Al CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
r _ _ THE AMERICAM SOCETTM FOR ENGINEERIUG EDUCATION
J une 1964
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
Chemical Engineering Division
American Society for Engineering Education
The Purpose of the Undergraduate Laboratory, The Approach
At The Ohio State University,
by Joseph H. Koffolt - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -.- ... . -
The Chemical Engineering Laboratory at The Johns
by H. E. Hoelscher - - - - - - - - -. - - - - - - - -. . - - - 12
A Laboratory Course in Transport Phenomena,
by E. J. Crosby - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- 16
Joseph J. Ma
J. B. West
Chemical Engineering Division
American Society for Engineering Education
irtin (Michigan) Chairms
t (Iowa State) Vice Ch
(Oklahoma State) Secrets
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION �, Journal of the Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education.
Published Quarterly, in March, June, September and December, by
Albert H. Cooper, Editor.
Publication Office: University of Connecticut
P.O. Box 445 Storrs, Connecticut
Subscription Price, $2.00 per year.
THE PURPOSE OF TEH UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY
THE APPROACH AT THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Joseph H. Koffolt, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Department
This paper gives the philosophy, objectives, and approach to undergraduate
chemical engineering laboratory work at Ohio State University.
The prerequisites of the undergraduate laboratory courses are the lecture-
recitation courses in chemistry, mathematics, physics, chemical engineering pro-
oesa principles and graphics, the transport properties, unit operations, chemical
engineering thermodynamics, kinetics, economy, and processes. The curriculum in
chemical engineering is given in Appendix I of this paper.
The curriculum ia five years plus one half quarter between the fourth and
fifth year. For the first two years all engineering students follow the curriou-
lum of the Pre-Engineering Division and then petition to be admitted to the Pro-
The Philosophy and Objectives of the Chemical Engineering Professional Program
1. What is Chemical Engineering?
Chemical Engineering is the application of the principles of the physical
sciences, together with principles of economics and human relations to fields that
pertain directly to processes and process equipment in which matter is treated to
effect a change in state, energy, content, or composition. These processes may
usually be involved into a coordinated series of unit physical operations and
The work of the chemical engineer is concerned primarily with research, de-
velopment, design, construction, sales, and production or operation of equipment
and plants in which these unit operations and processes are applied. Chemistry,
physics and mathematics are the underlying sciences of chemical engineering, and
economics is its guide in practice.
The six technical fundamentals areas (1) the material balance, (2) the energy
balance, (3) static chemical equilibria, (4) kinetics, (5) rates of transfer and
transformation of fluids, mass, and energy, and (6) the economic balance.
2. How the Philosophy and Objectives Are Met
The professional program is so designed to meet these objectives as follows:
(1) Maintaining its strong and traditional foundation of the basic science of
chemistry. The latter is so interwoven which results in a well-rounded and inte-
grated program. The science of chemistry is not static.
(2) Expansion of the work in mathematics to meet the challenge of the ad-
vances and newer techniques la the field of chemical engineering involving fluid,
heat and mass transport phenomena, kinetics, and sequences leading to unit oper-
ations and optimization of process and plant design; alse, all of these integrated
with computer work, a tool which is expanding at an exponential rate in the chemi-
(3) Increasing the emphasis on the basic fundamentals of chemical engineering
science so as to educate and instruct the students so well that they can tackle
totally new and different problems.
(4) Integrating mathematics, the basic and engineering sciences, and their
applications with laboratory work results in well-runded graduate chemical engi-
neers. Appreciation of applieatioen as a part of the program is necessary, also te
realize that theory is only a tool and not an end in itself.
(5) Providing sequences of work in the humanities, social and life seienees
develops the whole *Educated Man."
June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 2
II. TB EBNDoRGRADUATE LABORATORr COnBEsB
1. Required Courses
0ch.e 7014 - Ohomical gineering Inaetion Trip - 2 credit hours, 1 week taken
etwoen the inter snd Spring uar OPs, Peourth year. J. He. effolt,
l. R. 1ao0n1.
Ch.E. 740 - Chemical Engineering Prooess Control - 3 credit hours, 2 elass hours
an 4 nours or lab per week, Spring Quarter, fourth year. C. J.
oasakoplis, G. Wiloox.
Ch.M. 741 - Chemical Engineorin Operations Laboratoy - 8 credit hours, weeks,
b days per week, 0 hours per day, Sumer Quarter, fifth year, J. 1.
Koffolt, B. R. HBaring, G. Wilcox.
Ch.E. 770 - Chemical Engineering Proceas Development - 4 credit hours, 12 lab
hours per week, Winter Quarter, fifth year. C. B. Dryden, T. E.
Corrigan, G. Wilcox, E. R. Haoring.
Ch.E. 772 - Chemical Preoeas Design - 3 credit hours, 9 lab hours per week, Spring
Quarter, fifth year. A. Syverson, B. R. Haering, G. Wilcox
Ch.E. 791 - Special Project Problem Investigations - 5 credit hours, 15 lab hours
per week, Spring Quarter, fifth year. The Staff.
2. Elective Laboratory Couraes
Ch.E. 693 - Problems in Chemical Engineering Operations - 2 to 6 credit hours,
(course may be repeated), 6 to 18 lab hours per week, all quarters,
fifth year. J. B. Koffolt, E. R. Haering, Go. Wilcox.
Ch.E. 763 - Applied Electrochemistry - 3 credit hours, 2 lectures and 4 hours of
lab per week, Autumn Quarter, fourth or fifth year. A. Syverson, E.R.
Ch.E. 766 - Nuclear Chemical Engineering - 4 credit hours, 3 class hours and 3
hours of lab per week, Spring Quarter, fifth year. C. E. Dryden.
3. Elective Laboratory Courses in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum Engineering is administered by the Chemical Engineering Department.
The curriculum and degree will be dropped effective the end of the Sumer Quarter,
August 24, 1962. However, by eleotiveu a student may take a program in petroleum
production. This is also true of Nuclear Chemical Engineering. In both programs,
the student receives a B.Ch.E. degree as he completes the Chemical Engineering cur-
riculum. The elective courses in Petroleum Engineering laboratory are:
P.E. 713 - Drilling Fluids - 3 credit hours, 1 class hour, and 6 hours of labora-
tory per week, Winter Quarter, fourth year. B. C. Slider, E. Shepherd.
P.E. 723 - Physical Analysis of Petroleum Reservoirs - 2 credit hours, 1 class
hour and 4 hours of laboratory per week, Winter Quarter, fifth year.
H. C. Slider, K. Shepherd.
P.E. 736 - Reservoir Engineering - Fluid Flow - 3 credit hours, 2 class hours, 3
laboratory hours per week, Winter Quarter, fifth year. H. C. Slider.
These courses with the exception of the courses in Petroleum Engineering will
be discussed in detail in the paper.
