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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
AA00000383_00014 ( sobekcm )
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TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
EDUCATION












Al CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
r THE AMERICAM SOCETTM FOR ENGINEERIUG EDUCATION
J une 1964


















CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
June 1964


Chemical Engineering Division
American Society for Engineering Education




CONTENTS


The Purpose of the Undergraduate Laboratory, The Approach
At The Ohio State University,
by Joseph H. Koffolt -.- ... -

The Chemical Engineering Laboratory at The Johns
Hopkins University,
by H. E. Hoelscher -. -. 12

A Laboratory Course in Transport Phenomena,
by E. J. Crosby -- 16


Joseph J. Ma
George Burne
J. B. West


Chemical Engineering Division
American Society for Engineering Education

Officers 1963-64
irtin (Michigan) Chairms
t (Iowa State) Vice Ch
(Oklahoma State) Secrets


an
airman
ry-Treasurer


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Journal of the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education.
Published Quarterly, in March, June, September and December, by
Albert H. Cooper, Editor.
Publication Office: University of Connecticut
P.O. Box 445 Storrs, Connecticut
Subscription Price, $2.00 per year.
















THE PURPOSE OF TEH UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY
THE APPROACH AT THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

By
Joseph H. Koffolt, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Department
I. INTRODUCTION

This paper gives the philosophy, objectives, and approach to undergraduate
chemical engineering laboratory work at Ohio State University.
The prerequisites of the undergraduate laboratory courses are the lecture-
recitation courses in chemistry, mathematics, physics, chemical engineering pro-
oesa principles and graphics, the transport properties, unit operations, chemical
engineering thermodynamics, kinetics, economy, and processes. The curriculum in
chemical engineering is given in Appendix I of this paper.
The curriculum ia five years plus one half quarter between the fourth and
fifth year. For the first two years all engineering students follow the curriou-
lum of the Pre-Engineering Division and then petition to be admitted to the Pro-
fessional Division.

The Philosophy and Objectives of the Chemical Engineering Professional Program
1. What is Chemical Engineering?

Chemical Engineering is the application of the principles of the physical
sciences, together with principles of economics and human relations to fields that
pertain directly to processes and process equipment in which matter is treated to
effect a change in state, energy, content, or composition. These processes may
usually be involved into a coordinated series of unit physical operations and
chemical processes.

The work of the chemical engineer is concerned primarily with research, de-
velopment, design, construction, sales, and production or operation of equipment
and plants in which these unit operations and processes are applied. Chemistry,
physics and mathematics are the underlying sciences of chemical engineering, and
economics is its guide in practice.
The six technical fundamentals areas (1) the material balance, (2) the energy
balance, (3) static chemical equilibria, (4) kinetics, (5) rates of transfer and
transformation of fluids, mass, and energy, and (6) the economic balance.
2. How the Philosophy and Objectives Are Met

The professional program is so designed to meet these objectives as follows:
(1) Maintaining its strong and traditional foundation of the basic science of
chemistry. The latter is so interwoven which results in a well-rounded and inte-
grated program. The science of chemistry is not static.
(2) Expansion of the work in mathematics to meet the challenge of the ad-
vances and newer techniques la the field of chemical engineering involving fluid,
heat and mass transport phenomena, kinetics, and sequences leading to unit oper-
ations and optimization of process and plant design; alse, all of these integrated
with computer work, a tool which is expanding at an exponential rate in the chemi-
cal industry.

(3) Increasing the emphasis on the basic fundamentals of chemical engineering
science so as to educate and instruct the students so well that they can tackle
totally new and different problems.
(4) Integrating mathematics, the basic and engineering sciences, and their
applications with laboratory work results in well-runded graduate chemical engi-
neers. Appreciation of applieatioen as a part of the program is necessary, also te
realize that theory is only a tool and not an end in itself.
(5) Providing sequences of work in the humanities, social and life seienees
develops the whole *Educated Man."












June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 2
II. TB EBNDoRGRADUATE LABORATORr COnBEsB

1. Required Courses

0ch.e 7014 Ohomical gineering Inaetion Trip 2 credit hours, 1 week taken
etwoen the inter snd Spring uar OPs, Peourth year. J. He. effolt,
l. R. 1ao0n1.
Ch.E. 740 Chemical Engineering Prooess Control 3 credit hours, 2 elass hours
an 4 nours or lab per week, Spring Quarter, fourth year. C. J.
oasakoplis, G. Wiloox.
Ch.M. 741 Chemical Engineorin Operations Laboratoy 8 credit hours, weeks,
b days per week, 0 hours per day, Sumer Quarter, fifth year, J. 1.
Koffolt, B. R. HBaring, G. Wilcox.
Ch.E. 770 Chemical Engineering Proceas Development 4 credit hours, 12 lab
hours per week, Winter Quarter, fifth year. C. B. Dryden, T. E.
Corrigan, G. Wilcox, E. R. Haoring.
Ch.E. 772 Chemical Preoeas Design 3 credit hours, 9 lab hours per week, Spring
Quarter, fifth year. A. Syverson, B. R. Haering, G. Wilcox
Ch.E. 791 Special Project Problem Investigations 5 credit hours, 15 lab hours
per week, Spring Quarter, fifth year. The Staff.
2. Elective Laboratory Couraes
Ch.E. 693 Problems in Chemical Engineering Operations 2 to 6 credit hours,
(course may be repeated), 6 to 18 lab hours per week, all quarters,
fifth year. J. B. Koffolt, E. R. Haering, Go. Wilcox.
Ch.E. 763 Applied Electrochemistry 3 credit hours, 2 lectures and 4 hours of
lab per week, Autumn Quarter, fourth or fifth year. A. Syverson, E.R.
Eaering.
Ch.E. 766 Nuclear Chemical Engineering 4 credit hours, 3 class hours and 3
hours of lab per week, Spring Quarter, fifth year. C. E. Dryden.
3. Elective Laboratory Courses in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum Engineering is administered by the Chemical Engineering Department.
The curriculum and degree will be dropped effective the end of the Sumer Quarter,
August 24, 1962. However, by eleotiveu a student may take a program in petroleum
production. This is also true of Nuclear Chemical Engineering. In both programs,
the student receives a B.Ch.E. degree as he completes the Chemical Engineering cur-
riculum. The elective courses in Petroleum Engineering laboratory are:
P.E. 713 Drilling Fluids 3 credit hours, 1 class hour, and 6 hours of labora-
tory per week, Winter Quarter, fourth year. B. C. Slider, E. Shepherd.
P.E. 723 Physical Analysis of Petroleum Reservoirs 2 credit hours, 1 class
hour and 4 hours of laboratory per week, Winter Quarter, fifth year.
H. C. Slider, K. Shepherd.
P.E. 736 Reservoir Engineering Fluid Flow 3 credit hours, 2 class hours, 3
laboratory hours per week, Winter Quarter, fifth year. H. C. Slider.

These courses with the exception of the courses in Petroleum Engineering will
be discussed in detail in the paper.
III. THE SAFETY PROGRAM OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Safety consciousness in Chemical Engineering laboratory work at Ohio State
goes back to 1906 when Dr. James R. Withrow, the first Chairman of the Department
took charge. In 1946, when the College of Engineering adopted the five-year pre-
gram, a lecture-recitation course in Safety was put into the curriculum. We re-
ceived many bouquets concerning the introduction of this course in our curriculum.
The comments of the students were good, bad, and indifferent. It was quite common
to hear a group of students say "We will now be safety conscious for the next fifty
minutes."
It was the unanimous opinion of the staff that, although the objectives of
such a course was ideologic and altruistic, in the final analysis it preached but
did not practice safety. It produced various grades of safety-minded chemical en-
gineering students from "A" to "D" grade. As a result, this course was dropped
from the curriculum in 1952. In its place, safety was integrated in all courses
possible, and especially in the laboratory courses. Safety is practiced at all
times in the uait operations, instrumentation, process development, project prob-
1e, and the nuclear laboratory courses.













CHE1CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


1. Organisation of the Safety Program in the Chemical Englneering Laberatertes
The students are given their first intensive work in safety the first day of
the Chemical Engineering operations laboratory which is given during the Summer
Quarter between the fourth and fifth years. By emphasizing safety and maintaining
good safety practices from the very beginning of the laboratory work, the studiE
as well as staff members will be so instilled with the sense of "Safety Conscioua-
ness" that it will Oarry Over into their laboratory courses at the University end
eventually into industry.
The safety program may be beat described by giving a few details.
FIRST DATY OF UNIT OPERATIONS LABORATORY MONDAY.
7ME 18. 1962
8:00 a.m. Class Organisation and details of the Unit Operations course.
9:00 a.m. Safety in the Chemical Engineering Laboratories. The Safety Manual.
to Each student is given a copy of the safety manual, a pair of safety
11:00 a.m. glasses and a hard hat. The latter is returned at the end of the
course. The safety glasses are charged to the student. Those stu-
dents who already wear glasses may obtain prescription safety glasses
from our Department of Optometry at a reduced price.
The Safety Manual covers many items concerning safe practices in the labora-
tory, handling neat5als, toxicity, gas masks, ladders, organization of the safety
committee, etc. The following are some of the details contained in the Safety
Manual.
1. Safety glasses shall be worn in all laboratories and shops that are in oper-
ation.
2. Hard hats shall be worn In the Unit Operations Laboratory when this laboratory
is in operation.
3. Under no circumstances shall Bermuda shorts be worn while working in a labora-
tory.
4. If you receive an injury, no matter how slight, report it at once to your in-
structor, and if he is not available, to the Departmental office. There will
always be someone available to get you to the University Health Center or to
the hospital, if necessary.
5. Do not work after hours unless you have a permit from the office of Special
Services. This requires that a card requesting such a permit be granted by
the Chairman of the Department. Working after 5:00 p.m. on Saturdays and all
day Sunday is prohibited except in case of an emergency. Working after hours
in laboratories and shops is prohibited unless someone else is present within
calling distance.
6. Housekeeping Good housekeeping shall be maintained at all times. Quoting
from item Unit Operations Laboratory Course Organisation 15-k-Duties of Squad
Foreman," good housekeeping shall be maintained at all times. This is the
most important duty of the squad foreman. He will detail members of his squad
to assure (by use of mop, broom, hose, and other "diver" means) that untidy
working conditions such as precipitates from filter presses, oil from steam
pumps on evaporator, dust from the crushers and grinders, and water and sol-
Tents on the floor from laboratory problems on distillation, heat transfer,
evaporation, fluid flow, furnacing, liquid-liquid extraction, humidifloation,
and electrolysis during the course of experimental work is cleaned up at all
times. Untidy working conditions during the course of an experimental test
run WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. Spillage must be cleaned up at once. Infraction
of this rue will result in stopping all work until the messs is cleaned up.
In many cases it will result in starting the particular 'test run" over again.
It is the responsibility of the rotating squad foreman to assign members of
his squad to maintain good housekeeping conditions at all times. As most of
the experimental work requires from 6 to 16 hours of time, he should plan his
schedule so that every member of his squad is responsible for good housekeeping
and knows how to handle the "mop" and "broom". The rotating foreman shall not
handle the mop or broom. The rotating foreman is the "boss man". He does not
work, he supervises."
11:00 a.m. The class is organized in squads of four each. This organisation is
to kept for the duration of the course. Each squad under the supervision'
3:00 p.m, of an instructor spends one hour each on the item ga&ve below.
3:00 Pm- Ir


June 1964












3 O 01mCAL WEGIMIRIWG DUaOATON

la. pgis of Laboratories' location of all emergency utility
seat, various types of fire extingiisher, gas masks, fir
blanket stretcher, motor valves for gas, air, water and steam.
2. Oas Masks and Respirators A short lecture is given on these
item, their construction, and where they are to be used. Each
student is required to try the various types, and test them for
leaks, in order to familiarize themselves with the method and ad-
justment and use of the masks and respirators.
3. Explosion Meoter A brief lecture is given on explosive limits,
what to do in case of spillage of inflamable solvents, and the
principle of construction and operation of the various typos of
explosion meters and other doteoting devices. Each student is
then required to operate these instruments with synthetic explo-
sive mixtures (In a quantity which will not cause damage).
3:00 p.m. Fire Prevention and Demonstration The Fire Marshall of the tilver-
to city explains the construction and use of various types of fire fight-
4:30 p.m. ing equipment, the various classes of fires and the types of ex-
tinguishers to be used. This is covered in detail in the Safety Manual
issued to the students.
The class then adjourns to a vacant lot on the University property
where the various classes of fire are demonstrated. The use of the
right and wrong types of extinguishers are demonstrated. Eaoh student
then operates the various types of extinguishers so that he will be
familiar with their operation.
2. The Departmental Safety Committees
There are three safety committees in the Department: (1) a General Safety
Committee consisting of senior staff members which formulates and establishes De-
partmental policy on all safety and potential hazards. This committee reviews the
reports of the Departmental safety committee who make bi-weekly inspections of all
laboratories and makes recommendations of action to be taken. Appendix II, Form I,
of this paper gives the form of the report used in the inspection of the labora-
tories; (2) Divisional Safety Committee consisting of senior staff members who are
responsible for housekeeping, and safety in the various laboratories; and (3) De-
partmental Safety Committee consisting of a senior staff member as Chairman and '
graduate students who make the bi-weekly inspection of all laboratories. The
roster of these committees are given in Appendix II, memoranda numbers 631 and 632.
Appendix II, Form #2 gives the form for accident, fire, explosion and damage to
equipment report.
IV. TEE DETAILS OF UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY COURSES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Ch.E. 7014 Chemical Engineering Inspection Trip
All undergraduate students in Chemical Engineering are required to take one
week-long inspection trip between the Winter and Spring Quarters, preferably In
the fourth year.
These trips are intended to give to the chemical engineering student some
practical knowledge of the magnitude of modern chemical engineering industrial
operations from a selected variety of examples, and to give a practical opportu-
nity for acquaintance with the different branches of the profession of chemical
engineering in the proper prospective, and to furnish training in observation,
report writing, and discussion.
The plants visited alternate from year to year. The southern trip which is
given in the odd-numbered years include the following cities and plants:
Cincinnati, Ohio Procter and Gamble Company
Belle, West Virginia E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company
Industrial and Biochemicals Department
South Charleston, W. Va. Union Carbide Chemicals Company and
Union Carbide Olefins Company
Parkerburg, W. Va. E.I. duPont do Nemours and Company,
Polyohemicals Department
Willow Island, W. Va. American Cyanamid Company, Organic
Csemioals Division
Pittsburgh, Penssylvania United States Steel corporation
Kebuta, Pennasylvania Koppers Compsny, Chemical Division


















5 CHEMICAL EGINEERING EDUCATION June 1964
The norsthr trip which is given in the eve*a-utmbeed years lnolude the
following cities and plants;

Barberton, Ohio Pittsburgh Plate Gleas Company,
Chemical Division
Akr m, Ohio Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
Painsaville, Ohio Industrial Rayon Company
Avon Lake, Ohio The B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company
Toledo, Ohio The Standard Oil Company (Ohio)
Midland, Michigan Dow Chemical Company
Dow Corning Corporation
Detroit, Michigan The Ford Motor Company
Parke-Davis Company
Wyandotte, Michigan Penn-Salt Company,
Industrial Chemicals Division
One or two plants are visited per day.
Theae trips are highly organized. Safety is emphasized; all members of the
party are equipped with safety goggles and safety hard hata.
In Ch.E. 761-Chemlsal Engineering Processes include three or four plant in-
spection trips In the vicinity of Columbus such as the City of Columbus Water
Works; Mead Corporation in Chillicothe; Owens-Corning FPiberglas in Neward, Ohio;
Pure Oil Company, Heath Refinery In Newark, Ohio; American Zinc Oxide Company,
Columbus; and Capital City Products In Columbus, Ohio.

