chemical in nature, and the location of ab-
stracts (in the first series only) describing
demonstrations are given in Table I.
In the field of instrumentation or process
control analysis, Larson and Heng (10) de-
scribed a process dynamics experiment. In a
series appearing in ISA Journal, descriptions
by Balise (4) and Hubbard (6) are most use-
ful. Major (13) described an instrumentation
teaching aid.
Recently the National Science Foundation
has sponsored a project of Professor Fred
Landis, Department of Mechanical Engineer-
ing, New York University, New York 53, New


Abstracts Describing Chemical
Journal of Chemical Education

Physical properties of water
Industrial uses of water
Three states of matter
Motion of molecules
The gaseous state

The liquid state
The solid state
Electrodeposition and elec-
Heat energy
Electrical energy
Mechanical energy
Rate of reaction
Reversible reactions, shifting
Inorganic chemical processes
Inorganic chemical processes

Organic chemical processes



34 A188
34 A188
34 A289
34 A288
34 A288, 289, A313
A359, A391
34 A314
34 A391, A392, A487

A21, A22
A57, A58
A58, A117
A172, A215

35 A216, A71
35 A401, A517
35 A549, A550, A625
36 A53, A54, A115
36 A179, A180, A235
A236, A297, A298
A377, A378
36 A409, A410, A463
37 A49

York, to assemble "Laboratory Experiments
and Demonstrations in Fluid Mechanics and
Heat Transfer." The report by this title (Final
Report of Grant 18764, January 1964) is
available from Professor Landis at $2.50.
This report describes 38 experiments or
demonstrations on the following subjects in
fluid mechanics:
(a) A conservation law in fluid mechanics, Ber-
noulli equation
(b) Rotating systems and vortex motion
(c) Transient fluid mechanics
(d) Transition from laminar to turbulent flows
(e) Viscous effects
(f) Compressible flows and gas dynamics
(g) Miscellaneous experiments and demonstrations
Thirty-two experiments or demonstrations are
on the subject of heat transfer covering:
(a) Temperature, heat transfer coefficient, and heat
flux measurements
(b) Conduction heat transfer and fin analyses
(c) Conduction heat transfer analog experiment
(d) Radiative heat transfer
(e) Convective heat transfer
(f) Two-phase heat transfer
(g) Heat exchangers
Twenty-eight miscellaneous ideas, instruments
and equipment are also described.
The National Science Foundation lists all
activities in aid to engineering education in
the publication "Science Course Improvement
Projects" of which two issues have appeared

in October 1962 and May 1963. Reports of
some of these projects include apparatus that
may be used in classroom demonstrations.
Plant Models
In recent years the chemical industry has
made great strides in using plant models for
preliminary planning, engineering design, oper-
ator training, and display advertising. It was
thought that many surplus plant models would
become available for distribution to chemical
engineering departments.* Inquires to major
chemical manufacturing and engineering com-
panies proved that models generally would not
become available for several reasons-they
were used first for engineering design and then
were needed for operator training for long
periods of time, they contained details that
companies would not want displayed to the
public, and models made by engineering con-
tractors became the property of the plant
owner, usually a different company.
Undoubtedly, plant models will become
available to chemical engineering departments
for display and instruction. They are widely
used and almost every chemical plant has one.
When their usefulness to their owner dimin-
ishes, it may be possible for a school to obtain
one for the asking; but each department must
make its own contact with a source. Plant
model construction has been undertaken by
many chemical engineering departments. For
those wishing to build a model, parts may be
purchased from the following sources:
Engineering Model Associates
5265 Poplar Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90032
Industrial Model Suppliers, Inc.
2311 Sconset Road
Wilmington, Delaware
Projection Equipment
Modern projectors have greatly simplified
teaching. In chemistry, many laboratory dem-
onstrations have been revised so they may be
performed on the stage of the overhead pro-
jector. Equipment for such experiments, some
of which may be useful in chemical engineer-
ing, has been described by Professor Hubert
N. Alyea in a series appearing in Journal of
Chemical Education in 1962(1) and in occa-
sional later issues. A reprint describing this
equipment is available from the publisher.

The Subcommittee acknowledges with thanks the
gift of several plant models by the Procter and
Gamble Company which were distributed to nearby
schools-University of Cincinnati, University of
Dayton, Ohio State University, University of Louis-
ville, Indiana Institute of Technology, and Rose Poly-
technic Institute.


A new continuous motion picture projector
is now available from the Technicolor Corpo-
ration, 123 South Hollywood Way, Burbank,
California. Special 8-mm motion picture car-
tridge films are being produced for this ma-
chine and are available from the National
Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films, Edu-
cational Services, Inc., 47 Galen Street, Water-
town 72, Massachusetts. Since both the pro-
jector and the film are special and different
from standard motion picture films and equip-
ment, inclusion of this teaching aid in this re-
port is regarded as justified. In the future,
additional films will certainly become available
and teachers must be on the watch for refer-
ence to such teaching aids.