III. THE SAFETY PROGRAM OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Safety consciousness in Chemical Engineering laboratory work at Ohio State
goes back to 1906 when Dr. James R. Withrow, the first Chairman of the Department
took charge. In 1946, when the College of Engineering adopted the five-year pre-
gram, a lecture-recitation course in Safety was put into the curriculum. We re-
ceived many bouquets concerning the introduction of this course in our curriculum.
The comments of the students were good, bad, and indifferent. It was quite common
to hear a group of students say "We will now be safety conscious for the next fifty
It was the unanimous opinion of the staff that, although the objectives of
such a course was ideologic and altruistic, in the final analysis it preached but
did not practice safety. It produced various grades of safety-minded chemical en-
gineering students from "A" to "D" grade. As a result, this course was dropped
from the curriculum in 1952. In its place, safety was integrated in all courses
possible, and especially in the laboratory courses. Safety is practiced at all
times in the uait operations, instrumentation, process development, project prob-
1e, and the nuclear laboratory courses.
CHE1CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
1. Organisation of the Safety Program in the Chemical Englneering Laberatertes
The students are given their first intensive work in safety the first day of
the Chemical Engineering operations laboratory which is given during the Summer
Quarter between the fourth and fifth years. By emphasizing safety and maintaining
good safety practices from the very beginning of the laboratory work, the studiE
as well as staff members will be so instilled with the sense of "Safety Conscioua-
ness" that it will Oarry Over into their laboratory courses at the University end
eventually into industry.
The safety program may be beat described by giving a few details.
FIRST DATY OF UNIT OPERATIONS LABORATORY - MONDAY.
7ME 18. 1962
8:00 a.m. - Class Organisation and details of the Unit Operations course.
9:00 a.m. - Safety in the Chemical Engineering Laboratories. The Safety Manual.
to Each student is given a copy of the safety manual, a pair of safety
11:00 a.m. glasses and a hard hat. The latter is returned at the end of the
course. The safety glasses are charged to the student. Those stu-
dents who already wear glasses may obtain prescription safety glasses
from our Department of Optometry at a reduced price.
The Safety Manual covers many items concerning safe practices in the labora-
tory, handling neat5als, toxicity, gas masks, ladders, organization of the safety
committee, etc. The following are some of the details contained in the Safety
1. Safety glasses shall be worn in all laboratories and shops that are in oper-
2. Hard hats shall be worn In the Unit Operations Laboratory when this laboratory
is in operation.
3. Under no circumstances shall Bermuda shorts be worn while working in a labora-
4. If you receive an injury, no matter how slight, report it at once to your in-
structor, and if he is not available, to the Departmental office. There will
always be someone available to get you to the University Health Center or to
the hospital, if necessary.
5. Do not work after hours unless you have a permit from the office of Special
Services. This requires that a card requesting such a permit be granted by
the Chairman of the Department. Working after 5:00 p.m. on Saturdays and all
day Sunday is prohibited except in case of an emergency. Working after hours
in laboratories and shops is prohibited unless someone else is present within
6. Housekeeping - Good housekeeping shall be maintained at all times. Quoting
from item Unit Operations Laboratory Course Organisation 15-k-Duties of Squad
Foreman," good housekeeping shall be maintained at all times. This is the
most important duty of the squad foreman. He will detail members of his squad
to assure (by use of mop, broom, hose, and other "diver" means) that untidy
working conditions such as precipitates from filter presses, oil from steam
pumps on evaporator, dust from the crushers and grinders, and water and sol-
Tents on the floor from laboratory problems on distillation, heat transfer,
evaporation, fluid flow, furnacing, liquid-liquid extraction, humidifloation,
and electrolysis during the course of experimental work is cleaned up at all
times. Untidy working conditions during the course of an experimental test
run WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. Spillage must be cleaned up at once. Infraction
of this rue will result in stopping all work until the messs is cleaned up.
In many cases it will result in starting the particular 'test run" over again.
It is the responsibility of the rotating squad foreman to assign members of
his squad to maintain good housekeeping conditions at all times. As most of
the experimental work requires from 6 to 16 hours of time, he should plan his
schedule so that every member of his squad is responsible for good housekeeping
and knows how to handle the "mop" and "broom". The rotating foreman shall not
handle the mop or broom. The rotating foreman is the "boss man". He does not
work, he supervises."
11:00 a.m. - The class is organized in squads of four each. This organisation is
to kept for the duration of the course. Each squad under the supervision'
3:00 p.m, of an instructor spends one hour each on the item ga&ve below.
3:00 Pm- Ir
3 O 01mCAL WEGIMIRIWG DUaOATON
* la. pgis of Laboratories' location of all emergency utility
seat, various types of fire extingiisher, gas masks, fir
blanket , stretcher, motor valves for gas, air, water and steam.
2. Oas Masks and Respirators - A short lecture is given on these
item, their construction, and where they are to be used. Each
student is required to try the various types, and test them for
leaks, in order to familiarize themselves with the method and ad-
justment and use of the masks and respirators.
3. Explosion Meoter - A brief lecture is given on explosive limits,
what to do in case of spillage of inflamable solvents, and the
principle of construction and operation of the various typos of
explosion meters and other doteoting devices. Each student is
then required to operate these instruments with synthetic explo-
sive mixtures (In a quantity which will not cause damage).
3:00 p.m. - Fire Prevention and Demonstration - The Fire Marshall of the tilver-
to city explains the construction and use of various types of fire fight-
4:30 p.m. ing equipment, the various classes of fires and the types of ex-
tinguishers to be used. This is covered in detail in the Safety Manual
issued to the students.
The class then adjourns to a vacant lot on the University property
where the various classes of fire are demonstrated. The use of the
right and wrong types of extinguishers are demonstrated. Eaoh student
then operates the various types of extinguishers so that he will be
familiar with their operation.
2. The Departmental Safety Committees
There are three safety committees in the Department: (1) a General Safety
Committee consisting of senior staff members which formulates and establishes De-
partmental policy on all safety and potential hazards. This committee reviews the
reports of the Departmental safety committee who make bi-weekly inspections of all
laboratories and makes recommendations of action to be taken. Appendix II, Form I,
of this paper gives the form of the report used in the inspection of the labora-
tories; (2) Divisional Safety Committee consisting of senior staff members who are
responsible for housekeeping, and safety in the various laboratories; and (3) De-
partmental Safety Committee consisting of a senior staff member as Chairman and '
graduate students who make the bi-weekly inspection of all laboratories. The
roster of these committees are given in Appendix II, memoranda numbers 631 and 632.
Appendix II, Form #2 gives the form for accident, fire, explosion and damage to
IV. TEE DETAILS OF UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY COURSES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Ch.E. 7014 - Chemical Engineering Inspection Trip
All undergraduate students in Chemical Engineering are required to take one
week-long inspection trip between the Winter and Spring Quarters, preferably In
the fourth year.
These trips are intended to give to the chemical engineering student some
practical knowledge of the magnitude of modern chemical engineering industrial
operations from a selected variety of examples, and to give a practical opportu-
nity for acquaintance with the different branches of the profession of chemical
engineering in the proper prospective, and to furnish training in observation,
report writing, and discussion.