2. Chemical Process Control
by
C. J. Geankoplis
Ch.E. 740 Chemieal Process Control, 2 class and I laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisite Ch.E. 720 Chemical Engineering Operations.
This course is concerned with the study of the principles employed in the
measurement and control of the physical and chemical variables of chemical process.
applications to control of chemical processes, and applications concerned with the
process dynamics of chemical process and equipment.
The course is open to 4th year chemical engineering students who have had the
standard chemical engineering course In transport processes (heat, mass, and mo-
mentum transfer) and in unit operations applications. Differential equations and
partial differential equations mathematics courses are also prerequisites.
The following is a general outline of the lecture aectien of the course which
meets for 2 lectures a week for 10 weeks:
1. Introduction
A. Survey of Need for Automation
B. Conoepta of Closed Loops, Feedback
2. Physical Measurements
A. Te2perIaMre
-a.theory
b. Hardware
B. Pressure
a. Theory
b. Hardware
C. Flow
a. Theory
b. Hardware
D. Level. Miscellaneous
a. Theory
b. Hardware












June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 6

3. Process Dynamics and tnsteady-State
A. Steady-State Transfer
B. Process Dynamics
a. Pirst Order Processes and Instruments, Time Consatants
b. Other Order Processes and Instruments
o. Dynamic Response to Step, Romp, Etc. Functions
d. Multiple Systems and Overall Responses
4. Control Theory
A. Types of Theory
a. Proportional
b. Reset
c. Derivative
B. Hardware
5. Integration of Systems in Closed Loops
A. Theory of Analog Computer
B. Solution of Complete Closed Loop Systems
6. Specific Control Systems
A. Chemical Processes
B. Nuolear.Processes
The following is an outline of the various laboratory experiments performed
by the students. The basic philosophy and objectives are to perform a lab experi-
ment illustrating the theory discussed in the lectures during the same week:

Exp. 1. Study of Pressure Measuring Devices and Statistics of Repli-
cations in Experimental Measurements.
Exp. 2. Study of Pressure Measuring Devices and Statistics of Accuracy
of Measurements.
Exp. 3. Dynamic Response and Process Dynamics in Temperature Controlled
Systems.
Exp. 4. Flow and Liquid Level Measuring Devices
Exp. 5. Control Instruments and Optimum Control Settings in Process Dynamics
Exp. 6. Applications of Control to Distillation Tower and Dryer
Exp. 7. Study of Control and Process Dynamics of a Heat Transfer Process
by Simulation with an Analog Computer.
Exp. 8. Study of Control and Process Dynamics of a Batch-Stirred Reactor
with Heat Generation by Simulation with an Analog Computer.
In all of the above experiments the students are divided into groups of 2 or
3 for each set of equipment. The philosophy here is that in small groups each
student is able to actually get his own data. Each student analyzes his own ex-
perimental data in a short written report. The laboratory is coordinated very
closely with the lecture to give maximum learning efficiency and incentives to
the students. Usually one instructor for every 12 students is used in the lab to
provide maximum teaching effectiveness. It has been found that utilizing concrete
examples in the lab to illustrate theories discussed in the lecture provides good
incentives and stimulation for the students.

3. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OPERATIONS LABORATORY
A. Catalogue Description.
Ch.E. 741 Chemical Engineering Operations Laboratory. Summer Quarter be-
tween fourth and fifth years. Laboratory 8 to 5, Monday to Saturday inclusive or
48 hours per week. First Term of Quarter or 5 weeks. Prerequisites Ch.E. 720 and
740.
The fundamental laboratory course in the chemical engineering or unit oper-
ations. Laboratory investigation of the operating characteristics and efficiency
of chemical engineering equipment as distillation, drying, absorption, evaporation,
filtration, humidification, liquid-liquid extraction, etc.

B. Objectives of the Course
The work of this course is so designed to attain the following objectives:
a. To develop a sense of safety consciousness to ones fellow workers, to
oness self, to equipment, and one's institution or company. A University labora-
tory should be as safe as an industrial plant or laboratory.
b. As a corollary to "a." above to teach good chemical engineering house-
keeping. A *lean laboratory is a safe laboratory.













7 ODmCOAL BIonzeaIin =fo0ATION jMe l"
to 4eVlop InitiatiMve, reouwefulMes, eand repselbilty.
4. to teah OrgaisatLon o sn eperimental program and the *tep* osteesary
to carry It to a *uoeetistl oQenlueOt.
e To eootldate the hand with the mind
Tme o develop a aeehell nd enaorinlg Soese of the eontrattea and
majnteamene of chemical engineering equipment.
to develop udgmeat In Interpreting nd r r latlng data, and from these
to be able to draw logical oeclustons and reasonable recoemandations,
h. To eorytallia the theory end caletulatons aInolved In the theoretical
and s lrolem work in the courses t ohemisal peroOee IrelBle e te hnomena ef
flut heat and meas transport, th ia6dynait and the uit epesateines.
i. to develop a better understanding of the potentialities A the 11Amt-
ations of the engineering sloinoe, mathematics, and other eieheea
To demonstrate that to eePT a problem to a su*essful comploetIn requiree
tea work and full-herted cooperation.
k. To teach the prin les and organization of prefeat ional report writing
with emphasis on clarity And techniaoel data presentation,
1. To provide an opportunity toe student leaderMhip and evaluation of the
potentialities and lialtations of squad members.
a. To give a foundation forp the capstone ures in the fifth year sueh as
Chemicalol ngine*rlng EKonomy. Process Devlopment and Doelg .
C. Organisation of the Courses
a. Laboratory Saauadow .rouBsi Tho elams It broken us into groups of 4 or
s*o arrangIngs t roupe thought is given to balnoing the *en
acoording to their scholae ec o I rds. W ash group to under the supO vrti .
of a squad foreman. Potwmanship is rotated among the mobers atf he % qai
and each man usually is foreman for at loast three problems.
b. Squad Porent Squad foremanship involve reepongtlflity. It is a ehal-
Tnge o "oneT ability of leadership. The sharacter tti l and abilities
shown by a good foreman are (1) to organis, (N) Initiative and ieeume-
fulnesm (3) to supervise without doing all of the work himeif, (4) to
obtain the cooperation of his group and coordinate the expetria t With the
Instructor in charge, (5) to Improviee when neMessary (6) to erey a plrbn
leo in the laboratory through to a Ouocestful Conoelusit, and () to uper-
vie the writing of the written report.
0. Duties of the 8qua d PormeniL (1) to "aertSin from the eehedule of probe
lees the xao tiue for working on a particular problem in the laboratory,
(2) to study the inetruotieon, (3) to review the ulderlying theory and
equipment so as to be the -expert" on the problem, (4) to arrange for a
meeting of his squad several days beore taking the preliminary quii en
the problem, (5) to Aeesue leadership, emphasize the pertinent pont t of
the problem, egpeociall the principles of the opePratiO of the equipment,
and to make sure that the objeehtves of a problem are met.
d. Organisation of the Problems At a equad confoofone the complete detail
?ow running the experiment Are outlined. aseh problem is not the eleap-
out type but requires thought and judaent. At this cenferenee the group
under the eupeorviliooef te roeremn decides what maespurments ape te be
taken to meet the objeotivee of the problem and the final ruiaeu enats of
the report, the eaieulatlons that must be mad and what share are to be
submitted, the duties of the observers, and finally the leasA-up program.
All of these items must be entered in a bound notebook and net on leei.
sheets of paper.
After this oofeienf oee the group reports to the instructor i charge
of the problem for a prolisinary qeAi and approval f the plan of attaes
At this oonferonae wit the laNs tero the data that mlst be taken end the
plan of attack are finalized, Befor inelning the experimental work the
final data sheets ore drawn up in the lab atory notebeek, Appieval te pro.
esed with an expeiimant requires that the data sheet be eaoplet with the
units specified.
e. Ldaboratery "Sed _Of Most of the problems ae ef sueh a length that they
squFir AT IIIS u eof laboratory tim. Zn eases wher e *test rn
is ore than hours, two groups work on the problem. he sehedile is ae
zMl .s*2 atae ae*t KU'rson s.a ru a tI.at sh. rI a a.&I













Jne 194% CH CAL uu NGXZBRINGO DDOATzIO
latiesa d preparing the final report under the aupervision of the fore.
men. The report submitted Is a group report. After the subiesmion of the
report. a comprehensive written examination covering theory, sleulations,
amd other items Is taken by members of the squad.
f. Evaluation of the Student.s The squad foreman is responsible tfor an u
biased coufidential report of each squad member. This includes a report
on the following Cooperation and team work technictal ability, I ltativee
manual skill, attitude, energy includess "gold bricking", independent think-
ing, and how much detailed supervision was required).
In most caeoa the foremen.i reports are good, and In few oases the
evaluations are taken "cum salis grant."
The instructors In the course also submit a rating sheet of eash mem-
bar of the squads. The form in given In Appendix III of this paper. These
ratings are discussed at weekly staff meetings. At the end of the term,
a compilation is made of these reports. The Chairman of the Department
then disousses these reports with the student at the beginning of the
Autumn Quarter, Fifth Year. The students, as a whole, welcome the oosmentl.
Moat of the students try to correct their weak polntal in a few cases some
think that everybody is out of step except them.
g. Requirements of the Course: Each squad is required to complete the work
listed below. Each problem is weighted depending upon the time required
to complete the problem.
Problem Description Points

1Z Chemical Engineering Safety 8
I1 Shop Work, Maintenance and Repair of Equipment, and the Use of Tools. 8
2M Final Clean Up 4
1T Gas Chromatography, Spectrophotonetry, ASTM Analysis 12
IE Triple Effect Evaporator 20
1K Humidlftiatlon, Water Cooling, and Dehumidification 16
4B Performance Characteristics of 3-Plate, 18-inch diameter Glass Wall
Distillation Column. 16
5B Continuous Distillation, 35-rlate, 8-inoh diameter Column 20
IN Absorption, 3" x 36" Glass Wall Rasahing Ring Tower 16
1P Constant Pressure Batch Filtration 8
3P Continuous Vacuum Filtration 8
1- Liquid-Liquid Extraction, 6-inch diameter Spray Column, 6 feet high. 10
23 Liquid-Liquid Extraction, 2-inch Pulse Column 8
ID Drying 16
1AH Beat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Heating and Cooling in Single, Double,
and Four Pass Multi-Tube Heat Exchangers 16
2K Performance Characteristics of a Croll-Reynoldua Four-Stage Evaotor
and "Chillvaotor" 16
7H Heat Transfer, Multi-Tube Condenser 16
2M Final Clean Up at the End of the Quarter 4

h. The Unit Operations Laboratory: In the Appendix are photographs of stu-
dents dismantling and moving equipment from the old building and erecting
it in the new building. Estimates were obtained from several companies
concerning the cost of doing this. The lowest estimate was $100,000. We
used this money to purchase new research equipment and gave the Class of
1960, $200,000 worth of experience. This work was done during the last
two weeks of the first term of the Summer Quarter. This monumental task
was done without a single accident. We believe that this type of work, if
not carried to extremes, is an integral part of the training of the Chemi-
oal Engineer.














CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION June 1964

4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN COURSES
by
Charles E. Dryden
The courses of this group are summarized in the following table.
TABLE 1

Quarter and Year, Course Credit Lecture Laboratory
number and Title Hours Hrs/Wk Bra/Wk
A. PALL QUARTER STH YEAR
Ch.E. 760 Chem. Engr. Economy 3 2 2 (computation)
Ch.E. 761 Chem. Engr. Processes 3 2 2 (25% on plant
trips)
B. WINTER QUARTER STH YEAR
Ch.E. 770 Chem. Engr. Process 4 12 (50% experi-
Development mental)
Ch.E. 790 AIChE Student Contest 2 2 after 30 00O bra over 30
Problem and Systems Analysis day period day period
C. SPRING QUARTER 5TH YEAR
Ch.E. 772 Chem. Engr. Process 3 1 6
Design
Engr. Draw. 755 Plant Design 3 1 6
Ch.E. 791 Special Project Prob- 5 (0-90% experi-
lems Investigations mental)


Chemical Engineering Process Development and Design Courses

A major portion of the fifth year of the undergraduate B.S. degree program in
chemical engineering is devoted to courses which utilize a great deal of previous
knowledge. The case study method is used and students are confronted with situ-
ations never seen or studied before. They are required to solve problems on a pro
feasional basis. This philosophy is in accordance with the Grinter report (1)
which stated on page 15: "The capacity to design includes more than mere techni-
cal competence. It involves a willingness to attack a situation never seen or
studied before and for which data are often incomplete; it also includes an accept
ance of full responsibility for solving the problem on a professional basis."
The course sequence in the fifth year to accomplish the above aims is shown
in Table 1.
During the Fall Quarter, Chemical Engineering Economy, Ch.E. 760, is taught
concurrently with a comprehensive survey of the chemical process industries,
Ch.E. 761. The laboratory work in Chemical Engineering Economy consists of
several economic analysis problems, whereas in technology about 25% of laboratory
time is spent in plant visits and the balance in library research and reporting.
In the Winter Quarter, the process development course, Ch.E. 770, is taught
on an informal basis with the students given a typical chemical process study.
The sequence includes library research, laboratory and pilot plant experimenta-
tion, preliminary process design and economic analysis. Several methods are used,
depending on the type of problems and size of class. The students work in groups
of 3-5 on one of several related processes or as an entire group on one problem.
In the latter case, an industrial research and development group Is simulated with
assignments rotated periodically throughout the quarter. The latter method de-
velops management and communications skills as well as technical specialization
since it is impossible for each student in a large group to follow completely the
work of others in an over-all coordinated project.


"Report on Evaluation of Engineering Education," Am. Soo. for Engineering
Education, L. E. Grinter, Committee Chairman, issued June 15, 1955.













June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 10

Individual solution of the AOChE Student Contest Problem, Ch.B. 790, plus
lectures on use of computers in optimization studies round out the Winter Quarter
design sequence.
The Spring Quarter completes the sequence with a process design course,
Ch.E. 772, on a new problem. Emphasis is placed upon using basic chemical engi-
neering principles of thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, heat and mass transfer,
the unit operations, oet. for optimization studies of a process design. Digital
and analog computers are used as an aid to the solution of a relatively complex
problem involving basic engineering concepts and economics.*
The plant design course, Engineering Drawing 755, again using another new
problem, covers plant layout and auxiliaries design.

5. SPECIAL PROJECT PROBLEM INVESTIGATIONS
The special project problem is usually conducted as an individual assignment
to the student by one of the professors. The scope varies widely and may run from
a design project with little experimental work to the opposite extreme. The cri-
terion In each case is to have the student solve some challenging problem.

THE ELECTIVE COURSES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
NUCLEAR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COURSES
by
Charles E. Dryden
The nuclear engineering degree is not granted at OSU. Instead, a program or
option can be taken In nuclear science and engineering with a major degree granted
in the Departments of Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, or Mechanical En-
gineering.
In chemical engineering, a 3-course minimum sequence is available to seniors
and graduate students.
Lecture Lab.
Course No. Title Cr. Era. Hra/Wk Hrs/Wk
Physics 602 Modern Physics 5 5 -
Chem.Engr. 765 Introduction to Nuclear 3 3 -
Engineering
Chem.Engr. 766 Nuclear Chemical 4 3 3-5
Engineering

The introductory nuclear engineering course, Ch.E. 765, covers reactor theory,
health physics, and shielding. The following quarter, Ch.E. 766 is devoted to fuel
cycles, isotopes, radiation chemistry, and waste disposal. The laboratory given in
this quarter illustrates the elective material in both Chem. Engr. 765 and 766. A
list of typical experiments shows the breadth of coverage.
1. Nuclear Radiation Detection
2. Isotope Dilution Assay Methods
3. Flux Distribution and Buckling in the Subcritioal Reactor
Critical Reactor Experiment A
Critical Reactor Experiment B
6. Pulse Feed Extractor
7. Fluidized Bed Calciner
8. Gamma Radiation Experiment
If a student, particularly a graduate student, wants further work, he may take
advanced level courses available in several departments.
APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY
by
Aldrich Syverson
Chemical Engineering 763, Applied Electrochemistry, is a lecture-laboratory
course and Is an elective in the curriculum. This laboratory meets for 4 hours
a This paragraph was written by Aldrich Syverseon.


