1. Alyea, N. H., J. Chem. Educ. 39, A12-15; A127,
128; A217, 218; A299, 300; A381, 382; A471, 472
(1962); 40, A575, 576 (1963).
2. Attallah, S., J. Chem. Eng. Education, 2, No.
1, 38 (June 1963).
3. Baginski, E., and B. Zak, J. Chem. Ed., 39, 635-6
4. Balise, P., ISA Journal, 7, No. 2, 48-9 (Feb.
1960); 7, No. 3, 72-3 (Mar. 1960).
5. Fan, L-T., J. Chem. Educ., 37, 259-60 (1960).
6. Hubbard, R. M., ISA Journal, 7, No. 8, 67-9
(Aug. 1960); No. 9, 81-3 (Sept. 1960).
7. Huntington, R. L., J. Chem. Educ., 26, 462-6
8. Huntington, R. L., J. Chem. Eng. Education,
1, No. 2, 14-19 (Oct. 1962).
9. Johnson, C. R., Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs.,
30, 614-25 (1934).
10. Larson, M. A., and Heng, O. A. J. Chem. Educ.,
39, 29-31 (1962).
11. Lemlich, R., J. Chem. Educ., 31, 431 (1954).
12. Lemlich, R., J. Chem. Educ., 34, 489-91 (1957).
13. Major, C. J., J. Chem. Educ., 31, 262-5 (1954).
14. O'Driscoll, K. F., J. Chem. Educ., 36, 626
15. Osburn, J. 0., J. Chem. Educ., 30, 412-4 (1953).
16. Osburn, J. O., J. Chem. Educ., 38, 492-5 (1961).
17. Potter, J. H., J. Eng. Educ., 53, 545, 548 (1962-
18. Pressburg, B. S., and J. Coates, paper "Design
of Apparatus for the Visual Demonstration of Chem-
ical Engineering Principles" presented at Madison,
Wis. meeting, A.S.E.E. Chemical Engineering Summer
School, August, 1948.
19. Wergang, O. E., J. Chem. Educ., 39, 146-7
20. Whalley, E., J. Chem. Educ., 29, 24-5 (1952).


continued from page 11

discussed per unit of class time. The time
"saved" can be used for reinforcement of
material already presented or for greater
coverage of the subject.
3. Transparencies can be filed and so are avail-
able to students outside of class, or for later
reuse in class.
4. Student home-work assignments prepared
on transparencies allow ready discussion
before the entire class. (The student is
supplied with plastic sheets and a grease
pencil when the problem is assigned to
him.) By this procedure, more problems
can be discussed and the entire class bene-
fits from the resulting exchange of ideas.
5. Use of colored transparencies can make
complex material easier to understand.
For example, in discussing the "tie-element"
concept in chemical calculations, a colored
tape will clearly indicate the flow of the
tie element through the process. (For
greatest impact, this could be presented as
an overlay.)
6. Judicious use of color can make otherwise
dull material come to life. For example,
the various pieces of equipment on a flow
sheet can be presented in different colors.
7. Class announcements, surprise quizzes, etc.
can be displayed immediately to everyone
in the class. Such matters can just as
quickly be "undisplayed" by the flick of a
1. "Administering Audio-Visual Services," Carlton
W. H. Erickson, Macmillan, New York, 1959.
2. "Achieve Learning Objectives," A collection of
papers presented at the Summer Institute on Effec-
tive Teaching for Young Engineering Teachers, O .E.
Lancaster, Director, The Pennsylvania State Uni-
versity, University Park, Pa., 1962.
3. "Audio Visual Instructional Materials and
Methods," Brown, Lewis and Hercleroad, McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1959.

1. Technifax Corporation, Holyoke, Mass. (Equip-
ment and material suppliers.
2. a) Charles Besler Co., 219 S. 18th Street, East
Orange, N. J.
b) Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., St.
Paul 6, Minn. (Thermo-Fax visual products.) (Equip-
ment and transparency development film.)
3. Ozalid Company, Johnson City, N. Y. (Trans-
parency materials.)
4. American Optical Co., Instrument Division,
Buffalo 15, N. Y. (Projection equipment.)


continued from page 12

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publications ...


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KOPPEL, both of Purdue University. McGraw-Hill
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330 West 42nd Street
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will ultimately attain a position where I con-
tribute to company policy", they all replied.
After the interviewing, Bob went over to the
Chemical Engineering office to talk with Pro-
fessor Berg, the Department head. Berg told
him that of the 1115 seniors at Montana State,
only twenty-six were chemical engineers and
nine of these were unavailable due to plans for
graduate study or military commitments in-
curred via advanced ROTC. Berg showed Bob
the employment scorecard for the current re-
cruiting campaign. With the season barely half
gone, thirty-one companies had already been
on the campus looking for chemical engineers.
The list included such formidable competitors
as Conoco, Shell, Humble, Esso Standard,
Standard of California, Texaco, Dow, 3M,
FMC, Union Carbide, Dupont, and Monsanto.
Berg's scorecard showed that every boy that
Bob had sized up as a good prospect already
had at least six offers, and it was only Febru-
ary. No wonder these kids knew all the an-
swers during the interview. They had been
practicing since last October.
* *
These two true stories point up a bleak fact
in American education today. The ever-in-
creasing college enrollment is not producing
enough people trained in the areas where the
demand is. It is being left up to the high school
kids to decide the quantity and type of trained
people needed, and the evidence is piling up
that they are guessing wrong.

continued from page 13

qualitative comparisons in the body of this
paper are based (for what they are worth) on
a comparison of these central values with those
of Equations 2.
Our sincere appreciation is hereby expressed
for the very valuable help extended by Profes-
sor Leonard Cohen of the Mathematics De-
partment, City University of New York, and
Professor Stanley Katz of our own Depart-
ment; and to students Alan Peltzman, Melvin
Lew, and Stanley Sandier for calculating values
on the computer.



Professors, Employers of Chemical Engineers,
Graduate Students Keep up to date in the ways of


In the pages of CHEM 'ENG ED you will find reports on
instruction methods, discussions of industry's view of modern
chemical engineering, opinion of leading engineering teachers,
reviews of chemical engineering textbooks.

Only $3.00 a year for members of the Chemical Engineering
Division, ASEE; $4.00 for non members ($5.00 if outside the
Western Hemisphere). Prepayment is requested.

201 Gavett Hall,
University of Rochester,
Rochester, N. Y. 14627.

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