The plants visited alternate from year to year. The southern trip which is
given in the odd-numbered years include the following cities and plants:
Cincinnati, Ohio - Procter and Gamble Company
Belle, West Virginia - E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company
Industrial and Biochemicals Department
South Charleston, W. Va. - Union Carbide Chemicals Company and
Union Carbide Olefins Company
Parkerburg, W. Va. - E.I. duPont do Nemours and Company,
Willow Island, W. Va. - American Cyanamid Company, Organic
Pittsburgh, Penssylvania - United States Steel corporation
Kebuta, Pennasylvania - Koppers Compsny, Chemical Division
5 CHEMICAL EGINEERING EDUCATION June 1964
The norsthr trip which is given in the eve*a-utmbeed years lnolude the
following cities and plants;
Barberton, Ohio - Pittsburgh Plate Gleas Company,
Akr m, Ohio - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
Painsaville, Ohio - Industrial Rayon Company
Avon Lake, Ohio - The B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company
Toledo, Ohio - The Standard Oil Company (Ohio)
Midland, Michigan - Dow Chemical Company
- Dow Corning Corporation
Detroit, Michigan - The Ford Motor Company
- Parke-Davis Company
Wyandotte, Michigan - Penn-Salt Company,
Industrial Chemicals Division
One or two plants are visited per day.
Theae trips are highly organized. Safety is emphasized; all members of the
party are equipped with safety goggles and safety hard hata.
In Ch.E. 761-Chemlsal Engineering Processes include three or four plant in-
spection trips In the vicinity of Columbus such as the City of Columbus Water
Works; Mead Corporation in Chillicothe; Owens-Corning FPiberglas in Neward, Ohio;
Pure Oil Company, Heath Refinery In Newark, Ohio; American Zinc Oxide Company,
Columbus; and Capital City Products In Columbus, Ohio.
2. Chemical Process Control
C. J. Geankoplis
Ch.E. 740 - Chemieal Process Control, 2 class and I laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisite Ch.E. 720 - Chemical Engineering Operations.
This course is concerned with the study of the principles employed in the
measurement and control of the physical and chemical variables of chemical process.
applications to control of chemical processes, and applications concerned with the
process dynamics of chemical process and equipment.
The course is open to 4th year chemical engineering students who have had the
standard chemical engineering course In transport processes (heat, mass, and mo-
mentum transfer) and in unit operations applications. Differential equations and
partial differential equations mathematics courses are also prerequisites.
The following is a general outline of the lecture aectien of the course which
meets for 2 lectures a week for 10 weeks:
A. Survey of Need for Automation
B. Conoepta of Closed Loops, Feedback
2. Physical Measurements
D. Level. Miscellaneous
June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 6
3. Process Dynamics and tnsteady-State
A. Steady-State Transfer
B. Process Dynamics
a. Pirst Order Processes and Instruments, Time Consatants
b. Other Order Processes and Instruments
o. Dynamic Response to Step, Romp, Etc. Functions
d. Multiple Systems and Overall Responses
4. Control Theory
A. Types of Theory
5. Integration of Systems in Closed Loops
A. Theory of Analog Computer
B. Solution of Complete Closed Loop Systems
6. Specific Control Systems
A. Chemical Processes
The following is an outline of the various laboratory experiments performed
by the students. The basic philosophy and objectives are to perform a lab experi-
ment illustrating the theory discussed in the lectures during the same week:
Exp. 1. Study of Pressure Measuring Devices and Statistics of Repli-
cations in Experimental Measurements.
Exp. 2. Study of Pressure Measuring Devices and Statistics of Accuracy
Exp. 3. Dynamic Response and Process Dynamics in Temperature Controlled
Exp. 4. Flow and Liquid Level Measuring Devices
Exp. 5. Control Instruments and Optimum Control Settings in Process Dynamics
Exp. 6. Applications of Control to Distillation Tower and Dryer
Exp. 7. Study of Control and Process Dynamics of a Heat Transfer Process
by Simulation with an Analog Computer.
Exp. 8. Study of Control and Process Dynamics of a Batch-Stirred Reactor
with Heat Generation by Simulation with an Analog Computer.
In all of the above experiments the students are divided into groups of 2 or
3 for each set of equipment. The philosophy here is that in small groups each
student is able to actually get his own data. Each student analyzes his own ex-
perimental data in a short written report. The laboratory is coordinated very
closely with the lecture to give maximum learning efficiency and incentives to
the students. Usually one instructor for every 12 students is used in the lab to
provide maximum teaching effectiveness. It has been found that utilizing concrete
examples in the lab to illustrate theories discussed in the lecture provides good
incentives and stimulation for the students.
3. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OPERATIONS LABORATORY
A. Catalogue Description.
Ch.E. 741 - Chemical Engineering Operations Laboratory. Summer Quarter be-
tween fourth and fifth years. Laboratory 8 to 5, Monday to Saturday inclusive or
48 hours per week. First Term of Quarter or 5 weeks. Prerequisites Ch.E. 720 and
The fundamental laboratory course in the chemical engineering or unit oper-
ations. Laboratory investigation of the operating characteristics and efficiency
of chemical engineering equipment as distillation, drying, absorption, evaporation,
filtration, humidification, liquid-liquid extraction, etc.
B. Objectives of the Course
The work of this course is so designed to attain the following objectives:
a. To develop a sense of safety consciousness to ones fellow workers, to
oness self, to equipment, and one's institution or company. A University labora-
tory should be as safe as an industrial plant or laboratory.
b. As a corollary to "a." above to teach good chemical engineering house-
keeping. A *lean laboratory is a safe laboratory.
7 ODmCOAL BIonzeaIin =fo0ATION jMe l"
, to 4eVlop InitiatiMve, reouwefulMes, eand repselbilty.
4. to teah OrgaisatLon o sn eperimental program and the *tep* osteesary
to carry It to a *uoeetistl oQenlueOt.
e To eootldate the hand with the mind
Tme o develop a aeehell nd enaorinlg Soese of the eontrattea and
majnteamene of chemical engineering equipment.
to develop udgmeat In Interpreting nd r r latlng data, and from these
to be able to draw logical oeclustons and reasonable recoemandations,
h. To eorytallia the theory end caletulatons aInolved In the theoretical
and s lrolem work in the courses t ohemisal peroOee IrelBle e te hnomena ef
flut , heat and meas transport, th ia6dynait , and the uit epesateines.
i. to develop a better understanding of the potentialities A the 11Amt-
ations of the engineering sloinoe, mathematics, and other eieheea
* To demonstrate that to eePT a problem to a su*essful comploetIn requiree
tea work and full-herted cooperation.
k. To teach the prin les and organization of prefeat ional report writing
with emphasis on clarity And techniaoel data presentation,
1. To provide an opportunity toe student leaderMhip and evaluation of the
potentialities and lialtations of squad members.
a. To give a foundation forp the capstone ures in the fifth year sueh as
Chemicalol ngine*rlng EKonomy. Process Devlopment and Doelg .