11 CBEBCAL sIG INsasG MDUOATION June 1964

per week and Is operated in conjunction with the theory and 2 hours of lecture
per week for a total of 3 credit hours. The objectives of the laboratory program
areas (1) to acquaint the student with instruments and methods of measurement for
electrochemical phenomenal (2) to provide a better understanding and appreciation
for the basio thermodynamic principles underlying electrochemical cells; and (3)
to provide an opportunity for individual effort in the planning and execution of
a ninor research problem in some field of eleotrochemistry.
The major portion of the laboratory effort is devoted to the research problem.
Students may work individually or in groups of two or three. The specific problem
may be originated by the student or selected from a light of general topics. The
plan of attack must be originated by the student with the approval of the teaching
staff. Literature searoh, planning and execution of the program and a final com-
prehensive report are the essential requirements. Baoh student or group meets with
a staff member at least once each week to review progress and formulate plans for
the coming week. Where groups are involved, responsibility for the program is
rotated so that each member serves as director for a week. Weekly progress reports
are submitted. Typical problems which have been investigated are: a polarographic
method for cyanide ion analysis, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, kinetics of reactions
of acid on metals, and electro-organico reduction process.
Although the laboratory is scheduled for a particular four-hour period, stu-
dents are permitted to come in at any time with the instructor's approval. It has
turned out that many students have taken advantage of this and have found that
this flexibility has permitted them to undertake experimental programs that could
not be done in a four hour per week basis. Emphasis is placed on individual res-
ponsibility; the better students seem to welcome this opportunity.













THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
AT JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY

by
H. E. Hoeleher
Johns Hopkins University
Introduction

Laboratories, once thought to be necessary evils in the engineering curriculum,
are now more often considered one of the exciting parts of the program, indepent-
ent of the lecture courses. During recent years, there has been much discussion
of the proper role for the laboratory in the program. The objectives and the
relative merits of various mechanical details of laboratory organization and
operation have been discussed most intensively.

There are three extreme positions which one might adopt with respect to the
goals and objectives of an undergraduate laboratory in Chemical Engineering.
These are:
1. That the laboratory should be an adjunct to a lecture course and should
serve as a forum for illustration of principles discussed and presented
during the lecture;
2. That during the laboratory course, the student should be given some"feeling"
for research and development techniques in engineering;
3. That the laboratory is best concerned with training students in the oper-
ation of equipment which he will be expected to operate or whose operation
he will be expected to supervise later in his career.
In practice, these are not three separable ideas. Any laboratory course will
inevitably involve some of each for almost every student. However, the attitude
of the professor in charge of the course will influence the relative emphasis
placed on each, the orientation of the course work, the experiments, and, hence,
will largely determine the type of experience provided to the student and the
ideas and talents gained from the program.

During the last decade the laboratory has developed largely as a separate and
independent part of the curriculum and not as an adjunct to a lecture course.
This is quite a different role for the laboratory from that in earlier engineer-
ing programs. While some laboratories must still serve as supports for lecture
courses, there is ample need for those which operate completely independent of
any one lecture course and draw on material from all. In these, the student may
take a more active than a passive role.

Any attempt to use the laboratory as a means for training students in the
operation of equipment can only be partially successful. Further it is difficult
to justify such a training rather than educational function in a university.
Since the time available for laboratory instruction is so limited, it is not
possible to include more than a small fraction of the total possible items of
equipment which are important in the chemical industries. Hence it seems more
reasonable to consider that the education of students in research techniques in
the broadest sense, that is, in methods for extracting information or of learning
from physical systems to be the goal of this course. Such a goal is capable of
realization in some measure.

Within broad limits, the exact experiment which the student is assigned in the
laboratory is less important than the type of assignment which he is given. The
student may learn how to approach a problem in the physical sense from virtually
any of the classical unit operations experiments or from any of the engineering-
science experiments in the transport processes. Thus the details of the labor-
atory operation and the relationship between student and instructor are important.
Some of the questions of importance in the operation of the laboratory are the
following:
1. Whether students should work in teams or be assigned to experiments on an
individual basis;
2. Whether students should be expected to do substantial amounts of set-up or
maintenance on the equipment or whether they should approach an apparatus
which is functioning correctly and is in excellent repair;
3. Whether detailed instructions should be given to the student or only
minimal information provided on the objectives of their assignment;
4. Whether the equipment should, in general, be of pilot plant scale or
whether very small, bench-scale apparatus is to be preferred.












13 CHEMICAL ENGImEERING EDUCATION June 1964
The answers to these questions will largely determine the type of laboratory
course given and the nature of the experiunos afforded to the student. There is
of course, another factor the interest and competence of the professor in
charge of the laboratory. This is of overriding importance in the success of the
laboratory as an educational experience.

There are many different answers to these questions reflected in laboratory
programs throughout the United States, each set functioning with certain
advantages. The laboratory course, like the lecture program, reflects the
intereth and philosophies of the staff. Such differences exist and should be
continued actively as a positive good associated with our educational system
rather than to be tolerated passively but suspiciously.

However, so long as we have the freedom to orient our programs along lines
representing our own interetb, it follows that we must be prepared to assume the
responsibility associated with this freedom, in this case, to communicate our
ideas and activities to others in the profession. The purpose of this paper is
to outline the system used in the undergraduate chemical engineering laboratory
at The Johns Hopkins University, to indicate some of the features which are
believed to be most attractive and to present some of the problems which exist.

The Laboratory Program at The Hopkins

The chemical engineering laboratory in the undergraduate program at the
Hopkins is presented entirely in the senior year. The first semester is devoted
to experiments in the engineering sciences and the second either to advanced
experiments (or projects) or to experiments in the classical unit operations
areas, depending on whether or not the student is going into graduate school.

The first semester "engineering science" experiments are varied in nature;
most of them have been developed around one or a combination of the transport
processes. The type of experiments available are illustrated by the following
partial listing:
1. Gas flow through an orifice, venturi meter, and capillary meter
measurement of velocity profile;
2. Gas flow through a packed bed;
3. A Joule-Thompson experiment;
4. Liquid flow through a capillary, variable head tank;
5. Gas flow (pressure drop versus velocity and bed height) in a fluidized bed;
6. Pressure drop versus velocity and bed height in a liquid fluidized bed;
7. Velocity profiles in the working section of a well-designed wind tunnel;
measurement of the velocity decrement behind a rod oriented transverse to
the mean flow; use of hot wire apparatus;
8. Heat transfer to and within a packed bed;
9. Heat transfer from a metal rod heated on one end determination of
surface coefficients as a function of position;
10. Heat transfer to a stirred liquid; control of the temperature in the pot
by an electronic control instrumentation;
11. Heat transfer to a thermocouple; errors in temperature measurement;
12. Heat transfer from a heated cylinder oriented transverse to the mean flow
in the wind tunnel;
13. Thermal diffusion in gases;
14. Mass transfer from the surface of a rod oriented transverse to the mean
flow in the wind tunnel;
15. Diffusion through agar-agar gel with and without an imposed electric field.
Wherever possible, experiments are "rigged to involve more than one principle.
For example, in the experiment listed as No. 4, the fluid is an oil which, on
occasion in the past, has been initially loaded with "Thixin" making it thixo-
tropic. The advantage to the educational experience of the student is, I think,
considerable.
At the beginning of the second semester, the students are divided into two
groups. Those who do not plan to continue into a graduate program (or who will
not be recommended for graduate school) are requested to do experiments of the
classical "unit operations" type. For this purpose we provide a quite standard
singla-bubble-cap plate distillation column, a packed distillation column, a
standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and other similar prosaic apparatus. We
feel that, for such students, this type of experience is most desirable.

For those students who are going into graduate school either of two options
is open. They may do a special project, perhaps in association with the research














June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 14
activities of one of the members of the staff, or, if they so desire, they may
elect to do several more advanced engineering science experiments. Among the
latter are kinetics experiments, development of new experiments in areas not
covered by the laboratory, experiments in instrumentation and control, etc. We
hope that this division of effort will provide a laboratory experiehee which san
be made nearly optimum for each student.

Students are assigned individually to experiments during both semesters, there
is no formal "team system" involving a "group foreman". We recognize the argument '
that students must learn to work in teams since that is the system used indust-
rially but we believe that the most satisfactory educational experience is not
achieved in this way. It is true that for very large classes and large student-
to-staff ratios, the team system could be the only practical way to operate.
Hapily, the chemical engineering senior class at The Hopkins rarely exceeds
-10-12 students and the professor in charge of the laboratory is normally provided
with a graduate assistant to help in the operation of the program. With such
numbers, students may easily be handled individually throughout the program.

A technician is provided in the laboratory to maintain equipment in a satis-
factory state of repair and operability. Students are expected to cope with
routine maintenance problems as they arise during the laboratory period and to
make such minor adjustments and corrections to equipment as may be required for
their experiment. Major plumbing, electrical, and mechanical repairs and changes
are normally provided, often under the supervision and direction of the student
requesting the work.
Instructions to the student are purposely kept minimal. An objective is always
clearly stated but methods for achieving the objective or objectives are never
suggested. The student is expected to decide on procedures which will permit
him to obtain the necessary data, to derive or find in the literature the
equations or relationships which will be useful in calculating the results which
are wanted, and to report these in some meaningful way. Report forms are never
prescribed, their format and length depend entirely on the nature and extent of
the information which the student wishes to describe.

The size of the equipment to be used by the students in the undergraduate
laboratory must be determined by the objectives set for the laboratory by the
professor in charge. If the operational problems associated with the actual
industrial type equipment are to be illustrated, then the laboratory equipment
must be large and must possess many of the characteristics of the corresponding
industrial-scale items. However, the amount of material required for the
operation of such large scale equipment, the time required for equilibration, the
difficulties encountered by the students in understanding the principles of
operation when faced with the complexities of manipulation, tend to militate
against such large scale apparatus and dictate the use of smaller scale items.

Intermediate sized equipment possesses neither the characteristics of the
large scale pilot or plant scale items which can be justified in terms of
operational training nor does it provide the opportunity for learning and under-
standing basic principles provided by the very small scale units. Hence, we use
small scale equipment, equipment operable by one man, which can be equilibrated
in periods of less than one hour. The student is expected to study the principles
involved rather than the mechanical details.
One further problem associated with the laboratory arises from the difference
between laboratory and lecture courses. Unless the group is very large, the
professor in charge of a class can almost continuously monitor the comprehension
and receptiveness of the students. There is continual feedback from the student
to the professor and those students who are confused by some facet of the work
may so indicate immediately and the source of confusion can be discussed at that
moment. Further, from quizzes and tests, the professor discovers those areas where
comprehension is lacking, where more work must be done, or where he is failing
to communicate effectively. Such information feedback is an important, although
almost automatic and perhaps unconscious part, of any classroom structure.
While similar channels for information feedback do exist in laboratory courses,
the impedance to information flow is very much greater. As a result, the professor
cannot appraise the comprehension, contribution, and activities of any single
student in the laboratory nearly as well. Grades in the laboratory are usually
based on attendance, on report grades(usually from the graduate assistant), and
on a final examination which may have little to do with the work actually done by
















15 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION June 1964

the student during the year. A possible system for improving the flow of infor-
mation from the student to the professor in charge of the laboratory involves
enlisting the aid of the other members on the staff.

Assume that each member of the staff, except the professor in charge of the
laboratory, maets with the members of the laboratory class individually for
discussion of a problem(or several problems as the case may be) which the student
has completed in the laboratory. The student would be expected to explain what
his problem was, the work he(or his group) did, the conclusions reached, and the
significance thereof. The professor could, by careful questioning determine the
extent to which the student understands the work, its significance, and even the
extent to which the student was responsible for the success or failure of the
experiment. This system would have the educationally salubrious effect of forcing
the student to report to someone qualified to judge but not directly familiar
with the assigned task.

The professor in charge of the laboratory would then receive reports from the
rest of the staff on each of the students. This report could be in the form of a
grade based, for example, in equal parts on presentation by the student, compre-
hension of the work by the student, and the quality of the work actually done.
Such a system is planned for the 1962-1963 academic year in the chemical engin-
eering laboratory here at Hopkins.

Such a system does not result in a serious drain on the time or energy of the
staff. With a student body of, for example, 30, each assigned to ten experiments
during the semester, and a staff of five in addition to the professor in charge
of the laboratory, this would necessitate four staff/student conferences of this
sort per week per man. Since a half-hour is surely enough for such a discussion,
this does not seem to be an excessive additional load. The gain to the program
could be quite considerable.

Summary

In summary, the laboratory during the senior year in the undergraduate chemical
engineering program at the Hopkins is thought to be one of the most important
parts of the program. The course provides an opportunity for students to exper-
ience the problems encountered when information must be extracted from a portion
of the physical world about us. They are required to obtain certain information
from an existing piece of apparatus, information which must then be used in some
meaningful way either as a source of new knowledge or a means of relating the
behavior of one system to that of others. The laboratory is thought to be an
educational experience and not part of the student's training in some topic or
topics of "practical" significance.
Students are assigned to work and are examined individually. Staff are expected
to teach, not just to supervise, students in the laboratory. Whenever necessary,
the professor in charge o t laboratory calls upon the entire staff for assist-
ance in the program, for all have an interest in its success.













A LABORATORY COURSE IN TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
by
R. J. Crosby
University of Wisconsin
When the Daepartment of Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin
decided to introduce a lecture course on Transport Phenomena into its undergradu-
ate curriculum, it was also decided to establish a concomitant laboratory course.
It was felt that instruction in Transport Phenomena would be most effective when
the lecture was supplemented with laboratory work. This new laboratory course
replaced a course in Technical Analysis which has outlived its usefulness in the
modern chemical engineering curriculum. The following discussion reviews the
basic philosophy behind this course, the general principles which are demonstrated
by experimentation, those experiments which are now in use along with contemplated
new experiments, and the results of one year's experience in teaching this course.

GENERAL PHILOSOPHY

The main objectives of this course are to demonstrate some physical aspects
of the subject matter covered by a course in Transport Phenomena, to demonstrate
certain properties of matter which are encountered with a course in Material and
Energy Balances, and to enlarge on the classroom discussions wherever desirable.
As this il the first engineering laboratory taken by students studying chemical
engineering, the aims of the course are somewhat broader than the above objectives
would indicate. In general, these aims are:
1. To illustrate the theoretical principles presented in the aforementioned
courses. Major emphasis is placed on the testing and application of the theor-
etical relationships used to describe the system under study, rather than the
development of these relationships. The latter, however, is not neglected.
2. To illustrate and test the effectiveness of various experimental measuring
techniques. These techniques are subjected to either detailed or approximate
theoretical analysis whenever such is warranted.
3. To teach the student how to handle and interpret experimental data of the
quality usually encountered by engineers. These data are usually not as exact as
those obtained in laboratories connected with courses in chemistry and physics.
4. To develop the student's ability to observe and reason, particularly with
reference to the extension of basic theory to practical problems and the use of
simple models to describe complex systems.
5. To give the student practice in organizing and presenting his results
effectively.
No effort is made to teach creativity per se in this laboratory. There is not
enough time available for such instruction even if this were the only aim of
the course. At this stage of the student's education the course aims listed
above are felt to be of more importance.