C. Organisation of the Courses
a. Laboratory Saauadow .rouBsi Tho elams It broken us into groups of 4 or
s*o * arrangIngs t roupe thought is given to balnoing the *en
acoording to their scholae ec o I rds. W ash group to under the supO vrti .
of a squad foreman. Potwmanship is rotated among the mobers atf he % qai
and each man usually is foreman for at loast three problems.
b. Squad Porent Squad foremanship involve reepongtlflity. It is a ehal-
Tnge o "oneT ability of leadership. The sharacter tti l and abilities
shown by a good foreman are (1) to organis, (N) Initiative and ieeume-
fulnesm (3) to supervise without doing all of the work himeif, (4) to
obtain the cooperation of his group and coordinate the expetria t With the
Instructor in charge, (5) to Improviee when neMessary (6) to erey a plrbn
leo in the laboratory through to a Ouocestful Conoelusit, and () to �uper-
vie the writing of the written report.
0. Duties of the 8qua d PormeniL (1) to "aertSin from the eehedule of probe
lees the xao tiue for working on a particular problem in the laboratory,
(2) to study the inetruotieon, (3) to review the ulderlying theory and
equipment so as to be the -expert" on the problem, (4) to arrange for a
meeting of his squad several days beore taking the preliminary quii en
the problem, (5) to Aeesue leadership, emphasize the pertinent pont t of
the problem, egpeociall the principles of the opePratiO of the equipment,
and to make sure that the objeehtves of a problem are met.
d. Organisation of the Problems At a equad confoofone the complete detail
?ow running the experiment Are outlined. aseh problem is not the eleap-
out type but requires thought and judaent. At this cenferenee the group
under the eupeorviliooef te roeremn decides what maespurments ape te be
taken to meet the objeotivee of the problem and the final ruiaeu enats of
the report, the eaieulatlons that must be mad and what share are to be
submitted, the duties of the observers, and finally the leasA-up program.
All of these items must be entered in a bound notebook and net on leei.
sheets of paper.
After this oofeienf oee the group reports to the instructor i charge
of the problem for a prolisinary qeAi and approval f the plan of attaes
At this oonferonae wit the laNs tero the data that mlst be taken end the
plan of attack are finalized, Befor inelning the experimental work the
final data sheets ore drawn up in the lab atory notebeek, Appieval te pro.
esed with an expeiimant requires that the data sheet be eaoplet with the
e. Ldaboratery "Sed _Of Most of the problems ae ef sueh a length that they
" squFir AT IIIS u eof laboratory tim. Zn eases wher e *test rn
is ore than hours, two groups work on the problem. he sehedile is ae
zMl .s*2 atae ae*t KU'rson s.a ru a tI.at sh. rI a a.&I
Jne 194% CH CAL uu NGXZBRINGO DDOATzIO
latiesa d preparing the final report under the aupervision of the fore.
men. The report submitted Is a group report. After the subiesmion of the
report. a comprehensive written examination covering theory, sleulations,
amd other items Is taken by members of the squad.
f. Evaluation of the Student.s The squad foreman is responsible tfor an u
biased coufidential report of each squad member. This includes a report
on the following Cooperation and team work technictal ability, I ltativee
manual skill, attitude, energy includess "gold bricking", independent think-
ing, and how much detailed supervision was required).
In most caeoa the foremen.i reports are good, and In few oases the
evaluations are taken "cum salis grant."
The instructors In the course also submit a rating sheet of eash mem-
bar of the squads. The form in given In Appendix III of this paper. These
ratings are discussed at weekly staff meetings. At the end of the term,
a compilation is made of these reports. The Chairman of the Department
then disousses these reports with the student at the beginning of the
Autumn Quarter, Fifth Year. The students, as a whole, welcome the oosmentl.
Moat of the students try to correct their weak polntal in a few cases some
think that everybody is out of step except them.
g. Requirements of the Course: Each squad is required to complete the work
listed below. Each problem is weighted depending upon the time required
to complete the problem.
Problem Description Points
1Z Chemical Engineering Safety 8
I1 Shop Work, Maintenance and Repair of Equipment, and the Use of Tools. 8
2M Final Clean Up 4
1T Gas Chromatography, Spectrophotonetry, ASTM Analysis 12
IE Triple Effect Evaporator 20
1K Humidlftiatlon, Water Cooling, and Dehumidification 16
4B Performance Characteristics of 3-Plate, 18-inch diameter Glass Wall
Distillation Column. 16
5B Continuous Distillation, 35-rlate, 8-inoh diameter Column 20
IN Absorption, 3" x 36" Glass Wall Rasahing Ring Tower 16
1P Constant Pressure Batch Filtration 8
3P Continuous Vacuum Filtration 8
1- Liquid-Liquid Extraction, 6-inch diameter Spray Column, 6 feet high. 10
23 Liquid-Liquid Extraction, 2-inch Pulse Column 8
ID Drying 16
1AH Beat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Heating and Cooling in Single, Double,
and Four Pass Multi-Tube Heat Exchangers 16
2K Performance Characteristics of a Croll-Reynoldua Four-Stage Evaotor
and "Chillvaotor" 16
7H Heat Transfer, Multi-Tube Condenser 16
2M Final Clean Up at the End of the Quarter 4
h. The Unit Operations Laboratory: In the Appendix are photographs of stu-
dents dismantling and moving equipment from the old building and erecting
it in the new building. Estimates were obtained from several companies
concerning the cost of doing this. The lowest estimate was $100,000. We
used this money to purchase new research equipment and gave the Class of
1960, $200,000 worth of experience. This work was done during the last
two weeks of the first term of the Summer Quarter. This monumental task
was done without a single accident. We believe that this type of work, if
not carried to extremes, is an integral part of the training of the Chemi-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION June 1964
4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN COURSES
Charles E. Dryden
The courses of this group are summarized in the following table.
Quarter and Year, Course Credit Lecture Laboratory
number and Title Hours Hrs/Wk Bra/Wk
A. PALL QUARTER - STH YEAR
Ch.E. 760 - Chem. Engr. Economy 3 2 2 (computation)
Ch.E. 761 - Chem. Engr. Processes 3 2 2 (25% on plant
B. WINTER QUARTER - STH YEAR
Ch.E. 770 - Chem. Engr. Process 4 - 12 (50% experi-
Ch.E. 790 - AIChE Student Contest 2 2 after 30 00O bra over 30
Problem and Systems Analysis day period day period
C. SPRING QUARTER - 5TH YEAR
Ch.E. 772 - Chem. Engr. Process 3 1 6
Engr. Draw. 755 - Plant Design 3 1 6
Ch.E. 791 - Special Project Prob- 5 - (0-90% experi-
lems Investigations mental)
Chemical Engineering Process Development and Design Courses
A major portion of the fifth year of the undergraduate B.S. degree program in
chemical engineering is devoted to courses which utilize a great deal of previous
knowledge. The case study method is used and students are confronted with situ-
ations never seen or studied before. They are required to solve problems on a pro
feasional basis. This philosophy is in accordance with the Grinter report (1)
which stated on page 15: "The capacity to design includes more than mere techni-
cal competence. It involves a willingness to attack a situation never seen or
studied before and for which data are often incomplete; it also includes an accept
ance of full responsibility for solving the problem on a professional basis."