To include or illustrate every aspect of the basic principles in Transport
Phenomena is obviously not possible in a single laboratory course. However, the
course described here provides a good introduction. Both steady-state and unsteady-
state operations are studied; all three states of matter are encountered; situat-
ions involving both laminar and turbulent fluid flow are investigated.

PRINCIPLES DEMONSTRATED

The key to Transport Phenomena is the equations of change. These equations
contain thermodynamic properties of matter auc as densitIy an3 heat capacity and
transport properties such as viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity.
With the aid of these equations it is possible to determine the velocity, temper-
ature and concentration profiles in a system; to obtain dimensionless correlations
for the coefficients of interphase transport(friction factor, heat-transfer coeffic-
ient and mass-transfer coefficient); and to develop the macroscopic(over-all)
balances for mass, energy and momentum.
The experiments in this course deal with measurements of certain thermo-
dynamic properties, the three main transport properties, the three types of
profiles, the three transfer coefficients, and certain applications of the
macroscopic balances. The organization of these experiments is shown in table 1.
Experiments in Groups A and B are covered before those in Groups 1 through 12,
and the experiments in Groups 1 through 12 can be followed either by row or
column without losing continuity in the subject matter. In the course described
here, the experiments are taken up by column as this is the order in which the
subject matter is covered in the lecture.

















EXPERIMENTS

In designing the experiments for this laboratory, it was attempted to satisfy
the following basic requirements:
1. The experiments must be simple to understand. The main points must be
extremely clear, both theoretically and experimentally.
2. The experiment must be easy and quick to perform. The time required for
observation and calculations should not exceed one laboratory period.
3. Analytical procedures and instrumentation must be as simple as possible
so as not to distract from the main purpose of the experiment.
4. The process under study should be such that it can be described mathemat-
ically in some detail.
Those experiments which have been developed and are in use are listed In
Table 2. A complete description of these experiments can be found elswherela)
The experiments in Groups 1 through 8 are similar to those which are in use in
many "unit operations" laboratories. One aspect of these experiments which may
be.of special interest is the portability of the equipment. In Figures 1,2,3,4
and 5 are shown equipment from experiments in Groups 2,3,5,6 and 7. The equip-
ment sl either easily disassembled or readily removable from the laboratory as
a unit.

The experiments which are not common to undergraduate chemical engineering
laboratories are those dealing with mass transfer, Groups 9 through 11.

For the measurement of binary diffusivities it has been found that a diff-
usion cell similar to that used first by Loschmidt gives excellent results.
Figure 6a shows the construction details of this diffusion cell and also shows
the proper location of the two gas chambers when the cell is being loaded or
flushed out. Figure 6b shows an actual cell under operation with the two gas
chambers located so as to allow equimolar counterdiffusion to occur. To make the
analysis scheme as simple as possible, one of the two gases used In this exper-
iment is always carbon dioxide. After the diffusion process is stopped, the total
amount of carbon dioxide In each gas chamber is analyzed by flushing the gases
in each chamber through previously weighed drying-tubes containing "Ascarite".
This analysis scheme gives material balances consistent within3 percent and
the measured diffusivities agree with accepted values within 6 percent.

It has been found that concentration profiles in a stagnant gas film can be
measured synthetically generating a very thick film which can be divided into
sections for analysis. The construction details for such a piece of equipment are
shown in Figure 7a. One of the two chemical species in the film is a gas and the
other is a condensable vapor whose source is the liquid reservoir at the base of
the film. The film is sectioned off by rotating alternate sections of the equip-
ment as indicated. Figure 7b shows an actual unit in operation. The average conc-
entrations of the gases in each section of the equipment are determined by flush-
ing the contents of each section through miniature, pre-weighed cold traps. The
vapor component is thus condensed out and its mass is readily determined. The
concentrations are then easily calculated with a knowledge of the dimensions of
of each of the sections In the equipment. This analytical procedure will give
good results if done with proper care. The measure profiles agree excellently
with the theoretically predicted profiles.

Mass-transfer coefficients are readily measured by means of wetted-wall
columns. The construction details for the wetted-wall columns in present use
are shown in Figure 8a. Water and air are the two chemical species used in this
experiment. A laboratory unit with two wetted-wall columns of different diameters
is shown in Figure 8b. A closed-circuit system for the water allows for a simple
measurement of the rate of mass transfer.
Besides those experiments which are now in use, others are being planned.
Some of the new experiments which are either being contemplated or being devel-
oped are listed in Table 3.

CLASS SCHEDULE
The laboratory amounts to one four-hour session per week. A review of the
theory and a discussion of the experimental procedure Is covered in a one-hour
recitation and quiz period preceding the laboratory proper. The required exper-
imental work and calculations are performed in the remaining three hours. The

(1) Experiments in Transport Phenomena, by E. J. Crosby, John Wiley & Sons, New
York (1961).


June 1964


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 18
performance of the calculations under the supervislan of the instructor has
proven particularly advantageous to the student. Errors are readily found and
clarified and considerable time is saved. The student presents the results of
the experiment in the form of a short report consisting of an abstract, a
sum ary of results, adisoussion and a list of sample calculations. Only the
abstract and discussion are prepared outside the classroom.

RESULTS

This laboratory has been in operation since September 1961, and the exper-
iments now in use were tested for one or two semesters before the course began.
During this period the majority of the problems that have arisen in connection
with the operation of the experimental equipment have been solved. However, some
of the equipment is still being modified to give more flexibility and better
experimental results.
Experience to date indicates that the aims of this course are fulfilled.
From the pedagogical viewpoint, the best results are obtained when the student
is simultaneously enrolled in the lecture course and laboratory courses. When
both courses are taken together, the student's progress in the following course
dealing with Transport Processes (Unit Operations) is considerably accelerated.
In those oases where the laboratory has been delayed until after the lecture
course, progress in the upit operations course is somewhat slower. Of particular
benefit to the student are the numerical evaluations carried out in the labor-
atory in connection with theoretical work taken up in the lecture.

A number of colleges and universities are now preparing to offer a similar
laboratory course in connection with a lecture course in Transport Phenomena. The
choice of qualified instructors for such a program is very important. The labor-
atory instructors must be as well qualified as those who lecture. This final
point cannot be emphasized enough.





TABLE 1


ORGANIZATION OF EXPERIMENTS


Matter Energy

Thermodynamic Experiment Experiment
Properties Group A Group B



Transport of Transport of Transport of
Momentum Energy Mass

Transport Experiment Experiment Experiment
Properties Group 1 Group 5 Group 9
Profiles Experiment Experiment Experiment
Group 2 Group 6 Group 10

Transport Experiment Experiment Experiment
Coefficients Group 3 Group 7 Group 11
Macroscopic Experiment Experiment Experiment
Balances Group 4 Group 8 Group 12











TABLE 2
EXPERIMENTS IN USE
Experiment
Group No. Subject of Experiment

A Pressure-Volume-Temporature Behavior of Real Gases.
1 Viscosities of Newtonian Liquids.
2 Velocity Profiles in Circular Tubes (Turbulent flow).
Friction FPators for Plow in Circular Tubes.
Efflux Time for a Tank with Exit Pipe.
Thermal Conductivity of Solids (unst*ady-state method).
6 Temperature Profile in Long Rods.
7 Heat Transfer Coefficients in Ciroular Tubes.
He Beating Liquids in Tank Storage.
9 Diffusivity in Gases (unsteady-state method).
10 Coneentration Profiles in a Stagnant Film.
11 Mass Transfer Coefficients in Circular Tubes.
12 Heating Value of a Fuel Gas.

TABLE 3
NEW EXPERIMENTS BEING CONTEMPLATED
Experiment
Group No. Subject of Experiment
A, B Partial Molal Properties.
1 Viscosity of Gases; Properties of Non-Newtonlan Liquids.
2 Veoolity Profiles (laminau-flow)
3 Drag Coeffioients for Flow Around Submerged Spheres.
Stresses in Pipe PFitures; Response Characteristies of
an Impact Tube.
5 Theral Conduotivity in Solids and Fluids(steady-state method).
6 Temperature Profiles in Flowing Fluids.
SHBeat-Transfer Coefficients in Jacketed Kettles.
Operation of Steam Turbines; Operation of Air Compressors.
9 Diffusitity in Gases (steady-state method).
10 Concentration Profiles in A Flowing Fluid.
11 Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Submerged Spheres.
1______ Semi-Batoh, Liqud-Phas Reactors.








RBPERMECE TO FIGURE NUMBERS
Figure No. Figure No. in Laboratory Manuall
la 2.a-l
lb 2.a-3
2a 3.a-l
2b 3,a-2
3a 5.a-5
.b a-6
6.a-l
b 6.a-2
7.a-l
Sb 7.a-2
6a 9.a-1
6b 9.a-2
7a lO.a-1
b 10.a-2
ll.a-1
Ob ll.a-3

1 Experiments in Transport Phenomena, by E. J. Crosby,
John Wiley and Sons, New york, 1961.










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PAGE 1

" CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION THE AMERICAN SOClE"l"t FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION June 1964

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CHEMICAL EBGINEERIWG EDUCATION June 1964 Chemical Engineering Division American Society for Engineering Education COITEBTS The Purpose or the Undergraduate Laboratory, The Approach At The Ohio State University, by Joseph H. Koffolt 1 The Chemical Engineering Laboratory at The Johna Hopkins University, by H. E. Hoelscher 12 A Laboratory Course in Transport Phenomena, by E. J. Crosby 1 6 Chemical Engineering Division American Society for Engineering Education Joseph J. Martin George Burnet J.B. West Officers 1963-64 (Michigan) (Iowa State) (Oklahoma State) Chairman Vice Chairman Secretary-Treasurer CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Journal of the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. Published Quarterly, in March, June, September and December, by Albert H. Cooper, Editor. Publication Office: University or Connecticut P.O. Box 445 Storrs, Connecticut Subscription Price, $2.00 per year.

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'fBB PURPOSB OP !BB OID&GBADQAD LABORATORY 'fBR APPROACH A't !BE OHIO STATE UIIVBRSI'l'Y Joaeph B. Kottolt, ChaiPWan Obeid.cal Bng1~eer1ng Department I. IBTRODUCTIOB Th1a paper g1T the pblloaophy., objeot1Tea, and approach to undergraduate obeld.oal engineering laborator, work at Ohio State Ul11Tera1ty. 'fh prerequiaitea of the undergraduate laborato17 couraea are the lecture reo1tat1on oouraea 1n cbemiatry, athe atica., ph7aio1, chem1.cal engineering pro pr1no1pl and grapbioa, the tranaport propertiea, untt operation, cbelliical engineering thel'IIOd,nm5 c~ Jdnet1ca, economy, and 'the ovrioulua 1n ohe111oal engineering ia gl..-en ln Appendix I ot tbia paper. The curriculum ia tiie 1ars plus one halt quarter between the rovth and tltth year. For the first two years all engineering students follow the curricu lum of the Pre-Eng!neering DiTiaion and then petition to be admitted to the Pro teaaional DiTision. 'the Philosophy and Objecti..-ea ot 1. What 1a the Chellioal pg1neer1ng Proteaa1onal Progrrm I 9 Chemical Engin~erlng? Chellloal BDg!neerlng la the application or the principles or the ph7aical aolencea, together with princtplea or economics and bUllaD Nlationa to tielda that pertain direotly to proceaaea and process equipment in which matter ia treat-d to effect a change in state, enerff, content, or coapo1ition. ~hese processes may usually be inTolTed into a coordinated riea ot unit physical operations and cbellical prooeaaea. 'the work or the che111cal engineer 11 concerned priaarlly with research, de Telopment, deelgn, oonetruction, aalee, and production or operation or equip.-nt and plant in llhicb these ,mtt operations and processes are applied. Chelliatl'J', physic and mathematic are the underlying aolencea or obellical engineering, and eoenomlca la lta guide in practice. Th aix technical tundaaental1 area (1) the aterlal balance, (2) the energ balance, (3) static chemical equilibria, (4) kinetics, (S) rates ot tranater 1 and tranatol'llation ot tluide, mass, and energ, and (6) the economic balance. 2. Bow the Pb1loaoph7 and Object1! Are Met The proteaaional prograll la ao designed to Met theae object1Tes aa follows: (1) Maintaining its atrong and traditional foundation ot the baa1o science or chemistry. The latter la ao interwoyen which reaulta in a well-~oUllded and inte grated program. 'the aolence ot cbemiatr, la not atat1c. (2) Expansion ot the work la ma~he atice to Met the challenge et the a~ yancea and never teobnlquea 1 the field ot ohelld.cal engineering 1nTolT1ng r~uld, heat and aaa transport phenomena, klnetica, and sequence leadlag t unit oper ations and optlllization ot prooeae ancl plant deaign; all er integrated wtth co puter work, a tool vbich ia expanding at an exponential rate in th ehcal induat1'7. (3) Inoreaeing the eapbaaia on the baaic tun4ameutala ot ohellloal engi~erins science o a to eduoat and inetruot the student ao well that they can tackle totally nev and ditterent probleu. (4) Integrating athematloa, the basic and engineering ao1encea, and the1P applications with labcrato17 work reault in vell-roU11ded graduate ohe111oal ,nsl aeere. Appreciation ot app11oat1en a a part or tba prograa la uoeaaary, t realise that tbeor, la onl7 a tool and aot an end in 1taelt. (S) Prnlding aqnoee ot work 1D the h11118111t1ea, aoo1al u4 lite dlopa the vbol "Bduoated Man. 1