The course sequence in the fifth year to accomplish the above aims is shown
in Table 1.
During the Fall Quarter, Chemical Engineering Economy, Ch.E. 760, is taught
concurrently with a comprehensive survey of the chemical process industries,
Ch.E. 761. The laboratory work in Chemical Engineering Economy consists of
several economic analysis problems, whereas in technology about 25% of laboratory
time is spent in plant visits and the balance in library research and reporting.
In the Winter Quarter, the process development course, Ch.E. 770, is taught
on an informal basis with the students given a typical chemical process study.
The sequence includes library research, laboratory and pilot plant experimenta-
tion, preliminary process design and economic analysis. Several methods are used,
depending on the type of problems and size of class. The students work in groups
of 3-5 on one of several related processes or as an entire group on one problem.
In the latter case, an industrial research and development group Is simulated with
assignments rotated periodically throughout the quarter. The latter method de-
velops management and communications skills as well as technical specialization
since it is impossible for each student in a large group to follow completely the
work of others in an over-all coordinated project.
"Report on Evaluation of Engineering Education," Am. Soo. for Engineering
Education, L. E. Grinter, Committee Chairman, issued June 15, 1955.
June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 10
Individual solution of the AOChE Student Contest Problem, Ch.B. 790, plus
lectures on use of computers in optimization studies round out the Winter Quarter
The Spring Quarter completes the sequence with a process design course,
Ch.E. 772, on a new problem. Emphasis is placed upon using basic chemical engi-
neering principles of thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, heat and mass transfer,
the unit operations, oet. for optimization studies of a process design. Digital
and analog computers are used as an aid to the solution of a relatively complex
problem involving basic engineering concepts and economics.*
The plant design course, Engineering Drawing 755, again using another new
problem, covers plant layout and auxiliaries design.
5. SPECIAL PROJECT PROBLEM INVESTIGATIONS
The special project problem is usually conducted as an individual assignment
to the student by one of the professors. The scope varies widely and may run from
a design project with little experimental work to the opposite extreme. The cri-
terion In each case is to have the student solve some challenging problem.
THE ELECTIVE COURSES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
NUCLEAR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COURSES
Charles E. Dryden
The nuclear engineering degree is not granted at OSU. Instead, a program or
option can be taken In nuclear science and engineering with a major degree granted
in the Departments of Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, or Mechanical En-
In chemical engineering, a 3-course minimum sequence is available to seniors
and graduate students.
Course No. Title Cr. Era. Hra/Wk Hrs/Wk
Physics 602 Modern Physics 5 5 -
Chem.Engr. 765 Introduction to Nuclear 3 3 -
Chem.Engr. 766 Nuclear Chemical 4 3 3-5
The introductory nuclear engineering course, Ch.E. 765, covers reactor theory,
health physics, and shielding. The following quarter, Ch.E. 766 is devoted to fuel
cycles, isotopes, radiation chemistry, and waste disposal. The laboratory given in
this quarter illustrates the elective material in both Chem. Engr. 765 and 766. A
list of typical experiments shows the breadth of coverage.
1. Nuclear Radiation Detection
2. Isotope Dilution Assay Methods
3. Flux Distribution and Buckling in the Subcritioal Reactor
. Critical Reactor Experiment A
Critical Reactor Experiment B
6. Pulse Feed Extractor
7. Fluidized Bed Calciner
8. Gamma Radiation Experiment
If a student, particularly a graduate student, wants further work, he may take
advanced level courses available in several departments.
Chemical Engineering 763, Applied Electrochemistry, is a lecture-laboratory
course and Is an elective in the curriculum. This laboratory meets for 4 hours
a This paragraph was written by Aldrich Syverseon.
11 CBEBCAL sIG INsasG MDUOATION June 1964
per week and Is operated in conjunction with the theory and 2 hours of lecture
per week for a total of 3 credit hours. The objectives of the laboratory program
areas (1) to acquaint the student with instruments and methods of measurement for
electrochemical phenomenal (2) to provide a better understanding and appreciation
for the basio thermodynamic principles underlying electrochemical cells; and (3)
to provide an opportunity for individual effort in the planning and execution of
a ninor research problem in some field of eleotrochemistry.
The major portion of the laboratory effort is devoted to the research problem.
Students may work individually or in groups of two or three. The specific problem
may be originated by the student or selected from a light of general topics. The
plan of attack must be originated by the student with the approval of the teaching
staff. Literature searoh, planning and execution of the program and a final com-
prehensive report are the essential requirements. Baoh student or group meets with
a staff member at least once each week to review progress and formulate plans for
the coming week. Where groups are involved, responsibility for the program is
rotated so that each member serves as director for a week. Weekly progress reports
are submitted. Typical problems which have been investigated are: a polarographic
method for cyanide ion analysis, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, kinetics of reactions
of acid on metals, and electro-organico reduction process.
Although the laboratory is scheduled for a particular four-hour period, stu-
dents are permitted to come in at any time with the instructor's approval. It has
turned out that many students have taken advantage of this and have found that
this flexibility has permitted them to undertake experimental programs that could
not be done in a four hour per week basis. Emphasis is placed on individual res-
ponsibility; the better students seem to welcome this opportunity.
THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
AT JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
H. E. Hoeleher
Johns Hopkins University
Laboratories, once thought to be necessary evils in the engineering curriculum,
are now more often considered one of the exciting parts of the program, indepent-
ent of the lecture courses. During recent years, there has been much discussion
of the proper role for the laboratory in the program. The objectives and the
relative merits of various mechanical details of laboratory organization and
operation have been discussed most intensively.
There are three extreme positions which one might adopt with respect to the
goals and objectives of an undergraduate laboratory in Chemical Engineering.
1. That the laboratory should be an adjunct to a lecture course and should
serve as a forum for illustration of principles discussed and presented
during the lecture;
2. That during the laboratory course, the student should be given some"feeling"
for research and development techniques in engineering;
3. That the laboratory is best concerned with training students in the oper-
ation of equipment which he will be expected to operate or whose operation
he will be expected to supervise later in his career.
In practice, these are not three separable ideas. Any laboratory course will
inevitably involve some of each for almost every student. However, the attitude
of the professor in charge of the course will influence the relative emphasis
placed on each, the orientation of the course work, the experiments, and, hence,
will largely determine the type of experience provided to the student and the
ideas and talents gained from the program.
During the last decade the laboratory has developed largely as a separate and
independent part of the curriculum and not as an adjunct to a lecture course.