PAGE 5

~ .\; t. ~ 'fl" ... '! : ------ *. .. .. ,-. 1964. ; I : ; I CAL DGIIEIRIKG BDUCA!IOI 2 II 'AB UBUBRdlW>lJaB J.!BOBA!ORY C011RSB8 . 1. Oh.Be 704 Chellioal 1 g.laeerin,s Iupeotion trlp 2 oredlt beur, 1 week taken .. beiveen re-,,JnEer ani spring taiiHeP1, Pourth 7ear. l. B. Kotto1t, B. B. Haering. Ch.B. 740 Cbellieal !f1aeerS ns Prooeaa Ctrol 3 oredl t hour 2 olaaa hour iid 4 Eom-a of laoper week, Spring Quarter, fourth ,..ar c J O.e:aJr111tp11, G. Wllooz. Cb.S. 7" Cbellioal ........,-ration Laborato8 oredl t howa, S week, a7a our per a7, Ulllller arter, tltth ,..ar, 1. B. Kottolt, B. B. Haering, G. Wilcox. Ch.Ee 770 Cbellioal aeeri Prooeaa DeYelo 4 ONdlt hour 12 lab 7ear. c. B. Dryden, T. B. ova V n er uar er, Oorrigan, o. V11oox, B. R. Haering. Ch.E. 772 Che1111oal rrooeaa DeaSp 3 ored1t houra, 9 lab bova per week, Spring Quarter, fl& 7ear. A. S7Ter on, B. R. Haering, G. Wlloox Ch.E. 791 Special Pro~e,t Problem Ineatlgation S oredlt houra, 1S lab houri per week, Spring Quarter, titth 7ear. Th Start. 2. Eleot1 Laboratory Cour ea Ch.B. 693 Problem in Chemical 1neer1 .....,.-erationa 2 to 6 credit hours, course ma7 be repeated, to l lab hours per week, all quarters, titth 7ear. J.B. Kottolt, B. R. Haering, G. Wilcox. Ch.E. 763 Applie~ Eleotrocbemiatrz 3 credit hours, 2 lectures and 4 hour or lab per veek, Aut-.;.110 Quarter, fourth or r1rtb 7ear. A S7Teraon, E.R. Haering. Ch.E. 766 uolear Chemical ngineering 4 ored1t houra, 3 olaaa hour and 3 hove ot lab per veek, Spring Quarter, tirth 7ear. c. B. Drfden. ~ E~ct1Te Laboratorz Couraea 1n Petrole11111 Baglneering Petrele,a Eng1neering 1a admS nistered bJ tbe Chell1oal lh61neeriag Department. !'he curriculum anf\ d6gi~ will be dropped etrecti Te tbe end ot th s,a,1 r Quarter, August 24, 1962. BoveTer, b7 eleotiTe8 a tudent ay take a progrm in petrolema production. Thia 1s alao true ot Buclear Chemical Engineering. In both progra a, the student recei a B.Cb.E. degree aa he complete the Chemical Engineering cur riculum 'fhe eleotiTe courses in Petroleum Engineering laborato:ry are: P.E. 713 Drillipg Fluids 3 credit hours, 1 olaaa hour, and 6 boura or labora tor,per veek, Winter Quarter, fourth 7ear. H. c. Slider, K. Shepherd. P.E. 723 Ph7alcal Analyaia ot Petroleum ReaerYoira 2 credit houra, 1 olaaa hour and 4 hours or laborat017 per week, Winter Quarter t1rth 7ear. H. C. Slider, K. Shepherd. P.E. 736 Rea6rtolr ~gineering Pluid Flov 3 credit hours, 2 bova, 3 laborato17 hours per week, Winter Quarter, ritth 7ear. B. c. Slider Theae couraes with the exception or the couraea in Petrolua Bng\neerlng vlll be diacuaaed 1n detail in tbe paper. III THE SAFETY PROGRAM OF THE DEP.AirrMEN'J: OF CHEMICAL DGllElt..'IUlfO satet7 oonsoiouaneaa 1~ Chem.cal Engineering laborat017 vork at Ohio State goes baok to 1906 vb.en Dr. J'aJBe& B. Withrow, the first Chairman of the Department took charge. In 1946, when tbe College ot Engineering adopted the t1,..ar pro gr .. a lecture-recitation oourae 1n satet7 put into the ourrioulua. Ve re oeiTed ll&DJ' bouquets ooacerning the introduction ot th1 cour in our ourrioulum. '.rhe cc;111a.ata ot the studeDta were good, bad, and indifferent. It vaa quite co .. m1on to hear a group ot atv.denta aa7 "W will nov be satet7 ocmacioua tor the aext t1tt7 111nut" It wa the unantaoua opinion ot the atatt that, although the object1 ot auoh a oov waa icleologlo and altruistic, 111 the tlnal anal7i it preached but 414 not praotlo atet7. It produced Tarioua grades ot aatet7-m1llded chemical en g1aeer1ng atudent trom "A to "D" grade. A a result, thla oourae vaa dropped tNII the o'IU'l'ioul1111 in 19S2. In 1ta place, aatet7 waa integrated in all couraea peaa1ble aad e peoiallJ 1n the laboratOl"J Satet7 11 praot1oed at all ~la 1a'tb un1t ope~a_tion~ 1n tru entat1on, procea deyelopment, project prob iea, and tb au.clear l.abera~l"J ..

PAGE 6

3 ~BkiO.".&L BIIGI r J J ... ., ... IIG EDUCA!IOX June : 1964 ,. 1. aatlen F '11 tlatetz Pnpaa 1a the Chellloal BngtaerJng Labora)p11. '!he t\ldeDt aN their t1rat 1ntena1v work in 1at'et7 the tirt daJ ~t the Chelllioal Engineering operation laboratory lihich 1 glTea during the S1D1Mr Quarter between the tourth and tltth yeara. By emphaalalng satety an4 aa1nta1D1 good aatet7 practloea tro the very beg1nntng ot the laboratory work the al:aa.t' aa:,..11 aa ata.tt will be ao 1nat111ed with the aenae ot "Sat:t 7 conaolou~ that lt OUPJ ner into their laboratory oouraea at the UDSTera1t 7 md eTentual~7 lllt 1D4utry. ~he aatet7 progru ay be beat deaor1bed by giving a tev detail ll'IB8! DAY 011' UU-t OPBRffIOBS LABORATORY IIOBD.AY 1 ,1018 18, 1962 8:00 9:00 to 11:00 a Organ1sat1on and detail ot the lJll1t Operations Satet7 ln the Chemical Engineering Laborator1ea. Th Satety M~ual. Bach 1tudent 1 given a copy ot the aatety manual. a pair ot ~ety and a hard hat. The latter ia returned at the end ot tb!e oom-ae. The d'tJ glaaaea are charged to the student. !hose atu~ dents llho already wear ay obtain preacriptlon 1atet7 glaaaea tro our Department ot Optometry at a reduced price. The Satetz Manual oover ltem ooncern1ng practices 1n the labora tory, handilng oheiioal toxioit7, gaa maaka, ladders, organization ot the ~atety oome1tte etc. The tollowtns are aome or the detail contained in the Sate~, Manual. 1 1. Satet7 ahall be VOl"D ln all laboratories and shops that are in oper ation. 2. Bard hats shall be worn 1n the Unit Operation Laboratory when thia laboratory 1a 1n operation. 3. Under no circumatancea shall Bermuda shorts be worn vbile working in a laboratory e I 4. It you receive an injury. no watter how alight, report it at once to your 1n1tructor. and 1t he 1a not available. to the Departaantal ottice. There vill alva7a be aoon aTailable to get you to the UnlTeraity Health Center or to the hoapltal. it necessary. S. Do not vork atter hours uoleaa you have a permit trom the ottioe ot Speci,il SerT1oea. Thie Nquirea that a card requesting auoh a permit be granted r 1 the Chail'llD ot the Department. Working after S:OO on Saturdays and all day Sunday la prohibited except in ca1e ot an emergency. Working after hom-a 1n laboratorle and ahopa 1a prohibited unleaa a011eone else 1 present v1th1n calling cllatanoe. 6. Bouaekeep1ng OOod houekeepi ng ab all be atntatned at all Quoting trom item Unit o rations LaboratoCourae Or ao1sat1on 15-kDutiea of s uad Pore an," goo ouaekeep ng a be ma.a..u a ne a al mes. 'l'u ... a is ,moa.J; :!,ap4rtant duty ot the squad tore an. H v111 detail member ot hie !quad to aaaure (by use ot aop, brooa, hose, and other "dinrn that untiay working oonclltions auoh precipitates trom tilter eil tro steam papa on eTaporator. duet tro the ci-uahera ud grinder and water and aol venta on the tloor tro11 laboratory proble~ on d1at1llat1on. heat traneter, eTaporation. tluid tlow. turnaclng. 11qu1d-11qu1d eatract1on. bvm1dit1oat1on, and electrolya1a during the oourae ot experimental work la oleaned up at ,11 untidy working condition.a during the course ot an experimental te,t run WILL llO'l' BE TOLERATED. Spillage must be cleaned up at o!loe. Infraction ot this i=ule vii:! result in stopping all vork until la cleaned up. In many caaea lt will result 1n starting the part1oular ~teat .. ra over again. It 1a the reaponaibllity ot the rotating squad toreman to ualgil aelll>er ot his squad to maintain good houaekeep1ng oonditiona at all ti- A 110at ot the experimental work require trom 6 to 16 hours ot time, he ahoul4 plan b.3, schedule so that eTery member ot hia aguad 1a responsible tor 9004 houek:eping and lmows how to handle the "mopn and "broo" 'fhe rotating torellhal+ not handle the op or broom. The retat1ng tore au 1 the "boa B not vork, he auporw1 11 11:00 The ola la organ1sed 1a quad et tov eaoh. ~1 rsus aat1 1 to kept tor the duration ot the oovae Baob aqua4 un4er lb~ aiapenia1on ):00 ot ua instructor ~peada oae hov eaoh '11 1, ... bel~ f

PAGE 7

, 4 .. CAL D9I \ ' ::: i, ~ : 1a,1!l er LaboPatoPleil; looat1on et all -no7 ut111 t 7 '"ia, Talou of xting,aiahera, gaa 11aaka, flN ltJnata, atretoh tor gaa, al, wateP ud ateaa. 2. Jlaaka Beaplratr A ahon leotUN 1 ginn en llm, lielr ooaainctlon, and Vb.ere they are te be ed. Baoh tucteat 1 Nqa!Nd to tr,the Tarieua tnea, and teat the tor laJr11, la erder to taalliuiae the aelTea 111th the Mthod and ad Jutaat an4 ue of the and reapiratora. 3. lg,1!~ lleter A brief lecture la ea ezploaln lialta, .,., 1 OaN ot spillage ot latl .... ble lenta, and the pr1no1ple ot c~ntruot1on and operation of the Tarioua tn,ea ot e.xplo11on setera and other deteotlag deTloea. Baoh atudent 1a then required to operate theae lnatr 1 2--.tnta vlth ,nthetlo ezplo iTe lllizturee (in a quantity vhioh will not oaue daaage). laOO to 4:30 Pire Prevn~1on n~ Dem.onatration The Plre llaraball ot the OalTer a1t7 explain the oonatruot1on an4 uae or variou t1;ua ot tire tight 1ag equipu-~t, the Tarioua claaaea or t1rea and the typea ot ez tinguiab.era to be uaed. 'l'hia ia covered in detail 1a the Satet7 Manual iaaued to the atudent1. file olaaa then adjourn to a Taoant lot on the Um.Terait7 property llbere tbe Tar1oua cla1aea ot tire are demonatrated. !rb.e ue ot tbe right and r~ng typea ot eztinguilhera are demonstrated. Baoh student then operate the Tarioua tnea ot ezt1nguiahera ao that he vtll be ta111ar lfith their operation. 2. !he DepartMntal Satet1 Comao1tteea 'there are three aatety 00 1 1ttteea 1n the Departm ... nti (1) a Oeneral Satet7 CP a1ttee oonalating ot senior eta.tr aembera llhioh tormulatea and eatabllahe De partntal pol107 on all aafety and potent! al haaarda. 'lhi a oc-a11,i ttee NYieva the report ot the Departmental aatet7 oo-aH1 ttee who make biveekl7 1napeot1ona or all laboratoriee and makes No"~mendationa or action to be taken. Appendix n Form I,, et this parer g1na the torm or the report used in the 1napect1on ot the labora torie J (2 D1T1a1onal Safety C.n 1 11mS ttee conalating ot senior atatt uabera llho are Naponalble tor houaekeeplns, and aatety 1n the Tarioua laboratoriea; and (3) De partaeatal Safety C...S.ttee oona1at1zag or a aen1or atart member aa Chairman and graduate atudenta llho make the bl-weekly 1napeot1on or all laboratoriea. The roater or theae ooa+aJtteea are g1Ten in Appendix n, memoranda numbers 631 and 632. Appendiz II, Porm #2 giTe1 the torm tor accident, tire, explosion and damage to equipment report. IV TBE Dls"J:AILS OF UBDBROBADUATE LABORATORY COURSES II CBEKI CAL UGI IllG Ch.E. 704 Chemical EapneerJng InaP!otion TrlE t' All undei-gracluate atudenta in Chemical Engineering are required to take one week-long 1aapeotlon trip b~tveen the Winter and Spri11g Quarter preferably in the reurth year. trips are intended to gin to the obem1oal engineering atudent some praotioal knowledge ot the agn1tude ot modern ohellical engineering 1nduatr1al eperatlona tro a selected Tarlet7 or ex.a plee, and to g1 Te a praot1oal opportu D1t7 tor aoqualntanoe with the dirterent braaohea or the proteaslon ot ohelllioal engine~rlag la tlie pJ-Oper proapeot1Te, and to turnlah training 1n obaeryat1on, report 11:i,1 t1Dg, n4 d1 aoua1 plant Tialted alternate tl'OIII year to rar !he outhe:rn trip whioh 1a 1n the odd-n,Dll>ered 79ar inolud the tel owing o itiea 1111d plant11 C1no1nnat1, Ohio ~11, Virginia south Qbarleaton, w. va. Ppai-a~vg, W. Va. : Willow Ia~ead, W. Va. Pltburgb., Pe11U7l,ranSt Kbuta. Pt171,ran1a Procter and G~ble Coapa117 B.I. duPont de Bemours and Company Indutr1al and Bloohellllcal.a Depart ent tJialon Carbide Chellloal.a Ca,oparat and union Carbide Oletina Co111pan7 B.I. duPoat de uad Oo11pa 7, Polyohellioala Department All8rioaa OyanaSd oaepany, Organs~ Chell1oala D1T1a1oa UOJted State Steel Crpont1oa Koppen Coapany, Cha ioal. Dlri. lea I l I

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s CAL DGI DG BDUCffIOI lmla 19611, Barberton, Ohio Ora, Ohio Pi1neaw111e, Ohio ATOD Lake Ohio Toledo, Ohio 11141and, M1oh1gu Detroit, JUchlgan W7&ndotte, 1Uoh1gan P1t tabvgl1 Plate &laaa coapa7, Chell1oal D1ria1on Good79ar '.rlre and !lubber Coapa7 Iadutr1al lla7on Company the B. P. Goodrich Che1111oal CompdJ' !he Stalldard 011 Coapan7 (Ohio) Dov Che111c al COmpally Dov Corning Corporation The Pord Motor Company Parke-DaY11!1 Compan7 Penn-Salt Company, Iaduatr1al Che1111eala D1Y1a1on One or two plant are Tialted per day 'lb.ea trlp are higb17 organised. part7 are equipped with aatet7 goggles Satet7 ia emphaalaedJ all aeJlbera ot the and aatety bard hate. In Ch.E. 761-Chellloal Engine~rlng Proceaaea include three or tour plant tn apection trips 1n the Y1e1nit7 ot Columbus such aa the Cit7 ot Columbus Water Worka; Mead Corporation in Ch1111cotheJ Ovens-Corning Plberglas in Bevard, OhioJ Pure 011 COIIIPIIDJ', Beath Refinery in l'ewark, Ohio; AJnel'ican Zinc Oxide Compan7, Co)umbuaJ and Capital City Product in Coluabua, Ohio Ch.B. 740 2. Chell1oal Control b7 c. J. Oeankop11a Ch6Dd.eal Prooeaa Control, 2 cla and 4 laboratol'J' hova per week. PrereqaS.aS. te Ch.B. 720 Chemloal Bzagineerlng Operations Thia oour1e 11 oonoeraed with the atudy ot the pr1ao1ple1 emplo7ed in the mea1UN ent and oontNl ot the phyaloal and ohellioal Tar1able1 ot ohellioal p~cesa,. applioatlona to control ot ahell1.oal prooeeae1, and application oonoerned with the prooeaa clynew!ca ot ohelld.cal prooeaa and equlpmaAt. The oourae 1 open to 4th 7ear obellioal engineering atudent1 vbo haYe had the standard ohe111oal engineering oovae in transpol't (heat, aaa, and ao mentum tranater) an4 in 1m1 t operatioaa applications. Ditterential equations ~d partial d1tterent1al equation mathematics cou.raea are also prerequiaitea. !he tollov1ng 11 a general outline ot the lecture aeotion ot the course which meet eor 2 leotUN1 week ter 10 weeks: 1. 2. Introduotion A. !uney of Beed tor Automation B. Concepts ot Closed Loops, Peedbaok Ph7aloal Measurements 1. 's;rature a. !iio17 b. Hardware B. ~ theo17 b. Hardware c. Plow a. !beery lt. Hardware D. LeTelrd: Jliaoellaaeou a. f b. Hardware '