This is quite a different role for the laboratory from that in earlier engineer-
ing programs. While some laboratories must still serve as supports for lecture
courses, there is ample need for those which operate completely independent of
any one lecture course and draw on material from all. In these, the student may
take a more active than a passive role.
Any attempt to use the laboratory as a means for training students in the
operation of equipment can only be partially successful. Further it is difficult
to justify such a training rather than educational function in a university.
Since the time available for laboratory instruction is so limited, it is not
possible to include more than a small fraction of the total possible items of
equipment which are important in the chemical industries. Hence it seems more
reasonable to consider that the education of students in research techniques in
the broadest sense, that is, in methods for extracting information or of learning
from physical systems to be the goal of this course. Such a goal is capable of
realization in some measure.
Within broad limits, the exact experiment which the student is assigned in the
laboratory is less important than the type of assignment which he is given. The
student may learn how to approach a problem in the physical sense from virtually
any of the classical unit operations experiments or from any of the engineering-
science experiments in the transport processes. Thus the details of the labor-
atory operation and the relationship between student and instructor are important.
Some of the questions of importance in the operation of the laboratory are the
1. Whether students should work in teams or be assigned to experiments on an
2. Whether students should be expected to do substantial amounts of set-up or
maintenance on the equipment or whether they should approach an apparatus
which is functioning correctly and is in excellent repair;
3. Whether detailed instructions should be given to the student or only
minimal information provided on the objectives of their assignment;
4. Whether the equipment should, in general, be of pilot plant scale or
whether very small, bench-scale apparatus is to be preferred.
13 CHEMICAL ENGImEERING EDUCATION June 1964
The answers to these questions will largely determine the type of laboratory
course given and the nature of the experiunos afforded to the student. There is
of course, another factor - the interest and competence of the professor in
charge of the laboratory. This is of overriding importance in the success of the
laboratory as an educational experience.
There are many different answers to these questions reflected in laboratory
programs throughout the United States, each set functioning with certain
advantages. The laboratory course, like the lecture program, reflects the
intereth and philosophies of the staff. Such differences exist and should be
continued actively as a positive good associated with our educational system
rather than to be tolerated passively but suspiciously.
However, so long as we have the freedom to orient our programs along lines
representing our own interetb, it follows that we must be prepared to assume the
responsibility associated with this freedom, in this case, to communicate our
ideas and activities to others in the profession. The purpose of this paper is
to outline the system used in the undergraduate chemical engineering laboratory
at The Johns Hopkins University, to indicate some of the features which are
believed to be most attractive and to present some of the problems which exist.
The Laboratory Program at The Hopkins
The chemical engineering laboratory in the undergraduate program at the
Hopkins is presented entirely in the senior year. The first semester is devoted
to experiments in the engineering sciences and the second either to advanced
experiments (or projects) or to experiments in the classical unit operations
areas, depending on whether or not the student is going into graduate school.
The first semester "engineering science" experiments are varied in nature;
most of them have been developed around one or a combination of the transport
processes. The type of experiments available are illustrated by the following
1. Gas flow through an orifice, venturi meter, and capillary meter
measurement of velocity profile;
2. Gas flow through a packed bed;
3. A Joule-Thompson experiment;
4. Liquid flow through a capillary, variable head tank;
5. Gas flow (pressure drop versus velocity and bed height) in a fluidized bed;
6. Pressure drop versus velocity and bed height in a liquid fluidized bed;
7. Velocity profiles in the working section of a well-designed wind tunnel;
measurement of the velocity decrement behind a rod oriented transverse to
the mean flow; use of hot wire apparatus;
8. Heat transfer to and within a packed bed;
9. Heat transfer from a metal rod heated on one end - determination of
surface coefficients as a function of position;
10. Heat transfer to a stirred liquid; control of the temperature in the pot
by an electronic control instrumentation;
11. Heat transfer to a thermocouple; errors in temperature measurement;
12. Heat transfer from a heated cylinder oriented transverse to the mean flow
in the wind tunnel;
13. Thermal diffusion in gases;
14. Mass transfer from the surface of a rod oriented transverse to the mean
flow in the wind tunnel;
15. Diffusion through agar-agar gel with and without an imposed electric field.
Wherever possible, experiments are "rigged to involve more than one principle.
For example, in the experiment listed as No. 4, the fluid is an oil which, on
occasion in the past, has been initially loaded with "Thixin" making it thixo-
tropic. The advantage to the educational experience of the student is, I think,
At the beginning of the second semester, the students are divided into two
groups. Those who do not plan to continue into a graduate program (or who will
not be recommended for graduate school) are requested to do experiments of the
classical "unit operations" type. For this purpose we provide a quite standard
singla-bubble-cap plate distillation column, a packed distillation column, a
standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and other similar prosaic apparatus. We
feel that, for such students, this type of experience is most desirable.
For those students who are going into graduate school either of two options
is open. They may do a special project, perhaps in association with the research
June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 14
activities of one of the members of the staff, or, if they so desire, they may
elect to do several more advanced engineering science experiments. Among the
latter are kinetics experiments, development of new experiments in areas not
covered by the laboratory, experiments in instrumentation and control, etc. We
hope that this division of effort will provide a laboratory experiehee which san
be made nearly optimum for each student.
Students are assigned individually to experiments during both semesters, there
is no formal "team system" involving a "group foreman". We recognize the argument '
that students must learn to work in teams - since that is the system used indust-
rially - but we believe that the most satisfactory educational experience is not
achieved in this way. It is true that for very large classes and large student-
to-staff ratios, the team system could be the only practical way to operate.
Hapily, the chemical engineering senior class at The Hopkins rarely exceeds
-10-12 students and the professor in charge of the laboratory is normally provided
with a graduate assistant to help in the operation of the program. With such
numbers, students may easily be handled individually throughout the program.
A technician is provided in the laboratory to maintain equipment in a satis-
factory state of repair and operability. Students are expected to cope with
routine maintenance problems as they arise during the laboratory period and to
make such minor adjustments and corrections to equipment as may be required for
their experiment. Major plumbing, electrical, and mechanical repairs and changes
are normally provided, often under the supervision and direction of the student
requesting the work.
Instructions to the student are purposely kept minimal. An objective is always
clearly stated but methods for achieving the objective or objectives are never
suggested. The student is expected to decide on procedures which will permit
him to obtain the necessary data, to derive or find in the literature the
equations or relationships which will be useful in calculating the results which
are wanted, and to report these in some meaningful way. Report forms are never
prescribed, their format and length depend entirely on the nature and extent of
the information which the student wishes to describe.
The size of the equipment to be used by the students in the undergraduate
laboratory must be determined by the objectives set for the laboratory by the
professor in charge. If the operational problems associated with the actual
industrial type equipment are to be illustrated, then the laboratory equipment
must be large and must possess many of the characteristics of the corresponding
industrial-scale items. However, the amount of material required for the
operation of such large scale equipment, the time required for equilibration, the
difficulties encountered by the students in understanding the principles of
operation when faced with the complexities of manipulation, tend to militate
against such large scale apparatus and dictate the use of smaller scale items.
Intermediate sized equipment possesses neither the characteristics of the
large scale pilot or plant scale items which can be justified in terms of
operational training nor does it provide the opportunity for learning and under-
standing basic principles provided by the very small scale units. Hence, we use
small scale equipment, equipment operable by one man, which can be equilibrated
in periods of less than one hour. The student is expected to study the principles
involved rather than the mechanical details.
One further problem associated with the laboratory arises from the difference
between laboratory and lecture courses. Unless the group is very large, the
professor in charge of a class can almost continuously monitor the comprehension
and receptiveness of the students. There is continual feedback from the student
to the professor and those students who are confused by some facet of the work
may so indicate immediately and the source of confusion can be discussed at that
moment. Further, from quizzes and tests, the professor discovers those areas where
comprehension is lacking, where more work must be done, or where he is failing
to communicate effectively. Such information feedback is an important, although
almost automatic and perhaps unconscious part, of any classroom structure.
While similar channels for information feedback do exist in laboratory courses,
the impedance to information flow is very much greater. As a result, the professor
cannot appraise the comprehension, contribution, and activities of any single
student in the laboratory nearly as well. Grades in the laboratory are usually
based on attendance, on report grades(usually from the graduate assistant), and
on a final examination which may have little to do with the work actually done by
15 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION June 1964
the student during the year. A possible system for improving the flow of infor-
mation from the student to the professor in charge of the laboratory involves
enlisting the aid of the other members on the staff.
Assume that each member of the staff, except the professor in charge of the
laboratory, maets with the members of the laboratory class individually for
discussion of a problem(or several problems as the case may be) which the student
has completed in the laboratory. The student would be expected to explain what
his problem was, the work he(or his group) did, the conclusions reached, and the
significance thereof. The professor could, by careful questioning determine the
extent to which the student understands the work, its significance, and even the
extent to which the student was responsible for the success or failure of the
experiment. This system would have the educationally salubrious effect of forcing
the student to report to someone qualified to judge but not directly familiar
with the assigned task.
The professor in charge of the laboratory would then receive reports from the
rest of the staff on each of the students. This report could be in the form of a
grade based, for example, in equal parts on presentation by the student, compre-
hension of the work by the student, and the quality of the work actually done.
Such a system is planned for the 1962-1963 academic year in the chemical engin-
eering laboratory here at Hopkins.
Such a system does not result in a serious drain on the time or energy of the
staff. With a student body of, for example, 30, each assigned to ten experiments
during the semester, and a staff of five in addition to the professor in charge
of the laboratory, this would necessitate four staff/student conferences of this
sort per week per man. Since a half-hour is surely enough for such a discussion,
this does not seem to be an excessive additional load. The gain to the program
could be quite considerable.
In summary, the laboratory during the senior year in the undergraduate chemical
engineering program at the Hopkins is thought to be one of the most important
parts of the program. The course provides an opportunity for students to exper-
ience the problems encountered when information must be extracted from a portion
of the physical world about us. They are required to obtain certain information
from an existing piece of apparatus, information which must then be used in some
meaningful way either as a source of new knowledge or a means of relating the
behavior of one system to that of others. The laboratory is thought to be an
educational experience and not part of the student's training in some topic or
topics of "practical" significance.
Students are assigned to work and are examined individually. Staff are expected
to teach, not just to supervise, students in the laboratory. Whenever necessary,
the professor in charge o t laboratory calls upon the entire staff for assist-
ance in the program, for all have an interest in its success.
A LABORATORY COURSE IN TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
R. J. Crosby
University of Wisconsin
When the Daepartment of Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin
decided to introduce a lecture course on Transport Phenomena into its undergradu-
ate curriculum, it was also decided to establish a concomitant laboratory course.
It was felt that instruction in Transport Phenomena would be most effective when
the lecture was supplemented with laboratory work. This new laboratory course
replaced a course in Technical Analysis which has outlived its usefulness in the
modern chemical engineering curriculum. The following discussion reviews the
basic philosophy behind this course, the general principles which are demonstrated
by experimentation, those experiments which are now in use along with contemplated
new experiments, and the results of one year's experience in teaching this course.
The main objectives of this course are to demonstrate some physical aspects
of the subject matter covered by a course in Transport Phenomena, to demonstrate
certain properties of matter which are encountered with a course in Material and
Energy Balances, and to enlarge on the classroom discussions wherever desirable.
As this il the first engineering laboratory taken by students studying chemical
engineering, the aims of the course are somewhat broader than the above objectives
would indicate. In general, these aims are:
1. To illustrate the theoretical principles presented in the aforementioned
courses. Major emphasis is placed on the testing and application of the theor-
etical relationships used to describe the system under study, rather than the
development of these relationships. The latter, however, is not neglected.
2. To illustrate and test the effectiveness of various experimental measuring
techniques. These techniques are subjected to either detailed or approximate
theoretical analysis whenever such is warranted.
3. To teach the student how to handle and interpret experimental data of the
quality usually encountered by engineers. These data are usually not as exact as
those obtained in laboratories connected with courses in chemistry and physics.
4. To develop the student's ability to observe and reason, particularly with
reference to the extension of basic theory to practical problems and the use of
simple models to describe complex systems.
5. To give the student practice in organizing and presenting his results
No effort is made to teach creativity per se in this laboratory. There is not
enough time available for such instruction even if this were the only aim of
the course. At this stage of the student's education the course aims listed
above are felt to be of more importance.
To include or illustrate every aspect of the basic principles in Transport
Phenomena is obviously not possible in a single laboratory course. However, the
course described here provides a good introduction. Both steady-state and unsteady-
state operations are studied; all three states of matter are encountered; situat-
ions involving both laminar and turbulent fluid flow are investigated.
The key to Transport Phenomena is the equations of change. These equations
contain thermodynamic properties of matter auc as densitIy an3 heat capacity and
transport properties such as viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity.
With the aid of these equations it is possible to determine the velocity, temper-
ature and concentration profiles in a system; to obtain dimensionless correlations
for the coefficients of interphase transport(friction factor, heat-transfer coeffic-
ient and mass-transfer coefficient); and to develop the macroscopic(over-all)
balances for mass, energy and momentum.
The experiments in this course deal with measurements of certain thermo-
dynamic properties, the three main transport properties, the three types of
profiles, the three transfer coefficients, and certain applications of the
macroscopic balances. The organization of these experiments is shown in table 1.
Experiments in Groups A and B are covered before those in Groups 1 through 12,
and the experiments in Groups 1 through 12 can be followed either by row or
column without losing continuity in the subject matter. In the course described
here, the experiments are taken up by column as this is the order in which the
subject matter is covered in the lecture.
In designing the experiments for this laboratory, it was attempted to satisfy
the following basic requirements:
1. The experiments must be simple to understand. The main points must be
extremely clear, both theoretically and experimentally.
2. The experiment must be easy and quick to perform. The time required for
observation and calculations should not exceed one laboratory period.