PAGE 9

', June 1964. 3. 4. s. 6. OBBMICAL EBGIIRERIBG EDOCATI05 Prooeaa Dzeamioa and lJnateadz-state A. Stea47State !ranater B. Prooeaa Dya 1oa a. rat Order Procea and Inati-umenta, Time Coaataat b. Other Order Prooe1ae1 and Inatruments o. Dyi,am1c Reaponae to Step, Romp, Eto. IPunotiona d. Multiple S7atems and Overall Reaponaea Control Theorz A. Typea or Theo:17 a. Proportional b. Reset c. Der1Tat1ve B. Hardware Integration or Szatema 1n Olo1ed .oopa A. Theo:17 ot Analog Computer B. Solution or Complete Oloaed Loop S71tema Spec1t1c qontrol Szstema A. Chemical Proceaaea B. Buolear Proceaae1 6 The following 1a an outline or the various laboratory experiments pertol'Dled by the atudenta. The basic philoaophy and objectives are to pertorm a lab erperi ment illustrating the theol'7 discussed in the lectures dUl'ing the same week: Exp. Erp. Exp. Erp. 1. 2. 3. Study or P:reaaure Measuring Dev1oea and Statiatica or Repli oationa in Experimental Measurements. Stud7 or Prea1w-e Measuring De'Yices and Statiatica or Ac0Ul'ao7 of. Measurements. Dyrlamic Reaponae and Prooeaa Dynamioa in Temperature Controlled Systems. Exp. ~= Exp. 6. Exp. 1. Flow and Liquid Level Measuring Derloea Control Inatl'Ulllents and Optimum Control settings in Process Dynamica Applications or Control to Distillation Tower and Dryer study or Control and Process Dynamics ot a Heat Transfer Prooeas by Simulation with an Analog Computer. Exp. 8. Study or Control and Process Dynamics ot a Batch-Stirred Reactor with Heat Generation by Slmulation with an Analog Computer. In all or the above experiments the students are divided into groups ot 2 or 3 tor each set or equipment. The ph1losoph7 here 11 that in amall groupe each student 1 able to actually get his own data. Each student anal7zea hie own ex perimental data in a ahort written report. The laboratory ia coordinated very closely with the lecture to give maximum learning ettio1ency and 1noentivee to the atudenta. Usually one instructor tor every 12 students 1a used in the lab to provide ~ax1lllUlll teaching etrect1venes It has been round that ut111z1ns concrete examples in the lab to illustrate theories d11ousaed in the lectuie provides good 1ncent1 and atimulat~on tor the students. 3. CHEMICAL EllGINEERllfG OPERATIOIIS LABORA'l'ORY = A. Catalogue Description. Ch.E. 741 Chemical Engineering Opel"ationa Laboratory s,muner Quarter be tween fourth and fifth years. Laboratory 8 to S, Monday to Saturday 1nolua1ve or 48 hours per week. First Term ot Quarter or S weeks. Prerequ11itea Ch E. 720 and 740. The fundamental laboratory course in the chemical engineering or unit oper ations. Laboratory investigation ot the operating charaoter1at1oe and ett1o1eno7 or chemical engineering equipment aa distillation, drying, absorption, evaporation, filtration, ~,nnid1f1cat1on, llqu1d-11qu1d extraction, etc. B. ObjectiTes ot the course The work ot thia course la ao designed to attain the following objeot1Tea: a. To develop a aen e or aatety conaciouaneaa to one tellov worker, to onea aelt, to equipment, and oneta institution or oompan7. A Univer1lt7 ~abora tory should be a eafe aa an 1nduatr1 al plant or laborato17. ... b. A a corollary to"" above~ to teach good ehem1oal engineering keeping. A olean laboratory 11 a aare laboratory.

PAGE 10

. .. ., I I GAit 11"1 .. I 'I II IDVGAIIOI Mt l"' to 4eftlOJ 1nl\la\l'fl, NIOVOef\lln.111, ... l'll,oDll\tlliJ, cl, to \eaoa alaa\loa ot an _,.l'lNnial JNI u.\l ait .... \o Oal'l'J 1\ ,. a lllOOlllhl ooatl'1110ll, -to oOONtaa\1 llaa41 wl \ft \he atncl, t to .,.1., a Mohanloal eqlu1,1na ''"" of IOlllV\llilOll ll\\l aalnlenanoe of n..S.oal eqlnttl'lftl 1qlil,-n\, to clt'fllo, J'1Qlllell\ ln laill'JNilq lfttl OOl'Mla.\lq fNII to be a\le to vav 1oaloal ooaol11l1on1 atl Na.1ona\l1 No-nd&\lon1, h, lo Ol'fliallla "" \b.lOl'J and oalolllaU.on1 lllfflft\l ln ~ihON\io&l and Pl'Obl WOl'k ln \he OOVIII ln o.111loal ,.. plno1,1,1, \fit -,&11\0lltn& 1 t tluti, h1a, and aa11 \11an1,01'\ 1 "'-Nodpu.111 1 otl \hi \fflli 019tl'll\ton11. 1. to dtftlop ab,,, Ullclll'liUldlftl ot ih ,o,1nil&ll\l11 od \&, ltllit atlona or '1\1eqln11r11111011not1, aa\hew1\lo1, ad o'8. J, To deaonatrat \hat \o a pMbl \o a 1uo1111tul oONpltilon h~\tlree WOl'k and 000,11'&\lon. k, to teaoh \he plno1,111 u4 0Pganl11ilon or po.te11lonal iliJal'\ vi-ltt ng wl\h e11pba111 on olarl\y and ,,obl\loal da\a JM11n,1iln, 1. To PNYlcl an o,poP\\llll\J fOI' ,,udtni l1ad1hlp lfti IY&l\l&\lun et the poten\la11l111 and 1111S.ta\lon1 or 1quad b1P1, To glYI a tounclailon ror \ht 01p1tOI\I 00\ll'III ln \hi tlf\h .,..,, ili\ieli B!~ Chelll101l Engln11rln1 BoOnOIIJ, PP00111 DITtlo,-n\, 1n4 Deelgtl, 1 P ,0,r1.'lon ot qou.a.. .. r.,.b,o,,,_,_~rf 01' Ql'O\ADlh Tb 11111 l I HOiton \IP 1n,o 11'~\\PI or 4 o r '5' oK. it arr1nilfiilluF1 \lPlt \houp\ ll llflft ,o i&ll\llOlfti inl ffll!4; aoool'dlng ,o thell' 1ohola1110 l'IOONI, l&Oh tl'OU, 11 \tJ\iiP l\ljlli'V! Mlon or a 1quacl toNan. PONllllllhlP la l'Oiaied llllDDI th Miiiftlftl of iihw iq,,..-.~ and eaoh an unallJ 11 toMan to a, 1011, ihNI pPOt,i1 1, b. ~d_ ,o,e-.,n-1 Sguacl ronanlhlp lllYOlftl NIPOllll\\lll,y, 1, 11 I ftf!A firii 11 onlt ablll\f or ltAdlPlhlp, Thi lftl~&I\IPll\lOI ud ,_lll,11 lhOiffl bJ a rod toNAn 1rt (1) iO OPllftllt, (I) lnl,11,lYi iftd PIIOUl41 & ( 3 ,o l\l vl ib ou, doln All of "'' WOflk hl1111if. ( 4 10 ln1tNao,or in io \ffl.lft IIOIIIP'f, 6 ,, ,1.,, A pl'b~ ~ ln the labo~ato~f '1'1,ou&th 10 1 uoo111f'\l1 oonelu110, od <1) ,o lttBlr \ht vrltldl ot 'h w~ii\tn ,.,o,i. r Duil ot ~ sluad ,oN lft, (1) ,o 1101,aln ,n, 11n1dul1 or ,,oi lN\t\eeiaoi" li-for"wor ln1 on I pa,,10\111 pNbl ln \hi 11itl'f, ta) to atY4f ,he 1n.,ruo,1on1, (Jl ,o lh1 un,lYiq ,n,oPf ud equlrn' 10 a to b ,he ff1x,1~, on ,he PfOb1o 4) lo Al'Plftll fop I n1 ot hil quad ,.1 dAJI ~.,,,. ,11111 in PPlllllllft&PJ qui 18 1 \be p~obl (f) ,o l1ad1,1hlp, lfflpBAllll iho ,.,,,n,ni polni1 or th probl 'h ,~1nolp111 ot '111 OplPa~ion ot ibl 1qu,-.ni, and to .... \hat th 0,,1.,1 ot A pobll Afl ,. \ d. organi1at1on or th lrobl;m4 A' 1 1qu1d oonte,onoo ,ne oomp11,1 d1,11i, tor runiilri1 the-1,.,1i'I O\li1lntd, 111b ,~obllll ll no, '"' 11811''!' o\lt t7pt but requlr ehouahi ud ~UIUAi, A' ihil IOnfll'lftll ibl po,p Wlder ,h, upen11io~ vt ,i. tore u 41old11 -1li lllllll'IIIIAil ... ii DO take~ ,o ,he ot tie prvb11 ud '81 lln&l PIIUPO on,1 Of the rpoa-,, tilt oaloula,101 nai -bl .... ui lffili IIIAPII IN,. DI ,vw,, ,ne of ,ht llld tln111, ,u ol~ A11 ot ltl 1ntl1Hd ln I ,,,uu no,110011 ud on 10011 ot .. u~ ,hl, oodttl'tDOI, ille 11'0\IP illl ln1,noio ln 111u1 ot th pro~l to I Plldn&i'J 4uf.1 Alli IPIPIYl1 ., .._plan.,.,, .. Ai th11 vi '11a 1n1iwoo, ih1-i1i1 ,111, ,, ,1111n llli ~b plan ot .,,aok -~ tln11111d, ,.,. lnnln1 u 1 ... ,.,. WOPX1 1 BI tinal data o dan up ln ,n1 14tioP1l'f n,,,,,eok, Ann1l 10 ,,,. witb d ~iuni Pt4\lil'tl ,111, itll d1,11h11, Ill IOIIPIIII nll '111 1U'l1 ,. ., 1,1,.s, . tab0Jt9to .aot;ae d p of illa po1'11111 ot 11111' 1 l '11 -., .._, i 1 .,., iban nn, two po11p1 won on ibt ,,0111n, 11btdtde' l1 ~ rormr~: ec:.:1.;~::. 2 .aa..'11,l'&,a t1.a 1 1.mr1a t11, ..

PAGE 11

. ...... 19611, CAL BIGI IllG BDUOA!IOI 8 1a,1ona acl prepalng tb t1na1 Nport ader the au,enlaloa ot '1le foN 'I'll report a1lbld.ttecl 1 IN\IP Npon. After the aublllaaton ot ~ "'" a oOllpNheneln vr1tten ezwnat1on oonrlq tlleo.,, oaloula\1ona 1 .c1 otbsr 1tw 1a taken by 'bera ot '1'l aqucl. r. ftalut1on or '1'le Studentaa the aquacl toN a 1a N ponaS.~1 tor an blaaed oontlclentlal NpOl't of eaob 1qucl M ber. thll lnol~ a NpOPt on the tollovinga Cooperation and tea work., teohnloal abllltJ, lnl\latlft 1 llallual ak111, att1tude 1 energ (1noludea "1014 brloklng" ladependeD\ thlnk lng, and bow lftoh detailed aupen1a1on wa1 NqulNd). In moat oaaea the foremen reporta &Pe good, and ln tew the eyaluatlona aN taken ~um aal11 gran11." The 1natruotore 1n the oourae alao aublllt a Pating lheet or eaoh ber of the aquada. The torm 11 g1Yen 1n Appendix Ill or th1a paper. ratlnga are diaouaaed at weekl7 atatr aeetinga. At th encl or the teN 1 a oon1p11at1on 11 wade of these Nporta. The Obalnan ot the Departnt ) then dlaouaaea theae report with the atudent at the beginning or the Autumn Quarter, P1fth Year. The 1tudent1, a1 a whole, nloomt \ht oont1, Moat of the atudenta t17 to oorreot their weak po1ntaJ ln a few 101M tblnk that enr7body 1a out ot atep except them. g. Reg!5,N enta of the cour Eaoh aquad la required to complete the work listed below. Each problem 11 weigbted depending upon the time required to oomplete the problem. Problem Bo. 0 Deaorlptlon I I I Point, lZ 1M 2M lT lE 1K 4B SB lB lP 3P 1-S 2S Chemical Engineering Safety Shop Work, Maintenance an4 Repair of Equipment, and the ot Tool1. Pinal Olean Up Ga Chromatography, Speotrophototl'J', ASTM Anal71l1 Triple Effect ETaporator Bum1difloat1on, Water C~oling, and Debum1dlt1oat1on Pertormanoe Charaoter1atlo1 of 3Plate, 18-inoh d1uatr Gla11 Wall D1at1llat1on Col,imn. Continuoua D1at1llat1on, 3Slate, 8noh diameter Column Abaorpt1on, 3" x 36" Glaaa Wall Ra1ohlng Ring Tower Constant Preaaure Batoh Filtration Oont1nuoua Vacuum 11ltrat1on 6 e 4 12 20 16 16 20 16 8 8 10 lD lAB L1qu1d-L1qu1d Extraotlon, 6-1nch dSm~ter Spray Column, 6 feet h1gn. LlquidLiquJ.d Extraction, 2nob Pul e Co~ 1 amn Drying Beat Tranarer and Fluid Plow, Heating and Cooling in Single, Double, and Pour Paa, Multi-Tube Beat Exchanger 8 16 7B 2M Performance Charaoter1at101 ot a CrollRJnold PourSta1 IYaotor and ~Oh111Yaotor" Beat Tranater, Multi-Tube Conden1er Pinal Clean Up at the End or the Quarter 16 16 16 4 h. The Unit Operat1~q L~b~rator7i In the Appendix are photograph ot 1tu dents 411111&ntllng and moving equipment trom th old building and ereotlng 1t in the new building. Eat1matea were obtained trom oompan1 oonoel'Dlns the ooat ot doing tbia. The loweat t1mat wa1 t100,ooo. W used th11 money to puroh&ae new re1earoh equipment and save the Cla11 or 1960, 1200,000 worth ot ezperienoe. Thl1 work wa1 done dvlng the la1t two week ot the tlrat tel'lll ot the Suawer Qual'ter. Thi monumental ta k waa done without a 1lngle aoo1dent. we that th11 t7pe or work, lt not oarr1ed to extreme 11 an 1ntepal part or the training ot the Cheml oal Engineer. j

PAGE 12

I : OBfi!Ml.(JAL El'GllEER!lfG EDUCATION I June 1964 !f:. CBRMJ,~.AL EIGIBkfiRillG PROCESS DEVE~PMEBT AlfD DESIO!f COURSES . by Charles E. Dryden ~he oov ea ot tb1a group are 11uuma41'1.zed 1D the tolloving table. 'fABLE 1 arter and Year, Course Credit u'lber and 'fl tle Hours li'ALL 0 QtJARTEB Sm '!EAR Ch.E. 760 Chem. Engr. Economy 3 Ch.E. 761 Chem. Engr. Processes 3 WIRTER QUARTER .$TH YEAR a Ch.E. 770 Chem. Engr. process Development Ch.E. 790 AIChE Student Contest Problem and Systems Analysis SfR,INq QUARTER STH '!EAR Ch.E. 772 Chem. Engr. Process Design Engr. Draw. 7SS Plant Design Ch.E. 791 Special project Prob lems Investigations 4 2 3 3 s Lecture Bra/Wk 2 2 2 after 30 day perio l 1 Chemical Engineering Pr~cess ~velopment and Design Courses Laboratory Hrs/Wk 2 (computatl,n) 2 ( 2$% on plant trips) 2 (SO% experi mental) I 00 hrs over 30 day period 6 6 S (0-90% experi mental) A major portion or the fifth year of the undergraduate B.S. degree program in chemical engineering is devoted to courses which utilize a great deal or previous knowledge~ The case study method is used and students are contronted with situ ations never aeen or studied before. They are required to solve problems on a pro fessional basis. T:Q.ia philosophy is in accordance with the Grinter report(}) which stated on page lS: "The capacity to design includes more than mere te~hn1 cal competence. It involves a w1111ngneaa to attack a situation never aeen pr studied before and tor which data are often incomplete: it also includes an accept ance of full reaponaib111ty tor solving the problem on a professional basis." The course sequence in the fifth year to accomplish the above aims is shown in Table 1. During the Fall Quarter, Chemical Engineering Economy, Ch.E. 760, 1a taught concurrently with a comprehensive survey or the chemical process induatriea ch.E. 761. The laboratory work in Chemical Engineering Econom,' consists or several economic analysis problems, whereas in technology about 2.5% of labor 1 atory time is spent in plant v1s1ts and the balance in library research and report ing. In the Winter Quarter, the process development course, Ch.E. 770, 1a taught on an inf'oraoal basis with the students given a typical chemical process study. The aequence includes library research, laboratory and pilot plant experimenta tion, preliminary process design and economic analysis. Several methods are 1 used, depending on the type of problems and size or class. The students work in groups ot 3-S on one or several related processes or as an entire group on one problem. In the latter case, an industrial research and development group 1a simulated with assignments rotated periodically throughout the quar~er. The latter method ~e velopa ~snagement and comm(mioations skills as well as technical specialization since it is impossible for each student in a large group to tollow completely the work of others 1n an over-all coordinated project. ~ I "Report on Evaluation of Engineering Education," Am. soc. tor ~ineering Education, L. E. Gr.inter, Committee Chairman, 111aued June lS, 19$5.