3. Analytical procedures and instrumentation must be as simple as possible
so as not to distract from the main purpose of the experiment.
4. The process under study should be such that it can be described mathemat-
ically in some detail.
Those experiments which have been developed and are in use are listed In
Table 2. A complete description of these experiments can be found elswherela)
The experiments in Groups 1 through 8 are similar to those which are in use in
many "unit operations" laboratories. One aspect of these experiments which may
be.of special interest is the portability of the equipment. In Figures 1,2,3,4
and 5 are shown equipment from experiments in Groups 2,3,5,6 and 7. The equip-
ment sl either easily disassembled or readily removable from the laboratory as
The experiments which are not common to undergraduate chemical engineering
laboratories are those dealing with mass transfer, Groups 9 through 11.
For the measurement of binary diffusivities it has been found that a diff-
usion cell similar to that used first by Loschmidt gives excellent results.
Figure 6a shows the construction details of this diffusion cell and also shows
the proper location of the two gas chambers when the cell is being loaded or
flushed out. Figure 6b shows an actual cell under operation with the two gas
chambers located so as to allow equimolar counterdiffusion to occur. To make the
analysis scheme as simple as possible, one of the two gases used In this exper-
iment is always carbon dioxide. After the diffusion process is stopped, the total
amount of carbon dioxide In each gas chamber is analyzed by flushing the gases
in each chamber through previously weighed drying-tubes containing "Ascarite".
This analysis scheme gives material balances consistent within�3 percent and
the measured diffusivities agree with accepted values within 6 percent.
It has been found that concentration profiles in a stagnant gas film can be
measured synthetically generating a very thick film which can be divided into
sections for analysis. The construction details for such a piece of equipment are
shown in Figure 7a. One of the two chemical species in the film is a gas and the
other is a condensable vapor whose source is the liquid reservoir at the base of
the film. The film is sectioned off by rotating alternate sections of the equip-
ment as indicated. Figure 7b shows an actual unit in operation. The average conc-
entrations of the gases in each section of the equipment are determined by flush-
ing the contents of each section through miniature, pre-weighed cold traps. The
vapor component is thus condensed out and its mass is readily determined. The
concentrations are then easily calculated with a knowledge of the dimensions of
of each of the sections In the equipment. This analytical procedure will give
good results if done with proper care. The measure profiles agree excellently
with the theoretically predicted profiles.
Mass-transfer coefficients are readily measured by means of wetted-wall
columns. The construction details for the wetted-wall columns in present use
are shown in Figure 8a. Water and air are the two chemical species used in this
experiment. A laboratory unit with two wetted-wall columns of different diameters
is shown in Figure 8b. A closed-circuit system for the water allows for a simple
measurement of the rate of mass transfer.
Besides those experiments which are now in use, others are being planned.
Some of the new experiments which are either being contemplated or being devel-
oped are listed in Table 3.
The laboratory amounts to one four-hour session per week. A review of the
theory and a discussion of the experimental procedure Is covered in a one-hour
recitation and quiz period preceding the laboratory proper. The required exper-
imental work and calculations are performed in the remaining three hours. The
(1) Experiments in Transport Phenomena, by E. J. Crosby, John Wiley & Sons, New
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
June 1964 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 18
performance of the calculations under the supervislan of the instructor has
proven particularly advantageous to the student. Errors are readily found and
clarified and considerable time is saved. The student presents the results of
the experiment in the form of a short report consisting of an abstract, a
sum ary of results, adisoussion and a list of sample calculations. Only the
abstract and discussion are prepared outside the classroom.
This laboratory has been in operation since September 1961, and the exper-
iments now in use were tested for one or two semesters before the course began.
During this period the majority of the problems that have arisen in connection
with the operation of the experimental equipment have been solved. However, some
of the equipment is still being modified to give more flexibility and better
Experience to date indicates that the aims of this course are fulfilled.
From the pedagogical viewpoint, the best results are obtained when the student
is simultaneously enrolled in the lecture course and laboratory courses. When
both courses are taken together, the student's progress in the following course
dealing with Transport Processes (Unit Operations) is considerably accelerated.
In those oases where the laboratory has been delayed until after the lecture
course, progress in the upit operations course is somewhat slower. Of particular
benefit to the student are the numerical evaluations carried out in the labor-
atory in connection with theoretical work taken up in the lecture.
A number of colleges and universities are now preparing to offer a similar
laboratory course in connection with a lecture course in Transport Phenomena. The
choice of qualified instructors for such a program is very important. The labor-
atory instructors must be as well qualified as those who lecture. This final
point cannot be emphasized enough.
ORGANIZATION OF EXPERIMENTS
Thermodynamic Experiment Experiment
Properties Group A Group B
Transport of Transport of Transport of
Momentum Energy Mass
Transport Experiment Experiment Experiment
Properties Group 1 Group 5 Group 9
Profiles Experiment Experiment Experiment
Group 2 Group 6 Group 10
Transport Experiment Experiment Experiment
Coefficients Group 3 Group 7 Group 11
Macroscopic Experiment Experiment Experiment
Balances Group 4 Group 8 Group 12
EXPERIMENTS IN USE
Group No. Subject of Experiment
A Pressure-Volume-Temporature Behavior of Real Gases.
1 Viscosities of Newtonian Liquids.
2 Velocity Profiles in Circular Tubes (Turbulent flow).
Friction FPators for Plow in Circular Tubes.
Efflux Time for a Tank with Exit Pipe.
Thermal Conductivity of Solids (unst*ady-state method).
6 Temperature Profile in Long Rods.
7 Heat Transfer Coefficients in Ciroular Tubes.
He Beating Liquids in Tank Storage.
9 Diffusivity in Gases (unsteady-state method).
10 Coneentration Profiles in a Stagnant Film.
11 Mass Transfer Coefficients in Circular Tubes.
12 Heating Value of a Fuel Gas.
NEW EXPERIMENTS BEING CONTEMPLATED
Group No. Subject of Experiment
A, B Partial Molal Properties.
1 Viscosity of Gases; Properties of Non-Newtonlan Liquids.
2 Veoolity Profiles (laminau-flow)
3 Drag Coeffioients for Flow Around Submerged Spheres.
Stresses in Pipe PFitures; Response Characteristies of
an Impact Tube.
5 Theral Conduotivity in Solids and Fluids(steady-state method).
6 Temperature Profiles in Flowing Fluids.
SHBeat-Transfer Coefficients in Jacketed Kettles.
Operation of Steam Turbines; Operation of Air Compressors.
9 Diffusitity in Gases (steady-state method).
10 Concentration Profiles in A Flowing Fluid.
11 Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Submerged Spheres.
1______ Semi-Batoh, Liqud-Phas Reactors.
RBPERMECE TO FIGURE NUMBERS
Figure No. Figure No. in Laboratory Manuall
1 Experiments in Transport Phenomena, by E. J. Crosby,
John Wiley and Sons, New york, 1961.