PAGE 13

June 1964 IG BDtJ'CA'?IO:I 10 '" Individual solution or the AICbB student Conteat ~roblem, Ch.B. 790, plus lectures on use ot computer in optimization 1tud1ea round out the Winter Quarter design sequence. The Spring Quarter completes the sequence with a procesa design oow1e, Oh.E. 772, on a new problem. Emphasis ls placed upon using baaio ohem1oal engi neering principle ot thermodYJ'amSoa, reaot1on k1netioa, heat and mas transfer, the unit operations, etc. tor optimization atudiea ot a proceaa deaign. Digital and analog computers are used aa an aid to tbe solution ot a relat1vel7 complex problem involving baaio engineering concepts and economioa.* The plant design course, Engineering Drav1ng 7$S, again using another new problem, coven plant layout and aux111a.r1ea design. S. SPECIAL PROJECT PROBLEM IBVESTIGATIORS The special project problem 11 uauall7 conducted aa an individual assignment to the student by one ot the proteaaora. The scope varies widely and may run trom a design project with little eaperimental work to the opposite extreme. The cri terion in eaoh case 1s to have the student aolve some challenging problem. THE ELECTIVE COURSES I1f CHEMICAL EBGINEERIHG NUCLEAR CHEMICAL ElrGlMEE.ttIWG COURSES by Charles E. Dryden The nuclear engineering degree is not granted at osu. Instead, a program or option can be taken in nuclear science and engineering with a major degree granted in the Departments or Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, or Mechanical En gineering. In chemical engineering, and graduate students. a 3-course minimum sequence ls available to seniors Course No. Physics 602 Chem.Engr. 76S Chem.Engr. 766 '1'1tle Modern Physics Introduction to Nuclear Engineering Nuclear Chemical Engineering or. Bra. s 3 4 Lecture HraLWk s 3 Lab. Bra/wk 3-S The introductory nuclear engineering course, Ch.E. 76S, coTers reactor theory, health physics, and shielding. The tollowing quarter, Ch.E. 766 11 devoted to fuel cycles, isotopes, radiation chemistry, and waste d1apo1al. The laboratory given in this quarter illustrates the elect1n material in both Chem. Engr. 76S and 766. A 11st ot typical experiments shows the breadth of coverage. 1. Nuclear Radiation Detection 2. Isotope Dilution Assay Methods J. Flux Distribution and Buckling in the SUbcritioal Reactor 4. Critical Reactor Experiment A 5. Critical Reactor Experiment B 6. Pulse Feed Extractor 7. Fluidized Bed Calciner 8. Ga1ma Radiation Experiment If a student, particularly a graduate student, wants turther work, he may take advanced level courses available in several department,. APPLIED ELEC'l'ROCHEMIS'l'RY b7 Aldrich S7Yeraon chemioal Engineering 763, Applied Eleotroohem1etrr, 1 a leoture-laboratOl'J' course and is an elect1 ve in the curriculum. Thia laboratory meet, tor 4 houri Thia puagraph was Wl'1tten bJ Aldr1oh SJ"fron. "'

PAGE 14

11 r ., I O.IL BIGllBBRIKG BDO~A!IOS .rune 1964, per week ad 1 operated ln oonJunotlon with the thol'J' and 2 bova ot leoh.N per week tor a total of 3 oreclli houra. !he objeot1Tea ot the laborato17 19rogr. are1 (1) to aoquint the atu4ent 111th lutrmiwnt ad tho41 of me11at tor eleotroob9111oa1 pb.enoaenaJ ( 2) to proy14e a better aderatanding ancl appreo1at10D tor the baalo theNOc1JDo pr1nc1ple underlJi.ng eleotroohemloal and (3) to pronde an opportunlt;7 tor 1n41Tl4ual eftort in the p'.lann1!\g anc1 euout1on o~ a ld.nor Naearoh problea 1a 1ome t1el4 ot eleotroohem1tl'J'. !he -Jor portion ot the laboratoP7 ettort 1 deyeted to the reaearob probl. Student work 1nd1Tl411all7 or 1n group of two or thNe. !he apeoitio problem be orlgS.Datecl b7 the atuclent or aeleotecl 1'l'OJI a llat of general The plan ot attaok 111W1t be orlglnatecl b'J' the at114ent with the approYal of the teaoh1ng atatt. Llterat'IIN aearoh, plannSq ancl euout1on ot the prograa and a final pNhenaiTe report are the eaaentlal NquiN111Bnta. Each student or group with a atatt member at lea t onoe eaoh week to review proP' and tol'lllUlate plaa t,r the ooming week. Where groups are 1nvo1Yed, reapona1bil1ty tor the program 11 rotated 10 that eaoh member 1erve1 as director tor a week. weekly progresa reports are aubar1 tted. !Jploal probleaa wS l!)b have been 1nTestlgated are: a polarograph1c method tor 07anSde ion anal7a1a, h,-drogen-oxygen tuel oell, k1netloe ot reaotlone ot aold on Mtala, and eleotro-orgenS~ reduotion prooeea. Although the laboratOl'J la 1oheduled tor a particular tour-hour period, denta are pel'llitted to oome ln at any time with the 1n1tructor approval. It~ t\ll'Ded out that any atudent1 han taken adYantage ot this and han tound that thia tlexlb111t7 ha pel'ld.tted them to undertake experimental progra a that could not be done ln a tour hour per week ba1l1. Emphas11 11 placed on 1nd1Yidual rea ponalbllltJJ the better 1tudent1 to welcome th11 opportmity.

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Introduction THE CHEMICAL EBGinEERIBG LABORATORY AT JOBBS BOPIURS UBIVERSI'l'Y by B. E. Hoelaher Johns Hopkins Univer11ty Laboratorie1, once thought to be neceaaary evils 1n the engineering ourrioulum, are now more often considered one of the exciting parts or the program, 1ndepent ent or the lecture courses. During recent years, there has been much diaouasion or the proper role tor the laboratol'Y in the program. The obfeotivea and tbe relative merits or various mechanical details ot laboratory organization and operation have been discussed moat intenaively. There are three extreme positions which one might adopt with respect to tbe goals and objectives of an underg rtiduate laboratory in Chemical Engineering. These are: 1. That the laboratory should be an adjunct to a lecture course and should serve aa a forum for illustration or pr1nc1plea d1scu11ed and presented during the lectureJ 2. That during the laboratory course, the student should be given aome"teeling" tor research and development techniques in engineering; 3. That the laboratory is best concerned with training students in the oper ation of equipment which he will be expected to operate or whose operation he will be expected to supervise later in his career. In practice, these are not three separable ideas. Any laboratory course will inevitably involve some ot each for almost every student. However, the attitude or the professor 1n charge or the course will influence the relative emphasis placed on each, the orientation or the course work, the experiments, and, hence, will largely determine the type or experience provided to the student and the ideas and talents gained from the program. During the last decade the laboratory has developed largely aa a separate and independent part ot the curriculum and not as an adjunct to a lecture course. Thia 1a quite a ditterent role tor the laboratory from that in earlier engineer ing programs. While some laboratories must still serve as supports tor lecture courses, there is ample need tor those which operate completely independent or any one lecture course and draw on material from all. In these, the student may take a more active than a passive role. Any attempt to use the laboratory aa a means tor training students 1n the operation or equipment can only be partially suocesstul. Further it is difficult to justify such a training rather than educational funotion in a university. Since the time available tor laboratory 1natruct1on is so limited, it 11 not possible to include more than a small traction or the total possible items or equipment which are important in the chemical industries. Hence it seems mor~ reasonable to consider that the education of student in research techniques in the broadest aense, that la, in methods tor extracting information or ot learning trom physical systems to be the goal or this oourae. Such a goal 1 capable ot realization in some meaaure. Within broad limits, the exact experiment which the student 11 assigned in the laboratory is less important than the ~ype or assignment which he is given. The atudent may learn how to approach a problem in the physical sense from virtually any ot the classical ,m1t operations experiment or trom any ot the engineering science experiments in the transport prooeaaea. Thus the details ot the labor atory operation and the relationship between student and instructor are important. some ot the questions ot importance in the ope ration ot the laboratOl'J' are the tollowing: 1. Whether students should work in teams or be assigned to experiment on an ind1Tidual baaiaJ 2. Whether students ahould be expected to do substantial amo\Dltl at 1et-up or maintenance on the equipment or whether they should approaoh an apparatus which ia tunotioning correctly and 11 1n exoellent repairJ 3. Whether detailed 1nstruct1ona should be giTen to the studaat or only minimal information provided on the objeotivea ot their a111gnmentJ 4. Whether the equipment should, in general, be ot pilot plant 1oal or whether very small, benoh-aoale apparatu1 11 to be preferred. 12

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. 13 CBEMIOAL DGINRERIBG EDUCATIOB June 1964 !he aaaver1 to the1e queation1 will largely detel'Dline the type ot laboratoi-r oovae glnn Dd the nature or the experfac : afforded to the student. There 1a ot ~N, anqtb.er taotor the interest and competence or the professor in oharge ot the laboratoey. Thia 11 of overriding importance in the aucceea o~ the laboratory aa an educational experience. / There are any different answers to these questions reflected in laboratory programs throughout the United States, each et functioning with certain I advantages. The laboratory coUl'ae, like the lecture program, reflects the 1nteN,a and ph1loaoph1ea ot the atart. Such differences exist and should 9e cont1n~ed actively as a poeitive goo~ associated with our educational system rather than to be tolerated passively but auspiciously. However, ao long as we have the freedom to orient our programs along lines representing our own intere,a, it follows that we must be prepared to aaa\DDe the Naponaib1lity associated with this freedom, 1n this case, to communicate our ideaa and actiTitieato others in the profession. The purpose or this paper is to outline the system uaed in the undergraduate chemical engineering laborat~.ry at The Johna Hopkin University, to indicate some of the features which are belieyed to be moat attractive and to present some of the problems which exist. Th~ Labora~o17 Program at The Hopkins The chemical engineering laboratory in the undergraduate program at '!be Hopkins ia presented entirely lb the senior year. The first semester ia devoted to experiments in the engineering sciences and the second either to advanced experiments (or projects) or to experiments in the classical unit operations areas, depending on whether or not the student is going into graduate school + The tirat semester "engineering science" experiments are varied in nature; most or them have been developed around one or a combination or the transpor~ prooesaea. The type of experiments available are illustrated by the following partial listing: 1. Gas tlow through an orifice, venturi meter, and capillary meter measurement ot velocity profile; 2. Gas flow through a packed bed; 3 A Joule-Thompson experiment; 4. Liquid flow through a capilla191, variable head tank; S~ Gas tlow (pressure drop ve~sus velocity and bed height) in a fluidized l bed; 6. Pressure drop versus velocity and bed height in a liquid fluidized bed; 7. Velocity profiles in the working section of a well-designed wind t:urm~; measurement or the velocity decrement behind a rod oriented transverse 1 to the mean flowr use of hot wire apparatus; 8. Heat transfer to and within a packed bed; 9. Heat transfer from a metal rod heated on one end determination ot surface coefficients as a function of position; 10, Heat transfer to a stirred liquid; control or the temperature in the pot by an electronic control instrumentation; 11. Heat transfer to a thermocouple; errors in temperature measurement; 12. Heat transfer trom a heated cylinder oriented transverse to the mean tlbv in the wind tunnel; 13. Thermal diffusion in gases; 14. Masa transfer from the surface of a rod oriented tranaverae to the mean flow in the wind t,mnel; lS. Diffusion through agar-agar gel with and without an imposed elecirio field. Wherever possible, experiments are "rigged to inTolve more than one principle. For example, in the experiment listed as wo. 4, the fluid ia an oil which, on occasion in the past, baa been initially loaded with "Thixin" making it thixo t tropic. The advantage to the educational experience or the student is, I think, considerable. At the beginning of the second semester, the students are divided into tvo l group Those who do not plan to continue into a graduate program (or who will not be recomoended for graduate school) are requested to do experi~enta of the classical "unit opera tions" type. For this purpose we provide a quite standar1 aingle.-bubble-~ap plate ils.tlllation column, a. pac.ked distillation col 1nn, a atandard shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and other similar prosaic apparatus. We teel that tor such students, thia type of experience is moat deairable. For thoae students who are going into graduate school, either of two options 1 open. !hey may do a special pro3ect, perhaps in aaaoc1ation with the reaepoh

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June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION activities or one ot the members ot the start, or, it they so desire the ma elect to do several more adTanced engineering science experiments. A~ong {he 1 latter are kinetics experiments, development or new experiments in areas not :overed by the laboratory, experiments in instrumentation and control, etc. we b ope that this division ot effort will provide a laboratory experience which aan e made nearly optimum tor each student. Students are assigned individually to experiments during both semesters there 1s no formal "team system" involving a "group foreman". We recognize the ~rgument that students must learn to work in teams since that is the system used indust rially but we believe that the most satistactory educational experience is not achieved in this way. It 1s true that for very large classes and large student to-statf ratios, the team system could be the only practical way to operate. Hapily, the chemical engineering senior class at The Hopkins rarely eaceeds 10-12 students and the professor in charge of the laboratory is normally provided with a graduate assistant to help in the operation of the program. With such numbers, students may easily be handled individually throughout the program A technichian is provided in the laboratory to maintain equipment in a satis factory state of repair and operability. Students are expected to cope with routine maintenance problems as they arise during the laboratory period and to make such minor adjustments and corrections to equipment as may be required for their experiment. Major plumbing, electrical, and mechanical repairs and changes are normally provided, often under the supervision and direction of the student requesting the work. Instructions to the student are purposely kept minimal. An objective is always clearly stated but methods for achieving the objective or objectives are never suggested. The student is expected to decide on procedures which will permit him to obtain the necessary data, to derive or find in the literature the equations or relationships which will be useful in calculating the results which are wanted, and to report these in some meaningful way. Report forms are never prescribed, the1r format and length depend entirely on the nature and extent or the information which the student wishes to describe. The size~ the equipment to be used by the students in the undergraduate laboratory must be determined by the objectives set for the laboratory by the professor in charge. If the operational problems associated with the actual industrial type equipment are to be illustrated, then the laboratory equipment must be large and must possess many of the characteristics of the correspondin g industrial-scale items. However, the amount or material required for the operation of such large scale equipment, the time required for equilibration, the difficulties encountered by the students in unaeratanding the principles of operation when faced with the complexities of manipulation, tend to militate against such large scale apparatus and dictate the use of smaller scale items Intermediate sized equipment possesses neither the characteristics of the large scale pilot or plant scale items which can be justified in terms of operational training nor does it provide the opportunity for learning and under standing basic principles provided by the very small scale units. Beno~ we ,~se small scale equipment, equipment operable by one man, which can be equilibrated in periods of less than one hour. The student is expected to study the principles involved rather than the mechanical details. One further problem associated with the laboratory arises from the difference between laboratory and lecture courses. Unless the group is very large, the professor in charge of a class can almost continuou~ly monitor the comprehension and receptiveness of the students. There is continual feedback from the student to the professor and those students who are confused by some facet of the work may so indicate immediately and the source of confusion can be discussed at that moment. Further,from quizzes and tests, the professor discovers those areas where comprehension is lacking, where more work must be done, or where he is failing to communicate effectively. Such information feedback is an important, although almost automatic and perhaps unconscious part, of any classroom structure. While similar channels for information feedback do exist in laboratory courses, the impedance to information flow is very much greater. As a result, the professor cannot appraise the comprehension, contribution, and activities of any single student in the laboratory nearly as well. Grades 1n the laboratory are usually based on attendance, on report grades(usually from the graduate assiatant)t and on a final exam1nation which may have little to do with the work actually aone by

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) lS CHEMICAL EIGINEERIIG EDUCATION the student during the year. A poaaible system tor improving the tlow or 1ntor ation trom th atudent to the professor in charge or the laboratory inYolvea enliat1ng the aid ot the other members on the 1tatf. that eaoh member of the atatt, except the professor in charge or the laboratory,alat with the members or the laboratory claaa individually tor d1acuaa1on ot a problem(or aeveral problems as the ca e may be) which the stuaent haa completed in the laboratory. The student would be expected to explain what hia problem waa, the work he(or his group) did, the conclua1ona reached, and the aigniticance thereof. The proreaaor could, by careful questioning determine ~he extent to whioh the 1tudent understands the work, its significance, and even ~he extent to which the student waa responsible tor the aucceaa or failure or the experiment. Thia system would have the educationally salubrious effect or forcing the student to report to someone qualified to judge but not directly familiar with the assigned task. The proteasor in charge of the laboratory would then receive report trom the rest or the atarr on each ot the students. Thia report could be in the form ot a grade baaed, tor example, in equal parts on presentation by the student, compre henaion of the Ork by the student 1 and the quality or the work actually done. Such a system ia planned tor the 1962-1963 academic year in the chemical engin eering laboratory here at Hopkins. Such a system does not result in a aerioua drain on the time or energy or the start. With a student body of, tor example, 30, each assigned to ten experiments during the semester, and a start of five in addition to the professor 1n charge of the laboratory. thi~ would necessitate four staff/student conferenoea or thia sort per week per man. Since a half-hour is surely enough for such a discussion, this does not aeem to be an excessive additional load. The gain to the program could be quite considerable. Summm In summary, the laboratory during the senior year in the undergraduate chemical engineering program at the Hopkins is thought to be one of the moat 1mportant 1 parts of the program. The course provides an opportunity for students to exper ience the problems encountered when information must be extracted from a port i on or the physical world about us. They are required to obtain certain informat i on from an exist1 ng piece or apparatus, information which must then be used in sane meaningful way either as a source of new knowledge or a means of relating the behavior of one system to that or others. The laboratory 1s thought to be an educational experience and not part of the student 1 s training in some topic or topics of "practical" significance. students are assigned to work and are e~amined individually. Staff are expected to teach 1 not just to supervise, students in the laboratory. Whenever necessrry, the proteaaor 1n charge or the laboratory calls upon the entire staff for ass st ance in the program, for all have an interest in its success. I

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A LABORATORY COURSE IB TRABSPORT PHEBOMEHA by B. J. Croab7 Un1vera1ty ot Wiaoonain When the Daepartment of Chemical Engineering at the University or Wiecone1n deo14ed to introduce a lecture course on Transport Phenomena into its undergradu ate curr~culvm, it vaa alao decided to establish a concomitant laboratory oourae. It waa tel~ that 1natruct1on in Transport Phenomena would be moat effectiye when the lect\tl'e vaa supplemented with laboratory work. '!his new laboratory course replaced a course in Technical Analysis which has outlived its usefulness in the modern ohemi.cal engineering curriculum. The following discussion reviews the baaic phil6aophy behind this course, the general principles which are demonstrated by experimentation, those experiments which are now in use along with contemplated new exper1menta, and the results or one yearta experience in teaching this course. G AL PHILOSOPHY The main objectivof this course are to demonstrate some physical aapeota or the subject matter covered by a course in Transport Phenomena, to demonstrate certain properties of matter which are encountered with a course in llaterial and Energy Balances, and to enlarge on the classroom d1acuaa1ona wherever desirable. A this ij the first engineering laboratory taken by students studying chemical engineering, the aims of the course are somewhat broader than the above objectives would indicate. In general, these aims are: l. To illustrate the theoretical principles presented in the aforementioned courses. Major emphasis is placed on the testing and application or the theor etical relationships used to describe the system under study, rather than the development of these relati9nships. The latter, however, 11 not neglected. 2. To illustrate and test the effectiveness of various experimental measuring techniques. These techniques are subjected to either detailed or approximate theoretical analysis wlienever such is warrented. J. To teach the student how to handle and interpret experimental data of the quality usually encountered by engineers. These data are usually not aa exact as those obtained 1n laboratories connected wi tb courses in chemistry and phyaica. 4. To develop the student s ability to observe and reason, ,arti cularly vi th reference to the extension or basic theory to practical problems and the use of simple models to describe complex systems. 5. To give the student practice i ~ organizin g and presenting hie results effectively. No effort is made to teach creativity per ee in this labora t ory. There i s not enough time available for such instruction even if this were the only aim of the course. At this stage of the studenta educa t ion the course aims listed above are felt to be of more importance. To include or illustrate every aspect of the basic principles in Transport Phenomena is obviously not possible in a single laboratory course. However, the course described here provides a good introduction. Both s teady-state and unsteady state operations are studied; all three states of matter are encol.mtered; situat ions involving both laminar and turbulent fluid flow are investigated. PRINCIPLES DEMONSTRATED The key to Transport Phenomena is the equations or ch ang e. These equations contain thermodynamic properties of matter such a s d e n s i\y ana heat capac ity an d transport properties such as viscosity, thermal con d u ct iv i ty an d d if f us i vity. With the aid of these equations it is possible to d et ermin e th e v e locity, t emper ature and concentration profiles in a system; to obtain dimensionless correlations tor the coefficients of 1 interphase transport(friction factor, heat-transfer coef!'ic ient and mass-transfer coefficient); and to develop the macroscopic(over-all) balances for mass, energy and momentum. The experiments in this course deal with measurements or certain thermodynamic properties, the three main transport properties, the three types of profiles, the three transfer coefficients, and certain applications of the macroscopic balances. The organization of these experiments ia shown in table 1. Exp,riments in Groups A and B ere covered before those in Groupe 1 through 12, and the experiments in Groups 1 through 12 can be followed either by row or collumn without losing continuity in the subject matter. In the course described here, the experiments are taken up by column as this is the order in which the subject matter is covered in the lecture. 16

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17 EXPERil'IERr S CHEMICAL DGIIEERING EDUCATIOI June 1964 the In designing the experiments tor this laboratory, it vaa attempted to aatisfy following basic requirements: 1. The experiments muat be simple to understand. The main points muat be extremely clear, both theoretically and experimentally. 2. The experiment must be eaay and qck to perform. The time required tor obaenation and calculations should not exceed one laboratory period. ). Analytical procedures and instrumentation must be as simple as possible so as not to distract trom the main purpose of' the experiment. 4. The process 1mder study should be such that it can be described mathematically in some detail. r ~Thoae experiments which have been developed and are in use are listed tn Teble 2. A complete description of' these experiments can be found elawhere i) The ~e~1menta iii Groups l through 8 are similar to those which are in u e ip many "unit operation laboratories. One aspect of these experiments which ma y be.or special interest la the portability or the equipment. In Figures 1 2 a 4 and 5 are shown equipment from experiments in Groups 2,3,5,6 and 7. The ment 1a either easily disassembled or readily removable from the laboratory as a ,mit. The experiments which are not common to undergraduate chemical engineering laboratories are those dealing with mass transfer, Groups 9 through 11. Por the measurement of binary diffuaivitiea it has been found that a dif usion cell similar to that used first by Loschmidt gives excellent results. Figure 6a shows the construction details of this diffusion cell and also shows the proper location of the two gas chambers when the cell 1a being loaded or flushed out. Figure 6b shows an actual cell under operation with the two gas chambers located so as to allow eguimola~ counterdiffuaion to occur. To make the analysis scheme aa simple as possible, one of the two gases used in this exper iment is always carbon dioxide. After the diffusion process is s~opped, the total amount of carbon dioxide in each gas chamber is analyzed by flushing the gases in each chamber through previously weighed drying-tubes containing "Ascarite" This analysis scheme gives material balances consistent within 3 percent and the measured diffusivities agree with accepted values within t 6 percent. It has been found that concentration profiles in a stagnant gas film can be measured synthetically generating a very thick film which can be divided into sections for analysis. The construction details for such a piece or equipment are shown in Figure 7a. One of the two chemical species in the film is a gas and the other is a condensable vapor whose source is the liquid reservoir at the base of the film. The film is sectioned off by rotating alternate sections of the eq~p ment as indicated. Figure 7b shows an actual unit in operation. The average cqnc entrations of the gases in each section of the equipment are determined by flush ing the contents of each section through miniature, pre-weighed cold traps. The vapor component is thus condensed out and its mass is readily determined. The concentrations are then easily calculated with a knowledge of the dimensions of or each of the aectlons in the equipment. This analytical procedure will give good results if done with proper care. The measure profiles agree excellentlYi with the theoretically predicted profiles. Mass-transfer coefficients are readily measured by means of wetted-wall columea. The construction details for the wetted-wall col 11mne in present use are shown in Figure 8a. Water and air are the two chemical species used in this experiment. A laboratory unit with two wetted-wall co1,1mr 1 tt of different diameters 11 shown in Figure 8b. A closed-circuit system for the water allova for a simple measurement of the rate of mass transfer. Besides those experiments which are now in use, others are being planned. some of the new experiments which are etth,r being contemplated or being devel oped are listed in Table J. CLASS SCHEDULE The laboratory amounts to one four-hour session per week. A review or the theory ana a diacuaaion or the experimental procedure is covered in a one-hour recitation and quiz period preceding the laboratory proper. The require ~xpr imental work and oaloulationa are performed in the remaining three hour The ( 1) Experiments in Transport Pnemomena, by E. J. Crosby, John Wiley & Sona, Rev 1 York (1961).

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. June 1964 OhEMICAL DGlRBERiBG BDOCATIOB 18 perforaanoe ot the calculations under the upen1 1on of tbe 1utruotor ha proTen particularly advantageou to the student. Error are rea4117 t~m4 ad clar1ried and conid,rable time 1 aved. The tudent preaent the Naalt ot 'he experiment in the fol'II or a abort report oonaiating of an abtraot, a ummsry or reaulta, adiaouaaion and a list or aample calculat1ona. Only tu abatract and d1aouaa1on are prepared outside the olaa rooa. RESULTS Th1 laboratory baa been 1n operation a1noe SepteJlber 196i, and the exper !enta now 1n u e were teated tor one or two aelll8atera before the oovae 1Msan During thia period the aajor1t7 or the probl that have ari en 1n oonneotlon with the operation or the experimental equipment have been aoln4. However, a01U of the equipment la till being oditied to glye ON tleziblllty and better experimental reault Experlenoe to date indicate that the aiu or thi courae are tultilled. Prom the pedagogical viewpoint, the beat reaulta are obta1md when the tudent ia aimultaneoualy enrolled in the lecture oour e and laborato197 When both are taken together, the tudent progre1 in the tollovlng covae dealing with Tran1port (unit Operation 1 coulderabl7 aooelerated. In thoae llbr the laboratory baa been delayed until atter the leotUl'e oourae, progrea in the upit operation coarae la owewhat lover. Of partlolllar benefit to the atudent are the numerical evaluation carried out in the laboratoey in oomeotion with tbeortioal work talmn up in the lecture. & llUllber or college and unlveraltie are nov preparing to otter a a1 ,1ar laboratory course in connection with a lecture oov in !ruaport Phenwna. the choice or qualitied iuatruotor tor such a prog~a 1 v'J!'J 1 portant. The labor atoey inatructor1 mut be aa well qual1t1e4 tho e vho leoture. Thi tlnal point (\ nn~t be e phaa1Nd enough. TABLE l --ORGANIZATION OF EXPERIMENTS Matter Energy --~Thermodynamic ~eriment Experiment Properties Group A Group B Transport of Transport of Transport of Momentum Energy Mass Transport ~eriment ~ertment ~eriment Group 1 Group 5 Group 9 Properties Profiles Experiment Experiment Experiment Group 2 Gro~p 6 Group 10 Transport Experiment Experiment Experiment Group 11 Coefficients Group 3 Group 7 Experiment Experiment Macroscopic Experiment Balances Group 4 Group 8 Group 12

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Bzper1nt Grog o. A 1 2 6 I 9 10 11 12 &xprl ent Oro9 Bo. B l 2 3 4 f I 9 10 ii . !'ABLB 2 z-x,-ns x un Subjeot ot B9eri11ent Pnure-Volw-'fmpratUN BehaTlor ot Real V1ooa1tlea ot evtollian Llquida. Veloolt7 Protile ln Circular Tubea (turbulent tlow). Prlotion Paotora tor Plo~ in Circular hbea. Bttlwc tor a !ank with Exit Pipe. !ml'll&l OonduotlTlty ot ~ $olida (unateadyatate -thoct). temperature Protlle ln Long Roda. Beat !ranater Coettiolent1 in Clroular !ubea. Beatlng Llquida ln '1' ank: Storage. DlttualTity in (unateady-atate method). Coaoentratlon Profile in a Stagnant Pila. Ila 'lranater Coettlolent1 ln Circular Tube. Beating Value ot a Puel Gaa. TABLE 3 IEw BXPERIMElffS BEIO OOftBMPLA'l'ED Subject ot Bxperlmen~ Partial Molal Propertiea. Y1ooalty ot Propertl ot Bon-Bevtonlan Llqu14a. VeJooi ty Protllea ( lust nu tlow) Drag Coettiolenta ror Plow Around SubMrged Sphere ln Pipe Ploturea; Reaponce Charaeteriatio1 ot an Illpaot hbe. !henal Coaduot1T1~ in Solid and Pluida(ateady-atate -tbod). Teaperature Prot11 in Plowing Pluida. Beat-Tranater Coettlolent1 in Jacketed Kettl Operation ot Steam !urbineJ Operation ot Air Compre aora. DlttualTlty 1n O&aea (ateady-atate -thod). conoentration Profile 1n A Plowing Plul4. ter co,ttioient tqr Submerged Spher Seai-Batoh, 1 LiquldPh Reaotora ----.. .... -. .. ItEPEREICE 'l'O FIGURE BUMBERS F11JUN 110. la lb 2a 2b 3a 3b 4 4.b Sa Sb 6a 6b 7a 7b 8a 8b Figure No. in Laboratorz Manual 1 2.a:-1 2.a-3 J.a-1 3,a-2 5.a-5 5.a-6 6.a-1 6.a-2 7.a-1 7.a-2 9.a-1 9.a-2 10.al 10.a-2 11.a-1 11.a-3 1 Experiaent in Tran1por~ Phenomena, by E. J. Croby, John Wiler and Soni, Bev York, 1961

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.